(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The American naturalist"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



Museum 



AMEEICAN NATUEALI8T, 



POPtJLAR ILLUSTBATED MAOAZDJB 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



EDITED BY 
L. S. PACKARD, Jb., E. 8. UORBE, A. HTATT AMD F. W. PDTNAM. 



SALEM, MASS. 
PEABODT ACADEMY OF 6CIGKCB. 
1869. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1868, by the 

PBABODT ACADEMY OF SdENCE, 

hi the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



» _ • 



B88SX DTBT ITUTK PRESS. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



A Naturalist in Brazil. By C. Fred. Hartt. Illustrated, . 1 
The Geographical Distribution of Animals. By Sidney I. 

Smith, 14, 124 

The Hairy Mammoth. By A. S. Packard, Jr., M. D. With 

Plate and IllustrationSy 28 

Notes on Mexican Ants. By Edward Norton. With Plate and 

Ilhietrations, 57 

The Mottled Owl in Confinement. By C. J. Maynard, . . 78 

Rock Buins. By A. Hyatt. Illustrated, 77 

The Cruise of the "Abrolhos." By C. Fred. Hartt. Illus- 
trated, > 85 

NoBERT's Test Plate and Modern Microscopes. By Charles 

Stodder, 98 

The Songs of the Grasshoppers. By S. H. Scndder. Illus- 
trated, , . . 118 

Bears and Bear-hunting. By Charles Wright, ; ... 121 
The Prong-horned Antelope. By W. J. Hays. With Plate 

and Illustrations, 181 

Do Snakes swallow their Young? By F. W. Patnam, . . 188 
The Lakes of Iowa,— Past and Present, By C. A. White, 

M. D.., 143 

The Warblers. By T. Martin Trippe, 169 

Notes on Tropical Fruits. By William T. Brigham, 188, 807, 405 
The Goldsmith Beetle, and its Habits. By Rev. Samuel Lock- 
wood. Illustrated, 186 

The Osprbt, or Fish-hawk. By Augustus Fowler, . . 192 
The Parasites of the Honet-bee. By A. S. Packard, jr., M. D. 

WUh two Plates, 195 

Sea- Weeds. By John L. Russell, 225 

A Stroll by the Sea-side. By Edward S. Morse. With a 

Plate, .... 286 

Our Sea- anemones. By A. E. Verrill, 251 

The Marine Aquarium. From Kingsley's Glaucus, . . . 262 

A FEW Sea-worms. By A . S. Packard, Jr., M. D. With Illustrations, 267 
Traces of Ancient Glaciers in the White Mountains of 

New Hampshire. By George L. Yose. With a Map, . . 281 

Mushrooms. By John L. Russell, 292 

Sponges. By A. Hyatt, 808 

The Ctntiha Silk-woi«m. By W. V. Andrews, 811 

iii 



IV CONTENTS OP VOL, H. 

Pawe 
Death ov Fishes in the Bat of Fundt. By A. Leith Adams, 

M. D., 83T 

The Orchids. By C. M. Tracy, 842 

The Bikds of Palestine akd Panama Cobipabed. By Edward 

D. Cope, 851 

The Chasms of the Colorado. By A. Hyatt. WUh two TlaUs^ 859 

The Ruffed Grouse. By Augustas Fowler, .... 865 

A Tropical Air-plant. By Charles Wright, .... 868 

The Mottled Owl. By Dr. W. Wood, 870 

On the Fresh-water Shell-heaps of the St. Johns Riter, 

East Florida. By Jefflries Wyman, M. D. With a Plate and 

Illustrations, 898, 449 

The Belted Kingfisher. By Angustns Fowler, .... 408 
Directions for Collectino Land and Fresh-water Shells. 

By James Lewis, M. D. With Illustrations, .... 410 

A Comical Owl. By Charles Wright, 420 

The Cucuto ; or West Indian Fire Beetle. By G. A. Perkins, 

M. D. With Illustrations, 422 

The Potato-mould. By John L. Russell, 468 

Deer and Deer-hunting in Texas. By Charles Wright, . . 466 

The Habits of Spiders. By J. H. Emerton. WUh a Plate, . 476 

Bird*s-£t£ Views. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. Illustrated, 505, 571 
The Wavy-striped Flea-beetle. By Henry Shimer, M. D. //- 

lustrated, 514 

Ferns. By John L. Russell, 517 

The Fauna of Montana Territort. By J. G. Cooper, M. D., 528, 596 

Earthquakes. By W. T. Brigham, 589 

The Smaller Fungi. By John L. Russell. Illustrated, . 561, 628 
Habits of the Burrowing Owl of California. By Dr. C. S. 

Canfleld, 588 

A Chapter on Flies. By A. S. Packard, Jr., M. D. Illustrated, 586, 688 

About Shells. By Charles Wright, 617 

A Trip to the Great Red Pipestone Quarry. By C. A. 

White, M. D . . 644 

REVIEWS. 
The Popular Science Review, London (Quarterly), p. 86. The Animal 
Nature of Sponges, p. 101. The Progress of Zoology in 1866, p. 102. The 
American Beaver and his Works, p. 156. Transactions of the Chicago 
Academy, p. 158. Popular Science Review, London, p. 158. Quarterly 
Journal of Science, London, p. 159. Volcanic Rocks, p. 205. The Vol- 
canoes of the Hawaiian Islands, p. 207. The Geology of Iowa, p. 207. 
California Mosses, p. 208. The Variation of Animals and Plants under 
Domestication, p. 208. Cosmos, Paris, p. 209. Quarterly Journal of 
Science, London, p. 209. Good Books for the Sea-side, p. 275. The 
North American Grapes, p. 820. The Corals and Star-fishes of Brazil, p. 
822. The Book of Evergreens, p. 822. The Butterflies of North Amer- 



CONTENTS OF VOL. II. V 

ica, p. 828. The Popular Science Review, p. 875. A Guide to the Study 
of Insects, p. 876. The Percheron Horse, p. 488. American Deer, p. 485. 
Catalogue of the PhsBnogamous Plants of North America, North of Mex- 
ico, p. 435. The Canadian Entomologist, p. 485. The American Ento- 
mologist, p. 486. Dr. Hooker's Address at the Norwich Meeting of the 
British Association, p. 482. The Geology of New York, p. 488. The 
Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication, p. 547. Field, 
Forest and Garden Botany, p. 558. Annual Report of the Trustees of the 
Museum of Comparative Zodlogy, p. 554. Natural History of Birds, p. 
564. Review of the Scandinavian Publications In Natural History during 
1867 and part of 1868| pp. 555, 604. Ferns, p. 601. The Past and Future 
of our Planet, p. 602. The Fauna of the Gulf stream at Great Depths, p. 
603. The Butterflies of North America, p. 608. Comparative Anatomy 
and Medical Zo((logy, p. 654. Prospectus of Entomologist's Annual for 
1868, p. 655. Voyage through the Grand Caiion of Colorado, p. 655. 
Chemical News, p. 656. Insect Extinguisher, p. 656. 

NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BoTAirr.— Monstrous Flowers of Habenaria flmbrlata, p. 88. The El- 
der (Sambucus Canadensis) as a Native Plant, p. 38. German Ivy, p. 89. 
Lespedeza striata, p. 89. A Relic of the Glacial Epoch, p. 89. Polyporus 
f^ondosus, p. 40. The Torrey Festival, p. 41. Can Lichens be Identified 
by Chemical Tests? p. 104. The Sun-dew a Fly-trap, p. 107. Two Crops 
of Roses, p. 107. A White Wild Columbine, p. 107. Vitality of Seeds, 
p. 159. Bees vs. Fruit, p. 160. The Sun-dew a Fly-trap, p. 160. Flower- 
ing of Hepatlca triloba, p. 161. The Long Moss of the South, p. 212. 
Long or Black Moss only an Epiphyte, p. 212. Anomalous Flowers of 
the WlUow, p. 212. Compatatlve Floral Calendar, Cass County, Missouri, 
p. 218. White Wild Columbines, etc., p. 218. Is the Elder a Native 
Plant? p. 213. Flowering of the German Ivy, p. 214. A Variety of the 
Common Agrimony, p. 214. Choice new variety of Kalmla latlfolla, 
p. 828. A White Choke-cherry, p. 824. Cross Fertilization, p. 487. 
The Onion Plant, p. 440. The smallest Flowering plant known, p. 440. 
Planera aquatlca, the Planer tree, p. 441. Viola rotundifolla, p. 441. Va- 
riation In Wild Plants, p. 484. SaxlfVaga Vlrginiensls, p. 484. The Col- 
chicum autumnale, p. 609. The Double Saxifrage, p. 610. Viola pedata, 
p. 610. Recent Botanical Discoveries, p. 610. Cuban Plants for Sale, p. 
611. Botanical Notes, p. 611. Hepatlca triloba, p. 611. White Varieties 
of Flowers, p. 656. More White Varieties, p. 657. Bldens flrondosa, p. 
658. Abnormal Form of the Sensitive Fern, p. 658. 

ZodLOOY.— The Breeding Habits of Birds, p. 47. Bee Parasites, p. 48. 
Hibernation of Wild Bees, p. 49. Juvenile Natural History Society, p. 49. 
Protection of Trees flrom Insects, p. 49. Occurrence of the Barnacle 
Goose In North America, p. 49. A Double Egg, p. 50. Habits of the 
Striped Snake, p. 50. Are Bees Injurious to Fruit? 108. Apiphobla; Bees 
and Fruit Blossoms, p. 109. The Mottled Owl, p. 109. An Albino Hum- 



VI CX)NTENT8 OF VOL. U. 

ming Bird, p. 110. Instances of Albinism among oar Birds, p. 161. 
Retam of the Birds, p. 162. How Spiders begin their Webs, p. 214. The 
Wolverine, p. 215. The Mocking Bird, p. 215. The Dragon Fly, p. 215. 
The False Scorpion, p. 216. The Jack Snipe, p. 216. The Locust Killer, 
p. 217. The Prairie Dog, p. 217. The Robin at Fault, p. 217. A Variety 
of the Blackbird, p. 217. The Belted Kingfii^her, p. 218. The Dwarf 
Thrush in Massachusetts, p. 218. Insects living in the Sea; Illustrated, 
p. 277. Directions for collecting the Lower Forms of Marine Animals, p. 
278. Shore-collecting about New York, p. S3i. The Crow Blackbird a 
Robber, p. 826. Notes on the Red and Mottled Owls, p. 827. A Perching 
Snipe, p. 829. The Distribution of our Birds in the Breeding Season, p. 
829. Salt-water Insects, p. 829. Enemy of the Potato-bug, p. 880. A 
Review of some of the articles published in this Journal respecting the 
Habits and Nesting of our Birds, with Additional Facts, p. 877. The 
Dwarf Thrush, p. 880. The Honey-bee gleaning after the Oriole, p. 880. 
Remarkable Flight of Crows, p. 881. Singular Deformity in a Silk-moth, 
p. 881. The Honey-ant, p. 882. The Golden-winged Woodpecker, p. 882. 
Habits of the Elephant, p. 382. Hatching the Cotalpa lanigera, p. 441. 
The Seventeen-year Cicada, p. 442. Museum Pests (illustrated), p. 442. 
The McNeil Expedition to Central America, p. 484. The Shells of Mon- 
tana, p, 486. Hints on Odlogy, p. 487. The Dwarf Thrush again, p. 488. 
The Bam Owl in Pennsylvania, p. 489. Wilson's Snipe, p. 489. Carbolic 
Acid for Preserving Insects, etc., p. 490. Albino Robin, p. 490. King- 
fisher's Nest again, p. 490. The Cow-bunting, p. 490. Migration of Ants, 
p. 491. Is the Crow a Bird of Prey? p. 491. Albinism in Birds, p. 491. 
Migration of Birds, p. 492. The Unicorn of Fable, p. 492. Siredon, a 
Larval Salamander, p. 493. The Yellow-headed Blackbird, p. 493. Habits 
of the Common Red Fox, p. 494. The Lobster, p. 494. The Moose Tick, 
Illustrated, p. 559. The McNeil Expedition, p. 612. Ambergris, p. 614. 
Moulting of the Shrimp, p. 614. Nest of the Belted Kingfisher, p. 614. 
The Butcher Bird and Mottled Owl, p. 659. Shedding of the Horns of 
the American Antelope, 659. The Woodpecker and Sheldrake, p. 660. 
The Dwarf Thrush again, p. 662. Habits of Snipes, p. 668. The Seven- 
teen-year Locust, p. 668. Reason or Instinct, p. 664. Is the Crow a Bird 
of Prey ? p. 664. Albino Deer and Chipmunk, p. 664. The Argonaut and 
Vitality of Snails's Eggs, p. 665. Honey-bee killed by Silk-weed Pollen, 
p. 665. Luminous LarviB, p. 665. Snails Injurious to the Strawberry, p. 
666. Ravages of the Alypia octomaculata, p. 666. The Blue Bird, p. 667. 
A Viviparous Echinoderm, p. 668. 

Gkolooy.— Fossil Insects, Illustrated, p. 163. The Bone Caves of 
Brazil and their Animal Remains, p. 218. Glacial Marks in the White 
Mountains, p. 880. Antiquity of Man, p. 448. What is a Geode? p. 496. 
The Iowa Drift, p. 615. 

MiCROSCoPT. — The Microscope in Geology, p. 50. The Whale's Food 
and the Discoloration of the Arctic Seas, p. 883. Wanted, a Rotifer, p. 
884. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Vll 



Entomological Calendar, Ulustratedt pp. 110, 163, 219, 881. 

CoRRRSPOXDEKCB. —The Mistletoe, p. 51. The Mastodon in Kansas, p. 
51. Are Bees Injurious to Fruit? p. 52. Sugar Maple Insect, p. 52. 
FolycystinsB, p. 52. Snow Fleas, p. 53. Frog's Spittle, p. 53. Manual of 
American Entomology, p. 111. Sugar and other Mites, p. 112. Taxidermy, 
p. 168. American Entomology, p. 168. Fossil Club-moss, p. 168. Fresh- 
water Sponge, p. 168. Snails, p. 224. American Shells, p. 224. Duck- 
weed, p. 280. Solvent for Reeling the Silk Arom Cocoons, p. 280. 
Seventeen-year Locust, p. 208. Pentstemon Cobiea and Solanum ros- 
tratnm, p. 380. Musk Turtle, p. 330. Thyreus Kessus, p. 331. Cow- 
bird, p. 392. Taxidermy, p. 392. Measuring Eggs, p. 392. Long-billed 
Curlew, p. 392. Podura, p. 447. Tree-cricket, p. 448. Cynthia Silk- 
worm, p. 448. Caddis-fly, p. 448. Psocns, p. 448. Packing Insects, 
p. 448. Eudryaa grata, p. 448. Kingfishers, p. 503. Insects, p. 504. North 
American Sphinges, p. 504. Yama-mai Silk Worm, p. 504. Orgyia, p. 
504. Botanical Notes, p. 504. Guide to the Study of Insects, p. 504. 
Geaster, p. 560. Depressaria, p. 560. '* One-spotted Dory," p. 560. Silver 
Witches, Lepisma, p. 616. Papillo Asterias, p. 616. Luna moth, p. 616. 
Are Plants Injurious in sleeping apartments? p. 669. Works on Spiders, 
670. Does the Hawk catch Owls? p. 670. Strange Fungus, Hydnnmt 
p. 670. Pink Mite, 670. 

Proceedings of Scientitic Societies, pp. 53, 165, 221, 279, 884, 884, 
444, 497, 668. 

Glossary, p. 671. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Plite Fkfls 

1. Haliy Mammoth, .... 83 
8. Mexican Ants, eleven flgnres, . 78 

3. Head of Prong Horn Antelope, two 

flgnres, 133 

4. Parasites of Honey Bee, nineteen 

flares, 804 

6. Parasites of Hnmble Bee, etc., sev- 
enteen figures. 8(H 

6. Common Animals of the Sea^shore, 
fourteen figures, • . . .851 



Plate Aifi 

7. Glaciers of the White Mountains, 



map, 



888 



8. Chimney Peak, Colorado Territory, SSO 

9. Chasm of the Colorado, . .364 

10. Indian relics from the Shell-heaps 

of Florida, nine figures, . . 393 

11. Details of Spider and web, nine 

figures 481 

18. Files, twenty three figures, . . 696 
18. Flies, nineteen figures, . . .644 



LIST OF WOOD-CUTS. 



No. 

1. Santa Barbara dos Abrolhos, 

8, 3, 4, 6, 6, Geological Sections, Brazil, 

9. Prehistoric drawings, three figures, 

10. " " one figure, . 

U. Spines of Mimosa, .... 

13. GhBological Section of Niagara river, 

13. Abrolhos reefb, Brazil, . 

14, 15, 16, 17, Carabidas, . . . . 

18, 19^ 80, 81, 88, 8$, Carabidn. . 

84. Vignette. Grasshopper flddllng, . 

86, 87, Wings of (Ecanthus niyeus 
(tree cricket), two figures, • 

88, .89, Wings of Phaneroptera curvi- 
caudacKrasshopper), two figures, 

30,-31, 88, Wings of Arcyptera lineata, 
(grasshopper), three figures, • 



Pag* 

1 

8-6 

86 

87 

65 

83 

85 

110 

111 

113 

116 

117 

118 



No. Pi«» 

33. Prong Horn Antelope, ... 131 

34, 35. 36, 37, Horns of Prong Horn 

Antelope, 138 

38. Fossil insects, 163 

39. A fossil worm, formerly supposed 

to be a caterpillar, . . .163 

40. 41, 43, 43, Hessian fly, different 

stages, 163 

44,45,46,WeevU8, 164 

47,48,49, " 165 

50. Ptinus for. 166 

61, 63, 63, Goldsmith Beetle, ... 187 

64. False Scorpion, 816 

66, 66, HelitsBaPhaeton, larva and pupa, 880 

67. Sea-urchin, 850 

68. Sea-worm, 870 



ILLU8TBATION8. 



a, e4,e9,e6,ChIroD(nnnB, Sn-fly. 



8D, 90, SI, Hnaenin perta (BeeOea), M 
UacliI]Ia7(8prliisUl), ... 447 



1% Te, Hamble-bee moth, IljthiK eo- 

lonellB, t 

78. T^OB^lric^-■ '" "- ' *" " 

TS. CoUectInt 

to. Dredge, 

81. Collecting scoop. 

ffi-nre-be^oflheV 

83, St, as, ae, sr, nmit 



(ningl)S67 
1, . MM 
'e(<nr)}S7t 



INDEX TO VOLUME TWO. 



Abies amabilis, 630. 

Abnormal form of the SenaltlTe Fenii 6S8. 

Abraxas ribearia, 220. 

Abrolhos, Cruise of the, 85. 

Abrolhos Islands, BraEil, 6. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, 165, 221, Sttt. 

Acadian Fauna, 22. 

Acanthastriea, 10, 13. 

Acantliastraa Braziliensis, 10, 91. 

Acai-us, 659, 670. 

Acarus domeeticns, 112. 

Acarus fiirinn, 112. 

Acarus saccharinum, 113. 

Acarus scabies, 112. 

Acarus tellarins, 112, 

Accipiter ftiscus, 590. 

Accipiter Mcxicanus, 696. 

Achatina, 618. 

Achatina fusciata, 628. 

Acrostichum, 528. 

Actinia, 238. 

Actinia dianthus, 264. 

Adder's Tongue, 521. 

Adiantnm capillus-Veneris, 687« 

Adiantum pedatum, 527. 

.£cidium, 624. 

.£cidium berberidis, 667. 

^cidium ranunculacearum, 665. 

.£olidlacea), 9A8. 

Agaric, 563, 636. 

Agaricas campestris, 294. 

Agaricus deliciosus, 299. 

Agaricus f\isipes, 2!W. 

Agaricus heterophyUus, 299. 

Agurum Tumeril, 231. 

Agelaius phaeniceus 217. 

Agonnm cupripenne 111. 

Agrimony, Common, Variety of, 214. 

Agrotis, 164. 

Ailanthus silkworm in England, 211. 

Ainos, 222. 

Air-plant, Tropical, 368. 

Alaria esculenta, 231. 

Albinism among Birds, 161, 491. 

Albino Humming Bird, 110. 

Albino Rat, 492. 

Albino Beed-Bird,* 401. 

Albino Robin, 490, 491, 403. 

Allosoms acrostichoides, 033. 

Allosoms crispns, 523. 

Alsine Greenlandica, 127. 

Altrices, 565. 

Alypia octomaculata, 164, 006. 

Amanita mnscarins, 296. 

Amber, 210. 

Ambergris, 614. 

AmblTstoma, 498. 

America, North, coast of, 3. 

Americas, marine fauna of the, 16. 

American Antelope, 637. 

American Antelope, Shedding of the horns 
of, 669. 

American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, 280, 336, 384. 444, 497. 

American BeaTor and his works, 168. 

AMRR. KATURAUST, VOL. II. 



American Deer, 486. 

American Entomologist, 496. 

American Herring, 839. 

Ammonoids, 560. 

Amphibia, 376. 

Amphitrite cirrata, 271. 

AmpnUaria depressa, 396. 

Amylobacteria, 158. 

Ananas, 406. 

Ananassa, 406. 

Anatomy, Comparative, 654. 

Ancient Mounds in Michigan, 603. 

Ancylocheira Iksciata, 52. 

Ancylocheira 6-plagiata, 53. 

AncyluB Kootanient!ii», 487. 

Ancylns, how to coJIcct, 412. 

Anderson^s Cove, 338. 

Andrena, 190. 

Andrena vicina, 301. 

Androgynoceras appressnm, 560. 

Androgynoceras hybrid um, 630. 

Aneimia, 628. 

Anemone thalictroides, 667. 

Angnispira Cooperii, 486. 

Anguisplra solitarla, 486. 

Angulsplra strigosa^ 486. [134. 

Animals, Geographical distribution of, 14, 

AnHnal nature of Sponges, 101. 

Animals, Remains of. In the Shell-heaps of 
Florida 155. 

Animals/ Variation of nader Domestica- 
tion, 206, 647. 

AnneUds, 289. 

Annelids, Classification of, 86. 

Annual Report of the Trustees of the Mn. 
seum of Comparative Zoology, 654. 

Anochanus, 668. 

AnodonU fluvlatilis, 300. 

Anodonta impQcata, 800. 

Anodonta Tryonil, 390. 

Antelopo, Prong-horn, 131. 

Antherophagns ochraceus, 308. 

Anthomjia, 203. 

Anthophorabla megachills, 204. 

Anthrax sinuosa, 48. 

Anthrenns mustcorum, 443. 

Antilooapra Americana, 131, 637, 660. 

Antiquity of Man, 886, 443. 

Ants, Mexican, 67. 

Ants, migration of, 491. 

Apathus, 203. 

Aphis-eater, 503. 

Apiphobla, 106. 

Aploceras montanns, 637. 

Apple midge, 641. 

Apteryx, 606. 

Aquarium, marine, 863. 

Aquila CanadenBis, 597. 

Aquilegla Canadensis, white var. of, 918. 

Arachnida, 669, 654. 

Arch»opteryx, 376. 

Arctia Arge, 164. 

Arctia phalerata, 164. 

Arctia virgo, 164. 

Arctic Seas, Discoloration of, 383. 



86 



(673) 



674 



INDEX. 



Arctic Woodpecker, S96. 
Arctomys flaviventer, S33. 
Arcyptera Uneata, 118. 
Ardea nivea, 658. 
Ardea nyctivorax, 658. 
Aregma, 831. 
Argonauta Arso, 685. 
Aigynnis montinus, 126. 
Argynnis myrina, 164. 
Aroid, evolution of heat In, 0OB. 
Aromochelvs odoratnm, S80. 
Arrindy Silkworm, 313. 
Arrowroot, 407. 
Art. prehistoric,. 98. 
Articulates, 002. 
Anricola panperrima, 886. 
Aryan race, 20. 
Asclepias, 066. 
Aspiale», 002. 

Aspidium arrostichoidee. 083. 
Aspidium plumosum, 9M. 
Aspidium spinulosnm, 923. 
Asplenium Iblix-fbmina, 624. 
Aspleninm incisuro, 826. 
Asplenium ruta-mnraria, 626. 
Asplenium trichomanee, 826. 
Asirangla, 0. 
Astrangia Dane, 202. 
Athene cunicularla, 688. 
Athyrium, 624. 
Atta clypeata, 66. 
AttacnsXnna, 187. 
Attidae, 68. 
Aurochs, 29. 
Aves, 506. 
Axolotls, 498. 

Bacterlnms, 661. 

Badger, 629. 

Bahia, Brazil, 5. 

Balaena mystlcetus. 888. 

Balaenoptera Sibhaldii, 60i. 

Bald Eagle, 104. 

Baltimore Oriole, 381. 

Banana, 407. 

Bank Swallow, 161. 

Barberry, 667. 

Barberry mildew, 687. 

Barnacle, 237. 

Barnacle Goose, occnrrence of, in Nortti 

America, 49. 
Bam Owl, eggs and yoong of, 489. 
Bat, 628. 
Bat-tick, 198, 642. 
Bay-breasted Warbler, 178. 
Beaches, submerged, in Labrador, 21. 
Bear, Black, 629. 
Bears and bear-hunting, 121. 
Beaver, 533. 
Beech Fern, 023. 
Bees vs. Fruit, 160. 
Bees, Hibernation of wild, 48. 
Bees, injurious to Fruit? 62, 108. 
Bee-louse, 197, 643. 
Bee-moth, 204. 
Bee parasite, 48. 
Beetle, Fire, 422. 
Beetle, Wavy-striped Flea, 614. 
Besfgar-tick, 668. 
Belted Kingfisher, 379, 408, 600. 
Bemiola leucopsis, 48. 
Betnla pnmlla, 40. 
Biatora,104. 
Bidens Beckil. 40. 
Bidens fVondosa, 668. 
Bird fauna, 366. 
Bird tick, 642. 



Birds, albinism among, 110, 16] , 480. 
Birds, Breeding Habits of, 47. [880. 

Birds, Distribution oi in Breeding Season, 
Bird's-eye Views. 506, 671. 
Birds, Habits and nesting of, 877. 
Birds, Migrations of, 492. 
Birds, Natural History of, 47, 654. [361. 
Birds of Palestine and Panama compaied, 
Birds of prey, 364, 366. 
Birds, Species of, 302. 
Bison, European, 29. 
Bison priscus, 169. 
Bison, skulls of, 221. 
Bivalves, 325. 
Blackbird, variety of, 217. 
Blackbumian Warbler, 179. 
Black Cricket, 115. 
Black Fly, 689. 
Black Guillemot, 162. 
Black-polled Warbler, 179. 
Black Snake, 136. 
Black Spleenwort, 626. 
Black-throated Blue Warbler, 172. 
Black-throated Green Warbler, 173. 
Black and White Creeper, 171. 
Black and Yellow Warbler, 180. 
Bladder Ferns, 527. 
Blanco Cape, 16. 
Blechnum, 626. 
Blood-drop, 270. 
Blue Bird, 161, 377, 667. 
Blue bottle-fly, 640. 
Blue Warbler, 176. 
Blue-winged Yellow Warbler, 174. 
Blue Yellow-backed Warbler, 161, 177. 
Boar, Wild European, 30. 
Bohemian Wax-wing, 380. 
Boletus 299,301. 
Bombardier beetle, 111. 
Bombyx mori, 312, 315. 
Bonasa umbellus, 365. 
Bone-caves, French, 556. 
Bone and Shell articles fh>m the Shell- 
heaps of Florida, 452. 
Borassus Sechellensis, 310. [300. 

Boston Society of Natural History, 106, 281, 
Bos Americanns, 538. 
Bos longicomis, 607. 
Bos primigenius, 29. 
Boss Ferns, 623. 
Bostrychia rivularis, 238. 
Botany, 38, 104, 160, 437, 484. 
Botanical Discoveries, 610. 
Botany, Field, Forest, and Garden, 668. 
Bot-flies, 594. 
Botrychinm lunaria, 022. 
Botiychlum Yiiginicnm, 028. 
Botryllns Schlosseri, 670. 
Botry tis Bassiana, 203, 296, 664. 
Brachinus ftimans. 111. 
Brain, Physics of, 37. 
Braula cieca, 197. 643. 
Brazil, A Naturalist in, 1. 
Brazil, Bone Caves of, 218. 
Brazil, Coral reefs of, 8. 
Brazil, decomposition of rocks in, 6. 
Brazil, Flora of, 604. 
Brazil, Naturalist in,l. 
Brazil, postpliocene l^iuna of, 218. 
Brazil, Starfishes and Corals of, f 
Brazilian fVesh-water fishes, 666. 
Brazilian Tea plant, 605. 
Bristle mould, 637. 
Bristley Spleenwort, 626. 
Bromus sylvadca, 682. 
Brown Owl, 328. 
Brown-snake, 136. 



INDEX. 



675 



BryopsiB plnmosai 8S8. 

Bi7ozoa.(j03. 

Boffalo, 538. 

Bnliioas haBmastoma, G66. 

Bulla, 654. 

Bunodes Stella, 258. 

Burrowing Owl, 585. 

Burrowing 8qiUrrel» 6S2. 

Bufihy-tailecl Bat, 535. 

Butcher-bird, mi, 659. 

Buttercups, double, 484. 

Butterflies of North America, 828, 803. . 

Cabbaire-bTitterfly, 130. « 

Calendar, Entomological, 110, 163. 219, 831, 

California, Burrowing Owl of, 583. 

California Mosses, 208. 

Callithamnion 2.35, 825. 

Calosoraa calidum, 111. 

Calosoma scrutator. 111. 

Calothrix scopulorum. 227. 

Campanula rotundifolia, 6B7. 

Camptosorus, 528. 

Canada Warbler, 176. 

Canadian Entomologist, 436. 

Canis latrans, 689. 

Canis occidentalis, 629. 

Cape May Warbler, 175. 

Capsella bursa pastoris, 634. 

Carabus auronitens, HI. 

Carabns serratus, 111. 

Carbolic Acid for Preserrhig Ihsecte, 480. 

Carox flava. 40. 

Caribou, 536. 

Cartilaginous Fishes, 558. 

Carpet-fly, 592. 

Carpocapsa pomonella, 641. 

Carrageen moss, 228. 

Casnonia Pensylvanica, 111. 

Cass Co., Mo., Floral Calendar of, 213. 

Cassis Madagascarensis, 13. 

Castor Canadensis, 5:^3. 

Caterpillar-Aingus, 196. 

Cathartes aura, 596. 

Cecidomyia destructor, 163. 

Cecidomyia tritici, 164. 

Cecropia, 812, 313. 

Centndinm cydonia, 568. 

Ceramium, 325. 

Ceratina dnpla, 49. 

Cenrus Canadensis, 435. 

Cervus eurycerus, 150. 

Cervns Virginianus, 435, 664. 

Ceryle Alcyon, 379, 408, 600. 

Ceterach officinarum, 526. 

Cetochilus arctlcns. 383. 

Cetochiltis septentnonalis, 383. 

Chietura pelasgia ?, 599. 

Chietoraorpha melangoniom, 228. 

Chalcids, 640. 

Champia, 233. 

Champignon, 301. 

Champlain Clays, 22. 

Characidinm fasciatnm, 666. 

Characinoids, 556. 

Oheilanthes, 928. 

Chelifer cancroides, 216. 

Chemical News, 656. 

Chestnut-sided Warbler, 173. 

Chewink, 377. 

Chicago Academy of Sciences, 66, 158. 

Chicadee, 380, 680. 

Chigoe, 644. 

Chimney SwaUow, 699. 

Chionea valga, 642. 

Chionobas semidea, 126. 

Chipmunk, 664. 



Chironomae, 277. 

Chostomium chartamm, 637. 

Choke-cherry, 324. 

Chondria tenuissima, 282. 

Chorda fllum, 231, 269. 

Chordeiles Henryi, 600, 662. 

Chromid, 656. 

Chrondrus crispus, 228. , 

Chrysomelians, 516. 

Chrysops, 592. 

Cicada septendecim, 331, 834, 4tf . 

Cicindela sexguttata, 62. 

Cinnamon Fern, 522. 

Circus Hudsonius, 397. 

Cirsium arvense, 667, 

Cladonia, 104, 106. 

Clathrus, 298. 

ClavarisB, 802. 

Climbing Fern, 628. 

Clione borealis, 280, 383. 

Cladostephus verticillatus, 232. 

Clupea elongata, 339. 

Clusia rosea, 368. 

Coast, rising of, at Rio Janeiro, 4. 

Coati, 613. 

Cockchafer, 209. 

Cockle, 242. 

Cocoannt, 307. 

Cocos nucifera. 307. 

Cocygus Amencanus, 697. 

Coddling moth, 641. 

Codosiga pulcherrima, 306. 

Caelenterata, 654. 

Colaptes auratus, 382. 

Colaptes Mexicanus, 599. 

Colchicum autumnale, 009. 

Collecting Shells, 410. 

CoUyris borealis, 380, 659. 

Colocasia antiquorura, 184. 

Colorado, Chasms of, 359. 

Colorado, Voyage through the Grand Car 
uon of, 655. 

Coluber constrictor, 136. 

Coluber yemalis, 134, 136. 

Columbine, White wild. 107, 213. 

Colymbus septentrionalis, 162. 

Comparative Anatomy and Medical Zool- 
ogy, 654. 

Comparative ZoSlogy, Annual Report of 
the Museum of, 554. 

Compsognathus, 376. 

Conferva flavescens, 227. 

Conifers, 323. 

Conifers, leaves of, 389. 

Coniom^cetes, 564, 624. 

Connecticut Warbler, 174. 

Conocephalus robustus, 117. 

Conops, 203. 

Conurus Aztec, 160. 

Cooper's hawk, 377. 

Copey, 869. 

Copris anagljrpticus, 62. 

Corals, 608. 

Coral living at great depths, 606. 

Corallina officinalis, 227. 

Corals, polymorphism among, 211. 

Coral reefs in Brazil, 8. 

Coral reef^, limits of, 15. 

Corals and Star-flshes of Brazil, 322. 

Corvus stolenifera, 662. 

Corticifera, 12. 

Comus Americanus, 491. 

Cosmos, 209. 

Cotalpa lanigera, 188, 441. 

Cotton, hybrids of, 211. 

Cotyle riparia, 161. 

Couch-grass, 629. 



&76 



INDEX. 



Cow-bird, ITO. 

Cow Banting, 490. 

Coyote, 52a. 

Crab-spider, 7. 

Crania, 390. 

Crematof^aster inflatus, 882. 

Crepidula fomicata, 325. 

Crinoids, living, 609. 

Cromlech bnuders, 482. 

Cross ftii-tilizHtion, 437. 

Crotaloplionis miliarias, 184. 

Crotalus durissas, 133. 

Crow, a bird of Prey, 491, 864. 

Crow Bl ukbinl, a Robber, 326. 

Crows, flight of, 381. 

Crowne<l Mcuntain Laurel, 824. 

Craise of the Abrolhos, 86. 

Crustacea, f503. 

Crustacea found in ft^sh water, OOB. 

Cryptoccrtis laminaCus, 72. 

Cryptocerus multispinosus, 72. 

Cremato^aster Montezumia, 72. 

Cucumber-beetle, 614. 

Cucuyo, 422. 

Culex pipiens, 589. 

Cupressus thyoides, 884. 

Curassows, 357. 

Currant borer, 219. 

Currant moth, 220. 

Currents, oceanic, 17. 

Cuterebra buccata, 596. 

Cut-worms, 1G4. 

Cyclostoma, 620. 

Cyclostoma, 021. 

Cylindrella, 623. 

Cynomys Ludovicianus, 533. 

Cynthia Silk-moth, Solvent for reeling 

oocoouA of, 280. 
Cynthia Silkworm, ISO, 311. 
Cypripedium arietinum, 657. 
Cystoclonium purpurascens, 235. 
Cystopteris, 527. 
Cystopas Candidas, 633. 
Cystoseira expausa, 230. 

Dana Natural History Society, 224, 391. 

Darwini.sm, 482. 

Dasya elegans, 233, 325. 

Date, 310. 

Death of fishes in the Bay of Fundy, 337. 

Deer, Albino, 664. 

Deer, American, 435. 

Deer and Deer Huuting in Texas, 466. 

Deer, Homi^ of, 435. 

Delesscria Americana, 233. 

Delphinus delphis, 604. 

Dendroica ».stiva, 1?2. 

Dendroica BLickbumia*, 179. 

Dendroica crenilea, 176. 

Dendroica Canadeiif^iH, 172. 

Dendroica castanea, 173, 179. 

Dendroica coronata, 162, 171. 

Dendroica discolor, 178. 

Dendroica maculosa, 180. 

Dendroica palraanim. 171. 

Dendroica Pennylvanica, 173. 

Dendroica pinus, 170. 

Dendroica Ktriata, 179. 

Dendroica tis:i*ina, 175. 

Dendroica Tirens, 173. 

Derraestes. 1P6. 

Dermestes lardarins, 442. 

Desiccation of the surface of Western 

Nortli America, 444. 
Desmarestia aruleata, 230. 
Devil's apron, 230, 271. 
Diatoms, 383. 



Dicotylus nasutus, 168. 

Dictyosiphon, 231. [006. 

Dimorphous seeds of Atriplez hortensis, 

Dipleurosoma, 606. [278. 

Directions for collecting marine aniinals, 

Directions for collecting shells, 410. 

Dirina Califomica, 106. 

Distribution of our Birds In the Breeding 

Season, 329. 
Dodo, 357, 566. 
Domestic Mite, 112. 
Dor-beetle, 190. 
Dor-bug, 187. 
Doryphttra 10-lineata, 120. 
Double Kgg, 60. 
Dragon fly, 215. 

Dragon tree, 211. [411, 413. 

Dredges for collecting Fresh-water Shells, 
Drift of Iowa, 616. 
Drilus, 432. 
Drom«)as, 876. 
Drosera rotundlfolia, 107. 
Drosophila, 641. 
Dusky Ducks, 660. 
Dwarf Thrush, 380, 488, 602. 

Earthquakes, 530. 

Kchinaster crassispina, 12, 00. 

Kcliinoderm, Viviparous, 608. 

Kchinometra Michelini, 12, 90. 

Et^inus, 326, 603. 

Echinus, holes worn by, 4. 

F>.'iton, 61. 

Ectatomma, 61. 

Ectocai-pus brachiatus, 232. 

Etrg, Double, 60. 

Elater noctilucus, 424. 

Elder, a native plant, 38, 218. 

Elephant, 382. 

Elephas Americana, 33. 

Elephas primigenius, 23, 26, 168. 

Elk, 436. 

Elk, Irish, 26, 29. 

Emvs Isevis, 358. 

Endogens, 343. 

Endophyllum, 618. 

Entomological calendar, 110, 163, 219, 331. 

Entomologist, American, 436. 

Entomologist, Annual for 1868, 665. 

Entomologist, Canadian, 435. 

Entomostraca, 383. 

Eozoon, 602. 

Epeira vulgaris, 476. 

Ephvdra, 278. 

Epiphytes, 212. 

Erigeron Philadelphicum, 667. 

Eristalis, 278. 

Erisvi)he, (&!, 037. 

Essex Institute Field Meeting, 53. 

Eudalimia subsignaria, 333. 

Eudryas grata, 448. 

Eunice gigantea, 275. 

Eunicia, 00. 

Enroue, Glacial Fauna of, 25. 

Eurotium herbarionim, 638. 

Euthora cristata, 234. 

Evergreens, Book of, 822. 

Exogens, 343. 

Falco columbarius, 690. 

Falco sparverius, 596. 

False Scorpion, 216. 

Fauna of Montana Territorv, 628, 696. 

Fauna of the Gulf Stream, 608. 

Favia, 10, 12, 13, 00. 

Ferns, 517, 601. 

Fern, Sensitive, Abnormal form of, 668. 



INDEX. 



677 



Field, Forest, and Garden Botany, 553. 

Field Sparrow, 161. 

Fire Beetle, 422. 

Fire Flies, 422. 

Fishes, Brazilian, 656. 

FiHties living In sea anemoneSi 211. 

Fisiies, Siluroid, 222. 

Fish-hawk, 353, 5U7. 

Fish-hawk, or Osprey, 192. 

Fistulina hepaticn, 299. 

Flat-worms, 268. 

Fleas, 613. 

Flies, 447, 686, 638. 

Fly-agaric, 298. 

Flycatchers, 175. 

Fly-trap, Sun-dew, 107, 160. 

Foraminifera, 603. 

Formica, 50, 491. 

Fossil insects, 163. 

Foul-brood, 196. 

Fox, 494. 

French bone caves. 556. 

Fresh-water animals, 419. [449. 

Fresh-water Shell-heaps of Florida, 303, 

Frizellia, 524. 

Frog, 558. 

Fro^ spittle, 62. 

Fruit, are Bees injurious to ? 62. 

Fungi, 202, 561, 623. 

Fungi in the blood, 211. 

Fusus cinerens, 325. 

Gairdner's Woodpecker, 698. 

Galleria cereana, 204. 

Galvina rupium, 550. 

Gamasns, 204. 

Garter-snake, 134. 

(varoupa, 7. 

Gastcronods, 603. 

Gastropnilus equi, 595. 

Gelidium comeura,234. 

Gentiana saponaria, 657. 

Geodes, 496. [124. 

Geograj)hical distribution of animals, 14, 

Geological axe of the Marshall Group, 445. 

Geology of the Basin of the Great Lakes 

and of the Upper Miss, valley, 444. 
Geology of Brazil, 1. 
Geology of Iowa, 207. 
Geology, Microscope in, 50. 
Geology of the Mississippi Delta, 444. 
Geology of New Jersey, 8. 
Geology of New York, 483. £497. 

Geology of the Upper Mississippi River, 
Geothlypis, 175. 
Gerardia aspera, 657. 
German Ivy, flowering of, 39, 214. 
Giant Petrel, 162. 
Ginseng. 222. 

Glacial deposits, fishes of, 603. 
Glacial deposits, fossils of, 60B. 
Glacial Marks in the White Mountains, 330. 
Glacial Period, cold of, 20 
Glacial Period, condition of New England 

during the, 22, 33. 
Glacial Period, life of, 20. 
Glacial Period, Mammals of, in the United 

States, 35. 
Glacial Period, vegetation* of, 39. 
Glaciers on Mt. Sinai, 211. 
Glaucidiiira S^u, 420. 
Gloiosiiihonia capillaris, 835. 
Goat*s beard, 565. 
Golden-crowned Thrush, 182. 
Golden Eagle, 597. 
GoMen-eyed fly, 592. 
Golden and Silver Ferns, 523. 



Golden- winged Warbler, 181. 

Golden-winged Woodpecker, 882. 

Goldsmith Beetle, 186, 200. 

Gordius, 202, 203. _ 

Gorgoniae, 12, 608. 

Grapes, North American, 320. 

Grape Pentliina, 220. 

Grapta comma, 164. 

Grasshoppers, ravages in Texas, 890. 

Grasshoppers, Songs of the, 113. 

Gray Wolf, 529. 

Great Geyser of Iceland, 388. 

Great Lake Basin, Geology of, 444« 

Green black-capped Warbler, 176. 

Green-head fly, 5m. 

Green snake, 134, 136. 

Gregarinte, 150. 

Griflithsia, 235. 

Grizzly Bear, 620. 

Ground Squirrel, 583. 

Ground Warbler, 176. 

Grouse, Rufl'cd, 365. 

Gryllus niger, 115. 

Gulf Stream, 17, 22, 008. 

Gulf weed. 229. 

Gymnogramma leptophylla, 523. 

Gymnotoids, 556. 

Gyporhynchus pusillas, 658. 

Habenada fimbriata, Monstroas Flowers 

of, 38. 
Hsematorrhaea, 270. 
Hair-woi-m, 202. 
Hairy Mammoth, 23, 27. 
Halesia tctrnptera, 605. 
Haliaetus leucocephalus, 194. 
Halichondria, 306. 
Halictus, 199. 
Haltica striolata, 514. 
Uapalidiura pbyllactidium, 229. 
Hard Feni, 526. 
Harpaliis, 111. 
Harris's Woodpecker, 597. 
Hart's tongue Fern, .525. 
Hawaiian Islands, Volcanoes of, 207. 
Hawks, 379. 

Heat, evolution of in an Aroid, 606. 
Helcochara communis, .'S3. 
Hclianthus giganteus, 657. 
Helianthus tuoerosus, 158. 
Heliastrtea, 13. 
Helicina, 618. 
Helicina adspersa, 622. 
Helicina regtna, 618. 
Helicina Sagraeana, 618. 
Helicodiscus? polygrrella, 486. 
Helicops assimilis, 604. 
Helix alteimata, 666. 
Helix Cooperi, 221. 
Helix mnltidentata, 279. 
Helix picta, 622. 
Helix pulcherrima, 622. 
Helix regina. 622. 
Helix splcndida, 666. 
H^lix stigmatica, 022. 
Helix Titanica, fi22. 
Helix Townsendiana, 486. 
Helniinthological Kesearches, 666. 
Helminthophaga celata, 181. 
Helminthophaga chrysoptera. 181. 
Helminthophaga peregrina, 181. 
Helminthophaga pinus, 174. 
Helminthophaga niflcapilla, 177. 
Helmitherus vermlvorus, 178. 
Helvetia, 302. 
Hemlock Warbler, 179. 
Hepatica triloba. Flowering of, 101, 611. 



678 



INDEX. 



Hepaticae. SK. 

Hepatic Mosses of Mexico, 558. 

Hermit Crab, 218. 

Herons, Encampment of, 878. 

Herring, American, 839. 

Hesperomvs, 584. 

Hessian-fly, 103, 586. 

Hetcrothecium Domingense, 104. 

Hildebrandtia san^rninea, 227. 

Himanthalia lorea, 268. 

Hippobosca, 198. 

Holothiiria, swimmmg species of, 606. 

Honey-ant, .'i82. 

Honey Bee, :iHO. 

Honey Bee Icilled by SUk-wced, 065. 

Honey Bee, Parasites of, 1U5. 

Honey ware, 2U. 

Hooded Warbier, 178. 

Hop-vine Moili, :i88. 

Horns of tlie Deer, 435. 

Hor&e-flv, 1B8, 5U1. 

Hor^e. I'he I'ei'clieron, 433. 

Hou!«e-fly. KiS. 

Human ^^kuli found fossil at a great depth 

in California, 44.5, 416. 
Humming Bird, Albino, 110. 
Hyalina arborea, 48U. 
Hybrids of Cotton, 211. 
Hydna, 299. 

Hydnum erinaceum, 670. 
Hydroids, 603. 
Hylobius pales, 165. 
Hyhirgus terebrans, 166. 
Hymenogorgla, 90. 
Hymenophyllnm, 627, 002. 
Hyphaniria textor, 164. 
Hyphomycetes, OUR. 
Hypodei*ma bovis, 506. 

Iceland, Great Geyser of, 388. 

Ichnenmon, 196, 204, 640. 

Idia Bigoti, 640. 

Idiogenes otidis, 658. 

Iguanodon, 375. 

Ilythia colonella, 333. 

Indigo Bird, 877. 

InftiBoria, clasjiiflcation of, 37. 

Insect Extinguisher, 656. 

Insects, Fossil, 168. 

Insects living in the Sea, 277. 

Insects, luminous, 422. 

Insects, Protection of trees flrom, 40. 

Insects* Salt-water, :)29. 

Instinct or Reason, 6A4. 

Interrupted-leaved Fern, 522. 

Iowa, Geology of, 207. 

Iowa Drill, 614. 

Irish Elk, 29. 

Iron weed, white variety of, 813. 

Isidella, 608. 

Ivy, German, flowering of, 214. 

Jack Snipe, 216. 
Jersey Fern, 523. 
Juniper, 557. 

Kalmia latifolla, new variety of, 323. 

Kalo, 184. 

Kansas, Mastodon in, 51. 

Kelp, 230. 

Kentucky Warbler. 181. 

Kent Scientific Institute, 602. 

Kingbird, 600. 

Kingfisher. Belted, 218, 403, 480, 614. 

Kinnikinnick, &%. ' 

Soekkenmoeddiogs, 89. 
netoskias, 606. 



Lachnosterna ftisca, 111, 187, 198. 

Lady Fern, 524. 

Lakes of Iowa, 143. 

Laminaria saccharina, 325. 

Lampyris, 432. 

Larder-beetle. 165. 

Large-billed Water-thmsh, 183. 

Larus fflaucus, 102. 

Larus Hutchinsii, 108. 

Lastrea, 528. 

Latinis prismaticuB, 821. 

Leaches. 36. 

Leaf-cutter bee, 804. 

Leaves, falling of, 36. 

Leda clays, 22. 

Lecanora tartarea, 104. 

Lemna minor, 440. 

Lemna, new species of, 440. 

Lemna pcrpusiUa, 440. 

Lepi^ma, 616. 

Lepus artcmisia, 536. 

Lepus sylvaticus, 536. 

Lepus Townsendii, 586. 

Lespedeza striata. 30. 

Leucodore boring in rock, 218. 

Leucosolenia botryoides, 805. 

Lewis* Woodpecker, 598. [104. 

Lichens, identiflcatiop of, by chemical tests, 

Limacina, 280. 

Limax Columbianus, 666. 

Liparoceras Beechei, 650. 

Liparoceras Henley 1, 550. 

Llttorina, 325. 

Littorina palliata, 241. 

Lobelia cardinalis, 107, 667. 

Lobelia Kalmii, 40. 

Lobelia svphilltica, 213, 657. 

Lobster, i94. 

Locust Killer, 217. 

Locust, Seventeen year, 831, 443, 668. 

Long Island Historical Society, 334. 

Long Moss an Epiphyte, 212. 

Luminous animals, 422. 

Luminous larvae, 6U5. 

Luna Moth, 312, 818. 

Lutra Canadensis, 520. 

Lycoperdon bovista, 800. 

Lymnea, 486. 

Lysianassa Magellanica, 21. 

Macrocystis, 231. 

Mactra solldissima, 326. 

Maidenhair, 527. 

Mammoth, Hairy, 83. 

Man, Antiquity of, 386. 443. 

Man contemporaneous with the Mastodon, 

etc., in Cahfomia, 446. 
Margarltana arcuata, 486, 558. [878. 

Marine Animals, Directions for collecting. 
Marine animals, distribution of, 14. 
Marine Aquarium, 262. 
Marine Fauna, 16. 
Marine Shell-heaps at St. John's BlalT, 

Florida, 460. 
Marsh-hawk, 866, 697. 
Maryland Yellow-throat, 174, 176. 
Mastodon, 25. 
Mastodon in Indiana, 56. 
Mastodon in Kansas, 51. [484, 012. 

McNiel's Expedition to Central America, 
Meadow-grasshopper, 117. 
Measuring Eggs, 898. 
Meat-fly, 640. 
Medicine Rocks, 651. 
Megaptera, 7. 

Megaptera brachychira, 168. 
Melanactes, 665. 



INDEX. 



679 



Melanerpes erythroeephaliu, 609. 

Xelanerpes torquafcUB, 609. 

M elania, 690. 

MetaDieIU,619. 

Xeluuella Pichardi, (Bl. 

Meiitea Phaeton, 219. 

MeJolMssia. 227. 

M(4oe angnstirollis, 199. 

IffeloloBtha vulgaris, 190, 209. 

Melophagns, IW. 

Me2ophaini>^ ovinns, 642. 

Ifenailofl alle, 102. 

MermiB albicans, 203. 

Jferodon Bardus, 603. 

Merodon Narctgea, 503. 

Xetridinm mansrinatnin, 252. 

Mexican Anta, Notes on, 57. 

Mexican Hawk, !m. 

Mexican Monotropea, 606. 

Mexican Pvrolese, 006. 

Mezereon, ^1. 

Mirralvmna, 278. 

Microdon globosua, 663. 

MicTOgastcr nephoptericis, 204. 

Microscope in ueology, 60. 

Microscopy, 60, 3t)3. 

Mtcrojtphoena, 637. 

Miirration of Ants. 491. 

MifTations of Birds, 482. 

Mildew, 630. 

Xtllepora, 11, 13. 

Mlllepora alcicomls, 11, 00. 

Millepora nitida, 11, 91. 

Mimnlus ringens, white var. of, 611. 

Mieeissippi Delta, Geology of, 444. 

Mississippi River, Physical features of, 497. 

Mississippi Valley, Geology of, 444. 

Missonri Chipmnnk, 680. 

MlftUetoe, 61. 

Mites, 204, 670. 

Mite, Domestic, 112. 

Mite, Sugar, 112. 

Maiotilta raria, 171. 

Mocking-bird, 215. 

Mojave Canon, 302. 

MolIuBca, 559. 

Mollnsks boring in rock, 211. 

MoUttKks, 602. 

Molobrus mail, 641. 

Monads, 651. 

Monotropa, 51. 

Monstrons Flowers of the Habenarla flm- 

briata, 38. 
Montana, Shells of, 486. 
Montana, Territory, Fauna of, 028, 606. 
Moon-moth, 187. 
Moon-wort, 523. 
Moose Tick, 669. 
Morchella esculenta, 294. 
MoT^l, 294. 

Mo»9es of California, 208. 
MoMuito, 586, 587, 588. 
Mottled Owl, 73, 109, 370, 879, 669. 
Moulds, 635. 

Monid of the Potato, 463. 
Mounds in Michigan, 602. 
Mountain Ash, 657. 
Mountain Sheep, 538. 
Mourning Warbler, 175. 
Mouse, Field, of Iceland, 004. 
Mueedo, 636. 

Mttcor mellitophoms, 203. 
MuTiins, 331. 
Musa,407; 
Mnsca Caesar, 640. 
Musca doroestica, 688. 
Muflca vomitoria, 640. 



Museums and their arrangementi 

Museum Pests, 443. 

Mushrooms, 292. 

Musk Turtle, 830. 

Mussa Harttii, 10. 

Mussel. 243. 

Mus sylyaticus, 604. 

Mycetobia, 690, 643. 

Mygale, 7. 

Myfodioctes Canadoisis, 176. 

Myiodioctes mitratus, 178. 

Myiodioctes pusiUus, 170, 176. 

Myodes, 604. 

Myriad-thread, 232. 

Myriana, 273. 

Myriapods, 106, 664. 

Myrionema, 232. 

Myrmecocystus Mezicanus, 882. 

Naides, 268.. 

Nais, 273. 

Nashville Warbler, 177. 

Nassa obsoleta, 325. 

Nassa trivittata, 325. 

Natica, 654. 

Natica duplicata, 325. 

Natica heros, 326. 

National Academy of Science, 447. 

Natural History of Birds, 654. 

Natural History, Review of the Scandina- 
vian Publications in, 655, 604. 

Natural History Society, Juvenile, 49. 

Natural History, Works on, 224. 

Naturalist in Brazil, 1. 

Neea theifera, 005. 

Nemerteans, 268. 

Nemertes, nervous system of, 604. 

Nemobius vittatus, 115. 

Neotoma cinerea, 534. 

Neotoma Aisipes, 534. 

Neotoma occidentalis, .535. 

Nephopteryx Edmandsii, 204. 

Nephrolepis, 528. 

Nereids, 268, 274. 

Nereis grandis, 276. 

Nereocystis, 231. 

Nereocystis Lutkeana, 325. 

New Jersey, (Jeology of, 3. 

New York, Geology of, 483. t 

New York, shore collecting about, 324. 

Night-hawk, 500, 600, 652. 

Nitroglycerine, 20». 

Nobert's Test plate and modem micro- 
scopes, 93. 

North America, Butterflies of, 323, 603. 

North America, Gradual Desiccation of the 
surface of Western portion of, 444. 

North American Grapes, 320. 

Northern Fauna during Drift Period, 20. 

Notes on the Red and Mottled Owls, 327. 

Notes on Tropical Fruits, 183, 807, 406. 

Nyctea nivea, 585. 

Nycteribia 108, ft42. 

Nyctiardea Gardenii, 378. 

Nyssa multiflora, 122. 

Oaks, classiflcation of, 006. 
Oak-polypody,' 522. 
OBcanthus niveus, 333. 
CEcodoma, 66. 
(Ecodoma cephalotes, 70. 
CEcodoma hystrix, 69. 
CEcodoma Mexicana, 66. 
CEcodoma sexdentata, 70. 
CEcodoma Texana, 71. 
CEdipoda, 118. 
CEstrua ovis, 696. 



680 



INDEX. 



Oidium berberfdis, flV7. 

Oidium inonilioides, 6BS. 

Oidium Tuckeri, 626. 

OU-beetle, 199. 

Oleacina, 618. 

Onion flr, 203. 

Onion Plant, 44D. 

Onoclea, fi28. 

Onoclea sensibilis, 658. 

Oology, hints on, 487. 

OphJoglossum yulgatom, 621. 

Ophiura cinerea, 13. 

Oporomis agilis, 174. 

Oporomid formoBas, 181. 

Opossum, 664. 

Orange-cro\Tned Warbleri 181. 

Orange-head, 493. 

Oreaster gigas, 13. 

Orchelimum yulgare, 117. 

OrchidB, 342. 

Orcilla, 299. 

Ornithogalum aUiscemn, 440. 

Ornlthomyia, 642. 

OrobanohaceoD, 51. 

Ortyx Virginlana, 162. 

Osmnnda regalia, 5:^. 

Osmund Ferns, 822. 

Osprey, or Fish-hawk, 192. 

OssiA-aga gigantea, 162. 

Oflfcracion, 557. 

Ostrich, 556. 

Ostrich Fern, 028. 

Otus Wilson{anu8,697. 

Oven-bird, 182. 

Ovis montnna, 638. 

Owls, 506, 673. 

Owl, Comical. 420. 

Owl, habits of a Cuban species, ^0. 

Owl, Mottletl, 73, 109, 370. 

Owls, Bed and Mottled, Notes on, 827. 

Pachycondyla Orlzabana, 64. 

Painted Canon, 362. 

Paloeocampa anthrax, 163. 

Palseophis littoralis, 388. 

Palndina, 620. 

Paludina multilineata, 896. 

Pancratum lUyricnm, 440. 

Pandanus verus, 186. 

Pandion Carolinensis, 697. 

Pangus caliginosus, 111. 

Parasites of Carpenter Bees, 48. 

Parasites of the Honey-Bee, 195. 

Parasitic Mushrooms, 668. 

Pannelia, 104, 105. 

Parmclia Borreri, 106. 

Paimelia carperata, 106. 

Parmelia conspersa, 106. 

Parmelia Japonica, 106. 

Pannelia laevigata, 105. 106. 

Parmelia olivetomm, l06. 

Parmelia perlata, 105, 106* 

Parmclia physodes, 106. 

Parmclia revoluta, 105. 

Parmelia tiliacea, 105. 

Parodon Hilarli, 556. 

Parsley Fern, 623. 

Panila Americana, 161, 177. 

Passnlus comntus, 196. 

Patula striateUa, 486. 

Pearlash, 314. 

Pebbles, flattened and distorted, 223. 

Pectinaria hyperborea, 274. 

Pelias, 141. 

Pcllea. 628. 

Penthina yitlvorana, 220. 

Pentstemon CoboBA, 330. 



Percheron Horse, 483. 

Perching Snipe, 829. 

Perch, large BrazUian species of, 7. 

Peridermium pini, 669. 

Perigord, relics or caye dwellers of, 90. 

Peronospora, 564, 636. 

Peru, marine fauna of, 16. 

Peysonella orbicularis, 2X1, 

Peziza, 293. 

Pezomachus, 331. 

Phaneroptera curyicauda, 116. 

Phegopteris, 602. 

Phiaiana lynceus, 658. 

Phlox pilosa, 657. 

Phoenix dactyllfera, 810 « 

Phora incrassata, 196. 

Photinus pyralis, 433. 

Photuris, 422, 432. 

Photuris Peu8ylyanicuSj482. 

Phragmites communis, 6S2. 

Phyllactinia guttata, 687. 

Physa heterostropha, 486. 

Physics of the Brain, 87. 

Piabina, 656. 

Picidas, 377. 

Picoides arctlcus, 686. 

Picoides dorsalis, 698. 

Picus albolaryatus, 686. 

Picus Harrisii, 697. 

Pigeons, 649. 

Pigeon Hawk, 606. 

Pilchard, 606. 

Pineapple, 406. 

Pine-creeping Warbler, 170, 

Pine-weevil, 166. 

Piophila easel, 642. 

Pipe-fish, 136. 

Pipestone, 648. 

Pissodes strobi, 164. 

Plasriochila, 658. 

Plain Mouse, 635. 

Planarians, 36. 

Planera aqnatica, 441. 

Planer Tree, 441. 

Planorbis parvus. 486. 

Planorbis trivolvis, 486. 

Plantain, 407. 

Plants, 669. 

Plants, popular names of, 606. 

Plant, Smallest Flowering one known, 440. 

Plants, variation of, under domestication, 

208, 481, 547. 
Platemys Bowerbankii, 868. 
Platemys Bullockii, 368. ^ 

Pleurococcus Beigelii, 169. 
Plexaurella, 90. 
Plocamium coocineum, 236. 
Podisoma clavarisforme, 657- 
Podisoma Sabinse, 557. 
Podura nivicola, 63. 
Pogonia ophioglossoides, double, 610. 
Polemoninm cosruleum, 40. 
Pollen, 666. 
Polycvstis, 632. 
Polyides rotundns, 234. 
Polymorphism among corals, 811. 
Polyps, 654. 
Pol>T)s of Brazil, 9. 
Polyphemus Silk-worm, 812. 
Polypods, 522. 
Polypodiums, 628, 602. 
Polypodium dryopteris, 622. 
Polypodium phegopteris, 623. 
Polypodium seiratum, 622. 
Polypodium vulgare, 522. 
Polyporus f^ondosus, 40. 
Polypoms giganteus, 40. 



INDEX. 



681 



Polyporus squamoans, 807. 

Polyrhachis arboricola, 60. 

PolyBiphonia fastigiata, 283. 

Ponera pedunculatai 61. 

Ponera otrigatu, 61. 

Pontia oleracea, 164. 

Popular Science Reyiew, 86, 108, 370. 

Porites, 13. 

Porto Santo rabbit. 049. 

PosoQueria, cross fertilization of, 437. 

Postpliocene fauns of Brazil, 218. 

Potato-beetle, 129. 

Potato-bug, Knomy of, 390. 

Potato Mould, 463. 

Potent!] la tridentata, 127. [449. 

Pottery from tbe Shell-heapa of Florida, 

Prairie Dog, 217, 033. 

Prairie Hare, 03<J. 

Prairie Mouse, 534. 

Prairie Warbler, 178. 

Prehistoric Art, 28. 

Preparation of Shells, 414. 

Preservation of Shells, 414. 

Preservation of Wood, 391. 

Preserving Insects, 480. 

Pristis, 567. 

Progress of ZoOIogj in 1986, 102. 

Prong-horn Antelope, 131. 

Proserpina, 619. 

Protection of trees from Insects, 40. 

Protozoa, 602. 

Primus Virginiana, 824. 

Pseudomyrma, 64. 

Psyche helix, 158. 

PteratomuA Pntnamii, 204. 

Pteris aqnilina, 526. 

Ptercphorus perii^celidactyhis, 334. 

Pteropod, 280,603. 

Ptinus fur, 1(J5. 

Pnccinia graminis, 567, 029. 

Puccinia rosas, 624. 

Pnnctaria tenuissima, 232. 

PupUla fallax, 666. 

Purpura lapillns, 24Si. 

Pyrula oanaliculata, 325. 

Quail, 162. 

Quarterly Journal of Science, 159, 209. 

Quawks, 378. 

Quince, 567. 

Radiates, 602. 

Raja batis, 557. 

Rana palustris, 135. 

Ranella caudata, 325. 

Rangifer caribou, 53. 

Rannncnlufl, double, 484. 

Rnt-tniled fly, 278. 

Rattleifsnake, 133. 

Ravcnclia, 6.31. 

Reason or lii>tinct, 064. 

Red-headed Woodpecker, 599. 

Red-necked Woodpecker, 599. 

Red Owl, 373. 

Red Pipestone Quarrv, a Trip to, 644. 

Red-shafted Flicker, bOO. 

Red spider, 112. 

Redstart, 180. 

Red-throated Diver, 162. 

Red Willow, 652. 

Red Bird, albino of, 491. 

Rced-gi*ass, 652. 

Reindeer Folk, 26, 80. 

Reindeer, Prehistoiic sketches of, 26, 29. 

Relic of the Glacial Epoch, 39. 

Remarkable flight of crows, 881. 

ReniUa Dan», 9. 

AMBR. XATURAIJ6T, VOL. n. 



Return of the Birds, 162. 

Rhagis Columbaschensis, 590. 

Rhinoceros, Hairy, 24. 

Rhizocrinus, 609. 

Rhodjrmenla palmata, 234. 

Richardson's Spermophlle, 631. 

Richardson's Squirrel, 529. 

Rio Janeiro, rismg of coast of, 4. 

Robin, 161, 326. 

Robin, Albino of, 490, 492. 

Robin at fault, 217. 

Ro1)in, Migration of, 492. 

Rocks, Decomposition of, in Brazil, 6. 

Rock Ruins, 77. 

Rock Salt, deposit of Petite Ansa, 444. 

Rocky Mountain Goat. 537. 

Rocky Mountain Wood-Rat, 534. 

Rosstelia, 5J8. 

Rcestelia cancellata, 067. 

Rcestelia cornifera, 567. 

Rcestelia penicillata, 667. 

Roofing Slate, 51. 

Rose Saw-fly, 163. 

Roses, two crops of, 107. 

Royal Fern, 522. 

Ruffed Grouse, 865. 

Ruins, Rock, 77. 

Rust, 624. 

Sabella, 271. 

Sabella, boring in rocks, 212. 

Sagartia leucoiena, 261. 

Sage Hare, 536. 

Salamander, the young of, 498.^ 

Salep, 350. 

Salix longifolia, 602. 

Salmo ferox, 607. 

Salmons, varieties of, 007. 

Salt-marsh Caterpillar, 164. 

Salt- Water Insects, 329. 

Sarobucus Canadensis, 38. 

Sandstones, 388. 

Santa Cruz, Brazil, coral reeft of, 9. 

Sarcopsylla penetrans, 644. 

Sargossum, 229. 

Saturnia Cynthia, 814. 

Savin, 557. 

SaxifVaga, 667. 

Saxinraga, Double, 010. 

SaxIfVaga Virginiensis, double flowers, 484. 

Scandinavian Natural History, works on, 

604. 
Soenopinns pallipes, 692. 
Scifonoids. i»6. 
Scilla mantima, 440. 
Sciurns Douglasii, 030. 
Scinnis Hudsonius, 030. 
Sciurus Richardsonii, 029. 
Scolopax minor, 663. 
Scolopax Wilsonii, 329, 068. 
Scolopendrium officlnarum, 608. 
Scolopendrium vulgare, 025. 
Scolytus, 333. 
Scops asio, 73, 327. 
Scops Maccallii, 328. 
Screech Owl, 373. 
Screw-pine, 186. 
Sea Anemone, 9, 211, 238, 201. 
Sea-colander, 231. 
Sea-dove, lf{2. 
Sea-fans, 603. 
Sea, iuHects living in, 277. 
Sea-Saurian, 388. 
Sea-side, Good Books for, 275. 
Sea-side, StroU by the, 236. 
Sea-thong, 230. 
Sea Urchin, 200. 

86 



1 



682 



INDEX. 



Sea Urohtna, nests excavAterl by, 4. 

Sea weeds, 226. 

Sea-whiplash, 331. 

Sca-womi8, 207. 

Setitim Rhodiola, 4D, 127. 

Seeds, Vitality of. 100. 

Seinnis aurocapillus, 182. 

Seiiinis Ludovicianus, 183. 

Seiunis Noveboracensis, 182. 

Selanflria cerasi, 1(3. 

Selnndria roscB, 163. 

Sensitive Plant, 38. 

Sennila, 271. 

Sesia, 1(^4. 

SetophaKa niticilla, 180. 

Seventeen Year Locust, 203, 280, 442. 

Shari)-»hinned Hawk, 696. 

Sheep-tick, 1»8, 612. 

Shells, Xi.\ 617. 

Shells, Directions for Collecting, 410. 

ShelMrake and Woodpecker, 660. 

Shell-heaps of Florida, List of, 402. 

Shells, hibernation of, 617. 

Shells of Montana, 486. 

Shells, pi*epnration of, 414. 

Shells, Works on, 224. 

Shepherd's purse, 633. 

Shore collecting about New York, 324. 

Shrews, HrlS. 

Shrike, 650. 

Slalla sialis, 161. 

Siderastrasa, 10, 12, 18, 00. 

Silk-Jdoth, singular deformity in, 381. 

Silk-weed Pollen, Honev Bee killed by, 665. 

Simnlium molestum, 690. 

Sinai, Mt., Glaciers on, 211. 

Siredon, transformations of, 408. 

Siriba, 6. 

Sitaris, 200. 

Smallest Flowering Plant known, 440. 

Smut fungi, 631. 

Snail's Eggs, Vitality of, 665. 

Snails Injurious to tne Strawberry, 666. 

Snakes swallowing their young, 133. 

Snake, Striped, 60. 

Snipe, Habits of, 603. 

Snow fleas. .53. [279. 

Society of Natural History, Portland Me., 

Solanum, 129. 

Solan um rostratum, 330. 

Songs of the Grasshoppers, 118. 

Sorb, 557. 

Sorex, 528. 

Span-ow Hawk, 598. 

Sparrow, House, 223. 

Spermophilus Beecheyi, 583, 684. 

Spermophilus grammunis? 632. 

Spennophilns Kichardsoni ? 531. 

Sperm Whale. 212. 

Sphacelaria cin-hosa, 232. 

Sphserium occidentale, 487. 

Sphierium striatinnm, 486. 

Spb«rotheca pannosa, 637. 

Sphinx Carolina, 164. 

Sphinx gordius, 164. 

Sphyraplcus nuchalis, 699. 

Spiners,670. 

Spider Crab, 7. 

Spiders, Habits of, 476. 

Spiders, how they begin their webs, 214. 

Spider's nests, 222. 

Spider, Bed, 112. 

Spindle-worm Moth, 333. 

Spiriea, 196. 

Spirra tomentoia, 667. 

Spizella pnsfUa, 161. 

Splanchnostrophus, 669. 



Spleenworts, 685. 

Sponges, 808. 

Sponges, Animal nature of, 101. 

Spongilla flnviatilis, 168. 

Springtail, 447. 

Squalodon Atlanticns, 166. 

Squalodon mento, 166. 

Starfish, 846. 

Starfishes and Corals of Brazil, 838. 

Star-flower, 633. 

Statice llmonium, 667. 

Stenobothnis cnrtipennis, 118. 

Stenobothrus melanopleoms, 118. 

Stilophora, 231. 

Stizus speciosus, 217. [449, 460. 

St. Johns River, Fla., Shell-heaps of, 388, 

Stone Age, Art relics of the, 26. 

Strawberry, 666. 

Striped-back Woodpecker, 606. 

Striped Snake, Habits of, 60, 184. 

Striped Turnip-fly, 614. 

Strixasio,d27,m 

Strix nsevia, 327, 370. 

Strix pratincola, 489, 686. 

Stroll by the Sea-side, 236. 

Stnithiopteris, 668. 

Sty lops, 201. 

Stylops Children!, 901. 

Sugar Mite, 112. 

Sun-dew, a Fly-trap, 107, 160. 

Swamp-cedar, 884. 

Syllis, 273. 

Sylvia autnmnalis, 179. 

Sylvicola panis, 179. 

SylvicoleiB, 171. 

Sylvicolidie, 160. 

Syngnathus Peckfanns, 186. 

Symium aluco, 328. 

Syn>hu8, 199, K&. 

Syrtensian Fauna, 38. 

Tabanus, 62. 

Tabanus lineola, 691 . 

Tacca pinnatiflda, 407. 

Tachina, 100, 203. 640. 

Tachyi^lotus Hcdcmanni, 604. 

T»nia canipylnncristata, 668. 

Tasnia multifoiTiiis, 668. 

Taenia murlna, 558. 

Taenia villosa, 558. 

Tamias Coopcrii, 531. 

Tamias quadrivittatus, 631. 

Tamias Ktriatus, 5:il, 666. 

Tamias Townscndii, 631. 

Tapinoma, 60. 

Tapirus Balrdil, 355. 

Taxidea Americana, 629. 

Tea plant of Brazil, 606. 

Tenebrio molitor, 658. 

Tenne^tsee Warbler, 181. 

Terebella, 272. 

Terebratulas. 

Termes, 201. 

Tertiai-y Fauna, 18. 

Totraspores, 232. 

Thalictrum anemonoides, double, 610. 

Tlianaos Brizo, 164. 

Thanaos Juvenalis, 164. 

Thecaphora, 633. 

Thecla Anbnmiana, 164. 

Thecla Niphon, 164. 

Theloschistes candelarins, 104. 

Thnish, dwarf, 218, 880, 488. 

Thyrens Nessus, 831. 

Tick on Moose, oSO, 

TillandBla usneoides, 212, 6ia 

Tinea, 668. 



INDEX. 



683 



Tipnla, (MS. 

TomicQB pini, 166. 

Tomicus zylographas, 169. 

Torrey featiyal. 4l. 

Traces of Ancient Glaciers in the White 

Mts. of New Hampshire, 281. 
TragopogoUt 066. 
Tree-cricket, 833. 

Trees, Protection of, flrom Insects, 49. 
Tremex Colamba, 6a. 
Xrlchohasls rublgoyera, 630. 
rrichodes apiarius, 196. 
rrichodes Nuttallil, 196. 
Trichomanes Petersii, 688. 
Trichomanes radicans, 687. 
Trientalis, 633. 
Trifoliam pratense, 667. 
Trilobites, 002. 
Tringa maculata, 816. 
Tnodopsls MuUani, 486. [044. 

Trip to the great Bed Pipestone Quarry, 
Triphragmlum, 631. 
Tritlcnm repens, 080. 
Trochilinm tipnliforme, 819. 
TropBBa Luna. 616. 
Tropical air*plant, 368. 
Tropical Fruits, 183, 807, 406. 
Tropidonotus, 134, 141. 
Trygon, 657. 
Tsetze, 668. 

Tnrdns Allicis, 480, 608. 
Turdns Audubonli, 489. 
Turdus fuscescens, 489. 
Tnrdus migratorius, 161, 498, 49S. 
Turdus migratorius, albino o^ 490. 
Turdus nanus, 818. 880. 488, 668. 
Turdus Pallasii, 488, 608. 
Tnrdus Swainsonii, 488, 668. 
Turdns ustnlatus, 489. 
Turkey Buzzard, 606. 
Turnip-butterfly, 164. 
Tyrannus Carolinensls, 600. 



Ulya latlssima, «. 
Umbilioaria, 104. 
Uncinula spiralis, 606. 
Unicom of Fable, 498. 
Unio Buckleyi, 896. 
Uredo rosse, 084. 
Uria grylle 168. 
Uria umcolor, 108. 
Uromyces, 686, 687. 
Urns, 89. 

Ursns Americanus, 089. 
Ursus horribilis, 689. 
Ustilago, 688. 

Vanessa Antiopa, 180. 

Vanessa interrogationls, 164. 

Vanessa J-album, 164. 

Vanilla, 350. 

Variation of Plants and Animals nndor do- 

mestication. 517. 
Vermont, Bed Sandstone of, 988. 
Vemonia NoTeboracensis, 666. 
Vemonia Noveboracensls, white variety 

of, 213. 
Vermcaria maura, 887. 
Vertebrates, 608. 
Vespertilio, 688. 
Vibrio, 811. 
Viola cucullata, 6S7. 
Viola rotnndifolia, 441. 
Viola sagittata, 667. 
Vipers, 138, 141. 
Vireo, 180. 



Vireo NoTflBboracensis, 676. 
Virginian Fauna, 88. 
Vitality of Seeds, 169. 
VlFiparous Echlnoderm, 668. 
Volcanic Bocks, 806. _ 

Volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands, 807. 
Volucella, 203. 

Voyage through the Grand Canon of Colo- 
rado, 666. 

WagtaU, 181. 

Wa&ing leaf. 688. 

Widking stick, 881. 

Wall rue, 686. 

Warblers, The, 169. 

Wardian case, 618. 

Water adder, 134, 141. 

Water thrush, 188. 

Wavy-striped Flea-Beetle, 614. 

Western Mottled Owl, 888. 

Western Snow-bird, 161. 

West Indian Fire Beetle, 488. 

Whale, Brazilian species of, 7. 

Whale's food, 383. 

Wheat-midge, 164, 686. 

Whelk, 817. 

Whippoorwill, 606. 

White-ant, 801. 

White-eyed Greenlet, 676. 

White-headed Woodpecker, 668. 

White Lobelia Kalmii, 667. 

White Mountains, ijlacial Marks in, 880. 

White Mountains. Ancient Glaciers in, 881. 

White-pine Weevil, 164. 

White Bust, 633. 

White Varieties of Flowers, 666. 

White Wild Columbme, 107. 

Wild Apple, 667. 

Willow, Anomalous flowers of, 818. 

Wilson's Owl, 697. 

Wilson's Snipe, 489. 

Wine fly, 648. 

Wing-foot, 880. 

Wolflla, 440. 

Wolverene, 816. 

Woodcock, 663. • 

Woodpecker, 877. 600. 

Woodpecker, Golden-wUiged, 882. 

Wood, Preservation of ,891. 

Woodsia, 627. 

Wood warblers, 171. 

Worms, 003. 

Worms boring in rock, 818. 

Worms, Classification of, 86. 

Worm-eaters, 174. 

Worm-eating Warbler, 178. 

Xanthocephalns icterocephalns, 486. 
Xenodochnus, 631. 
Xenonenra antiqnonun, 168. 
Xenos Peckii, 908. 
Xylocopa, 48. 

Tamapmai silk-worm, 818, 814. 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo, 607. 
Yellow Chanterille, 299. 
Yellow-crowned Warbler, 171. 
Yellow-footed Marmot, 633. 
Yellow-beaded Blackbird, 488. 
Yellow Bed-polled Warbler, 171. 
Yellow-rumped Warbler. 108. 
Yellow Warbler, 173. 

Zoology in 1866, Progress of, 108. 
Zygodactyles, 361. 



NOTICE. 



The Naturalist will hereafter be issued as a publication 
of the Peabody AcAomsr of Sgienoe. A few words ex- 
planatory of this change will be appropriate at this time, and 
may be of interest to our readers. 

The Academy owes its origin to the munificence of 
Geoboe Peabody, whose name has been placed at the head 
of the list of public benefactors by his many noble donations 
to the cause of science and education in this country. 

During Mr. Peabody*s recent visit to his native county, 
he created a Trust for the Promotion of Science and 
Useful Knowledge in the County of Essex, and ap- 
pointed a Board of Trustees to manage the sapie. The 
following Correspondence and Instrument of Trust will ex- 
plain the objects : — 

MR. PEABODY'S letter. 

Salem, Mass., Feb. 26, 1867. 

To Francis Peabodt, Esq. ; Prof. Asa Gray; Wh^liam C. Endicott, 
Esq. ; Georok Peabody Russell, Esq. ; Prof. Othniel C. Marsh ; Dr. 
Uexky Wheatland; A. C. Goodell, Jr., Esq. ; Dr. James R. Nichols; 
and Dr. Henry C. Perkins : — 

Gentlemen, — As you wlU perceive by the enclosed Instrament of 
Trust, I wish to place in the hands of yourselves, and your successors, 
the sum of One Hundred and Forty Thousand Dollars, for the Promotion 
OF Science and Useful Knowledge in the County of Essex. 

Of this, my native County, I have always been Justly proud, in common 
with all her sons, remembering her ancient reputation, her many illus- 
trious statesmen. Jurists, and men of science, her distinguished record 
from the earliest days of our country's history, and the distinction so long 
retained by her, as eminent in the education and morality of her citizens. 

I am desirous of assisting to perpetuate her good name through future 
generations, and of aiding through her means in the diffusion of science 
and knowledge ; and, after consultation with some of her most eminent 
and worthy citizens, and encouraged by the success which has already 
attended the eflbrts and researches of the distinguished Scientific Asso- 
ciation of which your Chairman is President, and with which most of 
you are connected, I am led to hope that this gift may be instrumental in 
attaining the desired end. 



U NOTICE. 

I therefore transmit to you the enclosed Instnrment, and a check for 
the amount therein named ($140,000), with the hope that this Trust, as 
administered by you and your successors, may tend to advancement in 
intelligence and virtue, not only in our good old County of Essex, but in 
our Commonwealth, and in our conmion countiy. 

I am, with great respect, 

Your humble servant, 
(Signed) GEORGE PEABODY. 



INSTRUMENT OP TRUST 

I hereby give to Francis Peabody of Salem, Asa Gray of Cambridge, 
WiLUAM C. ExDicoTT of Salem, George Peabody Russell of Sulem, 
Otiixiel C. Marsh of New Haven, in the State of Connecticut, Henry 
Wheatland of Salem, Abner C. Goodell, jr. of Salem, James R. 
Nichols of Haverhill, and Henry C. Perkins of Newburyport, the sum 
of One Hondred and Forty Thousand Dollars, to be by them and their 
successors held in trust, for the promotion, among the inhabitants of my 
native County of Essex, of the Study and Knowledge of the Natural and 
Physical Sciences, and of their application to the Useful Arts. 

And I empower my said Trustees to make all such arrangements and 
agreements with the Corporation now established in the City of Salem 
under the name and title of the Essex Institute, as may be necessary or 
expedient for carrying into effect the provisions of this instrument. 

I direct that the sum of Forty Thousand Dollars, of the amount I have 
above given, shall be applied to the purchase of the East India Marine 
Hall, and of land in the City of Salem, and for the erection, fitting up and 
ftirnishing of such buildings thereon as shall be necessary for the pur- 
poses of this Trust. 

I flirther direct that the remaining sum of One Hundred Thousand Dol- 
lars be forever kept invested by my said Trustees and their successors as 
a permanent Fund, and only the income thereof be used for the purposes 
of this Trust. 

In case the before-mentioned sum of Forty Thousand Dollars shall be 
found Insufflcient, this income may be applied to the purpose of erecting 
such buildings as have been mentioned, the f\imishiug and arrangement 
of museums and collections, or such similar purposes as in the judgment 
of the Trustees shall be necessary to place the Institution on a proper 
basis for the benefit and instruction of the public ; and it is my desire that 
the work of arranging a Museum and Collections be entered upon at an 
early day, and proceeded with as rapidly as can be done conveniently and 
advantageously. 

After this shall have been done, the income shall be applied in the fol- 
lowing proportions : — Seven-twelfths thereof to the department of the 
Physical Sciences and Practical Technology, and Five-twelfths thereof to 
the department of the Natural Sciences; but the Trustees, if after suffi- 
cient experience they shall find it desirable, may change these propor- 
tions, and. if at any time hereafter they shall be unanimously agreed upon 
the expediency of so doing, they may change the application and direc- 
tion of the whole of said income as they may deem most conducive to the 
interest of Science and Learning in the County of Essex. 

All vacancies in the Board of Trustees above constituted, by death, re- 
signation, or otherwise, shall be filled, as soon as conveniently may be, by 
vote of the remaining Trustees. 

The Trustees shall keep a record of their doings, and shall annually 
prepare a report setting forth the condition of the Trust and Funds, and 
the amount of income received and expended by them during the previous 



nohge. - ui 

year. This report shall be signed by the Trustees, and made public in 
such manner as they shall think expedient. 

I give to said Trustees the liberty of obtaining from the Legislature an 
Act of Incorporation, if they shall deem it desirable ; to make all neces- 
sary By-laws, and all such regulations and restrictions as shall be neces- 
sary, in their Judgment, for the preservation and maintenance of the 
Trust, or of all property or collections held under it ; and generally to do 
whatever may be proper and necessary to carry into effect the provisions 
of this Trust. 

I am, with great respect, 

Your humble servant, 

(Signed) GEORGE PEABODY. 

REPLY OF THE TRUSTEES. 

Salem, Mass., March 2, 1867. 
George Peabody, Esquire: — 

SiR.^- We have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 2r>th of February, and the accompanying Instrument of Trust ; and 
while flilly appreciating this evidence of your confidence, and deeply sen- 
sible of the honorable and important duties we assume, we accept the 
appointment of Trustees of the sum of One Hundred and Forty Thousand 
Dollars, placed in our hands by you for the promotion of Science and Use- 
ftil Knowledge in the County of Essex. 

So wise and munificent a gift cannot fail to advance the general inter- 
ests of sound learning, and to be productive of vast benefit to the people 
of this County. 

The announcement will fill their hearts with the deepest sense of grati- 
tude, not unmixed with pride, that the giver is one of themselves, bom 
and educated upon their soil. They will read with pleasure your kind 
allusions to them, and your reference to the many illustrious sons of 
Essex, whose memory they cherish with tender regard. 

And while you would perpetuate to ftiture generations the good name 
of the County of Essex, be assured that yours will be cherished by her 
people, and be handed down to their children, not only as among the 
most distinguished of her sons, but as among the great benefactors of 
mankind. 

On their behalf, and in behalf of the great cause of science and letters 
for which you have everywhere done so much, we tender most cordial 
thanks. 

We shall endeavor to manifest our fhll appreciation of the trust given 
us, by faithAilly carrying out the objects and views which you have fo 
clearly set forth. 

In performing these duties, we trust that we may have the benefit of 
your counsel and advice. And we earnestly hope that you may long live 
to witness your good work, and that you may see accomplished all that 
you desire and intend by founding so beneficent a Trust. 

With great regard, we remain, 

Your obedient servants, 
(Signed) FRANCIS PEABODY, 

ASA GRAY, 
WM. C. ENDICOTT, 
GEO. PEABODY RUSSELL, 
OTHNIEL C. MARSH, 
HENRY WHEATLAND, 
ABNER C. GOODELL, Jr. 
JAMES R. NICHOLS, 
HENRY C. PERIUNS. 



IV NOTICE. 

One of the first acts of the Board was the purchase of the 
building known as the ^^East India Marine Hall," centrally 
and conveniently situated in the city of Salem ; and of land 
adjoining on which to erect such additional buildings as may 
hereafter be requisite for the better fulfilment of the proposed 
plans and objects. 

By arrangements made with the East India Marine Society 
and the Essex Institute, the valuable Museum of the one, 
and the Scientific Collection of the other, are to be brought 
together in the spacious hall which has recently been fur- 
nished with convenient and ample cases for their reception, 
and will constitute the Museum of the Academy, which will 
thus have at the commencement a large and very valuable 
Museum, which when fully arranged will, in several respects, 
be unequalled in this country, and will compare most favor- 
ably with those of other Institutions. 

At a meeting of the Trustees on the 14th of January, it 
was voted to adopt the name of The Trustees op the 
Peabodt Academy of Science, and to apply to the Legis- 
lature for an Act of Incorporation.* 

We shall keep our readers advised of the doings of the 
Academy in relation to the arrangement of the Museum, and 
other plans that may be adopted in fulfilment of the objects 
of the Trust. 

The Trustees, considering it one of the legitimate objects 
of their Trust to assist in the publication of the Naturai-ist, 
have advanced funds sufScient to enable the Editors to con- 
tinue the publication in its present improved condition. 

The organization of the Academy, with objects identical 
with some of those of the Essex Institute, relieves the latter 
institution of a portion of its duties which have been accord- 
ingly transferred to the former, including all its interest in 
the American Naturalist. 



* At thU meeting Mr. S. Sndioott Peabody was elected a member of the Board of 
Trustees to fill the yacaacj caused by the decease of his fiither, Francis Peabody. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. n.— KABCH, 1888.— ITo. 1. 
A NATURALIST IN BRAZIL. 



The shore-Hue, where ocean and land meet, is rarely ever 
the edge of u coiithieut. Both North and South America 
have a submerged border, iu some places very wide, in 
others very narrow. Thus, off the coast of New England, 
the water does not deepen immediately at the ehore-line, 
liut the sea-bottom slopes off very gradually, sometimes, the 
water becoming ever deeper and deeper, until at a distance 
of many miles from the shore the true brink of the great 
valley occupied by the waters of the ocean is reached, and 



2 A NATURALIST IN BRAZIL. 

thence seaward the bottom slopes rapidly down beneath the 
abnost unfathomable depths of the ocean. The walls of the 
continent do not arise perpendicularly from the ocean floor ; 
they slope, to give greater strength and stability to the 
structure. As a general rule we know that the water which 
borders a low coast is shallow for some distance out, the 
sea-bottom continuing under water with the same general 
slope as the land. New Jersey is a State whose coast-lands 
are low and flat, and we find that the sea-bottom bordering 
it grows very gi'adually deeper and deeper, in such a way 
that the true edge of the continent, or of the ocean, properly 
speaking, lies at a distance of about eighty miles from the 
land. Just such a submerged border runs along the coast of 
Brazil, in some places being many miles in width, in others 
reduced to a very narrow strip ; and we find the general rule 
holds good here as elsewhere, that the deeper water along 
the coast lies off the highest hills, while the flat lands are 
bordered by shallow water. 

Professor Agassiz, in one of his New York lectures last 
winter,* showed how very strikingly alike North and South 
America are in their general and physical features. Not 
only is this true, but an examination of the eastern coasts of 
Brazil and the United States will show that there is a won- 
derful resemblance in the details of their geological struc- 
ture. Thus, running all along the eastern coast of the Uni- 
ted States, we find a range of mountains in which some of 
the oldest stratified rocks are upheaved, and on the eastern 
flank of these mountains, south of New York, are low lands 
occupied by more recent formations, thick beds of sandstone 
of the Triassic age and beds of marls, etc., of the Creta- 
ceous ; and over these, again, deposits of Tertiary and re- 
cent times. 

I take a big Webster's dictiouaiy, open it a little and 

* Cooper Institute, February 6, lg87. In bis lately pnblisbed Journey to Brazil, Pro- 
fessor Agassiz has carried out tbis comparison between tbe two Americas to a mucb 
greater extent. 



A NATURALIST IN BRAZIL. d 

stand it on edge with the covers sloping like the caves of a 
house. This book I place before me in such a way that the 
line of the back will point towards the north-east. This will 
represent the Alleghany Mountains. Now J take a thinner 
book and lean its back against the south-eastern side of the 
dictionary so that it will slope off to the south-eastward, but 
very much more gently than the covers of the dictionary. 
This second book will represent much newer stnita, which 
reclme against those of the Alleghanies. Among those in 
New Jersey are thick beds of a coarse red sandstone, the 
material out of which brown-stone houses are so commonly 
made in New York City and elsewhere. Geologists call 
this Triassic or New-Red Sandstone. These beds have been 
tilted up since they were formed. Now let us take an- 
other book, and lay its edge just on that of the one last 
laid down, so that it will lie almost horizontally and much 
lower than the rest. This will represent newer strata, 
marls, and sands, etc., of Cretaceous age, which lie still 
undisturbed in the same position in which they were laid 
down. Take another book, and lay it so that its edge w411 
overlap that last laid down, and this will represent beds 
of sands, etc., which were deposited after the Cretaceous, 
and which geologists call Tertiary strata. These are also 
undisturbed, and in the same position as that in which they 
were deposited. As we go southward, the Triassic rocks 
disappear from view, and the Tertiary beds lap over the 
Cretaceous, so as to bury them completely. All this will 
appear more plain from the following figure, which is an 

Fig.S. 




a b c d 

ideal section across the strata of New Jersey, from the moun- 
tains to the sea. a represents the upturned beds of gneiss, 
etc., of the mountains, against which lie inclined the Triassic, 
or New-Red Sandstone strata, b. Those marked c are Cre- 



4 A NATURALIST IK BRAZIL. 

taceous, while d represents the latest deposited, or Tertiary 
beds. Now it is evident that the beds a are the oldest, and 
were the first disturbed. The Triassic rocks were deposited 
against them and slightly tilted up, and over these were 
laid down the beds of the Cretaceous and Tertiary. 

If I make a similar section across the coast of Sergipe, a 
little province lying on the coast of Brazil just north of 
Bahia, from the gneiss hills to the sea, we shall find almost 
precisely the same structure, as is exhibited in the following 
section : — 

Serra dos Ajmores. d d 




sett 



a is the gneiss of the coast mountains, and is probably 
Azoic ; 6, beds of a coarse red sandstone, precisely like the 
Triassic, or New-Red Sandstone of New Jersey, and most 
probably of the same age ; c, limestones and sandstones 
with fossils characteristic of the Cretaceous epoch, such as 
Ammonites^ Inoceramus^ etc., and jlinL It is worthy of 
note, that whereas the Cretaceous strata of North America 
have suftercd upheaval and folding only in the west, those 
of the eastern border of Brazil had been folded and dis- 
turbed prior to the deposition of the Tertiary strata d, which, 
occupying a higher level than on the east coast of the United 
States, everjnvhere lap completely over and bury the forma- 
tions which occupy the lower grounds bordering the coast. 
Southward of New Jersey, as well as in the Mississippi val- 
ley, we also find the Cretaceous overspread by the Tertiary. 

In this section e represents beds of sand containing shells, 
etc., of recent species, which have been raised above sea- 
level by the late, and probably now-continuing up-rise of the 
coast. Of this rising of the coast we have at Rio and else- 
where abundant evidence. One finds the nests excavated 
by sea-urchins in the rock, six feet or more above high tide- 
level. At Rio the upheaval amounts to about eight feet. In 



A KATURALIST IN BRAZIL. 5 

North America the last great upheaval was greater in the 
north than in the south. Facts seem to show that in South 
America it was just the reverse. 

About half-way between the cities of Bahia and Rio de 
Janeiro, and distant about forty miles from the mainland, 
there is a little group of islands, which, lying right in the 
way of navigation along the coast, and surrounded by dan- 
gerous reefs, have long been known as the Abrolhos, or 
" Open-your^yes" Islands. 

If we make a section across the country from the coast 
mountains, which separate the provinces of Minas Geracs and 
Bahia, to the sea, and then continue it to the Abrolhos, we 
shall have one like the following : — 

Fig. 4. 
Sierra dosAymores b b b d b Abrolhos. 




ttf Gneiss; 6, Tertiary strata; c, Cretaceous strata; d, Coral reel's. 

In this section the New-Red Sandstone and Cretaceous 
beds do not appear on the main-land, at least so far as I have 
seen, and usually, as on the river Mercury, we find the Ter- 
tiary clays and sandstones lying immediately over the gneiss. 
But at the Abrolhos Cretaceous rocks appear, for the islands 
are seen to be composed of beds of shale, sandstone, etc., 
similar in character to those of the Cretaceous farther north. 
These islands stand about in the middle of the submerged 
border of the continent, which is here at least seventy miles 
wide. This submarine shelf is overspread by Cretaceous 
rocks, which, at the Abrolhos, have been broken and uplifted 
so as to form a little group of islands. 

The Abrolhos consist of four principal islands, and two 
little islets. These are arranged close together in an irregu- 
lar circle. All are quite high, the height of the principal one, 
Santa Barbara, being 33.22 metres (about 109 feet). This is 
the largest, and is three-quarters of a mile in length. On its 



6 A NATTTRALIST IN BRAZIL. 

summit is a very fine light-house, whose attendants, 'three 
men, are the only human inhabitants of the islands. The 
strata composing this islaud are iucUncd to the N. N.W., 
approximately, at an angle of 10°- 15°, so that tlie island has 
a slope to the northward, while on all 
J other sides it is precipitous. The sur- 
• face is mainly composed of a bed of 
^, trap, which is spread out over the other 
iB!andorsHntB rocks, OS IS sccn in Fig. 5. 
Trnpr" s»n'i"">''M ; ft, jj. jg ^ wondcpful thing to see how 
rocks decompose and rot away in Brazil. Even gneiss and 
slate grow soft to a depth sometimes of even a hundred feet. 
This trap-bed at the Abrolhos is decomposing also, but this 
takes place in a very interesting way. The trap, which is 
a very hard and heavy dark-bluish rock, is cracked up on 
^^- ^ the surface into angular pieces of all 

sizes, as represented in Fig. 6. 
If the rock were smooth and un- 
» broken on the surface, it would de- 

compose only on the npper surface, 
but water soaks in through these cracks, and each fragment 
decomposes all around, bo that a concentric coating of rotten 
rock is formed (Fig. 6, &), which may afterward be removed 
by rains. Thus each piece loses coating after coating like 
the layers of an onion, becoming ever more rounded in form 
as this goes on, until at last the surface of the bed is covered 
over with roimded boulder-like masses, often resembling can- 
non balls (Fig. 6, a). Nearly the whole surface of the island 
of Santa Barbai-a is covered by these rounded masses of trap. 
Tlic vegetation of the island is very scanty, and, save a 
Siritta on the island of that name, to which bear company 
two dwarf cocoa palms, trees there are none. Several species 
of coarse grass abound, and give sustenance on Santa Bar- 
biu-a to a heixl of many hundreds of goats. There are some 
thickets of dwarf mimosas, and a few ferns, etc. 



▲ NATURALIST IN BBAZIL. 7 

The land animals consist of lizards, of three or four spe- 
cies, which are considerably numerous. Insects are few, 
and the principal representative of the class is an immense 
hairy spider {Mygale)^ of a species very common on the 
coast. This spider, which the Brazilians call Aranha caran- 
gueijaj or crab^pider^ has a body sometimes as big as an 
egig. It exists in countless numbers, living under stones. 
Almost every loose stone has one of these monsters under it. 
The bite from its long fangs is very painful and poisonous. 
It preys on lizards, and has been known to kill young chick- 
ens, and suck their juices. 

Sea-birds resort here by myriads, at certain seasons of the 
year, to breed. Among these there are several species of 
gulls, pilots, and the magnificent frigate-bird. To these 
birds and their habits we may, perhaps, by and by devote 
a special paper. 

It is in the waters of the vicinity, however, that the great- 
est riches of animal life are to be found. Fish, of an incred- 
ible number of species, are wonderfully abundant, and a 
regular fishery is carried on here from the town of Porto 
Seguro for a giant perch called the Garoupa^ which fish is 
however cured so badly as to be scarcely eatable. 

In the month of May, a species of whale {Megaptera) 
makes it^ appearance on this coast in considerable num- 
bers. It is furnished with whalebone, and has on the back 
a hump of fat which looks very much like a fin. Above, it 
is black in color; below, usually white, or light-colored, 
and marked by longitudinal furrows, which are especially 
conspicuous under the throat. Along the lower jaws there 
is a number of round lumps, or tubercular masses of fat, as 
large as one's fist. The pectoral fins are long, nari'ow, and 
irregular along the edges. This whale grows to be thirty to 
forty feet in length. 

Among the first to make their appearance at the com- 
mencement of the season are large females (Madrijos)j 
bringing with them then- little ones but just bom. The 



8 A NATURALIST IN BRAZIIi. 

whalers say that tbey resort to the islands and reefs for pro- 
tection. The males are not so numerous, nor are they so 
valuable to the whaler. I once saw a female swimming with 
its calf. The latter swam close alongside its mother, follow- 
ing all the motions of the latter, and coming up to breathe 
at the same moment. The whalers all told me that the 
female holds out her fin obliquely, and that the little one 
swims with its head between it and the body. They denied 
that this whale ever clasped the young under the fin. This 
species is very lively and difficult to catch, notwithstanding 
which a small fleet of boats stationed at Caravellas captures 
every year some thirty to seventy whales, which afford a large 
quantity of oil. These two fisheries, that of the Garoupa 
and whale, deserve attention on the part of American fisher- 
men, as they might be developed so as to become very 
profitable. The whales leave the coast in the latter part of 
September or in the early part of October. They occur 
also all along the Brazilian coast, but Bahia is the only other 
place at which they are systematically fished. Considerable 
numbers are caught here every year, and, during the season, 
one may sit at his breakfast at the restaurant in the hotel in 
the upper town, and watch the pursuit and capture of one 
of these monsters in the bay, almost under his very window. 
It has long been known that the waters of the Abrolhos 
and vicinity were made very dangerous to navigation by ex- 
tensive reefs, which covered large areas just outside of the 
islands, as well as between them and the main-land. In the 
descriptions of the Brazilian coast in the various ** Coast 
Pilots," both English and foreign, that I have seen, very 
conflicting statements are made with reference to these reefs, 
some saying that they are composed of coral, others of de- 
composed gneiss ; and the different kinds of reefs are con- 
fusedly described, so that it is not easy to distinguish, from 
these descriptions, reefs of rock, reefs of coral, or solidified 
beaches, like that of Pernambuco, which last, being separated 
from the land by the washing away of the loose sand of the 



A NATURALIST IN BRAZIL. 9 

upper part of the beach, as well as from behind, are left 
standing like walls of sandstone running parallel to the 
coast. In scientific books it is generally stated that there 
are no coral reefs on the coast of Brazil. 

While engaged in the late Thayer Expedition under Pro- 
fessor Agassiz, in company with Mr. Edward Copeland, the 
writer discovered some quite extensive reefs in the bays of 
Santa Cruz and Porto Seguro, and made out, in a general 
way, their structure. Fishermen and pilots described the 
reefs of the Abrolhos as precisely like those at Porto Seguro, 
and a note in a chart of Lieutenant Mouchez, which after- 
wards fell into the writer's hands, left no doubt of the exist- 
ence of extensive coral reefs in that region. The return of 
the Expedition left no time for their exploration, but the 
writer, during his visit to the Brazilian coast last summer, 
gave them a careful examination. 

Many species of polyps grow along the coast of Brazil, 
even as far south as Cape Frio, and the bay of Rio offers a 
few insignificant coral building species, principally an As- 
trangia or two, which form scattered cells on dead shells or 
stones. There is at Rio quite a number of species of soft- 
bodied polyps, of the order of the Sed^nemones, and some 
of these are very beautiful. In the same bay representatives 
of the highest order of polyps, the Haley onoids, are not 
numerous. The most interesting is a species of Renilla 
(jB. DancB Verrill),* a curious "family" of polyps, in which 
all the bodies of the animals are joined together, and clus- 
tered on one side of a leaf-like expansion, to which there is 
a single appendage like a stem, by which the whole moves 
about like a single individual. 

South of Rio de Janeiro there appear to be few polyps 
which have calcareous skeletons; but on the rocky shores 
northward a few species soon begin to become quite com- 
mon. 

*I am indebted to the kindness of my IHend, Professor Vexrill, for the determination 
of the Badiates mentioned in this paper. 

JIMKB. NATX7BALI8T, VOL. H. 2 



10 A NATURALIST IN BRAZIL. 

In the rocky tide-pools of Os Busos, Guarapary^ Victoria, 
Porto Seguro, etc., to Bahia, we find them quite abundant. 
There is a massive kind growing in rounded, flattened lumps 
or patches on the rocks belonging to the genus Stderastnea.^ 
It has small, close-set cells, and grows in masses often a 
foot or more in diameter, and occasionally several inches 
in height, encrusting the rocks. With this there occurs a 
little, irregularly globular coral, an inch or two in diam- 
eter, and with large, irregukr, crowded cells, in which the 
radiating plates are very conspicuous (JFavia^ like ananas 
Edw. and Haime). In deeper water we find a large Acanthi 
astraea {A. Braziliensis Verrill)f growing sometimes in 
round heads a foot or more in diameter, together with larget 
bouquet-like masses, often a foot across, of a beautiful coral 
{Mussa ZTarttw Verrill),J whose branches, thick and long, 
are cylindrical, forking, radiating from the same point, and 
with the cells at the ends of the branches large and deep. 
There are several other species of hard limestone building 

* Sidertutrcea <^«2<a<a VeirillBp. dot. Corallum forming roanded or hemispherical 
masses, often flattened above. Cells polygonal, rather large (about .15 inch) deep, the 
central part rapidly descending. Septa in fonr cycles, those of the first two cycles con- 
siderably broadest, all of them evenly crenulated, rather thin, thickness less than the 
intervening spaces, slightly projecting, the inner edge evenly rounded. Columella in> 
conspicuous, represented only by one or two tubercles. Wall between the cells repre- 
sented by a simple line.' Trabicular processes between the septa very distinctly seen 
ftom above. DUTers iYom S. mdians in having larger cells, which appear more open ; 
thinner septa, and consequently wider intervening spaces, and four complete cycles 
of septa.— A. E. V. 

^ Acanthtutrcea BrnzUiensU Verrill. A large species, forming hemispherical masses 
a foot in diameter; margin of base surrounded by a strong cpitheca; cells large, vary- 
ing from .3 to .7 of an inch in their largest diameter, but mostly about .5 inch, irregu- 
larly polygonal, often much elongated, and then having two or more centres, mode- 
rately deep (.15 mch), centre depressed, columella but little developed. Septa thin, in 
fine cycles, the last usually incomplete, projecting subequally, the upper part divided 
into Arom three to five long, sharp teeth, below which the teeth are smaller and more 
slender. Walls between cells sometimes single, often double with vesicles between.— 
A. E. V. 

X Miusa HaritU Verrill. A beantiftU species, forming large clumps with rather small 
branches, and simple, subcircnlar cells. Branches rapidly dividing, mostly .5 to .8 of 
an inch in diameter, the living part extending ft-om .2 to .5 of an inch ft'om the sum- 
mits, and often surrounded by an imperfect epitheca, covered with strong, subequal 
costfe, with numerous sharp, nearly equal, recurved spines. Cells fVom .5 to 1.3 inches 
in diameter, subcircnlar, often irregular, with waved margins, rather deep (.4 to .6 inch;. 
Septa in Ave cycles, thin, subequal at summit, where they project about .1 of an inch, 
the upper part divided into ftom four to seven unequal, sharp, diverging teeth, with 



▲ NATURALIST IN BRAZIL. 11 

corals. MiUeporeSy* corals often with flat, ragged-edged 
branches, like the antlers of an elk, and with very small 
pores like pin-holes, are not uncommon. 

In many localities south of the Abrolhos district, these 
corals grow quite abundantly, but I have no evidence that 
they ever form reefs or banks. Reef-building corals, ac- 
cording to the best authorities, flourish only at depths less 
than one hundred feet. They also I'equire a warm temper- 
ature of the water. The great shelf of the Abrolhos lies 
over a very large area, at a depth of less than a hundred 
feet, and the conditions for the growth of corals are of the 
most favorable kind. In consequence of this, we find here 
not only around the islands, but in the shoal, open waters, 
very extensive reefs and banks, which, in an area of fifty 
miles square, occupy a space of nearly one hundred and fifty 
square miles. 

When the tide goes out, there is seen extending around 
about one half the island of Santa Barbara, as is shown in 
the illustration at the head of this article, a fringing reef of 
coral, out on which one may walk, as on a low wharf at high 
tide, and from its ragged edge look straight down through 
the limpid green water, and see the sides of the reef and 
the sea-bottom covered with huge whitish coral-heads, and 
a wealth of curious things not easily to be got at. 

The surface of the reef is quite flat, and rises but a short 
distance above low-water mark. It is rather irregular, and 
is overgrown with barnacles, shells, mussels, and serpula- 
tubes, and overspread with large slimy brownish patches, of 

smaller teeth below. Columella slightly developed, consistmg of slender, loosely ar- 
ranged, contorted proce8ses.~A. £. V. 

*The most abundant species ia Millepora ni/ula Verrill. A yery distinct species, 
forming low, rounded clumps, four to six inches in diameter, consisting of ehoi*t, rapidly 
forking, rounded, or somewhat compressed branches, about .4 to .8 inch in diameter, 
which hare a remarkably smooth surface, and are obtuse, rounded, or even clarate at 
the ends. The larger pores ore small, very distinct, round, evenly scattered over the 
surface, at distances of about .06 to .1 of an inch apart. The small pores are minute, 
numerous, scattered between the large ones, and often showing a tendency to arrange 
themselves around them in circles of six or eight. The tissue is more compact and 
firmer than in Jf. aldcomis.^A. £. V. 



12 A NATURALIST IN BRAZIL. 

a soft-bodied, encrusting polyp ( Qortidfera) , of a leathery 
color. 

The reef abounds in small pools, some of which are shal- 
low and sandy, others deep, rocky, and irregular. The 
former often contain scattered corals, Siderastrcsa and J^a- 
vta, and are rich in small shells, crabs, OphiurcBj etc., but 
the latter are the most interesting. 

Fancy, my reader, a pool of the purest sea-water held in 
an irregular rock-basin a few yards across, full of little grot- 
toes and niches, and three or four feet deep. Carpet this 
pool with white coral sand and broken shells, and tapestry 
heavily the sides with soft fringes and curtains of delicate, 
brilliant-hued sea-weeds. Plant here and there on the rocks 
clumps of corals and sprigs of Gorgonioej and dow^n deep in 
this shady comer place a big hemispherical Astrsean. Here 
among the sea-weeds, and just out of reach of the sunbeams, 
let us plant two or three softly-tinted sea-anemones, just 
where the translucent, tender, petal-like tentacles of these 
sea-flowers will be best shown off. And we must not forget 
to stock our aquarium with a plenty of sea-urchins, pincush- 
iony little monsters, bristling all over with long dark purple 
spines (Uchinometra Michelini Desor), and each nestled 
comfortably away in a cavity worn in some incomprehen- 
sible manner in the solid rock. Here is a little crimson 
star-fish {JEchinaster) ;* let us half hide him in under the sea- 
weeds, for it won't do to make him too conspicuous ; and 
here are some queer crabs, that go restlessly prying about 
among the sea-weeds, frightening the sea- anemones, and, 
perhaps, falling a prey to a snaky-armed cuttle-fish, that 
lurks under some dead coral. Now we must introduce a 

*Echtna8ter crcuiispitui Verrill. Bays short, eomewhat angular. Badius of disk Ji 
of an inch ; of rays 1.9. Spines along each edge of the ambulacral grooves in two rows, 
the outer ones large and sharp, crowded, those on opposite sides crossing one another, 
a single one on each plate. Spines of inner row mnch smaller, not half as long, one to 
each plate. Lower side of ray with a row of distant, large, conical, sharp spines, not 
extending npon the disk. On back and side of rays there are four or Ave other irregular 
rows of similar large, sharp spines, rising Arom the swollen nodes. It has shorter and 
more angular rays, coarser structure, larger and fewer spines than E, tpinoBUM of Weat 
Indies. 



A NATURALIST IN BRAZIL. 13 

swarm of little, gaily-painted, gilded and silvered fishes, and 
a crystal jelly-fish ; a host of little shells, half of them ten- 
anted by hermit-crabs, and swarms of little crustaceans. 
Now we will wreathe in among the sea-weeds, here and 
there, the necklace-like, pearly body of a marine worm, and 
we shall then have an aquarium, wonderfully like those 
which nature has so liberally strewn over the surface of the 
Brazilian coml-reefs. 

Under the dead corals one finds great numbers of a large 
Ophiura, with a small disk-shaped body, and long suaky 
arms (O. cinerea Lyman), and by dint of a little patient 
examination, with the aid of a pocket lens, he may collect 
hundreds of species of animals from one of these pools alone. 
At the Abrolhos Islands, I found a few specimens of a large, 
almost pentagonal starfish, which is very common in the 
West Indies {Oreaster gigas lAit\ien) , This also occurs at 
Bahia, together with a very well-known West Indian shell, 
quite common as a mantel-piece ornament, and which has 
the misnomer of Cassis Madagascarensis / 

The corals, which go to make up the Santa Barbara reef, 
are principally Acanthastrcea^ HdioMroRa^ Siderastrcea, Fa- 
via^ Poritesj Millepora, The reef-rock, like that of the 
reefs, is a compact, hard, white 'limestone, which appears 
to show scarcely any organic structure. The corals are so 
broken and cemented together, that their structure is quite 
obliterated. The Santa Barbara reef, then, forms a wharf- 
like structure, partially surrounding the island. It has 
grown upward as far as possible, i. e. to a level a little 
above that of low tide, when the corals having died, further 
growth is stopped. It varies much in width, but in some 
places it reaches even 400 feet. At the south-west extrem- 
ity of the island there is a little islet, composed of a pile of 
boulder-like masses of trap, and known as the "Cemetery,** 
which at low tide is united to the main-land by this reef. A 
reef of the same kind is formed around part of the neighbor- 
ing island of Bedonda, and Siriba also has one. 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMATE,* 

BY SIDNEY I. SMITH. 

It is one of the ever-wise provisions of nature, that every 
land has a vegetation and an association of animals peculiar 
to itself, that every sea and every zone of ocean is peopled 
with life found nowhere else. There is such a wealth of 
conception in the forms of organic life, that there is no need 
of their repetition in distant lands. The palms and the reef 
corals never wander from the tropics ; the humming-birds 
are as peculiarly American, as the Mississippi or the Andes. 
It is specially the province of modem science to explain the 
phenomena of nature on known natural laws and forces, and 
with this view no phenomena are more interesting than those 
of the geographical distribution of species. The subject, in 
its full extent, would involve a solution of the much-vexed 
question of the origin of species ; but whether species now 
living were derived from their relatives of a former geologi- 
cal a^e, or were independently created, we will not question 
in the present article, only taking species when they first 
appeared as they now exist, and contenting ourselves with 
some of the more promilient forces which bind them to pe- 
culiar habitats, or tend to diffuse them over wider or differ- 
ent areas. 

These secondary causes, which act in the geographical dis- 
tribution of species, are either inorganic or organic. Of the 
former the most important are the influences of topography, 
temperature, ocean currents, winds, and humidity ; of the lat- 
ter, animals themselves, and man, — for in this respect man 
must be separated from the mere brute animals as wielding a 
very different influence. The inorganic forces are so inter- 
woven, they so act and react upon and limit each other, that 



* " The Influence of Secondary Causes in the Geographical Distribution of Animals ;'' 
one of the sul^ects assigned for essays for the Berzelius prizes in the Sheffield Scien- 
tiflc School of Yale College in 1867. 
(H) 



GEOGBAFHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMAI^S. 15 

they can scarcely be treated singly, and their influences are 
therefore discussed together ; but the laws which govern the 
distribution of animals in the ocean are so different from those 
which govern the distribution of land and fresh-water spe- 
cies, that they are best treated separately. 

The influence of topography in limiting the diffusion of 
marine species is too evident to require much explanation, 
and yet, uncombined with the influence of temperature, it 
would have little effect ; for it is hardly possible to imagine a 
limit to the migration of species along coast lines and around 
capes from ocean to ocean, were the temperature of the 
water perfectly uniform. Still the mere separation of coasts 
by long intervals of deep water seems to have a direct influ- 
ence in preventing the migration of certain groups of species ; 
as, in the Pacific Ocean, under the same lines of tempera- 
ture,* there are many species, especially of fishes and polyps, 
which are peculiar to each of the great groups of islands. 

The influence of temperature has long been recognized as 
a most powerful cause in limiting the diffusion of marine 
species. Animals, with very few exceptions, are adapted 
for life and reproduction only within fixed limits of temper- 
atui*e, and a rise above or a fall below these limits, quickly 
puts an end to their. existence. Such limits of temperature 
act as a continual check upon the effects of ocean currents in 
transporting species from place to place. Thus the Gulf 
Stream, flowing from the warm coral reefs of Florida and the 
Bahamas, must bear myriads of life-germs to the Bermudas 
and on across the Atlantic toward the Azores ; but the iso- 
crymal line of 68°. F., which limits, on both sides of the 
equator, the reef-building coralsf and most of the tropical 

*The foct should not be overlooked that these isothermal and isocrymal lines indi- 
cate only surface temperature, and as there is yet very little known of deep ocean tem- 
perature, that it is quite possible that some species arc retarded ftom descending to 
a sufficient depth to pass fVom place to place by the decrease in temperature; still the 
number of species must be small that can exist, even with the same temperature, at 
▼ery different depths. {Uothermal is used to express equal annual temperature; ^o- 
erymaly equal temperature for the coldest month of the year.) 

fDana, United States Exploring Expedition, Vol. I, ZojJphytcs. 



16 OEOORAPHIGAIi DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 

marine species,* passes just north of the Bermudas, and all 
the germs of tropical life that cross this line must perish. 
The marine fauna of the West Indies extends to Bermuda, 
but, arrived at the Azores, the winter temperature has fallen 
to less than 60° F., and we have the fauna of the Mediter- 
ranean and none of the characteristic Bermuda species. On 
the other hand, in the Pacific, where the equatorial current 
flows continuously within the isocrymals of 68° north and 68° 
south, there are many species of mollusks, crustaceans, and 
echinoderms found from the Sandwich Islands to the coast 
of Africa, or through half the circumference of the globe. 

The mere intervening deep ocean, without connecting 
islands, might prevent the occurrence of some of the Ber- 
muda species at the Azores, as in the corals, the young of 
which probably cannot exist very long without becoming 
attached ; but even along continuous coast lines, very few 
species extend through marked changes of temperature. On 
the western coast of America, a large part of the mollusks, 
crustaceans, echinoderms, and some polyps, extend from 
Lower California to Guayaquil and a few to Paita, Peru, but 
very few species are common to Guayaquil and to Callao, 
only a few hundred miles farther south. The isocrymals of 
62° to 68° F. all converge near Cape .Blanco, and such a 
change in temperature prevents the interchange of species 
between places north and places south of this point.! 

The insular faunal character of the Americas has been re- 
marked by many naturalists, — most of the marine species of 



» Among the Cmstacea, exclnding the little known Entomostraca, Dana found, out 
of 1,036 species in the faunal torrid zone and 924 in the temperate zone, only seventy- 
five common to the two. — U. S. £xpl. Exp., Vol. XIII, p. 1527. As the range of species 
becomes better known, the proportional number of species common to the two zones 
will nndoabtedly be increased, but the fiict is sufficient to show the great influence of 
temperature in limiting the diffusion of marine species. 

I Many of the Peruvian, and somePanamic species, are found at Paita, and as usual 
there is a blending of the two faunie at their Junction ; but this blending does not extend 
a great distance along the coast, and is what would be expected Arom the warm waters 
overlapping the colder. If there are species which liave their centre of greatest devel- 
opment and abundance near the border of a fauna, it is nothing more than might be 
expected from the effects of temperature,— such species being adapted to a temperature 
intermediate between that of two fiiune. 



GSOQRAFHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 17 

both coasts belonging to peculiar American types, — and yet 
the shores of America are connected by zones of equal tem^ 
perature with the Central and Western Pacific, and with the 
eastern shores of the Atlantic. How is this peculiar Amer- 
ican character preserved? What prevents the interchange 
of species, if temperature is the greatcause which limits their 
distribution? A glance at the ocean c\irrents shows that 
none of them leave our shores without undergoing a marked 
change in temperature, and that none, from other shores, 
arrive upon them without undergoing a similar change. The 
Gulf Stream, after leaving the coast of the Southern States 
and the Bermudas, changes its temperature from 68° F. to 
60° before its southern outflow reaches the Azores, and to 
almost 50° before it arrives on the shores of Europe. The 
Atlantic equatorial current is foimed off the coast of Africa 
by the union of the returning Gulf Stref^m, flowing from 
Southern Europe and the Azores, and the northern current 
flowing from Capo Good Hope. These currents flow di- 
rectly from temperate coasts into the torrid zone, which, by 
their influence, is narrowed down, on the western shores of 
Africa, to 20° of latitude, while on the American shores it 
extends through 60°. The antarctic current from Cape 
Horn flows northward into the warmer waters of the south- 
ern Atlantic. The antarctic polar current of the Pacific 
comes north from the frigid regions of the south into the 
temperate waters, is bent eastward against the shores of 
South America, and the principal branch flowing north along 
the coast is turned westward from Cape Blanco or Punta Pa- 
rina, and, under the equator, still retaining th6 low temper- 
ature of the southern waters, sweeps into the ton*id regions 
beyond the Galapagos. The current, flowing from the north 
along the western shores of the United States, leaves the coast 
of California and flows southward into the tropics. The 
frigid regions of North America are, of course, excepted, and 
the arctic American partake strongly of the character of the 
arctic species of the old world. 

AMES. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 8 



18 aEOGRAFHIGAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 

How beautifully these material forces act, biuding each 
species to a special home, from which it may not wander and 
live. Nature places the bounds, the ocean waters may 
sweep by, but they caunot bear along the life which throngs 
them. These inorganic causes alone constitute the limits of 
faunae, and can it be doubted that faunse really exist in na- 
ture, when it is fully understood that all their modifications 
and complications are results of revolutions in these causes 
themselves? Let us look at some of these revolutions, — 
changes in topography, in temperature, and in ocean cur- 
rents, — for thus far we have seen only how thfe diffusion of 
ocean species is limited by secondary causes. 

We should begin when the first species of the present 
faunse began to appeiir, and trace the changes to the present ; 
but the data are very imperfect, and we can get only glimp- 
ses of these chancres, vet enousfh to indicate some of the 
effects they have produced in the distribution of species. 
There is some uncertainty how far back in geological time 
species now living may have existed, but most authorities 
agree that at least a few of the present marine species were 
living in the Tertiary period, when Europe was scarcely 
more than an archipelago, when the lower Mississippi valley 
was a part of the Gulf of Mexico, and while Florida and 
the whole border of the southern Atlantic States were still 
swept by the waters of the ocean. But these few recent 
species were not then in their present homes ; they have 
wandered, like the early races of men, southward. 

The European fossil land faunse and florae indicate very 
clearly a change of climate from tropical to temperate during 
the Tertiary period, and in the marine climate there was a 
similar change. On the western shores of France, along the 
vallies of the Loire and the Ardour, there are deposits of 
early Tertiary mollusks and echinoderms, a large part of 
them extinct or unknown species, but a small part at least 
are still living in the Atlantic Ocean. These species are. 
not, however, now fouud on the coast of France, but eight 



G£OGRAFHIGAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 19 

or ten degrees farther south on the coast of Africa, and all 
the species of these ancient deposits partake of what is now 
a more southern character.* 

During the Tertiary period there was a gradual but very ex- 
tensive elevation of the northern part of the continents. It 
was during this period that the Alps and the Pyrenees were 
raised to their present level. The lifting at the north of 
such masses of land into the cooler regions of the atmos- 
phere would have had a powerful influence in reducing the 
temperature of the neighboring seas. As the waters became 
slowly cooled, the species best adapted to migrate gradually 
extended their limits southward ; on the north, the species 
were destroyed by the advancing cold, and all those species 
with little power of migrating, and those easily affected by 
changes of temperature or other physical causes were wholly 
exterminated. And thus, on the shores of Africa, still exist 
the remnants of the ancient Tertiary fauna of the southern 
European seas, driven from their former home by the ad- 
vancing cold, but living on through all the changes, even of 
a Glacial epoch. 

In North America, the land climate during the early and 
middle Tertiary was warmer than now, as is indicated by the 
plants of the lignite beds, and the marine climate undoubt- 
edly corresponded with that of Europe and with that of the* 
land. In the northern parts of the country no fossil records 
of the later marine Tertiary are known, but the land faunas 
of the period, the upheaval of the northern parts of both 
countries, and the changes in the European seas show very 
clearly that there were similar changes on the American 
shores. 

The arctic marine fauna of the earlier Tertiary, while 
much more land than now was submer<red at the north, must 
have been circumpolar in character, and the retreating of 
species southward from this common point accounts for the 
occurrence of the same species on the northern coasts of both 

* Forbes, Natural History of the European Seas. 



20 GEOGRAPHICAL DISTKIBUnON OF ANIMALS. 

coutinents. Even those few species which are common to 
the temperate regions of both oceans or the shores of both 
continents, and not now found in the intermediate northern 
regions, may have been driven in the same manner south- 
ward, until the intervening continent or ocean left the rem- 
nants of the old circumpolar fauna widely separated in more 
southern regions. Why call to the aid of modern theories 
the mythical Atlantis to bear species across the ocean, when 
known climatic changes can have led them gradually from a 
common home at the north ? 

The marine fossils of the latest Tertiary of Europe, and 
doubtless of North America also, are very largely living 
species;* and at that time, the climate of the North Atlantic 
was nearly like that of the present. ; In the absence of any 
knowledge of fossil deposits contemporaneous with the earlier 
Glacial period, it is impossible to arrive at any definite con- 
clusions in regard to the geographical distribution of the 
species at that time.f Still, the number of species which 
continued to live on through the Glacial epoch, the absence 
of well marked and extensive glacial phenomena from middle 
latitudes, and the appearance, in the decline of the Glacial 
period, of species near their present habitats, are good nega- 
tive evidence that there was no very extensive southern 
migration of marine life during that period. 

Darwin, in the "Origin of Species," supposes the cold of 
the Glacial period sufficient to have driven the species from 
the arctic and from the antarctic to the equator, and thus 
accounts for the similarity of the living species of those re- 
gions. Such intense cold would have been sufficient to 
destroy all life in the North Atlantic ; and it can scarcely be 
supposed that species would travel from far north to the 

■I • m • t .III I 

* Lyell gives Uie proportion of liTinsr species of shells found in the Norwich Crag, in 
£nglHnd. as ninety per cent, or more.— Principles of Qeology, Amer. Edit., p. 143. 

t A careftil inyestigation of the later Tertiary of the Southern States, and its compar- 
ison with the Post-tertiary, would throw much light upon the extent of the distnrbonces 
in the geograpliical distribution of species in the North Atlantic during the true Glacial 
epoch. 



GEOORAFHIGAIi DI8TRIB17TION OF ANIMALS. 21 

equator and back again without leaving some traces behind 
them. Nor are the faunae of the arctic and of the antarctic so 
closely allied as has sometimes been supposed. There is no 
well-authenticated instance of the same animal species occur- 
ing in eadi of the frigid latitudes, except such as have an 
intermediate or cosmopolitan existence.* 

As Dr. Packard t has shown, the submerged beaches give 
very good evidence that the boreal and arctic regions of 
North America during the true Glacial epoch, stood at a 
much higher level above the sea than at present. This ele- 
vation was undoubtedly enough to raise the submerged bor- 
der of the continent, the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Banks 
of Newfoundland, and the banks off the coast of Nova Scotia, 
Maine, and Cape Cod, above the sea-level. As the rise and 
enlargement of the lands at the north during the Tertiary pe- 
riod had changed the climate of Europe and the northern parts 
of North America from tropical to temperate, this elevation 
during the Glacial epoch must have changed the climate of 
these regions from temperate to frigid, and brought the snow 
line down to the coast of New England. Such an enlarge- 
nicnt of lands at the noith would not, however, change 
materially the climate of the tropics, and it is altogether 
probable that the Gulf Stream flowed on and warmed the 
southern coast as it did in the Tertiary and does now, and 
that the coral reefs of Florida and the West Indies were then 

slowly building beneath its warm waters. 

■ - ■ ■ ' ■■ ■ . . . , ■ . 

* Professor Lil^eborg, in a recent paper (noticed in the Naturalist, p. 48), in the 
Trans. Scientiilc Soc. at Upsala, on the Lyaianassa MageUaniea Milne Edwards, and 
on some other Cmstacea of the suborder Amphipoda, on the coast of Sweden and Nor- 
VfAy-f while admitting that no species had previously been found common to both fiigid 
cones and not in intermediate localities, claims to have discoTered, in a gigantic Am- 
phipod living upon the coast of Norwegian Finmark, the Lpgianassa Magellanica of 
Milne Edwards. Bate has shown, however, in the Zoiiloglcal Record for 1866, p. 330, 
that'the arctic ppccies is not only specifically distinct fl-om the LyHanasta of Milne 
Edwards, but that it cannot be referred to that genus. Such facts show how very diffi- 
cult it is to prove the Identity of animals At>m far separated localities, without a direct 
and careful comparison of specimens, and how little confidence can be placed in the 
reported identity of such animals. 

t Observations on the Glacial Phenomena of Labrador and Maine. Memoirs Boston 
Soc.Nat.Hist., Vol. I, Fart II. Many of the facts, on several succeeding pages, are 
drawn almost wholly trom this veiy intci'csiing papoi*. 






22 OEOORAPmCAIi DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 

The sinking of the lands which closed the true Glacial 
epoch, carried the coast line higher than it is now, as is 
shown by the fossil deposits of the Leda Clays (Champlaiu 
epoch) , found along the coast and far up the lower vallies 
from Labrador to New York. It might at first be supposed 
that such a depression would induce a climate even warmer 
than the present ; but a depression of six or seven hundi*ed 
feet would have made islands of New England and Nova 
Scotia, and opened a way for the Labrador current from the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence into the Bay of Fundy and along the 
coast of Maine, and, at the same time, would have allowed a 
branch of the current to flow up the valley of the St. Law- 
rence River into Lake Champlain, and very likely down the 
valley of the Hudson. Such a surrounding flood of arctic 
waters would have reduced the summer temperature of the 
land, and carried the arctic marine species somewhat south 
of their present limits. 

The species left fossil in the Leda beds confirm this, and 
show very accurately the distribution of marine life at the 
time these beds were formed. The species of the earlier 
Labrador beds are more purely arctic than the present fauna 
of that coast.* The beds of fossils at Portland and Saco 
indicate that the Syilensian fauna extended into the mouth 
of the ancient Casco Bay, as it now does into the mouth of 
the Bay of Fundy. At Point Shirley, in Massachusetts Bay, 
the species of the Leda beds belong almost exclusively to 
the Virginian fauna, which is now found only south of Cape 
Cod.f This shows that a branch of the Gulf Stream flowed 
over the eastern end of Long Island, and across submerged 
Cape Cod, into Massachusetts Bay. Thus, since all, or nearly 
all the marine species which now inhabit our coast were 
in existence, arctic species extended into southern Maine, 
and species, now living only south of Cape Cod, extended 
north to Cape Ann. The southern outliers of the Syrtensian 

* Packard, loc. cit., p. 234. 

fStiinpson, Proceedingfl Boat. Soc. Nat. Hiat.t Vol. IV, p. 9,1861. 



} 



THE HAIBT IfAMHOTH. 23 

and Acadian faunas, on the deep water-banks off the New 
England coast, are thus shown to be relics of the northward 
migration of these faunae. — To he concluded. 



THE HAIRY MAMMOTH. 

BT ▲. S. FACKABD, JR., M. D. 

In 1799, Schumachoff, a Tungusian hunter, discovered at 
the mouth of the river Lena a shapeless mass frozen in the 
ice. But not until two years after, 1801, when the ice had 
so melted that the tusks and one side of the animal were 
disclosed, did he know upon what a monster he had stum- 
bled. Returning to his home on the borders of Lake On- 
coul, he told his family of the strange creature entombed in 
the ice. They were seized with consternation, for in the days 
of yore some hunter had found on this peninsula the same 
sort of animal, and his family had all died soon afterwards. 

Death, however, did not invade the household. The god 
of mammon reigned instead. On recovering from the nearly 
fatal sickness into which his superstitious fears had thrown 
him, our enterprising ivory-hunter, led on by the greed of 
gain, revisited the Mammoth Golgotha, and in March, 1804, 
favored by the warm weather, beheld the gigantic carcass, 
now become historic, reposing free from its icy tomb on the 
sands of the Lena. He sold the tusks for fifty roubles, and 
the carcass was left to the tender mercies of the people' 
about, who fed their dogs on the flesh, while ''wild beasts, 
such as white bears, wolves, wolverenes, and foxes also fed 
upon it, and the traces of their footsteps were seen around." 
The skeleton remained entire, except one foreleg, which 
some unusually enterprising white bear probably lugged off. 
Professor R. Owen, whose account we have been using, 
states that, — 



24 rtiE HAIRT MAltMOTH. 

<* According to the lussertion of the Tangusian discoverer, the animal 
was so fat, that its belly hnng down below the Joints of the knees. This 
mammoth was a male, with a long mane on the neck; the tail was much 
mutilated, only eight out of twenty-eight caudal vertebrae remaining; 
the proboscis was gone, but the places of the insertion of its muscles 
were visiljle on the skull. The skin, of which about three-fourths were 
saved, was of a dark gray color, covered with a reddish wool, and coarse 
long black hairs. The dampness of the spot where the animal had lain so 
long had in some degree destroyed the hair. The entire skeleton, ft'om 
the fore part of the skull to the end of the mutilated tail, measured six- 
teen feet four inches ; its height was nine feet four inches. The tusks 
measured along the curve nine feet six inches, and in a straight line iVom 
the base to the point three feet seven inches. 

<*Mr. Adams collected the bones, and had the satisfaction to find the 
other scapula, which had remained, not far off. He next detached the 
skin on the side on which the animal had lain, which was well preserved ; 
the weight of the skin was such that ten persons found great difficulty in 
transporting it to the shore. After this, the ground was dug in different 
places to ascertain whether any of its bones were burled, but principally 
to collect all the hairs which the white bears had trod into the ground 
while devouring the flesh, and more than thirty-six pounds' weight of 
hair was thus recovered. The tusks were purchased at Jatusk, and the 
whole expedited thence to St. Petersburg; the skeleton is now mounted 
In the museum of the Fetropolitan Academy.'** 

The Mammoth (JElephas primigeniits Blum.), did not 
dwell alone in Siberia. A hairy Rhinoceros (lihinoceros 
tichorhinus) ^ which had a length of eleven and one-half 
feet, was found frozen in Siberia near Wilui in 1777. It 
ranged from England and Middle Europe to Siberia. Like 
the living species of elephants, the Mammoth not only 
browsed on the leaves of the spruce and fir, but ground 
beneath the broad surfaces of its immense <rrinders bousrhs 
of considerable thickness. It has been objected, despite 
its hairy coat, fitting it for the rigors of a Siberian winter, 
that the Mammoth could not have been indigenous to 
the shores of the Arctic Ocean, since the vegetation was so 
scanty; but Professor Owen sets aside such objections, 
observing that "forests of hardy trees and shrubs still grow 
upon the frozen soil of Siberia, and skirt the banks of the 
Lena, as far north as latitude 60°. In Europe, arboreal veg- 

*0wen'8 British FobsII Mammals and Birds. 



THE HAIBT MAMMOTH. 25 

etation extends ten degrees nearer the pole, and the dental 
organization of the Mammoth proves .that it might have 
derived subsistence from the leafless branches. of trees, in 
regions covered during a great part of the year with snow." 

We may, with this learned author, assign the noi-theni 
limit of trees, which even at some pohits reaches the seven- 
tieth parallel* of latitude, as the bounds to the wanderings 
northward of the Siberian Mammoth; A few years previous 
(1796), Cuvier announced that the bones of elephants found 
scattered through the Quai-temary deposits, or Post>-tertiary 
sands and clayfi, and the upper Tertiary deposits, belonged 
to a distinct, as well as extinct species. This fact suggested 
to him the idea of the existence of former worlds and succes- 
sive creations of species, and from this moment the science 
of Palaeontologj' took its place in the sisterhood of scierices. 
The bones of the Mammoth and the mastodon, the rhino- 
ceros and hippopotamus were shown to belong to extinct 
species which formerly roamed over the surface of Southern 
and Middle Europe, and not, as his opponents contended, of 
luckless inmates of Roman menageries, or less likely, as 
others alleged, of heathen giants sixty feet high, who lived 
in the age of fable. 

Organized research, led by the great French Palaeontolo- 
gist, established the fact that the Mammoth was indeed once 
an abundant animal in Europe. This huge elephant, with its 
cousin, the mastodon {Mastodon angustidens)^ a still larger 
genus of elephants, differing in the structure of the teeth, was 
common in Middle and Southern Europe ; the spftcies of both 
genera, like the elephants of the present day, enjoying a 
wide geograjjhical range. The Mammoth ranged from the 
fortieth to the sixtieth parallel of latitude. 

Lartet, one of the founders of a new ^ciance^ Anthropology ^ 
has brought forward additional proof of the former existence 
in Middle Europe of the Siberian Mammoth, and that from 
the most startling sources. 

In May, 1864, this French geologist, with his countryman 

AMER. KATURAIJST, VOL. H. 4 



26 



THE HAIRY MAMMOTH, 



Vernueil and an English naturalist, Dr. Falconer, visited the 
caves of Perigord in the department of Dordogne, France, 
and discovered, in the soil and debris in the bottom of these 
caves,' various sketches of animals carved on pieces of deer's 
horns and elephant's ivory. 

We copy from an account of the discoveries made by Lar- 
tet and Christy (prepared by the great Danish naturalist and 
archaeologist, Professor J. Steenstrup, for a Danish Natural 
History Journal, published at Copenhagen),* drawings that 
rival in interest the Rosetta Stone, specimens of Egyptian 
and Assyrian sculpture, or the remains of Aztec art. Fig. 1 



Tig. 1. 




Fig. 2. 



Fig. 8. 



represents a species of deer, probably the reindeer ; Fig. 2 
an elk, allied to our moose ; and Fig. 3 unmistakably pictures 
the head of the wild boar. The reader may puzzle over 
Fig. 4, but let him compare it carefully with the restoration 
of the Hairy Mammoth {Elejphas priynigenius Blumenbach, 
Plate l),t which has been recently published by the Russian 

naturalist Brandt, from which our drawing is a little re- 

♦ 

• Tidaskrift for populaere fVeinstillinger af Xatiirvidenskftben, Udgivet af C. Fogh 
og C. F. LUtkcn. 3d ser., Vol. IV, KJobenhavn. See also our account of these discoTcr- 
ies, Vol. I, J). 274, taken lYom the Quarterly Journal of Science, London. 

t Figure of a Hairy Mammoth engraved on a piece of elephant's ivory, found in 
the Madelaine Cave in tlie department of Dordogne, France. Taken from a photoxjlo- 



»«1 

o 
•-» 

9 

5 

5 

o 

S 

o 
o 

B 



5* 






O 

s 
5- 

O 

90 

s. 
s* 

s 
« 

:3 




*«1 



(27) 



28 THE HAIRY MAMMOTH. 

duced, and lo, an off-hand sketch of his trophy of the chase 
by some prehistoric Cummings or Baker I 

As specimens of earliest art they are certainly creditable, 
and almost rank with drawing of animals represented in As- 
syrian, Egyptian, or Aztec art, at least surpassing the hiero- 
glyphics, of the,North American Indians. The peculiar shape 
of the head of the Siberian Mammoth, with its characteristic 
up-cui-ved enormous tusks, and tinink hanging down at ease, 
and the hairy mane, which no living species of elephant pos- 
sesses, evince a quick eye, excellent perceptive powers, and 
an artistic touch given by the prehistoric artist, which cer- 
tainly discovers the germs of dawning art in the Cave-dwell- 
ers of France. 

From portions of several skulls and a single lower jaw of 
man found in the caves and gravel-beds of Europe, anato- 
mists of high authority have, we cannot but think too hastily, 
referred their possessors to the most degraded of savage 
races.* 

The bas-reliefs and inlaid sketches of our cave-dwellers, 
rather ally them, from the evidence of their art-remains, as a 
very high authority. Professor Steenstrup suggests, to the 
tribes of Eastern Asia. He states that Chamisso, the Italian 

graphic copy, published in the Danish Popular Jonmal of Natural History, reduced 
one half, from Lartet's original drawing. 

About the same time the Marquis Vibraye discovered, on the banks of the V<^86re in 
Dordogne, another engraTlng of the Mammoth made in a slab of slate. In speaking of 
the accuracy of the sketches he says, " The artists of the Augerie have made no carica- 
tures, and dealed little in the fanciful. If the rough sketches of art in its first steps 
seem to us rude, the truthfulness of the general forms are- 8ho\m to be at least scrupu- 
lously respected. I will cite as an example a slab of slate on which there is reproduced 
with a few strokes a combat of the reindeers. The victor is represented in an attitude 
the truthfulness of which is surprising. It is the same with an engraving of the head of 
the reindeer obtained also in one of the stations of the Augerie. In view of such facts 
it seems to be inadmissible to suppose, that, in making a purely ftmcifkil drawing of a 
head, an aboriginal should have precisely reproduced that of an elephant, by the side 
of which we have con sUmtly found the remains in the same conditions of burial; and 
that blind chance had been a sufficient guide for him to give in his sketch all the charac- 
ters of a proboscidian of whose existence he was ignorant''— Annales des Sciences 
Katnrelles, 6e ser. T. 4, p. 331. IS'iS. 

* Maligned as these primitive folk have been by certain savants and popular*8cience 
^vriters, the unkindest blow of all has been dealt by the Rev. D. I. Heath in the London 
Anthroi>Qlogical Review, April, 1867. Readily accepting the supposed ape-like form of 
this race, he gravely propounds the theory that the " Kitchcn-middencrs *' were mutes, 



THE HAIRT MAMMOTH, 29 

traveller, describes in his "Voyages," the expertness of some 
tribes of North-eastern Asia, in drawing iigures of animals 
on walrus tusks and the teeth of the 9perm-whale. 

In an evident zeal to make these. people a connecting link 
between man and the apes, have not some writers exagger- 
ated, on rather slight data, the degraded and savage char- 
acter of these primitive folk? 

Have not geologists also exaggerated the geological age 
of the Stone period, carrying it too far bax;k, and also not 
bringing it near enough to historic times ? In the first flush 
of the interest excited by these startling developments, 
they also have demanded too great a cold for the climate 
of Middle Europe. Associated with these Mammoth bones 
and drawings were sketches of an animal like the Irish elk, 
which historical evidence tends to show existed up to the 
fourteenth century ; of the reindeer, which CflBsar refers to in 
his Commentaries, which Boyd Dawkings thinks must have 
lived in Northern Scotland as late as the twelflh century, and 
which remained in Denmark up to the sixteenth century ; of 
the bison, which still survives iu Lithuania, the urus, au- 
rochs, or Boa primigeniuSy which is said to have lingered in 

who were tanght to speak by men of the Aryan race who shared the land with them, or, 
as the December nnmbei' of Blackwood has it, — 

** Anthropologists say, alter man had his birth, 
There were two human races possessing the earth; 
One gifted and graced with articulate speech, 
And another that only could gabble and screech. 

The Aryans could speak, and conid build, aud could plough. 
And knew most of the arts we are practising now; 
But the Dumbles that dwelt in those vile Kitchen-middens, 
Weren't fit but to do their superior's biddings. 

80 an Aryan went forth to enlighten these others, 
And to raise them by speech to the level of brothers; 
On the Mutes of the Middens he burst with eclat, 
And attempted to teach them the syllable Ta..'" 

The rather infhntile science of the Anthropological Reriew, put into easy rerse, doea 
not state whether Aryan implements and relics have been found in the EjcckenmoBd- 
dings. But thus fax has any eridence of an inteimlxtiire of two races, one so much 
higher than the other, been fonnd in Denmark dnring the Stone Age ? We shall wait pa- 
tiently for a few pertinent ikcts; meanwhile, in these days of equal rights, advocating 
KJoskenmoedding 8nfn*age; believing that they were bom with all their senses and 
facultiea such as they were, and stood on the same lerel with their Finnish and Lapland 
allies or representatives of later times. 



30 THE HAIBT MAMMOTH. 

Switzerland up to the sixteenth century, and the wild boar, 
still abundant in Central Europe. 

The Mammoth, then, was hunted in middle Europe by a 
hardy race of men (the Reindeer Folk), savage, it is true, 
but who wielded the spear, and shot flint-headed arrows at 
the enormous beasts they hunted; and, resting from the 
fatigues of the Hunt, engraved on ivory * the animals slain 
by them with a sort of hard-pointed style ; whose wives 
probably made garments of skins sewed with delicate bone 
needles, and whose families seemed to have been well housed 

***In the working of bones, especially the antlers of the reindeer, these Ileindeer men 
seem to have excelled. Lance and arrow-heads with barbs, knives, and daggers, all 
kinds of flat and curved shapes apt for scraping the skins and similar objects, awls and 
needles of considerable fineness, with eyes fit for the passage of a thread; handles are 
found in quantity, and some unfinished specunens show the troublesome mode by 
which tliese implements were brought to a finished condition. 

" The art products of the Reindeer people who inhabited France are of particular in- 
terest. The decorations on many pots and implements, consisting of simple, straight, 
angular, or crossed lines, exhibit a certain sense for beauty ; but the drawings of ani- 
mals, as discovered by MM. Lartet and GaiTigou, are still more surprising. They are 
mostly found engraved on bones, but also on slate. Those found by M. Gairigou 
represent heads and tails of fishes; those in possession of M. Laftet represent large 
mammals, among which the reindeer is easily recognized by the antlers. Most of these 
drawings occupy, cei tainly, merely that rank in art as a schoolboy's attempts on the 
wall, in order, as a little nephew of mine observed, to deiive pleasure from its con- 
templation. Many of these drawings only furnish us with the idea of homed rumi- 
nants in general, leaving to our choice to detect the difference between oxen, sheep, 
and goats; others, however, are sufficiently characteristic to enable us to recog- 
nize the animal at once, although the proportions are somewhat faulty. The mastei> 
piece in Lartet's collection is a handle carved A-om the antlers of a reindeer, a real 
sculptured work, the body of the animal being so turned and twisted, that it foims a 
handle for a boy's hand. All other drawings are in shaip and firm outlines, graved 
upon the surface of the bone, and it may be seen that the arti&t, in working it, turned 
tlie bone in various directions, some of the lines showing a fiat inside turned snrftice. 
Many of these drawings are known to the public by the ti'eatises of Lartet and Christy 
on the caves of Perigord ; but 1 can, fVom my own inspection, assert that there exist in 
that collection many others, and these highly characteristic. Thus I recently saw in 
my friend Desor^s collection two plaster casts of pieces found in a hea]) of bones of the 
Reindeer period, at Madelaine, near Tursac (Dordogne). It is a kind of kitchen-midden 
nt the foot of a rock, about fifteen metres long, seven metres broad, and two and a half 
mdtres thick. In the middle some human remains were found. One of these pieces is a 
broken-ofr femur of a swan. The animal carved upon it has a short thick tail, along 
straight back and belly, the head and the lower pai'ts of the feet are wanting ; a zig-zag line 
along the back, imitating somewhat rudely the aspect of the reindeer in summer, when 
the long winter-hair still hangs in flocks about the back, whilst the belly shows already 
the short dark summer hair. Some short lines before the forefeet may represent the 
hair of the throat. The second is a fragment either of a femur or a tibia. It represents 
two reindeers following each other ( ?), the one being known by its indication of ant- 
lers. Further explorations will, no doubt, increase our treasury of art products of the 
reindeer period." — (Voot.) 



THE HAIRY MAMMOTH. 81 

in caves and rock-shelters and rude huts, at a period long 
before the first dawnings of history. 

So far from being lower than Australians and Hottentots, 
they may have been the ancestors of the Calmucs and Fiiis 
and Lapps. Living near glaciers which descended into the 
plains of France down the slopes of the Alps and Pyrenees, 
which brought Alpine and ice-inhabiting animals close to 
their hunting-grounds, they yet chased the boar through 
the forests, the elk through the morasses and grassy inter- 
vals, and pursued the musk-ox, the roe, the chamois, ibex, 
Pyrenflean deer, and, most abundant of all, the reindeer, over 
the snow-fields lying on the hills and uplands ; and in the 
lower plains and valleys watched by night, made hideous by 
the cries of the cave-bvena, for the Mammoth and mastodon, 
the cave-bear, the lion, tiger, and tichorhiue rhinoceros, as 
they came from their retreats to slake their thirst at the 
river bank. 

Professor Carl Vogt, in "The Primitive Period of the 
Human Species," translated for the Anthropological Review, 
has given the most recent and more moderate views regard- 
ing the Stone Folk. With Lartet and Christy he divides 
the Stone Age into two periods : first, the " Cave-bear epochs 
distinguished by large, now extinct, species of beasts of 
prey and pachydermata, rude flint implements, coarsely 
worked bones, and long cranial forms of a strong race of 
men ; * and second, the Reindeer period ^ characterized by the 

*"In endcavoiing, fVom the discoveries liittierto made, to form conclusions respect- 
ing the civilization of this long-headed (infemng from the Xeander skull), powerful, 
tall, and strong itriroitiye man, who lived by the side of the cavc-bear and the mam- 
moth, we perceive that already then he honoured his dead by burning them, probably 
ill a cronchiug position. In grottoes closed with slabs; and that he fmiiished them with 
meat and arms for their Jonmey into another world. He knew the use of lire, and con- 
6tnictc<l hearth?, whci'ohe roasted his meat; for of pottoi*y the traces ara but few. ire 
broke the long bones of the larger animals in a systematic manner, in order to extract 
the niaiTow; and also the skull, to obtain the brain. His implements or weapons con- 
sist of rude hatchets and kniyes, which were struck off ft'om a flint block by another 
stone; and of worked bones, employed for handles, arrows, olubs, or awls. Such 
pieces as look like pike or arrow-heads never show any grnpple-hooks, but smooth 
sides. This wild primitive man, the wildness of which is indicated by his terril)le super- 
ciliary ai'ches, nevertheless endoavoi^d to ornament liis person with perforated pieced 



32 THE HAXRT BIAMMOTH. 

northern fauna of a cdld climate, by hammered stone wea- 
pons, carved and artfully decorated bones^ and the short 
skulls of a small and more delicately constructed, but, at all 
events, a very intelligent art-endowed race of men." 

But is it not possible that the two races lived contempo- 
raneously? The Eeindeer Folk may have inhabited the 
upper valleys and hills near the Alps and Pyrenees, which 
send spurs into Southern and Central France. They were, 
perhaps, mountaineers, and the animals associated with them, 
and most characteristic of the period, were alpine and 
northern species. Like the Lapps and Fins, the men were 
dwarfed, and more delicate, and perhaps more active-minded 
and ingenious than the Flint Folk. So far from dwelling 
exclusively in caves, they may have, lived in skin lodges in 
summer, and in wooden or snow huts in winter. 

Their neighbors, the Flint Folk, or Lowlanders, a taller 
and stronger race, meantime inhabited the plains of Northern 
France and Belgium, England and Germany, and the fauna 
was made up of the Mammoth, mastodon, and rhinoceros, 
horse, cave-bear (which was much more abundant than with 
the Reindeer people), bison, aurochs, and deer, which in- 
habited the more genial and fertile plains. 

Taking this view, the supposed great length of the Stone 
Age is much reduced ; it explains how two such dissimilar 
races lived side by side, just as the Lapps and Fins lived 
twenty centuries since, not far from the Celts and Tartars, 
on the mountainous parts of Europe and the borders of Asia ; 
and while the climate was colder on the hisrhlands, on the 
plains of Middle Europe it was, probably, much as described 
by Tacitus and Caesar. 

of coral and the teeth of wild animals. He probably dressed in skins or prepared bark 
of trees; for the awls and needles found may ha^e been serviceable for patching 
together such materials, but not for weaved stuflT. We possess no direct information 
respecting his food, besides that he procured teom the chase. The great number of 
flint instruments found in the caves, since attention lias been drawn to this subject, 
lead us to infer that this man had spread over the whole of Central Europe this side of 
the Alps; whether in a singlo or various types, will only be decided when we are in 
possession of a greater number of skulls.'* 



THE HAIRT MAMMOTH. 38 

In our own land the Mamnuitfa was associated with the 
Mastodon gigarUeus, Herds of the Siberian Mammoth found 
their way across Behring's Straits into Alaska, as their re- 
mains occur in the greatest abundance at Eschscholtz Bay. 
The explorations of Mr. W. H. Dall show how common it 
must have been to the southward in the Yukon Valley. It 
seems to have extended southward in America as far as the 
pamllel of 40°, as remains, found at several localities in Can- 
ada, have been referred to this species. 

Professor Leidy has claimed, on partial evidence (a com- 
plete skull not having yet been found), the existence of a 
truly American species of elephant {Elephas Americana)^ 
representing in the new world the European and arctic 
Hairy Mammoth. This species replaced, in the warmer parts 
of our country, the Siberian elephant. Its remains, like 
those of the mastodon, are found at the bottom of swamps 
and in the upper strata of river sands. It should be borne 
in mind by the reader, that these deposits of river alluvium 
are the most recent of the deposits of the post-tertiary age. 
They should not be confounded, as they often are, with 
the true glacial or drift deposits, which were thrown down 
at an immensely earlier period, so far as known facts teach 
us. In the Northern States, at least, we had the following 
succession of events antedating the appearance of the Amer- 
ican elephants,* including the mastodon, though this does 
not preclude their existence southwards, where the climate 
was hotter. The warm climate of the latest Tertiary (Plio- 
cene), in which the temperature of New England and the 
Northern States may have been like that of the Gulf States 
at the present day, gave way to the arctic cold that brought 
with it the snows and glaciers of the time Glacial epoch, the 
period which separates the Tertiaiy from the Quarternary 



*" The American elephant ranged from Georgia, Texas, and Mexico on the south, to 
Canada on the north, and to Oregon and California on the west. . . . « The species ap- 
pears to have been moat abundant to the south, in the Hisslsslppi Valley, it preferring 
a wanner climate than EUphaa primigenkts/' — (Daka.) 

AHEB. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 5 



34 THE HAIRT MAMMOTH. 

periods. For ages the Ice King held sway over this im- 
mense territoiy. The walrus, and perhaps the musk-ox, the 
white bear and arctic fox occupied the land that had perhaps 
shook beneath the tread of the Megatherium and Boothe- 
rium, the American lion and the mastodon and elephant; 
and the creeping willow and procumbent birch and lowly 
cranberry, the snow white Arenaria greenlandica^ and other 
arctic plants succeeded the gaudy flowers and luxuriant for- 
ests of the latest Tertiary soil. 

Centuries after, the continent slowly sinks, perhaps six 
hundred feet ; the sea laves the foot of the White Moun- 
tains ; the temperature is raised and the glaciers have re- 
treated to the Alpine valleys. This is the period of the 
Leda days^ in which bones of the bison and walrus are 
found. But not until a later and still warmer period, that of 
the rearrangement of these sands and clays into lake shores 
and fertile river intervals, does the Mammoth (so far as fos- 
sil evidence goes) seem to have flourished abundantly. 

The remains of the mastodon, found lately in Indiana and 
stored in the museum of the Chicago Academy of Science, 
occurred in a peat-swamp four feet beneath the surface, over 
a bed of marl containing fresh-water shells. This willow 
swamp had been flowed by the beaver, as its dam and evi- 
dences of its lakes were still remaining. Indeed, there are 
accounts, which however need confirmation, of mastodons' 
bones being found in the Western States, associated with 
arrow-heads and other Indian relics, as if the creature had 
been mired in some "lick," and killed by Indians. We shall 
eagerly look for fresh discoveries in this direction by our 
Western naturalists. The mastodon seems to have been 
more abundant in the Middle States than the Mammoth. 
The habits and geogi'aphical range of the two animals, how- 
ever, seem to have been very much the same. The true 
home of the earth-shakers was the Sivalik Hills at the foot of 
the Himalayah Mountains, seven fossil species of elephants, 
and three of mastodons having been found there, besides the 



THE HAIRY MAMMOTH. 85 

living species of elephant. A species of mastodon inhabited 
the Pampas of Brazil, the bones having been found in the 
bone-caves near Rio, and the Mastodon HumJboldtii lived in 
the Andes. The Mastodon giganteus lived on the spruce 
and fir trees. The food of the tropical existing species is 
well known to consist of the leaves and succulent branches 
of trees. 

It must seem strange to many of our readers to have had 
introduced, as a characteristic feature in our landscapes of 
prehistoric times, herds of wild elephants much exceeding 
in size the tamed imported specimens that march servilely 
through our towns and villages. How would the children 
of to-day grin and wonder with patriotic glee should a 
squad of veritable American elephants stalk through the 
gaping throng ! Such fortune fell only to the lot of the pre- 
historic urchin. What glorious times were those when the 
children of the Mound-builders perhaps trooped on gala days 
of antediluvian rejoicing, to see trained lions and learned 
horses exhibit in the circus of those days (if the Preadamites 
were circus-goers) ; saw the megatherium fed, the hunger of 
the megalonyx and mylodon appeased with small forests of 
saplings, and — crowning delight of all — rode on the backs 
of docile Mammoths and more than elephantine mastodons !* 

* These animals may possibly have been in America contemporaries of the earliest 
races of men, as some of the species or allied forms are now prored to have been in 
Europe. 

Professor J. Marcon states chat human bones have been found either in the bone- 
beds of the Natchez quartei-nary deposits, or in strata lying over them. Regarding the 
question whether man was reaUy contemporaneous with the Mammoth and the qunr- 
temary mammals, Professor Dana states that " in North America there are no known 
acts sufficiently well authenticated to be here repeated." 

Professor Dana, in his Manual of Geology, cites, among Uio characteristic mammals 
of ^is period in North America, the great \}etiYet {Castorcide* OhioeMis) ^ihe Bison 
UUifroHs Leidy, a species much larger than the existing buffalo, and a genus of ox 
{Bootherium) related to the musk-ox. A species of stag {C&rvus Amcricanus Leidy^, 
larger than the great Irish Elk, and the American Fost-tertiury lion {Fdis atrox Leidy), 
about as large as the fossil lion of Britain. Other gigantic mammals, such as the Mega- 
Umyx and Megatherium and Mylodon, inhabited the Mississippi Valley, as their bones 
are found associated in the famous Natchez bone-locality with remains of the horse, 
bear, elephant, and mastodon, now known to have been a resident of North and South 
America long before Columbus made his voyages. 



REVIEWS. 

The Popular Scxekce Bkview. London (Qaarterly). 

The October namber contains a very valaable and beautiftiUy illastra- 
ted article on the Microscope in Geology by David Forbes, of which we 
make use on another page. — Dr. M. T. Masters attempts to answer the 
question, Why the Leaves foil? After discussing several reasona given, 
he thinks '* on the whole, then, of all the assigned causes for the fall 
of the leaf, this last, dependent on an alteration, or rather on a new 
growth in the leaf itself, \s the most important, and probably the only 
one of itself sufficient to produce the result." This new growth is 
thus described ft^m Yon Mohl*s account. " Shortly before the fall of 
the leaf, there begins to be formed a very delicate layer of cells, the 
growth of which is lYt)m above downwards, so that, beginning ft'om 
the axillary side of the leaf, and gradually extending downwards and 
outwards, nearly at right angles to the long diameter of the cells of the 
leaf stalk, at any rate at right angles to the plane of the leaf, it efibcts 
a gradual separation between the stem and the leaf, as effectually as a 
knife would do." These changes of tissues and consequent fall of the 
leaf are not wholly due to a change of seasons '* A-om wet to dry, or from 
hot to cold, for it not unftequently happens that if a tree be stripped 
of its leaves in summer, it forms during the autumn new ones, which 
remain on the tree during the greater part of the winter, or at any rate 
until long after the usual period." 

Dr. £. R. Lankester gives a very useftil article, well illustrated, on the 
Flat- worms or Planarians. The subjoined table* presents the latest 
views as to the classification of Worms taken from Peter's and Cams 

*A TABULAB VIEW OF THE CLASSES AND OBDEB8 OF VEBMES. 

Sub-kingdom I Vermes, 
Class I. Annulata (Binged^worms). 

Orders: i'o/yctoto (Marine). 

Oligochaia (Land and Fresh>water). 
DUwphora (Leeches). 
Class II. Oephyrea (connected throu^^h the Sea-cucumbers to Ecbinodermata). 

Orders: SipunculvMi etc. 
Class III. Rotifera (connected to Arthropods and Tnrbellaria). 
Orders : Ctphalotricha (Wheel-animals). 

Omterotricha (Hairy-backed animals, Chaetonotas). 
Class IV. Kem4xtebninthes (Bound-worms). 

Orders : Nematodes (Thread-worms, Yinegar-eels, etc.) 
Oordiacea (Hair-worms). 
Aeanihocephali (Echinorhynchns). 
Class V. Platyelminthes (Flat-worms). 

Orders : TurbtUaria (Planarians and Kemertians). 

Trematodes (Flukes, King's TeUow-wonns). 
Ceatodes (Tape-worms). 

(86) 



REVIEWS. 37 

Handbook of Zodlogj (Leipzig, 1868). We might say, however, that the 
more conservative zoologist woald substitute class for sub-kingdom, and 
order for class, considering the worms as a class of the ** tjrpe," ** branch," 
or ** sub-kingdom" Articulata. Such tabular lists of different classes of 
the animal kingdom we design to give ttom time to time in the Natuhal- 
isT. The Sotiferaj or Wheel-animalcules, placed by Dana and other au- 
thors among the Crustacea, seem to the author to belong more properly 
with the Worms, connecting the latter with the Crustacea. He also notices 
the growing opinion among zoologists, that the majority of the Infusoria 
may be classed among Vermes, near the Turbellaria, or Flat-worms, of 
which the dark, flat, leach-llke worms abounding in our pools and on the 
seashore are examples. Their wonderful powers of reparation of injuries 
has been studied by Dug6s, who, by slicing them with scissors, produced 
individuals with double heads and tails, and other modifications of form. 
The curious modes of reproduction are thus noticed : — 

The Torbellaiians propagate either by eggs deposited and fertilized in the water, seyeral 
eggs being often deposited in one mass of yolk (like what was observed by Dr. Carpenter In 
the Dog-whelk), or by the growth of young ttom Internal buds or pseud-ova, like the larvsB 
of Cecldomyia, or by transverse fission. Both Nemcrtlaus and I'lonarlans exhibit these three 
methods. The young either develop directly, becoming similar to their parents at once, or 
they exhibit a Jointed ringed structure (like Annelids), sometimes, too, carrying bristles, as 
has been lately shown by Mr. Alexander Agassis, both in Planarians and Nemertlaus, and 
then, as they grow older, lose their Jointed appearance and setss; or the egg hatching results 
in a larva {Pilidtum) which is totally nnlike the parent, and nrom the body-wall of which a 
small worm-like animal grows and separates, leaving the bulk of the PiMium to perish. TliLs 
last case Is very similar to that observed by Johannes Mueller tn certain star-tlshcs. As in the 
Echlnoderms, so in the Turbellarlans, there appears to be no rule as to the method of devel- 
opment; nearly allied fbrms may present the most diverse conditions, the one passing through 
A larval stage, and the other developing directly in the most capricious manner. 

Dr. Bichardson writes on the Physics of the Brain, and concludes 
flrom experiments In freezing certain parts of the brain in animals, and 
other like experiments, by which the ftinctions of the different parts 
or ganglia are determined, '*that impressions are physical realities, 
stamped as it were on brain matter, each distinct and perfect when 
the matter on which it is set Is in condition for motion. Everything 
we remember Is, I doubt not, thus imprinted on the brain, on infinite 
points of brain-substance, each independent, fVee, and capable of motion 
when the whole mass is charged with force. The brain, in fact, is a 
world within of the world without that It has received in the course of 
its waking life." .. 

When we see what the micro-photographer can thus do In patting physical troprcMlons 
on what seem infinitesimal points of matter, and when we know that tliere is no assignable 
limit to this art, it is no crude inference that in the vast surface of the gray matter of the brain, 
in those cerebral lobes of which I have spoken, myriads of points of matter are thus impres- 
sed, — points of matter floating in that eighty-fbnr percent, of water, of which the brain Is madu 
op. 

One more Ihct relating to the physics of the brain, as taught by experiment, and I have 
done. We have seen that when the anterior cerebral ganglia are destroyed for a time, an 
animal moves tmpalslvely forward, and that, wlien the cerel>ellnm is destroyed, the animal 
moves impnlsively backwards. This indicates the existence of a balance of power between 
these centres (or ganglia) ; a balance which is also detectable between other centres. It is 
therefore a fiUr inforenee, that every centre of power In the brain is, during healthy states. 



'88 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

pbysloally balanced, and tliat what Is called a well-balanced mind 1b really a properly balanced 
brain. By tbis reading we explain many phenomena of living action otherwise inexplicable. 

Among the reviews, a kindly word of welcome is given the Natuiul- 
iST. — MM. Bert and Blondcau have been experimenting on the contrac- 
tions of the Sensitive Plant : — 

M. Blondeau experimented on plants with the Induced galvanic current of a Ruhmkorff*8 
coil. He submitted three plants to the influence of the electric current. The first was ope- 
rated on for Ave minutes; the plant when left to Itself seemed prostrated, but after a while (a 
quarter of an hour), the leaves opened, and It seemed to recover Itself. Tlie sf coud was 
acted on for ten minutes. Tills specimen was prostrate for an hour, after which it slowly 
recovered. The third specimen was galvanized for twenty-five minutes, but it never recov- 
ered, and In twenty-four hours it had the appearance of a plant struck by lightning. A fourtli 
plant was etlieriaed, and then exposed to tlie current. Strange to say the latter hod not any 
effect, the leaves remained straight and open; thus proving, says M. Blondeau, that the mode 
of contraction of tlie leaves of the sensitive plant Is In some way allied to the muscular con- 
traction of animals. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 

Monstrous Flowers of Habenaria fimbriata. — Mr. W. W. Dens- 
low, of New York, found last summer a spike of this orchid with all the 
flowers abnormal, spurless, and ft-ingeless. A few of the flowers, exam- 
ined by me, exhibit the following peculiarities. All of them are dimerous, 
even to the ovary. The most reduced has the perianth simply of two 
sepals, anterior and posterior, and the anther and stigma nearly normal : 
no vestige of petals. The others have a perianth of four pieces, resem- 
bling the normal sepals, no labellum, and generally two anthers, alter- 
nating with the inner pieces of the perianth. One of these anthers is 
occasionally somewhat petaloid, but with one or both the cells well 
formed, although more separated on the petaloid connective ; the pollen 
and the gland nearly normal. In one flower the two opposed anthers are 
exactly similar, and nearly normal, but with the slender tip of the cells 
more curved, so that the glands which are contiguous in pairs, are up- 
turned. The stigma is central and symmetrical. In more than one flower 
there is an attempt at a second pair of anthers, within and alternate with 
the others ; one of these Is occasionally well formed, and the other rudi- 
mentary. — A. Gray. 

The Elder (Samducus Canadensis) as a native plant.— The responses 
to our inquiry are generally in favor of the affirmative. The most ex- 
plicit testimony received, however, is the following, from our excellent 
correspondent, Mr. M. S. Bebb. He writes: "I never saw Sambuctts 
Canadensis out of a fence corner ; but my father who was born in South- 
em Ohio in 1802, and who remembers distinctly the flrst White and Red 
Clover, Blue Grass, and Black Mustard he ever saw, — he lived in the back 
woods nine miles Arom any settlement, when Cincinnati and Marietta 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 39 

were mere hamlets, — declares that the Elder was abundant on the islands 
of the Dry Fork of the White-water River, in the earliest settlement of 
the country ; that he remembers very distinctly making * spiles ' of its 
stems wh^n tapping sugar- trees, and that it was a great pest in low bot- 
tom-lands, and had to be eradicated with much labor when clearings were 
made." — A. Guay. 

GEnHA>* Ivy, so-called, flowering under peculiar circumstances. 
— Mr. L. H. Brown, of Dayton, Ohio, informs us that branches of this 
delicate climber, cut in October, were carried Into the house and hung 
around picture-frames upon the walls of a room in which, until winter set 
in, there was no fire. In about three weeks they began to put forth blos- 
soms, which have never been seen upon the plants growing in soil, and 
they have kept on biouming for several weeks, the vine growing ftreely. 
The old leaves soon withered, but those of new shoots took their place. 
— A. Gray. 

Lespedeza 6T1UATA Hook. and Arn. The notice In the November num- 
ber has called forth several communications from the South, where this 
plant is attracting much attention. Both Mr. Ravenel and Professor Por- 
ter call Dr. Gray's notice to the fact, that they sent specimens to him 
twenty years ago. The Rev. Dr. Curtis writes that the new comer, if 
we may call it so, has reached Charlotte, North Carolina, where it is a 
perfect God-sen J, taking complete possession of the worn-out fields, and 
is cropped by cattle with such avidity that a good specimen is hardly to 
be obtained. Professor Porter writes as follows: — 

"I have read with great interest the note of Dr. Gray concerning 
the introduction of this foreigner into the Southern States, and, as the 
date when, and the place where it was first observed, may be of impor- 
tance, wish to put on record the fact, that, twenty-one years ago, in 
August, 184G, I collected the specimens, now in my herbarium, in Mon- 
ticello, Jasper County, Central Georgia. It grew in a wild nook by the 
side of a road, at some distance from the village and any human habita- 
tion. I never dreamed of China and Japan, and have hitherto regarded 
it as a native waiting for a name." — T. C. Porter. 

A Relic ok the Glacial Epoch. — On the south bank of the River 
Delaware, in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, fifteen miles below Easton, 
and forty north of Philadelphia, there is a range of perpendicular, forest- 
crowned 0110*3, extending east and west for a mile and a half, and vary- 
ing in height from three to four hundred feet. The rock is New-red sand- 
stone, identical with that of the valley of the Connecticut, as shown not 
only by its lithological characters, but also by the fossil footprints which 
it contains. On the faces of the cliffs are several extensive water-drips, 
and at two or three points they are penetrated by narrow and shallow 
ravines, down which rivulets come leaping. At these places the ice accu- 
mulates in immense masses during the winter, and lies undissolved until 
late in the spribg. This was observed whilst passing along the railroad 



40 NATURAL HISTORY MISCBLLAKr. 

on the opposite side of the river, and the inference drawn that the mean 
annual temperature of the rock would be so reduced by the slow melting 
of the ice, and the large amount of evaporation in summer, as to afford 
favorable conditions for the growth of northern plants. In hope of find- 
ing something of the kind, the spot was visited on the eighteenth of May, 
1867, in company with Professors Green and Hitchcock, of Lafayette Col- 
lege, and our search was rewarded by the discovery of Sedum Bhodiola 
D. C, — an inhabitant of high latitudes in Europe and America, its near- 
est known station in our country being Qnoddy Head, on the eastern 
border of Maine. The existence of such a plant in such a locality can 
well be explained only by the supposition, that, when the arctic flora 
retreated northward at the close of the glacial epoch, it was left behind. 
Far up on the ledges of the rock, chiefly under the drip of the water, it 
grows in dense tufts, whose pale, glaucous hue attracts the eye of the 
botanist, in situations so difScult of access, and in such abundance, that 
it bids fair to maintain its hold as successftiUy for ages to come, as it has 
for ages past. 

It may not be amiss to state also that In New Jersey, ten miles to the 
north of these clifils, Poltmonium cctruleum L. has been recently detected 
in a large, shaded, sphagnous swamp, where it is evidently indigenous ; 
and that, a few miles farther on, in the same range, occur other northern 
species, among which are Bidens BecJcii Torr., Lobelia Kalmii L., BetvXa 
pumUa L., and Carexflava L. — T. C. Porter. 

PoLYPORUS FRONDOsus. — A Specimen of this enormous ftmgus was 
recently exhibited at one of the Horticultural Society Exhibitions at 
Boston. It was found growing on the decayed stump of an oak tree in 
Boxford, Mass., by Mr. James Barratt. It belongs to a group of the 
Folypori, which is characterized by an eccentric growth. From a central 
base arise large imbricate clusters of rounded, lobular extensions which 
grow f^om the pseudo-branches of the main stipe. These lobes are light- 
brown above, and the texture of the upper portion is stringy and scurfy. 
Underneath they are studded with the numberless pores which give rise 
to the plant's generic name. The species of the genus are very numerous, 
all of them markedly characterized by the multiplicity of minute pores 
which clothe the under surface of the expanded top, called the pileus. 
Many of them have the upright stem, called the stipes exactly in the centre, 
so that the plant resembles an umbrella, the sticks of which are replaced 
by a serried mass of vertical tubes, on the inner surface of which grows 
the reproductive dust called spores. The P. frondosus produces its pilei 
in side growths, which look like thick, fleshy leaves, and hence the spe- 
cific name. 

Many of these eccentric species grow to an enormous size. The speci- 
men referred to was four feet in circumference. A specimen of P. gigan^ 
tens, collected in Forest Hill Cemetery some years ago, was over five feet 
in circumference, and weighed ten pounds. — C. J. Sprague. 



NATURAL HISTORT MI6GEIJLANT. 41 

Thb Tob&bt Festival.— The Botanical Club of New York had been 
for some time engaged on a catalogue of the plants growing within thirty 
miles of New York city. A catalogue, embracing the same territory, was 
made in 1817, by Dr. John Torrey, and the club celebrated the fiftieth 
anniversary of its completion by a supper at the Astor House, on the 
twentieth of December. Invitations were extended to those who had 
prominently Identified themselves with American botany, and the club 
wishes us to say that they used all possible diligence to invite all Inter- 
ested, and if there were any omitted, it was trom inadvertence. The day 
was unfortunately one of the most inclement of the year, and the impedi- 
ments to travel prevented many Arom coming trom abroad. Among the 
guests were Professor Gray and Dr. Pickering, of Cambridge ; Professors 
Eaton and Brewer, of Ne^ Haven; Professors Porter and Green, of Eas- 
ton, Pa. ; Thomas P. James, of Philadelphia ; S. T. Olney, of Providence ; 
C. F. Austin, Closter, N. J.; S. B. Parsons, of Flushing; and I.Bu- 
chanan, of New York. All present were fUmished with a button-hole 
sprig of Torreya, and after a short time spent in social intercourse, the 
company were seated at table. Professor Thurber presiding. After the 
substantials had been disposed of, Professor Thurber gave the following 

ADDRESS. 

For some occult reason I have been placed in a position where I am to 
speak for the Botanical Club of New York. It is indeed a pleasure to 
meet such a number of botanists, and my first duty is to express the 
thanks of the club to those who have come fW>m abroad at this Inclement 
season to aid us in our festivities. The incentive to this genial gathering 
Is so well understood, that any elaborate remarks are fortunately unnec- 
essary. On December 22d, 1817, there was presented to the Lyceum of 
Natural History, *'A Catalogue of Plants growing spontaneously within 
thirty miles of the city of New York." The Botanical Club, which com- 
prises, so far as we are aware, all the working botanists of New York and 
its suburbs, has thought proper to mark the fiftieth anniversary of an 
event so luteresting to local botanists, and the commencement of a career 
so important to botanical science, not only in America, but in the world. 

Here I must correct an error of the printed invitations, which are made 
to say that this is the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of the cata- 
logue. The title-page bears the date of 1819, and an explanatory adver- 
tisement says, '* Although the following pages were reported as early as 
December 22d, 1817, unavoidable obstacles have delayed its publication 
until the present time." It is not the publication of the catalogue that we 
celebrate, but its completion and presentation to the body which request- 
ed it to be prepared. As the 22d day falls this year on the sabbath, the 
nearest convenient day was chosen. There may be those who think it 
would have been more appropriate to regard the anniversary of publica- 
tion, rather than that of its presentation. Such are assured that the 
club will consider the subject in season for the centennial anniversary. 
This little volume is now so rare, that I have brought It here, in part be- 

AMEB. NATURALIST, VOL. n. 6 



42 NATURAL HISTOBT MISCELLANY. 

cause it may be of interest to some to see it, bat malDly because its time- 
stained pages would prove more eloquent than any words of the speaker. 
It is the author of this little catalogue in whose honor we are assembled. 
I am aware that on occasions like the present it is customary for the 
speaker to assume that the hearers are quite .in doubt as to the person 
spoken of, and to relieve their minds only at the close of his speech, by 
announcing the name of the one who has been eulogized. Unskilled in 
the arts of the table orator, and quite sure of being unable to keep this 
company in a state of suspense, I go directly to the point and say that 
the author of the catalogue is Doctor John Torret. 

As we look through the pages of the volume, wc are astonished at its 
completeness, and wonder that a mere youth could have accomplished the 
great amount of preparatory labor necessary to. the task. 

In imagination we can look back over the intervening half century, and 
see the young enthusiast herborizing in localities that are to be found 
only in this catalogue. The ''swamp behind the Botanic Garden," and 
the '* bog-meadows near Greenwich" have long ago been built over, and 
Love-lane is now a paved street. The station here recorded for Draba 
Caroliniana has ceased to be available to the botanist of the present day, 
as that plant no longer grows, according to the catalogue, '' in sandy 
fields about Canal street." Not only have localities disappeared, but those 
whose names are associated with them, and who are recorded as having 
contributed material to the catalogue, have passed away also. Mitch- 
ell, Nuttall, Raflnesque, Eddy, LeConte, Cooper, and others, while they 
live in the memory of a few of those present, are to the most of us known 
only by their works. From this catalogue as an initial point, let us 
briefly survey the intervening half century with reference to the botanical 
works of its author. 

In 1820, there appeared in Silliman*s Journal, vol. 4, A Notice of Plants 
collected by Capt, N, Douglass around t?ie Great Lakes at the Uead-MocUers 
of the Mississippi, 

In 1823, the Annals of the New York Lyceum of Natural History con- 
tained the first Instalment of the many precious contributions made by 
the author to our knowledge of the plants of the far West. Its title is, 
Descriptions of some new or rare Plants from the Bocky Mountains, collected 
by Dr. Edioin James. 

In 1824 was published, A Flora of the Northern and Middle United States^ 
or a Systematic Arrangement and Description of all the Plants heretofore diS' 
cohered in the United States north of Virginia, But one volume of this 
work was published, and as a portion of the edition was destroyed by 
fire, it is now only rarely to be met with. It contains over five hundred 
pages, and includes the first twelve classes of the Llnnsean system. 

In the same year, 1824, we find in the Annals of the Lyceum, Descrip' 
tions of neto Grasses from the Bocky Mountains ; and in the same volume 
I>r. Torrey appears as editor and Joint author with Schweinitz, of A Mon- 
ograph of the North American Species of Carex. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 43 

The year 1826 was marked by the publication of the Compendium of the 
Flora of the Northern and Middle States, a work so fUll, concise, and com- 
pact, that it was indeed a compendium. Probably some of those present 
can remember when this volume came to their relief, and the delight with 
which they turned to its brief diagnoses, after puzzling over the vague 
and unsatisfactory descriptions of other works. 

On the 11th of I>ecember, 1826, our author read before the Lyceum, 
Some AccoutU of a Collection of Plants made during a Journey to and from the 
Rocky Mountains J in the Summer of 1820, by JSdwin P. James, 3f. J9«, Assis- 
tant Surgeon U. S. Army. This paper was not published until 1828. It is 
a memoir of some eighty pages, and enumerates 481 plants, many of 
which were new species. This was, up to the date of its publication, the 
author's most important contribution to science, and is even now Are- 
quently referred to by the student of our Western plants. It besides 
has an especial interest, as it was the first American work of any impor- 
tance in which the arrangement was according to the Natural System. 
The only exception to this is a list by Abb6 Correa, of those genera ap- 
pended to Muhlenburgh's Catalogue, arranged according to the Natural 
Orders of Jussieu. A Catalogue of North American Chnera of Plants, ar- 
ranged according to the Orders of Lindley's Introduction to Botany, was pub- 
lished in 1831, both in a separate form, and as an appendix to an American 
edition of Lindley's work. 

In 1836, the Annals of the Lyceum are rich with the Monograph of the 
Cyperacece, and the volume for 1837 contained a memoir on New Cfenera 
and Species of Plants. 

The year 1838 saw the commencement of the Flora of North America, 
by John Torrey and Asa Gray, which was published in numbers and at 
intervals until the year 1843. The rich treasures brought in by our West- 
ern explorers interrupted the continuance of this work, and its authors 
directed their energies to plants f^om hitherto untrodden fields. That 
elaborate work, in two large volumes. The Flora of the State of New 
York, by John Torrey, was published in 1843, a year which began a re- 
markable era in American botany. In that year commenced that magnifi- 
cent series of contributions to our Western Flora by Torrey, Gray, and 
others, which followed one another in rapid succession. Nicollet's plants, 
published in his report in 1843, was the first of this almost continuous 
series of reports, of which I will mention only those wholly or in part by 
Dr. Torrey. That daring young lieutenant of the Topographical Engi- 
neers, now General Fremont, made two expeditions to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, the botanical results of which appeared in 1845. The report of the 
plants collected by Emory followed in 1848. 

In the Smithsonian Contributions we find three memoirs by our author 
accepted in 1850, though they were not published until a year or two 
later. These were A Memoir on Batis, another on Darlingtonia, and 
Plantas Fremontiance, which last contains descriptions of some new plants 
collected by General Fremont in his memorable expedition to Califomia. 



44 NATURAL HIBTORT MI8CELLAKT. 

The year 1852 gave ns the plants collected by Stam^ury in the BegUm of 
Salt Lake. The plants of Marcy*8 Bed Hiver SxpedUton appeared in 1868, 
and those flrom SUgreaves^ Zuni and Colorado Journey in 1854. 

The rich collections made by the botanists attached to the several Pa* 
cific Railroad Sarveys, were published in 1856 and 1856. The plants of 
some of these expeditions were elaborated by Newberry, Durand, and 
others. Those collected by Beckwith and Gunnison, and by Pope on the 
Llano Estacado, appeared under the Joint .authorship of Torrey and 
Gray. The botanical portions of the reports of Parke, Williamson, and 
Whipple are by Dr. Torrey. The report of Whipple's Expedition is the 
most extensive of all these Pacific Railroad contributions to botany, as 
the Journey crossed a country not heretofore penetrated by any botanist, 
and which afforded a rich harvest not only in new species, but new gen- 
era. To the other reports, those which do not bear his name as author, 
of the botanical portion of them he contributed freely, often working up 
entire families. 

The most voluminous, as well as in some respects the most important 
of these Botanical Reports of the Government expeditions is that of the 
Mexican Boundary, published in 1859, and with this I close this chrono- 
logical account, remarking that some contributions to science have been 
omitted altogether. 

This little catalogue of 1817 began the list, and it closes with the ele- 
gant quarto of the Mexican Boundary. Indeed there is no student of 
American Botany who has not almost dally occasion to refer to the works 
of Torrey. 

Is it not fitting, then, that we should celebrate the fiftieth anniversary 
of the opening of a career that has brought so many benefits to us, and 
has given such lustre to American science? I have spoken of what would 
seem to be the work of a lifetime; but when we recollect that all this 
was done aside flrom other duties, as recreation from labor as it were, we 
can only wonder at the zeal and industry it indicates. But those who 
estimate the services of Dr. Torrey to botany from his published works 
alone, omit a large and important share. Those present do not need to 
be reminded of the personal aid he has given them in their studies. What 
lover of plants, however young or unskilled, ever flailed to receive his 
patient attention and kind word of encouragement? Not only those who 
have had the advantage of personal acquaintance with him, have been the 
recipients of this aid, but those who have never met him have felt it 
through his correspondence. These are works that will never be pub- 
lished, but they are deeply imprinted on the hearts of botanists in all 
parts of the country. 

It may be thought that this hurried review of the botanical labors of our 
guest is incomplete, without some reference to his character as a man. 

It is always a deUcate task to speak fittingly of another in his presence ; 
and I could hardly trust myself to give ptterance to what I fisel Is due 
him. Happily I am saved from the embarrassment that the attempt 



NATXIBAL HISTOBT MISOEUiANT. 45 

would bring, by speaking what is in the thoughts of all here present. 
Every one who has been brought in Arequent communication with him 
knows that he has forgotten the philosopher in the Ariend, and that he has 
been made not only a better botanist, but a better man. 

Many years ago, Amott published in Taylor's Annals of Natural His- 
tory a description of a new genus, established on one of the beautiflil 
Conifers of Plorida, and gave it the name of Torreya* The Florida spe- 
cies is Torreya taxifolia. Since then there have been added to the genus 
Totreya nudfera flrom the island of Japan, Torreya Califomica ttom the 
Pacific coast, and possibly another from Northern China, T. grandis. 
While we are glad that a so fine and widely spread genus should bear the 
name of our iViend, we regret that Amott had not been more happy in his 
choice of a term to designate our native species. Although a native of 
Florida, it is hardy on this island, and even as far north as Fishkill, on 
the Hudson. It holds its bright foliage through the cold and snows of 
winter, and its presence here suggests thoughts of more genial climes 
and seasons. Had Amott possessed the power of prophecy, he surely 
would have written Torreya eempervirens ; tot does not he whose name it 
bears disregard the Ax>sts of time ? Does not his presence always bring 
genial summer, and show us that years bring no winter to the heart 
which has not lost the freshness of youth, but in which love — love to man 
and to God — reigns supreme? lK>ng after the flowers shall have bloomed 
above us all, fature botanists will carry on the work he has so nobly 
helped. Those yet unborn will wander by the Southern rivers, visit the 
mountains of far-off Japan, or climb our own grand Sierra Nevada in 
search of the Torreya, and his name will be remembered as long as 
there shall be botany and botanists. But these can only talk of him whom 
it is our privilege to know, to honor, and to love, and whose presence 
we now greet with the already too long-delayed sentiment : Long life, 
health, happiness, and every blessing to our honored guest, Doctor John 

TOBBJfiY. 

Doctor Torrey, after feelingly expressing his thanks, and the surprise 
which this demonstration was to him, gave an interesting account of his 
first introduction to the study of botany, and the great difficulties that 
attended the student in those days. Botanical books, which, or their 
equivalents, are now to be had by every one, were then only to be found 
in the library of the New York Hospital. Doctor Torrey gave an account 
of some of the earlier teachers in the science, — Hosack, Eddy, Mitchell, 
and others, and a sketch of the history of the Elgin Botanic Garden. 

The next regular sentiment was, **The Flora of North America; its past 
history and Aiture prospects." This was responded to by Professor Gray, 
who facetiously remarked that he hardly knew what Flora was intended ; 
but taking one view of it, if he were to Judge Arom the number of young 
devotees that he saw, he should consider Flora's prospects very fiatter^ 
lag. He spoke of those who were collaborators in the Flora of North 



46 NATUKAL HISTORY MISCELLAKT. 

America, and especially of Sartwell and Dewey, both of whom had re* 
ceutly died, and to whose memory he paid a feeling tribute. 

Dr. Pickering, who was with the U.S. Exploring Expedition, replied to 
a sentiment referring to goTemment aid to science. Professor Eaton, to 
one on botany in our colleges. The Flora of California was the subject 
of remarks by Professor Brewer, which were interesting as well as humor- 
ous. Mr. Wm. Leggetty of the club, gave an account of the new local 
flora now in preparation. Mr. James Hogg, a member of the club, spoke 
of the relations of botany to floriculture. Professor Porter, Mr. S. T. 
Olney, and Professor Trail Green each made brief speeches. 

One of the interesting events of the evening was the production by Mr. 
T. P. James of a manuscript volume found in the Library of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Although the writer's name is not 
given in the volume, yet flrom the places visited and the plants mention- 
ed, there is no doubt that it is the diary kept by Pursh while he was in 
this country. It is very minute in its account, and is written in such im- 
perfect English, that readings from it created much merriment. It came 
into the possession of the Academy with the plants belonging to the late 
Dr. B. S. Barton, who, it is well known, was a fjriend and patron of 
Pursh. Professor Gray remarked upon the singular way in which things 
long separated would sometimes come together. He had, fk*om the sale 
of Xambert's library in London, a MS. map of the United States, with 
Pursh's route traced upon it, and as that evidently belonged with the 
diary, he should take pleasure in presenting it to the Academy. 

Letters were received A:om many botanists who were unable to be pres* 
ent ; all of them expressed great regret at their necessary absence, and 
each one conveyed the warmest good wishes to Doctor Torrey. 

The letters were read by Dr. F. J. Bumstead, and among them were 
those ft*om Professor J. T. Rothrock, Dr. J. W. Bobbins, L. Lesquereanx, 
George Vasey, George W. Clinton, Dr. J. Carson, Professor E. Tucker- 
man, W. D. Brackenridge, Professor J. Lewis Russell, Dr. Z. Pitcher, 
Professor J. P. Kirtland, and that of Dr. Jacob Bigelow, now the oldest 
American botanist, we give entire. 

Boston, Dec. 13, 1867. 

Gektlsmen,— Toar kind and flattering Invitation, requesting my presence at a snppcr to 
be given In New York in honor of my much respected and long-cstcenied IViend, Dr. John 
Torrey, is received with much gratitude. If It were now May or June instead of bleak Decem- 
ber, I should be Irresistibly tempted to Join In your appropriate festivity. Bui as there is at 
present no travelling conservatory between Boston and New York which can be relied on eflJBO* 
tually to exclude the fVost, I am obliged reluctantly to give up the profl'ered plcasnre. My 
acquaintance with your honored guest, Dr. Torrey, dates back for half a century. At that dis- 
tance of time, I had devoted my self considerably to Botanical studies, and had published a little 
work on the plants of Boston. Dr. Torrey, who was then meditating a national work on North 
American plants, with more kindness than discretion, wrote me a letter, generously offering 
me the use of his collections, notes, and personal assistance, if I would undertake tlie enter- 
prise. Fortunately for Botanical Science, I declined the responsibility, and the work has since 
been wholly carried out by himself and his dlstlngnished colleague. Professor Asa Gray. For 
myself, I have been obliged to confine my herborlzations mostly to the pavements of the streets, 
though at times I have broken loose in pursuit of my first love, and have gathered plants on the 
Rhine, tlie Rhone, the Tiber, and the Danube, not overlooking the St. Lawrence and the Mis- 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 47 

■onrl. In Jane of laat summer I (band myf elf calling slmplea at Fort Barker, away among the 
bnilUoes and prairie dojrs on the Smoky -hill fork of the Kansas River. 

Altliongh if a scientific section of my trunk were now to be made, It might exhibit about 
Ibiir-score annual circles, yet I am happy to state that the ligneous fibres appear thus far to do 
their duty, and the sap vessels to transmit their contents. And I confidently trust that on no 
occasion will my botanical Mends find me to be hollow-hearted. 

I am, gentlemen, with the greatest respect, your obedient servant, 

JACOB BIGELOW. 

•o* 



ZOOLOGY. 

The Breedino Habits of Birds. — I notice in the Noyember num- 
ber of the Naturalist an article from Mr. Fowler, in which are given 
some interesting facts in relation to the breeding habits of several of 
our birds, but which are, as Mr. Fowler says, so utterly at variance 
with the accounts given of these bird's habits in my recent book, that 
I unwillingly trespass on your limits for an explanation, and reiteration 
of some of my remarks. In the work referred to, I describe the King- 
fisher's nests as being placed in holes excavated in sand-banks, to the 
depth of three, four, sometimes six or eight feet. 

The holes found by Mr. Fowler were less than three feet in length, 
and none of them contained any nest materials whatever. Here Mr. 
Fowler's experience is entirely different firom my own, for of numbers 
of these holes that I have dug out, many of them were beyond four feet 
in length, one certainly more than six feet, and I have heard of one that 
was carried to the depth of nearly eight feet. All of these holes had 
their loose nests composed of straws, sticks, and a few feathers, and I 
should be surprised to meet with the eggs laid on the cold damp earth, 
such as would be at the bottom of such deep excavations. I find, on re- 
ferring to the various authors, that nearly all had similar experiences with 
mine. 

Audubon says, *'The hole is dug to the depth of four, five, or some- 
times six feet; at the farther end, on a few sticks and feathers, the 
eggs are deposited." 

Wilson says, **The hole is dug, sometimes to the extent of four or five 
feet. The nest is constructed of loose grass and a few feathers." 

Nnttall says, *'The bank is horizontally perforated, to the depth of five 
or six feet. Here, on a few twigs, grass, and feathers, the eggs are de- 
posited." 

Dr. Thompson, in "Birds of Vermont," says, "The perforations some- 
times extend five or six feet into the bank. The nest consists of twigs, 
grass, and feathers." 

In describing the breeding place of the Red or Mottled Owl, in my 
work, I use the following language: "The Mottled Owl selects for a 
nesting-place a hollow tree, often In the orchard. The nest is made at 
the bottom of the hollow, and is constructed of grass, leaves, moss, and 
sometimes a few feathers. It is not elaborately made, being nothing 
more than a heap of soft materials." 



48 KATUBAL HISTOBT laSOELLANY. 

Here again Mr. Fowler disagrees with me, saying that the bird makes 
no nesti or, at least, he has never found one. I can only say that I have 
found numbers of the nests of these birds, none of which were in the 
'* abandoned nest of the crow or hawk," but all were made, as before de- 
scribed, in holes in trees. I have had over fifty eggs of this species sent 
me during the past season, and all were found in such nests as I have 
described. With this species I also find that my accounts are supported 
by other authors. 

Nuttall says, '* The nest is usually in the hollow of an old orchard tree ; 
it is lined carelessly with a little hay, leaves, and feathers." 

Audubon says, '' The nest is placed in the bottom of the hollow trunk 
of a tree, often not at a greater height than six or seven feet* from the 
ground, at other times so high as Arom thirty to forty feet. It Is com- 
posed of a few grasses and feathers." 

Dr. Thompson, in << Birds of Vermont," says, *' Their nest, which is 
made of grass and feathers, is placed at the bottom of a hollow tree or 
stub." 

I give this matter this extended notice, not for the purpose of throwing 
discredit on Mr. Fowler*s statements, for I know him to be a good ob- 
server, but to show that my descriptions will faithfUUy apply to, at least, 
the majority of occurrences in the breeding habits of the species refer- 
red to. 

As to the matter of the Marsh Hawk's nest being <' rather neatly 
woven," to which Mr. Fowler takes exceptions, I will say that per- 
haps ** Interlaced" would be a better word, since "woven" gives an 
idea of sewing, such as the process of preparing the nest of the Yireo 
and Oriole, but "Interlaced" conveys the idea of carefUl ac(justment, 
which should be understood in connection with the nest of this 8i>e- 
cies. — Edwabd a. Samuels, Boston, 

Bee Farasfte. — Inclosed you will find some thin shavings flrom boards 
and slabs where the Xylocopa abounds, with small eggs attached, which 
I strongly suspect to be those of Anthrax ninuosa. They are found 
quite numerously around the openings of the cells of the former insect, 
and also extend to some distance f^om them. In pressing some of these 
eggs with the point of a pin, small nmggots made their appearance, but 
my lens was not powerful enough to enable me to make out what they 
were, but they seemed to me to resemble very much the Anthrax in its 
earliest stages, as I have found it on the Xylocopa. I have no doubt you 
can determine this matter^* and should it prove to be what I have sup- 
posed it is, it will open an interesting field for fViture observation. One 
reason that strongly inclines me to the belief that they are the eggs of 
Anthrax is, that one day I discovered an Anthrax on the wing by one of 
the openings of a Xylocopa cell, acting in the same manner as the Bot-fly 
in depositing its eggs on the horse. I was very busy at the time, and 

•The eggB had dried up so they were not reoognlxahle.— Ens. 



NATURAL HISTORY BaSGELULBH'. 49 

did not look ft>r the eggs until some time afterwards, when I found those 
of which the inclosed are a sample. However, I think if you find them 
to belong to a dipterous insect, there can be no doubt but they are those 
of ^. sinuosa, — James Angus. 

Hibernation of Wild Bees. — I beg leave to say that I think you 
have made a mistake in supposing or stating that the females only, 
and not the males of Ceratina dupla, survive the winter. Both sexes, 
according to my observations, hybemate, as also Xylocopa Virginica. 

I beg leave also to make another correction. You say,* with regard 
to Ants, that the workers only hybernate. I have found the females of 
some species hybernating in common with the workers in great quan- 
tities, and not unfrequently males also. While this is the case with some 
species, I think what you say is correct with regard to otiicrs. — James 
Angus. 

Juvenile Natural History Society — We have in this city per- 
haps quite a scientific curiosity, namely, a Juvenile Society of Natural 
History, composed of boys less than twenty years of age. We have 
been organized two years, and are now in a very flourishing condition, 
although it was hard "tugging" for a few of us the first year. We V.ave, 
for us, a large collection, and a good one, numbering some eight hun- 
dred specimens. We cannot, of course, do much at research, but we are 
coming surely along the ruad you older naturalists have gone ; and, by 
and by, when we get oa the frontier where you are, you will hear ftom 
us. — G. W. Smith, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 

Protbcjtion op Trees from Insects.— The quantity of fruit de- 
stroyed by insects that deposit their eggs in the blossoms is enormous. 
These creatures are said to have a great antipathy to vinegar, the mere 
odor of which is enough to drive them away, and, in some cases, to des- 
troy them, and nothing more is required than to sprinkle the branches 
with a mixture of vinegar and water at the moment the blossoms begin 
to appear. The solution, consisting of one part of strong vinegar to 
nine parts of water, can be sprinkled over the flower-buds by means of 
a garden engine or syringe, or even with a watering-pot with a fine nose. 
--Proceedings of the Entomological Society, London, 1866. 

Occurrence of the Barnacle Goose in North America. — A speci- 
men of this goose (Bemicla leucopsis) has recently been received by the 
Smithsonian Institution from Mr. B. R. Ross, a gentleman well known for 
his collections and publications relative to arctic zoology. It was obtain- 
ed by that gentleman near Rupert House, on James Bay (the southern 
end of Hudson Bay), and is believed to be the flrst North American speci- 
men brought to the notice of naturalists. It has for a long time been in- 
dicated as belonging to our founa, but only on hearsay evidence of gun- 
ners and travellers, and it is not mentioned by Richardson at all in his 
work on American Arctic Zoology. — S. F. Baird. 



• Naturalist, Vol. I, p. 893. 
AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. H. 7 



50 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

A Double £og. — Yesterday one of my seryants, on opening a hen's 
egg found another egg within it. The inclosed was about the size of a 
robin's egg, with a well-formed, slightly rough shell. It lay in the white. 
The parent egg was fUUy formed and was eaten. I heard of it on arriT- 
Ing home, and secured the small one. It has not yet been opened. — £. L. S. 

There are two similar specimens in the Museum of the Essex Institute. 
Two cases are also mentioned as occurring in England, in ffardvricke's 
Science Gossipy in which it states that a " communication was made last 
year to the Academic des Sciences of France, of a similar occurrence." — 
Editors. 

Habits of the Striped Snake. — A case of the common striped snake 
killing its prey — a common mouse — after a chase by crushing it in its folds 
in the boa constrictor manner, has for the first time come to my know- 
ledge. In trying to escape, the mouse ran up the inner angle of a wall 
some eighteen inches, when the snake (which was about twenty-four 
Inches in length) caught it, enveloping it in its folds with lightning-like 
f apidity, crushed and killed it, and then swallowed it, all after the man- 
ner described of the large constrictors, except perhaps the chasing. — 
P. W., Newark, N, J. 

MICROSCOPY. 

The Microscope in Geology.— D. Forbes, in the Popular Science 
Review, writes on this rather novel subject. After a few prefatory 
remarks upon the general advantages of the use of the Microscope in 
studying the intimate structure of rocks, the author divides them all 
into two classes, "Primary or Eruptive," and "Secondary or Sedlmen- 
y tary Rocks." Under the first head he states that "the mineral constitu- 

ents of such rocks are seen to be developed as more or less perfect 
crystals, at all angles to one another," which he infers could only take 
place in a rock at one time, "in a state of liquidity or solution" (aqueous 
or igneous). When " quartz, leucite, calcite, felspar," and other colorless 
minerals present similar appearances in thin sections, they may be dis- 
tinguished by " their optical properties and the use of polarized light;" 
by similar tests different forms of the same mineral may be separated, 
and the structure, whether crystalline or vitreous, determined, and the 
alterations in eruptive rocks produced by the action of water, the atmos- 
phere, or other agencies advantageously studied. In conclusion, reference 
is made to tlie discovery by Sorby of the existence "of numerous minute 
fluid cavities in the quartz of granites," and also in volcanic rocks, *^in the 
felspar and nephiline ejected ft>om the crater of Vesuvius." These facts, 
and the farther statement that "fluid vapor, gas, and stone cavities, are 
common both to the volcanic quartz-trachytes and the oldest granites," 
are used as proving the great value of the microscope in this branch of 
inquiry. Under the head of Sedimentary Rocks, the author distinguishes 



NATUBAL HISTORY KISOELLANT. 51 

three kinds or classes : 1st. "Those composed of the immediate products 
of the breaking up of eniptive rocks." 2d. ** Rocks built np of the more 
or less rounded or angular debris of previously existing sedimentary or 
eruptive rocks.*' 8d. <* Rocks composed of mineral substance extracted 
from aqueous solution by crystallization, precipitation, or the action of 
organic life." Strata of the first class are often identical in aspect and 
chemical composition, but their irregular sedimentary structure is dis- 
solved upon submitting them to the microscopical test. Very fine, com- 
pact rocks may be distinguished Trom crystalline rocks by the same 
means. ** Roofing-slate, however, has a definite arrangement of the par- 
ticles in lines, which constitute the lines of weakness or the cleavage of 
the slate." This arrangement, however, is explained by the effects of 
pressure, applied at right-angles to the structure itself, causing an elon- 
gation of some, together with a sliding movement of others of the par- 
ticles. 

Under the third head we notice that the clays of Staflbrdshire, when 
altered by contact with basaltic dykes, present a structui« Identical with 
common stoneware made from th§ same clays, and show '' no change ih 
mineral or chemical composition, beyond the expulsion of the water 
always contained in such beds." The foliated schists, quartzites, etc., 
show the contours of the original sand-grains, and, as Sorby has pointed 
out, the existence of ripple-drift and wave-structure. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Thb Mistletoe. — I believe it is the common opinion of naturalists 
that the common Mistletoe of this Southern country steals the elabo- 
rated sap trom the stalk which supports it. I think it can be proved 
that it does not, but that it draws its portion of crude sap and elabo- 
rates it, returning a portion to the tree on which it grows. J would 
be very glad to know if I am correct in reference to the common opin- 
ion of naturalists^ and will oblige you to inform me. — J. M. 

It is not the common opinion that the Mistletoe of the Southern States, 
or, in fact, any parasite with green foliage, draws merely elaborated sap 
from its host ; otherwise why the green leaves ? We know that the office 
of green leaves is to elaborate sap, and therefore in those plants (Oro- 
banchace(E, Monotropa, etc.) which depend wholly upon their hosts for 
elaborated nourishment, we find no green leaves. We should be glad of 
the record of any observations, which have been carefblly made, with the 
view of proving experimentally that the Mistletoe does not take elabo- 
rated sap alone (for it very probably takes some) trom its host, as they 
could not fail to be interesting. ^H. M. 

The Mastodon in Kansas. — I send you a photograph and descrip- 
tion of a vertebra of some species of the Mammalia tor determination. 
The whole skeleton is said to be imbedded in the mud in one of our 



52 KATUBAL HI8TOBT MI80EIXANY. 

streams, where there is some danger of savarUa losing their scalps. One 
rib has been detached and ground up into powder by the Indians for med- 
icine. — John D. Fabkeb, Tcpeka, Kansas, 

We referred yoor letter and photograph to Professor J. Wyman, who 
writes: — 

**The photograph is unluckily taken Arom an oblique point of view, 
which I belieye people will never learn to be a bad one. If the view had 
been full front, or ftiU side, or ftdl anything, it would hav^ been better 
than this. I have come to the conclusion that it is either the last lumbar, 
or first sacral vertebra of a Mastodon. The great compression of the 
spinal canal is in toy or of its being sacral." 

Are Bees Injubious to Fruit. —In answer to the question by J. J. 
Gould (Wenham, Mass.), whether bees are in any way injurious to ftult, 
or lessen its quality or quantity, I would reply that all the evidence given 
by botanists and zoologists who have specially studied this subject shows 
that bees improve the quality and tend to increase the quantity of fhiit. 
They aid in the fertilization of flowers, thus preventing the occurrence of 
sterile flowers, and by more thoroughly fertilizing flowers already perfect, 
render the production of sound and well-developed fruit more sure. Many 
botanists think if it were not for bees and other insects, many plants 
would not fruit at all. This whole subject of the great office bees and 
other insects perform in the fertilization of plants has been fUliy discus- 
sed in the May, July, and October numbers of the American Naturaust, 
and by Professor Asa Gray in the American Agriculturist, beginning in 
May, 1866. 

It is alleged that bees do injury in some way by extracting the honey 
from flowers. What is the use in nature of honey ? The best observers 
will tell you it is secreted by the plant for the very purpose of attracting 
bees to the flower, otherwise it is of no use to the flower or fruit. 

If all the bees were to be destroyed, I for one, if a farmer, would prefer 
to go into some other business. This prejudice against bees seems to us 
to have no foundation. Known facts prove the contrary. Parmers know 
too well the injury noxious insects do ; it is more difficult to estimate the 
good done by hosts of beneflcial insects. I believe that every intelligent 
bee-keeper and naturalist will assent to the truth of the above remarks. — 
A. S. P. 

B. H., Nichols, K. Y. — The hymenopterous insect frx>m the sugar- 
maple tree is the Tremez columba. It bores, while in the larva state, into 
the trunk of the maple and oak. The beetles are Copris anaglypticus Say, 
Cicindela sexguttata, Ancylocheira Q-plagiata and A. fasciata. The fly is 
allied to Tabanusj the House-fly, and has a powerful bite. 

E. B., Wheeling, West Virginia. — The microscopic form foimdin Pe- 
ruvian Guano appears to be one of the PolycystinsB. The only authority 
that we know of is Ehrenberg's Microgeologie. Specific, and even ge- 
neric names, are almost useless in this group of Bhizopods. — C. S. 



PBOCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 53 

W. W. G., Ann Arbor, Wis. — The little insects called snow-fleas are 
probably the Fodura nivicola of Dr. Fitch. They are fonnd in winter 
at the foot of trees, under the bark of which they live, and also about 
manure heaps and in cellars. 

The Heleochara commiiniSy a homopterous insect, allied in form to the 
Cicada, or serenteen-year locust, produces the ftog-spittle seen in mid- 
summer on grass. The larva sucks in the sap, which passes through the 
body and forms a Arothy mass concealing the insect. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



Essex Institute, Salem. — First Field Meeting at Haverhill, on Tuesday, 
July 2, 1867, postponed from the preceding Thursday, on account of the 
weather. Haverhill, located on the north bank of the Merrimac, is a 
thriving and busy place, noted for its extensive manufacture of shoes. 
It abounds in interesting historic lore ; for a period of seventy years was 
one of the most exposed of the frontier towns, and many harrowing tales 
of Indian barbarity id among its well-authenticated legends. The prin- 
cipal point of attraction to the naturalist is **Kenoza Lake," formerly 
known as the " Great Pond," a lovely sheet of water, embosomed among 
the hills, covering an area of about three hundred acres. During their 
rambles in its vicinity the party was rewarded in finding many interest- 
ing specimens in the various departments. 

The afternoon session was held in the North Congregational Church, 
and was called to order at 2.30 o'clock, Vice-president Fowler in the chair. 
Dr. George B, Loring, of Salem, made a few eloquent remarks on the 
prospects of the year, and tlie occasion which had brought them together. 
F. W. Putnam, of Salem, gave a description of the habits of the common 
Plant-louse. Dr. James B. Nichols, of Haverhill, remarked that chemi- 
cal science had recently discovered an efilectual destroyer of plant in- 
sects, a new substance called Carbolic acid, which is eliminated fi-om coal 
tar, and made farther comments on this subject. Dr. N. also spoke of 
the collections and library of the Institute, and alluded in very appropriate 
terms to the recent donation of Mr. George Peabody, for the promotion 
of science and usefUl knowledge in this county. Edward S. Morse, of 
Salem, drew a comparison of the studies of the naturalist near the sea 
with those made in the interior, and alluded to the families of animals 
found in these respective localities which are worthy of study. Alpheus 
Hyatt, of Salem, spoke of the geological features of this section of the 
county. Bev. Dr. Seeley, of Haverhill ; Hon. Allen W. Dodge, of Hamilton j 
Professor A. Crosby, of Salem ; Dr. J. Spofford, of Groveland ; Hon. War- 
ten Ordway, of Bradford, and others, made interesting remarks. 



54 FBOCEEDINGS OF SGIEKTUTIO SOCIETIES. 

Second Meeting at Andaver. — After a cordial reception bj Professor 
Thayer, of the Theological Seminary, the company divided into small 
parties, and visited the various objects of interest ; many went to the 
library and museum of the Theological Seminary, the new building of 
the Phillips Academy, etc. The naturalists repaired to the woods and 
meadows, and were amply repaid for their excursions. The meeting 
was held in the South Congregational Church. Dr, George B. Loring, of 
Salem, of the Field Meeting Committee, presided, and, on taking the chair, 
alluded to several interesting episodes in the history of this town, and 
briefly stated the objects of the Institute. A. Hyatt, of Salem, spoke of 
water as equalling fire in its destructive power, — its agency in producing 
the various changes on the earth's surface during the several geological 
epochs. E. S, Morse, of Salem, gave a description of several snails, which 
he had found during the previous ramble, and illustrated his subject by 
drawings on the blackboard. Professor Hitchcock exhibited a map of An- 
dover, upon which he had designated, by different colors, the localities of 
the four principal kinds of rocks — granite, stratified gneiss, mica schist, 
and rocks resembling Qulncy sienite. George D, Phippen, of Salem, spoke 
of the flora. Bev. Mr. Smith, pastor of the church ; Pev. C B. Palmer, of 
Salem ; Mr, F. G. Sanborn, of Andover ; Professor D. Crosby, of Dart- 
mouth College ; Professor A, Crosby, of Salem ; President Larrabee, for- 
merly of Middlebury College, and others, addressed the meeting. 

Third Meeting at Beverly -Farma, on Thursday, August 1, 1867. — Dis- 
embarking at Pride's Crossing on the Gloucester Branch Railroad, the 
party separated into groups, under guides familiar with the a(!Uacent 
country. One of these groups rambled over the wild and elevated re- 
gion known as ''Beverly Commons," and noticed several large and pecu- 
liar boulders, also a large variety of interesting plants ; another group 
visited the sea-shore, and strolled through the grounds surrounding the 
elegant mansions in that beautifhl locality. A party of naturalists passed 
the forenoon in dredging the harbor for crabs, worms, mollusks, and 
zoophytes. 

The afternoon session was held In the Second Baptist Church, at 2 
o'clock. Vice-president A. C, Goodell, jr,, in the chair. After a few pre- 
liminary remarks from the chair, reading records, correspondence, and 
donations, C. M, Tracy, of Lynn, described the flora peculiar to this re- 
gion. There were, he observed, marked peculiarities In the flora of Essex 
county and a part of Middlesex, which seemed to indicate the influence 
of the geological formation ; examples were cited to sustain this suppo- 
sition. George D, Phippen, of Salem, also spoke on the general subject of 
botany. He observed that all plants were in some sense wild plants, 
since those cultivated in one country, grow spontaneously in others. 
Messrs. E. S. Morse and A. Hyatt spoke of the various objects found 
during the previous drcdgings, — the flrst named discussed the mollusca, 
the other the radiates, and also described the dlff'erent belts or zones in 
which animals and plants are found, each having its peculiar species. 



FBOCEEDING8 OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 55 

Joseph E. Obevy of Beverly Farms, gave a valaable historical sketch of 
West's Beach. He said that the name was derived, not from the point 
of compass, but ftrom John West, who held a grant of the place from 
Salem in 1660. Bev. A. P. Peabody, D.D., of Harvard University; B. S. 
Bantoul, F, W. Putnam, E, N. Walton, T. Bopes, and if. Wheatland^ all of 
Salem, made remarks appertaining to the objects of the meeting. 

Fourth Meeting at Kittery, Maine, on Thursday, Augast 21, 1867. — The 
first meeting outside the limits of the State, and the second held out of 
£i4sex county. The pilncipal objects of attraction, aside from the natu- 
ral history of the place, are the U. S. Navy-yard, and the historical asso- 
ciations ; here are to be seen the mansion of Sir William Fepperell, the 
richest merchant and most extensive land-owner in New England at the 
time when he won his military reputation at Louisburg, and a baronetcy 
from the English crown ; a portion of this building has been changed, but 
enough remains to give an idea of its pristine grandeur ; also, the Spar- 
hawk mansion, built by Sir William for his married daughter, is elabo- 
rately decorated; the Cutts' house, etc., etc. 

The afternoon session was held in the stockholder's building of th« 
P. S. & P. Railroad, kindly granted to our use by the President and 
Directors of the road, and was called to order at 2 o'clock, by Vice- 
president Goodell, Various botanical and zoological specimens, culled 
by the members, were laid upon the tabic, and the chairman called upon 
various gentlemen to explain them. Mr, C, M. JTracy, of Lynn, discussed 
the floral, and Messrs. F. W. Putnam and E, IS, Morse, of Salem, the zoo- 
logical. Dr. Elliott Coues, of U. S. Army, took for his theme the genus 
homo, or that part of It which is native to Arizona Territory, the Apache 
Indians, and presented some extended remarks illustrative of their habits 
and character. Bev. E. C. Bolles, of Portland, spoke for the Portland 
Society of Natural History, and then gave an interesting discourse on 
microscopic fUngi. Bev. Joseph Banvard, of Patterson, N. J., responded 
for a new society, founded on the plan of the Institute. Bev. George D. 
Wildes, of Salem, alluded to the Historical Associations of this place. 
James N. Buffum, of Lynn, and others, addressed the meeting. Capt. 
Stephen Decatur, U.S.N., who is now totally blind, and resides at Kittery, 
was present at the meeting, and seemed to enter Hilly into its spirit. 

Fifth Meeting at Ipswich, Friday, October 4, 1867. — A charming old 
town, replete with many old historical associations. On arriving, the 
party proceeded to the Town Hall, where the baskets were deposited, 
ttom which they diverged in various directions, some into the woods, 
along the banks of the river, and down to the very interesting beach 
Just below its mouth. Some took the Topsfield road, in search of plants 
and snails ; others to " the neck," where some ancient Indian mounds 
were inspected. 

The afternoon session was held in the vestry of the Methodist Church. 
Vice-president Goodell, upon taking the chair, explained the objects of the 
Society, and briefly recounted its history. George D. Phippen, ot Salem, 



56 FBOGEEDINGS OF 8GIENTIFIG SOCIETIES. 

spoke of the flora. E, S. Morse described the Indian relics found in the 
mounds on the neck, also those which he had found at Goose Island, in 
Portland harbor. He concluded his remarks by describing the manner 
in which certain of the lower animals eat, illustrating the process with 
figures on the blackboard. 

Chicago Academy op Sciences. Oct. 8, 1867. — Dr. J. J. Jewell, of 
the Lake Tunnel, read a report in relation to the geology of the Chicago 
Lake Tunnel. 

Dr. Meyers, of Fort Wayne, Ind., then described the finding of the 
bones of the Mastodon, presented by him to the academy. He said the 
locality of the bones was accidentally discovered by a farmer named 
Trush, who was then digging a drain through one of his fields in Noble 
county, Indiana. He learned of the discovery and purchased the bones 
found by the farmer, as well as the right to make farther explorations. 
In carrying on the investigations he called in the aid of Dr. Stimpson, of 
Chicago. These two spent several days in superintending excavations, 
and were rewarded by the accumulation of one of the finest collections of 
mastodon bones ever found. These evidently belong to three individ- 
uals, two adult (probably male and female) and one young one. The 
skeleton of the calf and one of the adults are nearly complete, and capa- 
ble of being mounted. They lay at the depth of four or five feet, in a 
stratum of peat overlaying blue clay, containing lacustrine shells. In the 
peat among the bones w^e found fragments of boughs and branches of 
several kinds of wood, in a good state of preservation, some of which had 
been gnawed by the beaver. The spot at which the bones were found 
is a small basin-shaped depression in the middle of a corn-field, which 
was formerly a willow swamp, and has but recently been sufliciently well 
drained to allow of cultivation. It is a region where traces of ancient 
lakes and beaver-dams are particularly abundant. 

The size of the adult mastodon has not yet been estimated. That 
described by Dr. Warren measured seventeen feet in length by eleven 
feet in height, and it is supposed that the largest of these here described 
will not fall far short of this in dimensions. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

yaturalisVs yote Book, London. November, December, 1867. 

Land and Wnter. London. November S, 9, 16, 23, 30, December 7, U, 81, S8, 1867. 
Jamioryi, 11,1888. 

Hardwiek^s Science Ooitto. November, December, 1867. Jannaiy, 1868. 

Co»mo9, November 23,* December 7, 14, 21, 28, 1867. January 4, 11, 18, 18C8. Paris. 

From Arizona to the Pacific. By Elliott Coues, M. D. (From the Ibis, July, 1867.) 8vo, 
pp. 16. 

The Field. November 30, December 1 14, 21, 1867. January 25, 1868. London. 

Quarterly Journal of Science. London. January. 1868. 

Americ4in Dee Journal, January. February, 1868. 

Popular Science Review (Quarterly). London. January, 1868. 

Chemical New8. January, Febmaiy, 1868. 

* The number for Nov. 30 was never received at this ofBee; wiU the irabllshers please mall 
another copy? 

t The number for Dec 7 was never received. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. n.— APRIL, 1868.— No. 2. 
NOTES ON MEXICAN ANTS. 

BY EDWARD NORTON. 

The insects mentioned in the following paper were for- 
warded to the Smithsonian Institution from Mexico by Pro- 
fessor Sumichrast, with notes by him upon the habits of 
several of the species. It is a matter of some interest to 
notice, that, among over twenty' species, about half of which 
are undescribed, not one is known in the United States, 
while several are found in Panama and Brazil. Yet many 
of them live in the temperate region of Mexico ! 

I have added to the statements of Professor Sumichrast 
some recorded accounts of several of the species already 
described, to show how little is really known about these 
curious insects, and partly in the hope that some reader of 
this paper may also become an observer of the species around 
his own home, in their varied habits and occupations and 
labors. In the whole insect world, only the honey-bee 
equals the ant in its instinct and the development of rea- 
soning powers which appear truly marvellous in such minute 
creatures. 

Perhaps the nK>st striking peculiarity of the ants is their 
social character ; assembling in companies of almost countless 
numbers, and yet working in harmony for definite objects ; 

Entered aeeordlnir to Act of Congreaa, in the year 18G8L hy the Pcabodt Acadkmt ov 
Booorcx, in the Clerk*s Office of the District Coort of the District of Massaehasetu. 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. H. 8 (57) 



58 NOTES ON MEXICAN ANTS. 

for whilo they have no recognized head or guide, they all 
seem to devote themselves to systematic efforts for forward- 
ing the public good. All their energies are given to this, 
and for this they are ready to sacrifice their lives. 

The family of ants, in addition to the males and females, 
which are winged and generally short-lived, presents "neu- 
ters," or workers, which are wingless and live throughout the 
year, and perform the labor of the community. The males 
and females appear in the summer only. After a certain 
time, when they are allowed to leave the nest, the whole 
society teems with excitement, and only settles back into its 
usual course when the superfluous members fly off in swarms 
to seek new homes. Of those which remain, the males soon 
die, while the females t^ar off their wings, or have them 
torn off by the workers. Once established, the female soon 
lays her eggs, which are minute, but increase in size before 
the larvBB burst forth. These are footless grubs, w^hich are 
carefully tended and fed by the workers, with a fluid pre- 
viously elaborated in their stomachs. When fully grown, 
these larv80 assume the dormant or pupa state, some genera 
forming cocoons, and some not, and soon undergo the trans- 
formation into the perfect insect. These larvaj and pupae 
are watched with jealous care by the workers, and are trans- 
ported by them to different parts of the nest, or more or less 
exposed to the air according to the temperature. Before 
man can foresee the coming storm, the nests are securely 
closed, and ere the skies are fairly cleared, their labors are 
resumed. The bodies of other animals, the juices of plants, 
and even the sap secretions of other insects, such as Aphides, 
or Plant-lice, are taken by them for the nourishment of tlieir 
helpless charges. 

The workers often present two distinct forms, now called 
the major and minor workers, in addition to which a third 
set of workers is often found in one nest, which are evidently 
of another species, but have been captured when larv» by 
the stronger species, and bred and enslaved for this purpose. 



NOTES ON HEXIGAN ANTS. 59 

On this point but little is recorded as yet in this country,* 
but we have abundant testimony from observers of Eui*opean 
species. 

The major workers are usually of large size, and have the 
head grea,tly developed, but are comparatively few in num- 
ber. Their duties in the society are not clearly understood, 
but they are supposed to have some kind of superintendence 
over the rest. 

In the following descriptions I have thought best only to 
mention one or more of the prominent external characteris- 
tics by which the genera of the species here mentioned may 
be known .f 

SUBFAMILr FoRMicmiB. 

In the genus Formica^ the node, or knot-like segment 
between the thorax and abdomen, forms a smooth, oval or 
globular mass, and there is no sting. 

Formica esuriens Smith. '^This is very common in Ori- 
zaba and Cordova. It lives in gi'eat numbers in dead trees, 
in which it tunnels galleries, or under stones.'* From its 
form this should be grouped ynth our large black Formica 
Pennsylvanica, which lives in dead trees. It is not by 
any means certain that the species living in dead wood per- 
forates that which is living. It seems much more likely 
that it occupies the channels already opened by the grubs of 
various borers, and helps to complete the work partly done 
for it. In this region the worker remains in a torpid state 

* See Mr. J. A. Allen's " Notice of a Foray of a Colony of Formica ianguinea La- 
troUle, npon a Colony of the black speciea of Formica, for the purpose of making 
Slaves of the latter." Proceedings of the Essex Institute, Vol. V, p. 14, 1806. 

tThe Ant-family, FormicidtBt has been separated into three subdivisions, having the 
following prominent external characteristics : — 

Formieitke. -~ The first segment of the abdomen forming a single node. (See Fig. 3 a, 

•bowing the spinose node of Fotyrhachia.) Not provided with a sting. 

PoficridcB.— The first segment of the abdomen with one node. Provided with a 
rtlng. 

ifynnJeJcicB.— The first segment of tbe abdomen with two nodes. Provided with a 

sting. From this last, two more snbfiimilies have been separated,— the Attida^ the 

ni^lor workers of which have enoimonsly developed heads, and the CryptooeridtB^ 

the heads of which are fiattened, so that the expanded sides wholly or partly conceal the 

eyes. They are stingless. 



60 NOTES ON BfEXIGAN ANTS. 

in decaying wood in midwinter. Dr. Fitch has described a 
smaller species {Formica Carycei) which inhabits hickory 
trees, boring its passages, as he thinks, in the living wood. 
The wood on the sides of these passages is much discolored 
and softened, probably by an acrid fluid (formic acid) emit- 
ted for that purpose by the insects. 

Formica Jidvacea. (Fig. 1, worker major.) ''Taken in 
Cordova, where, in the woods, it ordinarily makes its nests 
in the middle branches of Bromeliaceous parasites." 

Formica nitida. ''Inhabits the mountains of Orizaba, 
where it lives in little companies under the bark of pines." 

Formica nacerda. "Orizaba and Cordova. Found upon 
leaves of plants." 

Tapinoma. In this genus the node is usually received 
into a depression at the base of the abdomen proper, so that 
at first sight it often seems to be entirely wanting. 

Tapinoma piceata. "Potrero (near Cordova.) In the wood 
of oaks." 

Tapinoma tomerUoaa. (Fig. 2, worker; the antennae im- 
perfect.) "Orizaba. In little societies under stones." 

Polyrhachia. This genus has the node of the peduncle 
thickened and usually spinose (whence the generic name 
from the Greek, meaning many-poirUed)^ having two, three, 
or four spines. The thorax is usually more or less armed 
with spines or hooks. 

Folyrhachis arboricola. (Fig. 3, worker, 3 a, side view 
of thorax and abdomen.) "Mexico. Indigenous in the hot 
region, where it is very common. Its nest is ordinarily 
placed in the cracks or apertures of large trees. It often 
chooses the abandoned nests ( Comejens) of the White Ants, 
or Termites* (In these Comejens, which are often very large, 
sometimes dwells a little species of Paroquet, the Conurus 
Aztec Somm.) It is quite vagabond in its habits, and one 
sees it running around on the trunks of all sorts of trees 
and leaves of shrubs, which strongly proves it to be essen- 
tially a tree inhabitant. It causes no trouble on plantations." 



notes on mexican ants. 61 

Subfamily Ponerid-e. 

Ponera. This genus, which is allied to the ^'Driver Ant" 
of the west coast of Africa, is known by having the node of 
the peduncle thickened, nodiform, with the first segment of 
the abdomen more or less constricted. In the anterior wings 
there are one marginal, two complete submerged, and one 
discoidal cell. All the tibial spurs of the tibite ore pectinate, 
or comb-like. 

Ponera strigata, ''Temperate region of Mexico, under 
stones.** 

Ponera pedunculata Smith. One worker was received 
from Mexico. This species has previously occurred at Pan- 
ama and at Rio. 

Ectatomma, This genus is known by the thickened node 
of the peduncle, and the deep constriction between the first 
and second segments of the abdomen. The antennae are in- 
serted low down at the base of the clypeus ; the eyes are 
placed above the middle of the face, while the spurs of only 
the anterior tibiae are pectinate. 

Ectatomma ferruginea. (Fig. 4, 4 a, side view of pedun- 
cle of the abdomen.) "Mexico. This species is only found 
in the encindleSy or oak forests of the hot and temperate 
region, where it lives in little societies under the trunks of 
fallen trees." The male difiers very greatly in its antennse 
and the form of the thorax from the worker. Mr. Smith has 
noted and figured several such cases. But this species seems 
peculiar in the division of the metathorax. 

Subfamily Mybmigid^. 

In the genus Ecitoriy the peduncle consists of two nodes. 
The males and females are unknown. Both kinds of work- 
ers have very minute eyes, which are absent in some species. 
In several species the major workers have very long man- 
dibles curved at the end, but without teeth. 

Eciton hamata Fabr. "Eio Atoyai, near Cordova." This 
is also found in Brazil and Cayenne. The two kinds of ^ 



62 NOTES ON MEXICAN ANTS. 

workers in this aud the succeeding species have been pre- 
viously described. 

Eciton Mexicana Roger, (Fig. 5, worker major, 5 a, 
front view of head showing the immense sickle-like mandi- 
bles, and only the two basal joints of the antennas. Fig. 6, 
worker minor, with a front view of the head, showing the 
mandibles of the usual size.) "Cordova, Orizaba, etc." 

Eciton brunnea. "Occurs at Cordova, Orizaba, etc." 

Eciton 8umichrasti. (Fig. 7.) "Cordova, Orizaba, etc. All 
the researches that I have made up to this time to discover the 
formicarium of the Eciton, have been fruitless, and I cannot 
obtain any information from the natives where these insects 
are common. At one time only (May, 1865) I found under a 
fallen trunk a prodigious number of workers of E, Mexicana. 
They were heaped and piled upon each other like the bees 
in a swarm. Attacking them with the end of a stick, I 
obliged them to disperse, but could find no entrance which 
they concealed, no eggs, no males nor females. 

"Especially before" a storm, or after a stormy rain, one 
meets travelling bandd of Eciton, Their march is generally 
conducted in excellent order, and with a file of one or two 
individuals in front. Sometimes, however, the column en- 
larges itself, scatters and attacks with fury the passer-by, 
who, by ill-luck, has disturbed the. procession. The E. 
JkTeajicana especially seems naturally very irascible, and the 
entomologist who wishes to enrich his collection with speci- 
mens of this species, must take his time and protect his legs 
from an attack. 

"I only find the individuals with long mandibles (those 
which Smith calls major workers) among the E, hamata and 
E. Mexicana. It is difficult to satisfv oneself as to the role 
which they fill in the commimity. I have watched with 
attention the passage of columns of Eciton, but could see 
nothing to indicate any peculiar attributes to these individ- 
uals. 
. "The Eciton does no harm to agi'iculture by depriving the 



NOTES ON MEXIOAN ANT8. 63 

trees of their leaves, like the (Ecodoma. Ou the contrary, it 
destroys, probably, a host of noxious insects, and so recom- 
mends itself to planters ; while it merits the attention of 
entomologists by the singularity of its habits, and the ob- 
scurity which yet reigns about its history." 

In relation to the duties of these major workers with long 
mandibles, Mr. Bates writes (British Museum Catalogue of 
Hymenoptera, Vol. VI, p. 149) of a South American species : 
**I am quite convinced that these large-headed ones are a 
distinct order of individuals in a colony of Ecitons, and fulfil 
some distinct, peculiar functions." "I once saw on a beach 
a dense column of Ecitons descending from the rocks on one 
side of the harbor, traversing the beach and climbing again on 
the opposite side ; the length of the column visible was from 
sixty to seventy yards, and yet there was no appearance of 
the van or the rear of the army. It was probably a migra- 
tion, as all the small -headed individuals carried in their 
mandibles a cluster of white maggots, probably larvoa of 
their own species." *'The large-headed individuals were in 
proportion of perhaps about five in one hundred to the small 
individuals, but not one of them carried anything in its man- 
dibles. They were all trotting along outside of the column, 
and distributed in regular proportion throughout the whole 
line, their globular white heads rendering them quite con- 
spicuous among the rest, bobbing up and down as they trav- 
ersed the inequalities of the road." 

All of the Ecitons seem to prey upon living objects. It 
seems probable that animal food is converted into nourish- 
ment for their larvae by comminution, as in other species is 
the case with vegetable matter. Mr. Bates observes "that 
with most species observation is a difficult matter, for no 
human endurance can sustain their overwhelming attacks, 
the cruel sting and bite of these formidable insects." They 
generally march in colunms. One South American spe- 
cies, the E. prcBdatoTy hunts in dense masses. *^The entire 
phalanx, when passing over a tract of open ground, occupies 



64 NOTES ON MEXICAN ANTS. 

a space of from six to ten square yards ; where they pass, all 
the rest of the insect world is in commotion and alarm. They 
stream along the ground and climb to the summit of all the 
lower trees, searching every leaf to its apex." They are 
often seen with the larvsd and eggs and remains of other 
ants, doubtless the result of attacks upon their nests. Their 
own nests have never yet been discovered. 

In one case he thus chronicles the result of his examina- 
tion of E. legionis. One evening he discovered a column 
of them at work. The next day he found them again not far 
off. They were mining in a bank of light soil, and extract- 
ing therefrom a bulky species of Formica, with their larvte 
and eggs. It was curious to see them crowding around the 
orifices of the mines, and assisting their comrades to lift out 
the bodies of the luckless ants ; the latter being too bulky 
to carry were torn to pieces, and the marauders forthwith 
started off laden- with their booty. *'For some distance there 
were many lines of these moving along the declivity of the 
bank, but at a short distance these converged. I then 
traced them to a large and indurated and ancient termita- 
rium ; up the ascent of these the Ecitons were moving in a 
dense column, like a stream of liquid metal ; many were now 
lugging up the bodies of the Formicee, and the whole disap- 
peared in one of the spacious tubular cavities, which always 
traverse these old termitaria from the summit to the base." 

Pachycondyla. In this genus the node of the peduncle is 
thickened, cubical, or nearly so, elevated to the same level 
as the first segment, and usually of nearly the same width. 
The eyes are small and inserted low down upon the head. 
The spurs of only the two anterior tibi© are pectinate. (Mr. 
Smith says all are pectinate.) 

Pachycondyla Orizabana. "It lives at Orizaba in little 
societies under stones and trunks of trees." 

Pseudomyrma. In this genus the first node is elongate, 
pedunculate, the second large and globose. The antennso are 
insei*ted near together and near the mouth ; eyes elongate, 



NOTES ON MEXICAN ANTS. 65 

ovate, occupying a large portion of the head. Anterior 
wings with one mai^nal and three euhmargiual cells. 

Pneudomyrma bicolor Guerin. (Fig. 8. The hind legs 
not represented, the specimen being imperfect.) "Mexico. 
This is also found in Columbia and at Panama." 

Pseudomyrma flavidula Smith. Mexico. This is also a 
South American species. I cannot feel quite sure that it is 
P. Jlavidula. "Among the quite numerous species of P*ew- 
domyrma that one finds in Mexico, one class appears to be 
solitary (at least, one never meets them except alone) while 
the others (as is the case in P. bicolor axiA P. fiavidula) 
live in greater or less numbers 
within the spines which arm the 
stems of cei-tein species of Mimosa. 
These spines, fixed in pairs upon 
the branches, are pierced near their 
extremity by a hole (seen in the cut 
at a), which serves for the entrance 
and exit of the ants. The interior 
is hollow and includes some neuters, 
the larvfe, aud, in the season, males 

and females. The Pseudomyrma generally stings very 
sharply, and attaches itself with tenacity by its mandibles to 
the jMirt of the body which it seizes. Although this differs 
a little in size, one of these species may be considered to 
be the P. Jlavidula Smith." 

Mr. Smith has described a species from Panama (P. mo- 
de^a), "which lives in the hollow thorns or spines of a spe- 
cies of Acacia. The spines are three inches long, tapering 
to a point from a broad base ; the ants gnaw a small hole 
toward the point of the spine, the broad base then forms an 
admirable domicile for their young brood. There are no 
cells or divisions of any kind for the reception of the eggs or 
larva. The number of pupee found in one nest was twenty- 
nine, and there were about twenty mature ants. All of these 
were workei-s. The pupse were not inclosed in cocoons." 

AUEIt. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 9 



66 NOTES ON MEXICAN ANTS. 

Pseudomyrma thoracica. ^Cordova. In the trunks and 
under the bark of trees, in societies which are sometimes 
very numerous." 

Two other species of Pseudomyrma from South America 
have been observed by Mr. Bates, jP. oculata and P. termi" 
taria, which construct their dwellings in chambers in the 
outer walls of the tunnels of different species of Termes, or 
white ants. Still another species, with small colonies, con- 
structs its formicarium in the pith-tube of dried twigs. 
From this variety of habits there would seem to be no defi- 
nite rule laid down for the genus, as in Formica and Myr- 
mica. Each species or group of species must be studied 
separately, although the whole genus may meet on common 
ground, as to its manner of procuring food and mode of 
transformations. 

The genus AUa has two nodes in the peduncle. The 
wings are larger than the body, with one marginal and three 
submarginal cells, the third sometimes incomplete, the second 
bell -shaped. The large workers have greatly developed 
heads, and the corslet, or thorax, is without spines. This 
genus belongs to the subfamily AttidsD of Mr. Smith. 

Atta dypeata Smith. (British Museum Catalogue of Hy- 
menoptera. Vol. VI, p. 169.) Mr. Smith describes only the 
male and female. The worker minor from Orizaba, Mexico, 
agrees tolerably well with the description. 

Another genus of this group is GEcodonia. It differs from 
Atta externally, in having the corslet armed with spines, 
and in the fore wings are, two submarginal cells, the second 
being incomplete. 

(Ecodoma Meodcana Smith. (Fig. 9, female ; 10, worker 
major.) (British Museum Catalogue of Hymenoptera, Vol. 
VI, p. 185.) **This species is unfortunately too abundant 
in Mexico, in the temperate departments of ihe gulf coast, 
such as those of Orizaba, Cordova, etc. The neuters are 
known in Mexico under the name of arrierasj or harmigaa 
arrieraSf from the similarity presented by their marching 



NOTES ON MEXICAN ANTS. 67 

columns to a caravan of muleteers. The male and female 
bear the name of Ticatancis. In many places the natives 
eat the abdomen of the females after having detached the 
thorax. 

^It is specially in the argillaceous countries that the CEco- 
domas build their enormous formicaries, so that one per- 
ceives them from afar by the projection which they form 
above the level of the soil, as well as by the absence of vege- 
tation in their immediate neighborhood. These nests occupy 
a surface of many square metres,* and their depth varies 
from one to two metres. Very many openings of a diameter 
of about one to three inches are contrived from the exte* 
rior, and conduct to the inner cavities which serve as store- 
houses for the eggs and lai-vee. The central part of the nest 
forms a sort of funnel, designed for the drainage of water, 
from which, in a country where the periodical rains are often 
abundant, they could hardly escape without being entirely 
submerged, if they did not provide for it some outlet. 

"The system which reigns in the interior of these formi- 
caries is extreme. The collection of vegetable debris brought 
in by the workers is at times considerable. But it is depos- 
ited there in such a manner as not to cause any inconven- 
ience to the inhabitants, nor impede their circulation. It is 
mostly leaves which are brought in from without, and it is 
the almost exclusive choice of this kind of vegetation which 
makes the CEcodoma a veritable scourge to agriculture. At 
each step and in almost every place in the elevated woods 
as in the plains, in desert places as well as in the neighbor- 
hood of habitations, one meets numerous columns of these 
insects, occupied with an admirable zeal in the transportation 
of leaves. It seems even that the great law of the division 
of labor is not ignored by these little creatures, judging from 
the following observations which I have often had occasion 
to make. 

'^The ground at the foot of the tree, where a troop of these 

■ - - 

* A metre is about ttitrty-nine (88.37) inches. 



68 NOTES OK MEXIOAK ANT8. 

arrieraa is assembled for despoiling it of its leaves, is ordi- 
narily strewn with fragments cut off with the greatest pre- 
cision. And if the tree is not too lofty, one can satisfy 
himself that a party of foragers, which have climbed the tree, 
occupies itself wholly in the labor of cutting them off^ while 
at the foot are the carriers which make the journeys between 
the tree and the nest. This management, which indicates 
among these insects a rare degree of intelligence, is perhaps 
not a constant and invariable practice, but it is an incontest^ 
ible fact, and one which can be constantly proved. 

**The part of the inhabitants which may be called the work^ 
ers^ is composed of wingless individuals of quite variable size. 
The largest (workers majores of Smith) are distinguished 
from the others at first sight by the great enlargement of 
the head, and the presence of a single ocellus upon the face. 
Some travellers have attributed to these grosses4iteSy a su- 
perior share of intelligence, and represent them as exercising 
a kind of surveillance over the other members of the com- 
munity. I avow that I cannot come to a like conclusion, 
for I have always seen them devote themselves to the same 
labors of cutting off and transporting the leaves, etc., and 
this without indicating a higher development of instinct in 
any way. Probably their special role, if they have one, is 
borne in the excavation of the nest and in tunnelling the gal- 
leries, labors which demand a superior strength and better 
implements. 

**The nest of CEcodoma serves as a habitation for many 
parasitic lodgers: some serpents, and particularly certain 
insects, which there undergo their metamorphoses. In dig- 
ging up their nests in the spring, one never fails to find 
there some large species of Scarabseides. One also very often 
sees a great number of males of a wasp, Elis costalis Lep.,* 

* Perhaps, and it \t an intoreBtlng qneation which I have not yet had an opportunity 
to Bolve, the ftmales of Elis deposit their eggs in the bodies of the larvsB of Scorabeus. 
At Tehnacan (Dep't of Puebla) where the Seoiia Axteea Sauss. is very common, it is 
particularly abundant in the leather tanneries, which leads me to think that the females 
of this species also deposit their eggs under the epidermis of the larve which abound 



NOTES ON MEXICAN ANTS. 69 

flying about these nests, and resting themselves upon the 
dead branches which happen to be there, thus, I feel well 
assured, awaiting the coming forth from these of the females 
of their species which have entered into the formicary. 

** At the commencement of the rainy season, after the first 
storms of the season, the CBcodoma begins the work of re- 
production. The union of the sexes probably takes place 
during the night, for in the morning one finds the neighbor- 
hood of the formicary strewn with the dead bodies of the 
males and the females, the latter already fertile, from whom 
the workers make it their duty to tear away their wings. 

•*The ravages committed by the CEcodoma* in inhabited 
places, both by the surface which their nest removes from 
cultivation, and by the number of trees which they despoil 
of their leaves, are at times considerable, and demand very 
great watchfulness on the part of the cultivators. They 
have essayed a thousand ways to put an end to the havoc 
which these cause. The only mode which offers a sure 
chance of success is the removal, the extraction of the whole 
nest. For this purpose they dig a trench of sufficient depth 
around the whole, then carry away the dome or hillock and 
the walls of the nest, until, arriving at the cells of the larvee, 
they destroy them and also the eggs. The perfect insects 
which escape the ruin of their colony then disappear never 
to return. 

*^The coffee plantations, which demand a light soil, are fre- 
quently chosen by the K(yrmiga% arrieras as places iti which 
to construct their nests ; and one can easily imagine the loss 
which they cause to the proprietors, if these last do not con- 
in the tan. [The SeardbcBUi is a large insect allied to our June beetle. Soolia is a wasp 
allied to Ells ; neither have been supposed hitherto to be parasitio insects. Their 
habits thns probably ally them with the Ichnenmon fly.— Eds.] 

*"At least the GBc. Mexlcana, for the (Ee, hy$trix, which also I have fonnd iso- 
lated in the forests of the hot region, is too rare to be named as doing any damage." It 
may be well to add that Orizaba is in the temperate, Cordoya between the temperate 
and hot, and Tehuacan in the cold regions or sones of Mexico. Mr. Bates remarks of 
the (£c. hystrix that he once "found a vast number in a low meadow, carrying away 
fragments of Allen fhilt» bat none of the Uuge-headed indiyidnals. This was in BrasiL'' 



70 NOTES ON MEXICAN ANTS. 

tinue an active and daily surveillance over the mauoeuvres of 
these insects/' 

It seems desirable to add the testimony of Mr. Bates as to 
the CEc. cephahteSj the common species of South America. 
**This insect, from its ubiquity, immense numbers, eternal 
industry, and its plundering propensities, becomes one of 
the most important animals of Bi*azil. Its immense hosts 
are unceasingly occupied in defoliating trees, and those most 
relished by them are precisely the useful and cultivated 
kinds. They have regular divisions of laborers, numbers 
mounting the trees and cutting off the leaves in irregularly 
rounded pieces the size of a shilling, another relay carrying 
them off as they fall." ''The heavily laden fellows, as they 
came trooping in, all deposited their load in a heap close 
to the mound. About the mound itself were a vast number 
of workers of a smaller size. The very large-headed ones 
were not engaged in leaf-cutting, nor seen in the proces* 
sions, but were only to be seen on disturbing the nest." 
Mr. Bates says, ^'I found, after removing a little of the sur- 
face, three burrows, each about an inch in diameter ; half a 
foot downward, all three united in one tubular buiTow about 
four inches in diameter. To the bottom of this I could not 
reach when I probed with a stick to the depth of four or 
five feet. This tube was perfectly smooth and covered with 
a vast number of workers of much smaller size than those 
occupied in conveying the leaves ; they were unmixed with 
any of a larger size. Afterwards, on probing lower into 
the burrow, up came, one by one, several gigantic fellows, 
out of all proportion larger than the largest of those outside, 
and which I could not have supposed to belong to the same 
species. Besides the greatly enlarged size of the head, etc., 
they have an ocellus in the middle of the forehead ; this 
latter feature, added to their startling appearance from the 
cavernous depths of the formicarium, gave them quite a 
Cyclopean character.** 

Of another species, the OEc. sexdeiUata, Mr. Smith quotes 



NOTE8 ON MEXICAN ANTS. 71 

from Rev. Hamlet Clark, that at Constancia, Brazil, the 
proprietor of a plantation used every means to exterminate 
it and failed. *' Sometimes in a single night it will strip an 
orange or lemon tree of 4t8 leaves ; a ditch of water around 
his garden, which quite keeps out all other ants, is of no use. 
This species carries a mine under its bed without any diffi- 
culty. Indeed, I have been assured again and again by sen- 
sible men, that it has undermined, in its progress through 
the country, the great river Pariaba. At any rate, without 
anything like a natural or artificial bridge, it appears on the 
other side and continues its course." This testimonv is con- 
firmed by Mr. Lincecum (Proceedings of Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Philadelphia, 1867, p. 24) in an interesting account 
of the ffifc. Texanaj which he has observed for eighteen 
years. He states that they often carry their subterranean 
roads for several hundred yards in grassy districts, where 
the grass would prove an impediment to their progress. On 
oue occasion, to secure access to a gentleman's garden, 
where they were cutting .the vegetables to pieces, they tun- 
nelled beneath a creek which was at that place fifteen or 
twenty feet deep, and from bank to bank about thirty feet. 
He also observes that the smaller workers which remain 
around the nest do not seem to join in cutting or carrying 
the leaves, but are occupied with bringing out the sand, 
and generally work in a lazy way, very differently from the 
quick, active leaf-cutters. Also that the pieces of leaves are 
usually dried outside before being carried in, and that if wet 
by a sudden shower are left to decay without. He also 
thinks that their lives are dependent upon access to water, 
and that they always choose places where it is accessible by 
digging wells. In one case, a well was dug by Mr. Pearson 
for his own use, and water found at the depth of thirty feet. 
The ant-well which he followed was twelve inches in di- 
ameter. 

The genus Ciyptocerus belongs to another subfamily, 
QryptoceridoRy founded on the form of the head, which is 



\ 



72 NOTES ON IfEXIGAN ANTS. 

more or less flattened above, with the sides expanded into 
flattened marginal plates, concealing or partly hiding the 
eyes. The peduncle consists of two nodes, the corslet is 
spinose, and the face is grooved in front for the reception 
of the antennaB. 

Qryptocerus lamiTuitus Smith. (Journal of Entomology, 
1860, p. 77.) Brazil. ''This species lives at Cordova, in 
the same places as the next, but it is rarer and more soli- 
tary.'' 

Oryptocerus midtispinosus. (Fig. 11.) This is the most 
common species of Oryptocerus in the environs of Cordova, 
where it lives in the trunk of certain trees, especially those of 
the Croton sanguiferum, Cedrela odorata, Spondias chilias,* 
etc. These ants show little vivacity, remaining stationary a 
good part of the day at the entrance of the holes which con- 
duct to their nest. In the middle of the day one sees them 
running about fallen trunks, without apparent order or aim. 
When one attempts to seize them, they elevate the abdomen 
while running, after the manner ascribed to another kind of 
ant, the Qrematogaater Montezumia. 

Note. — The new species mentioned in this paper will soon be de- 
scribed in the Proceedings of the Essex Institute. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE H. 

Fig. 1. Formica fiUvacea, worker major. 

Fig. 2. Tapinoma tomentoaa, worker. 

Fig. 8. Folyrhachis arboricoiaj worker ; a, side Tiew of thorax and ab- 
domen. 

Fig. 4. Ectatomma ferruginea, worker ; a, side view of the peduncle of 
the abdomen. 

Fig. 5. Edton Mextcana^ worker mcOoi^; ^j Aront view of the head. 

Fig. 6. EcUon Mexicana, worker minor, with a firont view of the head. 

Fig. 7. Eciton 8umichra8ti, worker minor. 

Fig. 8. Paeudomyrma bicolar, worker. 

Fig. 9. (Ecodoma MexUana, female. 

Fig. 10. (Ecodoma Mexicana, worker m^]or. 

Fig. 11. Oryptocerus multi9pino8U8j worker. 

* These are local names for Mexican plants. 



American Naturalist. 
Fig. 1. 




Fig. 7. 




Fig. 6 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 2. 




Fig. 9. 




Fig. 8. 





Vol. II. ri. 2. 

Fig. 3. 





Fig. 5. 



Fig. 11. 




Fig. 10. 





NORTON ON MEXICAN ANTS 



THE MOTTLED OWL IN CONFINEMENT. 

BY C. J. ICATNABD. 

[The following iDteresting account of this bird was sent me for inser- 
tion in my '' Birds of North America," which I have in preparation. As 
it throws considerable light on the disputed question of the color of the 
bird's plumage in the first year, I send it to the Naturalist, hoping that 
it may bring out, from other observers, new fiicts in relation to this spe- 
cies. In presenting it, I will briefly say that I have found two other 
birds in the first year's plumage which were decidedly gray ; but these 
are the only instances that I have noticed, although I have examined a 
great number of specimens. Whether we have two species of Seeps, or 
whether the young of 8. asio are sometimes gray in color, sometimes red, 
remains still uncertain. My own opinion Ls that the last hypothesis is 
the most correct. — £. A. Sabcubls.] 

On June 15, 1867, I observed some boys around a small 
owl which was perched on a stick. On closer examination 
I found that it was a young Mottled Owl (Seeps asio Bona- 
parte) . It was staring about in a dazed manner and seemed 
half stupefied. I easily persuaded the boys to part with it 
for a trifle, and took it home. I should judge that it was 
about two weeks old. It was covered with a grayish down. 
I put it in a large cage, and gave it some meat which it ate, 
but not readily, for it seemed frightened at the sight of my 
hand, and at my near approach would draw back, snapping 
its beak after the manner of all owls. It soon grew tamer, 
however, and would regard me with a wise stare, as if per- 
fectly understanding that I was a friend. 

In a short time it would take food from me without fear ; 
I never 'saw it drink, although water was kept constantly 
near it. Its food consisted of mice, birds, and butchers' 
meat, on which it fed readily/ I kept the bird caged for 
about two weeks, during which time it became quite tame, 
but would not tolerate handling, always threatening me with 
its beak when my hands approached it. As the wires of its 
cage broke its feathers when moving about, and as it hardly 

AMIEB. NATDRAUST, VOL. n. 10 (73) 



' 



74 THE MOTTLED OWL IN CONFINEMENT. 

seemed resigned to coDfinement, I opened its cage and gave 
it the freedom of the room, leaving the windows open night 
and day. About this time I gave it the name of ** Scops/' to 
which in a little while it would answer, when called, with a 
low rattle, which sounded like the distant note of the king- 
fisher. 

One morning Scops was missing; diligent search was 
made for it, but no owl could be found, and, reluctantly, we 
gave it up for lost. Once or twice it was seen in the neigh- 
boring woods by different people, and once on the roof of a 
barn, but was wild and refused to be caught. It had been 
absent about a week, when, one morning, I was told that my 
owl was out in the yard. I hastened out and found a half- 
grown Newfoundland dog playing with my pet. The owl 
was clinging to his shaggy fur with its claws, snapping its 
beak, and biting fiercely. I immediately rescued poor Scops 
and carried it into the house. It was raining hard, and the 
bird was wet through. On arriving in its old quarters it 
seemed pleased, chuckling to itself after its manner. It was 
almost starved, and ate two full-grown blue-birds at the first 
meal. After this time I gave it the privilege of going and 
coming when it pleased, but, mindful of its former experi- 
ence, it never has but once remained away more than two 
days at a time. It now became more attached to me than 
ever, and will, at this time, permit me to pat it gently. 

When a bird is given it for food, it takes it in its claws, 
and with its beak invariably pulls out the wing and tail 
feathers first, then eats the head, then devours the intestines ; 
then, if not satisfied, it eats the remainder of the bird, feath- 
ers and all. 

, That this owl sees tolerably well in the daytime I have 
proved to my satis&ction. I caught a mouse and put it 
alive into an open box about two feet square. This I placed 
upon a bench near Scops, who was attentively watching my 
movements ; the moment it saw the mouse, the owl opened 
its eyes wide, bent forward, moved its head from side to 



THE MOTTLED OWL IN OONFINEMENT. 1 5 

side, then came down with an unerring aim, burying its 
talons deep in the head and back of the mouse. Looking up 
into my face, and uttering its rattling note, as if inquiring, 
*^Is'nt that well done?" it flew up to its perch with its strug- 
gling prey grasped firmly in its talons, where it killed the 
mouse by biting it in the head and back. During the whole 
act it displayed considerable energy and excitement. 

Again, I have seen it pounce on a dragon-fly which was 
unable to fly, but laid buzzing on the bench ; the bird went 
through the same manceuyres as before, striking the dragon- 
fly with the greatest precision, and with both feet. I think 
that these instances prove that the bird can see nearly as 
well in the day as in the night. In both the above instances 
the sun was not shining on the objects struck, but they were 
very near the window, and the light was consequently 
strong. 

Scops will, in taking birds from my hand, almost always 
look up in my face and utter its subdued rattle. In sleeping, 
it usually stands on one foot, both eyes shut, but sometimes 
stretches out at full length, resting on its breast. When 
sound asleep it awakes instantly on its name being pro- 
nounced, and will answer as quickly as when awake. I 
have heard it utt<er its peculiar quavering note on one or two 
occasions, which, notwithstanding its reputed moumfiilness, 
has much that sounds pleasant to my ears. When moving 
along a plane surface. Scops progresses, with a half walk, 
half hop, which is certainly not the most graceful gait pos- 
sible. 

When out at night among the trees Scops acts in much 
the same manner as when in the house, hopping from Umb 
to limb, looking about with a quick, graceful motion of the 
head, sometimes turning the head around so that the face 
comes directly behind^ 

When it returns to the house in the morning, daylight is 
often long passed, and even sunrise. The alarm note is a kind 
of low moan ; this was often uttered at the sight of a tamed 



76 THE MOTTLED OWL IN CONFINEMENT. 

gray squirrel (but with which it has now become better ac- 
quainted) , and always at the sight of its old enemy, the dog. 

While flying. Scops moves through the air with a quick, 
steady motion, alighting on any object without missing a 
foothold. I never heard it utter a note when thus moving. 
When perching, it docs not grasp with its claws, but holds 
them at some distance from the wood, clasping with the 
soles of the toes. When it has eaten enough of a bird, it 
hides the remaining portions in any convenient place near 
by ; if its hiding-place is then approached, the owl from its 
perch watches the intruder jealously, and when its hidden 
spoils are touched, it lays back its ear-like tufts, snaps its 
beak once or twice, and drops down on the unlucky hand 
like an arrow, striking it with its sharp claws until the hand 
is withdrawn ; then, ascertaining that its treasure is safe. 
Scops resumes its perch, looking at its late disturber with 
most unfriendly eyes. 

Sometimes in the daytime it will take a sudden start, flit- 
ting about the room like a spectre, alighting on difierent 
objects to peer about, which it does by moving sideways, 
turning the head in various directions, and going through 
maiiy curious movements ; but it always returns to its perch 
and settles down quietly. 

I once placed a stufled owl of its own species near it, when 
it ruflied its feathers, gave a series of hisses, moans, and 
snappings of the beak, and stretched out one wing at full 
length in front of its head as a shield to repulse what it took 
to be a stranger invading its own domains. As the stuflfed 
bird was pushed nearer, Scops budged not an inch, but 
looked fiercer than ever; its ruflied back-feathers were 
erected high, its eyes sparkled, and its whole attitude was 
one of war. 

Some time since the building in which my pet was kept 
was torn down, and the bird was absent for two weeks ; but 
a new buildiug has been erected near the site of the old one, 
and to-day I found Scops in the new cellar, sitting on a pro- 






ROOK RtHNS. 77 

jecting stone of the wall, as much at home as in the old 
place. From this it can be seen that its affection for locality 
is very strong. Notwithstanding Scops' long absence it is 
as tame as ever, taking its food from my hand, and behaving 
in the old manner. Its plumage at this time (Oct. 31, 1867) 
is perfect, most of the feathers having recently changed. It 
is mostly gray; there are but few marks of red, and but a 
faint wash of cream-color on the back, 7U)t red. 

In your book on the "Birds of New England" are given 
two instances of this bird's first plumage being in the red; 
but my bird's is decidedly in the gray, li it is red at all, 
it must be at some time hereafter. You also mention one 
occurrence of the young bird in the gray plumage, and, to 
give an additional eicample, I would, for the benefit of stu- 
dents, add one from my own experience. 



ROCK RUINS. 

BY A. HYATT. 

I WAS accosted once by a gray^headed patriarch, sitting 
at the door of his farm-house, with these words : *^I have 
heard of you, and wished to see yon ; my neighbors tell me 
that you are a rock-hunter." After many questions he con- 
tinued: **I have read nothing but this," — holding up the 
well-thumbed family Bible, — ^and seen nothing but that," 
— pointing to the extensive landscape the house afforded, — 
**and yet," said he, "a long life spent with them both before 
me, has given me more to think about than I can master. 
The rains pour down their floods upon these hills till every 
little hollow holds a muddy rivulet which empties into that 
silver thread you see yonder, until it too is a broad, yellow 
current. It has struck me, stranger, that those rains, in the 
hands of the Almighty, are the instruments which have cut 



78 BOCK Bums. 

and shaped theso hills about us, and that great valley yon- 
der. Do you men who study rocks think so too ?^ 

The old man, without other help than his own eyes and an 
appreciative love of nature, fostered by the daily contempla- 
tion of a fine landscape, had unconsciously retraced the pri- 
mary steps of geological history, and rediscovered the &ct 
that water is one of the great agents of change upon the 
earth's surface. 

He had seen it working, and comprehended how it was 
slowly, but with irresistible power, melting down hills, fur- 
rowing out valleys, and casting the muddy flow through a 
thousand channels into the sea. The patient contemplation 
of a view such as one often meets with, — a quiet valley 
sleeping between parallel ranges of hills, with wrinkled sides 
and bald summits, had taught him this. 

When we should wish, however, to describe the effect of 
water upon the face of our continent, it is not best to begin 
with such complicated examples, but good sense dictates the 
introduction of a few special cases wherein water is evidently 
the sole agent of change. Thus a ladder is presented to the 
mind by which it may climb to the comprehension of the 
panorama, instead of being presented at once with general 
laws, and then carried down backward upon the rounds of 
fact and explanation. 

Perhaps but very few of the thousands who annually reach 
that Mecca of the travelling public, Niagara, are aware that 
it furnishes one of these examples, and is so often a theme 
for geological writers and lecturers. Visitors pay the extor- 
tionate prices of admission to its various points of view, are 
made giddy by the mad whii*l of the rapids, stunned by the 
roar of the water, and awe-struck by the vibrations of the 
earth, and yet do not intelligently comprehend the meaning 
of all this turmoil and uproar. They read in the guide- 
books the meagre notice of the fact, that the cataract was 
once at Lewiston and has eaten its way back through the 
solid rock to its present position. Some accept the state- 



BOOK BUIKS. 79 

ment as ohildren a fairy tale, some doubt without the ability 
to give a vaUd reason, and some, fearing the sudden de- 
struction of their dream-land, refuse to analyze the glories 
of the river. They shrink from familiarity with nature, lest 
water should prove itself nothing but water, and stone noth- 
ing but stone, entirely ignorant of the fact, that the close 
observer, whethdt poet, artist, or naturalist, is the only one 
who seeks the spirit of the beautiful with success. He alone 
grasps the internal creative thought, the soul embodied in 
the landscape, without which the rocks^ rivers, and moun- 
tains, with their green garlands, are comparatively expres- 
sionless forms, like faces without eyes. 

Along the sides of the gorgd at Niagara a few of the great 
layers which make up the body of the continent are seen 
rising one after another, overlapping at the surface like tiles 
on a nearly horizontal roof;* the inclination of the layers, 
in fact, being only about twenty-five feet to the mile, in a 
southerly direction. 

Out of the cloud and foam of the cataract appear two lay- 
ers, each about eighty feet thick, the upper one (8) of lime- 
stone, the under (7) of shale. Still farther northward, above 
the debris that has accumulated at the foot of the clifis, runs 
a thinner layer of limestone (6), and, continuing in the same 
direction, we find a layer of green shale (5) succeeded soon 
by one of light-colored sandstone (4) , and lastly a mass of 
red sandstone (3). 

Thus, when we reach Suspension Bridge it is compara- 
tively easy even for an unpractised eye to analyze the cliff. 
Attracted by the emerald curtain of the great fall, few 
vouchsafe more than a passing glance down the chasm, and 
yet in autumn this view is one of rare beauty. The alter- 
nate bands of color in the rocks blend with the fringe of 
golden and scarlet trees upon the tcdtis at their feet, and 
from every crevice graceful vines hang their lace-work of 
flaming foliage. The painted walls and their gorgeous ta- 

* Vide 8, ^, 9, and 10 In fhe wood-cut 



80 ROOK Bums. 

pestries rise nearly three hundred feet on either side, and, 
at that dizzy depth, the river glides on, a flood of green and 
silver, till the harder rocks in the shallower channel beyond 
obstruct the current and hurl its waves fifteen feet in the 
air. 

Below the whirlpool these harder rocks appear as a light- 
colored, gritty sandstone (2), underlaid by a soft red sand-* 
stone (1). Even to the most superficial observer it is 
evident that all these layers were at one time continuous 
and filled the gorge, just as it is now apparent that the 
higher limestone and shale are continuous under the fall 

The recession of the preselit falls is an established &ct. 
Father Hennepin, one of the early French explorers, de- 
scribed and figured Niagara as early as 1678. Then it had 
three distinct parts instead of two, as at present. On the 
Canada side a tabular rock of great size extended out inter* 
rupting and turning a portion of the overflow in an easterly 
direction, making a third fall at right angles, but continuous 
with the horse-shoe. About seventy years afterwards, a 
Danish naturalist, E[alm, records the disappearance of this 
rock, and describes the fall as having about the same general 
outline as at present. His sketch, however, does not difier 
materially from Father Hennepin's, except in the absence 
of the third fall. Parts of Table Bock fell successively in 
1818, 1828, and 1829, and Ealm speaks of the descent of 
portions of this rock, which extended under the water pre- 
vious to his visit in 1750. 

All these changes were on the Canada side, and, as has 
been already noticed by Professor Jules Marcou, that part of 
the cataract recedes the most rapidly. The volume of water 
is much greater, some twenty-five feet in depth in the centre 
of the horse-shoe curve, and the mass of debris, which 
is so picturesque along the base of the American side, is 
entirely wanting, the layers of rock being carved out perpen- 
dicularly, probably to a considerable depth below the surface 



BOOK BUIN8. 81 

of the river. Professor Jules Marcou, who visited Niagara in 
1848-49 and 1850, remarked not only the changes which 
occurred in the Table Bock,* part of which fell in 1850, 
but observed also the increasing angularity of the curve at 
the centre of the horse-shoe, and the gradual deepening of 
the water. It seems certain that either the size of the river 
has greatly decreased since Father Hennepin's visit, or else 
this part of the horse-shoe fall is much deeper and the 
sides shallower than formerly. In 1850, according to Pro- 
fessor Marcou, the curve was passably regular ; in 1863, it 
was very much deeper, and notched near the centre. He 
also noticed that a large block, some six or seven feet in 
diameter, which had stood near the Terrapin Tower, had 
been engulfed, and together with it a long line of boulders 
figured by Professor Hall in his map of 1842. In 1852, por- 
tions of the cliff at this point fell, making a sensible differ- 
ence in its outline, and probably caused the disappearance 
of the boulders.- 

The manner in which the tables of rock are undermined 
is as well known as the recession of the cataract itself. 
Every visitor is informed that the water, dashing against 
the lower layer of soft shale (7), cuts out cavernous hollows 
like the "Cave of the Winds," and presently the projecting 
tables of limestone above (8) , becoming too weak to support 
themselves, and the great weight of the river, are precipi- 
tated in immense masses to the bottom. 

These huge fragments, with every poiut and fractured 
edge rounded and smoothed by the ceaseless bombardment 
of thj9 water, lie in huge piles under the American fall. 
There is no continuous flow, but a succession of blows, and 
one standing near them, feeling this distinct pulsation, as 
wave after wave rushes over the precipice and descends with 
a deafening roar upon the polished surfaces, no longer won- 
ders that the rocks are worn slippery, but rather that they 

*Thi8 is a tabular extension of ttie upper limestone on the Canadian side close to 
the cataract. It once extended oat some distance, and was probably the last remnant 
of the lateral precipice over which the third Ml tamed in Father Hennepin's time. 
AHSR. NATURALIST, VOL. n. 11 



82 BOOK BUIN8. 

are not shattered like brittle glass under a trip-hammer, and 
swept away. 

We must, however, even before this exhibition of power, 
remember that water is not the only instrument which is 
carving out the softer shales. Wherever these are uncov- 
ered, as in the **Cave of the Winds,'* they are cased in ice 
during the winter. Experience has taught us all how the 
frost loosens the bricks of the side-walks, throws down mas- 
sive stone-walls, and bursts our water-pipes. All these 
effects are not due to any miraculous power possessed by 
frost, but to the fact that water when freezing expands and 
forces room for its increasing volume. In the crevices of 
the shale it acts quietly but with resistless force between the 
layers, like millions of minute wedges lifting and loosening 
the edges of the rock-beds, which are thus rendered an easy 
prey to the waves, if they do not fall of themselves in the 
early spring. Goat Island recedes almost as fast as the cata- 
ract itself, and yet frost alone is the workman that under- 
mines its rocky face. 

The future of the cataract may be read in the struct- 
ure of the rocks, as well as its past. Professor Hall, who 
has studied it more carefully than any other geologist, pre- 
dicts that Niagara is slowly but surely destroying itself. 
Thousands of years hence and the cataract will have eaten 
its way back until the solid limestone layers, which are now 
on its verge, will be at its base (t, h). Here it will proba- 
bly remain for a long time almost stationary. The lower 
portion being as hard as the upper, will not be eaten out 
into caves and hoUows as at present, but, being less exposed, 
will give way even more slowly than the upper limestones. 
These last, however, notwithstanding their hardness, will 
be gradually worn down, as the hard layers (2) are at the 
whirlpool (c) , or the limestones on the bed of the stream 
above the present fall (8') to the ascending level of the 
river bed, as at d in the wood-cut. The softer layers of 
greenish marl, marked 9, will have been already levelled, 



= |S ;? 5-| , I 



5ll 1.1 



P f i 



i oi a " S = 



'Eli 



I* 

B P : 



i « 



issi 



■Is? 



5 ^ 2 H g. 1-9 : 






o. « 5 a 5 E 
5- P cj 2 -^ 



iS3 s- 



5 S C » 



il 

t 
3 



3? 






I i 



?s I 
I3 I 



I II 



84 BOOK Bums. 

and Niagara, with perhaps a slight descent over the lime- 
stones (10) at the outlet of Lake Erie, will be uninterrupted 
in its course to Lake Ontario. 

According to the estimate of Sir Charles Lyell, about 
thirty-five tiiiousand years ago the falls were at Lewiston. 
Now they are seven miles away, and have yet two miles 
to traverse, each step harder and more difficult as the shale 
becomes thinner, before they reach the point (t*), where, 
should they preserve their present structure, they will uot 
be over one himdred feet high. Following out Sir Charles 
LyelPs estimate, this would take ten thousand years, even if 
no allowance was made for the gradual retardation caused by 
the disappearance of the shale. Although these calculations 
are based upon the observed rate of retrogression of the falls, 
they can only be very rough approximations, until sufficient 
time has elapsed for other observations to be made and com- 
pared with the monuments erected by Professor Hall in 1842. 
They are, however, sufficiently close and reliable to show 
that Niagara was not carved out in a day, nor yet in a thou- 
sand years ; but that for tens of thousands of years the steady 
rush of the river has ground the rocks to powder, and swept 
away, piece by piece, the solid layers, until the gorge it has 
cut is now seven miles loug, from two to three hundred and 
fifty feet deep, and eight to twenty-four hundred feet wide, 
at the top. 

Of late, the public have been alarmed by the statement 
that about half a mile back of the horse-shoe, the motions of 
the stream indicate a breach in the upper limestone, and 
speculations are indulged in that through this hole a sub- 
terranean stream is eating away the underlying shale with 
great rapidity. The sagacious inhabitants, who have given 
birth to this story, predict the probable destruction of the 
great cataract by the caving in of the tables of limestone (8') 
with such rapidity that the whole will form only a rapid. 
It is difficult to understand, first, how such a breach could 
have been made; second, how if made it could swallow 



THE CRUIBB OF THS ABROLHOB. 85 

euoagfa of the river to eat away any considerable portion of 
the shale underneath; and third, if it did both of these im- 
practicabilitiee, how the subtemmean stream could break 
down the face of the fall faster than the water could carry 
off the fragments and maintain the face of the precipice per- 
pendicular. We do not desire, however, to deprive either 
the guides or the oldest iuhabitants of their time-honored 
privilege of astonishing the public, but they should remem- 
ber and take warning from the fate of the "reliable contra- 
band;" they may, even as he did, lose their hold upon the 
credulity of the public. 



THE CRUISE OF THE "ABROLHOS." 



After one has travelled up and down the Brazilian coast 
and become familiar with the long eea-beaches, bordered 
with ridges or domes of sand, that almost uninterruptedly 
stretch from the Amazonas to Cape Frio, and with the cver- 
Uinndering Atlantic surf that draws its foamy line around 
those lonely shores, it seems strange to see at Caravellaa a 



86 THE OBUISE OF THE ABBOLHOS. 

coast scarcely elevated above the water, and a beach washed 
by a sea as quiet as an inland lake. The water here along 
shore is very shallow, owing to the very gentle slope of the 
bottom, and not only for that reason is it quiet, but because 
very extensive reefs, lying between the main-land and the 
islands of the Abrolhos, break the force of the waves, and 
protect the coast. 

I hired at Caravellas, for the exploration of the Abrolhos 
region, a little launch, the Abrolhos^ and three men, the 
captain being a Dane, who for many years had followed the 
life of a fisherman among the Abrolhos reefs, and, as it will 
hereafter be seen, knows them perfectly. 

It was a glorious morning early in last September, the 
month that closes the Brazilian winter, that we embarked. 
Up went the long, narrow, triangular sails to the short 
masts, Jac6 blew from his big horn a few comet-like notes, 
that went breaking with strange echoes through the cocoa- 
palm groves on the river bank below the town, and we 
dropped down stream. Next day, for we had been delayed 
at the mouth of the river, we were beating by dawnlight out 
of the entrance. After sticking fast on a sand-bank or two, 
we soon stood off towarda the islands. Near the shore the 
water was very turbid and reddish ; but leaving the land it 
soon became clearer, and the yellowish tint gave way to 
green. The sounding-line showed a depth of about sixteen 
metres, with a white sandy bottom, which gave to the sea 
a whitish appearance. There was not a cloud in the sky, 
and the low sun looked warmly down on the waves rippling 
under the last breath of the dying land-breeze. 

About seven miles from the land I observed that the 
water ahead was spotted by dark brownish patches of color, 
irregular in outUne, and resembUng the shadows cast by 
little clouds. Occasionally one might mark the breaking 
of a wave over one of these patches. ^These are the Cha- 
peiroes," * said Jac6« This is the name given in Brazil to 

* Prooonneed Skii^agr6tngt, The lingnUur U " Ghapeirlo,'' pranoimoed Sktpoffr& w ng. 



THE CRUISE OF THE ABBOLHOS. 87 

isolated coral structures, which are very common on the 
Brazilian reef-grounds. Corals grow over the bottom in 
small patches, and without spreading much, rise often to a 
height of forty to fifty or more feet, like towers, and some- 
times attain the level of low tide. At the top they are 
usually very irregular, and sometimes spread out like mush- 
rooms, or, as the fishermen say, umbrellas. Some of these 
Chapeiroes are only a few feet in diameter. Two Chapeiroes 
are seen in the foreground of the engraving of the Recife do 
Lixo. Professor Verrill tells me that similar structures occur 
also in the West Indies. We soon came up to one and passed 
almost over it. They were of all heights, and on the larger 
the waves were breaking. The sea was full of them, a perfect 
labyrinth, through which our skilful captain readily tacked 
his way. In some places a good-sized ship might sail among 
them, but it would not be safe to venture among them in 
dark or stormy weather. As we threaded our way through, 
Jac6 and the sailors told me stories of the whale and other 
fisheries carried on here, of their adventures while engaged 
in their hardy pursuits in these waters, and how vessels 
sometimes ran on the Chapeiroes, sticking fast by the middle 
of the keel, to the amazement of the captain, who found 
deep water all round, the vessel being perched, as it were, 
like a weather-cock on the top of a tower. Occasionally, I 
am told, the shock is sufficient to break off and upset some 
of the slender ones, for they are not very compact. 

Afl;er a while we came out once more into open water. 
The reef-ground we had crossed is known as the Paredes, or 
toaUs. From north to south it is fifteen to twenty miles in 
length, while its width varies from three to nine miles. 
Where we crossed it, nearly in the middle, there are only 
Chapeiroes ; but &rther north, as well as fiEurther south, there 
are extensive reefs laid bare at low tide over an area of 
many square miles ; but these I did not visit until my return 
voyage. 

On finishing my examination of the islands, of which I 



88 THE CRUISE OF THE ABBOLHOS. 

have already given a description in my last article, I set out 
on the evening of the 12th of September to visit the north- 
ernmost reef of the Paredes, called the Recife do Lixo. My 
plan was to cross the reef that night at high tide, and anchor 
in a sac or little bay on the western side, so as to profit by 
the low tide of the full moon of the morrow. Eastward of 
tlie islands a few miles, with a length of about nine to ten 
miles, and a breadth in seme places of four miles, is an area 
over which Chapeiroes grow very abundantly, forming ob- 
structions on which many a vessel has been wrecked. They 
unite nowhere to form a large reef, and are rarely anywhere 
uncovered at low tide. 

Ordinarily, vessels and steamships go outside of these 
reefs to the eastward, in sight of the islands. ^ It is not easy, 
however, to calculate one's distance from a point at sea, and 
especially from a light by night, and many vessels, notwith- 
standing the light-house, have been wrecked upon them. 
West of the islands there is deep water, there are no Chapei- 
roes, and between the islands and the Paredes there is a 
channel about eight miles in width, with plenty of water and 
no obstructions. The safest way is to pass to the westward 
of the islands, when one may run close in shore, so long as 
the course is north or south. There is then no danger what- 
ever, and there is a smoother sea. On the return voyage 
from Bio, the American steamship **South America" was, at 
the suggestion of the writer, taken through this channel. 

Varying winds drove the launch ''Abrolhos" into the re- 
gion of the Chapeiroes to the north-eastward of the islands. 
Jac& and I took turns in heaving the lead. Among the 
Chapeiroes we found a depth of sixteen to twenty metres, 
and once, while becalmed, we found twenty metres alongside 
one ChapeirfLo, and three metres on top. Waiting for the 
wind, the hooks were used, and we soon had, floundering 
about below among my boxes of corals, some fine Ov^jrou^ 
pas. By and by the wind freshened and we set out to cross 
the channel, sounding all the way, finding a depth of seven- 



THE CRUISE OF THE ABROLHOS. 89 

teen to twenty-nine metres, a bottom composed of sand and 
shells, and no impediment to navigation. The almost full 
moon made the night wellnigh as light as day. 

Late at night I turned in below, and, with the sound of 
wares outside and the wash of the bilge-water and the occa^ 
sional floundering of the not yet dead fish inside, dreamed 
of home, while Jaco and the men ever and anon heaved the 
lead, calling out the number of metres. At last the voice of 
a sailor was heard at the hatch, ^ O Seu Carlos! rectfe/*^ 
The reef ! I went hastily on deck in the moonlight. Splash 
went the lead. ^Dtms metros^ — only two metres of water. 
We are on the reef. I rolled myself in my great coat and 
stretched myself out on the deck listening to the splash of 
the lead, and gazing at the big cumulus clouds, lit up by the 
moon, and memory carried me back to long rides along the 
sea-beaches farther south, to many a bivouac under the clear 
dewy sky, when the slow march of the tardily gliding hours 
was marked by the sinking of the moon among the waving, 
glistening, giant fronds of the cocoa-palm, or by the South- 
em Cross, that, like a great hour-hand, swung round the 
southern pole, and with the monstrous modinha of the 
steersman I fell asleep. 

^Dez metrosf" cries Jacd, '^O Carlos I we are in the chan- 
nel." The great reef of the Paredes is deeply indented, 
according to fishermen, by two very irregular channels, 
which, entering it from the north, almost separate it into 
three parts, very much as the island of Cape Breton is cut 
up by the Bras d'Or. We had crossed the outer reef and 
reached the eastern channel, which is very narrow. In this 
way, with the sounding-line in hand, we crossed the reef, 
and anchored just on the inner side to wait for the morning. 

The sun rose and Jac6 wound his horn. Here we were 
just off the reef and alongside the sac for which we had 
steered. As the tide went down, the reef began to uncover 
itself, and became dry over a very large area, as far north 
and south as we could see from the deck of our little vessel. 

AMSR. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 12 



90 THE CBUI8E OF THE ABR0LH08. 

As soon as the falling tide had sufficiently defined our little 
harbor, we sailed in, and anchored close to the reef. I took 
a basket with cans and bottles, and leaped on the reef, 
taking with me two men with a taraffuj a kind of round 
casting net, to take fish in the pools. 

The reef, exposed at low tide, was level on top, and the 
corals, as at the Abrolhos, were generally dead and covered 
by barnacles, etc. It was exceedingly irregular and rugged 
in outline, and deeply indented by little bays. On the sur- 
face were many large pools (see sketch) , in which I found 
beautiful specimens of MtUepora alcicomiSj Siderastneay 
Favittf etc., together with two or three species of gorgonias, 
belonging to the genera Hr/menogorgia^ Plexaurdla and Eu^ 
nicia* 

Turning over the loose corals in the pond, I found a host 
of interesting things, sea-urchins {Echincnhetra Michdini) j 
crimson starfishes {Echinaster crdssispina Verrill), together 
with many odd crabs. There is a curious little crustacean, of 
which there appears to be more than one species on the coast 
of Brazil, called the Tamaru, I used to be much puzzled 
when walking near muddy shores when the tide was down, 
by hearing a sharp clicking sound. The Tamards are the 
musicians. I suppose the sound to be made in some way by 
the claws. These Tamaris are very abundant, living in the 
holes in the reefs, and I have more than once, when sailing 
^ver a reef, heard their musical click in the water under- 
neath me. There is a whole group of shrimp-like crusta- 
ceans, whose hind-body is unprotected by a shell, and which 
are called hermit-crabs, from their taking up their abode in 
dead shells. I found one large hermit-crab on this reef, 
which was occupying a rather large shell on which was 
seated a sea-anemone. It is a strange companionship which 
has been observed to exist between other species elsewhere. 
The reef is not very rich in shells. 

One of the men threw the round net successfully over 
some charming little fishes in tiie ponds, and we soon bad a 



THE GBUI8E OF THE ABB0LH08. 91 

lai^e ooUection of things, which we carried to the edge of 
the reef. The tide by this time had gone down farther, and 
the water was low enough on the border of the reef to allow 
one to wade all over and examine it. The very edge of the 
reef where the waves washed at low tide is higher than else- 
where, partially *owing to a better opportunity being offered 
for the growth of corals, but also to a luxuriant growth of 
serpulsB, barnacles, etc. From this line the reef slopes gently 
down to the edge,* where it drops down perpendicularly 
into deep water, as at the islands. This border, where the 
water was of little depth, and where the bottom was never 
exposed at low tide, may be at times very narrow, or even 
a hundred feet or more in width. It is a perfect garden of 
corals. Do yon wonder, my reader, that the writer felt a 
little bit excited as he waded about, up to his waist in 
water, over these coral beds ? 

The whole reef is alive. Here is a big head of Acanthas- 
trcBa JBrazUtensis Verrill. We must have that, so down 
we bend to tear it away from the reef. A wave goes over 
our head, but what of that ? the prize is secured. We tug 
away to tear up the fronds of the gorgonias, and toss them 
over the edge of the reef into a pool of water. Now we fill 
our aims, never so carefully, with pretty pink rosettes of 
MiUepora nitida Verrill, which we are careful about hand- 
ling, because of their stinging properties. These are safely 
lodged on the reef, and we wade out once more to the 
very edge of the reef (never mind the sharks !). Here are 
beautiful clusters of the pretty Mussa^ with which Professor 
Verrill has done the writer the honor of associating his name, 
that look like great bouquets of whitish pinks. What a pity 
that we cannot pluck them whole, for they break up and 
go all to pieces, while the polyps out of water lose all their 
beauty I 

But I shall make this paper too long, if I stop to enume- 
rate all the beautiful things of this garden of the sea ; the 

* This snbmergied border is seen in the sketch. 



92 THE CRUISE OF THE ABROLHOS. 

tide is coming in, and we must be in haste. We have yet 
time, however, for a short walk over the reef. 

The tide creeps over the reef. Our specimens are trans- 
ferred to the deck of the launch, and we put out of our little 
harbor, with a sigh that our exploration in the Abrolhos 
waters are ended. 

The depth alongside the reef at low water varies much, 
being in some places but three or four, in others ten feet or 
more. Just alongside the reef, at least on the inside wher- 
ever I have examined it, the bottom consists of a soft, bluish, 
calcareous mud. The bottom usually slopes rapidly from 
the reef, and one may at a short distance away in some 
places find a depth of seventy to eighty feet. Grenerally the 
reef is bordered by Chapeiroes. 

Similar reefs are found a few miles farther south at Coroa 
Vermelha and the vicinity, but I know of none still farther 
southward. To the north they occur at intervals with the 
same characters at Itacolumis, Porto Seguro, Santa Cruz, 
Bahia, Macei6, and along the coast in the vicinity of Per- 
nambuco and northward. The Eocas, a very dangerous reef 
lying in the latitude of Fernando de Noronha is a coral reef, 
and is remarkable for its annular shape, inclosing a space in 
the centre free from corals. 

From the descriptions of the sailors, Corda Vermelha is a 
coral island. The only other of any note I have seen is at 
the mouth of the bay of Santa Cruz. I saw a few mangrove 
trees growing upon it. A schooner had struck on the reef 
near by, and being carried over by the waves, had sunk 
close inside the reef. From the height to which the water 
reached on the mast, I estimated the height of the reef at 
thirty feet. 

Fortunately we had a pleasant trip home, and late in the 
afternoon the launch was anchored off the melting-house of 
the Barra. A few comet notes brought out some of the 
inhabitants to welcome the incomprehensible Nhturalista^ 
who, landing, spent the rest of daylight in examining the 



nobebt's test plate, etc. 93 

carcasses of some huge whales brought in to land since his 
departure. 

The moon rose full and round, but waned rapidly as she 
Beared the zenith. A fine eclipse took place whicH was 
ahnost total. Crowds gathered on the shore to watch the 
moon's fading light. The Americano ought to be able to 
explain it. He is applied to. Whereupon, by the light of an 
antique oil-lamp in a store near by, with a big earthen water- 
jar to personate the earth, and a smaller one the moon, a 
lecture on the theory of eclipses was delivered to an appre- 
ciative audience, with heaven's blue dome for a chart. 

Next day a few hundred weight of whales' bones were 
added to our freight, and we moved up stream. The tiled 
roofs and white walls and cocoa palms of Oaravellas came in 
view, Jaco blew his horn, and, in a few moments, with the 
rattle of the chain from the bow, the Cruise of the ** Abrol- 
hos" had ended. 



NOBERT'S TEST PLATE AND MODERN MICROSCOPES. 

BT CHASLES STODDKR. 

EvEBY possessor of a first-class microscope wishes to 
know what his instrument is capable of doing. To the prac- 
tical worker it is a matter of much importance, for when the 
utmost power of his instrument is exhausted, he will know 
that it is a waste of time to endeavor to see more. One of 
the desirable and important properties of a n^iicroscope is the 
power to show or ''resolve" very fine lines grouped together, 
e. g. the striation of the frustules* of the diatomaceae. For 
the purpose of testing the resolving power of the micro- 
scope, the lines ruled« on glass by F. A. Nobert, of Bai*th, 

*A flustnle {L.Jirustrvm, a Aragment) is one of the fragments into which diatoma 
separate. 



94 nobert's test plate 

Pomerania, have long been admitted by experts as the best 
known test, not only in consequence of their exceeding fine- 
ness, but also because they are ruled to a known scale, and 
because they are so close that physicists have asserted that 
it is impossible that they ever can be seen, Nobert himself 
being in this category ; and all trials of these plates, except 
those to be herein mentioned, have resulted in failures to 
resolve the finer lines of these plates. 

The Nobert test is a series of groups of parallellines ruled 
on glass thus ■ ||||||, each succeeding group being finer than 
the preceding one. Different plates have a different num- 
ber of groups, ruled to different scales. The one used by 
Messrs. Sullivant and Wormly (American Journal of Sci- 
ence, 1861) has thirty bands or groups, the coarsest having 
its lines ttjW of a Paris line apart, and the finest being WW ; 
each group or band being about ^oW of an English inch in 
width, and the whole thirty occupying a space perhaps a 
little more than -^ of an inch. Now it is a difficult matter 
for the mind to appreciate such minute divisions of space, 
yet it is essential, in order to estimate a little the difficulty 
of seeing such lines, to form some idea of their minuteness. 
The average diameter of a human hair is about Yiftsv of an 
inch, yet in a space only one half as great in the coarsest 
« baud of the Nobert plate there are seven lines, while in the 
30th band there are forty-five. 

The plate which I have used in the trials to be detailed 
was made in 1863. It has nineteen bands, the first being 
ruled to tuW of a Paris line, and each band increasing by 
five hundred, so that the 19th is io ioo » 

The following table gives in the second column the frac- 
tional part of a Paris line* between the lines of each band ; 
the third column, the decimal part of a line as marked on the 
plate by Nobert ; the fourth, the number of lines to an Eng- 
lish inch ; the fifth, the number of the band in a thirty-band 
plate corresponding in fineness. 

•One Paris line = .068816 of the English inch. 





FwliUiM. 


1. 


1-1000 


2. 


1-1600 


3. 


1-2000 


4. 


1-2500 


0. 


1-3000 


6. 


1-3500 


7. 


1-4000 


8. 


1-4500 


9. 


1-5000 


10. 


1-5600 


11. 


1-6000 


12. 


1-6500 


13. 


1-7000 


14. 


• 1-7500 


15. 


1-8000 


16. 


1-8500 


17. 


1-9000 


18. 


1-9500 


19. 


1-10000 



AKO HODEBN MIGBOSGOFES. 95 

Deoimalof Lines to ikig^ of SumVant and 

Paris line. Ush inch. Wormly^s plate. 

.1001 11,240 Ist 

.000633 

.0005 22,480 

.0004 

.000333 

.00025 44,960 

.0002 56,200 16th 

.000167 67,622 20th 

.000143 78,737 25th 

84,400 

.000125 90,074 SOth 

.000117 96,234 

.000111 101,434 

.000105 107,167 

.000100 112,668 

Has human art ever made an instrument capable of I'en- 
dering lines, 112,000 to an inch, visible? If not, is it possi* 
ble to do so? Is there anything in the laws of light, which 
renders it impossible to see lines so close, and therefore 
render useless the labors of the optician to improve his in- 
struments beyond a certain point? and, as a corollary, is it 
decided that it will be useless for the naturalist to try to 
investigate the structure of tissues beyond what the best 
existing instruments have shown ? It must be borne in mind 
that the power of seeing a single object is not the question, 
but the power of distinguishing two or more objects nearly * 
in contact. The problem is exactly the parallel of that of 
the power of the telescope of separating double stars. A 
brief sketch of what has been done, and what opinions on the 
problem have been expressed by eminent microscopists and 
opticians is essential to a full understanding of the question. 

Professor Quecket, in 1855, asserted that ^^no achromatic 
has yet been made capable of separating lines closer together 
than the rshyu of an inch." **Mr. Ross found it impossible 
to ascertain the position of a line nearer than -^jrcf of an 
inch." "Mr. De la Rue was unable to resolve any lines on 
Nobert's test plate closer than aiioo of an inch." 



96 nobebt's test flate 

Dr. William B. Carpenter, in his work on the Micro- 
scope, published in 1856, says, "Even the iV objective will 
probably not enable any band to be distinctly resolved, 
whose lines are closer than r^hnr of an inch. At present, 
therefore, the existence of lines finer than this is a matter of 
faith rather than of sight ; but there can be no reasonable 
doubt that the lines do exist, and the resolution of them 
would evince the extraordinary superiority of any objective, 
or of any system of illumination which should enable them 
to be distinguished." In his second edition issued in 1859, 
Dr. Carpenter repeated the same remarks, but substituted 
^ihnr for Tffhr(T9 and then added, "There is good reason to 
believe that the hmit of perfection (in the objective) has now 
been nearly reached, since everything which seems theoreti- 
cally possible has been actually accomplished." In the third 
edition, 1862, he again alters the figures to 71^, but adds 
nothing more. 

On the other side the late Professor J. W. Bailey claimed 
to have seen lines as close together as ruxftftrv to the inch, 
and Messrs. Hanison and Solitt, of Hull, England, claimed 
to have measured lines on the ^SitoTn Amphvpleura pdliundaj 
as fine as 120,000 to 130,000 to the inch, and expressed the 
opinion that lines as fine as 175,000 might be seen with 
proper means. 

To determine if possible the truth between these conflict- 
ing opinions, Messrs. Sullivant and Wormley (American 
Journal of Science, January, 1861) made an exhaustive trial 
of one of these '* marvels of art." They state that the opti- 
cal apparatus at their command was ample ; it included a 
"ToUes'^ objective of 160° angular aperture, — an objective 
of rare excellence in all respects, — besides iV and iV objec- 
tives of other eminent opticians." They were able to obtain 
an amplification of 6,000 diameters. The plate contained 
thirty bands, as previously mentioned. 

"Up to the 26th band ( raioo ) there was no serious difflcnlly in re- 
solving and ascertaining the position of the lines ; but on this and the 



AND MODERN MIGROBOOPES. 97 

sabsequent ones, spectral lines, that is, lines composed of two or more 
real lines, more or less prevailed, showing that the resolving power of 
the objective was approaching its limit. By a suitable arrangement, 
however, of the illumination, these spurious lines were separated into the 
ultimate ones on the whole of the 26th, and very nearly on the whole of 
the 27th band ( aiJia ) ; but on the 28th, and still more on the 29th, they 
so prevailed, that at no one focal adjustment could more than a portion 
of the width of these bands be resolved into the true Unes. The true 
lines of the SOth band we were unable to see, at least with any degree of 
certainty.*' 

'* These experiments induce us to believe that the limit of the resolva- 
bility of lines, in the present state of the objective, is wellnigh estab- 
lished," and they draw the conclusion, ** that lines on the Nobert's test 
plate, closer together than about Teri(nF of an inch, cannot be separated 
by the modem objective." 

Although the paper of Messrs. SuUivant and Wormley 
was republished in the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical 
Science, in London, and niight be considered as being a 
challenge to the opticians and microscopists of Europe to 
show what they could do in resolving the test plate, yet no 
report can be found of any attempts to resolve the lines 
until 1865, when Max Schultz (Quarterly Journal of Micro- 
scopical Society, January, 1866) described the Nobert plate 
of nineteen bands, and gave the results of his trials for resolv- 
ing them. "The highest set he has been able to define with 
central illumination is the 9th, which is resolved with Hart- 
nack's immersion No. 10, and Merz's immersion system ^. 
With obliqtie illumination he has not been able with any 
combination to get beyond the 15th." It will be seen by 
reference to the table that Schultz saw finer lines than Sulli- 
vant and Wormley. This is the only report we can find in 
print from Europe. 

In this coimtry we find no published results ; but Mr. B. 
C. Greenleaf, of Boston, and the writer were well satisfied 
that they saw the lines 90,000 to the inch with a ToUes' I 
in 1863, and the next year Mr. Greenleaf saw the same 
lines, unmistakably, with a Tolles' iV- I^r. J. J. Wood- 
ward, of Washington, in a communication to the Quarterly 
Journal of Microscopical Science, London, October, 1867, p. 

AMSR. NATURALIST, VOL. H. 18 



98 nobert's test plate 

253 y states that with monochromatic light, and Powell and 
Lealand's -^^ 2V9 ^^^ iV objectives, a Hartnack immersion. 
No. 11, and a Wales j, with amplifier, he satisfactorily 
resolved the 29th and 30th bands of Nobert's test plate. In 
a letter to the writer written since. Dr. Woodward informs 
me that the plate used was the 9ame one used by SuUivant 
and Wormley, as the 30th band was the finest on that; the 
result did not show that finer lines could not be seen. Dr. 
Woodward informs me, that, since writing that paper, he has 
received a Nobert plate with the nineteen bands, and that the 
covering glass was too thick for the ^ objective, but with 
all the others he was able to resolve the 17th band (101,000 
to the inch) ; the 18th and 19th he was unable to resolve. 
Dr. Woodward has sent to me a photograph of the 16th, 
17th, 18th, and 19th bands, taken by Dr. Curtis with the 
Powell and Leland ^V* ^^ the photograph, the lines of the 
16th and 17th bands may be counted with some difficulty, 
but if the whole band is copied, or if the bands are of the 
width of ToVa of an inch, there are not lines enough. The 
lines of the 18th and 19th bands cannot be counted in the 
photograph. From this it will be noticed that Dr. Wood- 
ward has resolved finer lines than any other observer had 
yet seen, so far a« report gives us any information. 

My esteemed correspondent, M. Th. Eulenstien, of Stut- 
gard, Wirtemberg, writes to me, under date of Dec. 17th, 
1867, **! have myself resolved the 14th band with a iV Pow- 
ell and Lealand, and also, but less unmistakably, with No. 
11 Hartnack's immersion, with oblique light." *'Nobei*t 
himself has never seen with his highest powers higher than 
the lith." **This will show you the continental state of 
affairs." Mr. R. C. Greenleaf and myself have lately tried 
several objectives, and the result is appended below : * 

•Wales* 1-5 ang. ap., 140*, B eye-piece, power 475 dU., ennllght oblique, . . 8tfa band. 
Hartnack's immersion No. 10=1-14, ang. ap. 165*, power 1002, B eye-piece, 

light obUqne, 10th " 

Nacbe^s immersion No. 6 » 1-13, B eye-piece, sonllght oblique, 8th " 

** <* No. 10s= 1-21, B eye-piece, sunlight central, 9th " 



AND MODERN MIGBOS0OFE6. 99 

With Tolles' i immersion, angular aperture 170°, B eye- 
piece, power 550, Mr. Greenleaf and myself both saw the 
19th band satisfactorily. Thus being probably the first ever 
to see lines of 112,000 to the inch, and establishing the fact 
of the visibility of such lines, contrary to the theory of the 
physicists. (It should, however, have been mentioned in 
the proper place that Mr. Eulenstien says that Nachet claims 
to have seen them by sunlight recently, which claim needs 
some confii'mation, as his No. 10 failed so completely in my 
hands. 

In the present month (January, 1868) , Dr. F. A. P. Barnard 
writes to Mr. Greenleaf, that he had tried several objectives, 
naming a Spencer ^V &Qd tVj ^ ToUes' ^ and ^, a Wales ^, 
and a Nachet immersion No. 8, equal to a xV- **The Spencer 
sVj and the Natchet i^ broke down at about the 11th or 12th 
band. With the Wales i 1 got as far as ten, or perhaps 
eleven bands. With the ToUes' i I made out distinctly ten." 

In another communication he says, *Hhe highest band I 
can count is the 16th." In a more recent letter to the 
writer, Dr. Barnard gives the count of the lines on a portion 
of his plate, — corresponding as nearly as could be expected 
to figures given in the table up to the 14th ; but the 16th 
band he could not count satisfactorily, different attempts 
giving varying results. It has been said that the resolution 
of the lines to the eye implies the ability to count them, 
but this I think is a fallacy ; a few lines of a group may be 
counted correctly, and then it becomes difficult to identify 
the line last counted and the one to be counted next. Let 
any one try to count the pickets in a fence, when the pickets 
are distinctly visible, say at a distance of 100, or 150 yards, 

Kachet's immersion No. 10 » 1-81, B ey&>piec6, sonligbt oblique, .... 12th band. 
ToUes' immersion 1-10, ang. ap. about 180*, B eye-piece, power about 800, 

sunligbt oentral, 8th " 

Voiles' immersion 1-10, ang. ap. about 100*, B eye^pieoe, power about 800, 

sunlight oblique, 19th ** 

Tolles' immersion 1-10, ang. ap. about 100*, B eye-pieoe. Petroleum, light 

oblique, 12th *• 

Tolles' immersion 1-10, on another occasion I saw the 16th ** 



100 NOBEBT'S TE8T FLATB. 

he will find this difficulty almost insurmountable. In the 
microscope the micrometer is an aid in counting, but in 
counting lines of such exquisite fineness, either the microm- 
eter or the stage must be moved, and it is next to impossible 
to construct apparatus that can be moved at once mo'ooo of 
an inch and no more. It would require the genius and skill 
of Nobert himself to do it. 

These trials show conclusively, that it is not the great 
power of the objective that is important (for in many of the 
trials here reported the lower powers have given the best 
results, and the ToUes' i immersion the best on record) , but 
it is the skill of the optician in making the instrument. I 
have since tried the Wales' objective dry^ and resolved the 
13th band well, — thus doing what Mr. G. did with it in 
water ; the inference must be that Mr. 6. did not obtain its 
best work. 

NoTS. — Since the foregoing was written, Dr. Barnard has made more 
trials, and I am well satisfied that he has seen the 19th band with a 
Spencer iV <uid ToUes' -}, 5otA dry objectives. This performance fairly 
surpasses any thing yet done, either in this country or Europe. Dr. 
Barnard writes (Jan. 29), that he found that the counting of the lines was 
attended with the yery difficulties referred to above, in addition to which 
there is another trouble, the whole width of a band is not in perfect focus 
at once ; this necessitates a slight change of focal adjustment, and any 
change renders it extremely difficult to fix, even with the cobweb microm- 
eter, the exact line last counted. He made five counts of the 19th band 
with the iVt namely : — 

1. U0,898 to the BngllBh inch. 4. 106.SS6 to the English inch. 

2. 108^0 " " 6. 115,474 " " 
8. U8,787 " " mean, 110,820 " " 

The number, according to Nobert, is 112,668. He counts for the 15th 
91,545, Nobert, 90,074. Though there is apparently considerable discrep- 
ancy between the count and Nobert's figures, yet I consider it as near as 
can be reasonably expected when aU the difficulties are appreciated. Be- 
sides, it must be remembered that Dr. Barnard gives as above the num- 
ber of lines to an inch, not the number actually counted. The actual 
number in the 19th band should be 56.5, if the band is exactly ^^ts<5 of an 
inch, a yariation of two lines each way covers the extremes of his count- 
ing. 

Mr. Greenleaf has Just tried (February 7th) an immersion objective by 
Wales' iV- He resolved the 10th, 11th, and 12th bands perfectly ; the ISth 



KEYIEWS. 101 

was doabtftil. Another trial of the Hartnack No. 10 resolyed the 18th 
band perfectly,— the 14th doabtftlly. 

English and American opticians name their objectives (i. e,, the lens or 
lenses placed next the object, that next the eye being the eye-piece), Arom 
their magnifying power, — thas a i inch objective has the same power as 
m simple lens of i inch focas. Continental European makers generally 
distingnish their instruments by numbers ; the higher numbers indicating 
higher powers ; but as each maker has his own system, the actual power 
of an instrument must be ascertained by trial. Instruments also often 
differ from their names, and they cannot generally be depended on. The 
theoretical power of a microscope is measured fh>m an arbitrary standard 
of ten inches, — thus, a one inch is said to magnify ten diameters; a i 
inch, forty diameters. If the standard is taken at five inches, as it is by 
some, then the <* power" is but one half as much. The ^* power" of the 
microacope is that of the objective multiplied by that of the eye-piece ; if 
the objective magnifies ten diameters, and the eye-piece ten, the result is 
one hundred diameters. 

Angttlar aperture is the angle in the surfSuse of the ftront lens, at which 
light will enter the objective, — the greater the angular aperture, the 
more light, and usually the greater resolving power. 

An ampli/ler is an achromatic combination inserted in the compound 
body of the instru^ient to increase the "power" of the objective and 
eye-piece. 

Immersion lenses have lately attracted great attention, though they 
were made by Amici many years since. The objective is immersed in 
water, — that is, there is a film of water between the Aront of the object- 
ive and the object, or the thin glass covering it. The effect is a great in- 
crease of light, and better definition. 



REVIEWS. 



Thk Animal Natctrb of Sponoks.*— -Many opinions have been ex- 
pressed with regard to the animal nature of the sponge, which has been 
considered as a plant by most authors, but nothing of a reliable or defi- 
nite nature had appeared before a paper by Mr. Carter in the Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History, for April, 1857. In this paper it was first 
shown that the organized layer of the sponge was made up of single- 
ton the Spongla Clllatn m InAisorla Flagellata; or, Obflerratlons on the Straetnre, Anl- 
mallty, mud ReUtionsbip^f LeueosoUnia botiyoi<Ui BowerlMoik. With two plates, and more 
ttum •erenty-elgtat flfarea. By Professor H. James Clark, A. B^ B. 8. Memoirs of Boston 
Soeletj or yataral Hlstorj, Jmie 90, UK. 



102 BEVIEW8. 

ciliated cells, which were supposed to be allied to Amoeba, an animalciiley 
because they were seen to take in food apparently through the walls of the 
body, and not through any proper mouth. Professor Clark shows that 
Leucosolenia botryoides Bowerb. is an aggregation of new forms of Monads 
closely allied to Monas termo Ehren. The existence of a month at the 
base of the flagellum, a lash-like organ present in many Inihsoria, is de- 
monstrated in all these forms, and all except Monas are described as pos- 
sessing a hyaline calyx, or cup, surrounding the region of the mouth, like 
an inverted funnel. The single monads which compose the dilated layer 
lining the internal channels of LeucoaoUnia, a common marine sponge, 
have a similar calyx, are monoflagellate (that is, provided with a single 
lash-like appendage), and probably have a mouth at the base of the flagel- 
lum, since they took in their food in the same manner as the Manita termo. 
The connection between Monas and its allied forms, with the higher Pro- 
tozoa, or inftisoria, such as Euglena, Dysteria, and Pleuronema, is shown 
by Anthophysa MtUleri which has two flagella, like the higher forms men- 
tioned, but like Monas has no calyx, and grows in umbellate colonies like 
Codoslga. The direct relation anatomically and zodlogically of the 
sponge with these exceedingly active and beantifhl forms is startling, and 
one sees in the great advance In the study of the Protozoa made by Pro- 
fessor Clark, that, after all, Ehrenberg's belief that these minute forms 
had a very highly complicated organization, is, like. most opinions, not 
without a kernel of truth. — A. H. 

The Progress of ZodLOOT m 1866.*— Another volume of this invalua- 
ble year-book, which is simply indispensable to the working naturalist, 
has Just been published. We hope it will meet with much encouragement 
among American zodloglsts. In the words of the chief editor, "The 
object of the Record is to give, in an annual volume, reports on, abstracts 
of, and an index to, the various zoological publications which have ap- 
peared in the preceding year; to acquaint zo51ogists with the progress of 
every branch of their science in all parts of the globe; and to form a 
repertory which will retain its value for the student of fhture years." 

The scientific part of the zodlogical literature of 1864, to which vol. 1 
forms a guide, amounts to more than 25,000 pages ; that for 1865 amounts 
to not less than 85,000 pages ; and that for 1866 to about 80,000 pages. 
In the literature for 1865, it is estimated that about 7,000 animals are de- 
scribed as new to science. 

In running through the 649 pages of the last volume we glean the fol- 
lowing items of interest. — Professor Lilljeborg states in his memoir 
on the Rodents that about 2,800 species of Mammalia are known, namely, 
about 700 Sodents, 500 Chirqptera (Bats), 250 FhrcB (including Insect- 

*Tli«Roeord of Zoological LltentBTfl. Edited lirA.G.L.O.Gnntlier,M.D.,1864-^W. Lon- 
don, 1865-^, 8to, Tol. 1, pp. 684; toI. S, pp. 784; vol. 8, pp. 648. The Mammalia, Reptiles, and 
Fishes are reported on by Dr. Gunther; the Birds by Alft^ Newton; the Insects by W. 8. 
Dallas; the Cmstaeea by 0. Spenee Bate; the Worms, Radiates, and MoUnsoolda (TnnlCates 
and Polyaoa), by E. PerelTal Wrl^t ; and the MoUasea by E. Ton Martens, the price of eMb 
▼olame Is about I6jOO In gold. We shall b« pleased to take orders for our snbteribers. 



REVIEWS. 103 

ivora), 200 Quadrumana (Monkles), and about as many ArtiotUu^la.* — 
A. Mtiller proves that the male fox lives in polygamy, and does not assist 
in rearing his ol&pring. — A yonng Hippopotamus has been successftLlly 
reared in the Zo51ogical Gardens in Amsterdam. — Mr. 6. O. Sars refers 
to the contradictory statements of naturalists with regard to the ejection 
of water Arom the blow-holes of whales. He states that if the head with 
the blow-hole is raised above the surfiice of the water, nothing but air is 
expelled ; but if, at the moment of expiration, the head is still below the 
surfkce of the water, the force of the air expelled carries a portion of 
the water with it, causing a more or less perceptible spray. — In orni- 
thology, the most important fact elicited during the year is the discovery 
of the bones of the Dodo by Mr. Clark, chronicled on p. 614, vol. 1, of the 
Naturalist. — In a work on the fossil birds of France, A. Milne-Edwards 
reports that all the fossil birds of the tertiary epoch can be included in 
the natural groups which still exist, though none of the species are iden- 
tical with the living forms, and some are types of new genera. Of the 
quaternary period twenty-three species have been determined, only one 
of which, a very large Chrus, is extinct, though as regards France, two 
species, Lagopus albus, the White Ptarmijtan, and Nyctea nivea, the Snowy 
owl, both inhabitants of the arctic regions, no longer exist there, being 
relics of the Glacial period. — The Great Auk is supposed to have oc- 
curred of late years on the Norwegian coast, and it is supposed to 
have bred on Lundy Island (coast of Devonshire), in 1838 or 1889. — 
A commission of Dutch naturalists have reported on the Ship-worm, 
Teredo, and the means of combating its attacks. It bores into solid 
wood by the mechanical rasping action of the minute denticulations 
covering a part of the surface of its valves, the movements having been 
seen by M. Eater on a living animal. It has an enemy in a worm, Lycoria 
fueata Haan, which feeds upon it. As regards means of protection the 
commission report : — 

1. It is of no use to coat the surface of the wood with any substance sup- 
posed to be impenetrable to the Teredo, as this coating will be damaged 
sooner or later. 

2. The impregnation of the wood with soluble inorganic salts, does not 
prevent the animal from invading the f^ood. 

3. The hardness of the wood itself does not offer any protection, the 
wood of the *' gaiac '' and the ** mamberklak '* being invaded. 

4. The only means offering a high probability of protection against the 
animals is the impregnation of the wood with creosote. — M. Alphonse 
Milne-Edwards says of Lysianaasa (Eurytenes) magellanica that he has 
compared a specimen fh)m Spitzbergen with one in the Paris Museum, 
'* taken from a fish's stomach near the Straits of Magellan. These two 
individuals seem to resemble each other very closely {beaucoup), and I 

*Fn)lbMor Owen dlTldes ttie hooted, or wngnlatM mammal*, into PeHuodmetgla (tlioM with 
an odd nnmber of toes), and the Afiiodaetyla (iaidiidlas moat of the ramlnants), whleh coa- 
aiat of thoae with an eren number of toea. 



104 NATURAL HI8TOBT MISCELLANY. 

have only seen a difference between them of size." — The occurrence of a 
yenomous black spider is noticed at Berdiansk, amongst the wheat at har- 
vest time. — Gnyon writes on the parasitic Flea, or Chigoe, Pulez (Rhyn- 
choprion) penetrans, which lives under the skin of man and pigs. Among 
its natural enemies is the Cockroach {BlaUa Americana), The Palse 
Scorpion (Chelifer cancroides) is destructive to the common Flea. — Donn^ 
gives an account of some experiments conducted for the purpose of de- 
termining the possibility of spontaneous generation (heterogeny). Pas- 
teur replies to these observations of Donn6's, stating that his experiments 
are not Aree from many sources of error, and pronounces it as his fixed 
opinion, that, in the actual state of science, heterogeny is a chimera. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



BOTANY. 

Can Lichbnb be mKNTiFiED bt Chkmical Tests? — Some interesting 
experiments illustrating the differences in the chemical constitution of 
Lichens have lately been published (Regensburg Flora, 1866 ; translated 
by Rev. W. A. Leighton, in the Journal of the Linnsan Society, of the 
same year) by Dr. Nylander, of Paris ; and his observations have been 
followed by an extended application of one of the tests proposed to the 
large genus Cladania, by Mr. Leighton (Annals and Magazine of Natural 
History, 1866), and by a general consideration of the described phenomena 
as recognizable in Spitzbergen species, by Dr. Theodore Fries (Lichens 
of Spitzbergen in Acta Holmis, 1867). 

It appears, ft'om these experiments, that Hypochlorite (Chloride) of 
lime Aimishes *'a sort of immediate analysis" of the colorable matter in 
Boceella (Archill of dyers) when applied, in solution, to the Aronds ; and 
the species which do not fbrnish this matter and fail therefore to exhibit 
the <*erythrinlc" reaction, or the presence of erythric acid (the case with 
our solitary. North American form) are t>f course in such way distin- 
guishable Arom those which do. The same holds good in Dirina ; in Z«- 
canora tartarea (Cudbear of dyers) as compared with closely allied spe- 
cies, and in Umbdicaria and Parmelia, it being necessary in the latter that 
the inner, or medullary layer should be submitted to the test. 

In like manner Hydrate of Potash is shown to effect several different 
reactions, according as the tissues subjected to it differ chemically. In 
most yellow Parmeliei (Theloschistes) and Lecanorei (Placodium) as in 
the red firuit of species of Cladonia and of Biatora, in Heterotkecium 
Domingense, etc., the contact of the salt immediately induces a purplish 
tinge (supposed to indicate what has been called chrysophanic acid) and the 
species otherwise referable to the groups named which do not show this 
change (as TheloachisUs candelarius) are thus elegantly, and sometimes 



NATURAL HISTORY MISGELLANT. 105 

most conveniently, separable. So again, In many other Lichens (sup- 
posed now to contain usnelc acid) as Parmelia and Lecanora, Cladonia, 
etc., the reaction, If It occur. Is yellow, or greenish-yellow, and serves to 
separate, In this way, otherwise closely related forms. It Is with the 
botanical valne of these forms, sometimes so close that they were not 
before taken to differ even as varieties, bat now assumed, and. In part at 
least, on no other than the kind of evidence above given, to be "species," 
that botanists are concerned. 

I have gone through a large part of my North American and exotic 
Lichens In the light afforded by these experiments, and found the facts, 
If sometimes suggestive of more than is stated, generally clear ; much 
clearer than the value attributed to them. Is It not Indeed safe to say at 
once that species are not determinable. In Botany, by such tests ? Dr. 
Fries has well pointed out the curious and significant parallelism running 
through Cladoniay wherein forms, agreeing In almost every other respect, 
are seen to differ, and in the same way, in their behaviour with potash ; 
and his list of such forms might yet be extended. C. delicata, of the first 
series below, is complemented, it appears (Leighton's Cladonlie, p. 6) by 
a C subdelicata ; and 0. athelia bears, with little doubt, a similar relation 
to (7. SarUensis, Nor does there appear to be reason for estimating the 
valne of the terius of these parallel series, as, for example. 

Not tlnired by Potash. Tinged yeUow by Potaata. 

Cladonia gracUU, .... ^^Cladonia ecmocyna,** 

Cladonia degeneranis, . . . ^^ Cladonia lepidota,'* 

** Cladonia subdelicata" . . Cladonia deUcata^ 

** Cladonia bacHlaris,** . . . Cladonia macilentaj 

and so on, any higher or otherwise than in C. furcata ; wherein we are 
told (Leighton's Cladonlse, p. 9) Dr. Nylander does not consider the chem- 
ical difference which he regards as sufficient to separate **C. ecmocyna" 
fVom C. gracilis as indicating anything more than *' only a distinct va- 
riety." Indeed it is difficult to see why genera (as for instance in the 
groups mostly characterized by a yellow thallns and polar-bilocular 
spores) should not be as properly determinable by these reagents, and 
nothing else, as species. 

The observations cited are, however, plainly incomplete ; and derive 
ftom this perhaps not a little of their Interest. Parmelia perlata is thus 
said to differ specifically from Its var. olivetomm Ach., by falling to show 
any red tinge with Chloride of Lime ; the difference already recognized 
being regarded as sufficiently corroborated by the new one. But all speci- 
mens of P. olivetorum are not so distinguishable, as compare the excellent 
ones in Welwitsch's Portuguese collection. No. 75, and Massalongo*s Ital- 
ian, No. 325 ; and the assumed organic diversity thus falling, there is left 
only the (In itself uncertain) merely chemical one. It is much the same with 
P. Icevigata and its variety revoluta Nyl. (Synopsis, p. 885), the last being 
now taken, and on the same evidence, to be distinct in species flrom the 
first. We have here a better marked difference in botanical character, 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. n. 14 



106 NATUBAL HISTOBT MISCELLANY. 

one which commended itself as sufficient to Floerke, and, at one time, 
to Borrer ; and there seems to be no donbt that this original P. revoluta 
Floerk. ! is discrepant from common states of P. Icevigata in the chemi- 
cal respect also. Yet this will not hold of the similar American lichen 
referred to the same variety, at the place cited, by Ny lander, which 
shows no reaction; while, on the other hand, an Enropean condition 
(Herbarium Krempelh.) is not wanting, associable far less with revoluta 
than with Icnigata, the evident reaction in which favors the inference 
that the latter varies possibly in its chemical relations as much as the 
former; and that the new criterion is after all of no service. In all 
my numerous European specimens of P. tiliacea, the mednllaiy layer is 
tinged red by the same salt, as stated by Nylander ; bnt only two or three 
of the much more abundant North American ones show any trace of the 
reaction : the same discrepancy recurring in the intertropical forms, in- 
stanced by the var. au&Zcroi^ata Nyl. (Lindig's Herbarium of New Granada), 
of which No. 110 of the second collection exhibits the coloration, while 
No. 736 fails to. Some of the specimens fh)m this continent, showing no 
change of color, might indeed be referred or rejected to the conterminous 
P. IcBvigata ; but surely not all : and it is safer to infer that the species 
before us fbrnishes only another example of the variableness of Lichen- 
groups in this respect. P. caper<Ua is reckoned, by the same authority, 
among the species the medullary layer of which gives no indication of a 
red tinge with the reagent. I find yet the contrary the case in North 
American specimens, as well flrom Arctic America as from Texas; in 
ChUian and Peruvian ones; and in one said to be fr^m Spltzbergen 
(Hookerian Herbarium), almost all these states being also marked by 
elevated, powdery margins, — as if a var. ulophylla (see Acharius) flUed 
in this species an analogous place to the var. olivetorum in P. perlata, 
— but some (it Is worthy of note) sufficiently normal. P. Borreri be- 
longs, it is frirther said, to the number of species which exhibit the 
reaction ; but none is observable in several well-marked North American 
specimens in my herbarium, and the same is true of the New Grenada 
P. Borreri Nyl. (Lindig's Herbarium, No. 736). The group represented 
by P. physodes is, on the other hand, set down as not affected by the salt 
in the way named. P. Japonica, of the present writer, belongs none the 
less to the group, and exhibits a free coloration. So Dirina is reckoned 
generally as displaying " a very distinct erythrinlc reaction ;" yet the 
Califomian species (2>. Califomicd) fails to respond to the test. A pale 
yellow tinge follows the application to the last-named Lichen, as in many 
other cases ; but in what appears rather a corticoline form of P. cotispersa, 
from Louisiana (var. le%icoehlora Kyi.), the change is to bright yellow 
not without orange, contrasting with the entire want of coloration in 
common states, and perhaps therefore not unworthy of note in the pres- 
ent discussion. 

These results, given with due respect to the experienced authors whose 
observations have been considered, sufficiently indicate that the writer 



KATUBAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 107 

inclines to emphasize the doubts with which Dr. Fries has received the 
supposed new criteria of distinction. It remains none the less likely, 
from what evidence we have, that the reagents named, capable as they 
are of instructive application to imperfect Itagments of specimens, may 
sometimes afford clews to afDnity where there Is little to direct ; and thus 
deserve a place beside the better-known solution of iodine, on our work- 
ing tables. — £. Tuckerbcak, Amherst* 

The Suk-dew a Flt-trap. — I wish to call the attention of botanists 
to a very humble little plant, the Drosera rotundifolia^ or common sun- 
dew, which not only catches flies, but eats them. I was looking early in 
the spring in a swamp for chrysalids, when I noticed the tiny leaves of 
the sun-dew, which has beautiful blood-red glandular hairs, each tipped 
with a gUstenlng dew-drop. The leaves were covered with the wings and 
legs of gnats. One or two had the hairs gathered into a knot at their cen- 
tres, and on one a live gnat was struggling hopelessly to escape. I secured 
two plants and kept them for several weeks by laying the bit of moss on 
which they grew in a plate suppliedftcvery day with water. During this 
time I fed them vrith midges, ants, and beefiiteak. The tiny drop of dew 
is glutinous, and any small insect touching them is lost. Every effort to 
escape but hurries its doom, and in a moment wings and legs are held fast 
to the tiny bristles. 

Now begins the curious part of the affair. All the hairs begin to 
move towards the insect, but so slowly that their motion is almost 
Imperceptible. In a few hours the hairs touch and cover it with their 
adhesive points. I placed a piece of raw beefsteak on the centre of 
a leaf. In twelve hours nearly every hair touched it. They gathered 
over it in knots and remained do for a day and a half, when they slowly 
returned to their natural position, leaving the beef a white sodden atom 
resting on the points of the hairs. I tried it with a bit of paper, but it 
refhsed to move for that ; then a tiny fly was touched to one of the treach- 
erous dew-drops, smothered, and in a few hours all the ferocious little 
scarlet hairs had their beaded points upon his body. When the blossom 
bud appeared, the glands no longer secreted the dew, and the leaves lost 
their brilliant color. — L. A. Miliinoton. 

Two Crops of Roses. — Another correspondent has mentioned a mon- 
strosity in roses. I have a Provence rose which for three years in suc- 
cession has borne numbers of flowers after its usual time of blooming. 
The late roses generally grow directly out of the old one until the third is 
produced. Some of them are perfect with the exception of the calyx, 
which is undeveloped ; while others are a conftised cluster of pink leaves, 
at the end of a stout stem. — L. A. M. 

A Whitb Wild Columbine. — One of your correspondents has spoken 
of flnding Columbines that were nearly white. I believe they are not 
uncommon, as I have frequently found not only Columbines but Lobelia 
cardtnalis of a delicate white or cream color. — L. A. M. 



108 NATURAL mSTOBT HflSGELLANT. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Are Beks injurious to Fruit? — Dr. H. A. Hagen, late of Kdnigsburg^ 
Prussia, who is an eminent entomologist, and who has paid special atten- 
tion to the literature of Bees and Bee-keeping, thus writes us regarding 
this question: — 

**I have never known, and find nothing in the literature, now at 
hand to prove that Bees are obnoxious to ftnits and to fields. Bees can 
never use the fields of red clover ; the corolla is too long for their probos- 
cis. But they are very ft-equently seen in the fields of white clover, and I 
have heard that these fields are obnoxious to bees, if shortly before rain 
has fallen.** 

Apifhobia. — The people of Wenham have voted, by a two-thirds ma- 
jority, that no bees shall be kept in the town — the vote being directed 
against an extensive bee-keeper whose stock has been troublesome. 
Some say the action of the town is of *'doubtftil constitutionality." — 
Boston Journal. 

The good people of Wenham have judged that bee-keeping and fruit- 
raising are incompatible, and that bees are a nuisance 1 1 We also notice 
that the bee-keeper '* whose stock has been troublesome" advertises in 
the Salem Oazette, his farm for sale, consisting of " three-quarters of an 
acre of tillage land, containing Ax)m seventy-five to one hundred pear 
trees, besides apple trees. The pear trees, 1867, bore thirty bushels of 
choice standard fhiit." {Memorandum, — The bee-keeper himself seems, 
ftom the above quotations, to have found hoik Aruit-raising and bee-keep- 
ing a source of profit 1 1) 

Have we gone back to the Dark Ages, the age of belief in Dragons, 
^'Gorgons and Chlmferas dire," Erakens, Unicorns, and Witches and 
Witchcraft? Are these poor bees to be voted worse than fiends and 
dragons, about which there is always a sort of tragic interest, and to 
be a4)udged only as ** common nuisances," to be abated and extin- 
guished by the ballots of Wenham's ^^ftee and independent woters?" 
This disease, Apiphohiay as we may call it, has aflOicted mankind before. 
Among some of its attendant symptoms are intense bigotry (sometimes 
leading to undue persecution);* an unreasoning credulity, so that all 
sorts of horrible stories regarding these entomological monsters are 
eagerly believed, and the unfortunate sufl'erer firom these hee-horrors 
finally comes to look at every object with hymenopterous eyes. Musqui- 
tocs, for example, look as large as bees, and sting as only a super-infti- 
riated Wenham bee can sting. It has raged fiercely at times in Germany, 
ft'om the year 1530 up to the year 1800, and now, alas I has broken out 
among the unfortunate inhabitants of Wenham, Massachusetts, U. S. A. 
It would be immodest In us to suggest as a preventive against this for- 

* We learn that the aelectmen of Wenham hare ordered the bee-keeper to abate the ^^not- 
tanoe,** and take his bees out of town. Can It be poMlblel and this In enlightened Maaaaidiiu 
■etta! 



NATURAL HI8TOBY MISCELLANY. 109 

mldable disease, the daily reading of the Naturalist, but we can heartily 
recommend the perusal of the American Bee Journal, which is devoted to 
the habits and natural history of the Honey Bee. 

A little knowledge of Natural History is really the only antidote yet 
dlscoTered against this fell disease. We quote Arom the American Bee 
Journal for March, the Editor's remarks on the subject of 

BXBS AND Fbuit Blobsoiis.— A 8III7 prc;)adioe agalmt bees If entertained by some flnlt- 
growwBy lutfed on the notion tbat tbe croi» of fimit are li^urlonsly affeeted, botb In qnalltj and 
quantity, by tbe visits of bees during tbe blossoming period. A more unfounded notion, or one 
derlTlng less support fh>m obsenratlon and science, can scarcely be conceived. Yet It regu- 
larly looms up once or twice in a century, and creates as mucb alarm and consternation among 
tbe wiseacres, as the appearance of a comet used to do in by-gone days. 

Repeated instances of tbe resuscitation of this pr^udlce are presented in tbe biatory of bee- 
culture in Germany, especially In tbe period between 1&80 and 1800. On some of these ooca- 
aions it was so widely prevalent and so rabid in Its demonstratlona, as to constrain tbe almost 
total abandonment of bee-culture in districts where firult-ralsing bore sway. To the aid of this 
eame tbe substitution of cider and beer for tbe ancient mead or metbeglln, as the popular 
beverage; and amid such opposition and discouragement, bee-culture rapidly sunk to be of 
very subordinate interest, except in some Ikvorable localities. 

In 1774, Count Anthony of Torrlngs-Seefield, in Bavaria, President of the Academy of Sci- 
ence at Munich, striving to re-Introduce bee-culture on his patrimonial estate, found in this 
generally prevalent pr^ndlce tbe chief obstacle to snoeess. To overcome it, he labored assid- 
uously to show that bees, ISw ttom being injurious, were directly beneflqlal In tbe frnctifleation 
of blossoms --causing tbe fruit to <«/, by conveying tbe HBrtillzing pollen from tree to tree and 
from flower to flower. He proved moreover, by official family reoorda, that a century earlier, 
when bees were kept by every tenant on the estate, fruit was abundant; whereas then, when 
only seven kept bees, and none of these had more than three colonies, fttdt was scarcer than 
ever among his tenantry. 

At the Apiarian General Convention, held at Btnttgard, in Wlrtemburg, in September, 1808, 
the subject of honey-yielding crops being under discussion, the celebrated nomologist. Profes- 
sor Lucas, one of tbe directors of the Hohenbelm Institute, alluding to the pr^odice, went on 
to say, — ** Of more Importance, however, is an improved management of our fruit-trees. Here 
the interests of the horticulturist and the bee-keeper combine and run parallel. A judicious 
pruning of our fttiit-trees will cause them to blossom more freely and yield honey more plen- 
tlAilly. I would urge attention to this on tbose particularly who are botb fruit-growers and 
bee-keepers. A carefbl and observant bee-keeper at Potsdam writes to me that Mm treet yield 
deeidedlff larger crop* since he hat eMtaMithed an apiary in hie orchard, and the annual product 
ie now more certain and regular than btfore^ though bis trees had always reoelTed due atten- 
tion.** 

Some years ago a wealthy lady in Germany established a green-bouse at considerable cost, 
and stocked It with a great variety of choice native and exotic fruit-trees— expecting in due 
time to have remunerating crops. TUne passed, and annually there was a superabundance of 
blossoms, with only very little fhiit. Various plans were devised and adopted to bring tbe 
trees Into bearing, but without success, till it was suggested that tbe blossoms needed fertilisa- 
tion, and that by means of bees the needed work could be effected. A hive of busy honey- 
gatherers was introduced next season; the remedy was eftectual— there was no longer any 
dlfllculty in producing crops there. Tbe bees distributed the pollen, and the uUing of the 
fimit followed naturally. 

Thk Mottled Owl. — I think Mr. Samuels has misunderstood my re- 
marks on the nests of owls. What I intended to state was that the Mot- 
tled Owl never built a nest to my personal knowledge, and I did not state 
that the Mottled Owl occupied the ** abandoned nest of a crow or hawk," 
but I did state that other species of owls (of course meaning our local 
species), when they did occupy a nest at all, inhabited the abandoned 
nest of a crow or hawk, which they had partially repaired. — Augustus 

FOWLEB. 



110 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CALENDAR. 



An Albino Hummiko-Bibd.— Daring the last sammer a wbltc Ham- 
mtDfc-bird visited maD; times a sUDd of plants oa my piazza. I had sev- 
eral opportnoitiea of observlDg It closely. It twmed a trifle larger than 
the Buby-throat. The Deck and bead were of a glossy gold-color. Eyes 
large, black, and brilliant. Afler dipping its bill Into all the faschlas, it 
did what I have never seen other Humming-birds do, alighted on a dwarf 
apple-tree within a few feet of me, and ate the aphidea, or plant-lice, 
just as the sparrows and golden-wrens do. Alter a. hearty meal of insects. 
It dressed its feathers, spread Its wings one bj one, and thrust out a very | 
long tongue. — L. A. Mujjngton. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CALENDAR. 



In April the Injnrlons Insects in the Northern States have scarcely be- 
gun their work of destruction, as the buds do not unfold before the first 
Tig. 1. of May. We give an account, however, of some of the bene- 
Jtcial inteels which are now to be found in grass-lands and in 
gardens. The firmer should know his true Insect friends as 
well as bis insect foes. We introduce to our readers a large 
^ bmlly of ground-beetles ( Carabida, from Carabus, the name of 
the typical genns) which prey on those insects largely injurious 
o crops. A study of the figures will familiarize our readers 
with the principal forms. They are dark-colored, brown or 
black, with metallic hues, and are seen in spring, and through- 
er, running In grass, or lurking onder stones and Sticks In 




damp places, whence they sally fbrtb to hnnt by night, when many vege- 
table-eating insects are most active. 

The larvffi are found in mach the same sltnations as the mature beetles. 
They are elongate, oblong, and rather broad, the terminal ring of the 



COBRE8FONDENOE. Ill 

bod; being armed with twu boray hooka, and having a single flesh; leg 
beneath, and are usnally black In color. The larva of Caloaoma (C. eali- 
dum. Fig. I ; Fig. 2, the beetle of C. calidum Pabr., p^ ^ 

and Fig. 3, C scrtUalor Fabr.) ascends trees to Flg.6. 
Fte & ^^^^ ''° caterpillars, sncb as 

the canker-worm. When abont 
, to transronn to the pnpa state, 
it forms a rude cocoon In tbe 
eartb. The beetle lies in wait 
fbr its prej in shallow pits ex- 
cavated In pastnres. We once 
Mw it fiercely attack a Jnne- 
. bug (t<icAiiO«£ema /u«ca) nearly 
twice Its size ; it tore open the 
hard sides of Its clamay and 
helpless victim with tlger-llke 
ferocit;. Carabut (Fig. 4, C. etrralut Say ; Fig. E, pnpa of Carabttt av- 
roniUn* of Europe, after Westwood) la a closely allied form, with very 
similar habits. 

A much smaller form is the curious Bombardier beetle, Brachinu$ (Fig. 
Flg.UL 6, fi./uiiinn< Linn.], with Its narrow head and heart-shaped 
protliorai. It Is remarkable for discharging with quite an 
explosion from the end of Its body a pungent fluid, prob- 
ably as a protection ugslnst Its enemies. ^^ ^^ 
An allied genus is CatRoala (Fig. T, C. Pent 
»!/tvattiea Dejean) which has a long neck and 
spotted wing-covers. Pig. 8, Pangut eatigi- 
nosa» Fabr., and Fig. 9, Agonum cuprlpenne 
Say, represent two common forms. The 
former is black, white the latter is a pretty 
insect, greenish, with parpllsh red wing- 
covers, and black legs. 

Fig. 10, enlarged about three lines, represents a singular 

larva found by Mr. J. H. Emerton under a stone early In 

spring. Dr. Leconte, to whom we sent a figure, snpposea 

that It may possibly be a larva of Harpaliu, or Paagua caltginoiua. It 

Is evidently a yonng Carabld. Tbe under side is represented. 

In our monthly calendar for IS6S. we shall not repeat any l^ts stat«d 
Id the calendar given In Vol. I. of the NAT<ntjU.iST. 



CORRESPONDENCE, 
i. L. M., New York.— There Is no manna) of American Entomology* 




giving a general account of Insects and the claasiflcatlon of the North 



112 BOOKS BECEITBD. 

American species. The following will be fonnd indispensable, in addi- 
tion to those enumerated in Vol. I, p. 106 and 160 of the Naturalist : — 

A Treatise on the Insects Injnrions to Vegetation. By Dr. T. W. Har- 
ris. Illustrated. Boston, Nichols & Noyes. Reports (one to eight) on 
the Noxious and Beneficial Insects of New York. By Dr. Asa Fitch. 
Published in three volumes. The Practical Entomologist ; published by 
the American Entomological Society of Philadelphia. The Proceedings 
of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, Vols. 1-6, now continued 
under the name of Tranaactions. The Entomological publications of the 
Smithsonian Institution at Washington, containing works on the Lepi- 
doptera, the Diptera, Coleoptera, and Neuroptera. In these important 
works are lists of all works relating to American insects, to which we 
would refer the reader. 

Dr. H. Loew, in varibus European journals, has described many of our 
Diptera. The British Museum Catalogue of Insects, over fifty volumes in 
12mo, describes man^ of our insects, and Ib indispensable to students. 

L. A. M., Glenn Falls, N. Y. — The Sugar Mite (Acarus eaccKarinum) is 
found in brown sugar. It is much like the Domestic Mite (Acartta domes' 
ticus De Geer), which is found in collections of insects and stufl^d birds, 
where it is quite destructive. ^canM/an'fue is found In flour and food, 
and the Itch-insect (Acarua scabies Fabricius) forms by its irritating pres- 
ence little pustules in the more protected parts of the hand and else- 
where. The Red Spider (^Acarus tellarius) is found on house-plants. 
They are best destroyed by sprinkling sulphur over the leaves they Infest. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Ba^f-yearly Abstract o/MecUeal Scieneea. July to December, 1887. Philadeli>hia. Sro. 

litut, Snuti MUdewt and Mould. An Introduction to the Study of Microscopio Aen^. 
By M. C. Cooke. 12mo. London, 1885. B. Hardwicke. With nearly three handrod 
flgnres by J. C. Sowerby. 

Manual of Botanic Termt. By M. C. Cooke. London. R. Hardwicke. With Olaa- 
trations. 

A Fern Book for Everybody. Containing all the British Ferns. By M. C. Cooke, 
ninstrated. London, 1867. F. Wame A Co. 

A Plain and Eaay Account of Britiih Pungi^ with Descriptions of the Esculent and 
Poisonous SpedeSy Details of the Principles of Scientific Classification^ and a Tabular 
arrangement of Orders and Genera. By Ji. C. Cooke. With twenty-foar colored plates. 
12mo. London, 1802. B. Hardwicke. 

Our Reptiles ; A Plain and Easy Account of the Lizards. Snakes, yewts, Toads, Progs, 
and Tortoises indigenous to Great Britain. By M. C. Cooke. With illastrations. 12mo. 
London, 18(56. B. Hardwicke. 

JTardwickt^s Scienee-€h>ssipforlQffl. London, 1888. BoyalSvo. B. Hardwicke. 

Land and Water. January 18, SR, Febmary 1. London. 

The Field. Febmary 1, 8, 15. London. 

Chemical News. March. New York. 

Cosmos. February 1,22. Paris. 

American Bee Journal. March. Washington. 

■tndy of Bntomology, arranged fl>r the nae of Schools, Collies, and AgHcnltarlsts. It wfU 
consist of upwards of four hundred l^sges, long primer type, with nearly Ibnr hundred eats. It 
will contain short descriptions and flgnres of nearly all our most destmctlTe and beneilolsl In- 
sects, and those nseftU In the arts, with remedies against the attacks of the noxious species. It 
is designed to be %poptitar book, written in plain language, and ftee as possible from teohnleal* 
Itles, and fhmished with a glossary. We shall endeavor to make it of use to the beginner In ttie 
study of insects, and especially to flumers and fhilt-raisers.— A. S. P. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



VoL n.-HAT. 1868.-no. 8. 



THE SONGS OF THE GRASSHOPPERS. 



Althocoh every one is familiar with the 
notes of birds, few can distiDgui&h the differ- 
ent chirpings of insects, or are even aware 
that every kind of Grasshopper has its distinc- 
tive note. The songs of insects are neither 
so varied nor complicated as those of birds, 
but their study presents peculiar difficulties. 
Sounds become inaudible to many persons 
when they are derived from vibrations more 
rapid than 25,000 per second, and when the 
number reaches 38,000, the limit of human 
perceptibility is attained : thus, the shrill- 
ness of a note may prove a hinderance to 
~ its study. This is illustrated by Tyndall in 

his recent book on Sound. He writes : "Crossing the Wen- 
gem Alp with a friend, the grass on each side of the path 
swarmed with insects, which, to me, rent the air with their 
shrill chirruping. My friend beard nothing of this, the in- 
sect world lying beyond his limit of audition." 

Another and universal obstacle lies in the delicacy or 
feebleness of the notes of some species ; to distinguish them 

Enlfrnl nOEnrdln; to Act or Congmui. In the jar IMS. br tba PlAI 
SciBKCK, In Uin Clcrk'i Office of Dh Dlilrlct Coiin or Ihc DIMrkl or M. 



114 THE SONOS OF THE GRASSHOPPERS. 

clearly, one must bring his ear to within a few feet, or even 
inches of the insect during its stridulation, — a process which 
requires great caution lest the shyness of the little violinist 
should overcome his egotistic love of song. The observer 
must walk quietly toward the sound until it ceases, and wait 
motionless for its renewal ; the direction of the chirping can 
then easily be determined, although its distance is deceptive. 
After drawing an imaginary line towards the spot from 
whence the sound proceeds, cautious steps must be taken 
around the arc of a wide circle until another line is fixed at 
right angles to the first, and the location of the songster ap- 
proximately determined. Then walking quickly but quietly 
to within five or six feet of the insect, the observer will fall 
upon his hands and knees, and produce a quill edge and file, 
which, on being rubbed together, imitate, with great exact- 
ness, the desired note. He will commence his mock strid- 
ulation after a short delay; at first the sounds must be 
subdued and separated by considerable intervals, then loud, 
and repeated in quick succession; usually a response is 
heard before a minute has elapsed, and sometimes it comes 
at once. When the insect has forgotten his fears and begins 
to stridulate violently, the observer may cease operations 
and carefully approach him. In this way one can place 
himself within a few inches of any species living in the 
grass. 

Grasshoppers stridulate in four different ways : first, by 
rubbing the base of one wing-cover upon the other, using, 
for that purpose, the veins running through the middle por- 
tion of the wing ; second, by a similar method, but using 
the veins of the inner part of the wing ; third, by rubbing 
the inner surface of the hind legs against the outer surface 
of the wing-covers; and fourth, by rubbing together the 
upper surface of the front edge of the wings and the under 
surface of the wing-covers. The insects which employ the 
fourth method stridulate during flight, — the others while at 
rest. To the first group belong the Crickets ; to the second 



THE SONOS OP THE GRASSHOPPERS. 115 

the Green or Long-homed Grasshoppers ; to the third and 
fourth, certain kinds of Short-horned or Jumping Grasshop- 
pers. The sounds produced by the different groups vary in 
pitch, those of the crickets being shrillest and the others 
following in the order just given. With but few exceptions 
the males alone sing. 

The notes of the Cricket — called by the French "cri cri" 
on account of its song — may be heard near Boston* from the 
middle of June until November ; further north they do not 
appear until much later in the season. Their note is cm-i, 
and the rapidity with which it is uttered varies even in the 
same strain ; sometimes it is as slow as two notes a second, 
at others it is twice as rapid. The note is sharp and shrill, 
and appears to be pitched at E natural, two octaves above 
middle C. Sometimes two choirs of these insects may be 
heard at once, the individuals of each choir chirping simul- 
taneously, but one choir more rapidly than the other ; most 
of the time this produces a sort of discord, but, as they 
occasionally harmonize, one hears cycles of accordance and 
discordance, often of remarkable uniformity and duration. 

The Spotted-cricket {Nemobiua viUatus) appears simulta- 
neously with the Black-cricket ( Gryllua niger) . The chirping 
of the two insects is very similar, but that of the former may 
be better expressed by r-r-r-u^ pronounced as though it were 
a French word. The note is trilled forcibly, and lasts a vari- 
able length of time. One of these insects was once observed 
while singing to its mate. At first the song was mild and 
frequently broken; afterwards it grew impetuous, forcible, 
and more prolonged; then it decreased in volume and extent 
mitil it became quite soft and feeble. At this point the male 
began to approach the female, uttering a series of twittering 
chirps; the female ran away, and the male, after a short 
chase, returned to his old haunt, singing with the same 
vigor but with frequent pauses ; at last, finding all persua- 
sion unavailing he brought his serenade to a close. 

* All my illustrations ore dra^vn ttom New England insects. 



116 THE SONOB OF THE ORA8SHOFPEBS. 

In September and October, tte White Climbing- cricket 
( (BcatiUiua niveua, Fig. 1 , left wingnjover of male, Fig. 1 a, 

Fii;.!. FiK. 11- the Bome of female*) is found on the 
leaves of low trees and bushes. It makes 
a uniform note, exceedingly shrill but 
attenuated. 

The peculiar development of the wing 
in stridulating Ortboptera is nowhere seen 
to better advantage than in this insect. 
In the female, the veins of the central field run nearly paral- 
lel to the border ; in the male, they cross the wing in various 
directions, and either converge toward the point of stridu- 
lation on the inner border of the wing, where the inner and 
central fields meet, or act as supports to the convei^ng 
veins. 

All these insects belong to the first class. There are many 
species iu the second group (the green or long-horned grass- 
hoppers), but a few examples will suffice. These insects, 
like the crickets, sing both by day and night, but^ unlike the 
latter, their day-song difiers from that of the night. On 
a summer's day, it is curious to observe these little crea- 
tures suddenly changing from the day to the night-song at 
the mere passing of a cloud, and returning to the old note 
when the sky is clear. By imitating the two songs in the 
daytime, the grasshoppers can be made to respond to either 
at will ; at uight, they have but one note. 

The previous illustrations showed that the stridulating 
organ of crickets occupied the middle field of the wing ; in 
the green grasshoppers, on the contrary, it will be found in 
the inner field ; here, too, the relative size of the imier field 
is nearly the same in both sexes, but the stout, curved vein 
of the male is alt<^ther wanting iu the voiceless female. 

One of them, the Phaneroplera curvicauda (Fig. 2, male ; 

•iDaUtbeilliutntkma, tbo dotted lines ibow the llmltatloni of the dloaront adds or 
tlKvrbigi arepre*enMthe"llle;'' ft points Bt the line or ■epuvtlDn between Uie eost«l 
(DtouMr)iuidceiitnlfleldii e, M lb«t iralnt Lietweeu the central and inner Heidi- 



THE SONOe OF THE ORA88HOPPER8. 117 

Fig. 2 a, female), prefers to sing in the night. His day- 
song is bzrwi, and lasts one-third of a second ; the night- 
song consists of a repetition — ordinarily eight times — of a 
note which sounds like tchiD. This is repeated at the rate 
of fire in three-quarters of a Fig-is. fi^.s. 

second, making each note one- 
half as long as that of the day. 

The song of the common 
Meadow-grasshopper (Oivheli- 
mum vvlgare) is more compli- 
cated. Commencing with te, it 
changes almost instantly into a 
trill of zr: at first there is a 
crescendo movement which 
reaches its volume in half a sec- 
ond ; the trill is then sustwned 
for a period varying from one 
to twenty seconds, and closes 
suddenly with p. This stmn 
is followed by a series of stac- 
cato notes, sounding like jip; 

they are one-eighth of a second in length, and are produced 
at one-half second intervals. The staccato notes and the 
trill alternate ad libitum. The night<song difiers from that 
of the day simply in its slower movement ; the pitch of both 
is at B flat, two octaves above middle C. 

A conical- headed grasshopper {Conotxphalus robuatus), 
found near the seashore in the southern part of New England, 
makes the salt marshes resound with its incessant, shrill din. 
The i-esemblance of its song to that of the harvest-fly is quite 
striking; at a distance, the note seems to be perfectly uni- 
form ; close at hand, one can hear it rising and falling rhyth- 
mically, two and a half times a second, accompanied by a 
loud droning noise. 

There are numerous kinds of jumping grasshoppers which 
stridulate in the daytime only. They do this by the aid of 



118 THE BONOS OF THE ORA88HOPPEB8 . 

the bind legs, rubbing their thighs against their wing-covers ; 
every movement of the fiddle-bow produces a short note, and 
the uniformity with which each species playa its own song 
is quite remarkable. One kiud (Stenobothrus curtipennis) 
produces about six notes per second, and continues them 
from one and a tialf to two and a half seconds ; another 
(-9. melanopleurus) makes from nine to twelve notes in 
aiK>ut three seconds. In both cases the notes follow each 
other uniformly, and are slower in the shade than iii the 
sun. 

The stridulating apparatus of the jumping grasshoppers is 
of a very different character from that of the green grasshop- 
Fig.8. Fiy.so. pers. In Arcyplera lineata (Fig, 3, pi-.^^ 
left wing of m:ile ; Fig. Ba, left wing 
of female), for example, it is situated 
in the central field of the wing, 
which is of about the same size in 
both sexes ; some of the veins in the 
centre of the wing (a, enlarged in 
Fig. Sb) have a rasp-like surface 
upon which the hind thighs are 
scraped up and down, producing mo- 
notonous, nearly uniform notes. 
The grasshoppers which stridulate 
during flight, by the contact of the wings and wing- 
covers, belong mostly to the genus (Edipoda ; in many 
of them the wings are variegated with brilliant colors. The 
sound which they make seems to be under the control of the 
insects, for they often omit it when alarmed. Some species 
produce a uniform, rattling noise during the whole of their 
undeviating flight ; others make it only during the intervals 
of flight, and seem to stridulate more at will. The flight 
of the latter is more sustained, they are capable of changing 
their course, and at each turn emit a crackling sound of 
short duration. 



THE SONGS OF THE GIUSSHOFPEBS. 



119 



zr 




xr- 




TT' 




ir 



P JIP Jip Jip Jip Jip jlp 




■^■> -V^ iV'iv iV' i v 




Jlp ts 




zr 




^^^«^^^»^^>»>^^^.^»^^>»^^»»>l^»^<#»^<^^^^l^N^>#s^i^»^«^»^s^«<^^^|^^»^^>^»^^^«^«^»»»»>^s^«^»^>^<^<^>^^^^»^«»»^l^ 




IT- 



P Jlp 




ITote of Orohdimnm Tnlgsre. 




120 



THE BONOS OP THB GRAS8HOPPEB8. 



Cirri cirri cnri cnri crtI 





Note of GryUofl negleottu. 



m ra rn rn ru rn ru 



ru 



mrurani inm 



fr 



tr 



ni ru ru ru ru 




tl ru ru ru ru ru m 



r^^-r 



tr 



bzrwl 



bzrwl 



Note of Nemobios vittAtus. 
bznrl 

Note of FhAneroptera conricauda by day. 



tchw tchw tchur tchur tchur tchw tchw tchw 




^ J} p p u p 

Note of Fhaneroptera onrvicanda by night 




Tfciritirri?: 



Note of Stenobothnu melanopleanu In the sun. 






Note of Stenobothnu melanopleanu In the shade. 

-firfrt||rtrtrti ? r y r y r | y r 

Note of Stenobothnu cortipennU. 



• • I • 



Note of Arcyptera lineata. 



BEARS AND BEAR-HUNTING. 

BT CHABLE8 WRIGHT. 

** Notes of a Hunter," by Henry Clapp, call to mind some 
personal experience about bears and bear-hunting in Texas. 
I was much in the company of Mr. Benjamin Burke, a very 
observing, intelligent, and truth^l man. He imparted to 
me many items of information respecting the habits of the 
bear. Some of these habits I had the opportunity of observ- 
ing myself, and I have full confidence in the truth of his 
statements relative to the others. 

I had read in my youth, in some great encyclopedia, that 
the bear goes to his winter's sleep very fat, and awakes from 
it, in the spring, very lean. I was surprised then to learn, 
that, so far as can be judged by appearances, he loses none 
of his fat during hibernation. Of course, in his wild state 
we cannot weigh him before going to sleep and after he 
wakes. The hunter says he goes to his winter- quarters 
"full fat," and comes out *'full fat." / know that he is fat 
when he begins to travel in the spring ; but he becomes lean 
rapidly, notwithstanding he may find plenty to eat. At this 
period, he is destructive to hogs ; indeed, all the summer, 
till the return of mast (acorns, grapes, and other autumn 
fruits) offers him better food. Mr. Burke had a very large, 
gentle boar (he was raised as a pet) which was caught by a 
bear; but he broke away, and came to the house with a 
gaping wound just over the middle of his back. A gang of 
hogs will rally, in self-defence, against a wolf, a panther, or 
any other animal of this country that I know of, except a 
bear. If you want to scatter a gang, throw among them a 
bit of fresh bear-skin. Apropos of this a story is told, for 
the truth of which I do not vouch, though I think it not im- 
probable, that a man's hogs being in the habit of breaking 
into his neighbor's field, the latter caught one, sewed it up 
in the skin of a bear newly killed, and turned it loose among 

A3IBR. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 16 (121) 



122 BEARS AND BEAR-HtTNTTIXG. 

its fellows. These ran for dear life, and the bear-hog fol- 
lowed from social instinct till both fell, if not dead, at least 
quite exhausted. 

I was not aware that a bear can climb a tree so small as 
that mentioned by Mr. Clapp. The hunter knows whether 
the animal is in the hollow of the tree above by the marks 
of the claws. In ascending, he leaves only the puncture of 
the claws. In descending, he makes long scratches. They 
climb in order to "lap," as the hunter says, described by Mr. 
Clapp as drawing in branches to get the fruit. I feel inclined 
to doubt whether they break off the branches ,/br the purpose 
of throwing them doion and then descending to eat the fruit. It 
looks too much like human reasoning. K the branch breaks, 
he may not be able to hold it ; and when he goes down, he 
may eat the fruit. This would be all natural enough. In 
the South, acorns form the principal mast. They are fond 
of persimmons too, and grapes. When mast is not plenty, 
they lap black-gum berries {Nysaa multiflora?) ^ and these 
impart to the flesh, not a bitter taste, as would naturall}^ be 
supposed, but the peculiar savor of fish ; so that, for a per- 
son of delicate taste, only severe hunger will force him to 
eat the meat of a bear that has lapped black-gum. 

The female commonly climbs a tree to find a hollow for 
her winter-quai'ters, where she has her cubs. I was present 
at the taking of one from such a hollow. It was necessary 
to climb a neighboring tree ; then a piece of dry rotten wood 
set on fire, loosely attached to a pole and thrust into her 
nest, soon forced her to turn out. Old, large bears do not 
like to climb, and generally hibernate in a thick bunch of 
cane or bushes, or among some fallen tree-tops, or in a 
hollow log, making a bed of leaves, gi'ass, brush, or other 
stuff. During winter, if a warm day occurs, bears will 
sometimes go out and walk about, and perhaps drink ; but 
they, probably, do not eat. One killed during the winter 
has nothing, or only a little mucus in the stomach and intes- 
tines, and the plug in the vent, as mentioned by Mr. Clapp. 



BEAKS AND BEAR-HUNTINO. 123 

Thia results, probably, from the hardening of the last fecal 
matter, mostly mucus, which comes from the intestines. But 
the idea that it is composed of gum, — an idea that I never 
heard of in Texas, — enteilained by some, reminds me ol 
another custom of bears, probably connected with the sexual 
heat. In some localities, particularly on a high bluff near a 
stream, a pine tree is occasionally seen, from which the bark, 
at a certain height, is plainly torn off by the teeth of some 
animal. It is said to be done by the bear in this manner: 
he rises on his hind feet with his back to the tree, and, 
turning his head to one side and to the other, rips off the 
bark with his tusks. The size of the animal is known, ap- 
proximately, by the height of the marks he leaves. The 
same tree is visited year after year by bears of various sizes, 
— none very small, however. I would say, trusting to 
memory, that the average height may be about four feet. I 
have seen several such trees. I think Mr. Burke had never 
witnessed this performance, but received his infoimation 
from Indians. I never saw any other than a pine thus 
marked. 

Bears are fond of honey, and will rob bee-hives, if within 
reach. They also dig up ''yellow-jackets," wasp's-nests, for 
the larvae. The account of this is amusing. The animal 
digs rapidly, and when the insects sting him too fiercely he 
quits for a moment, rolls over and over on the ground, 
snarling the while, and returns again to the attack, perhaps 
to go through the same movements several times before he 
bears off the prize. 

It is exciting sport hunting bears with dogs. These come 
to be almost as fond of it as the hunter himself. Most of 
them, in the beginning, fear to attack, and some never get 
the better of the dread he inspires. A fierce one is apt to 
spring at the ear, to his sorrow. But the dog that has cour- 
age and prudence combined bites him behind, which he will 
by no manner of means tolerate, but will wheel to fight. I 
doubt if he ever properly strikes with his paws. He makes 



124 THE GEOGRAPHIOAIi DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 

his own instinctive effort to seize the attacking party, and to 
put him in the place of the lowermost clog in the fight. Then 
he bites, and if he gets the dog by the back, and if this be 
4 lean thin dog, woe be to the dog. A fat one has a better 
chance. The bear cannot so well get his broader back into 
his mouth, and, the skin slipping, he generally escapes with 
only a flesh-wound. Dogs, at first, often refuse bear-meat, 
but come to prefer it before all others, as does the hunter. 

When hard pressed, the bear will back into a dense patch 
of cane or into a bunch of bushes, and, standing erect on his 
hinder parts, make the best fight he is capable of. This is 
the time for the hunter, when his attention is absorbed by the 
dogs. Occasionally one is started, which runs steadily on 
and escapes. Females and young commonly climb, or 
"tree" in hunters' dialect. Generally, they are then easily 
shot; but sometimes, on the hunter's approach, they will 
drop from the tree and run on again. 

I once met a female and two cubs. I shot the mother fair 
in the breast, aiming at the white spot. The cubs treed, and 
I killed them ; I then went in search of the old one, fully 
expecting to find her, close by, dead. As she ran away she 
bled profusely, but the blood grew less, and finally stopped 
entirely, and I never found the bear. How she could go 
quite off with such a loss of blood, was a mystery. 



■o- 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 

BY SIDNEY I. SMITH. 
(Concluded fh>m page 23.) 

Among terrestrial and fluvial species, topography is much 
more powerful in limiting geographical distribution, than it 
is among marine species. The separation of lands by broad 
ocean waters, without change of temperature, is suflicient to 



THE GEOORAPHIGAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 125 

prevent the mingling of their land faunae to any extent, while 
they may have most of their marine species in common. Such 
cases are numerous ; at the Galapagos, for instance, none 
of the truly land species are known to occm* in any other 
region, while a large portion of the marine species are found 
also on the American coast. Temperature is undoubtedly 
the most effective cause in limiting the diffusion of land and 
fresh water, as well as marine animals ; but its influences 
are much obscured by those of humidity, and by the varying 
character of soils, waters, and the resulting vegetation. 

Temperature, as a result of or combined with topography, 
forms a very effective force in limiting the distribution of 
land animals. High and continuous mountain ranges pre- 
sent an almost impassable barrier to the migration of most 
species. Thus the physical features which separate faunsa 
from regions east and west may be so strongly marked, that 
they more than counterbalance the climatic effects of lati- 
tude. In North America, the faunae on the east of tlic 
Rocky Mountains are very different from those on the west, 
and the inclosed central table -lands are occupied by still 
different faunae. The birds of Arizona resemble those of the 
table-land of Mexico rather than those of California or of 
Texas. These physical features even effect a change in the 
migrations of the birds of this region ; many of the birds of 
the Colorado valley, instead of migrating far to the north 
in summer, turn to the east and breed in the region north 
of Fort Whipple.* 

Climatic influences, almost alone, limit the distribution of 
mountain vegetation ; and, through the vegetation, more than 
directly that of mountain animals. The narrow limits within 
which mountain species are restricted show very plainly the 
effect of climatic influences. Among the butterflies of the 
White Mountains of New Hampshire, the abundant Chiono- 
bas aemidea Edw., is restricted to the loftiest summit, never 



* Dr. E.CoueB, Prodrome of a work on the Ornithology of Arixona Territory, noticed 
in the Naturalist, Vol. I, p. 209. 



126 THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 

breeding without these narrow limits, although frequently 
blown into the lower vallies. In a zone below these lofty 
summits, but not extending to the base of the mountains, 
Argynnis Montinua Scudd. is found, yet never at the sum- 
mit with the Chionobas^ nor about the base with the species 
of the Canadian or Virginian faunae.* Many other species 
of insects, and many plants, are restricted in the same man- 
ner. It cannot be that these species are thus restricted in 
their distribution merely by some primary, innate principle, 
which prevents their diffusion ; for, like their marine rela- 
tives, they have not always been thus restricted. 

It is not so easy to trace these migrations of species on the 
land as it is in the ocean, for land species are not so often 
left fossil in their ancient homes ; and, as there are no au- 
thentic records of land animals existing through the Glacial 
epoch, we can go back no farther than its decline. Yet it is 
worthy of remark, that the arctic land fauna of the Tertiary 
period, like the marine, was probably circumpolar ; and. that 
the gradually advancing cold of the glaciers would have driven 
many arctic plants and animals southward, and, living just 
beyond the border of the ice belt, they would have followed 
it back with the glacial decline. 

At the close of the Glacial epoch, the fauna and the flora 
of New England must have been very much like that of the 
coast of Labrador at the present time. As the climate be- 
came gradually warmer, the more hardy species would have 
retreated northward and up the mountain sides, while others 
less hardy, became extinct during these climatic changes. 
As the migration continued, the mountain summits were left 
as aerial islands in the more southern faunee.f 

The known land fossils of this period of change are as 
yet very few, but the faunal migration has left abundant 
evidence in the northern species scattered along its path 

* S. H. Scudder, Remarks on some Characteristica of the Insect Fauna of the White 
Mountains. Journal of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. VII. 
t Packard, Glacial Phenomena of Labrador, p. 856. 



THE GEOORAFHIGAL BISTRIBimON OF ANIMALS. 127 

upon the mountains, or wherever the climatic or topograph- 
ical influences have not annihilated them. 

The flora of the higher mountains of New England and the 
Middle States is quite identical with that of higher North 
American latitudes. All the plants of the White Mountains 
are now growing upon the coast of Labrador. As might be 
expected, the fauna of these mountains agrees with the flora. 
The larger animals would not, of course, be expected to occur 
in so restricted an area ; still, one or two northern birds are 
found in summer, and many species of insects — Coleoptera, 
Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera — are common to the 
mountains and places farther north. There are, however, 
some forms which appear to be peculiar to the mountain 
fauna, but more careful and extended investigation in the 
northern regions may prove many or even all of them to 
belong to species still existing at the north. 

The plants and the birds of the coast of Maine, where the 
cooling eflect of the arctic current is .still felt, are subarctic 
in character, and very different from those inland. Potentilla 
iridentcUa and Alsine Grcerdandicay* species characteristic 
of the flora of Labrador and the New England mountain 
summits, with PupiUa badia^ still linger as far south as 
Portland. Thus upon the land, as in the ocean, there are 
southern outliers of northern faunee which are relics of the 
northern march of life during the close of the Glacial period. 

The influence of winds in animal distribution is very slight, 
and seems wholly a disturbing power; yet it should not 
be passed over in silence, for it helps explain the wonder- 
fully wide diffusion of a few species. The winds may trans- 
port animals great distances, even over oceans, and drop 
them alive among the species of other faunae. Several of 
our American birds have been carried thus to Europe so 

* At Paris, Maine, aboat forty miles north of Portland, and Just on the coast line of 
the Leda Clay epoch, I have found both these arctic plants sprin^ng ttom the gravel la 
a railway cut, as if to mark their home of a former age. The occurrence of Sedum 
Rhodiola in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, mentioned by Professor Porter in this vol- 
ume of the Naturaust, p. S9, is a much more interesting relio of the Glacial epoch. 



128 THE OEOORAFHICAL DISTRIBUnON OF ANIMALS. 

often, that they are now catalogued as British species, 
although they are never known to breed there ; and Euro- 
pean species have frequently been taken upon the American 
coast. It is not very probable that land birds have crossed 
the Atlantic in this way and become established in the oppo- 
site country, but in the case of northern aquatic birds, it is 
by no means impossible that whole flocks may have crossed 
the ocean, and become inhabitants of both shores of the 
Atlantic. Most of the birds that are common to Europe 
and North America are arctic aquatic species. With insects 
there is a still greater chance of being carried from country 
to country by winds. That they have never been known to 
cross the ocean, as birds, is very poor evidence that they 
do not do so, for hundreds might arrive yearly and not be 
noticed. Insects have frequently come upon vessels at great 
distances from land, and there is no reason why they should 
not be carried by winds as far as birds. Once arrived in a 
new country, the chances of their becoming permanently 
established are very much greater than for birds, for a single 
female with eggs might be sufficient to introduce the species. 
Some of the facts mentioned below in regard to the intro- 
duction of insects through man's agency, show how easily 
they may become established. 

Of the organic causes in animal distribution, the influence 
of animals themselves is very slight compared with that of 
man. Still, many species, carried by the winds or by man's 
influence from their original homes into other regions, are 
destroyed by native carnivorous species, their permanent 
introduction prevented, and the mingling of far-separated 
faiuue somewhat lessened. The efiect produced by animals 
in diffusing other species is perhaps greatest in carrying 
parasites from place to place. A species is seldom intro- 
duced without some of its parasites, and it might even 
introduce them without becoming introduced itself, for parar 
sited cocoons and eggs of insects, or living insects and other 
animals infested by parasites, might be carried great dis- 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 129 

tances, and the parasites thus introduced attack other spe- 
cies. 

Man, with boundless aspirations and governed in all 
things by an influence within himself, is given a power in 
nature second only to his Creator ; with control over physi- 
cal causes, he is governed by no laws of geographical dis- 
tribution, and, traversing the whole earth at his will, he has 
carried, in spite of climatic influences, species from continent 
to continent, and almost from pole to pole. His influence — 
far above all other secondary causes, and uncontrolled by the 
laws imposed upon mere animals — seems only a disturbing 
force among the naturally harmonizing laws of the diffusion 
of life. Many of the changes which man has wrought in the 
distribution of animals are so evident and so universally 
understood, that it is useless to refer to them here, and we 
will allude only to some of those which bear more directly 
upon our understanding of the geographical distribution of 
species. 

By changes in the minor physical features of regions, man 
has often adapted them to species of other regions. The 
Cliff-swallow was formerly known only from far west of the 
Mississippi, where there were extensive limestone cliffs for 
it to nest upon ; but now that the buildings of man have 
made places for its habitation, it has spread from the Missis- 
sippi all over the Atlantic States.* 

The New Potato -beetle {Doryphora lO-^linecUa)^ which 
is so destructive in the West, was long ago known at the base 
of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, feeding upon a wild 
species of Solanum peculiar to that region. Civilization, 
pushing westward, at last extended its fields of cultivated 
plants far west of the Mississippi into this region. The po- 
tato (a species of Solanum) was well adapted to feed the 
beetle, and was of course attacked by it. The broad fields 
of cultivated plants were much better fitted for its increase 
than the scattered wild ones, and it rapidly diffused itself 

* A. E. Verrill, Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. IX, p. 276. 
AMEK. NATUllAUST, VOL. II. 17 



130 THE OEOGRAPHICAIi DISTRIBUTION OF ANIMALS. 

eastward. In 1864 it had crossed the Mississippi, and now 
it has covered half of the State of Illinois.* 

Three common species of butterflies in Eastern North 
America, — Vanessa ArUiopa^ CyrUhia cardui, and Cynthia 
Atalanta^ — long known to be identical with European spe- 
cies, have been asserted to be natives of this country, and 
the possibility of their introduction from Europe has recently 
been questioned. f But, within a very few years, there has 
been a well-authenticated instance of the naturalization of an 
European butterfly in Canada. Pieris Hapoe^ the Cabbage- 
butterfly of Europe, was introduced at Quebec about 1859, 
and, in 1863, it had become very abundant within a circle of 
forty miles radius about that city.) If butterflies are intro- 
duced and spread so rapidly now, there is no reason why 
the other butterflies mentioned, all of which feed upon in- 
troduced plants, should not have been introduced and dif- 
fused over all the eastern part of the country long before 
entomologists began to study the distribution of species. 

Man's influence is perhaps more noticeable in restricting 
the range of, or wholly destroying many species of animals. 
Within a few centuries several of the largest birds have 
become extinct through his agency, the larger wild animals 
have been mostly driven from civilized countries, the rela- 
tive abundance of the diflferent classes of animals has been 
materially changed, and the natural harmony which must 
have prevailed in the distribution of life has been destroyed, 
for man cannot change the relative abundance of a single 
species without affecting indirectly myriads of animals. 

If man has wrought such vast changes within the short 
period of our written history, what must be the sum of all 
his influence in past ages ? Is it too much to say that his 
influence aided in the extermination of those monsters of the 



* B. D. Walsh, Practical Entomologist, October, 1885, and NoTember, 1866. 

t Ibid., On certain Entomological Speculations of the New England School of Natu- 
ralists. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Philadelphia, Vol. Ill, p. 207. 

t G. J. Bowles, On the Occurrence of Pieris raps in Canada. Canadian Naturalist, 
Vol. I, No. 4, August, 1864. 



THE PBONG-HORN ANTELOPE. 131 

last geological epoch, the Mastodon, the Irish Elk, the Cave- 
bear, and all those wonderful animal forms that passed away 
with the appearance of man ? 



THE PRONG-HORN ANTELOPE. 



In a recent number of the 
' Naturalist ia a letter from 
Dr. Coues on the animals of 
our Western plains. Among 
other quadrupeds he describes 
the AnlUocapra Americana, 
or Prong-horn Antelope, and 
says that they do not shed 
their horns. It is somewhat 
strange, that, although this 
unimai has been known so 
long, so little is known of 
its habits. 

A few years since Professor 
Baird received a letter from Dr. Canlield, who had spent 
some years among these animals, announcing the fact the 
antelope did actually shed its horns. 

As this animal has always been supposed to belong to 
that class of ruminants called boltow-faomed, the same us 
the cow, sheep, and goat. Professor Baird looked upon 
the statement as a delusion of the writer's, and paid no 
farther attention to the matter, until, in 1865, a young 
male antelope was taken to the Zoological Gardens of Lon- 
don ; this was the first animal of the kind ever -taken to 
Europe. 

One morning the keeper discovered that one of the horns 



The Proko-bobm Aktelofb. 



132 THE PRONO-HORN ANTELOPE. 

was loose, and, supposing that some injury had been done to 
the animal, he immediately called for Mr. Bartlett, the su- 
perintendent of the garden, when, upon further examination, 
they found that both of the horns were about to fall off. This 
was the first account published of this interesting fact. The 
account will be found in the Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society of London for 1865. 

For the last four years I have hod an antelope under my 
own observation, and have watched carefully the process of 
development of tbe'horus. 

The antelope fawns are born in the spring, and when six 
months old the horns first begin to develop. They continue 
to grow until the next October or November (that is, until 



Tbebornjulihcd. Jl loncllDillul •hUob Tbaippnnoeeorthe II* ipiwinDce In 
ibcnHnit tbc iDuincr ham fn llw UDDtL ot April. 

IhroBRti Ibe borB."'" " 

the animal is eighteen months old), when the first pair of 
horns are shed ; by this is meant the outside shell. Like 
the cow and sheep there is a hom-core formed by the pro- 
longation of the frontal bone, and occupying about two-thirds 
of the interior of the bom. When the horn drops off, the 
honi-core is found covered with a thick skin, and coated 
with haivi the same as the face of the animal, with a small 
portion of the tip having already begun to harden ; this act- 
ing as a wedge, forces the bom oS. 



AraeriL-an Katnraltst. 



THK rnOSG-HORV ASTELO 



DO SNAKES SWALLOW THEIB YOUNG? 133 

The new horn continues to grow from the tip downwards, 
and generally to curve inwards ; at the same time the thick 
skin below continues to harden, at first assuming the appear- 
ance of black leather. It is flexible, so that the tip may be 
bent in any direction ; a prong sprouts from the base, and, 
by the middle of summer, the horns are fully developed, to 
be dropped and again renewed in the autumn. 

The horn, when shed, seems to be a mass of agglutinated 
hairs enclosed by a substance resembling whalebone in 
appearance ; some of the hairs, however, never amalgamat- 
ing with the horn, but retaining their natural condition, and, 
passing entirely through the horn, will be found protruding 
on the inside and outside of the horn. 

The animal, from which I have made the drawings, is now 
developing his fourth pair of horns. The second pair of 
horns were about three inches longer than the first, and the 
same difference existed between the second and third pair. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 8. 

Fig. 1. The animal In October, immediately after shedding the horns. 
Fig. 2. Appearance in August, the horns being perfect. 



DO SNAKES SWALLOW THEIR YOUNG? 

BY F. W. PUTNAM. 



" WSLLSVILLE, N. Y., Sept. 4, 1867. 

"EDrroRS American Naturalist: 

"Sirs, — A short time since I was in Condcrsport, Pa., in whortle- 
berry time, and a man who had been out berrying stated that he suddenly 
came across a Rattlesnake with her young, some twenty-six, * about her. 

* In regard to the number of snakes in a brood, very little is known. Twenty-six 
seems to be rather a large nnmber for a Rattlesnake, taking my own observations 
as a guide, for of two female Rattlesnakes (Croto^tM duriaaus) which I dissected, one had 
nine and the other eight Ailly formed eggs in the oviducts, though there were a number 
of small ones (not quite as large as peas) which had probably been impregnated and 
might have become developed before the otliers were excluded, but which appeared to 



134 DO SNAKES SWALLOW THEIR YOUNG? 

She immediately opened her mouth, and instantly the whole family of 
little ones went down her throat. Do you believe it? Is that the nature 
of the Rattlesnake? — H. M. S." 

The above question has been often asked, and we have 
several times received statements similar to that expressed in 
the foregoing letter, which, while difficult to believe, it is 
hard to doubt without questioning the veracity of a large 
number of persons, and it seems to the writer that the 
principal point to prove now is. Do young snakeSy after enter- 
ing the throat of their parent ^ come out again alive f 

In answer to this last form of the question we can say, 
that frogs can live some time in the oesophagus of a snake ; 
and if so, why cannot young snakes do the same? for appa- 
rently snakes have as great a power as frogs to live under 
circumstances that would deprive more highly organized ani- 
mals of life. — To my proof about the frog : 

Last summer Mr. Hyatt met with a common Striped-snake 
which had recently enjoyed a meal, indicated by a large 
bunch near the centre of the body. Mr. Hyatt was led, by 
the veiy common desire which most naturalists have of 

me OS if they belonged to a second brood. In a specimen of a closely allied genus 
(Crotalophorus ini/iaHu«) fourteen eggs were counted in the oviducts, each egg contain- 
ing an embryo about two Inches in length, in which the ftmgs were developed. In a 
specimen of the common StTi|)ed-snake ( Tropidonotus tirtalU) thirty-flve inches in 
length, collected on the 22d of July, I found forty-two nearly developed young in the 
oviducts, each of which was five and a half inches in length, making a combined length 
nearly equal to seven times the total length of the parent. July 13th I caught a l^emale 
of the Garter-snake, as it is often called in Massachusetts ( TYopidonottit aauritut), which 
had nine eggs, each of which was three-fourths of an inch in length, and contained an 
embryo two and a half inches long. . On July 31st I captured another of the same species 
which had evidently Just excluded part of her brood, as there were but four eggs 
in the oviducts just ready to be burst by the young. These eggs were each one inch 
and a quarter in length, and contained young measuring Ave and a half inches. On 
August 30th, I found the eggs of the common Green-snake (Coluber tf€rnali$)j seven in 
^number. Just under the old bark and moss of a decayed stump in a meadow. These 
eggs, which were Just on the point of hatching (one young was already partly out of the 
eggt and two others came out before I reached home), were an inch in length by half an 
inch in diameter, and the young snakes were five and thirteen one hundredths inches 
long. Several years ago a family of twenty-two young Water-adders ( Tropidonotus 
sipedofi)^ each about eight inches in length, were found together and presented to the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, by Dr. Chaplin. These few notes are all 
that I have relating to the time of breeding of our snakes and Uie number of eggs to a 
brood, and I can asi^uro any of the readers of the Naturalist who feel disposed to 
collect fsmale snakes during June, July, August, and September, that they would be 
very acceptable to our collection. 



DO SNAKES SWALLOW THEIR YOUNG? 135 

experimenting on animals that come in their way, to try the 
temper of the snake, which he did by teaziug it with a stick. 
This amusement, in a short time, apparently made the snake 
sick, and the "bunch" was observed to move towards the 
head. In a few moments more a live frog* was seen trying 
to get out of the snake's mout/i^ which, after a hard trial and 
a good many jerks and kicks, it succeeded in doing, and 
jumped olF highly delighted at making its escape from such 
close and uucomfortable quarters. This little incident proves 
that a frog can live a considerable time in the oesophagus 
of a snake ; and any one desirous of witnessing the power 
which snakes have of maintaining life imder equally trying 
circumstances, need only attempt to drown one, or kill it by 
placing it in a tight jar. K, instead of making the cruel 
experiment, the reader will take our word for it we can as- 
sure him that snakes have been known to live for some time 
immersed in water, and ''bottled up" in alcohol. 

Thus, with the above facts before us, what reason have 
we to doubt that young snakes can live in the dilatable throat 
of their mother long enough for her to carry them to a place 
of safety? and why should not young snakes have this 
means of protection given to them ? It is really a provision 
no more wonderful than that with which young kangaroos, 
opossums, and other mai-supial mammals are provided in 
the pouch of their mothers ; or the young pipe-fishes and 
sea-horses in the singular pouch or abdominal fold of their 
fathers, into which the young go for protection or for 
rest.f 

One might easily believe, that, if the old snake should 
take the young into her throat in a moment of danger, she 
might afterwards, on being pressed by hunger, be strongly 
tempted to work them down a little farther and provide her- 
self with a good dinner already at hand, especially as large 

I — — - — - — 

* Rana palustris. 

1 1 have Been the young of onr common Pipe-flsh (Sifngnathua Peckianu$)t kept in 
an aquarium, go in and out of the " pouch'' of the male flsh. 



136 DO SNAKES SWALLOW THEIR YOUNG? 

snakes are known to feed on smaller ones ;* and that it would 
be almost too much to expect that an animal, which to our 
higher natures seems so cold in its disposition, would stop to 
consider the fact that it was her own children she had in her 
throat before forcing them into her empty stomach. But 
here again are we met with facts that should set this doubt 
at rest ; for certainly we must allow that her Snakeship is as 
highly endowed with motherly feeling as several species of 
fishes which live in the waters of South America, and which 
are known to carry their eggs in their mouths until they are 
hatched, and the young have attained considerable size ; and 
yet, though the mouths of these fishes are so full of eggs or 
young that they cannot take food without either unloading 
their mouths or swallowing their eggs, yet they are not 
known to swallow eggs which they have taken in charge. 
With this well-known case of forbearance on the part of 
fishes, are we not justified in believing that snakes would 
have an equally motherly regard for their offspring? 

It has been given as a reason against the probability of 
snakes taking their young into their throats, that the gastric 
juice would destroy the life of the young ones in a short 
time ; but this is not the case, as we know from the instance 
of the frog that life is not immediately destroyed. The 
gastric juice, too, would not affect any animal until it was 
received within the stomach, and probably not even then 
until life was destroyed by suffocation. 

The belief that the young of several species of snakes do 
enter the mouth of the parent for protection, has prevailed 
for a long time, and, in many countries. A similar belief is 
very prevalent among sailors and sea-faring men, regarding 
many species of sharks which are thought to take their 
young into the mouth to protect them from danger, f 

*On opening a larye Black-snake (Coluber conttrictor)^ a llill>6ized Green -snake 
(Coluber vemaiU)^ and a Aill-sized Brown-snake( TVopicIoiioltM occiiHtomaeulntui)^ were 
fonnd in ita stomach and aci^oining part of the oesophagus, with those portions in the 
stomach in a slightly decomposed condition. 

t Some sailors belioTe that the young sharks, which are often seen to suddenly dis- 



DO SNAKES SWALLOW THEIR YOUNG? 137 

In a conyersation with Professor Wyman some time since, 
that eminent physiologist stated that he did not know any 
reason why young snakes could not live for a time in the 
throat of the parent, and also called my attention to the 
prevalence of the belief in former times by a quotation from 

Spenser's "Faerie Queene," in the first canto : 

« 

XIV. 

" Bnt, fhll of Arc and greedy hardlment, 

The yontbfUU Knight could not for ought be staide ; 
Bat forth unto the darksome hole he went, 
And looked in : his gllstring armor made 
A litle glooming light, much like a shade ; 
By which he saw the ugly monster plaine, 
Halfe like a serpent horribly displaide, 
But th' other halfe did womans shape retaine, 
Most lothsom, fllthie, foule and ftiU of vile disdaine. 

XV. 

'* And as she lay upon the durtie ground, 
Her huge long talle her den all overspred, 
Yet was in knots and many boughtes upwound, 
Pointed with mortall sting : Of her there bred 
A thousand young ones, which she dayly fed, 
Sucking upon her poisnous dugs ; each one 
Of sundrie shapes, yet aU ill-favored : 
Soon as that uncouth light upon them shone, 
Into her mouth they crept, and suddain all were gone. 



XXV. 

** Her scattred brood, soone as their parent deare 
They saw so rudely falling to the ground, 
Groning ftiU deadly all with troublous feare 
Gathred themselves about her body round. 
Weening their wonted entrance to have found 
At her wide mouth ; but being there withstood, 
They flocked all about her bleeding wound. 
And sucked up their dying mothers bloud ; 
Making her death their life, and eke her hurt their good. 



»> 



We have quite recently received from Mr. Cooke, the 
editor of ''Science-Gossip," London, several of his instruc- 

appear while swimming abont the parent flsh, are taken into the mouth of the parent, 
wliile others think that they enter at the genital opening. 
AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 18 



138 DO SNAKES SWAMiOW THEIR YOUNG? 

tive and interesting little works on popular Natural History, 
and among them ''Our Reptiles"* which contains such con- 
firmations of some of the statements given in this short 
sketchy and so many well-authenticated accounts of snakes 
taking their young into their mouths for protection, that we 
quote the following passages. 

On page 50, in writing on the food of the common Eng- 
lish Snake, which is the European representative of the 
common Striped-snake of America, and closely allied to it in 
its habits, he gives the following quotation from Mr. Bell : 
" I once saw a very small one [frog] , which had been swal- 
lowed by a large snake in my possession, leap again out of 
the mouth of the latter, which happened to gape, as they 
frequently do immediately after taking food." And again on 
the same page he writes : "During the present summer, a 
gentleman of our acquaintance saw a lad kill a snake in the 
wood. It was a very large one, and the boy cut it open 
along the under surface with his pocket-knife. By this 
means a full-sized frog was liberated from the stomach of the 
snake. It was very lively and soon hopped away. Why 
may not young vipers remain as long with equal ease in the 
stomach of their parent?" 

On page 68, in treating of the venom of Vipers, he men- 
tions the following case of a Horned-viper presented to Dr. 
Guy on in Algeria : "This reptile had been put into a bottle, 
which had since remained hermetically closed. It had been 
in there for six weeks, without food and without air, and 
looked quite dead, since it could not stir in the bottle, which 
it filled entirely. And yet, on opening the bottle, the 

* OUB Rbftilbs. a plain and easy account of the Lizards, Snakes, Newts, Toads, 
Frogs, and Tortoises indigenous to Great Britain. By M. C. Cooke, author of "Rust, 
Smut, Mildew, and Mould," "A Plain and Easy Account of British Fungi,'' "Manual 
of Structural Botany," " Manual of Botanic Terms," etc., etc. With original figures of 
erery species, and niunerous wood-cuts. Published by Robert Hardwicke, London, 
1866. 12mo. 900 pages, 11 plates, and numerous cuts. 

We can heartily recommend the works of Mr. Cooke to our readers, as Just the 
books that will interest and instruct all lovers of nature, and should be pleased to order 
any of them for our subscribers.— £ds. 



DO 8NAKES SWALLOW THEEB YOUNG? 139 

doctor found the reptile perfectly sound, and saw it kill a 
lai-ge fowl instantaneously with its sting" [fangs]. 

On page 76, Mr. Cooke comes boldly to the question in 
point, and under the heading of Does the Viper swallow its 
young? gives several pages which we quote in full. 

The belief has a firm hold in the minds of many, that, on the approach 
of danger, the young of the viper glide to their parent for protection, and 
that she opens her mouth, and, one by one, they pass down her throat, 
where they rest in security till the danger is past. To prove a negative 
is always a difficult task, but the effort to remove a prejudice must be 
even greater to be successftil. Clergymen, naturalists, men of science 
and repute, in common with those who make no profession of learning, 
have combined in this belief, and to them we arc indebted for many such 
accounts as the following : ** Walking In an orchard near Tyneham House, 
In Dorsetshire, I came upon an old adder basking In the sun, with her 
young around her ; she was lying on some grass that had been long cut, 
and had become smooth and bleached by exposure to the weather. 
Alarmed by my approach, I distinctly saw the young ones run down their 
mother's throat. At that time I had never heard of the controversy 
respecting the f^t, otherwise I should have been more anxious to have 
kiUed the adder, to farther prove the case." * Nothing can well be more 
positive, clear, definite, and many would think decisive, than the foregoing ; 
yet, so sceptical arc some men on this subject, that they still dare to 
doubt whether there may not be some error In the observation. Let us 
advert to other witnesses, and evidence stlU more complete, and we do so 
with as earnest a desire for truth as the witnesses themselves, and to 
know that the debate Is closed for ever. 

J. H. Gumey, Esq., of Catton HaU, near Norwich, weU known as an 
ornithologist, and especially for the splendid coUectlon of Raptorial Birds 
in the Norwich Museum, which has been obtained chiefly through his 
Instrumentality, In the year 1868 communicated to the Zoologist the fol- 
lowing Instance, told to him by a person In whose accuracy he had the 
fullest reliance. ''John Galley saw a viper at Swannlngton, in Norfolk, 
surrounded by several young ones ; the parent reptile perceiving Itself 
observed, opened Its mouth, and one of the young ones Immediately crept 
down Its throat ; a second followed, but after entering for about half Its 
length, wiggled out again, as though unable to accomplish an entrance. 
Upon this Galley killed and opened the viper, and found in the gullet, 
immediately behind the Jaws, the young one which he had seen enter, and 
close behind that a recently swallowed mouse. Galley was of opinion 
that the first young viper which entered was unable to pass the mouse, 
and that consequently there was not sufficient room for the second 

• Rev. H. Bond, South Petherton, Somerset, ia ZooloffUt, p. 7278. 



140 DO SNAKES SWALLOW THEIB YOUNG? 

young one, which endeavoured unsuccessfully to follow in the wake of 
the first." ♦ 

To this we may add another instance corroborative, and yet more con- 
clusive, on the faith of a clergyman with whose name and address wc are 
furnished, and in whose testimony we have the greatest confidence. 
''Now, * seeing is believing,' and I well remember having seen in my 
boyhood — some thirty years ago — an instance of the fact, the truth of 
which is doubted because resting merely on the testimony of unsci- 
entific country people. Now, I have no pretensions to science, but 
I vouch for the truth — above referred to — of having, in my boyhood 
— when out on a birds'-nesting expedition, in a southern county, with 
some three or four companions — come suddenly upon a viper sunning 
her young brood on an open grassy spot in a broad hedge-row : hedge- 
rows were common in those days. Immediately she saw us, she began to 
hiss, and away went the young, previously some feet ft'om her, * helter- 
skelter' towards their mother; rushed into her mouth — expanded to an 
immense width for so small a creature — and down her throat, one 
over the other, while you could say * Jack Robinson.' The space where 
she was recreating was some twenty feet square, so that before she could 
beat to cover, we, boylike, being armed with sticks, had beaten her to 
death. This done, one of the party with his knife opened the body, and 
out came again the little ones, all of which we killed. I do not remember 
the exact number, but my impression is that it was not more than six or 
eight." t Another gentleman recently communicated to Science -Gossip 
the following occurrence : 

*^ Some years since I was shooting in a wood, and came suddenly on a 
viper lying on a sunny bank. As soon as the viper caught sight of me, it 
began to hiss, and I distinctly saw several young ones, about three or 
four Inches long, run up to the parent and vanish down its throat; and 
from the way in which the parent kept its mouth open, and the young ones 
glided into it, I should say they were accustomed to that sort of thing." | 

We must not forget that some time since the following occurrences 
were narrated in the Zoologist^ by the editor himself, and whilst they 
strengthen the evidence of the viper swallowing its young, Airther serve 
to establish the fact of viviparous reptiles being addicted to that habit. 
Both these illustrations refer to the '* Scaly Lizard," which, like the 
viper, brings forth its young alive. "My late lamented Mend William 
Christy, Jun., found a fine specimen of the common Scaly Lizard with two 
young ones ; taking an Interest in everything relating to Natural History, 
he put them into a small pocket vasculum to bring home, but when he 
next opened the vasculum the young ones had disappeared, and the belly 
of the parent was greatly distended ; he concluded she had devoured her 
own offspring. At night the vasculum was laid on a table, and the lizard 
was therefore at rest; In the morning the young ones had re-appeared, 
and the mother was as lean as at first." 



• The ZodlogUtf p. 8856. f Science^ Gosiip^ p. 108. % Z&tc/., p. 160. 



DO 8NAKK8 SWALLOW THEIR YOUNG? 141 

''Mr. Henry Donbleday, of Epping. supplies the following information : 
' A person whose name is English, a good observer, and one, as it were 
brought up in natural history under Mr. Doubleday*s tuition, once hap- 
pened to set his foot on a lizard in the forest, and while the lizard was 
thus held down by his foot, he distinctly saw three young ones run out of 
her mouth ; struck by such a phenomenon, he killed and opened the old 
one, and found two other young ones which had been injured when he 
trod on her.' In both these instances," Mr. Newman adds, ''the narra- 
tors are of that class who do know what to observe, and how to observe 
it; and the facts, whatever explanation they may admit, are not to be 
dismissed as the result of imagination or mistaken observation."* 

We must confess that our own incredulity has been so staggered of late 
by these and similar instances, that we are by no means disposed to deny, 
because we cannot fUlly comprehend, the mystery of the process. It is 
admitted by some physiologists, if not by all, that there is no sound 
physiological reason against such an occurrence ; and, until we are con- 
vinced by better arguments than have hitherto been advanced, we are 
bound to admit that in "our inmost hearts" there lurks a belief that the 
maternal viper has a knack of swallowing its young. Whether our scien- 
tific ft'iends consider us renegade A:om the true faith or not, we will at 
least be true to ourselves. 

With this feeling of Mr. Cooke's we fully sympathize, and 
we believe the whole matter can be put at rest by any per- 
son, who, on observing a snake in the act of swallowing its 
young, will think to capture and place her in a box by her- 
self and see if the young again issue from the mouth. 
Should any of our readers ever obtain this much desired 
proof, we trust they will at once communicate it to the 
Naturalist, and, if possible, send the whole family to the 
Academy, that the mother may be induced, if possible, to 
gratify us with an exhibition of her care for her offspring. 

There is one other matter of interest to be decided, and 
that is, taking it for granted that snakes do stvallow their 
young, is it a habit common to all snakes, or only to certain 
species? In this country this habit has been, we believe, 
only attributed to the several species of Rattlesnakes ( Ci'o- 
talus)^ and to the Water-adder {Tropidonotas sipedon)^ 
while in Europe it is generally attributed to the Vipers 
(Pdias). The interest in this question is farther increased 

• The Zo6U>gi9t, p. 2909. 



142 DO SNAKES SWALLOW THEIR YOUNG? 

by the fact, that the Rattlesnake and the Vipers are ovo- 
viviparous ; that is, their young are hatched from the eggs 
while still in the body of the parent, and come into the 
world perfectly formed. The Water-adder and the common 
Striped-snake are probably also ovo-viviparous, but of this 
we are not sure. The common snake of England, the rep- 
resentative of our Striped-snake, is supposed to be wholly 
an oviparous species. And our Striped-snake may be the 
same under natural circumstances, though one kept in a box 
gave birth to a number of living young, about the last of 
August ; but this snake had been in confinement for a long 
time, and may have retained her eggs in the oviducts much 
longer than the natural period, owing to the want of a 
proper place in which to deposit them. All possible means 
were tried to induce this snake to take the young into her 
mouth but without success, though this may be accounted 
for by the supposition that the snake was so tame that she 
could not be easily frightened, or, if really an oviparous spe- 
cies, that it was not her habit. 

We have never known that our Black-snake, Green-snake, 
Little Brown-snake, and other oviparous species, have ever 
been supposed to swallow their young. Neither have we 
seen any account of such an occurrence in the common snake 
of Europe. 

There is little doubt but that many of the supposed 
instances of young snakes having been swallowed by the 
parent are owing solely to the fact that some species bring 
forth fully developed young; for the statement is often 
made by persons that they '*know snakes swallow their 
young, for they have killed an old snake and found the 
young ones in her ;" but, on being asked if they were sure 
the young snakes had ever been bom, it was found that they 
had taken that for granted, supposing that all snakes laid 
eggs, and that hence the young found inside the mother must 
have been swallowed. This is mentioned to call attention to 
the care with which the examination of snakes found with 



THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 143 

young ones should be made in order to be sure that the 
young were really in the alimentary canal and not in the 
oviducts. It is also of importance to ascertain if young 
snakes, after having been swallowed by the parent, ever 
enter the stomach or are confined to the space in the CBSoph- 
agus above it. This can be discovered by cutting open the 
throat and following down to the stomach, which in most 
species is situated from about one third to one half the dis- 
tance between the mouth and the termination of the alimen- 
tary canal, and can readily be determined by its thicker 
walls and more numerous folds on its inside, which are very 
marked when the stomach is not distended with food. 



THE LAKES OF IOWA, -PAST AND PRESENT. 

BY C. A. WmTB, M. D. 

Lakes of Iowa ! reiterates some New England reader, and, 
seeing no large bodies of water represented on the map of 
that Ck^mmon wealth, he really thinks ponds must be meant. 
Well, be it so, but the writer hereof is a western man, and 
in the West all collections of fresh water, whether large or 
small, are called lakes or lakelets. Perhaps, however, he has 
heard the stories of the "walled lakes" of Iowa, in which the 
wondrous handiwork of a departed race of men is described, 
consisting of walls of huge stones encircling the lakes like 
that of an artificial fish-pond, so raised as to prevent an 
overflow of water upon the adjacent low ground; sloping 
down to the water's edge with a pavement like a Mississippi 
levee ; rounded and graded with earth upon the top, forming 
a good road upon which the Jehus of that departed race 
doubtless drove their elk or bufialo chariots in pursuit of 
pleasure or of their daily avocations ; and the whole finished 
with a garniture of sage reflections upon the mutability of 



144 THE LAKES OF IOWA, — PAST AND PBESENT. 

human affairs. Such fantastic stories have been frequent in 
our newspapers for several years, rendering those modest 
little lakelets so famous that many pilgrimages have been 
made to their borders with the hope of finding something to 
aid in penetrating the mystery that shrouds the early human 
history of our continent. 

It is such lakelets as these and their origin that will now 
in part engage our attention ; and while showing the ground- 
lessness of the stories referred to, we hope to present still 
more interesting and wonderful facts, because in the realm 
of Nature truth is stranger than fiction. 

First, let us go back to their origin, for they originated 
from causes so definite that we are often able to comprehend 
them as clearly as if we saw them in operation ; and the time 
of their formation in relation to other geological changes is 
as accurately determined as that of any other. Not only 
have the lakes had a defijiite origin, but, as we shall presently 
see, some of them have also had an end, and we know they 
once existed only by means of the records they have left in 
the earth they once covered. Hence the addendum to the 
above title, — past and present. 

Lakes have doubtless existed upon the earth's surface in 
every geological age ; but those of which we are speaking 
had their origin at a period really very remote when consid- 
ered in relation to the historic era, but very recent when 
compared with the geological ages which preceded it. 

At the close of the Glacial epoch the ice disappeared from 
the temperate zone, the present condition of the climate was 
established, and the continent assumed very nearly its pres- 
ent dimensions and form. The northern part of the Great 
Valley — it is to this region to which more especial reference 
is made — was not then marked by strong topographical fea- 
tures, for it was traversed by no ranges of mountains, nor 
by any rivers or streams. Shallow depressions only, which 
were filled with water from the rains and the melting ice, 
marked the surface. These were the primitive lakelets, and 



THE LAKES OP IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 145 

existed before any definite streams were formed. Where 
the depressions were longitudinal, or connected in chains, 
they gave initial direction to the courses of the streams into 
which the surface-waters were gathered and carried away to 
the sea. These are the streams of to-day, and their cease- 
less flow, aided by the rains and frosts of the unnumbered 
years that have passed since then, have worn their own chan- 
nels down, not only through the incoherent drift, but often 
also through solid stratified rocks, the edges of which we see 
protruding from their valley slopes. Thus all the valleys of 
this region are valleys of erosion, and it is meteorological 
erosion alone that has given it its most prominent physical 
features. 

As one stands upon the broad level prairies of Southern 
Iowa, and sweeps the well-defined ocean-like horizon with 
his level, he finds the bubble everywhere resting upon the 
cross-wire except where the distant dark line of forest foli- 
age reveals the presence of a stream. Approaching this, the 
surface becomes undulating like the smooth rolling of a sea ; 
but looking closely he will see that every depression leads 
into a still deeper one until the upper branches of the streams 
are reached, the surfaces of which are often more than one 
hundred and fifty feet below the prairie level from which he 
started ; and the surfaces of the larger streams are some- 
times a hundred feet deeper still. The higher prairie-surface 
of to-day is the same surface which was left by the retiring 
waters at the close of the Glacial epoch, and the time which 
has passed since then — that during which the valleys were 
formed — is called by geologists the Terrace epoch, because 
the oscillations of the streams from side to side of their val- 
leys in the process of their erosion have left frequent terraces 
of material which successively constituted *' flats" or "bot- 
toms" bordering the streams, but which are now far above 
the reach of their highest floods. The Tentice epoch verges 
upon the present time, because the same streams still flow, 
and earthy matter is still carried by them to the sea, as rap- 

AMRR. NATURALIST, VOL. D. 19 



146 THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 

idly perhaps as it ever was, although only occasionally suf- 
ficient in amount to muddy the water. Thus it will be seen 
how slowly the mightiest operations of Nature are performed ; 
for this most recent of the geological changes has doubtless 
required a length of time so great that the human mind is 
incapable of comprehending it. 

In Northern Iowa the prairie horizons are not so clearly 
defined as they are farther to the southward, and it was 
doubtless so at the beginning. The drift also contains more 
gravel and bowlders there, from the fact that nearly all of 
those materials originating still farther to the northward, 
their abundance diminished with the diminishing force of the 
glaciers to the southward. Numerous iiTegular rounded ele- 
vations or knobs mark the surface, between which are cor- 
responding depressions; not produced however by erosion 
since the drift was deposited, as the river valleys were, but 
are, like the knobs, inequalities left by the glaciers. 

Some of these depressions have become drained ; some of 
them are still occupied by the lakelets, and some by peat 
marshes. Streams are numerous in Southern Iowa, and their 
valleys deep. Consequently the countiy is so well drained 
that all trace of the primitive lakelets is usually obliterated. 
But many of those streams have their rise in Northern Iowa, 
and many of those lakelets still exist there, because no ac- 
cumulation of water beyond has sent a current across them 
to cut a channel for their outlet. Lake basins are sometimes 
hollowed very deeply into the earth, showing bold exposures 
of stratified or unstratified rocks upon their shores. But the 
lakelets of which we are speaking, had their origin in shallow 
depressions left in the surface of the drift alone at the close 
of the Glacial epoch. By the action of subsequent causes 
they, in certain regions, became ** walled lakes ;'' for a major- 
ity of them are as worthy of that designation as those are of 
which the fanciful stories have been told. Nor are lakes 
of that character confined to Iowa alone, but are known also 
in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and even in Connecti- 



THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 147 

cut ; yet all except two, one in Wright county, and the 
other in Sac county, Iowa, seem never to have been favored 
with the visits of an imaginative writer to tell fanciful stories 
of their associated remains of human handiwork. 

It seemed necessary to make the foregoing statement of 
facts, and the geological principles which they involve, ])e- 
fore attempting a description of the lakelets themselves, that 
such a description might thus be rendered more intelligible, 
and which is here given as the result of long-continued 
observation of sixteen such lakelets in Northern Iowa, in- 
cluding the two which have become noted as walled lakes. 

They usually occupy an open prairie region. Sometimes 
small groves are near them, but trees are often entirely 
wanting, especially since the settlers mercilessly destroy 
them for fuel. They are from one to five miles across, but 
always very shallow, because the undulations within which 
they rest are very gentle. None of them are more than 
fifteen feet deep, and the majority are so shallow that they 
pennit a luxuriant growth of wild rice and other aquatic 
plants from their bottoms over the whole, or a large part of 
their areas, among which water-fowl find shelter and abun- 
dant food, but which renders them rather uninteresting fea- 
tures of the landscape. 

A true description of the so-called walls, but which we 
shall term embankments, will be best understood if given in 
connection with a description of their origin. When a pile 
of sand, obtained from the river shore, has been left by the 
workmen for a long time exposed to the washings of the 
rains, the gravel which it contains, and which at first is 
hardly visible, becomes in some cases even more conspicuous 
than the sand itself, because a part of the latter has been 
wasted, while the gravel remains. Thus it has been upon 
an extended scale with the drift, which, as before stated, is 
composed of bowlders, gravel, sand, clay, and soil, although 
little except the latter is usually seen upon the prairie sur- 
faces. Sometimes the drift is more than a hundred feet 



148 THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PKE8ENT. 

thick, and all the bowlders contained in the whole mass 
which has been swept out to form the valleys have gradually 
rolled down upon their slopes, and many of them into the 
streams. For this reason we usually find them more nume- 
rous upon surfaces that have suffered erosion than anywhere 
else. Again ; the ceaseless dashing of a lakelet's waves stir 
up the finer material beneath its waters, to be carried away 
in the form of muddy water at the times of its overflow, 
leaving the bowlders and gravel strewn upon its bed ; while 
they may not be seen at all upon the prairie surfaces around 
them. 

This latter fact being misunderstood has led to the sup- 
position, that, being absent upon those surfaces, they had 
been gathered up by human hands and carried to the shores 
to build the "walls" of; while the truth is, the embank- 
ments, as well as the presence of the materials of which 
they are composed, are due to natural causes alone, and 
their origin is wholly referrible to the periodic action of ice, 
aided in some degree by the force of the waves. 

The water in the lakelets is usually very low in late au- 
tumn, and when winter comes it is sometimes frozen nearly 
to the bottom in their deepest parts, so that occasionally 
all the fish are killed by this means. The ice, of course, 
freezes fast to the bowlders as well as to whatever else may 
be within its reach, and the expansive power of from one to 
five miles of freezing water is exerted upon them in a direc- 
tion from the centre towards the shores, — a power much 
more than sufficient to move the largest bowlders upon those 
gentle slopes. 

The embankments are from two to six feet high, and from 
two to twenty feet across the top, and always separate a low 
piece of ground from the lake ; because where the original 
shore is a little abrupt, and higher than the high-water level, 
no embankment is formed, but the bowlders are merely 
thrust against the shore with such force as to render it steep, 
and often thickly studded with them. 



THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 149 

Meeting no such obstruction on a marshy side, the material 
thrust out accumulates just where the expansive force of the 
ice is spent. This process repeated year after year, from 
age to age, has cleared the bottom of the lakelets of their 
bowlders and other materials, and piled them up in circular 
ridges upon their shores; and these are the ^* walls" which 
have excited so much wonder. It has been observed that 
the embankments are heaviest on the sides opposite the pre- 
vailing winds. This may be accounted for, at least in part, 
by the fact that the ice being burdened with the material to 
which it has frozen fast, would thus be floated against those 
shores when the spring floods had raised the water of the 
lakes ; and in part also by the farther fact that the dashing 
of the waves would be most constant against those shores. 

Thus it will be seen that whatever was originally upon the 
bottom, whether bowlders, gravel, sand, or mud, has been 
carried to the shore, and we find the embankments composed 
of all these materials aiTanged in perfectly natural disorder. 
If bowlders were numerous, the embankment is largely com- 
posed of them. If sand prevailed, a broadly rounded em- 
bankment is formed, just such as we should expect from 
such material ; and where a peat marsh extends out into the 
land, an embankment of turf is thrown up at the water's 
edge, which, being supported by living rootlets, is frequently 
high and very narrow. The latter are somewhat numerous, 
and are often called beaver-dams ; but this is also a miscon- 
ception, because beavers never attempt to dam still waters. 
They dam running streams to obtain ponds of still water. 
Thus we see that the same natural force placed the bowlders 
in the embankments that brought them down from their 
northern homes, namely, the expansive power of ice. 

If its crust should remain perfectly stable long enough, the 
earth would become nearly a perfect sphere by the disinte- 
gration of its exposed substance, and the levelling force of 
gravitation. It is true that its inequalities of surface are 



150 THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 

now very insignificant compared with the vastness of its 
bulk ; but, in such a case, there would be no mountains, no 
islands, no continents. All would be an endless and shore- 
less sea. The erosion of the river valleys, and the conse- 
quent drainage of a majority of the primitive lakelets, may 
be regarded as the first steps in this levelling process, after 
the glaciers had ceased from the Great Valley ; for its post- 
glacial geology seems to warrant no subdivision into epochs 
such as are made for other regions. Therefore the whole is 
here referred to the Terrace epoch. Long before this level- 
ling process can approach completion, other elevations and 
depressions will be formed upon the changing surface. See, 
then, how small a part of such a i*esult has been accom- 
plished even by the erosion of the valleys of the great Mis- 
sissippi and its branches. A part of the primitive lakelets, 
and a part of the original surface of the drift still remain 
almost unchanged since their formation. The prairies have 
still their ocean-like surfaces, and the greatest change the 
lakelets have undergone in that immense lapse of time is the 
formation of their insignificant embankments, if aught in 
nature may be called insignificant. Let us look a little to 
what has been accomplished by erosion in the Great Valley * 
during the Terrace epoch as before defined. 

Along the courses of what are now the Mississippi and 
Missouri Rivers, large depressions formerly existed which 
formed lake-like expansions of those rivers. Thus after the 
Mississippi had made for itself a definite valley, but before 
it had cut its channel down to its present level through the 
rocky obstruction at the Keokuk rapids, that portion of it 
which borders a large part of the eastern side of Iowa was 
little else than a lake which averaged about five miles wide, 
and filled the space between what are now the bluffs that 
border each side of its broad flat valley. 

*It will be observed that the word nMey is used with two separate significations; 
one applied to the hydrographic basin drained by a certain principal stream and its 
tributaries, and the other to the depression occupied by any particular stream, and 
which its own waters have cut out of the general surftice. 



THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 151 

This is proven by the existence there of terraces composed 
of very fine sedimentary material such as could have been 
deposited only in comparatively still waters, and also by the 
existence in that sediment of shells which inhabit still waters 
only, — the same species which now inhabit fresh- water 
lakes. Eivcr shells, such as now exist in the river, are 
found on the sides of the bluffs near the rapids at a height 
of seventy feet above the present high-water mark; and 
since such beds of shells exist only at low-water mark when 
alive, upward of eighty feet must be estimated as the height 
of the river above its present level at the time they lived. 
It will be observed that river, and not lacustrine shells are 
found near the rapids. This is accounted for by the fact 
that the obstruction which caused them, being a flinty forma- 
tion, and not so easily disintegrated as the other rocks are 
over which the river runs, has existed as such from its ear- 
liest history. Consequently the water there always had a 
considerable current, while farther to the northward there 
was too little current to produce a congenial habitat for 
those shells. The estimated eighty feet is doubtless only 
a part of the actual height from which the erosion of 
the Mississippi Valley has reached, because it now aver- 
ages about two hundred feet deep from the general prairie 
surface. Thus we see that when that lake-like expansion 
existed in the Mississippi River, its valley had already been 
eroded to a considerable depth, and the Terrace epoch was 
well advanced. But on the other side of the State we have 
proof of the existence, in the early part of that epoch, of a 
lake which was larger and deeper than Lake Erie. This 
proof consists principally in the presence there of a peculiar 
lacustrine deposit extending at least from the Big Sioux to 
the mouth of the Kansas River, and from twenty to thirty 
miles on each side of the Missouri River, through which the 
latter has cut its present valley, in some places to a depth of 
more than two hundred feet before it reached the drift which 
wtis deposited there during the Glacial epoch. That mate- 



152 THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 

rial is known to have been deposited in fresh water, because 
only fresh-water shells are found in it, and they are found in 
it from top to bottom. It is known to have been deposited 
in Stillwater, because the same kinds of shells are now Jiving 
in still water only, and because the whole deposit is a fine 
homogeneous material without sand, gravel, bowlders, or any 
thing else, except what would have been deposited in a lake 
of muddy water. 

It has been claimed by a few geologists that at the close 
of the Glacial epoch a shallow fresh-water lake occupied 
the whole hydrographic basin of the Mississippi, and that the 
fine soil and subsoil of the prairies and other lauds of the 
whole region, as well as the peculiar deposit just referred to, 
are identical in their formation, and had their origin in one 
and the same broad lake. Upon this hypothesis some have 
accounted for the origin of the prairies and for the absence 
of trees upon them ; hut the fact is, prairies exist upon both 
these deposits, and it would require direct efibrt to keep 
all kinds of indigenous trees from encroaching upon the 
prairies if there were no annual fires. 

It is not improbable that such a wide-spread sheet of 
fresh water did exist at that time, and that a large part 
of the sedimentary material that composes our soil and sub- 
soil had such an origin. But that is widely different in 
physical characters from the deposit under discussion, which 
evidently had a different, as well as a subsequent origin. 
These circumstances seem to leave no room to doubt that a 
well-defined lake existed there after the continent had in 
great part become dry land, but before the great rivers had 
cut fcheir valleys down to any considerable depth. The 
lake, although so large and deep, was doubtless filled with 
sediment to the general prairie level within a comparatively 
short time after the glaciers ceased, just as the sediment of 
the same river which then flowed into and from it, now 
speedily fills the reservoirs of the St. Louis Water-works, 
so that they must often be reexcavated. Just as the same 



THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 153 

river would now fill with the same kind of sediment any de- 
pression, however large, if such existed in its course. 

The great northern lakes are not thus filled, because their 
tributary streams are pure ; and their streams are pure be- 
cause they flow over geological formations that are not easily 
disintegrated ; while the main tributary of that ancient lake, 
the Missouri River, is even now one of the muddiest streams 
on the globe. In the earlier portion of the Terrace epoch it 
was, if possible, more so ; for then as now, it gathered up its 
sediment from that broad region occupied by the friable 
rocks of the Tertiary and Mesozoic ages, stretching far away 
toward the Rocky Mountains, at that time strewn with the 
grindings fresh from those *^ mills of the gods" — the glaciers. 

The formation of the basin in which the lake rested is 
known to have taken place during the Glacial epoch, because 
the drift, with its striated bowlders, now covers its bottom 
beneath the lacustrine deposit, and because the cutting out 
of the river valley has exposed, in a number of places, the 
stratified rocks which the drift rests upon, whose surfaces 
were scoi*ed and striated by the moving glaciers of that 
epoch. It is known that the filling of the lake with sediment 
occurred in the early part of the Terrace epoch, because it 
was filled up even with the prairie surfaces, which would not 
have been done if the Missouri R.iver had first eroded its 
valley to any considerable depth below the lake. We know 
that the lake was so far filled with sediment before it was 
drained, that it was little else than a marsh, because the top 
of that deposit of sediment is now nearly even with the 
higher prairie surfaces, and because the river bluflfs which 
it forms are as high as those formed of the usual materials, 
— the drift and stratified rocks. 

The physical characters of this lacustrine deposit are so 
peculiar, that they attract the attention of every peraon who 
becomes acquainted with it, although a stranger might pass 
over the formation without observing more than its peculiar 
outline of bluffs. It is perfectly uniform in character and 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 20 



154 THE LAKES OF IOWA, — PAST AND PBESENT. 

color from top to bottom, and a hundred miles of distance 
show no more difference than a hundred feet. It is of a 
slightly yellowish ash-color, except where rendered darker 
by decaying vegetation, very fine, not sandy, and yet not 
adhesive. At the surface it makes excellent soil, and is just 
as fertile if obtained at a depth of two hundred feet. It is 
easily excavated by the spade alone, and yet it remains so 
unchangeable by the atmosphere and frost, that wells dug in 
it require to be walled only to a point just above the water-' 
line, while the remainder stands so securely without support 
that the spade-marks remain upon it for many years. Road 
embankments upon the sides of excavations stand like a 
wall, showing the names of ambitious carvers long after an 
ordinary bank of earth would have disappeared. As that 
part of the valley of the Missouri River below the lake was 
deepened during the Terrace epoch by the natural process 
of erosion, the peculiar material which its own waters had 
previously deposited offered little obstruction to that pro- 
cess, but was readily swept out again as muddy water, and 
sent on its way to the sea. Thus no more of it was cut out 
than served to form the valley, which is from four to twelve 
miles wide, while the larger part remained, forming the 
bluffs, and extending far inland from the river. The tribu- 
tary streams which at first emptied into the lake, now traverse 
its ancient bed of sediment to the river, and have cut down 
their own valleys to meet it. The sides of these valleys 
where they traverse that sedimentary deposit are steep like 
the river-bluffs, and the streams being smaller, their valleys 
are narrow and very deep. This is particularly true of 
all those Iowa streams that empty into the Missouri River 
above Council Bluffs, and they thus present great obstacles to 
the construction of lines of railway directly east and west 
through that State. For this reason, and for the purpose of 
connecting with the great Pacific Railway at Omaha, the 
more northern of those lines are diverging to the southward 
down the valleys of the streams, instead of crossing them, so 



THE LAKES OF IOWA, PAST AND PRESENT. 155 

that passengers will pass dry-shod through the bed of that 
ancient lake, although many fathoms beneath the level at 
which its waters used to rest. 

The peculiar outline of the bluffs along the Missouri River 
valley is one of the most interesting features of this remark- 
able deposit. As one views them in the distance, and in 
their nakedness, for they are often entirely destitute of trees, 
towering up from the level bottom-land, sometimes more 
than two hundred feet in height, so steep in some places that 
a man cannot climb them, he can hardly rid himself of the 
idea that they are supported by a frame-work of rocks as 
other bluffs are. Yet not a rock or pebble of any kind or 
size exists above their base of drift, except a few calcareous 
concretions which were formed from the limy water that now 
percolates through the whole mass. The form and arrange- 
ment of their numerous rounded prominences sometimes 
present views of impressive beauty as they stretch away in 
the distance, or form bold curves in the line of hills. 

A few miles below the city of Council Bluffs, they present 
a full crescentic front to the westward, with the broad Mis- 
souri bottom stretching miles away from their base to the 
river. Their only vegetation here is a covering of wild 
grasses, and as the mound-like peaks and rounded ridges jut 
above each other, or diverge in various directions while they 
recede backwards and upwards to the higher lands, the set- 
ting sun throws strange and weird shadows across them, 
producing a scene quite in keeping with that wonderful his- 
tory of the past of which they form a part. 



REVIEWS. 

The American Beaver and his Works.* —Mr. Morgan has, in this 
elaborate work, given us a thoroughly accurate and most entertaining ac- 
count of an animal whose instincts and habits and economical value have 
attracted universal attention. The work is illustrated by lithographic 
plates fh)m photographs of beaver-dams and their surroundings, taken 
with great pains in the wilderness on the south-west shore of Lake 
Superior. The frontispiece represents the beaver, and if actually taken 
f^om life is drawn in a remarkably ungraceful attitude, that of listening, 
which shows what a stiff and clumsy animal it must be on land. 

A railroad to the iron region opened up ** a beaver district more re- 
markable, perhaps, than any other of equal extent to be found in any 
part of North America," offering a rare opportunity for a carefUl study of 
this creature. 

An anatomical chapter by Dr. W. W. Ely, and a geological account 
precedes the history of beaver-dams, lodges, burrows, canals, meadows, 
trails, and their means of subsistence, which are followed by chapters on 
the mode of trapping the beaver, and its psychology. 

Besides the common brown beaver, there occasionally occur a black 
form and albinos. '*In form the beaver is short between the fore and 
hind legs, head heavy and clumsy, and his motions are slow and awkward. 
He walks with a waddling gait, with his back slightly arched, with his 
body barely clearing the ground, and his tail dragging upon it ;" in the 
water, however, it is very graceful. It swims chiefly by the webbed 
hind feet. The fore feet are very small, and, '*as they are capable of a 
very considerable rotary movement, he is able to hold sticks and limbs of 
trees, and to handle them with great dexterity while cutting them, and 
also to carry mud and stones." As the beaver lives more often in bur- 
rows, his paws are armed with large powerful claws, of which there is an 
extra one on the second toe of each hind foot, which is peculiar to this 
animal. It uses its tail to assist variously in swimming and diving, to 
give an alarm by striking the surface of the water, giving a report that 
(^n be heard half a mile; and also as a trowel to **p{ick and compress 
mud and earth while constructing a lodge or dam, which he effects by 
heavy and repeated down strokes." "They pair, and, with their offspring, 
live in the family relation until the latter attain maturity, when they are 
forced to leave the parent lodge." But they do not live in villages, 
though two or more such families inhabit the same pond, and together 
keep the dam in proper repair. The beaver lives for twelve or fifteen 
years ; carries its young fVom three to four months, bringing them forth 
usually in May, " and flrom two to five and sometiiqes six at a time." 

*The American Beaver and his Works. By LewlB H. Morgan. Philadelphia, 1868, 8vo, pp. 
xl, 380. Wltli plates and illnstrattons. 

(166) 



REVIEWS. 157 

The author states that even the largest dams are the work of a single 
family carried on year after year, being ** maintained for centuries*' by 
constant repairs. Grass Lake dam, the largest one, perhaps, in North 
America, is fUlly described. It was two hundred and sixty feet and ten 
inches in length, and six feet and two inches in vertical height at the cen- 
tre of the great curve in the middle of the stream, where it slopes thir- 
teen feet on the lower fttce. It has been supposed to be an evidence of 
high intelligence that the beaver built its dam so as to curve up stream 
where the pressure of the water is the greatest, but the author candidly 
questions whether these curves are the result of accident or design. 

Beaver-dams are usually sinuous, but curve either up or down stream, 
" a downward curve being much more common than the reverse in the 
large streams. The dam generally curves down in those streams that 
discharge the largest volume of water, when also the dams are shorter 
and lower than those on the smaller brooks." 

The great dam on Grass Lake, so fViUy described, '* contains upwards 
of seven thousand cubic feet of solid materials." This dam is also sup- 
plemented by an upper and a lower dam to break the force of the stream 
in I^shets ; the lower one setting the water back to the depth of twelve 
or fifteen inches in the great curve. Such structures are remarkable in- 
stances of prevision and engineering skill, reminding us of the intelli- 
gence shown by the Agricultural Ant of Texas, which, according to 
Dr. Llncecum, erects mounds on the ** pavement" of its formicary in dry 
weather, in anticipation of the rainy season ! 

In excavating this artificial canal for transporting their wood by water 
to their lodges, beavers evince the most intelligence and **a complicated 
and extended process of reasoning," though the work is simpler than 
building a dam, and, like the latter, requires many years of continuous 
labor. 

Like all close and patient observers of the habits of animals, the author 
believes that animals have a reason dlffierent only in degree fVom that of 
man. **When a beaver stands for a moment and looks upon his work, 
evidently to see whether it is right, and whether anything else is needed, 
he shows himself capable of holding his thoughts before his beaver mind ; 
in other words, he is conscious of his own mental processes." **A 
canal is not absolutely necessary to beavers any more than such a work is 
to mankind ; but it comes to both alike, as the result of progress in 
knowledge. A beaver canal could only be conceived by a lengthy and 
even complicated process of reasoning." In Missouri, where the river 
banks are steep the beaver constructs no canal, but "slides" which are 
unknown and not necessary in the Lake Superior region. "Contrary to 
the common opinion is there not some evidence of a progress in knowl- 
edge to be found in the beaver-canal and the beaver-slide ? There was a 
time, undoubtedly, when the canal first came into use ; and a time, conse- 
quently, when it was entirely unknown." The author hence argues a pro- 
gression in knowledge, and hence improvement "from a lower to a higher 



158 REVIEWS. 

artificial state of life;" and the possession of a **Aree intelligence/' far 
above tlie operation of a blind instinct, by wtiicti an animal is, accord- 
ing to Descartes' tlieory, a '^mere madiine." And yet tiie antlior con- 
cedes that the beaver is lower in intelligence than the carnivorous ani- 
mals, the dog, fox, cats, etc. He ascribes memory, imagination, will, 
appetites, and passions and an intellect to dumb animals, and cites the 
case of Dr. Kane's lunatic dog as an evidence that these animals' have a 
mind to lose. 

Transactions op the Chicago Academy.*— We congratulate the 
Chicago Academy that this splendid volume, after vexatious delays 
caused by two fires, has at length appeared. It contains an article on 
Western Palaeontology, by Professor J. H. McChesney, and Descriptions 
of Sub-carboniferous and Carboniferous Fossils, collected in the Iowa 
Geological Survey, by Dr. C. A. White and Mr. O. H. St. John. Dr. I. A. 
Lapham contributes a paper on the Climate of the Country bordering on the 
Great Lakes. Mr. F. B. Meek has an article on the Geology of the Valley 
of the McKenzle River, trom notes and fossils collected by the late Robert 
Kennicott; and Dr. William Simpson contributes Illustrations of North 
American Birds in the Museum of the Academy, illustrated with beautifVil 
colored plates, presented to the Academy by the liberality of several 
of its members and patrons. The Academy also publishes its octavo 
'* Proceedings," and recently dedicated its new and spacious Museum. 
Science Is careftilly fostered in the West ; the railroad companies provide 
the officers of the Academy with free passes and firee flreightage over 
their roads, and liberally extend other facilities and courtesies to natu- 
ralists engaged in scientific explorations. 

Popular Science Review, January (London). — M. Tr6cul has discov- 
ered the existence of minute vegetable organisms (Amylobacteria) within 
the starch-cells of Helianthxia tuberosus, the Jerusalem artichoke. This 
has by him been regarded as a decided proof of the spontaneous genera- 
tion of plants. The Review objects that vegetable forms of the lowest 
type may enter the tissues of animals. There is no more wonder in the 
fBLCt of a Cholera-ilingus in the blood of man than In a Amylobacterlum in 
the starch-cell of a Helianthus tuberosus. — Professor RoUeston believes 
that the domestic cat of classical times was probably a Marten. — Herr. C. 
Claus, of Marburg, has published a paper to prove that the male of 
Psyche helix^ a small moth allied to the Silk-worm moth exists. Our 
readers are aware that the case of P. helix was one of the ** leading cases" 
in the history of Parthenogenesis, or development flrom asexual animals. 
— M. Donn6, who has so long and ably supported the heterodox theory of 
spontaneous generation, has cried peccart. He admitted that his latest 
researches, so far Arom supporting heterogeny, convince him of the accu- 
racy of the views of his old opponent, M. Pasteur. 

*TraiifiaeUonB of the Chicago Academy of Sdenocs. Vol. I, Parti. Royal 8to. Chicago, 
1867. With a map and eighteen Uthographlo platea and numerous wood-eats. Frtoe, $5XX) a 
part. (This merely oovers the cost of publishing.) 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 159 

Quarterly Journal of Science, January (London). — Signor Cocchi 
announces the discovery of a human skull in the lower beds of the Lower 
Post-pliocene strata In Italy. This lower portion consists of lacustrine 
clays of great thickness, with layers of peat towards its superior margin ; 
it contains bones of the yLoxamothi^Elephaa primigenius), Cervus euryceros, 
Bison priscusy and a species (probably new) of the Horse, Equus; it has 
also yielded stone implements and a human cranium, the latter from the 
plain of the Aretlno. Whether this deposit be termed Lower Post-plio- 
cene, or anything else, there seems little room for doubt that the skull 
was imbedded contemporaneously with the remains of the Mammoth, etc., 
and that Man lived in Italy contemporaneously with those animals. — The 
term Gregarince applied to the Chignon Fungus (see Naturalist, vol. 1, p. 
379), is most inappropriate, as Is admitted both by Drs. Fox and Beigel. 
It is the Pleurococcus Beigelii. The Gregarinm are indubitably animals, 
and are internal parasites. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 

Vitality of Seeds. — Dr. Gray, in his "How Plants Grow," says, 
" The stories of seeds growing, which have been preserved for two or 
more thousand years with Egyptian mummies, arc not to be believed." 
M. Figuier, in his work on "The Vegetable World," also cautions his 
readers against accepting certain statements of earlier writers to the 
effect that various seeds have been known to germinate after having been 
deposited in Roman and Celtic tombs nearly two thousand years. He 
then says, " We must not forget to speak of those wonderfhl seeds of 
wheat found in the tombs of ancient Egypt. It Is now acknowledged 
that in this affair some one must have abused the confidence and credulitv 
of the travellers. A variety of wheat called Mummy- wheat is common, 
it is true, among ftirmers; but no authentic fact Justifies its name." 
From a paper recently drawn up by the Rev. Dr. Marks, of Meadville, Pa., 
at the request of a member of ** The Natural History Society of the 
Meadville Theological School," I condense the following statement, using 
as far as possible the language of the original paper. 

When Dr. Marks was in Thebes, in the winter of 1866, the Arabs were 
dragging forth Arom the mummy-pits great numbers of mummies. He 
saw them tear off the linen wrappings, in the folds of which were many 
pieces of papyrus, covered with Coptic characters. Very often in the 
mummies' hands were found grains of wheat, dura, flax, and the nut of 
the palm-tree. From the hand of one was thrown out the seed-cup of a 



160 NATUBAL mSTOBY MISCELLANT. ' 

rose, which he picked up and brought away with him. This he sub- 
sequently gave, while residing at Quincy, 111., to Mrs. Gov. Wood. On 
opening the seed-cup, she found several seeds, which she planted in a 
flower-pot, in her green-house. In the course of three weeks, two of 
these germinated, and, the next year, blossomed, producing a pink single 
rose, unlike any American variety with which they were acquainted. 
The estimated age of the mummy, f^om which the seed-cup was taken, 
was twenty-flve hundred years. 

Dr. Marks has in his possession some seeds of the dura (which he 
supposes to be the corn spoken of in the Book of Genesis), obtained by 
him fVom Egyptian mummies; but he has never tested their vitality. 
He testifies, however, to the fact of some dura seeds having been found 
in the hand of a mummy unrolled at Springfield, 111., a few years since, 
which were planted by the Bev. Albert Hale, pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church in that city, and which produced the same year several fUll- 
grown stalks, as large as Indian com, and covered over with clusters of 
fhiit which matured. 

As throwing some light on the causes of this wonderful preservation 
of vitality, Dr. Marks states that the mummy-pits are perfectly dry, being 
situated from three to five hundred feet above the level of the Nile, and 
cut out of the rock of the mountain, which is a soft calcareous limestone. 
The pits are never either cold or damp. — Geo. L. Cary. 

[If these seeds had been only thirty or forty years old, their prompt 
germination, although unlikely (for those who are In the habit of trying 
old seeds know how difficult it is to make any old seeds germinate), 
would be promptly believed upon this evidence. But marvels are to be 
credited only upon more rigid scrutiny. Scientific men will think it far 
more probable that some mistake has occurred in respect to the seeds, or 
deception by the Arabs, than that seeds 2,500 old actually grew — A. G.] 

Bees vs. Fruit. — It is high time, we may add, that the Peabody Acad- 
emy of Science were In TM operation in Essex County, when one of its 
towns votes to "abate the nuisance" of bees, on the ground that they 
are injurious to fhiit ! 

As to the nectar of the red clover being out of the reach of the honey- 
bee, it may be asked whether this be the case with the second crop, in 
which the flowers are 'generally rather smaller. The much better seed- 
ing of the second crop of red clover is thought to be owing to the 
greater abundance of bumble-bees in the latter part of summer. — 
A. Gray. 

The Sun- dew, a Fly-trap.— Mr. MiUlngton has well described, in the 
April number, the phenomenon of fly-catching by the Sun-dew, and his 
wholly original observations show that he has perfectly comprehended 
these curious facts. That the Drosera catches files in this way was, how- 
ever, known to botanists and recorded in botanical works more than half a 
century ago. But the statement attracted little attention, and finally nearly 
died out of the books. It was re-discovered by Mr. Darwin, in England, 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 161 

perhaps a dozen years ago, but I know not whether his observations are 
published, except by a brief allusion in the Gardeners' Chronicle. He 
found, as did Mr. Millington, that while the bristles will close upon a bit 
of raw meat, they are not sensitive to an inorganic body ; yet that they are 
so to a bit of carbonate of ammonia. Mr. Darwin followed up this subject 
by some very interesting observations and experiments upon the Venus 
Fly-trap, Dioncea^ which, with some recent ones made in this country, 
may soon be published. — A. Gray. 

Flowering of Hepatic a triloba. — March 12th, I found three Hepa- 
tieas in blossom, and on March 29th, I gathered quite a handftd.— J. H. 
Sears, DanverSf Mass, 

ZOOLOGY. 

Instances of Albinism among our Birds. — In a recent number of 
the Naturalist, a correspondent mentions a ** Singular Variety" of the 
Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla). His specimen is an example of the par- 
tial albinism which is, perhaps, not so rare among birds as it is generally 
supposed to be. When we remember what an extremely small percent- 
age of individuals of any species comes under observation, the wonder 
rather is, that so many albinos are found. In the course of a few seasons' 
collecting, I have met with the following instances of albinism, partial or 
complete. 

Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla). A specimen shot in the fall has the 
wings and tall mostly white, and all the upper parts patched here and 
there with white. 

Western Snow-bird {Junco Oregonus). A specimen shot at Fort Whip- 
ple, Arizona, Dec. 12, 1864, has a large, somewhat circular, pure white 
spot on the throat, distinctly defined against the surrounding dark colors. 
The plumage Is otherwise perfectly normal. 

Blue bird {Sialia sialis), A curious specimen, with a triangular white 
spot on the back of the neck ; otherwise perfectly normal In plumage. 
I have seen this species entirely snow-white, with (probably) pink eyes, 
and flesh-colored bill and feet. 

Robin (Tardus migratorius). With a large white spot on each side of 
the head, formed by the enlargement and coalescence of the white spots 
which occur normally about the eyes. The robin also occurs in snow- 
white plumage. 

Bank Swallow (Cotyle riparia). With the upper parts delicate pale sil- 
very gray ; the under parts pure white, as usual. This Is the only instance 
I have met with of albinism In this bird. 

Blue Tellow-backed Warbler (Parula Americana), This Is, in some 
respects, the most curious example of partial albinism I have ever seen, 
occurring In a family of birds little liable to this abnormity. The entire 
plumage Is mottled and patched with white, the natural colors appearing 
In the spaces between the white areas. 

AMER. naturalist, VOL. U. 21 



162 NATURAL mSTORY MI8CELLANY. 

Yellow-romped Warbler (Dendroeca coronata). All the slate and black* 
ish colors are replaced by dull silvery gray. 

The common Qnail {Ortyx Virginiana) is occasionally found with all the 
tints so light) dull, and faded as to fairly be considered albinotic. There 
is a specimen in this condition in the Smithsonian Institution. Crows 
and Blackbirds seem, to Judge ft'om the ft'eqaency of the occurrence of 
albinos, to be particularly liable to this aberration in color. The expres- 
sion, <*a white blackbird" is hardly so paradoxical as it might seem; and 
indicates as well established a fact as that ''blackberries are red when 
they are green." 

The Black Guillemot ( Uria grylle), and the Sea-dove (^MergtUus alle)^ 
are both very obnoxious to albinism; and, in foct, each has been 
described in this condition as a distinct species. But the albinotic con- 
dition of the Black Guillemot must not be confounded with its normal 
winter plumage, which is nearly white. The albino has no black what- 
ever about it ; the eyes are pink, and the bill and feet flesh-colored. 

The question of albinism among the large Gulls of the genus Laru9, 
possesses unusual interest. The study of this condition among these 
birds is more than a matter of simple curiosity ; having important bear- 
ing upon the validity of at least one of our accredited American species 
(If. Hutchinisii Richardson). Numerous authors speak of a ''pure- white 
Gull," and several specific names have been based upon such a condition 
of plumage. The bird referred to is about the size of, or rather smaller 
than the Burgomaster (X. glaucus). If it is really a valid species, it 
would constitute the only known exception to the rule, that all the true 
Lari have the back and wings darker than the under parts. 

The Philadelphia Academy has a fine albino Giant Petrel {Ossifraga 
gigatUea). This is pure white, patched here and there with isolated black- 
ish feathers. In the Smithsonian Institution there is a perfect albino 
Red- throated Diver {Colymbus septetUrionalis), It is nearly snow-white, 
with pink eyes and flesh-colored bill and feet. 

The opposite of albinism — Melanism — is an extremely rare condition. 
At this moment I can recall but a single instance of Its occurrence. This 
is the Black Guillemot, which is occasionally found without a trace of 
white upon or under the wings. In this state it has been described as a 
distinct species (l/Wa ^^unicolor"). — Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. 

Return of ths Birds. — The following birds, which left for their 
southern quarters about November last, returned to the vicinity of Dan- 
vers, Mass., in numbers, at the dates given : 

Wild Geese passed to the northward February 26 ; Black-ducks, Rob- 
bins, Red-shouldered Hawks, Blue-Jays arrived March 2; Cedar-birds, 
Gold-flnches, Lesser Red-poll Linnets, March 4 ; Star-breasted Larks, 
Woodcocks, March 8; Golden -winged Woodpeckers, Purple Finches, 
Bluebirds, March 12; Red-winged Blackbirds, Swamp Sparrows, Yel- 
low-winged Sparrows, March 15 ; Common Pewees, Marsh Hawks, March 
25; Wood-ducks, Crow Blackbirds, March 26; White-bellied Swallows 
Cfour specimens), March 27. — J. H. Sears, Danvera, 



EirrOHOLOGICAL CALENDAB. 163 

GEOLOGY. 
FoasiL Insects. — la Mr. Scudder'a paper in the Febrnary Damber, 
aJluBiou was made to a fossil lace-wlnged Insect which appeared to bave 
a stridolating organ at the base of the nlug, like that of crickets aod 
Fig. 1. some grasshoppers. We give heie a figure (Fig. 1) of this 
^^^S^ wing, called by Mr. Scndder Xenontura anttqvorum. We 
^-^^^^^^2£^ have also copied the llgnre (Fig. 2) of the so-called caterpil- 
lar (_Pal<rocatnpa anthrax), which Messrs. Meek Fig. s. 
and Wortben have described in the Report of 
the Geology of Illinois. Mr. Scadder believes 
it to be a worn, althongfa, In many ext«mBl 
fbatnres, it atrongly resembles the woolly cater- i 
pillars- Messrs. Meek and WortheD, who des- / 
cribe and figure this fossil in the Report of the ) 
Geological Snrrey of lUinols, vol. 2, Palfeon- ^ 

tology, 1866, state that "the specimen is not in a condition to show the 
head or fteetj yet we are strongly Inclined to believe from its form, and 
peculiar regularly arranged bundles of hairs, that It Is a Caterpillar. If 
we are right In this saggestlon, Its discovery Is certainly an Interesting 
one, as it would present an evidence of the eiistence oT Leptdopltrota In- 
sects, at a mnch earlier period In our world's history than has hitherto 
been suspected." it waa found near the base of the Coal-measures. Mor- 
ris, lUlnois. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CALENDAR. 



It shonld be remembered, that, nnless otherwise stated, the dates given 
in the Calendars apply to the Northern States, especially New England, 
the same species appearing earlier southward. 

Among the l^]u^loas hymenoptera, which abound late In this month, Is 
the Rose Saw-fly (Selandria rovx) Fig. i. 

and S. cerati. The eggs are then / 
laid, and the last of June, or early I 
in July, the slug'llke larve mature, [ 
and the perfect Insects fly In Jnly. 
Various Gall-flies now lay th 
eggs In the buds, leaves, and stems [ 
of oaks, maples, raspberries, a 
blaeberry and other plants. 

Dipterous Gall-flies are aow laying 1 
their eggs In cereals. The Hesslaa- 
fly iCteidompia diMmctor, Fig. t) 
has two brood«, the fly appearing both la apring and autumn. The fly l^a 




164 ENTOMOLOQIOAL CALBNDAR. 

twenty or thirty egga In a crease tn the leaf of the joxing plant. In abont 
fonr d^s. In warm weather, they hatch, and the pale-red larvK "crawl 
down the leaf, working their way In between it luid the mala stalk, paaa- 
Ing downward till the; come to a Joint, jnst above which they remain, a 
little below the surfhce of the ground, with the head towards the root 
of the pl&nt. Here they Imbibe the sap by snctlon alone, and, by the 
simple pressDre of their bodies, become imbedded In the side of the stem. 
Two or three larve tbns imbedded serve to weaken the plant, and cause 
it to wither and die. The second brood of larve remains through the 
winter in the flaz-aeed, or pt^rium. By turning the stubble with the 
plough Id the autumn and early spring. Its pnparlum may be destroyed, 
and thus its ravages may be checked. (Fig. I represents the female, 
which Is about one-fourth as large as a mosquito: a, the larva; b, the 
pupaj and c represents the Joint near tbe ground where the maggots 
live.) The same may be a^d of the Wheat-mldge (^Ceddomyia tntici), 
which attacks the wheat in the ear, and which transforms an inch deep 
beneath the aurftice. 

Among the bnttcrllles which appear this month are the Tumlp-bntter- 
fly (Ponlia oltracea), which lays Its eggs the last of the month. The eggs 
hatch in a week or ten days, and In about two weeks the larva changes to 
a chrysalis. Thanaot juveaalU and 7*. Brito fly lat« In Hajr. The cater- 
pillars live on the pea and other paptllonaceona plants. Tfitela Aubum- 
lana, T. NiphoH, and other species fly in dry sunny fields, some In April. 
ArgynnU M\irina flies from tbe last of May through June, and a second 
brood appears In August and September. Vanuaa J-album and V. intar' 
rogatlonit appear In May, and again In Augnst and September. The 
caterplllara of the latter species live on the elm, lime, and hop-vine. 
Orapta comma also f^eda on the hop. Alypia S-maculata flies at this 
time, and in Aognst Its larva feeds on the grape. SphiTtx gordiai, S. Car- 
olina, and other Sphinges and Seeia (the Cleai-wlnged Moth), appear the 
last of May. Arrtia Arge, A. virgo, A.phalerata, and other species, fly 
from the laat of May through the summer. Byphantrla texlor, the Fall- 
weaver, Is Ibund In May and June. The moth of the Balt^marah Cater- 
Fii-iA. Fig. la. plllnr appears at this time, and various Fi«.i. 

Cnt-worms CAgrotit) abound, hiding in 

the daytime under stones and sticks, I 
I etc., while various Tlneida and Tor- 
I trices, or Leaf-rolling Caterpillars, be- | 
i gin to devour tender leaves and buds 

and opening blossoms of flowers and ' 

fmlt trees. 
« The White-pine Weevil (Piamniet 

Mrobi, Fig. 2 a, larva; Fig. 26, pupa; and Fig. 2, beetle) flies about in 
warm days. We have found its burrows winding irregularly over the 
inner surtkce of tbe bark and leading into the sap-wood. Each cell. In 
which it hybemates. In the middle of March, contains the yellowish-white 



PROCEEDINGS OP SCIENTIFIC SOOIBTIEB. 



165 





tVwUesa grab. Early In Api^ It changes to a papa, and & rnontb after tbs 
beetle appears, and In a tew days deposits Its egg under tbe bark of old 
pine trees. It also oviposits in the terminal shoots of pine saplings, 
f dwarfing and permanently deform- 
ing the tree. Associated with this 
weevil we found the smaller, round- 
more cylindrical, whitish grabs 
of the ffylurgia terebrans (Fig. 3), 
■ which mines the inner layers of the 
bark, slightly grooving the sap- 
wood. Later In April it pupates, 
and its habits acconi In general with those of Pit- 
todet strobl. Anotber Fine-weevil (Hylohiu) palts. Fig. 4) also abounds 
at this time. 

Cylindrical bark-borers, which are little round weevll-like beetles, are 
now flying abont (tolt-trecs, to lay their eggs in the bark. AsRoclated 
with the FiuodM, we found in April the galleries of Tomicat pint, branch- 
ing out rrom a common centre. They are filled np with fine sawdust, and, 
P1,.B. according to Dr. Fltcb, are notched In Tig-t. 

' the sides "In which the eggs have 
been placed, where they wonld remain 
undisturbed by the beetle as It crawled 
backwards and forth through the gal- I 
r lery." These little beetles have not the 
long snout of tho weevils, hence they 
- cannot bore through the outer bark, but 
;r into the barrows made the preceding year, 
and distribute the eggs along the side (Fitch'). 
Anotber Tbmicus, more dangerous than the preced- 
ing, fbeds exclusively in the sap-wood, running aolitary galleries for a 
distance of two Inches towards the centre of the tree. We figure Tom- 
icui xylographMB Say (Fig. 6). It Is the most formidable enemy to tho 
white pine In the North, and the yellow pine in the South that we have. 
It also flies In May. Ptlnusfw (Fig. 6) Is now found In out-bonses, and 
is destructive to cloth, furs, etc., resembling the Larder-beetle {Dtrmts- 
Ui) In its habits. It is fourteen-hundredths of an inch In length. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



Academy of Natural Sciences. Philadelphia, Orl. 1, 1867. — Dr. 
Hays exhibited a fine specimen of Malachite; he also exhibited several 
specimens of hair from Albino negroes. Dr. Leldy spoke of the white 
Albino, and mentioned that tbc term "wool" was a misnomer as applied 



166 PROGEEDINaS OF SCI£NTIFIG SOCIETIES. 

to the hair of the negro ; the differences between the races being those 
pertaining to the form of the shaft. 

Oct. I6th, — Dr. E. Cones, U. S. A., presented a paper entitled, ** Notes 
on a Collection of Mammals Arom Arizona." Professor Holmes, of 
Charleston, exhibited specimens of fossil remains of extinct and recent 
animals, accompanied by bones of man, with pottery, stone arrow-heads, 
and hatchets Arom the postpUocene strata. He also called attention 
to the geology of the Charleston basin. Professor Leidy made some re- 
marks in continuation of the subject ; also noticed cases where the soft 
tissues of extinct animals have been preserved. 

Oct. 22d. — Professor Wood presented some remarks on a ftresh- water 
alga ft'om the thermal springs in Mono county, California, which was 
said to grow in water having a temperature of from 120° to 136® F. 

A paper was read entitled, *' Notes on a Collection of Californian Myri- 
apoda, with the description of a new Lithobius fh>m Illinois," by Horatio 
C. Wood, jr. 

Oct. 2dth. — Mr. Lyman exhibited a map of the Pennsylvania coal re- 
gions, accompanied by remarks on the conglomerate formation of Sulli- 
van county ; he also called attention to the bending of a limestone post 
by its own weight, the specimen now being in the collection of the Acad- 
emy. 

Nov. 6th. —Dr. Leidy directed the attention of the members to a speci- 
men of a fossil Peccaiy, Dieotylus nastUus Leidy. Professor Cope ex- 
hibited teeth of a new Cretaccan, Squalodon mento Cope ; specimens of 
the jaw of the Squalodon atlantieita Cope ; also many bones of a new 
whale, which was named Megaptera brachpchira Cope, with other fossils 
ft'om the Miocene formation of Charles county, Maryland. 

Nov. I2th. — Professor Cope read a paper entitled, **An addition to the 
Vertebrate fauna of the Miocene period of the United States." Dr. Leidy 
read a letter from Professor Hay den, describing the Lignite beds of 
Laramy plains. Professor Cope spoke of the formation of natural coke 
which he had observed In Eastern Virginia. Dr. LeConte made remarks, 
illustrated by specimens, upon the tertiary coal-beds of New Mexico in 
the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains, and the Cretaceous coal-beds of the 
Rio Grande valleys. Both regions were regarded by him as capable of 
supplying abundant Aiel for railroad, metallurgic, and manufacturing 
purposes. He also mentions beds in the vicinity of Denver of great 
thickness, Arom eleven to sixteen feet, tree Arom impurities. 

Boston Society op Natural History. Oct. 16, 1867.— Prof. Agassiz 
remarked upon the antiquity of man. He said that fifty years ago 
both the learned and unlearned believed they possessed a trustworthy 
chronology of human history. Historians struck the first blow at this 
assumption by their researches into the successive dynasties which had 
ruled over Egypt. Their lead was quickly followed in the difi'erent de- 
partments of science, until now we are forced to cast aside the ancient 
belieft and construct our chronology ftom a new and independent basis. 



PROCEEDINOS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 167 

Twelve years ago, Ferdinand Keller, of Zurich, by his examination of the 
lake deposits of Switzerland, brought to light proofs of the existence of 
races of men with new characters of civilization. These discoveries 
astonished the world, and have since given rise to a new science, new so- 
cieties, and new museums. Humanity is now connected with geological 
phenomena. 

Formerly the presence of such large mammals as the Elephas primi- 
genius, Rhinoceros tichorinus. Bos primigenius and Ursns spelaeus, was 
considered the dividing line between geological and human histor}', — 
now the extensive researches of such able naturalists as Lartet, Yon Baer, 
RUtimeyer, and Brandt, have proved that these quadrupeds were once 
contemporaneous with man. The question before us is whether we can 
establish a successive chronology of events since the appearance of these 
animals upon the earth. Brandt has attempted to show that they were 
living within the historical period, and has argued thereflrom that the 
native cattle of Europe were developed flrom the Bos primigenius. The 
argument for their recent extinction is drawn ft'om documents hitherto 
partly unknown, because written in the Sclavonic tongue ; these represent 
the existence of Bos primigenius in the forests of Lithuania and Poland 
up to the 11th and 13th centuries. The presence of Cervus megaccros in 
the marshes of Europe up to the 14th century is also made probable. 

There is no doubt that the fhuna of the diluvial deposits and of the 
European caves consisted of animals, some of which, at least, had a 
circumpolar geographical distribution, and that the southern limits of 
animals now living in the polar regions was once much greater than 
now ; remains of the reindeer have been found all through France to 
the Pyrenees and in Southern Germany. We find that these mammals 
had intimate relations with the ice period, and it becomes necessary 
for us to investigate the extent of the ice-flelds at the time when the 
glacial period was at its height. Professor Agassiz believed that the 
changes in extent which our ice-flelds have undergone during successive 
periods, would ftimish us with data for our chronology. In America, 
the ice-flelds, at the time of their greatest extension with indefinite 
limits, reached the S2d degree of north latitude. In Europe they extended 
as far as the plains of Lombardy. Subsequent to this came a limited 
glacial period, In which the Southern and Middle States were treed Arom 
glaciers, but Arom Maine westerly the country was still ice-bound. Du- 
ring a third period the ice retreated to the northern shores of Lake 
Superior and the slopes of Mt. Katahdin, while in a fourth period, the one 
before the present, the continent was clothed with vegetation up to the 
hilly parts of Canada. 

In answer to the question whether we had any means of connecting 
chronology with these facts, it might be stated that none of the cave 
auimals or the large mammals which have been mentioned, have been 
proved to exist prior to the time of the greatest extent of the ice-fields, 
and, as it can no longer be doubted that man lived contemporaneously 



168 CORRESPONDENCE. 

with these animals, he believed that, with the waning of the ice-period, 
began the era of primeval man. In the successive epochs of the ice, in- 
dicated by the retreating ice, we have a relative chronology ; when we ask 
for more specific statements of age, we find ourselves at once at a loss 
for an answer. Some indications might be seen in the abrasions of rocks 
of unequal hardness, and instances were cited in illustration of this. 

In the course of the discussion which followed these remarks, Professor 
Agassiz said he hoped for great results fh)m the investigations now un- 
dertaking in our own country, and believed that marks of the reindeer 
would yet be found in the Carolinas. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

J. H. F., New York. — There is unfortunately no complete work on 
American Cryptogamic Botany. For works on Lichens, however, see 
the Naturalist, Vol. I, p. 826. You will find the English works of Mr. 
Cooke, noticed in this number, very uaeftQ. 

F. W. W., Concord, Mass. — There is no complete American work on 
Taxidermy. See, however. Naturalist, Vol. I, p. 160, 321. 

O. F., Needham Plain, Mass. — For works on American Entomology, 
see Naturalist, Vol. I, p. 160, 441, and the last number. Subscriptions 
to ''The Guide to the Study of Insects," which will be published in the 
autumn, may be sent to us. 

L. A. R., Bucks, Ohio. — The specimen you inclose is a fossil gigantic 
Club-moss, LepidodendroHj which occurs abundantly in the shale inclos- 
ing coal-beds. Specimens f^om your region would be very acceptable. 
The Kangaroo Mouse you speak of is the Jaculus HudsonicuSy an animal 
well known as inhabiting nearly all the United States. The species of 
Dipodomys, to which Dr. Coues refers in his papers in the Naturalist, as 
''Kangaroo Rats and Mice," are not known to occur east of the Missis- 
sippi. 

N. T. T., Bethel, Me.— The substance to which you refer is the fresh- 
water Sponge (Spongilla fluviatilis). It occurs commonly In the ponds 
and sluggish brooks and rivers of Maine, and southward. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

The American Beaver and hie Works, By Lewis H. Morgan. 8vo. Philadelphia, 
1868. J. B. Lippincott ft Co. 

An Address on the Propriety of continuing the State Geological Survey of California, 
delivered before the Legislature at Sacramento, Jan, 80, 1868; to which are aopenOed t^to 
Utters relative to the Progress of the Geological Survey, etc., etc. By Proressor J. D. 
Whitney. San Francisco, 1868. 8to. pp. 23, 14, 16, 14. 

Papers from " The American Bearer.^ By W. W. Ely. Philadelphia, 1868. J. B. 
Lippincott A Co. 8vo. pp. 48—77, 287—306. 

The Field. March 7, 14, 21. London. 

Cosmos. February 15, March 7. Paris. 

American Bee Journal. April. Washington. 

Notes on a Collection of Mammalt ftom Arizona. By Elliott Cones, M. D., U. S. A. 
8vo. pp. 4. 



TKCE 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. n.— JUNE, 1868.— No. 4. 
THE WARBLERS. 

BY T. MARTIN TKIPPE. 

Of all the various tribes of the feathered race that pour 
into the Northern and Middle States every spring, there 
is not one that will compare in beauty of plumage, and 
exquisiteness of form, with the family of the Warblers 
{SylvicolidcB) . Combining all that we admire in birds, and 
visiting us only in the most delightful season of the year, it 
is no wonder that they have been so much praised and ad- 
mired. And yet they are very imperfectly known; even 
the specific rank of some of them seems scarcely to be 
established ; while the breeding habits of many are as little 
known now, as they were in the days of Audubon and Wil- 
son. Of late years, however, much has been accomplished 
in this direction ; and, before long, we may hope to become 
as well acquainted with all of them, even the rarest, as we 
now are with the common yellow warbler. 

Although some of the warblers are undoubtedly very rare, 
their general scarcity has been much exaggerated. That this 
should have been so, fifty years ago, is not suiprising, when 
we consider the extremely short period during which most 
of them are found with us, sometimes not exceeding two or 
three days. In some instances, I have known a particular 

Entered RCCordlnR to Act of Oongrons, In the year 1868, by the PEAnoDY Acadsmy of 
Science, in the Clcrk'i» OfBce of Uic DUtrlct Court of the District of Moaauchusetts. 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 22 (^60) 



170 THE WARBLERS. 

species to be extremely abundant diunng a single forenoon, 
while scarcely a single individual was to be seen during the 
rest of the spring, so quickly do they come and go. But that 
this should still be the case ; that errors, which were made, 
perhaps unavoidably, by Audubon and Wilson, should still 
be perpetuated, is a matter of surprise and regret. Some 
species are much more abundant now than they were in the 
days of the older ornithologists, and some probably scarcer. 
Thus, both Audubon and Wilson mention the chestnut-sided 
warbler as one of the rarest of all, whereas it is now very 
abundant. Another general error was, in stating that they all 
withdrew to the far north to breed. There are, probably, 
very few of the species that enter the New England States 
that will not be found to raise their young in some part of 
its territory, large portions of which have not as yet been 
scientifically explored. Little attention, likewise, seems to 
have been paid to their notes and songs ; and many, even, 
who are entitled to be ranked among the highest of our 
songsters, have been considered as destitute of musical 
ability altogether. The warblers have always been favorites 
of mine, and I have paid much attention to their habits and 
notes, particularly the latter. In the following brief sketch 
it is my intention to give a short account of each of the 
membei-s of this interesting family, and to notice, more 
especially, such particulars as are not generally known, in 
regard to their songs, as have fallen under my observations. 
The Pine-creeping Warbler (Dendroica pinus) is the 
first of the family to visit us in the spring, and arrives, in 
my locality in the latitude of New York, about the first of 
April. I have never known it to be very abundant, though 
it is seldom scarce. It affects, principally, the evergreen 
woods, but is often met with in other places. Its song, or 
rather note, for it can scarcely be said to have a song, is a 
rapid chatter, quite different from that of any other warbler, 
though it bears some resemblance to that of the Myiodioctea 
pusillus. 



THE WARBLERS. 171 

Soon after the pine-warbler has arrived, generally not 
more than four or five days, the Yellow Red-polled Warbler 
{D. palmarum) makes his appearance. Not very familiar, 
and yet not shy, they betake themselves to the decidu- 
ous woods, where, in numerous companies or small parties, 
they spend a couple of weeks, and then pursue their journey 
north. I have never heard them utter any other notes than 
a sharp ''chuck," and a low chirp, which seems to be com- 
mon to all the family, and can scarcely be distinguished in 
the different species. Unlike the other members of the par- 
ticular subdivision of the family to which they belong, the 
Wood-warblers {Sylvicolece) ^ they often descend to the 
gi'ound, where they run about with as much agility as the 
Maryland yellow-throat. Another peculiarity which char- 
acterizes them is the habit they have of jerking their tails, in 
the same way as the pewee, though they do not do it nearly 
so often as that bird does. In October, they return in large 
numbers, dwelling now in the open fields and woods indiffer- 
ently. They are the last of their tribe to leave us in the fall. 

The Yellow-crowned Warbler (Z). coronata) arrives about 
the time that the preceding species is leaving us, from the 
fifteenth to the twentieth of April. This is one of the most 
abundant and familiar of the class. It has a very sweet 
song, or warble, which it utters at short intervals in the 
early moniing ; its habits are too well known to require any 
farther notice. 

Another bird of this family, differing in name as well as 
in general appearance from its associates, is the Black and 
White Creeper (Mniotilta varia)y which, although a creeper 
by name, is a true warbler. It arrives about the twentieth 
of April, and although most of them pass farther north to 
breed, many spend the summer with us. Its breeding habits 
are well known ; and, from various causes, it is one of the 
most favorite of the cpw-blackbird's adopted nurses. I once 
found a nest of this bird with eight eggs in it, five of which 
were those of the cow-bird, and the other three her own. 



172 THE WARBLERS. 

There was much dispute among ornithologists some time ago 
as to whether the cow-bird ever laid more than one egg in 
the same nest. It was finally admitted that there were some- 
times two placed in the same nest, but that one of these 
usually proved abortive ; the five eggs that I found, however, 
were all sound, and had, apparently, been hatching for some 
days. Professor Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, in- 
formed me, that, in company with Dr. Brewer, he found 
three eggs in a nest of the creeper, and that they considered 
it a very extraordinary, circumstance. This bird is so well 
known, that it is scarcely necessary to speak of its notes, of 
which it possesses quite a variety. Its most frequent note, 
in spring, is a very fine, almost shrill song ; but besides this, 
it sometimes, though rarely, gives uttemnce to a soft, liquid 
warble, quite like that of the redstart. 

It is, perhaps, supei*fluous to speak of the Yellow Warbler 
(Z>. cestiva). This, as is well known, is the commonest and 
most familiar of all its family ; and, spending the spring and 
summer with us, all its habits have long been known. I 
cannot but think, however, that sufficient justice has not 
been done to its song. Some authors even seem to be igno- 
nint of the fact that it has a song at all, only giving it credit 
for its rather harsh, but characteristic spring note. It has, 
however, a true sylvicoline warble, which is sufficientlj'' 
pleasant in itself, but derives additional interest from its 
being heard late in summer, long after all other birds, except 
the vireos, have ceased to sing. During the latter pail; of 
July, and all through August, the yellow warbler may be 
hoard singing in the early morning, or in the twilight ; and 
his sweet, liquid notes, pleasing as they always were, but 
which were scarcely noticed at all in May and June, in the 
concert of finer and louder voices, now sound doubly sweet 
amid the silence that reigns among the feathered choir. 

The Black-throated Blue Warbler (Z>. Canadensis) arrives 
about the first week in May, and takes up his quarters in the 
low and swampy woodlands, where he finds his insect prey 



THE WARBLERS. 173 

abundant. The females arrive some time after their mates, 
and stay later ; indeed, this seems to be the case with all the 
warblers. They stay during the whole month, remaining 
longer than almost any other species. On their first appear- 
ance they have no note but a simple chirp, but just before 
they leave us, the males have a singular drawling song of 
four or five notes. They pass here again in the fall on their 
southern migration about the first of October, and are both 
at this time and in the spring quite abundant. 

The Black-throated Green Warbler (Z>. virens). This 
species, rarer than the former, though still not at all scarce, 
arrives about the same time. It far excels the former 
species in its song, which is varied, sweet, and not inferior 
to that of any of the Sf/lvicolecB, In autumn, they come 
down to us from the north along with the black-throated 
blue warblera, or else a little earlier, and, after remaining a 
short time, move ofi* to the south. 

The Chestnut-sided Warbler (D. Pennsylvanica) is one 
of the most beautiful members of its class. It was, if we 
may trust the accounts given to us by Audubon and Wilson, a 
rare species fifty years ago ; now, however, it is one of our 
commonest warblers. In some seasons it is excessively 
abundant, at others not as much so; but it is never very 
scarce. Its stay with us in the spring is usually very short, 
the main body not remaining more than two or three days. 
While on its spring visit it has, occasionally, a very pleasant 
song, which it utters at short intervals, in the early morn- 
ing. 

Somewhat resembling the chestnut-sided warbler in its 
coloring, but very different in its habits, is the Bay-breasted 
Wjirbler (Z). caataned). It is one of the last to arrive, and, 
owing to the fact that by that time the foliage is pretty 
dense, and that it makes but a shoii; stay, jt is not very often 
seen. It is not quite so active as the other warblers, and 
keeps more on the lower boughs, seldom ascending to the 
tops of the trees. Early in the fall, about the middle of 



174 THE WARBLERS. 

September, it returns, and, associated with the black-polled 
warblei's in large companies, haunts the groves and woods, 
being now more familiar than in the spring, and far more 
abundant. The young are totally different in their colors 
from the adults, and so closely resemble the young of the 
black-polled warbler, that it is often very difficult to distin- 
guish them apart. I have never heard their spring love- 
notes ; in fall, they have a faint chirp. 

The Connecticut Warbler ( Oporornis agilis) is one of the 
scarcest of the family. There are some peculiarities about 
the habits of this bird that deserve attention. Although ex- 
cessively rare in spring, perhaps more so than any other 
species, it is, in autumn, quite often seen, at least in this 
locality. It has never been my fortune to meet with one in 
spring, though I have seen many in the fall ; judging from 
analogy, it must pass through the Middle States along with 
the mourning warbler toward the latter part of May, or 
beginning of June. It returns late in September, and re- 
mains but a short time. Of its habits and notes I know 
nothing, except that in autumn it frequents low, bushy 
swamps, such as the Maryland yellow-throat chooses for his 
home, and uttere, at times, a feeble chirp. Why it should 
be so exceedingly rare in spring, while in the fall it is 
comparatively common, I can scarcely even conjecture ; 
perhaps it may choose a different route for its northern 
migration from what it pursues on its southern. The same 
circumstance may be noticed in the migrations of many other 
species, though in a much less marked degree. 

The Blue-winged Yellow Warbler {IMminthophaga pi^ 
niis) is one of that subdivision of the warbler family called 
the "Worm-eaters," or, in scientific language, Vemiivoreoe, 
The members of this division are distinguished from the 
typical warblers l)y shaq^er and more pointed bills, by 
plainer colors, and, as a rule, by comparatively harsh and 
unmusical voices. Their habits partake more of the vireo 
character than the others ; in fact, they bear nearly the same 



THE WARBLERS. 175 

relation to the VireonidcBy that the MyiodioctcB^ of which the 
green black-capped warbler is a member, do to the Musci- 
capidasy or Flycatchers. The blue-winged yellow warbler is 
one of those that spend the summer with us ; but though it 
is quite abundant during that season, I have never been for- 
tunate enough to discover its nest, although I have repeat- 
edly seen the young just fledged. It amves about the tenth 
•of May, and takes up its abode in the closest thickets and 
underbrush. Its note is very forcible and characteristic ; 
once heard, it will always be remembered. It is a rapid 
chirrup, nearly undescribable in words, though the follow- 
ing syllables bear some resemblance to it, c/i^ic/^/rA-A'-a-re- 
r'r^r^r'r'^ uttered very quickly. It leaves in August. 

The Mourning Warbler {Geothlypis Philadelphia) is a 
very rare species, scarcely less so than the Connecticut war- 
bler. It arrives late in spring, about the twenty-fifth of 
May, or first of June ; of its notes and habits I know noth- 
ing, having only seen one or two individuals. This and the 
Connecticut warbler have been considered by some orni- 
thologists to be identical, but they are undoubtedly perfectly 
distinct. 

One of the rarest of all is the Cape May Warbler (D. 
tigrina). Like the preceding, it is a late comer, arriving 
generally toward the end of May, and staying a very brief 
period. In the autumn it passes here, on its southward 
course, about the twentieth of September. Of its notes I 
know nothing, except that it has a faint chirp like all the 
other warblers ; ' and of its habits, nothing worthy of par- 
ticular notice, except that it shows a preference to cedar, and 
other ever«:reen trec^s. 

The Green Black-capped Warbler (Myiodioctes piisillus) 
is one of those belonging to the section or genus intermediate 
between the warblers and flycatchers. It is very much 
nearer the former, however, than the latter ; and it is a matter 
of some little surprise, how it could have been ranked as a 
flycatcher. ' Audubon says that it passes through the Middle 



176 THE WARBLERS. 

States very quickly on its way northward ; but I have seen 
it from the nineteenth to the thirtieth of May, though never 
in abundance. It keeps low down in the trees, and is fond 
of haunting thickets and open brush-fields. Its ordinary 
note is a sharp chirp, but occasionally it may be heard to 
utter a loud, rapid, chattering song, which it repeats at short 
intervals. It is distinguished by its activity, even among a 
class of birds preeminent for that quality. 

The Canada Warbler {Myiodioctes Canadensis) belongs 
to the same genus as the preceding, and like it was once 
classed as a flycatcher. It arrives about the middle of May 
along with the greater mass of warblers, and remains till the 
first of June. It is very unsuspicious, and more familiar in 
its habits than most of the warblers. With me, during some 
seasons, it is exceedingly abundant ; at others it is scarcer, 
though never rare. It affects the lower branches principally, 
and is always very active. Its song is one of the most 
agreeable which we hear, though unfoiiiunately it is seldom 
heard in this part of the country. 

The Blue Warbler (i). ccerulea)^ is a very rare species; 
that is to say, in the New England and Northern-middle 
States, its natural home being the south and the south-west, 
where it is extremely abundant. It very rarely reaches the 
New England States, though in the southern parts of Penn- 
sylvania and New Jersey it sometimes occurs in considerable 
numbers. In a "Catalogue of birds observed in New York, 
Long and Stsiten Islands, and the adjacent parts of New 
Jersey," by Geo. N. Lawrence, no mentiob of it is made, 
although the list is very full and complete, embracing many 
species not before known to occur in those localities. I 
have only once seen it, and that was on the ninth of May, 
when I saw a single individual. In general appearance it 
resembled the female black-throated blue warbler, for which, 
indeed, I at first mistook it. It had no note of any kind. 

The Maryland Yellow-throat ( Geothlypis trichas) belongs 
to the Geothlypeodi or Ground Warblers, so named because 



THE WARBLERS. 177 

they show a marked preference for the ground, seldom 
ascending to the tops of the trees as the others do, but 
being always found in the low thickets and bushes, or even 
on the ground. The present species is, perhaps, the best 
known, and most familiar of all its tribe ; indeed it could 
not have otherwise obtained its familiar name of "Yellow- 
throat." It is scarcely necessary to add anything concerning 
it ; suffice it to say, that it holds a most important position in 
the woodland choir ; there is scarcely another bird that we 
should miss more. Without it, the thickets and coppices 
would seem almost uninhabited ; and its song, simple though 
it is, would be sadly missed in August, when the hot sum* 
mer sun has silenced the wood-thrush and the veery. 

The Nashville Warbler {Helminthophaga ruficapiUa) is, in 
this vicinity, quite an abundant species. It arrives about 
the twentieth of May, and, after staying a very short period, 
proceeds northward. During its stay it is shy and retiring, 
frequenting the tops of forest trees ; occasionally it may be 
seen in orchards, and in the trees lining the brooks and 
swamps. It returns about the last week in September, 
remains a few days, and then moves off to the south. It 
has quite a fine song, which resembles that of the yellow 
warbler more nearly than any other. Many of the warblers 
have songs, so closely resembling each other, that it is 
impossible to describe them accurately in words, though they 
can at once be distinguished in the woods by the practised 
ornithologist. 

The Blue Yellow-backed Warbler (Parula Americana) is 
one of the smallest, as well as one of the most beautiful of 
all. Usually very abundant, it is sometimes rather scarce, 
and its migrations seem to be somewhat irregular. It amves 
in the second week iu May, and remains a considerable time 
with us. About the time the apple and pear trees are in 
bloom, it is most abundant; and any one visiting orchards 
then, is sure to see it flitting among the blossoms like a 
winged gem, the dark blue and gold of the bird contrasting 

AMKR. NATURALIST, VOL. II. 23 



178 THE WARBLERS. 

beautifully with the pure white, or delicate pink, of the 
flowers. In autumn, it is one of the first, if not the first, to 
leave its northern abode and pass through the Middle 
States, appearing in my locality about the second or third 
week of September. After haunting, for a few weeks, the 
white-birch swamps, it moves southward, just as the black- 
throated blue warbler is arriving. The song of the blue yel- 
low-back is a little sharp and lisping, yet quite varied, and 
very pleasant to be heard. 

The Worm-eating Warbler {Helmithents vermivoirus) is 
one of the very few warblers that are plainly attired, yet even 
it can make some pretensions to personal beauty ; for it has 
four bands of jet-black on its head, and a dainty suit of light 
buff on its back. It is not at all common, arrives in the 
middle of May, and has at that time a rapid, chattering note. 
It always keeps near the ground, is fond of rustling among 
the dead leaves of a broken bough, and, besides its chatter- 
ing song, has, in June, a series of odd notes much like those 
of the white-breasted nuthatch, but more varied and musical, 
though hardly entitled to be called a song. It remains with 
us during the summer, and although I have seen it during 
the breeding season evidently collecting food for its young, I 
have never been able to find its nest. 

The Hooded Warbler {Myiodioctes mitratus)^ is seldom 
seen as far north as the neighborhood of New York ; in New 
England it is very rare. I have only observed two or three 
individuals ; these were in low bushes, and seemed particu- 
larly active and restless. They are said to have a lively sort 
of warble, though I have never heard their notes. 

Of the Prairie Warbler (D. discolor) I know but little. 
It is said to be abundant in many parts of New Jersey and 
Long Island, and to breed in those sections. It arrives in 
the neighborhood of New York in the first week in May, and 
remains till the autumn, frequenting, in spring, the orchai*ds 
and gardens, and, in summer, the open, deserted fields and 
pastures. It has quite a variety of notes, some of which are 
very pleasing. 



THE WARBLERS. 179 

The Black-polled Warbler (Z>. striata) ^ is the last of the 
tribe to arrive in spring, seldom appearing before the twen- 
tieth of May. It is a familiar species, being found, while 
with us, in gardens, orchards, and in the vicinity of houses, 
as well as in the woods. It is extremely active, and, when 
seen, is always darting in and out among the branches, so 
rapidly as almost to pain the eye in endeavoring to follow it. 
In the fall it returns very early, along with the blue yellow- 
backed warbler, in the middle of September, from which 
time until the end of the first week in October, it is very 
abundant. The young are then so much more numerous 
than the adults, that one sees twenty in the immature plu- 
mage, to one in the mature. As before stated, the young of 
this bird very closely resemble those of the bay-breasted war- 
bler; so closelyi in fact, that naturalists are puzzled to 
decide which of the two is the autumnal warbler of Wilson 
and Nuttall, the descriptions applying nearly as well to the 
one as to the other. It is probable, however, that Wilson 
did not distinguish between them, or else considered them 
merely as varieties of the same species. His detailed de- 
scription of Sylvia autumnalis will certainly apply more 
nearly to the bay-breast ; but when he comes to speak of its 
habits, his remarks apply to the D. striata, rather than to 
the D. castanea. All the ornithologists who wrote of the 
autumnal warbler, mention it as exceedingly abundant in the 
fall. The black-poll is then very common, as well as in 
the spring, while the bay-breast is never so. Audubon, and 
some other authors, find the S. autumnalis in the young of 
the Hemlock Warbler {Sylvicola parus) ; but their view must 
be incorrect, if the 8. parus is, as Professor Baird asserts, 
merely the young of the Blackburnian warbler. £)uring 
spring, the black-poll has a faint lisping song, of four or five 
syllables ; in the fall, only a faint chirp. 

The Blackburnian Warbler (D. Blackbumice) is one of 
the most beautiful of all the warblers, for none can show 
more pleasing colors than the orange of its throat and breast. 



180 THE WARBLERS. 

It is a scared species, arriving in the second or third 
week in May, and remaining till the first of June. In its 
habits it is shy and retiring, hiding itself in the thickest foli- 
age. It sometimes utters an agi-eeable song. According to 
Giraud, it has been found breeding near Williamstown, 
Mass. 

Another warbler, vying in beauty with the last, is the 
Black and Yellow Warbler {D, maculosa) ; and, to add to 
its attractiveness, its song is no less pleasing to the ear than 
its colors to the eye. About the middle of May it arrives, 
sometimes in great abundance, and again in very small num- 
bers, in some seasons being scarcely seen at all ; in fall, it is 
not as common as in spring. Its notes are very soft and mu- 
sical; like the vireos, it sings while engaged in actively 
searching for food. It often darts after its prey, in the man- 
ner of the redstart, spreading its tail at the same time, as if 
to exhibit its beauty. In its motions, it is very quick, 
scarcely less so than the black-poll ; in its choice of abode, it 
seems to have no particular preference, haunting alike the 
woods, orchards, roadsides, and gardens. 

The Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) is the only representa- 
tive we have of the Setophageoe, a subdivision of the war- 
bler family, noted for the extreme brilliancy of their plumage. 
There are several species in Mexico and the adjacent portions 
of the United States, but only one ever enters the Northern 
or Middle States. The redstart is so named, it is supposed, 
from the color of its tail (German roth, red ; and stert, tail), 
and no more appropriate name could have been found to dis- 
tinguish it, at least in the case of our bird ; for of all its 
characteristics, that which at once strikes the beholder, on 
first seeing it, is its broad red tail. In the woods, it can 
easily be recognized, however far off, or however momentary 
the glimpse one catches of it, by the peculiar motion of the 
tail, which it flirts about from side to side, opening and shut- 
ting it occasionally like a fan. Although Wilson states that 
the redstart remains all the summer in Pennsylvania, and 



THE WABBLERS. 181 

that it breeds there in abundance, it is seldom seen in this 
locality after the end of June, although from the beginning of 
May until that time it is exceedingly common. About the 
first of Septepiber it reappears, and in a short time becomes 
abundant, remaining so for a few weeks, when it disappears 
again. It has a number of notes, some of which are very 
agreeable, especially its spring warble, which has been well 
described by Nuttall. Its peculiar habits ai*e too well known 
to require any farther comment. 

These species are about all that are to be found in the New 
England States. There are a few, however, not enumerated 
above, that occasionally visit them, stragglers from their 
more proper places of abode. Of these, those that are most 
likely to occur are the Kentucky Warbler ( Oporomis fov" 
mosus) , which has been discovered on Long Island several 
times ; the Golden-winged Warbler {HdmirUhophaga chry^ 
sopt^ra)^ which undoubtedly migrates as far north as Massa- 
chusetts ; and the Tennessee Warbler {Helminthophaga per- 
egrina) , which has been shot in the neighborhood of New York 
City. The Orange-crowned Warbler (Helminthophaga celata) , 
is also said to have been found in New York State ; and, of 
course, may occur in the adjacent parts of New England. 
Its occurrence is very doubtful, however, and is still a subject 
of dispute. 

It would scarcely be proper, in an account of the warbler 
£imily, to overlook the Water-thrushes (Seiurus)^ which are 
now generally classed among the Sylvicoleoe^ or typical war- 
blers, although their proper place in our systems has long 
been a matter of discussion. Audubon placed them among 
his Motacillirue, or wagtails ; while Wilson regarded them 
as time thrushes. Wilson, however, is not to be relied upon 
in matters relating to classification ; he excelled as a descrip- 
tive naturalist, but not as a systematist. The specific rank of 
the water-thrushes, or wagtails, now seems to be universally 
acknowledged ; and there can be little doubt, but that the 
position assigned to them by Professor Baird, is the correct 



182 THE WARBLERS. 

one. The reason why they were misunderstood so long, 
seems to have been their large size and plain colors, com- 
bined with a certain thrush-like appearance ; they are, how- 
ever, in their habits and notes, true warblers ; niore truly so, 
in fact, than the VemiivoreoBy or the GeotlilypecB. 

Our commonest species is the Golden-crowned Thrush 
(Seiurua aurocapillus) . It appears in the New England 
States in the first week of May, and, taking up its abode in 
the thickest woods, soon becomes abundant there. It runs 
along the ground with a graceful, wavering gait, wagging its 
tail all the while as if to preserve its balance, which seems 
every moment about to be overthrown. It often mounts to 
the boughs, from which it sends forth a loud, rattling chant, 
which can be heard at a considerable distance. At times, in 
the dusk of the evening or the early morning, it utters a 
finer song, clear and i*apid as the canary's, ending almost 
always, however, in the usual chatter. While singing, it 
keeps high up among the trees, usually balancing itself on 
its wings like a skylark, descending just as it finishes its 
son^. The onlv author in whom I find mention of this sono: 
is Nuttall, who has the credit of being one of our most 
observing naturalists. Late in summer, it has a sharp, 
clucking note, something like that of the water-thrush. Its 
curious nest has long been known ; from it, it derives its 
name of "Oven-bird." 

The Water-thrush (Seiurus Novehoracensis) arrives two 
or three weeks after the golden-crown ; and, like most of the 
warblers, remains but a short time with us in the spring, 
passing on to the north to breed after a brief stay of eight 
or ten days. A singular circumstance in this bird's his- 
tory is the fact of its never singing while here in spring ; 
but during its visit on its return, it may often be heard. 
With all other birds, it is exactly the reverse. It haunts 
the same localities as the golden-crown, but shows more 
preference to the margins of small streams and ponds, 
along which it is seen running with the peculiar motion of 



NOTES ON TBOPICAL FRUITS. 183 

a sand-piper, for which, at a distance, it may easily be 
mistaken. Its ordinary note is a loud, sharp "cluck;" but 
in August, when it returns, it has a beautiful song, loud, 
clear, and sweet, rivalling that of the wood-thrush for beauty. 
It is quite abundant. 

There is a closely allied form of the water-thrush, which 
is probably entitled to specific rank ; the Large-billed Water- 
thrush (Seiurus Ludovicianus) . Audubon first discovered it, 
and at the time considered it as distinct from the ordinary 
bird, but afterwards held it merely as a variety. The two 
birds certainly present greater difference than other nearly 
allied species of warblers that are acknowledged to be dis- 
tinct, as the Connecticut and mourning warblers ; and there is 
little doubt but that they are really different species. I have 
seldom seen the large-billed water-thrush, and am inclined 
to think that it is much rarer than the common wagtail, in 
this part of the country at least. In its habits and general 
appearance it seems to be the same as the aurocapillus^ 
which may partly account for the fact that it is rarely 
noticed. I have never heard its notes ; they are said to be 
eminently beautiful, almost equalling those of the nightin- 
gale. 



NOTES ON TROPICAL FRUITS. 

BY WILLIAM T. BRIGHAM. 

It may be that one day we shall know the different varie- 
ties of oranges, of coffee, of sugar-cane, as we know the pears 
and apples of our own orchards ; but at present we know 
only that some kinds are better than others. Travellers often 
describe in glowing terms the tropical fruits, but most of us 
know the banana (the apple of the tropics) by one typical 
form. The pleasant season for travelling in the tropics is 
not the season of fruits, so that many are not noticed by the 



184 NOTES ON TROPICAL I'KUITS. 

tourist; and again, most tropical fruits do not commend 
themselves to the taste on first acquaintance. If by offer* 
ins: a few random notes of a traveller who considers fruit 
and vegetables the staple of life, especially in the tropics, 
contributions from other sources may be provoked, some 
pleasing sketches of the many delicious products of the 
warmer regions of the globe may result. 

Golocasia antiquorum^ var. esculenta^ — Kalo or Taro. 
The kalo of the Pacific Islandei's is one of the few tropical 
productions that require great labor and constant care to 
bring it to perfection. In its wild state, like most of the 
Aracese, the kalo has a small conn, or bulb, surmounted by a 
few arrow-shaped leaves with fleshy stems. It looks much 
like the Calla of our conservatories. The corm is acrid, and 
blisters incautious lips. What can have first suggested its 
use as food? To cultivate it, ponds are prepai-ed by care- 
fully digging the soil and working it with the feet to the 
depth of some eighteen inches. The ponds are surrounded 
by a low wall or dyke, and usually cover from a few square 
yards to half an acre. Water is supplied by an aqueduct. 

The upper part of the corm, with the half- developed 
leaves, is cut off and planted in the mud, usually in rows 
about a foot apart, and water turned on enough to cover the 
soil about an inch. Weeds and kalo then commence a race, 
and it requires the constant care of the owner to keep the 
former down until the kalo leaves cover the ground. As 
the kalo leaves unfold, and the bulb grows, more water is 
let into the pond, and it is sometimes a foot deep. At the 
end of thirteen months the bulb has attained full size, and 
the yellow fragrant blossom appears. It is not necessary to 
gather it at once, and the usual way is to pull it as needed, 
replanting the stems, so that a constant succession is kept 
up. One acre will furnish food for six men. 

When fully grown, the bulb is six inches or even a foot 
in diameter, and the bright leaves have closely covered the 
surface of the pond. 'The bulb is still as acrid as when in 



NOTES OX TROPICAL FRUITS. . 185 

the wild state, except a rare variety which may be eaten 
raw, and must be baked to render it eatable. This process is 
usually performed in earth-ovens, and the roasted vegetable 
is pounded with great labor into a paste with water. It is 
at first tough and clastic, but at last the persistent attacks of 
the stone-pounder reduce it to a paste not unlike mashed 
potato. This constitutes the pae-ai of the Hawaiians, and 
may be kept for a long time packed in leaves of the cordy- 
linc. When mixed with water in different proportions, it 
forms ''one-fingered poi," or "two-fingered poi," or even 
"three-fingered poi," accordingly as a mouthful may be taken 
up on one, two, or three fingers. It is preferred slightly 
sour, and to a stranger much resembles in smell and appear- 
ance sour bookbinder's paste. A fastidious man objects to 
the way in which a group of natives, seated around a cala- 
bash of poi, which an old woman has just stirred up with her 
hand, dip their fingers in the paste and empty them in their 
mouths ; but if he wishes a good meal he had better get over 
such prejudices. Babies a few weeks old are passionately 
fond of poi, and foreigners, who have long lived in poi coun- 
tries, often send for it half round the world. 

The bulb may also be cooked and eaten as a potato, when 
it is very palatable, or as a farther process the boiled kalo 
may be cut in slices and fried, or mashed into paste like poi 
and made into cakes while yet fresh, a food as dear to those 
used to it as johnny-cake to a Scotchman. Even the stems 
are boiled as greens, and the tender leaves form a fine dish 
called luau. 

Although kalo is usually grown in ponds or brooks, a very 
good variety grows well on upland rich soil, and many pre- 
fer it to the more common kind. The Hawaiians distinguish 
more than fifty varieties of this plant, and the paste made 
from them varies in color, from a bluish-gray to a rich pink- 
color. Poi requires a little salt-fish as a relish. Kalo grows 
in New Zealand, Australia, China, where it is carefully culti- 
vated, India, and elsewhere ; but the Polynesians, especially 

AMEK. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 24 



186 THE GOLDSMITH BEETLE, AND ITS HABITS. 

the Hawaiiaus, alone make poi, other people ushig the bulb 
like yams or potatoes. It is said that the corm of the com- 
mon Jack-in-the-piilpit of New England woods may be 
treated as kalo, even to the eating. 

Pandanus verus^ Vaquois, Screw-pine, Lauhala. The 
pandanus, with its aerial roots and terminal tufts of long 
graceful leaves, is known by many pictures, but few have 
eaten tlie fruit. This much resembles a pine in shape and 
size, and is hard and useless until fully ripe, when the pulp 
surrounding the nuts is mashed into a paste and eaten. 
Many of the atolls in the Pacific produce no other food 
except the omnipresent cocoa-nut. The taste is rather 
insipid, and the odor disagreeable. The flower is fleshy and 
fragrant, and the native doctors in India use it as a sort of 
love-potion. It is certainly an emetic to some constitutions. 
The aerial roots have their ends protected by a loose cap or 
thimble of cellular integument, which is at once absorbed 
where the root touches the ground. From the peculiar dis- 
position of the leaves they shed water only from the tips and 
down the stem, forming a complete shelter from the rain, 
and supplying water where most needed. — To be continued. 



THE GOLDSMITH BEETLE, AND ITS HABITS. 

BY REV. SAMUEL LOCKWOOD. 

Among the Beetles of North America, very few can bear 
away the palm for beauty from the Cotalpa Janif/era, or, as 
popularly known, the Goldsmith Beetle. This insect holds 
no ignoble place in the Coleoptera, being a member of the 
family Rutilidee, or the golden-gleaming ones. Indeed, 
Madam Cotalpa has long been an acknowledged belle 
among the Rutilians, themselves a distinguished family in 
Beetledom. No artist can vie with the gorgeous effect pro- 



THE GOLDSMITH BEETLE, AND ITS HABITS. 187 

duced by the metallic tints of the Cotalpa's dress. Who has 
not seen the maiden sporting in a silken attire of but one 
color, which with every motion in the light became suddenly 
lustrous with beautiful hues. Almost a monochrome, yet 
the garb of the Goldsmith beetle presents a rich diversity of 
tints, chiefly of the yellow sorts. The wing-cases are a 
gleaming lemon, thus making the whole back appear as if 
encased by two large plates of paly gold, while the thorax 
and head are each covered with brilliant red gold, which in 
the light gives off an almost flaming hue. "The legs are 
brownish yellow, or brassy, shaded with green." The under 
part of the insect is a sheet of highly polished copper, from 
which stands forth a thick coat of "whitish wool," justifying 
ita specific name lanujera, wool-bearer. It is pleasant to see 
how from such a seeming paucity of color, Nature has begot- 
ten iu this insect such a richness of results. Although with 
a softer toning down, we see a not dissimilar success in that 
fine large Bombyx, the pale-green, satin>robt}d Moon-moth 
(.^ffiociw^Kua), "preemiuent above all our moths in queenly 
beauty." 

In the month of May for many years, in the ordinary cul- 
ture of my garden at Kcyport, N, J., the spade has turned 
up the Ootalpa lamgera (Fig. 1, larva; Fig, 2, imago). 
Fig. a. 

Fig. 1. tf' ll "8-3 




and generally in company with the May-beetle, or Dor-bug 
(Lachnosiema faaca. Fig. 3, pupa). The beetle is figured 
in the Naturalist, Vol, I, p. 222. Each season has fur- 
nished me many more Dors than Goldsmiths. And so far 



188 THE GOLDSMITH BEETLE, AND ITS HABITS. 

as my observations tend, the former are indiyidually more 
mischievous. 

To me the question of origin was interesting. Where did 
the Goldsmiths come from? It is a tree-beetle, and the 
spade turns them up in the ground. Do they originate in 
the trees or in the ground ? Or is the latter the place for 
their winter sleep, and for the purpose of undergoing their 
transformations ? On this point, I found the authorities all 
simply quoting Harris, who says, "the larves of this insect 
are not known ; probably they live in the ground upon the 
roots of plants." ]\Iy mind was made up to watch. If 
Newton could say in eiSfect that to the astronomer patience 
is genius, the burden of the naturalist's "Life Psalm" is : 
"Learn to labor, and to wait." 

For five years was kept up that vernal watching, every 
May yielding specimens, but no secrets. In the spring of 
1865, to my surprise I turned up a fine, fresh, pale imago 
out of a small heap of dirt that I had put there the previous 
autumn. This gave a new impulse to investigation. For, 
that the imago was not there when I made the mound, I was 
positive ; nor could it have entered there during the winter. 
Hence it was beyond doubt that I had unwittingly carried 
the larva there myself; or, as I think more probable, the 
advanced pupa. That month a very strict watch was kept 
for all specimens that might be turned up by spade or 
plough, with the hope that a pupa, or a newly, but not 
(}uite developed imago, would be obtained. All was in vain. 
The next step was to examine very thoroughly every larva 
of a coleopterous kind found in proximity with the imagos. 
This led to the discovery that certain large whitish grubs 
about one inch and three quarters long, and over half an 
inch thick, had a yellowish brown scale on the part corre- 
sponding to the thorax, and it was thought it might ripen 
into the red golden hue of the thorax of the perfected insect. 
This decided my course. Like Scholasticus, who, having 
heard that the crow lived a hundred years, at once went to 



THE GOLDSMITH BEETLE, AND ITS HABITS. 189 

market, bought a young one, and resolved that he would 
see ; I filled a deep glass jar with earth, and, placed six 
large grubs on the top. It was interesting to observe how 
quickly these soft creatures burrowed out of sight. They 
seemed in distress and haste to get out of the light and heat. 

Five months after, — it was late in October, — I removed 
a portion of the earth in the jar. Judge, of my delight and 
astonishment to find a beautiful and perfect Goldsmith 
beetle in the earthen chamber, which had contained it in 
its pupa state. I now searched the jar carefully, and found 
two more seemingly perfect ones, and another ill-formed 
one. So my conjectures were right. Those white grubs 
were, indeed, the larvae of the Goialpa lanigera. Without 
farther disturbance, except to replace the earth, the jar was 
set away in the cellar for the winter. 

Next May it was again examined. During the month two 
very pretty ones came to the surface of their own accord. I 
was delighted to find it was a pair, male and female. Farther 
examination showed that of the six larvae, five became ima- 
gos, and one died in the pupa stat«. They were all Gold- 
smiths. Being particularly anxious about the pair, from 
which I had hoped to learn something respecting the time 
and mode of oviposition, extra attention was paid them, and 
young leaves of the different deciduous trees were supplied ; 
but in vain. They lived but a few days, and died without 
funiishing one fact. 

Now comes a curious question. These insects had lived 
in the perfect form from October until May, a little more 
than seven months, that is, the larger fraction of a year. Is 
this their habit? Do they thus spend, after the last meta- 
morphosis, so much time in a subterranean life? Probably 
there are two reasons why I have never found the Goldsmith 
in the fall; the little need of working the ground then, 
and the probability that the spade or plough does not go 
deep enough ; as in May, the insect is slowly travelling to 
the surface, and is met by the implement. 



190 THE GOLDSMITH BEETLE, AND ITS HABITS. 

When collecting the larvre in May, I often observed in the 
same places 'grubs of the Cotalpa of at least four distinct 
ages, each representing a year in the life of the insect, 
judging from Kenny's figures of the larvcB of the English 
Cockchafer, or Dor-beetle (Melolontka vulgaris). But the 
English chafer becomes an imago in January or February, 
and comes forth intp active life in May, just four years from 
the deposit of the egg. Supposing our Cotalpa to take on 
the imago form in autumn, and to spend its life from that 
time to the next May in the ground, it would be five years 
old when it makes its debut as an arboreal insect. 

The books tell us that the larvae of the Coleoptera always 
lie on their side. Why? Watching the movements of the 
Goldsmith in its chamber, I noticed that the cell, or cave, 
was made large enough to admit of considerable freedom of 
motion. Lying on its side, and in a curved posture, the 
larva secures for itself comfort, and the largest movement as 
respects allotted space ; also by the curved motions thus 
made, the enlarging and keeping up the walls of its earth- 
chamber. The dog, in setting itself for repose, shows the 
old instinct, — first the whole body is put in a curve, next a 
circular motion is made, then it sinks upon its bed. This is 
the wolf making its bed. And this posture of repose most 
eflfectually defends the abdominal, the weaker parts of the 
body. It is so with the grub. Resting on its side, it in 
fact rests upon the ends of the hard dorsal segments, by the 
extension and contraction of which the cycloidal motion is 
attained, without any friction to the tender abdomen, while 
the friction of the back keeps the walls of the earth-chamber 
compact and smooth. 

I laid a large larva on my study-table. It instantly turned 
on its round, smooth back, nicely balanced itself, and with 
feet upward, moved quite rapidly. One might call the 
movement seipentine. In fact, the motion was acquired by 
the separating and bringing together again of the hard 
segments, very much as the ventral bands or scales of the 



THE GOLDSMITH BEETLE, AND ITS HABITS. 

snake are moved by the ribs ; 
meu and feet accounting for th 
of getting along. It certainly « 
the difficulties of a new situation 
with a younger larva, turned oul 
its abdomen, and would not, eve 
upon its back. It seemed to 
were too soft to afford it the a 
older individual. 

I think the Goldsmith prefers 
and that the dor-bug loves gn 
soils ; hence the latter is to bt 
rious of the two. The Goldsniii 
It is likely that the female la 
in June, which month usually 
Their life I hardly think is gi' 
Harris, "pear trees are particula 
A more recent observer, Mr. Ut 
is not serious to this tree, anc 
found on other trees. It appeal 
ticular in its taste ; for besides 
Han-is, "the pear, hickory, popl 
it on the Abelc, or white poplai 
sweet gum, and seen it eating th 
the double purpose of concealm 
fort of shade, it will draw togeth 
ing them by the sharp tiny hoo 
Of sluggish habits and but lov 
in its improvised arbor all the k 
and evening twilight it ventur 
flying and buzzing about, enjoyii 
best, and to many very short : 
prey to the ever-watchful bir 
round of existence is abruptly b 
tal way. The little Cotalpa, bri 
enters the open window, and, dai 



192 THE 08PREY, OR FISH-HAWK. 

of involuntary blind-man's buff, strikes its tiny golden visor 
against the blinding lamp. Ah, thy doom is sealed! A 
feminine scream. Then the nervous mistress, napkin in 
hand, courageously attacks, and with the scissors triumph- 
antly captures, and most satisfactorily destroys ''the pesky 
thing ! '' 

Note. — Fig. 3 represents the pupa of Lachnosterna fnsc^j the June 
bug, which was turned up by the spade in a garden in Maine, about the 
middle of May. The pupa of Cotalpa must closely resemble that of the 
June bug. It will be seen in our review of the Cosmos, that the cockchaf- 
fer lives three years instead of five as stated by early authors. — (Eds.) 



THE OSPREY, OR FISH -HAWK. 

BY AUGUSTUS FOWLER. 

This well-known migratory hawk {Pandion CaroUnensis) 
arrives on our coast about the last of April, and depails for 
the south in the month of October. It subsists entirely 
upon fish, which it procures by its own industry, laboring 
from morning till evening twilight. Upon examining this 
bird it will be seen by its peculiar organization how well it is 
adapted for its vocation. The body is compact and strong, 
wings long, pointed, and extremely powerful ; the femur and 
tibia muscular ; the soles of the feet supplied witli hard scaly 
protuberances, which, with its long, sharp, round claws, pre- 
vent its prey from slipping from its grasp when once fairly 
struck. In the Osprey the wings denote gi*eat power ; they 
are acute and long, and, as the wing is the lever of the power, 
the more distant its extremity is from the centre of motion the 
more power it has in resisting the air. The stiff, elastic quill- 
feathers arising from the wing of the osprey, called the 
primaries, are sixteen inches in length including the quills ; 
the quills are three and a half inches long, and seven-eighths 



THE 08PREY, OR FI8H-HAWK. 193 

of an inch in circumference ; the feathers, arising from the 
spurious wing that lie close on the quills of the primaries are 
also very stiff and give them great support, each primary 
feather measuring seven-eighths of an inch in width from the 
greater wing coverts to near its extremity, with the lamina 
strongly connected by the fibrils of each ; those on the upper 
edge of the shaft are stiff and curve downward, a wise pro- 
vision in its construction without which the resistance of the 
air against the wing would be lost by a counteracting resist- 
ance in its ascent. In its downward beat on the air the flat 
surface of the feather only presents itself, in its upward 
stroke its edges are presented, and the air passes through them. 
Thus the curvature, length, and power of the wings of the 
Fish-hawk are designed to be of great service under peculiar 
circumstances. Rising high in the air and wheeling in his 
flight, he discovers his finny prey far below him in the 
water. He poises himself for a moment, then swiftly de- 
scends upon his victim. The fish feeling the piercing claws 
of the hawk, leaps forward through the water, and, having 
his head lifted up by the power of the hawk, swims to the 
surface and is easily borne into the air ; these are the more 
favorable circumstances for the hawk. 

There are instances when in striking the fish the hawk 
fastens to him less favorably, and does not so e<asily succeed 
in procuring his prize. When the hawk has seized his prey 
so far behind as to give the fish an opportunity of descending 
deeper in the water, he is sometimes drawn under its surface, 
especially if the fish is large. When this occurs the struggle 
is desperate, for the contest is, which will now remain in his 
element. It is to the advantage ef the hawk, being placed in 
such hazardous circumstances, that his wings are differently 
constructed from those of other hawks. Those long, stiff, 
elastic quill-feathers arising from the hands of the wings of 
the hawk which curve to such a degree as to be used over his 
body while partly submerged in the water, give him the vic- 
tory. After the osprey has secured his prey he rises from 

▲HER. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 26 



194 THE OSPREY, OR FISH-HAWK. 

the water and shakes himself, then immediately starts for the 
woods or some stand to feed upon his spoils. Having 
reached the tree upon which he intends to light, he circles 
around two or three times before he rests upon it ; so cautious 
is he lest the Bald-eagle (Haliaetm leucocephalus) , which so 
often robs him of his food, may approach him unseen, he 
remains looking about him for some minutes before com- 
mencing to eat ; no danger being apprehended, he then strips 
off a piece of the fish and swallows it. After every mouth- 
ful he takes a survey. 

A number of years ago a pair of fish-hawks built their 
nest in Ipswich, Mass. They were so often shot at, and the 
nest robbed of their eggs, that they abandoned the spot. 
Their nest is composed chiefly of sticks and seaweed ; it is 
large for the size of the bird, measuring three feet in diame- 
ter and two feet in height ; the cavity for the reception of 
eggs is shallow, as is usually in nests of all birds of prey. 
The attachment between the male and female is strong : the 
former not only assists in incubation, but also supplies the 
female with food while performing the arduous task; after 
having brought her a fish he will rise above the nest in a 
spiral flight to a great height, then descending on half-closed 
wings with great force until near the nest, he sweeps around 
uttering a piercing scream. The female acknowledges the 
honor thus paid her by rising in the nest and partly extend- 
ing her wings. The fish-hawk usually lays three eggs, 
sometimes four ; their gi'ound color is white tinged with red ; 
the larger end is sometimes almost entirely covered with 
blotches of dark umber brown, and spots of the same color are 
thicklj' scattered on the smaller end ; they vary in size, usually 
they are two and a half inches in length by one and seven- 
eighths inches in diameter. At the earliest dawn of day the 
laboi*s of this fish-hunter commences. He seems to know no 
danger in the oftentimes perilous undertaking of fastening to 
a too powerful fish. He crosses our bays, enters the rivers and 
creeks, still pursuing the chase in wet or dry weather, appar- 



THE PABASITES OF THE HONEY-BEE. 195 

ently for the pleasure and excitement it gives, rather than to 
procure for himself food. This insurmountable passion he 
gratifies without the least fear of plunging from the great 
height to which he soars, whizzing through the air s witter 
than the torrent into which he rushes, making the water foam 
around him. Night often overtakes him in the heat of the 
pursuit, and not until the last ray of light has disappeared in 
the west does he forsake the chase. His day's hunt over, he 
perches upon some tree bordering upon the shore of the river 
or coast of the sea, and remains through the night. He is 
awakened by the freshness of the morning air and the roar 
of the long rolling waves when their irresistible columns 
meet the shore and are broken. He rises and shakes the 
dews of night from his feathers, gives them a few touches 
with his bill, and again goes forth, rejoicing in his strength, 
over waters filled with a superabundance of food. 



THE PARASITES OF THE HONEY-BEE. 

BT A. S. PACKABD, JR. 

Very few bee-keepers are probably aware how many 
insect parasites infest the Honey-bee. In our own literature 
we hear almost nothing of this subject, but in Europe much 
has been written on bee parasites. From Dr. Edward 
Assmuss' little work on "the Parasites of the Honey-bee, *' 
we glean many of the facts now presented, and which can- 
not fail to interest the general reader as well as the owner of 
bees. 

The study of the habits of animal parasites has of late 
gained much attention among naturalists, and both the 
honey and wild bees afford good examples of the singular 
relation between the host and the parasites which live upon it. 
Among insects generally, there are certain species which 



196 THE PARASITES OF THE HONEY-BEE. 

devour the contents of the egg of the victim. Others, and 
this is the most common mode of parasitism, attack the 
insect in its larva state ; othei*s in the pupa state, and still 
others in the perfect, or imago state. Dr. Leidy has 
shown that of the wood-devouring species, a beetle. Passu- 
Ills comutus^ and some Myriapods^ or "thousand legs," are, 
in some cases, tenanted by myriads of microscopic plants 
and worms which luxuriate in the alimentary canal, while 
the "caterpillar-fungus" attacks sickly caterpillars, filling 
out their bodies, and sending out shoots into the air, so that 
the insect looks as if transformed into a vegetable. 

The Ichneumon flies, of which there are undoubtedly several 
thousand species in this country, are the most common insect 
parasites. Their habits are noticed in the Naturalist, Vol. I, 
p. 81. Next to these are the different species of Tachina and 
its allied genera. These, like Ichneumons, live in the bodies 
of their hosts, consuming the fatty parts, and finishing their 
transformations just as the exhausted host is ready to die, 
issue from their bodies as flies, closely resembling the com- 
mon house-fly. 

An insect, allied to the Tachina, has been found in Europe 
to be the most formidable foe of the hive-bee, sometimes 
producing the well-known disease called "foul-brood," which 
is analogous to the ty^^hus tevcr of man. 

This fly, belonging to the genus Phora (Plate 4, fig. 1 , Phora 
incrassata ; Fig. 2, larva ; Fig. 3, puparium) , is a small insect 
about one line and a half long, and found in Europe during 
the summer and autumn flying slowly about flowers and win- 
dows, and in the vicinity of bee-hives. Its white, transpa- 
rent larva is cylindrical, a little pointed before, but broader 
behind. The head is small and rounded, with short three- 
jointed antenuse, and at the posterior end of the body are 
several slender spines. T\iQ puparium^ or pupa-case, inclos- 
ing the delicate chrysalis, is oval, consisting of eight seg- 
ments, flattened above and with two large spines near the 
head, and four on the extremity of the body. 



THE PARASITES OF THE HONEY-BEE, 197 

When impelled by instinct to provide for the continuance 
of its species, the Phora enters the bee-hive and gains admis- 
sion to a cell, when it bores with its ovipositor through the 
skin of the bee-larva, laying its long oval egg in a horizon- 
tal position just under the skin. The embryo of the Phora 
is already well developed, so that in three hours after the 
egg is inserted in the body of its unsuspecting and helpless 
host, the embryo is nearly ready to hatch. In about two 
hours more it actually breaks off the larger end of the egg- 
shell and at once begins to eat the fatty tissues of its victim, 
its posterior half still remaining in the shell. In an hour 
more, it leaves the egg entirely and buries itself completely 
in the fatty portion of the young bee. 

The maggot moults three times. In twelve hours after 
the last moult it turns around with its head towards the pos- 
terior end of the body of its host, and in another twelve 
hours, having become full-fed, it bores through the skin of 
the young, eats its way through the brood-covering of the 
cell and falls to the bottom of the hive, when it changes to a 
pupa in the dust and dirt, or else it creeps out of the door 
and transforms in the earth. Twelve days after, the fly 
appears. 

The young bee, emaciated and enfeebled by the attacks of 
its i*avenous parasite, dies, and its decaying body fills the 
bottom of the cell with a slimy foul-smelling mass, called 
"foul-brood." This gives rise to a miasma which poisons 
the neighboring brood, until the contagion (for the disease 
is analogous to typhus, jail, or ship-fever) spreads through the 
whole hive, unless promptly checked by removing the cause 
and thoroughly cleansing the hive. 

Foul-brood sometimes attacks our American hives, and, 
though the cause may not be known, yet from the hints given 
above we hope to have the history of our species of Phora 
cleared up, should our disease be found to be sometimes due 
to the attacks of such a parasite fly. 

We figure the Bee-louse of Europe (Plate 4, fig. 4, Braula 



198 THE PAUASITES OP THE HONEY-BEE. 

cceca Nitsch), which i& a singular wingless spider-like fly, 
allied to the wingless Sheep-tick (^Melophdgvs) , the wingless 
Bat-tick {N^yderibia) , and the winged Horse-fly {Hippobosca) . 
The body is divided into two regions, like the spider. The 
head is very large, without eyes or ocelli (simple eyes), and 
the ovate hind-body consists of five segments, and is covered 
with stiff hairs. It is one-half to two-thiinls of a line long. 
This spider-fly is "pupiparous," that is, the young, of which 
only a very few are produced, is not born until it has, or is 
just about to, assume the pupa state. The larva (Plate 4, 
Fig. 5) is oval, eleven-jointed, and white in color. The verj" 
day it is hatched it sheds its skin and changes to an oval 
puparium of a dark-brown color. 

Its habits resemble that of the flea. Indeed, should we 
compress its body strongly,, it would bear a striking resem- 
blance to that insect. It is evidently a connecting link 
between the flea, and the two-winged flies. Like the former 
it lives and brings forth its young on the body of its host, 
and draws its food from its host by plunging its stout beak 
into the skin of the bee. 

It has not been noticed in this country, but is liable to 
be imported on the bodies of Italian bees. Generally, one 
or two of the Braulas may, on close examination, be detected 
on the body of the bee ; sometimes the poor bees are loaded 
down by as many as a hundred of these hungry bloodsuckers. 
Assmuss recommends rubbing them oflf with a feather, as 
the bee goes in and out of the door of its hive. 

Among the beetles are a few forms occasionally found in 
bees' nests and also parasitic on^ the body of the bee. TVi- 
diodes apiarius Linn. (Plate 4, fig. 6, fig. 6 a, larva ; fig. 6 6, 
pupa, front view) has long been known in Europe to attack 
the young bees. In its perfect, or beetle, state it is found 
on flowers, like our Tnchodes NuttdlUi^ which is commonly 
found on the Spiraea in August, and which may yet prove to 
enter our bee-hives. The larva devours the brood, but with 
the modern hive its ravages may be readily detected. 



THE PARASITES OF THE HONEY-BEE. 199 

The Oil-beetle, Meloe angusticollis Say (Plate 4, fig. 7, 
male, differing from the female by having the antennae as if 
twisted into a knot ; Fig. 8, the active larva found on the 
body of the bee) , is a large dark-blue insect found crawling 
in the grass in the vicinity of the nests of Andrena and 
Halictus and other wild bees in May, and again in August 
and September. The eggs are laid in a mass covered with 
earth at the root of some plant. During April and early in 
May, when the willows are in blossom, we have found the 
young recently hatched larvae in considerable abundance 
creeping briskly over the bees, or with their heads plunged 
between the segments of the body, greedily sucking in the 
juices of their host. Those that we saw occurred on the 
humble-bee, Halictus and Andrena, and various flies (Syr- 
phus and Muscidse), and there is no reason why they should 
not infest the honey-bee which frequent similar flowers, as 
they actually are known to do in Europe. These larvae are 
probably hatched out near where the bees hybernate so as to 
creep into their bodies liefore they fly in the spring, as it 
would be impossible for them to crawl up a willow tree ten 
feet high or more, their feet being solely adapted for climb- 
ing over the hairy body of the bee, which they do not leave 
until about to undergo their strange and unusual transforma- 
tions. 

In Europe, Assmuss states that on being brought into the 
nest by the bee, they leave the bee and devour the eggs in 
the bee-cells, and then attack the bee-bread. When full-fed 
and ready to pass through their transformations to attain 
the bee state, instead of at once assuming the pupa and 
imago state, as in the Trichodes represented above, they pass 
through a hyper-metamorphosis^ as Fabre, a French naturalist, 
calls it. In other words, the changes in form which are pre- 
paratory to assuming the pupa and imago states are here 
more marked and almost coequal with the larva and pupa 
states, so that the Meloe, instead of passing through three 
states (the egg, larva, and pupa), in reality passes through 



200 TIIE PARASITES OF THE HONET-BEE. 

these and two others in addition, which are intermediate. 
The whole subject of the metamorphosis of this beetle needs 
revision, but Fabre states that the larva, soon after entering 
the nest of its host, changes its skin and assumes a second 
larva form (Plate 4, tig. 9), which somewhat resembles the 
larva of the Goldsmith beetle (P. 187, fig. 2). Newport, 
who with Siebold has carefully described the metamorpho- 
ses of Meloe, does not mention this stage in its develop- 
ment, which he calls "pseudo-chrysalis." It is motionless ; 
the head is mask-like, without movable appendages, and the 
feet are represented by six tubercles. This is more properly 
speaking the semi-pupa, and the mature pupa grows beneath 
its mask-like form, which is finally moulted. This form, 
however, according to Fabre, changes its skin and turns into 
a third larva-form (Plate 4, fig. 10, firom Newport). After 
some time it assumes its true pupa form (Plate 4,fig. 11, from 
Newport), and finally moults this skin to appear as a beetle 
(Plate 4, fig. 7). 

Fabre has also, in a lively and well-written account, given 
a history of Sitarisy an European beetle, somewhat resem- 
bling Meloe. He states that Sitaris lays its eggs near the 
entrance of bees' nests, and at the very moment that the bee 
lays her egg in the honey-cell the flattened ovate Sitaris larva 
drops from the body of the bee upon which it has been living, 
and feasts upon the contents of the freshly laid egg. After 
eating this delicate morsel it devours the honey in the cell 
of the bee and changes into a white cylindrical, nearly foot- 
less grub, and after it is full-fed, and has assumed a supposed 
"pupa" state, the skin, without bursting, incloses a kind of 
hard "pupa" skin, which is very similar in outline to the 
former larva, within whose skin is found a whitish larva 
which directly changes into the true pupa. In a succeeding 
state this pupa in the ordinary way changes to a beetle which 
belongs to the Stime group of Coleoptera as Meloe. We can- 
not but think, from observations made on the humble-bee, 
the wasp, two species of moths, and several other insects. 



THE PARASITES OF THE HONEY-BEE. 201 

that this "hyper-metamorphosis" is the normal mode of 
insect metamorphosis, and that the changes of these insects, 
made beneath the skin of the mature larva before assuming 
the pupa state, are almost as remarkable, though less easil}' 
observed, as those of Meloe and Sitaris. Several other 
beetles allied to Meloe are known to be parasitic on wild 
bees, though the accounts of them are fi-agmentary. 

The history of Stylops^ a beetle allied to Meloe, is no less 
strange than that of Meloe, and is in some respects still more 
interesting. On June 18th I captured an Andrena vicina 
(figured on p. 397 of the first volume of the Naturalist) 
which had been "stylopized". On looking at my capture I 
saw a pale reddish-brown triangular mark on the bee's abdo- 
men ; this was the flattened head and thorax of a female Sty- 
lops (Plate 4, fig, 12, position of the female of Sty lops, seen 
in profile in the abdomen of the bee ; Fig. 13, the female 
seen from above. The head and thorax is soldered into a 
single flattened mass, the baggy hind-body being greatly 
enlarged like that of the gravid female of the white ant, 
TermeSj and consisting of nine segments). 

On carefully drawing out the whole body which is very 
extensible, soft, and baggy, and examining it under a high 
power of the microscope, we saw multitudes, at least several 
hundred, of very minute larvae (Plate 5, fig. 6, as seen from 
above, and showing the alimentary canal ending in a blind 
sac; Fig. 6a, side view), like particles of dust to the naked 
eye, issuing in every direction from the body of the parent 
now torn open in places, though most of them made their exit 
through an opening on the under side of the head-thorax. 
The Stylops, being hatched out while still in the body of 
the parent, is therefore viviparous. She probably never lays 

eggs. 

On the last of April, when the Mezereon was in blossom, 
I caught the singular-looking male, Stylops Childreni Gray 
(Plate 4, fig. 14 ; a, side view ; it is about one-fourth of an 
inch long) , which was as unlike its paitner as possible. I 

▲HER. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 26 



202 THE PARASITES OF THE HONEY-BEE. 

laid it under a tumbler, when the delicate insect flew and 
tumbled about till it died of exhaustion in a few hours. 

It appears, then, that the larvie are hatched during the mid- 
dle or last of June from eggs fertilized in April. The larvae 
then crawl out on to the body of the bee, on which they are 
transported to the nest, when they enter, according to Peck's 
observations, the body of the larva, on whose fatty parts 
they feed. Previous to changing to a pupa, the larva lives 
with its head turned towards that of its host, but before 
assuming the perfect state (which they do in the late sum- 
mer or autumn) they must reverse their position. The 
female protrudes the front part of its body between the seg- 
ments of the abdomen of her host, as represented in our 
figure. This change, Newport thinks, takes place after the 
bee-host has undergone its metamorphoses, though the bee 
does not leave her earthen cells until the following spring. 
While the male Stylops deserts its host, his wingless partner 
is imprisoned during her whole life within her host, and dies 
immediately after giving birth to her myriad (for Newport 
thinks she produces over 2000 young) ofispriug. 

Xenos Peckii^ an allied insect, was discovered by Dr. Peck 
to be parasitic in the body of wasps, and there are now 
known to be several species of this small but curious family, 
Stylopidoe^ w^hich are known to live parasitically on the 
bodies of our wild bees and wasps. The presence of these 
parasites which live on the fatty parts finally exhausts the 
host, so that the sterile female bee dies prematurely. 

As in the higher animals bees are afllicted with parasitic 
worms which induce disease and sometimes death. The well- 
known hair-worm, Gordius, is an insect-parasite. The adult 
form is about the size of a thick horse-hair, and is seen in 
moist soil and in pools. It lays, according to Dr. Leidy, "mil- 
lions of eggs connected together in long cords." The micro- 
scopic tadpole-shaped young penetrate into the bodies of in- 
sects frequenting damp localities. Fairly esconced within the 
body of their unsuspecting host, they luxuriate on its fatty tis- 



THE 'PARASITES OP THE HONEY-BEE. 203 

sues, and pass through their metamorphoses into the adult 
form, when they desert their living house and take to the 
water to lay their eggs. In Europe, Siebold has described 
Gordius subbifurciis which infests the drones of the honey-bee, 
and also other insects. Professor Siebold has also described 
Mermis albicans y which is a similar kind of hair-worm, from 
two to iSve inches long, and whitish in color. This worm is 
also found, strangely enough, only in the drones, though it is 
the workers which frequent watery places to appease their 
thirst. 

Thousands of insects are carried off yearly by parasitic 
fungi. The ravages of the Muscardine, caused by a minute 
fungus (^Boirytris Bassiana Balsamo), has threatened the 
extinction of silk culture in Europe. Dr. Leidy mentions a 
fungus which must annually carry off myriads of the Seven- 
teen Year Locust. A somewhat similar fungus, Mucor meU 
litophorus (Plate 4,%, 15), infests bees, filling the stomach 
with microscopic colorless spores, so as to greatly weaken 
the insect. 

As there is a probability that many insects, parasitic on 
the wild bees, may sooner or later afflict the honey-bee, and 
also to farther illustrate the complex nature of insect para- 
sitism, we will for a moment look at some other bee- 
parasites. 

Among the numerous insects preying in some way upon the 
Humble-bee are to be found other species of bees and moths, 
flies and beetles. Insect parasites often imitate their host : 
Apathus (Plate 5, fig. 1, A, Ashtoni) can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from its host, and yet it lives cuckoo-like in the 
cells of the humble-bee, though we know not yet how inju- 
rious it really is. Then there is the Conops and Volucellay 
the former of which lives like Tachina and Phora within the 
bee's body, while the latter devours the brood. The young 
(Plate 5, figs. 5, 5 a) of another fly allied to Anthomyia, of 
which the Onion-fly is an example, is also not infrequently 
met with. A small beetle (Plate 5, fig. 4, Antherqphagus 



204 THE PARASITES OF THE HONET-BEU. 

ochraceus) is a common inmate of humble-bees' nests, and 
probably feeds upon the wax and pollen. We have also 
found several larvae (Plate 4, fig. 16) of a beetle of which we 
do not know the adult form. Of similar habits is probably a 
small moth {Nephopteryx Edmandsii^ Plate 5, figs. 2, 2a, 
larva; fig. 26, chrysalis, or pupa) which undoubtedly feeds 
upon the waxen walls of the bee-cells, and thus, like the 
attacks of the common bee-moth {Galleria cereana)^ whose 
habits are so well known as not to detain us, must prove 
very prejudicial to the well-being of the colony. This 
moth is in turn infested by an Ichneumon-fly (^Microgaster 
nephoptericis^ Plate 5, figs. 3, 3a) which must destroy many 
of them. 

The figures of the early stages of a minute ichneumon rep- 
resented on the same plate (Fig. 7, larva, and 7a, pupa, of 
Antliophorabia megachilis) which is parasitic on Megachile, 
the Leaf-cutter bee, illustrates the transformations of the 
Ichneumon-flies, the smallest species of which yet known 
(and we believe the smallest insect known at all) is the 
Pteratomu8 JPutnamiy or "winged-atom," which is only one- 
ninetieth of an inch in length, and is parasitic on Antho- 
phorabia, itself a parasite. A species of mite (Plate 5, figs. 
9, 9a, the same seen from beneath) is always to be found in 
humble-bees' nests, but it is not thought to be specially ob- 
noxious to the bees themselves, though several species of 
mites (Gaimisus, etc.) are known to be parasitic on insects. 

For a proper study of our bees and wasps, we should col- 
lect their nests from the last of May until late in the autumn. 
We should watch for the different broods and collect the 
larva, pupa, and adult of both sexes, as well as the workers. 
The cells containing the young, with whatever parasites may 
be found on them, may be placed in alcohol, while the ma^ 
ture bees may be pinned. The simplest method of collect- 
ing the nests of humble-bees is to visit them before sunrise 
or after sunset, when ' the bees are in the nest, and we can 
secure the whole colony. The bees can be picked up with 



American Naturalist. 




Fi^. 3. Fig. i. Fig. s. 






Pig. IJ. -^ /"V^ 

PACKAKD (IN T»E PARASITES OF THE HONEY-BEE. ' > '*" 



Vol. II. PI. 6. 




I'ACKAItU ON THE I'AKASITKS OF THK UONEY-BBE. 



REVIEWS. 205 

forceps as they emerge from the nest, or caught with the net 
and then pinned. Refractory colonies may be easily quelled 
by pouring in ether or chloroform, or burning sulphur at 
the aperture, as is the best method of procediure with wasp's 
nests. 

The solitary species, besides boring in the earth like An- 
drena and Halictus, whose habits have been described in the 
first volume of the Naturalist, also bore in the stems of 
different plants, such as the elder, syringa, raspberry, and 
blackberry. Nearly fifty species of insects, mostly hymen- 
optera, are known in France to burrow in the stems of the 
blackberry alone ! Now is the time to look for their burrows 
in the dead branches. Their presence is usually detected 
by an old hole at the end of a broken branch. The writer 
would be greatly obliged for material to aid him in the study 
of our bees and wasps, and would take pleasure in corre- 
sponding with those interested in the study of their habits, 
and would be very grateful for specimens of the young in 
alcohol, their parasites and nests. 



REVIEWS. 

Volcanic Rocks.* — The author of this Interesting memoir classlfles 
volcanic rocks in five orders. The first order consists of Rhyolite with 
three families, Nevadite or granitic-rhyolite, Liparite or porphyritic-rhy- 
olite, and Rhyolite proper or Lithodic and Hyaline-rhyolite. The second 
Is Trachyte with two families, Samidin-trachyte and Oligoclase-trachyte. 
The third is Propylite with three families, Quartzose-propylite, Hom- 
blendic-propylite, and Augitic-propylite. The fourth Is Andesite with 
two families, Hornblendic-andesite, and Augitic-andesite. The fifth order 
is Basalt with three families, Dolerite, Basalt, and Leucitophyte. 

The author confines himself in this classification to volcanic rocks of 
Tertiary and Post-tertiary age, which he subdivides into "massive erup- 
tions" and *' volcanic eruptions." The origin of massive eruptions is 

* Principles of the Natural System of Volcanic Rocks. By F. Baron Rlelitofen, Dr. Pliil. 
Memoirs presented to tbe California Academy of Science, Vol. I, Part 3. May €, 1S67. pp.4, 94. 



206 REVIEWS. 

attributed to a time when the crust of the earth was thinner than at 
present, and opened in wide cracks, letting out vast masses of rock in a 
state of aqueous fusion. These are supposed to have choked up the 
cracks, and in the gradual consolidation which followed, only local lakes 
of matter were left in a state of f\ision, which find their outlets in the 
existing volcanoes. 

Both in massive and volcanic eruptions the Propylitic rocks are the 
first or earliest ejected, then in successive, though not invariable, 
sequence, the Andesltic, Trachytic, Rhyolitic, and Basaltic lavas. Active 
volcanoes arc divided into two classes, those which still continue to eject 
the same material as exists at their bases in the ancient ** massive erup- 
tions," from which the author supposes they take their rise, and those 
grander rents which have undergone periodical changes in the nature of 
the ejected rocks. 

Lasscn*s Peak in Northern California belongs to the latter class. The 
base is Andersitic tufU and ashes, in stratified layers nearly four thousand 
feet thick, and upon this currents of Andesitic lava, then trachytic lava 
streams succeed in elongated, sloping tables; rhyolite composes the 
present summit to the depth of fifteen hundred feet ; and, lastly, locally 
separated, are inferior rents to the north which have thrown out basalt of 
apparently very recent origin. 

Thus the periodical changes, taking place in such larger active vol- 
canoes, correspond in the order of their succession with those exhibited 
by the older and more massive eruptions. 

Active volcanoes may, therefore, be classified as belonging to the pro- 
pylitic, andesitic, trachytic, rhyolitic, or basaltic epochs, or as arising in 
one of these and passing through several successive stages of develop- 
ment. 

Thus Lassen*s Peak has reproduced, during Its successive changes, the 
structural features of existing Andesitic, trachytic, rhyolitic, and basaltic 
volcanoes, and also the order of succession which is observed in the mas- 
sive eruptions of former periods. The author, however, candidly admits, 
that, In some instances, the order of succession is partially reversed, as 
in the island of St. Paul in the Indian Ocean, where the rhyolitic rocks 
are overlaid by basalt, and this again by rhyolitic and basaltic rocks In 
succession. 

Following upon this Is an highly interesting discussion of the chemical 
composition, correlations of age and texture, correlations of age and 
composition, the geographical distribution, and the origin of volcanic 
rocks. 

The extrusion of the lava is accounted for by the expansion which was 
consequent upon the changes of the denser rocks around the lower part 
of the cracks or orifices, ftom a solid or highly viscous state, to one of 
aqueous ftislon. 

Granite and Syenite are regarded as the product of very ancient mas- 
sive eruptions, and as of wholly volcanic origin. 



REVIEWS. 207 

Thongh these views are so entirely novel, and even startling, and 
opposed in respect to the origin of granite to the results obtained by the 
Canadian Survey among the vast masses of granite in Canada West, it is 
nevertheless a philosophical essay which commands our respect from its 
solidity, and the evident familiarity and experience of the author with his 
subject. Whether the principles laid down are true or not in the general 
application for them claimed, this essay has unquestionably opened a new 
path to geological investigations. 

The Volcanoes of the Hawauan Islands.* — This work is filled with 
numerous observations, many of great value, made by the author during 
his travels among these islands. The whole group Is treated one by one 
In detail. 

From Mr. Coan, and others resident among the Sandwich Islands, the 
author gathered many interesting facts with regard to the various erup- 
tions of the volcanoes of Hawaii, and the physical geography of other 
members of the group. 

The maps of the Kauai and main groups are original, and the crater of 
Kilauea, on the scale of one-half mile to the inch, is from an actual survey 
by Mr. Brigham, and of great value to future explorers. 

One fact of general interest is, that while the Hawaiian lines of vol- 
canoes run east and west, the major axis of their oval craters are invari- 
ably north and south, and, by comparison with the craters of eighteen 
other lines of volcanoes, it is found that they are generally at right angles 
with the axes of elevation of the different mountain chains to which they 
belong. 

Mr. Brigham adheres to the mechanical theory of the origin of vol- 
canoes, — *'the earth's crust contracts unequally owing to its various 
composition, structure, and form, causing certain portions to fall below 
the general level, opening rents at the boundaries, and forcing up molten 
matter to the surface. 

The Geology op lowA.f — This survey, conducted by Dr. C.A.White, 
and his assistant, Mr. O. H. St. John, has extended over the counties to 
the south-west of the Des Moines Kiver, and resulted in the discovery of 
two series of the Carboniferous rocks. The upper scries of beds lie to 
the south-west of this river, attaining a maximum thickness of one hun- 
dred and seventy-five feet. A coal-bed, twenty inches in thickness, was 
traced along the valley of the Nodaways through the counties of Adams, 
Taylor, and Page. The upper series, comprising nearly all the workable 
coal-beds in the State, is found to the north-east of the Pes Moines River. 

4 

The inclination of the strata is south-west, and therefore Dr. White 
argues that miners in the south-western counties may expect to find pro- 

* Notes on the Volcanoes of tlie Hawaiian Islands, with a History of their various Eruptions. 
By W. T. Brlgliam, A. M. Memoirs of tlic Boston Society of Natural History. Vol. I, Part 
8, pp. 133, with Ave plates. 

t First and Second Annual Report of Progress. By the State Gooloirlst and the Assistant and 
Chemist on the Geological Surrey of the State of Iowa. 8vo, 2&i pp. Des Moines, IMiS. 



208 REVIEWS. 

dactive coal-beds by shafting through the Upper Series, a result which 
will probably prove of great economical value to the people of this part 
of the State. A new feature is the publication of popular letters which 
were originally written for the newspapers by order of the legislature of 
Iowa while the survey was in progress, a plan which other States might 
do well to imitate, since it brings directly before the people of each 
county what the survey is really accomplishing for their benefit. Gypsum 
was found in such quantities near Fort Dodge that it has been used as a 
building stone. In Mills county two systems of glacial scratches were 
found diverging at an angle of thirty-one degrees, and about twenty miles 
north another system diverging from one of these ninety-three degrees. 
The first two " approximately coincide with the general courses of the 
Missouri and Platte Rivers," and the last with "the general direction of 
the drainage of the western watershed." The "Walled Lakes" of Iowa, 
a paper also published in the May number of this Magazine, is especially 
interesting as showing how nature, in some of her processes, may build 
up a structure so regular that it may be mistaken for an artificial construc- 
tion. Some space is also given to descriptions of Indian mounds, usually 
circular in form, but thus far found to be barren of implements or other 
remains, and occupying the most elevated and picturesque elevations. No 
conjecture is made in respect to their character or the purposes for which 
they were intended by their ancient builders. 

California Mosses.* — Professor Lesquereux remarks that "The flora 
of California, in all its departments, is liable to great local varieties, 
according to the peculiar atmospheric and chemical conditions to which it 
is subjected. The more the phaenogamic flora of that region is studied, 
the more the number of species is diminished." 

The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication.! — 
We have bu' space at present to quote ftom Dr. Gray's preface to the 
American Edition regarding this storehouse of facts, with which every 
naturalist, as well as agriculturist, should be acquainted. 

"It is a perfect treasury of facts relative to domesticated animals and 
some of the more important cultivated plants ; of the principles which 
govern the production, improvement, and preservation of breeds and 
races; of the laws of inheritance, upon which all organization of im- 
proved varieties depends; of the ill eflbcts of breeding in-and-in, neces- 
sary though this be to the fkill development and perpetuation of a choice 
race or breed ; and of the good eflTects of an occasional cross, by which, 
rightly managed, a breed may be invigorated or improved. These and 
various kindred subjects are discussed scientifically with rare ability, 
acuteuess, and impartiality, by one who has devoted most of his life to 

* The California Academy of Science (fbmiorly Callfbniia Academy of Natural Sofonces) 
has begun to publish <iaarto Memoirs. Vol. I, Part 1, contains a ** Catalogue of PacUlc Ooa»t 
Mosses,^ by Professor Leo Lcs(]uereux. pp. 88. 

tThcVarlatlon of Animals and Plants under Domestication. By Charles Darwin. Autlior- 
Ized edition, with a Prcftice by Proftissor Asa Gray. 2 toIs. ISmo, with Illustrations. New 
York, Orauj^ Judd 3l Co., IdGS. S6.00. 



REVIEWS. 209 

this class of inquiries, and who discusses them in a way and style equally 
interesting and instructive to the professional naturalist or physiologist, 
and to the general reader. To the intelligent agriculturist and breeder, 
these volumes will be especially valuable, and it is in the interest of such 
practical men and amateurs that they are here reprinted.'* 

Cosmos. (Weekly) Paris. — This journal, besides giving weekly re- 
ports of the proceedings of the French Academy, has a most useftil sum- 
mary of news in all departments of physical and natural science, includ- 
ing rural economy and the application of chemistry to the arts. During 
the past year it has published, in weekly parts, '* The Comparative Geol- 
ogy of Meteorites," by M. Stanislas Meunier, son of M. Victor Meunier, 
the Editor in chief. The leading article of the present number (dated 
March 21, 1868) is on the general method of the immediate analysis of 
meteoric stones, by M. Stanislas Meunier, which is succeeded by an ac- 
count of M. M. E. Fremy and Terrell's general method of the immediate 
analysis of vegetable tissues. 

M. T. Reiset writes on the ravages of the Cockchafer, or "Hanneton" 
{Melolontha vulgaris), and its larva, the beetle of which in the spring of 
1865 defoliated the oaks and other trees, while immense numbers of their 
larvse in the succeeding year, 1866, devoured to a fearf\il extent the roots 
of garden vegetables, etc., at a loss to the department of the Lower Seine 
of over five millions of dollars. This insect is three years in arriving at its 
perfect beetle state. The larvae hatched f^om eggs laid by the beetles 
which appeared in such numbers in 1865, passed a second winter, that of 
1867, at a mean depth in the soil ot-fSs of a metre, or nearly a foot and a 
half. The thermometer placed in the ground (which was covered with 
snow) at this mean depth, never rose to the zero point* as minimum. 
Thus the larvie survived, after being perfectly frozen (probably most subter- 
ranean larva; are thus ft'ozen, and thaw out in the spring at the approach 
of warm weather). In June, 1867, the grubs having become fUll-fed, made 
their way upwards to a mean distance of about thirteen inches below the 
sur()&cc, where, in less than two months, they all changed to the pupa 
state, and in October and November the perfect beetle appeared. The 
beetles, however, hybemate, remaining below the surface for a period of 
five or six months, and appearing in April and May. The immature larve, 
warned by the approaching cold, began to migrate deep down in the 
soil in October, when the temperature of the earth was ten degrees 
above zero. As soon as the snow melted they gradually rose towards the 
surface. They began to rise February 28, 1867, when the temperature of 
the earth had risen a little, being -f- 7^. 1, the mean temperature of the 
soil in January being +■ 2^. 8. 

QiJARTEiiLY Journal of Science. (London.) In the April number 
Mr. John Mayer writes on the claims of Nitro-glycerine as an industrial 
agent. It has been used as a blasting material in the operations of 
mining, quarrying, and railway cutting for about three years. He con- 

* By the Centigrade themiomctcr. 
AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. II. 27 



210 REVIEWS. 

siders it as in reality "less dangerous than gun-cotton^ gunpowder, and 
more completely under control than they are." "Weight for weight the 
new explosive is ten times more powerftil than gunpowder. The extraor- 
dinary mechanical or eruptive power which it exerts is partly owing to 
the fact that there is no solid residue attending the explosion, and that 
the enormous pressure exerted by the resulting gases is due to the 
great rapidity of the explosions." In blasting, hard tamping is of little 
use, owing to its curious property of "striking down," i. e. exerting its 
explosive force almost entirely in a downward direction. — Mr. C. F. Dan- 
vers writes an interesting article on Ransom's Patent Concrete Stone. 
This very durable building material is made by mixing "sand, chalk, or 
other mineral substance with its proper proportion of a solution of 
silicate of soda in an ordinary pug-mill, and the mixture, which very 
much resembles in substance f^esh putty rolled in sand, and is of a very 
plastic consistence, is either pressed into blocks or moulds, or can be 
rolled into slabs or such forms as may be desired, and is afterwards either 
saturated with, or immersed in, a solution of chloride of calcium, when a 
double decomposition of the two solutions employed immediately takes 
place. The silica combines with the calcium, and at once forms an insol- 
uble silicate of lime, firmly binding together all the particles of which 
the stone is composed, whilst at the same time the chlorine combines 
with the soda and forms chloride of sodium, or common salt, which is 
easily removed." — Prof. G. Zaddach gives a very thorough account of 
Amber. It is found on the shore of the Baltic, principally at Samland, 
where there are " in deep-seated deposits an inexhaustible store of this 
valuable fossil." Amber is the gum or liquid resin of a pine tree of 
Eocene Tertiary age, and occurs in rolled fragments, very seldom weigh- 
ing as much as half a pound, In the form of pins, drops, and plates, which 
were formed between the bark and the wood, or between the yearly 
rings of growth of the stem, and were washed ftrom the low boggy coast 
into the sea, in which the crabs, sea-urchins, and oysters, associated with 
it, lived, the deposits in which they are now found having been formed at 
the mouth of a stream. With the Amber-pine flourished Camphor trees, . 
Willows, Birches, Beeches, and numerous Oaks; and amongst the Coni- 
fers was a Thujaj very similar to the Thuja occidentaUs, or White Cedar, 
now living in this country, "next to which abounded Widdringtoniay 
Pines, and Firs in great variety. Many thousands of the first might 
already have perished, and, while the wood decayed, the resin, with 
which the stems and branches were stored, might have accumulated in 
large quantities in bogs and lakes in the soil of the forest. In order to 
explain, however, that this accumulation of Amber could be suddenly 
broken up, floated away, and scattered, I assume that the coast of the 
district was at that time on the point of sinking." Amber is torn up trom 
its bed by storms and thrown upon the shore, "where a hundred hands 
are waiting to intercept it with nets;" or "the inhabitants of the coast go 
In boats, and, turning the stones [between which the larger pieces are 



BEVIEW8. 211 

found] with hooks fastened on long poles, endeavor to discover the 
Amber in the interspaces, and to draw it up with small nets." This Is 
called *' striking for amber.*' Like the gum copal of Aflrlca, amber is of 
interest to the entomologist fVom the insect remains it contains, some of 
which are figured in the second plate (ft'om specimens selected by Mr. F. 
Smith, fk*om the British Museum) accompanying the article, the first plate 
being a geological map with sections of the localities of Amber. — The 
gigantic Dragon-tree of TeneriflTe is no more. Its age was estimated to 
be over COOO years old. — M. Balsamo has obtained hybrids between the 
Americnn and the Italian Cotton plants. He hopes to obtain a plant of 
the long staple form of our species (Gossypium Barbadensc) which shall 
ripen earlier in Italy than it now does. lie has also investigated the 
action of light on the germination of seeds. *'He found by using a glass 
Jar Aill of vegetable mould, that seeds exposed to the action of sunlight 
were greatly retarded in, if not entirely prevented ftrom, germination. 
Seeds to which only yellow light had access were not affected. — Frau 
Liiders believes that she has proved (what many fUngologists were pre- 
pared for), that Vibriones are produced ft*om the spores and germinal 
filaments of various moulds or fungi. Vibriones were supposed to be 
infVisoria. The learned lady believes that the blood of living animals 
contains VihrioneSy but during life they are quiescent, showing no signs 
of life until putrescence commences. Professor Hallier, the best author- 
ity on ftingi, but who does not accept Frau Liiders' results as to the 
connection of '* moulds" and ** vibriones," announces **tliat he has been 
able to isolate and identify ftom the blood of typhus fever patients a dis- 
tinct form of fUngus ; also in vaccine matter and in other cases. Dr. 
Salisbury, of New York, has also recently made known the observation 
of distinct Amgl in the fluids of persons sufi'ering ft'om other contagious 
diseases. Are we not advancing to a great fact as to the nature of such 
diseases? Fermentation and vaccination may come to mean much the 
same thing. Frau Liiders has also successf\illy shown that "yeast" may 
be grown ftom many "moulds," as first demonstrated by Hallier. — Dr.O. 
Fruas believes that there were formerly glaciers on Mount Sinai. — Dr. 
Collingw^ood has discovered on the shore of the China Sea an enormous 
blue Sea-anemone, two feet in diameter, in which little fishes take shel- 
ter. A small fish is known to inhabit the body-cavity of Ilolothurians, or 
6ea-cucumber, and also of Jelly-fishes. — Mr. Shirley Hibbard believes the 
culture of the Ailanthus Silk-worm in Great Britain to be a delusion. The 
thread is too short. An acre under culture yielded about ten shillings, 
and another year eight pounds, while the same space planted with po- 
tatoes yields twenty pounds ; and ft-osts carry off the insects. The co- 
coons "are least in value of any silk-worm's cocoon, and are in fact 
almost rubbish." — Professor Kolliker has lately made the discovery of 
true polymorphism among coral animals (Anthozoa). Besides the usual 
form of sea-pens ( Virgularia and Pennatula) is another, destitute of ten- 
tacles, besides other important anatomical differences. — The bodies of 



212 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

varloas Molluscs are fonnd to contain acids, enabling them to bore in 
rocks. Pholas is known to bore into gneiss (stratified c^ranite). Two 
boring worms, Leucodore and Sabella, which bore cavities in limestone 
rocks, also contain acid. —Mr. Flower thinks there Is bat one species of 
Sperm Whale. 



'^#S^«^«^^^^^n A^i^k^^'^^^^V^'" 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



■ 01 



BOTANY. 

The Long Mosd of the South {TillandBia uaneoides). — In a recent 
namber of the Naturalist Dr. Asa Gray Inquires whether this is really 
an Epiphyte, and gives some reasons for a suspicion it may probably be 
a parasite. Several times I have had fresh specimens, and fastened them 
on blocks, — dead blocks of course, — just as we do with Epiphytes, Or- 
chidsBa, and had tliefn grow as healthily as in their natural state. One I 
left in the Orchideea house, at Springbrook, near Philadelphia, some years 
ajjo, had then been eighteen months on the block, and I believe was 
amongst the lot sold at public sale two years afterwards. Many Tilland- 
slas, and allied genera, grow nearly as well on blocks in Orchidia houses, 
as In the earth. — Thomas Meehax. 

In the hope of throwing some light on the question raised by Professor 
Gray, in the February number of the Naturalist, I offer the following 
facts, which fall under my daily observation, attempting, however, no 
explanation. 

1. The Long Moss, or Spanish Moss (Tillandsia usneoides), grows 
abundantly and luxuriantly on the dead branches of our live-oaks, and 
other trees, but when these dead branches fall to the ground, it soon 
dies. 

2. On a tree near my house, which has been entirely dead for more 
than a j'ear, there is a thrifty growth of this moss. 

3. I often find it simply hanging by a loop to a twig, or a projecting 
point of bark, and still growing vigorously. 

4. On fallen trees, even on those recently cut down, I find it generally, 
but not always, withered and dead. — D. H. Jacques, Glen Evergreen^ 
Jacksonville^ Fla. 

Long or Black Moss (Tillandsia usneoides) only an Epiphyte.^ 
Concurrent testimony ft-om several quarters makes it clear that Tillandsia 
does not perish on cutting down the tree that supports it, and that it 
thrives as well on dead as on living trees. Our original informant must 
therefore have been mistaken. — A. Gray. 

Anomalous Flowers of the Willow. — There is a species of Willow 
(Salix) growing near here which has for two seasons borne the above 



NATURAL HISTORY MISC£LLANr. 213 

anomalous flowers, cither a double ovary or two single ones appear- 
ing above each scale. Gray, In his Manual (p. 416), mentions a "trans- 
formation of anthera into Imperfect ovaries" as common in S. rostrataj 
and occasional In other species; but this specimen has not the *^ yellow 
scales" nor the ** prominently veined" leaves oi that species, it is more 
like S. humilis ; and besides, if this is such a transformation, and the 
duality of the organs seems to Indicate that It is, it Is a complete one ; 
no intimation, excepting the duality, existing which may point to the 
stamens as their origin. The ovaries are fUll-sized and perfect, and the 
embryos well developed. I have specimens of the above, and also of 
Arethusa bulbosa, Woodwardia angustifolla, Lycopodlum Inundatum, 
Draba vcrna, and a few other scarce plants, which I should like to ex- 
change for scarce plants which I have not. I should like also to corre- 
spond with two or three young botanists for the purpose of more general 
exchange. — W. P. Bolles, Box 356, Xew London, Conn, 

Comparative Floral Calendar, Cass County, Missouri. — 

Peucedanum in bloom, Mar. 23, 1868. 

Isopyrum bltematum 

Viola pubescens 

Erythronium albidum " Mar. 29, " Apr. 2, " Mar. 28, " 

Astragalus caryocarpus 

Peach " 

Antennarla plantaginl- 

folia 
Strawberry 
Viola cuculata 
Phlox dlvaricata 
Claytonia Virglnica 



" Apr. 21, 1864. Apr. 19, 1867. Mar. 24, " 

" Apr. 21, " Apr. 19, ** Mar. 28, " 

" Mar. 29, " Apr. 2, " Mar. 28, " 

<( Arki> 97 <( Ani> Ofl it ItTav Ofi « 



Apr. 21, 


1864. 


Apr. 19, 


1867. 


Mar. 24, 


Apr. 21, 


it 


Apr. 19, 


t( 


Mar. 28, 


Mar. 29, 


n 


Apr. 2, 


t( 


Mar. 28, 


Apr. 27, 


a 


Apr. 28, 


it 


Mar. 28, 


Apr. 27, 


i( 


Apr. 20, 


<i 


Mar. 31, 


Apr. 27, 


(( 


Apr. 19, 


(( 


Apr. 1, 


May 2, 


it 


Apr. 20, 


C( 


Apr. 2, 


Apr. 14, 


Cf 


Apr. 19, 


<i 


Apr. 1, 


Apr. 29, 


it 


May 7, 


n 


Apr. 2, 


Apr. 14, 


It 


Apr. 15, 


it 


Apr. 2, 



it Ani> 97 (( Anf 1Q it A-nv 1 it 



" May 2, ** Apr. 20, " Apr. 2, " 
" Apr. 14, «* Apr. 19, " Apr. 1, " 
** Apr. 29, " May 7, " Apr. 2, " 

it AT\r 11 it Anr Ift " Apr. 2, " 

G. C. Brodiibad. 



White Wild Coll^ibines, etc.— In the April number of the NATruAL- 
IST, Mr. Millington mentions a white Columbine. I would state that I, 
also, have seen white columbines (Aquilegia Canadensis), During last 
summer I saw a very pretty white Lobelia syphilitica. I have also seen 
white flowered plants of the common iron weed ( Fer?ionia Noveboracensis). 
— G. C. Broadiiead. 

Is THE Elder a Native Plant?— In answer to inquiries as to the 
nativity of the Elder (Sambvcus Canadensis) I would say most posi- 
tively, that it is as much a native of the United States as the oak or elm. 
My father being one of the first settlers of Illinois, the elder was used for 
making spiles for tapping maple trees, and in the years 1857 and 1858, I 
explored a considerable part of Northern Kansas, which was then in its 
wild and primitive state, and the elder was always present in the valleys 
in connection with the wild plum, choke-cherries, etc. The elder is more 
plentiful In Kansas than in Illinois, and was before the white man became 
possessor of the soil. — Wm. J. McLaughlin. 



214 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

Flowkring of the ** German I\t." — In the March number of the 
Naturalist is a communication on "German Ivy," and its "flowering 
under peculiar circumstances." The description given by Professor Gray 
is certainly very interesting and remarkable. Allow me to state that if 
this plant is taken in the spring and placed in the ground without a pot, 
then transplanted to a pot in the fall and cut down close to the roots 
shortly after the appearance of new shoots, flower buds, and flowers will 
follow. I send with this specimens of this plant which has been treated 
in this way, and so successflil has it been, that efibrts to prevent the plant 
flrom blooming have been unavailing, so vigorously does itfloicer. Is there 
an explanation possible why this plant and others of difi'erent species 
should blossom so proftisely after such severe pruning? — James L. Lit- 
tle, Jr. 

A Variety of the Common Agrimony. — A variety of the common 
agrimony (^Agrimonia Eupatoria) is occasionally found in this vicinity, 
having nine leaflets instead of seven, which is the usual number. In all 
other respects it appears to be identical with the ordinary form, except 
that it is, perhaps, a little taller, and occurs in rather more swampy 
localities. — T. Martin Trippe, Orange Co,, N. Y, 



ZOOLOGY. 

How Spiders begin thfjr Webs. — Early in the spring of 1866, while 
arrangements were making for photographing a live male of the Nephila 
plumipes (the so-called "Silk Spider of South Carolina"), the spider, after 
having several times traversed the circle of wire on w^hich it was, sud- 
denly stopped, took a Arm position at the top of the frame and lifted the 
abdomen, pointing it toward a large skylight which occupied the mid- 
dle of the ceiling : a slender, shining thread was seen to shoot forth IVom 
the spinnerets which occupy the end of the abdomen \ it seemed to have 
a blunt, rounded extremity, which advanced through the air rather 
quickly for a few inches, but afterward more slowly and steadily, and 
with an upward tendency, but always in the direction of the skylight. 
When it had reached the length of Ave or six feet, I allowed it to become 
attached to my coat; the issue ceased at once, and the spider, having 
attached the end of the line, turned about and began to pull upon it. I 
now broke it oflf near the wire, and, believing that there was a current of 
air toward the skylight, I blew gently upon the spider flrom various 
directions, and found that it always pointed her abdomen in the direction 
in which I blew, and that the thread w^as emitted in the same direction. 
So that while it seemed to have the power of projecting a thread for a 
short distance, yet it always availed itself of the prevailing current of air. 

This single instance by no means proves that all spiders do or can 
employ this method of bridging over spaces, and it may be that on ordl- 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 215 

nary occasions they do, as every one has seen them, descend to the ground, 
emitting the thread as they advance, and pulling in the slack before 
attaching it to the desired point. But the former method enables them 
to cross water and to pass flrom tree to tree ; while the well-known buoy- 
ancy of the silk permits them (or at least the smaller species) to sail 
along our water, hanging at the lower end of a line whose upper end is 
invisible. 

In reference to this subject, see Kirby and Spence's Entomology, Mo- 
tions of Insects, and Manner in which they take their Food." — B. G. 
Wilder. 

The Wolverene. — The Wolverene follows the Beaver and preys upon 
them; in northern latitudes, the wolverene is almost always present 
w^here the beaver is abundant. The beaver has a beaten path on the 
bank of the stream near his lodge. There the wolverene lies in wait 
for him, and often cuts short his career. A half-breed Frenchman here 
owns a female of the bull-terrier breed, which follows the beaver to his 
lodge, and pulls him out, having sometimes a severe light, and showing 
ugly cuts about the head, from the beaver's sharp teeth. The Indians 
offer a big price (a large buffalo horse) for the dog. — D. S. S., Fort Stilly, 
Dakota Territory. 

The Mocking Bird. — I observe that while all the other song-birds 
are silent in our Southern forests and groves, the Mocking-bird is quite 
as musical as during the spring and summer. Several of them arc sing- 
ing on the topmost twigs of the oaks near my house most of the day. 
More than a dozen pairs of them built their nests within sight of the 
dwelling and out-buildings during the past spring and summer, all of 
them laying twice, and some three or more times. Few, however, suc- 
ceeded in rearing their young, many of them being destroyed by snakes, 
and more by the persistent, but generally unsuccessful, attempts of the 
ladies of the family to domesticate them. Their first nests were inva- 
riably built in low bushes or on fences, but if these were disturbed, either 
before or after the hatching of the young, the parent birds, as if taught 
by experience, always built on trees, peach-trees being preferred. They 
came boldly to the house, and even into the rooms where we were sitting, 
to feed tlie young wc had taken from them. — D. H. Jacques. 

The Dragon Fly. — Three years ago, in the middle of the summer, I 
was sitting in my tent, in camp, on the old battle-ground below New 
Orleans, when my attention was attracted by the swift flight of a large 
Dragon-fly, closely pursued by another of the same size. Twenty-five 
yards from my tent the ftigitive was overtaken, and both fell to the 
ground together, tumbling over and over. I walked immediately to the 
place, and observed that in that very short time the creature had bitten 
his victim entirely in two, in the articulation just forward of the ft-ont 
wings, and had settled complacently to eating the body, commencing at 
the part he had bitten through. The head, thorax, and legs retained 
life, struggling and kicking vigorously during several hours I had the 




216 NATUBAIi HI8TOBY MISCELLANY. 

opportunity to observe them. I will remark that the stagnant lagoons of 
Louisiana, and perhaps the abundant food, develop dragon-flies of a very 
large size. In view of the pest of musquitoes, it is a pity the great insect- 
eater is not still more abundant. — D. S. S. 

The False Scoupion. — These little scorpion-like animals are inter- 
mediate in structure between the mites and the spiders. We figure Che" 
lifer caneroides L. kindly identified by Dr. Hagcn, of the Cambridge 

Museum, who has studied our American spe- 
cies. He states that it seizes the legs of flies, 
and is thus transported about by them. 

*' The fact that an animal changes Its location 
by means of another animal is interesting, and 
it is evident that this way is taken either from 
laziness, or ftom incapacity to accomplish his 
purpose in any other way. In the Chelifer, 
whose movements are slow, this means of loco- 
motion is apparently adopted to find suitable 
food more easily. Necessarily such a state of 
things cannot be unique in natural history. I 
confess that at present I know nothing analo- 
gous to it among insects except the case of the larva of Melott the well 
known Triungulinus, which creeps upon bees on purpose to be taken into 
their nests. Something analogous exists, I think, among fishes. EcM- 
nei8 remora is often found attached to other fishes by a peculiar appara- 
tus. But the purpose in the Echeneis Is not veiy clear, for this species 
swims very quickly. The apparatus for the attachment of Cyclopterus 
lumpus is quite different; its purpose is not known." — Hagen. 

The False-scorpion is about a quarter of an inch long, {lud may be ob- 
served moving with a curious sideways gait on opening old books, and 
in dusty places generally. It is said to hunt the flea vigorously, and also 
to devour the Atropos, or little white book-louse. It has also been found 
lurking under the elytra, or wing-covers of beetles, but It does not seem 
to be truly parasitic In its habits. 

TiiE Jack-snipe. — While gunning one day on Jordan Creek, Lehigh 
county, Pennsylvania, I saw four little birds running along ahead of me, 
until they came near some clumps of grass, when they ran under the 
edges and hid themselves. I also, at the same time, saw one of the 
parent birds fly away. I caught one of the little fellows and examined 
him ; he was about two or two and a half inches in height, of a light 
bluish-gray color above, and lighter on the breast ; color of bill yellow- 
ish pink ; eyes brown ; legs greenish black. 

The female (as it turned out to be) soon came and took up a little bird 
and carried It about one hundred yards to the mill-race. I should say flew 
with her load, as it seemed to me rather a great one for the old bird. She 
soon returned, and took up a second, flying off' with it; and so the third 
and fourth. I then went to see where she had taken her family, and 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANT. 217 

found them in a nost of thin sticks and soft grasses on the ground, about 
two or three feet above the water as it made its exit fh)m the mill. The 
nest was also near the mill, close to the water-wheel, near to where the 
water shot over the wheel. I shot the female, and I afterwards saw that 
the male bird was attending them as the female had done. It was the 
female and young of Tringa macuZoto.— Walter J. Hoffman, Heading, 
Pa. 

Tub Locust Killer. — I never saw but one of these wasps, and that 
was about two years ago, and then only for a few moments. It appeared 
to be marked almost, if not precisely, like a <* hornet," and to be about 
two or two and a half inches in length, and large in proportion ; truly a 
most flformidable looking insect. The ''killer" had seized one of our 
August locusts, and was endeavoring to rise Arom the ground with it, the 
locust clinging to the grass, and fluttering and screaming all the while. 
Before I could seize them, they rose fk'om the ground and made off in a 
bee-line, at a height of about twelve or fifteen feet, the locust resisting 
with might and main. I am told they make nests in the ground, boring a 
hole to the depth of two or three feet. They must be rare, or I should 
have seen them before. — C. W. Taylor, Hulmeville, Pa. 

The wasp is, probably, the Stizus speciosus, which seizes the Cicada to 
store its nest with, which is, probably, not more than a foot in depth. 
We hope our correspondent will observe its habits more closely, and send 
us specimens so that it can be identified with certainty. — Eds. 

The Prairie Dog. — Among my observations on the prairie^ I have 
learned that the prairie dog has a very destructive enemy in the Lynx, or 
American Wild-cat. This quick and fierce animal hides in the grass in the 
outskirts of the dog-town, and pounces upon any unlucky dog that starts 
out to forage, and carries him off before he can whisk his flinny little 
tail. — D. S. S. 

The Robin at Fault. — A remarkable instance of the lack of the 
"bump of locality" in birds came under my observation some years ago. 
I had nailed a board of moderate width under the eaves of a bam to form 
a resting-place for the nests of the Cliff, or Jug-swallow. It was inclined 
at an angle so as to form a sort of trough. A robin commenced building 
her nest in it, but seeming unable to fix upon any particular spot, de- 
posited the mud and straw along the entire length of the trough, about 
ten feet. After working several days, she abandoned her task. Shortly 
afterwards I saw a robin (whether the same bird or not I cannot say) 
attempting to build her nest in the same way, along the entire outer cor- 
nice of a house, about thirty feet. — A. P. R., Geneva^ JVl Y. 

A Variety of the Blackbird. — I suppose that almost everyone is 
well acquainted with the general appearance of the Red-winged Starling, 
or Blackbird {Agelaius Phomiceus Vieillot). Last May 1 shot, near 
Fresh Pond, in this vicinity, one of these birds having a crescent-shaped 
mark, of a bright orange-color on the breast ; this was about equal in size 

AMER. naturalist, VOL. H. 28 



218 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

and form to the half of an old-fleishioned copper cent, and the feathers 
were colored nearly to the roots. In other respects the bird was pre- 
cisely similar to the ordinary male of this species. — Wiluam Brewster, 
Cambridye, Mass. 

The Belted Kingfisher. — I observe a note concerning the nesting of 
the Belted Kingfisher in your November number, in which Mr. Fowler 
differs from Mr. Samuels. I now propose to be a connecting link between 
the two, and to say that I have alwaps found the holes of (7. alcyon *^six 
or eight feet long," as Mr. S. says, and alwaya "In the form of an elbow," 
as Mr. F. describes them -, and that I have sometimes found a bed of 
sticks, grass, etc., and sometimes not. I wish, too, to ask if any one has 
ever known them to turn to the left, as I have never seen them branch 
otherwise than to the right. — W. E. Endicott. 

• The Dwarf Thrush in Massachusetts. — A single specimen of the 
Dwarf Thrush (Turdtis nanus Aud.) was obtained in Waltham, Mass., on 
Oct. 9, 1867. It was taken by Mr. L. L. Thaxter, and its identity was 
first discovered by Mr. C. J. Maynard, of Newtonville, Mass. The bird 
was found in high, dry woodland, not in a swampy locality, such as the 
nearly -allied species frequent.* — E. A. Samuels. 



GEOLOGY. 

The Bone Caves of Brazil and their Animal Remains. By Prof. 
J. Reinhardt.— The distinguished author, well known to zoologists by 
his numerous and valuable contributions to the history of mammals 
(especially Cetacea), Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, etc., has favored one of tlie 
popular scientific journals f of his country with a detailed and very inter- 
esting account of "The Bone Caves of Brazil and their Animal Remains," 
— a subject on which Professor Relnhardt, through his repeated travels 
in that country and his familiarity with Its recent and Post-pliocene 
fauna, X must be regarded as one of the first authorities. In the hope 
that one of the many popular scientific journals of England will procure 

* Tlie fhllowing description of tliis bird corresponds essentially with that of Padflc specimens 
given by Vrofessor Balrd: — Upper mandible of bill, black; lower mandible, at tlie base and for 
half its length, yellow; at the tip, black, gradually Ikdiug Into light brown towards the middle; 
the head aboTc, and the back to the rump brownish-olive, becoming paler on the rump to the 
upper tall coverts, which ai'e rufous; tall, both above and l>eneath, with a decided purple 
tinge, not rufous, as with T. Pallasll; chin, throat, and breast, pale buff, each feather having the 
tip marked with a large triangular spot of dark brown, which spots are less decided on tlie 
breast; sides grayish brown; belly and lower tail-coverts, pure white; on opening the wing, 
the broad buff band across the whole width within appears, as with T. Pallayii, but Is a shade 
paler; iris brown; feet and tarsi paler brown; tail mure rounded than T. Pallasll. Length, 6.70; 
breadth, 10.56; wing, 3.40; tall, 2JWlnch. The stomach was filled with small Insects, principally 
beetles. 

t Journal of Popular Science, Edited by C. Fogli Mid Dr. C. F. Lnetken, Copenhagen, 1867. 

t Dr. P. W. Lund^s collections ttom the Brazilian caves iu tlie Museum of Copenhagen are 
intrusted to the care of Professor Relnhardt. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL GALEKDAB. 219 

Us readers the pleasure of becoming acquainted with his memoir in 
extensoy through a translation, we shall here restrain ourselves to giving, 
in the author's own words, the general conclusions with which he sums 
up the inost important results of his careful studies on the subject. 

1. During the Fostpliocene epoch Brazil was inhabited by a very rich 
mammalian fauna, of which the recent one might almost be said to be a 
mere fraction or a crippled remnant, as many of its genera, even families 
and suborders, have vanished, and very few been added in more recent 
times. 

2. During the whole postpliocene epoch the Brazilian mammalian fauna 
had the same peculiar character which now distinguishes the South 
American fauna, compared with that of the old world ; the extinct genera 
belonging to groups and families, that this very day are peculiarly char- 
acteristic of South America. Only two of its genera, the one extinct 
(mastodon), the other still living (the horse), belong to families that in 
our epoch are limited to the Eastern hemisphere. 

8. All the mammalian orders were not in the same degree richer in 
genera in former times than now. The Bruta (Sloths, etc.), Pecora 
(Horse, Sheep, etc.), Proboscidea (Elephants), and lastly the Ferae have 
relatively suffered the greatest losses. Some orders, for instance the 
Chiroptera (Bats) and Simise (Monkies), perhaps contain even more 
genera now than formerly. 

4. The Postpliocene mammalian fauna of South America differed much 
more from the modem one, and was especially more rich in peculiar, now 
extinct, genera, than the corresponding fauna of the old world. 

5. The scantiness of great mammalia, one might say the dwarf- like 
stamp impressed upon the South American mammalian fauna of our day, 
compared with that of the Eastern hemisphere, was much less distinct, 
or rather failed altogether in the prehistorical fauna. The Postpliocene 
Mastodons and Toxodonts of Brazil, its many gigantic Armadillos and 
Sloths, could well rival the Elephant, Rhinoceros, and Hippopotamus, 
which, during the same period, roamed over the soil of Europe. — C. F. 
LuTKBX, Copenhagen, Feb. 14, 1868. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CALENDAR. 

• In June we have found that beautiftil butterfly MilUoea Phaeton rising 
from the low cold swamps. Its larva (Fig. 1) transforms early in June 
or the last week in May, into a beautiftil chrysalis (Fig. 2). The larva hy- 
bernates through the winter, and may be found early in spring feeding on 
the leaves of the Aster, the Viburnum dentatum, and Hazel. It is black 
and deep orange-red, with long thick-set black spines. 
The Currant-borer, Trochilium tipuUformey a beautiftil, slender, agile, 



220 



ENTOMOLOGICAL GALENDAB. 



Fig. 2. 





deep*bltte moth, with transparent wings, flies the last of the month abont 
currant bashes, and its chrysalids maj be found in May in the stems. 
The ravages of the Currant-moth, Abraxas frtbewriaybe' 
gin soon after the leaves are out. Among moths, that 
of the American Tent-caterpillar flies during the last of 

Fig. 1. June and July, and its 

white cocoons can bo 
detected under bark, 
and in sheltered parts 
of fences and out- 
houses. 
Among others of the interesting fttmlly of the Silk- 
worms, Bombycids, are Llthosia, Crocota, and its allies, 
which fly in the daytime, and the difllerent species of 
Arctia, and the white arctians, Spilosoma, and Leucarctla, the parent of 
the Salt-marsh Caterpillar. 

Many Leaf-rollers, TortriceSj are rolling up leaves in various ways for 
their habitations, and to conceal them ttom too prying birds ; and hosts 
of young Tineans are now mining leaves, and excavating the interior of 
seeds and various fhiits. Grape-growers should guard against the attacks 
of a species of Tortrix which rolls the leaves of the grape, and of aTlnean, 
probably a species of Gtlechia, which, according to Mr. M. C. Reed, of Hud- 
son, Ohio, '* in midsummer deposits its eggs in the grape ; a single egg In 
a grape. Its presence Is soon indicated by a reddish color on that side 
of the yet green grape, and on opening it, the winding channel opened 
by the larva in the pulp is seen, and the minute worm, which is white, 
with a dark head, is found at the end of the channel. It continues to 
f^ed upon the pulp of the fhilt, and when it reaches the seeds, eats out 
their interior ; and if the supply flrom one grape is extinguished before 
its growth is completed, it fhstens this to an adjoining grape with a web, 
and burrows into it. It finally grows to about one half of an inch in 
length, becomes brown, almost black, the head retaining Its cinnamon color. 
When it leaves the grape it is very active, and has the power of letting 
itself down by a thread of silk. All my eflbrts to obtain the cocoons failed 
until I placed Aresh grape-leaves in the Jar containing the imported 
grapes. The larvae immediately betook themselves to these, and, cutting 
a curved line through the leaf thus ), sometimes two lines thus ( ), folded 
the edge or edges over, and In the fold assumed the chrysalis form. From 
specimens saved, I shall hope to obtain the perfect Insect this season, and 
perhaps obtain Information which will aid in checking Its Increase. Al- 
ready it is so abundant that it is necessary to examine every branch of 
ripe grapes, and clip out the Infested berries before sending them to the 
table. A rapid increase in its numbers would interfere seriously with 
the cultivation of the grape in this locality." 

The Rose-beetle, Macrodactyla subspinosa, appears in great abundance. 
The various species of Buprestis are abundant; among them are the 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIG SOCIETIES. 221 

Peach-borer, Dicerca divaricata, foand flying now about peach and cherry 
trees; Chrytobothris fulvoguttata, and C. HarrUiU abont white pines. The 
large weevil, Arrhsnodea septetUrionalis, which lives under the bark of the 
white oak, appears in June and July. The Chinch-bug begins its terrible 
ravages in the wheat-fields. The various species of Ghryaopa, or Lace- 
winged flies, appear during this month. 



■^ii'N^WN^>/V>^>A/N/\/N/>rf«^^^^S^v- 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

ACADBHT OF NATURAL SciENCBS. Philadelphia^ F^b. 6, 1868. (Concho- 
logical 8eetion.)^A. paper was read by Dr. James Lewis on the distribution 
of shells in some parts of New York. Mr. W. M. Gabb remarked on shell 
collecting in Lower California. Dr. Beadle spoke on the great abundance 
of Helix desertorum in the deserts of Sinai. 

March 5.— Dr.E. I. Nolan spoke of the irridescence of Latlnts prismati- 
CU8. This shell, when immersed in water, exhibits a beautlAil irridescent 
display of colors, purple predominating, on the entire surface. On micro- 
scopic examination he had found that the surface was everywhere cov- 
ered with an exceedingly flue network of lines, and suggested that the 
expansion of these lines in water might so decrease the spaces between 
them as to cause the rays of light falling upon the surAices to be refract- 
ed, thus producing the irridescence observed. 

Boston Society op Natural History. November 6, 1867.— Dr. B. G. 
Wilder made some remarks upon the want of perfect symmetry in the 
leaves of elms and hop-hornbeams. Professor Agassiz brought forward 
the results of an examination of the skulls of the American bison and the 
European aurochs. By means of specimens exhibited, he pointed out the 
distinctions he had noticed in the two skulls, and stated that these differ- 
ences were such as to characterize them clearly as distinct species. Pro- 
fessor Agassiz also exhibited the skull of a species of dolphin new to 
America, discovered upon the coast of Nantucket. The animal was six- 
teen feet in length. 

Nov, 27. — Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited a curious 8t>ecimen of ** walking- 
stick" found in this vicinity. One of the fore-legs had been lost in early 
life and replaced by a new one less than one quarter the length of the 
other fore-leg. Mr. Trouvelot states that this replacement of the leg can 
only take place previous to the third moult ; the leg was almost perfectly 
formed, although one of the tarsal Joints was wanting, and the foot was 
unprovided with claws or the usual foot-pad. 

Among a number of interesting specimens, Mr. F. 6. Sanborn exhibited 
a dragon-fly with a singular malformation or arrest of development in one 
wing, — the outer half being abortive, — and the cast-olT skin of a young 
grasshopper Impaled on a needle of pine. Specimens like the last were 
frequently found on leaves of pine or blades of grass, the leaf passing 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

through the head and out at the back of the insect. As the head always 
points towards the base of the leaf, Mr. Sanborn believes that when the 
insects wish to rid themselves of their exuviae, they perch themselves 
upon a blade of grass or needle of pine, and, thrusting their heads against 
a contiguous leaf, force the skin backward. He exhibited skins of the 
plant lice, which, although very minute, had been emptied of their con- 
tents by internal parasites. After the transformation of the parasite it 
had gnawed a nearly complete circle through the dry skin, thus partially 
detaching a nearly rounded lid or cover through which it could make its 
escape. 

Two of- the most curious specimens exliibited were acorn cups which 
had been used by spiders ; in one, the opening had been flatly roofed over 
with a web, leaving only a small aperture for ingress and egress ; in the 
other, the cup was closed by a finer web with no opening whatever ; when 
examined, neither spider, young, nor eggs were discovered within ; this 
was probably an instance of a curious instinct which leads barren spiders 
to expend much time and labor in preparing for an imaginary progeny. 

Dec. 4. — The Secretary read a paper by Mr. A. S. Bickmore, giving 
some notes of a short tour on the island of Yesso, Japan. 

Dec, 18. — Dr. Pickering referred to Mr. Bickmore's paper on the Ainos, 
read at the last meeting. He said he ha4 been struck by the description 
of the treatment of the dead among this people, as similar practices pre- 
vailed among the North American Indians ; this, he thought, pointed to a 
common descent. To strengthen his argument, he endeavored to show 
that the Ginseng, or panacea of the Chinese, was obtained fh)m a plant 
which only grew in the valley of the Ohio ; in this case, close communica- 
tion by the way of the Aleutian Isles must have taken place between the 
two nations. 

The Rev. Mr. Perry read a paper upon the red sandstone of Vermont, 
and its relations to other rocks. Mr. Perry claimed that the red sand- 
stone was the equivalent of the Potsdam sandstone of the New York 
geologists, and that the adjacent formations to the eastward were not 
liighly metamorphosed rocks of a more recent period, as has been con- 
stantly asserted, but were older than the red sandstone, and lay uncon- 
formably beneath it. 

. Professor Agassiz fftated that he had i*eccntly been reviewing the Silu- 
roid fishes for the sake of illustrating the definitions he had long since 
presented for the different categories of structure among animals. The 
Siluroids had always been considered a natural group ; placed, at first, in 
a single genus which was subsequently divided into two, they were next 
considered a family including several genera, and finally an order, embrac- 
ing several groups termed families. Was there then no meaning' in the 
terms genus, family, order? Professor Agassiz urged strongly that the 
application of these terms should be uniform, since a genus really remains 
a genus no matter how numerous its subdivisions. He believed that 
orders were founded upon degrees of complication of structure, and fami- 
lies upon the forms of animals. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, 223 

Professor Agasslz claimed that the group was an order of Ganoid fishes 
"Which should be placed between the sturgeons and garpil^es : they had 
one striking feature In the structure of the Jaws, not only reptilian, 
but bird-like ; this was the power of sliding the palatine-bone forward. 
The brain greatly resembled that of a sturgeon. Four families were 
mentioned belonging to the order. 

Jan. 3. — Mr. George L. Vose read a communication on the flattened 
and distorted pebbles in the conglomerate near Rangely, Maine. He 
reviewed the different theories accounting for their form, and exhibited 
drawings and tracings taken f^om the stones themselves. He endeavored 
to show that the changes had occurred when the pebbles were hard, and not 
necessarily, as urged by Dr. Hitchcock and son, when in a plastic condi- 
tion. This was best shown by a tracing of one. pebble which had been 
bent over another, and exhibited lines of flracture converging toward the 
point of resistance, with an abrupt depression of the central portion of 
the overlying pebble. 

Jan. 15. — The Secretary read a paper by Mr. A. M. Edwards, of New 
York, in which the author attempted to show that the division of the 
Diatomaceffi into fixed and free genera, was unnatural. He believed that 
all of these microscopic organisms were ft*ee during one portion of their 
lives, and adherent during another. 

Feb. 6. — Dr. T. M. Brewer read a paper on the house-sparrow of Eu- 
rope, defending itftrom the charge of dcstructiveness alluded to in a recent 
communication by Dr. Pickering. He showed that all the best English 
ornithologists were either silent on this point or satisfied that the bird 
did far more good than harm. He read an extract Arom the report of a 
commission to the Senate of France, furnishing veiy strong evidence in 
favor of the useAilness of the sparrow, and showing that at least one half, 
and sometimes almost all of Its food consisted of destructive insects. 
The report farther stated that wherever the sparrow had been unwisely 
banished, injurious insects had immediately increased to such an extent 
as to become a calamity, destroying crops. In Hungary, Bavaria, and dif- 
ferent districts of France, the sparrow had been introduced and stringent 
laws passed for its protection. One instance was cited where the brood 
of a single pair had been known to destroy over seven hundred cock- 
chafers. Dr. Brewer said that the sparrows, recently introduced into 
New York and the neighboring cities, had cleared the trees of measure- 
worms so suceessftilly, that, in 1867, the foliage was not known to have 
been entirely destroyed on a single tree. The birds are already regarded 
with great favor in New York ; commodious, thatched houses have been 
constructed for them, and, in some of the parks, they are regularly fed. 

Great expectations are formed in regard to the services they will ren- 
der in this country, nut only in keeping down the measure- worms, but in 
destroying canker-worms, caterpillars, and possibly curcuUos. 

NOTB.— We regret that we cannot report mfirc ftilljr the meetings of Sclentiflc SoclotloR. 
We cannot give the titles of ever}' paper read, or abstracts of all the remarks made, but uuly 
tliose of Uie most general Interest. 



224 GORRESPONDENCE. 

Dana Natcral History Socibty. — We had hoped before this to have 
found space to notice the good work being done by Mr. A. J. Ebell, who is 
now lecturing before various educational institutions, and also establish- 
ing numerous chapters of the Dana Natural History Society. The Raritan 
chapter, established at Matawan, N. J., held Us first regular meeting at 
Glenwood Institute, Nov. 4, 1867, when Rev. Samuel Lockwood, a contrib- 
utor to the Naturalist, delivered a lecture on the study of Natural His- 
tory. 

The Dana Natural History Society of the North-west College, Evanston, 
Illinois, have received a number of additions to their Museum begun by 
selections Arom Mr. Ebell's cabinet. A lecture was delivered on March 7, 
in the college chapel, by Mr. EbeU, the proceeds of which are to increase 
the Museum and Libraiy. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

J. W. C, Cheyenne, Dakota. — The snails sent were Helix Cooperi, a 
species peculiar to California and adjacent territory. 

C. S. M., Jamaica Plains, Mass. — The name of the shell of which yon 
send a pencil sketch is Natica heros. You will find a description of it in 
Gould's Invertebrata of Massachusetts, p. 231. The work you will find 
in any public library. 

E. H. J., Fawtucket, R. I. — Papers and descriptions of American shells 
are scattered through the proceedings of the various Scientific Societies. 
Binney*s Terrestrial Mollusca will cost $30 or $35. Gould's Invertebrata 
of Massachusetts, though published nearly thirty years ago, is the best 
work on Now England SheUs. A new edition, with all the species illus- 
trated, will be out in the course of a year. As for ft*esh-water Aquaria, 
the experience you will gain by a few patient attempts at stocking one, 
will be worth more than all the books. Be carefUl not to have too many 
animals in one tank. 

Anon.,^ Pen Yan, N. Y.— " The English Cyclopaedia," by Charles Knight. 
Natural History, in five volumes, 4to, London. Baird's ** Cyclopaedia of 
Natural Sciences." '* An Expository Lexicon of above 50,000 ancient and 
Modem Scientific Terms," by R. G. Mayne. London (Churchill), £2 lOs. 
8vo. "Dictionary of Terms used in Geology, with their Derivations," 
by D. H. McNicholl, M. D. Small 8vo. 12s. (Reeve & Co.) The two last 
give the derivations. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Journal of the Franklin InHUute, PhiUiddphia. JanaaTy— May, 1868. 
The Fidi. April IS, 19. London. 
Coamo: March28. April4, 11. Paris. 
Chemical Newt. May. New York. 
Land and Water, March 7*28. London. 

* We cannot hereafter notJee any anonsrmous oommnaloattons. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. II. -JULY, 1868. -No. 5. 
SEA-WEEDS. 

BY JOUN L. RUSSELL. 

Once, the plants which grow in the sea were considered of 
no value, and therefore were called weeds; a term applied 
to all kinds of vegetation which interferes with the regular 
crops of the agriculturist. Later and better inquiry had 
from time to time exhibited the immense value of these 
sea-plants ; but the term, in its odious signification, remains 
attached to them, as does likewise the classical name which 
botanically expresses this family, the Alg^ of Jussieu, and 
the Alga vilis of the great and familiarly read Latin poet. 

It would be impossible to state definitely the nilhibcr of 
kinds of sea-weeds to be found in the waters of the globe, 
and every year adds some quite new to science, either in dif- 
ference of form or else in specific points. 

The AlgaB belong to a vast order of plants known as flower- 
less ; but only so, because the organs which are large and 
prominent in most other plants, are in these rudimentary 
and minute, requiring the most patient research with the 
microscope to detect them. 

Yet notwithstanding the difficulty of finding the floral 
parts of these so-called flowerless plants, there are portions 
of the sea-weeds which bear, at certain seasons of the year. 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in tlie year 1868, hv the Peabody Academy OF 
SciKNCEf ill tlie Clurk*8 Office of tlie District Court of the District of Massacliusetts. 

AMER. NATUKALIST, VOL. II. 29 (225) 



226 SEA-WEEDS. 

little bodies containing definitely formed granules wliich 
answer for seeds ; and on these characters, varying in Qiich 
genus, the study and arrangement of the several species to 
a great degree depends. It is obvious, then, that colored 
plates, or even dried specimens, would be of little value in 
determining our native species, unless something more than 
a mere comparison of their external aspect was made. 

The sea-weeds have no roots, many float upon the surface 
of tlie ocean, and others, firmly aflixed to the bottom or to 
stones and shells, arc only anchored for security ; their nour- 
ishment being derived from the atmosphere, and from the 
water in which they are periodically or continually immersed. 

The narrow and threadlike, or it may be the broad and 
thickened plant, equally consists of a frond, a word derived 
from frons (Latin), meaning leaf: this frond may be simple 
or undivided, or cut into many coarser or finer portions, 
sometimes with gi'eat beauty. The color of the frond is 
usually either green, olive or black and red, varying in 
intensity, the most beautiful being the difierent shades of 
red ; those with the paler tints, or with yellow and white, 
being partially bleached and in an incipient stage of decay. 

What we notice in terrestrial vegetiition as we ascend 
from the level of the sea to the summit of mountains, in the 
belts or zones of plants, cci*tain species growing only in cer- 
tain conditions of temperature, we can find reversed in the 
sea-weeds, the finer and more beautiful kinds growing only 
in deep water, and where the temperature is uniformly low 
and cold. Collectors of sea-weeds, accordingly, avail them- 
selves of the dredge, or of low tides, or of fierce storms, by 
which latter agency the deep-water species, torn from the 
bottom, are cast upon the shore. 

If we should visit tlie rocky coasts of Massachusetts, at 
Nahant, Swampscot, Marblehead, Cohasset, etc., etc., we 
should find the shallow pools made by the receding tide 
filled with the following kinds of Algae, which, as some are 
little noticed, may be worth looking at. 



8EA-WEED8. 227 

Coating the surface of the wet rocks, like a short pile 
of green velvet, grows the Calothrix 8Copuloruin; tread 
warily upon it lest you catch an unpleasant fall from its 
sliminess ; it will reward you if looked at through the mi- 
croscope. The surface of the rocks where it shows beneath 
the water is rich with crimson, owing to the Ilildenbrandtia 
sanguineaj a species which I detected in company with a 
submarine lichen, a dark olive-green crustaceous species, 
the Veirucaria rnaura^ the fonner being unknown to Pro- 
fessor Harvey as a North American plant when he published 
his Nereis Boreali-Americana, which describes our sea- 
weeds. In similar tide-pools I found, at Marblchead near 
the fort, the singular Peysonella orbicularis; and on smooth 
pebbles under the water, circular patches of a pale-pink 
crust, which are the Melobesia. These, cut with a sharp 
knife into very thin slices across the warts which rise from 
the surface of the patches, will sHow, when magnified, the 
seeds lodged in minute cavities and the cellular structure of 
the frond. Lining the sides of these basins are the pretty 
coral sea-weeds, which fade so soon after drying, once 
thought to be, and described by Lamaroux, as animals, but 
now known as lime-bearing sea-weeds ( Corallina officinal i ft) , 
the actual frond being covered with a calcareous crust, which 
the plant has extracted and secreted from the sea. Throw a 
tuft of it into some diluted muriatic acid, the plant within 
will be revealed ! The seed-vessels arc elegantly formed, 
urn-shaped, but closed caskets, on the very tips of the 
branches. 

Here also grow the glossy green Cladomorpha, and the 
fistulous, swollen Enteromorpha^ both of many kinds ; and 
where the water is brackish, like the broad overflowed 
ditches on the salt-marsh in rear of the beach, may be 
seen in vast floating masses, smooth and slimy, or bullate 
and bladdery, of a pale yellow-green tint in the sun, and 
white and like paper when lying dr}' and dead on the grass, 
the Conferva flavescens^ which, taken up by the winds and 



228 SEA-WEEDS. 

transported far into the interior, as once in Europe, was 
collected on falling in a rain-tempest, and deposited in some 
royal museum as meteoric paper ! Rising with stiff, bristly, 
and sharp-pointed and jointed dark-green filaments, may bo 
seen, in the deeper and colder tide-pools, the Chcetonioi'pha 
melangoniuMy looking rich and inviting to the eye ; and, 
lining the bottom, may be detected the dwarfer forms of the 
Carrageen, or Chondrus crispvLS^ and its relative and neigh- 
bor the Gigartina mamtnillosa, with its channelled, forked, 
lobed frond, the segments often covered with tubercules, the 
color a rich dark purple, becoming, like the carrageen, of 
the same horny stiffness when dry. Sonje times among the 
rocks, but oftener lying upon the soft mud, are the beautiful 
shining smooth green Ulvce, or Laver, of which there are two 
or three kinds ; the seeds are to be looked for in the very 
substance of the fronds, arranged in fours ; one, the U. 
latissimay or oj'ster-green, grows upon the shells of oysters, 
and may be frequently seen on piles of living oysters in the 
market. Served with lemon-juice, it is employed as a salad, 
and esteemed by the Chinese as salubrious. Hanging on 
piles and piers in a flaccid, drooping way when the tide is 
out, but bravely flaunting its gay, rich purple banners to the 
rushing and incoming return of the sea, is the Porphyra^ or 
purple Alga, which I have seen finely luxuriant at East 
Boston ferry dock, and elsewhere. 

A most interesting order of the sea-weeds is the Siphon- 
ACE.E : green, or else coated with lime, the fronds very varia- 
ble in form, but made up of hollow, inarticulate filaments, 
belonging to our warmer seas, but represented in the little 
feaihery Bryopsiff plinuosa, found near Quincy, and given me 
by my friend, Miss Brewer, of Boston, — something worth 
looking after on the narrow leaves of the sea-wrack, or Zos- 
teni. 

The ribbon leaves of this plant, familiarly known as Eel- 
grass, is often prettily speckled with small patches of a hard 
thin scale, of an irregular outline. Any one of them care- 



SEA-WEEDS. 229 

fully detached from the leaf, and magnified five hundred 
diameters, will show a specimen of rare elegance, a sort of 
shell-like body with three or more lobes, and regularly made 
up of a great many, somewhat square cells. It is the Hapa^ 
lidium phyllactidium of Kutzing, detected by me a few years 
ago, and till then new to our flora, but discovered first by 
Professor Allman in Dublin bay, Ireland. 

On the perpendicular faces of the larger rocks, and com- 
pletely covering the rounded and erratic ones near the 
beaches, and also on the stone-walls and piles of the wharves, 
grow the several Fuci^ whose seeds are to be searched for 
late in the autumn and on the beginning of winter, lodged in 
rounded imbedded cells, and of much beauty. The Fuci have 
a wide geographical distribution, growing very far towards 
the north pole, and known quite far southwards. According 
to Professor Harvey the deficiency of species is a very 
marked feature in our coasts, two only, the vesiculoaus and 
nodosuSy or the bladder and the knotted fuci occun-ing, and 
these quite limited in range. It were somewhat rash to 
diflfer from such high authority, yet it seems to me more 
than probable that some of the other European representa- 
tives, such as serratus^ for instance, may be found ; and small 
forms which grow on the hard and compact gravel at high- 
water marR, which always remind me of caniculatus : in con- 
firmation of which a few specimens of fuci, collected and 
named by Desor in 1850, near Boston, and presented me by 
my friend. Miss H. B. Stevenson, are now lying before me, 
indicating an agreement in the same direction. Rising and 
falling in the surf as it dashes against the rocks, these species 
seem instinct with sensitive Jife, and appear to shake them- 
selves in the cool water as if refreshed after partial desicca- 
tion and lassitude, while shoals of the smaller fishes and 
crustaceans dart in and out in security among their exube- 
rant tresses. 

To this order belongs the interesting Gulf-weed {Sargas- 
siim)j one species of which floats in vast beds around the 



230 SEA-WEEDS. 

island of Nantucket, and on the yielding surface of which 
may be seen the blue-eyed Pecten, the common scallop of 
our coasts, skipping along by opening and closing its valves. 
I have never met with any kind of gulf-weed in our waters, 
but some are found on the shores of Rhode Island, of which 
a beautiful and delicate species was discovered by the late and 
distinguished Professor Bailey, and dedicated to the great 
French botanist, Montague. 

Somewhat resembling it is the Gt/stoseira^ a genus be- 
longing to the European seas, and '* scarcely represented in 
the New AVorld," the expaiisa being detected in California, 
more delicate in its character, the frond much divided, the 
branches so converted into air-vessels, or vesicles, as to look 
like strings of beads. Here also belongs the Sea-thong (//i- 
manthalia lorea), a marvellous plant, which at first grows 
like a cup, and which expansion is in reality its frond, and 
when ready to bear seed, throws out from its centre several 
branching linear straps, which extend from ten to twenty 
feet in length, although only less than an inch wide. It must 
be sought for at the very lowest tides, or by the dredge, 
and although attributed to the coast of North America by 
Agardh, has hitherto escaped the observation of our botan- 
ists. 

In such situations, and even at greater depths,*occurs the 
Desmarestia acuhata^ in long tufted bundles of a dark olive- 
green color, usually gathered and preserved in its autumnal 
and winter form, when it loses the delicate and fresh growth 
it had in warm weather ; so diflerent, that it is often con- 
sidered two distinct species. It may be known by its spine- 
like branchlets, although soft and yielding when moist. 
From these profoundcr deeps are dragged by the storms 
the huge kelps. Tangle or Devil's-apron, the Lanunana, 
looking like some oar with its stem and blade, and often 
attached to a large pebble of many pounds weight, clinging 
with its grasping fingers, or bearing in its embrace a huge 
mussel, on wliich it had grown. This really noble plant, 



SEA-WEEDS. 231 

rising upwards from the bottom of the sea to the altitude 
of twenty feet or more, typifies those gigantic sea-weeds 
of the North-western coast, which, in the instance of the 
JVereocystiSy has a stem three hundred feet loug ; or the still 
larger Macrocystis of the Southern Pacific, whose fronds, 
according to Bory St. Vincent, stretch to a length of fifteen 
hundred feet ! Grander these than any forest tree on moun- 
tain or plain, in tropical and luxuriant terrestrial vegetation ! 

Turning from these, and often lying close by among the 
heaped waifs from the stormy ocean, the inquirer may seu 
the curious Sea-colander (Agarum Tuimeri)^ with its ten- 
derer and thinner frond, pierced with numerous roundish 
holes, and growing, when undisturbed, at the depth of ten 
fathoms of water ; in this single species exhibiting on our 
coast one of the many kinds peculiar to the Northern Atlantic 
and Pacific shores. To find its seeds one must seh^ct the 
old and battered speqimens cast up in early winter, in the 
thickened portions of which they form dark-colored patches. 
Quite distinct, but of the same order, the slender Whiplash 
or Fishing-line fucus, the Chorda filutriy lays entangled 
among the rejectamenta, a simple cylindrical tubular frond, 
transversely divided into separate cavities, the seeds em- 
bedded in the whole exterior surface ; and the Honey ware, 
Murlins or Badderlocks of the shores of Scotland and Ire^- 
land, is the Alaria esculentay the midrib of which is eaten by 
the poorer classes of those countries, but here unnoticed or 
disregarded, though not uncommon on our coasts. 

Some rarer sea-weeds, comprised in the order Dictyota- 
CEJE, may be looked for in the tide-pools, though usually of 
a more southern habitat, such as the Dot-hearer (Stilophora) , 
the seeds being imbedded in little punctiform dots, which 
internally are made up of bead-like, clavate, branching fila- 
ments ; the frond cylindrical, imperfectly tubular, branched ; 
while Dicti/osiplion has a bristly frond, very much branched, 
the branches capillary, the seeds solitary, a pretty olive- 
colored "weed;" and, in allusion to these seed-dots, we are 



232 SEA-WEEDS. 

reminded of the Panctaria tenuissifna, to be sought on the 
steins of various other fuci and sea-plants, in dense tufts, the 
fronds very thin and attenuated towards the tips and base. 
Still, among the olive-colored Algae, the order CHOUDARiACEiE 
embraces many distinct sea-weeds with gelatinous or cartila- 
ginous fronds, whose seeds are concealed within the sub- 
stance of the frond, of which the Chordaria and Mesogloia^ 
with conspicuous cylindrical fronds, and Elachiata^ or the 
Least Alga, consisting of little tufts of minute brown fronds 
parasitical on the common rock-weeds, or fuci, and the 
Myriad-thread, or Mi/rionema, which hastens the death of 
the Red Algro, are worth the looking for microscopical study. 

In the tide-pools grow also the sea-weeds which compose 
the order EcxocARPACEiE ; and on our shores are Ectoca^-pus 
brachiatusy and perhaps littoralis, pretty confervoid, branch- 
ing flaccid algae with numerous pod-like bodies, readily seen 
with a lens ; the Sphacelaria cin^hosa^ a small species in lit- 
tie globose tufts, the thread-like branches slightly branched 
a^ain in a pinnate manner, the seeds in round capsules 
borne on the sides of these smaller and shorter branches, to 
be examined with the magnifying glass ; and, lastly, the (7/a- 
dostephu8 verticillatuSj with fronds six or eight inches high, 
and furnished with whorls of smaller branches closely beset- 
ting the main stems, and giving them the appearance of 
cylindrical wands of velvet surface, while the seeds are 
borne on the sides of the smaller branches like those of the 
last mentioned. 

Enough has been said, then, of the green and olive or 
blackish sea-weeds, a few words of the red or purple ones : 

First are the RnoDOMELACEiE, red or brown-red and pur- 
ple sea-weeds, with leafy, or else wth threadlike articulated 
fronds, the seeds of two kinds, the proper ones borne in 
capsules on the ends of the branchlets ; the others, called 
ielraspores^ in tubercules on the sides or other j)arts of the 
fronds. These sea-weeds are fond of a more southern ocean 
and latitude, but in this vicinity Chondrla tenuissima, the 



SEA-WEEDS. 233 

most delicate of the genus, may be sought ; and several Rho^ 
domelce^ very beautiful, blackish-red, feathery, and tufted 
sea-weeds beside, not forgetting the Polysiphonios of many 
forms and sizes, the most common, perhaps, and to me the 
most interesting, being the blackish one, which grows in 
tufts on fuci, the P.fastigiata; others, far more delicate and 
of more pleasmg colors, likewise occur with us ; and with 
them the Bostrychia rivulsari also southern in its habits as a 
genus, and the beautiful Dasya^ more at home farther south, 
is often met with in collections of Algae gathered hereabouts, 
D. Elegans being one of the comparatively sparse Algaj on 
the sandy shores of Nantucket. 

In the order Lawrenciace^ the fronds are terete or com- 
pressed, rarely flattened, the seeds contained in external 
globose conceptacles, the tetraspores immersed in various 
parts of the frond. There is much diversity in the color of 
the several species ; usually, however, a lurid purple is the 
typical one, fading on exposure to the light, and parting 
with it readily on being immersed in fresh water. The 
Laurencias, on which the order is founded, are southern, but 
Chainpia occurs at Providence, R. I., at Nantucket, and 
New York, and may be sought as a parasitical plant farther 
north. 

The SpHuEROCOCCOIde^ embrace a vast number of very 
interesting sea-weeds, mostly resident in tropical and foreign 
seas. • I know of none whose structure has interested me 
more, and if any species occur to the reader on our shores, in 
the few which may be sought here, they will afibrd rare 
gratification with the microscope, their internal structure 
varying as much as the outward forms. Some of the finest 
and most brilliant weeds are to be found, a few only are of a 
duller tint. The seeds are lodged in elegantly formed con- 
ceptacles, which are filled with beaded filaments, on the 
apices of which the seeds are situated ; the tetraspores are in 
definite groups, or else dispersed over the whole fronds. 

The Delesseki^ have rosy-red, leaf-like, branched, jag- 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. IL 30 



234 SEA-WEEDS. 

ged, delicately membranaceous, symmetrical fronds, with a 
midrib running through the middle of each. They grow in 
deep water, and several species are found in Massachusetts 
Bay. By far the most beautiful of them is D. Americana^ 
lately dedicated to Henry Grinnell, Esq., conspicuous in his 
efforts to find Sir John Franklin ; and its generic name, de- 
rived from his own, was given by Professor Harvey in his 
Nereis Boreali Americana, some distinctive structure in the 
seed-vessel being detected by that botanist. The GnnnelUa 
being so abundant in New York harbor, may be sought 
among our Dclesserias. 

The Gelidiace^e, like the last order, is also tropical or 
mostly foreign. One or two species occur with us, such as 
Gelidiiun corneiim, a most variable plant, with a forked, 
branched and pinnately divided frond, of a purplish-red, spon 
changing color, especially if immersed in fresh water, and 
finally parting with it altogether, but retaining a glossy or 
waxy lustre when completely bleached. 

A rather singular Alga, found in our waters for the first 
time perhaps, by George B. Emerson, Esq., is the Polyides 
rotundas^ a single genus of a single species, and constituting 
the order SpoNGioCARPEiE, the seeds of which are found in 
irregularly shaped warts extending along the branches, of a 
pale flesh-color, wholly composed of slender, branched fila- 
ments, like those of the bark, or cortex, of the frond ; the 
tetraspores are formed in the upper branches deeply im- 
mersed. 

Passin«[ over several other Alira) too rare on our coast for 
notice, or else already adverted to, we come to the order 
Rhodymeniace^, purplish or blood-red sea-weeds, with 
inarticulate, flat, compressed, or filiform membmnaceous 
fronds, the seeds lodged in external conceptacles. Among 
these to be sought is lihodymenia palmatay with a frond six 
to eight inches long, and four to six inches broad, wedge- 
shaped at base, cut dowuwai'ds into seveml slender ribbons, 
but sometimes quite simple ; the Euthora cristata^ with a 



SEA-WEEDS. 235 

fan-shaped frond, excessively branched, the color a beautiful 
lake ; the Plocaynium coccineuniy very beautiful and frequently 
overlooked, but occurring among the cast-up weeds of the 
sea, — a deejvwater species. 

Other elegant rosy or red sea-weeds, belonging to still 
other orders, are more or loss common in our bay, of which 
the Phyllophora meiribranifoUa^ the A/infeltia pltcata, Cysto^ 
clonhim ptirpurascens, of which there is a curious variety, 
the ends of the smaller branches being converted in spirally 
twisted tendrils, which coil rouu^l other sea-weeds ; the 
Gigartina mammillosa, already alluded to, with the Chon- 
drus crisptuij of which many singular forms may be seen in 
the same pools ; the Chylocladia, reminding us of Bailey, in a 
new species ; the Gloiosiphonia capillaris, a single species, • 
limited to the northern seas of Europe and America, of a 
brilliant carmine color and very much branched, found at 
Nahant, Hampton Beach, Chelsea, etc., and why not here- 
abouts ? the Spyridia filamentosa^ a genus better known in 
warmer seas ; the CeramiacecBj with numerous delicate rosy 
and reddish species in Ceramium rubinim and its varied 
foiTOS, in C. diaphanum^ fastigiatum and arachnoideum per- 
haps ; in Plilota plumva^ beautiful and common, and in its 
kindred Californian species P. densa^ etc. ; in the rarer P. 
serrata occurring with us; in Griffithsia^ a beautiful and 
slender Alga, of a soft gelatinous substance, closely adhering 
to paper ; in the numerous Ccdlithaminons^ minute, elegant, 
and curious, some of them parasitical, and all puzzling to 
decide, many of which the seeker can find on our sea-shores. 

So much for the sea-weeds, and for the smaller portion of 
the interest attached to them, reminding us in their fine 
names of the glories of the ocean, of its cooling breezes, its 
' fitful aspect, its crested foam and blue surface in rest and 
repose, sought for eagerly by many a weary and tired citi- 
zen, and affording perpetual instruction and pleasure to the 
naturalist, and in its floral as zoological treasures a constant 
source of study to all. 



A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 

BY EDWARD S. MORSE. 

The sea-side naturalist has certain advantages not pos- 
sessed by his inland confrere^ in the greater variety of life, 
and in the profusion of material which is daily exposed 
to him by the tides, and in the debris strewn in windrows 
along the shores by the heavy storms that sweep along the 
coast. While he may .turn inland and in an hour's walk 
reach the representatives of animals which are found through- 
out the continent, the inland naturalist must visit the sea- 
side to see the living representatives of certain classes that 
are almost, or quite exclusively, marine. 

Even a whole branch of animals, the Radiates, comprising 
such animals as the sea-anemones, jelly-fishes, star-fishes, 
and sea-urchins, has only one feeble microscopic representa- 
tive in fresh water. The class of bivalve mollusca, with its 
unique sea forms of razor-clam, mussel, scallop, and hun- 
dreds of others, is represented in our fresh-water ponds and 
streams, by the mussels and a few minute forms, though it 
may be said with truth that the mussels of the Western 
waters ape in their variety of forms, many of the marine 
species. The entire class of Cephalopods, comprising the 
squid, cuttle-fish, and nautilus, is exclusively marine. The 
extensive class of Crustacea, with the lobster, crab, and 
shrimp as common examples, arc represented in fresh water 
by the crawfish and a few smaller species. As a slight com- 
pensation, however, the inland student has oftentimes stored 
up in the rocks beneath his feet imperishable mementos of 
ancient sea-life, and he may there find gigantic ammonites, 
huge masses of coral, and thousands of other forms remotely * 

« 

similar to existing species in the ocean. 

The godsend to an inland collector of a drained canal, or 
the exposed bottom of a pond after a drought, is daily re- 
peated ou the sea-side by the recedence of the tide, leaving 

(236) 



A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 237 

hundreds of miniature aquaria in the crevices of the rocks, 
freshly stocked and daily replenished by nature, while the 
surrounding conditions, in the form of clean rocks dried by 
the sun, the absence of foliage to obstruct the light, offer the 
collector every opportunity to study the marvels of sea-life 
in their native liaunts. Thus, while the sea-side offers un- 
rivalled attractions to the tourist, it opens to the naturalist a 
field for study as vast as the sea itself. 

Let us take advantage of a day at the sesi^side, by a stroll 
along the shore between high and low-water mark, and jot 
down a few observations on the more common forms that 
are sure to meet the eye at every turn. And first of all we 
notice the rocks whitened as if by a painter's brush. All the 
exposed ledges, as far as the eye can reach, reflect the rays 
of the sun like snow-drifts. Can it be possible that this 
limy covering is made up of little sentient animals, whose 
soft bodies moisten the rocks, 21s we crush them by hundreds 
at every step ? 

We examine them, and yet no signs of life are seen ; 
closely they remain locked up in their shelly casements. 
Yet in a neighboring pool of water we see these tiny ani- 
mals with their doors thrown wide open, and a little croAvn 
of feelers flung out in constant action. And this motion 
is incessantly repeated, making a movement like the grasp 
of a human hand in space. These animals are known us 
Barnacles (Plate 6, figs. 1, 2). They not only clothe the 
rocks in summer, but form an almost impenetrable coat of 
mail around the piles of our piers, and by their rapid growth 
foul the ship's bottom at sea. 

A closer inspection of this animal with a lens reveals the 
fact, that the appendages thrown out so actively arc lined 
with little hairs ; that the mouth is situated within the shell 
at the base of these appendages, and that the clutching mo- 
tion is made to secure the minute particles of food that float 
in the water, which are swept toward the mouth and secured 
by it. One hardly wearies of watching the rhythmical and 



238 A STROLL BY THE SEA-SID£. 

graceful movements of these never-tiring appendages, and 
the curious movements of the mouth-parts, as some invisible 
tit-bit is secured by its perpetual industry. 

For a long time these animals were included in the same 
branch with the clams and snails, until it was discovered, by 
observing the young stages of the barnacles, that they were 
more closely allied to the crabs and shrimps, that is, articu- 
lated animals, and that they had no relationship with the 
shell-fish so called. It was found that the young barnacle 
(Plate 6, fig. 3) was furnished ivith jointed appendages, 
having also organs of sight, and that in this condition 
swam freely in every direction ; that finally securing a hold 
upon some body, it became cemented head downward, lost 
forever the power of locomotion and the organ of sight, se- 
creted a hard shell around it, and then for the rest of its life, 
became dependent on the sustenance brought to it by the 
inflowing tide. We can thus account for the stunted growth 
of those individuals which have unwittingly eflected a lodg- 
ment near high-water mark, for in thus securing eligible 
house-lots, they are left helpless, and imprisoned most of 
the day, with' the scorching rays of the sun to parch their 
tender bodies, in place of the cool wash of the waves. Fig. 
3a represents the young bai*nacles directly after attachment; 
fig. 2, another species of barnacle in a state of rest. 

In the same pool we notice another strange form, par- 
tially concealed by the floating tresses of sea-weed that form 
so luxuriant a growth of plant-life along the coast. This ani- 
mal, for it really is an animal, though apparently growing 
from the rock like a plant, is called the Sea-anemone, or 
Actinia (Plate 6, fig. 4). A crown of many tentacles, out- 
stretched like the petals of a flower, spring from a leathery 
cylindrical body, which is affixed by a broad base to the 
rock. Very little movement is manifested by the animal till 
we irritiite it, when the tentacles slowly unfold till they dis- 
a[)pear within the body, leaving only a warty excrescence 
in place of the beautiful expanded flower (Plate 6, fig. 5). 



A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 239 

Waiting patiently a few moments, the tentacles slowly re- 
appear. Noticing the expanded part more attentively, a 
small slit is seen in the centre of the exposed disk, and 
surrounded by the tentacles ; this is the mouth, and for a 
proof of it we have only to drop a bit of meat, so that it 
may fall within the radius of the expanded tentacles, and 
as it comes in contact with them, is immediately seized, 
not only by the tentacles against which the meat strikes, 
but by others that promptly swing in that direction. The 
tentacles are covered with minute cells, from which threads 
dart and adhere to their prey. These cells produce a dis- 
tinct nettling sensation upon the hands of some that are 
brought in contact with them, and appear to paralyze the 
living objects upon which they feed. The tentacles appear 
glued to the meat, and by this power of. adhesion rather 
than that of grasping, the food is passed from one set to 
the other until it is brought to the mouth, which yawns 
gradually, and into which it finally sinks. Another bit 
shares the same fate, even if it is dropped upon the ex- 
treme verge of the tentacular crown, and very amusing it is 
to watch their quaint manoeuvres when fed in this way. A 
small pebble, or other substance not appropriate for food, is 
instantly rejected. Thus, in this interesting experiment, 
animality and the power to discover by touch proper sub- 
stances for food are manifested. The organization of the 
animal is extremely simple ; a cylindrical body having only 
one proper opening which answers the purposes of mouth 
and vent ; this orifice leading to a sac-like stomach hanging 
within the body. Also within the body numerous verti- 
cal radiating partitions, corresponding to the tentacles that 
project from the crown, comprises the prominent parts of 
its structure. An Eno:lish waiter states that ''foreisfners boil 
many kinds of Actiniee for the table, and find them a very 
pleasant dish. The texture is something like calf's-foot 
jelly ; taste and smell resembling that of crab or lobster. 
Eaten with sauce, they are savory." 



240 A STROUi BY THE SEA-SIDE. 

To those who can never conceive a reason for the creation 
of an animal unless it is either good to eat, offers a remedial 
agent, or can quickly be converted into money, we add the 
following receipt for cooking them, from "Devonshire Ram- 
bles," by Phillip H. Gosse : "As it was an experiment, I did 
not choose to commit my pct-morscls to the servants, but 
took the saucepan in my own hand. As I had no information 
as to how long they required boiling, I had to find it out 
for myself. Some I put into cold water (sea-water), and 
allowed to boil gradually. As soon as the water boiled, I 
tried one ; it was tough and evidently undone. The next 
I took out after three minutes' boiling ; this was better ; and 
one at five minutes was better still, but not so good as the 
one which had boiled ten. I then put the remaining ones 
into boiling water, and let them boil ten minutes, and these 
were the best of all, and more tender as well as more invit- 
ing in appearance. I must confess that the first bit I essayed 
caused a sort of lumpy feeling in my throat, as if a sentinel 
guarded the way, and said, *It shan't come here.* This 
sensation, however, I felt unworthy of a philosopher, for 
there was nothing really repugnant in the taste. As soon 
as I had got one that seemed well cooked, I invited Mrs. 
G. to share the feast ; she courageously attacked the morsel, 
but I am compelled to confess it could not pass the vesti- 
bule ; the sentinel was one too many for her. My little boy, 
however, voted that * tinny was good,' and that 'he liked 
tinny,' and loudly demanded more, like another Oliver 
Twist. As for me, I proved the truth of the adage, ' Ce 
n^est que le premier pas qui coiite;^ for after the first defeat 
my sentinel was cowed. I left little in the dish." After this 
he fried them in Q^g and butter-crumbs, and "all prejudice 
yielded to their inviting odour and appearance, and the whole 
table joined the repast with evident gusto." 

Space will not allow us to mention at this time the many 
interesting features regarding its peculiar modes of develop- 
ment, though we may add that the coral insect, so called, is 



A STROLL BY THE 8EA-SIDE. * 241 

nothing like an insect whatsoever, but is included in the same 
class of animals with the sea-anemone, from which it does 
not depart in any material point of its sfructure, except that 
the coral animal deposits lime in its growth, while the sea- 
anemone does not. 

On the moist rocks and wet sea-weed we notice numerous 
little snails, some of them round, about the size of a pea, 
dark brown or dingy yellow in color. Dropping some of 
them into our dish of sea-water, we observe their movements 
plainly. A little soft-bodied animal, slug-like, with two 
feelers or tentacles thrust out ahead, having at their base a 
pair of little black eyes, and between the feelers a roundish 
trunk like an elephant's proboscis, only very short. This 
they apply closely to the surface upon which they rest. The 
mouth opens at the end of this snout. A little tongue within 
the mouth, furnished with numerous minute hooks, keeps up 
a continual lapping movement, rasping off the minute vegeta- 
tion upon which they feed. Looking through the glass jar 
in which they may be kept, we not only notice the motions 
of the tongue, but the manner in which they crawl, moving 
first one side and then the other of the disk-like foot, which 
seems to be divided by a longitudinal furrow. Notice how 
gracefully they twirl the shell in their movements. Taking 
a few in our hand, they quickly withdraw within their shells, 
and, as they disappear, a lid, called the operculum, which is 
attached to the tail, closes the aperture effectually. Nearly 
all of the marine snails, and many of the land and fresh- 
water snails likewise, are furnished with this operculum. 

The eye-stone, so-called, is nothing more than the oper- 
culum of some tropical snail ; for the opercula of our northern 
snails ai'e mostly of a horny nature, veiy few species having 
calcareous opercula. 

The species we have just described is called Littorina pal- 
liata. Their habits are such that they require a submer- 
gence in the sea-water of only a few hours each day. For 

AMEU. NATURALIST, VOL. H. 31 



242 « A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 

* 

this reason one will find them oftentimes in abundance near 
high-water mark. When kept in an aquarium, they are con- 
tinually crawling up the sides of the vessel, and out of it 
completely. Plate 6, figs. 6, 7, represent the shell and ani- 
mal. 

The common Cockle {JPurpura lapillus)^ Plate 6, figs. 8, 
9, is another very common species on our coast, and a very 
interesting collection can be made by selecting the different 
varieties of the shell. Some of the shells are quite solid, 
and either white in color, or variously banded with brown 
or yellow ; now and then a specimen is found of a rich yel- 
low; others are quite thin and delicate, with the outside 
covered with little scales, or imbrications. ' The animal is 
white, and the operculum is a rich brown or reddish. 

This species is carnivorous in its propensities, and with 
its sharp rasp-like tongue, will drill the neatest round holes 
in the shells of other species, and through the hole thus 
made devour the contents. The empty shells of the coc- 
kle's victims, or of other carnivorous species, may always 
be recognized by the little countersunk hole in the shell. 
The mussel seems to be a favorite food of the cockle. It 
has been ascertained that it requires two days for the cockle 
to drill through the shell of the mussel, and, after the animal 
dies from this rude treatment, the shell gapes open, and the 
cockle then feeds upon the soft parts within, through the 
natunil opening. The eggs are laid in little oblong yellow- 
colored capsules, which they deposit in clustei*s on the rocks 
(Plate 6, fig. 9a). Each little capsule contains from sixteen 
to thirty young, which eat their way out through the cases 
when fully developed. The cockle was supposed to be the 
species from which the celebrated Tyrian purple was ob- 
tained. At all events, there is a coloring: matter extracted 
from the living animals, which is at first yellowish, but after 
exposure to the sun's rays, will gradually change, passing 
through various shades of green and violet, then to a purple, 
and finally to a crimson. It is often used for bait in fishing 



A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 243 

for cunners, or perch, and the fingers become stained a deep 
purple after handling the crushed animals. 

In the crevices of the rocks, and in certain pools left by 
the tide, we shall find the common salt-water mussel (Plat<3 
6, fig. 10) closely compacted in great numbers. On attempt- 
ing to detach a specimen from the rocks, it is found that they 
are held in place by a strand of little silken threads, issuing 
between the valves of the shell, and adhering strongly to the 
rock. This bunch of threads is called the byssus, and a 
tropical genus, called Pinna, produces a byssus of consider- 
able size. Gloves have been woven from the fibres compos- 
ing it. The individuals covered by water display at the free 
end of the shell and between the valves (each shell of a bi- 
valve is termed a valve, hence the name bivalve, two valves), 
which are partly open, two openings formed by the mantle. 
These openings are scarcely divided ; one opening reaching 
nearly to the byssus is beautifully fringed with little arbores- 
cent fringes, the other opening is plain. If we watch the 
particles floating near these openings, it will be seen that a 
current of water is passing in at the fringed opening, while 
from the simple opening a current of water is as constantly 
issuing. These currents of water are produced by the vibi*a- 
tion of little moving hairs, or cilia, which line the mem- 
bmnes within. The gills, of which the animal has four, two 
on each side, are particularly covered by the cilia, so that if 
the shell is broken open, and a piece of the gill is separated 
from the animal, it will swim round in the water like an 
independent animal for some time. We become acquainted 
with an excellent provision in this arrangement, for in the 
first place the currents of water kept up in this way bring a 
continual supply of fresh sea-water to the gills, and in the 
second place the food of the mussel, which is mostly of an 
infusorial character, is brought to the mouth by the same 
means. The two short openings we have seen in the mussel, 
in other genera like the cljim are prolonged into two long 
tubes covered by one sheath, or form two distinct tubes as 
in certain other genera. 



244 A STROLL BY THE SHA-SIDE. 

In contemplating the many complete provisions made for 
these lower animals in procuring their food, one is led to 
admire the adaptability of ciliary motion which appears to 
take so prominent a part in the functions of the lower ani- 
mals. Among the lowest forms of life, locomotion is efiected 
entirely by ciliary motion; among others, food is brought 
within the compass of their mouth, and the gills are contin- 
ually bathed with fresh water. Generative products are 
brought together for the impregnation of the eggs. The 
new-born animal is borne safely to some place of attachment, 
or to a proper position for future growth. 

A large and ponderous mussel, called the Horse-mussel, 
may be torn out from the crevices of the rock just at low- 
water mark, and the roots of the large sea-weed, commonly 
called the "devil's apron," are often found entwined around 
specimens of this species. While sjDeaking of this gigan- 
tic sea->veed, we may say that after storms, and in fact at 
nearly all times, this Laminaria, as it is technically termed, 
may be found on the shores, and the collector must never 
fail to examine carefully every portion of it for novelties. 
On the broad crenulatcd brown frond he will find cei-tain 
species of snails browsing. On the stem, patches of calca- 
rious growth, looking like the most delicate lace, may bo 
seen ; strange as it may appear, each little cell, composing 
this lace-work, is occupied by a tiny animal, whose true re- 
lations are with the clams and oysters. In the tangled roots, 
the collector often reaps a rich harvest of paarine worms, 
brittle starfishes, minute crustaceans, and many other animals. 
The reason why* this sea-plant affords such an interesting 
field for the collector is, that it comes from beyond lo^v- 
water mark. In the sea, as on the land, there are difiereut 
zones of animal and plant-life. Thus on the land we find in 
low places certain species of plants and trees ; a little higher 
we have the hard-wood growths ; on the mountain slopes the 
pines and spruces flourish, while near the tops of our highest 
mountains lichens only can exist, and at the highest eleva- 
tions the bare rocks alone meet the eve. 



A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 245 

So ill the sea, between high and low-water mark is an 
assemblage of animals and plants peculiar to that area, and 
this is called the littoral zone ; from low-water mark to 
about fifteen fathoms another group of plants and animals 
are found, and as the Laminaria grows to profusion in this 
zone, it is called the laminarian zone. Below this we have 
the coralline zone, and deep sea-coral zone. Many animals 
range through all these zones, but there is a sufficient num- 
ber of species restricted to each, which give each zone a 
determinate character. Thus the Laminaria is an envoy from 
another zone, coming laden with the animals and plants pe- 
culiar to its zone. As we are confining ourselves to those 
forms that are abundant between high and low-water mark, 
we must reluctantly leave for another time the treasures that 
this sea-weed possesses. 

The common starfish, or five-finger jack (Plate 6, fig. 11), 
is one of the abundant forms under rocks at low-water mark. 
By throwing back the masses of sea-weed that conceal the 
rocks near the water's edge, they may be found of all sizes, 
and of every shade of brick-red, crimson, and purple. How 
fast they cling as we attempt to pluck them from the rocks, 
and by examining the underside of the fingers, or arms, we 
notice rows of suckers, that look like so many worms twist- 
ing and writhing in every direction ! Dropping one into a 
dish of sea-water, we soon see the admirable use that is 
made of these suckers, for now they act like so many little 
legs. These suckers are enabled to project some little dis- 
tiince from the animal, and by these the animal is carried 
from one place to another. How gently they glide over the 
uneven surface of the rock, each sucker in turn reaching in 
• advance and securing a hold, and, after contracting and thus 
pulling the body along, relaxing for a new start ! Perhaps 
by diligent search you may capture a starfish at his dinner, 
and a strange way he has of eating it. Mussels, beach- 
cockles, and shell-fish, form the favorite food of the starfish. 



246 A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 

Having selected one for his meal, our starfish arches his bodj 
over the shell, grasping it at the same time with, its arms, 
and then, marvellous to relate, puts its stomach out of its 
mouth and enfolds the shell with its lobes. Whether the 
stomach secretes a poisonous fluid is not known, at any rate 
the victim dies under the efiects of this warm embrace, the 
shell flies open, and the starfish devours its contents. 

In the young starfish the eyes can be plainly seen, five in 
number, one at the end of each ray or arm, shining like 
little garnets. In the older ones it is quite difficult to dis- 
tinsruish them. 

The starfish often loses one or more of its rays from 
having them bitten off by hungry fishes, or perhaps crushed 
off* by crabs when young. Nature, however, restores them 
again, for new rays bud in the place of those lost, and it is 
m)t uncommon to find specimens that have lost all but 
one ray, with the four new mys just commencing to grow. 
Others may be found with three large ones, and two small 
ones, and a variety of forms, resulting from this renovating 
power after mutilation, may be gathered among the rocks. 

Another curious starfish, called the brittle starfish (Plate 6, 
fig. 12), is found in the pools at extreme low-water mark. It 
takes its name from the fact that it is extremely brittle, the 
arms falling to pieces when roughly handled. In this spe- 
cies the arms appear quite independent of the disk, not 
merging into it as the species previously described. These 
arms, moreover, have greater freedom of motion. Though 
they have no true suckers, the arms are covered with spines, 
and, having great mobility, they twist and turn in every 
direction, and are quite active when compared to the com- 
mon '*five finger." 

We have referred to their brittle nature, but another spe- * 
cies, belonging to the same family, occurring on the English 
coast, has for its specific name "fragilissima," on account of 
its extreme fragility. Edward Forbes has given an amusing 
siccount of his endeavors to capture this species, and we pre- 



A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 247 

sent it here : "The first time I ever caught one of these 
creatures, I succeeded in getting it into the boat entire. 
Never having seen one before, and quite unconscious of its 
suicidal powers, I spread it out on a rowing-bench, the better 
to admire its form and colors. On attempting to remove it 
for preservation, to my horror and disappointment I found 
only an assemblage of rejected members. My conservative 
endeavors were all neutralized by its destructive exertions, 
and it is now badly represented in my cabinet by an armless 
disk and diskless arm. Next time I went to dredge on the 
same spot, and, determined not to be cheated out of a speci- 
men in such a way a second time, I brought with me a 
bucket of cold fresh-water, to which article starfishes have a 
great antipathy. As I expected, a Luidia came up in the 
dredge, a most gorgeous specimen. As it does not generally 
break up before it is raised above the surface of the sea, 
cautiously and anxiously I sank my bucket to a level with 
the dredge's mouth, and proceeded in the most gentle man- 
iier to introduce Luidia to the purer element. Whether the 
cold air was too much for him, or the sight of the bucket too 
terrific, I know not, but, in a moment, he proceeded to dis- 
solve his corporation, and at every mesh of the dredge his 
fragments were seen escaping. In despair I grasped at the 
largest, and brought up the extremity of an arm w4th its 
terminating eye, the spinous eyelid of which opened and 
closed with something exceedingly like a wink of derision." 

While parting carefully the floating masses of sea-weed in 
search for other novelties, our attention is attracted' by the 
unusual movements of a large shell, commonly called the 
whelk. As the customary movements of nearly all mollusks 
are slow and sluggish, we are the more surprised at these 
movements. We at once secure the shell, and are rather 
confounded to find it a bleached and sea-worn specimen, 
with no traces of its original inhabitant within. We drop it 
upon the rocks, and directly out comes a singuhir-looking 



248 A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 

crab, not quite out, for he retains a hold upon the shell and 
drags it alertly after him. We have found the Hermit-crab 
(Plate 6, fig. 13), called by some the Soldier-crab on ac- 
count of its extreme pugnacity, and receiving the first name, 
because, like a hermit, it lives alone in its shelly house. 

The species belonging to this genus are remarkable for the 
singular softness of the hinder portion of the body ; this is 
rather long, and is coiled on itself. To protect this soft part, 
that would otherwise be nipped off by some hungry fish, the 
crab resorts to some empty shell, and, inserting his tail into 
the aperture, makes it his home, and ciirries it about with 
him in all his pcrigrinations. 

The hermit-crab, lilce other members of the class Crus- 
tacea, increase in size through a process called "moulting." 
The hardened crust outside does not grow. It is only a 
hardened skin, as it were. Now as the body within increases 
in size, the outside shell must be thrown off, to allow the 
enlargement of the animal. This throwing off of the outside 
crust is called moulting^ and takes place at certain times'. 
With the crabs, lobsters, and others, the animal appears to 
fast for some time, retires to a secluded nook in the rocks, 
and there awaits the cracking open of its well-worn coat. 
This crack takes place along the back, and through this 
opening the animal draws itself. After it comes, forth its 
skin is soft and tender, and some time is required before it 
is sufficiently hardened to enable it again to successfully bat- 
tle with its enemies. 

Our hermit-crab has still another stage to go through after 
moulting, for when this process has taken place, it finds its 
coiled shell too small for it, and must go on that tiresome 
search, ciilled house-hunting. Back and forth it travels on the 
beach, surveying with critical acumen the tenantless shells 
on the beach. Here it meets one altogether too large, and 
an amusing sight it is to see it drag its soft and lielpless tail 
from the shell, to try another one on to see if it fits. Some- 
times it meets with a shell that is apparently just the thing, 



A STROLL BY THE SEA-SIDE. 249 

but unluckily it is already occupied by a brother hermit. A 
freebooter is our hermit, and so without any apologies it 
proceeds by force to eject the tenant. A fight ensues, and 
oftentimes ends in the ejectment and mutilation of one or the 
other. Perhaps the name Soldier-crab is more appropriate, 
from its belligerent character. Gosse has descril)ed one of 
these fights, from which we subjoin the following; "The 
Soldiers (as indeed becomes their profession) are well known 
to be pugnacious and impudent, yet watchful and cautious. 
Indeed, their manners and disposition, no less than their ap- 
pearance, bear the strongest resemblance to those of spiders. 
Two of them can scarcely approach each other without mani- 
festations of hostility ; each warily stretches out his long feet 
and feels the other, just as spiders do, and strives to find an 
opportunity of seizing his opponent in some tender part 
with his own strong claws. Generally they are satisfied 
with the proofs afibrded of mutual prowess, and each, finding 
the other armed at all points, retires ; but not unseldom a 
regular passage of arms ensues ; the claws are rapidly thrown 
about, widely gaping and threatening, and the combatants 
roll over and over in the tussle. Sometimes, however, the 
aggressive spirit is more decided and ferocious. One in the 
aquarium of the Zoological Gardens was seen to approach 
another, who tenanted a shell somewhat larger than his own, 
and, suddenly seizing his victim's front with his powerful 
claw, drag him like lightning from his house, into which 
the aggressor as swiftly inserts his own body, leaving the 
miserable sufferer struggling in the agonies of death." 

The reader must bear in mind that we have only touched 
upon the more common forms to be met with on the coast, 
and that without the least difficulty he may find a legion of 
others, equally as interesting, and readily preserved alive in 
sea-water for a considerable time. He will do well to carry 
away with him a pailful of these animals, with a generous 
supply of sea- water in which to immerse them. The nume- 
rous sea-woims, of which we have not spoken, will repay 

AMEK. NATURALIST, VOL. II. 32 



250 A STROLL Br THE 6BA-SIDE. 

him a careful hunt. A common worm oq the coast ho will 
find in the guise of n coiled white shell, firmly cemented to a 
bit of sea-weed or other substance. Sometimes a frond of 
sea-weed will be whitened with them. They are quite small, 
and to examine them properly will require the assistance of 
a lens. The head is surrounded by numerous little appen- 
dages, which answer the purpose of gills. One of the ap- 
pendages is thickened aud rounded at the end, and serves 
as a plug to the aperture of the shell, when the animal re- 
tires. 

Fig, 14, plate 6, represents an enlarged figure of this 
worm, with the animal protruding, and the adjoining figure 
shows a bit of sea-weed, with several of the worms drawn to 
the natural size. 

The adjoining cut represents the appearance of an ani- 
mal quite abundant at low tide, commonly called the Sea- 
urcJdn. It is covered with a great 
many long sharp spines, aud in ad- 
dition to these spines, there are 
five zones of suckers passing fn>m 
the mouth, which is Iwlow, to the 
opposite pole of the body. These 
suckers perform locomotive functions, as do the suckers of 
the stiu'iish described above, and the collector will be re- 
paid in watching the movements of the animal alive. The 
sea-urchin, when dead aud bleached upon the beach, forms 
a very curious object. A flattened spherical shell, com- 
jroscd of & Xavga number of small plates, all ueally fitting 
together ; five zones of these plates perforated f()r the i>iis- 
8!ige of the suckers, and all the plates ornamented with 
minute rounded protuberances upon which the spines were 
attached, make up the empty shell of the sca-urchiu. Wo 
may briefiy add, that the collector will find in the piles of 
dried sea-wood rolled up by the waves, many curious ob- 
jects all prepared and dried by the sea aud the sun. If on 
the long bcuchca, ho will find many interesting shells, dried 



American Natnrallst. Vol. II. 11. 6. 



■: CdMUON ANIMALS OF THE SEA-SHOKE. 



■* I I 



OUR SEA-ANEMONES. 251 

crabs, empty shells of sea-urchins, and oftentimes many 
objects that are really worth preserving for cabinet speci- 
mens. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 6. 

Fig. 1. Common Barnacles, Balanus eburneua of Gould. 

Fig. 2. . " " ** ovularis '" 

Fig. 3. Free swimming young of Barnacle. 

Fig. 3 a. Young Barnacle directly after attachment. 

Fig. 4. Sea-anemone expanded, Metridium marginatum. 

Fig. 5. " contracted. 

Figs. 6, 7. Periwinkle, Littorina palliata. 

Figs. 8, 9. Cockle, Purpura lapillus. 

Fig. 9(z. Egg-cases of the same. 

Fig. 10. Mussel, Mytilus edulis. 

Fig. 11. Starfish, Asterias vulgaris. 

Fig. 12. Brittle Starfish, Ophiopholis bellis. 

Fig. 13. Hermit-crab, Bernhardus longicarpus. 

Fig. 14. Spirorbis nautiloides. 



OUR SEA-ANEMONES. 

BY A. E. VERRILL. 

To all frequenters' of the sea-shore during the summer 
months who take pleasure in seeking and studying the many 
wonderful and beautiful inhabitants of the ocean, the modest 
and retiring Sea-anemones cannot fail to offer many attrac- 
tions ; and there are few marine creatures that can so easily 
be reconciled to the narrow limits of an aquarium, and so 
readily become permanently establislied in their new home. 
Thus they afford us every opportunity to study their habits 
and structure, and to watch their ever-varying forms and 
beautiful colors. But to see them in their perfection one 
must visit them in their native haunts in some cool, rocky 
pool, overhung with projecting ledges and drooping sea- 
weeds, or in some deep grotto among the shattered cliffs, 
half-illumined by the sunbeams which struggle for entrance 



252 OUR SEA-ANEMONES. 

through the cool sea-weeds that hang from the rocky roof 
dripping with salt dew. In such favorite retreats the FHnged 
Sea-anemones* (Plate 6, figs. 4, 5) make their home and 
rear their numerous families, year after year, until every 
nook and crevice is fully occupied, and even the entire floor 
is completely carpeted by their soft, delicate tufts of ten- 
tacles. In such localities it is common to see specimens of 
every variety of hue, from pure whit«, pink, salmon, chest- 
nut, orange, yellow, and light-brown, to dark-umber; while 
others will be mottled or variously striped with two or more 
colors. These colors, however, are those of the outer wall 
of the body. But the upper part of the body and the innu- 
merable tentacles have lighter and more delicate tints, and 
this, combined with their translucent texture, gives to the 
summit of the body and its broad crown of fine tentacles a . 
peculiarly graceful appearance, which is much increased by 
the numerous deep frills into which the tentacle-crowned 
margin of the disk is always thrown in the large specimens. 
The tentacles are also frequently banded with white. It is 
always difficult to decide which specimen in one of these 
numerous colonies is most beautiful when all are so attrac- 
tive. But the pure white ones most frequently suffer for 
their beauty, and are borne away in triumph to new homes, 
which, perchance, prove in the end less happy and pleasant 
to them than the home of their youth. 

The Fringed Sea-anemone is not found exclusively in such 
places as described, but may be found on almost any rocky 
or ledgy shore along the coast of New England, and in fact 
from New York to Labrador, snugly ensconced in the crev- 
ices between boulders, or on their under surfaces, wherever 
there is sufficient space to expand their tentacles, and com- 
plete shade from the sun's heat. For although these lowly 

*Metridium marffinatum Edw. and H. For a more complete description, see "A 
Revision of the Polyps of the Eastern Coast of the UniUnl States," by A. E. Vcrrill, in 
Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural Histor}% Vol. I. For other descriptions and 
figures, sec " Sea-side Studies in Natural History," by E. C. and A. Agassiz, and Ten- 
ney's ZoiSlogy. 



OUR SEA-ANEMONES. 253 

organized creatures have no eyes, nor even nerves, they are 
very sensitive to strong light, and love the shade. They 
may also, at times, be found clinging to the piles of wharves, 
and on small stones and shells, wholly unprotected. Near 
Mount Desert Island, I once saw, during a very low tide, 
a large surface of rocky bottom so completely covered by 
them, that the foot could not be put down without crushing 
many noble specimens. A single stone, the size of a man's 
head, taken from this place, was found to be the residence 
of sixty individuals, of all sizes. They sometimes occur at a 
greater depth than twenty-five fathoms, but are frequently 
found between high and low-water mark, both in pools and 
in places where they are left dry for an hour or more, where 
they hang relaxed and flabby until the tide returfis, when 
they quickly revive. To remove large specimens of this 
species from their favorite rock, without serious injury, is 
no easy matter ; for although they are not permanently at- 
tached, but are capable of moving freely about by gliding 
along upon their large, highly muscular, adhesive base, yet 
when disturbed they cling so closely and firmly to the rock, 
that they aris very liable to be torn open upon the base, 
rather than loosen their hold. But if the rock be tolerably 
smooth, by gradually and carefully starting them up by 
pushing with the thumb-nail or scmie dull instrument against 
and under the base, they may finally be safely removed. If 
broken open they will never recover or heal, though they 
will- usually expand and appear very well for several days. 

In the confinement of an aquarium, or even in a jar or 
bowl of sea-water, one of these Actinias will soon make 
itself at home, and, fixing itself upon one side of the vessel 
by its base, will expand its feathery plume of tentacles day 
after day in search of tiny prey, and woe to the unlucky 
creature, be it animalcule, shell-fish, shrimp, or fish, that 
comes in contact with its crown of gorgon-tentacles, armed 
w'ith myriads of poison-darts, deadly to all creatures des- 
tined to be its prey 1 When fully expanded, this species has 



254 OUB SEA-ANEMONES. 

a very graceful form, which cannot fail to please any one 
who has a t^iste for the symmetry and beauty of natural 
objects. From the slightly expanded base the body arises 
in the form of a tall, smooth column, sometimes cylindrical, 
sometimes tapering slightly to the middle, and then enlarg- 
ing to the summit. Towards the top the column is sur- 
rounded by a circular, thickened fold, above which the 
character of the surface suddenly changes, the skin becoming 
thinner and translucent, so that the internal radiating par- 
titions are visible through it. This part expands upward 
toward the margin, which is folded into several deep undu- 
lations or frills, and these edges are covered everywhere by 
an immense number of fine, slender, crowded tentacles, 
which also occupy about half the width of the oral disk, but 
increase in size and diminish in number toward the mouth, 
which occupies the centre of the disk. The mouth is oval, 
and its lips have numerous folds. It opens directly into the 
stomach, which is a simple sac suspended in the centre of 
the body, having a small opening in its lower end, through 
which the products of digestion are poured into the main 
cavity of the body, while the hard or undigested pails of 
the food, such as shells, bones, etc., are cast out from the 
mouth. The whole interior of the body, between the stom- 
ach and exterior, is divided up into an immense number of 
narrow chambers, by thin muscular partitions, which radiate 
from the centre toward the exterior, and are of various 
widths, some reaching from the wall to the stomach and 
serving to support it, while others extend only a little way 
inward from the outer wall ; each tentacle is hollow and is a 
direct continuation of the radiating chamber below it, so that 
there are as many chambers as tentacles, and, of course, 
twice as many radiating partitions as chambers. The di- 
gested food, mingled with sea-water, serves for blood, and 
fills all the chambers and the main cavity of the body below 
the stomach ; and, as there is no heart, this fluid is put 
in motion and circulated through every part by means of 



OUR SEA-ANEMONES. 255 

myriads of minute vibrating lashes, or ci7ia, that cover all 
parts of the interior surface, and this same surface of soft 
membrane has the power of absorbing such nutritious sub- 
stances as each organ may require, from the fluid that bathes 
it, and also the oxygen contained in the sea-water. Indeed 
it is probable that every part of the surface, both external 
and internal, has the power of absorbing oxygen ; but it is 
reasonable to conclude, that this takes place most rapidly in 
the tentacles and internal membranes where the structure is 
most delicate. 

We usually notice, when trying to remove one of these 
Actinias from its rock, a large number of white, thread-like 
organs, emerging both from the mouth and from minute 
openings through the sides of the body. These organs 
appear to be for the defence of the creature, since they are 
found to be composed almost entirely of minute poison- 
dai*ts, or lasso-cells, arranged side by side, and having a 
deadly stinging power when used against small animals. In 
fact there are very few of the predacious marine animals, 
even not excepting the voracious fishes, that have the temer- 
ity to attack one of the harmless-looking Sea-anemones ; for 
though their darts may not have sufficient power to kill a 
large fish, they will, at least, penetrate the thin membranes 
of the mouth and produce a severe stinging, like that 'of net- 
tles. And since these stinging threads may be thrown out 
copiously, and are several inches long, they are very eflect- 
ual organs of defence. The inner ends of the threads are 
attached to the free edges of the radiating partitions, and 
the free ends are thrown out simply by the contractions of 
the animal, and consequent expulsion of the fluid contained 
in its body, which, as it rushes out of the mouth and through 
the loop-holes of the sides, carries with it the threads. When 
the Actinia is again left in repose, it gradually draws in 
its stinging threads. The little poison-darts, usually called 
lasso-cells, which cover both these threads and the tentacles, 
have a wonderful structure for organs so minute. They 



256 OUR SEA-ANEMONES. 

consist of little vesicles or cells filled with fluid, and have 
a very long, extremely thin tube, coiled up in the interior. 
This tube is continuous with one end of the vesicle that con- 
tains it, so that when the vesicle is compressed or contracted 
the fluid forces out the tubular dart by turning it inside out, 
as one would turn the finger of a glove. The slender tube, 
when thrust out, is very long, slender, and pointed, and 
usually curiously and wonderfully barbed. The nature of 
the poison, so deadly to small animals, which these darts 
emit when they penetrate the flesh, is still unknown ; but 
whatever its nature, it must be very powerful, for the quan- 
tity is necessarily excessively small. The tentacles not only 
capture and kill the prey by means of these organs, but by 
means of the darts, that thus penetrate in large numbers, 
they hold it firmly until conveyed from the tentacles to 
the mouth. Among our native Sea-anemones there are no 
species that have darts powerful enough to sting the hand, 
though some species, like the Star-anemone, will often adhere 
so firmly, if its tentacles be touched by the finger, that it 
may be lifted from the water before it will loosen its hold. 
This adherence is doubtless due to the many lasso-cells that 
partially penetrate the epidermis, or outer layer of the skin, 
but have not power to enter far enough to reach the sensitive 
portiori. But the common, large, red Jelly-fish {Cyanea 
arctica) has similar poison-daits covering its long, floating, 
thread-like tentacles, which are powerful enough to penetrate 
the human skin, and sting far more painfully than nettles. 
And among the coral reefs of Florida and the West Indies, 
there are corals (Millepora) which, unlike most corals, have 
animals belonging to the same class with the Jelly-fishes, 
and their tentacles have poison-darts, which, according to 
the observations of Professor Hartt, sting the parts of the 
hands where the skiu is most delicate very severely. The 
same is true of some other Ilydroids^ which do not form 
coral, })ut grow in moss-like tufts. It is also said that some 
of the foreign Sea-anemones have the same power of stinging 



OCJB 8BA-AKEBCONES. 257 

the hands, and especially those of persons having a delicate 
skin. But certainly no such charge has ever been brought 
against any of our native species. 

The Fringed-anemone makes a very pleasing pet in con- 
finement, and, if allowed plenty of room and fresh sea-water, 
will expand almost constantly. It feeds readily upon the 
flesh of all sorts of shell-fish, etc., and will not refuse bits 
of raw beef. And if necessity compels, it will live for 
months, or even a year, without food ; but, curiously enough, 
it will continually grow smaller and smaller, so that a 
specimen, at first five or six inches high and two in diame- 
ter, may thus be reduced to the height of an inch, and the 
diameter of less than half an inch, the number of tentacles 
and chambers being proportionately reduced. In fact, under 
such circumstances, the animal seems to undergo a retrograde 
process, exactly the reverse of that by which it originally 
developed from youth to maturity. 

The ovaries of Actinias, and all similar animals, including 
the coml-polyps, are attached to the inner edges of the radia- 
ting partitions below the stomach, and are filled with im- 
mense numbers of eggs, which are discharged, when mature, 
directly into the fluid filling the body, and then are either 
discharged very soon from the mouth, or are retained for a 
longer or shoi-ter time, until they are hatched into miniature 
Actinias, which are discharged in different stages of develop- 
ment and of various sizes ; but however small they may be, 
they are perfectly competent to take care of themselves from 
the first. The Fringed-anemone, and some other kinds, 
when they remove from places where they have long been 
stationary, are liable to tear off and leave behind them little 
fragments from the edge of the base, but every one of these 
fragments will in a few days develop a little mouth and a 
row of tentacles around it, and will soon become a perfect 
little Actinia, differing only in size from its parent. The 
same effect may be obtained at will by cutting off little, por- 
tions from the edge of the base with a sharp knife. This 

A.MEU. NATUUAIJST, VOL. II. 83 



858 ODS SEA-ANEMOHES. 

process is evidentlv amUogoos to the wonderfid powers of 
testoration and derelopment of mntilBted and lost parts, so 
well known by experiments upon the fiesh-water Hydra and 
other low animals, some of whidi may be cut up in eTeiy 
direction into many pieces, and each part will still restore all 
the parts that are lacking. It has, also, some analogy to the 
process of budding, so common among the coral-polyps. 

The Siar Sea-Anemone^ is another beautiful and interesting 
qiecies, which may readily be domesticated in an aquarium, 
and proves very hardy in confinement. This species, in- 
stead of having a smooth body like the preceding, is covered 
with little wart-like pustules, arranged in vertical rows, which 
have the power of adhering firmly to foreign substances, 
such as bits of shell and sea-weed, with which it often so 
completely covers its body as to effectually conceal itself, 
when contracted into a low cone among the rocks and gravel 
where it often dwells. But when it lives, as it frequently 
does near Eastport and about the rocky shores of the neigh- 
boring islands in the Bay of Fundy, in fissures and cavities 
of ledges, overhung and protected by sea-weed, it usually 
discards its foreign covering, which now becoming no 
longer useful, is evidently regarded as a burden. When 
placed in an aquarium, even if covered with foreign matters, 
it ver>' soon discards them and appears perfectly clean. The 
uppermost pustule of each row is Uuger than the others, and 
forms an inflated vesicle just below each tentacle. The ten- 
tacles, instead of being very small and numerous, as in the 
Fringed-anemone, are comparatively few, rarely more than 
seventy-two in the largest specimens, but they are large and 
often more than an inch long. The mouth usually has the 
fi^rm of a cross, with several prominent folds upon its lips. 
Its body is usually pale, translucent, olive^green, sometimes 
approaching flesh-color, and the disk and tentacles have a 
lighter tint of th>? s:imo colors, while the tentacles are con- 



r MeOi Vcrrin. Meiaoirs ©f the B<v9t<ia SoHctr «r !(at«nl mstocT-, VoL I, 



OUR SBA-ANEMOlTBSi 259 

spicuously banded with opaque^white, and upon the disk 
there are usually six or twelve white lines, radiating from 
the month to the bases of the tentacles. Most of the tentacles 
usually have a white, heart-shaped spot upon the inner side 
of their bases. This pretty Actinia is very common at 
Eastport and vicinity, and has been found at Cape Elizabeth, 
Maine. In the latter locality the specimens were half-buried 
in sand at the bottom of a rocky pool near low-water mark. 
Doubtless it will be found upon all parts of the rocky coast 
of Maine. In confinement it expands most freely in the 
evening. It feeds, like the other species, upon all sorts of 
moUusca and Crustacea that come within its reach. It brinsrs 
forth living young, often of considerable size, which emerge 
at irregular intervals from the mouth, sometimes singly, 
sometimes in large numbers. It does not grow so large as 
the preceding, the body seldom becoming more than two 
inches high and one in diameter, but having more than twice 
that diameter across the expanded tentacles. 

The Med' 8ea-anemone* is unquestionably the most beau- 
tifully colored and showy of all our northern Actinias ; but, 
although very changeable in shape, it lacks the elegant 
forms assumed by other species. The body usually forms, 
in expansion, a low cylinder, broader than high, with a 
broad disk, surrounded by a modemte number of large, 
rather shoi-t, tapering or blunt tentacles. The exterior of 
the body is sometimes nearly smooth, but at other times 
shows a few, rather inconspicuous, wails or suckers scat- 
tered over the suiface. The colors are extremely varia- 
ble. The shore specimens are mostly irregularly mottled 
with deep brownish red, and dull greenish, while the ten- 
tacles are pinkish, banded with opaque-white. The disk is 
often light-greenish or pink, with radiating lines of purple or 

* RkodaeHnia DavUH Agnssiz. For Aill descriptions see the Memoirs Boston Society- 
above quoted, and for a flg:uro, *' Sca-sido Studies,^ p. 18, flg. 10. This species belongs 
to the " snb-genus'' Urticina of Ehrcnbcrg, and as that is an earlier name, it should bo 
called Urticina Davisii^ until it be settled whether it be really distinct ftom U. craMsi- 
eomU of Europe. 



260 OUB SEA-ANEMONES. 

deep red, which embrace the bases of the tentacles. Occa- 
sionally shore specimens are found having the body uni- 
formly bright red, crimson, or pink, with a lighter-colored 
disk and tentacles. The tentacles are usually banded with 
white in all varieties, but are sometimes uniform pink and 
translucent. Other specimens often have the body pink, 
mottled with orange-red, or blotched with crimson. The 
specimens from deep water have generally brighter and 
clearer colors than those of the shore, but are quite as com- 
monly found mottled with two or more shades of red, as of 
uniform red or pink colors. The habits of this fine Actinia 
are much like those of the last, and the young are produced 
in the same manner. It attains a much greater size, for 
specimens are not uncommon which are two inches high and 
four or five in diameter when expanded. The large speci- 
mens, however, are apt to be troublesome inmates of an 
aquarium, on account of their remarkable voracity, for 
nothing seems to come amiss to them. They will capture 
and swallow fishes of considerable size, as well as crabs, 
moUusks, etc., and even have been known to swallow the 
spiny sea-urchins of considerable size. Other Actinias, even, 
are not safe in their neighborhood. Such large specimens 
also have a singular habit of frequently protruding the 
stomach, and even turning it wrong side out, as if affected 
with nausea, which certainly adds nothing to their beauty. 
But specimens of small or medium sizes make very interest- 
ing pets, and are often more beautifully colored than the 
large ones. 

In Massachusetts Bay this species is seldom found except 
by dredging, when it usually comes up adhering to stones 
and dead shells. It inhabits all depths down to forty fath- 
oms at least. At Eastport, Grand Menan, and other islands 
at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy , where the enormous tides 
leave exposed, at low-water, a wide zone, unusual facilities 
are afforded for obtaining all sorts of rare and curious ma- 
rine productions, which, on other parts of the coast, can be 



OUR SEA-AKEMONES. 261 

obtained only by dredging in deep water. On these shores 
the two large SolasterSy or Starfishes, with ten or twelve 
rays and beautiful colors, together with several other rare 
Starfishes, the Daisy Serpent Star,* the many-armed Basket 
Fish,f several large and curious Holothurians, the elegant 
Alcyonium, the much-sought Terebratula, many curious and 
beautiful Ascidians, among which the Cynthia,^ or ^Sea 
Peach," is one of the finest, and a great variety of rare 
shells, may all be obtained at low-water, during the extreme 
tides, together with a great abundance of the three Actinias 
above described. The Red, like the Star Sea-anemone, 
lov«s best the fissures and crevices of the rocks and ledges, 
that are thickly overgrown with fuci and qther sea-weeds, 
which furnish a complete protection to the animals nestling 
among the rocks. Even among the lofty wharves of East- 
P9rt there are ledges in the crevices of which hundreds of 
these Anemones may be found. 

The While-Firmed Sea-anemone^^ unlike the three pi'e- 
ceding species, is as yet unknown except along the southern 
coasts of New England, upon the shores of Long Island 
Sound, and near New York City. This Actinia is more 
nearly related to the Fringed-anemone than to the others, and 
like that has slender tentacles, and loop-holes along the sides 
of the body, out of which threads of stinging darts issue, 
which are lacking in the two last species. But this is a 
smaller and more delicate kind, seldom growing more than 
three inches high and one in diameter, and the tentacles are 
much longer and not so numerous. The body is of the same 
texture from base to summit, and the edge of the disk is not 
thrown into undulations, or **frilled." Its colors are usually 
light-yellowish, or flesh-colored, and translucent, while the 
tentacles are usually white. It lives most commonly at- 

• OphSophoUt bettU Lyman. Plate 6, flg. 12. 
t Attrophjfton AgoBiizii Stimpson. 
X CjftUhia pjfriformit Rathke. 

f Soffttrtia leucolena Verrill. Proceedings of Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. 
X, p. 336. 1806. 



262 THE MARINE AQUARIUM. 

tached to the under side of boulders that have, a cavity 
beneath them, and is well adapted to the aquarium, where it 
very soon becomes perfectly at home, and expands almost 
constantly. Inhabiting the same region with this there is 
another more rare species of Sagartia,* which is duller in 
color and less graceful in form, which lives buried up to its 
tentacles in gravel. 

Besicles the species already described, there are several 
others that are less conspicuous, which inhabit the New Eng- 
land coast, several of which live buried in sand or mud, like 
many worms, and only protrude their tentacles at the sur- 
&ce. These kinds are usually long and slender, and taper 
at the base instead of having a flat adhesive disk. Farther 
southward on the Carolina coast there are several other 
peculiar species, some of them beautifully colored, and also 
several species of true corals, the animals of which closely 
resemble the Sea-anemones in structure and habits. One 
pretty species of coral f is even found on the southern coast 
of New England. This is found just below low-water mark, 
encrusting stones and shells, and forming little irregular 
masses of coral, covered*with star-like cells or cups, which 
are about an eighth of an inch across. The polyps, which in 
life rise above these stellate cups, are colorless and almost 
transpai*ent, resembling, in nearly all respects, miniature 
Actinias. This coral lives well in confinement, and feeds 
readily upon bits of oyster, in the same manner as the Sea> 
anemones. 



THE MARINE AQUARIUM. 

Buy at any glass-shop a cylindrical glass jar, some six 
inches in diameter and ten high, which will cost you from 
three to four shillings ; wash it clean, and fill it with clean 

* Sagartia modetta VerriU. Described with the preceding species. 
fAttrangia Dana Agassis. 



THE MARINE AQUARIUM. 2G3 

salt-water, dipped out of any pool among the rocks, only 
looking first to see that there is no dead fish or other evil 
matter in the said pool, and that no stream from the land 
runs into it. If you choose to take the trouble to dip up the 
water over a boat's side, so much the better. 

So much for your vase ; now to stock it. Go down at low 
spring-tide to the nearest ledge of rocks, and with a hammer 
and chisel chip off a few pieces of stone covered with grow- 
ing sea-weed. Avoid the common and coarser kinds (fuci) 
which cover the suiface of rocks ; for they give out under 
water a slime which, will foul your tank ; but choose the 
more delicate species which fringe the edges of every pool 
at low-water mark ; the pink coralline, the dark purple rag- 
ged dulse (^Rhodymenid) J the Carrageen moss (Chondrus)^ 
and, above all, the commonest of all, the delicate green 
Ulva, which you will see growing everywhere in wrinkled 
fan-shaped sheets, as thin as the finest silver paper. The 
smallest bits of stone are sufficient, provided the sea-weeds 
have hold of them ; for they have no real roots, but adhere 
by a small disk, deriving no nourishment from the rock, but 
only from the water. Take care, meanwhile, that there be 
as little as possible on the stone beside the weed itself. 
Especially scrape off any small sponges, and see that no 
worms have made their twining tubes of sand among the 
weed-stems ; if they have, drag them out, for they will 
surely die, and as surely spoil all by sulphuretted hydrogen, 
blackness, and evil smells. 

Put your weeds into your tank, and settle them at the 
bottom, which last some say should be covered with a layer 
of pebbles ; but let the beginner leave it as bare as possible, 
for the pebbles only tempt cross-grained annelids to crawl 
under them, die, and spoil all by decaying; whereas if the 
bottom of the vase is bare, you can see a sickly or dead 
inhabitant at once, and take him out (which you mu^t do) 
instantly. Let your weeds stand quietly in the vase a day or 
two before you put in any live animalcj ; and even then, do 



264 THE MARINE AQUARIITH. 

not put any in if the water does not appear perfectly clear ; but 
lift out the weeds, and renew the water ere you replace them. 

Now for the live-stock. In the crannies of every rock 
you will find sea-anemones (Actinioe) ; and a dozen of these 
only will be enough to convert your little vase into the most 
brilliant of living flower-gardens. There they hang upon 
the underside of the ledges, apparently mere rounded lumps 
of jelly ; one is of a dark purple, dotted with green ; another 
of a rich chocolate ; another of a delicate olive ; another 
sienna-yellow; another all but white. Take them from 
their rock; you can do it easily by slipping under them 
your finger-nail, or the edge of a pew^ter spoon. Take 
care to tear the sucking base as little as possible (thou^ 
a small rent they will darn for themselves in a few days, 
easily enough), and drop them into a basket of wet sea- 
weed ; when you get home, turn them out into a disli full 
of water and leave them for the night, and go to look at 
them to-morrow. What a change 1 The dull lumps of jelly 
have taken root and flowered during the night, and your dish 
is filled from side to side with a bouquet of chrysanthemums. 

Let your Actiniae stapid for a day or two in the dish, and 
then picking out the liveliest and handsomest, detach them 
once more from their hold, drop them into your vase, right 
them with a bit of stick, so that the sucking base is down- 
wards, and leave them to themselves thenceforth. 

Actinia Dianthus* you may find adhering to fresh oysters 
in any dredger or trawler's skifi*, a lengthened mass of olive, 
pale-rose, or snow-white jelly. The rose and the white are 
the more beautiful ; the very maiden-queens of all the beau- 
tiful tribe. If you find one, clear the shell on which it 
grows of everything else (you may leave the oyster inside 
if you will), and watch it expand under water into a furbe- 
lowed flower, furred with innumerable delicate tentacula ; f 
and, in the centre, a mouth of the most brilliant orange; 

■ - - — r -■ ■ I ~ 

* On our shores It is rarely met with. It resembles A, marginata very closely.— Eds. 
t See Go9se*8 Aquariumi Plate 6, p. 192. 



THE MABINE AQUARIUM. 265 

altogether one of the loveliest gems, in the opinion of him 
who writes, with which it has pleased God to bedeck his 
lower world. 

But you will want more than these anemones, both for 
your own amusement and the health of your tank. Micros- 
copic animals will breed, and will also die ; and you need for 
them such scavengers as our friend Sqiiinado. Turn, then, a 
few stones which lie piled on each other at extreme low-water 
mark, and five minutes' search will give you the very animal 
you want, — a little crab, of a dingy russet above, and on 
the underside like smooth porcelain. His back is quite flat, 
and so are his large angular-fringed claws, which, when he 
folds them up, lie in the same plane with his shell, and fit 
neatly into its edges. Compact little rogue that he is, made 
especially for sideling in and out of cracks and crannies, he 
carries with him such an apparatus of combs and brushes as 
Isidor or Floris never dreamed of, with which he sweeps out 
of the sea-water at every moment shoals of minute animal- 
cules, and sucks them into his tiny mouth. Mr. Gosse will 
tell you more of this marvel, in his Aquarium, p. 48. 

Next, your sea-weeds, if they thrive as they ought to do, 
will sow their minute spores in millions around them ; and 
these, as they vegetate, will form a green film on the inside 
of the glass, spoiling your prospect ; you may rub it off for 
yourself, if you will, with a rag fastened to a stick, but if 
you wish at once to save yourself trouble, and to see how 
all emergencies in Nature are provided for, you will set 
three or four live shells to do it for you, and to keep your 
subaqueous lawn close mown. 

That last word is no figure of speech. Look among the 
beds of sea- weed for a few of the bright-yellow or green sea- 
snails. For the present, they will only nibble the green 
ulvsB, but when the film of young weed begins to form, you 
will see it mown off every morning as fast as it grows, in 
little semicircular sweeps, just as if a fairy's scythe had been 
at work during the night. * 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. H. 34 



266 THE IfABUnS AQUARIUM. 

And a scythe has been at work; none other than the 
tongue of the little shell-fish ; a description of its extraoixli- 
nary mechanism (too long to quote here, but which is well 
worth reading) may be found in Gosse's Aquarium, p. 34. 

A prawn or two, and a few minute starfish, will make your 
aquarium complete ; though you may add to it endlessly, as 
one glance at the salt-water tanks of the Zoological Gardens 
and the strange and beautiful forms which they contain, will 
prove to you sufficiently. 

You have two more enemies to guard against, dust and 
heat. If the surface of the water becomes clogged with dust, 
the communication between it and the life-giving oxygen of 
the air is cut off; and then your animals are liable to die, 
for the very same reason that fish die in a pond which is 
long frozen over, unless a hole be broken in the ice to admit 
the air. You must guard against this by occasional stirring 
of the surface (it should be done once a day if possible), and 
by keeping on a cover. A piece of muslin tied over will do ; 
but a better defence is a plate of glass, raised on wire some 
half-inch above the edge, so as to admit the air. I am not 
sure that a sheet of brown paper laid over the vase is not the 
best of all, because that, by its shade, also guards against the 
next evil, which is heat. Against that you must guard by 
putting a curtain of muslin or oiled paper between the vase 
and the sun, if it be very fierce, or simply (for simple ex- 
pedients are best) by laying a handkerchief over it till the 
heat is past. But if you leave your vase in a sunny window 
long enough to let the water get tepid, all is over with 
your pets. Half an hour's boiling may frustrate the care of 
weeks. And yet, on the other hand, light you must have, 
and you can hardly have too much. Some animals certainly 
prefer shade, and hide in the darkest crannies; and for 
them, if your aquarium is large enough, you must provide 
shade, by arranging the bits of stone into piles and caverns. 
But without light, your sea-weeds will neither thrive, nor 
keep the water sweet. With plenty of light you will see, 



A FEW SEATWORMS. 267 

to quote Mr. Gosse once more (p. 259), ''thousands of tiny 
globules forming on every plant, and even all over the 
stones, where the infant vegetation is beginning to grow; 
and these globules presently rise in rapid succession to the 
surface all over the vessel, and this process goes on uninter- 
ruptedly as long as the rays of the sun are uninterrupted. 

•'Now these globules consist of pure oxygen^ given out by 
the plants under the stimulus of light ; and to this oxygen 
the animals in the tank owe their life. The difference be- 
tween the profusion of oxygen-bubbles produced on a sunny 
day, and the paucity of those seen on a dark, cloudy day, or 
in a northern aspect, is very marked." Choose, therefore, a 
south or east window, but draw down the blind, or throw a 
handkerchief over all if the heat become fierce. The water 
should always feel cold to your hand, let the temperature 
be what it may. 

Next, you must make up for evaporation hy fresh water. 
A very little will suffice, as often as in summer you find the 
water in your vase sink below its original level, and prevent 
the water from getting too salt. For the salts, remember, 
do not evaporate with the water, and. if you left the vase in 
the sun for a few weeks, it would become a mere brine-pan. 
— From Kingslejfs Glaucus^ or the Wonders of the Shore. 



A FEW SEA-WORMS. 

BY A. 6. PACKABD, JR. 

Our sea-side readers may simply shrug their shoulders in 
disgust at the prospect of becoming acquainted with crea- 
tures unfortunate enough to possess a few ''poor relations," 
who have brought, either by their uncanny looks or disa- 
greeable habits, disrepute upon the whole class of worms. 
We wish to put in a plea for the worm. Hear our evidence, 



268 A FEW SEA-WORMS. 

look at a few specimens of this much-abused race, hear the 
story of their life, their strange manner of increasing the an- 
imlate census, and judge, ye sea-side loiterers of the Worm's 
place in society. Wc are not levellers. A worms' a worm, 
a lobsters' a lobster, and *a bees' a bee ; aud they are not 
convertible terms. The earth is made more beautiful by 
bees and the myriads of insects, for without their aid, as 
pollen gatherers, in fertilizing flowers and "setting" fruit, 
the world would be a poor sojourning place for that unsatis- 
fied and uneasy animal who gives all other animals names. 
What would a fish-market be without lobsters and crabs, 
who, with their thousand allies, the shrimps, sea-fleas, and 
barnacles, are the scavengers of the sea? But with all these 
there is a void which worms can only fill. How could Old 
Neptune thrive without the Nereids, the Naides, and the 
Amphitrites to adorn his halls, deftly sweep the floors of his 
palaces, and in a thousand ways beautify and enrich his 
domain by their silent, unobtrusive ministry? 

An hour's search among the tidal-pools and rocks at low- 
water mark, will give us ample material for a few moments' 
discourse. We turn ov^r a stone half-buried in the mud, 
and in the wealth of life there sheltered, behold strange, 
crawling, leech-like worms, of livid flesh-color, or dark- 
green or blood-red, and usually long and narrow, and with 
the power of indefinitely extending their bodies when in 
search of food or actually taking it. There are various 
species of Flat-worms and Nemertcans which glide rapidly 
over the surface. They are smooth, round or flattened^ 
pointed at each extremity, and it is with diflSculty that the 
head can be distinguished from the tail, as the mouth is a 
minute slit on the under-side of the head, and the eye-specs 
(almost the simplest kind of eye known) are often absent. 
The body is not divided into joints, or rings, while it is 
capable of great extension. Charles Kingsley, in his "Glau- 
cus, or the Wonders of the Shore," has graphically described 
this property in a Nemertean. 



A FEW SEA-WOBMS. 269 

^* There lies an animal as foul and monstrous to the eye as 
'hydra, gorgon, or chimcera dire/ and yet so wpndrously 
fitted to its work, that we must needs endure for our own 
instruction to handle and to look at it. Its name I know 
not (though it lurks here under every stone) , and should be 
glad to know. It seems some very 'low' Ascarid or Plana- 
rian worm. You see it? That black, shiny, knotted lump 
among the gravel, small enough to l>e taken up in a dessert- 
spoon. Look now, as it is raised and its coils drawn out. 
Three feet — six — nine, at least ; with a capability of seem- 
ingly endless expansion : a slimy tape of living caoutchouc, 
some eighth of an inch in diameter, a dark chocolate-black, 
with paler longitudinal lines. Is it alive ? It hangs helpless 
and motionless, a mere velvet string across the hand. Ask 
the neighboring Annelids and the fry of the rock-fishes, or 
put it into a vase at home, and see. It lies motionless, 
trailing itself among the gravel ; you cannot tell where it 
begins or ends ; it may be a dead strip of sea-weed, Himan^ 
tfiolia lorea perhaps, or Chorda filum; or even a tarred 
string. So thinks the little fish who plays over and over 
it, till ho touches at last what is tQO surely a head. In an 
instant a bell-shaped sucker mouth has fastened to his side. 
In another instimt, from one lip, a concave double proboscis, 
just like a tapir*s (another instance of the repetition of 
forms), has clasped him like a finger; and now begins the 
struggle : but in vain. He is being 'played' with such a 
fishing-line as the skill of a Wilson or a Stoddart never could 
invent ; a living line, with elasticity beyond that of the most 
delicate fly-rod, which follows every lunge, shortening and 
lengthening, slipping and twining round every piece of 
gravel and stem of sea-weed, with a tiring drag such as no 
Highland wrist or step could ever bring to bear on salmon 
or on trout. The victim is tired now ; and slowly, and yet 
dexterously, his blind assailant is feeling and shifting along 
his side, till he reaches one end of him ; and then the black 
lips expand, and slowly and surely the curved finger begins 



870 A FEW SEA-VORHS. 

packing' him end-foremost down into the guUet, where he 
sinks, inch by inch, till the swelling which marks his place 
is lost among the coils, and he is probahly macerated to a 
pulp long before ho has reached the opposite extremity of 
his cave of doom. Once safe down, the black murderer 
slowly contracts again into a knotted heap, nnd lies, like a 
boa with a stag inside him, motionless and blest." 
- But we will leave these lesser lights among creeping 
things and introduce to the reader a singular and beautiful 
Figi. creature (Fig. 1), which wo first dis- 

covered just below low-water mark on 
the coast of Maiue, but which has been 
found by some members of the Essex 
Institute on the piles of Beverly 
bridge, a rich hunting-ground for ma- 
rine zoologists. It is about an inch 
and a half long, rather stout in its pro- 
portions, and of a delicate pale-green 
mottled with a livid tint, and with ir- 
regularly scattered blackish dots and 
patches. When at rest, one might be 
readily excused if on a casual glance he should mistake the 
tail for the head, but when it glides slowly forwards, it pro- 
trudes a soft, somewhat irregularly conical head, which is 
capable of great extension, as at one moment it looks like 
nothing at all, and in less than another like a veritable head. 
Its eyes are little dark specs arranged in two A shaped lines. 
A little behind the eyes are given off a great profusion of 
long hair-like feelers, which curl around, and, when at rest, 
almost completely envelope its whole body. When it moves, 
the long pale feelers, centred with a line of delicate red, dn^ 
aloug after it, and perhaps aid the worm in its very slow 
gliding motion. 

Another worm, quite interesting in its habits, is ^c Heema- 
torrhsea, or Blood-drop. We found it in company with the 
preceding worm just below low-water mark. 



A FEW BEA-W0KH8. 2T1 

While looking over the results of an hour's search among 
tile Laminaria or Devil's Aprons, we noticed among the 
roots what was appiireiitly a drop of blood. Placing it in a 
saucer, it soon moved and slowly stretched out a lew feelers 
of unequal length, fiistened the bulging ends in front of it, 
and thus anchored by the sucker-like swollen ends of the 
tentacles, drew itself along, slowly travelling Pig.j. 

around its prison. Our figure (2) represents 
it twice its natural size. The he;id and tenta- 
cles are of a paler red than the rest of the 
body, along each side of which is a row of 
short bristles, which aid it in moving in and 
out of its little rudely constructed tube of 
particles of sand, for we soon found, that, like the Terebella, 
it buried itself iu the sand, leaving only the feelers exposed. 

Many worms dwell in tubes, where their soft bodies are 
protected from prowling crabs and flesh-eating snails. Such 
are the Serpulas, which secrete a limestone shell fitting to 
the body, and usually curved like a ram's horn, while the 
tube of the Sabella, a beautiful worm, is leathery, or some- 
times horny. An example of the latter is the case of a 
Spiochtetoptcrns (if the reader will excuse the length of the 
name, no fault of the worm however), fragments of which 
we have dredged at a great depth, over fifty fathoms, in a 
deep fiord on the coast of Labrador, and which has been 
found on the coast of Norway by Professor M. Sars, over a 
foot in length and not a tenth of an inch iu diameter. The 
Ampkitrite cirrala (Fig. 3) is a curious tube-dweller. We 
have dredged it abundantly in the harbor of Eastiwrt, Maine, 
that spot favored by fogs, cold storms, and icy sea-currents, 
where the temperature of the land and sea so nearly agree 
that low spring-tides reveal a wealth of life which in less- 
favored spots are hid far below low-water mark, and can be 
reached only by that uncertain means, the dredge. 

Our figure, copied from Malmgren's (a Swedish naturalist) 
recent work on the wunus of the Polar sea, relieves us from 



27S 



A FEW BEA-WOHHB. , 



giving a long descriptioQ of this interesting worm. On being 
removed from its long flexible tube of mud, its thick body is 
seen to consist of seventy-fire to eighty-five rings, with a 
ng.i profusion of 

long tentacles, 
and a mass of 
short branchiffi, 
or gills, behind 
tiie head; be- 
hind which is 
a short row of 
flattened tuber- 
cles, from each 
of which spring 
a fine bristle, 
that aids the 
animal in mov- 
ing in and out 
of its case. 
There is also 
another row of 
flattened tuber- 
cles along the 
whole length 
of the body. 
These tubercles 
pi-obably ena- 
ble the animal 
to keep firmly within its tube, and when contracted allow it 
to move partially out of it. 

We observed several tentacles which had been acciden- 
tally torn off', wriggling about the saucer as if actually living. 
Lewes (Sea-side Studies, p. 59) found that they retained 
the power of motion for six days. But should many of these 
feelers be cut off' our Terebella, or Amphitrite, would soon 
be able to reproduce them, and not only this, but it has the 



A FEW SEA- WORMS. 279 

power, according to Lewes, of throwing oflf another indi- 
vidual like itself, by a process analogous to the budding of 
leaves on a plant. But let us hear Mr. Lewes himself speak : 
*'No one, I believe, has yet recorded the fact of the Tere- 
bella multiplying itself by the process of gemmation, which 
is known to occur in the case of some other Annelids, — such 
as the Nais^ the SylliSy and the Myriana.* When the ani- 
mal reproduces by this budding process, it begins to form a 
second head near the extremity of its body. After this head 
other segments ai-e in tiirn developed, the tail, or final seg- 
ment, being the identical tail of the mother, but pushed 
forward by the young segments, and now belonging to the 
child, and only vicariously to the mother. In this state we 
have two worms and one tail. It is as if a head were sud- 
denly to be developed out of your lumbar vertebrae, yet still 
remain attached to the column, and thus produce a double* 
headed monster, more fantastic than fable. Or suppose you 
were to cut a caterpillar in half, fashion a head for the tail 
half, and then fasten this head to the cut end of the other 
half, — this would give you an imago of the Syllis budding. 
But in some worms the process does not stop here. What 
the mother did, the child does, and you may see at last 
six worms forming one continuous line, with only one tail 
for the six. The tail indeed is the family inberitance ; but 
reversing the laws of primogeniture, it always descends to 
the youngest. Such, in a few words, is the budding of 
annelids. I omit differences, and many curious details, only 
desirinsr to fix the reader's attention on the cardinal fact. 
The separation finally takes place, and then we perceive the 
children and grandchildren are not quite the same as their 
ancestor. The fact has not been observed at all hitherto 
in the group of annelids named Tubtcola; yet two of my 
TerebeUoR gave me a sight of it. The first died before the 
separation took place. The second, after a day or two^ 

*For an amsonnt of this mode of reproduction In worms, see Clark's " Mind in Na- 
ture," published by D. Appleton A Co., New York. 
AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. H. 35 



^74 A FEW SEA-WOBM8. 

captirity, separated itself from its appendix of a baby, and 
seemed nil the livelier for the loss of a juTenile which had 
been literally in that condition of 'hanging to its mother's 
tail,' which I have heard applied in metaphorical sarcasm to 
small boys anxious to be with their mothei-s. The young 
one only lived four days." 

Another tube-dweller is the Pectinaria (Fig. 4, Fectinaria 
hyperborea of Malmgren, and its slightly curved conical 
ng.4. tube), which is found 

I on our coast in deep 
water, and its empty 
tube sometimes at low 
water. So far as we 
I are aware it does not 
I protrude far out of its 
! tube, but only exhibits 
a few short tentacles 
and a pair of the most 
brilliant comb-like set 
of golden bristles, from 
twelve to fourteen in 
each set. It is from 
one to two inches long, 
and its slightly curved 
tube is made up of lit- 
tle particles of sand so 
arranged as to present 
a smooth, almost shining, surface both within aud without. 
We have dredged this species most abundantly in deep, 
quiet, muddy bays, where it feeds on fish-offal thrown from 
the fishing vessels. It grows of a smaller size southward, 
and is scarcely as common on our shores as in the arctic 
seas. 

But the most brilliant and gorgeous sea-worms are the 
Nereids. Dig down a few inches into the mud between tide^ 
mark and you will speedily turn up the Nereis denttculata of 



REVIEWS. ' 275 

Stimpson, a common worm on our shores. In this worm 
the head is larger- and more distinctly separated from the 
rest of the body than in the others we have mentioned, and 
it is provided with two pairs of eyes and six or eight pairs of 
tentacles, while along each side of the body is a row of oar- 
like feet, expanding above into broad, oar-like, swimming 
organs, and furnished beneath with several bristles and fleshy 
fliaments like feelers. The whole worm is radiant with all 
the colore of the rainbow reflected from its pearly body. 

Some of these Nereids are of enormous size. We have 
found in the Bay of Fundy portions of the Nereis gi^ndis of 
Stimpson, which is seventeen inches in length, and an allied 
form (^Eunice gigantea Cuvier) grows in the Indian Ocean 
to a length of over four feet. These are the princes among 
worms, ranking above the smaller forms by their superior 
size and organization, and their rich imperial dress. 



REVIEWS^ 



Good Books for thi^ Sea-side. — We cannot better close onr sea-side 
number of the Naturalist than by ennmerating a few books on the com- 
mon objects of the sea-side. We regret that more has not been done for 
the amateur sea-side naturalist by American writers. The shells of the 
shores of New England have been described by the late Dr. Gould in his 
Invertebrates of Massachusetts, originally published by the State, of 
which there is a new edition in preparation, to be illustrated with an 
abundance of first-class wood engravings, and several Hthographic plates. 
It is to be hoped that the Legislature will see fit to order a large edition 
to be printed, as we learn the work is not to be stereotyped, and is not to 
be placed on sale, public libraries only being supplied. Otherwise, the 
book will not fall into the hands of naturalists, the fliture generations of 
which will be numbered by thousands, where they can now be counted by 
the hundred. The publication of Harris's Injurious Insects, which was 
stereotyped and is now rapidly selling, several editions having been 
struck off, was of incalculable advantage to the State fh>m an educa- 
tlbnal point of view, and the stereotyping of the new edition of Gould's 
Invertebrates is a public necessity. If each legislator is to have a copy 



276* KBVIEWS. 

tree gratis, pray why may not naturalists have the right topay $6, or 
whatever the price may be, for a copy ? 

Our only truly popular book is "A First Lesson in Natural History, by 
Actiea," prepared under the direction of Professor Agassiz, and illus- 
trated with numerous wood-cuts. Within a compass of eighty-two pages 
are pleasant talks about Sea-anemonies and Corals, Coral Reefb, Hydroids 
and Jelly-flshes, Starfishes and Sea-urchins. A more solid book and taH 
of scientific novelties is Mrs. E. R. and Mr. A. Agassiz* Sea-side Studies, 
a beautifully printed and illustrated work on Hydroids and Jelly-flshes, — 
an indispensable hand-book to those beautiflil forms. These two works 
form a fitting introduction to the four volumes of Professor Agassiz' great 
work on the Natural History of the United States, the third and fourth 
volumes of which are on the radiated animals of our coast, mostly com- 
prising the Polyps and Jelly-fishes. 

Many of these and other marine animals are described in Professor 
Clark's **Mind in Nature," a work which every student of nature should 
read. It contains many illustrations drawn by the facile pencil of the 
author. Professor Tenney's ''Zoology for Schools" contains many admi- 
rable wood-cuts of our common fishes and marine animals, and this work 
must go into the library of the sea-side tourist. The student of marine 
zoology cannot do without Dr. Stimpson's Marine Invertebrates of Grand 
Menan (an island lying at the mouth of the Bay of Fundy), which was 
published by the Smithsonian Institution, whose Contributions to Science 
also contain Harvey's great work on the Sea-weeds of North America, 
abundantly illustrated with colored plates representing our marine flora. 
Numerous other papers on sea-animals are scattered through the Pro- 
ceedings and Memoirs of oUr scientific societies, especially those of 
Charleston, Philadelphia, New York, New Haven, Boston, Salem, and Port- 
land. The Illustrated Catalogues and Bulletins of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zodlogy at Cambridge, are also invaluable to those who wish to 
study these animals more thoroughly. 

In lieu of popular American books there are several English works to 
be recommended. The animals they describe resemble ours in habits, 
and though difl'ering specifically from those of our coast, these books will 
fill an important vacancy in our sea-side literature. "First and fore- 
most, certainly," writes Charles Kingsley, come Mr. Gosse's books : 

"There Is a pUyAiI and genial spirit In them, a brilliant power of word-painting, combined 
with deep and earneat religions feeling, which makes them as morally valuable as Uiey are In- 
tellectaally Interesting. Since White's »HUtory of Selborne,' few or no writers on Natural 
History, save Mr. Gosse and poor Mr. E. Forbes, have had the power of bringing out the human 
side of science, and giving to seemingly dry disquisitions and animals of the lowest type, by 
little touches of pathos and humor, that living and personal interest, to bestow which Is gene- 
rally Uie special fenctlon of the poet: not that Watcrton and Jesse are not excellent In this 
respect, and authors who should be In every boy's library: but they are rather anccdotlsts than 
systematic or scientific Inquirers; white Mr. Gosse, In his » Naturalist on the Shores of Devon,' 
his 'Tour In Jamaica,* and his * Canadian Naturalist,' has done tor tlwsc three places what 
Wlilte did tor Selbome, with all the Improved appUances of«a science which has widened and 
deepened tentold since WIiUe*s time. 

"Miss Anne Pratt's * Things of the Sea-coast' is excellent; and stUI better is Professor Hai^ 



NATURAL HI8TORT HISCELLAKT. 

i«T*> '8n«l>l* Book,' i^ which II >■ bnpoalblc lo ipok too blftitr ; i 
■ee ■ mu of f«iiLus uid Icai 
Into * (brm equnnr luiied lo i 



■d knowlsdfe, to put It 



boil 






qauclIT of r 


toWKr^tfuur.i 


JmpK 


', wjlbout ■ !■ 


III 


hnnmaUonl: 


imirl 


lOfl 


iptrttcli 




Two llttia ■ Pop 






orl«, on. 


Df. 

pu 


lea, Ibr Uh wi 


i^' 


of [ 


hOH loi 




nulbliuttobe 


fkuitr 


ud 





ih ZoophytH. [lie ol 



erofBrltlihSek-irc 



e beglnni 






■■or Joboitou'i Infkluible Btltlib Zoophfte*." 

To theae we may tuld "QuBtrefAges'Sourenieraof ftNatnraltst," a fM- 
ctDfttlng work by a flrst-clus observer, on the snlmalH of the caoat of 
FmnM and of the shores of the Mediterranean, republished In London. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



ZOOLOGY. 

IKSECTS uvnto m thb Sea.— Insects are essentially earth- Inhabiting. 
A small proportion of all the Insects live Id fresh water, and less ttian a 
hnndred are known to Inhabit the sea. Only three species are known to 
Inhabit the sea in this connti?. A jrear ago In Angnst, while dredginfc In 
Salem harbor, we detected the larve of a species of Qy llTlog on the Boat- 
ing eel'groas, and apparently living on the vegetable matter collected on 
Fia.». 




It. The twentieth of Sep- 
tember they transformed , 
to pupee (Fig. 1 ; la, fore- ' 
foot of the larva), and on 
the ninth of October ap- 
peared the fly (Fig. 2, male, and beneath, head of the female with simple 
antennte), the male of 'which has beHatifOlly pectinated antennae, and 
belongs to the genus Chironomut. We have since found the niU'grown 



278 



VATUBAL mSTORT HI8CELLAKT. 



tarvA living In aband&nce at low-nater mark among the green sea-weeds 
late In April. They most have hatched from eggs laid In the autumn. 

Another Insect (Fig. 3) we have found lat« in April at low-water mark, 
iB Casco Bay, Maine, and, Illce the Chlrononms^ living In the green sea- 



Fig. i. 




weed. It Is, prob- 
ably, the larva of 
I some Rove-beetle 
{Staphj/linua),And 
as suggested to o 
by Dr. Stlmpsoi: 
is, perhaps, th 
larva of Micra 
Ij/mna, a beetle I 
known in Europe 
to Inhabit the sea. 
In this connec- 
tion we flgure the brine-lohnbit- 
ing Ephydra (Fig. 4, side-view 
of the fly; 4a, wingi 45, side- 
view of the puparlum or pupa- 
case), which, according to Mr. E. 
T. Cox, Trom whom we have received specimens, Hvch In the very strong 
brine of the "Gradaatlon House," at tlie Equality Salt-works, Gallatin 
County, Illinois. Dr. T. d'Oremlenlx has sent us a puparlum Imrdly dls- 
tlngntshabie from the Illinois one, which he collected under the sea-weed 
on the shores of Narragansett Bay; so that we rig.s. 

have here another sea- inhabiting Insect. 

We figure (s) the pupa of ErittalU, or Rat-tailed 
fly, which is found with the Ephydra, at the Equal- 
ity Salt-works. Mr. Horace Mann has found im- 
mense numbers of a similar insect In the briny waters of Mono lake. 
Callfomla, and it Is not improbable that some of these curious flies will 
be fouDd to Inhabit our shores between tide-marks. — A. S. P. 

DlRECTIOSS FOR COLLECTINO THE LOWER FoRMS OF MARIXE ANIMAU. 

— The collector must be acquainted with the fhct that the sea has dis- 
tinct zones of animal and plant-Ufb. Thus, between high and low-water- 
mark certain species occur. From low-water mark to fifteen fathoms, 
another set Is found peculiar to that zone. Beyond these depths other 
zones occur. In collecting between high and low-water mark, the col- 
lector must visit the different kinds of shores. Thus on a rocky and 
exposed shore, particular attention must be paid to the pools left by the 
tide ; those nearest low-water mark will always be found the richest. 
Having selected a proper pool for examination, let him lie down flat 
upon the rocks, flrst taking a survey of the pool berorc disturbing It. 
Having observed or collected wliat tVee swimming animals he chooses, he 
may then 11(1 careltilly (In order not to rile the water), one by one, the 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 2 'if 9 

loose ftaJR^ents of rocks that possibly cover the bottom, and examine 
their lower surfaces. Here he will find many carious and interesting 
shells, some of them minute ; the brittle starfish, several kinds of worms, 
and above all those elegant sea-slugs, little animals closely allied to the 
snail, only having no shell. Many other forms will be found in such 
haunts by careftil searching. On these rocky shores the collector should 
take advantage of the low spring and fall tides, for then a portion of 
another zone of animal life will be exposed to him, and he will find many 
novelties. Never leave a stone unturned in such places, for marine ani- 
mals are proverbially shy, and prefer seclusion. He must also take 
advantage of the heavy storms that beat upon the coast, and along the 
beaches after one of these storms he may pick up many rarities. In fact 
he may find certain specie^ washed up in the greatest profusion, that he 
will rarely meet with at other times. The long mud-flats will repay him 
a muddy tramp at low water, for, crawling over the mud, or burled just 
beneath its surface, he will find certain moUusks and worms peculiar to 
such places. 

One of the richest fields for collecting near cities will be found on the 
piles of any exposed pier, or bridge. We mean by exposure, a structure 
that stands in deep water where the ocean has more or less direct access 
to it, protected at the same time fh)m the heavy wash of the sea by some 
outlying island or cape. Let him take a small boat, and, armed with a 
net having a stout wire ft'ame affixed to a pole ten feet long, he may 
drag up at low tide from the sides of the piles by a slow raking motion, 
a perfect harvest of sea-anemones, sea-urchins, starfishes, shells, crabs, 
worms, and a legion of other forms that will keep him busy for some 
time. 

An ontfit for a collector is, first of all, a basketful of wide-mouthed 
bottles, pickle jars will answer the purpose, a pair of forceps, a good 
pocket lens, unless he carries it In his head, a case-knife to detach 
certain animals ft'om the rocks ; a few little pocket vials will not come 
amiss. For collecting animals beyond the limits described, the collector 
must possess a dredge, the simplest form of which is a triangle made of 
Iron ; the longest side sharpened on one edge to act as a scraper. To this 
iron a bag of netting is affixed. Supplied with a good manilla rope, he 
may dredge to the extent of his line, and the assemblage of animals will 
be quite unlike those that he has met with In the zones mentioned above. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Society of Natural History, Portland, Me., May 7. — The rare shell. 
Helix multidentata, before known only by a few specimens, was reported 
as occurring abundantly in a wood on Cape Elizabeth. The most inter- 



} 



280 BOOKS BEGEiyED. 

esting event of the meeting was the presentation of a* Pteropod (Cliani 
barealia), a marine animai of the arctic seas, which has been discovered 
by Mr. C. B. Fuller in large quantities in our harbor. This animal be- 
longs to a division of the Mollasca called Pteropoda, or ** Wing-foot," 
from the swimming appendages which resemble the organs of flight of 
birds. Only six species are known to occur on the coast flrom the arctic 
seas to Georgia. They are most abundant in the extreme northern or 
southern oceans. Some possess a delicate glassy or homy shell, while 
Clione is entirely naked, and of a consistency not much greater than that 
of the common Jelly-fish. It is a very singular sight to observe their evo- 
lutions in a Jar of sea-water. The Clione moves with a deliberate and 
graceful motion of its wings — almost recalling the action of a dexterous 
human swimmer. The Limacina, another pteropod observed by Hr. 
Fuller, and collected with the Clione, uses its wings much more ner- 
vously, and gambols about the Jar like a miniature and half-fledged robin. 
It is not known that the Clione has ever been seen so Air to the south- 
ward before. Packard reports it as abundant on the coast of Labrador. 
This is probably the extreme southern limit of the species, and we are no 
doubt indebted to the persistency of our ''cold term" for these fairy-like 
visitors in our harbor. Is our climate so changing its temperate quality 
that arctic animals flnd in our waters a congenial home ? 

American Association for the Advancement of Science. — The 
next meeting will be held at Chicago the last of August. It promises to 
be an unusually interesting meeting, and we hope it will be largely at- 
tended. Various excursions by the members are contemplated, of which, 
however, we have not received precise information in time to insert in 
tUs number. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

R, H. F., Mt. Btiia,Ind.— The plant you send appears to bo the Lemna, or Duckweed. 
W. V. A., New York.— The soUent for reeling the cocoons of the Cynthia Sillc-moth. 

Sven by Gu^iin Menneville, is : some carbonate of potash In boiling: water, with an ad- 
tion of white soap; no proportions given.-^L. T. 

E. O., YeUow Springs. O — You write that " we are enjoying a visitation of the seven- 
teen-year locust. The first perr^t Insect appeared on May 18th. The ground Is ftill of 
the larvs.'* We would be greatly obliged for branches of the oak showing the mode of 
laying the eggs, and for alcoholic specimens of the larvie of different sizes, and of the 
pupa and adult. We can name a few of the beetles you send now, and will send you 
the names of the others in a few weeks. 1. Kd>ria pnllipes} 8. Panmu oMginonui 4. 
Dicfflut purpuratui; 5. OehthedromuM antiqunst 13.? CKvina jnatulata; 16. PoecUut 

^**'^**J. ^i\^V^^ 5S?*^ a«vw<a<i« Say ; 20. Oiceoptoma margimOai «. Si^ha <ne- 
qualu i S4. Staphylinut viiloau$, ^^ 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Quelqwa Remarquea »ur la QtographU et fat MonumenU du Piron, Par E. G. Sanier. 
Pans, 1868. 8vo, pp. 28. ^ 

,, ^i ^^^^H^J?: i^?^ ^^"^S^^ ^ Colored Dmwinfft and Deteription*. By Wm, 
H. Edwards. Philndelphta. Parti. April, 1868. 4to, with five plate8ri2.00. 

Cotwtoa. April 18, May 9, 16. Paris. 

Land and Waier. April 4, 11, 18. London. 

The Field. April 2S. May 2, 9, 16. London. 

Ent<mologUV» IfoiUMy Magaxint, June to December, 1866, 1867, January to Mareh. 
1868. London. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. II.-ATJaUST, 1868. -ITo. 6. 

TRACES OF ANCIENT GLACIERS IN THE WHITE 
MOUNTAINS OF NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

BY GEOBGE L. VOSE. 

lOi 

Probably few of the tourists who ride up the valley of the 
Androscoggin, from Bethel to Gorham, upon a hot August 
afternoon, would be quite prepared to believe that at some 
former period a solid river of ice filled that valley, for hun- 
dreds of feet in depth, and many miles in length, moving 
with a slow but irresistible march downwards, and that this 
huge glacier was continually supplied with fresh material at 
its upper end, from the vast snow-fields beneath which the 
White Mountains were perpetually buried. Yet there is 
evidence upon the ground that such was the case. All along 
the route the rocks are can4d with hieroglyphics, more 
ancient by far than those of Egypt and the Nile, which, by 
means of the key obtained in the Alps, we are enabled to 
read. 

In the mountains of Switzerland and of Italy, immense 
bodies of snow accumulate in the more elevated regions, 
where it is so cold that melting to any considerable extent is 
impossible, even in the sunmier. This snow is by a very 
gradual process converted into ice, immense bodies of which 
fill the higher Alpine valleys, and, urged by the pressure of 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the Tear 1868, bv the Peabodt AcADXinr or 
SCIXNCX, in the Cleric's Office of the District Coort of the Dutrlet of Massachusetts. 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 36 (261) 



282 GLACIERS IN THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 

the unconsolidated snow at the upper part of the mass, move 
down at the rate of from three hundred to five hundred feet 
in a year. The moving of a mass of ice, it may be a dozen 
miles in length, a mile wide, and a thousand feet deep, is 
atteuded by a ti*emendous gi*inding upon the rocks over 
which the glacier passes. By extended examinations geolo- 
gists have become convinced that in old times these great 
bodies of ice covered immense tracts where now no ice is 
seen, and nothing but the polishing and scratching upon the 
ledges remains. This furrowing and polishing resembles so 
exactly the results now being produced beneath the present 
glaciers of the Alps, as to be regarded as positive evidence 
of the movement in a former age of vast bodies of ice over 
the rocks so scored. 

There is at first sight a marked difference between the 
glacial furrows and polishing in the Old World and in the 
New. In Europe these marks upon the rocks are found in 
certain mountain regions, and always referring us by their 
direction to the higher parts of the mountain groups ; thus 
showing that the glaciers moved down from the higher to 
the lower lands. This is plainly seen in the Alps, in Scan- 
dinavia, and Great Britain. In America, the traces upon 
the rocks, as a general thing, appear to have been produced 
by a far more wide-spread operation, inasmuch as the fur- 
rows have a prevailing southerly direction, regardless of 
topographical features to a remarkable extent, as they pass 
directly over and across some of the largest ranges of moun- 
tains. Throughout New England, the most common course 
of the furrows is about s.s.E. The wide extent of these 
traces would seem to point to some very general operation 
as a cause. What this operation was, or rather precisely 
how it worked, is by no means yet understood by geologists ; 
nor does it concern us here, as the object at present is to 
call attention to a different class of glacial traces, which 
appear to show, contrary to thie opinion for a long time 
held, that besides this general operation, which may be 



OliAGiSRS IN TH£ ^VHITfi HOUNTAIN8. 283 

traced over so wide an area, there have been what may 
be termed local glaciers, — masses of ice which belonged 
especially to certain mountain groups, and moved down the 
large valleys, leaving marks upon the rocks over which they 
passed, according in direction with the course of the valleys, 
and varying widely from that of the prevailing north and 
south traces. 

The White Mountains of New Hampshire, both from their 
height and their northern latitude, give us reason to suppose 
that if local glaciers ever existed in New England, their 
traces would be found in the valleys of this group. The 
late Dr. Edward Hitchcock predicted that such would be the 
case. Dr. A. S. Packard, of Salem, after an examination 
of the eastern slope of the White Mountains, concluded that 
glaciers had, during some former period, radiated from the 
higher summits. The reader is pai'ticularly referred to his 
article in the first volume of this Magazine, as the glacial 
traces there referred to are laid down upon the map accom- 
panying this paper, and as a section of the mountains but 
little known is there described. 

It is to a part of the Androscoggin Valley, and to the 
upper part of its tributary, the Peabody River, that attention 
is here called, as facts plainly seen upon the ground seem to 
show that a glacier moved from Mount Washington down to 
the point where Gorham now stands, and that it joined at 
that place another large glacier, moving down the Andros* 
coggin almost twenty miles, to Bethel. 

The general course of the Androscoggin River, from its 
source to its mouth, is south-east ; but this general course 
is made up of local courses which difier widely in direction. 
From its junction with the Megalloway, west of Umbagog 
Lake, to Gorham, thirty miles, it flows from north to south ; 
from Gorham to Bethel, twenty miles, it flows from west to 
east; at Bethel it turns abruptly round and flows for six 
miles north, and from the point thus reached east for thirty 
miles, but with great local variations; thence thirty miles 



284 GLACIEBS IX THE WHITE UOTJUTHAINS. 

south to Lewiston, and from that place twenty-five miles 
south-east, through Lisbon and Brunswick, to its junction 
with the Kennebec above Bath. 

Now, while the glacial traces in the north and south reaches 
of this river might have been made either by the general 
operation which has polished off the whole country, or by a 
local glacier confined to the valley, such could hardly be 
the case with any furrows which may be found coinciding 
with the general direction of the east and west reaches. Let 
us look at the Androscoggin Valley, from Bethel in Maine, 
to Gorham in New Hampshire. This part of the river flows, 
for twenty miles, from west to east, and is bounded on both 
sides by abrupt hills from 1,000 to 2,000 feet high. At 
Bethel the valley opens, the hills receding and decreasing in 
elevation. Where glacial furrows are found upon the tops 
of the Bethel hills, they run nearly north and south. Pro- 
ceeding up the valley towards Gorham, upon the south 
(right) bank, at a point about two and a half miles above 
Bethel, before we really enter the close valley, and perhaps 
a hundred feet above the level of the river, a small'exposure 
of rock is seen directly in the common road, being about six 
feet square, with a long gently sloping polished surface to- 
wards the north, and a steep and rough face towards the 
south. The furrows upon the smooth northern surface run 
north and south, and the hills upon the summits of which 
the fuiTows run north and south, lie exactly north of this 
rock, upon the opposite side of the river. This furrowing 
bud evidently no connection with the Androscoggin, as the 
grooves point almost directly across it. Continuing up the 
valley, just above Pleasant River, five miles above Bethel, 
about one-fourth of a mile south of the road, and perhaps 
two hundred feet above the river, the rocks are well pol- 
ished ; and from faint lines upon masses of quartz, the 
direction of the ice is seen to have been s. 50^ e. Six miles 
above Bethel, where the river, railway, and road, draw 
closely together, and sweep round the base of Peaked Hill, 



OLAGIEBS IN THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 285 

in Gilead, in the railroad catting just between the two cross- 
ings of the common road, there is a steep ledge about twenty 
feet high, close to the track, which is polished and furrowed 
both upon the nearly vertical face towards the river, and 
also upon a narrow horizontal shelf part way up on the 
ledge. The lines upon the horizontal shelf run s. 20^ £., 
the vertical face standing s. 25° to 30° e. It is necessary, 
however, to be guarded in drawing conclusions from glacial 
traces left upon vertical or steeply inclined surfaces ; as the 
movement of ice, jamming through a narrow passage, may be 
locally disturbed, so as to give a direction to the furrows 
quite different from that of the general movement of the 
glacier. This was most likely the case at the point above 
referred to ; as the furrows on the opposite side of the hill, 
i. e. the south side, run s. 80° e. ; thus according much 
more nearly with the traces both above and below this point 
than the furrows upon the steep face towards the river do. 
The ice would seem to have passed around both sides of this 
hill ; and we can readily conceive that this might be, since 
the depression in the rear, south of the elevation, is quite 
low. Indeed, in the fine view from ^'Sunset Rock," in 
Bethel, looking up the Androscoggin, Peaked Hill seems to 
rise in a very isolated manner from the middle of the valley, 
which makes it a very prominent feature in that magnificent 
picture. 

Continuing up towards Gilead, about a mile above Peaked 
Hill, and eight miles from Bethel, at a point where the 
mountains crowd in close upon the river, there occurs a 
little south of the road, and it may be three hundred feet 
above the river, a large, steeply inclined, and magnificently 
polished surface, which is very plainly seen from the road a 
mile and a half below, as it sweeps around the western base 
of Peaked Hill. This surface shows a very few faint lines ; 
but just below it may be seen well-defined furrows upon 
quartz, running s. 55° to 60° e. At a little more than nine 
miles from Bethel, upon the side of the common road, where 



286 GLACIERS m THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 

it bends again around a mountain . spur, furrows are seen 
upon a small exposure running s. 80^ e. At Gilead, ten 
miles from Bethel, just north of the railroad woodshed, and 
near the Androscoggin River, fun-ows are seen upon a highly- 
polished siu*face of quartz, running s. 40^ £., and a few rods 
east of this ledge, are some very good examples of erratic 
blocks ; though from their lithological character they have 
apparently not come from any great distance. Between the 
railroad station and the old Wild River bridge, may be 
seen a good example of a polished rock, with a long, smooth, 
gentle slope to the north-west, and a rough, short, broken 
face to the south-east ; but lacking indications of the precise 
direction of the movement of the polishing agent. About a 
mile above Gilead station, at the base of Mount Ephraim, 
where the road and the railroad draw close together and 
bend around the mountain, just south of and close to the 
road, at a small quarry, are well-marked lines in quartz, 
running s. 70° e. 

The several traces above referred to, may be seen by 
reference to the map, in the positiops which they occupy in 
respect to the course of the river. They follow the general 
direction of the Androscoggin Valley at this place, and are 
nearly at right angles with the course laid down by Dr. 
Packard upon the summit of Speckled Mountain (5). The 
remaining part of the valley, from Gilead through Shelbume 
to Gorham, as well as the whole reach from Goiiiam to 
Bethel upon the northern bank, invites examination ; addi- 
tional traces will doubtless be found, supporting the conclu- 
sion that a large glacier once moved down this portion of the 
Androscoggin. Especially interesting seem to be the isolated 
Peaked Hill (3), and the abrupt and inviting summits of 
Mount Ephraim, just above Wild River (4) ; and should no 
glacial ti*aces reward the time spent in examining these 
points, the explorer would be amply repaid for his labor by 
the superb panorama which he will see spread out beneath 
him. 



GULCIEJRS IN THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 287 

Mount Hayes, which rises about I92OO feet above the vil- 
lage of Gorham, and thus 2,000 above the sea, shows upon 
its summit furrows running s. 40^ e. This elevation affords 
an excellent view (^ portions of the Androscoggin and Pea- 
body Valleys, and gives a more correct idea of the general 
relief of the surface in that region than can be obtained else- 
where. The towering pyramids of Madison and Adams are 
also seen from this point to great advantage, and, altogether, 
Mount Hayes offers every inducement to those fond of an 
active tramp and fine scenery. 

The Peabody Biver rises upon the eastern slopes of Madi- 
son, Adams, Jefferson, Clay, and Washington, and upon the 
western slopes of the opposite range of the Carter Moun- 
tains, the Imp, and Mount Moriah ; and flows about n.n.e. 
to Gorham, where it joins the Androscoggin. The surface 
geology of this valley is exceedingly interesting ; it has been 
carefully studied by Dr. Packard, and, from the arrange- 
ment of its terraces and the other forms of the unconsoli- 
dated material, he concluded that a large glacier once 
occupied this valley, extending as far down as to Gorham. 
His conclusion is somewhat confirmed by the following facts : 
About one hundred and fifty yards north of the Glen House, 
just south of a large boulder upon the west side of the road, 
the surface has been cut open, and has exposed a portion of 
a ledge, perhaps a dozen feet in length and a yard wide, on 
which, at right angles to the contorted lamination of the 
rock, faint lines, or rather furrows, are seen running N. 36° 
e., or 8. 35° w. This ledge was covered several feet deep 
by the material of the terrace in front of the Glen House. 
Just across the valley from the bot«l, where the carriage 
road commences to ascend, the upper part of the large ex- 
posure on the right hand is well polished and furrowed, in a 
south-west direction. Half a mile farther up the road, fur- 
rows upon the right side, close to the road, are seen running 
8. 40° w., or N. 40° E., and again a short distance above 
the path leading to Tuckerman's Savine, upon a surface 



288 GLACIERS IN THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 

somewhat inclined towards the road, may be seen lines run- 
ning s. 30° w., or N. 30° e. Many more ti*aces would doubt- 
less be found in this neighborhood if sought for with care ; 
as the few recorded were noted without stepping out of the 
common road. 

Thus it appears that while the glacial furrows in the An- 
droscoggin Valley have courses ranging from s. 20° e. to 
s. 80° E., those of the upper paii; of the Peabody Valley 
range from s. 30° w. to s. 40° w. ; making a general differ- 
ence between the courses in the two valleys of over 80° ; a 
difference equal to that between the two valleys themselves. 
We may, it would seem, thus conclude that a large glacier 
moved from the neighborhood of Mount Washington down 
towards Gorham; and that another moved from Gorham 
down the Androscoggin Valley, at least as far as to West 
Bethel. 

In the depression between the higher summits of the 
White Mountains, especially between Clay and Jefferson, 
Munroe and Washington, and at the foot of Mount Frank- 
lin, the rocks are rounded and polished from the north and 
north-west. A little above the Lake of the Clouds, directly 
in the Crawford bridle-path, faintly defined furrows may be 
seen running nearly north and south ; this point would be 
about 5,300 feet above the sea, according to the measure- 
ments of Professor Guyot. These elevated traces belong, 
not to any local glaciers, but to the general ice movement 
which swept over the whole of New England. 

The White Mountains have been so scarred and torn by 
slides, the valleys so filled with rubbish, and the beds of the 
streams so excessively water- worn, that many of the glacial 
traces have most likely disappeared. Still, this region has 
been very little explored, and has yielded as much fruit per- 
haps, for the cultivation bestowed upon it, as any other. 
That part of the Saco Valley between Old Crawford's and 
Bartlett, and the parallel valley of Swift River, which drains 
a large area between Chocorua and the Mote Mountains, and 



American Naturalist. 



^OHE ON GLACIEHS OF THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 



I ' 



■ I 



/ 



1 



GLACIERS IN THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 289 

enters the Saco at Conway Corner, both running nearly from 
west to east, deserve to be carefully studied. The valley of. 
Wild River, too, promises to afford traces of local glaciers 
whenever it shall be carefully explored. 

We have called attention to the few facts which we have 
noticed in the eastern section of the White Mountains. We 
do not propose to theorize upon the relation between the 
general and the local traces at present. We prefer to await 
the farther accumulation of evidence which shall enable us 
to restore correctly the various phases of that cold period 
when vast snowlields filled the White Mountain basins, and 
huge glaciers ploughed along the White Mountain valleys, 
leaving those marks upon the rocks by which we judge of 
their former presence, those convincing illustrations upon 
the last page of the geological history of the globe. 



DESCRIPnON OF THE MAP. 

The district embraced by the accompanying map extends fh)m Bart- 
lett and Kearsarge on the south, to Gorham and Mount Hayes on the 
north ; and fh>m Bethel, In Maine, npon the east, to the White Mountain 
Notch on the west. It thus includes what may be termed the eastern 
slope of the central mass of the White Mountain group. This general 
eastern slope, it will be seen by a glance at the several streams, has an 
irregular water-shed, running ftrom the Pinkham Notch a little north of 
east for about twenty miles, and afterwards running still more north 
of east so as to pass a little south of Bethel. Besides the Pinkham Notch, 
there are four passages across this water-shed ; all accessible to those 
who arc not afYnid of a little rough walking, and all tali of interest to 
lovers of wild natural scenery. The route from Jackson to Gorham, by 
the Pinkham Notch and the Glen, is familiar to all ; but there is another 
mode of passing Arom Jackson into the Peabody Valley which few per- 
sons have tried. This is the route up the Wildcat Branch to its western 
source, in the Carter Notch (xii), and thence down the stream flowing 
north, out of the same notch, to its Junction with the Peabody River, a 
short distance below the Glen House. 

The second passage of the water-shed is made by following up the east- 
em source of the Wildcat Branch, and passiifg through the depression 
(xi) and striking the head of the Wild River; this may be followed to its 
Junction with the Androscoggin at Gilead. This trip requires two days ; 
and in starting fh>m Jackson, the camp for the night should be well over 
Into the Wild River Valley : otherwise the second day's Journey will be 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. U, 37 



290 GLACIEBS IN TKB WHITE Jd.aUNTAIS&» 

too long, as much of It must be made in the bed of the stream, at least as 
fiir as to the State line, after which there is a good foot-road down the 
right bank to Gilead. 

The third passage is the one described by Dr. Packard, in the first 
Tdlnme of tUs Magazine, p. 265-267, ft'om Chatham up the Cold River to 
Gilead. Chatham may be reached by crossing ovef the mountains IWmb 
Jackson (v), or by going north fk*om Lovell (vui) or North Fryeburg (vii). 
The fourth passage is ft*om Lovell up either side of Kezar Pond, through 
Miles' Notch (ix), and thence by Pleasant River to West Bethel on the 
Androscoggin. 

The Roman numerals upon the map indicate the following points : i. 
Bethel ; u. Gilead ; iii. Gorham ; iv. The Glen House ; v. Jackson ; vi. 
Chatham ; vn. North Fryeburg ; viii. Lovell ; ix. Miles* Notch ; x. Evans' 
Notch ; XI. Wild River Notch ; xii. Carter Notch. The additional figures 
serve to define the following separate mountains : 1. Sparrow Hawk, In 
West Bethel; 2. Peaked Hill, in Gilead ; 3. Calabo, in Mason; 4. Mount 
Ephraim, in Gilead ; 6. Speckled Mountain, in Stoneham ; 6. Mount Royce, 
7. Baldface, both in Chatham ; 8. Kearsarge, in Chatham and Bartlett ; 9. 
Thorn Mountain, in Bartlett and Jackson ; 10. Double-head, in Jackson ; 11. 
Name unknown; 12. Wildcat; 13. South peak of Carter; H. North peak 
of Carter, or Imp ; 15. Moriah : these five last-named mountains are in 
the tract between Jackson aiid Shelburne, called Bean's Purchase ; 16. 
Mount Hayes; 17. Camel's Hump, in Gorham; 18. Madison; 19. Adams; 
20. Jefferson; 21. Clay; 22. Washington; 23. Munroe; 24. Franklin ; 25. 
Pleasant; 26. Clinton; 27. Jackson; 28. Giant's Stairs ; 29. Mount Reso- 
lution ; 30. Mount Crawford, and 31, Mount Wlllard. The fourteen peaks 
last named lie in land granted to Individuals, but never made into town- 
ships. Mount Crawford, Resolution, and Giant's Stairs lie In the old 
route, now abandoned, ttom old Crawford's to the summit of Mount 
Washington, Joining the present Crawford bridle-path east of Mount 
Munroe. 

The following figures show the elevation above the sea of some of the 
principal points upon the map, according to the barometrical measure- 
ments of Professor Guyot : 

Androscoggin River, at Bethel, Me.* 632 fU 

Railroad Station, at Gorham, N. H., . . . . 802 

Glen House, 1,682 

Peabody River, opposite Glen House, .... 1,543 
Summit of road, Pinkham Notch, near Glen Ellis' Falls, . 2,018 

Hotel at Jackson, 771 

Road at Junction of Saco and Ellis Rivers, . . . 576 

Old Crawford's (Davis'), 986 

Willcy House, White Mountain Notch, .... 1,335 
Crawford House, White Mountain Notch, . . 1,920 

Mount Clinton (26 on map), 4,320 

Gap between Clinton and Pleasant, 4,050 

Mount Pleasant (25 on map), 4,764 



GLACIERS IN THE "VrBOKM MOUNTAINS. 291 

Gap between Pleasant and Franklin, . . . « 4,400 ft. 

Mount Franklin (34 on map), 4,9M 

Mount Munroc (23 on map), 5,384 

Gap between Munroe and Washington, .5,100 

Lake of the Clouds, foot of Munroe, .... 6,009 ' 

Mount Washington (22 on map), 6,288 

Gap between Washington and Clay, . 6,417 

Mount Clay (21 on map), 5,663 

Gap between Clay and JelKerson, 4,i)79 

Mount Jefferson (20 on map), 6,714 

Gap between Jefferson and Adams, 4,939 

Mount Adams (19 on map), 5,794 

Gap between Adams and Madison, ..... 4,912 

Mount Madison (18 on map), 6,366 

Limit of trees on north side of Washington, and on Madison, 4,150 

Limit oftrees on Clinton, 4,250 

Mount Hayes (approximate) (16 on map), . 2,000 

Mount Morlah (16 on map), 4,663 

Carter Mountain, north peak, or Imp (14 on map), 4,702 

Carter Mountain, south peak (13 on map), . ' . 4,830 

Wildcat Mountain (12 on map), 4,360 

Double-head, north peak > .j^ ^^ , (8,100 

Double-head, south peak J ^ *''" 1 3,000 

Kearsarge (8 on map), 3,600 

Thorn Mountain (9 on map), . . . 2,500 

Giant's Stairs (28 on map), . • . • • • • d}600 

Mount Resolution (29 on map), 3,400 

Mount Crawford (30 on map), ...... 3,134 

Mount Jackson (27 on map), 4,100 

Mount Webster (south of 27), 4,000 



Note.— There are few persons among thote who Tisit the Mountains who could not 
aid In obtaining evidence of former glaciers, if they were so disposed. A very little 
study will enable one to recognise the marks upon the rocks where they occur. A 
small compass and a piece of thread, the latter to be stretched along the i^rrow and 
over the centre of the compass, are the only things needed. Notes thus obtained, and 
recorded carei\>Uy and conscientiously upon the spot, are always valuable. In aU 
cases the magnetic meridian should be used; and the correction for declination, accord- 
ing to the year and the location, applied afterwards : Uie use of two meridians in the 
Held leads to conftision. The date, too, should always be affixed. It is well, also, to 
check the magnetic needle, for local disturbance, by taking the bearing to some known 
Iteture in the landscape when such exists ; and where two points, the exact positions 
of which are known, can be seen, by taking the bearing of both of them, the place of 
the observer is easily determined ; so that the point of his observation may be laid 
down u|>on the map. Glacial traces may be rubbed off from the stone itself, when it is 
somewhat smooth, in the same manner as children obtain the figure from a coin. Such 
impressions are often very satisfactory ; being taken ftt>m Nature's own engraving. 
The meridian should be put upon the paper before it is moved from the stone in the 
above operation. 



MUSHROOMS.* 

BT JOHN L. RUSSELL. 

A PLEASANT little treatise on some of the more prominent 
species, and one well adapted to afford just such information 
as those who are not strictly botanists might need. 

Some faint idea of the immense number of these obscure 
but interesting plants may be obtained from the title-page of 
the Rev. M. J. Berkeley's "Outlines of British Fungology, 
containing the characters of above a thousand species, and a 
complete list of all that have been described as natives of the 
British Isles." (London, 1860.) Of these 1,000 are large 
and conspicuous, and 1,406 are smaller and even minute, of 
which the species of Sphaeria alone which speck the leaves, 
and fruit of various plants in Great Britain, are 203 in 
number. In Fries' great work on the species of a single 
family, the Hymenomycetes, we find an enumeration and 
description of 2,545, embracing, for the most part, the larger 
kinds known to him in. various regions of the globe. {Epi^ 
crisis. UpsaliaB, 1836-38.) In the year 1831, Lewis D. de 
Schweinitz communicated to the American Philosophical 
Society, Philadelphia, a list of 3,043 species of fungi which 
came under his observation around Bethlehem, Pennsvlvania. 
The list has been greatly enlarged since by the labors of 
Cui'tis, Ravenel, and other botanists in the Southern States, 
and by the collections of various individuals at the North. 

The singularly varying forms, under which many of the 
Fungi appear, have given rise to species which farther re^ 
search has reduced to some previously described. Abroad, 
the researches of the Tulasnes are elucidating this branch of 
the subject, and exhibiting most interesting details, and 
new as well as novel fields of investigation await the Ameri-' 

* A Plain and Easy Account of the British Fungi, etc., etc. By M. C. Cooke. With 
twenty-four colored plates. 12mo, pp. 148. London, 1862. 
(292) 



MUSHROOMS. 293 

can botanist who will reduce to practical results a series of 
observations requiring a lifetime to acquire. 

In view of the extent of our subject, the treatise before us 
can be regarded as no more than a brief and meagre account 
of some of the few and more prominent species which might 
occur to a beginner in such districts of England as are fer- 
tile in species. But it is to be regretted that the American 
press is not as generous in contributions to knowledge in 
the various departments of natural history as is that of the 
mother country. Just such a cheap and prettily illustrated 
treatise, which should be strictly American, would do a 
great service, and would be what many young pei'sons need. 
There seems no good reason why the fantastic and gorgeous 
creations of the fungi, which deck our woods and spring up 
around our dwellings, or are found in our pastures, should 
not be studied and as well known to the young, as are the 
blue flowers of the Hepatica, or the rosy corols of the May- 
flower, or the first Violets and the Saxifrage and Columbines, 
which annually awaken a vernal zeal for botany, but which 
faints and fades away on the coming heats of June, or the 
sultry days of August. Who has not admired the Agarics 
and Boleti and Clavarias in the pine woods in September, 
and who has not longed to know something more of them, to 
learn their names, their good or bad qualities, their uses or 
ends? The brilliant scai'let disk of a Peziza, starting into 
life from beneath the dead leaves of a Pennsylvania wood, 
takes me back now to the vicinity of Pittsburgh, where years 
ago I searched for the Erigenia, the first blossom of the spring 
there ; and there is no autumn which does not thrill me with 
a new life as I see the shady paths and the wet spots of Cat 
Swamp so bravely adorned with these fugitive and fugacious 
forms of vegetation. 

The excitement which spurs on many a student in natural 
history, that he may be the possible finder of a new species, 
is coincident with the study of the fungi. Spots most 
familiar to the eye, often are found producing kinds either 



294 nusHBOoifg. 

quite novel, or at least of occasional occurrence. Dependent 
as it would seem on some atmospherical conditions, species 
of fungi are meteoric, and visit places which seem quite 
singular and remarkable. Some extraordinary specimens of 
the exquisite Morel {Morchella eaculenta) were found in the 
coal cinders in the rear of the Eastern Railroad depot, 
by the late Mr. Knights, a worthy employee there. Occar 
sionally I have seen it in old orchards, but should scarcely 
have supposed it the product of cinders. The beautiful 
Cyclomyces was first discovered many years ago in Tewks- 
bury, in this State, by Dr. B. D. Greene, and found to be 
entirely unknown before, though subsequently occurring 
elsewhere. I look for the possibility of the appearance of 
the truffle in some sections of the limestone strata of the 
United States ; and other wondeiful and beautiful sorts are 
only waiting to be found. 

The value of the larger fungi as articles of food is scarcely 
known and hardly appreciated in this countiy. The table 
recognizes them chiefly in the presence of ketchup, made of 
species indiscriminately gathered by those who prefer this 
article or sauce. It is probable that a few only are really 
deleterious and poisonous, and even these are rendered com- 
paratively innocuous by heat and spices. Otherwise than 
this they are rather objects of prejudice, and most persons 
look upon them with disgust. Even for their mere exterior 
beauty they are seldom sought, and still less are they em- 
ployed for ornament, like their equally fugacious and soon- 
fading sisters, the many sorts of wild flowers which decorate 
the parlor. I have, however, seen them gathered and ar- 
ranged for this pui*pose, and with singular eflfect ; and the 
interest such groups, exhibited at the Horticultural Society 
Rooms in Boston, elicited was worthy of remark. The num- 
ber of the Agarics described by Berkley in his "Outlines'* is 
56^, as found in England, yet scarcely more than a single 
species, the A, campestris^ is made an article of food. This 
species is represented in this country, and when cooked is 



HUSHBOOMS. 295 

Certainly a pleasant moi*sel. The Rev. Dr. M. A. Curtis, in 
bis Catalogue of the Plants of the State of North Carolina 
(Geological Report), 1867, gives 438 species of Agarics, 
of which he considers fifty-six as esculent. In Poland and 
Russia even such abstemiousuess is unknown, and most kinds 
of the larger fungi that occur are employed for food by the 
common people, either in a dried state, or after pickling in 
salt or vinegar. That there are highly poisonous qualities 
resident in several is indisputable, and is well known, as has 
been shown by Christison and others ; one being an acrid 
matter so very fugacious that it disappears when the plant 
is dried or boiled or macerated in weak acids, alkalies, or 
alcohol; the other principle is more fixed, resisting the 
action of these tests, and resembling in its effects the opera- 
tion of opium. 

Many years ago, Greville, in a Memoir before the Wer- 
nerian Society of Edinburgh, directed the public attention to 
the use of the esculent fungi as a staple article of diet ; and 
Schwaegrichen, the illustrious editor of Schweinitz's first con- 
tribution to the knowledge of our North American species, 
derived great satisfaction in eating those which possessed 
neither a bad flavor nor a disagreeable smell, and which 
had a tolerably firm consistence, with bread and drinking 
nothing but water ; such a diet pursued for several weeks, as 
he affirms, increasing his strength and improving his health. 
"I have observed," says Persoon, who furnishes this account, 
"that fungi, if moderately used, are very nourishing." The 
experiments of Braconnot and Letellier detected a substance 
to which the name of fungin is applied, present equally in 
the harmless and poisonous fungi alike, which in itself is 
highly nutritious containing nitrogen, and very similar in its 
composition to animal matter. The process of cooking is 
therefore conducive to the gustatory condition, and advan- 
tageous in overcoming what is deleterious, if present in spe- 
cies considei*ed esculent. A more general as well as accurate 
knowledge of our native species would place these despised 



296 MUSHROOMS. 

plants on the same level with other and higher forms, which 
embrace among our garden vegetables wild states of several 
equally poisonous and of many plants beside, often mistaken 
for harmless ones, ending, if used, in fatal results. 

About eight years ago appeai'ed the Rev. Dr. Badham's 
valuable work on the '^Esculent Funguses of England," with 
drawings of the species colored after nature, and defining 
their localities, uses, and importance ; indicating attention in 
the right direction to this subject, and followed shortly after 
by the little treatise whose title stands at the head of this 
article. To understand the arrangement and classification of 
the fungi requires a careful study of the systematic treatises 
of such botanists as have made them a specialty, and to give 
even an idea of such systems would be out of place here. 
Yet some peculiarities noticed by our author may not be 
wholly devoid of interest. "To say that fungi may be found 
everywhere, would not perhaps be literally true ; but to say 
where they are not found under any circumstances would be 
puzzling, — every rotten stump or twig, every decaying leaf 
or fruit, has its peculiar species, — some lai'ge enough to at- 
tract immediate attention, others so small as to be invisible 
to the unaided eye." (p. 3.) 

Of these latter may be mentioned, as confirmatory of this 
statement, the parasitic ftmgus, which destroys by a slow 
consumptive disease the life of the common House-fly (Spo- 
rendoneina musca) ; and the Botrytia bassiana^ which infests 
the silk-worm ; the mother of beer and vinegar is the mycel- 
iiun * of other species ; and similar mycoderms * riot in the 
inkstand, and even in pharmaceutical preparations ; the de- 
caying hoofs and horns of animals, and the feathers of birds 
produce their particular kinds ; the lungs of water-fowl are 
attacked by others ; the skin of fishes, and the eggs of toads 
and frogs are destroyed by parasitic fungi. No substance 
escapes their visits, and even iron hardly cooled has been 
found invested in a few hours with fungoid threads. The 

* Conditions of tangi in open or matted threads, firom which mooldinees often sprini^s. 



KUSHROOMS. 297 

minute organisms, which serve for seeds and known as 
spores, float in the air and lodge in the water, waiting op- 
poi*tunity to germinate and grow. Even the cavities of nuts, 
and the tough kernels of apples develop certain species; 
and roots and solid timber alike are rent asunder by the 
presence of particular kinds. The mildews which cover our 
gooseberries and hops, and the foliage of the vine, or the 
husk of the ripening grain, are forms of the smaller fungi, 
and all powerful in their littleness. 

'*Nor ai'e these plants less worthy of notice on account of 
the rapidity of their growth. The great puff-ball springs up 
in a marvellous manner to the si£e of a pumpkin during 
the night, and Dr. Lindley has computed that the cells of 
which its structure is composed have multiplied at the ex- 
traordinary rate of sixty millions in a minute. Dr. Greville 
mentions an instance of one of the largest of British fungi 
(^Polyporus squamosus) attaining a circumference of seven 
feet five inches, and weighing thirty -four pounds after 
having been cut fom* days. It was only four weeks attain- 
ing to these dimensions, thus acquiring an increase of growth 
equal to nineteen ounces per day." This rapidity of growth 
is only equalled by the amazing power which vegetables, so 
fragile and tender in their tissues, possess ; instances being 
cited where pavements have been lifted by the growing of 
fungi beneath ; but somewhat of the same phenomena may be 
yearly seen in the woods, where clusters of brittle fungi, by 
perpendicular pressure, lift masses of eaiiih and leaves up- 
wards as they issue into the air and light ; and in the early 
spring the same phenomena may be seen where the flowers 
of the Christmas-rose penetrate the frozen ground. 

^ It is a curious fact in connection with the growth of these 
singular plants" (the fungi), '^that while Phanerogams ab- 
sorb carbonic acid from the atmosphere and respire oxygen, 
in this instance the order is reversed, and carbonic acid gas 
is given off. Fungi appear to flourish best in the absence of 
light, in dark cellars, under flag-stones, in hollow trees and 

AMER. KATURAUST, VOL. n. 38 



298 MUSHROOMS. 

in like places, where no other form of plant could exist; 
-while some are entirely subterranean. Thej^rm^, too, which 
these singular plants assume are extremely diversiiied; in 
some the foiin is that of a cup, in others of a goblet, a sau^ 
cer, an ear, a bird's nest, a horn, a bunch of coral, a button, 
a rosette, a lump of jelly, or a piece of velvet. In color 
they are almost as variable as in shape, the rarest color 
being green. We have all shades of red, from light purple 
to deepest crimson ; all tints of yellow from sulphurous to 
orange ; all kinds of brawns from pale^ ochre to deepest 
umber, and every graduation between pale gray and sooty 
black ; blue and violet tints do not abound, but these, as w^ 
as a beautiful amethyst, occasionally occur. White and creamy 
traits ai*e very common. Odors are manifestly agreeable or 
disagreeable to a considerable extent, according to the taste 
of the inhaler, but it must be confessed that some of the 
fungi exhale an odor so intolerably fetid, that no set of 
olfactory nerves could be found to endure it longer than was 
absolutely necessary; the truly elegant but rare ClaUiriAS 
being an instance to the point. Fortunately this unpleasant 
feature is not common in the fungi, some smelling like new- 
made hay, like violets, like anise, or walnuts, or new meal, 
or tairagon, — and a variety of flavors which the fungi possess 
is calculated to please." 

It has been asserted by some botanists that climate greatly 
modifies the properties of these plants, and renders them 
harmless, where foufid out of their native habitats. A mag- 
nificent species, known as the Amanita muscarius^ or Fly 
Agaric, a native of Europe, and found in our woods, is one 
of twelve species occurring in England, of which many be- 
side this one, are decidedly poisonous and used in the prep- 
aration of fly-paper. Roques, in his work on the esculent 
fungi, distinctly says, ^*That this plant has not its poisonous 
qualities modified by any climate, the Czar Alexis lost his 
life by eating of it, and yet it has been affirmed that in 
Kamtschatka it is used as a frequent article of food ^ and is 



MUSHROOMS. 299 

cooked and eaten in Russia. In Siberia, it supplies the 
inbibitants with the means of intoxication ' similar to that 
produced by the haschisch and majoon in the East." 

Under the vague and general name of mushrooms, several 
species of fungi are consumed as articles of food. It may be 
true that in some localities, only one or two species are dig- 
nified with the appellation of mushroom, while all the rest 
which resemble it in form are condemned as toadstools : yet 
we l)elieve there is in prospect an age when more of those 
which are really worthy will be admitted to the tables of 
rich and poor without that accompaniment of suspicion and 
dread which attaches to a dish of mushrooms. We accord 
perfect justice to Agaricus compestris, the mushroom of cul- 
tivation, whilst more delicious kinds, and equally harmless, 
are allowed to flourish and decay year by year without mo- 
lestation. 

Dr. Badham, whose work we have already mentioned, 

m 

gives us instances of *^ beefsteaks growing on oaks in the 
shape of Fistulina hepatica; Agaricus fusipea to pickle in 
clusters under them ; puff-balls, which some of our friends 
have not inaptly compared to sweetbread for the rich deli- 
cacy of their unassisted flavor. Hyd)m^ as good as oysters, 
which they somewhat resemble in taste ; Agaricus deliciosus^ 
reminding us of tender lamb kidney ; the beautiful Yellow 
Chauterille, the Kalon kai agathon of diet, growing by the 
bushel ; the sweet nutty Boletus in vain calling itself edtilis 
(edible), where there was none to believe; the dainty Or- 
cilla {Agaricus helerophyllus) ^ which tastes like the craw- 
fish when grilled ; the red and gi-een species of Agaricus^ to 
cook in any way, and equally good in all." 

Of this list of dainties let us see what we have among us 
wherewith to replenish our laixler. The beefsteak {Fislu- 
Una) J though not given in my friend Spi'ague's second list 
of New England fungi, in the Proceedings of the Boston 
Society of Natural History, vol. vi, p. 315, is credited to 
D. Murray in a previous list of the fifth volume, p. 325 ; and 



300 MUSHBOOMS. 

according to Schwinitz, is common throughout all Pennsyl- 
vania, and often of the greatest size. We must forego the 
pickled Agaricus fusipeSy unless brought to light by Curtis 
or Ravenel ; the creamy puff-balls, which in the Lycoperdon 
giganteuvi^ is, according to our author, excellent eating, 
especially esteemed in Italy, and on the authority of Mrs. 
Hussey (author of a costly work on British Mycology) 
arc, when sliced and "dipped in the yolk of egg, and sprin- 
kled with chopped meat, herbs, and spices, much lighter 
and more digestible than egg omeletts : " these rare bits are 
represented in the X. Bovista^ which attains an enormous 
size, and would furnish "omelets" for an army. Then for 
vegetable oysters we have several species of Hydna: the 
lamb's kidney in pine woods is the Lactarius (or Agaricus) 
delidosua and the vdemum is in Mr. Sprague's list, a 
moi*e common species ; as to the "beautiful yellow Chan- 
terelle," which smells like ripe apricots, a bright sunny 
afternoon in September revealed such a group to my eyes 
as has gladdened them ever since when my memory has re- 
called the scene ; the edible Boletus^ if not among our native 
species, is curiously represented by some counterfeit, and, 
accoixling to C. C. Frost, occurs in the woods of Brattle- 
boro', Vermont ; the dainty Orcella, I am sorry to say, is 
found in bad company with species of Russula^ and no mat- 
ter if wanting with us, a genus containing "some of the best 
and some of the woi'st of fungi viewed in an alimentary 
aspect, and some of the most brilliantly colored species." 

Our author gives us quite a list of species not uncommon 
in England, some sold by the quantity in the markets with 
their true scientific names, without which they could not be 
recognized with any degree of cei*tainty. In a few instances 
we have l:)een able to identify them with American kinds, by 
comparing reliable catalogues of our own mycologists ; but 
even this method is not without certain objections, since by 
the united labors of Berkeley and Curtis, the Schweinitzian 
collection has been found not so authentic as it could be 



MUSHROOMS. 301 

wished. The student, curious in these matters, may be re- 
ferred to these papers in the Journal of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, for July, 1856 (new 
series), and to those in the Memoirs of several Scientific 
Societies, and to Dr. Curtis' list of plants alluded to above. 
But in an enterprise like the one before us, the efforts 
of gastronomy must be enlisted, and a series of experiments 
instituted upon our New England species. Plants thus low 
in the order of vegetation would be most likely to be repre- 
sented by co-species and transatlantic forms, equally good 
for food or dangerous as viands, possessing the chemical 
principles which are to be sought and found in them. 

The fairy-rings, described in English books, ai'e due to 
the presence of a modest little Agaric, figui-ed and colored 
to life, under the name of Marasmius oreadeSy an appellation 
which we find in Mr. Sprague's list, but with which we have 
no personal acquaintance. "The little fairy-ring Champig- 
non," says M. C. Cooke, "is one of the privileged few that 
enjoy a good reputation, but even in this instance the repu- 
tation is local. In the dried state they are available for 
culinary purposes, while thousands of them annually rot in 
the pastures, where they grow without a hand to gather 
them. There is scarcely a more delicious fungus. It is so 
common in districts that bushels may be gathered in a day. 
They may also be readily dried by stringing them together 
on a thread, and suspending them in a dry kitchen, and 
when thoroughly dried may be kept in close tins." 

Allusion has already been made to the Boleti as articles 
of food, of which both England and this country possess 
many species. In selecting them for trial in cookery, we 
are informed that "it will be advisable to caution all who are 
inexperienced in collecting Boleti, that several are unwhole- 
some, some decidedly poisonous. If upon cutting or bruis- 
ing any specimen it should be found to change color, it 
should be rejected. Some species become blue almost im- 
mediately upon wounding; those with reddish stems, or 



302 MUSHROOMS. 

with the under sur&ces red or crimson , should also be re- 
jected." 

Any one familiar with our woods in the autumn must 
recall the numerous sorts of the coral fungi, so delicate and 
branched in variety of shapes, as to remind him of the corals 
of the ocean. They bear the generic name of Olavarice^ 
from ClavuSy a club, the single branches being blunt or 
club-shaped at the apices. If such on being gathered and 
carried home are laid upon a piece of slate or black paper, 
a multitude of small white particles, or perhaps of a bluish- 
gray color, will fall from them, and become visible after a 
few houi*8. These are the spores. *'AU the white-spored 
Clavarias are wholesome; but some are so tough and 
leathery, and others are so small, that the number at all 
available for culinary purposes is limited. They should, 
after being collected, be washed in lukewarm water and per- 
fectly dried, then tied together in little bundles like aspara- 
gus, and cooked with butter, parsley, onion, pepper, and 
salt ; when cooked, they may be improved by the addition 
of a little creanx and the yolk of an egg." 

The English and European species cited are (7. C> cinerea^ 
ameathystina^ rugosa^ vermiculata^ fdstigiata^ coralloideaySaid 
cristatUy of which we have several, and representatives of 
the others. The Helvellas^ like the Morels^ to which allu- 
sion has been made, are also classed among the edible kinds, 
and represented in our country in two more species at least. 
"The best substitute for the expensive Morels may be found 
in two indigenous species of i7e?veZZa, which, like the Morels^ 
may be gathered during the season, and dried, and thus pre- 
served for use all the year round. They impart an excel- 
lant flavor to gravies and soups." Related to these, but of 
difierent shape, size, color, and consistence, are the nume- 
rous PezizcBy of which the list of North American exceeds at 
least two hundred species ; and in Great Britain one hundred 
and thirty or more. They are interesting to the mycologist, 
presenting in their exterior both delicate and gorgeous tints. 



SRONfiiBCk 303 

varying much in size, and found almost evetywhefe in moist 
situations. "In the manufacture of the handsome Tunbridge 
ware, a variety of wood is employed under the name of 
gveen oak. Although pf a mineral green color, this is the 
ordinary British oak ; but the alteration which it has under- 
gone is due to the presence of a fungus. A handsome little 
species resembling a I^ezizia traverses with ifts mycelium the 
whole &bric of such wood, and these minute threads give the ^ 
green tint to the timber." Similar tinted but decayed sticks 
and pieces of timber may be found in our own woods, owing 
doubtless to a similar cause. 

In conclusion, it is to be hoped that the coming season 
may be seized upon for collecting, delineating^ and coloring 
fifom living specimens some of the many fine and curious 
species of this vicinity ; and that our naturalists may insti- 
tute experiments, aided by the chemist and the gastronomer^ 
in this line of wholesome, novel, and dainty tidbits of the 
table. 



I »t I 1|> r'S^ 



SPONGES^. 

BY A. HYATT. 

Among the dark-brown leaves and green filaments which 
are borne upon the edge of the incoming tide, one frequently 
observes a substan^- hardly distinguishable &om the sur- 
rounding plants, except for its light-brown color and porosity^ 
This is sometimes dendritic,* with lank branches springing 
from broad, thick-spretuiing bases ; but generally it is broken 
lAto fragments, and only the palm-like pails, with their finger- 
shaped ends, are left grasping amo^ the froth -covered 
sea-weeds. A slight pressure will expel the water, and the 
aspect of the half-dried specimen will at once arrest atten- 
tion. 

It is in fact a Sponge^ differing only in the details of its 

* Branching like a tree. 



304 SPONGES. 

structure and its general form from the sponges of commerce. 
The latter, whose irregular swelling outlines are. so famil- 
iar to us, are of foreign origin, the better kinds coming 
from the more eastern shores of the Mediterranean, the 
coarser and larger kinds from the Bahamas. The commer- 
cial value of these is based upon the horny nature and 
closely interwoVen texture of their internal skeleton. 

A sponge is, typically, a gelatinous mass, in which is im- 
bedded numerous little spikes and plates, of a horny, calca- 
reous, or siliceous substance ; or hair-like threads of various 
forms, which are so thickly disposed and closely knit to- 
gether by animal matter, that they form a sort of open-work 
frame supporting the looser tiasues. 

In the common sponge this frame- work is wholly composed 
of horny hairs, which are so densely packed and elastic that 
they immediately resume their original shape after being 
compressed. The gelatinous matter is in all cases cleaned 
out after the sponge is torn up from its rocky bed, and those 
which we utilize are only the horny skeletons of the living 
animals. So loosely constructed and fragile, however, ai'e 
the large branching species of our own coast, that a dried 
s^Decimen may be crushed to powder in the hand. 

The exterior of our beach specimens have a furry look, due 
to the projecting points of the spicute, which protrude 
through the outer skin. Scattered holes of considerable 
size reveal portions of the interior, and between them are 
innumerable smaller pores. These larger apertures connect 
with distinct channels which ramify through the mass in all 
directions, and, when surrounded by their native element, 
expel continuous jets of water. In fact the whole is only an 
apparatus for absorbing and ejecting sea-water, well deserv- 
ing its old name of sea-lungs. 

The surrounding liquid is taken in through the smaller 
pores of the outer side, and, passing through the lung-like 
interstices of the structure, is finally collected in the main 
channels and thrown out again, together with quantities of 



SPONGES. 305 

feculent matter through the larger openings. The meshes 
of the sieve and the channels are thickly lined with myriads 
of microscopical animalculte, to which the perpetual current 
bears their minute food, sifted of all the coarse, unsuitable 
particles, and maintains an invigorating supply of fresh sea- 
water throughout the whole colony. The animals themselves 
create this current by the motion of ciliie, or little hairs, 
which grow out from the region of the mouth. The form of 
their bodies has been ascertained in only one species, called 
Leucoaolenia botryoides. In this, which is quite small, 
though common on the shore, Professor H. J. Clark found 
that they were minute sac-shaped beings, with a collar pro-, 
jecting from the free end, in the middle of which was the 
mouth, situated at the base of a long filament which was 
hardly ever at rest. It seemed to be employed principally 
in casting morsels of food down into the mouth, and this 
action, in itself so slight, is yet, when carried on by the thou- 
sands of neighboring filaments, sufficient to keep the fluids 
in rapid motion through the meshes. 

Until of late years the animal nature of the sponge was 
disputed. Then it was referred to the Amaeba forms, crea- 
tures which are mere sprawling drops of jelly, without 
mouths or stomachs, but which, however, manage to move 
about, and even in some species build up most elaborate 
internal structures resembling minute shells. Now, through 
the investigations of Professor H. J. Clark, we know that 
they are colonies of such comparatively highly organized 
beings as those I have described, and we are also able to 
state, upon the same authority, that their young are free, 
roving globules, resembling an isolated individual of the 
parent stock. 

The mode of growth has not been studied in the sponge 
itself, but in a closely allied animal where a number of lit- 
tle bells grow upon a stem (Codosiga pulcherrima) , The 
young of this is free at first, but finally attaches itself, and 
becomes elevated on a pedicle. Then the vase grows more 

AMEB. NATURALIST, VOL. n. 89 



806 8fONaE8» 

oval, the opposite sides at tiie narrowest diameter approach 
each oth«*9 coalesce and split, dividing all the internal or- 
gans, and the mouth and calyx, or collajr, iato two parts. 
Two other filaments grow up from these halvies, and a fissure 
begins in the disk, which gradually spreads both upward and 
downward, until two transparent vases, complete in structure, 
swing upon the trunk which bore only one an hour before* 
This process in some species is continued until quite a cloud 
of descendants cluster around the parent branch, but in 
others, again, only separate and distinct individuals are pn> 
duced, the division totally separating the stem as well as the 
body. 

The sponge, probably, grows in the same way ; but the 
vases, haFing no stems, remain attached side by side, and 
secrete the gelatine and spicul», or horny hairs, from the 
lower surfsuses of their bodies. These support the membmiid 
aad enable it to maintain a definite outline, and continue its 
growth without the danger of collapsing. 

There are several species on our coast, but the most nor^ 
ticable is the great Halichondria, whose favorite resort is ah 
^d wharf*pile. This may not seem an attractive object, but 
Nature has clothed the whole coast with her living tapestries, 
and even here, her taste is as faultless,, and her hand as 
lavish in decoration,, as in more favored and sunnier spots. 

Get into your boat, and when the tide is lowest float down 
under the wharves through which the current has a clean 
sweep. The waves lift the dank bladder-weeds and long 
green sea^hair which cover their stained sides, while below 
these, brown clusters of nmsselnBhella open their fruiged 
mouths, and huge anemones, as thick as your arm, spread 
their laced crowns of white, brown, crimson, or variegated 
colors on the water-worn logs ; and in the midst our great 
sea-lungs hangs out its mass of branches, and spreads its 
weird fingers up towards the observer. Even the sponge is 
beautiful in such places and with such associations. 



i 



NOTES ON TROPICAL FRUITS. 

BT W. T. BRIGHAM. 
[Contintted Arom page 186.] 

Cocos mmferaj Cocoauut. To attempt to give a bare 
enumeration of the qualities of tliis most useful of the noble 
family of Palms iVould be a difficult task, and there is a 
saying among Eastern nations that its attributes would fill 
a book. Although its strict territory is bounded by the 
tropics, and although a denizen of the sea-shore, it will grow 
as far north sjb Lucknow, in India (26^ 50' N.), and is planted 
far in the interior of that peninsula ; but in the one case it 
does not bear fruit, in the other is dwarfed and languishes. 
From its littoi*al position, its buoyant and Well-protected 
nuts have been driven by winds and currents all over the 
tropical seas, and almost as soon as the atoll changes from a 
mere reef to an island, the cocoanut lands on the shores. 

The tall unbranching stem, often attaining the height of 
ninety-feet, with a diameter at the base of three feet, and at 
the crown a foot, is a most atti*active object. The scars of 
the fallen leaf>stalks, more and more distinct as they ap« 
proach the top, show clearly the way in which the stem has 
grown, starting almost at the commencement of life with its 
full diameter, and Growing off crop after crop of leaves as 
it grows in height. The leaves are usually twelve or fifteen 
in number, often foui'teen feet long, and cluster around the 
cap. As a new leaf comes out, it is covered with a brown 
fibrous sheath, which is soon split through by the sfaar|> end 
of the leaf. At first the leaflets are folded closely upon the 
central rib, so closely that they seem a part of the smooth, 
bright green blade. The ftiidrib is now quite short, much 
like the midrib of our common palm-'leaf fans, and if we 
could crumple one of these dried leaves up, we should have 
much the plan of the young cocoauut leaf. If the blades 

(807) 



308 NOTES ON TROPICAL FRUITS. 

• 

should now expand the leaf would be palmate ; but it goes on 
lengthening the axis and becomes pinnate, showing a higher 
order of development. Five or six leaves are unfolded 
every year, and as many wither and fall off. When young 
the leaves are quite tender, but when fully expanded, become 
very stiff and hard. 

The axillary spathe opens always on the under side and 
soon falls off, leaving a spicate spadix bearing the female 
flowers near the base ; as in most palms the blossom is beau- 
tiful from the great number of the flowers, rather than from 
any individual grace. In favorable places each stem will 
bear from five to fifteen nuts, and a mature tree may have 
eight or ten, or even twelve of these stems, one blossoming 
every four or five weeks ; so that a tree will produce from 
eighty to a hundred nuts annually. They ripen in succes- 
sion, so that blossoms and fruit are seen at once. 

As the fruit cpmes to us its glory is gone. It is in its 
best condition just before ripeness, or when the shell is soft 
enough to be cut with a knife ; then the interior is filled 
with a rich clear milk, always cool when just gathered, and 
the shell is coated with a gelatinous cream almost transpa- 
rent, and so soft as to be eaten with a spoon. When fully 
ripe, the inner crust has hardened, and absorbed the better 
part of the milk, leaving an insipid water. The milk is 
quite nutritious, and many medicinal effects have been at- 
tributed to it. I have drank nothing else for several days, 
without perceiving any unfavorable result. It is perhaps 
with more reason regai*ded as a cure for sea-sickness. Care- 
fully picked with a portion of the stem attached, they may 
be earned for three weeks at sea uninjured, perhaps longer, 
so that we might be supplied with fresh nuts from the West 
Indies. 

A cocoanut is always planted with the three black spots, 
which are seen at one end, upwards. From one of these the 
stem rises, and the shell is soon split. Often the nut does 
not begin to germinate for six months, or even a year after 



NOTES ON TROPICAL FRUITS. 309 

planting, and it grows slowly for the first two years of its 
life. In favorable situations the tree begins to bear when 
six years old, and continues until seventy years, or even 
longer. 

It is said that the palm loves the company of man, and 
grows best near his habitation, and well may man return the 
love, for it furnishes him with all the necessaries, and many 
of the luxuries of life, requiring no cultivation or care. The 
wood is hard in old trees, and very ornamental, and is used 
for timber. The rootlets are eaten, or rather chewed as 
tobacco : the young leaves are boiled and eaten as cabbage ; 
when they are older they furnish a good surface to write on 
with a sharp point (cow-dung is usually rubbed in to make 
the characters more visible), and also to thatch houses, 
fence gardens, make baskets, mat-beds, fish-nets, fans, sieves, 
and hats; when old and dry, the stout midrib is used for 
clubs, paddles, raftei*s, fence posts ; the ribs of the leaf- 
lets for brushes, torches, or the whole is turned to furnish 
potash. The husk of the nut is stripped off by means of a 
small stake fixed in the gi*ound, and a man can strip a thou- 
sand nuts per diem, and the husks are then soaked for seve- 
ral months in water to separate the fibre, and finally twisted 
into rope, or woven into mats under the name of coir. This 
rope is very strong and light, does not rot when wet, and 
floats on the water. Forty nuts usually yield six pounds of 
coir. The undressed fibre of the husk is a capital polishing 
material, and sailoi*s use nuts split in halves to rub down 
decks. 

Before the spathe opens it is often tapped, and a clear 
juice runs out which is fermented to form toddy, or boiled 
down to make jaggery, or palm sugar. This tapping is sup- 
posed to injure the tree if long continued. 

The ripe nut is cooked and eaten in various ways. When 
grated it is an ingi'edient of the best cuiTies ; mixed with 
sweet potato, or kalo, and baked, it forms a fine pudding. 
The Pacific islanders chew up the meat and rub it into their 



310 NOTES ON 9BOPICAL ^BUISS. 

httir as a pomatum, and whether owing to this application or 
not, their hair is exceedingly abundant and black. 

The oil is, perhaps, one of the most valuable products. 
The Micronesians break up the nuts, and expose the meat to 
the heat of the aim in covered troughs, wetting the mass con- 
stantly. Fermentation takes place and the oil drops out 
into containers. The East Indian process is almost as rude, 
the nuts being ground in a wooden or stone mill of primitive 
construction. The oil produced, of course, varies in quality 
as well as in quantity, ten nuts producing one quart, or in 
other cases thirty nuts only three pints. In other places 
the ground nuts are pressed, and sometimes boiled. The best 
oil is used either for cooking purposes, or to anoint the body 
either before or after bathing, — a most grateful process in a 
hot dry climate ; and the poorer qualities supply the lamps. 
Torches are often made of elephant's dung bound into cylin- 
der by the ribs of the leaflets, and saturated with the oil. 

Borassus SechellensiSj the Double Cocoanut. This was 
long regarded as a most valuable medicinal charm, -<-a sure 
remedy for sterility either of man or beast ; but its I'eputation 
has much diminished. It differs from the ordinary cocoanut 
in having two distinct lobes, connected at the upper end so 
as to form a continuous cavity. The milk and meat are not 
so good as the common nut, and more resemble the contents 
of the Palmyra nut, so common in India and elsewhere. 

Phoenix daciylifera^ Date. The leaves are shaped like 
those of the cocoanut, but are stiffer and of a lighter color. 
The lower portion of the stalk remains attached to the stem 
long after the leaf has withered, making it rough and admi- 
rably adapted for harboring small snakes, centipedes, or the 
more agreeable parasites of the vegetable world. The male 
blossoms are exceedingly numerous, eleven thousand having 
been counted on a single spadix, and yet to obtain a full 
crop of fruit artificial impregnation is necessary. The hard 



THE OTSTBIA SfLK^WOBlT. 311 

woody epathe ie not deciduous,, and adds to 1^ untrim ap- 
peai'ance of the tree. In Egypt the friiit clusters are often 
of a hundred pounds wei^t, and hang down from stems as 
large as a man>s wiist. The yellow dates are tiie smallest, 
and the black ones the largest in some places, but there is a 
variety of yellow dates three inches long. The cluster does 
not all ripen at onoe, but each date that matures is at once 
I'emoved to make room for the rest. Dried, they form the 
chief food for the Arabs, and are mudi liked by all who are 
able to get them. The crushed and dirty dates that come to 
our markets are very inferior. 

The date tree is not so long Hired as the oocoanut, and its 
uses are by no means so extensive. The wood is soft, the 
blades of the leaves hard sxkd narrow,. and of course the coir 
and oil are wanting, and yet the fruit is perhaps the most 
delicious produced by any palm. 



THE CYNTHIA SILK-WORM. 

BY W. v. ANDREWS. 

It is not at all a creditable circumstance to us, as an 
enterprising people, that so little has hitherto been done 
towards making silk -culture a source of national wealth. 
Thirty years ago, accoi*ding to Mr. d'Homergues' account, 
some spasmodic efforts were made in this direction ; but, for 
some cause, chiefly I imagine from the absence of skilled 
labor, the thing came to naught. In Connecticut, princi- 
pally in the counties of Windham and Tolland, sewing-silk 
was manufactured to some extent; but even there the 
** hands" persisted in reeling the silk after the fashion of 
their grandmothers, and were far too knowing, and shrewd, 
to allow themselves to be taught anything by outsiders, who, 
probably under the cloak of a desire to communicate know- 



312 THE CYNTHIA SII«K-WORM. 

ledge, harbored some base design on the poeket. What is 
being done in that locality now I do not know, and the only 
sewing- silk manufactory that I know of, is that of the 
•'Singer Sewing Machine Company," in New Jersey. Of 
course all the silk they use is imported. 

The silk-producing moth of the period above adverted to 
was, of course, the Bombyx moHy and the same species has 
continued up to a very recent {period, to furnish most of the 
silk manufactured in Europe. With the conservative feeling 
which forms so admirable a trait in their character, the Eng- 
lish have stuck to their old friend through good and evil re- 
port, till at last the disease which threatens to exterminate 
this once valuable insect, has compelled them, as well as their 
neighbors the French, to cast about for some more healthy 
silk-producer. Two species seem to recommend themselves, 
and they are the Yama-inai^ and the Cynthia; the last- 
named being the favorite ; and this is the moth whose cul- 
ture here, as a silk-producer, it is the object of this paper to 
recommend. It has been asked, Why not select some native 
American species, and thus get rid of difficulties which will, 
doubtless, occur in the attempts to acclimatize this foreigner? 

In the first volume of this Magazine, Mr. Trouvelot hais 
shown, more or less satisfactorily, that our principal silk- 
worms, CecTOpea, LunUj and Promethea^ do not produce a 
cocoon suitable for the silk manufacturer. I must confess 
that I have my doubts of this. It seems to me, as the cocoon 
is made of silk, that, under favorable circumstances, it may 
be made serviceable; but I concede that, at present, we 
should turn our attention to other species. The Pclyphe" 
mtis^ Mr. Trouvelot thinks, is the only American silk-worm 
worthy of present attention, and I agi*ee with him. The 
silk produced by it is coarse and strong ; and I am positive 
may \ye turned to profitable account. It possesses, too, I 
think, an advantage, in that \he cocoon can be unwound with 
compaiutive ease* 

•For descriptions and figures of the Telea PoiyphewnUf see Ahebican NATI7KAL- 
IST, Vol. I, pagea 35, 85, 145, and plates 6 and G. 



r 

I 



THE CrrNTHIA 8ILK-W0BM. 313 

But the principal objection to the American silk-moths is, 
that they produce only one brood a year, with the exception, 
I believe, of Luna» Now the Cynthia can be made to pro- 
duce two broods easily ; and, so far as I can see, the cocoon 
of the second brood is just as good as that of the first. Again, 
the food of some of the species is of very slow growth ; such 
as the oak, the elm, and the hickory. 

Now the food of the Cynthia^ at least in this country, is 
the ailanthus, a tree of luxuriant foliage and rapid growth ; 
and, at present, more ornamental than useful. If we accli- 
matize the Cynthiaj we can reverse the order of things. It 
is somewhat doubtful, for reasons I shall presently give, 
whether the ailanthus is the natural food of this insect ; but 
I will waive that consideration for the present. 

In view of the confusion which evidently exists as to the 
identity of Cynthia^ I think it best here to state, that the 
insect I am writing about is the one figured, tolerably well, 
in Duncan's Exotic Moths, Plate 14, fig. 1. The coloring 
there is not quite correct, but that is, doubtless, the moth. 

Drury (Westwood's edition) has also given a tolerably 
accurate figure in his ^Illustrations," and taking (as every 
body else seems to have taken) his description from that of 
Dr. Boxburgh^s Memoirs on the Silk-producing Moths of 
the East (Transactions of the Linnaean Society, Vol. 7), 
calls it the ^^Arrindy Silk-worm ;" says that it feeds on the 
castor-oil plant, and that its soft cocoons are so delicate and 
flossy y that it is impossible to wind them off, and that there- 
fore they are spun like cotton. Now this description, which 
is substantially quoted by Mr. A. R. Grote in the *^ Practical 
Entomologist," by no means applies to the cocoon of the 
Cynthia. It is not a soft, flossy cocoon, like that of Cecro- 
pia^ but hard like that of Promethea^ which indeed it gene- 
rally resembles. There is, to me, certainly a difSculty in 
winding it ; and this, at present, is the main objection to it. 
But this difficulty arises from our ignorance of the proper 
solvents for the gum of the cocoon, and the proper temper- 

AMEB. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 40 



S14 THE CITNTHIA 8ILK-WQRM. 

ature at which to apply it. Pearlash is the best solvent I 
have yet foand, but it is not, as I apply it, satisfactory. In 
fact a practical silk-reeler is required to decide this point. 
Mr. Grote, in quoting Kirby, who quotes Dmry, esqiresses 
a doubt as to whether the Cynthia is really meant by the 
latter ; and from all that I <^n learn the castor-oil feeder is 
certainly a diffei*ent species. 

Mr. Grote, in a subsequent paper in the **Practical Ento- 
mologist," says that the CyrUhia is the Yamormai of Japan, 
and that in that country it is an oak feeder ; but surely this 
is a mistake of the Dutch author, from whom Mr. Grote 
transcribes. I have not reared Yawa-'maiy but I have some 
of its eggs, sent me by Dr. Wallace, of England, and they 
are nothing like the eggs of CyrUhia* They are much larger 
and altogether of a different color. 

To make confusion worse confounded, the very capital 
description of CynUiia, given by M. Tegetmeir in a recent 
English publication, is accompanied by a colored drawing of 
the insect, as much unlike that moth as the artist could con- 
scientiously make it. So when we have the description 
right, the illustration is wrong ; and vice versa ^ when the 
illustration is good, the description is bad. However, we 
have fixed on our moth. It is, as I said befoi*e, the Satumia 
Cynthia of Duncan. Farther description I need not give, 
except to assure ladies who have so far got over their horror 
of '*bugs" as to rear butterflies and moths, that they will 
find the extreme beauty, both of the Cynthia and of its 
caterpillar, a full recompense for any little trouble they may 
take in raising them. 

I will now condense from a little entomological journal 
kept by me (I make no pretensions to being an entomolo- 
gist), some remarks, having practical application to the sub- 
ject before us ; and which, I hope, may be of service to 
those who wish to assist in acclimatizing this beautiful moth, 
with a view to its ultimate culture as a silk-producer. 

The eggs, which I obtained from Mr, John Akhurst, of 



THE CnVTHIA SILK-WORK. 815 

Brooklyn, were laid on t)r about the 18th of May, last year. 
From description, I had expected to find the eggs white, 
and without any central depression. I found them white, 
str&xked toitli blacky and the depression very obvious. The 
eggs commenced hatching out on the first of June, making 
about twelve days in the egg. The caterpillar is yellow, 
with transverse rows of black dots ; head, black. On the 
6th of June occurred the first moult, the yellow color bright- 
ening somewhat. On the 11th of June, the second moult, 
the color lighter, almost white. After the third moult the 
color' is white, with black spots ; the head and legs yellow. In 
fact, the body is covered with a very fine white powder. It 
has been objected to the Bombyx mori that it must be raised 
within shelter, seeing that exposure to heavy rains is inju- 
rious to it. Now Cynthia stands exposure to the wet 
admirably, as I had perfect satisfactory proof last year, the 
above-named white powder, as it is conjectured, standing it 
in good stead in a storm. Moreover, a certain amount of 
moisture is necessary Jbr it* The caterpillar drinks greed* 
ily, and, in the event of indoor culture, I advise that the 
branches, when served fresh, should either be dipped in 
water, or sprinkled abundantly, particularly after the third 
moult. 

I need hardly impress upon the mind of any one likely to 
read this paper, the absolute necessity of keeping the cater- 
pillar well fed ; but it may be as well to forewarn everybody 
that these creatures have excellent appetites, which ^grow 
with what they feed upon.^ This is peculiarly observable 
towards the close of the caterpillar life, say after the last 
moult, when the craving seems to be insatiable. For those 
who have the opportunity of doing so, after the third moult, 
it is a good plan to place the caterpillars on low ailanthus 
trees in the open air. Of course they are liable to destruc- 
tion here by birds, as well as by parasitic flies ; but still, if 
you have a large quantity, and it is inconvenient to feed 
them under shelter, this plan may be adopted. Last year I 



316 THE OYJNTUIA SIIiK-WORM. 

raised a great many in this way (itHs year I intend to in- 
crease the number) , and as the caterpillar does not wander, 
I found no dilBculty in collecting ihe cocoons. I allowed 
some to remain on the trees for th6 second brood, and had 
the satisfaction, in the fall, of seeing lots of cocoons swing- 
ing in their leafy cradles. And now is the time to speak of 
the ailanthus as not being the natural food of Cynthia, It 
feeds, we are told, on the castor-oil plant, laburnum, teazle, 
plum, honey-suckle, and spindle-tree. This sounds very 
much like saying that it will eat anything ; but so far as my 
experience goes it thrives better on the ailanthus than on 
anything else ; but the reason that I think that tree is not 
it natural food, is this : the caterpillar forms its cocoon very 
much in the manner of JPrametliea ; that is, by folding a leaf 
around it, having first gummed the leaf-stalk to its branch, 
so as to prevent, one would suppose, its falling to the ground 
in winter. But the leaf of the ailanthus is what botanists 
call a compound leaf; so the unfortunate caterpillar, not 
being sufficiently versed in botany to know this, merely gums 
the leaflets to the petiole; the leaf of course falls in the 
autumn, and the pupa, instead of lying high and dry as was 
intended, lies under the snow all the winter ; with what con- 
sequences to itself I am not able at the moment to say. It 
would appear, therefore, reasoning from analogy, that the 
tree forming the natural food of CyiiUiia /laa a simple and 
not a compound leaf. It may be of consequence to note this, 
for the quantity and quality of the silk produced by any 
worm very much depend on the food it eats, and the natural 
food must be the best. 

I will now proceed with my extracts from the journal. On 
the 28th of June, just twenty-eight days from the hatching, 
the caterpillars commenced forming their cocoons ; and here 
let me say to those who propose to raise them in the house, 
that at this period it is essential that there shall be a good 
supply of well-leaved branches. Every caterpillar will re- 
quire a leaf to itself, and if these be not forthcoming the 



THE CYNTHIA SILK-WORM. 317 

cocoons will be doubled, and even trebled, to the great 
injury of the silk, it being impossible to wind the silk off a 
double cocoon. On the 21st of July the moth appeared ; 
three weeks in the cocoon ; and by the 6th of August the 
second brood of caterpillars began to hatch out ; these going 
into tiie pupa state about the middle of September, and re- 
maining there up to June 10th, I having kept them back a 
little on account of the backwardness of the spring. ^*Oh 
that date the first Cynthia from my collection of cocoons 
made its appearance, and there is every prospect that a few 
days more will witness an increase in that portion of my in- 
sect family." 

I have now said enough to show that the rearing of this 
moth is a very easy, simple process, one which may be at- 
tended to by any boy or girl of ordinary intelligence, super- 
intended of coiurse, if the number raised be very large, by 
some older person. In a word, it furnishes profitable em- 
ployment for those members of the family unable to perform 
harder labor. And this reminds me that if the feeding be 
done within doors, the food branches, or, at the outset, 
simply the leaves, should have their stems immersed in a 
vessel of water ; some precaution being taken to prevent the 
young caterpillars from wading into, or falling into it. 
When nearly full-grown the clusters of fine caterpillars, set 
off by the rich green of the ailanthus leaf, form a very beau- 
tiful sight; and although I cannot conscientiously recom- 
mend such an ornament for the drawing-room table, it 
certainly may be placed almost anywhere without being 
offensive to the most fastidious eye. Plenty of air and light 
should be given them, but they should not be exposed to the 
direct rays of the sun. Beared, even from motives of curi- 
osity, and without a view to immediate pecuniary results, 
the task cannot be performed without teaching a lesson, 
which will be of infinite value to the mind anxious to inform 
itself of the wonderful workings of that law of nature, that 
transforms a small crawling animal, of an eighth of an inch in 




318 THB CYNTHIA SILK-WOiar* 

length when hatched from the egg, into a beautiful fljing 
creature large enough to be mistaken for a bird, and with 
no more resemblance to the aforesaid animal than an eagle 
has to a frog. 

But now a final word as to the steps to be taken to induce 
our people to take up this business of silk-culture. Can it 
be made to pay?, is, I suppose, the main question. I need 
go into no statistics to show that enormous sums of money 
are sent to Eurq^e every year to pay for silk imported ; the 
&ct is notorious. Perhaps no nation in the world is so 
addicted to the use of silken goods as the American. The 
general government collects large sums of money in tiie 
shape of duties on silk, and we can hardly, at the moment, 
expect that it will do much to encourage its culture here. 
But I am confident that it can be made to pay without gov- 
ernment assistance. For, recollect, that we have the food 
of the caterpillar growing already in the greatest abundance 
among us, flourishing ¥rith a luxunance which we sometimes 
find inconvenient; and of such easy culture that in two 
years we coukl have millions of bushes (and they should bo 
kept as bushes) gi'owing ; and on soil, too, that would prob- 
ably produce nothing else. This is an advantage thtti the 
early silk-growers (Md not possess, the raieing of the mul- 
berry being no such easy matter. Then the larva of the 
Cynthia can, as I have said, be raised in open air, and the 
labor of the young, or of the feeble^ is sufficient to perlSMm 
all the work required ; and thus the objeetion of the ^high 
price of labor,'^ so fiital to many an American enterprise, 
tails in this case. Even children may be induced to raise a 
few bushels of cocoons for the sake of pocket-money. Still 
there is no use in raising cocoons if there are no manufisKs- 
turers to purchase them. It seems difficult to account for 
the inertness of our capitalists in affiEiirs of this kind. One 
would suppose that with men possessed of wealth, the rept»- 
tation of having been instrumental in introducing a new 
source of national industry, would be sufficient to induce 



THE CTNTRIA glLK-WORM. 319 

some few at least to bestir themselves in so important a 
matter. But failing this, what objection is there ta the 
Slate Govemnieni affording a little assistance in starting an 
enterprise promising to be of such great benefit to the peo- 
ple ? I look upopi an enterprise of this kind as of the nature 
of building a itiUroad, or oonstructing a telegi*aph line, the 
benefits to be derived firom which, being of a public nature, 
come very prqperly under the immediate supervision of the 
government. It would be oul of place in this journal to go 
minutely into such things as the duties of governments in 
fostering national industry, but I may be permitted to say, 
that, although disapproving of the principle of protective 
tariffs, I see nothing conflicting with my convictions on this 
point in saying, that, if the timidity of individual capitalists 
can be overcome in no other way, the State Governments 
would be justified in making advances, or in offering boun- 
ties, sufficient in amount to guarantee parties embarking in 
the enterprise of silk manu&cture against any actual tempo- 
rary loss. 

In England, as 1 am told, private enterprise is doing all 
this. Wealthy individuals are largely cultivating the ailanthus 
for the Cyrdliiay and are encouraging parties in rearing the 
Yama-mai^ and other silk-producers ; and why should not as 
much entei'prise and patriotism be found here ? To be sure, 
entomologists are not there laughed at for being ^bug-hunt- 
ers ;" and there are numbers of ready hands willing and anx- 
ious to assist in the undertaking ; but I am not without hope 
that sufficient intelligence will be found amongst ourselves to 
enable ^^eople to understand that a devotion to the study of 
Nature's laws, even in the insect world, is not incompatible 
witii the possession of, at least, average common sense. 

Let it not be forgotten that the rearing of the CyrUhia^ as 
a silk-producer, is not a new, untried experiment. The Chi- 
nese, for a longer period than I should like to mention, have 
manufactured silk from its cocoons ; the garments made from 
it possessing a durability quite annoying to ladies of the 



320 BBVIEWS. 

Flora M'Flimsy type. Dresses made up for ladies in the 
early dawn of womanhood do very well for their grand- 
children arrived at a suitable age ; and, if this be not a rec- 
ommendation, let us hope that the fact that some English 
manufacturers have given the opinion that; the silk from the 
Cynthia may be made into shawls equal to the best Indian 
may somewhat reconcile our fair countrywomen to the use 
of an old article possessing the preposterous quality of being 
as good as new, if washed in a little cold water. 



REVIEWS. 



Thb Kortr American Grapes. By Dr. George Engelmann, ^'Perheips 
the first plant noticed on the continent of North America, even before 
Colnmbus and before the Pilgrims,— a plant identified with the discovery 
of America itself, — was the Grape-vine ; it gave to the country the name 
Vinelandt and later, to a part of it, that of Martha's Vineyard. And yet 
the grape-vines, many fbrms of which grow fh>m Canada to the Rio 
Grande, and Arom Virginia to Calilbmia, are among the least thoroughly 
known plants of North America. Linnieus knew two species ; and that 
sagacions observer, the founder of the fiora of North America, Michaux, 
added three more. These five species are acknowledged to this day as 
the principal fbrms found in the regions between the Atlantic and the 
Mississippi. But even in their native haunts they vary to such a degree, 
that both scientific and non-scientific observers have never felt satisfied 
about them. Raflnesque, about fifty years ago, undertook to describe and 
classify these forms ; but, with his loose observation and lax scientific 
conscience, he, as usual, instead of becoming a guide, created inextricable 
conftision. Le Conte, long after him, did little to unravel the entangle- 
ment ; and since their efibrts to distinguish imaginary species, the ten- 
dency has rather been to combine what were formerly considered, even 
by conscientious authors, as distinct species. 

I have long devoted much attention to the grape-vines of my home 
(St. Louis), but have become satisfied that no satisfiu^tory solution can 
be obtained without the cooperation of the A'lcnds of botany throughout 
the whole country ; so I ask fVom their love and zeal for our science, 
and fh>m the general interest which this particular Investigation now 
commands, their Aricndly cooperation. 

In order to arrive at satisfactory conclusions, It is necessary to study 
all the forms which present themselves, in all their bearings, and under 



KEVIEWS. 3^21 

the different conditions in which they are found. Specimens oagfat to be 
collected in flower, exhibiting also the young shoots and developing leaves, 
andt /rom the same stock, in Aruit, if Aralt they bear; and ripe seed should 
be obtained ; the soil, the locality, the accompanying plants, and the size 
of the vine ought to be noted, the difference in shape and size of the leaves 
of young shoots and of bearing branches is often important ; the exact 
time of flowering, and the period of maturity are interesting data ; the size, 
color, and taste of the fhiit, the presence or absence of the bloom on the 
ripe berry ; the usual number of seeds in each, the conditions and color 
of the pulp, — all are points not to be neglected. It is not expected 
that species can be founded on the variations in all these characters, but 
it is important that the limits of variation of the different species should 
be defined ; and that can only be done by exact study of as many forms 
as possible in all their bearings. Thus fiu: I have only seen vines with 
perfect and with stamlnate flowers ; purely pistillate ones may perhaps 
be discovered by acute observers. 

The species now known to botanists in the territory of the United 
States, but several of them not sufficiently defined, are the following : 

1. Grape-vines toUh large Berries. 

1. ViTis vuLPZNA Linn., the Southern Fox-grape, or Muscadine, with 
several cultivated varieties, such as the Scuppernong, etc. 

2. Yrris Labrusca Linn., the North-eastern Fox-grape, with numerous 
cultivated varieties, such as the Catawba, Isabella, Concord, Hartford 
Prolific, etc. 

d. Vms CAKDiCAKS Eugclm., the Mustang grape of Texas. 

2. Grape-vines toith smaller Berries. 

4. Vms CARiBiEA DC., of Southern Florid^ and the West Indies. 

5. Vrris Californica Benth., confined to California. 

6. ViTis iESTiVAUs Mlchx., the Summer grape of the Middle and the 
Southern States, with numerous varieties, of which var. monticola ( V. 
monticola Buckley) of Texas approaches No. 5, and var. canescens of the 
Mississippi Valley approaches No. 7 ; several cultivated varieties, such as 
Norton^s Virginia Seedling, and the Cynthiana grape, are among our best 
wine-grapes. 

7. ViTis CORDIFOLIA Mlchx., thc sour Winter or Chicken-grape of the 
Eastern States, and Its variety /oe^ida of thc Mississippi Valley, often 4-6 
inches in diameter, climbing the highest trees, and bearing fetidly aro- 
matic berries. No variety I believe in cultivation. 

8. Vms RiPARiA Mlchx., the Biver-bank grape, throughout the United 
States to the Mississippi ; the only grape In East Canada, where It ex- 
tends sixty miles north of Quebec (Brunet) ; a valuable grape in cultlva- * 
tion, under the name of Clinton, Taylor, and Delatoare grapes. An early 
native variety ripens its sweet berries early in July about St. Louis. 

9. Vms Arizonica, n. sp., and as yet doubtfhl plant, of Arizona, with 
small leaves, and middle-sized berries. 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. n. 41 



Si2li KEvnsws. 

10. Yrris rdprstris Scbeele, tlie Busk-grape or (In Mfssonii) Sand' 
grape, which extends fh>in Missouri to Texas. 

It is worth noting that lUl those of the forms enamerated above, which 
I had an opportunity of raising ttpom seed, exhibit marked diflferences 
already in the seedling plant a few months old. During my absence la 
Europe ibr the next twelve months. Professor A.Gray, of Cambridge, has 
kindly offered his assistance in communicating with those wJio> wish to 
assist me, and letters directed to me, at St. I^uis, Missourlf will be for- 
warded to me. — I. 6. £. 

The Corals and Starfishes of llauxiL.* — But little is known of the 
shores of Brazil, and until their discovery by Professor Hartt, so graphi- 
cally related by him in the Naturaust, was it ever known that there 
were recfe of coral on that coast. Professor VerriU here gives us in a 
connected form a view of the radiate animals of Brazil, with notes on 
those of Lower California. H« remarks that 

** It appears somewhat remarkable that while the EchlnodemM, with Aw exoepUons, are 
oommon West Indian or FlotliUi speetes. Hie oorals are nearly aU« so.lkr as known, peenUar to 
the coast of BraxU. Tlii/« is, however. In aecordaooe witli similar ikct^ observed in tlie E*afiifle 
and Indian Ocean, wlierc tlie greater part of the tropical Echlnoderms have a vast range, In 
some eases even from the Hawaiian Ishinda to the coast of AlHea, while tlie corals are much 
more local, all tlie principal groups of Islands having many peculiar Ibrms. This Is, perliapa, 
due to the much longer time during which the young of most Eoliinodenaa remain Itk the awe, 
swimming condition, liable to be carried groat distances by ourreuta.** 

Thk Book of Evergreens. By Jonah Moopes — The author has fer- 
Bished, under the above modest title, a book than which none could be 
more needed. Good books are always in demand, and therefore the first 
paragraph of the prefiice might have been omitted, or at least so modified, 
as to be a statement of the author's claims to teach concerning the Coni- 
ferse, rather than an excuse for ^ intruding his views and experiences upon 
the public." 

Mr. Hoopes has long been fevorably known as a successfhl arboricul- 
turist, and as especially successilil in growing the Conifers. He has, 
moreover, been a pupil of the late, lamented Dr. Darlington, to whose 
memory the >'olume is dedicated. With these guarantees as to his com- 
petency, and with the superadded one of enthusiasm in his *' speciality** 
we might reasonably expect something good. The reading proved our 
expectations to be well founded. 

Up to this time no popular work on the subject, and suited to our cli- 
mate, has been accessible to the American public. We should be unjust 
to the author, as he is to himself, if we limited its merit to merely sup- 
plying a popular want. It is more ; for on its pages we find much that Is 
valuable to the man of science, along with some smaller matters, which 
are open to his criticism. The views of classification expressed may or 
may not accord with those of Parlatore and Engelmann. Tet all the con- 

* Notice of the Oorals and Eclilnoderms collected by Professor C. F. Hartt, at the Abnrtboa 
Beef!^ Province of Balila, Brasll, 1867. Svo, pp. 90. Notice of a Collection of Echlnoderms, 
from La Paz, Lower CalUbmla, with Descriptions of a New Genus. By A. E. Venill. Svo, 
pp. 6. April, 1868. With a plate. (From the Transactions of the C<MintGtlciU Academy ot 
Arts and Sciences.) 



NATURAI. HISTORY MI8GELLANT. 323 

dnslons seem to be based on careAil study. In tbese days of specific 
doabts and difficulties, it is all Important, we tHink, that ttie broader 
views of species be taken. We would have even gone farther than Mv. 
Hoc^ies- In our reduction of some hitherto accredited species, and we 
fiincy we could, in a few cases, arrange tiiem better under the genera. 
The goodly number of varieties eninnerated shows he has not fallen into 
the bad habit of giving a new specific name to every sport produced under 
cultivation. The advice concerning the^ growth* and propagation of Coni- 
fers may be considered as authoritative for the Middle United States. 

We could wish that more space had been given to the ^* Insects ii^ii- 
xious to Conifer®." The analytical key Is clear, and really smoothes the 
road to the determination of any given species described In the work. 

Truth is truth, Mr. Hoopes thinks ; and does not need any compromise 
to make it truer. Such is the spirit in which be claims the acceptance of 
Sequoia gigantea as the proper name for our California giant. The taste 
which would fill our grounds with imported trees, to the utter exclusion 
of our native beauties, is, we think, Justly censured. 

Judd & Co., of New York, have published the book in their best style. 
It should be in the library of every arboriculturist (whether amateur or 
professional) in the land. — J. T. R. 

TuE BuTTEUFUES OF NoRTH AMERICA.*— Such a beautlftilly printed 
and finely Illustrated work on our Bntterfiles, as this promises to be, will 
be opportune to all butterfiy hunters as well as entomologists generally. 
Mr. Edwards brings to this work a thorough knowledge of our Butter* 
files, and the reader will find much that Is new regarding their haunts 
and habits. In the early numbers the species figured will be mostly new, 
or If old, those that have been Incorrectly described or figured. With 
Part III. win be commenced a synopsis of North American species, to be 
completed within the volume. The lithographic plates are beautUUllj 
drawn,' and the letter-press Is all that can be desired. When completed 
the work will make a most attractive volume. A number, containing at 
least five plates, will be issued every three months. Figures of both sur- 
flices of the Insect are given, and of both sexes wherever possible. 



i^*0*0^^^^m^^%^^^^»^0l^^^^0*0m 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELUNT. 



BOTANY. 

Choice kewVariett of Kalmia latifoua. — Flowers have Just been 
brought to us by Mr. Charles J. Power, florist, South Framlngham, Mass., 

*TlM Bntteifflles of ISturth America; with colored Drawings and Deteriptions. My 
Wm. H. £dwiircl8, Philadelphia. PttbUsiied bj the American Entomeloffical Socle^. 
Part I, 4to. April, 1868. Price of each part, $2.00. Subacrlbera may addresa £. T. 
Cresson, SIS South 13th street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



324 NATURAL HISTORY MI8CELLANY. 

of much the most marked and showy variety of the above species which I 
ever saw, and which, being in cultivation, requires a name. It may as 
well be named Var. caroncUa, the Crowned Mountain Laurel. The corolla 
is white, except a broad crown of dark crimson, continuous, but some- 
what blotchy, which occupies the whole inside of the cup from the 
pouches up to near the margin, which again is clear white. A single 
shrub of this was accidentally discovered two years ago, in bloom iu a 
wood near Framingham, by Mr. James Parker, but was destroyed by Are, 
the ground having been accidentally burned over. But a branch, given to 
Mr. Power, was preserved by grafling upon the ordinary form of the spe- 
cies. From this graft, which has now blossomed, it is hoped that this 
beautiful variety may be abundantly propagated. — A. Gray. 

A Wnrrs Choke-cherry. — There is a variety of Choke-cherry (Prunus 
Virginiana) bearing white Aruit occasionally found about here. Is it 
found in other places ?^D. W. C. Chaujs. 



ZOOLOGY. 

Shore-collectino about New York.— Thinking that some of your 
New England readers, who are of course lovers of Natural History, would 
be likely to pay a visit to New York, and would be glad to know where, 
and how to pursue their fl&vorite study, I have been induced to send you 
a few remarks on the subject. It is scarcely necessary to inform them 
that New York, like nearly all great commercial centres, is a very poor 
place to collect specimens in their natural situations, especially marine 
animals and plants, as the shore is so much in demand for wharves, docks, 
factories, etc. ; and this explains why it is so difficult to procure speci- 
mens of shells, corals, etc. Arom sailors, who only visit large cities, and 
of course who have neither time nor inclination to walk a great distance 
in search of them, nor much money to purchase them. 

Suppose a stranger in New York who would like to collect shells, Algas, 
or zoophytes ; there are boats running up the Long Island Sound every 
day in the summer, and the ferries to Statcn Island, but I would advise 
him to leave the city by the Fulton Ferry to Brooklyn, step into a Green- 
wood car, and tell the conductor he wishes to go to Fort Hamilton ; when 
he reaches there, walk a short distance to the left past tlie fort, and hist 
field is befbre him. One thing he should do befbre starting is to look In 
the newspapers and see what hour it is high tide that day, and choose his 
time as near six hours Arom that as possible, and so time his visit as to 
have as much beach as possible, for it would be almost useless to go' at 
high -water. He will immediately notice that the geological formation 
is somewhat diflbrent to what it is on many of the New England shores, 
being all of the drift formation, — no rocks in place, — all loose boulders, 
sand, and gravel, so of course there are none of those beautlAil natural 
aquaria fUU of actinias, alg», and moUusks in a state of nature ; but he 
may find many shallow pools where many very interesting objects may 



NATUBAL HI8TORT MISOELLAlffT. 325 

be obtained. Of course, the shores have their different seasons, as 
the land has ; for in the month of February the shore is covered with 
blocks of ice, so that nothing can be obtained ; but sometimes in this 
month and the beginning of March, I have collected some of my hand- 
somest sea- weeds ; and we generally tind in the coldest months the long 
Aronds of Laminaria saccharina, nearly twenty feet long, which are never 
seen here In the warmer season. It is interesting and worth noticing 
that the largest marine plants, unlike the terrestrial Vegetation, are gene** 
rally found in the colder parts of the world. We read that our North- 
west Territory, Alaska, is fUmous for producing immense specimens of 
Algce, as for instance the NereocystU Lutkeana which forms dense forests 
about Sitka ; its stem Is often three hundred feet long, and ends in a large 
air-vessel six or seven feet long, crowned with a bunch of dlchotomous 
leaves, each thirty or forty feet in length. Cape Horn and the Cape of 
Good Hope also produce immense species of submarine vegetation, in 
comparison with which ours dwarf into insignificance. 

But let the naturalist pay a visit to our shores in July or August, and 
he will find the waters red with beautiful specimens of ChrinneUiaf CerO' 
miumj and CcUlUhamnion, and a little later in the season the most beauti- 
ful plant we have, Datya elegans, in great variety. This plant is also 
found in the Mediterranean. Many of our plants are found in Great 
Britain and Ireland, while some are peculiar to this country. 

But let us stroll along the beach, leaving the Algao, ,and see what shells 
can be found. Naaaa obaoleta is the most common ; this with Nassa trimt" 
tata, Fusus cineritia, Natica duplicata, Crepidula fomicaUi, and two species 
of Litorina comprise nearly all the univalves. We occasionally find dead 
shells of Banella caudata^ Pyrula canaliculata, P. caricay and a few of the 
smaller genera, such as Odoatomia and a small CerUhium. . 

The bivalves mostly consist of Mytilns edulis, Mya arenaria, Venus mev' 
cenariGy Sanguinolaria fuaca^ and occasionally, though rarely, Donax fo8- 
soTy Pandora trilineata, and Osteodemna hyalina. There are a few others 
found here, but so rarely, that a person might visit the beach a dozen 
times without seeing them. 'In the salt meadows, about half a mile 
fh)m the fort, may be found quantities of Mtlampus bidetUatus, and rarely 
M. denticula ^hlprhy after crossing a small brook, may be observed at low 
tide a beautiftil proof of the subsidence of the coa^t of Long Island, for 
here we find beds of peat, and stumps of trees with\heir roots spreading 
in their natural position, showing very plainly, and beyond dispute, that 
the coast has settled very lately, geologically speakings 

The radiated animals are singularly scarce on this part of the coast. It 
is very rare indeed that a single specimen can be found of either star-flsh, 
Echinus, or Holothuria; I mean in New York, that is fkrom Coney Island 
to the city. When we get into Long Island Sound, to the east of the city, 
we sometimes find a few, though they are not plentiful for many miles off. 

It may not be generally known, but I have been assured by ornltholo-. 
gists, that Long Island has produced more species of birds than any other 



.8^ JTATDBAL raSTOBT mSGBLIiAirr. 

I^ace in the United States of its size. Entomologists and botanists make 
ihe same statement in regard to their respective specialities. The shores 
Arom here to the extreme eastern end of the island are mostly protected 
ih>m the ocean by sand-bars and islands, leaving large bays and ealt- 
meadows, which are the fovorite haants of thousands of aqnatic and 
rapacious birds. Many birds have been shot here this winter that are 
generally considered as very rare, such as the Labrador duck, the Harle* 
quin duck, the Goss-hawk, and a fsw others not often seen. On the 
shores of Coney Island we sometimes find, about the months of February 
and March, immense quantities of Madra solidissima and NoHca heros. 
Last March the beach was covered for miles with these shells, especially 
the former, which was heaped up in beds two or three feet thick. — A. H. 
Y., Brooklyn, 

The Crow Blackbird a Robber. — Three years ago this spring there 
came into our village a flock of a dozen or more of the common Crow 
Blackbird (which are plenty in the country above here) for the purpose 
of building their nests in the tall Lombardy poplars in onr streets, and 
they have been with us each season since, leaving whenever the young 
can fly. Until this season they have made their nests only in the poplars, 
selecting places near the trunk, where the clusters of nearly upright limbs 
secure them fh>m ordinaiy observation. This spring they have appeared 
in greater numbers ; two pairs have built their nests inside the spire of a 
church, passing throngh the openings of an ornamented window high up 
above the tops of our tallest trees. A bell is in the tower of the steeple 
below, and is rung at customary times, and a colony of doves is in the sec- 
tion near the bell. The writer has Just discovered that the Blackbirds have 
taken poMession of a martin-house in his garden. They are busily engaged 
carrying in materials for nests, and the martins are flying helplessly 
about. Also, in the top of the pyramidal trellis covered with vines form- 
ing the lower half of the support of the martin-house, a pair are building. 
It is a place used some years by robins, but the fhct was so novel, that 
instead of driving them oflT, a new mnrtin-house is to be put up at once, 
near by, which the martins, in their necessity, will no doubt occupy. The 
Blackbirds are tame about our streets and gardens, lighting on the ground 
at the same time with the robins, with much the same habits in this re- 
spect, although evidently going beyond the limits of the village for most 
of their food. . 

We have robins In large numbers, — small birds being protected by 
law, — and on the arrival of the blackbirds the HrH season there was 
trouble among them, and their note, denoting disturbance, could be heard 
on every side, and Ibr good reason, for the blackbirds, without so much 
as saying ''by your leave," took the materials flrom every unflnished or 
nnoccupied robin*s nest they could flnd. But, singularly enough, the 
blackbirds soon succumbed, and the robins drove them away In all cases 
of contest; bat they seem to live in harmony, and, as I have mentioned, are 
often in company on the ground seeking fbr food. — F. W., Kewarky N. K 



KATURAIi H18TOHT MISCfiLLANT. 827 

170TE8 ON ntR Bed and Mottled Owla. —In a note to the rery In- 
teresting paper of Mr. C. J. Maynard, on The Mottled Owl in Cof^nement<, 
in the April number of the Naturaust, Mr. E. A. Samuels alludes to the 
question as to whether we have two species of ScopSj or whether the 
young -of S. asio are sometimes gray in color and sometimes red, as 
remaining still undecided. As there is hardly a more interesting or more 
singular problem in the histoiy of our birds, a brief history of the ques- 
tion, and a short recapitulation of the knowledge we possess on the sub- 
ject may not be uninteresting. 

The Red Owl was described by Linnteus, in the Systema Naturce, vol. 1, 
p. 182, in 1766, under the name Strix anio. Qmelin, twenty-two years later, 
described {Sffstema ^attircr , vol. 1, p. 289) the Mottled Owl as 8tHx nqpvia. 
In 1812, Alexander Wilson, in the fifth volume of his' admirable, and in 
many respects yet unsurpassed ^merjcavi Ornithology, redescribes the two, 
under the same names, also as distinct species ; and not till 1828 does it 
appear to have been publicly hinted that the two were really one, when 
Prince C. L. Bonaparte united them, he considering the red birds as the 
young, and the gray the old. Audubon, in 1832, sustains this view; one of 
the red birds he figures as the young, being one he reared ftom a fledgling, 
and adds that long before Bonaparte corrected the mistake he (Audubon) 
attributes solely to Wilson, he, as well as some of his friends, was well 
aware of their identity. Nuttall, a fbw years later, supports the same view. 
In 1837, Dr. S. Cabot, Jr.,* of Boston, while considering the two birds iden- 
tical in species, reverses the order, making the red plumage the old, and 
the gray the young; and in confirmation of his views exhibited, as seem- 
ingly conclusive evidence, an old red bird he shot while in the act of 
feeding some gray young ones, which he also exhibited. In July of the 
same year Dr. Ezra Mlchlner, in a paper in the Journal of the Philadel- 
phia Academy of Sciences (vol. 7, p. 68), entitled A few Facts in Relation 
to the Identity of the Bed and Mottled Owls, states that he had seen young 
Screech Owls, accompanied by their parents after leaving the nest, of 
both red and gray colors, the parents being always of the same color as 
the young. '' The conclusion is, therefore," he says, '* evident, either 
that the color of both old and young is variable and uncertain, or that 
they are specifically distinct." The latter opinion he adopts, ignoring the 
then sole known case of different colors in the young and parent in Dr. 
Cabot's birds, very positively concluding there are two species, and that 
Wilson was right. 

Dr. P. R. Hoy, In his valuable Notes of the Birds of Wisconsin, published 
in 1858 in the Proceedings (vol. 6) of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Science, gives them as two species, remarking he is "not yet satisfied 
that the Mottled and Red Owls arc specifically the same." He says, under 
Bcops asio, '*In the month of June I caught four young ones Just as they 
were about leaving the nest. They were of a deep reddish-brown, in all 
respects similar to the female which I shot at the same time, and have 

^ - m 

* Jounua of tlte Boaton Society of Nataral History, Vol. II, p. U6« 



928 IfATURAL HISTORY MI8CELLANY4 

preseTYed." Mr. John Cassln, in his varioas papers on the owls, adopts the 
conclnsions of Bonaparte, considering them as one species, and the gray 
as the adult. He adds, however, referring to the fact of the two stages of 
plumage having been considered as characterizing two species, that *' they 
do present a problem scarcely to be considered as fhlly solved/' But the 
opinion that the Mottled and Red Owls are really but one species, is the 
one now generally adopted by ornithologists. 

From the information now at our command on this subject, can we not 
f\]lly solve the problem? The facts recorded teach us that nestlings and 
young fledglings occur in both red and gray plumage, in some cases birds 
of one brood presenting both conditions ; that old birds are sometimes 
grajr and sometimes red, both colors being common to both sexes, and 
that occasionally red males pair with gray females, and the reverse ; that 
the young are sometimes like their parents and sometimes unlike them. 
These flicts hence seem to warrant the following conclusions : first, that 
these dlflSerent conditions of plumage do not characterize age ; second, 
that they are not sexual peculiarUies; third, that they are unusual and 
irregular variations of plumage of one species. Though such variations 
are extremely rare, our bird Is in this respect not without Its parallels in 
other countries. The best known instance seems to be that of the Brown 
Owl of Europe {Symium alueo)j which, according to authors, presents 
similar variations. And they apparently occur in other species of Scope. 
. Considering, then, the Bed and Mottled Owls as unquestionably one spe- 
cies, and one dlfiUsed widely over the continent, occurring ftrom ocean to 
ocean, and fh>m Mexico nearly or quite to the arctic regions, have we 
really a second species of Scops In the United States ? In 1854, Mr. Gas* 
sin, in his lUustratioM of the Birds of California, Texas, etc., describes a 
species of Scops Arom California, Texas, and Mexico, " In form and gene« 
nil characters much resembling Scops asio, but smaller," but which he 
considers new, giving it the name of Scops Maccallii (Western Mottled 
Owl). Its validity as a species distinct fh>m S. asio has been questioned 
by very high authorities, and apparently with very good reasons, its chief 
and almost only distinction fW>m S. asio of the north being Its somewhat 
smaller size. Mr. P. L. Sclater, one of the highest authorities on Amer- 
ican birds, in remarks (Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 
1857) on a collection of birds fh>m about Oxaca, In Southern Mexico, 
mentions an owl under this name, which, though he says it, ** certainly has 
the appearance of Scops asio, and Is smaller," but does not, he thinks, *' quite 
fit** this species {S, Maccallii), Dr. J. O. Cooper, who has collected speci- 
mens of the bird in question in Southern Arizona, thinks It scarcely distinct 
firom Scops asio. The slight dlfflerences In color pointed out by Mr. Ca8« 
sin are of but little account, while the character of smaller size is either 
of no, or of negative, value. It Is well known now to naturalists who 
have been at all attentive to the subject, that a diminution in size among 
birds in species resident over a large area Is a constant attendant on de- 
crease of latitudes, so that birds residing at points a thousand miles dis* 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 329 

tant in latitude are likely to diflfer markedly in size, while presenting no 
appreciable differences in other characters. The few cases where this 
does not apparently occur, are only the exceptions to a general law. 
Hence we should expect to find the specimens of Scqps asio collected in 
Florida, Texas, Mexico, and other southern points, smaller than those of 
the Northern States and Canada. Before this law was fUlly recognized — 
and which the immense collections of birds from widely different parts of 
this continent, recently brought together at the Smithsonian Institute, 
under the careAil scrutiny of Professor Baird and his co-laborators, have 
aided immensely to demonstrate — many species were indicated whose 
chief and not unfrequently only distinction (Vom more northern allies 
was the character of smaller size, and in this category seems to me to 
be the true place of Scops Maccallii Cass.; leaving then but one Scops— 
our well-known Screech Owl— to- America north of the tropics.— J. A. 
Allen. 

A Perching Snipe.— Mr. W, A. Pope has observed the Scolopax Wil- 
sonii in Prince Edwards Island, '' setting on the top of a tree at least 
thirty feet ftrom the ground."— Land and Water. 

Have our ornithologists observed this peculiarity in the snipe ? 

The Distribution or our Birds in the Breeding Season. — Pro- 
fessor Agassiz has issued a circular, In which he asks for the cooperation 
of ornithologists in securing specimens of birds and complete local lists, 
with ftiU notes in reference to the times of their migrations, time of nest- 
ing, and relative abundance. A series of specimens of birds of any local- 
ity in the Southern and Western parts of the continent, with or without 
their nests and eggs, with the date and place of collecting careAiUy not«d 
and appended, are much desired. Specimens may be sent to the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Salt-water Insects.— Dr. J. L. Leconte writes us regarding the sup- 
posed Micralymna larva, mentioned In the July number of the Natural- 
ist: "Your Staphylinide larva is probably that of Micralymna Stimpsonii 
Leconte (New Species of Coleoptera, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, p. 57). It is much larger than the Greenland species, which is 
also in my collection. It ought to be common where it occurs." We have 
received ftom Professor A. E. VerrlU specimens of the "puparium," or 
pupa-case, of the fly so abundant In Mono Lake, Cal., where It was col- 
lected by Professor B. SilUman. It Is a species of Ephydra, closely allied 
to that figured (Fig. 46) in the July Naturalist, and is not allied to 
Eristalis as was supposed. In this connection we would state that Mr. 
Horace Mann desires us to say that he himself has not been nearer than 
ten miles to I^ake Mono. He only knows that sonne Indians eat these 

insects. 

Dr. Leconte thus writes regarding another salt-water Insect: "In 
your notes on sea-insects, you do not refer to our singular Californian 
Staphylinide, Thinopus, with two species, found below high-water mark 

AMER. naturalist, vol. II. 42 



330 KATUBAL HISTORY MI8GELLANT. 

on the wet sand. From the variegation of pale yellow and black they are 
slngalarly Crustacean-like, both in the larval form and in the perfect 
state." 

Enemy of the Potatoe-bug. — I have seen, for the last few days, 
many of the western potatoe-bugs, with their larvee, devouring the tops 
of the potatoes. I have also discovered an enemy in a bug often found on 
ripe berries, which has a very unpleasant smell, which belongs to the 
Cimicidae, and is called Halys, which sucks the blood of the potatoe-bug. 
— Wm. J. McLaughux. 

GEOLOGY. 

Glacial Marks in the White Mountains. — Since Mr. Yose's article 
was in print, he writes us that he has seen on Mount Kearsarge, one- 
third of the way up in the path, Airrows running s. 20^ e., and one-half 
the way up fkirrows running s. 80° e. Also in Ellis' Valley, about two 
miles above Jackson, on the east side of the river, close to the road, lines 
pointing just to the top of Mount Washington. He also found fhrrows on 
Mount Chocorua. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

W. J. MTi., Centralia, Kansas. — The two plants you send are Penttte- 
mon Cobcea Nuttall, the Beard-tongue, and which you say "grows on 
sandy or gravelly ridges in Nemaha county, Kansas, flowering in May 
and June ;'* and Solaiium ro$tratum Dunal. Regarding the latter, you 
write that it 'Ms an emigrant IVom the west. In the year 1860, 1 saw 
the first along the roadside and yards about Fort Riley, Kansas, and a 
few days ago I found several plants growing on and near the railroad 
track of the Central Branch of the Union Pacific Road. The leaf is much 
the shape of the common watermelon ; fiower yellow ; the whole plant 
covered with spines ; an annual ; a noxious weed, fh>m one to two feet 
high ; much branched." 

[We cannot attempt to name plants unless there is a proper botanical 
specimen sent ; that is, the flowers adhering to a bit of the stem, the 
leaves adhering to another bit (or still better, when the size of the plant 
will admit of it, a flowering branch, or, in stemless plants, the scape with 
the root-leaves adhering to its base), and a statement as to how high it 
grows ; whether woody or herbaceous ; and whether wild or cultivated.] 

W. C. F., Eastham, Mass, — The Turtle which you sent and which you 
say is the first specimen of the species you have seen on Cape Cod, is the 
"Musk Turtle," Aromochelys odoratum Gray. It is given in Agassiz's work 
on the Turtles of North America (Contributions to the Natural History 
of the United States, vol. 1, p. 425; vol. 2, pi. 4, young; pi. 7, eggs), 
under the name of Ozotheca odorata Ag. It has also been placed by the 
older writers in the genera TeMudo (when all turtles were placed in that 
genus), CistudOj StemothceruSt Cinosternum, Staurotypms, and Emys. The 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CALENDAR. 331 

• 

specific name of odoraia has held through the several chan|;es that have 
been made regarding its generic position, though varieties of it have 
been described as distinct species by several authors. It is a pretty gen- 
erally distributed species, ranging f^om Canada south to the Gulf of 
Mexico, and west to the Mississippi. In habits it is quite voracious and 
shy, preferring muddy ponds and rivers, and overflowed meadows, where 
it can easily hide itself. It is often found covered with a green confer- 
void growth, which also renders it less likely to be noticed. It has the 
habit of climbing trees overhanging the water, and basking in the sun, 
and will drop into the water on the slightest hint that it Is observed. 

The two insects inclosed were two species of wingless Ichneumon flies ; 
one of them probably belongs to the genus Pezaniachns. We have several 
wingless genera, and the genus Pezomachus comprises an Immense num- 
ber of species. Mr. E. Burgess informs us that in the pupa state the 
Pezomachus is winged, but that the wings drop off in transforming into 
the imago state. Pezomachus may be known from Mntilla, by possessing 
a harmless sting, which only serves as an ovipositor, and a smaller head, 
and by its very close resemblance to the winged Ichneumons. 

W. H. G., Elmlra, N. Y. — The moth you send is one of the Sphinges, 
Thyre%LS Nessua. It was first described and figured by Cramer, a Dutch 
naturalist. It is found from Canada and New Hampshire southward. The 
larvae of this genus differ from most others of this family, in having a 
simple tubercle on the tail instead of the usual curved horn, as seen in 
the Potatoe-worm, Sphinx Carolina. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL CALENDAR. 



During this month the Seventeen-year Locust (^Cicada aqfOendecim of 
Linnsus) has disappeared, and only a few Harvest-flies, as the two other 
species we have are called, raise their shrill cry during the dog-days. But 
as this year has been marked by the appearance of vast swarms in the 
Middle States, we cannot do better than give a brief summary of its his- 
tory, which we condense from Dr. Harris' work. 

The Seventeen-year Locust ranges Arom South-eastern and Western 
Massachusetts to Louisiana. Of its distribution west of the Mississippi 
Valley, we have no accurate knowledge. In Southern Massachusetts, they 
appear in oak forests about the middle of June. After pairing, the female, 
by means of their powerful ovipositor, bores a hole obliquely to the pith, 
and lays therein from ten to twenty slender white eggs, which are ar- 
ranged in pairs, somewhat like the grains on an ear of wheat, and implant- 
ed in the limb. She thus oviposits several times in a twig, and passes 
ftt>m one to another, until she has laid four or five hundred eggs. After 
this she soon dies. The eggs hatch in about two weeks, though same ob- 



332 ENTOMOLOGICAL GALENDAU. 

• 

seryers state that they do not hatch for fh>m forty to over fifty days after 
being laid. The active grubs are provided with three pairs of legs. After 
leaving the egg they tali to the ground, burrow Into it, seek the roots of 
plants whose Juices they suck by means of their long beak. They some- 
times attack the roots of tmit trees, such as the pear and apple. They 
live nearly seventeen years in the larva state, and then in the spring 
change to the pupa, which chiefly differs fVom the larva by having rudi- 
mentary wings. The damage the larvsB and pup» do, then, consists in 
their sucking the sap fh>m the roots of forest, and occasionally fruit trees. 

Regarding its appearance, Mr. L. B. Case writes us (June 16) from 
Richmond, Indiana: **Just now we are having a tremendous quantity of 
locusts in our forests and adjoining fields, and people are greatly alarmed by 
them ; some say they are Egyptian locusts, etc. This morning they made 
a noise, in the woods about half a mile east of us, very much like the con- 
tinuous sound of frogs in the early spring, or Just before a storm at even- 
ing. It lasted ttom early in the morning until evening." Mr. V. T. 
Chambers writes us that it is abounding in the vicinity of Covington, 
Kentucky, *4n common with a large portion of the Western countiy.** 
He points out some variations in color ttom those described by Dr. 
Fitch, from New York, and states that those occurring in Kentucky are 
smaller than those of which the measurements are given by Dr. Fitch, 
and states that *Hhese differences indicate that the groups, appearing in 
different parts of the country at intervals of seventeen years, are of differ- 
ent varieties." A careftil comparison of large numbers collected from 
different broods, and different localities, and different years, would alone 
give the facts to decide this interesting point. 

Regarding the question raised by Mr. Chambers, whether the sting of 
this insect is poisonous, and which he is inclined to believe to be in part 
true, we might say that naturalists generally believe It to be harmless. 
No hemiptera are known to be poisonous, that is, have a poison-gland 
connected with the sting like that of the bee, and careAil dissections by 
the eminent French entomologist, Lacaze-Duthlers, of three European 
species of Cicada, have not revealed any poison apparatus at the base of 
the sting. Another proof that it does not pour poison Into the wound 
made by the ovipositor is, that the twig thus pierced and wounded does 
not swell, as In the case of plants wounded by Gall-flies which secrete an 
irritating poison, giving rise to tumors of various shapes. Many insects 
sting without poisoning the wound ; the bite of the musquito, black-fly, 
flea, the bed-bug, and other hemlpterous insects, are simple punctured 
wounds, and to a perfectly healthy constitution they are not poisonous, 
though they may grievously afflict many persons, causing the adjacent 
parts to swell, and In some weak constitutions induce severe sickness. 
Regarding this point, Mr. Chambers writes : 

**I have heard— not throuirh the papers — wlthlii a tbw days past of a child, within some 
twenty miles of this place, dying ttom the sting of a Cicada, but have not had an opportunity 
to Inquire Into the tnitli of the story, hot the following you may rely on. A negro woman In 
the employment of A. V. Winston, Esq., at Burlington, Boone County, Ky., flfleen miles dis- 
tant troox here, went barefooted Into his garden a fow days since, and while there was stung or 



ENTQHOLOGICAL CALBNDAB. 



blUffl Id the 


fl»i br 


. Clcdii. Th 




ed to 






in" 








■yed, and llio w 








whorel 




l>,9Unili 


u l>lgli tor 


nt^LUg^o 






r cue In Ihls 


IcInllT. I 


UhurLE 


.i.lrUl«rl» 


Ute Mmr. Ih" probMbly Uic Ring <tu 


byie 


■me olher ln»eet, but Mr. 








WUKClUd*. 


Bui per 


.P.U.I1PK.TM 




iKaiaglMnol 


fttalt tbM 






.U(^l 


8<,nKper»n. 




rlblyrreoitlie 




> mmquJto, IT 


ille otlwn 


Kunulf 


ftwl 


Iwni. T 


le Gullcic df 


negro- 


A»t l> Ufu-ly 


Impe 


minble, .od p 


erhipiUw 



We figure the Hop-vine Moth &nd the larva (Fig. i) and pnpa, which 
abonnd on hops the last rig-i- 







er. Also, 
npthia cotontUa (Fig. 2; 
o, pupa), known In Eng- 
laud to be a parasite of 
the Humble-bee. We have 
frequentl; met with It 
here, though uot In Hnmble-hees- nests. The larv« fted directly upon the 
young bees, according to Curtis (Farm Insecta). The Splndle-worm 
Moth, GoTtyna itx, whose caterpillar lives In the 8t«lkB of Indian com, 
and also in dahlias, flies this month. The withering of the leares when 
"•■ *■ the com Is yonng, shows the pres- 

ence of this pest. The beetles of 
TSrious cylindrical Bark -borers 
and Blight-beetles (Tbniteu* and 
SeolyM*) appear again this month. 
During this month the Tree-crick- 
et, (Bcanthtu nlvem (Fig. 8), lays 
its eggs in the branches of peach 
trees. It will also eat tobacco leaves. 

We figure (Fig. 4) the moth of Sudaiimia mMffnatia, the Urva of which 
Is so injurious to shade trees in New Tork City. It is a widely dUmsed 
Tig.t. species, occurring probably throughout the Northern 

States. We have "«■*■ 

taken the moth In 
Northern Maln< 
y We have received 
from Mr. W. V. 
' Andrews the sup- 
posed lanaj of this 
moth. They are 
" loopers," namely, 
walk with a looping gait, as If meas- 
uring off the ground they walk over, 
whence the name " Geometers," mor« usually applied to them. They are 
rather stout, brown, and roughened like a twtg of the tree they inhabit, 
with an nnusuatly large rust-red head, and red prop-legs, while the tip of 
the body is also red. They are little over an Inch long. The supposed 
"Tortriz" larva, referred to in the Calendar for Jnne, Is the Gartered 



334 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Flume-moth, Pteropkarus periacelidactylus of Fitch. We were able to raise 
the moth from larvae forwarded by Mr. Read. It appeared In one rear- 
ing-box June 26. Its habits are very fUlly. described In the first report of 
Dr. Fitch on the Injurious Insects of New York. 

A word more about the Seventeen-year Cicada. Professor R. Orton 
writes us Arom Yellow Springs, Ohio, that this Insect has done great 
damage to the apple, peach, and quince trees, and are shortening the 
Arult crop very materially. By boring Into twigs bearing Arult, the 
branches break and the fhilt goes with them. **Many orchards have lost 
ftill two years' growth. Though the plum and cherry trees seemed exempt, 
they attacked the grape, blackberry, raspberry, elm (white and slippery), 
maple, white ash, willow, catalpa, honey-locust, and wild rose. We have 
traces of the Cicada this year Anom Columbus, Ohio, to St. Louis. Wash- 
ington and Philadelphia have also had a visitation." — A. S. P. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



Long Island Historical Society, Natural History Section, Brook- 
lyn, X. r.— At a May meeting, a paper was read by Mr. E. Lewis, jr., on 
" Evidences of Coast-depression along the Shores of Long Island." It is 
found, by a series of observations made by Mr. Lewis tyad others, that 
large areas, known to have l>een formerly meadow swamp and woodland, 
are now permanently beneath the water. Some Important changes have 
taken place along the flat shores within historic times. Remains of 
swamps with fi*esh-water vegetation are abundant, fh>m Ibur to nine 
feet below the surfBUse of the meadows, along the southern side of the 
island, in the bay which Intervenes between the beach and the uplands. 
In one Instance roots of swamp vegetation, Aist where they grew, 
were found quite near the beach, under ten feet depth of water. 
Stumps of the White, or Swamp-cedar (Cupressus thyoidea), occur in 
great numbers, fietst in the peaty meadows and salt marshes, which 
are now permanently covered with salt-water. Near Fort Hamilton 
are the Dyker Meadows, so-called, which extend Inland nearly three- 
fourths of a mile. The upper end is a fk'esh-water swamp, with cedar 
and other trees. Where the tides overflow the trees are dead, many of 
them still standing. Lower down, or nearer the bay, stumps only remain ; 
these abound in the meadows, and are in a good state of preservation. 
These meadows extend beneath the bay ; and one-fourth of a mile fVom the 
shore-line, stumps of the cedar, ftrom two feet to three feet in diameter, 
have been found. It Is probably continuous with similar meadows on the 
opposite side of the river. 

A general invasion of the beach along the coast has occurred within 
historic time ; It having been thrown Inland, submerging the meadows. 
From this cause large masses of old meadows are often torn up by waves 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 335 

oatside the beach. There is evidence that the great bay, extending ftom 
near I slip to Bellport, was formerly a f^esh-water swamp, ftom which 
streams of considerable size emptied into the ocean. It is now a shallow 
bay, in which, about a century since, were great numbers of stumps ; the 
Aresh -water and upland vegetation having been destroyed by the invasion 
of the tides. A line of fence-posts near Southampton, along the shore ot 
the ocean, were exposed a few years since by an extremely low tide 
which followed a violent storm. These had been buried with sand and 
covered with water not less than a century, and the line was found to 
correspond with early surveys of the town. Submerged meadows are 
found in many places on the north shore of Long Island. A few miles 
east of Fort Jeflbrson, it extends half a mile fh)m the shore, is solid, com- 
pact, and lies in places sixteen feet below the surface of the water at low 
tide. A general wearing away and undermining of the headlands around 
the island has long attracted attention. In constructing the Erie Basin, 
near Red Hook, New York Bay, Mr. G. B. Braincrd, engineer, found the 
following series of deposits. The measurements were taken at various 
points where the water was ten fbet deep at low tide. 

1. Two feet of mud, — ordinary sediment of the bay. 

2. One foot of yellow sand. 

8. Six inches of aluminous deposit, quite hard. 

4. Ten feet of compact decayed peaty meadow. 

5. Layer of extremely hard micacious clay and sand, beneath which 
was found mud, rather soft, but the depth and character of which was not 
determined. 

During the summer of 1867, John Nadir, U. S. Engineer at Fort Hamil- 
ton, carefully examined the underlying formation around Fort Lafkiyette, 
for the purpose of determining whether it would admit of the erection 
upon it of heavier walls. By a series of borings, the earth was pene- 
trated to the depth of fifty-three feet, at points between 800 and 1,000 
feet fh>m the shore, where there was ten feet depth of water at low tide. 
The deposits were as follows : 

1. Twenty feet of coarse sand and gravel, with a few broken shells. 

2. Three feet of decayed marsh or meadow, with dlatomacese and spiculee 
of sponges and shells. 

8. Seventeen ffeet of gravel and sand, with many broken shells. 

4. Thirteen feet of mud, quite compact, which appears to have been a 
marsh with scanty vegetation, rather than a meadow. The vegetable 
remains brought to the surface by the sand-pump are bits of cedar, and 
fragments of what appears to be salt-marsh grass, but too much decayed 
to be ftilly identified. In this formation great numbers of shells were 
found and identified by Mr. A. R. Young, Conchologlst of the Section, as 
belonging to species now common on this coast. Most of the specimens 
are in an excellent state of preservation. Among them are Nassa obso- 
leta, Anomia ephippium, Mya arenaria, Crepidula fomicata, Solen enais, 
and MytUus edulis. It may be stated in this connection that similar de- 



336 BOOKS RECEIVED. 

posits, at corresponding deptlis, have been found on the opposite side of 
the river in the vicinity of Fort Wadsworth. 

The investigations made on the Long Island shores, confirm the con- 
clusions arrived at by Professor G. H. Coolc, in his report on the Geology 
of Cape May county, N. J., that the oscillation of land on this coast dur- 
ing the last epoch has been one of subsidence. If the formation found 
near Fort Lafayette be, as it evidently is, an ancient marsh, the depres- 
sion has been at least fifty-three feet. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science. Seven- 
teenth Annual Meeting^ at Chicago, August, 1868. — The objects of the 
American Association !br the Advancement of Science are, by periodical 
and migratory meetings, to promote intercourse between those who arc 
cultivating science in different parts of North America ; to give a stronger 
and more general impulse, and .a more systematic direction to scientific 
research in our country, and to procure for the labors of scientific men 
increased fhcilities and a wider usefulness. 

The seventeenth meeting of the Association will be held at Chicago, 
during the week commencing on Wednesday, August 5, 1868, at 10 o*- 
clock, A. M. 

It will be the aim of the Local Comihlttee to make the sojourn of the 
members of the Association in Chicago pleasant, as well as profitable in a 
scientific point of view. The usual local courtesies will be extended to 
them, both by private citizens and public bodies. Resolutions of invita- 
tion, and oflbrs of the use of rooms, libraries, collections, etc., have 
already been passed by the Academy of Sciences, the Historical Society, 
the Young Men's Association, the University of Chicago, the Board of 
Trade, and other bodies. ** 

With the view of Insuring as large a meeting as possible, special atten- 
tion has been given to the flicllitles for coming to and returning Ax>m the 
city over all routes of travel. Arrangements have been made with the 
railroad companies, by which return tickets will be fhmished ft^e to 
those who attend the meeting. Doubtless the same concession will be 
granted by the proprietors of some of the steamboat lines. 



■ 01 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

OinervaHoni on OrankL By JeftHes Wyman, M. D. Boston, 1868. 8v-o, pp. 34. 

M&nograph of the Aleida. By Elliott Coues, M. D. Philadelphia, 1688, 8vo, pp. 31. 

Li$t qf Birds ooUeeted in Southern Arizona, By Dr. £. Palmer; with remarks by Dr. 
Elliott Coues. Philadelphia, 1868. 8vo, pp. 4. 

The Portland Catalogue of Maine Plant*, Published by the Portland Society of 
Natural History. Portland, 1868. 8vo, pp. 19. 

Popular Journal qf Natural mttorj/. Third series, vol. 4, no. 4 (and extra number); 
vol. 5, no. 1, 2, 8vo. Copenhagen, 1868. 

The Gospel in the lYees. By Alexander Clark. Philadelphia, 1868. 

Coemoi. April 25, May 16, 23, 30, June 6. Paris. 

The Field. May 23, 30, June G, 13, 20. London. 

The American Bee Journal. June. Washington, D. 0. 

Chemical New*. June. New York. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. n.-SEPTEMBEB, 1868. -No. 7. 
DEATH OF FISHES IN THE BAY OF FUNDY. 

BY ▲. LEITH ADAMS, M. D. 

Among all the fluctuations of opinion respecting the nature 
of the causes to which the phenomena of the physical sci- 
ences are referrible, none in so short a period of time have 
undergone greater changes than we see represented in the 
history and progress of Geology. The first obsei*vers, more 
engjigcd in the discovery of appearances than in seeking to 
divine their causes, were led, by the wonderful but imperfect 
scenes constantly opening out before them, to infer, that the 
mysterious and extraordinary assemblages of strata and 
organic remains therein imbedded were owing to causes in 
every way distinct, both in kind and degree, from the laws 
which now govern the material universe. But the gigantic 
strides made in this science during the last half century have 
induced philosophers to conclude that throughout the vast 
periods of time of which geology takes cognizance, there 
has never been any intervention to the working of fixed and 
invariable laws of change. The elevation of land, distorticm 
and dislocation of rocks, together with their assemblages of 
organic remains, were considered by the early observers to 
have been broua^ht about bv sudden and violent oscillations 
of level, earthquakes and diluvial agencies far exceeding 

Ent(>ref1 According to Act of Congress, In the year 1868, bv the Peabody Academy of 
SciKXCE, tu tlie Clerk's Office of the District Court of Uie District of Massachusetts. 

AMKR. NATURALIST, VOL. 11. 43 (337) 



338 DEATH OF FISHES IN THE BAY OF FUNDY. 

both in extent and intensity any similar phenomena of 
which history has preserved records. But the modern prog- 
ress of enlightenment has greatly modified such opinions, 
and now geologists, not content with the speculations of 
their predecessors, are earnestly endeavoring to interpret the 
Great Stone Book by comparing the former munitions in 
the earth's surface with those of our own times, and thus the 
science is being gradually devested of the supernatural 
appearances and fanciful conjectures, which, for many years, 
not only encompassed but also retarded its advancement. 
Even the simple enumeration of the discoveries which of late 
years have brought about this grand revolution in the 
thoughts and opinions of the modern school of geologists 
would far exceed our limits ; we will therefore elucidate the 
subject by an example which came under our own notice, and 
attempt to show the reader that many similar appcamnces 
among the rock formations may possibly have been occasioned 
by similar causes. 

In the Bay of Fundy, opposite the Island of Grand Manan, 
there is a large gap in the coast-line named Passamaquoddy 
Bay, into which several fair-sized rivers drain. One, called 
the Magagudavic River, is reached by means of a long fiord 
of several miles in length. At a short distance westward, 
there is a small creek named Anderson's Cove, formed in the 
trappean rocks of which the coast-line is composed. These 
beds are considered by geologists as belonging to the Devo- 
nian or Old-Red Sandstone formations of Southern New 
Brunswick. Anderson's Cove is, in fiict, the sea-ending of a 
ravine down which runs a small stream into a very muddy 
lagoon of upwards of 1,300 feet in circumference. The lat- 
ter is oval in shape, and communicates directly at high 
tide with Anderson's Cove by means of a narrow and rocky 
channel, filled with masses of amygdaloid trap, fragments of 
which are mixed with the mud forming at the bottom of the 
lagoon. There is a beach of sand in front of the lagoon, 
besides a sea-wall formed of sand and masses of rocks and 



DEATH OF FISHES IN THE BAY OF FUNDY. 339 

stranded logs of wood piled in disordci* along the shore ; so 
that, excepting during fui'ious gales, the only direct commu- 
nication with the lagoon is by the passage just mentioned. 
During high tide the waves rush up this channel with force 
stirring up the mud of the lagoon, when the w^ater in the 
basin frequently assumes almost the consistency of pea-soup. 
Thus the lagoon is a shallow morass of brackish water at low 
tide, receiving a constant supply of fresh water from the 
stream which is depositing its debris on the slimy bottom ; 
moreover, land-shells and other organic remains are being 
conveyed by the stream or washed by tlie rain into the basin, 
whilst on the other hand the powerful tidal wave of the Bay 
of Fundy brings up quantities of marine Mollusca, Eadiata, 
etc., remains of which strew its bottom and sides. Such, in 
all probability, has been the usual state of matters in this 
quiet corner of the bay for unreckoncd ages, broken only at 
long intervals by occurrences such as we shall now describe. 
On the 24th of September, 1867, a very heavy gale from 
the west blew directly into Anderson's Cove, and more 
especially on the entrance of the lagoon at the eastern end. 
The result was, that the mud became disturbed to an un- 
usual extent, and the amount of the water in the area was 
doubled in quantity. During the gale enormous numbers. of 
dead fishes were seen floating on the surface of the turbid 
waters of the mprass, and on the following morning when the 
hurricane had subsided, a spectacle presented itself, baffling 
anything of the kind observed by the residents on previous 
occasions. The entire higoon, fi'om its entrance to the limits 
of the tide, was covered with dead fishes. The species, with 
the exception of a few mackerel and New York flounder, 
was found to be the young of the American herring ( Clupea 
elongata) averaging about six inches in length. This fish 
is said to spawn in the neighborhood, and usually large 
shoals had been observed for some weeks previously in and 
about Anderson's Cove. The author chanced to be in the 
vicinity about a fortnight after the occurrence just mentioned. 



340 DEATH OF FISHES IN THE BAY OF FUNDY. 

and, when on his way to the scene of the disaster, was made 
uncomfortably aware of the proximity even at the distance 
of two miles, by an intolerable stench from decomposing 
fish, contaminating the atmosphere in every direction for five 
miles around Anderson's Cove. The smell was found to 
emanate not only from the latter, but also from the fields 
around, where many cart-loads had been deposited by the 
farmers ; nevertheless, the quantities of rotting fish around 
the margin of the lagoon seemed very little diminished by 
the amount taken away for manure, not to mention what had 
been consumed by the flocks of gulls 'and crows which were 
feeding sumptuously on their remains. 

After skirting the shore of Anderson's Cove we reached 
the entrance of the narrow, tortuous passage leading to the 
lagoon ; here the first traces of the disaster were manifested 
by enormous quantities of fishes, impacted between and 
among the fallen masses of rock, which were literally be- 
smeared all over with the crushed flesh and bones of herrings, 
whilst the sides and bottom of the lagoon were covered with 
their entire and mangled remains, forming heaps several feet 
in depth, more especially in places where there had evidently 
been eddies, whilst the limits of the tide were distinctly 
marked by a pile of their bodies which fringed the basin of 
the lagoon. On the muddy bottom they lay as thick as her- 
rings in a barrel, interspersed with remains of crabs, lobsters, 
sea-mussels, and other shells, together with enormous num- 
bers of the dead bodies of star-fish, etc. 

A friend, who resides in the neighborhood, suggested that 
the shoal had been chased into the inclosure by sharks, or 
other predaceous fishes, and were subsequently suflTocated by 
the muddy waters of the lagoon. But the mangled remains 
in the passage and shallow water in Anderson's Cove, to- 
gether with the fury of the gale, rather seemed to indicate 
that the vast assemblage, getting into shallow water, and 
under the influence of the breakers, was driven pell-mell up 
the passage and against its rocky sides into the lagoon, where 



DEATH OF FISHES IN THE BAY OF FUNDY. 341 

the survivors perished from the combined fury of the waves 
and the muddy waters. During our examination of the 
bottom of the lagoon it was apparent, even in the short space 
of time that had elapsed since the gale, that many of the 
fishes had been completely covered over by mud conveyed or 
re-disturbed by every tide, and deposited also from the 
water-shed around the morass. No doubt at that rate the 
whole of the organic remains, before long, became buried in 
the soft mire, and perhaps some geologist, in the far distant 
future, will be speculating on the cause or causes which 
brought about such a vast congregation of marine and land 
animals in so limited an area, just as he now theorizes on the 
probable causes of those vast assemblages of fossil animals 
he is accustomed to observe in many rock formations. For 
we have only to suppose one or more geological epochs to 
have passed away, and a slight elevation of the land, when, if 
a section were made of the spot where this lagoon now stands, 
there would be found an alluvial deposit on the surface, suc- 
ceeded by a sedimentary stratum containing fragments of the 
Devonian trap-rock of the neighborhood, accompanied by the 
vast Jissemblage of organic remains just described, and fol- 
lowed, perhaps, by similar objects at greater depths, suc- 
ceeded, no doubt, by tmces of the Glacial epoch, which are so 
vividly poi-trayed on the surface of the surrounding country 
at the present day ; and lastly, the old Devonian conglom- 
erate in which the lagoon now stands. And whilst each will 
supply memorials of its own peculiar but relatively distant 
epochs, none will furnish more lasting and wx)nderful *phe- 
nomena than the deposit which contains the fishes destroyed 
during the gale of the 24th of September, 1867. 

Occurrences similar to that just described are apparently 
not common, at least along the coast of the Bay of Fundy, 
but enormous shoals of herrings and other fishes are met 
with at stated seasons, so that the accident of the 24th of 
September might occur again anywhere under the same 
favorable conditions. Moreover, it may be pretty confidently 



342 THE ORCHIDS. 

surmised, that the fish stranded in the lagoon were but a 
very small portion of the original shoal which entered Ander- 
son's Cove, and thus, supposing the locality had been many 
times larger, there would have been no diminution in rela- 
tive density of the dead fishes on its area. 

Another example is recorded in the Journal of the Geolog- 
ical Society of London.* Thousands of dead fishes, thrown 
on the coast of Madras, were afterwards enveloped in sand 
and mud along with other marine animals and plants, so as 
to form a densely packed stmtum of fishes, etc., of unknown 
breadth, but extending for a vast distance along the coast- 
line. The fishes were supposed to have been destroyed by 
the enormous fall of rain from the south-west monsoon, ren- 
dering the sea-water less saline. Be that the cause or not, 
it is by such facts as these, compared with similar phenomena 
of by-gone epochs, that the geologist is enabled to arrive at 
just conclusions, and it is in this way that the science of 
geology is progressing. 



THE ORCHIDS. 

BY C. M. TllACY. 



-•o*- 



It was the greatest step forward ever made at once in the 
study of plants, when Jussieu found out that there was a 
gmnd line of division running through the whole vegetable 
kingdom, with seeds on one side that might be split into two 
parts like the pea and the acorn, and those on the other that 
could not, like the kernel of corn and the gniin of barley. 
For (not to tire the reader with technical words) it was 
directly seen that the same line would clearly distinguish 
between those plants that had a bark and made new wood 
between that and the older wood within, and thus grew on 

• JuDCi 1802. 



THE OBCUID8. 343 

the outside — between these and such as had no bark, but 
made the new wood in the midst of the pith, and so greic 
on the inside. Again, the outside-growers, like the oak and 
the pea, always have leaves with little veins Ibrmiiig an 
iiregnlar net-work all through them ; but the inside-growerSy 
as the corn and the lilies, have the veins of their leaves 
running straight from one end to the other, and not netted 
at all, so that we can split such a leaf into strips very 
easily, and this makes a palm-Icaf hat a possiliilitv. wh)r.h 
otherwise could not be. By this discovery Jus 
the vegetable kingdom quite as clearly and e 
Alexander of Parma did the Dutch Republic, 
violating the rule of nature at all, wherein he 
advantage over the other, 

We speak of this natural difierence in plants 
talking over these royal families we have come 
when we must step over this remarkable line. ] 
ing plants are outside-growers (botanists say "E; 
the reader may too, if he chooses; it meaus ju 
thing), and they all have their leaves netted wii 
seeds separable into two halves. But the Orchl 
we now speak, are inside-growera (or "Endog 
leaves that may be stripped into ribbous, and 
seeds as indivisible as a buck-shot. Hence, tbei 
to mistake this family for either of the precedin, 
in a single case \ but as we have set out to in< 
plain marks for the ready recognition of ea' 
remains to state them for that nuder present noti 

If wc examine an apple-blossom we find th 
leaves or petals in it, and all of them are just a1 
and size. This makes what is called u regular t 
uuml>cr matters nothing; the lily has six petals 
wort three, the willow-herb four, and the eucha 
shade two, and yet all are perfectly regular, fo 
and size are the same all the way round the fl 

■ The ABleriiii and rUlds, of nhich webavo epoken io Vul. I. oftb 



344 THE ORCHIDS. 

variation from this principle makes the flower irregular. 
The Pea-flower is irregular both in form and size, that of the 
Candytuft is so in size only, and that of the Larkspur chiefly 
in form. The Iris has a flower alike on all sides, and there- 
fore regular, though the petals are in two sets of diflerent 
shape ; but the allied Gladiolus, with petals all of nearly the 
same size, is quite irregular, for their diverse form is such as 
turns the flower quite over to one side. 

Now a certain mark of an Orchid is to have irregular 
flowers. In other families there is often a mixture of the two 
styles, but nothing of it here. And the most common obser- 
ver will bear me out in calling these flowers irregular ; for, 
setting aside all technicality, many cannot be reduced to any 
form, plan, or design, without a liberal stretch of confidence 
and ingenuity. So wide is their range of figure, and so per- 
fectly bizarre are many of the shapes in which they appear, 
that one is tempted sometimes to believe they are animated 
creatures under some strange disguise of enchantment. 
Lindley tells us there is scarcely a common reptile or insect 
to which some of them have not been likened. Bees, crane- 
flies, long-legged spiders, toads, et id omne genus ^ all find 
the queerest of representatives in these protean blossoms. 
But more of this presently. 

The organs called stamens and pistils are of great impor- 
tance in vegetable nature. Invested with all that pei-tains to 
reproductive purposes, they have, since Linnaeus at least, 
been held to represent the sexes of animals, and perhaps we 
can say nothing better about it. A striking circumstance 
with regard to them is, that while we may trace much afllnity 
between both these organs and other parts of the plant, 
respectively, we can rarely find any relationship between the 
stamens and the pistils directly. We may, by cultivation, 
make stamens change into petals, which are obviously only 
leaves refined ; but we rarely or never succeed in making 
pistils do any such thing. If they ever change (as they 
do sometimes, without asking our leave) , it always seems to 



THE ORCHIDS. 845 

be into green leaves directly ; and, for a general expression, 
we may say that a stamen never turns into a pistil, nor vice 
versa. 

But the Orchids are above the observance of any rule so 
exacting. Ignoring the usual distinctive position of these 
important organs, they constantly place them one upon the 
other, forming a column-like structure, in which the impor- 
tant part of a stamen, the anther, and the necessary part of 
a pistil, the stigma, are both to be distinguished, but nothing 
more. For the rest, you may call it a stamen bearing 
a pistil or the reverse ; it is either, or neither, as you choose. 
The common, typical structure of the flower in respect of 
these organs, is entirely set aside ; and anotlier and diflerent 
one appears, the presence of which, always constant, is the 
second mark of this strangely beautiful order. 

The third badge is to be found in a circumstance of great 
significance in connection with those already named, though 
in itself not of much value as a mark. The orchids are all 
perennials. No annual plant, shooting up under the influence 
of the vernal sun, to perish and pass away when the next 
equinox shall bring the changing season to a less genial tem- 
per, appears as a member of this privileged and gorgeous 
race. Let it be for the Asterids, who enjoy being everywhere 
and everything, to revel like May-flies in the fleeting hilari- 
ties of annual life ; let the Pisids, who have plenty of trees 
mighty as towei's, to spend a fraction of their riches in like 
manner ; but the Orchids will take a middle station, neither 
storing up millions in vast trunks, nor squandering them in 
perishing herbage, planting seed liberally and largely, but 
giving the nursling always that royal blood that shall insure 
a life beyond the brief period of a single spring, and one 
succeeding summer. 

Or if we esteem this as too common and uncertain for a 
sure mark of a family like this, we may take one that is 
more minute, but rather more characteristic. Every Orchid 
has a pod for its fruit, with innumerable small seeds within. 

AMEJl. NATURALISTi VOL. H. 44 



346 THE ORCHIDS. 

Now pods, if they are round, that is, alike on all sides, 
bear their seeds in two different ways. Either they have a 
column of some soil; running up through the centre of the 
pod, and the seeds attached to this, or they have no such 
column, and the seeds hang upon the inside of the outer 
wall. There is a great difference in . these two modes, 
greater in fact than it is best to trouble the reader with at 
present. It will be quite enough if he finds out what we 
mean by the modes themselves. Now if we cut across the 
pod of any Orchid, just as we would slice a cucumber, the 
s^eds will be found growing on the aides of the interior, and 
not at the centre. 

If, then, we find plants with these marks, to wit: 
I. Irregular flowers, 
II. Stamens and pistils consolidated, 

III. Perennial habits ; or seeds i*ound the sides of the pod, 
— then we are safe in looking up to it as a well-accredited 
meml:)er of this regal order. Among the sweltering forests 
and jungles of India may be found a small family that re- 
sembles these considerably, having flowers not quite regular, 
and stamens and pistils partly coherent ; but we know them 
to be mere pretenders, when we find their seeds always in 
the centre of the pod instead of on the walls. 

Having thus outlined the characters of this family at some 
length, it remains to say a word upon their properties and 
distribution. Two circumstances only can bar these plants 
from any climate, namely, frost and excessive drouths. Nay, 
frost itself, if the degree be not that of the arctic, is not 
enough, for there are seventeen genera and fifty-one species 
reckoned by Gniy in the Northern States east of the Mis- 
sissippi, and one of them, Calypso, is nowhere seen but in the 
cold bogs of the Canadian region. Never rising into trees, 
and only rarely to be called shrubs, they stand as small, but 
most remarkable herbs in all cooler latitudes, while in the 
moist heats of the tropics they luxuriate as climbers, or take 
on that very peculiar style of growth sometimes, but wrong- 



THE ORCHIDS. 347 

ly, called parasitic. All through the dense forests of Brazil, 
ill the thickets of the Orinoco, and along the thousand shaded 
crags and valleys of the Andes, these plants are found in 
myriads, clinging to the rocks, to old and decaying trees, or 
to the stronger arms of those not yet dead, strapping their 
naked, onion-like bulbs to any chance support by roots that 
seem quite as much like rope-yarns, and Avith gi'ccn leaves 
starting freshly in such curious situations, pushing out long 
swinging stems of flowers, that dangle hither and thither 
like strings beset with white or red or bronzy buttei'flies. 
Varied with an excess that is perfectly reckless and prodigal, 
a new form meets the observer at every turn. One botanist 
dismisses the subject in despair; "a whole life," he says, 
''would be too short for the figuring of the Orchids of the 
Peruvian Andes alone." What, then, is to be said of the 
multitudes that grow elsewhere, from the Rio de la Platsi 
even as far hitherward as the Carolinas ? These independent 
air-plants, as they are often called, have cut loose from the 
soil, with princely blood too aspiring for a seat so lowly, 
and mounting to heights and places inaccessible to their, 
perhaps, envious neighbors ; while in turn they scorn to owe 
them for any but the merest holding-ground, they grow and 
bloom and triumph like a bird upon the main-truck, only 
satisfied with the wildest of perches, nor greatly caring even 
for that. Often the flowers are redolent of the most power- 
ful and enchanting fragrance, often they are gorgeous with 
lines that shame the pencil ; always they come in such end- 
less diversity of form — form so lovely and so provokingly 
strange — that we are left at a stand, — there is nothing we 
can say about them save that God has made and given them 
beauty in such manner and degree as he has to nothing else 
among all his wonderful works. 

These plants are not less abundant in other regions than 
those named. Europe has a great many of the terrestrial or 
rooted sorts, and the Cape of Good Hope is plentifully sup- 
plied with the same. The Southern United States also fur- 



348 THE ORCHIDS. 

nish these species freely. But for the other class, the air- 
plants, we go to the East and West Indies, to Central 
America and Mexico, to Madagascar and the Indian Islands, 
and to Nipal and Southern China, and find them in the damp, 
hot, shaded forests, here, there, everywhere, in thousands 
upon thousands. Three hundred and ninety-four genera, and 
at least three thousand distinct species have been described ; 
and no one supposes that more than a beginning has been 
made. To what an extent the enumeration, if carefully 
made, might reach, we cannot conjecture ; the work is not 
only almost endless, but is very difficult besides. It is here 
that we meet with a fact to make the botanist stop and doubt 
his own eyes. When we have, in some cases, carefully 
examined and described certain species, so that we know 
their flowers and growth perfectly, we think, and can dis- 
tinguish them at sight, all at once, — lo I before us is a plant 
consisting, as it were, of all these species fused together, 
with half a dozen kinds of flowers that we have known 
familiarly, and never saw in connection before, and never 
suspected of the least alliance, all growing comfortably 
together on the same spike. Thus was Schomburgk startled, 
in Demerara, when he found a single plant bearing at once 
the flowers of a Monachanthus, a Myanthus, and a Catasetum ; 
as if, forsooth, botanists had not long before settled these to 
be, not only diflferent species, but separate genera. So were 
tlie British students surprised, when the same thing after- 
ward appeared in the gardens at Chatsworth ; and, hiter still, 
when a plant bore two species of Cycnoches very unlike, but 
with other flowers whose intenncdiate forms completely con- 
nected the two. 

Shall we say with Lindley, that *'such cases shake to the 
foundation all our ideas of the stability of genera and spe- 
cies." Not at all. If we find such combinations, it simply 
disproves former suppositions, and shows what we thought 
permanent and natural divisions to bo those of mere varie- 
ties, usually observed, it is true, but capable of being thrown 



THE ORCHIDS. 349 

aside, and pointing not to any fixed law of nature. We can 
well afford to take facts as they are given to us, without 
seeking to force our preconceived notions on things around 
us, or going into despair because we discover the falsity of a 
long-established error. 

Attracted by the glorious loveliness of these plants, the 
florist, if he be rich enough, often adorns his establishment 
with them. The terrestrial kinds he does pretty well with ; 
he can grow Cypripediums, Ophryses, Ilerminiums, Acan- 
thophippiums, and the like, with no special trouble. But 
when he comes to the other form, his cares begin. He must 
hang them up in baskets of dry lumps of peat, upon his 
greenhouse rafters ; or tie them on blocks and sticks and put 
them in high and airy places, or perhaps build a pile of such 
loose peat-lumps and put the bulbs on the top. Nay, some 
are too particular for him to meddle much with them; he 
must import the rock or stick or dead limb with them 
already on it, and then he may not succeed after all. Mrs. 
Loudon complains, that with all the plans of glazing houses 
with colored glass, using double sashes, training vines over 
the roof, etc., it has still been impossible to flower some 
kinds to satisfaction. And all this without saying anything 
of the hot, steamy atmosphere that must be kept up, half 
boiling the gardener alive like a Turkish bath, or anything 
of the more ordinary trouble of importing them from far 
countries, and having them arrive in doubtful condition, 
requiring every art for their restoration, and constantly 
threatening the loss of all expense incurred. Yet, after all, 
some succeed finely, and are rewarded with the wondrous 
loveliness of Stanhopeas, Oncidiums, Catasetums, Cattleyas, 
Dendrobiums, and Vandas, filling their hands with labor, it 
is true, but their senses with beauty and celestial odors, and 
their hearts with yet more exquisite perfumes. Witness the 
impressions these plants may create, in the case of the charm- 
ing Peristevia, the "Flower of the Holy Ghost,** before which 
the Catholic cannot restrain his devotion. In its pure 



350 THE ORCHIDS. 

centre, as in the dearest of nests, sits the imitative organ, 
in the jsemblance of an innnacuUite dove, so spotless and 
serene in its seeming repose, that we cannot wonder that 
those whose faith makes hallowed emblems of all things 
thus suggestive, should have paused, awe-stricken at the 
first view, and murmured in a half-whisper, ''Ecce Spiritiis 
Sanctus!^^ 

In speaking of the previous orders, we have considered 
tlieir degree of usefulness to man. But here there is very 
little to be said of the kind. Hardly a foniily among all 
plants has so little known utility, and here, of course, the 
real royalty is all the plainer to be seen. The nutritive drug 
called Salep, and the peerless aromatic. Vanilla, are the 
•most important products of this immense concourse of 
strangely beautiful things. A few are valuable as medicines, 
as the Coral-root, the Ladies' Slipper, and one or two more. 
This is about the end of this part of the story, for, as hinted 
at the outset, the Orchids are "no princes of wealth and 
treasure, but are royal in their incomparable and exhaustless 
world of beauty, the fairies and spirit-kings of the vegeta- 
ble sphere. 

We found in the last family that most cogent proof of 
superior rank and royal origin, the power of spontaneous 
motion, and a life approaching that of animals. The same 
thing is revealed here. Not only do several genera have 
flowers that spring and close in a twinkling to catch the in- 
sects that unluckily settle on them, or to resent the touch 
that profanes their floral serenity, but one, at least, does more 
than this, and keeps one petal always moving, like a finger 
pointing this way and that, up and down, as if for entertain- 
ment, or perhaps counting the legions of some invisible host 
whose numbers 

" Walk the earth 
Unseen, both when we wake and when we sleep." 

We have prattled enough over this family, and yet it is 
hard to restrain the thoughts and the pen, when considering 



BIRDS OF PALESTINE AND PANAMA COMPARED. 351 

a subject so full of charms. It is not mere practical useful- 
ness that entitles this or that production to our notice ; the 
graceful and the beautiful have place in nature, prominent 
and unquestioned, and if we but listen a moment, we shall 
hear the pulsations of the inner heart that respond to them, 
beat for beat. And we shall do well to heed it, and not be 
angry with ourselves if, stealing a brief space now and then 
from sterner employments, we give ourselves to the contem- 
plation and enjoyment of that generous and spiritual delight 
wherewith a bountiful Creator plainly designs to refresh the 
weary and jadad spirit. We cannot overlook mere beauty 
here, for the flowers tell us 

" Uselcssness divinest, 

Of a use the finest, 
Painteth us, the teachers of the end of use ; 

Travellers, weary eyed, 

Bless us, far and wide; 
Unto sick and prisoned thougrhts we give sudden truce, 

Not a poor town-window 

Loves its sickliest planting, 
But its wall speaka loftier truth than Babylonian vaunting." 



THE BIRDS OF PALESTINE AND PANAMA 

COMPARED. 



BY EDWARD D. COPK. 



It is only lately that meaus of viewing any class of aui- 
m:ils, wliich the Creator plantsd in the Holy Land, have been 
put at our disposal. As it is in the region which appears to 
have been selected as the fii*st residence of man, an idea of 
superiority naturally attaches to its products ; though we 
know, indeed, that all rich lands, — such as "flow with milk 
and honey," — are prolific of the many outbirths of his mani- 
fold laws. 

So little has this anciently known region been the field of 
scientific study, that, excepting among plants, our kuowl- 



352 BIRDS OF PALESTINE AND PANAMA COMPARED. 

edge has not approached completeness, until the publication 
of the late researches of Rev. H. B. Tristram. 

Palestine, with its exceeding diversity of surface, its Car- 
mel and Tabor, its Lebanon and Bashan, its plains, its deep 
quiet valleys, its rugged canons and lake shores, presents 
scenes fitted for the habitation of all the forms where adapta- 
tion to nature must play a part ; yet how different the inhabi- 
tants from those of similar situations in our own land, equally 
given to man for his habitation and place of development ! 

Tristram noticed 322 species of birds within the range 
of the ancient territory. Of these, 230 were land, and 92 
water birds, i.e, Natatores and the wading Cursores. Of 
the 230, seventy-nine are common to the British Islands, 
and thirty-six of them are found in China, but a small pro- 
poilion extending their range to both these extremes. Of 
the water birds, which are always more widely distributed, 
fifty-five of the ninety-two are British, and fifty-seven Chi- 
nese. Twenty-seven appear to be confined to Palestine and 
to the immediately adjacent country ; the largest of these is 
a crow. 

Taking the 230 land birds at a glance, we find the utter 
absence of so many of the well-known forms that enliven our 
grounds and forests. The absence of Tanagrida^ (wood- 
warblers") and Icteridae (^' black- and hanging-bird" type) 
changes the aspect of the bird-fauna at once. What have we 
here, then, of nine-quilled Oscines to enliven the meadows 
like ourswarms of blackbirds, or fill the tree-tops and thick- 
ets with flutter like our wood- warblers ? Nothing; for the 
twenty-four species of finches, Fringillidro, will but balance 
our own, though the genera are all different but four, and 
they the most weakly represented by species. We must 
look to the higher series, the ten-quilled song-birds, for the 
missing rank and file. While a much larger extent of the 
Eastern United States possesses fifty species of these types, 
the little Palestine has already furnished a list of one hun- 
dred and twenty-eight. First, of the crows which verge 



\ 



BIRDS OF PALESTINE AND PANAJiA COMPARED. 353 

nearest Icteridaa by the starlings, wc have thirteen species 
against five in our district of the United States, and not less 
than seven of the type-genus Corvus, to one- common and 
two rare. Two of the larger species, the ravens, gather 
with the vultures in the valleys of Ilinnom and Jordan, and 
make the rocks of Zion resound with their coarse cries. If 
we turn to the cheerful larks, we find the proportion again 
the same ; fifteen species for Palestine, and one for the whole 
United States. One congener of our species occurs tlilre ; 
the other genera call to mind the African deserts and Russian 
steppes. The Motacillidoe, again, are ten to one against our 
fauna, enlivening every run and puddle with their wagging 
tails and prying ways. We have two Tanagridre to imitate 
them, besides the one true relative. In swallows we are about 
equal, and in the forest-hunting Paridre — titmice and wrens 
— we exceed a little ; but the comparison of Sylviidro and 
TurdidsB is most striking. These highest of the bird series, 
especially made to gladden man's haunts, and cheer wild 
nature as well, with song, exceed in number all the other 
ten-quilled Oscines together inhabiting Palestine, amount- 
ing to seventy-five species. In our corresponding region of 
the United States, there are nineteen species. It is true 
no mocking-bird or wood-robin is known away from our 
shores, but Palestine has the nightingale, the black-cap, and 
the true warblers, or Sylvias, which, while they glean from 
shrub and tree their smallest insect enemies, as do our 
equally numerous small Tanagridae, have much louder and 
sweeter voices. But the balance of distribution of organized 
types has more developmental and geological, than any other 
kind of significance. 

Our solitary bluebird represents the long-winged Turdida3 ; 
in the Holy Land there are twenty species corresponding, 
though none are of our genus. There are, indeed, but three 
genera of these two families common to both countries. One 
of these, Lanius, the butcher-bird, occurs here in one rare 
species, in Palestine in six. 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. II. 46 



356 BIRDS OF PALESTINE AND PANAMA COMPARED. 

thirty-seven are water birds, Natatores and aquatic Cursores, 
showing that it is not the ocean that yields the abundance 
here. Of the 348 land birds, forty-four are characteristic 
of, or occur in North America, exclusive of Mexico, and 290 
are of South American kin. We need not then hesitate to 
refer this region to the latter fauna, especially as we know 
many of the same species to be to some extent dwellers in 
Mexico. On this and other grounds we may safely add the 
thirty-six species which range from Mexico to the Isthmus 
as their ultima thule southward, to ,the evidence that this 
region is far w^ithin the frontiers of the Regio Neotropica.* 
Eighty of the 348 are familiar rangers of Central America, 
which have not spread farther towards the fields of the Mon- 
tezumas ; and those which find their kin limited to the Isth- 
mus and adjoinitig regions of New Grenada and Equador, 
amount to about seventy-five more. Twenty-seven is the 
number not known to extend beyond the boundaries of 
Palestine ; as to the Middle States of our Union, not one 
species has been shown to be restricted within such narrow 
limits. 

A single species occurs in Europe ; this is the fish-hawk, 
an animal wiiich combines the cosmopolite habit of the sea- 
bird with the powerful flight of the bird of prey. This is 
also the only species common to the Panama and Palestine 
catalogues. 

The birds of prey are numerous — twenty-nine species. 
Among these there is no true eagle or falcon, and of the 
nineteen genera, but four belong to the fauna of the Holy 
Land. There is but one species to represent the great grouse 
family, but instead,, three families of their South Ameri- 
can imitators, the Pullastrce, instead of the one, that of the 
pigeons, slimly represented in Palestine, and in North 
America as well. These PuUastne are a generalized grouj), 
combining features of the perchers with those of the Easores. 

* One of the six great zoological regions of the earth, including South America, 
West Indies, and Mexico. 



BIRDS OP PALESTINE AND PANAMA C50MPARED. 357 

The Curassows are their largest modern type, while the Dodo 
represents our knowledge of the extinct forms. 

The group of Struthions is also well represented by the 
various Tinamus, One of this group — the true ostrich^- 
wanders over the borders of Palestine, but is scarcely an 
'^Antachthon." He stands lower than the Tiuamu. 

Coming to the closer test of superiority, the Passeres, — 
those delicate creatures apparently so dependent on those 
laws which govern increase and provision, and so affected by 
the changes that man works in the face of nature ; what do 
we find? Of the Clamatores, who least tune their voice to 
nature's harmonies, but rather imitate the fierce tones of the 
cruel, or the wild cries of the dwellers in the shades, we 
count 106 distinct species. There are none in Palestine. Of 
songsters, the Oscines, ninety-six species, await man's con- 
quest of the wilderness to increase in numbers and to display 
their gifts, while Palestine rejoices in a whole array of them. 
But the contrast is remarkable if we analyze these forms. Of 
the Isthmus Oscines, seventeen only hold the first rank by 
virtue of their additional (the tenth primary) quill, while this 
feature marks 128 species of Palestine. As we rapidly fol- 
low the line to the point where its extreme is manifested, in 
the family of the thrushes, or Turdidse, Panama is left but 
two solitary pioneers of these songsters of the north, while 
seventy-five species represent the family in Palestine. 

We naturally inquire, Is there anything in the food, the 
vegetation, or the temperature, to account for this apparent 
diversity? Are there not se6d-eaters, insectivores, and tree- 
climbers, where seeds and insects and forests grow the 
world over? We answer, undoubtedly there are, and these 
adaptations to food and climate are indeed as nothing in the 
general plan of creation, for every type of every age has per- 
formed these functions successively. Those which fill these 
places in the Isthmian and general neotropical bird-fauna, 
are the Clamatores already alluded to. Let us compare these 
with the Oscines, and see how complete is the parallel. 



358 BIRDS OF PALESTINE AND PANAMA COMPARED. 

Clamatores. Oscixks. 

I. Tree-cllmbcrs with long hind-toe and tail feathers 
stiffened. 
Dendrocolaptid(B, Certhiidoe. 

II. Ti*cc-perchers with hooked bill, graduating fl*om 
powerAil to medium and slender. 

Formicariidce, Turdidce. 

ThamnophiluSf bill strongest, LaniuSy* 

FonnicariuSf " moderate, Turdits.f 

Formicivora, ** weak, Sylvia.X 

lihampJwccentis, " slender (wren's), Trof/lodytes.^ 

III. Fly-catchers with flat bill and weak legs ; wait for 

their prey and take it on the wing. 
Tyrannidce. Muscicapida, 

IV. Flat-billed berry and fruit eaters. 

Cotingidce. Bomhycillidas, 

So the subject might be pursued as it has been by others, 
and many parallels in greater details be drawn. Suffice it 
to say, that the same can be done for the frogs, the tortoises, 
the saurians, and to a great extent for the fishes of this same 
great fauna. 

Now whether we call these types lower or higher, we find 
them to have spread in . former ages over a far greater area 
of the earth's surfiice than at present. The writer has ascer- 
tained that many of the turtles of the Eastern Cretaceous 
period of our country are of this peculiar neotropical group, 
and that the species of the Eocene period of England {Plate- 
mys Bowerbmikii and Emys Icevis) really belong to the fiimily 
Podocremididae, now only known in the Amazon Basin. An- 
other {Platemys BuUocku\\) really belongs to another family 
of the same series, the Sternothaeridae, now only known in 
Africa. 

This brings us to another point. The whole Southern 
Hemisphere shares in the peculiarities of the South American 
or Neotropical fauna. Australia possesses a strange mixture 
of the old and the new ; the clouds of the past floating in the 
sunlight of the future. South America, with newer mammals, 
has older reptiles, while to Africa comparatively few of the 
ancient landmarks remain. 

* Bntcher-binls. fThnishes. J Warblers. § Wrens. 
II Type of the genus Digerrhum Co)ic. 



THE CHASMS OF THE COLORADO. 359 

That these characteristics of the fauna mentioned are, in 
comparison with others, really successional, in the same 
manner as are different geologic epochs in relation to each 
other, can be proven by the study of the anatomy and devel- 
opment of the species of each. Their relative greater or less 
extension during the periods of geologic time also furnishes 
an indication of a chronic relation now existing between 
these faunae. Thus we have before us some of the terms 
of that grand proposition, whose demonstration must ever be 
of high interest to mankind. 



THE CHASMS OF THE COLORADO. 

BY A. HYATT.. 

In Niagara we readily realize the power of demolition 
attributed to its waters. The Fall is still receding, the 
ground is shaken under us by its blows, the chasm it has cut 
yawns before our eyes. But it is another and far different 
matter to recognize the same force in other localities, where, 
perhaps, a puny stream, depleted by the summer heats, trails 
along the centre of some deep gorge. 

Here the observer must remember that time has no boun- 
daries in geology; that existing causes, provided they are 
capable of carrying away ever so small a portion of solid 
earth and rock now, would, in ages past, have had oppor- 
tunity enough to have destroyed the whole of the rocky core 
which once filled the ravine. 

Let him descend and look at the tottering pinnacles threat- 
ening him from above, and then examine those that have 
already fallen. The layers of the shattered masses are open 
to the ice-wedges in winter, the grinding and transporting 
power of the spring freshets, the alternate heat of noon and 
cold of night. Acted upon also by the oxygen of the air, 



360 THE CHASMS OF THE COLORADO. 

the acids in the water now dry, now wet, is it a wonder that 
they are covered by a coat softer than the interior of the 
rock, which is readily ground off or dissolved by the stream? 
The rusty coating of iron arises from the same causes, and 
yields in tlie same way when exposed to similar influences, 
until the hard metal has entirely disappeared. 

The lofty ledges themselves are constantly cnimbling, the 
finer dust swept away by the winds, and the heavier pieces 
plunging to the bottom. Every rain carries away, in solu- 
tion, the dust which the winds have spared, and a portion of 
the softened outer-coatings of the stones. 

Watch the bottom of any fast-running rivulet, you will 
see a moving cloud of the finest particles, and under them 
larger pieces rolling confusedly onwards. The larger pieces 
are slowly but surely wearing themselves away, and the 
moving cloud is the result of this grinding. Thus it is that 
nearly all the stones found in brooks are pebbles. When 
first broken away from the parent rock they must have had 
sharp edges like any other fragment. Have you never 
found a piece of a bottle in the bed of a stream, with the 
edges nicely smoothed, and the sides scratched and scored 
like ground glass ? They are quite common, and show how 
pebbles are made with perfect accuracy. 

Quietly and almost imperceptibly the tireless waters work, 
except when heavy rains or spring freshets, muddy and dis- 
colored with their burden of dust and dissolved rock, move 
even large boulders and destroy well-known landmarks. 
The ability of water to handle rocks of any size, provided 
it is deep enough and swift enough, is unquestioned. In the 
An Sable River, where the inclination of the shelving rock 
which formed the bed was not over two or three degrees, or 
the depth more than eighteen inches, I have myself, by the 
aid of a lever, rolled into the current great pieces of sand- 
stone, three or four feet long and a foot thick, and heard 
their heavy nunbling over the ledge as they were carried 
away. Among the shales, limestones, and sandstones, ra- 



THE CHASMS OF THE COLORADO. 361 

vines of this description are common ; and in these sedimen- 
tary rocks where layer answers to layer on either side of 
the gorge, there can be but little doubt that water has carved 
them out. In the more disturbed localities, however, where 
the stratification is obscured, it becomes diflScult to deter- 
mine whether the chasms were not originally great cracks in 
the earth, subsequently enlarged by the grinding and trans- 
porting power of the stream. The Colorado of the West af- 
fords the best illustrations of these two kinds which have yet 
been seen by man. In its lower part the rockj- sides of the 
canons are cut out of strata highly incUned and disturbed, 
where they have been bent upward to form the mountains, 
while in its upper portion they are perfectly horizontal. 

Two rivers, the Green and the Grand, rise at the western 
bases of the Rocky Mountains, ten or twelve thousand feet 
above the sea, one in South-western Nebraska, the other in 
South-eastern Oregon, and are said to unite their streams near 
the southern boundary of Utah, to form the Colorado of the 
West. This then flows south-westerly, and empties into the 
Gulf of California. The descent is accomplished at fii*st by 
a grand canon cut through a succession of elevated plateaux, 
called Mesas, which spread out westward from the base of 
the Rocky Mountains, like a gigantic stairway, each step a 
thousand feet or so in height and many miles in breadth, and 
in its lower part by a series of canons through ranges of 
mountains. 

Plate 7 * shows the north-western prolongation of the Pur- 
ple Hills, which form the first three canons in the river. The 
two pinnacles of *' Chimney Peak," looming up in the back- 
ground, are composed of trap. This being much harder than 
the material of the neighboring rocks has yielded less to the 
action of the elements, and shows how vast has been the de- 
nudation which has destroyed them. Professor Newberry 
estimates that in some cases the wearing away of the moun- 

*Froin the Editors of the American Journal of Arts and Sciences. 
AMRR. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 46 



362 THE CHASMS OF THE COLORADO. 

« 

tain masses has been upon such a grand scale, that now they 
are only half their original size. 

The Mojave canon, the fourth or fifth through which one 
pjisses in ascending the river, is described by Lieutenant 
Ives as follows : "A low, purple gateway, and a splendid 
corridor with massive red walls, formed the entrance to the 
canon. At the head of this avepue, frowning mountains, 
piled one above the other, seemed to block the way. A 
sharp turn at the base of the apparent barrier revealed a 
cavern-like approach to the profound chasm beyond. A scene 
of such imposing grandeur, as that which now presented 
itself, I have never before witnessed. On either side majestic 
cliffs, hundreds of feet in height, rise perpendicularly from 
the water. As the river wound through the narrow in- 
closure, every turn developed some sublime effect or start- 
ling novelty in the view. Brilliant tints of purple, green, 
brown, red, and white, illuminated the stupendous surfaces 
and relieved their sombre monotony. Far above, clear and 
distinct upon the narrow strip of sky, turrets, spires, jagged, 
statue-like peaks and grotesque pinnacles overlooked the 
deep abyss." 

To this succeeds the Painted Canon, whose exquisitely 
tinted walls, though less grand, seem to have excited the ar- 
tistic taste of the explorers not less than the Mojave Canon. 
Then occurs the Black Canon, where, for twenty-five miles, 
the narrow river plunges through the sunless depths of the 
Black Mountains, the precipices on either side rising per- 
pendicularly a thousand feet or more from the water. The 
little band, in their frail boat, were buried in this fearful 
gorge for two days, and one follows them through the diffi- 
culties and dangers of the pass with breathless interest. 

The walls of these canons, according to Dr. Xewberry, the 
geologist of the expedition, are formed of great msisses of 
granite, porphyry, trap, and other volcanic rocks, with 
layers of highly crystalline limestone and conglomerates, 
which are of equal heights, and correspond exactly on either 



THE CHASMS OF THE COLORADO. 363 

side of the river. The unavoidable inference from these facts 
is that the mountain ranges, of which there are several be- 
sides those I have mentioned, once crossed the bed of the river 
and dammed back its flow, filling the valleys between with 
extensive lakes. These were probably connected by a series 
of cascades and rapids, which must have been of unparalleled 
beauty and grandeur ; but as Niagara is destroying itself, so 
have they destroyed themselves. The stupendous precipices, 
so graphically described by Lieutenant Ives, are the trophies 
of their unconquerable power, the remnants of those moun- 
tain barriers through which the cataracts ate their way and 
drained tlie great lakes of the interior. 

These chasms, however, with their thousand feet or so of 
granite and solid porphyries, are but the outer gates pre- 
paring the mind for the awful sublimity of the Great Canon. 
The local disturbances or oscillations which gave rise to the 
wild scenery of the lowlands, tossing their originally hori- 
zontal layers into lofty mountainous waves, have made no 
impression upon its walls. The level courses of sandstone, 
limestone, and shale, lie upon a bed of granite, of itself a 
thousand feet thick, without a bend or fault to mar their 
perfect parallelism. The entire thickness of the first great 
Mesa or plateau, west of the Rocky Mountains, is exposed 
in the cliffs, and the edges of the severed plain hang in the 
air over a mile above the river. 

"The scenery," says Lieutenant Ives, speaking of a side 
canon down which they passed some seventeen miles to the 
river, ''much resembled that in the Black Canon, excepting 
that the rapid descent, the increasing magnitude of the colos- 
sal piles that blocked the end of the vista, and the corre- 
sponding depth and gloom of the gaping chasms into which 
we were plunging, imparted an unearthly character to a way 
which might have resembled the portals of the infernal re- 
gions." No attempt is made to describe the Great Canon 
itself. The explorers seem to have succumbed to the awe 
created iu their own minds, and yielded the greatest homage 



364 THE CHASMS OF THE COLORADO. 

they could have paid to the unearthly nature of the scene — 
silence. For three hundred miles the precipitous walls vary 
from three thousand to six thousand feet in height, and on 
every side the plain is furrowed bj* the tributaries, so that 
''fissures, so profound the eye cannot penetrate their gloomy 
depths, are separated by walls whose thickness one can 
almost span, and slender spires that seem tottering upon their 
bsises, shoot up thousands of feet from the vaults below.'' 

The country is impassable to man and beast, and none but 
birds can explore the cavernous abysses. The solitude is 
unbroken, and the inhospitable rocks deserted, save by a few 
Indians who drag out a wretched and monotonous existence 
among the subterranean passages. No vegetation clings to 
the sides of the canon or covers the broken surface of the 
Mesa; all is alike naked and savage.* 

The chasm at Niagara excites much wonder, but what 
shall be said of this ? The horizontal strata, answering layer 
to layer upon either side, are witnesses that cannot lie. If 
this three hundred miles of solid earth had been torn apail 
by volcanic forces, the strata would not now be horizontal, 
but contorted or bent upward. Had one part settled away 
from the other, leaving a gap between, the strata would not 
be at equal heights. The river is the only agent that could 
have done the mighty work. At some period of past time 
incalculably distant, the Colonido and its tributaries flowed 
over a mile above on the Mesa, and descended by a cascade 
into a great lake which filled the valley between the Great 
and the Black Canons. A succession of such lakes, con- 
nected by cataracts or rapids as before described, led over 
the mountain chains, until step by step it reached the valley 
throu":h which it now flows to the Gulf of California. 

Newberry found, in the deposits of the lower part of the 
river, the tooth of a mastodon and the silicified remains of 



* Plate 8| for which we also are indebted to the kindness of the Editors of the American 
Journal of Arts and Sciences, gives a view of the general aspect of the surface, with 
other Mesas rising in the distance. 



I 



THE RUFFED GROUSE. 365 

fossil drift-wood buried in the ancient banks now some two 
hundred feet above the present level. These remains indicate 
a tar more abundant vegetation than at present, and that when 
the lakes spread their broad sheets over the now barren val- 
leys, and the rivers were near the surface of the Mesa, all 
the land was covered by great forests* of pine, among which 
huge elephants roamed and cropped the succulent leaves. 
Time has sapped this green, luxuriant youthfulness, and in 
its seared and wrinkled old age, though grander and more 
majestic, the country is bald and unfruitful. 



THE RUFFED GROUSE. 

BY AUGUSTUS FOWLER. 

This beautiful bird, the Bonasa timbella, is a resident in 
Massachusetts. It commences breeding very early in the 
season, so early indeed, that the nest and birds are frequently 
covered with the late snows. 

It is at this time of the year, more than at any other, that 
the male practices the peculiar habit of drumming, to call 
his mate. He usually selects for the purpose the trunk of 
some fallen tree, and, mounting it, struts back and forth, 
with tail expanded and head thrown back and wings lowered 
till they drag upon the log. These are the preliminary 
movements. Suddenly he stops, throws his head fonvard, 
lowers his tail, compresses his feathers, and then commences 
to strike his sides with his wings, increasing the rapidity of 
the strokes, until the sound produced resembles low distant 
thunder. 

They build their nest on the ground, in some secluded 
place, under a brush-heap, or by a log or fallen fence. It is 
composed of whatever suitable materials lie about the spot, 
such as dried grass, twigs, and dried leaves. After the 



3G(i THE RUFFED GROUSE. 

female commences laying she lays every day, until towards 
the last end of the litter, when she lays every other day, 
until she has laid ten, twelve, and sometimes fifteen eggs. 
These she places around the nest in circles, that each may 
receive an equal degree of warmth while she is sitting upon 
them. When she leaves them, she sometimes covers them 
with grass or leaves, but not always. 

The inside of the nest measures five and a half inches, its 
depth two and a half inches. The color of the eggs is yel- 
lowish-white, marked with reddish-brown spots. Usually 
the last ones of the litter are without spots, and of a lighter 
color, a few larger round spots appear to be laid on the sur- 
face of the shell and raised above it. Sometimes a nest of 
the Ruffed Grouse is found to contain a litter of pure white 
eggs. This difference in the color of the eggs may arise in 
consequence of the first nest of the bird being destroyed. In 
connection with this I will mention an instance of a blue-bird 
that was robbed of her eggs in succession, until she produced 
pure white ones. Her first litter was taken in April, where- 
upon she immediately laid another litter of a lighter color 
than the first. These being taken, she laid another litter of 
four esrffs, of a still liofhter color than the second. This third 
litter was also taken from her, when she laid one more 
of three eggs, entirely white. The Marsh-hawk lays from 
six to eight eggs for the first litter, which are all dis- 
tinctly marked, with the exception of one or two that are 
laid last. If this first litter is destroved and she lavs a<rain 
soon, the eggs will hardly have a perceptible spot upon them. 
For this reason no birds' eggs should be described, or pre- 
served as typical specimens, except those laid first in the 
season. 

When the female Grouse begins to sit, the male forsakes 
her and rambles about alone, or in company with other 
males, until autumn. Then he returns, and the birds keep 
together till the following spring, when they separate in 
pail's to breed. 



THE RUFFED GROUSE. 367 

Under different circumstances the female uses different 
artifices to preserve her young. If she sees a person ap- 
proaching, . and cannot lead her young brood away before 
she suffers the intruder to come too near, she utters a low 
clucking note, and in an instant every chick is hid, and will 
remain so until called by her; while she, in the mean time, 
walks slowly away, keeping her eye fixed on the intruder, 
and occasionally stopping and standing on one leg. If you 
still advance, she walks as before, appearing as though there 
was nothing very interesting about the place, until she gets 
behind a tree or bush, when the whirring of her wings tells 
that she has flown away. Many a person has been led away 
by this manoeuvre, while she returns by a circuitous route to 
the rear, and alighting near her young, calls them to her. 
When suddenly alarmed, the brood as before hide under the 
leaves and rubbish, while she feigns lameness, and if not fol- 
lowed, usually returns bristling her feathers and jfluttering 
about. And if your foot is presented to her, she will strike 
at it in the same manner as a domestic hen when defending 
her chickens. The young follow their mother from the day 
they are hatched until they are fully grown, and even until 
the following spring. 

So ardently is this beautiful game-bird sought for, that 
many are destroyed every year, not only with the gun, 
but by every contrivance of snare and trap ; and by the last 
two methods whole broods are taken before they have 
reached maturity. If such indiscriminate slaughter should 
continue for- a few years to come as in times past, we shall 
have cause to regret that effective measures were not taken 
for the preservation of this noble bird. 

The Ruffed Grouse is born to be free, and if reduced to 
slavery, will die rather than submit to such degradation. He 
scorns to be a domestic bird, and chooses the wnld forests, 
where, with a proud step and erect head, he walks with that 
haughty bearing which indicates his free spirit. 



A TROPICAL AIR-PLANT. 

BY CnARLES W RIGHT. 

A woNDERFUii tree — if tree it can be called — grows 
throughout the West India Islands, in South America as 
far south as Brazil, and perhaps in Florida. It is not re- 
markable for its beauty, nor for its gi*eat size, but for its 
irresistible power of destroying other trees. 

It is an epiphyte (Clusia rosea Linn.), perhaps a true 
parasite. Whether it ever germinates in the ground I know 
not ; nor do I know why it should not, if it can sprout from 
a woodpecker's hole in a palm. Certain it is, that of hun- 
dreds which I have seen, I never saw a young plant attached 
to the soil. It grows on many kinds of trees, and at almost 
any height above the earth. In some situations it grows 
feebly. On a palm, it never or rarely attains to any con- 
siderable size ; whether th^re is an incompatibility between 
the two growths, or whether, as is commonly the case on 
these trees, it germinates at too great a height. On the 
spreading branch of a tree it thrives better, but seems there 
to be not in its proper place. In any case, its main develop- 
ment is downward. When on a branch remote from the 
trunk, the descending axis — root or trunk, whichever it may 
be — is like a cord, increasing to the size of a rope, or a 
hawser, or growing even larger; rarely branching, but, 
sometimes, near the groimd sending off stays. The» ascend- 
inor axis makes little more than a bush, while the root mav 
be thirty or forty feet long. In one respect, this is like a 
true root, — it branches irregularly, — while, on the ascend- 
ing trunk the leaves and branches are in pairs. 

In order to attain its full development, it seems necessary 
that it should germinate at a point from which the descend- 
ing axis shall pass in proximity to the trunk of the tree ; 
and, it has seemed, that if this point be very high, it is a 
circumstance unfavorable to its rapid growth. 

(368) 



A TROPICAL AIR-PLANT. 369 

Supposing, then, our plant to start under favorable aus- 
pices, not very high above the ground, and from a hole or a 
fissure in an erect trunk, the ascending stem presents nothing 
of special interest, but the root, passing down near the foster- 
tree, is most singularly afiectcd by it. It would seem as if 
possessed of a most grateful afl'ection for that which gives it 
support; so much so, as to multiply arms with which to 
embrace it. It sends off, from time to time, at iiTcgular 
distances, from one side or the other, slender, almost thread- 
like branches, which pass horizontally around the tree, till 
they meet on the opposite side and unite ; or, it may be, if 
two should not meet, they would pass entirely round it and 
unite again witU the main root. On this point, I either 
made no careful observations, or my memory is at fault. 
Gradually the foster-tree is embraced by a succession of 
these cords. But, by the same regular growth, these cords 
spread upward and downward, till they become hoops. And 
these hoops often send off branches from one to anothor ; 
and these in their turn widen, till the tree is inclosed in a 
living cylinder or a cylindrical network of bands, having 
immense strength ; and as these seem to increase only late- 
rally, the growth of the tree is checked, and its destruction 
is inevitable, sooner or later, according to its less or greater 
power of endurance. 

A tree, on which the Copey has woven a pretty complete 
net, cannot long retain its vitality. Its circulation is stopped 
and it dies. But this seeins not to check the growth of the 
destroyer, so long as the trunk remains erect. But when 
they both fall, the parasite cannot long survive. It would 
seem that it required either elevation or an erect position 
for its existence. 

I can recall to mind but one instance of a Copey growing 
from the ground, and it is probable that in this case the 
place whence it started was low, and it had time to reach 
the soil and fasten its roots there before the death and decay 
of its foster-parent. 

AMER. VATVRAUBT, VOL. U, 47 



370 THE MOTTLED OWL. 

Copey is, probably, the aboriginal or Carib name of the 
plant, which, like many others, has been retained. Scotch 
lawyer, or Scotch attorney, by which name it is known in 
Jamaica, is not altogether flattering to legal gentlemen of 
Caledonian extraction. 



THE MOTTLED OWL. 

BY DR. W. WOOD. 

Of the genus Scops, there are some twenty-five or thirty 
species in all parts of the globe, only one of which, accoi-d- 
ing to Cassin, is found in New England. From the time of 
Pennant till they were separated by the Prince of Canino 
(Charles Lucien Bonaparte), the mottled (Strtx Asio) and 
the red owl (Strix Ncevia) were considered two distinct spe- 
cies : since that time, the writers on ornithology — so far as I 
have been able to learn — consider them the same bird. Some, 
and probably the most, believe that the mottled is the adult, 
and the red the young, while others are equally sanguine 
that the reverse is true. Brewer, in his synopsis of the 
birds of North America, says that the red-plumaged bird is 
the adult. In his opinion he is sustained by Doctor Cabot, 
of Boston, and many other distinguished naturalists. Audu- 
bon says, "The red owl of Wilson and other naturalists is 
merely the young of the bird called by the same authors the 
mottled owl." Cassin, in the Pacific Railroad Report (vol. 
ix, p. 52), agrees with Audubon, yet says "the two stages 
of plumage described above (adult and young) have been 
regarded as characterizing distinct species, and they do pre- 
sent a problem scarcely to be considered as fully solved." 
And furthennore he says, "this bird pairs and rears young 
while in the red plumage, and it is not unusual to find a 
mottled male and red female associated or the reverse." 
While Audubon says, "By the middle of August they are 



THE MOTTLED OWL. 371 

fully feathered, and are then generally of the color exhibited 
in the plate (red). The feathers change their color as the 
pairing season advances, and in the first spring the bird is in 
perfect dress (gray)." How, then, can a gray and red pair, 
as the young never pair until the following spring? From 
the above quotations you perceive that there is a great differ- 
ence among scientific ornithologists as to which is the adult 
and which is the young ; — and, if it will not seem egotisti- 
cal, allow me to say that I believe all are right and all are 
wrong ; for, according to my investigations, there is an adult 
red and an adult gray, and also a young red and a young 
gray. As "the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth" is or should be the only desideratum known among 
naturalists, I propose to give my experience and observa- 
tions, hoping to elucidate the subject somewhat, intending 
still to prosecute my researches until the identity or non- 
identity is settled beyond dispute. A writer in the trans- 
actions of the Academy of Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 8, 
p. 53, expresses my views on the subject. He says that 
*'the color of both young and old is variable and uncertain, 
or else they are specifically distinct, having observed both 
the old and young of the Mottled-gray Owl, neither of 
which had the slightest shade of red about them ; " and I can 
add, that I have not only observed the same, but also the 
adult Red on her nest with red young. In my collection is 
a Mottled Owl that was taken from her nest in a hollow tree 
that she had occupied several years with one of her young, 
neither of which had a red feather on them. I have also a 
Red Owl that was taken from her nest by a farmer who in- 
formed me that she had nested close by his house in the 
same hollow tree four or five years, and that he had been in 
the habit of taking her out and showing her to his friends, 
but having a brood of chickens disappear suddenly, he sup- 
posed this owl was the thief. In answer to my interroga- 
tions, he said she had always the same red color. In the 
spring of 1860, I found a Red Owl on her nest with four 



372 THE MOTTLED OWL. 

young under hex- : the latter were quite young, yet had the 
reddish tinge wherever the down was superseded by feathers^ 
I stuffed one of them and Isept the other three four months, 
when it was difficult to distinguish them from the adult bird. 
From the above it is evident that there are two adults, at 
least from three to five years old, the one red without a 
gray feather ; the other gray without the slightest shade of 
red ; also, the young of each before they could fly, one pure 
gray and white without a red feather, the other with a red- 
dish tinge to all the feathers. These facts I am unable to 
reconcile unless it is admitted that the color of the plumage 
is either "variable and uncertain," or else, that there are two 
distinct species as described by Wilson in his American Or- 
nithology. 

In the fall of 1860 I wrote to my friend, Dr. S. W. Wil- 
son, St. Simon's Island, Geo., who is an experienced orni- 
thologist, and who has an extensive aviary, relating my 
investigations, and soliciting his observations as to the 
identity or non-identity of the Mottled and Red Owls, and 
received the following reply: '*I will as far as I am able 
dispose of the Owl question. I feel that I can speak almost 
authoritatively in the matter from the number of observa- 
tions I have made of each species. Fortunately, both the 
species to which you refer are abundant here, and I have no 
hesitation in saying that Wilson described them accurately, 
and subsequent naturalists have erred in considering them 
under one species. I have observed the old owls of each 
si^ecies feeding their young, noticed the change of plumage 
in the latter, and have on many occasions taken them from a 
hollow to secure their eggs, and have invariably found one 
species red, the other gray." 

As the habits, manner of nesting, and appearance of the 
eggs are the same in both stages of plumage, or in the two 
species, the same general description will suffice for one or 
both. The Little Screech-owl, as it is commonly called, is 
found more or less numerous in all parts of the United 



THE MOTTLED OWL. 373 

States, and extends its migration as far north as Greeuland. 
In the States on the Atlantic coast, it is more numerous than 
any of the family Strigidee. Although this species is not 
considered by many ornithologists migratory, yet from my 
own observations I believe that most of them leave us in i^e 
winter ; for while they are frequently taken here during the 
spring, summer, and fall months, they are seldom found in 
the winter. Wilson considered the Mottled Owl a native of 
the northern regions, extending its migrations as far south as 
Pennsylvania in winter, yet the Red Owl he believes is not 
migratory. 

It is said that its power of vision is so imperfect that it 
will suffer itself sometimes to be taken in the hand when 
found away from its retreat in a clear day. That it can be 
taken in that way I know by experience, yet it does not ne- 
cessarily follow that it is owing to defective vision. Like 
the preceding owl, it can see tolerably well at noonday. One 
that I let loose in my office flew against the window with 
such force as to break the glass, through which he escaped, 
and alighted on the limb of a tree some twenty rods distant, 
as readily as any bird could. Seeing me coming with a gun, 
he flew into a dove-hole in the barn. This occurred in the 
middle of the day, when the sun was shining clearly. An- 
other that I kept in a cage would greedily seize his meat in 
broad daylight, and eye me closely when approaching with 
his morsel, snapping its bill after the manner of owls. Three 
that I tamed would come at call any time of the day from 
their perch in the barn. The probability is, that the owl, 
previously to being taken by hand, has gorged itself with 
food until unable to fly to its hiding-place, and thus remains 
almost stupid during the day. The hawk will sometimes 
gluttonize itself so that you can approach very near it before 
it will attempt to fly. The Screech-owl, like all nocturnal 
birds of prey, mostly secures its food at twilight, and the 
bird that has sat with eyes half-closed and head drawn down 
as though asleep during the day, is now active and vigilant, 



374 THE MOTTIaED OWL. 

catcbiug its game, which consists of small birds, mice, 
crickets, beetles, and other insects. These are swallowed 
mostly whole, and afterwards the bones, feathers, hairs, etc., 
are ejected in the form of pellets. As a caterer this harm- 
less little owl is not excelled by any of its genus. 

* It is difficult to describe the cry of this bird ; sometimes it 
sounds like a child crying, then again like the syllable ho-h5- 
ho-ho-h5-h5-h5-h6 in quick succession with the quivering 
sound, or as Wilson admirably describes it: "It reminds one 
of the shivering moanings of a half frozen puppy. These 
notes you hear in the spring during pairing season, and also 
when the young have recently left the nest. They are gener- 
ally answered by the mate or by the young. Last spring 
meeting one of my neighbors in the morning he inquired if 
my child was sick? I replied in the negative, and asked him 
why he thought so? He said *I heard a child cry almost all 
night, and it appeared to come from your house !' Soon an- 
other accosted me like the first, and he was positive that the 
crying came from the same source. The mystery was soon 
explained when I informed them that a young Screech-owl 
was the sole occupant of a box eight inches square under my 
waggon-seat. By the superstitious, this wailing cry about 
the house is considered the forerunner of death. On visiting 
one of my patients I found the mother in tears, wringing her 
hands and moaning piteously, when she informed me that 
her child must die, for an owl had been near the window and 
cried almost all night. I endeavored to pacify the good lady 
by assuring her that her child would recover, but all to no 
purpose, for she believed the owl was a sure messenger of 
death, and no earthly power could avert it. The child re- 
covered, and although seven years have elapsed, no member 
has yet obeyed the summons of the owl, yet the superstitious 
dame is hourly expecting that some one must go soon.** 

One of the Latin poets, in alluding to the cry of the owl 
says,— 

" K9t nils 8tiiKibii8 nomen; 9ed nominis htijns 
Causa quod horrcnda 8tndere nocto solent." 



BEYIEWS. 375 

But I can say, in the language of Cowper, — 

'* The Jaji the pie, and e'en the boding owl, 
That hails the ri8in|f moon, have charms for me : 
Sounds inharmonious in themselves and harsh, 
Yet heard in scenes where peace forever reigns, 
And only these, please highly for their sake." 

The Screech-owl breeds in hollow trees, more commonly 
the apple tree, often but a few feet from the ground. Their 
nest is composed of grass, leaves, and feathers, and contains 
from four to six white eggs, nearly round. There is no ap- 
parent difference in the eggs of the Eed and Mottled Owl. 
Wishing to obtain the eggs of the Red Owl, I requested a 
friend to secure me some from a nest that had been occu- 
yed by the same pair for years. Thrusting his hand into 
tb hole, he withdrew it again in a hurry. In looking into 
tb aperture, the eyes and ears of an owl were quite appa- 
reit, but the feathers were fur. The occupant proved to be 
Mb. Puss, with her family of four kittens. This is the sec- 
one instance of the kind that has come to my knowledge, 
and no doubt the modus operandi by which this transforma- 
tion occurs can be easily explained by the superstitious, as 
did he ancients the metamorphosing of Jupiter into a bull. 

[Tis article was received May IGth, and put in type before Mr. Allen*s 
"Not«," giv0n in the August number, were received.— Editors.] 



REVIEWS. 

The bpuLAR Science Review, in the July number, contains a lecture 
by Profisor Huxley "On the Animals which are most nearly interme- 
diate btween Birds and ReptUes." Such connecting links do not now 
exist, h\ the lecturer finds traces of such links in the fossil Iguanodon^ 
and otht Dinosaurians, in the Pterodactyle, and especially in the feath- 
ered re]lle-like bird, Archasopteryxy of the Oolite formation ; and in the 
animals,ome bird-like, others reptile-like, which lived during the Trias- 
sic perioin the Connecticut Valley. 

I bave im; I hope, redeemed my promise to sbow that, In times past, birds more like rep- 
tiles than f now living, and reptiles more like birds tban any now living, did really exist. 
But, on the ere doctrine of chances, it would be the height of Improbability that the couple 



376 KEVIEWS. 

of skeletonfl, each nnlqne of Its kind, which hare heen preseired in those comparatively small 
beds of Solenhofen slate, which record the lilte of a A-actlon of Mesozolc time, should be the rel- 
ics, the one of the most reptilian of birds, and the other of the roost omitliio of reptiles. And 
this conclusion acquires a far greater force when we reflect upon that wonderflil eyidenoe of 
the lifb of the Triasslc age, which is afforded us by the sandstones of Connecticut. It Is true 
that these have yielded neither feathers nor bones; but the creatures which traversed them 
when tliey were the sandy beaches of a quiet sea or lake, have left innumerable tracks which 
are fhll of instructive suggestion. Many of tliese tracks are wholly indistinguishable fh>m 
those of modern birds in form and siae; others are gigantic three-toed impressions, like thoso 
of the Weald of our own country; others are more like the marks left by existing reptiles, or 
Amphibia, The Important truth which these tracks reveal is, that, at the commencement of 
the Mesozolc epoch, bipedal animals existed which had the feet of birds, and walked in the same 
erect or semi-erect Ikshion. These bipeds were either birds or reptiles, or more properly botli ; 
and it can hardly be doubted that a lithographic slate of Triasslc age would yield birds so much 
more reptilian than Arcfueoptetyx^ and reptiles so much more ornithic than CompiOfftuUhiu^ as 
to obliterate completely the gap which they still leave between reptiles and birds. 

But if, on tracing the fbrms of animal life back in time, we meet, as a matter of fact, with 
reptiles which depart from the general type to become bird-like, until it is by no means difficult 
to imagine a creature completely intermediate between Dronutus and Comptognathut^ surely 
tlierc is nothing very wild or illegitimate in the hypothesis that the phylum^ or genealogical 
tree, of the class Avt* has its root in the Dmosaurian reptiles; that these, passing througlv* 
series of such modifications as are exhibited in one of their phases by CompsofftuUhiu^ hare 
given rise to the Ratitm; while the Cartnatao are still flurtber modifications and difTerentiatlAs 
of these last, attaining their highest specialization in the existing world in the Fengulnsybe 
Cormorants, the Birds of Prey, the Parrots, and the Song-birds.- 

However, as many completely differentiated birds in all probability existed even In thefri- 
assic epoch, and as we possess hardly any knowledge of the terrestrial reptiles of that poiod. 
It may be regarded as certain that we have no knowledge of the animals which linked Rcf iles 
and Birds together historically and genetically; and that the Dinosauria^ with Comptogn^xu^ 
ArehteopUryx^ and the Struthlous Birds, only help us to form a reasonable conception offrhaC 
these intermediate forms may have been. 

In conclusion, I think I have shown cause for the assertion that the fkcts of PalcontoI<y, so 
Cur as Birds and Reptiles are concerned, are not opposed to the doctrine of Evolution, It, on 
the contrary, are quite such as that doctrine would lead us to expect; fbr they enabtus to 
form a conception of the manner in which Birds may have been evolved Arom RcptUB« and 
thereby Justify us In maintaining the superiority of the hypothesis, that Birds have ficn so 
originated, to all hypotheses which are devoid of an equivalent basis of fhct. 

M. Sanson thinks there are in the East two species of horse, ^hich 
have hitherto been confounded under the single name of Arab. --Itarch 
granules have been found by M. C. Dareste in eggs. This fact, lys M. 
Dareste, adds to the analogy which is thought to exist between le eg^ 
of animals and the seed of plants. — The old stock illustration of t| force 
of food in producing peculiarities of animal structure, namely, the of the 
production of sex in the bee, by the supply of a particular form ^ nour- 
ishment, has received a death-blow in the researches of M. Sansa In a 
paper quite recently published, he narrates numerous experimcn; which 
prove beyond question that the food has nothing special to do ith the 
production of sex, which, in point of fact, as worked out by B*r Bas- 
tlan, depends on the supply of zoosperms. 

A Guide to the Study op Insects. By A, S. Packard^ jr. ^. 2>.— 
Part II. contains chapters on the metamorphoses of insects, l^ir geo- 
graphical and geological distribution ; directions for collectingnd pre- 
serving insects ; a list of the most important entomological wols, and a 
general account of the Ilymcnoptera, and of the Honey-bee anc^ts mode 
of building its cells. It consists of C8 pages, with two plates dd illus- 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 377 

trations in the text. It is hoped that it will prove a valuable number 
to those beginning to study insects. Part III, to be issued in Septem- 
ber, will contain chapters on the Wild Bees, Wasps, Ants, and other Hy- 
menoptera, with three fUll-page illustrations and numerous cuts. 

As there has been some misunderstanding regarding the price of the 
work and the number of parts to be issued, and how they should be paid 
for, we would state that it will be issued in ftom eight to ten parts, prob- 
ably ten, of sixty-four pages each, and it would be a great convenience 
to the publishers if subscribers would send ^4.00, in advance, for the first 
eight numbers. Address the author at Salem, Mass. 



>S«^«^^/WN/>/WN/V^>N/W^'W^>^>- 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



ZOOLOGY. 

A Review of some of the Articles published in this Journal 

RESPECTING THE HaBITS AND NESTING OF OUR BiRDS, WITH ADDITIONAL 

Facts. — The o()loglcal department of ornithology affords ample scope for 
the most enthusiastic observer to glean something new continually. Dif- 
ferent localities and different circumstances modify very much the man- 
ner of nesting, as well as the number of eggs ; in fact, eggs vary in color 
occasionally. In the first volume, page 435 of this Journal, Mr. Samuels 
speaks of several specimens of Indigo-birds' eggs ** sprinkled with dots 
of pale- red." Of a large number of Indigo-birds' eggs, collected by my- 
self and received from others during the last twenty years, they have 
invariably been white, with a bluish tinge, yet I have other eggs as sin- 
gularly marked. I have tall sets of Cooper's-hawks' eggs, without a 
blotch upon them, and others blotched with brown, and one set blotched 
with red. I have the eggs of the Blue-bird pure white, and polished like 
those of the family Picidse (Woodpeckers). I have a set of four of the 
Red-shouldered Hawk's eggs, two of which are pure white, and two 
blotched with red, as they usually are. I have taken a set of four of 
crow's eggs this season that have no bluish tinge about them whatever. 
They are flesh-colored, blotched with red, resembling in markings the 
egg of the Pipilo erythropthalmus (Chewink). The changing of colored 
or spotted eggs to white is easily accounted for. The coloring matter is 
deposited on the shell in the oviduct, so that as a consequence of disease 
of the glands which ftimish the coloring matter, the eggs may be laid un- 
colored. These are exceptions, not the rule, but of frequent occurrence 
enough to make us cautious and not too positive in our assertions. In 
no way can we get at all the facts, correct errors, and reconcile state- 
ments, unless each collector careftilly observes, and truthfully gives his 
own experience in the various fields of pursuit. 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. U. 48 



378 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

In Vol. I, No. 7, p. 348, is a very interesting article on the Encamp- 
ment of the Herons. As the writer differs in some particulars Arom my 
observations, I will give my experience. There has been an encampment 
of herons some sixteen miles f^om my office for many years, probably 
fifty, and perhaps one hundred. It has been there as loog as any one re- 
members the place. I have been in the habit of visiting it for nearly 
twenty years. The tract on which they nest consists of very tall, slim 
trees, fi-om sixty to ninety feet high, running up iVom thirty to fifty feet 
without a limb, and covering over a belt of ground one and a half miles in 
length by one-half mile in breadth. Before visiting the ground I sent 
there for two years in succession, offering a liberal reward to any one 
who would procure me some eggs. No one would venture, as the trees 
were in very wet ground, and in water, difficult to climb, and partly cov- 
ered with the excrements of the birds. I was telling a sailor of my Ina- 
bility to get any one to climb the trees, when he roguishly inquired '4f 
the trees were made of wood," remarking that "he could climb any tree 
made of wood." The next day found us in the swamp, and such a sight I 
never before saw. The woods were filled with the Quawks {Nyctiardea 
Oardenii) ; there were thousands, and their noise was almost deafening 
on being disturbed, or, as Wilson graphically describes it, '^ it would 
almost induce one to suppose that two or three hundred Indians were 
choking or throttling each other." I counted eight nests on one tree, 
and many trees contained four and five. Most of the nests were out on the 
limbs, where it was very difficult to get at them ; but there is no such 
thing as can't to a naturalist, when the prize is in view. A goodly num- 
ber of eggs were obtained. Two years ago the past season I took with 
me three climbers, and secured a large supply of eggs. While returning 
we made a rough estimate of the distance climbed. As my cords for let- 
ting down the boxes of eggs were all measured, we could tell pretty ac- 
curately the height of the nests. They varied from fifty to eighty feet, 
making an average of about 6ixty-five feet. One of my collectors, with 
creepers, climbed over twenty trees, which, in ascending and descending, 
would make over half a mile, and that, too, in a rain storm, as it com- 
menced storming soon after we arrived at the swamp and continued all 
day. This encampment is now nearly broken up, as a part of the trees 
have been cut off, and the sportsmen have wantonly shot the birds. Two 
hunters visited this place with a business waggon, and brought it back f\ill 
of night-herons. There must have been between two and three hundred 
killed. This is the second heronry that I have been in the habit of visit- 
ing to replenish my oological collection from, and yet I have never found 
over four eqgs, and more commonly but three in a nest, and the nests were 
generally on limbs. I mention these facts, not to throw doubt on the 
statements of Mr. Endicott, but to show that birds in different sections 
nest differently, and lay a greater or less number of eggs according to 
circumstances. I have sometimes thought that the birds were more pro- 
lific near the seashore where food is procured in such abundance. 



NATUKAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 379 

In Vol. I, No. 9, p. 496, Mr. Samuels and Mr. Fowler disagree regard- 
ing the nesting of the Belted Kingfisher and Mottled Owl. My observa- 
tions agree with both in some particulars, and disagree with both in 
other respects. I have been In the habit of collecting ftx»m one to three 
nests a year for fifteen or twenty years, of the Ceryle Alcyon. I take a 
light cane-pole about eight feet long and a spade with me, and follow 
down the banks of Scantic River in the nesting-season (middle of May to 
the first of June), and when I find a ft-esh hole, running horizontally, of 
suitable size and place for a Kingfisher, I carefully introduce the pole, 
ascertain the length of the hole, and by withdrawing the pole, and placing 
it on the top of the ground in the same line and distance introduced, the 
end of it will be exactly over the nest, as the nest is always at the ex- 
treme end. I then dig down upon it, going back upon the hole some six 
inches, so as not to break the eggs by the falling earth. In this way I 
get a fine view of the nest without disturbing it. In one instance the 
parent bird was so tenacious of her rights, that she allowed me to lift her 
from her nest. The nest is Arom eighteen inches to two feet under the 
surface, and generally from four to six feet into the hank. I never have 
found but one within three feet, and that was in a clay-bank. I have 
invariably found the hole straight, in whatever line it starts ; if it starts 
to the right or left, it follows that line, and so straight, that my pole reaches 
the end of the excavation without any trouble. In stony ground, possibly, 
the bird may find it necessary to deviate from a straight line, but as we 
are not troubled with stones, I can only speak from experience in sandy 
soil. The eggs, usually seven In number, are laid on the sand in a small 
cavity made for them. 

I can corroborate the statements of Mr. Samuels respecting the nesting 
of the Mottled Owl. "The nest is made at the bottom of the hole, and 
is constituted of grass, leaves, moss, and sometimes a few feathers. It is 
not elaborately made, being nothing m6re tl^n a heap of soft materials." 
I cannot ftilly indorse the statement of Mr. Fowler "that rapacious birds 
are awkward workmen at ncst-buildiHg, especially the owl." If Mr. F. 
had confined his remarks to the family of Strj'gidee, all naturalists would 
agree with him, so far. at least as pertains to the owls of New England. 
I .can speak from observation of the Great-homed, Barred, Long-eared, 
Short-eared, ai^^|^Ued Owl. Of hawks I have collected nine varieties 
of eggs, and nCTJ^^P young and nests in Connecticut, — the Fish, Red- 
tailed, -^ed-shoul^^d. Broad-winged, Cooper's, Sharp-shinned, Spar- 
row, Great-fobted, and Marsh-hawk. All, with the exception of the last 
thr^e, arc goo^.ne8tf^ailders. The Cooper's Hawk excels in the neatness 
and arrangem At of ner nest. It would puzzle a Yankee to do it any bet- 
ter out of the same materials. The Marsh-hawk makes a nest of small 
sticks and coarse ^rass, mostly the latter. I have found quite a number 
of their nests, am they appear like a promiscuous mixing together of 
material without«iany particular order or plan, any farther than to keep 
the eggs from the damp ground. I believe that they rebuild their old 



380 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

nests sometimes, for I have one in my office which has the appearance 
of being occupied three seasons, with small additions each year. I know 
they will use the same nest more than once the same year if their eggs 
are taken. Some few years since one of my collectors came upon a nest 
of the Marsh-hawk and took the eggs. Some two weeks after he took 
five eggs more fW>m the nest, and in a few days ft'om that time he went 
to the nest and took two more eggs and shot the old bird, as she was 
altogether too fluniliar with his chickens. 

In Vol. I, No. 11, p. 584, is a very tmthfkil and life-like description of 
the Chicadee, — its habits, nesting, etc. The writer speaks of the habits 
of the Batcher-bird of killing it, and says, '* if he does not devoar it upon 
the spot, it is hung on the crotch of a limb to serve as a meal at some 
ftiture time.** I would like to ask Mr. Fowler if he knows that to be a 
fiict fh)m his own observations ? Can any one give positive information 
upon the subject? I know this is received as a fact by most naturalists, 
and it may seem egotistical for me to doubt it, yet I have for years 
watched the Collyrio borealis from the time it arrives here in the fidl 
until it goes north in the spring ; have seen birds and grasshoppers sus- 
pended Arom a crotch or impaled on a thorn or sharp stick by them ; but I 
never knew it return to devour them, although I have carcf\illy watched 
for weeks. I think the bird does it for mere sport. It could hardly be 
expected that so active a hunter would be satisfied with stale food when 
better is so easily obtained. ~Wm. Wood,M.D., East Windsor Hill, Conn. 

The Dwarf Thkush. — In the Naturalist for June there is a notice 
of a Dwarf Thrash {Tardus nanus) killed in Waltham, Mass. On the 10th 
April, 1866, 1 had the good fortune to obtain a bird of the same species 
near Orange, N. J. Like the one mentioned by Mr. Samuels, it was found 
in a high, dry woodland. I do not, however, consider this fact as of any 
value in determining its specific dlfibrence from T. Pallasii, as I have re- 
peatedly found the latter bird in precisely similar localities.* 

It may also be interesting to ornithologists to know that a pair of Bo- 
hemian Wazwings were observed in this neighborhood on the 28th April, 
1867. It is very rarely that this bird ever comes so far south, and then it 
is usually in the depth of winter. — T. Martin Trippe, Orange, N. Y. 

TlIE nONEY-BEE GLEANING AFTER THE OrIOLE. -^WQ^llttle girls, the 

elder scarcely six years of age, were picking the ^HpTof the Bufiklo, 
or Missouri Currant (i?i6<»« aureum), "to get thl^Rney.'' TJjcy saw 
honey-bees around the bushes. They observed that many of the flowers 
had one or two little holes at the base of the caly^tube, and that such 



•As the (bUowIng doscripClou of the specimen which I shot dltfcn somewhat from that given 
hy Mr. SamueJs, I judge It hest to Insert it here, hoping that It may be of nsc In settling the 
BtlU doubtftil question as to tlie specUlo dlflterence of T, nantts and T. fPullatii.'—FeaXiwrs of 
the crown with their centres much darker Uian their edges, so as to present a streaked appear- 
ance; ear-coyerts qnlte distinctly streaked with white; sides of the body under tlie wings and 
breast wltli a bluish tinge, the under wlng-ooverts being of a similar color; throat, belly, and 
under tall-coverts pore white; tall fiMitliers with a bluish purple tinge, especially on their 
loner webs. Length, 7 inches; alar extent, IIJO; wlng,S.75; tall, 3. Otherwise as In T.Pttltatii. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 381 

flowers were Dot as sweet as the others. They said the bees had torn 
them open with their jaws, and sacked out the honey. 

For two seasons I have examined large numbers of these flowers in 
difl^erent parts of the village, and found many of them had been torn open. 
Several times I have seen the Baltimore Oriole rapidly going over the 
bushes, giving each fresh flower a prick with the tip of his beak. No 
other birds have been seen doing this ; nor have I ever been able to see 
a honey-bee attempt to make a hole at the side of a flower. The calyx- 
tube is too long for the honey-bee, so she contents herself with gleaning 
after the oriole, selecting the iigured flowers, and leaving the fresh ones 
for birds and humble-bees. — W. J. Beal, Union Springs, N. Y. 

Remarkable Fijght ov Crows.— -An account of a remarkable flight 
of crows I once witnessed may, perhaps, be of Interest to some of your 
readers. The organization of which I was a member, was stationed in 
March and April, 1863, at Poolsville, Md., on the Upper Potomac, mid- 
way, or nearly so, between Washington and Harper's Ferry. One after- 
noon in April I was posted as sentinel "between the guns," with 
instructions there to walk until six ; it was then four. 

Soon after being posted, I saw two or three crows fly over, and soon 
five or six more, followed by nine or ten more ; seeing them so increase I 
thought to count them, and for half an hour or so was able to do so with 
some degree of certainty ; after that they formed one continuous stream, 
flying cast by south in perfect silence. After that I could only estimate 
their number by calculating how many passed a given point in a minute. 
There was no apparent diminution in their numbers as the time passed 
on ; but the line shifted towards the north, as though they were advanc- 
ing 'Mn echelon," and when it flnally grew dusky, they still presented the 
appearance of a low black cloud to the northward, their motion visible 
only when a break occurred in the line. I estimated that their number was 
eighty thousand up to the time that darkness prevented farther observa- 
tion. Some weeks after I spoke with Dr. Thayer, Surgeon of the 14th N.H. 
Volunteers, on the subject, and found his estimate to be — if I remember 
rightly — ninety-five thousand. The species was the common C Ameri- 
canus, — W. E. Endicott. 

Singular DEFORMrrv in a Silk Moth. — All entomologists, who have 
much to do with batting insects, know very well it is not an uncommon 
occurrence to meelSHh deformed insects ; the deformity is generally in 
the wings. This deformity is particularly noticeable in that favorite of 
entomologists, the Luna moth. Several years ago I gathered quite a 
number of cocoons <9f the Cecropia, in order to get some fine specimens 
among the number. One came out, the wings spread nicely, but the left 
pair were considerable shorter than the opposite ones. But the most 
singular deformity occurred this summer. A Cecropia came out with- 
out antennae. I at flrst thought it had broken them off in escaping A*om 
the cocoons, but it was not so ; the moth was perfect In other respects. 
— R. Bunker, Bochester, N, Y. 



382 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

Thk Honey- ant. — According to TVesmael, a Belgian naturalist, the 
worker major of this singular ant, which lives In Mexico, has the abdo- 
men swollen at times like a balloon, and then perfectly transparent and 
filled with honey. These individuals are inactive, do not quit the nest, 
and their sole occupation is to elaborate a kind of honey, which they 
discharge into receptacles. This is the Mymiecocystus Mezicanus, or hor- 
migas mieleras, or mochileraa, 1. e. honey-ants, or pouched-ants, of the 
Mexicans. 

The major worker of Crematogaster inflatus, according to Mr. F. Smith, 
has a swollen bladder-like formation on the hinder part of the thorax 
(metathorax) : *'This singular apparatus is furnished with a small cir- 
cular orifice at the posterior lateral angles, fh>m which the saccharine 
fluid doubtless exudes. We may, therefore, reasonably conclude that this 
insect elaborates a suitable and necessary aliment for the nourishment 
of the young brood." A species of "Honey -ant" Ls also found in Texas. 

The Golden- winged Woodpecker. — A somewhat remarkable case, 
illustrating well one of the breeding peculiarities of the Golden-winged 
Woodpecker (Colapta auratus)^ has just occurred under my notice. A 
pair of these birds commenced laying about the first week in May, in a 
"nest that had been occupied for several years in succession. I removed 
the eggs careftilly twice a week, leaving two in the nest each time ; I 
have thus obtained thirty- three eggs, thirty-one of which are in my col- 
lection, the other two (the last) having been hatched during my absence. 
Their ordinary number, as every one knows, is only six. This is the 
most extensive case of the kind I have ever known. Can any of the read- 
ers of the Naturalist surpass it? — W. K. Kedzie, Lansing^ Mich. 

Habits of the Elephant. — In Ceylon, the Elephant seeks the shade 
of thick forests at the rising of the sun, in which he rests until about 
five o'clock, P. M., when he wanders forth upon the plains. In AfHca, 
the country being generally more open, the elephant remains throughout 
the day either beneath a solitary tree, or exposed to the sun in the vast 
prairies, where the thick grass attains a height of from nine to twelve 
feet. The general food of the Afdcan elephant consists of the foliage of 
trees, especially of Mimosas. In Ceylon, although there are many trees 
that serve as food, the elephant nevertheless is an ^tensive grass-feeder. 
The African variety, being almost exclusively a trl^^eder, requires his 
tusks to assist him in procuring food. Many of the mimosas are flat- 
headed, about thirty feet high, and the richer portion of the foliage con- 
flned to the crown ; thus the elephant, not being able to reach to so great 
a height, must overturn the tree to procure the coveted food. The de- 
struction caused by a herd of African elephants in a mimosa forest is ex- 
traordinary ; and I have seen trees uprooted of so large a size, that I am 
convinced no single elephant could have overturned them. I have meas- 
ured trees four feet six inches in circumference, and about thirty feet 
high, uprooted by elephants. — Baker's Albert Nyanza, 



i. 



NATURAL fflSTORY MISCELLANY. 383 



MICROSCOPY. 

The Whale's Food and the Discoloration of the Arctic Seas. 
— At the second meeting of the thirty-second session of the Botanical 
Society of Edinburgh, Mr. Brown read a paper **0n the Nature of the 
Discoloration of the Arctic Seas," the results of researches made on his 
different scientific voyages to the Spitzbergen and Jan Mayen Sea, and 
Davis Strait and Baffin's Bay in 1860, and to the coasts of Danish Green- 
land in ] 867, in which he enunciated the following conclusions : 

1. That the dark, or deep green portions of the Arctic Sea, described 
by Scoresby, and before him by Davis and Hudson, are local and perma- 
nent, though movable to a certain degree by currents and tides. 

2. That this discoloration Is not caused by Medusae, but by Immense 
multitudes of a minute silicious moniliform diatom, found almost solely 
in these discolored portions. He found that when the immense mass of 
Beroidee and other forms of medusoid life, sank (as it will do occasionally 
beneath the surface), that the sea still retained its peculiar color, but that 
even the immense mass of diatomaceae would sink down a few feet, and 
again, without apparent cause, rise to the surface. At a depth of two 
hundred fathoms the water was f^ee from diatoms, though at the time the 
muslin of the towing net was dyed with them as it skimmed along the 
surface. 

3. That these diatoms also accumulate under the floes of ice, as it was 
found that the brown slimy masses adhering to the under surface of the 
ice was almost wholly composed of this diatom. It was also found that 
the heat developed by the masses of diatomacese adhering to the under 
surface had hollowed the Ice into honey-combed chambers, giving it the 
whaler's name of "rotten ice," and so fragile as to be easily thrown aside 
by the iron-shod prows of the early whaler. " It is not, therefore," re- 
marked Mr. Brown, "carrying the doctrine of final causes too far to aver 
that this diatom by assisting in the breaking up of the floes, so fearftil in 
their majesty, helps to render the Arctic Ocean navigable to the hardy 
whalemen, as I will hereafter show it does, by ftirnishing substance to 
the noble quarry which leads him hither. 

4. The food of the Balmna mysticetus Linn, was found to consist wholly 
of the minute animals swarming in these discolored portions ; the other 
species of Cetacea living on flshes and other highly developed tissues. 
These animals consisted of Entomostraca, of w^hlch the principal were 
Cetochilus arcticusy and C. septrionalisy Pteropoda, of which the chief is the 
well-known Clio borealis (which it ought, however, to be remarked, does 
not form such an item In the food of the w^hale, as Is usually supposed), 
and stalked-eyed Medusae, comprising various species of Beroldee, etc. 
In the stomachs of all these animals he found this diatom, and iVom after 
investigation it was proved that their sole food consisted almost wholly 
of the species in question, and afterwards the same was remarked of the 
smaller mollusca. 



384 PROCEEDINGS OF 8CIENTIFI0 SOCIETIES. 

6. It thus appeared that in the strange cycle of being the whale is de- 
pendent on the diatom for its existence. *'In conclasion, you will allow 
me to remark," said Mr. Brown, *^that I know nothing stranger in all the 
annals of biology than the strange tale I have unfolded. Frotozoon 
feeding diatom, diatom feeding entomostracon, and entomostracon the 
whale ; in a word, that the most gigantic of living animals,* whose pur- 
suit affords occupation to thousands of tons of shipping, and thousands 
of seamen, and whose loss to one little Scottish port was last year esti- 
mated at £100,000,1 is dependent for its existence on a being so small 
that it takes hundreds to be massed together before they can be visible to 
the naked eye, and so insignificant that it is unknown to the men who 
are most interested in its existence — telling how great are little things. 
The author gave some of the illustrations of representative species 
afforded by his discoveries, and we may look for farther details on the 
publication of the paper in a few weeks. — Land and Water. 

Wanted, a Rotifer. — I have hunted gutters, cisterns, pools, ponds, 
lakes, ditches, and rivers, and viewed many a "field " alive with wondrous 
forms of beauty, both animal and vegetable, yet never a Rotifer have I 
found or seen. I have searched with high powers and low powers, but 
all in vain. It is true my hunting ground (or water) has been confined to 
latitude 39°, west longitude 94°-96°, and it may be the object of my 
search is not an inhabitant of this part of the world. But will some of 
your correspondents kindly send me a Rotifer if they can find one ? I will 
reciprocate with anything I can find.— W. H. R. L., Box 400, Kansas CUy^ 
Missouri. 



■^>^'^^»^^^^^^*V>^«N^***N'>^**^ 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



101 



American Association for the Advancement of Science. — The 
Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science was held August 5-12, at Chicago, 111. About two 
hundred and fifty members were present, and upwards of one hundred and 
fifty papers were presented. We give below the titles of those read in 
the Natural History Section. During and after the meeting, ft-ee excur- 
sion tickets were Issued by the railroads centering in Chicago, and many 
of the members availed themselves of the liberality of the Companies to 
make excursions to Lake Superior, Omaha, La Salle, Dubuque, Galena, and 
other places of interest. These, with an excursion for an afternoon on the 
lake, and the brilliant evening entertainments given by prominent citizens 



•Nelson, In his " Skandanarleske Paune,*' vol. I., gives the weight of the Aill-growu BaUtna 
mjfUieetus at 100 tous, or 220,000 lbs., equal to 88 elephants, or 442 Polar bean! 

flu 1867, the twelve screw steamers of Dundee obtained only two whales amongst tliem, and 
It was estimated that tlie loss to each steamer was £5,000, and Uic loss to the town was assessed 
at the figure given. 



PROCEEDTNGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 385 

of Chicago, and the unusual interest and vigor of the meeting, which was 
largely attended through the entire session, rendered it a brilliant suc- 
cess. The American Association is young and vigorous ; it is a practical 
necessity in this country, and the generous pecuniar>' support and ready 
sympathy in its objects given by the communities in which it annually 
meets, are evidences of the popular interest in the cultivation of the Nat- 
ural and Physical Sciences. 

Ofllcers of the Meeting : Dr. B. A. Gould*, President ; Col. Charles 
Whittlesey, Vice President ; Prof. Joseph Lovkring, Pemnanent Secre- 
tary; Prof. A. P. Rockwell, General Secretary; Dr. A. L. Elwyn, Treas- 
urer. Of Section B (Natural History), Prof. J. D. Whitney, Chairman; 
Prof. E. D. Cope, Secretary ; Messrs. WoRTHEiJ, Marsh, and Gill, Com- 
mittee. 

PAPERS READ IX THE NATURAL HISTORY SECTION. 

Geological Section of Ohio. Bv E. It. Andrews. 

On the Plasiicitv of Kocks, ami origin of the Stnicture of the eo-called Grave Stone 
Slates of California. — On the Gradual Dcssication of the Western Portions of North 
America. — Vestiges of Pre-hi.stonc Races in Cahfornia.— On some of the Causes wtiich 
affect the Rapidity of Krosiou o\' Kocks anrl »»f lliver Valleys. By W. P. Blake. 

Effect of Atmospheric Changes on tlie Eruptions of the great Oeyser of Iceland. By 
P. A. Chadboume. 

On a Genus of Extinct Sea-Saurians ( Elasmosaurua). By Edward D. Cope. 

On the Formation consisting of Shells and Bclemnites, and Phosphates of Iron at 
Mulica Hill, Gloucester County, N. J. Uy A. D. Kng*trom. 

On the Boulder Field in Cedar County, 'Iowa. By Rush Emery. 

Origin of the Prairicii.— Exhibition of the Crania of Boothenum and Castoroides, 
with Remarks on their Geological Position and their Living Analogues. — The Anti- 
quity of Man in North America.— On the Occurrence of Fluor Spar in Southern Illinois. 
— On the KelVigeralion ot Continents. — On the Occurrence of Tin in Missouri. By J. 
W. FoMter. 

Meteorites ftom Mexico and Poland. By Lettis Fe%tchtv>anger. 

On Klasmo^athus and it.>* Relations to the Tapiridaj generally.— On the Classiflca- 
tion and Relations of Seals. Bv Theodore Gill. 

On the Artistic Evidence of the Remote Colonization of the North-western or Ameri- 
can Continent by Maritime People of Distinct Nationalities before the Modem Era. By 
J. II. Gibbon. 

Report on Archaeology and Ethnology. — Archaeology and Ethnology of the Missis- 
Bippi Valley. By fT. De Hass. 

On the Geology of the Mississippi Delta, and the Salt Deposit of Petite Anse. By 
Eufjene W. HUgard. 

The Import^'ince of the Submarine Aleutian Chain as a Geostatic and Geographical 
Feature.— The Hermaphrodism of Fungi ascertained. — The Confervaccae ascertained 
to be Thalline; their Phase, Development, Circuit, and Generation— Spermatic Phe- 
nomena.— The Paludal Endop:ons a Class intermediiite between Endogens and Exo- 
gens.- The Vertebral Type of the Cranium a Quinary one. — Extremities of the Skele- 
ton typically Ave.- Anatomical Distinction of Vegetable Structure, etc. By T, C. Ilil- 
gara. 

The Quebec Gtoup in Northern New Hampshire.— The Supposed Triassic Foot- 
marks in Kansas. By C. II. Hitchcock. 

Farther Notice of Experiments on Snow and Ice at a Temperature below 92' F. By 
Edward Hungerford. 

Glaciers as extensive and constant geologic Agencies. — Points in the Geology of 
Hudson River. — Brief Remarks on the Botany, Meteorology, and Geology of Mount 
Mansfield, Vermont. — Habits and Peculiarities of Plants in South-ea.stern New York 
and Vicinity. — 3Iovements in Stratilied Rocks since the Glacial Epoch. Bv Janie« 
Hynii. 

On Gold in the Laurcntian Rocks of Canada. — On the Gold Region of Nova Scotia.— 
On the Upper Silurian and Devonian Rocks of Ohio.— On Some Points m the Geology 
of Vermont. By T. S. Hunt. 

Source of Muscular Power. — Relations of the Metamorphoses of the Phosphates to 
Waste anil Repair. — Fluorine a Constituent of the Brain. By E. N. Horsford. 

Superficial Geology of the Lake Shore near Chicago. By J. S. Jewell. 

Sketch of the Topography, Geology, and Antiquities of the Caucasus. By F. Von 
KoschktM. 

The Periodic Law in the Failure of Harvests and Inundations, with Suggestions as to 
their Insurance. By George A. Leakin. 

On the Leaves of Coniferous Plants. By Thomas Meehan. 

AMER. XAT UU ALIST, VOL. II. 49 * 



Wk, 



386 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, 

Bibliography of Entomology in the United States and Canada, since 18G2. By John G, 
Morris. 

The Darwinian Theory of Development. By Charles Aforan. 

Description of a New SpeciUB ot'/'rotichnites ft-om the Potsdam Sandstone of New York. 
— Notice or Some Ncw^ Vertebrate Remains from the Tertiary of New Jersey.— On the 
Preservation of Color in Fo8&il8 fk'om Falasozoic Formations." By O. C. Marsh. 

Migrations of the Indian Family. By L. H. Morgan, 

On Two New FosmI Trees, the oldest known, found by Rev. H. Ilorzer, in the Devo- 
nian Rocks of Ohio.— On the Physical Geography of the Continent ot NorUi America 
during the different Geological Periods. — On the 'Transporuition of the Materiuls form- 
ing the Carboniferous ConglomeraU;^.— On the Surface Geology of the Basin of the 
Great Lakes and the Upper Mi8si>hippi Vallev. lU' J. S. Nevcbtr'ry. 

On the Archxological Value of Certain Ancient Beads. By L. G. Olmstead. 

The Habitiible Features of the North American Contincnta'l Plateau near the Line of 
3.V Parallel North Latitude; cont;iinin^ a General Summary of Conclusions derived 
from a Review of its Aboriginal Population and Natural Features. By ('. (\ Parry. 

On the Structure and Aqueous Origin of Gold-bearing Mineral Veins'.- On the Occur- 
rence of tlie Mastodon in tlie Deep-lying Gold Placers of California. By Benjamin Sil- 
liman. 

Law of the Earth.- New Geological Study. By P. E. Trastour. 

Phases of Glacial Action in Maine at the Close of the Drift Period. Bv A"*. T. True. 

The Distortions of Pebbles in Conglomerate at Rangley, Maine. By Cr. L. Vose. 

Ou the Old Lake Beds of the Prairie Region. By .S. ./. WaJLice. 

On the Scraii^raphical Relations of the Fossil Horse in the United States. — Abstract 
of the Geological Evidences of Man's Antiquity m the United States. By Charles 
Whittlesey. 

On the Progress and Present Condition of the Geological Survey of California.— The 
Fossil Human Skull of Calaveras County, California. Some Points in the Surface Geol- 

:y of the Western Side of the American Continent.— The Yosemite Valley. By J. D. 

''Whitney. 

Geological Age and Equivalents of the Marshall Group. Part I, Stratigraphical Con- 
siderations; Part II, PaliBontological Considerations. — On the Secular Uccurrence of 
Identical Petrogenetic Conditions. — Exhibition of a New^ Geological Chart. — Exhi- 
bition of a New Label Holder for Zodlogical Specimens. — On some Points in Geologi- 
cal Nomenclature. By A. Winchell. 

Geodes.— Modem I)iscoveries in Palestine. Bv W. W. WiUiams. 

Announcement of tlie Discoveiy of Cretaceous Rocks in GuUiric County, Iowa. — Re- 
marks upon the Red-quartzite Boulders and their Original Ledges in ttitu in North- 
western Iowa, Eastern Dakota, and South-western Minnesota. By C. A. White. 

Fuel Roources of Illinois. — Fossil Fishes, Inspects, CrusUicca, etc., of the Coal Meas- 
ures of Gruntiy County, Illinois. By A. H. Worthen. 

On CerUiin Phy.sicarFeatures of the Mississippi River. By G. K. Warren. 

Supplementjiry Notes on Gold-Genesis.- Some New Facts and Views concerning 
Aluminum. —Upon the Ammonoosac Gold Field in New Hampshire.- Studies of the 
Red Sand Stones of the Atlantic Slopes, and their enclosed Igneous Masses. — Note 
upon the Palaotrochis. By Henry Wurtz. 

Col. Whittlesey gave the following data regarding the Antiquity of 
Man in the United States. 1. RefUsc shell-heaps of the Atlantic Coast, 
from Nova Scotia to Florida. Age not determined, but not very great. 2. 
Flint arrow-heads beneath Mr. Koch*s skeleton of the mastodon in a peat 
layer, covered by alluvium fifteen feet deep, at Pomme de Terre River, 
Missouri. 3. A flint knife at Grinnel Leads, Kansas, found by P. A. Scott, 
at a depth of fourteen feet, in gravel and clay. 4. Three human skele- 
tons of Indians, in a shelter cave at Elgin, Ohio ; estimated age two thou- 
sand years. 5. A log worn by the feet of man, probably Indians, in the 
muck bed at High Rock Spring, Saratoga Springs, K. Y., at a depth of 
nine feet beneath the cone, estimated by Dr. Grier to be 4,840 years old. 
6. Copper spear-heads and other implements with human skeletons, ap- 
parently of the mound builders, at a depth of fourteen feet, at Brockvllle, 
Canada; found by Dr. J. Reynolds. 7. Several human skeletons in a 
cave near Louisville, Ky., with stone and flint implements; by J. N. 
Scowdeh. 8, Pottery found by Dr. Holmes, associated with remains of 
the mastodon and megatherium, at Charleston, S. C. 9. A human Jaw, 
teeth, and other bones, in quarternary conglomerate at Florida, estimated 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 387 

by Agassiz at 10,000 5»ears. 10. Fire-hearths, found by C. Whittlesey, in 
the ancient alluvium of the Ohio, at Portsmouth, Ohio, at a depth of 
twenty feet, and beneath the works of the mound builders. 11. Skeletons 
of Indians, reported by Dr. Dowler, of New Orleans, at a depth of sixteen 
feet in the alluvium, estimated by him at 50,000 years ; by others as low 
as 15,000. 12. Portion of a pelvic bone of man, at Natchez, Miss., associa- 
ted with the mastodon, megalonynx, and horse, supposed to be in the 
loess, but of doubtful authority. 13. Human skull and other relics, Cala- 
veras county, California, at a depth of 150 feet in superficial materials, 
containing gold; reported by Professor J. D. Whitney. 

In the discussion on the Antiquity of Man, Mr. J. W. Foster assigned 
the ancient Peruvians to the Bronze age, attributing to them a commer- 
cial intercourse with foreign lauds ; copper instruments having been dis- 
covered whicli may have come from the Copper Mines of Lake Superior, 
and of mica, which may have been brought from New England. He also 
mentioned that the mound builders wove cloth spun with an uniform 
thrc^ad, and woven with a warp and woof. 

Professor W. P.Blake stated that the evidences of an ancient race were 
l^quent in California. The miners in sluicing the beds of the ancient 
streams find frequently spear and arrow-heads of stone, which testify to 
the skill of humanity, as well as that they are not the work of a race now 
known. Among the first of these evidences discovered, were some human 
molar teeth associated with gold in the stratum of auriferous drift, at a 
depth of fifteen or twenty feet. He did not see these in their place, but 
he did not doubt the truth of their being so found. Implements of stone, 
too, are found from time to time In the gold drift, and within two or three 
years bones of a skull itself had been so found. Two years since one side 
bone of a skull was found. It was taken from the end of a tunnel running 
two hundred feet into the side of a mountain. The fragment was fYtJsh in 
appearance and unchanged by any solution ; the surface was bright, the 
sutures worn round and closely filled with gravel and fragments of mine- 
rals, such as were to be found In the gold drift. The conviction was 
forced upon him, by an examination, that it was really a portion of a 
skull, as it was said, and that it had for ages, perhaps, rolled in the drift. 
Stone Implements are found in various parts of the State, but more fre- 
quently in the central portions, and more especially In the region of 
Colombia, Sonora, and along the Table Mountain, the two latter furnish- 
ing the finer specimens. In close associatl-n with these remains arc 
found relics of the mastodon and the tapir. The Table Mountain he 
described by diagntm. Whereon the mountain now stands was a valley, 
traversed by a river. Here ages since there commenced a deposit of 
stone, with gold, pebbles, mud, and sand. Volcanic action had encrusted 
these with ashes, and at last all had been coveretl with the lava. As the 
valley filled up, the water of the river cut on each side of the accumu- 
lating mass a channel, commencing at the base of the deposit of lava. In 
time It w^ashcd Its way uutll now the Table Mountain stands erect, and 



388 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

two valleys are formed, one on cither side. This mountain extends with 
its flat summit for miles, its surface edge being a bold bluff of black ap- 
pearing rock, with little or no vegetation upon its plane. The thickness 
of the entire deposit averaged flrom one to two hundred feet, the height 
of the lava above the bed of the newly-formed valleys being f^om one 
thousand to fifteen hundred feet. The miner, seeking the auriferous de« 
posit, having, by sinking shafts, asc^tained the greatest depth of the 
whole deposit, tunnels from the side of the valley, and this process had 
brought to light teeth of extinct mammalia as well as relics of human art. 
He exhibited lithographs to show the nature of some of these last spoken 
of relics. . Among them were two stone objects which he supposed to be 
shovels used in cooking, by placing them upon or into the burning fUel ; 
a mortar or dish, some instruments resembling plummets, and several 
spear-heads. 

Professor £. D. Cope read a paper on a new and gigantic Sea-Saurian 
(^Elasmosaurus platyurus) Arom the Cretaceous formation of Central Kan- 
sas. Preliminary to it he stated that one hundred species of North Amer- 
ican extinct reptiles and batrachians were known to him, of which some 
twenty were yet unpublished. He gave a synopsis of the characters of 
the Dinosauria, showing their nearer affinity to the birds than that pre- 
sented by the Pterodactyles, in the structure of the pelvis, the tibia, fibula, 
tarsus, etc. He alluded to the great number of extinct tortoises of the 
New Jersey Green Sand, and to the first fossil serpent ftrom this country, 
the Palaophis lUtoralis of the Eocene Tertiary formation of New Jersey. 

Professor T. S. Hunt remarked that the borings for oil in the south- 
western Ontario region, had enabled the Canadian Geological Survey to 
measure the thickness of these formations. A layer of rock-salt, forty 
feet thick, had been discovered in the Lower Devonian rocks, and also a 
deposit of gypsum. This shows a condition of very slight precipitation 
of moisture, and of very great evaporation at that time. The petroleum 
was thought to originate in the Lower Devonian limestones. The borings 
show that the south-west portions of Lakes Erie and St. Clair have been 
excavated fVom the Quaternary formation. 

Dr. C. A. White announced the discovery of sandstones and conglome- 
rates of the Dakota group of Cretaceous rocks in Guthrie county, Iowa, 
one locality being forty miles west of the city of DesMoines. Also, that 
he had traced, step by step, the red quartzite boulders proAisely scattered 
in the drift of Western Iowa, to their original ledges of red quartzite in 
North-western Iowa, Eastern Dakota, and South-western Minnesota. This 
quartzite is the same rock which causes the Sioux Falls of the Big Sioux 
River, and the same which encloses the layer of red pipestone in South- 
western Minnesota. 

Prof. P. A. Chadbourne stated in regard to the Effect of Atmospheric 
Changes on the Eruptions of the Great Geyser of Iceland, that Sir W. 
Hooker, who visited Iceland in 1809, mentions that eruptions of the Great 
Geyser most frequently occurred in fair weather, and this is the accouut 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 389 

now given by those who live near the geyser. Eruptions do not occur until 
the water in the bottom of the geyser-pipe is 266° F., as shown by Bun- 
sen's observations. The time talcen to raise the water in the pipe to 
266° F. will evidently depend upon the quantity of water poured in a 
given time through the fissures that feed the pipe. As the water is sup- 
plied by the hills near the geysers, a fall of rain readily afibcts the quan- 
tity of water flowing through thp pipe. The greater the quantity, the 
greater will be the time between the eruptions. If the quantity of cold 
water poured into the pipe were so great that the bottom of the pipe 
could never rise to a temperature of 266° F., there could be no eruptions. 
It is fVom the enlarging of the water channels by earthquakes, so as to 
pour in more water, that some geysers that were formerly active have 
now become quiet. 

In discussing the remarks of Mr. Rush Emkry "On the Boulder-field in 
Cedar County, Iowa," Dr. C. A. White and Professor WI^XHEI.L stated 
that there were some evidences of a northward distribution of boulders in 
Iowa and Michigan. 

Col. J. W. FosTEn alluded to the large size of the Castoroides, or fossil 
beaver, adopting the view of Professor E. D. Cope, that it must have been 
nearly as large as the grizzly bear. 

Col. C. WnriTLESEY enumerated the localities and geological age of the 
deposits in which remains of the horse had been found. Professor E. D 
Cope insisted that though no difference had been discovered between the 
teeth of the living and fossil species of horse, yet they may be, and prob- 
ably were, of entirely different species ; the living species having been in- 
troduced by Europeans. 

Mr. T. Meehan thus summed up the results of his studies on the Leaves 
of Conifers. The true leaves of Couiferse are usually aduatc with the 
branches. Adnation Is in proportion to vigor in the genus, species, or 
in the individuals of the same species, or branches of the same individ- 
uals. Many so called distinct species of Conifera; are the same ; but in 
various states of adnation. 

We shall conclude our notices of the papers read in the next number. 

The next meeting of the Association will be held in Salem, Mass., com- 
mencing on Wednesday, August 18, 1869. The followiug are the OflScers 
for next year : Col. J. W. Foster, Chicago, President ; Prof. Ogdex N. 
Rood, New York, Vice President; Prof. Joseph Lovering, Permanent 
Secretai-y; Prof. O. C. Marsh, New Haven, General Secretary; Prof. A. 
L. Elwyn, Philadelphia, Treasurer. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Conchological Section. — PhiladeU 
phia, Julys, 1868.— Mr. Wm. M. Gabb called attention to the variation 
in type that takes place in genera during successive geological periods. 
He remarked that when a genus attains a strong numerical development 
in species in any one age, those species belonging to other periods, es- 
pecially those most removed from the chronological centre of develop- 
ment, so to speak, are usually more or less aberrant flrom the average 



390 PROCEEDINGS OF 8CIENT1FIC SOCIETIES. 

typical form of tlic genus'. Tliis is so marked, that the experienced pa- 
laeontologist can often recognize the geological age of a group of fossils 
by ihelT faciesy as it is tenned, i. e. their general appearance. Nor is this 
peculiarity confined to the stratigraphical range of genera; it applies also 
to their geographical distribution, as every working naturalist knows and 
practically admits constantly in his studies. 

Mr. Roberts exhibited fine specimens of Anodonta JIuviatilis Dllw., and 
A. tniplicata Say, collected in the vicinity of Philadelphia, noted for their 
enormous size as well as for their numerous deformities, caused undoubt- 
edly by some peculiarity of their locality. Out of a large number of speci- 
mens of the genus obtained, but one specimen of Anodonta Tryonii Lea 
was found, showing its great rarity in the vicinity of the original locality. 

Boston Society of Natural History. Feb. 26, 1868. — The Secre- 
tary read a letter ftom Dr. Lincecum, of Texas, describing the ravages 
of the grasshoppers in that State. Last spring the young hatched from 
the egg in the early days of March ; by the middle of the month they had 
destroyed half the vegetation, although the insects were wingless and 
not larger than house-flies. The first winged specimens were seen high 
in the air at about three o'clock in the afternoon ; as a light northerly 
breeze sprang up, millions came whirling down to the earth, covering the 
ground in an hour, and destroying every green thing with avidity. During 
the night they were quiet, but at daybreak commenced to eat, and con- 
tinued until ten In theinorulng, when they all flew southward. At about 
three o'clock in the afternoon of the same day another swarm arrived, ten 
times as numerous as the flrst; these again took flight the following day; 
and thus they continued, coming and going, day after day, devouring the 
foliage and depositing their eggs. At flrst they selected bare spots for 
this purpose, but flnally the whole surface of the earth was so broken up 
by their borings, that every inch of ground coptained several patches of 
eggs. This visitation was spread over many hundreds of miles. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder exhibited two fossil Insects from the coal-measures. 
One was the broken wing of a gigantic lace-winged fly, obtained at Mor- 
ris, Illinois ; the other an imperfect leg of a cricket, and a very small 
fragment of its wing firoin Northern Ohio. The peculiarity of the leg 
consisted In Its having several prominences on the tibia, wiiile the femur 
was smooth ; the reverse is invariably the case among the living types. 

April 15. — The President gave some results which he had reached in 
comparing a series of crania of wandering Tsuktshl ftrom the Asiatic side 
of Behrlng's straits with those of Esquimaux and of Indians f^om Alaska, 
Puget's Sound, and California. The crania of the Tsuktshl were collected 
for the Smithsonian Institution by Mr. William H. Dall, a zealous natu- 
ralist attached to the exploring expedition under the direction of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company. It appears that the crania of the 
Tsuktshl and Esquimaux, which closely resemble each other In their 
strongly marked Mongolian features, differ materially both from the 
crania of the other races and from those of the Indians of Alaska, who 



PBOCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 391 

live in such close proximity to them. These comparisons sustain the 
view that the Esquimaux and Tsuktshl liacl a common origin, and the 
easy communication between the Asiatic and American Contine,nts ren- 
ders it all the more probable ; a recent map, published by the Coast Sur- 
vey, shows that the breadth of the straits at one point is less than fifty 
miles, while the Diomede islands fUrnish a convenient resting-place mid- 
way between them. 

Dr. C. T. Jackson called the attention of the Society to some of the 
modern methods for the preservation of wood. Mr. W. T. Brigliam 
stated that foreign vessels entering the ports of China were attacked to a 
frightflil degree by the teredo, while Chinese boats, although often made 
of the same wood, escaped. After vainly endeavoring to ascertain what 
preventive was used by the Chinese, he discovered the natives sprinkling 
tar on a fire beneath a vessel, and perceived a strong smell of creosote. 

The Dana Natural History Societies. — Seeing a small notice of 
some of the Dana Natural History Societies in your June number, I send 
you a brief account of the history of this organization. The chief object 
of this Society is to awaken and extend among the people generally, and 
especially among the women of our country, a greater love for the study 
of nature. The first Chapter with the name of the Dana Natural History 
Society was organized about a year ago, in Ripley Female College, Poult- 
ney, Vt., and since that time eighteen additional Chapters have been or- 
ganized in dififerent parts of the country. The following is a list of the 
various Chapters of the Dana Natural History Society, and their Corre- 
sponding Secretaries : 

1. Ripley Chapter. Mies L. A. Plynapton, Corresponding Secretary, PouUney, Vt. 

2. Evanstou Chapter. Miss Fannie Stunt, Corresixindhig Secrelnry, Evanston, Illinois. 

3. Rockford Chapter. Miss Ellen R. Shepherd, Corresponding Secretary, Rockford Semi- 
nary, Rockrord, III. 

4. Troy Chapter. Miss Myra Griswold, Corresponding Secretary, Willard Sonilnar>% Troy, 
N.Y. 

5. Greenwood Chapter. Miss Mary E. Cobb, Corresponding Secretary, Greenwood Semi- 
nary, West Brattleboro, Vt. 

G. Tildcn Chapter. Miss Augusta Robinson, Corresponding Secretar>', Tilden Seminary, 
"West Lebanon, N. H. 

7. Maplewood Chapter. Miss Annie M. Bottom, Corresponding Secretary, Maplewood In- 
stitute, nttsfleld, Mass. 

B. Raritan Chapter. Miss L. B. White, Corresiwnding Secretar}', Matawan, Monmouth 
County, N. J. 

9. Tappan Zee Chapter. Miss Louisa B. Hendrlkse, Corresponding Secretary, Rockland 
Female Institute, Nyack, N. Y. 

10. Chicago Chapter. Miss Alice Walbrldge, Corresponding Secretary, Dearborn Seminar)*, 
Chicago, III. 

11. Hyde Park Chapter. Miss H. L. Daniels, Corresponding Secretary, Hyde Park, Cook 
County, III. 

12. Rockford Chapter. Miss Hattie Telfon, Corresponding Secretary, Miss Eastman^s Semi- 
nary. Media, Penn. 

13. Abbottsford Place Chapter. Miss Emma Judson, Corresponding Secretary, 1350 Pine 
street. Plilladelphia. 

14. Ionic Chapter. Miss J. C. Thompson, Corresjionding Secretary', 006 Marshall street, Phil- 
adelphia. 

15. Cuviere Chapter. Miss J. Pindell, Corresponding Secrctar>', Pittsburgh Female College 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 



392 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Ifl. Iron City Chapter. Miss Hden M. Wellman, Corresponding Secretary, Pittsburfrli, Pa. 

17. Wheeling Chaptor. MIsa Lizzie Harbour, Corresponding Secretary, Wheeling, West Va. 

13. Mount Holyoke Chapter. • , Corresponding Secretary, Mount Holyoke Sem- 
inar}-, South Hadley, Mass. 

19. Fort Edwards Chapter. • ^ Corresponding Secretar}', Fort Edwards Insti- 
tute, Fort Edwards, N. Y. 

The Raritan Chapter gave an evening entertainment that was Iiighly 
appreciated by the audience, and realized them quite a handsome amount 
for their cabinet and library. We hope, and doubt not, that their efforts 
will result in a permanent benefit to the county and the cause of science. 
— Adrian J. Ebell. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

A. T., Brookfleld, Mo.— We will send you a collection of Eastern minerals and rock 
specimens in return lor Western insects, and wasps' and bees* nests, etc. 

J. L. B., West Nottingham, Md. — The plant is the Chryaogonum Virginianum, 

A. S. X., Cleveland, O.— The insect you send is the larva of a bug, one of the Pento" 
toma group of the Uemiptcra. 

H. J. R., Cazenovia, N. Y. — The insects were ifemhracU binotata Say, a species of 
tree-hopper. KastvranX'itis found on CeUistrus scnndena. 

**A Subscriber," and several other anonymous friends, as "S. H.,** '"X. Y. Z.,'*" X.,** 
etc. — We cannot answer anonymous letters. 

G. W. R., Hartford. Conn.— The Caterpillars yon sent are the larvae of a species of 
Saw-fly, which also ntlaclcs the pear trees in this vicinity. As the mature insect has 
not appeared, wo cannot yet give you its name, but will ilo so if successful in rearing 
the caterpillar. It is not the common Pear-slug. 

C. A. S., Grand Uapi«l8, Mich— The beetles (Clfftwi) which you found May inth in 
the locust hart evidently just changed fk*om the pupa, and the white bands woiild have 
turned yellow on being exposed to the sunlight. They fly about in July, when they 
lay their eggs. 

F. L., New York. — Yon can procure the publications of the Smithsonian Institution 
of B. Westcrmann A Cq., 440 Broadway. 

Mrs. K. X. D., Chicago.— Many thanks for your kindness. 

R. C, St. Louis. — Mr. James Ridings, 518 South 13th street, Philadelphia, has Insect 
Pins for sale. 

A. W. II., Ft. Madison.— The large spotted egg in the finch's nest was undoubtedly 
that of the Cowbird, or Cow Blackbi«*d (Afnlothrug pecorU)., which never builds a ne.-t, 
but deposits its eggs in the nests of a good many species of small birds. It belongs to 
the family of Blackbirds (Icterida). 

D. P. W., Grantsville.— For notice of works on Taxidermy, see Vol. I. of Natural- 
ist, n. lf»0 ami p. 321. There is also Directiotix for CoHecting and Preferring JlirdSy by 
Mr. Holder, with several plates, in the fourth volume of the Illinois State Agricultural 
Transactions, p. .•>$)(>. 1R>9-'K). This last is the best article for a beginner we have seen 
published in this country. 

J. L. S., Wo'Jtche^Jter.- Formeasurinar egars, you can get of any instrument maker a 
scale divided into inches and hundredths of an inch, to which two upright pieces are 
fixed, the one at the end bring soldered to the scale, an«l the other movable, very simi- 
lar to the measure used by a bootmaker in taking the size of a foot. By placini? the egg 
against the upright piece at the end, and moving the other up to it, you will get the 
exact size of the egg indic.nted on your scale. Or, you can take a common nde and use 
two pieces of woo<l or cartl for the uprights; or you can get the size of the e^g by divid* 
ers, and then measure the distance on a rule. 

H. J. McX., Centralla, Kansas.— The bird you call a "Snipe" is the Long-billed Cur- 
lew, Xumenitut longirontrU Wilson. Foundin " the entire temperate regions of Xorth 
America,'* /Jrtirrf. It is one of the Snipe family. Your "Orangc-hea<l" is the Yellow- 
headed Blackbird, Xttnthocephalua icterocepluUtta Baird, a true Blackbird. We shall 
print what you write about it. 

Miss J. C, Meredith. — Money received and ''Naturalist" forwarded as requested. 
Many thanks. 

* Xot havlnfr elected Corresponding Secretaries when I left them, I am anable to give their 
names at prfrsent. 



American Naturalist. 



Vol. 11. n. 10. 




WYMAX OS TIIE snELL-IIK.VPS OF FLORIDA. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. n.— OCTOBEB, 1868.— No. 8. 

ON THE FRESH-WATER SHELL-HEAPS OF THE ST. 

JOHNS RIVER, EAST FLORmA. 

BY JEFFRIES WYMANy M. D. 

The St. Johns Eiver, on the banks of which are to be 
seen the mounds described in the following pages, has, in 
several respects, a peculiar interest. It rises near the mid- 
dle of the eastern half of the peninsula of Florida, in two 
series of lakes and swamps of great extent, one of which 
finds its outlet through the upper portion of the main stream, 
and the other through the Oklawaha, the largest of its tribu- 
taries. These waters are separated by land scarcely rising 
above their level, from another chain of lakes and swamps 
which have an outlet southwards through the Kissimmee, 
and thence into the great lake of Okee-Chobee, which has an 
area of about eight hundred square miles. Other waters, 
starting from the same region as the preceding, but separated 
from them by a low range of sand-hills, are discharged west- 
wards into the Gulf of Mexico, chiefly through the Withlo- 
kootchee. Though extremely crooked, the general course 
of the St. Johns is somewhat to the west of north, and in its 
various windings is supposed to traverse a distance of three 
hundred miles. Its frequent enlargements, as at Lake Har- 
ney, Lake Monroe, Lake George, and its great breadth 

ICntered according to Act of Congress, In the year 1868, by the Pxabodt Acadxmt of 
Bgixncx, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Dtotriot of Massachusetts. 

AM£R. NATURALIST, VOL. II. 50 (398) 



394 FRESH-WATER SHELL-TIEAPS 

from Palatka to its mouth, almost justify the designation of 
it as a chain of lakes rather than a river. Flowin^: through 
a region which is nearly of a dead level, its stream is neces- 
sarily sluggish. 

There is much dry and arable land, but so little is this 
raised above the level of the river, that, were it depressed 
five or six feet, the ocean would reassert its sway over a 
large part of the eastern portion of the peninsula, leaving 
only narrow ridges along the sea-coast, and inland, here 
and there low islands. As it is, immense tracts are under 
water throughout the year, and the whole area drained by 
the St. Johns is a combination of dry land, swamps, lagoons, 
and creeks. Open prairies, pine barrens, palmetto ham- 
mocks, mixed forest growths, chaparals of saw-palmetto, 
thick jungles, and large tracts overgrown with tall reeds or 
rank grass vary the surface. From the absence of a change 
of level in the land, the distant views on the river ai*e ex- 
tremely monotonous, while the near ones are often of great 
beauty, because of the windings of the river, and the sub- 
tropical vegetation. The creeks and lagoons, with their rank 
vegetation, and also the wilder shores of the river, shelter 
vast numbers of water and shore birds, and also countless 
alligators, water moccasins, frogs, and other reptiles. 

Of animals suitable for the food of man there is an abim- 
dance, as will be seen farther on, so that along the banks of 
the river and its tributaries, hunter-life could be easily sus- 
tained. The aborigines were, however, planters as well as 
hunters, for the first explorers found the land largely tilled, 
and the "Indian-old-fields" which can still be traced bear 
witness of the fact. Of all the American races none appear 
to have occupied a region more nearly equally divided be- 
tween land and water, or one which had been more newly 
lifted above the level of the ocean, than natives of the shores 
of the St. Johns.* 

*For a description of the physical features of the St. Johns River^the reader is re- 
ferred to an article entitled Cursory Remarks on East Florida, Bj Major Henij 



OF 8T, JOHNS RIVEB, EAST FLORIDA. 395 

The shell-heaps we are now to describe were visited dur- 
ing the months of February and March, 1867, in company 
with Mr. G. A. Peabody, of Salem, Mass., and Mr. George 
H. Dunscombe, of Canada West, to both of whom the writer 
is largely indebted for aid in making explorations and for 
valuable contributions to his collections. The heaps are dis- 
tributed over a distance of more than one hundred and fifty 
miles, between Palatka and Salt Lake, and are nearly all 
situated on knolls, seen here and there on the borders of the 
river, though a few are built in swamps or on dry land, at 
some distance from it. They are composed almost exclu- 
sively of one or more of the following species of shells, 
namely, Ampullaria depressa of Say, Paludina multilineata 
Say, and Unio Buckleyi Lea. Besides these, a species of 
Melania and a few Helices are found, but they, as well as a 
few marine shells, must be considered as accidentally pres- 
ent. The mounds vary much in size, from circular heaf)s 
fifteen to twenty feet in diameter, and a few inches high, to 
long ridges several hundred feet in length, and having a 
height from a few inches to four or five, and in some cases 
to fifteen feet. They are generally overgrown with oaks, 
maples, palmettos, bays, magnolias occasionally, and other 
forest trees, and not unfrequently with groves of the wild 
orange. The last, bearing a fruit both bitter and sour, has 
been supposed to be indigenous ; but it would appear from 
the researches of Mr. G. R. Fairbanks, a gentleman thor- 
oughly versed in the history of the peninsula, that they 
were introduced by the Spaniards.* We personally visited 
more than twenty-five of these heaps, but only a few of them 

Wliiting, U. S. A. American Joamal of Science, Vol. XXXV, p. 47. To those who wish 
an introdnction to, and a digest of, the literature pertaining to the 'Whole State, the ex- 
cellent work, Notes on the Floridian PeninstUat by Daniel G. Brlnton, A. B., Phila- 
delphia, 1859, is inTaluable. This work also contains an account of the author's own 
investigations of the shell-heaps of the sea-coast. 

* Mr. Fairbanks has observed that they are confined to the best camping-places on the 
river, and it does not appear that they are described or referred to in any of the Span- 
ish records, which it is presumed they wonld have been, had the Spaniards found them 
there, since they so particularly mention other flrults. They are probably the Seville 
Orange run wild. 



/ 



396 FRESH-WATER SHELL-HEAPS 

will be described, as they are nearly all essentially alike; 
an enumeration of the whole series will, however, be given 
at the end of the article. 

The mounds of oyster-shells on the sea-coast of Florida 
have long since attracted attention ; some of them have been 
described by Dr. Brinton, who has clearly set forth the 
grounds for the conclusion that they are of human origin.* 
The fresh-water shell-heaps have received but comparatively 
little notice, and have generally been supposed to be either 
fluviatile or lacustrine deposits, for which any one might cer- 
tainly be excused for mistaking them at first glance. That 
they are the works of man the following observations are in- 
tended to show. Count Pourtales, however, visited the shell- 
heaps at Old Enterprise, Lake Monroe, in 1858, when he 
obtained from among the shells fi*agments of pottery, and of 
the bones of animals. He has not published an account of his 
observations, but informs me that he came to the conclusion 
that this mound was artificial. 

The existence of shell-heaps in other regions consisting 
of the remains of fresh-water species, though from time to 
time noticed, have not been generally recognized. The first 
observation that we have seen with regard to them is by 
Atwater, who described mounds of mussel-shells on the 
banks of the Muskingum River, containing various ailicles 
of human workmanship, f Dr. Brinton, while connected with 
the Array of the Cumberland in the war of the rebellion, ob^- 
served mounds of mussel-shells which had served to supply 
food to the Indians ; J and during the last year the writer, in 
company with Mr. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Mr. Elliot Cabot, 
and others, examined a similar deposit on the banks of the 
Concord River, in Massachusetts, consisting of Unio compla^ 
natus, and containing charcoal, pieces of worked bone and 
flint. § I am also informed by Professor J. D. Whitney, the 

* Notes on the Floridian Peninsala, p. 106. 

t Archieologia Americana, Vol. I, p. 226. 

X Smithsonian Reports, 1866, p. 356. 

{Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, Vol. XI, p. 243. 



OF ST. JOHNS RIVEB, EAST FLORIDA. 397 

chief of the Geological Survey of California, and Dr. William 
H. Brewer, botanist to the same survey, that vast numbers 
of fresh-water shell-heaps exist there. Indeed there is an 
abundance of evidence for the belief that they are widely 
scattered throughout the United States. 

I. SHELIi-HEAPS. 

King Philip^s Town. This place was in a wild state until 
quite recently, and derives its name from a Seminole chief, 
who, it is said, once occupied it. The shell-heap, now con- 
verted into an orange grove, is on the left bank of the river, 
about a mile below the outlet of Lake Harney. Its situation 
is favorable both for hunting and fishing ; the river is here 
sixty or seventy yards wide ; opposite is the mouth of Deep 
Creek,* rising far to the eastward, and pouring into the St. 
Johns an excellent quality of water ; to the rear and west- 
ward are open prairies and pine lands, and in the distance, 
to the north, is a large lake. The river contains an abun- 
dance of fish, but generally of a poor quality, except in the 
month of February, when vast numbers of shad pass on their 
way to Lake Harney, two hundred miles from the mouth, 
to spawn. While we were encamped here, the splashing of 
the water by shoals of these fish could be heard at all hours, 
from evening twilight to early dawn. 

The shell-mound is about four hundred and fifty feet in 
length, and from a hundred to a himdrcd and twenty in 
breadth. It stretches at right angles to the river, borders a 
lagoon on the south, and on the north merges into cultivated 
fields, over which its materials have become somewhat scat- 
tered. Its greatest height is about eight feet. Fragments 
of pots may be picked up anywhere on the surface, and, with 
these, bones of various edible animals. As all such remains 
may have been deposited on the mound after its completion, 
excavations were made at many points from a few inches to 

* There is another creek of the same name which enters the St. Johns on the right 
bank, between Filatka and Picolata. 



398 FRESH-WATER SHELIi-HEAPS 

several feet in depth, to ascertain if similar objects were 
buried in its interior. The most unequivocal evidence that 
this mound, white in the process of formation, was occupied 
by the aborigines, was obtained from a pit between four and 
five feet in diameter, and from five to six feet deep, which 
was dug near the centre. Not only were fragments of pots 
and bones found at all depths, but at a depth of three feet 
the remains of an old fireplace were uncovered, consisting 
of a horizontal layer of charcoal, beneath which were per- 
fectly calcined shells, and near these others more or less 
blackened with heat. Still farther oft' were fraocments of the 
bones of deer, of birds, turtle and fish, all just as they would 
naturally have been left around a fire, where cooking had 
been for some time carried on. In addition to the above 
statement it may be mentioned as a matter of negative evi- 
dence, that not a single article was discovered which could 
have been attributed to the white man. Several excavations 
made in other portions of the mound yielded similar results. 
Black Hammock. One of the largest shell-heaps on the 
St. Johns is to be seen here. It is situated on the borders 
of a large lagoon, on the left bank of the river just above 
the outlet of Lake Jessup,* and seven miles above Lake 
Monroe. Besides the principal deposit of shells, there are 
two smaller ones. At the westerly end is the first, a few 
inches thick, extending one hundred and fifty feet along the 
shore, and some thirty or forty feet inland. This is sepa- 
rated from the rest by a small watercourse, the outlet of a 
nioniss. The shore then takes a northerly direction for 
about two hundred feet, and consists entirely of sand ; at 
the point where the shore again takes an east and west di- 
rection, is a second but smaller deposit, extending only a 
few feet to the eastward. One hundred and eighty feet from 
the point just mentioned is a small burial-mound, and a 



♦This lake was discovered by Lieutenant Peyton, of the U. S. Army, during the 
Florida war, and at first bore his name, which ought not to have been discontinued. It 
were better to preserve the Indian names if they can be learned, but if not, no one has 
a right to usurp a name which has been given by others in honor of the discoverer. 



OF ST. JOHNS RIVER, EAST FLORIDA. 399 

little more than a hundred feet from this begins the largest 
of the heaps, which measures about nine hundred feet in 
length on the river side, and has a breadth varying from 
one hundred to one hundred and fifty feet. It has been 
largely undermined, and sections, in some places from three 
to four feet in thickness, exposed. It is not improbable 
that originally this and the smaller deposits were continuous, 
the intervening portion having been washed away by the 
river. If this were so, the mound could not have been less 
than twelve hundred feet in length. It is intersected by a 
small stream near the centre, and is bordered by another 
at its easterly end, both outlets of small morasses in the rear 
of the mound. 

That the Indians confined their encampments, or, at all 
events their cooking, almost entirely to these mounds, is 
proved by the fact, that fragments of pots were picked up 
in large numbers along the shore wherever the shells are 
seen in the bank, and, though careful search was made for 
them, not elsewhere. To make the evidence of the human 
origin of the whole deposit complete, pits were sunk at dif- 
ferent points. One of these, about four feet in diameter, 
was dug entirely through the shells into the sand beneath, 
which was reached at the depth of four feet and three inches. 
Seventy-five fragments of pots and six pieces of the bones of 
the deer, thirteen of turtles, and two of the alligator were 
thrown out. These were scattered through the whole thick- 
ness of the shell deposit, but not a single specimen was 
found after the sand was reached. In a second pit of simi- 
lar size, ninety-seven pieces of pots, six fragments of the 
bones of the deer, eleven of the turtle, and nine of the alli- 
gator were found. The shells found here are chiefly Palu- 
dinas, though Uuios and Ampullarias are met with. 

Old Enterprise is situated on the north-eastern shore of 
Lake Monroe, and forms a distinct bluff consisting entirely 
of shells. It has a front of about one hundred and sixty 
feet on the water side, and at the western end rises some- 



400 FRESH-WATER SHELL-HEAPS 

what abruptly to the height of fifteen feet above the lake ; ou 
the top is a plateau, on which formerly stood a hotel and 
several out>buildings,and to the eastward the surface falls off 
by a gradual slope. On this side there is an extensive 
swamp, separated from the lake by a beach-wall of shells, 
consisting of the same species as those found in the bluff, 
and extending several hundred yards along the shore. As 
there are mingled with these shells the fragments of pots 
and bones of animals, they were all no doubt derived from 
the mound, and have been scattered by the action of the 
water. On the westerly side is a spring discharging highly 
sulphuretted water, and flowing into the lake through a small 
morass. The mound extends back from the shore about five 
hundred feet, but is of a very irregular shape, being much 
narrowed in its middle, and spreading out again in the rear 
portion into two unequal and irregular transverse ridges. 
While on the front the mound is composed of the three kinds 
of shells, the rest consists almost exclusively of Paludinas. 
That a large portion of this mound has been destroyed, and 
that the shore of the lake is receding, is obvious from its 
abrupt front, the distribution of its material along the shore, 
and the fact that twelve palmetto trees to the eastward of it 
are now sm-rounded by water, and their roots denuded to 
the depth of from two to three feet. 

In consequence of the undermining of the front, and the 
looseness of the materials, which generally are neither com- 
pact or stratified, excavations were easily made. They were 
continued through several days, many cartloads of material 
were moved, and collections made from all depths below 
the surface, of whatever objects were mingled with the 
shells. These objects consisted of the articles already men- 
tioned in connection with the other localities, and in addition 
various fragments of worked shells which will be described 
farther on. Although several arrow-heads and many flakes 
or '* chips" of flint were picked up along the shore, none 
were actually found in the mound. 



OF ST. JOHNS BIYER, EAST FLORIDA. 401 

Excavations made in the ridges at the rear of this shell- 
heap did not yield precisely the same, nor so decisive results. 
The shells, consisting almost entirely of Paludinas, were 
much more compact, and the objects found in them much 
fewer. In certain directions there were appearances of some- 
what extensive removals of material having been made, but 
whether by the Indian or the white man, we could not learn. 

To the westward of Old Enterprise, which name applies 
to the bluff just described, is an orange grove, and beyond 
this an *' old-field," which rests upon a thin deposit of shells, 
distributed somewhat uniformly over the surface. Excava- 
tions made here in many places gave the same results as 
were obtained at the bluff. 

Horse Landing is a shell-mound on the right bank of the 
river a few miles above Pilatka, and eight miles below Lake 
George ; it is three hundred feet in length, one hundred in 
breadth in the widest part, and rises abruptly in every direc- 
tion. On the front it shows a vertical wall about eight feet 
high, giving a good section of its whole structure, the result 
of the action of the river which here makes a sudden bend. 
Underneath the shells is a layer of sand rising about four 
feet above the water, which at the time we visited the local- 
ity, was not much below its highest mark. In its general 
appearance the mound has the aspect of a geological deposit, 
in consequence of the compactness of the materials, the 
greater decomposition of these than is seen elsewhere, and 
above all, from its distinct stratification. The upper portion 
of the sand on which it rests is more or less mixed with 
fragments of shells, and still higher are alternate layers of 
these, and of shells mixed with sand ; it is this condition 
which gives the whole its stratified appearance. At one place 
six such alternations were counted, but in others they were 
less numerous. None of the strata extended continuously 
through the whole length of the mound. Two explanations 
of this appearance are suggested : first, successive over- 
flows of the river; second, interrupted occupation of the 

. AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. H. 51 



402 * FRESH-WATER SHELL-HEAPS, ETC. 

mound. The first seems quite improbable. The water is 
uot now known to rise above the lowest limit of the shells, 
nor in fact could it rise much beyond this, since the configu- 
i*ation of East Florida is such, that any unusual flow of water 
becomes at once spread out over the immense tracts rising 
only a few inches above the level of the river. Nothing 
short of subsidence of the land could bring the water to the 
level of the highest of these sti-ata. The second is the more 
probable, but in the absence of proof can only stand as a 
reasonable conjecture. 

In view of these facts the search for the evidence of man's 
work was important, and especially as the mound had the 
appearance of great age. The whole front, in which all the 
objects were undisturbed, was therefore most carefully exam- 
ined, and with the following results : First, excepting within 
a few inches of the surface and in the vegetable mould, not a 
fragment of pottery was discovered ; second, a few bones of 
the deer, more or less broken, were found, and one of them 
burned ; those of the soft-shelled turtle, alligator, and gar- 
pike, as also numerous fragments of charcoal, were obtained 
at various depths between the top of the mound and the sand 
on which it rested. If to these we add an ornament made 
of bone, to be described farther on, we have the scanty evi- 
dence derived from the materials, for the conclusion that the 
mound was built by man. Mr. Peabody, however, made an 
important discovery which confirms this conclusion. He ob- 
sei*ved a piece of flint projecting from the sand just beneath 
and quite near to the lowest deposit of shells. It is to be 
remembered that in this part of Florida flint does not natu- 
rally occur, in fact that there is nothing but sand in which 
even pebbles are seldom seen. Before the flint was removed, 
we both carefully examined all the surroundings, and were 
satisfied that the flint and the sand in which it was imbedded 
had not been disturbed since the mound was begun. The 
front of the moimd was vertical, the section was recent, and 
the small talus which forms below it is constantly removed. 



THE BELTED KINGFISHER. 403 

Anything once detached is carried away by the current 
which is here somewhat brisk. When removed, the flint 
had all the evidence of having been "chipped," and was evi- 
dently the result of a rude attempt at an arrow-head. We 
cannot, therefore, in view of all the facts resist the conclu- 
sion that the mound was of human origin. 

The only shell-heaps visited by us in which we failed to 
find satisfactory traces of man, was on the left bank of the 
river, a few miles below Hawkinsville (formerly Oceola). 
This deposit is one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet in 
length and eight feet high, has a swamp in the rear from 
which it rises very abruptly; on the front it has been so 
much undermined by the river that it presents a nearly ver- 
tical face, showing a good section through its whole length. 
A series of excavations had been made along the summit 
during the rebellion, for military purposes, so that there 
were unusually good opportunities for examination. Not- 
withstanding all this, we failed to find any pottery or other 
works of man at any point, except within a few inches of the 
surface. The contrast with Black Hammock and Old Enter- 
prise was very striking. The mound was composed almost 
entirely of Paludinas, and, in some points, of these mixed 
with sand, forming a solid conglomeration. In this last we 
saw fragments of the tibia of a deer, which had been broken 
in the same manner as the bones from the other shell-heaps. 
The abruptness with which the mound rose from the level 
surface on the rear gave it the appearance, and this was the 
only circumstance which did, of artificial origin. — Toftecow- 
cluded. 



THE BELTED KINGFISHER. 

BY AUGUSTUS FOWLER. 

This bird, Qeryle Alcyon^ perforates the sand or gravel- 
bank for a breeding-place, preferring a situation near some 



404 THE BELTED KINGFISHER. 

stream of water; sometimes, however, they select d place 
a mile or more distant from their fishing haunts. They will 
associate with the Sand-martins, and rear their brood in 
the same bank. Although there is a great difference in the 
disposition of these two species of birds in the management 
of their home affairs, as regards neatness and system of liv- 
ing, yet they live amicably together. The Martin, quiet and 
gentle in her manner, carries on the affairs of her household, 
which would do credit to many a housewife living in a higher 
sphere, and of whom domestic economists would do well to 
take a few lessons in the art of house-keeping. The tene- 
ment of the Kingfisher presents quite a different aspect. In 
it there is no nest of soft dried grass and downy feathers 
prepared for the nestlings, nor care of any kind for the re- 
ception of the eggs, except a cavity hollowed in the form of 
an oven at the extreme end of the hole, which measures in 
height from four to five inches, and in depth, below the pas- 
sage leading to it, about three-fourths of an inch. The pas- 
sages are usually from thirty to thirty-five inches in length ; 
the first one is straight and about sixteen inches long ; the 
second, which leads to the nest, diverges to the right or left, 
and is about the same length of the first one. On the bare 
earth, in the space above described, the female deposits from 
six to eight pure white eggs, which measure in length one 
and one-fourth inches, and in breadth one inch. Unlike the 
mild birds of the bank with whom it has the peaceful privi- 
lege of breeding with, it comes with a furious flight, with a 
fish still quivering in its powerful bill, with crest erect, and 
with a loud rattling voice, that wakes the echoes, and enters 
the hole, dividing amongst the brood the food it brings 
them. It requires but a short time to render the apartment 
a filthy one ; the offal of their food, the excrements of the 
young birds, and the exhalations of their bodies, produce 
such a stench as to make it a wonder how they live and 
thrive in such an offensive place. 

The Kingfisher is more cautious when it approaches its nest 



NOTES ON TROPICAL FRUITS. 405 

before the eggs are hatched than aftorwnrds. During the time 
the female is laying her eggs, she does not fly directly to her 
nest, but alights near by on the branch of some tree or prom- 
inent object, and raises her head and tail together, and at tho 
same time her crest ; she reconnoitres the place for some 
minutes, and, scanning every object closely, then, if not 
alarmed, she enters her hole. The enti-ance to her nest is 
not round, but in tho form of an ellipsis. It is larger, but 
otherwise similar in shape to th-it of the Sand-martin. It is 
astonishing that so great an observer of natural objects as 
Mr. 'Audubon sliould represent the entmnce to the nest of 
the Mailin as being round ; such a mistake, not being in con- 
formity with the facts in relation to the posture and appear- 
ance of the birds he so beautifully delineates, destroys the 
harmony of his whole picture. The Kingfishers an'ive early 
and prepare their nesting-place ; they then lay their eggs, 
and incubation commences about the tenth of April. 



NOTES ON TROPICAL FRUITS. 



[Continueil IVom |jagc Ml.] 

Aiianassa (various species), — Pineapple, Ananas. The 
flavor of tropical fruits niised under glass is almost always 
inferior, but the pineapple is a marked exception. Perhaps 
no fruit diffei-a more in quality in its own native land, some 
fields producing a rich juicy fruit, while the plantations 
near by yield only a dry insipid produce. Under glass, the 
golden and ruby cones are almost always good. The best 
specimens of pines eomc, it is said, from Guayaqnil ; but the 
little island of Niihau, in the Hawaiian group, produces a 
fruit rich and melting, such as is seldom found iu the East 
Indies. Here they may be eaten as oranges- 



406 NOTES ON TBOPIOAL FRUITS. 

The maimer of growth is sufficiently familiar. A cluster 
of stiff, pointed, serrated leaves, two or three feet long, from 
whose midst rises a stem of about equal height, bearing on 
its club-shaped extremity a tuft of small leaves, beneath 
which, on the expanded part of the stem, are the violet, 
mint-shaped flowers. As the flowers fall off, each one is 
succeeded by a slight protuberance, and these all swell to- 
gether, grow juicy, and at last the cone of the perfected 
fruit remains. The fruit varies in shape from an almost 
globular to a very acute conical form ; a species of the latter 
form is much cultivated in Peru, and has white flesh, al- 
though many prefer a small fruit of dark red color exter- 
nally, and yellow within. As the pine bears no seeds, it is 
propagated by cuttings ; the crown of leaves, when planted, 
requires nearly three years to come to matm*ity, while the 
offshoots from the base bear in a twelvemonth. 

The fruit is eaten raw or cooked, and the juice makes an 
excellent wine, or may be fermented as beer. A ripe fruit 
is best eaten by breaking apart the little radiating cones of 
which it is composed, and sucking each one from the centre 
outwards. The fibre of the leaves is most beautiful and silky, 
and is used largely in making the pina cloth. A field of wild 
pines, such as cover many of the islands in the Straits of 
Malacca, is almost as rough and inaccessible as a field of 
cacti, and the sharp stiff leaves are formidable weapons to the 
bare legs of invaders ; but the bright fruit, peeping out here 
and there all through the wilderness of spines, is quite suffi- 
cient to attract gatherers. At night, as the land-breezes 
sweep down over these islands, they take with them the 
exquisite fragrance to comfort the poor sailors who may have 
spent the day in scratching their bodies and tearing their 
clothes in getting pines. 

As an ornamental plant, the pine presides with queenly 
state in the beautiful Botanical Gardens at Singapore, and 
its huge golden yellow fruit, often fifteen inches long and 
seven to ten in diameter, might well look down in contempt 



NOTES ON TROPICAL FRUITS. 407 

on the wretched specimens of its race thrown upon our 
wharves. 

Tacca pinnatijiday — Arrowroot, pia. Of the many plants 
which produce the starch known as arrowroot, the tacca is 
the most important in the Pacific Ocean. On the Hawaiian 
Islands it grows wild, and its tuberous roots are much sought 
after. The plant is low, conspicuous only from its deeply 
cleft horizontal leaves, above which rises in the proper sea- 
son a cluster of greenish flowers. The tubers are shaped 
like potatoes, and so far as known are never eaten raw, 
being quite acrid, although by no means so poisonous as the 
manihot. 

Musa (various species), — Banana, Plantain. The best 
and most important of all tropical fruits, found in the tropics 
of every continent, and universally cherished by the people 
whose meat it is. Every one would know a banana at sight, 
and yet the pictures of the plant, even in our best text-books, 
are very faulty. One of the common geographies represent 
it as bearing two bunches of fruit ; another, as having a dis- 
tinct stem. 

When the cutting or shoot is planted (and it requires a 
deep rich earth and much moisture to grow in perfection) , it 
soon sends up two leaves, tightly rolled together, until the 
green roll has grown some two or three feet, when the blades 
unroll and become most tempting food for cattle of all sorts. 
These leaves* are followed by others until the stems of the 
leaves have formed a smooth trunk some eight or ten inches 
thick, and sheathed by the drying or dried remains of the 
earlier leaves. At the end of nine months a deep purple 
bud appears in the centre of the leaves, and its constantly 
lengthening stem pushes it out beyond the leafy envelopes, 
and it hangs down heavily like a huge heart. Now along 
the stem are seen little protuberances in rows, extending 
perhaps two-thirds of the way around the stem, and as the 
great purple envelopes of the bud fall off, these are seen to be 



408 NOTES ON TROPICAL FRUITS. 

little fruits, each with a waxen blossom and huge projecting 
stigma at the end. These are the female flowers farthest 
from the end of the stem, while as successive purple leaves 
fall oflF (you may see the scars they leave on any bunch of 
bananas), the male flowers are seen in closer rows and of the 
same waxen yellow color. The flowers are full of a good 
honey. Three or four months are required to ripen the 
fruit, and in the mean time the bunch of male flowers has 
withered and dropped away, and the ovaries of the female 
blossoms have swollen into bananas, it may be a foot long, 
and the huge bunch hangs down scarcely supported by the 
now withering stem. The fruit is ripe, and the banana has 
done its work, and, if left alone, soon dries up and dies. 
From its base spring up shoots which may be transplanted. 
If the stem is cut down to the ground as soon as the fruit is 
gathered, the round bulbous rootstock sends up new leaves, 
and a second plant matures much sooner than do the oflT- 
shoots. 

Although most banana bunches hang down in maturity, a 
kind is found on the Society Islands, whence it has been in- 
troduced to the Hawaiian, whose very large bunches of deep 
orange-colored fruit stand up erect, forming ornamental 
rather than useful objects ; for their taste, even when cooked, 
is exceedingly disagreeable and acrid. The Brazilian bana- 
na, so-called (and no attempt is made to give here the cor- 
rect names, as the nomenclature is hopelessly confused in 
diflferent countries, and the bold writer who should attempt 
to write a monograph of this genus, would need all his cour- 
age), is tall, rising to a height of fifteen, or even twenty 
feet, and the fruit is yellow and excellent, rather vinous in 
flavor; these are the long yellow bananas common in our 
markets. The Chinese banana seldom exceeds five feet in 
height, the leaves are of a silvery hue, and the fruit quite 
aromatic. The Fei, or Tahitian banana, is similar to the 
Brazilian but not so tall, and the fruit is angular, yellow, 
turning black when fully ripe, and the flesh is salmon-col« 



NOTES ON TROPICAL FRUITS. 409 

ored or buff, and slightly acid. Then there are varieties 
with red fruit quite common here, blunt fruit, and some with 
a very diminutive fruit of fine flavor. The names Banana 
and Plantain are used almost indiscriminately, but the latter 
usually applies to those varieties which are coarser and usu- 
ally eaten cooked. 

Usually no seeds are found within the pulp, but at Akyab, 
and along the coast of Arracan, a kind is found full of seeds. 
These seeds are black, rough, about the size of cotton-seeds, 
and enveloped in a sort of fibre so that they cannot be read- 
ily cleaned. The taste of this variety is very inferior. 

The Spaniards have a curious superstition about the fruit. 
The cross section presents a rude cross, and from this they 
suppose the banana was the forbidden fruit, and Adam saw, 
in eating it, the mystery of redemption by the cross. The 
cross is not very distinct, and the excellent Padre Labat 
remarks, after mentioning this belief: "There is nothing 
impossible in this ; Adam may have had better eyesight than 
we, or the cross was better shaped in the bananas which 
grew in his garden." 

The ways of eating bananas are almost innumerable. Raw, 
they are eaten by themselves, or cut in slices with sugar and 
cream, or wine and orange juice. Cooked when green or 
ripe, they are fried alone or in batter, baked with the skin 
on, made into a pudding much resembling an apple dump- 
ling, or baked in pies. They may be cut in strips and dried, 
or pounded into a paste and dried ; in the latter form they 
are the staple food of many Mexican tribes. The amount 
of nourishment is very great, and Humboldt's statement is 
often quoted, that the same extent of land which produces 
one thousand pounds of potatoes, bears forty-four thousand 
pounds of bananas ; a surface bearing wheat enough to feed 
one man, will, when planted with bananas, feed twenty-five. 
Lucky the people who can eat bananas, and leave the pota- 
toes for the hogs I 

The young shoots are cooked as greens, but the stem and 

▲MER. NATURAU8T, VOL. H. 52 



410 DIRECrriONS for COLLECrriNG 

old leaves are full of a watery acrid juice, which stains white 
cloth au indelible black or dark brown. The fibres of the 
leaves make a textile fabric of great beauty, known as a fine 
kind of grass cloth. 

In cultivation the plants are set closely, the Chinese banana 
requiring only three or four feet between the rows, and the 
clusters are gathered before they are quite ripe, and hung up 
in some cool place, or better still, buried in the earth. Some 
bananas are certainly improved by this premature gathering, 
but others are much better when ripened in the natural way. 
The prices on the Isthmus of Panama, and at most tropical 
ports, varies from a real (12J cts.) to a dollar, according to 
the size of a bunch and the season of the year. The prices 
asked in the Boston market are simply outrageous, and our 
fruit-dealers let the fruit rot in their windows rather than 
lower the price. 

A plantation will yield all the year round by timing the 
planting, but the crop is much more abundant at one season. 
The care the plants require is little enough if they are 
planted by a brook or in moist ground, and the bunches of 
fruit may weigh eighty, or even more than a hundred pounds 
when ripe. 

The geographical limits of the banana are much more ex- 
tensive than those of the cocoanut, and extend even beyond 
the tropics. 



DIRECTIONS FOR COLLECTING LAND AND 

FRESH-WATER SHELLS. 

BY JAMES LEWISi M. D. 

If the collector is provided with suitable apparatus for 
gathering cerUiin classes of shells, his work is more than 
half done when he has found them. This is especially true 
of land shells. The apparatus needed for