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Full text of "AN ANNOUNCEMENT OF HIGHAY SAFETY LITERATURE 25 FEB 1972"

Highway Safety Literature 

. . . A Bi-Monthly Abstract Journal 




U.S. International Transportation Exposition 
Dulles International Airport 

Washington, D.C. 
May 27-June 4, 1972 



HSL No. 72-4 
February 25, 1972 




THIS ISSUE CONTAINS: 

HS-010504-HS-010572 
HS-800 604 



US'. Department of Transportation / National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 



An Announcement of 

HIGHWAY SAFETY LITERATURE 
... A Bi-Monthiy Abstract Journal 

Published twice-a-month by the National Traffic Safety Administration, 

Research Institute, Office of Accident Investigation and Data Analysis 

Washington, B.C. 20590 

INTRODUCTION 



Publications such as journal articles, proceedings, and 
research reports announced in Highway Safety Literature in- 
clude some of the most recent additions to the collection of the 
NHTSA Scientific & Technical Information Service. Subject 
areas covered include all phases of highway, motor vehicle, and 
traffic safety, especially those encompassed by the National 
Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 and the 
Highway Safety Act of 1966. 

Individual issues of HSL are numbered according to the 
year and the issue number within that year; thus, 71 designates 
the year and 1, 2, 3, etc. the individual issues. To aid the user 
in locating citations by the HS-number, the cover bears the 
inclusive entry number for each issue. 

Entnes in HSL are arranged according to the NHTSA 
Subject Category List shown in the Table of Contents. The 
list is a two-level arrangement consisting of five major subject 
fields subdivided into 59 subject groups. Documents related 
directly to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 



(NHTSA) are announced in a separate section headed NHTSA 
DOCUMENTS and are numbered in five distinct series: NHTSA 
Accident Investigation Reports (HS-600 000 series). NHTSA 
Compliance Test Reports (HS-610 000 series), NHTSA Con- 
tractors Reports (HS-800 000 series), NHTSA Staff Speeches, 
Papers, etc. (HS-810 000 series), and NHTSA Imprints (HS-820 
000 series). For NHTSA DOCUMENTS in series HS-600 000 and 
HS-610 000, individual full case reports are available for in- 
spection at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 
HS-800 000 series and HS-800 000 series are available for 
purchase from NTIS or GPO (see page ii). Although announced 
together in a separate section, these documents are also assigned 
specific subject categories for machine retrieval. 

A document which contains a number of separate articles is 
announced as a complete volume in the subject category most 
applicable to it as a whole. Entries for the individual articles 
appear in their most specific subject category. 



SAMPLE ENTRIES 



Subject Category Array _____ -. 

NHSB Accession no HS-800 218 Fid. 5/21; 5/9 

Title of document AN INVESTIGATION OF USED CAR 

T ,t,e of document SAFETY STANDARDS-SAFETY 

INDEX: FINAL REPORT. VOL. 6 - 
APPENDICES G-L 

Persona, author(s) by E. N. Wells; J. P. Fitzmaurice; C. E. 

Guilliams; S. R. Kalin; P. D. Williams 

corporate author Operations Research, Inc. 



filiation _ 

Publication date 1969 1 50p 

Contract FH-1 1-6921 

Report no. ORI-TR-553-Vol-6; PB-190 

523 

Appendices G-L to this study of used 
car safety standards include: indenture 
model diagrams for classes I-IV motor 
trucks; degradation, wear, and failure 



Abstract. 



HS-004497 Fid. 5/19 

AUTO THEFT-THE PROBLEM 
AND THE CHALLENGE 

by Thomas A. Williams, Sr. 

journal citation . . . Published in FBI Law Enforcement 
Bulletin v37 n!2 pi 5-7 (Dec 1968) 

Gives figures on the extent of the 
auto theft problem and comments on 
antitheft devices available now or in 
the planning stage. 

Search terms: Theft; Theft protec- 
tion; Stolen cars 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



NOTE: ( ) Number* In parentheses following certain subject groups 
Indicate the Highway Safety Program Standard* (No. 1, and up) and/or 
Federal Mote. Vehicle Safety Standardi (No. 101 and up) which may 
apply to thews group*. 



INTRODUCTION AND 

SAMPLE ENTRIES Inside Front Cover 

AVAILABILITY OF DOCUMENTS ii 



NHTSA SUBJECT FIELDS AND GROUPS 



1/0 ACCIDENTS 

/ 1 Emergency Services (11, 15-16) 

/2 Injuries 

/3 Investigation (10, 14-15) 

/4 Locations (9, 14) 

/5 Statistical data 

2/0 HIGHWAY SAFETY 

/I Breakaway Structures 

/2 Communications 

/3 Debris Hazard Control and Cleanup (15-16) 

/4 Design and Construction (12, 14) 

/5 Lighting (14) 

/6 Maintenance (12) 

/7 Meteorological Conditions 

/8 Police Traffic Service* (15) 

/9 Traffic Control (13- 14) 

/10 Traffic Courts (7) 

III Traffic Records (10) 



3/0 HUMAN FACTORS 

/I Alcohol (8, 14) 

/2 Anthropomorphic Data 

/3 Cyclists 

/4 Driver Behavior 

/5 Driver Education (4, 1 4) 

/6 Driver Licensing (5, 10, 14) 

/7 Drugs Other Than Alcohol 

/8 Environmental Effects 

/9 Impaired Drivers 

/10 Passengers 

/ll Pedestrian* (14-1 5) 

/12 Vision 



4/0 OTHER SAFETY-RELATED AREAS 

1 1 Codes and Laws (6) 

/2 Community Support (17) 

/3 Cost Effectiveness 

/4 Governmental Aspects 

/5 Information Technology 

/6 Insurance 

/7 Mathematical Sciences 

/8 Transportation Systems 



5/0 VEHICLE SAFETY .......................... 12 

* All Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard* apply to pMwngw 
vehicle*. An anerlsk before a subject group Indicate* additional typM of 
vehicle* to which the indicated vtandard* may apply. 

/I Brake Systems (102, 105-6, 116) 

*/2 Buses, School Buses, and Multipurpose Passenger 
Vehicles (102-4 , 106-8, 111-3, 116,205-6,209, 
211) 

*/3 Cycles (3; 108, 112, 116, 205) 

/4 Design (14; 101-2, 105^ 107,201) 

/5 Door Systems (201, 206) 

16 Fuel Systems (101, 301) 

/7 Glazing Materials (205) 

/8 Hood Latch Systsms (113) 

/9 Inspection (1) 

/10 Lighting Systems (101, 105, 108, 112) 

/1 1 Maintenance and Repairs 

/ 1 2 Manufacturers, Distributors, and Dealers 

/ 1 3 Mirrors and Mountings ( 1 07 , 1 1 1 ) 

/14 Occupant Protection (15; 201-4, 207-10) 

/ 1 5 Propulsion Systems 

/ 1 6 Registration (2, 1 0) 

/ 1 7 Safety Defect Control 

/18 Steering Control System (101, 107, 203-4) 

/ 1 9 Theft Protection (114-5) 

*/20 Trucks and Trailers (102-4, 107-8, 112-3, 1 16, 
205-6, 209) 

{21 Used Vehicles 

122 Wheel Systems (109-10, 211) 

/23 Windshield-Related Systems (101, 103-4, 107, 205, 
212) 

NHTSA DOCUMENTS ............................ 18 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARIES ......................... 19 



NOTE: Material published in Highway Safety Literature (HSL) is intended for 
the information and assistance of the motor vehicle and highway safety com- 
munity. While brand names, equipment model names and identification, and 
companies may be mentioned from time to time, this data is included as an 
information service. Inclusion of this information in the HSL should not, under 
any circumstances, be construed as an endorsement or an approval of any particular 
product, course, or equipment by the U. S. Department of Transportation, National 
Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 



Harry A. Feinberg 
Managing Editor 



Articles and reports whose citations and abstracts 
appear in HSL are acquired from many sources, such 
as periodicals, journals, NHTSA Contractors' reports 
and NHTSA staff speeches, and other reports. Those 
reports other than NHTSA Contractors' reports and 
NHTSA generated reports and speeches (see intro- 
duction) are assigned a lower consecutive accession 
(HS-) number. 

Department of Transportation personnel may borrow 
copies of publications announced in HSL from the 
NHTSA Technical Reference Division. Non-DOT 
Personnel, in the Washington, D.C. area, may borrow 
copies of publications for a 24-hour period only. 
Telephone (202) 426-2768. Government personnel 
in the Washington, D.C. area, use government ID 
phone 118-62768. 

The names of the journals cited in HSL appear m 
italic type preceded by the word "Published in." 
The journal containing the article cited may be 
borrowed from most research and public libraries. 
Non-DOT personnel outside the Washington area 
should contact their company or agency libraries for 
assistance. 

NHTSA Contractors' reports and other reports can 
usually be obtained as indicated under AVAIL- 
ABILITY. However, there is no certainty that copies 
will be available for more than a limited period after 
a report is issued. 

The more common availability sources are identified 
by symbols which are explained in the- next column: 



NTIS: National Technical Information Service, Spring- 
field, Va. 221 51. Order by accession number: MS, AD, or PB. 
Prepayment is required by NTIS coupon (GPO 
coupons are not acceptable), check or money order 
(made payable to the NTIS). PC (Paper copy; full size 
original or reduced facsimile.) prices are $3.00 up to 
300 pages, $6.00 for 301 to 600 pages, $<>.()0 for 601 
to 900 pages, and over 900 pages will be quoted on re- 
quest. Surcharge is added for foreign orders. MF (mic- 
rofiche approximately 4x6" negative sheet film; 
reader required) is $0.95 per report. 

GPO: Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government 
Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. (live corpor- 
ate author, title, personal author, and report number . 
Prepayment is required by GPO coupon ( NTIS 
coupons are not acceptable), check or money order 
( made payable to the Superintentent of Documents). 

HRB: Highway Research Board, National Academy 
of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Ave., N. W., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 20418. 

NHTSA: National Highway Traffic Safety Adminis- 
tration, General Services Division, Washington, D.C. 
20591 (Telephone (202) 426-0874), Give HS-No. 

SAE: Society of Automotive Engineers, Dept. HSL, 
2 Pennsylvania Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10001. Order 
by SAE report numbers. Prices given are list ; discounts 
are available to SAE members and sometimes to 
libraries and U.S. Government Agencies. Prepayment 
is required; orders received without payment are 
subject to a $1 handling charge. 



IMPORTANT NOTICE 

WHEN REQUESTING a document, to be absolutely sure you receive what you order, 
give the accession number (HS, PB, AD number) or report number (in cases such as an 
SAE document), title of report, 'and the personal or corporate author (whichever is 
cited). When requesting an HS-numbered document from NTIS, add DOT/to the prefix 
HS-; example HS-800 000 should be ordered as DOT/HS-800 000. 



1/0 ACCIDENTS 
HS-010 504 Fid. 1/0; 2/0; 5/0 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE I4TH 
ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE 
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR 
AUTOMOTIVE MEDICINE, 19-20 
NOVEMBER 1970 



Michigan Univ. Hwy. Safety Res. Inst. 
1971 255p rets 

Includes HS-010 505, 507-512, 514, 
518, 521, 527-528, 531, 535-536, 
545,564-565 ami 569 

Papers are presented on: soft-tissue 
windshield injuries; traumatic arthritis; 
dashboard injuries of the larynx; soft- 
tissue injuries of the cervical spine; 
pulmonary complications from trauma; 
blunt abdominal trauma; localized im- 
pact effect on the skull and patella; lap 
belt restraint effects on pregnant car 
crash victims; concept comparisons in 
restraint protection; the human ear and 
air bag noise; snowmobile accidents; 
bicycle accidents; booby trapped high- 
ways; training emergency medical tech- 
nicians; a New York State system of 
emergency health services; identifying 
the problem-drinking driver; risk among 
alcoholic drivers; a university and police 
program for high school seniors; and 
effects of vehicle design changes. 



Search terms: Windshield caused in- 
juries; Arthritis; Dashboard caused in- 
juries; Pulmonary arrest; Abdominal 
injuries; Head impact tolerances; Knee 
impact tolerances; Seat belt caused 
injuries; Restraint system effective- 
ness; Snowmobile accidents; Highway 
design; Alcoholism; Ambulance 
personnel training; Emergency medical 
services; High school drivers; Highway 
safety programs; Neck injuries; Noise 
tolerances; Bicycle accidents; Drinking 
drivers; Vehicle design 



1/1 Emergency Services 
HS-010 505 Fid. 1/1 

TRAINING EMERGENCY 
MEDICAL TECHNICIANS 

by Charles F. Frey; William C. Grabb 
Michigan Univ. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 pi 75 -81 

7 rcfs 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

Emergency medical service at its best is a 
complex system of integrated com- 
ponents. These component parts in- 
clude well trained rescue workers. 
Historically, ambulance workers have 
not been well trained. The 70-hour 
training program for rescue workers in 
Washtenaw County constitutes an 
interim program, an intermediate step 
between the advanced Red Cross first aid 
course, and a truly professional one- to 
two-year community college hospital- 
based program. 

Search terms: Emergency medical 
services; Ambulance personnel train- 
ing; First aid; Heart lung resuscitation; 
Medical emergencies; Michigan; Cur- 
ricula; State action 

HS-010 506 Fid. 1/1 



by Kenneth C. Easton 

Published in Proceedings of the Royal 
Society of Medicine v63 p!321-3 (Dec 
1970) 

4refs 

Unless medical care is available at the 
site of accidents and in transit, some 



lives are lost that could have been saved 
and some injuries are aggravated. The 
state of road emergency care in Great 
Britain is briefly reviewed and "The 
Road Accident After Care" scheme of 
the North Riding of Yorkshire is 
proposed as an example of what should 
and can be achieved to provide excellent 
emergency care. 

Search terms: Emergency medical 
services; Fkst aid; Physicians mid high- 
way safety; Great Britain 



HS-010 507 Fid. 1/1; 4/2 

ESTABLISHING A SYSTEM OF 
EMERGENCY HEALTH SERV- 
ICES IN NEW YORK STATE 

by Caldwell B . Esselstyn 

New York State Dept. of Health 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 197 Op 18 3-9 3 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

The New York State Department of 
Health is developing a statewide system 
of emergency health services which in- 
cludes medical defense, accident pre- 
vention and injury control, investigating 
physical requirements for driver licens- 
ing, administration of ambulance 
regulations, training of ambulance at- 
tendants, designing a statewide system of 
emergency health communications, 
research, and the establishment of 30 
area emergency medical care committees 
with full-time staff. Although ultimately 
dependent on hospital emergency de- 
partment cooperation and performance, 
the emergency health services system is 
largely a universe composed of agencies 
and organizations outside of the hospi- 
tal, such as community colleges, city and 
village police, fire departments, Red 
Cross, local government, the Interde- 
partmental Traffic Safety Committee, 
the State Medical Society and others. 



ACCIDENTS 



HSL No. 72-4 



1/1 Emergency Service 

(Cont'd.) 
HS-010 507 (Cont'd.) 

Search terms: Emergency medical 
services; Emergency services; Emer- 
gency training; First aid; Ambulance 
licensing; Ambulance personnel train- 
ing; Communication systems; Com- 
munity support; State government; 
New York (State); Driver physical 
fitness; State action 

1/2 injuries 
HS-010 508 Fid. 1/2 

TRAUMATIC ARTHRITIS-A 
MEDICAL AND LEGAL DILEM- 
MA 

by John D. States 
Rochester Univ. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 p2 1-8 

10 refs 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970 

Traumatic arthritis is a progressive 
degenerative process which occurs in 
joints injured by trauma and which 
causes pain, swelling, stiffness, and in- 
stability. Diagnosis is usually delayed 
because the clinically detectable mani- 
festations do not appear for a year or 
more following injury. Fusion or 
prosthetic joint replacement are often 
the only definitive means of care and 
some disability always remains. Legal 
adjudication is difficult because of the 
long delay in the appearance of objective 
symptoms, and the severity and per- 
manence of disability which follows the 
onset of traumatic arthritis. The 
pathology, pathogenesis, and etiology of 
46 cases are discussed and some illus- 
trative studies presented. 



tis; Hip injuries; Knee injuries; Shoul- 
der injuries; Legal factors; Joints 
(anatomy); Medical case reports; 
Injury research 



HS-010 509 Fid. 1/2 

DASHBOARD INJURIES OF THE 
LARYNX 

by Nels R. Olson 
Michigan Univ. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 p29-46 

5 refs 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

A protruding "hood" or "shelf" has 
been used in dashboard design in all 
major makes of American automobiles at 
various times since 1964. This structure 
has usually been provided with padding 
sufficient to protect the facial and 
cranial skeletons from severe injury. The 
larynx is more easily injured, however, 
and is often significantly injured when 
struck against a protruding edge, even 
though the edge is padded. In this paper, 
the case reports of twelve persons in- 
jured this way axe briefly summarized. 
The mechanism of injury is explicitly 
detailed. Photographs of the patients and 
their vehicles are included. This type of 
injury is easily prevented either by the 
use of restraints or by changing the 
configuration of the dashboard. 



Search terms: Dashboard caused in- 
juries; Injury prevention; Passenger in- 
juries; Larynx injuries; Neck injuries; 
Injuries by vehicle make; Restraint 
system usage; Injuries by vehicle age; 
Tracheotomy; Crush injuries; Instru- 
ment panel caused injuries; Instrument 
panel padding; Instrument panel 
design; Photographs; Injury research; 



HS-010 5 10 Fid. 1/2 

DETECTION OF SOFT-TISSUE 
INJURIES OF THE CERVICAL 

SPINE 

by C. L. Nelson 

Cleveland Clinic Foundation 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 p47-62 

23 refs 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

Soft tissue flexion-extension injuries of 
the cervical spine continue to pose a 
diagnostic and therapeutic problem for 
the physician. It has been proposed and 
found that some patients have soft tissue 
injuries of the cervical spine that will 
respond to surgical fusion. The problem 
has been the inability to diagnose the 
abnormality and the level of abnor- 
mality. This study represents :i group of 
patients who were evaluated by the use 
of cineradiography and some of their 
operative findings. Abnormalities of the 
cervical spine noted after flexion and 
extension injuries, and the soft tissue 
dcterminance of cervical movement are 
discussed. 

Search terms: Neck injuries; Rear end 
collisions; Cervical spine; Ligaments; 
Surgery; Diagnosis; Cadavers in testing; 
Injury research; Whiplash injuries; 
Medical treatment; Radiography; 
Spinal flexion 



HS-010 511 Fid. 1/2 

PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS 
FROM TRAUMA 

by David L. Bcckman 

Michigan Univ. Hwy. Safety Res. Inst. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 



FEBRUARY 25, 1972 



ACCIDENTS 



American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970p63-6 

llrefs 

Grant PHS-GM-169 12 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

Previous clinical studies have shown that 
pulmonary complications may attend 
mechanical trauma, including injuries 
resulting from car crashes involving the 
head, thorax, and the extremities. 
Autopsy reports of car crash victims' in 
some cases show gross pulmonary 
hemorrhage and edema. An investigation 
was carried out using squirrel monkeys 
and rhesus monkeys to determine the 
type and extent of any immediate pul- 
monary changes following exposure to 
experimental mechanical head injury, 
and to consider the causal factors in- 
volved. Results of an analysis of clinical 
and laboratory data suggest that direct 
pulmonary complications in addition to 
any possible airway obstruction occur 
immediately following trauma in car 
crash victims and may result in increased 
mortality rates. These pulmonary effects 
are attributed primarily to an alteration 
in lung surface tension forces mediated 
by the sympathetics. 

Search terms: Heart lung resusci- 
tation; Head injuries; Hemorrhage; 
Edema; Lungs; Monkeys; Airway 
maintenance; Medical treatment; 
Sympathetic nervous system 



HS-010 512 Fid. 1/2 

EFFECT OF LOCALIZED IM- 
PACT ON THE HUMAN SKULL 
AND PATELLA 

by John W. Melvin; Peter M. Fuller 
Michigan Univ. Hwy. Safety Res. Inst. 

Published in HS-010 5 04, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970p77-96 

2refs 



Sponsored by Ford Motor Co. Pre- 
sented at the annual conference, Ann 
Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

The results of recent dynamic load mea- 
surements on the human skull and 
patella bone, conducted with less-than- 
one-square-inch penetrators, are dis- 
cussed in relation to previously reported 
skull impact data from larger contact 
areas. The impacts were performed on 
embalmed bone at 0, 10, and 20 mph. 
The results of the impacts performed on 
patellas in the laboratory are correlated 
with accident reports from case histories 
of patella fractures. 

Search terms: Dynamic loads; Impact 
tests; Head impact tolerances; Knee 
impact tolerances; Test equipment; 
Cadavers in testing; Skull fractures; 
Penetration tests; Bone physical prop- 
erties; Bone mechanical properties; 
Patella fractures; Low speed impact 
tests 



HS-010 513 Fid. 1/2 

THE ANATOMICAL LOCALIZ- 
ATION OF BRAIN INJURIES 
SUSTAINED IN TRAFFIC ACCI- 
DENTS 

by Aleksander Dubrzyski; Stefan Raszeja 

Published in Journal of Forensic Medi- 
cine v!7 n3 p99-102 (Jul-Sep 1970) 

5 refs 

In 40 out of 56 cases of fatal head 
injuries due to road accidents, injury of 
the brain occurred. The extent of dam- 
age to the brain in pedestrians is signi- 
ficantly greater than in drivers and 
passengers. The discrepancy between the 
neurological symptoms in relation to the 
changes observed during autopsies in- 
dicates that prognosis should be made 
cautiously in case of head iniuries arising 
from road accidents, especially in early 
stages of treatment when no neurological 
symptoms are observed. The study is 
based on autopsies of accident victims in 
Poland. 

Search terms: Head injuries; Brain 



injuries; Autopsies; Neurologic mani- 
festations; Pedestrian injuries; Injury 
severity; Pedestrian fatalities; Driver 
fatalities; Passenger fatalities; Poland 

HS-010 514 Fid. 1/2; 1/1 

TRAFFIC DEATHS DUE TO 
BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA 

by Susan P. Baker; Harold R. Gertner, 
Jr.; Robert B. Rutherford; Werner U. 
Spitz 

Johns Hopkins Univ.; Maryland Office of 
the Chief Medical Examiner 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 p67-75 

Sponsored by Insurance Inst. for Hwy. 
Safety and the Maryland Medical Legal 
Foundation. Presented at the annual 
conference, Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 
1970. 

Hospital records and post-mortem find- 
ings were reviewed for 33 traffic deaths 
in which the primary injuries were intra- 
abdominal. Only one case died before 
reaching the hospital. Half of these lives 
might have been salvaged by prompt and 
proper diagnosis and treatment. The 
investigation suggested a need to im- 
prove several aspects of hospital care of 
trauma patients. In particular, over one- 
third of the cases in this series demon- 
strated a need for more aggressive 
resuscitation of patients in hypovolemic 
shock. Nearly half of all cases involved 
either failure to operate or excessive 
delay in surgery, despite symptoms of 
abdominal injury. The importance of 
evaluating the results of medical care of 
the injured is emphasized by the unusual 
distribution of these deaths among 
various hospitals. The study points to 
the importance of seeing that severely 
injured patients reach appropriately 
trained physicians. 

Search terms: Abdominal injuries; 
Medical treatment; Fatality causes; 
Resuscitation; Shock (pathology); 
Diagnosis; Surgery 



ACCIDENTS 



HSL No. 72-4 



HS-010515 Fid. 1/2; 1/3; 3/9 

AGE EFFECTS AND AUTOPSY 
EVIDENCE OF DISEASE IN 
FATALLY INJURED DRIVERS 

by Susan P. Baker; Werner U. Spitz 

Publish ed in Journal of the American 
Medical Association v214 n6 pi 079-88 
(9Novl970) 

12 refs 

A preliminary report of this study was 
read before the Third International 
Congress on Medical and Related 
Aspects of Motor Vehicle Accidents, 
New York, 30 May 1969. 

A total of 328 drivers who died as the 
result of highway crashes was investi- 
gated, using autopsy records and police 
reports. There was no correlation be- 
tween driver responsibility for the crash 
and autopsy evidence of disease or 
physical disability. Arteriosclerotic heart 
disease was found with similar frequency 
in drivers at fault and drivers not at 
fault. Several findings indicated that a 
decreased ability to survive crashes 
caused older persons to be greatly over- 
represented among fatally injured 
drivers. The proportion of drivers who 
were 60 years of age or older was five 
times as high among those killed as 
among drivers who survived rnultivehicle 
crashes. Delayed death was more com- 
mon among older drivers and was 
associated with less serious injuries than 
in younger drivers. Blood alcohol levels 
are also discussed. 

Search terms: Autopsies; Accident re- 
sponsibility; Driver physical fitness; 
Heart diseases; Fatalities by age; Blood 
alcohol levels; Aged drivers; Age factor 
in accidents; Accident survival time; 
Driver age; Driver fatalities; Accident 
factors; Drinking drivers 



HS-010516 Fid. 1/2; 3/2 

EFFECTS OF AMBIENT PRES- 
SURE ON TOLERANCE OF 
MAMMALS TO AIR BLAST 



by Edward G. Damon; Charles S. 
Gaylord; John T. Yelverton; Donald R. 
Richmond; I. Gerald Bowen; Robert K. 
Jones; Clayton S. White 

Published in Aerospace Medicine v39 
nlOp!039-47 (Oct 1968) 

20 refs 

Contract DA-49-146-XZ-372 

Dogs, goats, rats, and guinea pigs were 
exposed against the end plate closing the 
expansion chamber of a shock tube to 
air blast at ambient pressures (Pj) rang- 
ing from 5 to 42 psia. As previously 
found with mice, animal blast tolerance, 
expressed at delta P^Q-one-hour : reflec- 
ted overpressures, rose progressively as 
the experimental ambient pressure was 
increased. When expressed as the ratio, 
delta P 5 Q/Pj, the median lethal dose 
tended to fall at the higher ambient 
pressures. A set of equations relating air 
blast tolerance to the ambient pressure 
at exposure was derived for five species 
of mammals, and by use of these and 
other results a similar equation was 
obtained for predicting the effects of 
ambient pressure on human tolerance to 
air blast. 

Search terms: Animal experiments; 
Goats; Dogs; Guinea pigs; Rats; Blast 
injuries; Lung injuries; Pressure waves; 
Air pressure; Injury research; Mathe- 
matical models; Animal impact toler- 
ances; Pressure time histories; Probit 
analysis; Equations 



HS-010517 Fid. 1/2; 4/2 

THE SEMANTICS OF SAFETY. 
AN EVALUATION OF SOME 
LANGUAGE USED IN PRESS 
COVERAGE OF AVIATION AND 
AUTOMOBILE FATALITIES 

by John DeMott 
Northwestern Univ. 
1966 17p 

Differences are believed to exist in the 
press coverage of aviation and automo- 



bile fatalities. Twelve metropolitan news- 
papers were selected for the month of 
June 1966, and all news stories in 360 
issues involving either aviation or auto- 
mobile fatalities were analyzed. It is 
concluded that the press should re- 
examine its coverage of aviation and 
automobile fatalities to guard against 
providing unintentional support to 
public apathy towards today's increasing 
deaths on the nation's streets and high- 
ways. 

Search terms: Semantics; Mass media; 
Public opinion; Attitudes; Aircraft 
accidents; Automobile accidents; 
Fatalities; Psychological factors; Acci- 
dent reporting 



HS-010518 Fid. 1/2; 5/7 

THE CHANGING CHARACTER 
AND MANAGEMENT OF SOFT- 
TISSUE WINDSHIELD INJURIES 

by Richard C. Schultz. 
Illinois Univ. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceed ings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine 197 Op 1-1 9 

6 refs 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 



The pattern of soft tissue facial injuries 
resulting from automobile windshields 
has changed with recent changes in 
windshield construction. Whereas form- 
erly large avulsion flaps and avulsion 
injuries resulted and plastic surgeons 
were commonly asked to perform the 
repair, the current forms of injuries 
consist of numerous small lacerations 
and triangular avulsion flaps, and being 
less dramatic in appearance, they often 
receive only cursory medical attention. 
The final appearance of these latter 
forms of injury are often quite dis- 
appointing. Small triangular avulsion 
flaps contract, and the patient is left 
with a pebbly, scarred forehead as a final 



FEBRUARY 25, 1972 



HIGHWAY SAFETY 



result. Though not all treatment prob- 
lems relative to the newer forms of 
windshield injuries have been resolved, 
the author attempts to define the 
surgical problems and recommends 
approaches to treatment which minimize 
subsequent facial disfigurement. 

Search terms: Windshield caused in- 
juries; Windshield penetration; Facial 
injuries; Impact caused lacerations; In- 
juries by vehicle age; Laminated glass 
caused injuries; Medical treatment; 
Surgery; Glass fracture behavior; In- 
jury research 



1/3 Investigation 
HS-010519 1/3 

MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY: THE 
VECTORS 

by J. Wadsworth 

National Res. Council of Canada 

1966 lOp 

Report no. NRC-TN-6 

A study of over-all fatal motor vehicle 
accidents, using only the irrefutable 
statistics of quantity, time of occur- 
rence, and traffic volume, establishes the 
driver as the prime accident vector. The 
other, inanimate components of the 
automobile transportation system are 
definitely of lower rank. Alcohol most 
certainly is the impediment in the 2:30 
a.m. peak. Safety cars may confer im- 
munity to the accident disease only if 
they are passively safe, not dependent on 
people. 

Search terms: Epidemiology; Acci- 
dent causes; Driver intoxication; 
Safety cars; Drinking drivers; Driver 
error caused accidents; Traffic volume; 
Time of accidents; Time of day; Vehi- 
cle mileage; Accident rates; Accident 
factors 



HS-010 520 Fid. 1/3; 5/20 

A DETERMINATION OF THE 
RELATIVE COLLISION IN- 
VOLVEMENT OF TRUCKS AND 
OTHER VEHICLES 

by Donald D. van der Zwaag 

Published in HIT LAB Reports pl-5 (Jul 
1971) 

Three separate measures of exposure to 
crashes were used to study collision data 
from the Ohio Turnpike for the period 
January 1966 through June 1970. The 
measures - induced exposure, vehicle 
miles, and an interaction model yield- 
ed different results, and the assumptions 
underlying these measures were 
examined. The author concluded that 
caution should be exercised to ensure 
that the appropriate measure is applied. 
The exposure measurement has not been 
perfected and therefore, one may not 
conclude that one method of measure- 
ment is better than another for all 
circumstances. Trucks appear to be 
over -involved in rear end and sideswipe 
collisions on the Ohio Turnpike for the 
period studied. 

Search terms: Accident risks; Acci- 
dent rates; Truck accidents; Vehicle 
mileage; Statistical analysis; Accident 
types; Ohio; Rear end collisions; Over- 
taking; Side impact collisions; Math- 
ematical models 



2/0 HIGHWAY SAFETY 
2/4 Design and Construction 
HS-010 521 Fid. 2/4; 1/4 

BOBBY TRAPPED HIGHWAYS IN 
THE BECKONING COUNTRY [A 
BOOK REVIEW] 

by Julian A. Waller; Lawrence S. Harris 
Vermont Univ. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 



American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 pi 67-74 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

Over the past 20 years between one-third 
and one-half of Vermont's highway fatal- 
ities have involved unnecessary collision 
with death-dealing roadside obstacles. 
This paper describes a project to docu- 
ment this unnecessary slaughter and to 
bring it to the attention of state legis- 
lators, town selectmen, and the news 
media. This type of project can be 
carried out inexpensively and effectively 
by practicing physicians who are in a 
unique position to document the full 
extent of human losses attributable to 
improper energy transfer involving road- 
side hazards. 

Search terms: Highway design; High- 
way safety; Vermont; Roadside 
hazards; Accident location; Highway 
planning; Physicians and highway 
safety 



HS-010 522 Fid. 2/4; 1/4 
FREEWAY MEDIANS 

Illinois Div. of Highways 

1969 16p 

Report no. Accident-Study-101 

Based on previous studies of median- 
encroachment accidents and accidents 
near median crossovers, attacks on the 
problems are suggested. Unessential 
crossovers should be eliminated. Those 
remaining should be unsigned and 
depressed below shoulders but with ade- 
quate sight distance, not located near 
speed-change tapers or structures, and 
located only where interchange spacing 
is greater than five miles. Problems of 
median encroachment and glare require 
imaginative, new cross-section designs, 
removal or protection of obstacles, glare 
screening, energy -absorbing barriers for 
narrow medians, trees with small trunks, 
and median width as great as possible. 

Search terms: Freeway planning; 



HIGHWAY SAFETY 



HSL No. 72-4 



1/2 injuries (Cont'd.) 
HS-010 522 (Cont'd.) 

Median barriers; Median crossovers; 
Median encroachments; Accident 
location; Roadside hazards; Highway 
design; Accident prevention 

2/5 Lighting 

HS-010 523 Fid. 2/5; 5/10 

LIGHTED HIGHWAYS CAN RE- 
DUCE ACCIDENTS 

by Jim O'Hara 

Published in Municipal South v!6 p6-8 
(Oct 1969) 

Speeding has become a habit carried over 
from day time to night time, rain, and 
fog. Methods of improving visibility were 
discussed at a lighting symposium held at 
the University of California, Berkeley. 
Additional highway lighting would in- 
crease the amount of light on the 
pavement and reduce glare. Some sug- 
gested improvements are: lower the 
angle of light beam, mount the lamps 
higher, introduce quality lamps and in- 
stitute high-luminance tail lights and 
directional signal lights. Other studies 
have shown that unlighted highways are 
a particular threat to drivers over forty. 

Search terms: Reduced visibility; 
Glare; Vision age changes; Highway 
lighting; High level lighting; Lamp 
mounting height; Taillamps; Night 
visibility; International factors 

2/7 Meteorological Condi- 
tions 

HS-010 524 Fid. 2/7; 5/20 

WILL IT RUN AT 70 BELOW? A 
PROGRESS REPORT ON ARCTIC 
WINTER OPERATION OF AUTO- 
MOTIVE EQUIPMENT 

by J. A. Miller; H. R. Porter; J. D. Lewis 

Chevron Res. Co.; Standard Oil Co. 
(Calif.) 



1971 16p 5 refs 
Report no. SAE-7 107 17 

Presented at the National Farm, Con- 
struction, and Industrial Machinery 
Meeting, Milwaukee, 13-16 Sep 1971. 

This paper describes special winteriz- 
ation aids and petroleum products that 
have been developed to make possible 
the operation of automotive machinery, 
on an emergency basis, at temperatures 
as low as -70F. A package of five basic 
petroleum products appropriate for use 
on the North Slope of Alaska has served 
there successfully for several years at 
temperatures consistently in the -40F 
range. The products may be blended to 
obtain additional properties. The motor 
gasoline and diesel fuels developed for 
this package are discussed, along with 
the pour point and viscosity properties 
of Arctic winter lubricants - motor oils, 
ATF and torque fluids, hydraulic oils, 
gear oils, and greases. 

Search terms: Low temperature; Cold 
weather starting; Off the road vehicles; 
Construction vehicles; Freezing; 
Greases; Lubricants; Lubricating oils; 
Fuels; Transmission fluids; Vehicle 
maintenance; Alaska; Viscosity; Win- 
terization; Hydraulic fluids 

AVAILABILITY: SAE 



2/9 Traffic Control 
HS-010 525 Fid. 2/9 

AN ANALYSIS OF DRIVER 
PREFERENCES FOR ALTERN- 
ATIVE VISUAL INFORMATION 
DISPLAYS 



by Kenneth W. Heathington; Richard D. 
Worrall; Gerald C. Hoff 

Published in Highway Research Record 
n303pl-16(1970) 

9 refs 

Sponsored by Committee on Freeway 
Operations and presented at the 49th 
Annual HRB Meeting. 



Traffic information descriptors have 
been evaluated as to how desirable they 
are to drivers residing in the Chicago 
metropolitan area. Several descriptors 
were evaluated for each of three levels of 
congestion: heavy, moderate and none. 
These descriptors are messages about the 
conditions on a freeway and are dis- 
played by electronic signs. For the level 
of heavy congestion, information about 
an accident having occurred and causing 
heavy congestion was the descriptor 
most preferred. The speed descriptor 
ranked second for the level of heavy 
congestion and first for the other two 
levels of congestion. The two remaining 
descriptors (excluding the accident des- 
criptor) were scaled fairly high, but were, 
less desirable than the speed descriptor. 
The two quantitative descriptors, delay 
and travel time, had relatively low scale 
values and were simply not desired by 
the respondents. 

Search terms: Electronic devices; 
Driver aid systems; Highway communi- 
cation; Opinion polls; Driver character- 
istics; Chi square test; Traffic research; 
Chicago; Traffic information signs; 
Changeable message signs 



HS-010 526 Fid. 2/9; 4/7 

CASE STUDY IN THE APPLI- 
CATION OF A TRAFFIC NET- 
WORK SIMULATION MODEL 

by Frank C. Barnes; Frederick A. 
Wagner, Jr. 

Voorhees (Alan M.) and Associates, Inc. 
1968 17p 4 refs 

Presented at the 34th national meeting 
of the Operations Research Society of 
America, Philadelphia, Nov 1968. 

A digital computer simulation model of 
traffic operation and control on urban 
street systems was utilized to investigate 
the effectiveness of several traffic engi- 
neering alternatives in a hypothetical 
nine-intersection 3x3 grid network. The 
four alternatives considered were: the 
existing conditions, prohibition of left 



FEBRUARY 25, 1972 



HUMAN FACTORS 



turns on the major arterial streets, park- 
ing prohibition and left-turn channeliz- 
ation on the major arterial streets, and 
grade separation at the intersection of 
the two major arterial streets. Use of 
simulation statistics for economic analy- 
sis of traffic alternatives is discussed. 

Search terms: Computerized simu- 
lation; Traffic capacity; Traffic con- 
gestion; Traffic engineering; Waiting 
time; Traffic models; Arterial traffic 
volume; Parking prohibitions; Simu- 
lation models; Speed patterns; Urban 
intersections; Left turns; Economic 
analysis; Digital computers; Traffic 
signal timing; Traffic simulation; Chan- 
nelized intersections; Travel time costs; 
Simulation models 



3/0 HUMAN FACTORS 
3/1 Alcohol 
HS-010527 Fid. 3/1 

DEVELOPMENT OF A QUES- 
TIONNAIRE TO IDENTIFY THE 
PROBLEM-DRINKING DRIVER 

by Rudolf G. Mortimer; Jerold S. Lower 
Michigan Univ. Hwy. Safety Res. Inst. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine 1970 p!95-205 

12 refs 

Contract FH-1 1-655 5 

Supported in part by Automobile 
Manufacturers Assoc. Presented at the 
annual conference, Ann Arbor, 19-20 
Nov 1970. 

Since alcoholism is implicated as a causal 
factor in a large proportion of traffic 
deaths, it is important to develop tools 
for detecting the alcoholic driver. Because 
of the large population to be screened, a 
simple, self-administering, objective 
questionnaire is the most promising 
approach. Four hundred fifty-two items 
were chosen from several psychological 



tests which had shown promise in detec- 
tion of alcoholics. These were adminis- 
tered to hospitalized alcoholics and to a 
control group of non-professional work- 
ers. Although additional work remains to 
be done, this technique appears to offer 
considerable promise of being able to 
detect a large proportion of th.' alco- 
holics in the driving population, thus 
opening the way for application of 
countermeasures. 

Search terms: Drinking drivers; Alco- 
holism; Driver intoxication; Chi square 
tests; Questionnaires; Driver psycho- 
logical tests; Driver personality; Driver 
sex; Problem drivers 



HS-010 528 Fid. 3/1 

DIFFERENTIAL RISK AMONG 
ALCOHOLIC DRIVERS 

by Melvin L. Selzer; Marion Chapman 
Michigan Univ. 

Published in HS-010 5 04, Proceed 'ings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970p207-13 

10 refs 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test 
(MAST) was developed to meet the need 
for a consistent, structured, easily quan- 
tified interview questionnaire for the 
detection of alcoholism. The effective- 
ness of the MAST was demonstrated in a 
previous study in which five groups of 
drivers were administered the MAST and 
the results validated by a record search 
in the courts, social service agencies, and 
medical facilities. The MAST data were 
analyzed to determine whether the 
MAST could be used to detect high risk 
driving as well as problem drinking and it 
was found that evidence of problem 
drinking is insufficient to predict high 
risk driving. A high risk driving question- 
naire which can be rapidly administered 
and easily scored will have to be 



developed to complement the MAST. 

Search terms: Driver psychological 
tests; Questionnaires; Drinking drivers; 
High risk drivers; Alcoholism; Acci- 
dent repeater drivers; Michigan Alco- 
holism Screening Test; Driver records 



HS-010 529 Fid. 3/1 

ALCOHOL BREATH TESTS: 
GROSS ERRORS IN CURRENT 
METHODS OF MEASURING 
ALVEOLAR GAS CON- 
CENTRATIONS 

by N. Herbert Spector 

Published in Science v!72 n3978 p57-9 
(2 Apr 1971) 

4 refs 

Transitory contact of ethanol with the 
mucous membranes of the mouth or 
nasal passages is sufficient to drastically 
alter measurements of concentrations of 
ethanol in so-called "alveolar" gas for 
more than 20 minutes. When true con- 
centrations of blood alcohol were at or 
close to zero, readings of greater than 
0.4 gram/ 100 ml. were obtained on the 
Breathalyzer. Repeated mouth washing 
and gargling with water, changes in the 
nature of the solvent, and stomach load- 
ing each had only a slight effect in 
diminishing these errors. 

Search terms: Alcohol breath tests; 
Alcohol blood tests; Blood alcohol 
levels; Alcohol effects; Driver intoxi- 
cation; Breathalyzers; Accuracy 



HS-010 530 Fid. 3/1; 4/2 

TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS INVOLV- 
ING ALCOHOL IN THE U. S. A.: 
SECOND-STAGE ASPECTS OF A 
SOCIAL PROBLEM 

by Selden D. Bacon 

Published in Quarterly Journal of 
Studies on Alcohol n4 pi 1-3 3 (May 
1968) 



HUMAN FACTORS 



HSL No. 72-4 



3/1 Alcohol (Cont'd.) 
HS-010 530 (ContU) 

6 ref s 

Social problems tend to emerge in two 
stages. The initiating events (traffic 
deaths, injuries, and damage related to 
alcohol) are held to be painful, im- 
proper, and controllable. Secondly, 
attempts at control (laws, education, law 
enforcement, and public information 
programs) are held to be ineffective or 
causes of further problems. Attempts 
even to describe the first stage are 
hampered by conflict, misinformation, 
ignorance, and emotionality related to 
the second stage. Common misinter- 
pretations are cited and difficulties in 
gaming adequate information are des- 
cribed. Recent social changes suggest 
that alcohol problems are now more 
susceptible to attack. 

Search terms: Sociological factors; 
Public opinion; Accident causes; 
Drinking drivers; Alcohol laws; Alco- 
holism; Social drinking; Accident pre- 
vention; Driver intoxication; Psycho- 
logical factors 

3/3 Cyclists 

HS-010531 Fid. 3/3; 5/3 

AN INVESTIGATION OF RIDER, 
BICYCLE, AND ENVIRON- 
MENTAL VARIABLES IN 
URBAN BICYCLE COLLISIONS 

by E. Brezina; M. Kramer 

Ontario Dept. of Transport (Canada) 

Published in HS-010 504 proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 pi 39-65 

5 ref s 
Presented at the annual conference, 



school year 1969-70 was undertaken to 
identify the occurrence and contribution 
to risk of selected rider, bicycle, and 
environmental factors. The collision- 
involved bicyclist was found to be 
largely unguided by the conventional 
abstract rules of roadway placement and 
priority; responding only to immediate 
and obvious traffic conflicts. Collisions 
occurred most frequently in rush hour 
traffic flows; a high proportion were 
related to environmental deficiencies 
such as severe obstructions to view, 
substantial grades, and darkness or rain 
conditions. A large number of young 
riders experienced excess risk when rid- 
ing bicycles too large for them. Among 
the 8 to 10 year old bicyclists, a five fold 
increase in risk was found for those who 
could not reach their pedals comfortably 
when seated. 

Search terms: Bicycle accidents; 
Bicycle rider age; Bicycle rider 
behavior; Bicycle handling; Vehicle bi- 
cycle collisions; Time of day; Accident 
studies; Age factor in accidents; Acci- 
dent risks; Toronto; Males; Accident 
factors; Bicycle characteristics; Trip 
length; Bicycle brakes; Bicycle safety 



3/4 Driver Behavior 
HS-010 532 Fid. 3/4 

THE SLEEPY DRIVER: A TEST 
TO MEASURE ABILITY TO 
MAINTAIN ALERTNESS 

by Robert E. Yoss 

Published in Mayo Clinic Proceedings 
v44p769-83(Nov!969) 

11 refs 

Grant PHS-NB-2003 

Presented in part at the meeting of the 
American Association of Automotive 
Medicine, Oct 1969. 

Thft nhilitv to maintain alertness while 



especially prone to this problem is mea- 
suring changes in pupillary size and 
behavior. This method makes it possible 
to detect decreased wakefulness in an 
environment similar to that of driving an 
automobile. Selected case histories of 
"sleepy drivers" with dangerous driving 
records are presented along with their 
test results. They are compared to 
"alert" control subjects. 

Search terms: Narcolepsy; Pupil 
responses; Attention; Driver tests; 
Driver physical fitness; Driver be- 
havior; Driver licensing; Driver fatigue; 
Case reports 



HS-010 533 Fid. 3/4 

MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN 
CRASHES AND VIOLATIONS OF 
YOUNG DRIVERS 

by Donald C. Pelz; Stanley H. Schuman 
Michigan Univ. 
1971 31p 2 refs 

Presented in part, at a meeting of the 
American Public Health Assoc., Min- 
neapolis, 13 Oct 1971. 

With a probability sample of 3,000 
drivers, it was previously reported that 
crashes and violations-plus-warnings for 
young men rose to a maximum at age 18 
or 19 and then declined. Among several 
dozen indexes constructed from inter- 
view data, similar curvilinear patterns in 
relation to age of young men were found 
for such factors as getting engaged or 
breaking an engagement, changing jobs, 
driving confidence such as rejection of 
seat belts, use of driving to blow off 
steam after arguments, and time- 
involvement with cars. Many of these 
measures also related to occurrence of 
crashes and especially violations. Other 
measures such as hostility indexes 
showed a decrease with age, while drink- 
ing and smoking steadily increased, and 



FEBRUARY 25, 1972 



HUMAN FACTORS 



adulthood may help to explain the 
elevated hazard at this age. 

Search terms: Driver marital status; 
Alcohol usage; Young adult drivers; 
Traffic law violators; Motivation re- 
search; Anxiety; Accident rates; Driver 
personality; Age factors in driving; 
Statistical analysis; Drinking drivers; 
Seat belt usage; Male drivers; Psycho- 
logical factors; Risk taking; Adolescent 
drivers; Driver records; Problem 
drivers; Aggression; Smoking 

3/5 Driver Education 
HS-010534 Fid. 3/5 

GOOD DRIVERS ARE WORTH 
THE EFFORT 

by Robert E. Howell 

Published in Commercial Car Journal 
vl!7nlp89-92(Mar 1969) 

The Pennsylvania Motor Truck Associ- 
ation's school near Harrisburg is dedi- 
cated to turning out skilled drivers. 
From initial interview to the time of 
graduation the truck driver must have a 
good attitude and the incentive to be a 
careful, courteous driver. The Pennsyl- 
vania school has adequate facilities and a 
few curricula to assure the turnout of 
safe drivers. 

Search terms: Truck drivers; Fleet 
driver training; Behind the wheel in- 
struction; Classroom driver instruc- 
tion; Curricula; Pennsylvania; Truck 
driver performance 



HS-010 535 Fid. 3/5; 3/4 

A UNIVERSITY- AND POLICE- 
SPONSORED SPRING FIELD 
TRIAL TO REACH HIGH 
SCHOOL SENIORS IN MICHIGAN 

by S. H. Schuman; D. C. Pelz; T. L. 
McDole; J. Amthor 

Michigan Univ.; Michigan State Police 



Published in HS-010 5Q4, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970p215-28 

5 ref s 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

A field trial to reach young drivers in a 
sample of southeastern Michigan high 
schools was conducted with the support 
of the Highway Safety Research Insti- 
tute and the encouragement of the 
Michigan Association of Secondary 
School Principals, utilizing these three 
programs: small group discussions with 
"trigger films," a program 6F individual 
driving-development letters with positive 
recognition for good driving, and a series 
of large group senior assemblies with 
high impact safety messages from state 
and local police. The trial was timed to 
reach the drivers just before the peren- 
nial spring "epidemic" of young driver 
crashes. The considerations of popu- 
lation size, content of the programs, 
difficulties, feasibility and high accep- 
tance of one of the programs are pre- 
sented in detail. Results await analysis of 
ongoing data collection from the young 
driver files. 

Search terms: High school drivers; 
Highway safety programs; Age factor 
in driving; Fatality rates; Program 
evaluation; Driver motivation; Police 
cooperation with other agencies; 
Michigan; Adolescent drivers; Driver 
education; Driver behavior; Young 
adult drivers; Driver sex 



3/8 Environmental Effects 
HS-010 536 Fid. 3/8; 5/14 

THE HUMAN EAR IN AN AIR 
BAG NOISE ENVIRONS 

by Charles W. Nixon 

Aerospace Medical Res. Lab. (6570th) 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 



American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 p 12 1-34 

11 refs 

Prepared in cooperation with NHSB. 
Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

Personal restraint systems employing the 
principle of rapidly expanding air bags 
show promise of providing greater pro- 
tection of occupants during motor vehi- 
cle impact than any other system or 
technique currently in use. On inflation, 
these systems generate an intense acous- 
tic impulse which may or may not 
constitute a potential hazard to the audi- 
tory systems of the vehicle occupants. 
This study evaluated this potential 
acoustic hazard on 91 volunteer subjects. 
Results indicate that the impulsive noise 
is very loud; however, the probability of 
irreversible harm to the auditory systems 
af vehicle occupants may be considered 
to be extremely small. 

Search terms: Auditory perception; 
Auditory threshold; Acoustic measure- 
ment; Noise tolerances; Impulse noise; 
Noise exposure; Ak bag restraint 
systems; Hearing tests; Males; Females 

3/9 Impaired Drivers 
HS-010 537 Fid. 3/9 

PROBLEMS IN EMPLOYMENT 
OF DIABETICS IN TRANSPORT 
JOBS 

by A. M. Emara 

Published in Journal of the Egyptian 
Medical Association v52 p677-88 (1969) 

22 refs 

A survey of 100 diabetics working in an 
Egyptian transport organization is 
reported. This study includes infor- 
mation about the types of diabetics, 
their jobs, any accident which occurred 
at these jobs, the severity of the acci- 
dent, and the cause of the accident. The 
classes which were studied 



3/9 Impaired Drivers 
(Cont'd.) 

HS-010 537 (Cont'd.) 



are: juvenile diabetics, obese diabetics, 
diabetes and employment, and diabetes 
and car driving. The results show that 
the main causes of sick absenteeism in 
diabetics are its complications rather 
than the diabetes itself. Therefore, one 
should not suppose that diabetics are a 
greater risk to employ with respect to 
the amount of work they do than any 
other class of employee. 

Search terms: Diabetic drivers; Dia- 
betes mellitus; Driver physical fitness; 
Medical factors; Disability evaluation; 
Medical factor caused accidents; Insu- 
lin; Injuries by accident type; Occu- 
pation; United Arab Republic; 
Accident causes 



HS-010 538 Fid. 3/9; 1/5 

A RECORD ANALYSIS OF 
WASHINGTON DRIVERS WITH 
LICENSE RESTRICTIONS FOR 
HEART DISEASE 

by Alfred Crancer, Jr.; Peggy Ann 
O'Neall 

Published in Northwest Medicine v69 
p409-16 (Jun 1970) 

3 refs 

The purpose of this study was to deter- 
mine if there are drivers with specific 
heart diseases, masked by the over-all 
heart disease group, that have signifi- 
cantly higher accident, violation, or acci- 
dent and violation rates than those of a 
comparable non-restricted population. It 
was found tha the arteriosclerotic and 
hypertensive disease groups each have 
significantly higher accident rates than 
that of their matched groups. Drivers on 
a six-month reexamination cycle had a 
significantly greater proportion of acci- 
dents than expected. This indicates that 
they are a group of problem drivers in 
themselves, regardless of the specific 



disease for which they are restricted. The 
study also included comparisons be- 
tween drivers who used pacemaker 
devices and comparable heart disease and 
non-restricted drivers. The results 
showed that the users of pacemakers do 
not appear to be a problem driver group. 

Search terms: Pacemaker (cardiac); 
Heart diseases; Accident rates; Hyper- 
tension; Traffic law violations; Driver 
license restrictions; Medical factors; 
Fatalities; Injuries; Accident statistics; 
Driver physical fitness; Washington; 
Problem drivers; Arteriosclerosis; 
Rhematic heart disease; Driver records 



HS-010 539 Fid. 3/9; 3/6 

EPILEPSY AND DRIVING: SOME 
OF THE PROBLEMS 

by Maurice J. Parsonage 

Published in Nursing Times v66 nl8 
p555-6 (30 Apr 1970) 

Iref 

It has long been generally accepted that 
any person currently liable to epileptic 
seizures of any type should not be 
permitted to drive any kind of powered 
vehicle on the highway. The law in Great 
Britain is not very clear, however, on 
how long an epileptic should be free 
from attacks before he could be regarded 
as safe to drive. Some clarification and 
relaxation of that law are needed in 
order to reduce the temptation to evade 
the regulations, minimize unnecessary 
hardships, and encourage epileptics to 
have a responsible attitude towards the 
laws. 

Search terms: Handicapped drivers; 
Disability evaluation; Driver physical 
fitness; Epilepsy; Driver license laws; 
Great Britain 



3/12 Vision 

HS-010 540 Fid. 3/12; 3/4; 2/4 

DRIVER DISTRACTION AS RE- 
LATED TO PHYSICAL DEVEL- 
OPMENT ABUTTING URBAN 
STREETS: AN EMPIRICAL IN- 
QUIRY INTO THE DESIGN OF 
THE MOTORIST'S VISUAL 
ENVIRONMENT 



by Leslie S. Pollock 

Published in Exchange Bibliography n58 
pl-4 (Jul 1968) 

52 refs 

Thesis summary and bibliography are 
given for a study of the distructivc 
impact of buildings surrounding the 
road. Based upon analysis of selected 
arterial streets in Chicago and accidents 
of non-resident drivers in front, rear, and 
fixed object collisions not at inter- 
sections, conclusions were: the structure 
of the driver's visual field has a direct 
impact upon accident causation; the 
present setback restrictions relating to 
urban arterial streets bear little relation- 
ship to the motorist's visual require- 
ments; and areas containing contiguous 
buildings with minimal setback variance 
and distance encourage distractive 
accidents. 

Search terms: Accident location; En- 
vironmental factors; Building setbacks; 
Chicago; Urban accidents; Visual 
fields; Arterial streets; Driver resi- 
dence; Psychological factors; Atten- 
tion lapses; Accident causes; Field of 
view 



4/0 OTHER SAFETY- 
RELATED AREAS 

4/4 Governmental Aspects 
HS-010 541 Fid. 4/4; 1/3 

RESEARCH, THERE IS A PAY- 
OFF! [A PANEL] 

by John A. Edwards; John D. States 



FEBRUARY 25, 1972 



OTHER SAFETY RELATED 
AREAS 



National Hwy. Traf. Safety Adminis- 
tration; National Motor Vehicle Safety 
Advisory Council 

Published in HS-010 546, Partnership in 
Safety Conference, 1971 p5-14 

The research program of the National 
Highway Traffic Safety Administration 
includes priority studies on alcohol 
safety, crash survivability , and experi- 
mental safety vehicles. Some other pro- 
grams are: driver-vehicle interactions, 
seatbelt usage, brakes, tires, handling, 
passive restraints, vehicle structure, and 
vehicles-in-use. Crashworthiness develop- 
ments are now oriented toward protec- 
tion at higher speeds. Multidisciplinary 
teams throughout the country study 
accidents in depth to help guide preven- 
tive efforts. 

Search terms: Safety research; Auto- 
mobile safety standards; Highway 
safety programs; Crashworthiness; 
Safety cars; Accident analysis; Acci- 
dent investigation; Multidisciplinary 
teams; Alcohol usage deterrents; Acci- 
dent survivability 



4/5 Information Technology 
HS-010 542 Fid. 4/5; 5/17 

CONSUMER ASPECTS OF VEHI- 
CLE SAFETY 

by Robert J. McEwen; Walker Sandbach; 
Edward J. Speno 

National Motor Vehicle Safety Advisory 
Council 

Published in HS-010 546, Partnership in 
Safety Conference, 1971 p7 1-8 

New-car safety performance data must 
be published by automobile manu- 
facturers. Department of Transportation 
consumer-information programs include 
advisory bulletins and recall campaigns 
which concern safety defects. Infor- 
mation about defects from individuals, 
fleet operators, consumer organizations, 
and state officials is needed in return. 
Accident and injury rates are related to 



the make of automobile in terms of the 
chances for survival of a crash in that car 
make. 

Search terms: Consumer information 
regulations; Automotive industry; 
Automobile recall campaigns; Auto- 
mobile safety standards; Vehicle 
safety; Accidents by vehicle make; 
Injuries by vehicle make 

4/6 Insurance 

HS-010 543 Fid. 4/6; 1/2 

ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF 
AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENT IN- 
JURIES 

by Edward C. Bryant 
Westat Research, Inc. 

[1970] 13p 

Economic losses associated with serious 
injuries and fatalities in traffic accidents 
were estimated from sampled police 
accident reports and court cases in the 
contiguous United States in 1967. 
Average economic loss for the seriously 
injured (one and one-half to two and 
one-half years after the accident) was 
$4,200; about 45% was wage loss, 38% 
medical costs, and 12% property dam- 
age. Total societal losses in future earn- 
ings were $13,600 per victim. Economic 
loss in fatality cases averaged $2,300 
exclusive of lost earnings. The extent to 
which these losses were compensated by 
insurance and recovery under the tort 
system is discussed. 

Search terms: Accident costs; Dam- 
age costs; Injury costs; Life value; 
Medical factors; Torts; Earning 
capacity; Accident compensation; In- 
jury compensation; Insurance; Fatali- 
ties 

HS-010 544 Fid. 4/6; 4/1 

REPORT AND RECOMMEND- 
ATIONS OF THE SPECIAL COM- 
MITTEE ON AUTOMOBILE ACCI- 
DENT REPARATIONS 

American Coll. of Trial Lawyers 



1971 25p 37refs 

A study of the present system of auto 
accident reparations and of proposals for 
its change was made. Criticisms of the 
existing system are evaluated, and 12 
recommenations are made for improving 
the existing system. 

Search terms: Insurance laws; Insur- 
ance claims; Insurance fraud; Torts; 
Insurance costs; Liability insurance; 
No fault insurance plan; Negligence; 
Injury compensation; Accident com- 
pensation; Legal costs; Uninsured 
motorist funds; Fault 



4/7 Mathematical Sciences 
HS-010 545 Fid. 4/7; 5/4; 5/14 

MEASURING THE EFFECTS OF 
CHANGES IN VEHICLE DESIGN 
WITH MASS ACCIDENT DATA 

by James O'Day; Jay S. Creswell, Jr. 
Michigan Univ. Hwy. Safety Res. Inst. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceed ings oj 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970p229-50 

Presented at the annual conference. 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

There seems to be no doubt of the 
efficacy of the several interior protection 
modifications of the modern American 
car. Their usefulness can be demon- 
strated in analysis, in simulations, and in 
clinical accident investigations. Ulti- 
mately, however, there should be in- 
dication of their value in the mass 
accident statistics. While these totals are 
greatly affected by factors such as 
increasing traffic volume, certain sub-sets 
of the accident data should be more 
sensitive to the vehicle improvements. 
This paper presents a model which re- 
lates specific improvements to specific 
accident events in order to measure the 
effectiveness of vehicle modifications. 
The data base for this study is a set of 
some 15,000 Michigan fatal accidents 



VEHICLE SAFETY 



HSL No. 72-4 



4/7 Mathematical Sciences 

(Cont'd.) 
HS-010545(Cont'd.) 

which occurred over the past six years. A 
flexible analysis system permits this data 
to be sorted with respect to accident 
type, car model year, and many other 
factors. This paper presents the results of 
such an analysis. 

Search terms: Vehicle design; Occu- 
pant protection; Accident statistics; 
Mathematic models; Injury prevention; 
Injury rates; Injuries by vehicle age; 
Fatality rates; Energy absorbing steer- 
ing columns; Restraint system usage; 
Injury severity; Michigan; Equations 

5/0 VEHICLE SAFETY 
HS-010 546 Fid. 5/0 

PARTNERSHIP IN SAFETY CON- 
FERENCE 

National Motor Vehicle Safety Advisory 
Council 

1971 92p 

Includes HS-010 541; 542, 547-548, 
554,556,570, and 572 

The Advisory Council functions as a 
liaison between the Department of 
Transportation, the states, and the pub- 
lic in coordinating the establishment ot 
standards. The Council's primary con- 
cern is with vehicle standards. At this 
first Partnership in Safety Conference, 
the principal topics were the federal 
highway safety research program, future 
safe car design, state and federal roles in 
vehicle safety standards, industrial and 
governmental problems of safety stan- 
dards, defective vehicles on the road, tire 
safety, and consumer protection. Con- 
ferees were federal, state, and local 
government representatives, legislators, 

aMriRmin nni\ industrial rftsfiarrhfirc r.nn- 



Vehicle Safety Act of 1966; Federal 
state relationships; Accident research; 
Vehicle safety standards; Vehicle 
maintenance; Vehicle design; Safety 
standards; Conferences; Defective 
vehicles; Safety cars; Occupant protec- 
tion; Tire standards; Consumer pro- 
tection 



HS-010547 Fid. 5/0 

STATE/FEDERAL ROLES IN VE- 
HICLE SAFETY STANDARDS [A 
PANEL] 

by Ralph T. Millet; Sol M. Edidin 

National Motor Vehicle Safety Advisory 
Council 

Published in HS-010 546, Partnership in 
Safety Conference, 1971 p27-40 

The Motor Vehicle Safety Act provided 
for new-vehicle safety standards issued 
by the National Highway Traffic Safety 
Administration. Standards numbered in 
the 100 series concern normal operating 
equipment, those in the 200 series con- 
cern crash phase equipment, such as 
occupant protection and seatbelts, and 
those in the 300 series involve post-crash 
factors such as fuel system, flammability 
and escape. There are conflicts between 
federal and state automobile standards. 
A more cooperative effort on the 
national level is needed. 

Search terms: Federal state relation- 
ships; State laws; Federal laws; 
National Traffic and Motor Vehicle 
Safety Act of 1966; Automobile 
safety standards; Crashworthiness; Pre- 
crash phase; Crash phase; Postcrash 
phase; Stopping distance 



HS-010 548 Fid. 5/0; 4/0; 2/0 
SftT.VTNf; THF NATIONAL 



Ford Mo tor Co. 

Published in HS-010 546, Partnership in 
Safety Conference, 1971 p41-52 

Federal and state governments and the 
auto industry are mutually dedicated to 
reduction of deaths and injuries on our 
highways. Federal regulation was essen- 
tial to force safety products into the 
market despite competition. State re- 
sponsibilities involve vehicle inspection, 
driver licensing and law enforcement, 
and roads and their design. The industry 
must produce new safety equipment but 
often time is too short and cost too high 
under the new standards. 

Search terms: Federal state relation- 
ships; Automobile safety standards; 
Safety design; Drivers: Automotive 
industry; Safety device costs; Vehicle 
safety; Highway design; Safety stan- 
dards compliance 

5/1 Brake Systems 
HS-010 549 Fid. 5/1 

POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES TO 
ASBESTOS AS A FRICTION 
MATERIAL 

by D. Hatch 

Published in Annals of Occupational 
Hygiene v!3 p25-9 (Jan 1970) 

Presented at Conference on Exposure 
to Asbestos during Brake and Clutch 
Maintenance, Brentwood, England, 
Mar 1969 

Asbestos in friction linings is used 
because it neither burns nor loses its 
strength below 500C. Dust counts dur- 
ing brake cleaning by compressed air-jet 
indicate that the wear products from 
friction material are probably no more 
dangerous to health than many other 

Hirfv Huctc Tn Hrnm hralrp liniruri' r\f 



FEBRUARY 25, 1972 



VEHICLE SAFETY 



asbestos have to be tightly controlled 
and a substitute material required, 
possible replacements are glass fibres, 
steel wool, mineral wool, carbon fibres 
and sintered metals and cermets. Advan- 
tages for these materials are given. 

Search terms: Friction materials; 
Brake materials; Air pollution mea- 
surement; Asbestos; Health hazards; 
Brake pads; Dust tests; Disc brakes: 
Clutches 



HS-010550 Fid. 5/1 

TESTING MACHINES FOR 
SCALE VEHICLE BRAKE IN- 
STALLATIONS 

by A. J. Wilson; W. G. Belford; G. T. 
Bowsher 

Published in Engineer v225 p3 17-23 (23 
Feb 1968) 

This work is concerned with a new effort 
to develop a test rig for the evaluation of 
friction materials, which would be 
capable of accurately defining the fric- 
tion/temperature/speed/load character- 
istics of the material under test. The test 
rig simulates a vehicle braking system on 
an exact scale basis with sufficient 
accuracy to be comparable with vehicle 
assessment itself, and provides a high 
level of test repeatability. Test tech- 
niques have been developed in which the 
friction materials intended for drum 
brakes, tractor plate brakes, and railway 
brakes can be successfully evaluated. 
Control equipment has been extended to 
enable the rig to be "driven" as a vehicle, 
to simulate brake usage under general 
road running conditions. 

Search terms: Friction tests; Friction 
materials; Test equipment; Brake fade; 
Brake design; Brake lining tests; Brake 
materials; Performance tests; Brake 
temperature; Laboratory tests; Brake 
tests; Brake thermal factors; Brake 
torque; Dynamometers; Materials 
tests; Wear tests; Disc brakes; Drum 
brakes 



HS-010551 Fid. 5/1; 5/11 

AUTOCARE. THE FUNCTION 
AND FITTING OF A BRAKE 
SERVO 

Anonymous 

Published in Autocar v!34 n3928 p42-4 
(8Jull971) 

Power, or servo-assisted, brake kits are 
available, and the author fitted one to 
his car (a 1964 Mercedes), which had 
effective but heavy drum brakes. Reduc- 
tion of braking effort was moderate, 
greatly reducing fatigue without the 
danger of too-sensitive brakes. 

Search terms: Brake boosters; Pedal 
force; Power brakes; Servomechan- 
isms; Brake pedals; Driver fatigue 

HS-010552 Fid. 5/1 

TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMIN- 
ING THE THERMAL CHARAC- 
TERISTICS OF BRAKE DRUMS 
AND DISCS 

by Frank H. Highley 
General Motors Corp. 

1971 lOp 2refs 
Report no. SAE-7 10589 

Presented at SAE mid-year meeting, 
Montreal, Canada, 7-11 Jim 1971. 

Heat storage, heat dissipation, and cool- 
ing coefficients are defined; and equa- 
tions, based on theory and practice, are 
developed with which values of the 
coefficients can be determined. Vehicle 
tests required are described. Use of the 
coefficients in predicting drum or disc 
temperatures is demonstrated, using co- 
efficient values obtained in vehicle tests. 
Use of the cooling coefficient for simu- 
lating brake cooling on a brake dynamo- 
meter is demonstrated. 

Search terms: Brake temperature; 
Brake thermal factors; Brake perfor- 
mance; Brake tests; Equations; Brake 



discs; Brake drums; Heat storage; 
Mathematical analysis: Brake fade; 
Dynamometers 

AVAILABILITY: SAE 



HS-010553 Fid. 5/1; 5/20 

COMMERCIAL VEHICLE 
BRAKES 

Truck Trailer Manufacturers Assoc. 
1969 llSp 

A panel discussion presented at Truck 
Trailer Manufacturers Association 
28th annual convention, Miami, 
28 Apr 1969. 

Proposals for commercial vehicle brake 
safety standards were discussed by repre- 
sentatives of operators and manu- 
facturers of tractors and trailers, 
foundation brakes, brake system com- 
ponents, and brake linings. A draft 
proposal on new vehicle braking perfor- 
mance was evaluated for technical 
soundness, practicality of performance 
levels, and effective industry compliance. 
Pertinent SAE recommended practices 
are included. 

Search terms: Truck brakes; Brake 
performance; Brake tests; Brake stan- 
dards; Commercial vehicles; Manufac- 
turing standards; Truck safety stan- 
dards; Trucking industry; Truck trail- 
ers; Brake system design 

5/4 Design 
HS-010554 Fid. 5/4 

THE CAR OF THE FUTURE- 
HOW SAFE WILL IT BE? [A 

PANEL] 

by Vincent L. Tofany; Edward J. Speno 

New York State Dept. of Motor Vehi- 
cles; National Motor Vehicle Safety 
Advisory Council 

Published in HS-010 546, Partnership in 
Safety Conference, 1971 pl5-26 



VEHICLE SAFETY 



HSL No. 72-4 



5/4 Design (Cont'd.) 

HS-010554(Cont'd.) 

Passengers in future safety vehicles may 
be able to survive crashes at 60 to 80 
rnph. Front and rear bumpers could 
eliminate damage in collisions at less 
than 10 mph and contribute to safety at 
higher speeds; padding will protect pass- 
engers at a 20 mph impact. Other in- 
novations might be full rear view 
through a periscope, escape panels, and 
restraint against all crash modes. The 
entire concept of vehicle safety embraces 
pedestrian safety, nonmotion safety, 
accident avoidance, crash injury reduc- 
tion, and post-crash factors. 

Search terms: Vehicle safety; Vehicle 
design; Safety programs; Pedestrian 
safety; Automobile safety standards; 
Safety cars; Crashworthiness; Occu- 
pant protection; Bumper design; Acci- 
dent survivability 



HS-010555 Fid. 5/4 

OILS AND FLUIDS FOR 
HYDRAULICS 

by A. S. Morrow 
Shell Oil Co. 

1971 7p 

Report no. SAE-7 10721 

Presented at the National Farm, Con- 
struction and Industrial Machinery 
Meeting, Milwaukee, 13-16 Sep 1971. 

The methods of refining and treating 
petroleum fractions and the selection of 
appropriate additives and inhibitors to 
obtain a satisfactory oil for hydraulic 
applications are reviewed. The various 
physical and chemical properties of these 
oils and their significance in hydraulic 
systems are also presented. In addition, a 
short resume and state-of-the-art of fire- 
resistant fluids is given. One of the most 
important requirements for oils and fke 
resistant fluids is to maintain an accept- 
ance level of cleanliness. 



Search terms: Physical properties; 
Lubricating oils; Hydraulic fluids; Re- 
fining; Lubricant additives; Fire resis- 
tant materials; Chemical properties; 
Compression; Hydraulic equipment; 
Temperature 

AVAILABILITY: SAE 
HS-010556 Fid. 5/4; 4/4 

SOLVING THE NATIONAL 
HIGHWAY SAFETY PROBLEM 

by Douglas Toms 

National Hwy. Traf. Safety Adminis- 
tration 

Published in HS-010 546, Partnership in 
Safety Conference, 1971 p79-86 

The federal government, in the guiding 
role, shares responsibility for safety stan- 
dards with the states and the automobile 
manufactures. Emphasis in the federal 
program has shifted from accident pre- 
vention to concern with crash surviv- 
ability as more cost-effective in reducing 
injuries and fatalities. Experimental 
safety car designs point toward safety 
advances in all cars. Various agencies of 
the state government should become 
involved with the rule-making pro cess in 
the total area of the vehicle-in-use. 

Search terms: Vehicle safety; Vehicle 
maintenance; Defective vehicles; 
Crashworthiness; Safety cars; Accident 
survivability; Automotive industry; 
Federal state relationships; Exper- 
imental vehicles; Safety devices; Auto- 
mobile safety standards; Injury pre- 
vention 



HS-010 557 Fid. 5/4; 5/10 

ELECTRONIC SPEED INDI- 
CATOR FOR VEHICLES 

byG. N. Patchett 

Published in Electronic Engineering v40 
n488p540-2(Oct!968) 

Iref 



Includes summaries in French and 
German. 

A signal light reflects in the windshield 
to remind the driver when he exceeds a 
preset speed of 30, 40, 50, or 70 mph, 
corresponding to four standard British 
speed limits. The driver selects the speed 
by switch; light brightness is controlled 
automatically for day or night. Circuit 
design is described for the system, which 
uses a magnetic speed pickup on the 
transmission. 

Search terms: Speed indicators; Elec- 
tronic devices in vehicles; Solid state 
devices; Inattention devices; Auto- 
matic warning systems; Great Britain 



HS-010 558 Fid. 5/4; 5/20 

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT 
OF THE TRANSMISSION SYS- 
TEM FOR THE ALLIS-CHALM- 
ERS HD-41 CRAWLER TRACTOR 

by Robert W. Meyer; Wendell E. Rich- 
mond 

Twin Disc Clutch Co., Inc. 

1971 13p Srefs 
Report no. SAE-7 10725 

Presented at the National Farm, Con- 
struction and Industrial Machinery 
Meeting, Milwaukee, 13-16 Sep 1971. 

Design features and development of the 
power transmission system consisting of 
the hydraulic torque converter, driver 
shaft, powershift transmission, and in- 
tegrated hydraulic system are discussed 
in this paper. The hydraulic control 
system relating to the dump valve trans- 
mission clutches and the forward-reverse 
inhibit system designed for full throttle 
shifts without thermal failure is of par- 
ticular importance. 

Search terms: Automatic transmis- 
sion design; Hydraulic torque conver- 
ters; Hydraulic design factors; Trac- 
tors; Power trains; Drivelines; Trans- 
mission tests; Vehicle performance; 



FEBRUARY 25, 1972 



VEHICLE SAFETY 



Hydraulic equipment; Driveshafts; 
Shift lever sequence 

AVAILABILITY: SAE 

5/6 Fuel Systems 
HS-0105S9 Fid. 5/6 

THE HETEROGENEOUS DECOM- 
POSITION OF NITRIC OXIDE ON 
SUPPORTED CATALYSTS 

by M. Shelef; K. Otto; H. Gandhi 

Published in Atmospheric Environment 
v3 pi 07-22 (1969) 

23 refs 

Heterogeneous decomposition rates of 
nitric oxide in the temperature range 
from 300 to 800C are determined for a 
series of supported catalysts containing 
platinum, or the oxides of copper, 
chromium, and cobalt. The experiments 
have been carried out in a conventional 
integral flow reactor, and complete ana- 
lyses of the gas compositions obtained 
by a mass spectrometer. Kinetic para- 
meters such as activation energy and 
reaction order are given. A comparison is 
made with published data for similar 
catalysts, and reasons for disagreement 
are considered. It is concluded in view of 
the presently available catalysts that the 
practical application of catalyzed dec- 
omposition is not promising for the 
removal of NO from automobile 
exhaust. 

Search terms: Nitric oxide; Catalysts; 
Exhaust emission control; Reaction 
kinetics; Mass spectrometry; Gas ana- 
lysis; High temperature; Mathematical 
analysis; Decomposition; Platinum; 
Copper oxides; Chromium oxides; 
Cobalt oxides; Reactors 



HS-010560 Fid. 5/6 

NO LEAD, LESS RVP COMING IN 
GASOLINE? 

Anonymous 



Published in Canadian Chemical Process- 
ing v53 p47-50 (Mar 1969) 

The cost of eliminating pollution-caus- 
ing power units may force sacrifices in 
the fuel economy and may put man- 
ufacturers of lead additives out of busi- 
ness. The sources of pollutants which 
must be controlled are: exhaust emis- 
sions, the crankcase vent tube, the fuel 
tank, and the carburetor. Some problems 
connected with pollution reduction are 
the rising cost of fuel and drivability 
problems for a portion of the public. 

Search terms: Vehicle air pollution; 
Ak pollution emission factors; Petro- 
leum industry; Refineries; Fuel 
economy; Lead free gasoline; Exhaust 
emission control; Fuel costs; Crank- 
case emission control; Fuel tank 
emission control; Carburetor emission 
control; Vapor pressure; Exhaust emis- 
sions; Driveability 



HS-010561 Fid. 5/6 

UTILITY WILL FIELD FLEET OF 
GAS/GAS CARS 

by Nat Wood 

Published in Machine Design v41 n4 
p31-3(20Feb 1969) 

After a year's testing with four vehicles, 
two California gas utility companies are 
planning to adopt dual-fuel systems for 
fleet use. Cars and trucks will use com- 
pressed or liquidfied natural gas for city 
driving, gasoline for long trips. Conver- 
sion cost of $300 will be cut to $200 in 
quantity, and tests showed much lower 
emissions with fuel costs nearly cut in 
half. Emissions, while using natural gas, 
were reduced drastically; CO to about 
0.14%, HC to about 120ppm, and NO X 
to 550ppm or less. 

Search terms: Exhaust emission con- 
trol; Vehicle air pollution; Natural gas 
vehicles; Compressed natural gas; 
Liquidfied natural gas; Fuel costs; Fuel 
systems; Dual fuel vehicles; Engine 
modification; Engine performance 



5/11 Maintenance and Re- 
pairs 

HS-010562 Fid. 5/11; 5/1 

REMOVING DUSTS FROM 
BRAKE ASSEMBLIES DURING 
VEHICLE SERVICING - ALTER- 
NATIVE CLEANING METHODS 

by G. L. Lee 

Published in Annals of Occupational 
Hygiene v!3 p33-6 (Jan 1970) 

2 refs 

Presented at Conference on Exposure 
to Asbestos during Brake and Clutch 
Maintenance, Brentwood, England, 
Mar 1969. 

Vacuum cleaning provides a useful con- 
tribution towards obtaining satisfactory 
dust control when brake assemblies are 
cleaned. The design of the cleaner 
chosen prevents discharge of particles 
back into the environment and the col- 
lection in a paper bag enables suitable 
disposal methods to be adopted. 

Search terms: Environmental factors; 
Brake maintenance; Dust control; 
Cleaning; Dust collection 



HS-010563 Fid. 5/11; 5/1 

EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS DUR- 
ING BRAKE MAINTENANCE 

by D. E. Hickish; K. L. Knight 

Published in Annals of Occupational 
Hygiene v!3 p!7-21 (Jan 1970) 

3 refs 

Presented at Conference on Exposure 
to Asbestos during Brake and Clutch 
Maintenance, Brentwood, England, 
Mar 1969. 

The procedure for the blowing out of 
brake shoes and drums is the subject of 
this study. Air sampling was carried out 



5/1 1 Maintenance and Repairs 

(Cont'd.) 
HS-010 563 (Cont'd.) 

using membrane filters in two locations 
near the car being tested. Static samples 
were also taken in three locations near 
brake maintenance areas for trucks; and 
personal samples were obtained from 
two men engaged on truck maintenance. 
Exposure to asbestos during brake main- 
tenance is not as severe as was antici- 
pated; however, the development of 
cleaning procedures which would reduce 
air contamination is desirable. 

Search terms: Brake maintenance; 
Asbestos; Air sampling; Air filters; Air 
pollutant exposure tolerances; Clean- 
ing; Mechanics (personnel); Health 
hazards research; Truck maintenance; 
Dust 

5/14 Occupant Protection 
HS-010 564 Fid. 5/14; 1/2 

THE EFFECT OF LAP BELT RE- 
STRAINT ON PREGNANT VIC- 
TIMS OF AUTOMOBILE 
COLLISIONS 

by Warren M. Crosby; J. Paul Costiloe 
Oklahoma Univ. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association of Automotive 
Medicine, 1970p97-110 

18 refs 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

A prospective study was made of 441 
pregnant victims of automobile acci- 
dents, in which 69 wore lap belts and 
372 were unrestrained. There was no 
significant increase in either maternal or 
fetal mortality associated with lap belt 
restraint. The absence of maternal or 
fetal protection is discussed; the advan- 
tage of lap belt restraint in nonpregnant 
occupants appears to be nullified in 



pregnancy by the uterine compression 
produced by the snubbing action of the 
lap belt. It is concluded that there are no 
disadvantages of lap-belt restraint for 
pregnant travellers, and that the preven- 
tion of ejection provides a clear indi- 
cation for its use. The lap belt should be 
secured low across the bony pelvis, not 
over the mid- or upper-fundus. When 
available, the lap belt and shoulder harn- 
ess combination is recommended. 

Search terms: Fetal death; Seat belt 
usage; Uterine injuries; Seat belt 
caused injuries; Pregnancy; Abortion; 
Abdominal injuries; Injuries bv seat 
occupation; Ejection caused injuries; 
Injury statistics; Seat belt positioning; 
Fatality causes; Injuries by accident 
type 



HS-010 565 Fid. 5/14; 5/4 

COMPARISONS OF CONCEPTS 
IN AUTOMOBILE OCCUPANT 
RESTRAINT PROTECTION 

by D. H. Robbins; A. W. Henke 
Michigan Univ. Hwy. Safety Res. Inst. 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 pi 11-20 

12 refs 

Contract FH-1 1-6962 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

This paper compares various concepts in 
occupant restraint protection such as- 
inflating restraint systems and various 
belt arrangements. The source of infor- 
mation is a large body of impact sled test 
data which has been gathered at the 
Highway Safety Research Institute with- 
in the past year. It will be demonstrated 
that the level of effectiveness possible 
with an inflating restraint system is 
significantly greater than that with 
various belt systems based on the level of 
protection offered and on the rate of 
usage. The index of protection or injury 



criterion which has been used in this 
work will be discussed and compared 
with other recent developments in the 
area of human tolerance. 

Search terms: Restraint system effec- 
tiveness; Injury severity index; Air bag 
restraint systems; Seat belts; Shoulder 
harnesses; Energy absorbing systems; 
Injury prevention; Impact sleds; 
Deceleration tolerances; Impact forces; 
Impact tests; Occupant protection 



HS-010 566 Fid. 5/14; 5/4; 1/2 

CONFERENCE ON ROAD 
SAFETY 1968 

Anonymous 

Published in Technical Aspects of Road 
Safety v36 p2.19-2.37 (Dec 1968) 

Summaries are given of the principal 
papers of the conference, which con- 
cerned three major subjects: Bio- 
mechanics-safety windshields and wind- 
shield injuries, safety belts, the New 
York state safety car, injury reduction 
by safety devices, bus and tractor safety, 
and helmet design; technical inspection 
of vehicles - organization, procedures, 
financing, factory defects, prototype 
tests, noise, exhaust emissions, brake 
repairs after severe damage, and in- 
spector training; and automobile experts 
- may examine badly damaged vehicles, 
ascertain mechanical causes of accidents, 
and help resolve conflicts of interest. 

Search terms: Conferences; Bio- 
mechanics; Occupant protection; Vehi- 
cle safety; Vehicle inspection; Injury 
prevention; International factors; 
Windshield caused injuries; Seat belts; 
Accident causes; Restraint system 
effectiveness; Exhaust emissions; In- 
spector training; Defects; Vehicle 
noise; Safety cars; Deformation; 
Damage 



16 



5/15 Propulsion Systems 
HS-010567 Fid. 5/15 

FLYWHEEL FEASIBILITY 
STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION. 
FINAL REPORT 

by R. R. Gilbert; J. R. Harvey; G. E. 
Heuer; L. J. Lawson 

Lockheed Missiles and Space Corp. 

1971 165p ISrefs 

Grant EHS-70-104 

Report no. LMSC-D007915;PB-200 143 

The purposes of this study are: to deter- 
mine the feasibility of the flywheel as a 
means of low-emission propulsion 
for tieban vehicles and to demon- 
strate and evaluate full-scale flywheels 
for hybrid applications. A flywheel/heat 
engine hybrid drive may be a feasible 
means of emission reduction for passen- 
ger cars, buses, and vans. Pure flywheel 
drive is suited for limited-range vehicles 
such as city buses, since recharge would 
be necessary about every ten miles, but a 
bus with flywheel and spark-ignition 
engine would reduce both emissions and 
operating costs. Flywheel tests showed 
safe energy density could be at least 12 
watt-hours per pound. Development and 
testing of prototypes is recommended. A 
flywheel/hybrid family car might be 
available by 1975, with emissions below 
the Clean Air Act standards. 

Search terms: Energy storage sys- 
tems; Propulsion systems; Flywheels; 
Exhaust emission control; Commuting 
automobiles; Experimental vehicles; 
Transmissions; Engine design; Mater- 
ials tests; Mathematical models; Stress 
analysis; Power densities; Failure 
stress; Engine performance; Clean Air 
Act of 1970; Kinetic energy; Emission 
standards; Feasibility studies; Hybrid 
buses; Spark ignition engines; Hybrid 
Automobiles; Urban transportation; 
Horsepower; Torque 

AVAIL-ABILITY: NTIS 



5/18 Steering Control System 
HS-010 568 Fid. 5/18 

DESIGN SERIES - VEHICLE 
RIDE. 3. SUSPENSION SYSTEMS 
FOR SPECIAL DUTY 

by Gilbert Grace 

Published in Automotive Design Engi- 
neering vl p34-8 (Jan 1968) 

Suspension systems used on most vehi- 
cles today are largely unchanged from 
those of 60 years ago. In that time our 
understanding of the suspension problem 
has improved and now many alternatives 
to the basic system are available. This 
article discusses the characteristics of 
linear and non-linear suspension systems 
with reference to some particular, cur- 
rently available, items of equipment. 

Search terms: Suspension systems; 
Air suspension systems; Springs; 
Spring damping; Vehicly riding quali- 
ties; Linear systems; Nonlinear sys- 
tems; Heavy duty vehicles 

5/20 Trucks and Trailers 
HS-010 569 Fid. 5/20; 1/2 

SNOWMOBILE ACCIDENTS IN 
ONTARIO 

by W.R.Ghent 
Queen's Univ. (Canada) 

Published in HS-010 504, Proceedings of 
the 14th Annual Conference of the 
American Association for Automotive 
Medicine, 1970 p 135-8 

Presented at the annual conference, 
Ann Arbor, 19-20 Nov 1970. 

The small personalized snowmobile of 
the 1970's had a modest beginning in 
two areas of North America in 1959. In 
this year Armand Bombardier in Quebec 
and Carl Eleasson in Wisconsin each 
produced about 200 machines for sale. 
The concept grew, and by 1970 some 



1,500,000 machines have been produced 
and sold. This new form of transport and 
sport has brought injury to more than a 
few drivers and passengers. The purpose 
of the paper is to review 400 injury 
producing snowmobile accidents from 
Ontario in the winter of 1969-70. These 
include two of the 14 deaths recorded in 
Ontario from the same cause in the same 
period. The mechanism and type of 
injury are discussed. Six safety rules are 
suggested which include snowmobile 
driver training and safe methods of 
operation. 

Search terms: Snowmobile accidents; 
Snowmobile caused injuries; Injuries 
by age; Injuries by body area; Injury 
rates; Ontario 



5/21 Used Vehicles 
HS-010 570 Fid. 5/21; 5/9; 5/4 

THE "UNSAFE" VEHICLES IN 
USE-THEY'RE ARE YOURS! 

by William A. Raftery 

Published in HS-010 546, Partnership in 
Safety Conference 1971 p53-64 



Many of the hundred million vehicles on 
the road have defects that can contribute 
to accidents. Inspection of all vehicles 
improves their mechanical condition and 
seems to reduce accident rates, but many 
states lack inspection programs due to 
inconvenience to the public. Some 
recommendations are: better state- 
operated inspection stations, new-car 
and frequent used-car inspections, vehi- 
cle design for inspection, mechanic train- 
ing programs, and future system stan- 
dards for acceptable performance of 
each vehicle component. 

Search terms: Accident prevention; 
Federal state relationships; Auto- 
mobile defects; Vehicle inspection; 
Inspection effectiveness; Accident 
causes; Mechanic training; Defective 
vehicles; Vehicle safety standards; 
Used automobiles; Automobile main- 
tenance; Vehicle design 



17 



NHTSA DOCUMENTS 



HSL No. 72-4 



5/22 Wheel Systems 
HS-010571 Fid. 5/22 

OIL-EXTENDED NATURAL RUB- 
BER IN WINTER TYRE TREADS 

Natural Rubber Prod. Res. Assoc., Inc. 
(England) 

1968 22p 9refs 
Report no. TB-15/68 

This bulletin describes laboratory and 
road tests with passenger cars on icy 
surfaces, comparing the skid perfor- 
mance of winter tire treads made from 
oil-extended natural rubber with that of 
treads from oil-extended styrene/ 
butadiene rubber. The tests involved 
skidding on icy road surfaces having 
temperatures ranging from degrees C 
(melting ice) down to -6 degrees C 
(packed ice). Under all conditions, the 
oil-extended natural rubber treads had 
superior skidding resistance. Better trac- 
tion in standard, winter, and sutdded 
winter tires and superior wear at cooler 
temperatures are cited as advantages of 
these tires. Rubber formulations are 
given. 

Search terms: Laboratory tests; Road 
tests; Icy road conditions; Wet road 
conditions; Tire materials; Tire skid 
resistance; Studded tires; Snow tires; 
Synthetic rubber; Tire traction; Tire 
wear; Tire tests; Tire performance 

HS-010572 Fid. 5/22; 4/1 
TIRE SAFETY 

by James W. Hall 

National Motor Vehicle Safety Advisory 
Council 

Published in HS-010 546, Partnership in 
Safety Conference, 1971 p65-70 

Under Federal safety acts, tire safety 
performance standards were effective in 
January 1968 and have since been im- 
proved. The complexity of uniform tire 
quality grading has delayed its imple- 
mentation, although manufacturer 



identification and recall will soon be 
operational. The states should periodi- 
cally inspect tires, make the sale and 
highway use of rejected tires illegal, 
check air pressure gauges, and identify 
slippery road sections by correcting 
them or posting warning signs. 

Search terms: Accident prevention; 
Defective tires; Tire inspection; Tire 
regulations; Tire safety; Tire standards; 
Tire wear; Tire road conditions 



NHTSA DOCUMENTS 
NHTSA Contractors Reports 
HS-800545 Fid. 3/5; 5/2; 3/4 

THE SELECTION AND TRAIN- 
ING OF SCHOOL BUS DRIVERS. 
FINAL REPORT 

by A. James McKnight; Carolyn M. 
McClelland; Mary E. Berry 

Human Resources Res. Organization 

1971 250p HOrefs 

Contract FH-1 1-7339 

Report no. HumRRO-TR-71-3 

Report for Aug 1969 - Feb 1971. 

Recommended driver selection require- 
ments include personal history, physical 
examination, written tests, driving test, 
and an attitude measure. Training objec- 
tives cover all aspects of bus operation, 
specified at three levels to fit the re- 
sources of individual school districts. 
The selection requirements and training 
objectives are based on analysis of: liter- 
ature relating individuals' characteristics 
to safe driving, bus operator's tasks, 
characteristics of high- and low-rated 
operators, opinions of pupil transpor- 
tation authorities, and observations and 
interviews of school bus operators. 

Search terms: School bus drivers; 
Driver tests; Driver attitude measure- 
ment; Driver characteristics; Driver 
education; Driver physical fitness; 
Driving task analysis; Reviews; Driver 



physical examinations; Driver person- 
ality; Psychological factors; Driver per- 
formance; Driver psychological tests; 
Questionnaires 

AVAILABILITY: GPO $2.00 (See 
Executive Summary, Page 19) 



HS-800604 Fid. 3/1 

PROCEEDINGS OF MANAGE- 
MENT WORKSHOP FOR ALCO- 
HOL SAFETY ACTION PROJECT 
LEADERS, WARRENTON, 
VIRGINIA, JUNE 13-18, 1971 

National Hwy. Traf. Safety Adminis- 
tration; Human Resources Res. Organi- 
zation 

1971 210p 

Contract DOT-HS-003-1-003 

The National Highway Traffic Safety 
Administration's alcohol counter- 
measures program is described. Aspects 
included are: chemical testing; identi- 
fication of problem drinkers; community 
demonstration programs on drinking 
driver re-education; public education; 
legislative programs; state and com- 
munity programs; Alcohol Safety Action 
Projects; law enforcement; treatment 
and rehabilitation of alcoholics; driver 
licensing; program evaluation. 

Search terms: Driver identification; 
Alcoholism; Community support; 
Federal aid; Program evaluation; Alco- 
hol kws; Law enforcement; Alcohol 
chemical tests; Problem drivers; Driver 
licensing; Drinking drivers; Alcohol 
education; Alcohol usage deterrents; 
Alcohol Safety Action Projects; 
Demonstration projects; Driver re- 
habilitation; Conference programs; 
Management 

AVAILABILITY: NTIS as PB-204638 




executive 
summary 



SYNPOSIS OF A RECENTLY RELEASED NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH REPC 



THE SELECTION AND TRAINING 
OF SCHOOL BUS DRIVERS 

The purpose for which this contract was awarded was to initiate a study intended to assist the states and their 
school districts in employing drivers capable of operating school buses safely and efficiently. The objective of the 
study was to establish a set of selection requirements and training objectives that would enable pupil transportation 
administrators to assure, within the resources available, that newly employed drivers have the required 
qualifications. 



NHTSA Contract FH-11-7339 
Human Resources Research 
Organization (HumRRO) 
300 North Washington Street 
Alexandria, Virginia 22314 

DOT/HS-800 545 
General Remarks 

The record of safety achieved by operators of school 
buses across the country is, on the whole, a com- 
mendable one. It compares favorably with that of 
commercial bus drivers and far surpasses the safety 
record of automobile drivers. Yet, because of the type 
of passenger the school bus carries, public concern is 
aroused whenever an accident occurs. The problem of 
school bus safety is complicated by the generally 
unfavorable hours and pay available to drivers, and the 
consequent difficulties involved in attracting suitable 
numbers of qualified applicants. Under present condi- 
tions, recruitment programs cannot be highly selective 
but must concentrate on weeding out candidates that 
may represent high risk. A burden is also placed on 
training to see that the best possible use is made of the 
limited personnel that are available. 

Approach 

The development of selection requirements and train- 
ing objectives necessitated an accurate identification 
of the qualifications required of school bus operators. 
The qualifications, for the purposes of the study, were 
defined as knowledges, skills, habits, attitudes, and 



Award Amount: $82,289.00 
Period of contractual performance: 
June 26, 1969 to February 26, 1971 



physical characteristics. Three approaches were taken 
to the identification of driver qualifications: (a) a 
survey of research literature dealing with the relation 
of driver characteristics to various indices of perfor- 
mance (115 references in the report); (b) a detailed 
analysis of the school bus operator's tasks; and (c) a 
survey of the opinions of school bus drivers, super- 
visors, and other pupil transportation authorities as to 
requisite driver qualifications. 

The various sources provided hypotheses as to the 
qualifications underlying safe and effective school bus 
operation. The relationship of these qualifications to 
performance was tested in two ways: 

The rated performance of experienced drivers was 
compared with their qualifications at the time of 
employment. This comparison was confined to 
personal information for which pre-employment 
qualifications could be determined after the fact. 

Newly employed drivers were administered pre- 
and post training knowledge tests, a road test, and 
measures of attitudes toward safety and the work 
situation. Scores were compared with rated perfor- 
mance for the first 16 weeks and the job. 



In addition to the identification of driver qualifi- 
cations, a survey was made of school bus operator 
selection and training procedures in order to deter- 
mine both the needs and the resources that charac- 
terize individual school districts. This information was 
believed to be important to the establishment of 
realistic requirements. A survey of state pupil tran- 
sportation selection and training standards was also 
conducted at the request of the study sponsor. 

MAJOR FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND 
RECOMMENDATIONS 

Findings 

o A comparison of the characteristics of experienced 
drivers with their performance as rated by super- 
visors showed that the better drivers had the 
following characteristics: 

. Over 30 years of age 

. At least three years of school bus driving 

experience 

e Married 

Small family 

No pre-school children 

Between 8 and 12 years of formal education 

o The knowledge and performance tests showed 
significant differences between newly employed 
and experienced drivers, while the knowledge tests 
correlated significantly with the rated performance 
of the newly employed drivers. The attitude 
measures showed the results in the expected 
direction; however, they lacked statistical signifi- 
cance. 

o The results of the surveys of driver tasks, school 
bus operations, selection procedures, and training 
procedures, as well as the results of the survey of 
state selection and training standards, are summa- 
rized in the body of the report and described in 
detail in the Appendices. 

Conclusions and Recommendations 

o From the results of the literature survey and the 
comparison of driver characteristics with rated 
performance, it was concluded that a school bus 
driver selection program should be established in 
each pupil transportation organization that would 
assess, at a minimum, the following characteristics: 

Background Characteristics. The applicant's age, 



sex, experience, education, family charac- 
teristics, outside employment, work record, 
court or police record, and driving record 
should be examined for clues as to the qualifi- 
cations of the applicant. Since these background 
factors do not directly influence driving behav- 
ior but merely reflect the influence of more 
fundamental causes, they should serve only to 
alert the pupil transportation administrator to 
possible problem areas into which he should 
conduct further investigation. Only the driving 
record is of sufficient direct relevance to the job 
to warrant being made a basis of selection in 
and of itself. The applicant's financial record 
should not be examined or used as a basis of 
employment. 



Psychological Characteristics. The candidate's 
knowledge at the time of his application and 
following any school bus driver training may be 
assessed through the tests developed within the 
project. The tests should be used primarily to 
assist the administrator in judging whether the 
candidate is adequately prepared and to help 
identify specific deficiencies to be overcome. 
The road performance test may be administered 
following instruction to help determine whether 
the driver is capable of operating a school bus 
safely and efficiently. Neither the knowledge 
nor the performance test should be used as a 
means of predicting future performance levels. 

- Attitudes are extremely important to vehicle 
operation and to other aspects of the school 
bus driver's job. The administrator should 
attempt to identify work-related attitudes 
through interviews with the candidate, 
conversations with others such as previous 
employers, and through observation of his 
performance during training. 

The two attitude measures developed within 
the study may assist the administrator but 
should not be used by themselves as a basis 
for selection. 

- Personality characteristics, like attitudes, are 
extremely important in determining the 
candidate's suitability for the job and should 
be assessed through interviews, references, 
and observation. But available standard per- 
sonality tests lack sufficient validity to be 
employed for selection purposes. , 



20 



" Physical Characteristics. A complete exam- 
ination should be required of every new driver 
when he is hired and periodic re-examinations 
required of older drivers. The physical exami- 
nation should include tests of vision and hear- 
ing, as well as tests for communicable deseases 
and physical conditions that could affect the 
ability to drive safely, including diabetes, epi- 
lepsy, cardiovascular disorders, Meniere's 
Syndrome, severe arthritis, hyperthyroidism, 
and acute hyper- or hypo-parathyroidism. 

Applicants taking prescribed drugs should 
furnish a certificate from the prescribing 
physician that the drugs will not interfere 
with the ability to drive when taken indi- 
vidually or in combination with one another. 
Any indication of illegal drug use or exces- 
sive use of alcohol should be a basis for 
rejection of the applicant. 

o Each newly employed driver should receive a 
program of training to include 6-12 hours of 
instruction devoted to the following topics: pupil 
transportation system and driver duties, school bus 
operating procedures, general traffic and school bus 
laws and regulations, responsibilities to pupils, 
preventive maintenance, administrative require- 
ments, emergency and accident-related procedures. 

o Moderate-sized and large pupil transportation sys- 
tems having the resources to provide additional 
training should be prepared to provide 14 to 25 
hours of instruction covering additional topics such 
as public relations, defensive driving, handling of 
emergencies (e.g., skids, brake loss, blowouts, and 
impending collisions), pupil evacuation and first 
aid, fire control, and special assignments such as 
field trips or procedures for dealing with handi- 
capped students. Districts unable to include all of 



the topics mentioned during initial instructions 
should attempt to do so through periodic improve- 
ment training. 

None of the individual subjects recommended in 
the "Selection Program Training Objectives" 
Chapter 6 of the report, is more critical for large 
school districts than for small ones. All of the 
subjects arc important to effective school bus 
operation. The three levels of "Training Objec- 
tives" are merely for recognition of the differ- 
ences that exist among school districts in the 
length of the training program they can sustain. 
The establishment of the three level hierarchy is 
not intended to discourage smaller districts 
from conducting a comprehensive training, but, 
rather, to guide them in applying their limited 
resources to be of greatest benefit. 11 is hoped 
that higher-level objectives that could not be 
included within the initial training in a parti- 
cular school district would become part of a 
later in-service advance training. 

-o- 

Thc Contract Technical Manager has certified that the 
contractor's work has been satisfactorily completed 
and that all contractual obligations have been met. 

The contents of the report and of this report summary 
reflect the views of the Human Resources Research 
Organization which is responsible for the facts and the 
accuracy of the data presented. The contents of either 
do not necessarily reflect the official views or policy 
of the Department of Transportation, National High- 
way Traffic Safety Administration. The report does 
not constitute a standard, specification or regulation. 

Availability: GPO; order by title and stock no. 
5003-0043; price $2.00. 



*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 485-280/17 



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Regional Administrator, NHTSA, 5140 Federal Office Buildini 
Seattle, Washington 98104, Tel: 206-442-5934 
(Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) 


Regional Administrator.NHTSA, 450 Golden G ., Avenue, Be 
361 12, San Francisco, California 94102. Tel: 415-556-6415 
(Arizona, California, Hawaii, and Nevada) 


Regional Administrator, NHTSA, 9393 West Alameda Avenue 
Lakewood, Colorado 80226, Tel: 2 34-32 5 3 29. (Colorado, 
Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah and Wyoming) 


Regional Administrator, NHTSA, P.O. Box 7085, Country Clu 
Station, Kansas City, Missouri 641 13, Tel: 816-361-0860 (Ext 
(Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, amd Nebraska) 


Regional Administrator, NHTSA, 819 Taylor Street, Room 11 
Fort Worth, Texas 76102, Tel: 817-334-2021. (Arkansas, 
Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) 


Regional Administrator, NHTSA, 18209 Dixie Highway, Homi 
wood, Illinois 60430, Tel: 312-799-6300. (Ext. 72) (Illinois, Ir 
Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin) 


Regional Administrator, NHTSA, (Suite 400) 1720 Peachtree 
Road, N.W., Atlanta, Georgia 30309, Tel: 404-526-5537. 
( Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North 
Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee ) 


Regional Administrator, NHTSA, Room 817 Federal Building, 
31 Hopkins Plaza, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 Tel: 301- 
962-3878. (Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia) 


Regional Administrator, NHTSA, (Room 400) 200 
Mamaroneck Avenue , White Plains, N.Y. 10601 
Tel: 914-761-4250 (Ext. 312) (New Jersey, New York, 
and Puerto Rico) 


Regional Administrator, NHTSA, Transportation Systems 
Center, 55 Broadway, Cambridge, Mass., 02142, Tel: 617- 
494-2681. (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hamp- 
shire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) 


NHTSA REGIONAL OFFICES 

Address 


Penalty For Private Use, $300 


OFFICIAL BUSINESS 


WASHINGTON, D.C. 20590 


IIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINIS1 

stitute, Office of Accident Investigation and Data Anal^ 


DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 


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