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TENTH ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONEES 



FOR 



THE YE^R 1878. 



WASHINGTON; 

aOVERNMENT PEINTING OFPICB. 

1879. 



REPORT 



THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



Washington, 1). C, January 15, 1879. 
Sir: The Board of Indian Commissioners appointed by the President, 
under the act of Congress approved April 10, 18G9, to eo-o])erate with 
tlie Administration in tlie management of Indian affairs, respectfully 
submit their Tenth Annual Eeport. 

MEETINGS. 

Four meetings of the Board have been held during the year: one in 
Kew York, to advise and assist the Commissioner in the annual opening 
of bids and letting of contracts for Indian su])i)lies ; and three in this 
city, for consultation with" the executive officers of the government and 
with Representatives of religious societies upon the condition of the sev- 
eral Indian tribes, and the best methods of supplying their wants and 
promoting their welfare. 

Entire harmony has continued between the Board and the Interior 
])ei)artment, and their efforts have been encouraged by the cordial sup- 
I)ort of the President. 

CHANGES. 

Hon. E. ]J^. Stebbins, of ^e,w Jersey, sent to the President his resig- 
nation as a member of the Board on the 25 of March, and Hon. Charles 
Tuttle, of New York, was appointed May 16, to till the vacancy. No 
other changes have been made during the year. 

VISITS TO AGENCIES. 

At the meeting of the Board held in New York June 10 last, it was — 

lieHolved, That it is the jiidgmeut of the Board that as many of its lueiubers as pos- 
sible should visit the ditferent agencies during the present year, and that they confer 
with our chairman as to the times and places of such visitation. 

In accordance with this resolution, the chairman and the assistant 
secretary visited the two agencies in the State of Wisconsin ; Commis- 
sioners Fisk and Stickney visited the Utes in Colorado, returning by the 
Indian Territory; Commissioner Lyon went to the Pacific coast, and 
supervised the letting of contracts at San Francisco ; and Commissioner 
Kingsley, in company with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, visited 
several agencies in the Indian Territory. Thus more time than in the 
previous year has been given by the Board to personal insi)ection of the 
condition and progress of the Indian tribes. 

The reports of these delegations will be found in the Appendix. 



4 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

The examination of accounts and expenditures for the Indian service, 
as required by act of Congress approved March, 1871, has been con- 
tinued by the executive committee, whose report is appended. The 
total number of accounts examined and acted upon during the year is 
3,085, covering disbursements and transfers of funds amounting to 
$446,109.30. The committee have also copied and approved 341 con- 
tracts for supplies. 

THE PURCHASING COMMITTEE. 

Much time has been given by this committee to the purchase and 
inspection of goods and supplies, and their rei)ort, which will be found 
in the Apiiendix, exhibits the method pursued in awarding contracts, 
and the care taken ''to secure the best values offered, a faithful deliv- 
ery of identical value by the contracting party, a careful distribution to 
the several agencies, and safe transport thither." We are confident 
that the precaution and vigilance thus exercised have secured for the 
benefit of the Indians the appropriations made by Congress for their 
support. 

INDIAN AGENTS. 

It has long been the custom to condemn Indian agents. Allegations 
of fraud and peculation and villainy of every kind have been so often 
made and reiterated that in the public estimation the term Indian agent 
and rascal seem to be almost synonymous. If trouble arises anywhere, 
or an outbreak occurs, the agent must have been the cause, l^o matter 
what a man's character and position may be, no sooner is he appointed 
an Indian agent than he becomes the target at which are aimed all the 
weapons of the press and the rostrum. An officer of high rank in the 
Army, in a recent official report, says : 

The average Indian agent, intent upon tlie spiritual welfare of tlie red man, desirous 
of elevating Ms soul, and acMeving what has never yet been reached in a single gen- 
eration — making a civilized man of him — but too frequently neglects his bodily wants, 
and while the agent is preparing him for heaven, as he thinks, is actually making a 
hell for him upon earth, by leaving him unclothed and unfed, whilst but too frequently 
the price of his clothing and food is put into the agent's pocket. 

In a volume entitled " The Plains of the Great West," by Lieut Col. 
Richard Irving Dodge, published in 1877, we read on page 46, introduc- 
tion, as follows : 

Congress honestly grants the appropriations due to the Indians, but as a rule not 
more than from 5 to 20 per cent, of the actual amount due ever reaches these unfortu- 
nate wards of the government. Usually the actual amount received by the Indians 
approximates more closely to the smaller than the larger percentage I have named. 

And again, on page 433 : 

The amount of money appropriated by Congress is ample for the support and com- 
fort of the Indians, provided they get it or its equivalent. But they do not get it ; 
cheated in quantity and quality of rations and goods, cheated in transportation, the 
appropriations burdened by expenses of numerous commissions, of deputations of a 
favored few Indians to Washington and the Eastern cities, it is doubtful if the Indians 
receive any benefit from more than 20 per cent, of the vast sum appropriated. 

Such sweeping charges are spread over the land by the press, and 
public speakers quote them as authority, and say they are sustained 
by the public opinion of the people living in the vicinity of Indian 
agencies. 

Now, we protest against all such wholesale condemnation as flagrant 
injustice. These agents are recommended by men who represent the 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 5 

great religious missionary societies of the land. They are nominated by 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and the Secretary of the Interior, in 
most cases after personal examination ; and they are appointed by the 
President with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States. 
No more care and caution are used in the selection of any officers of the 
government. And yet it may be that here and there one is inefficient 
or dishonest. But we are confident that, as a class, the Indian agents 
now in the service will comx)are favorably with an equal number of 
business men in any part of the country, for intelligence, honesty, and 
efficiency. 

INDIAN PROGRESS. 

But little has occurred during tlie year to disturb the industrial pur- 
suits and the educational work going on among the various tribes. 
Eumoi's of war have been plenty, but the only serious outbreaks have 
been the Bannock war in Idaho, and the Northern Cheyenne raid 
through Kansas and Nebraska. The cause and the history of these out- 
breaks are given in full by the General of the Army and the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs in their annual reports. The facts presented in 
those reports make it perfectly evident that the Bannock war might 
have been i^revented had adequate and timely provision been made by 
Congress for the support of those Indians when they were cut off* fi'om 
their usual resources of the chase. 

We heartily indorse the conclusion of General Sherman that for such 
emergencies '' Congress alone can provide a remedy ; and, if prevention 
be wiser than cure, money and discretion must be lodged somewhere in 
time to prevent starvation." 

The great body of the Indians have continued peaceful, and the reports 
of agents, coniirmed by our personal observation, show an increasing 
interest in various pursuits of industry, and commendable progress to- 
Avard a condition of self-support. 

Some of the bands of Chippewas in Wisconsin appear to have very 
nearly reached the point where they can be left to themselves without 
governmental aid or supervision. They are respected, and often em- 
ployed as laborers and lumbermen by their white neighbors. On the 
Menominee Keservation, in the same State, at the close of the farming 
season a fair Avas held, to which more than two hundred Indians con- 
tributed, exhibiting their stock and samples of grain and vegetables, 
Avhich would do credit to other county fairs. It was pronounced, in the 
Shawano Journal, to be ^'so superior to the county fair lately held at 
Shawano that it would almost con^Aince any one who attended both 
that the Indian Avas further advanced in agricultural matters than the 
white man. It has shown that those Avhom the white people were wont 
to call the ^lazy red men' are able to cope with them in cultiA^ating the 
soil." 

In Minnesota, Dakota, and Nebraska, like signs of improA^ement are 
manifest at several agencies. The crops have not been destroyed by 
grasshoppers, as in former years, and the Indians who have Avorked 
industriously are reaping rich rewards for their labor. 

On White Earth Eeservation, Minnesota, "all land that was in condi- 
tion, or could be placed in sha])e, was seeded, and the results are grati- 
fying to the Indians. The disposition to work to increase the size ot* 
their farms is stimulated by the good yield of this year's crop. More 
new land has been broken than in any former year since they haA^e been 
here. With a few such seasons * * # these Indians will soon be 
on the way to prosperity, happiness, and contentment." Some of the 



b REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

fruits of tlieir labor are 18,000 bushels of wheat, 4,860 bushels of oats, 
3,281 bushels of corn, and about 36,000 bushels of A^egetables. 
The agent at Sisseton Agency, Dakota, r'eports that — 

Indian farming' lias been attended with universal success, and tlio Indians fee] very 
much encouraged with the result of their farm labor. A much larger acreage was 
plowed last fall than ever before at the same season of the year, and was well prepared 
for seeding in the spring. Several Indian farmers who have large wln^at-iiekls have 
bought harvesters for themselves, at a cost of $165 to $200 each, and are to pay for 
them from the proceeds of their sales of wheat. They manifest much interest in their 
farm-work, and are evidently determined soon to become self-supporting. 

The report from Yankton Agency, Dakota, says : 

Indian farming, each man for himself and on his own plot of ground, is increasing. 
Every year their wheat-fields will average from .5 to 15 acres each. Tlie Yanktons are 
A-^ery ambitious now to raise wheat, and have been breaking much land this summer 
for next year's crop. Besides, they are cutting a very large amount of grass to supply 
their stock with hay the coming winter, exhibiting in this way, more than cNcr, provi- 
dence and thrift. 

From the agent at Flandreau si)ecial agency, Dakota, we learn that — 

lu agriculture these Indians have made fair progress. Wheat is the best crop raised 
here. 

Agent Yore, at Omaha Agency, Nebraska, reports that — 

There ig a i>erceptible advancement in many of the Indians in judgment and skill in 
the management of their farm-work. 

The Santee Sioux of Nebraska [says the agent] are industrious, and have turne<l 
their attention to cultivating the laud. During the last year they had under cultiva- 
tion about 1,000 acres. They have broken 460 acres of new land, and are taking an 
increased interest in their farm-work. This has been luought about by the hoi)e that 
Congress will pass an act allowing them to take homesteads ou their lands that they 
are improving. 

The Navajo agent, New Mexico, says : 

Within the ten years during which the present treaty wiHi the Navajoes has been 
in force, th6y have grown from a band of paupers to a nation of prosperous, indus- 
trious, shrewd and (for barbarians) intelligent people. They are a nation of workers. 
The drones are very, very few. They are, as a rule, provident. The few thousand 
sheep given them a few years ago have increased to hundreds of thousands. 

The Indians of the Grand Ronde Agency, Oregon, are now living, 
reports the agent — 

Upon their farms and cultivating their lands, and following the avocation of farm- 
ers much the same as white farmers, on a small scale, the average number of acres 
cultivated by a single Indian or family being from 25 to 50, while quite a number 
cultivate as high as 50 to 100 acres. They will raise by their own industry from ten 
to twelve thousand bushels of grain the present season. 

Agent Wilbur, of Yakama Agency, Oregon, says : 

Our farming and stock-growing have taken the lead in busi ne.ss enter])rise. AVe 
have now under good fence at least 15,000 acres of land, and 5,000 in cultivation. In 
four years we have made, with Indian labdr, 30 miles of post and board fence as good 
as any farmer in all the country has about his farm. The Indians have, at least, 3,500 
head of cattle of their own, and about 16,000 head of horses. Many of them live in 
good houses, painted outside and in, with furniture, clocks, watches, the newspaper, 
and the Bible. They have barns, and improved machinery for farming. The women 
have sewing-machines. 

For several years we have not been giving rations to any except the sick. When 
the able-bodied Indians want food, if they work they are fed; if they won't work they 
go hungry. 

Give the Indians good land, practical business and Christian men for their agents, 
and moral men, without an exception, for their employes, who will educate them to 
work ; then let the government appropriate money to help them to seed, tools, and 
teams, until they can be educated to cultivate the soil, and the- expense of taking care 
of the Indians in five years will diminish half, the Indian will be elevated, and wars 
with the whites will cease to the end of time. 

Similar reports have been received from other reservations, but the 
foregoing extracts are enough to indicate that the improvement which 
has beeu_ recorded in our former reports has continued during the last 



REPOKT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 7 

yoiiv. It is true that many tribes are yet far from the condition of self - 
SMp[)ort, and others have made only a beginning in the arts and pursuits 
of eivilized life. But it must be remembered that it is only ten years 
since this policy of peace, justice, and humanity was adopted, and the 
work of civilizing, educating, and training for citizenship was under- 
taken in good earnest. And looking over that short period of ten years 
we can see that great progress has been made. 

The following table of statistics, made up from official reports, pre- 
sents a summary of results since the present humane policy was inau- 
gurated in 1869. 

RESULTS OF THE PEACE POLICY DURING TEN YEARS. 

Nutnher of Indians in the United States, Alaska not included. 



Number of Indians.. 
AVnar citizens' dress 

Houses occupied 

Built last year 

Schools 



Teachers 

Scholars - 

M ouey expended for education 

Indians who can read 

Learned to read last year (five tribes. Indian Teiritory, not included) 

Chiin-li buildinjrs on reservations 

Indian clmrch members (about) 

Land cultivated by Indians, acres 

Bushels of wheat raised 

Busliels of (;orn raised 

Bushels of oats and barley 

lUishels of vegetables 

Tons of hay . T 

I loraes and mules owned by Indians 

Cattle owned by Indians 

Swine owned by Indians 

Sheep owned by Indians 



148. 

162 

5.810 



79, 071 

169, 365 

520, 079 

81, 151 

350, 690 

18, 016 

78, 016 

47, 704 

31,284 

7,953 



1878. 



250, 864 

127, 450 

23, 060 

745 

366 

417 

12, 222 

$353, 125 

41, 309 

1, 532 

219 

30,000 

373, 018 

770, 615 

3, 633, 943 

386, 132 

694, 001 

158, Oil 

226, 754 

291, 378 

200, 952 

594, 574 



* In ca.ses where no reports were received in 1868 the reports for the previous year are added to make 
up thy a<igregate. 

Tliis exhibit of results is certainly encouraging, and it presents a 
strong argumenr against any radical change of policy. Whatever de- 
partment of government is intrusted with the management of Indian 
affairs, the humane and Christian sentiment of the country will demand 
a firm adherence to measures that have already secured so much, and 
that promise still greater good in the future. 

HOMESTEADS. 



It becomes more and more evident every year that reservations, 
tliough set apart by the goverument and guaranteed by solemn treaties 
as the possession of the Indians forever, do not and cannot secure to 
them a permanent home. Treaties do not execute themselves. Too 
often they are regarded by the dominant race as mere expedients for 
(juieting disturbances, to be set aside and forgotten whenever the wants 
or tlie greed of the white man may demand it. Lands assigned to In- 
dians and promised in perpetuity have been occupied by white settlers, 
and overrun by miners in search of gold. In many other cases where 
Indians, trusting the promises of the government, have selected allot- 
ments and made improvements, they are still without any permanent 
title to their homes. Thus the sixth article of the treaty with the 



8 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Omahas, ratified April 17, 1854, after providing for the survey and allot- 
ment of their reservation, continues as follows : 

And the President may at anytime in his discretion, after such person or family has 
made a location on the land assigned for a permanent home, issue a patent to such 
person or family for such assigned land, conditioned that the tract shall not be alieucd 
or leased for a longer term than two years ; shall be exempt from levy, sale, or forfeit- 
ure, &c. 

In 1855 treaties were entered into with many other tribes of Indians, 
embracing nearly all those in Oregon and Washington Territory, refer- 
ring to this sixth article of the treaty with theOmahas, and making similar 
provision for the survey, allotment, and issue of patents. 

For convenience of reference extracts from these treaties will be found 
in the appendix. Had all the stipulations contained therein been faith- 
fully executed on our part, much serious trouble, great waste of property, 
and sacrifice of life might have been avoided. But the simple, shame- 
ful truth is, that we have neglected and forgotten our part of these 
compacts. Many Indians, believing that we would keep faith with them, 
have selected their tracts of land and made improvements, but have 
waited nearly a quarter of a century in vain for the promised security 
of title. We cannot recover the millions of treasure lost, nor restore 
the lives sacrificed by our broken faith, but Ave may deal honestly and 
justly in the future. 

Believing that permanent homes and a i^erfect title to their lands are 
matters of most urgent importance to the Indians, we made a draft of a 
bill last winter to secure these ends by legislation, and that bill is now 
before the Indian committees of the two houses of Congress. 

We respectfully and earnestly request that it receive prompt attention. 
We have witnessed the good results of indi\adual ownership of lands 
in the few instances where patents have been issued in the State of Wis- 
consin, whereby a new impulse has been given to industry and a new 
sense of manhood inspired. 

The Flandreau Sioux of Dakota furnish another example very sug- 
gestive and encouraging. Under the wise guidance of their missionary 
;and agent, John P. Williamson, this little band have struck out for 
themselves, and with very little material aid have become substantially 
self-supporting. In his last report Agent Williamson says : 

The Flandreau Indians are citizens, and are, without a doubt, the most advanced 
in civilization of any portion of the Sioux Nation. They pay taxes, and very cheer- 
fully, considering how high, we might say how exorbitant, some of them are. Their 
total taxation last year amounted to about $800. They go to the ballot-box with 
their white neighbors, and appreciate the privilege very highly. It has an elevating 
influence upon the Indians themselves, and on the other hand gives them the respect 
which they need in the eyes of their white neighbors. They nearly all read their own 
language, and vote as understandingly as a large class of foreign voters. A large pro- 
j)ortion have received their patents for land and so are property-owners. They all 
live in houses very similar to white neighbors, and dress like them. No painted In- 
dian, with long hair, feathers, or breech-cloth, can be found in the settlement. 

THEY AEE A CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY. 

There are two churches among them, one a Presbyterian and the other an Episcopal 
•organization. In the two are 184 communicants, who comprise the most of the adult 
population. On the Sabbath nearly the whole community may be found at church- 
No reasonable man can doubt that Christianity is the foundation of that civilization to 
which these Indians have attained. 

THE FUTURE. 

The question is often asked, "Will they succeed ?" "Won't they sell out as soon 
as they can and go back to Indian life f " We acknowledge there are serious dangers 
before them. One is whisky, another is going in debt, another is their inability to 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 9 

pav taxes ; and these or other complications may lead them to sell out and become 
(Bcattercd. Jiiit thtiie is never a victory without an enemy. In answer to the ques- 
tion, we say tliey already have succeeded — the victory is theirs. They are now living 
as white men, a civilized, not a barbarous life. They oidy run the same risk as every 
young family that they may fail and become paupers. 

A THEORY. 

The above statements may shed some lij^ht on a common theory of some friends of 
Indian civilization, that all the Indians of the Union should be congretjated on one or 
two reservations, where missionaries and other philanthropists could have full sway 
to try the merits of their respective systems of civilization. 

Here is a little (;onnnunity of less than one hundred families, who, without any care 
for theory, have struck out, each man for himself, and, taking the pioneer settlere for 
their patt«an, have scattered themselves out over a county, and with their patterns 
near at hand on every side, have attained unto a fair degree of civilization. It might 
be well for theorists to study this case a little. 

There may Ix; something peculiar in the nature of the Indian that requires more 
example than <an well be had where large .numbers of heathen are congregated and 
separated from the civilized World. Or it may be that that independence without whi(^h 
civilization is naught can never be attained by the Imlian until he is cast out of his 
old reservation n«'st and told to spread his wings and fly, like the rest of the *' Eagle 
nation," or fall and die. 

RECOMMENDATION. 

Let the government be careful not to infringe ui)on the natural right of every man 
to provide for himself and family. This is what the young American starting out 
in life calls ''taking care of himself." Every nuin needs this incentive to industry, 
but especially the Indian. Many wonder why the Flandreau Indians ever left the 
old agency — free rations and gray suits. If they could go into their hearts they would 
And it was that same longing " to be one's own," or ''for freedom" as we are accus- 
tomed to say, which led the Pilgrims to Plymouth Rock. And now let them have it, 
to the verge of starvation, and may it make of them as sterling a race as the descendants 
of the Pilgrims. What behmgs to thes<i Indians as their due, give them as endow- 
ments for educational institutions or as outfits for farming, but not in food or clothing. 

CONSOLIDATION. 

We have in former reports reeommeiided the eoiisolidation of some 
of the Jiidian tribes upon fewer reservations for the purpose of re- 
ducing tlie number of agencies and the expense of administration, and 
we still think that this may be wisely done. But past experience 
tea<5hes that the removal of Indians far from tlieir native homes is 
often tlie cause of much discontent and suffering;-. The greatest care 
should, therefore, be used to gain first the consent of the Indians them- 
selves to sucli removals, and then to secure tlie rights of those who have 
liome attachments by giving them the choice of removing or remaining 
upon the liomesteads which they have nn])roved. 

Commissioner Jerome has given mu<-h study to this subject, and we 
invite special attention to his rei)ort in the Ai)pendix- 

MISSIONARY SOCIETIES. 

The missionary boards of the various religious denominations have 
their work among the Indian tril)es, and we present herewith large 
extra^t^ from their last annual reports. The amount expended during 
the year by these societies for the support of Indian schools and churches 
is, so far tis reported, $82,492.12. 

TRANSFER OF THE INDIAN BUREAU TO THE WAR DEPARTMENT. 

A bill to transfer the Indian Bureau to the War Dejiartment passed the 
House of Kepresentatives at the last session of Congress, but was amended 
in the Senate by the appointment of a joint committee of three Senat/Ors 
and five Representatives, to whom the subject was referred. Messrs. 



10 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Saunders, Oglesby, and McCreery were appointed by the Senate, and 
Messrs. Scales, Van Vorhes, Boone, Stewart, and Hooker on tlie part 
of the House. This joint committee have traveled several thousand 
miles and have taken a large amount of testimony. Their report may 
he daily expected. 

The continual agitation of this question in Congress has produced an 
unfavorable effect upon the Indians, who, with scarcely an exception, 
express the most unqualified opposition to the measure. 

In many tribes, councils have convened to enter their protest against 
a disregard of their wishes and hostility to their interests by the gov- 
ernment, quite irreconcilable with its professions of friendship as indi-- 
cated by the existing peace poli(?y. It will be readily seen that the effect 
of this agitation among a people incapable of reading for themselves, 
suspicious of evil, because so often betrayed, kei)t for many months in 
suspense, must be seriously to discourage them in their slow and diffi- 
cult progress toward civilization, and to retard the efforts of the govern- 
ment in its measures for their improvement. 

From the year 1832 to 1849 the Indian Bureau was under the control 
of the War Department. The management of the bureau by that de- 
partment was so unsatisfactory, the results so discouraging, that Con- 
gress transferred the bureau to the Interior Department immediately 
upon its organization in 1849. 

The period from 1849 to 1856 was most prolific of evil to the large 
body of Indians who were scattered over the vast territory between the 
Missouri Eiver and the Pacific coast. The discovery of gokl in Cali- 
fornia was the signal for the precipitate emigration of adventurers from 
the East, who had no more respect for the rights of tlie Indian than the 
swarms of locusts had for the crops of our I^orth western farmers at a 
more recent period. Gross outrages brought on frequent collisions, and 
of course the weaker party becaine an easy prey to the cruelty, avarice, 
and lust of the stronger. Their cry for justice might have reached 
heaven, but could not travel 2,()()() miles to the dull ear of the govern- 
ment. During these times of commotion, strife, and bloodshed, the In- 
terior Department, but recently organized, labored under peculiar em- 
barrassments. ' The Indians finding themselves overrun by a SM^arm of 
men, native and foreign, some of them the oftscouring of the earth, who 
knew no law but force, seeing with dismay the game upon which they 
depended for subsistence rapidly disappearing, their homes invaded, 
and their property destroyed, were often driven to desperation and vain 
efforts at retaliation. Indian agents received a])i)ointments as a reward 
for political favors, with no regard to fitness for their delicate and re- 
sponsible duties, no experience in Indian affairs, and no knoAvledge of 
Indian character. As a necessary consequence, the service became more 
or less corrupt, charges of fraud on the part of contractors and agents 
were made without fear of contradiction, until the whole service became 
a scandal and a disgrace to the government. There was little imi^rove- 
ment until after the close of the civil war, during which the government 
was compelled to intermit almost entirely its care for this unfortunate 
race. 

The reputation of the Indian service remaining somewhat unsavory, 
in March, 1865, just after the bloody Cheyenne war, a movement was 
made in Congress to have it retransferred to the War Department. 

Under a joint resolution of March 3, 1865, a joint si)ecial committee of 
the two houses of Congress was aj)pointed, directing an inquirj^ into the 
condition of the Indian tribes and their treatment by the civil and mili- 
tary authorities of the United States. On the 26th of January, 1867, the 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 11 

Joint comniittee subinittetl tlieir report, iu which they say, "The work 
'was immense, covering a continent." The report makes a volume of 
527 pages. 

Upon the subject of transfer, the committee hold the following lan- 
guage: 

The (lucstiou whether the Indian Bureau should he placed under the War Depart- 
nu'iit or ictaiiu'd in the Department of the Interior is one of considerable importance, 
au<l both sides have very warm advocates. Military men generally unite in recom- 
meiuling that chatige to be made, while civilians, teachers, missionaries, agents, and 
superintendents, and those not in the Regular ^Vrmy, generally oppose it. The argu- 
uumts and objections urged by each are not without force. The argument in favor of 
it is, that in case of hostilities the military forces nnist assume control of our relations 
to the hostile tribes, and therefore it is better for the War Department to have1:he en- 
tire, control both in peace and in war; secondly, that the annuity goods and clothing 
paid to the Indians under treaty stipulations will be more faithfully and honestly 
made by officers of the Regular Army, who hold their places for life and are subject to 
military trials for misconduct, than when made by the agents and superintendents ap- 
]M»inte(l under the Interior Department; and, thirdly, that it would prevent conflict 
between different departments in the administration of their affairs. 

Upt)n the other side, it is nrged with great force that for the proper administration 
of Indian affjiirs there must be some officer of the government whose duty it is to re- 
main upon the reservations with the tribes and to look after their affairs ; that as their 
h iiuting grounds are taken away, the reservation system, which is the only alternative 
to their extermination, must be adopted. When the Indians are once located upon 
them, farmers, teachers, and missionaries become essential to any attempt at civiliza- 
tion — are absolutely necessary to take the tirst step toward changing the wild hunter 
into a cultivator of the soil; to change the savage into a civilized man. The move- 
nuMit of troops from post to post is of necessity sudden and frequent, and therefore the 
officers of the Army, however competent, cannot take charge of the affairs and interests 
of Indians upon reservations any longer than military force is required to compel the 
Indians to remain upon them, as in the case of the Navajoes in New Mexico, and during 
tliat time even proper and competent x)ersons acting as agents, farmers, teachers, and 
missionaries, devoting their whole time to these occupations, can serve that j)urpo8e 
much better than officers of the Army. 

While it is true that many agents, teachers, and employes of the government are 
inefficient, faithless, and even guilty of peculations and fraudulent practices upon the 
government and upon the Indians, it is equally true that military posts among the 
1 ndians have frequently become centers of dennwalization and destruction to the Indian 
tiibes, while the blunders and want of discretion of inexperienced officers in command 
have brought on long and expensive wars, the cost of which, being included in the ex- 
penditures of the Army, is Jiever seen and realized by the people of the country. 

Since we acquired New Mexico the military expenditures connected with Indian 
artairs have probably exceeded |4,000,000 annually in that Territory alone. When Gen- 
eral Sumner was in command of that department he recommended the purchase of all 
the ])rivate property of citizens and the surrender of that whole Territory to the In- 
dians, and, upon the score of economy, it would doubtless have been a great saving to 
the government. But that Y>olicy was not pursued, and there, as well as elsewhere, the 
reservation system has been adopted. That it has and will cost the government large 
sums of money is undoubtedly true, but, iu the end, far less than the maintenance of 
forces sufficient to keep the peace, and suffer the Indians to range at will over the 
Territory. When once adopted, however, the same necessity for agents, teachers, 
farmers, and missionaries arises, both upon the score of humanity and economy, lioth 
to civilize the Indian and to teach him to raise his subsistence from the soil. The 
Army and the officers of the Army are not by their habits and profession well adapted 
to this work. 

Another strong reason for retaining the Indian Bureau in the Department of the In- 
terior is that the making of treaties and the disposition of the lands and funds of the 
Indiaus are of necessity intimately connected with our public-land system, and, with all 
its important land questions, would seem to fall naturally under the jurisdiction of 
the Interior Department. The inconveniences arising from the occasional conflicts 
and jealousies between officers appointed under the Interior and War Departments are 
not without s6me benefits also. To some extent they serve as a check upon each 
other ; neither are slow to point to the mistakes and abuses of the other. It is, there- 
fore, proper that they should be independent of each other, receive their appointments 
from and report to different heads of departments. 

Weighing this matter, and all the arguments for and against the proposed change, 
y«)ur conmiittee are unanimously of the opinion that the Indian Bureau should remain 
where it is. 



12 REPORT OP THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Confess having thus uttered its empliatic protest againt the transfer, 
the Indians and their friends regarded the question as finally settled, 
and looked now for a vigorous, decisive policy on the part of the govern- 
ment which should promote the moral and intellectual improvement of the 
Indians. To insure this object, in 1869 a new departure was inaugurated 
by President Grant, by the adoption of what is known as the " peace 
policy." The leading peculiarties of this change were — 

First. The bringing into active sympathy and co-operation with the 
government the great religious bodies of the country by giving them the 
nomination of agents and holding them morally responsible for their 
efficiency and good conduct, their appointment to be made by the Presi- 
dent and confirmed by the Senate. 

Second. The appointment of a board of commissioners, to serve with- 
out pecuniary compensation, who — 

Shall supervise all expenditures of money appropriated for tlie benefit of Indians 
within the limits of the United States, and shall inspect all goods purchased for In- 
dians in connection with the Coiuniissioner of Indian Affairs, whose duty it shall be 
to consult the commission iu making purchase of 8U(;h goods. 

Any member of the Board of Indian Commissioners is empowered to investigate all 
contracts, expenditures, and accounts, in connection with the Indian service, and shall 
have access to all books and papers relating thereto in any government oflSce. 

No payments shall be made by any officer of the Unitecl States to contractors for 
goods or supplies of any sort furnished to the Indians, or for the transportatiou thereof, 
or for any buildings or machinery erected or placed on their reservations, under or by 
virtue of any contract entered into with the Interior Department, orany branch there- 
of, on the receipts or certificates of the Indian agents or superintendents for such sup- 
plies, goods, transportation, buildings, or machinery, beyond 50 per cent, of the amount 
due, until the accounts and vouchers shall have been submitted to the executive com- 
mittee of the Board of Indian Commissioners appointed by the President of the United 
States, and organized under the provisions of the fourth section of the act of April 10, 
1869, and the third section of the act approved July 15, 1870, for examination, revisal, 
and approval ; and it shall be the duty of said Board of Commissioners without un- 
necessary delay to forward said accounts and vouchers so submitted to them to the 
Secretary of the Interior, with the reasons for their approval or disapproval of the 
same, iu whole or in part, attached thereto, and said Secretary shall have power to 
sustain, set aside, or modify the action of said board, and cause payment to be made 
or withheld as he may determine. 

During the past ten years this policy has been closely adhered to by 
Presidents Grant and Hayes. The beneficial results of this change in 
the Indian service of the government aie fully set forth in the annual 
reports of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and also in the reports 
from year to year by this Board. 

Although the service has been attended with difficulties known only 
to those most familiar with it, the progress of Indian civilization, as 
indicated by the constantly and rapidly increasing numbers in schools, 
the acquisition of our language, the quantity of ground cultivated, crops 
and herds raised, personal property accumulated, adoption of civilized 
dress and manners, regard of marital rights, to say nothing of the ambi- 
tion excited toward a higher development of their moral and intellectual 
powers, justifies the assurance that a steady perseverance in the present 
system will eventually secure a satisfactory solution of this most per- 
plexing of problems. 

In the midst of these pleasing anticipations Congress again agitates 
the question of transferring the Indian Bureau to the War Department. 
With the rapidity of lightning the unwelcome news flies to and fro 
through the land ; the press, platform, and pulpit take up the subject ; 
religious bodies protest, while the Indians, demoralized by anxious fears 
of impending evil, send up their memorials earnestly begging to be left 
as they are. 

Why these persistent attempts are made upon the Indian Bureau, 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 13 

which is making the most vigorous efi'orts to improve its service, we will 
not attempt to decide, for we are slow to believe that our representatives 
in (Jongress will Jeopardize the interests of two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand Indians, whose treatment by the government hitherto has been 
marked with so nmch injustice and wrong, disregard the most cherished 
desires of these people to lemain as they are, and incur the risk of new 
and expensive wars, to secure the privilege once enjoyed of doling out a 
few insignificant oftices to political friends and patrons. Neither do we 
<liscover that any marked aggrandizement will thereby accrue to the 
Army, though we may understand why contractors, speculators, and post- 
traders should clamor for the change. It is not the design of this report 
to discuss at length a subject whi(;h has occupied so large a share of 
])ublic attention the past three or four months, and ui)on which the in- 
telligent religious and moral sentiment of the country has been so clearly 
and empliatically ex])ressed. We content ourselves with the statement 
of a few simple reasons why the transfer should not be made. 

First. The Indimis th&tnselves, and especially the more eivilized tribes^ are 
opposed to it. 

There may be and doubtless are measures aifecting the welfare of the 
Indians, upon the expediency of which their wishes might and should 
be disregarded. Some may object to have their children attend school, 
assume the white man's dress, learn the English language, abandon 
polygamy, or in other respects conform to civilized modes of life; but the 
transfer question is altogether of a ditferent sort. As the Indians are 
the parties to be most affected, it is but simple justice that their wishes 
in a matter to them of such vital importance should be duly considered. 

Second. This action would be a constant source of irritation among the 
Indians, tchich would probably lead, to serious disturbances^ collisions, and 
wars. 

Xo people nor nation have a more vivid comprehension of the fact 
tliat the Army means force, constraint, subjection, than the Indians. For 
the government to place them under military control is and can be re- 
garded by them only as a menace. It says, "We have no faith in your 
professions of peace and friendship; you cannot be trusted; you are a 
poor, miserable, treacherous race of creatures whose presence and exist- 
ence have to be tolerated; but remember, we are your masters, and we 
have the means to compel strict obedience to orders, for our persuasive 
arguments are bayonets and bullets.'' 

It may be said this antipathy to military rule is the result of prejudice 
and ignorance on the part of the Indians. Prejudice or not, it would be 
difficult to persuade them that tlieir apprehensions are not well fcmnded. 

Third. This action tvould retard and, if persisted in, utterly defeat the 
cherished desire of the great body of the people of the country to see the red 
man civilized, made self sustaining, self-respected, and educated sufficiently 
to exercise intelligently the privileges and duties of citizenship. 

Tlie ultimate aim of all the humane and benevolent efforts in behalf 
of the Indian is to raise him to a higher scale of being by such a moral 
and intellectual training as shall render him capable of assuming and 
exercising all the rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizenship. The 
government will signally fail in its duty and be recreant to the trust it 
has assumed if it relaxes its energies before this object is accomplished. 

The soldier is bred to arms. His tastes, habits, associations, and 
traditions lead away from civil and domestic pursuits to military disci- 
pline, studies, and habits. The longer his service in the Army the more 
completely is he isolated from civil affairs, which eventually become irk- 
some and repugnant to his taste and inclinatiou. This past training, 



14 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

while it might not disqualify him for some of the duties of an ludimi 
agent, are not calculated nor designed to fit him for the practical duties 
of an instructor in the elements of education, or in the no less important 
duties of husbandry and kindred industrial i:)ursuits. It is not enough 
that there should be a farmer, teacher, &c., employed to instruct the 
Indians ; the agent must be not only the brains of the establishment, 
but be at all times ready, willing, and able to give practical aid and advice. 
His ability to do this secures their good-will, wins their respect and con- 
fidence, and to that extent increases his usefulness. In their estimation 
practical demonstration is more convincing than any amount of theory. 

The frequently avowed sentiments of men, high in military rank, 
toward the Indians, the expression of which would naturally intluence 
the opinions of those of inferior rank, are wholly incompatible with that 
humane and benevolent spirit which must animate the successful 
teacher of the arts of industry and peace ; the spirit that declares they 
must be "punished"; they must be struck a "hard blow"; they must be 
" wiped out " ; " we must act with vindictive earnestness against the Sioux 
to their extermination, men, women, and children"; which declares that 
" a vigorous and unrelenting war upon the savage and treacherous foe 
is the true policy to be pursued toward them; no good and lasting 
benefits to this country will result in a different course." It is submit- 
ted that the expression of such sentiments is scarcely consistent with 
that spirit whose highest ambition should be to promote habits of indus- 
try, encourage the cultivation of fields and flocks, train and educate an 
ignorant people that they may enjoy the blesshigs and comforts of civil 
ized life. 

Somewhat in contrast with this is the spirit which actuated him who 
was ''first in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen," 

By the President of the United States of America. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

Whereas I have received authentic inforinatioii that certain lawless and wicked 
persons of the western frontier, in the State of Georgia, did lately invade, burn, Htid 
destroy a town belonging to the Cherokee Nation, although in amity with the United 
States, and put to death several Indians of that nation ; and whereas such outrageous 
conduct not only violates the rights of humanity, but also endangers the public peace, 
and it highly becomes the honor and good faitii of the United States to pursue .-ill 
legal means for the punishment of these atrocious offeiulers : I have, therefore, thought 
fit to issue this, my proclamation, hereby exhorting all the citizens of the United 
States and requiring all the officers thereof, according to their respective stations, to 
use their utmost endeavors to apprehend and bring tliese otfenders to justice. Anil I 
do moreover offer a reward of $500 for each and any of the above-named persons who 
shall be so apprehended and brought to justice, and shall be proved to have assuuuMl 
or exercised any command or authority among the perjietrators of the crimes aforesaid 
at the time of committing the same. 

In testimony whereof I have caused the seal of the United States to be affixed 
to these presents, and signed the same with my hand. 

Done at the city of Philadelphia, the 12th day of December, in the year of our Lord 
1792, and of the Independence of the United States the 17th. 

By the President : 

GEORGE WASHINGTON. 

It is not doubted that treachery and cruelty have not unfrequently 
characterized the intercourse of some of the wild tribes with the whites, 
and it is equally certain that the whites were the first to cheat and im- 
pose upon these ignorant people, until their minds were so poisoned 
that in every white man, woman, or child they saw an enemy. 

The report of the Sioux committee declares : 

• The War Department, as its name indicates, is unsuited for the work of civiliza- 
tion ; officers of the Army are not fitted, either by education or training, to t^ach In- 
dian children to read and write, or Indian men to sow and reap. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 15 

Experience has shown that these people possess a human nature ; 
that they are not utterly devoid of good impulses, but in many instances 
have manifested a spirit of fidelity, friendship, and heroism which is not 
surpassed by the most notable achievements of ancient or modern times. 

We condense the following' as illustrations : 

Wlien the agent demanded of the Chief Keokuk the murderers of a 
white man, he was informed they were out of his reach, but he would 
consult with his tribe what course to pursue. He called them together, 
and having stated that an armed force would be sent into their nation 
to take the murderers, which would cause bloodshed, four young men of 
the tribe offered themselves as voluntary offerings to appease the venge- 
ance of the Great Father. They were taken by the chief to the agent 
who had them confined in jail to await their trial. The chief was made 
a witness at the trial, and stated the circumstances under which the four 
young men of his tribe had offered themselves as substitutes for the 
murderers, not doubting but they would expiate with their lives the 
murder of the white man. They had no other expectation than to be 
immediately executed. Of course they were discharged. In what civ- 
ilized and enlightened community shall we find a parallel of patriotism 
and true devotion ? 

One other incident strikingly illustrates the firmness with which, at 
least, some Indians hold to a plighted faith. General Scott, in one of 
his campaigns in the I^orthwest, found three Indian prisoners charged 
with murder. The evidence against them was slight, and an applica- 
tion was sent to Washington for their discharge. The President being 
absent, no answer was received. In the mean time the cholera broke 
out in the vicinity, from which one of the prisoners died. The general 
told the two survivors he would permit them to go to their tribe upon 
condition they would return to the camp as soon as he gave notice the 
cholera had disappeared. They agreed and went home, notwithstanding 
they were under a charge of murder. When General Scott informed the 
prisoners they must come in, they immediately did so. Such exalted 
traits of character compel respect. 

To these instances might be added the more recent exhibition of loy- 
alty by the Eed Cloud and Spotted Tail Sioux, in voluntarily surren- 
dering to the government the Cheyennes — their old neighbors — ^who 
fled to them for protection. 

Foiu'th. The present humane policy is more economical to the government 

This is the conclusion arrived at in the report of the joint commission 
of 1865, and it is believed the weight of testimony from official and other 
authoritative sources abundantly justify this conclusion. Certainly the 
watchfulness exercised by the Indian Bureau, supplemented by the super- 
vision by this board over the purchase, reception, inspection, transporta- 
tion, and delivery of supplies, as well as the personal inspection of the 
agencies, character, and amount of work done, cannot faU to insure rigid 
economy and efficiency of administration. 

Fifth. To trafisfer the Indians to the War Department ivould involve 
frequent changes of agents. 

As quoted from the report of the joint committee, the Indians are 
averse to change of superintendents or agents. The policy when once 
adopted, the plans pursued, and the men employed, should be changed 
only when absolutely necessary. The duties of military officers are 
liable to require their services in various parts of the country which 
would necessarily involve their removal and the substitution of others 
in their place. This would cause discontent, impede progress, and retard 
the work of improvement. 



16 EEPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Sixth. The care and management of the lands occupied hy the Indians 
should remain in the Interior Department. 

To transfer this branch of service to the War Department wouUi cause 
inextricable confusion, ^o one at all familiar with the magnitude and 
complication of this service and the immense pecuniary interests in- 
volved both to the government and the Indians, would for a moment 
recommend its removal from the department where it properly belongs. 

Already Congress is considering the enactment of laws giving Indians 
the right of taking homesteads on their reservations. This legislation 
will involve additional and important duties in connection with the 
immense land interests of the Indians which cannot appropriately be 
performed by the War Department. 

Seventh. The proximity of the Army to Indian settlements is debasing 
and corrupting to both. 

On this subject the following extract from the annual report of Su- 
perintendent ^Torton is conclusive: 

Of the state of the health and morals of the Navajoes you can form some idea from 
the inclosed report of the surgeon of the hospital and from the best information I could 
gather when I visited the Basque. The tale is not half told, because they liave such 
an aversion to the hospital that but few of those taken sick will ever go there. What 
a commentary is this on the humanity, Christianity, and ci\alization of the white man ! 
What a disgrace to the nation that 7,000 Indians, while held as prisoners of war, are 
thus treated ; that the family circle is invaded, and their women, tlieir wives and 
daughters, are thus prostituted and diseased by the embrace of licentious soldiery ! 
The only remedy for this unbridled sensuality and licentiousness must conu^. through 
the Secretary of War in an order, through the i^roper channels, to the commander of 
the post. 

Other and no less potent reasons might be given why the proposed 
transfer should not be made. 

The dictates of justice and humanity forbid it. 

The genius and traditions of our government in keeping the military 
subordinate to the civil authority are opposed to it. 

The progress of the Indians in morals and education would be para- 
lyzed. 

The religious and moral sentiment of the country are averse to it. 

The Army has enough to do already. 

The present condition of the Indians does not justify it. 

Let us show them our sympathies as men, aftbrd them protection as 
legislators, cease to violate treaty obligations, deal justly, cultivate their 
friendship, and the Army will have to seek other foes to fight, and remove 
to other fields for the display of its chivalry and valor. 

A. 0. BAKSTOAV. 
JOHN D. LANO. 
CLINTON B. FISK. 

B. EUSH EOBEKTS. 
E. M. KINGSLEY. 
WM. H. LYON. 

D. H. JEROME. 
CHARLES TUTTLE. 
WM. STICKNEY. 
The President. 



APPENDIX. 



EEPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Washington, January 4, 1879. 

Sir : The executive committee respectfully report that during the year 1878 they 
have examined 2,777 claims for annuity goods, supplies purchased by contract and in 
open market and transportation, amounting to $3, 204,. 500. 92, as well as 308 cash ac- 
counts of agents and superintendents, with vouchers for purchases, pay of employes, 
annuity payments, and other disbursements at the agencies, amounting to $1,259,608.38. 

Funds transferred by one disbursing officer to another are accounted for more than 
once, making the aggregate larger than the appropriations for the Indian service. 

Of the 3,085 accounts examined, 3,056 were ap])roved, 27 were suspended, and after 
correction or explanation approved, and 2 were disapproved. 

The cash accounts of agents have been in most cases approved, with some excep- 
tions on account of technical errors or other irregularities. 

The purchases in open market, rendered necessary by unforeseen exigencies, have 
amounted to an average of $20,866.45 per month. In 1877 the amount expended in this 
manner Avas $22,843.58 per month. 

The following is a tabulated statement of accounts examined : 

Unsettled claims amounting to $3,204,500 92 

Cash accounts amounting to 1, 259, 608 38 

Total ! 4,464,109 30 



The committee have also examined, copied, and approved 341 contracts for supplies 
and services of all kinds, and, as in former years, have had free access to the records 
of the Indian Office, and their inquiries and suggestions have received courteous atten- 
tion. 

WM. STICKNEY. 
B. RUSH ROBERTS.. 
E. M. KINGSLEY. 
A. C. Barstow, Chairman. 



REPORT OF THE PURCHASING COMMITTEE. 

New York, January, 15, 1879. 

Sir : The transactions of this department of the Indian service, during the past 
year, have been facilitated by the earlier passage of the Indian appropriation bill by 
Congress, and by the action of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in consolidating 
the principal purchases under two advertisements for proposals, of such magnitude as 
to attract the attention of the largest dealers, and thereby secure by sharj) competi- 
tion the most favorable conditions of the markets. 

The first, and by far the more important, of these lettings of contracts was held in 
New York, on Tuesday, June IP, 1878, at 11 a. m., when in the presence of the honor- 
able Commissioner of Indian Affairs, Hon. E. M. Marble representing the Department 
of the Interior ; Messrs. Barstow, Fisk, Stickney, Lang, Roberts, Lyon, Tuttle, and 
Kingsley, of the Boarl oJt^Indian Commissioners, and a large number of liddijrs, more 
than 350 sealed proposals were opened and publicly read, the work occupying more 
than six consecutive hours. 

An unusually large number and variety of localities and branches of industry were 
represented in the offerings, and for nearly every descrij)tion of manufactured goods 
the prices were unprecedentedly low. 

Guided by the experiences of former years, it had been determined that articles 

purchased should, so far as practicable, be delivered for inspection at the government 

warehouse, and the advertisements accordingly provided for such delivery. Thi* 

made it necessary that a warehouse of the largest size should be obtained fur the serA-;- 

2 I c 



18 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

ice, and, at the request of the department, your committee secured the first floor and 
basement of Nos, 61 and 63, Wooster street, the dimensions of which are 55 by 200 
feet, with kirge skylights in the center, and a frontage on two streets. 



Proposals for beef were first considered, and the conditions specified in the adver- 
tisement, which were designed to secure a better grade of beef than formerly, were 
rigidly enforced in executing contracts with satisfactory results so far as at present 
advised, although the prices were in some instances apparently higher than in former 
years. 

TRANSPORTATION. 

Bids for transportation were numerous, but the rates by railway were not as low as in 
some previous years, the trunk lines holding to established rates. Wagon transporta- 
tion is always subject to combinations or monopolies, and not free from them on this 
occasion. The removal of the great Sioux agencies afforded an opportunity for a 
scheme of larg^ prolit to freiL^hters, which was thwarted by a prompt movement of the 
C ■>mmis3iouer of Indian Affairs, in procuring wagons and haruessos in sufficient quan- 
tities to enable the Indians with their ponies, under th3 organization and direction of 
their agents, to haul their own supplies, at a great saving to themselves and the gov- 
ernment. 

BLANKETS. 

Awards for blankets were made to Messrs. John Dobson & Co., Philadelphia ; C. H. 
Amidown, New York ; Pioneer Woolen Mills, California. The latter were at a higher 
cost than the other competing goods, but your committee have no hesitation in the 
opinion that they were the better value and more regular in size and weight than 
those of the first above-named manufacturers. The foregoing articles were considered 
and the awards made by the united judgment of the honorable Commissioner and the 
Board of Indian Commissioners. 

For the remaining articles, inspectors Avere appointed to aid in determining the 
awards. These were men eminent for their experience and sound judgment in their 
respective departments of trade, whose names are as follows : 

Mr. J. Hugh Peters, of Messrs. Booth & Edgar, for sugars. 

Mr. H. Farrington, for coffee, teas, and general groceries. 

Mr. James Wilde, jr., for clothing. 

Mr. L. G. Woodhouse (of Messrs. Field, Leiter & Co.), and Mr. Noah Loder, of late 
Loder & Lockwood, New York, for dry goods. 

Mr. W. A. Hall, of Benedict & Hall, for boots and shoes. 

Mr. William H. Hurlbut, for hats and caps. 

Mr. William Best, for tobacco. 

Mr. LaCoste, of Messrs. William Bryce & Co., and E. L. Cooper, for hardware. 

Mr. John D. Dix, of Messrs. Dix and Morris, for medical supplies. 

Mr. A. Hageman, for harness and saddlery. 

Mr. Thomas King, for oils, paints, &c. 

Dr. Henry A. Mott, jr., analytical chemist. 

CLOTHING. 

The contracts for clothing were mainly to Messrs. Wanamaker & Co., Philadelphia ; 
Messrs. Newburger& Hochstadter, Philaflelphia; Messrs. Naumberg, Kraus & Lauer, 
New York. The prices were low and the deliveries satisfactory. 

^ DRY GOODS. 

Messrs. H. B. Claflin & Co., Dunham,' Buckley & Co., and Van Volkenburgh, Beach 
& Co. were tin; larger successful bidders for dry goods. Standard manufactures were 
generally selected, and at very low prices. 

SUGARS. 

The offerings of sugar were found to be above the market quofwitions, therefore only 
two proposals, for 28,000 pounds and 150,000 pounds, respectively, were accepted; the 
remainder of the quantity required (800,000 pounds), under a new advertisement, was 
secured at more satisfactory prices from a better line of samples. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 19 



COFFEE. 

The award for coffee was made to Messrs. Rowland & Hnmplireys for 377,000 pounds, 
at 15.35 cents per ])ouiid, and abont 90,000 ponnds to Reeves, Osboni «fc Co., at .15.36 
cents per ponnd; all of which was i)roiuptly delivered and of excellent value. 

HARDWARE. 

The very j:n'eat variety of articles embraced nnder this head attracted nnmerous 
l>ids from widely-scattered points — ^from the Atlantic coast to far beyond the Alissis- 
8ipi)i. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. 

Hitherto this class of supplies has been purchased in small lots, in markets near the 
agencies where they were needed ; but it was deemed worthy of experiment to include 
them in the general advertisement, and the result has been satisfactory, inasmuch as 
sharp competition has been elicited, and the awards fell generally among the manu- 
facturers in the West most convenient to the lines of transportation, and consequently 
most economical in delivery. 

MEDICAL SUPPLIES. 

Tliis award was made to Mr. O. H. Jadwin, of New York City, in early July, but 
the pressure of business at the warehouse made it impossible, with the clerical force 
employed, to prepare the proper requisitions for the several agencies until several 
weeks had elapsed, and the first delivery was made September 21, too late to reach 
their destination for use when most needed, during the heats of summer and chills of 
early autunm. It is feared that many lives have been sacrificed by this delay, and 
your committee are confident that the honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs fully 
appreciates the imperative necessities of the service in this regard. 

The deliveries of goods under contracts were generally satisfactory, the important 
exceptions being as follows : 

Red flannel shirts delivered under one of the two contracts were rejected, then re- 
delivered to be again rejected. An open-market purchase was then made for the quan- 
tity rejected, under which it is believed the same goods were again delivered, but 
accepted at a discount of about 12 per cent., only because the proper season of ship- 
ment d«'manded haste. 

A delivery of white lead was regarded unfavorably by the inspector, and being ana- 
lyzed, was found to contain 'io per cent, of barytes. Being rejected, the contracting 
party replaced it with a standard quality. 

SAN FRANCISCO LETTING. 

Proposals for supplies required at agencies on the Pacific coast were opened, pur- 
suant to advertisement, at San Francisco, on the 26th of September, in the presence of 
Commissioner Lyon, of this committee, and representatives from the department at 
Washington. 

It was ascertained that, from some cause, a feeling of distrust as to the fairness with 
which these lettings are conducted had obtained in the mercantile community, which 
Commissioner Lyon by personal intercourse with prominent merchants succeeded in 
removing or allaying, and offerings were received from first-class houses. Inspectors 
of high repute were secured to assist in determining the awards, and it is believed that 
very much was accomplished in dissipating the prejudices which heretofore have 
existed. Prices appeared high to those familiar with the markets of Atlantic cities, 
but perhaps not too high when the cost of transportation is added. In the alternate 
years of short Congressional sessions, when ample time is thus afforded, it is believed 
that many articles required by those distant agencies might profitably be included in 
the larger purchases iu the East. 

INSPECTORS AND INSPECTION. 

Recent public discussions in Congress and elsewhere suggest the propriety of defin- 
ing more minutely the particular duties of inspectors employed in the work specially 
supervised by this committee, aud often mentioned in the reports of the Board of 
Indian Connnissioners. 

In the first j)lace, we may say they are not the three general inspectors authorized 
bj' statute, and appointed by the President for the special purpose of visiting and in- 
specting the several agencies for report to the Secretary of the Interior or the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs. With these officers, the relations of the Board of Indian Com- 
missioners is only incidental — no direct control over them being assumed or sought. 

Iu the second place, they are not employed or appointed "ew pennanence" nor are 
they ever selected from Army officers by your committee; the duties required being 
l)urely mercantile, only merchants are selected for their performance. Occasionally 
the department has found it necessary to call uj)ou the Army for an inspector of small 
purchases at or near the agencies, but for these comparatively trifling exceptional 
iusx)ections this committee assumes no resiionsibility and offers no criticism. 



20 REPORT OP THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

The inspectors cliosen by this committee are selected from manufacturers or dealers, 
who are practically experts in their particular departments of trade, i)rimarily to aid 
the government in securing by its awards the best values at the lowest prices at 
which the articles required are oftered, and secondarily to certify that the articles 
delivered, having been carefully compared with the original sanqiles, which are re- 
tained for this purpose, are fully equal to the samples upon which the awards were 
made; their decisions in all cases being subject to the approval or disapx)roval of the 
X)urchasing comndttee and the Indian Department. 

Under this rigid mercantile system of inspection, we maintain that the service, up 
to the point of delivery at the agencies, is guarded from error and corruption as 
thoroughly as any other department of the public service. 

There remains another point of peril which is not so readily under the eye and hand 
of your committee, and which has been the subject of the severest, not to say wihlest, 
criticisms from divers quarters. We refer to the issues by the agents to the Indians 
themselves. Driven from every other point of attack, the whole army of critics 
make their stand here, and to this no objection is olfered, but rather desired, if abso- 
lute facts be adhered to. 

Your committee have not been unmindful of this difficulty, nor have the members 
of the board, but in all the visits the members thereof have been able to make to the 
difterent agencies, careful inquiries and personal examinations on these points have 
had their first attention. 

A larger number of agencies have been visitecl than in former years, both by the 
commissioner personally and by their special agents. Sisseton, Fort Berthold, Fort 
Peck, Crow Creek, Lower Brul^., Yankton, Standing Eock, Red Cloud, and Spotted 
Tail Agencies were visited, under direction of your committee, by Mr. E. N. Stebbins, 
a former member of the Board of Indian Conmiissioners, in March, April, May, and 
June. Commissioners Fisk and Stickney visited Colorado and Indian Territory in 
July and August. Commissioner Barstow visited two Wisconsin agencies in Septem- 
ber and October. Commissioner Lyon visited California in September and October. 
Conmiissioner Kingsley, in company with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, visited 
the captive Nez Percys, the Modocs, the Quapaws, the Osages, Pawnees, Poncas, and 
Kaws, in the Indian Territory, in October. Mr. Abraham L. Earle left New York in 
November, under apj)ointment from the president of the board and direction of your 
committee, to visit the agencies in New Mexico and Arizona. 

Reports of each of these visits, Mr. Earle's excepted (he being still engaged in that 
work), are submitted herewith, and will be found in the Appendix. 

It is with no small degree of satisfaction that your committee are enabled to state 
that, of the character of supplies issued at the agencies during the i^ast year, but one 
unfavorable rejiort has reached them, and when carefully investigated this was found 
erroneous. 

We may more concisely describe the methods in use in this department of our work 
under several divisions as follows : 

First. Proposals are opened and read in public. 

Second. Awards for transportation and beef cattle are made upon the united judg- 
ment of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and the Board of Commissioners. 

Third. Contracts, other than the above, are awarded by the Connnissioner of In- 
dian Affairs and the purchasing committee of the board, aided by well-known experts. 

Fourth. These experts compare carefully the goods delivered, and certify to their 
accuracy in quality, or if found inferior, report accordingly. 

Fifth. Books of record are kept, both by the department officials and the purchasing 
connuittee, by which every package received can be traced from the contractor who 
delivers to the contractor who transports, after having been weighed and properly 
marked. 

Sixth. The large and bulky articles of sugar and coffee, after inspection are accom- 
panied by trusty clerks to the shipping points, and their actual receipt on board w it- 
uessed and duly recorded. 

Seventh. The faithful delivery at the agencies and the issuing of these supplies to 
the Indians is made the subject of constant inquiry and personal investigation. 

As a result of such a system, your committee are confident that, notwithstanding 
admitted imi)erfectiou8, the substantial integrity of this service cannot be gainsaid. 

Your committee found it necessary to employ a clerk and a porter at the warehouse, 
to enable them to obtain and preserve a faithful and reliable record of the season's 
transactions. The services of Mr. Abraham L. Earle were secured for the responsible 
part of this Avork, and through his intelligent discharge of the duties assigned him 
we are able to exhibit the record of every x^ackage received from contractors, with 
that of their delivery into the custody of the lines of transportation with which the 
government had accepted contracts. Your committee are therefore prepared to affirm, 
in regard to the supplies purchased under the advertisement of May 24, that the 
awards were made under their X)ersonal supervision, and so far as said supplies were 
handled in New York, they were received, inspected, weighed, marked, and shipped 
under their direction and care, a permanent daily record of their own, independent of 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



21 



the records of the department, having been kept for reference and information as oc " 
casion may hereafter require. 

PAYMENTS. 

Your committee took occasion in its last annual report to call attention to the fact 
that some of the best merchants hesitate to submit proposals for furuishing supplies 
because of the uncertainties of prompt settlement for their invoices ; and the irregular- 
ities which have occurred during the year under review in this respect make it nec- 
essary that the special attention of the Departments of the Interior and the Treasury 
be again invoked for some adequate remedy. 

Careful inquiry and examination enable us to certify that no unnecessary delay is 
chargeable to the office of the Board of Indian Commissioners; the average detention 
in hands of its executive committee being less than live days. 

The Commissioner of Indian Affairs, at the opening of bids in New York, announced 
to the assembled bidders, that if care was taken by them to observe and comply with 
the prescribed formula in making up their claims, they might expect payment in 
about thirty days from date of invoice, and probably in some instances this result has 
been realized, yet in others three and four months have elapsed, to the very great incon- 
venience and loss of the contractor. The credit of the government ought not thus to be 
depreciated, and to prevent such a calamity it is hereby recommended that the Board 
of In<liau Commissioners shall authorize its purchasing committee to employ a compe- 
tent person during the three or four months immediately following the letting of con- 
tracts, Avhose duty shall be to expedite the passage of vouchers through the necessary 
offices at Washington, so that contractors may be assured of sixty days as a maximum 
date of settlement. 

Respectfully submitted. 

E. M. KINGSL£Y, 

Chairman. 

Hon. A. C. Barstow, 

Chairman of Board of Indian Commissioners. 



Abstract of awards made in Xew York City under advertisement of May 24, 1878. 

BEEP. 



Names. 



Quantity. 



Price. 



Where delivered. 



Allen, E.B 

Do 

Bosler, J. W 

Do 

Bell, F. H 

Do 

Baker, I. G 

Clark, N.P 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Goldberg, G 

Hood, Calvin 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Harvey, S. S 

McCranor, D 

Noble, W.P 

Probst & Kirche«er 

Power, T. C 

Stevens, F. S 

Staab, Z 

Do 

Do 

Walz, E. A 

Do 

Do 



Lbs. gross. 


Per 100 lbs. 


6, 000, 000 


$2 33 


6, 500, 000 


2 39 


1, 000, 000 


3 45 


400, 000 


3 45 


300, 009 


1 95 


225, 000 


2 15 


700, 000 


2 40 


900, 000 


2 87H 


900, 000 


2 87y 


1, 050, 000 


2 87#g 


50, 000 


3 69 


2, 220, 000 


2 87|e- 


50, 000 


2 90 


3, 750, 000 


2 691 


2, 250, 000 


2 69J 


800, 000 


2 69 


500, 000 


2 69 


500, 000 


2 69i 


100, 000 


2 m 


800, 000 


2 69i 


1, 375, 000 


2 03* 


120, 000 


2 35 


800, 000 


3 00 


(net) 6, 000 


3 00 


400, 000 


2 90 


400, 000 


2 70 


250, 000 


2 75 


450, 000 


2 75 


100, 000 


2 45 


3, 000, 000 


2 87* 


1, 000, 000 


2 18i 


350, 000 


2 56 



Red Cloud Agency, Dak. 

Spotted Tail Agency, Dak. 

Yankton, Agency, Dak. 

Santee Agency, Xebr. 

Blackfeet Agency, Mont. 

Fort Belknap Agency, Mont. 

Fort Peck Agency Mont. 

Crow Creek Agency, Dak. 

Cheyenne River Agency, Dak. 

Lower Brul6 Agency, l)ak. 

Sisseton Agency, Dak. 

Standing Rock Agency, Dak. 

Uintah Agency, Utah". 

Cheyenne andArapahoe Agenev, Ind. Ter. 

Kiowa and Comanche Agency, Ind. Ter. 

Osage Agency, Ind. Ter. 

Pawnee Agency, Ind. Ter. 

Ponca Agency, Ind. Ter. 

Sac and Fox Agency, Ind. Ter. 

Wichita Agency, Dak. 

Crow Agency, Mont. 

Lemhi Agency, Idaho. 

Shoshone Agency, Wyo. 

Pueblo Agency, "X. Mex. 

Fort Berthold Agency, Dak. 

Fort Hall Agency, Idaho, 

Los Pinos Agency, Colo. 

Southern Ute Agency, Colo, 

Abiquiu Agency, N, Mex. 

San Carlos Agency, Ariz. 

Mescalero Agency, N. Mex. 

Navajo Agency, N. Mex. 



22 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



Abstract of awards made in New York City, <f-c. — Contiuued. 
BAKING POWDER. 



Xaiues. 


Quantity. 


Price. 


Where delivered. 


Durkee, E.R.,&Co 

Do 


Pounds. 
29, 290 


Per lb. 

$0 24i 
22i 


Xew York City. 
Do. 









BEAXS. 



Eoseiibaum, L . . . 
Wiiiir, D., &Bro. 



Pounds. 
30, 000 
163. 170 



Per 100 lbs. 
$7 50 
2 75 



San Carlos Agency, Ariz. 
Chicago, III. 



BACOX. 



Armour, Plankiuton & Co 

Do 

Goldberg, G 

Do 

Merriam, J. L 

McCranor, l3 

Power. T. C 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Thompson, John 



unds. 

27, 500 


136, 500 


26, 000 


500 


352, 000 


4(000 


8,000 


25, 000 


40, 000 


10, 000 


60, 000 



100 lbs. 


$6 24 


6 80 


14 50 


16 00 


6 00 


13 00 


9 15 


11 35 


7 20 


7 00 


7 24 



Chicago, 111. 
Kansas City, Mo. 
Shoslume xigfmcy, Wyo. 
Uintah, Utah. 
Sioux City, Iowa. 
Lemhi, Idaho. 
Blakfeet, Mout. 
Crow, Mont. 
Fort Peck, Mont. 
Fort Bertliold, Mont. 
Standing Rock, Dak. 



BARLEY. 



Parshall, W. A 



Pounds. 
25, 000 



Per 100 lbs. 
$3 25 



San Carlos, Ariz. 



CORN. 





Pounds. 

9,000 

600 

34, 000 

1, 150, 000 

150, 000 

50, 000 

100, 000 

40, 000 

30, 000 

80, 000 

150, 000 

22, 000 

25, 000 

20, 000 

300, 000 


Per 100 lbs. 

'im 

1 29 
70 
1 38 
1 33 
1 34 
3 40 

3 45 

4 73 
3 85 

3 00 

4 15 
4 15 
3 75 


Red Cliff, Minn. 

Dulutli, Minn. 

Detroit, Minn. 

Wichita. 

Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency 

Cheyenne River, Dak. 

Standing Rock, Dak. 

Abiquiu, N. Mex. 

Mescalero Apache, 1^. Mex. 

Southern Ute, Colo. 

Navajo, Ariz. 

Pueblo, Ariz. 

Shoshone, Wyo. 

San Carlos, Ariz. 




Do 




Clark, N. P 








Haywood, R. C 

McVav, J. C 


Ind. Ter. 


Do .. 




Staab, Z 




Do 




Do 








Do 




WeUs, A. W 




Do 




Zeckendorf, L 









COFFEE. 



Barr, Lally & Co 

Rowland & Humphreys . 



Pounds. 
90, 000 
377, 000 



Per 100 lbs. 
$15 35 
15 36 



New York. 
Brooklyn. 



FEED. 



Austrian, J . . . 

Do 

Do 

Maxfield, L. H 




Audubon. 
Brainerd. 
Red Clift". 
Audubon. 



REPOKr OP THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



23 



Abstract of awards made in New Yoi'k City, <^'C. — Continued. 
FLOUR. 



Xames. 



Austrian, J 

Baker, I. G 

Goldberg, G 

Do 

Hulling, L. and H 

Harvey, S.S 

Johnston, G. W . . 

Kellv, P.H 

Maxtield, L. H . . . 

Do 

Do 

Miner, W 

Mason & Hottel.. 

McCi'aiior, D 

Newman, A. A. . . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Parsball. \Y.A .. 

Power, T.C 

Staab, Z 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Wells, A. W 

Zeckendort; W . . 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

3,500 

50, 000 

180, 000 

20, 000 

12, 500 

300, 000 

25,000 

2, 000, 000 

20, 000 
200, 000 
100, 000 

1, 000, 000 
80, 000 
50, 000 
100, 000 
300, 000 
600, 000 
150, 000 

21, 000 
45, 000 
50,000 

160, 000 

50,000 

73, 000 

20, 000 

125, 000 

120, 000 

80, 000 

100, 000 

600, 000 



Price. 



"Where delivered. 



100 lbs. 1 


$2 75 


5 35 


3 60 


6 00 


6 00 


5 12* 


2 50 


2 15 


2 37 


1 83 


2 49 


2 25 


2 84 • 


6 12 


3 65 


3 95 


3 29 


2 55 


3 55 


3 75 


7 50 


5 45 


4 80 


3 60 


4 67J 


4 92 


5 74 


5 74 


3 70 


6 15 



Brainerd. 

Fort Belknap. 

Foi-t HaU. 

Uintah. 

Moqviis Pueblo. 

Crow. 

Detroit. 

Sioux City. 

Duluth. 

Hermann. 

Jamestown. 

Yankton. 

Bryan. 

Lemhi. 

Wichita. 

Kiowa and Comanche. 

Cheyenne and Arapahoe. 

Ponca. 

Sac and Fox. 

Do. 
Colorado River. 
Blackfeet. 
Abiquiu. 
Cimarron. 
Mescalero Apache. 
Navajo. 
Los Pinos. 
Southern Ute. 
Rawlins. 
San Carlos. 



HAT. 



Parshall, W. A 

Do 

Spiegelberg, L 



Pounds. 
20, 000 
60, 000 
40, 000 



Per 100 lbs. 
$2 00 

1 50 

2 00 



Colorado River. 
San Carlos. 
Pueblo. 



HOMTNY. 



Smith, W. H 



Pounds. 
103, 100 



Per 100 lbs. 
$1 80 



Saint Louis. 



LARD. 



Power, T.C. 
Do ... 




Chicago. 
Do. 



HARD BREAD. 



Gameau, J., & Co 



Pounds. Per 100 lbs. 
176, 000 $3 50 



Saint Louis. 



MESS PORK. 



Austrian, J... 

Do 

Maxfield, L. H 

Do 

Do 

Merriam, J. L. 




Brainerd City. 
Jamestown. 
Duluth. 
Hermann. 
Red Clitr. 
Sioux City. 



24 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



Abstract of awards made in Xew Yoi-lc City, ^c. — Continued. 
OATS. 



Xames. 


Quantity. 


Price. 


"Wliere delivered. 


Austrian J ..... ... 


Pounds. 
6,400 
73, 470 
20, 000 
25, 000 
10 000 


Per 100 lbs. 
$1 62i 
1 00 
3 75 
1 68 
S 4.8 


Brainerd City. 
Sioux City. 
Lemhi Agency. 
Standing Kock Agency. 
Blackfeet Agency. 
Fort Peck Agency. 




McC'ranor, D 

McVay, J.C 

Power T. C 


i)o 


10, 000 1 2 00 









PEMMICAN. 



Clark, N". P 




Fort Berthold Agency. 



SALT. 



Austrian, J . . . 

Do 

Do 

Goldberg, G . . 
MaxfleW, L. H 
McCranor, D.. 

Do 

Power, T.C... 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Rosenbaum, L 
Spiegelberg, L 

Do 



Pounds. 


Per 100 lbs 


3,360 


$1 00 


3,040 


1333 


2,840 


50 


1,000 


6 00 


4,200 


3 50 


3,000 


3 50 


1,000 


5 50 


3,000 


3 75 


2,800 


3 50 


4,000 


1 19 


7,560 


1 19 


5,000 


1 50 


15, 000 


1 60 


2,000 


1 19 


21, 000 


1 19 


2,920 


1 19 


23, 000 


1 19 


15, 000 


1 19 


8,000 


1 19 


16, 000 


4 50 


1,000 


8 00 


7,500 


8 00 



Brainerd City. 
Jamestown. 
Eed Cliff. 
Uintah Agency. 
Sisseton Agency. 
Fort Hall Agency. 
Lemhi Agency. 
Blackfeet Agency. 
Belknap Agency. 
Crow Creek Agency. 
Cheyenne River Agency. 
Fort Berthold Agency. ' 
Fort Peck Agency. 
Lower Bral^ Agency. 
Red Cloud Agency. 
Santee Agency. 
Spotted Tail Agency. 
Standing Rock Agency. 
Yankton Agency. 
San Carlos Agency. 
Abiquiu Agency. 
Mescalero Agency. 



SOAP. 



Bell, F.H. 



Pounds. 
107, 060 



Per 100 lbs. 
$4 40 



New York City. 



SUGAR. 



Goldberg, G 

Howard, Enoch 

Masterton, R. M 

Power, T.C 

Thurber, H. K. & F. B., &Co 
Do 



Pounds. 
28, 000 


300, 000 


100, 000 


351,400 


200, 000 


200, 000 



Per 100 lbs. 

$16 50 

7 79 

7 75 

8 24 
7 98 
7 85 



Shoshone Agency. 
New York City. 

Do. 
Chicago. 
New York. 

Do. 



SODA. 


IDurkee, E. R 


Pounds. 
6,263 


Per 100 lbs. 
$6 20 
5 56 






New York. 



REPORT OF THE BOARE OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 
Abstract of awards made in New York City, ^c. — Continued. 



TEA. 



WHEAT. 



25 



Names. 


Quantity. 


Price. 


"Where delivered. 


Beeve, Osbom & Co 


Founds. 
7,215 


Per lb. 
$0 26i 


New York. 



Austrian, J . . . 
Cramer, A. J.. 

Do 

Goldberg, G . . 
Haywood, E. C 

Do 

Parshall, W. A 
Staab, Z 



Pounds. 


1,000 


200, 000 


180, 000 


9,000 


500, 000 


320, 000 


20, 000 


500, 000 



Per 100 lbs, 


$2 12i 


1 29 


1 46 


6 00 


1 64 


1 73 


3 25 


3 94 



Red Cliff Agrency. 
Santee Agency. 
Yankton Agency. 
Uintah Agency. 
Osage Agency. 
Pawnee Agency. 
San Carlos Agency. 
Navajo Agency. 



TRANSPORTATION. 



Name. 



Booth, L. F 
Do.... 



Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



From — 



New York, Philadelphia, and 

Baltimore. 
do 



.do 

.do 

.do 
.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

• do 

.do 



Saint Louis 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do...., 



To— 



San Carlos Agency 

Bismarck, Dak 

Crow Creek, Dak 

Cheyenne River, Dak 

Jamestown, Dak 

Lower Brul6, Dak 

Standing Rock, Dak 

Sioux City, Iowa 

Audubon, Minn 

Brainerd, Minn 

Detroit, Minn 

Herman, Minn 

Saint Paul, Minn 

Omaha, Nebr 

Sidney, Nebr 

Bismarck, Dak 

Cheyenne River Agency, Dak 
Lower Brul6 Agency, l)ak — 
Standing Rock Agency, Dak.. 

Sioux City, Iowa , 

Omaha, IsVbr , 

Sidney, Nebr , 



Price. 



$2 40 

1 60 
1 25 
1 15 
1 15 
1 05 
90 
1 27i 
1 17 



02i 



10 

00 

85 

33 

23 

1 03 

80 

70 

55 

1 40 

1 25 

1 08 

1 20 

1 10 

1 00 

1 39 

1 29 

1 10 

1 40 

1 32 

1 10 

80 

70 

55 

1 40 

1 19 

1 09 

2 55 
2 45 
2 30 

95 

82i 

65 

87i 

36 

1 00 

2 45 



26 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



Abstract of awards made in New York City, ^c. — Continued. 
TRANSPORTATION^. 



Name. 



From— 



Booth, L. F 
Do... 



Bair 



Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 
Baker, I. G. 

Do... 

Do... 

J.C. 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 
Fenlon, E . . 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do., 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do. 
Do.. 
Do.. 



Chicago. 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Saint Louis 

Chicago 

Saint I^aul 

Saint Louis 

do 

Chicago 

V^V. do '/"////// "/.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. 

Saint Paul 

do 

do 

do 

Sioux City 

do 

Duluth 

.....do 

do 

do 

do 

Bismarck 

do 

do 

New York, Philadelphia, and 

Baltimore. 
do , 



.do, 

.do. 

.do 

.do, 

.do 

.do, 

.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 



Saint Louis 

do ...., 

, do.... 

, do.... 

do.... 

do .... 

do .... 

do .... 

, do.... 

do .... 

do.... 

do .... 

Chicago 

do 

do .... 

do .... 

do..-. 



To— 



ElMoro, Colo.. 
Bismarck, Dak. 



Crow Creek Agency, Dak 

Cheyenne River Agency, Dak 

Jamestown, Dak .' 

Lower Brul6 Agency, Dak 

Standing Rock Agency, Dak . . 

Sioux City, Iowa '. 

Audubon, Minn 

Brainerd, Minn , 

Detroit, Minn 

Herman, Minn 

Saint Paul, Minn 

Omaha, Nebr 

Sidney, Nebr 

Crow Agency, Mont 

do 

do 

Blackfeet Agency, Mont 

Fort Belknap, Mont 

Blackfeet Agency, Mont 

Crow Agency, Mont 

Fort Belknap, Mont 

Fort Berthold, Mont 

Blackfeet, Mont 

Crow, Mont 

Fort Belknap, Mont 

Crow Agency, Mont 

Fort Peck Ageucv, Mont 

Fort Berthold, Dak 

Blackfeet Agency, Mont 

Crow Agency, Mont 

Fort Belknap Agency, Mont . • 

Fort Peck Agency, Mont 

Fort Berthold Agency, Dak . . . 
Blackfeet Agency, Mont...... 

Crow Agency, Mont 

Caddo, Ind. Ter 



Cheyenneand Arapahoe Agency, Ind. T 
KiowaAgency, Ind. Ter 



Kaw Agency, Ind. Ter 

Osage Agency, Ind. Ter 

Pawnee Agency, Ind. Ter 

Sac and Fox Agency, Ind. Ter. 

"Wichita Agency, Ind. Ter 

Baxter Springs, E^ans 

CoflfeyviUe, Kans 

Wichita, Kans 



Kansas City, Mo. 



Caddo, Ind. Ter 

Cheyenneand Arapahoe Agency, Ind. T 

KiowaAgency, Ind. Ter 

Kaw Agency, Ind. Ter 

Osage Agency, Ind. Ter , 

Pawnee Agency, Ind. Ter 

Sac and Fox Agency, Ind. Ter 

Wichita Agency, Ind. Ter 

Baxter Springs, Kans 

Coffey ville, Kans 

Wichita, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Caddo, Ind. Ter 

Cheyenne and Arapahoe Agency, Ind. T 

Kaw Agency, Ind. Ter 

Osage Agency, Ind. Ter 

Pawnee Agency, Ind. Ter 



EEPOET OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONEES. 



27 



Abstract of awards made in New York City, ^-c. — Continued. 
TRANSPORTATION— Continued. 



Names. 



renlon, E 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Goldberc.G 

Hay woocl, R. C 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Leopold & Austrian . . . 

Do 

McGarry, J 



rroui- 



To— 



Chicago 

.'.'.'.'.'.do'.'.'.'. 

do.... 

do.... 

do ... 

Saint Paul . 

do.... 

do .... 

do .... 

do .... 

do.... 

do.-., 

do..., 

do .... 

do .... 

do .... 

Lawrence . 

do ... 

do ... 

do... 

do ... 

do ... 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do 
Do. 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

McNutt, J. W 

Do 

Noble,\V.P.-. 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

.... do 

Coffey ville 

do 

do 

.... do 

Caddo 

do 

Salt Lake 

Wichita 

do 

do 

do 

do 

, do 

Arkansas 

Chicaso 

New York, Philadelphia, and 
Baltimore. 

do 

do 

do 



.do 



Saint Louis , 

do 

do 

Chicago 

do 

do 



Newman, A. A "Wichita 

I'eck, C. K Missouri River 



Saint Paul . 

do ... 

do .... 

Sioux City . 

, do — 

, do.... 

do ..., 

Bismarck . . 

Coriui © 

Franklin.. . 
Bryan 



Sac and Fox, Ind. Ter. 
AVichita, Ind. Ter 



Spieg«lberg, L New York, Philadelphia, and 

Baltimore. 
Do I do 



Baxter Springs, Kans 

CoffeyviHe, Ivans • 

Wichita, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Caddo, Ind. Ter 

Cheyenneand Arapahoe Agency, Ind. T 

Kiowa Agency, Ind. Ter 

Kaw Agency, Ind. Ter 

Osage Agency, Ind. Tor 

Pawnee Agency, Ind. Ter 

Sac and Fox Agency, Ind. Ter . . 

Wichita Agency, Iiid. Ter - . 

Baxter Springs, Kans 

Coffey ville, Kans 

AVictiita, Kans 

Caddo, Ind. Ter 

Cheyenne and Arapahoe, Ind. Ter 

Kiowa Agency, Ind. Ter 

Kaw Agency, Ind. Ter 

Osage Agency, Ind. Ter 

Pawnee Agency, Ind. Ter. 

Sac and Fox Agency, Ind. Ter 

Wichita Agency, Ind. Ter 

Baxter Springs, Kans 

Coffeyvill(\ Kans 

Wichita, Kans 

Kansas City, Mo 

Kaw A<^ency, Ind. Ter 

Osage Agency, Ind. Ter 

Pawnee Agency, Ind. Ter 

Sac and Fox Agency, Ind. Ter 

Kiowa Agency, Ind; Ter 

Wichita Agency, Ind. Ter 

Uintah Agency, Utah 

Cheyenneand Arapahoe Agency, Ind. T, 

Kiowa, Ind. Ter 

Sac and Fox, Ind, Ter 

Absentee Shawnee Station, Ind. Ter. .. 

Kickapoo Station, Ind. Ter 

Baxter Springs, Kans 

Sac and Fox Agency, Ind. Ter , 

Duluth, Minn 

Bayfield, Wis , 

Fort Hall Agency, Idaho 



Lemhi, Idaho 

Blackfeet Agency, Mont. 
Flathead Agency, Mont. . 



Price. 



Fort Belknap Agency, Mont. 



Fort Hall Agency, Idaho 
Lemhi A gen'cy, Idaho . . . 
Flathead Agency, Mont. . 
Fort Hall Agency, Idaho 
Lemhi Agency, Idaho . . . 
Flathead Agency, Mont. . 



Fort Hall Agency, Idaho 

Lemhi Agency, Idaho 

Flathead Agency, Mont 

Fort Hall Agenw, Idaho 

Lemhi Agency, Idaho 

Flathead Agency, Mont 

Fort Belknap Agency, Mont. 

do 

Fort Hall Agency, Idaho 

do 

Shoshone Agency, Wyo 



Ponca Agency, Ind. Ter 

Any point on Missouri River 



San Carlos, Ariz . . . 
Fort Garland, Colo. 



$3 15 
3 25 
1 55 
1 55 

1 80 
95 
75 

2 88 
2 70 
2 05 
2 05 
2 35 
2 55 



28 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



Abstract of awards made in New Yorh City, ^c. — Continued. 
TRANSPORTATION. 



Names. 



Prom — 



Spiegelberg, L 



1)0. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
taab, Z. 

Do. 
Do. 



New York, Philadelphia, and 
Baltimore. 

.....do 

do 

do 

do .-■: 

Saint Louis 

do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Chicago 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Saint Paul 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Pittsburgh 

......do 

do 

do 

.....do 

, do 

do 

do 

do 

Trinidad 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Denver 

do 

do 

Lawrence 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

El Mord 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Pueblo 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

New York, Philadelphia, 
and Baltimore. 

do 

Saint Louis 



Abiquiu Agency, N. Mex 

Cimarron Agency, N. Mex 

Mescalero Agency, N. Mex 

Navajo Agency, N. Mex 

Pueblo Agency, N. Mex 

San Carlos Agency, Ariz 

El Moro, Colo 

Fort Garland, Colo 

Abiquiu Agency, N. Mex 

CimaiTon Agency, N. Mex 

Mescalero Agency, N. Mex 

Navajo Agency, N. Mex 

Pueblo Agency, N. Mex 

San Carlos Agency, Ariz 

Fort Garland, Colo 

Abiquiu Agency, N. Mex 

Cimanon Agency, N. Mex 

Mescalero Agency, N. Alex 

Navajo Agency, N. Mex 

Pueblo Agency, N. Mex 

San Carlos Agency, Ariz 

El Moro, Colo 

Fort Garland, Colo 

Los Pinos Agency, Colo 

Abiquiu Agency, N. Mex , 

CimaiTon Agency, N. Mex 

Mescalero Agency, N. Mex 

Navajo Agency, N. Mex 

Pueblo Agency, N. Mex , 

San Carlos Agency, Ariz 

El Moro, Colo 

Fort Garland, Colo 

Los Pinos Agency, Colo 

Abiquiu Agency, N. Mex , 

Cimarron Agency, N. Mex 

Mescalero Agency, N. Mex 

Navajo Agency, N. Mex 

Pueblo Agency, N. Mex 

San Carlos Agency, Ariz 

Fort Gailand, Colo 

Los Pinos Agency, Colo 

Abiquiu Agency, N. Mex 

Cimari'on Agency, N. Mex 

Mescalero Agency, N Mex 

Navajo Agency, N. Mex 

Pueblo Agency, N. Mex 

San Carlos Agency, Ariz 

El Moro, Colo . . . '. 

Fort Gaiiand, Colo 

San Carlos Agency, Ariz 

El Moro, Colo 

Forti Garland, Colo 

Los Pinos Agency, Colo 

Abiquiu Agency, N. Mex 

Cimarron Agency, N. Mex 

Mescalero Agency, N. Mex 

Navajo Agency, lif. Mex 4. . 

Pueblo Agency, N. Mex 

San Carlos Agency, Ariz 

Fort Garland. Colo 

Los Pinos Agency, Colo 

Abiquiu Agency, N. Mex 

Cimarron Agency, N. Mex 

Mescalero Agency, N. Mex 

Navaiio Agency, N. Mex 

Pueblo Agency, N. Mex 

San Carlos Agency. Ariz 

El Moro, Colo '. 

Fort Garland, Colo 

Los Pinos Agency, Colo 

Abiquiu Agency," N. Mex 

Cimarron Agency, N. Mex 

Mescalero Agency, N. Mex 

Navajo Agency, N. Mex 

Pueblo Agency, N. Mex 

Los Pinos Agency, Colo 



S. Ute Agency, Colo. 
do 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



29 



Abstract of awards made in Xew York City, ^x. — Continued. 
TRAXSPOETATIOK 



Kames. 



Xames. 


From — 


To— 


Price. 


Staab, Z 






$8 27 
7 *>7 


Do 


Chicao'o .. . .... 


Los Pinos Agency, Colo 

S TJte Agency Colo 


IJo 


do 


8 27 


Do 


Fort Oarlaiid . ... . . 


Los Pinos Agency, Colo 


5 00 


Do 


do 


6 00 


Do 


do 


Abiouiu Agency N. Mex 


5 00 


"Wells N. W 


New York, Philadelphia, 

and Baltimore. 
do 


Corinne, Utah . t 


5 60 


Do 


Ogden City, Utah 


5 50 


Do 


do 


Salt Lake "City, Utah 


5 80 


Do 


do 


Bryan, Wyo 


5 50 


Do 


do 




4 58 


Do 


do .. . 


Rawlins Station Wyo 


4 98 


Do 


Saint Louis 




5 50 


Do 


. do 


Corinne Utah 


5 05 


Do 




Ogden City, Utah 


4 90 


Do 


do 


Salt Lake City, Utah 


5 20 


Do 


do 


Bryan, Wyo 


4 90 


Do 


do 


Laramie City, Wyo 


3 98 


Do 


do 


Rawlins, Wyo 


4 38 


Do 


Chicago 




5 50 


Do 


do 


Corinne Utah 


5 05 


Do 


do 


Ogden City, Utah . . 


4 90 


Do 


do 


Salt Lake City, Utah 

Bryan, Wyo 


5 20 


Do 


.. flo 


4 9U 


Do 


do 




3 98 


Do 


do 


Rawlins Wyo 


4 38 


Do 


Omaha 


Franklin, Idaho 


4 60 


Do 


' do 


Sidney Nebr 


1 65 


Do 


do 


Corinne, Utah 


4 10 


Do 


do 


Ogden City, Utah 


4 00 


Do 


...do 


Salt Lake City Utah 


4 30 


Do 


do 




4 00 


Do ... 


do 


Cheyenne Wyo 


2 00 


Do 


^... do 


Laramie City, Wyo . 


3 08 


Do 


do 


Rawlins Station, 'W'yo ; 


3 53 


Do 


Eawliiis ... - 


W hite River Agency Colo 


5 00 











Articles. 



Blaxkets — Class 1. 

Ammidown, C. H 3-point white Mackinac, 8 pounds . . 

Do 2^-point white Mackinac, 6 pounds 

Do 3-point scarlet Mackinac, 8 pounds 

Do 2^-point scarlet Mackinac, 6 pounds 

Do 3-point indigo M ackinac, 8 pounds . 

Do 2i-point indigo Mackinac, 6 pounds 

Do 3-point green Mackinac, 8 pounds . . 

Do 3-point gentian Mackinac, 8 pounds 

Do 2^-point gentian Mackinac, 6 pounds 

Dobson, John 3-point Avhite Mackinac, 8 pounds. . 

Do I 2i-point white Mackinac, 6 pounds. 

Do I 2-point white Mackinac, 5^ pounds 

Do i......do ..;. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



34-point scarlet ^lackinac, 10 pounds 
3-point scarlet Mackinac, 8 pounds. 
2^-point scarlet Mackinac, 6 pounds 

Do j 2-point scarlet Mackinac, 6 pounds. 

Do 3i-poiut indigo Mackinac, 10 pounds 

3-point indigo Mackinac, 8 pounds 
2^-point intllgo Mackinac, 6 pounds 
2-point indigo Mackinac, 5i pounds 

Do I 3J-point green Mackinac, 10 pounds 

Do I 3-point gieen Mackinac, 8 pounds . . 

l>o 2i-point green Mackinac, 6 pounds. 

!><> i 2-poiat gi-een Mackinac, 5^ pounds. 

Do I 3^-poiut gentian Mackinac, 10 

j pounds 

Do i 3-point gentian Mackinac, 8 pounds 

Do I 2i-point gentian Mackinac, 6 pounds 

Pioneer Woolen Mills. . j 3-point white Mackinac, 8 pounds. . 

Do I 2^-point white Mackinac, pounds. 

Do : 2-point white Mackinac, 5J ])ounds. 

Do 1 J-point white Mackinac, 4^ pounds 

Do ! 3|-point scarlet Mackinac, 10 pounds 



Quantity. 



50 

125 

195 

50 

475 

625 

195 

50 

100 

1,925 

1,225 

575 

200 

474 

900 

1,025 

475 

1,004 

3,695 

1,575 

625 

129 

680 

550 

200 

375 
500 
270 
500 

450 

200 
200 
300 



Where delivered. 



Xew Tork 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do..... 

...do 

Philadelphia 

— do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

New York orPhil 
adelphia. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 



Price. 



Per pair. 
$4 80 

3 60 
5 36 

4 02 

4 80 
3 60 

5 36 

5 20 

3 90 

4 76 
3 57 
3 121 

2 52^ 

6 60 

5 28 

3 96 

3 464 

5 95 

4 76 
3 57 
3 12g 

6 45 

5 16 
3 87 
3 38^ 

6 45 

5 16 

3 87 

6 00 

4 50 
3 94 
3 10 

7 50 



30 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Abstract of awards made in New YorJc City, <f c. — Continued. 



^Names. 



Articles. 



Pioneer Woolen Mills. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Allen,J.&B 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Claflin, H. B., & Co 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Colladv, Trout & Co ... 

Do 

Collins, Downing & Co. 
Birdsall Bros 

Do , 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Dobson, John 

Do 

Dunham, Buckley & Co, 
Victor, F., & Actielis. . . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Van Yolkenburg, Beach 
&Co. 

"Whiteside Bros 

Wilson & Bradbury . . . 



Claflin,H.B 

Do , 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Dunham, Buckley & Co 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Deerins, MiUiken «fc Co 

Do 

Evans, Peake & Co . . . 
Oberteuffer, Abegg & 
Co. 

Porter Bros. & Co 

Van Volkenburg, Beach 
&Co. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Whiteside Bros 

Do 



Blankets — Class 1— Continued. 

3-point scarlet Mackinac, 8 pounds 

2i-point scarlet Mackinac, 6 pounds 
3i-p()iut indigo Mackinac, 10 pounds 
3-poiut indijio Mackinac, 8 pounds 
2i-point indigo Mackinac, 6 pounds 
2-point indigo Mackinac, 5^ pounds 
3J-point green Mackinac, 10 pounds 
3-point green Mackinac, 8 pounds . . 
2i-point green Mackinac, 6 povinds 
3|-point gentian Mackinac, 10 

pounds 

3-poiut gentian Mackinac, 8 pounds 
2i-point gentian Mackinac, Gijounds 

Woolen goods— Class 2. 

Hose, children's dozen . 

do do .. 

do do. . . 

do do. . . 

Hose, women's do. . . 

Scarfs do. . . 

do do... 

Hose, children's do. . . 

Flannel, blue twilled 

Flannel, red twilled 

Linsey 

Shawls 

Hose, women's dozen 

Tarn, assorted colors 

Cloth, wool yards. 

Yam, assorted colors 

do 

do 

Yam, gray and white 

do 

List-cloth, blue yards . 

List-cloth, scarlet do. . . 

Socks, men's, wool 

Hose, women's dozen 

Socks, boys', wool 

Socks, boys' 

do 

Socks, men's 



Skirts, balmoral . 
Socks, boys' 



Quantity. 



Cotton goods — Class 3. 

Bed-ticking yards. 

Drilling, indigo do. . . 

Satinet do. . . 

Kentucky .jeans do. . . 

Shirting.hickory do. . . 

do do... 

Calico do . . . 

Duck, standard, 8 oz do. . . 

Denims, blue do... 

Sheeting, brown do. . . 

Sheeting, bleached do. . . 

Bed-spreads number. 

Cotton-bats pounds. 

Crash yards. 

Handkerchiefs dozen. 

Cotton, knitting pounds. 

Calico yards. 

Drilling, slate do. . . 

Gringhams yards 

Handkerchiefs dozen 

do do .. 

Shirting calico yards 

Bedspreads number. 

Winsey yards. 



250 

150 
500 
450 
200 
100 
400 
200 
100 

700 
500 
400 



200 

225 

300 

344 

9(37 

45 

631 

125 

34, 930 

36, 330 

80, 420 

7, 952 

408 

6,000 

1,200 

300 

500 

585 

2.59 

200 

10, 965 

8,505 

1,600 

545 

100 

50 

100 

187 

2,093 
364 



34, 950 

28, 438 

8,925 

48, 795 

19, 585 

9,790 

123, 000 

218, 850 

14, 680 

250, 539 

26, 150 

2,000 

1, 125 

2,970 

820 

77 
176, 450 

1,075 

32, 500 

500 

330 

7, 350 
351 
750 



Where delivered. 



New York or Phil- 
adelphia. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

..Mo 

...do 

...do 



...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

New York . . . 

...do 

...do 

...do 

. .'.do 

Philadelphia . 

...do 

New York . . . 
...do 



...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Philadelphia . 

. . .do 

New York . . . 

...do 

...do 

. . -do 

...do 

...do 



. . .do 

Philadelphia. 



New York . 

- . .do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do , 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do , 

...do 

. . . .do 

...do 



.do 
.do 

.do 

.do 

.do 

-do, 

.do 

.do 

.do 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 
Abstract of awards made in New York City, Sfc. — Continued. 



31 



Name8. 



Articles. 



August, Bemheim & 
Bauer. 

August, D 

Blun & Co 

Bemheim, H. , & August 

Do 

Do 

Davidson, S. & M., &Co 
Fechheimer, Rau «fc Co. 

Do 

Levy, A., & Bro 

Newburger & Hoch- 

stadlers. 
Naumberg, K r a u s , 
Lauer & Co. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

"Wanamaker & Brown . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Bay State Shoe and 
Leather Company. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Dunham, Buckley & Co 
Kelly,P.H 

Do 

Magovem & Co 

Do 



Com, Samuel 

Falconer & Carroll. 

Foicheimer, D 

Isadore <fe Hein 

Squier, C. H 

Do 

Do 

Do 

"Wood, William . . . . 



American Linen Thread 
Company. 



&Co. 



Claflin. H. B, 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

• Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

CoUaday, Trout & Co. 
Dunham, Buckley & Co 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Elsan & Lauferty. 



Clothing— Class 4. 
Pants, men's pairs 



Shirts, red flannel 

Vests number. 

Shirts, gray flannel 

Shirts, hickory dozen. 

Shirts, calico do . . . 

Shirts, red do . . . 

Shirts, gray do. . . 

Overalls number 

Suits, boys' do. . . 

Overcoats 



Coats number 

Overcoats do. . . 

do do . 

Pants, men's pairs 

Blouses 

Overcoats, boys' number 

Coats do... 

do do.., 

Overcoats do. . 

Pants, men's pairs. 

Suits, boys' number 

Vests do. . 

do do.. 



Boots and Shoes — Class 5. 

Men's shoes pairs. 

Women's shoes do .. 

Misses' shoes do. . . 

Children's shoes do. . . 

Boys' shoes do . . . 

Shoelaces gross 

do do . . . 

Men's shoepacks 

Boys' shoepacks 

Men's boots pairs 

Men's rubber boots 



Hats and Caps — Class 6. 

Boys' caps number 

Men's hats do. . 

do do.. 

Men's caps do.. 

Mens' hats do . 

Boy's hats do . . 

.... - do do . . 

Men's caps do . . 

do do.. 



IfQTiONs — Class 7. 
Gilling twine pounds 



Buttons, shirt gross. 

Buttons, atrate .do. . . 

Hooks and eyes do. . . 

Needles, knitting M. 

Needles, saddlers' dozen 

Pins, brass packs. 

do do... 

do do... 

Suspenders pairs. 

Thread, shoe pounds . 

Thimbles, open dozen . 

Thimbles, closed do. . . 

Si)ool cotton do. . . 

Combs, coarse do. . . 

Maitre, cotton pounds . 

Needles, glovers' M. 

Tape yards. 



Quantity. 



Suspenders pairs . 



3,000 

6,517 

1,847 
8,500 
15, 390 
7,850 
6,000 
8, 525 
2,873 
2, 496 
1,000 

2,683 

1,448 
1,500 
4,058 
4,715 
200 
3,000 
3,000 
1,000 
3,000 
1,636 
2,000 
2,000 



7,815 

5,023 

3,799 

2,220 

4,109 

87 

88 

786 

412 

110 

12 



500 
5,284 

527 
5, 284 
2,061 
2,061 

526 

527 



2,156 



260 
438 
116 

70 

400 

400 

430 

1,054 

62 

356 

456 

3,182 

1,471 

1,155 

134i 

l,445i 



Where delivered. 



New York , 



...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Philadelphia . 

New York . . . 



...do 

...do 

...do ........ 

...do 

...do 

Philadelphia . 

...do 

...do 

...do , 

...do 

...do 

...do 



New York , 



....do 

....do 

.-..do 

....do 

....do 

.-..do 

Saint Paul 
.--.do 

New York 
....do 



--.do. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 



.do 



....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...-do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Philadelphia. 

New York . . . 

....do 

.-..do 

-...do 



1,000 ....do 



Price. 



$1 63 

92 

1 10 
70 
33f 

24i 



2 84 

3 92 

4 19 

1 76 

2 18 

3 07 
2 54 

2 83 

3 90 

1 82 

2 29 



1 15 



75 
60 

1 10 
82i 
20i 
65i 
42i 

2 12i 
2 44 



21 

59 

44 

27 

47 

25 

37i 

39i 

30i 



73 

83 

93 

09 

03 

06 

50 

05 

32 

36 

41 

15 

67 

09 

09 

474 

334 

25 

48 

15 

17 

21 



32 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Abstract of awards made in Neiv Torlc City, tfc. — Continued. 



Names. 



Ai-ticles. 



Quantity. 



Porter Bros. & Co 

Do 

Eobinson, Lord & Co. . 

Do 

Strasburger, Pfeiffer & 
Co. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Maxfleld.L 

Do 

Do 

Stitt, James & Co. 



Do. 
Do 
Do. 



Do. 



Do 

Do 

Smith, W.H 

Thurber, H. K and P. 
B., & Co. 

Do 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Strauss, L. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do- 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 
Do.. 



&Co. 



Bellah, Quigley & Co 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Burrell.W.E 

Do 



Cohn,A,B 

Do 



Notions— Class 7— Continued. 

Buttons, pants gross 

Combs, fine doz«'u 

Twine, wrapping pounds 

Twine, sack do . . . 

Tape-measures dozen , 

Buttons, coat gross 

Buttons, i^ant do. . . 

Beads, assorted bunches. 

MiiToi s, zinc dozen 

Needles, assorted M. 

Gkockuies — Class 8. 

Candles pounds . 

Molasses gallons . 

Siru].) do. . . 

Cassia i)ounds 

Cloves do... 

Cloves, ground do. . . 

Cream-tartar do. . . 



Ginger do . 

Indigo do. 

Pepper do . 

Appdes, dried do. 

do. 



Allspice 

Bluing dozen boxes. 

Candles pounds . 

Corn-starch do . . . 

Hops do . . . 

Mustard do... 

Molasses gallons . 

Starch pounds. 

Sirup gallons . 

Crockery— Class 9. 

Bowls, pint dozen 

Bowls, quart do . . 

Cups and saucers do.. 

Cups and saucers, coffee do . . 

Crocks, gallon do. . 

Crocks, 2-gallon do . . 

Crocks, 3-gallon do . . 

Castors, dinner do . . 

Plates, dinner do . . 

Plates, tea do.. 

Plates, sauce do. . 

Plates, pie do.. 

Pitchers, water do.. 

Pitchers, pint do . 

Pitchers, quart do . . 

Salt-sprinklers do . 

Tumblers do . . 

Washbowls and pitchers do . 

Miscellaneous articles— Class 10. 

Chrome-yelloAV pounds. 

Lead, white do. . . 

Lead, red do... 

Oil, raw gallons. 

Oil, linseed do .. 

Oil, lard do... 

Ocher pounds . 

Lamp-shades dozen . 

Lamp-chimneys gross. 



Axle-grease dozen boxes 

Pumps, iron n imber 



148 

1,108 

112 

173 

H 

75 

57 

7,615 

407 

333i 



770 
300 
000 
104 

62 

13 

129 



1,131 

332 

20, 850 

81 

56 

3,770 
475 
180 
78 
335 
620 

1,065 



37 

47 
44 

187J 
5§ 
8* 
5i 
19/, 
181 
36^ 
40§ 
15 
18^ 
17^ 
.14^ 
32 
64 
lOi 



172 
900 
160 

95 

680 

408 

325 

3§ 

33g 



"Where delivered. 



New York . 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

.do 

.do 

.do 



Sioux City . 

do 

...do 

New York . 



.do 
.do 
.do 

.do 

.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 

.do 
.do 
.do 
do 
do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



New York . 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

.. do 

...do 

.. do 

..do 

...do 



New York , 

.. do 

..do 

.. do 

.. do 

.. do 

.. do 

..do 

...do 



...do 

...do 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 
Abstract of awards made in New York City, ^c. — Continued. 



33 



Names. 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



Where delivered. 



Price. 



Cohn, A. B. . 
Crane, John , 



Miscellaneous Articles — Class 
10 — Continued. 



"WTieelbarrows dozen . 

Spokes, wagon sets. 



Do Spokes, buggj^, do.. 

Do Whiffletrees pairs 

Condict & Patten Harness, single sets 

Do Harness, plow do. . 

Do } Bridles, harness dozen 

Do Bridles, riding do . . 

Do Collars, hoi-se do.. 

Do Collars,mule do . 

Do Harness, double sets 

Hendrickson, J 1 Bags, grain dozen 

Howard, E. T — j Machines, sewing ........ .number. 

Kansas Manufacturing j "Wagons, 2i inch do. . . 

Company. j 

Do ! Wagons, 3J inch do..„ 

Lobenstein. W. C } Wax, shoemakers' pounds. 

Markley, Ailing & Co..| Hubs, wagon sets. 

Do I Machines, mowing number. 

Machines, thrashing do . . . 

Wringers, clothes dozen . 

Cradles, grain do. . . 

Harrows number . 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Moline Plow Company. 



Do Plows 



Do 

Do 

Do , 

Robinson, Lord & Co 
Do. , 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do , 

Do 

Do 

Do , 

Do , 

Do , 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Richards, J. F 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Strauss, L. & Co... 

Do 

Studebaker & Bro , 

Do 

Do 

Wilson, Levi 

Do 

3l C 



.do. 



Plows, breaking do . . . 

Plows, shovel, single do . . . 

Plows, shovel, double do... 

Brooms dozen . . . 

Bags, paper number 



Baskets, J-bushel dozen 

Baskets, 1-bushel do . . . 

Bowls, wood do . . . 

do do. .. 

Chairs, wood dozen. 

Chairs, rush do . . 

Clothes-pins gross 

Lamp- wicks do... 

Matches do... 

Measures, wood, 1-peck dozen. 

Measures, wood, J-peck ...... do . . . 

Oxbows do. . . 

Paper, building pounds . 

Paper, tarred do. . . 

Rolling-pins dozen 

Washtubs do. .. 

Washboards. . . ^ do . . . 

Wicking, candle pounds. 

Warp, cotton, white do... 

Warp, cotton, stripe do . . 

Warp, cotton, blue do . . 

Machines, mowing number. 

Pumps, wood 

Pitch pounds. 

Yokes, ox number. 

Lamps, glass dozen. 

Lamps, tin do . . . 

Wagons, 3-inch number. 

Wagons, 3J-inch do . . 

Wagons, 3J-iuch do. . . 

Bedsteads 

Bureaus 



5i 
166' 



New York . 
....do 



268 
13 
242 
8i^ 
4^ 
37^ 
14 
162 

91 
10 
22 

3 
29 

14 

14 

3 

4i 

19f 

5 

355 



86 
35 

245 
29i 
,400 



4f 

3 

2f 
63 

74 
16i 
37 



2i 
3i 
38i 
500 
000 
2i 
29g 
4i 
30 
100 
100 
100 
14 
5 
525 
100 

im 

160 
25 
17 
76 
16 



...do 
...do 
...do 
.. do 
...do 
..do 
...do 
...do 
...do 

...do 
..do 



City 



....do... 
..-.do... 
Chicago 

....do... 



,...do .. 
... do .. 
....do .. 

Omaha. 

...do.. 



J...do 

....do 

....do 

New York 
....do 



..do 
do 
, do 
. do 
..do 
. do 
..do 
..do 



.. do 

...do 

..do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

.. do 

...do 

...do 

.. do 

.- do 

Kansas City 

...do 

...do 

...do 

New York . . 

.. do 

Chicago 

...do 

--'.do 

...do 

...do 



$15 00 
2 25 
2 40 
2 60 
2 75 
2 70 

4 50 

5 00 

6 25 

7 25 
1 55 

30 
16 00 

8 25 

21 00 

15 00 

16 75 

12 50 
20 75 

22 75 
18i 

30 00 
52 00 

56 00 

12 

1 00 

1 10 
77 00 
64 00 

409 00 

60 

24 00 

6 75 
8 10 

7 80 

7 35 

13 20 

2 70 

3 00 
2 12 

1 00 
to 

8 50 

2 50 
5 00 

3 00 
2 00 
7 50 

7 50 
50 
26 
42 

1 85 

2 00 
2 50 
2 87 

03 

m 

1 00 

8 00 



18 

23 

23 

77 00 

2 75 

01 

2 75 

2 25 

1 80 

52 50 

53 50 

54 50 

2 25 
9 00 
9 50 



34 REPORT OP THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Abstract of awards made in Xeiv York City, <f'c. — Continued. 



Names. 



Anthony, E. W 
Do 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do 

Do 

Aikman, James, «fe Co. 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Adams and "Westlake 
Manufacturing Com- 
pany. 

1)0 

American Glass Com- 
pany. 
Bellah, Quigley & Co . . 

Biglin, Philip 'S 

Do 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Collins &Co 

Crossman &Bro 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Crossman & Co . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Do. 



Do 
Do 

Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do. 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 
Do 



Articles. 



Hardware. 

Basins, pint dozen. 

Pans, tin do . . . 



Plates do. . . 

Stoves, cooking number 

Stoves, heating do. . . 

Stoves, heating, coal do. . . 

Stove-pipe joints 

Coffee-pots dozen. 

Pails, tm, 12 and 16 quarts do . . . 

do do... 

Pans, fry do. . . 



Candle-moulds do . 



Wash-basins, tin do. . . 

Lanterns do. . . 

Chalk, carpenters' pounds. 

Cleavers dozen. 

Paper, sand sheets. 

Paper, emery do . . . 

Scissors, 4 and 6 inch dozen . 

Soldering-irons pairs . 

Tea-pots ^ ctozen. 

Tin, sheet pounds. 

Wire, brass do... 

Wire, copper do . . 

Axes, 3 to 4^ do. . . 

Axes, broad, 12-inch dozen. 

Axes, hand, 6-inch do . . . 

Axes, hunters' do. . . 

Basins, quart do . . . 

Bolts, door do . . . 

Bells, hand do... 

Bridle-bits do . . . 

Brushes, horse do . . . 

Chains, halter do. . . 

Cups, pint, tin do... 

Cups, quart, tin do. . . 

Cards, ox do .. 

Coffee-mills .do. . . 

Clothes-lines feet. 

Dippers dozen. 

Drills, breast do. . . 

Files, mill-saw do. . . 



Piles, saw, taper do. . 

Files, half round do . . 

Files, round do. . 



Gun-tubes do . 

Harrow-teeth pounds 

Hoes, grub dozen 

Hatchets do . . 

Knives, butcher do. . 

Knives, skinning do . 

Kettles, brass pounds 

Ladles, meltmg dozen 

Mattocks do. . 

Picks, mill do . . 

Picks, earth do . . 

Pliers, round do. . 

Pliers, flat do . . 

Pans, dish do . . 



Quantity. 



Where delivered. 



1,058 

1,341 
188 
145 

2 

2,188 

98H 

217 

217 



136 



140 

Hh 

3,998 

1,211' 

153^ 

24 

IH 

5,795 
81 
75 
837i 

297t?j 
87 
13 
2^ 
16^ 
29i 

^ 

927 
1, 016J 
7|. 
76 
4,600 
388x^5 
4i 
198^ 



339^ 

58f 
57i 



95 
2, 500 

30H 
2511 

1,250§ 
169 

2,305 

19i 
^ 

17 
2 
24 

28^ 



New York 
...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

Chicago... 

...do 

New York 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 



...do 
...do 

...do 
...do 
.. do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 
...do 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 
Abstract of awards made in Xew York City, c^c. — Continued. 



35 



Names. 



Articles. 



Quantity. "Where delivered. | Price. 



I Hardware— Continued. 

Grossman «fe Co Planes, match dozen. 

Do I Planes, smooth do . . . 

Do ' Planes, fore do... 

Do ' Planes, jointer do... 

Do ■ Planes, plow do... 

Do I Planes, rabbet do... 

I^o I Planes, hollow do... 

Do ' Planes, round do. . . 

Do i Kasps, wood do... 



Do i Rasps, horse do... 

Do Saws, hand do. . . 

Do ! Sledge-hammers number. 

Do I Shears, sheep dozen. 



Do 

Coulter, Flagler & Co. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

•Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Crane, John 



Do 

Do 

Cohn, A. B 

Cordier, Charles X . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Durrie, H., &Co .. 

Do 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do 

Do 

Dunham, Buckley & Co 



Do 

Goodyear Glove Manu- 
facturing Company. 



Higbie, S. A 

Do 

Iron-clad Manuf' g Co. 
Jessup, F. "W 



Do. 



Louderback, Gilbert & 
Co. 

Do 

Markley, Ailing & Co. . 



Traps, beaver number. 

Bolts, tire pounds . 

Brass, sheet do. . . 

Calipers dozen. 

Ciirrycombs do. . . 

Gimlets do . . . 

Handles, awl do. . . 

Hinges, strap pairs. 

Hinges, strap and T do. . . 

Mallets dozen . 

Oilers do. . . 

Punches, ticket 

Kivets, copper pounds 

Rivets and burrs, copper do. . . 

Saws, hand dozen . 

Saws, rip do. . . 

Saws, meat do. . . 

Saws, crosscut do. . . 

Saws, keyhole do. . . 

Saw-blades do. . . 

Scales, spring-balance 

Scales, butchers' 

Wrenches, crooked dozen. 

do do... 

Felloes, wagon set. 



Handles, hoe dozen. 

Handles, plow do. . . 

Forks, manure do. . . 

Knives, hunting do. . . 

Locks, drawer do. . . 

Spoons, tea do . . . 

Spoons, table do. . . 

Adzes do . . 

Augeis, 1-inch do . . 

Augers, 3i-inch do. . . 

Augers, IJ-inch do . . 

Augers, 2-inch do... 

Forks, hay, 3 tines do. . . 

Forks, manure, 4 tines do . . . 

Hoes, planters' do. . . 

Hoes, garden do . . 

Nails, norse-shoe, No. 6 pounds. 

Kails, horse-shoe. No. 8 do. . . 



Rakes, garden 

do 

Shears, 7J and 8-inch. 



Tacks, brass heads papers 

Belting, rubber feet. 



Knives dozen . 

Padlocks do. . . 

Kettles, camp nests. 

Belting, leather feet. 



Caldron, iron 

Knives, drawing. 



24 


New^ 


5* 


. . . .do 


4 h 


....do 


3 


... .do 


n 


... .do 




... .do 


2b 


....do 


2/5 


....do 


29i 


... .do 


29* 


....do 


16 


....do 


19 


do 


100 


....dp 


452 


....(lb 


600 


...do 


84 


....do 


h'^ 


....do 


m 


...do 


37f 


....do 


227 


....do 


2H 


....do 


21 


....do 


2H 


. ..do 


\'f 


do 


....do 


168 


....do 


428 


....do 


17 


....do 


2* 


... .do 




....do 


3i 


....do 


3| 


....do 


4 


....do 


5 


....do 


9 


....do 


5-6 


....do 


3-4 


....do 


197 


....do 


274 


....do 


m 


....do 


2f 


... .do 


515 


....do 


38* 


....do 


827 


. - . .do 


1,701 


. . . .do 


1| 


....do 


27 


... .do 


161", 


....do 


Sf' 


....do 


... -do 


53-; 


.-..do 


13: ; 


....do 


544* 
74* 


... .do 


....do 


1,120 


....do 


1,240 


....do 


13 


...do 


& 


....do 
....do 


166 


....do 


831 


....do 


L? 


....do 
....do 


3,402 


....do 


818 


do 


2 


....do 


25i 


....do 



Steel, butchers' do. 

Augers, post do. 



7*1... .do 4 50 

2| I Chicago 18 00 



$8 76 

3 25 

5 40 

6 00 
31 50 

4 21 

5 27 
5 27 

3 25 

4 50 

3 35 

4 50 
08 

7 20 



18 

14 
2 15 

51 
1 70 

75 
9 00 



7 75 
12 00 
16 20 

3 00 

3 75 

2 80 
35 00 

6 00 

10 00 
1 70 

to 

4 00 
93i 

1 85 

12 50 

1 85 

1 60 

19 

33 

11 61 

3 23 

3 99 

4 56 
6 46 

3 61 

4 50 
3 19 

3 25 
16 
15 
14 

4 05 

4 50 

1 99 

2 15 
95 
11 
to 
53 
80 

3 00 
1 40 

lOi 
to 
97 
6 00 

5 40 



36 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Abstract of awards made in New Tork City, ^-c. — Continued. 



Names. 


Articles. 


Quantity. 


Where delivered. 


Price. 


Markley,Alling&Co.. 


Hardware— Continued. 

Augers, hollow dozen . 

Bolts pounds 

Bolts, carriage do . . . 

Bolts, window do . . 

Borax pounds 

Buckles, harness, ^-inch gross 

Buckles, harness, |-inch do . . 

Buckles, harness, 1-inch do . . 

Buckles, harness, IJ-inch do. . . 

Buckles, tug pairs 

Brushes, paint tlozen 

Brushes, varnish do. . . 

Brushes, marking do . . 

-Chain, log pounds 

Chain, surveyors' 


2^ 

5,105 

5.535 

27 

457 

i?l 

173 

H 

12, 750 
8 

f 

700 

It 

520^ 

357^ 
5 
13 
25 
20x^5 
1,015 
48 
33i 
3,815 
6,305 
6,375 
3,295 
1,250 

800 
1,640 
3,025 
4,150 
3,500 
1,205 

990 

350 

765 
1,200 

800 

300 

250 
1,975 

945 
I, 075 
2,525 
2,200 
2,775 
4.260 
1,600 
1,560 

6i 
27 

1,100 

6,200 

1,920 

2,970 

1,775 

1,950 

7,900 

4,100 
11, 800 
19, 000 

7,800 
10. 200 

2,600 

2,900 

1,000 
142 




$9 00 


Do 


do 


06 


Do 


do .. . 


074 
10 


Do 


do 


Do 


do 


10 


Do 


do 


65 


Do 


do 


85 


Do 


do 


1' 15 


Do 


do 


1 55 


Do 


do 


30 


Do 


do 


3 50 


Do 


do 


3 60 


Do 


do 


30 


Do 


do . 


05i 


Do 


do 


4 50 


Do 


Clamps, iron dozen. 

Coflee-mills do . . 

Drag-teeth pounds 

Drills, hand dozen 

Drill-stocks 


....do 


5 00 


Do 


do 


5 00 


Do 


do 


02i 
12 00 


Do 


..do 


Do 


do 


18 90 


Do 


Elbows, stove-pipe number. 

Gouges dozen . 

Glue pounds 

Gun-tri":gers dozen . 

Gun-sights, front do . . 

Gun-sights, back do . . 

Hammers, claw do. . . 

Handles, ax do. . . 

Hinges, strap, 8-inch pairs 

Hinges, strap, 10-iuch do . . 

Iron, round, J-inch pounds. 

Iron, round, -L-inch do . . . 

Iron, round, 3-uich do . . . 

Iron, round, 1-iuch do . . . 

Iron, round, 14-inch do. . . 

Iron, round, li-inch do . . . 

Iron, square, i-inch do. . . 

Iron, square, ^-inch do . . 

Iron, square, |-inch do . . . 

Iron, square, 1-inch do . . . 

Iron, square, 1^-inch do . . . 

Iron, square, l|-inch do. . . 

Iron, half-round, i-iuch do . . . 

Iron, half-round, ^-inch ... do . . 

Iron, half-round, f-inch do. . . 

Iron, half-round, 1-inch do. . . 

Iron, half-round, 1 J-inch do . . . 

Iron, half-round, l|-inch do . . . 

Iron, oval, i to 1 inch pounds. 

Iron, flat, bar, ^ by i inch do . . . 

Iron, flat, bar, J by | inch .... do. . . 

Iron, flat, bar, 1 by | inch do . . . 

Iron, flat, bar, li by i inch . . .do. . . 
Iron, flat, bar, 1^ by J inch. . .do. . . 

Iron, sheet, stove-pipe do . . . 

Iron, Swede do . . . 

Iron, nail-rod do . . 

Knives, hay dozen. 

Lead, in bars pounds 

Match-safes dozen 

Mainsprings, gun-lock do . . 

Nails, lath pounds. 

Nails, shingle do. .. 

Nails, wrought, 6-penny do . . . 

Nails, wrought, 8-penny do . . . 

Nails, horseshoe. No. 9 do. .. 

Nails, finishing, 6-penny do . . 

Nails, finishing, 8-penny do . . . 

Nails, 6-penny do . . 

Nails, 8-penny do... 

Nails, 10-penny do .. 

Nails, 12-penny do . . . 

Nails, 20-penny do... 

Nails, 30-penn'y do... 

Nails, 40-penny do. . . 

Nails, 60-penny do . . . 

Oakum do... 


.do 


1 70 


Do 


do 


2 12 


Do 


...do 


15 


Do 


do 


18 


Do 


....do 


2 00 


Do 


...do 


4 to 


Do 


....do 


6 50 


Do 


do .. 


1 15 


Do 


do 


74 


Do 


do 


1 00 


Do 


do 


02f 

02tV 

OItIj^ 

OIto^o 
01/sb 
02i^A 
02T'a 


Do 


do 


Do 


...do 


Do 


do 


Do 


. do . 


Do 


do 


Do 


....do 


Do 


do 


Do 


...do 


Ol/ifj, 


Do 


...do 


OIttAj 


Do 


do 


St 


Do 


....do 


Do 


do 


04 


Do 


....do 


03t*5 


Do 


do 


02/? 


Do 


do 


02tV(, 


Do 


....do 


Do 


.-..do 

... do 


02/A 


Do 


02/ij«ij 


Do 


...do 


02^ 


Do 


...do 


02i 


Do 


-- do 

....do 


02Tfn 


Do 


Olin* 


Do 


..do 


Olxslj 


Do... 


-do 

... do 


03 


Do 


04,\fB 


Do 


do 


051 


Do 


... do 


11 40 


Do 


... do 


045 


Do 


... do 


60 


Do 


do 


75 


Do 


... do 


3 60 


Do 


...do 


2 90 


Do 


... do 


3 94 


Do 


... do 


3 94 


Do 


. do 


3 75 


Do 


do 


3 67 


Do 


do 


2 40 


Do 


...do 


2 65 


Do 


. do 


2 40 


Do 


... do 


2 15 


Do 


....do 


2 15 


Do 


... do 


2 15 


Do 


... do 


2 15 


Do 


.. do 


2 15 


Do 


....do 


2 15 


Do 


... do 


09* 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 
Abstract of awards made in New York City, Sfc. — Continued. 



37 



Names. 



Markley. Ailing & Co. 
Do 



Do- 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do- 



Priest, Paee & Co 

Do 

Do 

Do... 

Do 

Do 

Do...., 

Roosevelt, S., & Co. . . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Robinson, Lord & Co . 



Do 

Do 

Rosenthall, H., & Bro.. 
Simmons Hardware Co. 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Articles. 



Hardwake— Continued. 

Oil-stones dozen . 

Putty pounds 

Pans, dust dozen . 

Planes, jack do . . . 

Packing, rubber pounds . 

Packing, yam do . . . 

Packing, bemp do. .. 

Pipe, lead do . . . 

Pipe, iron do. . . 



Rakes, hand dozen 

Rivets, iron do.. 

Resin do . 

Swage-blocks number 

Shears, tinners' do. . 

Screws, iron, i-inch gross 

Screws, iron, |-inch do . . 

Shovels, scoop dozen 

Steel, cast pounds 

Steel, tool do. ., 

Steel, spring do . 

Shoes, mule do . . . 

Shoes, bob-sled sets 

Scoops, hand dozen 



Squares, bevel do. 

Skeins, thimble set 



Quantity. 



Tacks papers. 



Traps, mink .number. 

Tape-lines dozen . 

Tongs • pairs. 

Fire-shrinkers , 

Taps, taper sets. 

Taps, plug do... 

Tweer-irons number. 

Vises, carpenters' do. . . 

Vises, blacksmiths' do. . . 

Vises, gunsmiths' do. . . 

Valves do. . . 



"Wagon-skeins sets. 

"Wire, iron pounds 

"Wire, annealed do. . . 

Scales, counter number. 

do , do... 

Scales, platform do . . . 

do do... 

do do... 

Scales, hay and cattle do . . , 

Scales, letter do. .. 

Awls, shoemakers' dozen. 

Bits, gimlet do. . . 

Butts, brass. do. .. 

Flat-irons do .. 

Saws, buck do... 

Spades, long handle do . . 

Spades, short handle do. . . 

Shovels, long handle do. . . 

Shovels, short handle do . . 

"Wrenches, monkey do .. 

Buckets, iron do... 

Pails, wood do. .. 

Sieves, wire do . . 

Brushes, whitewash do . . . 

Anvils number. 

Awls, sewing dozen. 

Awls, saddlers' do . . 

Babbitt metal pounds . 

*Per pound. 



1,580 

315 
214 
136 
1,720 
575 



42i 

712 

259 

3 

17 

66^ 

2,775 
1,819 
1,690 
3,650 
8 
19t\ 



1,079 



40 

4i 
12 

2 
11 
12 
11 
12 

3 
10 



8 
649 

592 

17 

3 

1 

5 

4 

4 

5 

157 

21i 

26 

12i 

14H 
36f 
28i 
32 
3H 
42g 

138ii 
382 
20i 

7 
582 
187 ; 
730 ! 



"Where delivered. 



Chicago. 
— do ... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do ... 
..-.do ... 
....do... 
....do... 

...do... 



.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 

do 
.do 
.do 
.do 

do 



.do 
.do 

do 

.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do. 
.do. 

.do 

.do 



...do 



...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do , 

...do 

New York , 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do...... 

...do 

...do 

...do 



....do , 

...do , 

...do 

Saint Louis 

...do , 

...do 

...do 



Price. 



00 

02i 

00 

50 

55 

10 

15 

05i 

03 

to 

15 

50 

10 

04 

00 

57 

06^1, 

07tV 

66 

Hi 

llj 

04* 

04^ 

00 

75 

to 

00 

00 

88 

00 

Oli 

to 

02^ 

27 

50 

22 

00 

00 

00 

50 

90 

00 

00 

15 

50 

50 

44 

04* 

to' 

09 

05i 

12 

50 

50 

00 

00 

50 

00 

75 



1 46 
36 
021 



74 
74 
99 
99 
92 
75 
50 
85 
85 
75 
*10 
07i 
09^ 
06i 



38 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Abstract of awards made in New Yorh City, ^c. — Continued- 



Names. 



Articles. 



Quantity. 



"Where delivered. 



Simmons Hardware Co 

Do 

Do..: 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Hakdware— Continued. 

Bits, gimlet dozen 

Bits, extension .*. do . . 

Bits, pod do. . 

Bits do.. 

Brace or Lit stocks do. . 

Bells, cow and ox do.. 

Butts, door do . . 

Brushes, scrab do. . 

Brushes, stove do . 

Boilers, wash do . . 

Compasses, pocket do. . 

Compasses, cari>enters' do . . 

Crowbars number 

Chalk-linos dozen 

Chisels, firmer do . 

Chisels, framing do.. 

Chisels, cold do . . 

Catches, door do.. 

Candle-molds do . 

Coffee-pots do . . 

Dividers do . . 

Drills, blacksmiths' do . 

Files, wood do . . 

Faucets, brass do.. 

Faucets, wood do. . 

Fish-hooks do . . 

Fish-lines do . . 

Gates, molasses do. . 

Gauges, splitting do . . 

Gauges, thumb do . . 

Gauges, marking do. . 

Glass, window, 8 by 10 boxes 

Glass, window, 10 by 12 do . . 

Glue-pots .. 

Grindstones pounds 

Graters, nutmeg dozen 

Gun-locks — do. . 

Hammers, riveting do . . 

Hammers, shoeing do. . 

Hammers, tack do. . 

Hammers, stone do.. 

Handles, awl do.. 

Handles, pick do . . 

Hinges, strap and T, 8-inch.. pairs 
Hinges, strap and T, 10-inch. .do. . 
Hinges, strap andT, 12-rnch..do. . 

Iron, round, J-inch pounds 

Iron, round, J-inch do . 

Iron, round, |-inch do . 

Iron, round, 1-inch do.. 

Iron, round, 1 J-inch do . . 

Iron, round, IJ-inch do . 

Iron, square, i-inch do.. 

Iron, square, ^-inch do . . 

Iron, square, |-inch do . . 

Iron, square, 1-inch do . 

Iron, square, 1 J-inch do . . 

Iron, square, l|-inch do . 

Iron, half-round, J-inch do . 

Iron, half-round, f -inch do . . 

Iron, half-round, 1-inch do . . 

Iron, half-round, 1^-inch do.. 

Iron, half-round, l|-inch do . 

Iron, oval, I to 1 inch do . 

Iron, flat bar, i by J inch do. . 

Iron, flat bar, | by i inch do. . 

Iron, flat bar, 1 by j inch do. . 

Iron, flat bar, ^ by | inch do. . 

Iron, flat bar, | by | inch do. . 

Iron, flat bar, 1 by | inch do. . 

Iron, flat bar, 1 by ^ inch do.. 

Iron, flat bar, 1 by | inch .... do. . 

* Per pound. 



21§ 

m 

91 

i 

248 
27f 
19 
5\k 
If 
4 
36 
19| 
W^ 

Hi 

3i 



36H 

^ 

H 
22, 320 
359 

3i 

li 

150 

153 

13 

7,950 

9i 

H 

227J 
38| 
11 
12 

% 

3,815 

6,305 

6,375 

3, 295 

1,250 
800 

1,640 

3,625 

4,150 

3,500 

1,205 
990 
765 

1,200 
800 
300 
250 

1,975 
945 

1,075 

2,525 
650 
625 

1,275 

2,050 

2,225 



Saint Louis 

..do 

..do 

..do 

..do , 

..do 



..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 

..do 

..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 

..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 

..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
.-do 
..do 
.-do 
.-do 
-do 
-•do 
..do 
-do 
..do 
.do 
-do 
-do 
..do 
-do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
-.do 
-do 
-do 
-.do 
--do 
-.do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
. do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
..do 
-.do 
-.do 
..do 
. do 
..do 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 39 
Abstract of awards made in New York City, ^c. — Continued. 



Names. 



Simmons Hardware Co. 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



Articles. 



Hardware— Continued. 

Iron, flat bar, IJ by J inch., dozen 
Iron, flat bar, 1 J by i inch — do . . 

Iron, sheet, stove-pipe do . . . 

Iron, Juniata do... 

Iron, tire do.. 

Knives, carving, and forks.. dozen 

Locks, door do . . 

Locks, drawer do... 

Latches, thumb do . . . 

Nails, lath pounds 

Nails, shingle do . . , 

Nails, wrought do. . . 

Nails, wroujE^ht, 8-penny do. . . 

Nails, finishing, 6-penny do... 

Nails, finishing, 8-penny do . . 

Nails, fence, 8-penny do . . . 

Nails, fence, 6-penny do .. 

Nails, fence, 8-penny do . . . 

Nails, fence, 10-penny do . . . 

Nails, fence, 12-penny do . . 

Nails, fence, 20-penny do . . . 

Nails, fence, 30-penny do . . 

Nails, fence, 40-penny do . . . 

Nails, fence, GO-penny do. . 

Nuts, iron do... 

Punches, harness dozen . 

Punches, belt do . . . 

Pliers, cutting do. . . 

Pinking-irons do. . . 

Kivet-sets do. . . 

Spirit-levels do... 

Saws, circular number . 

Saw-sets dozen. 

Springs, door do .. 

Scythe-stones number . 

Sere w-dii vers dozen . 



Screws, iron 

do 

do .....' 



.do. 



.do. 



.do. 



.do. 



-do. 



.do. 



.do 



.do. 



Solder pounds. 

Shot do... 

Steel, plow do... 

Steel, German do. . . 

Shoe, horse do. . . 

Shoe, mule do . . . 

Scythes dozen. 

Scythe-snaths do. . . 

Squares, try do. . . 

S(iuares, framing do.. 

Stove-polish 



Tongs, blacksmiths' pairs 

Trowels, brick dozen 



Trowels, plastering .. . 



-.do. 



Do "Wirecloth yards 

Do "Washers, iron pormds. 

Do Wedges, iron dozen. 

Do Wrenches, monkey do. 



Quantity. 



2,200 
2,775 
4,260 
1,830 
3,550 

m 

1,100 
6, 200 
1,920 
2,970 
1,775 
1,950 
7,900 
4,100 

11, 800 

19, 000 
7,800 

10, 200 
2,600 
2,900 
1,000 
1,715 

31 
2* 

4| 
2* 
13 

3 

2i 
90i 
4B 

80^ 

51 

125 

126 

125i 

75J 

79i 

254 

27i 

16 

413 
140 
2,490 
225 
8,445 
3,650 
41/5 
38| 
3* 
Hi 
15i 
27 
8x^ 



H 



37i 

7i 



Where delivered. 



Saint Louis . 

....do 

....do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

.-..do 

.-..do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

..,.do 

..-.do , 

....do 

..-.do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

..-.do 

.--.do....... 

...do 



....do 
....do 
....do 
....do 

....do 

.-..do 

.--.do 

.--.do 

.--.do 

....do 

....do 

.--.do 

...do 

....do 

... do 
....do 
..-.do 
....do 
.--.do 
... do 
.--do 
.-..do 
..-.do 
...do 
.-..do 
....do 
..-.do 

....do. 



.. do 
...do 



....do. 
....do. 



Price. 



$0 



81i% 
01/» 
03 
06 

Ol/iT 

20 



1 30 

28 

02| 
03^ 

on 

03f 

OSr%% 

02y% 

02AV 

02/« 

02,V 

02^ 

02,S 

02,V 

02,V 

02,V 

03 

3 30 
1 05 

4 33 
70 

3 40 

5 80 
1 08 

13 23 



13 

10 

14 

12 

17 

14 

23 

17 

27 

21 

37 

24 

40 

27 

44 

41 

64 

44 

76 

09i 

02x1; 

05 

04^ 

03f 

04§ 

5 50 
4 27 
2 34 

4 30 

2 00 
29 

6 00 

5 60 

6 25 
5 05 
5 75 
5 40 

091 
Oih 
04i 
03i 

3 24 



40 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Abstract of awards made in New Yoi-Tc City, ^c. — Continued. 



Names. 


Articles. 


Quantity. 


Where delivered. 


Price. 


Simomns Hardware Co. 
Sperry D. B 


Hardware— Continued. 

Wrenches, monkey dozen . 

Ovens, Dutch number. 

Knives and forks dozen . 

MEDICAL 8UPPUES. 

Barley pounds. 

Corn-starch do. . . 

Ginger, ground ounces. 

Sugar, white, crushed pounds. 

Tapioca do. . . 

Tea, black do 


2,664 
1,077 

202 
325 
600 
615 
112 
443 

480 

134 

118 

117 

53 

6 

59 

597 

46 

54 

82 

67 

730 

84 

112 

76 

72 

12 

6 

16 

10 

8 

4 

* 324 

7 

65 

19 

220 

144 

15 

59 

113 

6 

7 

7 

19 
50 

445 

34 
23 
25 
1,946 
18 

3 
20 

8 

14 

15 

9 

10 

485 
27 


Saint Louis 


$4 32 
55 




New York 


60 


Jadwin, O.H 


New York 

...do 

. . do 


07| 
08^ 
Oil 
lit 
10 


Do 


Do 


Do 


..do 


Do 


... do 


Do 


do 


30 


Do 


Whisky in 32-ounce bottles 

INSTRUMEKTB AND DRESBINGS. 

Binders' boards, 2i by 12 inches, 
pieces 


...do 


25 
65 


Jadwin H 


do ... ... 






05 


Do .... 


Binders' boards, 4 by 17 inches, 
pieces 


do 

. . do 






06 


Do 


Cotton bats number 


15 


Do 


Cuppmg-tins do 


...do 


02| 
50 


j}o 


Lancets, thumb do 

Lint picked pounds. 

Muslm, unsized yards . 

Needles, assorted naners 


....do 


Do 


... do 


60 


Do 


... do 


07 


Do 


... do 


04 


Do 


Needles, upholsterers number. 

Oakum, fine, picked pounds. 

Oiled silk yards 




06 


Do 


... do 


11 


Do 




1 00 


Do 


Pencils, hair number 




03 


Do 


•Pins .. Daners 




04 


Do 


Plaster, adhesive yards 

Plaster, isinglass do .. 

Plaster of Paris pounds. 

Pocket-cases number. 

Scarificators do 




17 


Do 




48 


Do 




02 


Do 




9 00 


Do 




3 25 


Do 


Scissors (large and small) ... do. . . 

Silk ligature ounces. 

Speculum for rectum number. 

Speculum for vagina do . . . 

Sponge, assorted ounces. 

Stethoscopes number. 

Syringes, hard rubber, 8-ounce 

SjTinges, hypodermic number. 

Syringes, penis do 




56 


Do 




1 50 


Do 




35 


Do 




3 25 


Do 




14 


Do 




28 


Do 




1 35 


Do 




1 35 


Do 




30 


Do 


Syringes, vagina do . . . 

Theraiometers, clinical do. . . 

Thread, linen ounces 




45 


Do 




1 75 


Do ... . 




09 


Do 


Thread, cotton, spools number. 

Tooth-extracting cases do. . . 

Tourniquets, field do. . . 

Tourniquets, screw, with pad do. . . 

Towels dozen. 

Trusses, single number 

Twine, J-coarse ounces 




04 


Do . 




12 00 


Do 




1 25 


Do 




1 50 


Do . 




1 75 


Do 




75 


Do 




1 75 
04 


Jadwin H 


MISCELLANEOUS. 

Basins, wash, hand number. 

Blank-books, cap (4 quires) ..do... 

Corkscrews do. . . 

Corks, velvet, best dozen 

Dippers, tin do .. 

Dispensatory copies. 

Funnels, tin, pint number 

Hones do. . . 

Measures, graduated glass, 4-ounce, 
number 




15 


Do 




80 


Do 




18 


Do 




03 


Do 

Do 




10 




7 50 


Do 




10 


Do 




20 


Do . 








31 


Do ... 


Measures, tin, pint and quart, 
number 








22 


Do .. 


Measures, graduated glass, minim. 








22 


Do 


Mortars and pestles, 3i to 8 inch. 








38 


Do 


Mosquito netting yards. 

Paper, filtering, 10-inch packs. 




1 56 
08 


Do 




30 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 
Abstract of awards made in New York City, cfc. — Continued. 



41 



Names. 


Articles. 


Quantity. 


Where delivered. 


Price. 


Jadwin 0. H 


Miscellaneous— Continued. 

Paper, litmus, blue and red, sheets. 

Paner, wrapping quires. 

Pill-boxes . dozen. 

PiU-tiles, 5 to 10 inch number. 

Scales and weights, prescription, 
number 


34 

312 

903 

5 

6 

28 

14 

65 
285 
463 
535 
422 

128 

177 
488 
100 

72 

167'"' 

120 

648 
540 
263 
232 
2,591 

194 

50 

324 

530 
1,350 

452 

227 

158 

150 

176 

148 
1,112 

964 

567 

158 
74 
31 

120 

308 

403 

674 
1,690 

303 

866 
1,872 

573 

78 
113 
264 

56 

84 

727 
144 
371 
708 
284 
71 

49 

233 
108 
272 




$0 04 


Do 




18 


Do 




04 


Do 




1 00 


Do 








4 50 


Do 


Spatulas, 6-inch number . 

Spirit-lamps do. . . 

Test-tubes do . . . 

Vials 6-ounce 




24 


Do 




35 


Do.... 




30 


Do 




22 


Do 






18 


Do 






14 


Do 


Vials, 1-ounce 




12 


• 
Do 


MEDICINES. 

Acid, carbolic, for disinfection, 
pounds 

Acid, carlx)lic, pure crystallized, 
ounces 








30 


Do .. . 








05 


Do 


Acid, citric ounces. . 

Acid, nitric do 

Acid, sulphuric do 

Acid, sulphuric aromatic do 

Acid, tannic do 

Aconite, tincture of rad do 

■Alcohol, in 32-ounce bottles 

Alumina and potassa ounces. . 

Ammonia, carbonate of do 

Ammonia, muriate of do 

Ammonia, solution of do 

Ai-senite of potassa, solution of. 




05 


Do 




OOf 
00 
02 
12 


Do 




Do . . 




Do 


Do 




02 


Do 




55 


Do 




Olf 
01 


Do 




Do 




Do 




Do 








01 


Do 


Belladonna, alcoholic extract of, 
ounces 








18 


Do 


Bismuth, subnitrate ounces. . 

Borax, powdered do 

Camphor do 

Castor oil in 32-ounce bottles 

Cerate, blistering . ounces. . 

Cerate, casmolino pounds. . 

Cerate, simple do 

Chalk, prepared ounces. . 

Chloral, hydiate of do 

Chloroform, purified do 

Cinchona, fluid extract do 

Cod-livei oil in 1-pint bottles 

Colchicum-seed, fluid extract 

Copper sulphate 




15 


Do 




Oli 


Do 




02i 
33 


Do 




Do 




06 


Do... . 




65 


Do 




OOJ 
16 


Do 




Do 




Do 




06 


Do 




07 


Do 




20 


Do 




08 


Do 




?^* 


Do 


Croton-'oil in 1-ounce bottles 

Digitalis, tincture, in 2-ounce bottles 
Ergot, fluid extract, 2-ounce bottles 
Ether, compound spirits, .ounces.. 

Ether, stronger, in 1-pound tins 

Ether, spirits of nitrous ..ounces.. 

Flaxseed meal in this pounds. . 

Ginger, fluid extract ounces. . 

Glycerine, pure do 

Gum Arabic, powdered do 

Hyoscyamus, alcoholic extract, 
ounces 




Do 




03 


Do 




14 


Do 




IS* 


Do 




Do 




Sil 

05 


Do 




Do 




Do 




02 


Do 




03 


Do 








18 


Do 


Iodine ounces. . 

Ipecacuanha, powdered do 

Iron, solution of the sulphate, do 

Iron, sulphate, commercial, 
pounds 




35 


Do 




l^ 


Do 




Do 








02 


Do 


Iron, tincture of the chloride of, 
ounces 








02i 
02i 
02 


Do 


Jalap, powdered ounces. . 

Lead, acetate of do 

Liquorice root, powdered do 

Magnesia, heavy calcined, pounds.. 

Mercurial ointment do 

Mercury, conosive chloiide of, 
ounces 




Do 




Do 




Oli 
11 


Do 




Do 




02 


Do 








42 


Do 


Mercury, ointment of nitrate of, 
ounces 








04 


Do 


Mercury, mild chloride of. .ounces. . 
Mercury, pill of do 




02 


Do 




05 



42 EEPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Abstract of awards made in New York City, ^c. — Continued. 



K'ames. 



Jadwin, O. H 

Do 

Do..... 

Do 

Do.-... 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do....- 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

• Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Articles. 



Medicines— Continued. 

Mercury, red oxide of do . . . 

Morphia, sulpliate of do . . . 

Mustard-seed, black, ground, 

pounds 

Nux vomica, alcoholic extract of, 

ounces 

Olive-oil in pint bottles 

Opium, tincture of ounces. 

Opium, compound powder of, 

ounces 

Opium, powdered ounces. 

Opium, tincture of do. . . 

Pepper, cayenne, sp'ound do. . . 

Peppermint, oil of. do. . . 

Pills, compound cathartic in bot- 
tles number 

Podophyllum, resin of ounces. 

Potassa, caustic do. . . 

Potassa, acetate of do. . . 

Potassa, bitartrate of, powdered, 

ounces 

Potassa, chloi^ate of, powdered, 

ounces 

Potassa, nitrate of, powdered, 

ounces 

Potassium, bromide of ounces 

Cinchonidia, sulphate of do. 

Quinia, sulphate of do . 

Rhubarb, powdered do . 

Rochelle salts do. 

Sarsaparilla, fluid bottles 

Silver, nitrate of, fused ounces 

Soap, castile pounds 

Soap, common ' do . 

Soda, bicarbonate of ounces 

Squills, sirup of pounds 

Strychnia ounces 

Suiphur do. 

Turpentine, oil of bottles 

Zinc, acetate of ounces 

Zinc, sulphate of do. 

ADDITIONAL ARTICLES. 

Ammonium, bromide of ounces 

Arnica, tincture of do . 

Assafoetida, gum do. 

Buchu, fluid extract of do . 

Cocculus indicus do. 

Colchicum, lad. wine of do. 

Collodion do. 

Copaiba, balsam of do. 

Creosote do. 

Ipecac, fluid extract do . 

Iron sirup, iodide of do. . 

Linseed-oil bottles 

Ointment boxes, tin, assorted, 

dozen 

Origanum, oil of ounces 

Plasters, Alcock's porous. . .dozen 

Soap, carbolic pounds 

Taraxacum, fluid extract of, 

ounces 

Tolu, balsam of ounces 

Wild cherry, sirup of do. 



Quantity. "Where delivered. Price 



76 
Mi 

172 

19 
403 



258 
180 



288 



71, 900 

46 

9 

280 

708 



409 
576 
390 
382 
248 
,092 
864 
37 
531 
478 
732 
652 

520 

224 

50 



158 

1,051 

203 

822 

83 
190 

97 
1,107 

50 
869 
552 

81 

574 
44 
140 
280 

324 

76 

1,408 



REPORT OF A. C. BARSTOW AND E. WHITTLESEY. 

Washington, Octoher 15, 1878. 
Gentlemen : Having recently returned from a visit to the Indian agencies in Wis- 
consin, we present to the board the following report of our observations. 

Passing through the Oneida Reservation, near Green Bay, we arrived at Keshena, the 
headquarters of the Green Bay Agency, on Saturday, Sej)tember 21. Sunday morning 
we attentled church with the Stockbridge Indians, a remnant of the Massachusetts 
tribe of tliat name, now numbering about 120. The pastor, an Indian educated at 
Dartmouth College and Bangor Theological Seminary, preached in English a plain 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 43 

instructive sermon, and we were invited to address the audience. The church has 
twelve members and is of the Presbyterian denomination. Sunday evening we at- 
tended a social meeting at the house of the teacher, at which all the employes of the 
agency were present. 

The Meuomonees, who live around the agency and occupy a large part of the reser- 
vation, are Roman Catholics and Pagans — about half each. The Catholics have a 
church at Keshena of fair size, and another on the reservation about 15 miles distant, 
with a priest, who officiates at both. The agent and all the employds are Protestants 
and Christians, as are also the trader and his clerk. The morale of this entire force is 
of a high order. The government is fortunate in being represented by so many men 
who seem, one and all, remarkably adapted to their several stations, and who at the 
same time, with their families, evince a high type of Christian character. It is unfor- 
tunate that the active piety in these families cannot have full play in the elevation of 
all the Indians without exciting opposition from the priest ; but it is fortunate that the 
agent has so much wisdom and prudence as to secure the general co-operation of the 
priest in his efforts for the education and improvement of the Indians. 

While less is being done in the education of the children than we could desire, we 
found a school near the agency and saw in it evidence of faithful work by the teachers 
and of fair progress by the scholars in elementary English studies. A small boarding- 
house is managed by' the teacher's wife, who is a true missionary in spirit; but she 
sadly needs better accommodations. 

After visiting the schools, we spent the day, Monday the 23d, inspecting the mills 
and farms, and saw evidence of industry and considerable skill in farming. The soil 
of this reservation is light, and the labor of clearing it of timber and rocks is very 
great ; but when cleared it produces good crops of vegetables and a fair average of 
corn and wheat. We found a great want of teams and stock, one yoke of oxen being 
depended upon to do the work for six or eight families. Nearly all the Indians have 
allotments of land in severalty, but none except the Stockbridge band have received 
patents to their homesteads. 

At a protracted and pleasant conference with the chiefs and headmen Monday even- 
ing, the principal matters discussed and urged were titles to land and' better school 
houses. "We want to know," said one, "what is our land and whej-e it is." "We 
want some day to be citizens and to come under the same law as white men." "We 
are willing to pay taxes like white men, to work and do all that white men do." "We 
all want to send our children to school ; you can't find one in the tribe that doji't want 
schools." Such expressions were repeated by several speakers and applauded by all. 
After this council with the Indians and conference with the agent, we wrote to the 
Commissioner of Indian Aftairs and made several recommendations : 

1st. That a controversy among the Stockbridge Indians respecting their annuities 
be decided promptly, and the money in the hands of the agent be distributed. 

2d. That of the money recovered through the courts, for tresi)ass upon the timber- 
lands of the Stockbridges, |1,000 or $1,200 should be allowed them for the repair or 
rebuilding of their church. 

3d. That the agent be instructed to purchase, in open market, a small supply of 
medicines, which were greatly needed, the requisition of May last not having been 
filed. 

4tli. That a new school-building be erected at once, in accordance with plans and 
estimates already submitted, to take the place of tlie present building, which is badly 
located and hardly fit for use. 

5th. That fifteen or twenty yoke of oxen be purchased and given to the most deserv- 
ing farmers, in order that more lands may be cleared and cultivated. The Indians 
earnestly desired this, and our opinion is that a portion of their annuities would be 
wisely expended in this manner. 

We would gladly have remained to attend the first agricultural fair on this reserva- 
tion, but our limited time forbade. 

The following report, XJublished in the Shawano Coimty Journal, shows that it was 
a great success : 

"the keshena fair. 

" If any one has the idea that the Indians are unable to till the soil successfully, they 
are sadly mistaken. The fair held at Keshena was so superior to the county fair lately 
held at Shawano, that it would almost convince any one who attended both that the 
Indian was farther advanced in agricultural matters than the white man. The differ- 
ence is that the former was interested in his exhibition, while the latter was not. 

"The space allotted for the display was across the river opposite Keshena. There 
was a large wooden building for the agricultural display, and a tent for the household 
productions. A short distance from these were pens and cattle-sheds. In the women's 
tent there were about twenty bed-quilts, some rather gaudy, but the most were very 
neatly and tastefully got up. There were bread, butter, gloves, moccasins, knitting, 
cloaks, bead- work, mats, &c., in great profusion. The white ladies of Keshena had 



44 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

also a fine display of fancy work. But the best part of tlie women's display was tlie 
baby show. From the large number of babies entered, Josephine Satterlie was se- 
lected as the cleanest, best combed, and most neatly dressed. The said lady is about 
three months old, and is a fine specimen of a baby." Neopct, youngest son of the head 
chief, and bearing the same name, took the second premium. 

"In the main building, vegetables were ranged along each side and on a long table in 
the center of the room. From the crossbars hung strings of onions and com. On the 
benches w^ere wheat, oats, rye, pdtatoes, beans, carrots, turnips, rutabagas, squash, 
pumpkins, melons, cabbage, and a host of other vegetables. There were 167 entries 
of potatoes alone, and over 100 of beans. The squashes numbered 250, and the jramp- 
kins 200. There were 5 varieties of potatoes, 22 of corn, 14 of beans, 5 of onions, 4 of 
carrots, 4 of wheat, 3 of peas, and 5 of turnips. The total nnmber of entries conld 
not be ascertained, but there w^ere many hundreds at least. The display was remark- 
able, and did great credit to the Indians. The credit of establishing and making a 
success of it, however, must be given to Mr. Wheeler, the farmer, and Mr. Bridge- 
man, the agent. 

"The judges of cattle and produce were Messrs. James Magee, Whitehouse, Ains- 
worth, and Noble. Some excellent stock was shown, all of which was owned by jiri- 
vate individuals. 

"At 3.30 on Friday after the prizes had been awarded, the crowd, which during the 
previous day numbered, according to the estimate of Mr. Gauthier, about 800, was 
called together by the agent, Avho stated to them briefly, by means of an interpreter, 
what the aim of the fair had been, and how agreeably surprised they had all been at 
the manner in which they had taken hold of the w ork. He encouraged them to go on 
in the work of farming ; said that he had never witnessed so fine an exhibition in his 
life, and admonished them to return thanks to the Great Father who had given them 
such blessings. 

"Chickeny, one of the chiefs, spoke to them in Menomonee. He said: 

" '1 am not worthy to speak to you. I do not know what to say, but I feel that I 
am grateful to the Great Sjurit for giving us such good crops. He is our hope, and 
we should pray to Him. May He give you more strength to do the w^ork you have to 
do. If you perform your duties well, the Great Spirit and the Father at Washington 
will help you. Don't sleep after the sun is up. Go forth to your labor, not to the 
chase, for so did our fathers that are gone, and they have left nothing behind them. 
Take your ax and clear your lands for cultivation. The earth is our grandmother. In 
it is our life. It yields the only means of sustenance to man and beast. I am old and 
gray-haired, and shall not live to see all that I could wish, but I want you who are 
young to copy after the white men. It is our own fault that we are in no better cir- 
cumstauces than we are, for we have had plenty of chances. We are too old now to 
change, but I adjure you to look out for the interests of your children. Send them to 
school. That is the only chance for them to become civilized. Shove them into the 
school. I wish that after I am dead, that the future generations shall walk hand in 
hand upon the earth with the white man. And may the Great Spirit Avho dwells above 
give you all strength to accomplish this.' 

"As he spoke, the wind tossed his long white locks in the breeze, and reminded one 
of the old classic orators. He spoke easily, and gestured freely and gracefully. Neoj)et, 
the head chief, then followed with a few words, seconding all that the old man had 
said, especially concerning the school. 

"Mr. James Magee said, 'I have often heard it stated that the Indian could raise 
nothing, but when I come here and find a display exceeding' anything I have ever seen, 
I frankly say that I am proud of you. At this rate in a short time you will be as well 
off as your white neighbors, and can enjoy all the advantages of civilization.' 

" Mr. Bridgeman, the agent, again urged them to educate their children ; after which 
Mr. Wheeler gave a short, j)ractical talk on farming, telling them how to plant, plow, 
and reap. His words were few, but every one of them bore directly upon the subject 
he had in hand. 

" Father Masschelein, the priest, said that he w as pleased with what they had done, 
and hoped that they Avould remember to thank Him from whom all blessings flow, for 
their success. At the request of the agent, he then offered a short prayer of thanks- 
giving to the Great Creator for all his blessings to them. 

"A word AA'as sj)oken by the agent, urging them to be strictly temperate if they wished 
to be better off' in mind, body, and in their financial affairs. 

"The premium-list was then read, with the names of those who had received the 
premiums. - » 

" The last exercise was a plowing-match, in which about ten persons were contest- 
ants. In this they showed that they were not inferior to the white men. 

"The fair was now done, and the Indians scattered to their homes, bearing their 
produce with them. This fair has done a great amount of good. To the white people 
it has shown that those whom they were wont to call the 4az\^ red men' are able to 
cope with them in cultivating the soil ; to the employes of the government it has given 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 45 

eucourageinent, and to the Indian it has given confidence and a desire to excel in the 
future. It is to he hoped that this will help to wipe away the prejudice against the 
Indian, and that hereafter honor shall be given where honor is due." 

On Tuesday, September 24, we returned to Green Bay, and thence proceeded, Wednes- 
day, the 25th, by rail, to Ashland, a fourteen hours' ride through an almost unbroken 
forest. On the 26th we arrived about noon at Bayfield, and went by row-boat along 
the shore of Lake Superior to Red Cliff" Agency buildings. We had a good view of 
the reservation, which lies along the shore, and of the homes of the Indians ; and re- 
turning by the wagon-road, we diverged several times to see new clearings by the 
Indians of lauds recently given them by patent in the heart of the forest. The timber 
in all this region is extremely dense and the labor of clearing is severe. Some of the 
Indians have cut the fallen timber into cord wood, which they hope to sell on the lake 
shore. 

We found the blacksmith, carpenter, and cooper shops, the wharf, store-house, barn, 
and several smaller buildings at Red Cliff' in good condition. The sawmill, or rather 
the building covering it, is m very good repair, but the machinery, which by order of 
the department has not been used in three years, is in bad order. The engine is upon 
a foundation of wood which has settled and shifted, and apparently has often been 
raised, wedged up, and r(?ndered serviceable for a season. If the agent had a right to 
sell lumber, he could profitably employ many of the Indians, use up timber now going 
to waste, and save the government appropriation of money for supplies. But as 
he has not, we see no wisdom in longer preserving the mill. The Indians who are 
clearing their farms in the dense forests build log-houses, covering with bark or with 
shingles, split out by hand, and need little or nothing from the mill. What little 
sawed lumber is required on the reservation can be obtained at Bayfield at much less 
cost than by running the mill. We advise, therefore, that the agent be authorized to 
sell the steam-engine, boiler, and other machinery at a fair price. To preserve them 
from waste and decay will be attended with cost, and there is no prospect that they 
will be needed for government use. 

Agent Mahan appears to be a man of sense, system, vigor, and integrity. He is, 
with the help of a wide-awake, hard-working farmer, stimulating the Indians at Red 
Cliff" to an unwonted vigor. He has been allowed to distribute some cows among 
them, and they are all raising their calves. In our opinion he should have authority to 
go farther in this direction. Another dozen cows and calves wisely distributed would 
be a great incentive to industry and thrift. 

What organized religious influence there is here is exerted by the Roman Catholic 
church. There is no church nor chapel on the reservation, so that the Indians who 
attend church at all go to Bayfield, three miles from the south line of the reservation 
and an average of five miles from the people. At the best the influence would not 
be, we fear, very positively religious; but as it is, it must be very weak. The school 
is a day school, three miles from the agency buildings, near the north line of the res- 
ervation, and too far from a majority of the children. It is non -sectarian, and there 
appears to be no oi)position to it. The Indians are generally satisfied with its man- 
agement. 

The order directing agents to make no issue of supplies except in payment for labor 
seems to be impracticable in some parts of this agency. It can easily be executed at 
Red Cliff" and at Bad River; but Agent Mahan has besides these five other distinct 
bands and reservations, on some of which he has no employes to represent him, and 
can have none for lack of appropriations. Some of them are so distant and difficult 
of access that he can only visit them once or twice a year. In such circumstances a 
strict compliance with the order above named is plainly impossible. 

We returned across the bay to Ashland Friday evening, and the next day, the 28th, 
proceeded by a small tug, which we were obliged to charter for the trip, to Odanah, or 
Bad River. 

This reservation is larger in extent than Red Cliff', containing about 125,000 acres, 
and the land is very good, being a fine alluvial, or rather sedimentary, formation. The 
whole has been surveyed, and 204 allotments of 80 acres each have been made to Indian 
families. We visited several farms, and saw evidences of industry in the houses built, 
the fields cleared, the large crops of vegetables raised and being gathered at the 
time of our visit. Some of the products of this year's labor are about 10,000 bushels 
of potatoes, 600 bushels of com, 550 of oats, 1,000 of turnips, 200 of peas, 100 of 
beans, 200 of cranberries, 5 tons of wild rice gathered, and 1,700 pounds of butter 
made, the first attempt at butter-making by these Indians. They have a good man in 
charge of their farming work, who has gained their confidence and directs and encour- 
ages their eff'orts. On Saturday evening we attended a social religious meeting at the 
house of the farmer. The services were conducted in Chippewa by a young Indian, 
and nearly all present took part in them Avith ai>parent earnestness and deep feeling. 

On Sunday, the 29th, after a short morning service at the mission school, where the 
children recited lessons with promptness and accuracy, Ave attended the mission 
church under the care of Rev. J. Baird, a missionary- of the Presbyterian board. 



46 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

The interpreter, who is also a Presbyterian minister, led the service and translated the 
addresses to the assembly. 

The mission boarding-school, under the charge of Mr. Baird and his wife, appears to 
be well managed, and is doing good work. It had at the time of our visit 18 scholars, 
but the usual attendance is 25. Connected with it is a day-school of 30 or 40 scholars. 
The buildings are good, and are owned by the missionary board. 

The Indians on this reservation are divided into Protestants, Roman Catholics, and 
pagans. But the Protestant influence appears to be predominant, and the religious 
character of the people seems to be more decided than at Red Clift". 

The educational work ought to be enlarged ; and a much larger school could be 
gathered and instructed if means could be raised for the support of an additional 
teacher. 

One great want of the people here is more stock to work their farms. They take 
good care of what they have and are raising all the. increase. Mauy said they would 
l^refer cows ; then they could soon raise all the cattle they need. We recommend that 
whatever funds are available for their beneflt be expended in this direction, except, 
perhaps, a small outlay to supply the wants of aged and sick paui)ers. Able-bodied 
men here and at Red Cliff need no more supplies of provisions and clothing. They 
have good land and enough of it cleared to support them. Whatever is given them 
hereafter should be given in stock and agricultural implements. 

Another great want of the Chippewa Indians is titles in fee to the homesteads allot- 
ted and partially improved. About twenty patents have been issued on Red Cliff 
ReserA^ation, and it is easy to see that the fact of oAvnership in the soil and the cer- 
tainty of a settled home are a great stimulus to industry and thrift. The patents are 
carefully and almost reverently jireserved. They were exhibited with pride. The 
holders of them said, ''We are now men. \ye have homes. Nobody can drive us 
away." To others, at Red Cliff and at Bad River, patents have been promised, and 
we earnestly recommend that the promise be promptly fulfilled. Many besought us 
to do all in our power to insure them against disappointment in this matter. One 
man, who had saved money, earned by labor, to build a house, was afraid to build on 
his allotment, and purchased a house-lot from the mission farm, on which he has built 
a large two-story house. 

One further suggestion we venture to offer respecting the future management of this 
agency. The agent has resided near the two reservations which we visited about five 
years. But*lie has five other reservations under his care at remote points in Wiscon- 
sin and Minnesota. Our judgment is that a removal of the agency to one of these 
more remote reservaticms would be wise. Under Agent Mahan's personal supervision 
great progress has been made at Red Cliff and at Bad River, so that those bands are 
nearly self-supporting, and can well be left in charge of the farmers now employed. 
The small supplies of food and clothing needed by the sick and aged cau be issued by 
these farmers and the missionaries. Were the agent placed now at Lac Court Oreilles, 
we might hope for the same improvement there as has been made under his adminis- 
tration at Red Cliff and Bad River. 

A. C. BARSTOW 
E. WHITTLESEY. 

The Board of Indian Commissioners. 



REPORT OF VISIT OF COMMISSIONERS FISK AND STICKNEY TO COLORADO 
AND INDIAN TERRITORY. 

New York, August 22, 1878. 
Hon. A. C. Barstow, Chairman : 

Dear Sir : I have the honor to report that, in compliance with the request of the 
board made at its session in June that I should represent them in certain negotiations 
to be had with the Ute Indians in Colorado for the extinguishment of their right to por- 
tions of their reservation, and for the consolidation of the several Ute agencies into one 
agency at White River, I left my home July 22, and proceeded to Colorado to join the 
commission appointed by the honorable Secretary of the Interior to make the negotia- 
tions aforesaid. 

The members of the commission chosen in accordance with the provisions of the act 
of Congress authorizing the same were Hon. William Stickney, a member of the Board 
of Indian Commissioners ; General Hatch, the commander of the military district in 
which the Ute agencies are located ; and Judge N. C. McFarland, of Topeka, Kans. 
The secretary and disbursing officer was Mr. William S. Stickney, of Washington. 

The commission was summoned to convene at Fort Garland, Colo., on July 25, 1878, 
for preliminary deliberations. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 47 

Upon my arrival at Pueblo I was met l)y Lieutenant McCauley, of the Third Cav- 
alry, with the information that there were no proper rooms or conveniences at Fort 
Garland for the accommodation of the conmiission, and Manitou was agreed upon as the 
better place for tlie preliminary work of the commission. The members all arrived at 
Manitou on Saturday evening/ July 27. 

The serious indisposition of Commissioner Stickney delayed organization until Tues- 
day, the 30th, when General Hatch was chosen chairman, and the work of the Com- 
mission taken up for discussion. Upon their invitation I sat with tliem. Conflict- 
ing instructions from the Indian Bureau as to the order in which the Ute agencies 
should be visited were settled after some delay by definite telegrams from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, and all the information possible to obtain in relation to the con- 
dition of the Indians was secured from leading citizens of Colorado in official and 
private station. 

Tlie negotiations heretofore had with the Utes, unhappily resulting in misunder- 
standings and bitter complainings on the part of the Indians, had been a source of 
trouble for many years. 

In 1872, an unsuccessful attempt had been made to secure the relinquishment of 
Indian title to that portion of the Ute Reservation on which are located the San Juan 
mines, and which said mining region was even then rapidly filling up with miners and 
explorers. 

In 1873, Hon. Felix Brunot, then chairman of the Board of Indian Commissioners, 
was delegated by the Department of the Interior to renew negotiations with the Utes 
for the extinguishment of their right to the southern portion of their reservation. An 
agreement was concluded between Mr. Brunot and the chiefs and headmen on Septem- 
ber 13, 1873, which by its provisions left the Utes with a narrow strip of territory on 
the border between Colorado and New Nexico, a narrower strip of land on the western 
border of Colorado below the 38th parallel of north latitude, and a large tract of poor, 
uninhabitable lands in Central Western Colorado, the valuable mining section and 
valley fanning lands of the San Juan region having been surrendered. 

The Utes were scattered in three agencies, all of them exceedingly difficult of access. 

The Board of Indian Commissioners were not favorably impressed with the proposi- 
tion suggested by Congressional action in 1878, to wit, the concentration of all the 
Utes at the White River Agency and the relinquishment by the Indians of all their 
lands in Southern Colorado. The appointment of Mr. Stickney, one of our members 
on the commission provided for by Congress to make the contemplated negotiations 
with the Utes, we considered fortunate ; and when his continued indisposition at Man- 
itou led his physician to recommend his immediate retlirn homeward, we were for- 
tunate in securing the appointment of Hon. Lot M. Morrill, Ex-Senator from Maine, 
whose long experience on the Senate committee of Indian affairs rendered him emi- 
nently fit for the duties imposed upon the commission. Mr. Morrill, being at that 
time at Manitou, consented to serve. The department promptly appointed him to the 
vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Stickney. 

It being finally arranged that the commission should first visit the Southern Ute 
Agency, and after conference with the Indians at that point proceed to the Los Pinos 
Agency for further conference with Ouray and his headmen, and as those two journeys 
would involve nearly 1,000 miles of wagon transportation and a longer period of time 
than I could well devote to this one tribe, it was, after consultation, arranged that I 
should be excused from accompanying the commission farther than Fort Garland and 
Alamosa, and from thence Mr. Stickney and myself would proceed to the Indian Terri- 
tory to assist in permanently locating the Nez Perc6s, who, with Chief Joseph, had 
been recently removed from Leavenworth to the Quapaw Agency. 

We left Alamosa for the Indian Territory on August 8, and entered the reservations 
from Baxter Springs, visiting the schools and churches of the small civilized tribes 
occupying the northeastern portion of the Indian Territory, to wit, the Quapaws, 
Shawnees, Peorias, Ottawas, Senecas, Delawares, and Modocs. 

We found the Nez Perc6s in camp near the Quapaw Agency and adjoining lands 
owned and occupied by the Modocs. There was much sickness in the Nez Percys 
camp, and several deaths had already occurred. The surgeon's chest was deficient in 
many most necessary medicines. He was destitute of quinine, and was waiting the 
progress of his requisition through official channels at Washington. We at once, by 
tslegraph, ordered medicines from Saint Louis, and proceeded to the selection of proper 
lands in which to permanently locate Joseph and his people. 

We found Joseph averse to the idea of remaining in the Indian Territory. He and 
his headmen, at every interview, strongly resisted our every argument in favor of the 
selection of permanent homes in any place excepting in their old hunting-grounds in 
Idaho. The intei-pret^r; Mr. Chapmdn, who had for tnany years lived among the Nez 
Percys, appeared to be in sympathy with Joseph and his men in their unwillingness 
to select homes in the Territory. 

Seldom have we be^n in councils where the Indians more eloquently or earnestly ad- 
vocated their side of the question. Joseph's arraignment of the Army for alleged bad 



48 REPORT OF THE BOA.RD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

faith to Mm after the surrender of himself and people to General Miles was almost 
unanswerable. We found in his possession the following extract from General Miles's 
report : 

[Extract from Annual Eeport, December 27, 1877.] 

*'0n the morning of October 1, I opened communication with the Nez Perc6s, and 
Chief Joseph and several of his warriors came out under flag of truce. They showed 
willingness to surrender, and brought up a part of their arms (eleven rifles and car- 
bines), but, as I believe, becoming suspicious from some remarks that were made in 
English in their hearing, those in camp hesitated to come forward and lay down their 
arms while Joseph remained in our camp. I directed Lieut. L. H. Lowrie, Second 
Cavalry, to ascertain what was being done in the Indian village. He went into the 
village ; was detained (but not harmed) until Joseph returned to his camp on the 
afternoon of the 2d. 

" In communication from the battle-field of October 3d and 6th, the progress and result 
of the sicj^e have been reported. 

"I notified General Stuagin, at Carroll, and General Howard, at that time on the Mis- 
souri River, near Cow Island, of the fact that J had overtaken and surrounded Joseph's 
band. That force moved northward, but Avas subsequently turned back, the surrender 
of the Nez Perc<5s rendering its service unnecessary. General Howard came through 
with a small escort ; arrived on the evening of the 4th, and was present at the sur- 
render. Accompanying him were Interpreter A. A. Chapman and two friendly Nez 
Percys, who were very useful in communicating with the hostiles. 

''As I received no reply to my request for orders or information that should govern 
my movements, I acted on what I supposed was the original design of the government, 
to place these Indians on their own reservations, and so informed them, and also sent assurance 
to the war -parties that were out and those who had escaped that they would be taken 
to Tongue River for a time and sent across the mountains as soon as the weather per- 
mitted. By subsequent orders they have been removed to Forts Lincoln aud Leaven- 
worth. 

' 'As these people have been hitherto loyal to the government, and friends of the white 
race, from the time their country was first explored, and in their skillful campaign 
have spared hundreds of lives and thousands of dollars' worth of i)roperty that they 
might have destroyed, and as they have, in my opinion, been grossly -wronged in 
years past, have lost most of their warriors, their ponies, jiroperty, and everything, 
except a small amount of clothing, I have the honor to recommend that ample pro- 
vision be made for their civilization, and to enable them to become self-sustaining. 
They are sufficiently intelligent to apjireciate the consideration Avliich, in my opinion, 
is justly due them from the government. The Nez Percys are the boldest men and 
best marksmen of any Indians I have ever encountered, and chief Joseph is a man of 
more sagacity and intelligence than any Indian I have ever met ; he counseled against 
the war, and against the usual cruelties practiced by Indians, and is far more humane 
than such Indians as Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull." 

We assured Joseph that with his movements and his treatment prior to his delivery 
to the Indian Department we had nothing to do, and that the War Department had 
done what, under all the circumstances, it considered the wisest thing for it to do, 
and that under our instructions, and in the presence of the facts as they were, we could 
do nothing but make the best j)ossible selection of land in that vicinity for a per- 
manent home for himself and his band. 

After an examination of the unoccupied lands in that vicinity we called the chiefs 
and headmen of the Confederated Peorias and Miamies in council to confer with them 
touching the relinquishment of their right to lands sufficient for the occupancy and 
use of the Nez Percys, and after much deliberation we concluded with them the fol- 
lowing 

ARTICLES OF AGREEMENT. 

Articles of agreement made and entered into at the Quapaw Indian Agency, in the 
Indian Territory, on the 14th day of August, A. D. 1878, by and between Hiram W. 
Jones, William Stickney, and Clinton B. Fisk, commissioners, in behalf of the United 
States, and the chiefs, headmen, and men of the Confederated Peorias and Miami 
tribes of Indians, witnesseth : 

That whereas the said commissioners, in behalf of the United States, have been au- 
thorized and empowered by instructions from the honorable the Secretary of the De- 
partment of the Interior, and of the honorable the Commissioner of Indian Aff"airs, to 
enter into negotiations with Indian tribe or tribes in the Indian Territory, for the ex- 
tinguishment of their right to lands sufficient fbr the occupancy and use of the Nez 
Perc6s Indians, known as Joseph's Band, or for the use and occupancy of such other 
Indians as the Government of the United States may hereafter choose to locate upon 
said lands ; and whereas the said commission have selected as suitable for such pur- 
pose a certain parcel of the lands owned by the said Confederated Peorias and Miamies, 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 49 

and definitely hereinafter described ; and whereas the said Confederated Peorias and 
Miamies have hy their cliiefs, headmen, and men, for a vahiable consideration herein- 
after stated, agreed to reliuquisli to the United States said hinds: 

Now, therefore, the said commissioners hereinbefore named, and the said chiefs, 
lieadmen, and men of the said Confederated Peorias and Miamies do enter into tlie fol- 
h)win<;- a<»reement : 

Aktklk I. The Confederated Peoria and Miami Indians, of the Indian Territory, 
hereby relin<iuish t<> the United States all rij?ht, title, and interest, and claim whatso- 
ever in and to the following-described portion of their lands sitnate, lying, and being 
in the northeastern portion of the In<lian Territory, viz: Beginning at the southeast 
corn«'r of said Peoria and Miami lands oji the western boundary of the State of Mis- 
siMiri : thence running north in said State line two miles; thence due west to the center 
«»f Warrior Creek ; thence southwesterly along the middle of said creek to the center of 
Spring River; thence along the middle of Spring River to the southern boundary of 
t])e Peoria and Miami lands; thence east on the line between the Peoria and Miami 

lands and the Shawnee and Modoc lands to the place of beginning, containing 

acres, more or less. 
Art. II. The L'^nited States agree to pay to the members of the said Peoria and 

Miami tribes, in money, the sum of dollars in full payment for the lands 

described in article 1 of this agreement. 

Art. III. The Peoria and Miami Indians who may have improved certain parcels of 
lands included in the foregoing description shall be compensated for their personal 
]u-o])erty and improvements, including buildings, fences, growing and standing cropa 
in said lands, in such sum as may be determined by a board of arbritration, consisting 
of Agent Jones and one party to be chosen by the owner of the improvement ; and in 
case they should fail to agree, then they shall select a third party, who shall be disin- 
terested, and the award made for said imi)rovement, crops, and by any two of said 
board of arbitration, shall be final. 

Art. IV. It is agreed that the United States shall enter into immediate possession 
of the said lands, buildings, improvement, crops, &c., for the purpose of locating 
thereon the Nez Perc6 Indians. 

Art. V. This agreement is made subject to ratification or rejection by the Congress 
of the United States and the President. 

H. W. JONES, 
WM. STICKNEY, 
CLINTON B. FISK, 

Commissioners. 
JAMES CHARLEY, 

Peoria Head Chief. 
ED. H. BLACK, 

Peoria Second Chief. 
THOS. PECKHAM, 

Peoria First Councilmath^ 
JAMES SKY, 

Peoria Second Conncilman. 
JOHN WARDSWORTH, 

Peoria Councilman. 
CHARLES LABARDIE, 

Peoria Indian. 
THOS. MILLER, 

Miami Head Chief. 
SIMEON F. GEBOE, 

Miami Indian. 
JOHN MILLER, 

Miami Indian. 

The lands described in the foregoing articles of agreement are admirably located, 
adjoining the Modocs, whose progress in civilization has been wonderful under the 
wise management of Agent Jones, who has so long and faithfully administered the 
affairs of the Quapaw Agency. The lands are prairie and timber, with springs of water 
abundant, and with good natural boundaries, two sides being bounded by Spring River 
and Warrior Creek. 

Joseph plead indisposition the day of our final survey and inspection of the lands, 
and declined any partici]>ation whatever in the conference with the Peorias and 
Miamies. After concluding the articles of agreement, arid arranging for innnediate oc- 
cupancy of the lands, l)efore leaving we again visited Joseph, who was still unrecon- 
ciled to a home in the TeiTitory. 

We addressed the following communication and left, instructing Agent Jones to 
place him and his band in the lands bargained for as early as possible: 

4IC 



50 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

QuAPAW Agency, Indian Territory, 

August 14, 1878. 
Cliief Joseph, 

Ne.z Perc^ Indians at Quapaiv Agency, Indian Territory : 

Dear Sir : Referring to our late interview with yourself, and to th(5 instructions 
from Washington, as read to you by Captain Chapman, the interpreter, we beg leave 
to say that we were disappointed that you were not able to accompany us in our ex- 
amination and selection of lands in which to locate yourself and band in permanent 
homes. 

We have made careful inspection of the lauds in this vicinity, and have been for- 
tunate in securing, for your use and occupancy, from the Peorias and Miamies, an ad- 
mirable selection of prairie and timbered lauds, well watered by springs and rivers. 
The tract covers several thousaud acres. There are some improvements now on the 
lands, and you will very soon be able to occupy a good house for yourself and family, 
and all the families of your baud will be in good homes as soon as they can be pro- 
vided. 

As your friends, we believe this plan of the government in your behalf is the very 
beat under all the circumstances that can be made for your permanent welfare. Your 
strong men can without delay enter upon industrial pursuits, and soon become as far 
advanced in civilization as the other tribes of Indians by whom you are now sur- 
rounded ; your children will have the advantages of the best of schools, and your 
people will all have religious and educational privileges. 

We sincerely regret that your people have suffered so severely by sickness and death. 
We came to you as soon as you were delivered to the Iiulian Department. Major Jones, 
your agent, will provide every needful thing for the care and comfort of your peoi>le, 
and for your successful entrance upon agricultural pursuits. 

We doubt not your great ability and well-known energy will enable you to promptly 
lead your people to very great success in peaceful pursuits. It will afford us great 
•pleasure in our official and jiersonal relations in doing our utmost to promote the wel- 
fare of yourself and people. 

You must look upon us as your friends, and hesitate not to ask us for any aid in our 
power to afford you. 

Major Jones is authorized to carry out the x^lans of the government in your behalf 
immediately, and we trust you will give him your hearty co-operation in removing 
your people from camp-life to their permanent homes without any delay. Wishing for 
early restored health for all your x>eople, and for the greatest possible success in the 
new life you are now entering upon, we are. 
Faithfully your friends, 

CLINTON B. FISK, 
WM. STICKNEY. 

After concluding our labors among these tribes, we made careful inspection of the 
agency books and methods, making such suggestions as the good of the service re- 
quired, and from the Territory returned to our homes via Seneca and Saint Louis. 



REPORT OF COMMISSIONER KINGSLEY. 

visit to INDIAN TERRITORY. 

To the Board of Indian Commissioners : 

By invitation of and agreement with the honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 
the undersigned joined that gentleman at Saint Louis, and proceeded thence to the 
Indian Territory, arriving at Vinita early on the morning of the 15th of October last. 
From Vinita we went by rail to Seneca, about 30 miles in an easterly direction, at 
which point we parted with railways and kindred evidences of modern civilization 
for the more rude conveniences of a semi-civilized and a comparatively uninhabited 
territory. 

Behind a pair of fleet Indian ponies, in a light spring- wagon, we were driven over 
a rolling country about four miles, when, in the midst of an open oak forest, we came 
suddenly upon the Nez Percys camp, consisting of fifty or sixty tepees, scattered over 
a much less number of acres. Following the interpreter, we waited uj)on Joseph in 
his tent, and were by him received cordially, his wife and child standing by his side 
and sharing in the civilities of the occasion. We declined a courteous invitation to 
seats upon the buffalo-robes and blankets with which the tent was furnished, and in 
turn invited the renowned chieftain to an interview at a point selected in the open 
air as at once more healthful and better suited to the discussion of state affairs. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 51 

Wooden benches were soon arrangeil and the council assembled, consisting of the 
honoraltle Commissioner and the writer on the one part, Chief Joseph, Yellow Bear, 
and l*anther Dress on the other, with the interpreter ; some twenty other chiefs and 
headmen qnietly gronping around and listeuiiiji attentively as the interview proceeded. 

Invited by the Commissioner to the utmost fi ((ilom in representing to him their views, 
Joseph, witli becoming dignity, rehearsed the story of his surrender and the treatment 
he had subse(iuently received, which in substance is as follows : 

In surrendering to General Miles, one of the conditions asked of and granted by 
that officer was that he (Joseph) and his people should be allowed to return, or be 
taken to Idaho, which agreement had been violated by superior commanding orders, 
ixnd instead thereof they were brought under military escort down the Missouri River 
to Fort Leavenworth and located on low bottom-lands, the very hot-bed of malaria ; 
that on their journey to Fort Leavenworth many of their robes, blankets, and other 
effects, including some of their supplies, were taken from them by their captors ; that 
after a detention of several months in that unhealthy location, they were brought 
into this Territory where sickness and death following had smitten them ; where the 
soil is poor, timber scarce, and water insufficient for profitable agricultural industry ; 
and now their one great desire was to be allowed to return to their old home, or at 
lea.st to the same latitude and climate. This . statement is believed to be true in the 
main, and, if so, Joseph stands before the American people a victim of duplicity; his 
confidence wantonly betrayed; his substance pillaged; an involuntary exile from 
home and kindred; his "cause" lost; his people rapidly wasting by pestilence ; an 
object not of haughty contempt or vulgar ridicule, but of generous, humane treat- 
ment and consideration. 

The Commissioner assured him that the government declined sending him to Idaho, 
for reasons involving the safety of his own life and the lives of his people ; but evi- 
dently it was as difficult for Joseph to understand, as for the Commissioner to explain, 
why a government so swift and etteetive to protect the whites and to punish the reds, 
cannot exhibit the same qualities when the colors are reversed. 

This interview closed with a proposition from the Commissioner that Joseph should 
accompany us on our journey to find, perhaps, a more satisfactory location for his 
people, or failing of this, to be more contented in their present one, it being under- 
stood that his decision would be expected the following day. Meanwhile we visited 
the tract of land selected by Commissioners Fisk and Stickney for their permanent loca- 
tion, and were quite ready to concur in their judgment but for two reasons : Ist, it 
was not satisfactory to Joseph and his people, who had an impression they would all 
soon die there ; and 2d, it was in too close proximity with Seneca on one side, and 
Baxter Springs on the other. 

When called upon the next morning he informed the Commissioner of his purpose to 
go with us, but stipulated that as the Commissioner had a friend in attendance, he 
must be placed on equal footing, and be allowed to have one of his chiefs added to the 
convention. This request was granted; and having designated Houser Kutte (Bald 
Head) as his chosen counselor, they traveled with us 200 miles, conducting them- 
selves with the greatest propriety ; observing everything, but giving no intimation of 
what was passing through their minds concerning the object of their journey. From 
information received since their return to camp it is believed they will ask to be re- 
moved into the portion of the Territory, adjacent to the present Ponca reserve, on the 
i^hakaskia River, a most beautiful region, well watered and of fertile soil. 

While at the Quapaw Agency we visited the Modocs,^ and were greatly gratified by 
the abundant evidence of their progress in civilized habits and industries. They are 
in number but 112, and have been but about four years from the war-j)ath, but are 
adapting themselves to peaceful activities with commendable cheerfulness and facility. 

The celebrities of this tribe manifested much interest and pride in the rare occur- 
rence of a visit from the Commissioner. Bogus Charley mcmnted his pony and fol- 
lowed us over the reservation ; Steamboat Frank left the plow-field to pay his respects, 
and these, with Scar-faced Charley and Schack-nastie Jim, were unremitting in their 
well-meant civilities until, seated in our vehicle, we exchanged our final adieus. 

We saw not less than five miles of substantial rail fence, the rails of which were 
eut, split, and laid by their own hands ; also 360 acres of land under cultivation by 
their own labor. They urged the Commissioner to provide more liberally for school 
accommodations, whicli was cheerfully promised. 

We examined the supplies in the Quapaw warehouse, and found them agreeing in 
quality with the samples upon which awards were made. The herd of cattle at this 
agen(;y (about 120 head) was very poor, and should never have been received. Upon 
inquiry it was ascertained that they were a part of a herd delivered by Levi Wilson, 
under contract of 1877, to the Poncas, and turned over to Agent Jones when the Pon- 
cas were removed to their present location, a hundred miles further west. 

The principal chiefs of the* Shawnees and the Peorias also manifested much satis- 
faction in the Commissioner's visit, but had no special requests to make or wrongs ta 
redress. 



52 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

From the Qnapaw Agency we preceded, via Baxter Springs, Chetopa, and Coffey- 
ville, to the Osage Agency, arriving a little after midday on the 18tli of October, and 
being cordially received by Agent L. J. Miles. An examination of agency affairs 
was entered upon immediately, in which the agency and school buildings were first 
inspected, afterwards the mills, stables, store, warehouse, blacksmith's shop, and other 
buildings ; also the supplies received (beef-cattle included) but not yet issued. iSIost 
of the agency buildings are of stone from the immediate vicinity, and of course of sub- 
stantial material, but needing some repaira. 

The quality of supplies received under the contracts of the present year was found 
here and at all the agencies visited to correspond with the original samples. The most 
pressing need of this agency appeared to be a supply of practical farmers — one or two 
placed with each band, to train them, by leading them, into habits of peaceful indus- 
try. These bands are widely scattered, some being at a distance of 2.5 miles from, and 
none immediately at the agency, and when the creeks are swollen they are sometimes 
subject to tedious delays in procuring supplies from the agent's weekly issues. A few 
inexpensive bridges would be of great value to the Osages. 

Pressed as we were for time, we sent an invitation to the head chief, ''Governor 
Joe," to meet us three days later at the Ponca Agency, and took up our journey to the 
Pawnees early the following morning. 

PAWNEE AGENCY. 

Arriving at this agency Saturday evening, unexpectedly to the agent, who was ab- 
sent, we were provided with food and lodgings at the quarters of the chief clerk and 
the trader. Affairs here were in a chaotic condition. The newly-appointed agent had 
not yet taken possession of his quarters, changes in the employes had been made, and 
time was needed to reduce the force to easy working condition. Perhaps it was for 
this reason that we were less favorably impressed with the appearance of affairs, and 
of the Indians themselves, than at the other agencies visited. The dress of the Paw- 
nees, as seen about the agency, was indicative of little progress, many of them with 
scarcely more than a dusky brown piece of muslin wrapped about them in a slovenly 
manner, leaving their lower limbs but imperfectly covered. Some of their huts were 
of mud, and of the rudest form and structure. Nevertheless, we found here substan- 
tial and convenient agency and school buildings, a tine saw-mill, and a very creditable 
grist-mill, the latter not yet completed. Baptiste Bayhylle, chief of the Skuder band, 
is also interpreter for the Pawnees, receiving a salary of $300 per annum. He culti- 
vates a farm, and complains, in good English, that he cannot afford to hold office at 
$300, as he can make more profitable use of the time on his farm. His parting words 
were, "The only way to civilize my people is to withhold blankets ; give us teams and 
plows, with cultivators and wagons." 

We noticed while at this agency the arrival of two wagon loads of bacon, while the 
region abounded in nuts, on which swine should be fattened in ample supply. A few 
practical farmers at this agency, as at others, would be of the greatest service. 

We next visited the Poncas on their new reservation, beautifully located (m high 
ground near the point of confluence of the Salt Fork and Arkansas Rivers. Our arrival 
after midday was speedily known and arrangements were entered U])on for a council 
at evening. During the interval Agent Whiteman accompanied us upon a visit to the 
region lying northwest of the Ponca Agency and bordering upon the Shakaskia River, 
that Joseph, who was still with us, might inspect that locality before deciding upon a 
removal. It is truly a line region of country, and it is believed that the Nez Perces 
chiefs, though very reticent, were as favorably impressed as ourselv^es. 

The council was held in the evening in a tent especially set apart for the occasion. 
White Eagle, the head chief, was accompanied by nearly twenty subchiefs and head- 
men who seated themselves on the ground along one side the tent, the opposite side 
being occupied by the Nez Percds chiefs, agents Whiteman and Miles (the latter 
having accompanied us from the Osage Agency) and a few employers ; the Connnis- 
sioner and the writer sitting at a table opposite and facing the entrance. 

The opening address was by White Eagle, who is of commanding x>i'esence, and large 
influence with his tribe, by The Chief, Standing Buffalo, Standing Bear, Frank Leflesche, 
and others. All expressed satisfaction at the Commissioner's Visit. Their comx>laints 
were substantially as follows: , 

First. Their money annuity of $4,000 had been withheld for two j'ears. We believe 
this has been found as represented and the money remitted. 

Second. They have never given title to the lands taken from them in Dakota, nor 
have they yet received a title to lands now occupied by them ; they wanted "a written 
agreement, for when a man takes a pen it becomes a law." 

Third. Sickness had prevailed and death had reduced their numbers. ''We came 
into this country with 700, and we now have 100 dead ; these expected to enjoy the 
good things the Great Father had promised us." 

With a few words of encouragement, and a promise to provide them liberally with 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 53 

acliool apparatus aud fanning utensils, from the Commissiolier, the council closed at 
a late evtming hour; the scene to he re-enacted the next morning with the Osages, who 
had arrived in force. 

This interview was held in the open air, in front of the agent's quarters. It was a 
charming day, and Governor Joe had hedecked himself in his most royal apparel, with 
a profusion of paint and other decorations nowhere else exhibited. The Osages dress 
their hair in a style of their own ; the scalp-lock being massive, while the sides of the 
head are close cut. The former is made to fall backward over the crown of the head, 
resembling a close-fitting helmet, and when seen upon their ponies galloping over the 
plains tlie s])ectacle is blood-stirring and unique. 

Governor Joe first addressed the commission, aud without circumlocution took up the 
financial question, as follows : "We have money at Washingtcm which is spent for grub.** 
* 'We can raise our own rations." " If we could have the money we can provide for our- 
selves." ''The Connuissioner has been elected to that office and is paid for it." "No 
one attends to important business without pay, and we want pay for our services." 
" The funds of the Osages, we understand, are being spent for other tribes ; we want^ 
it secnred to Osages." " We want to be paid for our land near Fort Gibson." ''We 
want a sawmill" (they have one) ; " also houses and things to work with." "The 
ration business is the cause of our not succeeding." "Did ever you know a person to 
succeed who is fed ?'' The Commissioner interposed the inquiry, "Why, then, do you 
draw rations?" which apjieared to embarrass him for a momeut. He then reidied, 
" Because they are hauled, and we must take them ;" intimating that it would be dis- 
courteous to decline them. 

Hard Hope was the next speaker, and among other complaints dwelt with emphasis 
upou the fact that the Conmiissioner had passed through their agency without giving 
them an ojiportunity to see him, adding, "You" are now going to visit some foolish 
Indians out West ; if we were fools, you would come and see us often." He also put in 
a plea for a salary for their governor, reminding us that "even the beef-cattle roving 
over our plains have a leader which others follow." 

Drum next addressed the commission in the same general line of remarks, taking 
care to notify us that Governor Joe and Hard Rope were their leadiug men, and there- 
fore something from the Great Father should have been brought them. 

The drift of these Osage addi-esses will perhaps be better understood and interpreted 
if it be stated that they have about $1,250,000 to their credit in the ITnited States 
Treasury, which fact is a matter of pride with them, and entitles them, in their view, 
to a rank distiuguisliing them from other tribes, and they have no mock modesty to 
restrain them from asserting their claim to superiority. It is believed that designing 
men, from motives of self-interest, have availed themselves of this easily-discovered 
aristocratic feeling and fostered it, suggesting that their governor should have a resi- 
dence of grandeur corresponding with his exalted station ; that they should receive in 
money the interest accruing upon their fund, expending it in their own way, and as 
they may choose. 

From the Ponca we proceeded to the Kaw Reservation, accompanied still by the Nez 
Perce chiefs ; also by the agents of tlie Osages and the Poncas and Inspector McNeil. 
The Kaws are but a remnant of their former selves, and form an integral part of the 
Osage agency. 

A good boarding-school building of stone, and a separate building of same mate- 
rial for recitations, were visited at this agency, which, Avith the other government 
buildings, appeared in good order, and the children in a more tidy condition than any 
we had ]>efore seen. 

We were provided here with a substantial dinner at a late afternoon hour, and, 
abandoning our proposed A-isit to the Cheyenne aud Arapahoe Agency, we prepared for 
a night-journey to Arkansas City, en route homeward. Parting at this point with 
Joseph and Houser Kutte, we ottered a few words expressing our interest in them yyer- 
sonal^^ and our earnest wj^hes for returning health to their people, with the hope that 
they would at once settle down in their present viciuity or select a more satisfactory 
location in some region of the Temtory we had together visited. Joseph's reply was 
brief, courteous, dignified, and appropriate, but expressive of gloomy apj)rehen8ions 
for his people and their children after them. 

In conclusion, we would urge the indispensable necessity of adopting some matured 
methods for elevating the condition of the Indian women. To this end settled homes, 
with frame houses and instructions in the art of cleanly housekeeping, should in some 
way, either by public or private care, be provided. Eftbrts to civilize the Indians by 
educating the men to industrial habits will be hindered or quite futile so long as 
their women remain in ignorance and rags, and their homes and home-life riveted to 
their ancient barbaric habits and customs. Here, within our own borders, are women 
whose degradation can hardly be surpassed by the Zenarias in Oriental laiuls, for whose 
welfare so much of Christian sympathy and effort have been deservedly evoked. 

The wife of Agent Whiteman seems specially gifted for and enthusiastically devoted 
to this sort of work, aud has secured for herself the devoted friendship of the Poncas 



54 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

by lier untiring zeal in ministering to their sick, helping those wlio need help, instruct- 
ing the ignorant, and by her cheerful, self-sacrilicing, intelligent ell'orts for their wel- 

E. M. KINGSLEY. 

New York, December, 1878. 



REPORT OF HON. WILLIAM H. LYON. 

To the Board of Indian Commissioners: 

Gentlemex : As a member of the purchasing committee of the Board of Indian Com- 
missioners, I submit the following rei)ort : 

I left New York for San Francisco on the 2l8t of September, for the purpose of 
awarding the contracts for the goods and supplies for the Indian agencies on the Pacific 
coast, including California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington Territory, prox)osals for 
which the Commissioner of Indian Affairs had previously advertised. 

On my arrival in San Francisco, I found some of the leading merchants and manu- 
facturers were bidders, but the competition w^as not as gi-eat as I expected to find it. 
The bids, generally, were lower than heretofore in this market, but the prices of many 
articles were high when compared with New York prices, even after making a liberal 
allowance for freight. After a very careful examination of the samples and prices, 
assisted by Messrs. Woog and Lockwood from the Indian Office, I made the awards to 
the following parties: M. C. Hawley & Co.; Baker &. Hamilton; George H. Fay &. 
Co.; Pioneer Woolen Mills; L. Strauss & Co.; Main & Winchester; Hecht Bros.; 
Payot, Upliam & Co. ; Jones &, Co. ; Haas Bros. ; Hutchinson & Co. ; M. Morganthan, 
and the Union Pacific Salt Company. 

As inspectors of the delivery of the goods and supplies according to samples, I was 
very particular in selecting merchants of acknowledged mercantile ability, and for 
this purpose I secured the services of Messrs. Samuel Mosgrove, Charles Miller, Henry 
Edwards, and I. Lohman, wiiose judgment and decision as inspectors of the different 
kinds of goods no one would question. 

It being late in the season, I did not have time to visit any of the Indian agencies. 
The only Indians I saw were small bands of Shoshone and Pi-Ute Indians along the 
line of the Central Pacific Railroad, in Nevada. This railroad company continues the 
practice of allowing the Indians to ride free from one station to another, which I think 
is wrong. 

If the Indians are allowed to live along the line of the railroad, their principal occu- 
pation will be loafing, begging, gambling, and riding on the cars. The sooner they 
are induced or comx)elled to go on some reservation, where they can be taught the 
arts of husbandry, the sooner they will become civilized and self-suppoiting. 

In my judgment no reservation should be located within at least 75 miles of the 
railroad. 

Resx>ectfally submitted. 

W^M. H. LYON. 



REPORT OF D. H. JEROME. 

Sir : At a late meeting of our board I was appointed a special committee on getting 
titles to the allotments of lands to Indians, to which they are entitled under provis- 
ions of treaties, and on the subject of consolidation of agencies on the Pacific coast. 

In pursuance of the duties thus imposed upon me, I opened a correspondence with 
several agents in charge of reservations in Washington and Idaho Territories, urging 
them to make selections according to law, and forward lists thereof at an early day 
as a basis for this board to l)ring the matter before the executive brancfh of the gov- 
ernment in an intelligent manner. 

From Yakama Reservation, the Rev. Jas. H. Wilbur, agent, wrote me under date of 
May 31 last, promising a compliance with my request for information, and an early 
transmission of lists showing allotments to the Indians under his care. No further 
communications from him have been received by me up to this date. The said Wil- 
bur letter is hereto appended for your consideration. 

John B. Monteith, agent at Lapwai, Idaho, has w^ritten me twice in response to my 
letters to him requesting lists of selections of lands ; the second of which, under date 
of October 4 last, I hereto append, as it shows a difficulty common to some of the 
reservations, and is, in my judgment, one of the most serious obstacles we have to 
contend with. I refer to the absence of monuments by which to trace the surveys 
heretofore made of these Indian reservations, and jjarticularly so where there is no 
timber. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 55 

In tlie prairie or plain country soft-wood stakes were used to indicate subdivis- 
ions, which have since gone to decay, and no means are now left for tracing lines or 
determining particular parcels of land according to the government survey. I know 
of no way but to have said land resurveyed at the expense of the government in pur- 
suance of ajipropriations therefor. 

Agent Eells, in charge of the reservation at Skokomish, Wash. T., nnder date of August 
17 last, inclosed me a list of selections, covering but small amounts of land to each 
Indian, in consequence of the poor character of the larger x>art of said reservation. 
In order to give each Indian his full amount of land, under the provisions of the 
treaty, in one parcel, the quantity of good land would be exhausted on two or three, 
and the balance have to be given worthless land for cultivation. 

Under the circumstances said agent suggests a modification of the rule by competent 
authority, to the end that each Indian may have a proportionate share of good and 
poor land, by allowing their selections to be made in separate parcels. 

The views of Mr. Eells are more fully set out in his letter accompanying the lists 
above referred to, which letter and list are hereto appended for your consideration. 

A similar difficulty exists at Lapwai Reservation, as set fortii in the appended letter 
of Agent Monteith, growing out of the fact that the lands suited to cultivation on 
this reservation are divided, a part being flats along the margin of streams where the 
settlements are now, and the much larger part being high elevated plains. The latter 
are excellent for grazing and grain growing, when properly tilled for the latter; yet 
the Indian prejudice is strongly in favor of the flat or bottom lands. In order to give 
each Indian his full share of land under the treaty, and at the same time give each an 
equal proportion of the bottom lands, the allotments must be made in more than one 
parcel, the same as suggested at Skokomish. (See the appended letter of Mr. Monteith 
on this point.) 

The foregoing is all the specific information on the subject of allotments and titles 
therefor that I have been able to gain through my correspondents. I would respect- 
fully recommend that a strong and continuous effort be made by this board to procure 
through the proper departments and the Executive the execution of deeds for the land 
legally due these Indians under treaties. Should it require legislation to make the 
necessary resurveys l)efore the allotments can be properly made, and to permit the 
selections to be made in more than one parcel to each individual, I would respect- 
fully ask that the matter be urged upon Congress at the coming session by the Presi- 
dent, and to that end the attention of the Interior Department should be promptly 
called to this matter. 

As to the second part of the duty assigned me, to wit, the question of consolida- 
tion, I find that considerable opposition is manifested to removing the Indians from 
their old homes and compelling them to go to new reservations. 

On July 22 last I addressed a letter to Rev. Dr. G. H. Atkinson, agent of American 
Home Missionary Society at Portland, Oreg., on the subject of <4and titles for Indi- 
ans," and other matters, to which he rejilied under date of August 7 last. In this 
conmiunication the reverend doctor very ably discusses the whole question of Indian 
troubles. I herewith append the letter for your information, and feel incompetent to 
comment upon it. His long experience and zeal in this great work entitles his opin- 
ions to consideration. 

A copy of resolutions passed at a late session of the Congregational Association of 
Oregon and Washington Territory came into my possession, and as they bear upon 
the subjects under consideration, I herewith transmit them as reflecting the views of an 
intelligent body of Christian gentlemen. 

In response to sundry communications taking strong grounds against forced con 
solidations of different tribes, and thereby breaking up of old home attachments, and 
destroying vested rights in homesteads, I ventured to reply for our board, that its 
real position on this important matter is as follows : 

When Indians are to be removed from a reservation where some have home attach- 
ments and land improvements, that each Indian may elect to remain uyjon such res- 
ervation and occupy such home, and in case he so elects, such home shall be patented 
to him and his title thereto be protected the same as any purchaser of government 
lands. In all cases where an individual (Indian) elects to remain upon homestead* 
as above, he is to relieve the government from further obligations to care for him in 
the manner that his former tribal association are cared for on reservations ; the fact 
of selecting a home and remaining upon the abandoned reservation being taken as evi- 
dence of his desire to become civilized and self-supporting. The object of consolida- 
tion being to put the Indians upon lands betteradapted to their self-support, and where 
their management can be more prudent and economical. Where consolidation under 
these circumstances shall be accomplished, the surplus lands now held from sale can 
be sold, and the proceeds from such sales can be used for bettering the Indian's condi- 
tion in all that elevates by civilization, education, and religious instruction. In other 
words, this board believes a few agencies located ui)on the best lands — looked after and 
managed with fidelity and skill, with the advantage of the surplus funds realized from 



56 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INPIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

^ le sales of large tracts of lands not really needed for Indian use, Avill be more efHeient 
in good to tlieni than a large number of agencies loosely managed as in many instances, 
:and covering, as tliey do, vast tracts of uncultivated lands that really yield no revenue. 
Economy in the use of land is one of the essential things for the Indijin to learti. 

I ventured to promulgate the above views, hoping that by putting ourselves right, 
before these friends in the common work that Ave may all work in harmony for good. 
I inclose herewith smidry comnnniications and papfiirs for your perusal, aiid for such 
j)urpose as the board may <leem prudent. 
- All of which is respectfully submitted. 

1). H. JEROME, 

Comihitlee. 
Hon. A. C. Barstow, 

Chairman Board of Indian Comniissioncr-s, fVashingion, D. C. 



Skokomish Agency, 
Mason County, WASiriNGiox Terkitohy, 

August 17, 1878. 

Sir : I have before me your letter, under date of July 22, 1878, to my brother, Rev. 
M. Eells, upon the subject of getting titles to lands for Indians. 

I feel truly grateful that your board is acting in this matter, and in order to enable 
you to act efficiently for me, I herewith transmit copies of letteis and also descriptions, 
&c., of lands allotted to Indians on this reservation. In addition to the letters here- 
with inclosed, I also wrote the Commissioner, under date of Decemljer 8, 1877, and 
July 13, 1878. To none of these letters have I received a word of re]>l.\'. I need not 
reiterate the many and strong reasons why this should be done, as I doubt not you 
fully appreciate them. 

In explanation of the smallness of the tracts of land assigned to each in the list 
herewith forwarded, I would say that this reservation comprises about 5,000 acres. 
Of this about four-fifths is comparatively Avorthless, while only about one-fifth is val- 
uable. Had I allowed the Indians to take their land according to the terms of the 
treaty, two or three would have taken all the good land and left the inferior for the 
others. Consequently, I wrote to the Commissioner requesting leave to allot but ten 
acres of good land to each, giving poor land where it lies contiguous in connection 
with it. Thus it has come that numy have but t(;n acres. By the regulations of the 
General Land Office no person can take up land in more than one piece. Fearing lest 
the same rule might be made to ax>x)ly in our case I have not allotted any more to 
them, but if the Commissioner could allow the Indians here to have one piece of good 
landand then the rest he is entitled to in another place, which, althoughverynnich infe- 
rior, still is worth considerable to them for pasturage, &c, I should be extremely glad to 
make out a revised list giving to each Indian two parcels of land, one good on which 
his house and improvements now are and one of greater extent which would lie on 
marshes or mountains. If you can aid me in getting this allowed and will inform me 
I will send on to the department immediately a revised list, giving to each Indian an 
additional tract of M^ld land, for which he may receive a patent at the same time that 
he does for the piece now applied for. 

It has occurred to me that perhaps the delay in issuing patents arises from the fact 
that this work should be done by the land offices rather than by the Indian Bureau, it 
having no suitable clerks and department to perform this kind of labor. If this is 
the case, perhaps your board can influence the Secretary of the Interior to assign this 
labor to the several land offices, which are also under him, and have the work correctly 
and promptly done. 

Whatever you can do to aid me in this work I shall fully appreciate, as I do con- 
sider it of vital im])ortance to the Indians, and thus far the department seems, to fail 
to realize it. I am ready and anxious to do anything and everything that is necessary, 
and will await an answer from you with great interest. 

Hoping you will succeed and wishing you speedy accomplishment of our burning 
desires, I remain. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

' ' EDWIN EELLS, 

United States Indian Agent, Washington Territory. 

D. H. Jerome, Esq., 

Hoard Indian Commissioners, Saginaw, Mich. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF IN1>IAN COMMISSIONERS. 57 

List of Indians on the Skokomish Reservation tvho are entitled to patents for ths lands allotted 
to them, with description of land, date of settlement, amount of impror omenta, 

1. Sohe-Eykd Bill.— N. E. J of N. E. i of S. E. i of sec. 11, T. 21 X., K. 4 \V., con- 
taining 10 acres. Has a family of five — self, wife, and three children. Was allotted 
to him Febniary 10, 1874. Built a lumber house, 16 by 22, on it that spring and has 
lived on it continuously ever since. Has about 2 acres cleared and fenced with pailing- 
feuce ; also has barn, woodshed, and outhouses. Has the conveniences of civilized lite, 
such as cookstove, cliairs, dishes, bedsteads, &c. Is sober and industrious. 

2. Bk; Frank.— S. i of 8. E. i of S. E. i of sec. 10, also lot 1, sec. 15, both in T. 
21 N., K. 4 W., containing 36jf 17 acres. Has a family of four — self, wife, and two chil- 
dren. It was allotted to him April 28, 1874. Built a lumber house on it that spring ; 
has lived continuously on it sinee 1873. Has about 10 acres cleared and mostly in tame 
grass. Has also a kitchen, 8 by 22, in the form of a lean-to, connected with his house; 
a barn, and orchard of l>earing fruit-trees. Is sober and industrious and uses the com- 
forts of civilized life as above described. 

3. Texas Tum Tum.— S. \ of lot 5 and N. W. i of N. E. i of N. W. i, both of sec- 
tion 14, T. 21 N., K. 4 W., containing 25 acres more or less. Has a family of four — 
*^df, wife, and two girls. It was allotted to him April 28, 1874. Has occupied it since 

1873. Built a house, 16 by 22, in the spring of 1874. Has about 6 acres cleared and 
inclosed and set in timothy and cultivated for potatoes. Also has a bearing orchard 
of apple-trees. Has barn, outhouses, &c. Is deserving a good title. 

4. BUr Joiix. — N. ^ lot 4, sec. 14, T. 21 N.. R. 4 W., containing 18 acres, more or less. 
Has a faniily of four — self and three daughters, one of whom is grown. Has recently 
lost his wife, being the second one which has died since his settlement. Had it as- 
signed him April 28, 1874. Built a lumber house, 16 by 22, that year and has lived con- 
tinuously on it ever since. Has about 6 acres cleared and seeded down to grass. 
Has barn, outhouses, bearing apple-orchard, &c. Is a good Indian and should have 
a title. 

5. RoiJERT Bt'kxs alias Bob-Skoo-Bob.— S. \ lot 4, sec. 14, T. 21 K, R. 4 \V., 
containing 15 acres, more or less. Has a family of two — himself and wife. Had it as- 
signed him April '2S, 1874. Built a lumber house on it that spring, and has lived con- 
tinuously on it ever since. Has about 4 acres cleared, with barn, woodshed, orchard, 
&c. Is ([uiet and industrious. 

6. Patrick Hexry rt/ia* Pat.— S. i lot 3, sec. 14, T. 21 N., R. 4 W. Has family 
of two — himself and wife. Had it assigned him April 28, 1874. Built a lumber house 
that spring, 16 by 22, and has lived continuously on it ever since. Has about 10 acres 
cleared and in grass; also barn, woodshed, orchard, &c. 

7. Robert Lewis alias Blue Jay.— 8. i lot 1 and lot 2, sec. 13, and S. \ of N. E. 
i of X. ¥j. I of sec. 14, all of T. 21 X"., R. 4 W., containing 31,75 acres, more or less. 
Has a family of four — self, wife, father, and mother. 'Had it assigned him April 28, 

1874. Built a lumber house on it, 16 by 22, that spring; has lived on it continuously 
since 18 /'3. Has about ten acres cleared and mostly in grass. Has good bam, out- 
houses, &c. Is very deserving of a good title. 

8. RuFUs Willard alias Rufus.— S. i lot 6, sec. 12, and X\ i lot 1, sec. 13, N. E. 
i of X. E. i of N. E. i of sec. 14, and S. E. i of S. E. i of S. E. i of sec. 11, all T. 21 
X., R. 4 W., containing 27.35 acres, more or less. Has family of live, consisting of self, 
wife, child, father, and mother, Had it assigned him April 28, 1874. Built a lumber 
house that spring, 16 by 22, with an addition, 14 by 18, and has lived continuously on 
it ever since. Has about 5 acres cleared and in tame grass; also barn, outhouses, &c. 
Is an industrious, energetic Indian, and should be protected in his home. 

9. Chehalis Jack.— X. i lot 6, sec. 12, T. 21 X., R. 4 W. Has family of two— self 
and wife. Had it assigned him April 28, 1874. Built a lumber house, 16 by 22, on it 
that fall. Also had built one, about 14 by 18, in 1873, and has lived on it continuously 
ever since. Has it all cleared, and mostly in grass. Has barn, woodhouse, kitchen, 
8 by 22, &c. Has it all inclosed. Has cookstove, warraiug-stove, tables, chairs, dishes, 
bedsteads, windows, &c. Very much desires a timber-claim, where he .can get wood, 
have pasturage, &c., even if it cannot be contiguous to his place, and asks for a pat- 
ent to the following-described tract of land: S. i of S.E. \ of S.W. \ of sec. 2, T. 21 
X., R. 4 W., containing 20 acres, more or less. 

10. JoHX Robixsox. — Has family of four, consisting of self, wife, and two children. 
Had it assigned him April 28, 1874. Built a house, 16 by 22, that year. Had built 
one, 14 by lb, in 1873, and has lived on it continuously ever since. Has about four 
acres cleared and in tame grass. Has barn, &c. Description : X"^. E. \ of S. E. i and 
S.E. i of X.E. \, both of S. E. i of sec. 11, T. 21 X., R. 4 W., containing 20 acres, 
more or less. 

11. Texas Charley.— S. \ lot 5, sec. 12; T. 21 X^, R. 4 W., containing 14 acres, 
more or less. Has family of seven, consisting of self, two wives, and four children. 
Had it assigned him April 28, 1874 ; built a lumber house on it that spring, and has 
lived on it continuously ever since. Has about ten acres cleared and in tame grass, a 



58 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

garden fenced with paling-fence, all inclosed ; has barn, outhouses, «fec. As in 
Chehalis Jack's case, very much desires a tract of timber and pasture land, even if it 
cannot be contiguous to his place, and requests a patent for the following-described 
tract in addition to the above : N. i of S. E. i of S. W. i of sec. 2, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., 
containing 20 acres. 

12. Squakson Bill.— Fractional S. i of S. E. i of N. E. i of sec. 11, T. 21 N., R. 4 
W., south of the creek, containing 12 acres, more or less; has a family of three — .self, 
wife, and daughter ; had it assigned him April 28, 1874 ; has a house, 16 by 22, and 
kitchen, 8 by 22, on the side; also a barn, garden-patch, with paling-fence, and about 
three acres cleared for cutting tame grass, and the rest suitable for pasturage; is 
entitled to a patent. * 

13. Andrew Johnson.— E. i of N. W. i of S. E. i of sec. 11, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., 
containing 20 acres, more or less, inclusive of the swamp ; has a family of three — self, 
wife, and child. This claim was assigned to Charley Natt, in April 28, 1874, who built 
a house that summer and cleared up some land, and' lost his wife in 1875, and sold to 
John Slocum, who resided upon it till Ai)ril 5, 1877, when he sold to Andrew Johnson, 
who has lived on it ever since. Said Johnson had another place which he resided upon 
and improved until he bought this, but a severe storm blew a large tree down across 
his former house and demolished it, so he abandoned that place and bought this. The 
place is now inclosed ; has about four acres cleared ; has lumber house, 16 by 22, barn, 
&c., on it. Andrew Johnson asks for a patent. 

14. Skookum John.— Fractional N. and W. f of S. E. i of N. E. i of sec. 11, T. 
21 N., R. 4 W., north of the creek, containing about ten acres, besides swamp; has a 
family of three — self, wife, and sister-in-law ; had it assigned him April 28, 1874 ; 
built a lumber house on it, 14 by 18, that year, and has improved and occupied it ever 
since ; has about half of it cleared off sufficient to mow, and the rest is good i)a8ture ; 
has it all inclosed ; has Avorked hard and faithfully on it, and should have a good 
title. 

15. Jackman.— N. W. i of lot 3, and S. W. i of N. E. i of N. W. i, both of 

sec. 14, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing 20 acres; has a family of three — self, wife, and 
daughter ; settled on this place in 1876 ; has a lumber house, 24 by 24, and about two 
acres cleared and slashed ; had previously improved another place, but abandoned it 
for this. 

16. Billy Waterman.— N. E. i N. W. i of sec. 11, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing, exclu- 
sive of swamp, al)out 23 acres ; has family of three — self, wife, and child ; had it assigned 
him April 28, 1874 ; built a lumber house 22 by 24 the following winter, and subse- 
quently a barn ; has slashed about three acres and occupied it ever since building his 
house. 

17. David.— S. + of S. E. i and S. I of S. W. h both of N. W. i of sec. 2, T. 21 K., R. 4 
W., containing 40 acres ; has family of three — self, wife, and child ; had it assigned him 
April 28, 1874 ; built a lumber house on it that summer, which was subsequently en- 
larged, and is now 22 by 24 ; has about 4 acres cleared, a paliug-fence around his 
garden spot, a barn, chicken-house, &c. ; is an enterprising Indian, and should have a 
title. 

18. Dick.— N. ^ of S. E. i and N. i of S. W. i, both of N. W. i of sec. 2, T. 21 N. , R. 4 W. , 
containing 40 acres ; has family of four — self, wife, and two children ; had it assigned 
him April 29, 1874 ; built a lumber house on it that year 24 by 16, and has lived on it 
continuously ever since ; has about two acres cleared and other improvements ; is very 
deserving of his title. 

19. Big Bill.— N. ^ of S. W. i and S. i of N. W. i, both of N. E. i of sec. 2, T. 21 N. , R. 
4 W. , containing 40 acres, inclusive of swamp lands ; has a family of two — self and wife ; 
had it assigned him April 29, 1874 ; built a house on it that year, which is now 24 by 
24 ; has about 4 acres cleared and slashed, a paling-fenc«5 around his house and garden, 
&c. ; is a very good Indian, and deserves well of the government. 

20. Old Peter.— S. W. i of S. E. i of sec. 2, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing 40 acres ; has 
a family of five-— self, Avife, and three brave boys ; had it assigned him April 29, 1874 ; 
has a lumber house 24 by 22 nearly completed ; has cleared and inclosed about 3 acres 
for potatoes, ifec. ; a promising faniily of boys, and should be encouraged. 

21. MowiTCH Man.— S. i of N. W. i of N. E. i of sec. 11, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing 
20 acres ; has fanrily of four — self, 2 wives, and grand-child. This claim was assigned 
to Jim Pulsifer April 29, 1874, who built a house on it, and sold it to Mowitch Man in 
1875, who has inclosed it and cleared aljout four acres, and seeded it to grass ; has on 
it a barn, &c. Is an industrious and thrifty Indian, and should have his i)lace. 

22. Dr. Charley. — W. | of lot one, sec. 14, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing 17 acres, 
more or less; has a family of 8 — self, 2 wives, and 5 children; had it assigned him 
April 29, 1874 ; built a house on it that year 24 by 24, and has occupied it ever since ; 
has barn, IVuit treas, and about six acres cleared and in tame grass. 

23. Wm. Minor.— E. J lot 2, sec. 14, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., and S. E. i of N. W. i of N. E. 
^ of sec. 14, containing 30.21 acres, more or less ; has a family of three — self, wife, and 
child; had it assigned him April 29, 1874; built a lumber house that year 14 by 18, 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 59 

and has occupied it ever since ; Las about 4 acres cleared and in timothy, j;arden-i>atch 
fenced, &c. 

24. Jim Charley.— N. W. i of lot 2 and W. i of N. W. i of N. E. i, both of sec. 24, T. 

21 N., R. 4 \V., containing thirty acres inclusive of swamp land; has a family of two — 
self aud mother; has about one acre cleared; had it assigned him April 29, 1874. Most 
of this land is too wet for much use. 

25. Jim Butlek.— W. I of N. E. i of S. E. i of sec. 11, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing 
20 acres, inclusive, of swamp ; has a family of four — self, wife, and two boys ; had it 
assigned him August 3, 1874 ; built a lumber house 16 by 22 that year, and has lived 
continuously on it ever since ; has cleared up about five acres, and seeded it down to 
tame grass; is a quiet and industrious Indian, and deserving of his rights. 

26. Old Purdy.— S.W. i of lot 2, sec. 14, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing 12 acres, more 
or less ; has a family of three — self, wife, and boy ; had it assigned him April 28, 1874 } 
built a lumber house 16 by 22 on it that year, and has lived on it continuously ever 
since 1873; has fruit trees, about five acres cleared and in grass, outhouse, wood- 
shed, &c. 

27. Duke Williams.— N. ^ of lot 5 of sec. 14, andS. i of S. W. i of S. W. i of sec. 
11, both of T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing, inclusive of swamp, 28.30 acres, more or 
less; has a family of two — self and wife. This claim was assigned Henry Jackson, 
April 29, 1874, who built a lumber house on it 16 by 22 that summer, and cleared up 
about 2 acres. He subsequently abandoned it, and Duke took it in 1876, having jire- 
viously had another claim, which he abandoned when he took this one; he has barn, 
about five acres cleared, outhouses, &c. 

28. Ola-llam Peter.— N. E. i lot 3, and E. i of N. E. i of N. W. i, both of sec. 14, 
T. 21N.,R. 4 W., containing 30 acres, much of it very low; has a family of four — 
self, wife, and two girls. This claim was assigned Squakson George in 1875, who- 
cleared about one acre and abandoned it, and Peter took it in 1876 ; he has built a 
lumber house 16 by 22, and cleared about two acres. 

29. John F. Palmer.— S. W. i of N. E. i of sec. 11, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing, in- 
clusive of swamp, 40 acres ; has a family of four — self, wife, and two girls. This place 
was assigned to Skadget Bill April 28, 1874, who built a house 16 by 22 that year, and 
cleared up about half an acre ; he subsequently died, when it descended to his sister, 
Mrs. Palmer. There is now about ten acres inclosed, and about three acres cleared 
up, with two houses on it. 

30. Samson.— N. E. i of S. W. i of sec. 1, T. 21 K, R. 4 W., containing 40 acres, a 
large part being swamp and tide land. Has a family of four — self, wife, and two chil- 
dren. Had it assigned him in 1874, and built a house 16 by 22 in 1875, and has inclosed 
about 10 acres, and cultivated a small garden patch. 

31. Wilson.— S. i of S. W. i of N. W. i, and N. i of N. W. i of S. W. i of sec. 1, 
T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing 40 acres, mostly low and wet. Has a family of two — self 
aud wife. This place was assigned to Colcene George April 28, 1874, who improved 
it with house 20 bv 40, fences, garden, outhouses, &c., and abandoned it in 1876, and 
Wilson took it in 1877. 

32. Billy Thompson.— S. i of S. W. i of N. E. iof sec. 2, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., contain- 
ing 20 acres, partly swamp. Has family of three— self, wife, and child. This place 
was assigned to Joe Dan April 28, 1874, who built a house 16 by 22 that year, and 
transferred it to Billy Thompson in 1876. Has about two acres slashed. 

33. Curley.— Lot 4 in sec. 26, T. 32 N., R. 4 W., containing 56.95 acres, mostly grav- 
elly. Has family of two — self and wife. Settled on this place in 1867, and lived on 
it ever since. Has inclosed a pasture ; has lumber house 16 by 22, barns, outhouses, 
(fee. 

34. Stuttering Dick alias Jick.— E. ^ lot 1, sec. 14, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing 
13 acres, more or less. Has a family of two — himself and wife. Had it assigned him 
April 28, 1874. Built a lumber house, 16 by 22, on it that spring, and has lived con- 
tinuously on it ever since. Has about 5 acres cleared and in tame grass ; also barn, 
outhouses, bearing orchard, &c. Is a good, quiet Indian. 

35. Joseph M. Spar.— N. ^ lot 4 and lot 5, both in sec. 12, T. 21 N., R.4 W., contain- 
ing, inclusive of swamps, 44 acres, more or less. Has no family. His lather was the 
head chief of the tribe, and had this place, living on it from about 1867 till the time 
of his deatli, in 1872. He had built a good lumber house 16 by 24 ; made fences, barns, 
and other improvements far in advance of any others of the tribe. There is about 20 
acres in timothy, which is mowed every year, and since his father's deatli the hay has 
been divided among the tribe. He has been in school and has a fair education, and is 
now of age, and should, I think, succeed to his father's land. 

36. Grave-yard, or Tyee ; Dick, in trust for the tribe for that use.-^Lot 1, sec. 26, T. 

22 N., R. 4 W., containing 32.70 acres. This is explained in the letter herewith inclosed. 
This Dick is the same as No. 18 above mentioned. 

37. Joe Dan.— N. i of N. W. i of S. E. i of sec 2, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., containing 
20 acres, inclusive of swamp ; lias family of three— self, wife, and child. This place 
was assigned to Andrew Johnson April 28, 1874, who built a lumber house on it 



60 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

that year 16 by 22, aud slashed some. He has abandoned it for reasons given above, 
and Joe Dan has taken it. Tliere are abont two acres slashed. He formerly had a 
place which he improved, but, losing his children on it, his grief-stricken heart could 
not bear to stay there ; so he abandoned it. He has now a small house, 14 by 18, and 
about two acres inclosed. 

38. Old Shell Ears.— N. i of N. E. i of S. W. i of sec. 2, T. 21 N., R. 4 W., con- 
taining 20 acres. Had it assigned him in 1874 ; has a house and about one acre slashed, 
with a part of it made ready for pasture ; has a family of two — self and wife. 



» Besolutions. 

Resolved, That the association affirm its faith in the redemption of the Indian from 
barbarism. 

Besolved, That we deplore the policy which tends to his externdnation. 
liesolved, That the provisions of the Constitution and the acts of Congress and the 
pledges of treaties furnish a strong motive for efforts on the part of the friends of the 
Indian to secure him a homestead and citizenship as the best Avay to secure his rights 
in law, and promote his manhood and his welfare permanently ; and 

Whereas there is now a proposition in Congress to consolidate the various reserva- 
tions iij; Oregon and Washington Territory, without regard to the previous labor and 
rights of the Indians, and without their consent ; and 

Whereas we believe such consolidation would be unjust to the Indians, dangerous 
to the surrounding settlers, and, in the end, of vast expense to* the government, as 
well as a great hinderance to the civilization of the Indians, physically, mentally, and 
morally : Therefore, 

Resolved, That before any consolidation takes place, we earnestly urge upon Con- 
gress the necessity of now, by positive act, granting to the Indians of industrious 
habits, on the reservations, homestead titles to their lands in severalty. 

Resolved, That the recommendation of the Secretary of the Interior, that l)oarding> 
schools T)e established among Indians for the better training of their children, meets 
our convictions of what is needed. 

Resolved, That a copy of these res(dutions J)e forwarded to the Commissioner of In- 
dian Affairs. 

G. H. ATKINSON, D. D., 
Supenntendent Oregon Home Missionary Society ; 
P. S. KNIGHT, 
Pastor Congregational Church, Salem, Oreg.; 
J. A. CRUZAN, 
Pastor Congregational Church, Portland, Oreg,; 
R. S. STUBBS, 
Chaplain Amcncan Seamen^s Friends Society, Portland, Oreg.; 
M. EELLS, 
Missionary American Missionary Association, Skokomish, TV. T., 

Committee. 
Attest : 

M. Eells, 

Clerk Congregational Association, Oregon and Washington Territory. 



Portland, May 3, 1378. 
General O. O. Howard, U. S. A., 

Department of the Columbia: 
Dear Sir : In the provisions of the treaties ojC 1855, published in General Orders No. 
11, we find the following important items. 

1. Survey of reservations and allotment of Indian lands by the President. — It is evident 
that the President is authorized by Congress to survey a part or the whole of the In- 
dian reservations, and assign lots to Indians and families thereon for a permanent 
home. (Pages 1-6.) 

2. Patents issued in severalty by the President. — The President is also (legally) author- 
ized to issue patents to such families or Indians for such land assigned, conditioned 
that the tract shall not be aliened or leased for a longer term than two years, aud 
«hall be exempt from levy, sale, or forfeiture, which (latter) conditions shall continue 
until a State constitution, embracing such laud within its limits, shall have been 
formed and the legislation of the State shall remove the (latter) restriction of levy, &c. 
(Pagesl,2, 4, 7.) 

3. State legislation respecting Indian lands void without special act of Cqngress. — Ino State 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 61 

legislature shall remove tlu' rcsniciiou herein provided for without the couseut of 
Congress. (Pages 1, 2, :^, 4, 5, (j. ) 

4. Faientfi canceled bt/ the PresidcHt and lands given to other Indians. — In case any per- 
son or family neglect or refuse to occupy or till a portion of the lauds assigned, or 
shall rove from place to place, the President may cancel the asmjnment, and in default 
of their return tlie tract may be declared .abandoned, and thereafter assigned to some 
other person or fauiily of such tribe, or disposed of as is provided for the disposition 
of excess of said land. (Pages 1-7.) 

5. Rights of heirs secured. — The President may provide for such rules and regulations 
as will secure to the family, in case of the death of the head thereof, the possession 
aiul enjoyment of such permanent home and im])rovenient thereon. (Pages 1, 4, 7.) 

6. Act June 9, 1863, Nez Perces, supplementary to act June 11, 1855. — When the assign- 
ment as above shall have been completed, certificates shall be issued by the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Attairs, or under his direction, for the tracts assigned in severalty, 
specifying the names of the indi vidnals to whom they have been assigned, respectively, 
and that said tracts are set ai)art for the i>erpetuai and exclusive use and benefit of 
such assignee and their heirs. (Page 3.) * 

7. Amount of allotments, article 6, treaty with the Omahas. — If a single person over 21 
years of age, one-eighth of a section — 80 acres ; to each family of two, one quarter 
section ; to each family of three and not exceeding five, one half section ; to each 
family of six and not exceeding ten, one section ; and to each family over ten in num- 
ber, one qnarter section for every additional five members. (Page 6.) 

Said provisions are included in the treaties of 1855 with the Klallams, Makahs, Ya- 
kanias, Nez Percys, Quinaielts, Quillelmtes, Flatlieads, Kootenays, and L^pper Pend 
d'Oreilles tribes and Omahas. (Pages 1, 3, 5», 7.) 

To the Walla Walla, Caynse, and Umatilla tribes and bands of Indians in Oregon 
and Washington, and to confederated tribes and bands of Indians in Middle Oregon, 
and to Klamath and Modoc and to Yahooskin band of Snakes. 

To a single person over 21 years of age, 40 acres ; to a family of 2, 60 acres ; to a 
familv of 3 to .5, 80 acres ; to a family of 6 to 10, 120 acres, and over 10, 20 acres to 3 ad- 
ditional. (Pages 2, 4, 6.) 

8. Surplus lands on reservation. — ''The residue of land reserved or selected in lieu may 
be sold for their benefit nnder such laws, rules, or regulations as may hereafter be 
prescribed by the Congress or the President of the United States of America. The 
residile of the Nez Percys lands shall be held for common pasturage for sole benefit of 
the Indians." 



Skokomish, Mason County, Washington, 

May 22, 1878. 

Dear Brother: There is one subject to which I would invite your attention, and 
that is the obtaining of titles or patents to their lands for these Indians on their reserva- 
tions. I wish you would use your infiuence in obtaining these, if possible, by all right 
means, and as earnestly as may be, before the proper authorities. I realize it is a very 
difiicult task, and probably not a pleasant one ; but yet, from my standpoint, it 
seems to be of such importance as to warrant the expenditure of very strong eftbrt 
from all sources. The want of such titles is exerting a blighting effect on much of 
our work for the civilization of the Indians, physically, mentally, and morally. 

When this agency was assigned to the American Missionary Association, there was 
no division of lands among the Indians, but it was all held in common, and hence 
there was little inducement for theiu to engage in clearing land or agricultural work. 
Four or five years ago, however, with orders from government, the reservation was 
surveyed and tracts of land assigned to the Indians varying in size from ten to forty 
acres each. A simple paper from the agent was all that was given them as evidence 
of title ; but there was an understanding from the authorities in the Indian Depart- 
mejit, that if they remained on their land and brought it into a state of cultivation, 
they should receive good legal titles to it. This, however, has not only not been done, 
but a proposition has been made by some officers in the Indian Department to take 
away their land and remove them to some other reservation. At first they went to 
work in good faith and earnestly for a year or two, but the delay made them fearful 
that they would not receive titles, and they learned that they might be removed to 
some other reservation at the will of government, and there are not a few designing 
men who have told them that this will he done. In various ways most of them have 
been induced to remain here and continue their work, so that most have now from four 
to ten acres under cultivation. 

During the past winter two propositions have been made by the Indian Department. 
One is to remove all fish-eating Indians on Puget Sound to the Neah Bay Reservation, 
and all agricultural Indians, to which class those now residing on this reservation 
belong, to the Puyallup Reservation ; and the other is to grant titles to all who by their 



62 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

•habits of industry show that they deserve lands, and remove the others to the above- 
named reservations. The former is, I understand, favored by the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs ; the latter by the ins])eotor, E. C. Watkins, and the Secretary of the 
Interior. To the latter proposition I have no objections, nor have these Indians, who 
are well posted in regard to them ; but the former I believe would be disastrous, and 
to keep them in their present state of suspense is also blighting, or at least they ought 
to have some assurance that they will receive titles to their laud when they have ful- 
hlled reasonable conditions, as is the case with whites under the homestead act. I 
urge this for the following reasons : 

1. Love of country. This is a prominent trait among Indians everywhere. They 
love the land of their fathers better than any other, even if it is not far away, for laud 
where other Indians reside is foreign land to them as much as England or Spain is to 
us. At this agency we have an example of it. When the treaty was made, two tribes 
agreed to it, the Twanas and S'Klallams. It was expected that both tribes would go 
on the reservation, which is situated at the farthest extremity of the land of the Twa- 
nas. Government failing to furnish the means necessary for moving the S'Klallams 
to the reservation* it has never been done, except as a punishment for offenders, and 
now there is scarcely a i)unishment which they fear as great as being sent to the res- 
ervation. Quite a band of the S'Klallams of Dunginess have bought a tract of 200 
acres of land in the central part of their old territory, but the other bands of the same 
tribe, although owning no land, seldom permanently leave the spot where their fath- 
ers lived to move to Dunginess, although invited to do so both by the Dunginess In- 
dians and the agent. They love their country. This trait is considered a virtue 
^mong civilized people; is it a vice among Indians? for the Twanas love the reserva- 
tion as much as the S'Klallams do their country. , 

2. Justice. When the treaty was made a provision was inserted whereby they 
luight receive titles to their lands on reaching a certain stage of civilization, and the 
same was reaffirmed when it was assigned to them in severalty four or five years 
ago. They have fulfilled their part of their contract and now ask government to 
fulfilL hers. 

They have done a large amount of' work on the land assigned to them by United 
States authority ; they have cleared from ten acres of land down, which is chiefly in 
timothy and potatoes, at an expense of fifty or sixty dollars an acre ; some have orchards 
growing ; most have good houses and other improvements, and it certainly would be 
-very unjust to take these away without their consent, and give them unimproved 
timbered land, as it must be anywhere on the shores of Puget Sound. If government 
should treat white men so, either Americans or foreigners, it would be called unjust 
and probably cause trouble. In fact, government would hardly dare to do it. True, 
they are called wards of the government, and a father does not feel bound to give a 
child any particular part of his farm, although the child may work on it. But if he 
has told his son that if he will clear and cultivate timbered land and build a house on 
it, he shall have it when he shall become of age, the son would have a just right to expect 
it, and would feel that the father would be doing unjustly not to give it to him, but 
rather to take it away, and say, you must go somewhere else and begin again. The 
father would, perhaps, have the legal right to do so, but not the moral right. He 
would forfeit the name of being just. The illustration is plain when applied to gov- 
ernment and the Indians. 

3. Economy on the part of the government. It is said to be much cheaper to feed 
the Indians than to fight them, especially when it costs from $10,000 to $100,000 to 
kill each Indian. It certainly is much cheaper to give them the land they have cleared, 
.and let them earn their own food, than to fight them. It is true, there is no certainty 
that they would fight. As a tribe, they have always lived peaceably with the whites. 
Even in 1855-'56, when nearly all the tribes of Oregon and this Territory were engaged 
in a general war with the whites, both the Twanas and S'Klalhims refused, as tribes, 
to join in it, although the neighboring Indians, thirty miles distant, did so. 

I have never heard any war-talk among them, except when they thought it prob- 
able that they might be removed ; but there has been considerable talk of it of late, 
if such an event should take place. They have been invited to do so ])y Moses, 
the Spokane chief, who is just on the verge of war, it requiring all of General How- 
card's tact, as well as that of others, to prevent it; but they say they do not wish to 
join him, and I do not think they will unless efforts shall be made to remove them. 
If war should take place, the whole reservation is not worth enough to pay for war a 
week; five thousand acres of land would not go far towards defraying tlie expenses of 
an Indian war. 

4. Civilization. The government is professing to civilize the Indian. There are 
three agencies which the Americans think very necessary — labor, school, and church, 
civilizing the body, mind, and soul. There are four paths in which government may 
allow or compel them to go — (1) move them to another reservation, (2) let them take 
up land outside of the reservation, or (3) remain on this reservation without titles to 
-their land as they now, are or (4) with titles to their land. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 63 

To do the first would be a j'leat set Ijuck in all three points of civilization, for it 
would oreatly impair their coutidenee in j^overnment and the moral value of its mode 
of labor, its schools, and its churches. President Lincoln was uudoul>tedly wise when 
he 8ai«l he hardly thought it wise to swaj) horses when crossing a river. 

To do the second avouUI dei>ri ve them l>oth of school and church. They would have, 
it is true, a right to send their children to the public schools and go to the white man's 
church; Init what child will go to school Avhen the ''superior" race of children calls 
him a ''dirty siwash Indian" ! Although this ought not to be done, yet it is a fact that 
it is doiu'. Half-breeds have tried the i)ublic schools until they stopped, because they 
<ould not bear the taunts of some white children. And what Indian will go to church 
Avhen, in addition to this, he can understand very little that is said ? I have known 
Indians belonging to this agency go to the church of the white man, by invitation of 
the minister, and then heard some of the congregation say, "We do not want them 
there." A few families have left this reservation, owing to lack of titles to land; but 
they have never had any benefits of either church or school since they did so, for sel- 
dom do more than two or three families settle in one ]>lace. If they could take up 
^mall claims in a body, as twenty-five families of the Dakota Indians have done, in 
one pla<.*e, and seventy-tive in another, this difiiculty would be obviated ; but that is 
im])Ossible, owing to a lack of a body of agricultural land in any region where they 
Avill voluntarily settle on the shores of Puget Sound. 

The third alternative will give church and school as long as the Indians remain on 
the reservation, but blights their labor, as has already been referred to. "Work on 
your land," says the agent. "What is the use for us to clear land for the white man 
to own soon, and we receive no compensation ?" says the Indian. "Accept the Bible," 
pleads the missionary. "You have given us land (and it was assigned to them under 
the present Christian policy), and if we find that we ar<' not deceived about it we will 
believe your rehgion to be true," again they say; and this answer I have received 
scores of times. This may be, it is true, simply an excuse of the natural heart, yet, as 
a fact, I find that some of the S'Klallams, who were fortunate enough to secure a body of 
land sufficient for a small colony, and are not troubled with want of title, are progress- 
ing faster, according to their opportunities, than these Indians on the reservation. 

The fourth alternative will give them church, school, and incentive to labor, and it 
is the only jdan of which I know. 

As far as my experience goes there is hardly a subject connected with the Indians 
in which the surrounding settlers are so fully agreed as this. There are many men 
•who dislike the present policy, the present agent, and so forth; but they almost univer- 
sally say, give these Indians titles to the land on the reservation, and are ready to 
sign petitions to Washington to this eftect. 

And now, my dear sir, can you not in some way help in this work ? Since I began 
this letter I have learned that Dr. Atkinson is now at work for the same object, and 
perhaps General Howard ; but it will require all of our united eftort, and I have thought 
that perhaps in some way, either through Deacon A. C. Barstow, of the Board of 
Connnissioners, or in some other way, you might aid us some. 

Hoping that I have not exhausted your patience, 
I remain, vours, very sincerely, 

MYRON EELLS, 

Missionary. 

Rev. M. E. Strieby, D. D., 

Secretary American Missionary Association. 



Skokomish, Mason County, Washington Territory, 

July 16, 1878. 

Dear Sir : Your kind letter of June 8, was received a short time ago, and soon 
after I received from Rev. E. Whittlesey four copies of the reports of the board, 
1874-77, for which please accept my warmest thanks. 

Encouraged by your kindness, I venture to send you a copy of some resolutions 
passed by the Congregational Association of Oregon and Washington Territory, at 
its annual meeting, lately held at Oregon City, June 20-28. 

I wrote Secretary Strieby some time since about it, and yesterday received a reply 
stating that he had forwarded you the letter, consequently will say but little more, 
except to urge the granting of titles to Indians of industrious habits on the reserva- 
tions, as a war measure. We are now in the midst of an Indian war, but as yet none 
of the tribes in Oregon or this Territory have engaged in it as tribes. Some strag- 
glers have undoubtedly joined the hostiles. But as a general thing they have too much 
property to lose to engage in war without good reason. Yet after all there is a gen- 
eral dissatisfaction among most of the tribes in Oregon and Washington Territory, 
and the almost sole reason for this dissatisfaction is the want of titles to their lands 
and the propositions for removing them. 

Moses, the Spokane or Yakima chief, who, as I understand it, has taken land with 



64 REPORT OF THE BOARD OP INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

his people on nnsurveyed public laiul, hart rniineis out last wint«>r who went to the 
CcBur d'Alene Indians on the east, and to the tribes on Pnget Sound on the west, ask- 
ing them to join with him in war in case of removal, and at the present time it is the 
general understanding among the surrounding citizens, as I learn from published 
letters and i)rivate conversation, that if he is allowed, with his peojde, peaceable pos- 
session of his homes, tields, crops, &<•., he will remain peaceable, but if ccunpelled 
to remove he will tight, for which he is well j)repared. General Howard understood 
this so well that when Indian Agent Wilbur, of the Yakima Reservaticm, had orders 
to remove him on to that reservation, he (General Howard) forbade it, as he had orders 
not to do anything which would begin a war, and also compiled the laws relative to 
Indians taking homesteads for Moses's benefit, and sent special messengers to Moses 
with assurances that he should not be removed. 

In this war the Umatilla and Warm Springs Indians refused to send scouts to aid 
us when asked to do so, and for this very reason. The Warm Springs Indians aided 
uS very materially in the Idaho war of 18(32 and 1863, in the Modoc war, and in the 
Nez Perc6 war of last year, and yet have declined this year; while a letter from that 
place, in the Oregon i an, Aveek before last, states as a reason for not volunteering this 
year the proposition to remove them from the reservation. "They are greatly ex- 
ercised," it says, ''over this, and hence are vm willing to again risk their lives and 
lose more of their braves for a government that would make this return for their past 
services." 

These Indians on the Skokomish Reservation, although they have never as tribes 
engaged in a war with the whites, yet now I believe woukl not furnish a single scout 
to aid our soldiers. 

The Quinaielt Indians on the coast, I am told, are all in a ferment, and both of these 
tribes give the same reason, talk of removal without their consent or adequate com- 
pensation for their property and labor. 

My opinion is that if the bill should pass Congress at any time which Avas intro- 
duced last winter for consolidation, one of the greatest Indian wars Avould occur 
which there has ever been on this coast. 

In this region I have yet to find any man who favors it — men on the reservations and 
off of them — loggers, farmers, millmen, traders, Christians and non-Christians — 
those who favor the present policy and those Avho hate it — all favor the idea of giving 
to the Indians of industrious habits homestead titles to their land, and then, if there 
is an J'' land over, oi)ening it for whites. The Indians from this reservation have sent 
on their applications and their speeches; those citizens surrounding these, the Puy- 
allup and the Chehalis Reservations, have, I have been informed, sent petitions to the 
Commissioner to the same effect. Agent Milroy says he has written twenty -five letters 
on the same subject, and Agent Eells, my brotlier, has writt<'n until he is nearly dis- 
couraged. Inspector W^atkins reported in favor of it; Delegate Fenn, of Idaho, 
although a bitter opponent of the present policy, yet favors this; Dr. Atkinson is so 
earnest about it that he thinks some one ought to go to Washington from this region 
to urge it; Ex-Senator Corbett, of Oregon, lately showed me a letter which he was 
about to send the Secretary of the Interior urging the same ; and General O. O. How- 
ard, after making, during the past winter, a careful canvass of the probable causes of 
an Indian war in his department, telegraphed, urging the same as a war measure. I 
have not seen the same unanimity on any question of Indian policy. 

I understand that Commissioner Hayt is opposed to this, yet I cannot see Avhy, for 
on most points I hav^e learned to have a high opinion of him ; but I must confess that 
I think him greatly mistaken in this one point. I know that there is a great cry for 
economy, but it Avould certainly be no economy to bring on a war which would cost 
more than all of the reservations are worth many times over, and besides economy at the 
expense of justice would not be Christianity, which, as I understand it, is meant to be 
the basis of the present policy. Heretofore the Indians have been robbed by retail, as 
it were, ccnitrary to law, in secrecy, but this, it seems to me, would be robbery by 
wholesale, asking law to sanction it. 

If the Commissioner wishes, as I understand the laws and treaties, he and the Pres- 
ident may now give titles to the Indians on the reservations, but since they will not, 
the resolution asks that Congress pass a law by which they shall be guaranteed to 
the Indian. We are not particular, however, how it is done if it only be done. 

I have, as I have been able, worked against any transfer to the War Department, 
and yet I believe that the consolidation proposed wonld be vastly worse, for while the 
former would virtually be the killing of manv of the Indians, slowly but surely, the 
latter would be that and also the massacre of many whites. 

I have written earnestly, dear sir, and yet I trust respectfully, for I feel it very much, 
and ask if vou can aid us in this matter. 

Yours, most respectfully, MYRON EELLS, 

Mlm'wnary, American Mhssiouary Associaiion, 
and Clerk of the Congregatioiml Association of Oregon and Washington Territory. 

Hon. A. C. Barstow, 

Chairman Board of Indian Commissioners. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 65 

Portland, Oreg., Ju7ie 28, 1878. 
Dear Sir: Please find inclosed circulars from Department of Columbia collating 
laws on the subject of the Indian liomesteads. Please also find clippings from the 
Oregonian on Indian homesteads. It is an editorial prepared by me and adopted by 
the editor. Find also my report before the Oregon Association, June 22, in the Ore- 
goiiian of jTine 27. 

We arc in the midst of an ludijin war which has signs of being more extensive, costly, 
and bloody than any of the past wars with them. This arises from the fact that the 
treaty Indians, tlie jieaceable and industrious as well as the non-treaty idle! and nomadic, 
have come to believe that the government does not mean to keep its faith with them 
or to redeem its treaty j)ledges to give them titles for their allotment of fanns on their 
reservations They learn that the government and the Indian Commissioner design 
to force them from their houjes to new, strange, and rugged reservations. They ha.e 
made small farms, built houses, got im[)lements and stock and other means of comfort, 
all which have cost them much labor, and which they h>ve and cling to as we do to 
our homes. They know that the war with Chief Joseph last year rose fronj this pur- 
pose to force him and his band away from their own never-sold lauds in the Walla 
Walla Valley, to make their homes on the Nez Perc^ reservatitm. It was felt by many 
of us to be unjust in principle and impolitic in practice.* 

Those Indians felt it more keenly, and all the tribes sympathized with them. Run- 
ners have passed from tribe to tribe during twelve or fifteen months past, discussing 
among themselves their grievances to bring all to a common purpose not. to go to the 
new reservations and not to (fire up their homes. 

The result is that they will uot furnish scouts to aid General Howard in the present 
war. They wait efiects. They will, if pressed, fight and die. in <lefense of their homes. 
These facts apply to fourteen reservations in this region. General Howard snid to me 
the day before the war with tlie Bannocks began : "I expect it any numient." I have 
been in constant communication w ith Gei.erais McDowell and Sherman for several 
weeks. 

The ferment is wide-si^read. It is among many once quiet tribes. It seems to ex- 
tend across the Continent. Understanding that titles to Indian homesteads on the 
reservations had been pledged them by solemn treaties, and that they had long desired 
and waited for these titles; that they knew the plan of moving them to new reserva- 
tions and would not go unless they were forced to do it. but that they would be con- 
tented and friendly if these promised titles should be issued by the President as soon 
as papers could be made out, General Howard sent a telegram to the President ask- 
ing him to issue those patents at once as a war measure. He ex})ected a reply before 
Le was called to the front. He waited to assure the Indians through their agents that 
they should have patents the same as white men, immediately, and thus keep them 
friendly and break the force of the warlike tribes. 

But no reply came. Three weeks have passed and no reply has come yet. Mean- 
while the war has begun with its usual murders, raids, uncertain movements, alarms, 
vexations, and suspense, and costl;f traversing to and f r . by long marches, and slow 
transportation trains over the arid plains of the interior 600 to/UO miles away south- 
east of the headquarters of the Department of the Columbia, on whom the responsi- 
bility has again tallen to quell the disturbance. 

Indian scouts are needed, and there are plenty of them among the Umatillas and 
Warm Springs, who have been faithful friends in time past, but not one of them will 
go. Distrust of the government promises and a settled purpose to hold their own homes, 
or die in their defense, have lost to us their friendship. At any favorable moment 
their braves will no doubt join the hostiles. An uprising is not expected at this mo- 
ment . u any of the reservations, yet it may occur at any moment. 

The duty of the hour is to redeem every pledge and win back their faith in the gov- 
ernment and the people. The President can do this on his part as per the specified con- 
ditions of the inclosed tieaties. The Commissioner can do it on his part. The force 
of the war can be broken at once; its spread can be arrested at once. 

Messages have been sent to Washington. Answers have not come. The cause de- 
mands immediate attention. Will you give the subject your thought ? 

Please see the President and make known the facts, and do the same to Secretary 
Schurz. 

Yours, respectfully, G. H. ATKINSON. 

Hon. A. C. Barstow, 

Member of Board of Indian Commissioners, 

Frovidence, li. 7. 



Portland, Oregon, August 7, 1878. 
Dear Sir: Your letter of July 22 was received. Its assurance that your Board of 
Commissioners have taken the first steps to give the Indians titles to their farms on 
O I C 



66 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

the reservations will be good news to all the intelligent Indians and their friends. 
It will arrest the war spirit and qniet the fears of Indians and whites. 

I presume 1,000 hoineste.ds can at once be " assigned " under the provisions of the 
treaty of 1854 with the Omahas, to which all the treaties in Oregon, Washington, and 
Idaho refer. As yon say, tlie long delay of gov^erunient to fulfill these treaty pledges 
has bnt " poor excuse." Had the titles or parents been issued to them from the Presi- 
dent, as the treaty provides, the Nez Perc<5 war of 1877 and the war of the Bannocks 
of 1878 in this region would not have occurred. Doubtless an arrest would have been 
put upon all Indi;in wars for the past twenty years. The Modocs would have kept 
the peace if they had had titles to their homes 

The C<dambia River Indians, near Priest Rapids, under Chief Moses, Avonld rest 
quietly if they can now be assured of titles to their farms. At this moment they are 
in a ferment, as they were last year, on this subject. The CoMir d'Alenes also said 
last year, " If government will give ns deeds to our farms we will fight. for the whites ; 
if not, we will resist those who attempt to drive ns off from our lands." They raise 
and transport their wheat to the mill at Colfax, Whitman County, Washington Ter- 
ritory. 

More than one hundred Yakama Indian farmers wait for their titles, and more than 
one hundred Payallups, near Tacoma, do also. The Umatillas want theirs, but many 
white men are eager for their reservation and want them removed. This is the secret 
of the present continued disturbance there. Some whites seem to have a set purpose 
to force the Umatillas into hostilities, in order to rush upon them en masse a>\n\ slay or 
scatter the whole tribe. Local papers abound in sensational reports and threats 
against these Indians. Friction gets up heat that will ripen into war next year. 

I, could extend these items in reference to the Nez Perc6, Spokans, and other tribes. 
Having lived in Oregon over thirty years, I know how easily war is begun against 
Indians. A theft, or personal outrage, or murder, will bring revenge and then war 
upon a tribe — attempts to punish this tribe for the crimes of one or two Indians. The 
English punish the criminal. Indian or white man, and avoid war by dealing accord- 
ing to law with every individual. We attack the tribe and continue in a state of war 
every year, while justice fails of its object in almost every contest. 

The signs of hope are that the Indian commissioners and the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior propose to deal with the Indians as men under law, to be protected in their rights 
of person and of property. The intelligent Indians understand this, wait patiently 
for it, plead for it, and wonder why it is not granted. Some of them, knowing how 
eager the whites are for their best lands, and that their removal to new reservations 
is proposed in Congress, despair of ever getting deeds. In this suspense, the rene- 
gades, outlaws, and idlers appeal strongly to them to unite and drive off the whites, 
or die in the attempt. 

General Howard was so fully aware of these facts that he telegraphed Ihe Presi- 
dent ofiScially a few hours before the Bannocks began the present war, asking him to 
issue patents to the Indians' farms on the reservation, as a war measure to save ranch 
blood and much expense. Our settlers want peace. Only a few speculators want 
war. One man who owns large bands of horses and cattle said to me a few days ago : 
" We want these Indians to have their titles to homes where they choose. The more 
scattered among the whites the better for them and for us. If an Indian farmer was 
located next to my firm I would help him all I could. This policy of giving every 
Indian his farm under the law would settle the question, and soon we should have no 
longer an Indian question." 

Two things are needed to assure this policy. 

1st. Legal allotments, according to United States surveys, must be made. Sharpers 
will use law against Indian claims and homes if it is possible. 

2d. The patents to be issued by the President as per treaty need, it seems to me, to 
be adjusted legally to those issued by the land department. I see no solution of the 
question of patents to be issued by the President under the treaties of 1854-'55 but by an 
enabling act, granting the Indian the same homestead rights on the reservations which 
the act of March 3, 1875, granted to them off the reservations. Perhaps Congress will 
not grant it. If not, I would hold what the law now gives them and trust to a future 
confirmation of these patents. I speak of this because the issue of a patent by the 
President seems to be anomalous. The supplementary and amendatory act of June 9, 
186*3, to the treaty of .June 11, 1855, with the Nez Perc6 tribe (see page 3, General 
Orders No. 11, inclosed) provides that when the assignment as above shall have been 
completed, certiticates shall be issued by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, or under 
his direction, for the tracts assigned in severalty, specifying the names of the indi- 
viduals to whom they have been assigned respectively, and that said tracts are set 
apart .for the perpetual and exclusive use and benefit of such assignees and their 
heirs. 

This is the only tribe here to whom the Commissioner can issue such certificates. 
This exception, iJeing in an amendatory act, implies that Congress will no longer assign 
this duty to the President, and perhaps not to the Commissioner, but refer it, as you 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 67 

suggest, to the Land Department, whose issue of titles would be under the homestead 
lalw. 

A chance may be given the speculator to dispossess the Indian, unless a true friend of 
the Indian, who is competent, has this business in charge, to visit all the reservations 
and get all the allotments made with the utmost legal precision. I take the liberty to 
suggest this point, because a white man iuinped an Indian homestead claim at Alpowai, 
on the Snake River, a few weeks ago, an<l rested his olaim on the technicality that the 
Indian failed to lile his application according to law. Inclosed please find a slip from 
the Daily Oregonian of June 29, 1878, in which I allude to this case. 

In^view of the divi«led counsels in Congress on the Indian question, and the danger 
of tnrtiing them over to the War Department — a measure which, in my view, wouhl be 
wrong in i)iinciple and fatal in practice to their welfare — it seems to me very impor- 
tant to do for them all that the treaties and laws and the amendments to the Consti- 
tution allow at this time to establish their itersonal and property rights. Secure these 
in them individually, and you will win respect for them, as for the negro by the same 
))rocess. The tide will turn in their favor: it will turn in their own minds. One In- 
dian — say, James Lawyer — among the Nez Perces, secure on his own farm held by deed 
to himself, will act as a magnet to draw other Indians to the same condition. The 
example of the industrious owners of farms will win the roving, and the outlaws even, 
to peaceful pursuits. It will be a barrier against insurrection and war. Supplement 
this with an Indian police to co-operate witli the whites, and you will assure the peace 
and welfare of the frontiers of the government. 
Yours, respectfully, 

G. H. ATKINSON. 

Hon. D. H. Jerome, 

Land Commissioner, Board of Indian Commissioners, Saginaw, Mick. 

Postsciipt. 

Dear Sir : I inclose copy of synopsis of conditions of treaties with these Northwest- 
ern tribes as to homesteads on their reservations, sent General Howard in May. He 
forwarded the same with his indorsement to authorities in Washington. The object 
of the schedule is to have in compact form the legal provisions for their homes. Re- 
ducing the synopsis, the following points are made : 

1st. Survey of lots and issue of patents to the Indians by the President are legal, 
as specified. 

2d. Counter State legislation is void. 

3d. P'ortified lands are to be assigned to other Indians, not to whites. 

4th. Indian lands inalienable by them. 

5th. Heirs secured in all the rights of husband and father. 

6th. Certificates, not patents, to be issued for Nez Perc6 homesteads. 

7th. Lots assigned to Omahas and nine other tribes double the amount assigned to 
the Walla Walla and eight or nine other tribes. 

8th. The residue of lauds on the reservation to be sold or retained for the sole use 
and benefit of the Indians. 

It is not clear to me how the President can annul a patent or assignment (article 
four of synopsis) if his patent of land to an Indian vests the right and title in the 
Indian, as patents from government to white men and negroes vest the titles in them. 
Once vested, it is gone beyond control or recall of the President or government. 

The word patent applied to the paper given by the President to an Indian probably 
meant only a certificate like what the Commissioner is authorized to issue to the Nez 
Percys under^ the amendatory act of June 9, 1863; if so, no title can be passed from the 
President of land to the Indian, and we need an enabling act to perfect the convey- 
ance. I am not clear on the subject. I raise the question as one that will be up, and 
will need legal and perhaps judicial counsel. 

Surveys and some allotments have been made, as I understand, on the Yakima, Nez 
Perc^., Umatilla, Warm Spring, Puyallup, Grand Ronde, S'Koskomish, an<l perhaps Tu- 
lalip Reservations, and ])robably allotments have been made on everyone, as Indians 
have farms on them. The Cceur d'Alenes and Spokanes have farms on unsurveyed 
lands, as I understand, and also the Columbia River Indians. 

It Js deemed unwise to attempt to mass all the Indians on two or three reservations. 
To scatter them among the whites on farms is deemed better, except as they have 
their homes on reservations where they have always lived. 

I inclose copies of General Howard's general orders. 
Yours, 

G. H. ATKINSON. 



Portland, August 23, 1878. 
Dear Sir: Please find inclosed an article from the Daily Oregonian of August 28 
upon the S'Kokomish Reservation, &c., which I visited the 14th and 18th. It suggests 



68 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

facts which I am sure are common to all our reservations. The Indians beg for their 
land titles. I met those Indians in council after having visited their homes. I put 
three questions : 

1st. Do you want your patents very much ? Yes, they said with hand up. 

2d. Will you be contented to live on and improve your farms? Yes. 

3d. Will you sell or rent to others, or get drunk, or gamble your farm away ? They 
replied to the latter, no, with the uplifted hand, and made strung speeches. 

The agents say that they mean and will do what they say. Such are the signs. 
Such is the reason of the thing itself. We work and plan business on the basis of 
good titles. We stop both when a failure or a flaw appears in onr title. We cannot 
justly ask the Indian to work any better without the motive of ownership than we 
will ourselves. Yet for twenty- five years we have asked him to do it without a motive 
of ownership of a single acre, and we have called him a lazy outlaw, fit only for ex- 
termination, because he would not do it. We have been the unjust judges in the case. 

I wrote and gave an address at Seattle, en route back, to show more fully the points 
of our wrong, and to set forth by the decisions of our Supreme Court what the claims 
and rightaof the Indians are in law. It was approved as to its idea; but Judge Jacobs, 
Delegate in Congress from Washington Territory, who heard it and agreed with it, said 
it will not be carried out. Congress will make no more treaties with the Indians, but 
will turn them over to the War Department. In that event, the reason is stronger to 
give them their farms in severalty under law, and save them from the wastage and 
crime and vice which the Army will inevitably cause on their reservations, as they did 
before the peace policy began. 

The papers indicate that the people on the borders of the Umatilla Reservation are 
thorns in the sides of the Indians, y)rovoking outbreak, with intent to get up trouble 
and get their land, after slaying or expelling them. Soon no house or foot of land will 
be left for an Indian. 
Yours, 

G. H. ATKINSON. 

D. H. Jerome, 

Member of Board of Indian Commissioners, Saginaw, Mich. 



Office Indan Agent Nez Perce Indians, 

Lapwai, Idaho, October 4, 1878. 
My Dear Sir : Your note is at hand. As I showed you when here, the lands occu- 
pied by the Indians cannot be described so as to comply with the treaty. Inste-dd of 
building the fences on the lines run by the surveyor, they built without any reference 
to section lines or the.2Q acre lots ; some fields contain 5 acres, and all the way up to 
25 acres. 

I have been trying to have the Indians change their locations, each lake 20 acres of 
bottom and 140 acres of hill lands, then have surveys made, and each described property, 
and patent issued. This is in accordance with the views of the purchasing committee, 
as I understand from Mr. Barstow. 

Last spring I furnished the committee with the names of each Indian, together with 
location and amount of land fenced and cultivated. You will see them at the office, as 
they promised to have it printed. I am just starting for Klamath ; will write again 
on my return. 

Truly, yours, 

JNO. B. MONTE ITH. 
Hon. D. H. Jerome. 

extracts from treaties between the united states and the several INDIAN 

BANDS AND TRIBES. 

Treaty between the United States of America and theS''Klallam8 Indians, concluded atPoint- 
no-Point, Washington Territory, January 26, 1855. 

Article VII. * * * And he [the President] may, further, at his discretion, 
cause the whole or any portion of the lands hereby reserved, or of such other land as 
may be selected in lieu theerof, to be surveyed into lots, and assign the same to snob 
individuals or families as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will 
locate thereon as a permanent home, on the same terms and subject to the same regu- 
lations as are provided in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the 
same may be applicable. # * * * * * 



Makah trihe of Indians. Neah Bay, January 31, 1855. 

Art. VII. * * * And he [the President] may, further, at his discretion, cause 
the whole, or any portion of the lands hereby reserved, or of such other lauds as may 



REPORT OP THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 69 

l>e selected in lieu thereof, to be surveyed into lots, and assign the same to such indi- 
viduals or families as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate 
thereon as a permanent home, on the same terms and subject to the same regulations 
as art' i.iovidcd in the sixth article of the treaties with the Omahas, so far as the same 
UKiy 111' piiictii-able. 

' -v * * # # « # 



iralld M'alla, Cayiises and Umatilla tribes and hands of Indians in Washington and Oregon 
Territories. Camp Stevens, Walla Walla Valley, W. T., June 9, 1855. 

7f # * * * # # 

Art. VI. The President may, from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole or 
such portion as he may think proper, of the tract that may now or hereafter be set apart 
as a i)ermanent home for these Indians, to be surveyed into lots and assigned to such In- 
dians of the confederated bauds as may wish to enjoy the privilege, and locate thereon 
permanently, to a single person over twenty-one years of age, forty acres ; to a family of 
two persons, sixty acres; to a family of three, and n<>t exceeding live, eighty acres; 
to a family of six persons, and not exceeding ten, one hundred and twenty acres; and 
to each family over ten in number, twenty acres to each additional three members; and 
the President may provide for such rules and regulations as will secure to the family, 
in case of the death of the head thereof, the possession and enjoyment of such perma- 
nent home and improvement thereon ; and he may at any time, at his discretion, after 
such person or family has made location on the land assigned as a permanent home, 
issue a patent to such person or family for such assigned land, conditioned that the 
tract shall not be aliened or leased for a longer term than two years, and shall be ex- 
empt from levy, sale, or forfeiture, which condition shall continue in force until a State 
constitution, embracing such land within its limits, shall have been formed, and the 
legislature of the State shall remove the restriction : Provided, however. That no State 
legislature shall remove the restriction herein provided without the consent of Con- 
gress. And xirovided also, That if any person or family shall at any time neglect or re- 
fuse to occupy or till a portion of the land assigned, and on which they have located, 
or shall roam from jdace to place, indicating a desire to abandon his home, the Presi- 
dent may, if the patent has been issued, cancel the assignment, and may. also withhold 
from such person or family their portion of the annuities or other money due them 
until they shall have returned to such permanent home and resumed the pursuits of 
industry ; and in default of their return the tract may be declared abandoned, and 
thereafter assigned to some other person or family of Indians residing on said reserva- 
tion. And provided also, That the head chiefs of the three principal bands, tt) wit : 
Pio-pio-mox-mox, Weyatenatemany, and Wenapsnoot shall be secured in a tract of at 
least one hundred and sixty acres of land. 



Talcama Nation of Indians. Camp Stevens, Walla Walla Valley, June 9, 1855. 

Art. VI. The President may, from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole or 
such portions of such reservation as he may think proper to be surveyed into lots, and 
assign the same to such individuals or families of the said confederated tribes aud 
bauds of Indians as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate 
on the same as a permanent home, on the same terms and subject to the same regula- 
tions as are provided in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the 
same may be applicable. 

The Nez Per cS Indians. Camp Stevens, Walla Walla Valley, June 11, 1855. 

Art. VI. The President may, from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole 
or such portions of such reservations as he may think proper to be surveyed into lots, 
and assign the same to such individuals or families of the said tribe as are willing to 
avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate on the same as a permanent home, 
on the same terms and subject to the same regulations as are provided ii the sixth 
article of the treaty with the Omahas, in the year 1854, so far as the same may be ap- 
plicable. 



Nez Perc6 Tribe.— June 9, 1863. Supplementary and amendatory to the treaty of June 11, 

18.55. 

Art. III. The President shall, immediately after the ratification of this treaty, cause 
the boundary lines to be surveyed and properly marked and established ; after which 



70 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

so much of the lands hereby reserved as may be suitable for cultivation shall be sur- 
veyed into lots of twenty acres each, and every male person of the tribe who shall 
have attained 'he age of twenty-one years, or is the head of a family, shall have the 
privilege of locating upon one lot as a permanent home for such person, and the lands 
so surveyed shall be allotted under such rules and regulations as the President shall 
prescribe, having such reference to their settlement as may secure adjoiuiug each 
other the location of the diflferent families pertaining to each band, so far as the same 
may be practicable. Such rules and regulations shall be prescribed by the President, 
or under his direction, as will insure to the family, in case of the death of the head 
thereof, the possession and enjoyment of such permanent home, and the improvements 
thereon. When the assignment as above shall have been completed, certificates shall 
be issned by the Commissioner of Indian Aiiairs, or under his direction, for the tracts 
assigned in severalty, specifying the names of the individuals to whom they have 
been assigned, respectively, and that said tracts are set apart for the jjerpetual and 
exclusive use and benefit of such assignees and their heirs. Until otherwise provided 
by law, such tracts shall be exempt from levy, taxation, or sale, and shall be alienable 
in fee, or leased, or otherwise disposed of only to the United States, or to persons then 
being members of the Nez Perce tribe, and of Indian blood, with the permission of the 
President and under such regulations as the Secretary of the Interior or the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs shall jirescribe; and if any such person or family shall at any 
time neglect or refuse to occupy and till a portion of the land so assigned, and on 
which they have located, or shall rove from place to place, the President may cancel 
the assignment and may also withhold from such person or family their proportion of 
the annuities or other payments due them, until they shall have returned to such 
permanent home and resumed the pursuits of industry, and in default of their return 
the tract may be declared abandoned, and thereafter assigned to some other person or 
family of such tribe. The residue of the land hereby reserved shall be held in com- 
mon for pasturage for the sole use and benefit of the Indians : Provided, however, That 
from time to time as members of the tribe may come upon the reservation, or may be- 
come of proper age, after the expiration of the time of one year after the ratification 
of this treaty, as aforesaid, and claim the privileges granted under this article, lots 
may be assigned from the lands thus held in common, wherever the same may be suit- 
able for cultivation. No State or Territorial legislature shall remove the restriction 
herein provided for, without the consent of Congress, and no State or territorial law 
to that end shall be deemed valid until the same has been specially submitted to Con- 
gress for its approval. 



Confederated tribes and hands of Indians in Middle Oregon. Wasco, Oregon Tei-ritory, June 

25. 1855. 

Art. V. The President may, from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole, or 
such portion as he may think proper, of the tract that may now or hereafter be set 
apart as a permanent home for these Indians, to be surveyed into lots, and assigned 
to such Indians of these confederated bands as may wish to enjoy the privilege, and 
locate thereon ])ermanently, to a single person over twenty-one years of age, forty 
acres ; to a family of two persons, sixty acres ; to a family of three and not exceeding 
live, eighty acres ; lo a family of six persons and not exceeding ten, one hundred and 
twenty acres ; and to each family over ten in number, twenty acres for each additional 
three members. And the President may provide such rules and regulations as will 
secure to a family, in case of the death of the head thereof, the possession and enjoyment 
of such permanent home and the improvement thereon. And he may, at any time, at 
his discretion, after such person or family has made location on the land assigned as a 
permanent home, issue a patent to such person or family for such assigned land, condi- 
tioned that the tract shall not bo aliened or leased for a longer term than two years; 
and shall be exempt from levy, sale or forfeiture, which condition shall continue in 
force until a State constitution, embracing such land within its limits, shall have been 
formed, and the legislature of the State remove the restrictions : Provided, however. That 
no State legislature shall remove the restrictions herein provided for without the con- 
sent of Congress. And provided also, That if any person or family shall at any time 
neglect or refuse to occupy or till a portion of the land assigned, and on which they 
have located, or shall roam from place to place, indicating a desire to abandon his 
home, the President may, if the patent shall have been issued, revoke the same, and if 
not issued cancel the assignment, and may also withhold from such person, or family, 
their portion of the annuities or other money due them, until they shall have returned 
to such permanent home and resumed the pursuits of industry : and in default of their 
return the tract may be declared abandoned and thereafter assigned to some other per- 
son or family of Indians residing on said reservation. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 71 

Qui-nai-elt and Qui-leh-ute Indiana. Qui-nai-elt River, W. 2'., July 1, 1855, and at Ohjmpia, 

January '25, 1856. 

Article VI. * * * And he [the Presideut] may, further, at bis discretion, cause 
the whole or any portion of the lands to be reserved,' or of such other land as may be 
selected in lieu thereof, to be surveyed into lots, and assign the same to such indi- 
viduals or families as are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate 
on the same as a permanent home, on the same terms and subject to the same regula- 
tions as are provided in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the 
same may be applicable. * * . * * * * 



Flathead, Kootenay, and Upj>€i' Fend dWreilles Indiana. Hell Gate, Fitter-root Valley, 

July 16, 1855. 

Article VI. Tbe President may, from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole, 
or such portion of such reservation as he may think proper, to be surveyed into lots, 
and assign the same to such individuals or families of the said confederated tribes as 
are willing to avail themselves of the privilege, and will locate on the same as a per- 
manent home, on the same terms and subject to the tame regulations as are i)rovided 
in the sixth article of the treaty with the Omahas, so far as the same may be appli- 
cable. 



Klamath and Modoc tribes, and Yahooskin land of Snake Indiana. October 14, 1864. 

Art. VI. The United States may, in their discretion, cause a part or the w^hole of 
the reservation provided for in Article 1, to be surveyed into tracts and assigned to 
members of the tribes of Indians, parties to this treaty, or such of them as may appear 
likely to be benefited bv.the same, under the following restrictions and limitations, 
to-wit : To each head of a family shall be assigned and granted a tract of not less than 
forty nor more than one hundred and twenty acres, according to the number of persons 
iu such family ; and to each single man above the age of twenty-one years, a tract not 
exceeding forty acres. The Indians to whom these tracts are granted are guaranteed 
the perpetual possession and use of the tracts thus granted, and of the impiovements 
which may be placed thereon ; but no Indian shall have the right to alienate or con- 
vey any such tract to any person whatsoever, and the same shall be forever exempt 
from levy, sale, or forfeiture : Provided, That the Congress of the United States may 
hereafter abolish these restrictions and permit the sale of the lands so assigned if the 
prosperity of the Indians will be advanced thereby : And provided further. If any 
Indian to whom an assignment of land has been made shall refuse to reside upon the 
tract so assigned for a period of two years, his right to the same shall be deemed for- 
feited. 



The sixth article of treaty with the Omahas, referred to in the foregoing extracts, 
is as follows: 

The President may, from time to time, at his discretion, cause the whole or such por- 
tion of the land hereby reserved as he may think proper, or of such other land as may 
be selected in lieu thereof, as provided for in Article 1st, to be surveyed into lots, and to 
assign to such Indian or Indians of said tribe as are willing to avail of the privilege, and 
who will locate on the same as a permanent home, if a single person over twenty-one 
years of age, one-eighth, of a section ; to each family of two, one-quarter section ; to 
each family of three and not exceeding five, one-half section; to each family of six 
and not exceeding ten, one section ; and to each family over ten in number, one quar- 
ter-section for every additional five members. And he may prescribe such rules and 
regulations as will insure to the family, iu case of the death of the head thereof, the 
possession and enjoyment of such permanent home an<l the improvements the-eon. 
And the President may at any time, in his discretion, after such person or family has 
made a location on the land assigned for a permanent home, issue a patent to such 
person or family for such assigned land, conditioned that the tract shall not be aliened 
or leased for a longer term than two years ; and shall be exempt from levy, sale, or for- 
feiture, which conditions shall continue in force until a State constitution, embracing 
such lands within its boundaries, shall have been formed, and the legislature of the 
State shall remove the restrictions. And if any such person or family shall at any time 
neglect or refuse to occupy and till a portion of the lands assigned and on which they 
have located, or shall rove from place to place, the President may, if the patent shall 
have been issued, cancel the assignment, and may also withhold from such person or 
family their proportion of the annuities or other moneys due them, until they shall 



72 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

have returned to such permanent home and resumed the pursuits of industry ; and in 
default of their return the tract may he declared abandoned, and thereafter assigned 
to some other person or family of such tribe, or dis])Osed of as is provided for the dis- 
position of the excess of said land. And the residue of the land hereby re.'-^erved, or 
of that which may be selected in lieu thereof, after all the Indian persons or families 
shall have had assigned to them permanent homes; may be sold for their benelit, under 
such laws, rules, or regulations as may hereafter be prescribed by the Congress or Pres- 
ident of the United States. No State legislature shall remove the restrictions herein 
provided for, without the consent of Congress. 



Act of Congress approved March 3, 1875, the sections of the Bevised Statutes applicable, and 
an extract from circular issued from the General Land Office December 1, 1877, relative 
to manner of procedure to obtain title to public lands by homestead, being the provisions for 
the benefit of Indians. 

27. The fifteenth and sixteenth sections of the act of March 3, 1875 (copy attached, 
No. 5), extends the benefits of the homestead act of May 20, 1862, and the acts amend- 
atory thereof (now embodied in sections 2290, 2291, 2292, and 2295 to 2302, inclusive, 
of the Revised Statutes), to any Indian, born in the United States, who is the head of 
a family, or who has arrived at the age of twenty-one years, and who has abandoned, 
or may hereafter abandon, his tribal relations, with the exception that the provisions 
of the eighth section of said act of 18G2 (section 2301 of the Revised Statutes) shall not 
be held to apply to entries tnade thereunder, and with the proviso that the title to 
lands acquired by an Indian by virtue thereof shall not be subject to alienation or i!i- 
cumbrauce, either by voluntary conveyance or the judgment, decree, or order of any 
court, and shall be and remain inalienable for a period of five years from the date of 
the patent issued therefor. 

An Indian desiring to enter public land under this act must^ make application (Form 
No. 14) to the register and receiver of the proper district land office; also an affidavit 
setting forth the fact of his Indian character ; that he was born in the United States ; 
that he is the head of a family, or has arrived at the age of twenty-one years ; that he 
has abandoned his tribal relations and adopted tlie habits and pursuits of civilized life 
(Form No. 30); and this must be corroborated by the affidavits of two or more disin- 
terested witnesses (Form No. 31). 

If no objection appears, the register and receiver will then permit him to enter the 
ti act desired according to existing regulations, so far as applicable, under the home- 
stead law, the register writing across the face of the application (Form No. 14) the 
words " Indian homestead act of March 3, 1875." They will note the entry on their 
records and make returns thereof to this office, with which they will «end the affida- 
vits submitted. It will be observed that the provisions of the eighth section of the act 
of May 20, 1862 (section 2301 of the Revised Statutes), which admit of the commating 
of homestead to cash entries, do not apply to this class of homesteads. 

28. All lands obtained under the homestead laws are exempt from liability for debts 
contracted prior to the issuing of patents therefor. 

AjS" act making appropriations to supply deficiencies in the appropriations for fiscal years ending 
June 30, 187.5, and prior years, and for other purposes. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Bepresentatives of the United States of America 
in Congress assembled, * * * 

Sec. 15. That any Indian, born in the United States, who is the head of a family, or 
who has arrived at the age of twenty-one years, and who has abandoned, or may here- 
after abandon, his tribal relations, shall, on making satisfactory proof of such aban- 
donment under rules to be prescribed by the Secretary of the Interior, be entitled to 
the benefits of the act entitled "An act to secure homesteads to actual settlers on the 
public domain," apx)roved May 20, 1862, and the acts amendatory thereof, except that 
the provisions of the eighth secticmof the said act vshall not be held to apply to entries 
made under this act : Provided, hoivever, That the title to lands acquired by any Indian 
by virtue hereof shall not be subject to alienation or incumbrance, either by voluntary 
conveyance, or the judgment, decree, or order of any court, and shall be and remain 
inalienable for a period of five years from the date of the patent issued therefor : Pro- 
vided, That any such Indian shall be entitled to his distributive share of all annuities, 
tribal funds,* lands, and other property, the same as though he had maintained his 
tribal relations ; and any transfer, alienation, or incumbrance of any interest he may 
hold or claim by reason of his former tribal relations shall be void. 

Sec. 16. That in all cases in which Indians have heretofore entered public lands 
under the homestead law, and have proceeded in accordance with the regulations pre- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 73 

scribed by the Commissioner of the General Land Office, or in which they may here- 
after be allowed to so enter under said rep^nlations prior to the promulgation of regula- 
tions to be established by the Secretary of the Interior under rhe tifteenth secrion of 
this act, and in which the conditions prescribed by law have been or may be complied 
with, the entries ho allowed are hereby c mfirmed, and patents shall be issued thereon ; 
snbject, however, to the restrictions and limitations containetl in the fifteenth section 
of this act in regard to alienation and incumbrance. 
Approved March 3, 1875. 

Sec. 2290. The person applying for the benefit of the preceding section shall, upon 
applicatiim to the register of the land office in which he is about to make such entry, 
make affidavit bef(U'e the register or receiver that he is the head of a family, or is 
twenty-one years or more of age, or has performed service in the Army or Navy of the 
United States, and that such application is made tor his excln^jivense and benefit, and 
that his entry is made for the purpose of actual settlement and cultivation, and not 
either directly or indirectly for the use or benefit of any other person ; and upon tiling 
such affidavit with the register or receiver, on payment of five dollars when the entry 
is of not more than eighty acres, and on payment of ten dollars when the entry is for 
more than eighty acres, he shall thereupon be permitted to enter the amount of laud 
specified. 

Sec. 2291. No certificate, however, shall be given, or patent issued therefor, until 
the expiration of five years from the date of such entry ; and if at the expiration of 
such time, or at any time within two yeais thereafter, the person making such entry ; 
or if he be dead, his widow ; or in case of her death, his heirs or devisee; or in case of 
a widow making such entry, her heirs or devisee, in case of her death, proves by two 
credible witnesses that he, she, or they have resided upon or cultivated the same for 
the term of five years immediately succeeding the time of filing the affidavit, and makes 
affidavit that no part. of such laud has been alienated, except as provided in section 
2288, and that he, she, or they will bear true allegiance to the Government of the 
United States; then, in such case, he, she, or they, if at that time citizens of tlfe United 
States, shall be entitled to a patent, as in other cases provided by law. 

Sec. 2292. In case of the death of both father and mother, leaving an infant child 
or children under twenty-one years of age, the right and fee shall inure to tHe benefit 
of such infant child or children ; and the executor, administrator, or guardian may, at 
any time within two years after the death of the surviving parent, and in accordance 
with the laws of the State in which such children, for the time being, have their domi- 
cile, sell the land for the benefit of such infants, but for no other purpose ; and the pur- 
chaser shall acquire the absolute title by the purchase, and bo entitled to a patent 
from the United States on the payment of the office fees and sum of money above 
specified. 

Sec. 2295. The register of the land office shall note all applications under the pro- 
visions of this chapter on the tract-books and plats of his office, and keep a register of 
all such entries, and make return thereof to the General Land Office, together with the 
proof upon which they have been founded. 

Sec. 2296. No lands' acquired under the provisions of this chapter shall in any event 
become liable to the satisfaction of any debt contracted prior to the issuing of the 
patent therefor. 

Sec. 2297. If at any time after the filing of the affidavit, as required in section 2290, 
and before the expiration of the five years mentioned in section 2291, it is proved, after 
due notice to the settler, to the satisfaction of the register of the land office, that the 
person having filed such affidavit has actually changed his residence or abandoned the 
land for more than six months at any time, then and in that event the land so entered 
shall revert to the government. 

Sec. 2298. No person shall be permitted to acquire title to more than one quarter- 
section under the provisions of this chapter. 

Sec. 2299. Nothing contained in this chapter shall be so construed as to impair or 
interfere in any manner with existing pre-emption rights; and all persons who may 
have filed their applications for a pre-emption right prior to the 20th day of May, 1862, 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of this chapter. 

Sec. 2300. No person who has served or may hereafter serve for a period not less 
than fourteen days in the Army or Navy of the United States, either regular or volun* 
teer, nnder the laws thereof, during the existence of an actual war, domestic or foreign, 
shall be deprived of the benefits of this chapter on account of not having attained the 
age of twenty-one years. 

Sec. 2301. Nothing in this chapter shall be so construed as to prevent any person 
who has availed himself of the benefits of section 2289 from paying the minimum price 
for the (luantity of land so entered, at any time before the expiration of five years, and 
obtaining a i)atent therefor from the government as in any other cases directed by law, 
on making proof of settlement and cultivation as provided by law, granting pre-emption 
rights. 



74 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Sec. 2302. No distinction shall be made in the construction or execution of this 
chapter on account of race or color ; nor shall any mineral lands be liable to entry and 
settlement under its provisions. 

[Form No. 14.J 
HOMESTEAD. 

Applicaiion No. . 



Land Office at 



{Date) , 187—. 

I, , of , , do hereby apply to enter, under the provisions of 

sections 15 and 16 of the act of Congress approved March 3, 1875, the of section 

, in township , of range , containing acres. 



Land Office at 



{Date) , 187—. 

I, , register of the land office, do hereby certify that the above applica- 
tion is for surveyed lands of the class which the applicant is legally entitled to enter 
under the Indian homestead act of March 3, 1875, and that there is no prior valid 
adverse right to the same. 

, Begister. ' 

[Form No. 30.] 

Indian homestead under act March 3, 1875. 

affidavit. 

I, , of , , having filed my application. No. , for an entry 

under the provisions of the act of Congress of March 3, 1875, do solemnly swear that I 

am an Indian, formerly of the tribe ; that I was born in the United States; that 

I have abandoned ray relations with that tribe, and adopted the habits and pursuits 
of civilized life \_here state whether the applicant is twenty-one years of age, or the head of 
afamily'\ \ that I desire said land for the purpose of actual settlement and cultivation, 
and not, directly or indirectly, for the use or benefit of any other person or persons 
whomsoever ; and that I have not heretofore had the benefit of said act. 



Sworn to and subscribed before me this day of , 18 — . 

, Register {_or Receiver']. 

[Form No. 31.] 
Corroborative affidavit — Indian homestead — Under act March 3, 1875. 



— • and do solemnly swear that we are well acquainted 

with , and know that he is an Indian, formerly of the tribe ; that 

he was born in the tFuited States ; that he has abandoned his relations with that tribe, 
and adopted the habits and pursuits of civilized life [here state that he is twenty-one 
years of age, or, if not, that he is the head of a family'}. 



Sworn to and subscribed before me this day of , 18 — . 

[No. 17.] 

Final affidavit required of homestead claimants. 

Section No. 2291 Revised Statutes of the United States. 

-. having made a homestead entry of the section, No. 



in township No. , of range No. , subject to entry at 

tion of the homestead act of , do now apply to perfect my claim thereto by virtue 

of the first proviso to the second section of said act; and for that purpose do sol- 
emnly that , a citizen of the United States; that I have made 

actual settlement upon and have cultivated said land, having resided thereon since 
the day of , 18 — , to the present time ; that no part of said land has been 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OP INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 75 

alieuated, but that I am the sole hona fide owner as an actual settler; and that I bear 
true alleijiauce to the Government of the Uniteil States. 



Ij , , of the land office at , do hereby certify that the above 

affidavit was taken and subscribed before me this day of , 18 — . 

Non-mineral affidavit. 
County of , 



OF 



, being duly sworn according to law, deposes and says that he is the 

identical who is an applicant for government title to the ; that 

he is well acquainted with the character of said described land, and with each and 
every legal subdivision thereof, having frequently passed over the same; that his 
knowledge of said land is such as to enable him to Testify understandingly with re- 
gard thereto ; that there is not to his knowledge within the limits thereof any vein or 
Jode of quartz or other rock in place bearing gold, silver, cinnabar, lead, tin, or copper, 
or any deposit of coal; that there is not witliin the limits of said laud, to his knowl- 
edge, any placer, cement, gravel, or other valuable mineral deposit ; that no portion of 
said land is claimed for mining pur))()ses under the local customs or rules of miners, or 
otherwise; that no portion of said land is worked for mineral during any part of the 
year by any person or persons; that said land is essentially non-mineral land, and 
that his application therefor is not made for the purijose of fraudulently obtaining 
title to mineral land, but with the object of securing said land for agricultural pur- 
poses. 

Subscribed and sworn to before me this day of , A. D. 18 — , and I here- 
by certify that the foregoing affidavit was read to the said previous to 

his name being subscribed thereto ; and that deponent is a respectable person to whose 
affidavit full faith and credit should be given. 

[No. 18.1 

Final homestead proof required under section 2291 of the Revised Statutes of the United 

States. 

We, , do solemnly that we have known for years 

last past ; that he is consisting of , and a citizen of the United 

States ; that he is an inhabitant of the of section No. , in township No. 

, of range No. , and that no other person resided upon the said land entitled 

to the right of homestead or pre-emption. 

That the said entered upon and made settlement on said land on the 

day of , 18 — , and has built a house thereon, , and has lived in the 

said house and made it his exclusive home from the day of , 18 — , to the 

present tinie, and that he has, since said settlement, plowed, fenced, and cultivated 

about acres of said land, and has made the following improvements thereon, 

to- wit : Ihere state improvements. 1 



I, , do hereby certify that the above affidavit was taken and subscribed 

before me this day of , 18 — . 

We certify that and , whose names are subscribed to the 

foregoing affidavit, are persons of respectability. 

, Register. 

, Receiver. 



REPORT OF E. N. STEBBINS. 

To the Board of Indian Commissioners : 

Gentlemen : Pursuant to instructions I visited Dakota, arriving at Sisseton Agency 
March 23. The agent, Mr. Hooper, had just received his commission from the depart- 
ment. He has fair executive ability, and will in time make a fair agent. I found 
him busy with his people in the midst of farming. The soil is fair, and I believe about 
two-thirds of the land on this reservation is tillable. Timber is getting scarce, and I 
found the Indians had been in the habit of selling wood to parties living off and near 



76 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

the reservation for little or nothing. I advised thera to let their timber grow and only 
cnt tor immediate wants. 

The manual-labor school, with sixty acres attached and under cultivation, is situ- 
ated about two miles distant from the agency. P^ifty-eight children were at school, 
boys and girls, who remain regularly and «re progressing as well as can be expected. 
The buildings in the basement needed some repairs; a bath-room should be added. I 
would suggest that the boarding-schools be so arranged tliat the boys and girls be kept 
separate. The boys work on the farm under the directions of the principal, and the 
girls are trained for household duties. Fifty more children could be found for a board- 
ing-school, but this has its full capacity. Three day-schools are open part of the year, 
and make little or no progress. 1 found the Indians anxious to have their children at 
school, especially boarding-school. 

The missionary operations on this reservation are carried on by the American Board 
for Foreign Missions, of which Dr. Clark, of Boston, is secretary. Some five places 
are open for worship on the Sabbath, mostly in school-houses. Three of these places 
are presided over by native full-blood Indians, who are almost all members of the 
Congregational Church, and who are doing a good work. 

The religious element here is growing; some twenty-five families, called the Home- 
steaders, who belonged to the church, have left the reservation and have taken up 
farms in Minnesota. They are desirous of coming, as they say, jinder the law. 

The buildings are situated on a plateau on the west side of a valley running north 
and south, while about one mile distant is a range of the Dakotas, as they are called. 

The commivssary building is substantially built of brick, and contains the offices, 
which are well adapted for that purpose. 

I was present at the issue of supplies, which is made once a month. The issue was 
to be made to the head of each family and receipt taken for the first time. The Indi- 
ans, chiefs, and headmen appealed to me. I told them that this was necessary for 
their protection and good ; they finally consented to it. 

In the office I found a debit and credit book account kept with each family. No 
holder of a ticket can draw rations or goods of any kind unless he has first performed 
labor for the agency, or for his own benefit. Regular prices are given for all kinds of 
labor performed. Goods and supplies are charged at cost and transportation. The 
names of those too aged and infirm to perform labor are placed upon -a poor-list and 
draw rations accordingly. 

FORT BERTIIOLD AGENCY. 

My arrival at this agency was delayed by the non-arrival of the steamboat on the 
way to Bismarck and Fort Benton. Mr. Alden, the agent, informed me he had resigned 
and was expecting his successor every day. In the office I found no books except a 
cash day-book, and his business in a complete muddle; perfectly incompetent for his 
office as agent, having little or no knowledge of his duties. 

The farming has been sadly neglected ; these Indians have raised corn more or less 
for the last fifty years, called the Ree corn. All live, as they have done for the last ten 
years, in log huts, in a village, in a most filthy condition. 

These tribes are living here quietly together — Arikarees, Gros Ventres, Mandans. 
An agent with ordinary ability could induce them to erect new log houses nearer the 
land now under cultivation. Fifty houses should have been erected this summer. 
These Indians can do this work without assistance ; they only want a leader. A num- 
ber of the men from these three bands are enlisted by the government as scouts in the 
Army, consequently they feel their importance. 

Rev. Mr. Hall has charge of the missionary work ; his labors have not been blessed 
among the Indians on account of the little aid received from the agent. About thirty 
children attend a day school with more or less irregularity. These Indians complain 
that the white man is taking their timber, and they would like this business stopped. 

The employes were without exception all members of the Congregational Church, 
' and good men. 

POPLAR RIVER AND WOLF POINT (LATE FORT PECK AGENCY). 

Sunday morning, April 20, the steamer Rose Bud landed, and I took passage for a 
six days' journey on board. I found Dr. Bird, agent for Fort Peck, on his return from 
Washington, where he had been in consultation with the Commissioner. 

We arrived at Poplar River, where the agency has been recently located. Every- 
thing is new here. The buildings were put up last fall nnder contract. 

No farming is done here, and no schools to report. These Indians should all be taken 
to the tribes to which they belong ; they are all of the Sioux Nation, with no chief ; at 
the same time fifty-four claim that position. 

I accompanied Dr. Bird overland to Wolf Point, some 25 miles distant from this 
place. Here the head farmer, Mr. Anderson, is in charge and reports to Dr. Bird. A 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 77 

few (lays before we arrived tbe Upper Assiuaboine Indians left tbis place, going fartber 
west, leaving tlie Canoe band of Assinaboines, about one tbonsand in number. Tbis 
band bave inbabited tbis locality for a number of years. Tbey are a very sensible 
race, and would like to be let abme, or bave tbe Sioux bands at Pojdar River takeu 
away, for tbey are compelled to go bunting and smoke tbe pipe of peace against tbeir 
wills, as tbey are weak in numbers. . 

After a little talk witb tbe cbief and beadmen tbey promised me tbey would leave 
tbeir old people bebind witb tbeir cbiUlren, that tbe latter migbt tio to scbool. I was 
promised by the agent and scho(»l-teacher (tbe latter working as a field- hand, plowing) 
that tbe school would commence on tbe following Mtmday. About sixty acres are 
under cultivation, worked by employes. 

All buildings at tbis place are built of logs covered witb dirt, aud leak more or less. 
The store-bouse is an untit place for the supplies. The flour has been greatly damaged 
iu consequence. I would suggest frequent visits to these remote agencies. 

FORT BUFORD, STANDING ROCK. 

I took passage on my return on the first boat down the river. May 4, wbicb landed 
at Fort Buford and remained for tbe nijiht. I called on the commanding officer Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel HuHtogi, in relation to the Indians located on tbe military reservation. 
He informed me that there are about three hundred Indians, Gros Ventres, who belong 
to Fort Bertbold, and that tbey were allowed to locate here some years before, while 
General Hazen was in command of tbis point. The colonel asked me to report the 
fact, and said be would like to have them removed to tbeir agency, as be bad no rations 
for them. I was told that their condition is sad in tbe extreme. The question that 
arises is, bow bave these peojjle subsisted for these three years, the men witbout labor? 

The steamer reached Bismarck on the 7th of May. 

On our arrival at Standing Rock I found Agent Hughes at home, and was kindly 
received. He asked me if I was going to make an investigation. I told him I should 
examine every branch of bis business. After a conversation of some length I con- 
cluded that I would like to hear from tbe Indians before I took any action. 

The four chiefs, John Grass, Ten Bears, Thunder Hawk, and Big Head, are the only- 
real chiefs at tbis place, and who represent tbe Blackfeet, Uncapapa, Upper and Lower 
Yanktounais Sioux bands located at this agency. I bad listened to a number of chiefs 
in council for the last two months, and I must say that 1 was struck more forcibly witb 
tbeir straightforward and manly talk than any I had listened to before. 

I next gave my attention to looking at the records in the office. H^re I found the 
only complete set of books during my travels. I foun<l no irregularities aud every- 
thing in the office in good shape. 

I was present at the issue of supplies. I wish to say, here everything is weig ed 
and delivered only to tbe representative of tbe family and issue-ticket. Indians were 
satisfied with tbeir rations, and the supplies are good and in abundance. 

The commissary building and agent's house weie contracted for last year. The de- 
signs and specifications were drawn by Agent Hughes. Tbe buildings were completed 
late in tbe fall and are of brick, niannfactured directly in front of the agent's residence ; 
they are substantial buildings, and tbe best arranged for the purpose on the Missouri 
River. Other houses are required for emplo;s 6s. and should be erected during this sum- 
mer. An appropriation was made for school-houses last year; one built was put up 
for boys; was conipleted May of last year. Thirty boys were placed here under the 
charge of two fathers, and a boarding school was organized. These children have 
been instructed iu English from tbe start and their progress has been rapid. 

A few acres adjoin the school-buildin/^, where the boys work. A building was being 
completed for girls and was to be ready by the 1st of June, 1878. 

The Indians are farming here in good earnest, and the chiefs mentioned above are 
leading their people in tbis work. I regret tbe contract for plowing last season had 
not been made for four times the amount. There are several thousand acres«of land 
here where the soil is good. Timber is plenty at present, but is fast being destroyed. 

The chiefs and headmen have saved the hides from the beef cattle and sold them for 
agricultural implements. Orders have been given for foar mowing-machines. The 
remainder of the hides will be exchanged for household furniture during the season. 

John Grass, chief of the Blackfeet, is building fifty bouses, with tbe assistance of 
his Indians, for his tribe. There has been more advance towards ci\ilization at this 
agency in every branch during the year than at any other on the Missouri River, not- 
withstanding the opposition of the military to the agent. 

I was informed that a squaw dance would take place sit the military -trader store, or 
saloon attached, located in tbe military grounds. These dances are a common occur- 
rence. At my request, Agent Hughes accompanied me. We went at a fashionable 
hour, a quarter to twelv^. My object in goinjj: late was to see if the reporr was true 
that these parties were allowed on the Sabbath. When we arrived at the saloon, I 
counted thirty-two squaws ; eleven soldiers, one playing the violin, two dancing ; 



78 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

some drinking at the bar; several squaw-men, quite a number of bad characters, who 
have since been ordered to leave the reservation by General Sherman ; no Indian men 
present. We left at half past twelve on Sunday a. m. I was informed that this party 
continued dancing, as has been the practice every Saturday, until half past four o'clock 
on Sunday morning. I have written these facts as I saw them, that you might know 
what is going (ui in D-ikota. 

As no reliable information conld be obtained about a boat for Yankton, I concluded 
to start overland, 150 miles; reached Cheyenne River Agency the 25th of May. Here 
I found Ca|>tain Schwan, acting agent, in charge. As things here were so recently 
turned over to the captain, I thought perhaps it was best to give it only a passing 
notice. I found matters here were carried on in a military style, which in my opinion 
will never work successfully unless older officers take charge of the agencies^ who will 
use more judgment ; perhaps if a young officer conld be detailed to act as agent with- 
out the rest of the regiment taking part, there would be less objection, but they all 
want a finger in the pie. 

The (luestion before Congress at this time should be, Have the Indians on the Mis- 
souri River at agencies who have been under the charge of military officers been ben- 
efited and how ? 

I arrived at Red Cloud Agency May 27. Dr. Irvine was absent prospecting with his 
In<lians for a new home. During his absence I contented myself, with examining the 
buildings first. They were erected late in the season of 1877 under contract. The 
commissaiy building is a failure ; the first floor has fallen to the ground and the foun- 
dations are poor. The location of the buildings is on low ground; when a hard rain 
comes they >tre surrounded with pools of water. 

The su|)plies here are good, and there are enough for the season. I found a quan- 
tity of corn just received, a sample of which was forwarded to the chairman of the 
purchasing connnittee. 

The Indians belonging to this reservation live as they have done sin^e they were 
removed to the Missouri River, as it is called, some 65 miles distant. Supplies are 
issued to them once a month, they coming with ponies and loading them down, often 
leaving a portion behind. Whole corn is issued to them with no mill for grinding ; 
consequently more or less is fed to their ponies. I believe the rations issued as called 
lor in the treaty are more than they can consume. 

On Dr. Irvine's return he informed me that he had made an extended trip and found 
land poor, water and timber scarce. The Indians had decided to go to Big White-Clay 
River, and would agree to nothing else. 

No arrangements for farming have been made here, for the reasons above mentioned. 
No schools at the agency. I believe there has been a day-school at the camp, but it 
has been given up. Here the military, under the command of Major Brown, are work- 
ing in perfect harmony with the agent. From this place I rode over land some 20 
miles to Brul6 post. Here Captain Dougherty, acting agent for Crow Creek and Lower 
Brul<S agencies, makes his headquarters. 

On Monday we paid a visit to Lower Brnl6 Agency, some 15 miles south, and re- 
mained for the day. On our arrival the contractors' agent was there with cattle to 
be delivered, some 60 head of Texan cattle, mostly steers, all in fair condition. 

It being beef-ration day, all the Indian men at the agency, quite a number, carry 
arms and ammunition. These Indians resemble those at Poplar River, Montana; are 
on the lookout, and are suspicious, having been turned over to the military in a quiet 
way. Here, the chiefs and headmen caught Captain Dougherty in the office for the 
first time since his tratisfer to this agency. They came for a little talk. 

These Indians would like to visit Washington, and say the government takes all 
bad Indians on to see the Great Father, and on their return gives them more grub, &c. 

A sergeant was in charge of the othce. All the old employes having been discharged. 

Rations are issued once a week, and plenty on hand, and of good quality, I was told. 

This agency is pleasantly locateil, with good farming lands in abundance. Little is 
done hete, and little may be expected until the arms and ammunition are taken away 
from the Indians. 

This agency has been neglected, and needs a good man with experience as soon as 
possible — one the Indians will have confidence in — and then some good can be done 
and some advancement made in furnishing houses for this people. When this is done 
they will feel more at home. 

The mivssionary was next visited ; he reports little progress. One day-school had 
been closed and the other two running light. 

We returned to Brul6 post, and the following morning I accompanied Captain Dough- 
erty to Crow Creek Agency. Here I found Mr. Randall, from the Indian Office or Bureau, 
Washington, in the office collecting data, and making copies of the office records of Dr. 
Livingston, the former agent. 

1 visited the several buildings which were formerly occupied as military quarters 
and storehouses. I found them in all conceivable designs and location — an admirable 
place for an agent who had any evil designs to carry them out unobserved. 



REPORT OP THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 79 

I found plenty of supplies and to spare here, all of good quality. As everything was 
under investigation and in the courts, I decided to give my attention to outdoor mat- 
ters. 

At Mr. Randall's request I looked through the stock of goods in the store formerly 
belcmgiug to Mr. Hudson, Indian trader, then in tbe hands of a deputy United States 
marshal. I saw no goods of any kind resembling those furnished by the government 
or from the commissvry store. 

Dr. Livingston reported last year 150 acres cultivated by the Indians. I could find 
only 58 acres. On a portion of this no crop was raised. The agency farm in the same 
proportion. The beef contractor had some sixty head of cattle to deliver on his con- 
tract; some of them were so poor that they could hardly stand, mostly cows, the aver- 
age only 637 gross pounds. Receipts were given for 3S per cent, net of the gross weight. 

The schools here have been under the management of the Episcopal Church, and the 
children were taught under contract. This contnict includes Cheyenne River, Red 
Cloud, Lower Brul6, and Spotted Tail Agencies. I believe the government can teach 
the children at the agencies, or a large portion, in a boarding-school and give them 
more instruction than under the present system ; as I find in most schools, the Dakota, 
language is taught. H-^re also, all the employ<?s were discharged, and a corporal was 
the only assistance the agent had ; he was his bookkeeper and clerk. 

Farming has been n.eglected very much ; the former agent has been here since 1870. 
With the help reported and paid on his pay-rolls he should have had these Indians 
self-supporing. 

I returned to Brnl^ post, and there took the first boat for Spotted Tail Agency ; 
reached there at 4 a. m. Snnday, June 9. Lieutenant Lee, acting agent, was at home. 
Monday morning I looked through the office here. I found the books in good shape; 
most complete and systematic. After looking over the supplies, all of good quality 
and in abundance, I witnessed the issue of the same to the Indians, who made no com- 
plaint. The ration here is also large — up to the full standard. 

Spotted Tail came in from the camp, some 25 miles distant, with a few headmen, for 
a little talk. He asked when the Great Father would send them to their new home 
which they had selected, about 70 miles distant from the Missouri River. After hear- 
ing Spotted Tail talk I found the same old story repeated. The Sioux Indians have 
had too many delegations sent to them and they are awaiting some action on the part 
of the government. Father Frederick was at this meeting, and said on the arrival at 
the new camp and all located, he would have erected a school-house for one hundred 
children ; he will make it a boarding-school. The day-school at the agency is under 
the Episcopal Church. 

I crossed the river and hired a team to take me up to Yankton Agency, and arrived 
there June 11. Agent Douglass was absent at Santee Agency on bnsines'*. The 
farmer, so called, took me at once about three miles where sheep were being sheared. 
These sheep were purchased for the Indians, and have been fed with feed purchased 
with their money for some number of years, and at this late day the question is asked 
at the department, who is the owner? Beeause they were not issued to the Indians on 
paper and taken from the agent's returns, the department claim the sheep. The In- 
dians say this is bad faith, and I say so too. The agent returned the following day, 
and we commenced looking matters over in general. 

This is an old-established agency, the buildings all in fair condition. 

The Indians under their treaty will receive some thousands of dollars less this year. 
The rations are light compared with those given to Spotted Tail band, and these In- 
dians require more at this time of year. T found the storehouse nearly emi)ty, but 
sufficient for immediate want. The cattle-contractor's agent was here with a few head 
of native cattle for delivery; some sixty head, including old oxen, steers, and cows, re- 
ceived ; some were rejected and more should have been. 

I was disappointed after looking over the farming interests. This agency ought to 
be self-supporting to-day, but it is far from it. The land on this reservation is the 
best, and with an enterprising agent enough wheat could l>e raised with the Indian 
labor to supply themselves, also Crow Creek and Lower Bruld Agencies, with flour ; as 
it is, they do not raise their own breadstuff. 

AGENTS. 

A good Indian agent should possess the following qualifications: Good common 
sense, general information, good executive ability, and business experience. He 
should be able to command the entire confidence and good will of the Indians, and he 
should be eminently fitted to aid them in solving the problem of self-support. This 
can only be done by visiting his people frequently, by teaching them agriculture and 
industry, by the distribution of agricultural implements to those worthy of them, and 
finally one veho can lead and teach them. A portion of the week should be set aside 
to allow those having business to confer with him. 

Agents receive $1,500 salary, which is an inadequate compensation for the position, 



80 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

location, and responsibility. I know it is almost impossible for an agent with bis 
family to liA^e on bis pay. Any aj^ent possessing tbe requisite ability for success can 
or oiiglit to command tbat amount for bis services in tbe East, wbere be and bis 
family can enjoy tbe advantages tbat he must forego on the frontier. 

CIVILIZATION. 

There is little or no progress; as far as education and religion are concerned, before 
tbe Indians reach a certain stage of civilization, all efforts fail until they have laid 
aside their blankets and leggins and live in log houses. Here civilization oominences, 
and the children can be obtained for school, as their parents have given up their rov- 
ing life. In every case the Indians in their native state are under the iniluenceof the 
chiefs and headmen, who exert their power to maintain their tribal relations intact. 
This influence must be counteracted iu such a way that the chief will be unconscious 
of tbe motive. 

As far as possible the issues of supplies should be made to tbe beads of families, and 
the same should be allowed to go, with any difficulties they may have, to tbe agent for 
the settlement of the same. 

EDUCATION. . 

After visiting the schools in Montana and Dakota, and after giving the subject 
much thought and consideration, I have come to the conclusion that it is a great mis- 
take to instruct Indian chiUlren in their own language. It has been found that they 
progress more rapidly if taught in English from the start. All that can be expected 
in most cases is to give them the elementary branches and teach, at the same time, the 
boys agriculture and tbe girls household duties. In all cases I would recommend 
boarding-schools, as I find little progress is made in day-schools, as the attendance 
is very irregular. 

MECHANICS. 

I find there has been a great neglect at tbe several agencies in the workshops. 
Young men (Indians) should be selected and put into the shops and instructed in the 
various trades, so tbat in a few years this labor can be performed by the Indians 
themselves. An agency properly conducted for a few years ought to find all the 
assistance required for every branch of the service. 

FARMING. 

The natural occnpation of the Indian hereafter will, in all probability, be that of 
farming. This has been sadly neglected, and the reports from a great number of agents 
have given an erroneous impression. Agricultural implements have been furnished 
by the department, and issued to the Indians before they were prepared to use them. 
I find in some cases these tools have been sold, and in others they have been neglected 
until they are unfit for use. Gi'eat care and judgment should bo exercised in the 
delivery of wagons, plows, &c. I find the issue has been made to head men and other 
leading Indians w^ho are the last to use thein. Lumb3r- wagons are exchanged for 
light spring-wag<ms. This I consider a very important matter; the agent should be 
held responsible for these exchanges. 

I have discovered a great lack of agricultural knowledge in the disposition of ground 
prepared for seed. Some localities are better adapted for grain and others for roots. I 
see no reason wby tbe vegetables required by the Indians cannot be raised on all the 
agencies. This would be a saving to them of tbeir money in the way of freight and 
expenditure; at the same time tnrnish them employment and modify their appetite 
for beef. 

At all the agencies visited I took special pains to look after the subject of farming. 
Nearly all the Indians expressed the tlesire to begin this work. They understand their 
position, especially the older ones, ami they are fully aware that they must improve 
the opportunity. With proper instruction. I see no reason why the Sionx tribe, some 
forty tbousuid, the last to begin this work, should not be iu condition for self-support 
in seven years or less under their .treaty. 

INTERPRETERS. 

I find the interpreters as a general thing very ignorant, and in all cases are half- 
bloods, and tbe half that is sup[)osed to be white comes from a very bad class of low 
whites, in many cases Canadian French, which makes a bad mixture. This class hold 
a very important relative position to tbe government. In most cases they are under 
the influence of the chiefs and bead men, and do all they can to curry favor with them. 
I would recommend that a number of young men be selected and educated as soon as 
possible for this position, taken to other agencies, and employed as assistant book- 
keepers or clerks in tbe office. 



REPORT OF THE B JARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 81 

ANNUITY GOODS. 

Tho issue of annuity goods, as directed by the department heretofore to the tribes 
more or less uncivilized, has been a great loss to the Indians, a waste of good material, 
and a source of revenue to river sharks who infest the Missouri. In my opinion these 
goods should be issued to the heads of families at stated periods, and receipts taken 
for the same ; if the agent cannot be trusted with this work his place should be sup- 
plied with one more trustworthy. 

Heretofore this great amount of goods, consisting in part of summer and winter ma- 
terial, is issued all at one time as soon as received. The Indians not having immediate 
use for so many articles dispose of a large portion for little or nothing. 

These uncivilized people are practically, in judgment and forethought, like so many 
children, and as such should, be treated by the government in the issue of annuity 
goods. 

RATIONS. 

The issue of rations, as directed by the department, once a week is carried out in 
most cases, with the exception of beef, but the issues are not made at any two places 
alike. I find the supplies are not all weighed, but the quantity is guessed at, and 
often underweight is given. It is a common occurrence for Indians to present tickets 
and draw rations for their friends. I have been present when one Indian has drawn 
rations on tickets representing eight families, some fifty-eight persons. This should 
not be allowed, as it makes it impossible to know whether the Indians are on the res- 
ervation or not, particularly when the rations are issued once a month, for they may 
at the same time be drawing supplies from another agency. Issues should be made to 
the representatives of the ticket only, and checked from a list in book form, with name 
and number at each issue, and all goods weighed and receipted for. This would pre- 
vent the agents from having a large surplus of supplies, as I have found at several 
places. Agents should be directed to take up any and all surplus stock on hand at 
the end of every month and account for the same. No more corn should be issued ; 
corn-meal instead. More or less flour is wasted. 

HIDES. 

The value of hides^taken from cattle at the agencies, delivered by the government, 
amounts to about $100,000. The ration of beef at this time is issued to a majority of 
the Indians on the hoof ; consequently they are entitled to the hide. The Indians aio 
allowed to kill the cattle in a barbarous manner, which, in my opinion, should be 
stopped at once. The chiefs and headmen will probably resist this innovation very 
strenuously, but it can be done. Have Indian butchers to slaughter and cut up the 
beef; the issue-clerk to issue the beef the same as other rations; the hides to be sold 
by the order of the department ; the Indian butchers paid from this fund ; the remain- 
der of the money held for the benefit of the Indians, who with a little persuasion 
could be induced to take agricultural implements, household furniture, and other arti- 
cles needed by them. 

HAY AND WOOD. 

It is no doubt necessary that the steamboats navigating the Missouri River should 
have wood for fuel; but the question is, who shall furnish this material! Parties 
have been located along the river at certain distances, in the interests of the steamers, 
to cut and furnish this wood. (This timber is cut on lands belonging to the Indians 
under treaty stipulations.) Under these arrangements the boats stop every few miles 
for their fuel on the reservation, and exchange their wares for wood. A majority of 
these ranches have more or less liquor in their possession, also ammunition. 

The Indians receive no benefit or compensation from this wholesale slaughter of 
their timber. About 100,000 cords of wood are cut from their lands every year. The 
wood required for the Army, the price of which could be mutually agreed upon at a 
reasonable compensation between the Secretary of the Interior and Secretary of War, 
and supplied by the Indian agent, but allowing the Indians to cut the same under his 
directions. 

The Army ofiicers in some localities contract for wood and hay to be cut on reserva- 
tions, and often the coiitract is given to parties that ought not to be allowed on or 
near the agencies, or to come in contact with the Indians. A number of Indians at 
several agencies are prepared to do this work in the best manner, and would be glad 
of the opportunity of cutting the hay and wood required for the military posts and the 
agency use, also for the boats. 

SQUAW-MEN. 

The Missouri River is infested from Yankton to Fort Benton with a low class of 
white men, a largo portion of whom are of French origin. At some agencies I find 

G I C 



82 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

the squaw-men with their chilclren number as many as five hundred and fifty persons. 
I cannot believe it is the intention of the government to increase this class of lazy 
half bloods. These persons form an element which is with difficulty controlled, for 
they are in some cases outlaws from the East, and a crafty, unscrupulous set of men. 
They in many cases sow dissension among the Indians, inducing them to complain of 
their treatment for some trivial cause, while they themselves make a pretense of friend- 
ship to the agent. Without doubt they are often the sole cause of outbreaks, often 
poisoning the minds of the Indians by misrepresenting the best intentions of the agent, 
and in this way, as in many others, exerting a damaging influence on all concerned. 
These persons are justly dreaded by the agent, who on this account allows them many 
favors. There is quite a number of this low class of lawless men passing from one 
agency to another ; in some cases the agent will give a certificate of good character to 
get rid of them. I would suggest that a list of this class be made at all the agencies 
and forwarded to Washington, and then issue an order expelling them all from the res- 
ervations. A large number of this class have found their way from the Army, and 
when ordered to leave the agency take refuge and seek protection in the military 
camp. 

TRADERS. 

The strife among the Indian traders at this time at the several agencies has reached 
a pass where I deem it necessary for the department to make very stringent orders and 
regulations. Very few of them had price-lists posted up in their stores as required. 
They all claim the right to trade their wares for the hides, and so inform the Indians; 
also encourage them not to release their right to them. I have this from the best 
authority. I find many of the stores and saloons belonging to them open on the Sab- 
bath. Many of them have been in the habit of selling bottled patent medicine, con- 
taining principally alcohol, and used for drink, consisting of bay-rum, ginger, cologne, 
(fee, prepared expressly for the Indians. Many of the traders are unfit and not proper 
persons to be around an agency. 

CONTRIBUTIONS OF RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES. 

The sums expended by the several religious societies in the Indian service during 
the last year, so far as reported, are as follows : 

Protestant Episcopal $39,331 45 

Baptist (Northern) 4,407 71 

Baptist (Southern) 3,600 00 

Presbyterian (Northern) 11,558 64 

Presbyterian (Southern) 6,443 42 

•Congregational 12, 150 90 

Friends 5,000 00 



BEPOETS OF MISSIONAEY SOCIETIES. 
PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL. 

THE FIELD. 

The Indian missionary work of the Church, in charge of the Committee for Indian 
Missions, is among the Oneidas in Wisconsin, the Chippewas in Minnesota, several scat- 
tered bands of Sioux in Minnesota, tlie Dakotas in the missionary district of Niobrara, 
and the Shoshones in the Territory of Wyoming. 

In every portion of this Indian field our missions are prospering. The accounts 
respecting the work, received by the committee from time to time during the year, 
have furnished testimony of the zeal and fidelity with which the missionaries and 
catechists and Christian women have been discharging their respective duties, and of 
the encouragement with which they have been favored in the prosecution of their 
labors. 

So far, therefore, as the work itself is concerned, the committee is deeply thankful 
to be enabled to state that a steady and healthful growth has been vouchsafed it 
during the year past. 

THE NIOBRARA MISSION, UNDER BISHOP HARE. 

In this, which is by far the largest division of our Indian field, there are now, includ- 
ing the missionary bishop, twelve clergy, of whom three are nativ^e Dakotas. Eight 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 83 

native candidates are preparing for the ministry; these, with seven others, native 
(makino: 15 in all), are serving as catechists and teachers, and are proving in various 
ways effective members of the mission corps. Here, too, are 15 women helpers, teach- 
ing' in the day and boarding schools, visiting and mioistering to the sick, and instruct- 
ing the Indian women in their camps in both temporal and spiritual matters. It thus 
appears that the number of mission workers in Niobrara is 42. The ministrations of 
the female members of the mission are such as only Christian women can render, and 
the influence of their work goes beyond the circle of those in whose behalf they spe- 
cially labor. Said a leading heathen chief on one occasion to Bishop Hare : " I don't 
know about you missionary men; but I am sure," pointing to one of the ladies of the 
mission, iu the distance, on her round of duty— "I am sure that that little missionary 
woman is good and true." 

Seventeen stations are now occupied in this jurisdiction, which are centers of mission 
activity among a majority of tbe bands which together constitute the Dakotas. Scat- 
tered over this portion of the field are 17 houses of worship, in which gather increas- 
ing congregations of those who have found and those who are yet to find the true 
light. 

Our missions among the two largest bands of Dakotas (the Red Cloud and Spotted 
Tail), which were temporarily suspended during the recent removal of these bands to 
their new locations, are soon to be resumed. One brave Christian woman has already 
gone forth to the more remote of these two agencies to take up again the work in which 
for the past three years she has been diligently occupied. 

The 5 boarding and 12 day schools in Niobrara have continued to carry on their 
special and important work, and have had a larger attendance of Indian children and 
youth than in previous years. 

The annual convocation of this missionary district, which was held at the Yankton 
Agency the latter part of June, braught together from far and near the white and 
native clergy of the jurisdiction, the native catechists and native Christian delegates 
and others representing various bands of Dakotas. More than two hundred were 
present at the convocation, the sessions of which continued for several days. A council 
such as this, composed chiefly of Christian Indians, engaged in reviewing the work of 
the year and in considering plans for extending that work among their heathen brethren, 
presents the most vivid illustration, perhaps, that could be found of the blessing with 
which God has been accompanying the missions of our church among the Indians. 

THE CHIPPEWA MISSION, UNDER BISHOP WHIPPLE. 

The work among the Chippewas in Minnesota is year by year increasing. In July 
last four young men of this tribe, who had been very carefully prepared for the min- 
istry under the instruction of the Rev. Mr. Gilfillan, our white missionary to the Chip- 
pewas, were ordained by Bishop Whipple to the diaconate. This increase of native 
clergy in Minnesota makes the present number seven. At three stations mission work 
is now carried on among the Chippewas, and a fourth is soon to be established under 
the charge of two of the newly-ordained deacons, on the farther side of Red Lake, 
eighty miles north of the White Earth Reservation. The mission which was started 
a year and a half ago by two other Indian deacons among a large band of Chippewas 
at the Red Lake Agency is making steady progress, and is winning one after another 
of those for whose spiritual benefit it was undertaken. Twelve native communicants 
are already the fruit of this new mission. 

Full statistics of our missions among the Chippewas are appended to this report. 
These indicate clearly the present condition of the work and the promise for the future 
in this portion of our Indian field. 

THE ONEIDA MISSION, UNDER BISHOP BROWN. 

The work in this long-established mission presents interesting and encouraging feat- 
ures. The missionary, who has been laboring many years among the Oneidas, states 
that " in a spiritual point of view the mission has in every way been successful." He 
adds : "All things considered, we have the best of reasons for encouragement and grati- 
tude to Him whose unworthy servants we are." A well-attended Indian school, a body 
of native communicants numbering 150, and offerings during the year amounting to 
nearly $500, are some of the indications that the labor which the church, through her 
ministering servant, has been devoting to the Oneidas has not been in vain. 

THE SIOUX IN MINNESOTA, UNDER BISHOP WHIPPLE. 

The native catechist, whose ordination to the diaconate is soon to take place, has 
continued his labors during the past year among several scattered bands of Sioux in 
Minnesota. This catechist, according to the testimony of the rector of Gethsemane 



84 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

diurch, Minneapolis, " seems thoroughly interested in behalf of his people and devoted 
to his work." Some seventy-five of these Indians are communicants, and are attached 
in this relation to the parishes of several towns in the neighborhood of which they 
live. " The Christian life of these Indians, so far as I have been able to observe," adds 
the rector already quoted, " compares favorably with that of the same number of white 
communicants." "Most of the Indians connected with your mission are self support- 
ing. Some of them are purchasing land and opening farms." 

WORK AMONG THE SHOSHONES, UNDER BISHOP SPALDING. 

School work was begun in July last among the Shoshones in Wyoming by an expe- 
rienced teacher, who is also serving as lay missionary. Failing to secure a clergyman 
for these Indians, the missionary bishop in whose jurisdiction the Shoshones are located 
was gratified in finding a competent lay teacher who was willing to go among them 
and do what he could to instruct them and their children in the better way of life. 
The committee entertains the hope that while some positive advantage may be gained 
by the effort now referred to, it will lead sooner or later to something still better for 
this large and interesting native tribe. 

THE INDIAN IN HIS RELATION TO CIVILIZATION. 

It does not strictly fall within the range of a report like the present to consider the 
question as to the degree in which the Indian is susceptible of civilization. The ques- 
tion, however, is one in which thoughtful Christian men and women, and chiefly perhaps 
those most engaged in the support of Indian missions, feel a special interest. The com- 
mittee does not propose to enter on this occasion upon the consideration of the willingness 
and ability of the Indian to turn his back upon his savage mode of life and under 
proper training to adopt the white man's ways and to engage in the familiar pursuits 
of the white laborer and farmer and mechanic. On these points a large amount of 
valuable official testimony could be adduced. The committee begs leave to present, 
in illustration of this matter, a single brief quotation from the last report made to the 
government by our agent at the Yankton Agency, Dakota. In speaking to the ques- 
tion, "Will Indians work?" the agent states: "Under the superintendence of the 
agency engineer the following industries are conducted entirely by Indian workmen 
taught their trades during the last three years : One grist and saw mill, steam-power, 
with circular saws, turning-lathes, iron and wood; planing-machine ; corn-mill; one 
tin-shop, where all the tinware used by the tribe (in number over two thousand) is 
manufactured; carpenter and blacksmith shops; slaughter-house and issue-rooms. 
These two last mentioned are directly under the care of the agent. 

"Again, under the direction of the agency farmer all outside and farm work is done. 
* * * Indians who three years ago were seen lounging about in gay blankets, full 
feather, and paint, are now to be seen in white men's clothing behind the plow and 
cultivator, and cutting grain and hay with reaper and mower." 

EXTENT AND COST OF THE WORK. 

The review now made of the work under its charge has impressed the committee 
with a deeper conviction of the magnitude which our Indian missions have already 
attained, of the encouragement which the church can justly take in view of the pro- 
gress which these missions are making, and of the strong claims which they present 
for a continued and cheerful support. 

In this connection the committee desires to invite special attention to one additional 
consideration, viz, the cost to the church of our missions among the Indians. Let it be 
remembered that these missions, with whose oversight and care the committee is charged, 
are among the Oneidas, the Sioux, the Chippewas, the Dakotas, and the Shoshones. At. 
work in the various portions of this widely extended Indian field, and dependent for 
their entire support upon the offerings of the church, are one missionary bishop, ten 
white and ten native clergy, sixteen native catechists and teachers, and fifteen women 
helpers ; fifty-two in all. There are also, in the Niobrara portion of the field, seven- 
teen houses of public worship, for the incidental expenses of which provision has to 
be made. 

The whole of this work as now set forth is sustained at an annual cost of about 
forty thousa^id dollars. The committee is confident in the opinion that this amount will 
seem to thoughtful minds in the church, of both clergy and laity, a very moderate sum 
to be expended in the support of our entire missionary work among the Indians. 

On behalf of the Committee for Indian Missions. 

ROBERT C. ROGERS, 
Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 85 

STATEMENT FROM BISHOP HARE. 

The preceding report was ready for the press when, at the last moment, the commu- 
nication which is appended came to hand from the missionary bishop of Niobrara. 

Rosebud Landing, Dakota, 

September 26, 1878. 
Rev. and Dear Brother : I left the Yankton Aj^ency suddenly on the 24th, and am 
now about to strike across the country from the Missouri to the now Rosebud Agency, 
the central point about which Spotted Tail's people are being gathered. 

INDIAN AGENTS. 

Several agents nominated by our Indian committee, and who enjoyed my confidence, 
were summarily and forcibly removed from their posts last March by military officers, 
under orders from the Interior Department. The severity of their treatment is jus- 
tified by the assertion that they were found to be guilty of the grossest frauds upon 
the Indians and the government, and accusations to this ejffect have been widely dis- 
seminated through the press. 

It might have been supposed that parties so deeply interested in these proceedings 
as the Indian committee of our church and myself would have been apprised of the 
exact nature of these charges and the evidence upon which they are based. This, 
however, has not been done. As these agents passed, on their appointment, from the 
control of the church to that of the Interior Department; as the church never has had 
the direction of the agents' business nor the inspection of their books and vouchers ; 
as the Indian Department has at its disposition detectives, special agents, superin- 
tendents, and inspectors, whose duty it is to see that Indian agents perform their 
duties faithfully ; as the church has both through the Indian committee and through 
me always urged upon the government the strictest investigation of the agencies com- 
mitted to its oversight, and co operated in every possible way in the rectification of 
abuses; and as the inspector to whose reports the removals above referred to were 
duo was assured early in his investigations that exposure of wrongdoing in agents 
nominated by the church, far from being looked upon as unfriendly, would be wel- 
comed by the church; I conceive that, even should the charges laid at the door of 
these agents be substantiated, no hlame can attach to the church, however great our 
mortification, should it be found that men whom we have trusted had betrayed our 
confidence and plundered those whom thev were sent to cherish. 

While these removals and the controversy consequent upon them have added im- 
mensely to my burden of care and given occasion for infamous assaults upon my char- 
acter, they have not, so far as I have been able to perceive, affected our missions and 
schools materially one way or another. The military officers temporarily in charge of 
the agencies have shown every disposition to befriend our work, and it has gone on in 
its accustomed channels and at its usual rate. 

VISIT TO FLANDREAU SETTLEMENT. 

Early in July I made a visit to a colony of Sautee Sioux Indians who some seven 
years ago broke away from the pupilage of the life of reservation Indians, gave up 
their tribal rights, removed a distance of 120 miles from their old home, and took up 
claims near Flandreau, in Dakota, determined to live as white men. 

About half of them had been connected with a mission of the American Board; the 
rest were members of our church. Ever since their manly step was taken they have 
pleaded piteously for the services of the church. In one of their many letters they 
said: 

" My Friend : We wish to write you this letter. We — men, women, and children of 
the Flandreau settlement — wish you to consider this, with your presbyters and cate- 
chists. This is our miud : Our Saviour said, * I will not leave you like orphans ; I will 
come again and bring you.' This we remember. We are now, indeed, left like orphans 
alone, but we hold fast to the Saviour. 

"To-day we have kept a Festival of Holy Remembrance, and we have thought of 
you all, because you always ask us to remember you. On Christmas day jour church 
keeps Holy Night, and we have prayed to God all night. But we have no church, and 
the house in which we assemble will no longer hold us. Therefore, when you see this 
letter, we wish you would give us a church. We do not leave of!' our prayers. If you 
can give us a church that will hold us all, we shall always remember you. 

" We have called a meeting, and afcer prayers have written this letter. We all shake 
hands with you from our hearts." 

A large delegation of them traveled ten days over the prairie to meet me and plead 
their cause in person about four years ago. Another delegation appeared at our annual 
convocation in 1877. Their plea was irresistible, and I attempted several years ago to 
reach them, but was caught in a terrific snow-storm, in which I almost lost my life and 
was forced to retreat. Since then various untoward events' have interfered with 



S6 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

my plans to sencl tliem a missionary, so at one time I was obliged to discourage the 
hope that the church could ever come to them. With a beautiful faith which now 
rejiroaches me they held to the promises I had made them and discarded subsequent 
retraction. They assembled Sunday after Sunday and worshiped according to the 
liturgy of our church, led by one of their number. After a time they put up a little 
log church— then hauled stones to a spot near by, where they hoped against hope that 
a better church would yet be built. Encouraged by the knowledge that their case 
had awakened the practical interest of ladies connected with St. Thomas's Church, 
New York, I visited them, as I have said, in July last. While I found much in which 
there was room for improvement, their waving fields of wheat, their increased intelli- 
gence as contrasted with their wild brethren, the friendly relations which exist between 
them and their white neighbors, and their respect for law and order, afforded great 
ground for encouragement. Their commendableness on this last point will appear 
from the following narrative which I clipped from a local newspaper : 

" On last Saturday a rough, stopping at or near Flandreau, entered the residence of 
a peaceable, civilized Indian, and attempted a dastardly outrage upon the person of 
one of its inmates. The ruffian met with stout resistance, and being foiled in his pur- 
pose kicked and cuffed his intended victim in a savage manner, until her outcries 
brought some of her people to the rescue, w^ho lassoed the scoundrel and tied him fast 
to a tree. In most civilized regions the fiend would have adorned a stout limb ; but, to 
the credit of the children of the plains, let it be recorded that wiser counsel prevailed, 
and the wretch was given into the custody of regularly constituted authorities, and 
after a brief examination held to bail in the sum of $5,000, in default of which he 
was sent to Yankton for safe-keeping until wanted at the next term of court." 

They crowded the school-house in the town of Flandreau, where I had service for 
them, and though they had only lay services, with the exception of two or three occa- 
sions, during the space of six years, they entered into the responsive service with de- 
lightful fervor, even singing the chants. The Flandreau newspaper of the following 
week testifies: 

"The house was full, and to the credit of the natives be it said that we never wit- 
nessed a more devout and orderly congregation composed of any people. A young 
Dakota displayed considerable musical skill at the organ, and the whole serv^ice was 
conducted in a manner entirely creditable to the w^orthy Episcopal Church." 

We had to surrender the school-house before the service was finished to a congrega- 
tion of whites who were expecting to use it, but the whole assembly followed me over 
the fields to a house a quarter of a mile distant, where, with the earth for a floor, on a 
rickety pine table, in a house of logs, I celebrated the holy communion (about twenty 
participating in the sacrament), with emotions of gratitude to which a floor of mar- 
ble, walls adorned with alabaster, and an altar inlaid with precious stones could not 
have added. 

We have raised out here among our own people about $150 toward erecting a church 
for this interesting flock ; ladies of St. Thomas's church. New York, have added $G50, 
and a building is now in progress which will be worthy of so devoted a people. 

THE INDIANS AND THE PRESS. 

I fear the people at the East are weary with the whole Indian question, so inces- 
santly are discouraging pictures of its condition held up to their gaze. It must be 
remembered that it is only the sensational side of the story (i. e., the lawless or crim- 
inal) which purveyors for the public prints find it profitable to herald. An Indian 
scare is always thrilling; dissensions in Spotted Tail's camp merit a flaming heading 
in a sensational newspaper. But how many care to note that in the midst of all this 
dissension and disorder a clergyman, a sister, aud two day-school teachers have been 
devotedly working; that school has been carried on morning, afternoon, aud evening 
with au average attendance of over sixty ; that solace has been carried to the sick 
and disconsolate ; that congregations of from one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
people have regularly assembled for the worship of Almighty God; that deep religious 
interest has attended many of these services, and improvement in life followed them; 
that twenty or thirty have been confirmed, and that the little flock, though jeered by 
bad men of the tribe and threatened with violence by the wilder ones, kept up daily 
prayers on the prairie amidst all the hinderances which inevitably attended their emi- 
gration across a wild countrj^ from their old to their new home? Slip after slip cut 
from secular newspapers has come into my hands, in which the real or imaginary short- 
comings of missionaries have been served up by anonymous writers with ill-disguised 
relish. I have yet to receive one which narrates that a Christian lady, dedicated to 
the service of the Saviour, has given up the comforts and purity of her own home to 
minister to the sick and wretched amid scenes of wickedness like that at Sodom ; that 
she has endured a journey of eight days and seven nights through a wilderness, iu 
which, during the whole trip, not a human habitation was met with ; that she has 
followed the people, whose salvation she seeks, in their migration across the wilder- 
ness, and now shares their tent life ! 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OP INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



87 



I may remark in closing that the mission work has, as a whole, progressed with a 
fair measure of success during the year past, and I see no cause for discouragement. 
I never felt more tlie importance of the work which the church has undertaken for 
these despised people. Let it be remembered an unusual dearth of other news the j>ast 
summer, which the pestilence at the South has only recently relieved, has led the pub- 
lic i)ress to give the slightest ripple of evil upon the surface of Indian affairs a strained 
importance. Half the difficulty of the Indian question lies in the fact that every- 
thing about it wears the aspect of the extraordinary and grandiloquent. One familiar 
with the rr al state of affairs wearies for the time when a squabble over a horse-race 
shall cease to be chronicled as " an insurrection," preparations for a feast heralded as 
the *' eve of an Indian outbreak," and a set of horse-thieves termed " a war-party." 
There is a deal of truth in the remark attributed to a Piute Indian: "When three or 
four bad white men stop and rob one stage, maybe kill somebody, you send one sheriff 
catch three, four bad men ; same way when some bad white men steal some cattle, or some 
horses, you send one sheriff; but when three, four bad Injun stop one stage, kill some- 
body, steal some horse or cow, you try catch three, four bad Injun f No. All white 
men say 'Injun broke out, Injun on war-path,' and then come soldier for to kill every- 
body." 

WILLIAM H. HARE, 
Missionary Bishop of Niobrara. 



PRESBYTERIAN HOME MISSIONS. 

The Presbyterian Board of Home Missions, in the prosecution of its work, have 
come in contact with various tribes of the aborigines, for whose elevation and welfare 
missionaries have sought our aid. 

We have established missions in the three large pueblos of Laguna, Zuni, and Jemez, 
New Mexico. In every one of these places we have school buildings and chapels, built 
in the last two during the past year. At each place we have had a missionary and a 
school teacher. 

In like manner our attention has been turned to Alaska. We have established mis- 
sions at Sitka and Fort Wrangel, and in each place we have had a missionary and a 
school-teacher. 

W^e have a missionary laboring among the Ojibwas at two stations in Northern 
Michigan, and one laboring among the Stockbridge Indians in Wisconsin. We have 
assisted in the support of a missionary among the Spokans in Washington Territory, 
and we have another laboring among a mixed population in Oregon, the majority of 
whom are Puyallups. 

We also have had six missionaries in the Indian Territory, some of whom have 
labored almost exclusively among the Indians, while the labors of others have been 
expended more or less on the whites, but incidentally or directly also on the Indians. 

Respectfully submitted. 

H. KENDALL, 
Corresponding Secretary Board of Home Missions of the Presbyterian Church. 



PRESBYTERIAN FOREIGN MISSIONS. 

These missions have been conducted as in former years ; preaching, teaching, train- 
ing native laborers, translating the Scriptures, being still maintained according to cir- 
cumstances. The state of the churches is partly shown by the returns here tabulated : 



Seneca mission : 

Cattaraugus 

Alleghany 

Tonawanda 

Tuscarora 

Chippewa 

Omaha 

Dakota : 

Yankton Agency 

Hill Church 

Flandreau 

Creek 

Seminole 

Xez Perc6 




TVTiole 
number. 



115 



27 

58 
42 

64 
27 

132 
42 
84 

670 



88 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



Reductions in the niimLor of communicants are reioorted by the death of 9 person«( 
in the Cattaraugus church and 12 in the Yankton Agency church ; excluded in the 
former, 18 ; set off in the hitter to the new Hill Church, 24. The returns of Spokan 
communicants are not reported ; the connection of the board with that tribe, which 
was never intimate, was not maintained last year. The minutes of the general as- 
sembly of last year re^jort 429 communicants who are Spokaus, and 670 who are Nez 
Percds. Organized churches have not yet been formed among the Nez Perc6s, and 
there is reason to believe that these returns are too large. The Nez Perc6 census, taken 
by their agent some months ago, made the number of this tribe on the reservation 
about 1,200 souls; several years ago they were estimated at 3,000, a number probably 
quite too large. The ludians of this name engaged in the late conflict with the gov- 
ernment were not residents of the reservation, bat wore bauds that had never been 
under systematic missionary training. 

It may be added here that at the request of the board the Rev. Samuel N. D. Mar- 
tin, formerly in charge of a government school on the reservation, and now pastor of 
a church in Kansas, made a visit to the Nez PerciS prisoners at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kans., but he met with no encouragement. The United States chaplain. Rev. Andrew 
D. Mitchell, of Fort Leavenworth, also took a friendly interest in these poor prisoners, , 
but found the door closed against Christian instruction. It may be ascribed to the 
labors of Messrs. Whitman and Spalding many years ago among the Nez Perc<?s and 
other tribes, that Chief Joseph and his band conducted the late conflict with white 
men in a civilized way. Though feeling deeply aggrieved, they abstained from cus- 
tomary Indian excesses, and won respect and symx)athy. Their future course will be 
watched with interest. 

In connection with the churches, the employment of native missionaries is a subject 
of great and hopeful interest. The two Seminole licentiates keep up religious services 
at several places, iireachiug with acceptance and visiting the people, and then com- 
ing to Mr. Ramsay each week for further instruction. The Creek licentiate was by 
the Presbytery put in charge of a church received from the Southern Presbytery. 
The Nez Perc6 licentiates are commended as faithful men, who are already engaged 
in useful work for their people. It is considered important that two churches sliould 
soon be organized, and it is hoped that these licentiates may be prepared for ordina- 
tion and settlement as pastors, while also engaged in missionary work for Nez Perces 
in outlying neighborhoods and for some of the other tribes within reach. The Chip- 
pewa candidates for the ministry are still under Mr. Baird's instruction by direction 
of the Presbytery. 

The schools in these missions are as follows : 



Seneca 

Chippewa 

Dakota . . . 

Creek 

Seminole . 
Nez Perc6 



Upper Cattaraugus \ Industrial 

OOanah { g-"""? 

( At three places . . . 
^^t Santee Agency 

Tallahassee .' . 

"Wewoka 

Lapwal 



Day 

High school. 
Boarding ... 
Boarding . . . 



70 
22 
51 
193 
12 
80 
12 
12 



Mostly women. 

[Boys and girls. 

Of whom 8G are girls. 
Of whom 7 are girls. 
Of whom 40 are gMs. 

All married men but three; 
two of the scholars are li- 
centiate preachers. 



In the Omaha mission there is now only a Sabbath school; the day scholars attend 
the government school. This is the case also in the Seneca mission, common schools 
being conducted in the four reservations under the provisions of the common-school 
laws of the State of New York. Eventually, in all Indian tribes, public provision, it 
is hoped, will be made by the general or State governments for the support of common 
schools for Indian children, a measure every way right and exi>edient. The Seneca 
industrial school owes its existence and success to the efficient work of Mrs. Aslier 
Wright. It is a means of usefulness to many Indian women, and of exerting a good 
influence for the gospel among the pagan part of the tribe. The Chippewa boarding 
school is still largely aided by the educational funds of the government, and the attend- 
ance of day scholars has been increased and made regular by their receiving a sub- 
stantial lunch each day, the small expense of which is also met from the same source. 
The religious influence of both these schools is excellent. The Creek school, as here- 
tofore, is supported chiefly bj' the Creek council, though partly by the board, as is 
shown in the treasurer's report. A similar school on a small scale has been opened 
during the year among the Seminoles, supported also by a joint arrangement between the 
Seminole council and the board. In botli tribes these boarding-schools seem to be doing 
a good work. In like manner the schools among the Dakotas and the small school at 
Lapwai for the Nez Perc6s are doiug much good. Some of the adults are acquainted 
with English in most of these tribes, but it is natural for them, as well as for the others, 
to use th-iir own lan^'ua^e. lu the schools all the scholars learn Ea-jlishj though, of 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 89 

courso, retaiuin;:: nlso their vernacular. In the training of native missionary laborers, 
Messrs. Ramsay and Baird and Miss McBeth are spending time and patient instruction. 
Already excellent results have followed their efforts, and still greater may be expected. 

While much faithful evangelizing work has been performed in these tribes during 
the past year, its visible results are not very manifest. The Seneca Indians can hardly 
expect to see much greater advancement in their temporal affairs until they are settled 
ou lands with ownership in fee ; and their existing condition no doubt affects adversely 
their spiritual Avelfare. As the result of missionary work they have reached a mod- 
erate degree of civilization, but do not seem to be making much progress. Nearly the 
same statement may be made of the Omalias, though most of them are less advanced 
in their knowledge of civilized life. The Chippewas and Dakotas, who are under the 
influence of our missions, have become well started on the road to civilization, though 
not yet so tar on the way as are most of the Creeks and Seminoles. The Nez Percys are 
now' a settled people, many of them prizing the fruits of industry and the blessings of 
education. Tlie work of former years in all these tribes has not been in vain, but 
much patient labor must still be spent on them by the church before they can become 
a civilized, self-supporting people, prepared to take upon them the duties of full citi- 
zenship. In such cases the first steps are the most difficult. These steps have been 
taken, and with the Divine blessing their future course will reward their friends amply 
for all that has been done in their behalf. 

The Indians in Ncav Mexico, according to our church practice in former years, and 
with the express action of the general assembly, were for several years under the care 
of the board. Several missionaries and teachers received its commission, and over 
$13,000 were exi)ended in the support of its work in this Territory. But owing partly 
to the want of funds and x^artly to the difficulty of obtaining laborers, the progress 
of the work was slow and discouraging. 

The relations of the board to the Indian Department of the government have been 
marked by courtesy and consideration, as in former years. The Indian agents now in 
office on the nomination of the board are Mr. John B. Monteith, Nez Perc^ Agency ; 
Mr. John J. Critchlow, Uintah Valley ; Mr. Samuel A. Russell, Abiquiu ; Mr. John E. 
Pyle, Navajo; Dr. Benjamin M. Thomas, Pueblo; Mr. Frederick C. Godfrey, Mes- 
calero Apache. In so far as is known to the board, these gentlemen have fulfilled 
their official duties to the satisfaction of the government and to the benefit of the In- 
dians under their charge. As officers in the Indian service, their official narratives 
will be found in the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. 

The board closes its report of missionary work for the Indians with the hope that a 
brighter day is before them. The government's policy of peace is bearing good fruit 
among them, but the commission of the church looks to the saving of their souls; and 
Avhen the gospel is received by them, they will soon become a civilized people. The 
feeble efforts thus far made have been attended with no small measure of success. Let 
our American people of every evangelical faith engage in the work of their Christian 
instruction, and we may hope to see them soon welcomed as our fellow-citizens not 
only, but as heirs with us of citizenship in the heavenly country. 



PRESBYTERIAN— SOUTHERN. 

INDIAN MISSIONS. 

Thr^se stand first in the order of time, and are all comprised in what is familiarly 
known as the Southwestern Indian Territory. This territory lies directly west of the 
State of Arkansas, is bounded on the north by Kansas, on the south by T«xas, and on 
the west by Texas and New Mexico. In size it is about equal to the State of Arkansas. 
It is well watered, has a fertile soil, a healthful climate, and in many respects is one 
of the most desirable portions of country to be found west of the Mississippi. The 
main branch of railroad which connects Saint Louis Avitli Galveston, Tex., runs directly 
through the heart of the inhabited part of the territory, and divides it into two very 
nearly equal halves. The Cherokees, the Creeks, the Choctaws, and the Chickasaws 
are the larger and principal tribes within the bounds of this territory. The Cherokees 
occupy the northern portion of it, the Creeks the central, and the Choctaws and 
Chickasaws the southern portion. The last two belong to one family, as may be 
inferred from the fact that they speak very nearly the same dialect. The entire pop- 
ulation of these four tribes is variously estimated from 60,000 to 100,000. The Cher- 
okees are probably the most numerous, while the Choctaws are next in point of pop- 
ulation. 

Missionary operations were commenced among these tribes when they were still on 
the eastern side of the Mississippi, and with some variations have been continued ever 
since. The American Board of Foreign Missions was the chief agent in the prosecution 



90 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INNIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

of this vrork until about twenty-five years ago, when they withdrew from the field, 
partly on account of difficulties about slavery, and partly from the conviction that 
they had more work than they could Well perform in other parts of the unevaugelized 
world. The Presbyterian board, then representing both the Northern and Southern 
Presbyterian Church, in addition to work which it had previously undertaken toward 
Christianizing these peoi)le, took up the work laid down by the American board, 
and continued it until the breaking out of the late war, when they Avere compelled in 
turn to withdraw, and then the whole work fell into the hands of the Southern Pres- 
byterian Church. 

Tlie pioneer laborers in the great work of Christianizing and civilizing these Indians 
were no ordinary men. The names of Kingsbury, Wright, Byington, Worcester, Hodg- 
kins, and Copeland ought long to be regarded as household words in every Christian 
family. Few Christian men ever CAdnced more earnest piety, more steadiness in the 
]jrosecution of their work, or more entire consecration to the service of their Redeemer. 
They are gone now, but their Avorks do follow them. These Indian tribes whom they 
found, when they first went among them, wikl and uncultiA^ated barbarians, they left 
a civilized and Christianized people. Thousands were led through their instrumen- 
tality to the knowledge of the Saviour, some of wbom have passed to glory, whilst 
others are still exemplifying on earth the sincerity of their profession. 

The Southern Presbyterian Church, as has already been intimated, at the breaking 
out of the late war undertook the Avork among these Indians that had previously been 
carried on by the joint labors of the two churches. At one time the work Avhich had 
previously been confined to the Choctaws and ChickasaAvs was extended to the Creeks 
and Cherokees. A boarding-school near Eufaula, in the Creek country, Avas maintained 
in vigorous operation for a number of years. But the want of means, as well as dissat- 
isfaction Avith the management of the sui)erintendent, led to its discontinuance two 
years ago. In consequence of these changes the efforts of our church, at the present 
time, are concentrated almost wholly upon the Choctaws and Chickasaws, and un- 
doubtedly some very important advantages Avill arise from this concentration of labor, 
which is to be regretted the less, as the Creeks and Cherokees are well cared for by 
other denominations of Christians. 

In the Choctaw and Chickasaw territory we have two ministers from the States, 
viz. Rev. J. J. Reid, principal of the Spencer Academy, and Rev. W. J. B. Lloyd, at 
Bennington, in the southwestern portion of the Choctaw territory ; five native preach- 
ers, viz, llev. Allen Wright, residing at Boggy Depot, near the line separating the 
Choctaw from the Chickasaw country; Rev. Elijah BreAver, living near Doakesville ; 
Rev. Clias. J. Stewart, near Lukfata ; and Rev. John P. TurnbuU, at Goodland ; four 
native licentiates, in different parts of the country, and five assistant missionaries from 
the States, a^z, Messrs. W. C. Hagan and Dabney Ker Harrison, teachers in Spencer 
Academy, and Mrs. Reid, Mrs. Lloyd, Mrs. Wright, and Miss Elizabeth J. Morrison, 
teacher also in Spencer Academy, making in all fifteen missionary laborers in the 
country. 

It is the design of the Spencer Academy to train teachers and preachers to labor 
among their own people. Experience has shown that it is scarcely possible to secure 
ordained ministers from the States in sufficient number to meet the spiritual wants of 
the people. Besides this it Avould be a needlessly expensive plan, especially if it were 
to be continued indefinitely. Native preachers have shown themselves quite equal to 
the demands of the case, and they can live on much less salaries than would be nec- 
essary for the support of white missionaries. 

As both nations are dependent upon Spencer for such supplies, arrangements have 
been made, without any material increase of expense, to place the institution upon a 
deeper and broader foundation than heretofore. The standard of education wijll be 
raised and enlarged, and it is hoped that those who shall hereafter graduate here, 
espeoially those looking forward to the work of the ministry, Avill be more thoroughly 
prepared for their Avork. The number of pupils at the present time is between fifty 
and sixty, and several of these, we are glad to learn, are looking forward to engaging 
in the work of the ministry. The pupils are all fed, clothed, and schooled at the ex- 
pense of the nation, the missionary committee providing only for the support of the 
superintendent and teachers. 

In consequence of the scattered condition of the churches in the Indian country, and 
the difficulty of getting all the ministers together at their Presbyterial meetings, it is 
almost impossible to get A'ery accurate statistics in relation to the number of churches, 
the number of church members, or the number of additions that have been made from 
year to year. According to the report rendered to the general assembly last spring, 
the number of churches is twenty-four, and the number of church members something 
more than nine hundred. We apprehend that the number of members, if fully reported, 
Avould exceed this estimate by several hundred. 

The ChoctaAvs andChickasaAvscan no longer be regarded as a barbar<ni8 community, 
but are to be accounted as a civilized and Christianized people, though their civiliza- 
tion may still be of a humble order. The great majority of them, to say the least, have 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 91 

comfortable cabins, while a goodly number have neat and comfortable dwelliuffs; 
most of them cultivate the soil for the means of subsistence ; they have horses, cattle, 
ho<>s, and other domestic animals, and sometimes in considerable numbers; they are 
re<;ular attendants upon preaching, whenever it is within their reach; and a very 
large proportion of th(^ younger generation can read and write, while there are verj' 
many among them that have attained to a much higher standard of education. 

It is not probable that these i)eople will maintain their distinct nationality for any 
very extended period. Nor is it, perhaps, desirable that they should. 

The process of amalgamation with the pioneer whites has been going on for fifty years 
or more, and perhaps one-half of either of these tribes are already of mixed blood. 
Among the Cherokees this process of amalgamation has gone even further than this. It 
was fortunate for these people that they were brought under the influence of Christi- 
anity before the tide of white emigration reached them. Had it been otherwise they 
would have been destroyed instead of being taken up by the advancing tide. The 
church, therefore, has done a great work for these people, in not only imparting the 
blessings of the Gospel to them, l)ut in rescuing them from the ruin which otherwise 
would have overtaken them. They still need our care and help, and we earnestly 
hope that our Christian people will not be wearied in extending to them that helping 
hand which they so much need. 



BAPTIST. 

INDIAN MISSIONS. 

The missions of this society to the Indians are in a condition less satisfactory than 
is desired. They require reorganization, and to be conducted on a recognized and 
stable system. In the five civilized tribes our late labors have been chiefly evangeliz- 
ing, the schotds and other means of civilization being left to the care of governmental 
and tribal action. Our information is to the effect that the tribal schools require the 
improvement which is likely to ensue from the presence of better schools, under inde- 
pendent religious care, and that the time has by no means arrived for leaving the 
most advanced of the Indians without exterior influences and aid in respect to the 
])rocesses of civilization. The question of schools has been under consideration by 
the board during the year, but without the information which would justify the form- 
ing of specific plans. In re8]>ect to certain of the tribes, there seems now to be a 
special call for an advanced school, and the whole condition of the colored population 
among the Indians appeals to us for immediate measures to give them missionaries 
and schools. We have given encouragements in respect to a school for the Creek 
freedmen, which ought to be realized with no longer delay, and the pitiable condition 
of the freed i^eople in some of the neighboring tribes presents claims even more 
urgent. 

In a late communication (dated May 5), the Commissioner for Indian Affairs has 
infonned this society that the support hitherto given to freedmen's schools in the 
Indian Territory will not be continued. He says, ''These schools have been placed 
upon a fair basis, and are pretty well supplied with books, and other material for the 
work, which I am perfectly willing to leave in the hands of your church, or other 
suitable xiarties, if the schools are to be continued.'' He asks, likewise, to be 
informed as to the action we will take. The question merits, and we hope will re- 
ceive, the attention of the society. 

The other Indian agency assigned to this society is the Nevada. The board are 
pained to say that nothing toward the religious and social improvement of the Indi- 
ans of this agency has been undertaken by us. The Indians are widely scattered, and 
cannot be brought together at any central point. But their condition is capable of 
an improvement which should be effected. The Rev. T. J. Arnold, late our missionary 
at Reno, has taken government service among these Indians, and, with his wife, is 
laboring for their improvement. A regular mission in that agency should be under- 
taken. 

In respect to the Indian question generally, it is becoming that this society should 
express a profound aversion to any measures, by legislation or otherwise, on the part 
of the government, which should have the eff^ect to change essentially the civilizing 
processes so successfully carried forward during the past ten years. The various re- 
ligious bodies whose aid has been invoked have generally been faithful to their great 
trust, and to substitute for their gentle and humanizing influence the processes of 
military control, and the corruption which follows invariably the contact of armies 
with uncivilized races, would be a mistake alike in morals and economy, and un- 
worthy of the character of the American i)eoi>le. 



92 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

SOUTHERN BAPTIST. 
The subject of 

INDIAX MISSION SCHOOLS, 

brought before the conveution last year, we regard as of vital importance to our in- 
terests in the nation. The board has not been able to carry out the plan proposed for 
the establishment of a manual-labor school, for boys and girls, among the Creeks. 
Efforts have been made to obtain funds for this purpose, not entirely without success, 
but the receipts to this time fall far short of the amount necessary to begin the enter- 
prise. This school is regarded as indispensable to the successful prosecution of our 
work there in the future, and we call special attention to it. 

The Muskogee Female Institute, heretofore under the care of another denomination, 
by the change of doctrinal views and ecclesiastical relations of the owner of the prop- 
erty, Rev. J. M. Ferryman, was last suunner transferred to the Home Mission Board, 
upon the condition that an appropriation should be made to pay the salaries of the 
teachers. This was agreed to, but the design was frustrated for the time by circum- 
stances not under the control of either Brother Ferryman or the board. The property, 
consisting of houses and land, school furniture and appliances for forty pupils, be- 
longs to Brother Ferryman, and is, therefore, available should satisfactory arrange- 
ments be made to resume its exercises in the future. 

A mission at the 

WICHITA AGENCY, 

to the wild tribes accessible from that point, has been opened under the appointment 
of the board, by Rev. A. J. Holt. Rev. John Mcintosh of the Creek Nation had ^jre- 
viously visited them, and baptized fourteen of their number. Brother Holt has been 
received favorably by the Indians, notwithstanding their prejudice against white men, 
and seems to be winning their confidence, which, should he fully gain, will insure suc- 
cess, so far as the Indians are concerned. The most serious obstacle before him, now 
apparent, is the opposition of some of the whites connected with the agency, who are 
unwilling to have a Baptist mission established there, and who recently succeeded, by 
false representations to the government at Washington, in effecting his expulsion from 
the agency. As this matter is widely known, it is deemed proper to make a brief state- 
ment of the facts. 

The government agent is a Quaker, and the school for Indian children is taught by 
persons of the same faith. For reasons satisfactory to himself, the agent, without the 
knowledge of Brother Holt, dismissed two of the teachers, and requested Brother Holt 
and his wife to take their places until other teachers coukl be obtained from the States. 
As au accommodation, and to xirevent the disbanding of the school, they consented to 
the proposal. Such misrepresentations were made to the Commissioner of Indian Af- 
fairs by the enemies of Brother Holt, that the action of the agent was disapproved, and 
an order issued requiring Brother Holt to leave the a^^ency, which he did under pro- 
test. As soon as the board received information of his expulsion, the corresponding 
secretary called in person upon the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington for 
an explanation of this proceeding. The charge alleged against Brother Holt was that 
he meddled with the affairs of the agency. This he denied, and the investigation that 
followed brought the real facts to light, and showed conclusively that the order for 
his expulsion was issued under a misapprehension of the case. The order was imme- 
diately revoked by the Commissioner, and the agent instructed to reinstate Brother 
Holt iu the school, to dismiss the former teacher, and require him to leave the reser- 
A'atiou. By the action of the Indian Department, our missionary is fully vindicated. 
He has returned to his field, but declines further connection with the school. He 
writes hopefully of the present outlook, notwithstanding the hostility of those who 
oppose him. He should have tne sympathy and prayers and firm support of his 
brethren at home. He has gone down into a dark, deep well ; let us not fail to " hold 
the rope." 

REPORT ON INDIAN MISSION SCHOOLS. 

The committee on Indian mission schools subnut the following report: 
The history of the attempts to civilize and Christianize the Indians of this country 
is fraught Avith valuable instruction. The importance of combining education and 
Christianity has been seen from the first. The early colonists of New England and 
Virginia not only so^ight to teach the aborigines the true knowledge of God, but they 
also taught theni agriculture and the other most necessary arts of civilized life. Schools 
were established among them, not only to im])art religious instruction, but also hus- 
bandry and the mechanical arts. Ancl while the early colonists labored with consid- 
erable success to induce their savage neighbors to adopt civilized usages, to bring 
thejn under the influence of Christianity, since the establishment of the United States 
Government that government has done much, incidentally, to promote missions among 
the Indians. Iu making treaties with them, the government has induced them to set 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 93 

ajtai t Inriic svuns from the price paid for their lauds by the United States, for the pro- 
iiiotiou oi" rducatioii and religion as well as the usefnl arts. These sums are generally 
l);iid to the Indians in the shape of annuities. The annuities due to the Indians from 
the government are simi)ly the interest of a fund held in trust, created from the sale 
of lands belonging to the Indians. This fund is under the care of the Secretary of 
the Interior, the interest jMiyable to the order of the council. In the plan proposed to 
this convention, through our Home Mission Board, for the establishment of a manual- 
labor school for boys and girls among the Creeks, the Creek Nation proposes to give to 
us, on certain stipulated conditions, for the establishment of such a school, 160 acres 
of land, and a further approx>riation of $(3,000 per annum for the education of 50 boys 
and 50 girls, the former to be instructed in husbandry and the mechanical arts, doing 
the work of the farm, the latter to be trained in all that pertains to the economy of 
the household. The annual appropriation of $6,000 is contingent upon the erection 
of the necessary buildings, the preparation of the farm for culture, and the appoint- 
ment of a superintendent and teachers, and will begin with the ox>ening of the school. 
In accepting such a pro]>osal there is, on the part of this convention, no compromise 
of Baptist iirinciples. There is no union of church and state in this case. The 160 
acres of laud which the Creek Nation proposes to give us for this school is the prox)- 
erty of the nation in commou, and is allowed for the i)uri)ose of teaching their boys 
agriculture. The .$6,000 per annum which they appropriate for educational purposes 
is not to be raised by taxation, nor is it to be a gift from the United States Govern- 
ment. This sum is the interest of a fund held in trust by the United States Govern- 
ment, and belonging to the Creek Indians, and was created by the sale of their lands 
on the east of the Mississipx^i River. It was set apart as a school fund by the Creeks 
themselves, aud it cannot be appropriated for other purjioses. 

It has been the settled policy of the United States Government to encourage the In- 
dian tribes to ax^proxmate large sums from the annuities received from government 
for the establishment of schools and the x^romotion of the arts. And these sums have 
been generally exx^ended through the several missionary societies, and of course by 
the missionaries, as the x>ersons most comx)etent for the task ; many, if not all of 
them, being well acquainted with the various handicrafts most necessary to the x^ar- 
tially civilized x^eople among whom they live. The government has unformly encour- 
aged the xjolicy of thus axjplying these sums through the mission boards of Christian 
denominations, and for more than half a century Baptist missionary boards have had 
a share in applying these funds, as is shown in the reports of the Baptist Triennial 
Convention, the Missionary Union, and other Baptist organizations. 

And the project of establishing such a school in the Creek Nation as is now pro- 
X^osed to us is by no means a new project, and our Home Mission Board regard the 
establishment of this school as indispensable to the successful prosecution of our 
work there in the future. In proportion as other Indian tribes have multix>lied schools 
and academies, not only have they made astonishing progress in everything that char- 
acterizes civlization in general, i3ut a character of iJermanence and widespread in- 
fluence has been given to their religious institutions. Those who take the lead in intro- 
ducing agriculture, schools, and mechanics among the Indians, acquire great influence 
over them ; and those educated in the schools will become the leading minds in the 
nation, and do much in forming the national character. The opportunity afforded to 
this convention of establishing a manual-labor school in the Creek Nation is too im- 
portant to be neglected. If we fail to carry out this enterxirise, we may expect com- 
X^arative failure in other dex^artments of our mission work among the Indians. They 
will lose confidence in us, will make other provisions for the education of their youth, 
and we may be compelled te retire in disgrace from a field in which hitherto the Lord 
has richly blessed us. We close by urging upon the Home Mission Board the use of 
all practicable means for establishing at as early x^eriod as is possible the prox)osed 
manual-labor school among the Creeks. 

SAMUEL BAKER, 
W. M. BURR, 
MANLY J. BREAKER, 
W. A. CLARK, 
M. B. PILCHER, 
J. H. FOSTER, 

Committee. 



CONGREGATIONAL. 

Amei-ican Missionary Association. 

RED LAKE AGENCY, MIXNESOTA. 

This reservation embraces 3,200,000 acres of land,of which one-third is supposed to 
be tillable, two-thirds wooded, grazing, and worthless. The population is about 1,190 



94 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

besides tlie families of the employes. The crops show quite an increase over last year, 
and other branches of industry have been well developed. 

Perhaps the most gratifying feature of the Avork here is the successfnl opening of a 
fully equipped boarding-school in November last. Ten boys and as many girls were 
taken, clothed, and fed; the girls were taught to wash, mend, knit, cook, keep house ; 
and the boys were taught to cut and prepare fuel, to plow, plant, grub, do fence and 
farm work. In addition to the twenty boarding pupils, there were some' twenty day 
scholars, so that the present capacity of the school is tilled. The results are very 
gratifying. 

Arrangements are about completed for x)ntting in here a substantial little flour-mill 
this fall, to convert the wheat into nice tlour. This will prove a great incentive to 
increased labor in clearing up land and raising more wheat. This, again, Avill conduce 
to improved health, as much of their sickness arises from insufficient food, and that of 
poor quality. 

LAKE SUPERIOR AGENCY, WISCONSIN. 

This agency embraces seven reserves : Red Cliff, Bad River, Lacourt Oreille, and 
Lac du Flambeau, in Wisconsin ; and Fond du Lac, Grand Portage and Bois Forte in 
Minnesota. It includes 526,756 acres, and the Indians number over 4,500. Three 
schools have been maintained besides the Odauah mission school of the Presbyterian 
denomination. The reports from this agency are excellent. 

RED CLIFF. 

These bands are two in number, and have a reservation of four sections just three 
miles north of Bayfield, on the shore of Lake Superior. They number 726 souls, and 
in consequence of small territory are compelled to find houses, in many cases, off the 
reservation. They subsist upon the result of their own labor. All of them live in 
houses, and wear the costume of civilized society. Many of them have jtrofessed the 
Roman Catholic faith, and attend regularly ujion worship, walking or riding in their 
own boats from three to six miles to church. 

We have upon this reservation a saw-mill, blacksmith and cooper shop, farmers' and 
blacksmiths' dwellings, and a very fine school-house — the latter valued at about five 
thousand dollars — in which school has been kept ten months, with an attendance of 
thirty regiilar scholars and fifty-five irregular scholars. 

BAD RIVER. 

Belonging to this reserve are 714 Indians. Many of the males are found at Ashland 
and other Avhite settlements, earning their daily bread at various kinds of educated 
labor. They leave their wives and children at home putting in crops, hoeing potatoes, 
curing wild rice, and otherwise preparing for the cold winter ; while they earn from 
$1.25 to |2.50 per day, and send their families j)ork, flour, &c., upon which to live dur- 
ing their absence. These Indians have made 1,200 pounds of butter, this being the 
first year that we have any statistics upon this subject, having only commenced the 
issuing of cows last year. We have allotted (as in the case of Red Clifl') land, in 
eighty-acre tracts, to 204 families or individuals. They are clearing a portion every 
year, and our policy is to seed down each year the portion planted the year before, 
and clear other land for planting. Wo do hope that it may not be long till patents 
are issued, for Indians cannot bear suspense. 

LAC COURT OREILLE. 

This reservation is located in the northwest corner of Chippewa County, near the 
intersection of Ashland and Burnett Counties. The Indians made choice of this region 
of country on account of the very fine groves of sugar-maple and the large number of 
inland lakes ; but the white man, who defines the boundaries, took occasion to so run 
the lines that the most of the maple-groves and many of the lakes are left out, and the 
Indians have a reservation running from southwest to northwest about thirty miles, 
and from northwest to southeast but about three or four miles. In passing up the Lac 
Court Oreille River I found five new log houses, and, in one case, about ten acres 
cleared and all planted. There are perhaps twenty or twenty-five other houses that 
have been built by Indians without any individual aid from government. They have 
improved the roads across the reservation. They have some stock, but are sadly in 
need of more. 

LAC DU FLAMBEAU. 

Belonging to this reserve are 542 Indians, who live almost entirely by trapping. 
The appropriations are not large enough to supply employes ; 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 95 

therefore, no civilizing measnres have been introduced here. Five thousand dollars a 
year, judiciously expended for labor in building houses, clearing land, and supplying 
cattlt? to these Indians, would, in a very short period, place them beyond want. These 
Indians must be aided, or they are lost beyond redemption. 

FOXD DU LAC. 

Belonging to this reservation there are 404 Indians. They are a thrifty, hard-work- 
ing people, living almost entirely off their own labor. The young men are found in 
the logging-camps, saw-mills, and on the railroads. The old men and women hunt, 
fish, gather berries, and otherwise assist in providing food. But few families live 
upon the reservation. 

GRAND PORTAGE. 

Here we have 262 Indians, claiming a territory of 51,840 acres of perhaps the poorest 
land the sun ever shone upon. The Indians, however, have done well, living ahnost 
entirely without government aid — the old men and women by hunting, fishing, and 
trapping; the young men as packers and guides into the mining districts along both 
the American and Canadian lines. 

BOIS FORTE. 

These bands, numbering 797 Indians, have a reservation of 107,509 acres, lying in 
uusurveyed territory, about 40 miles northwest of Vermillion Lake, in Minnesota. 
They have mingled with the whites but little ; therefore have but few of their vices. 
They roam, fish, hunt, and trap for a livelihood. They dress in civilized costumes, 
and a few of them sow and plant and harvest, live in houses, and have some of the 
ordinary home comforts ; but they are few indeed. They have been banished to per- 
haps the most wretched of all lands, or rock, in North Minnesota. 

GREEN BAY AGENCY, WISCONSIN. 

The Stockbridge tribe take very little interest in education. The headmen, not 
specially interested, voted to have only six months' schooling, paying the teacher but 
$25 per month. The greatest number attending any one month is thirteen, and the 
average for the year is ten. The church membership is 29. 

The Oneidas are making an unusually good record. Their crops are nearly or quite 
one-third larger than last year. The school attendance shows an increase of thirty- 
seven, and the church membership fifty-three over last year. 

The Menomonees have shown a wonderful spirit of thrift and enterprise the past 
year, putting 200 or more acres of new land under cultivation. Permission having 
been granted by the department, it is proposed to hold a fair the last Aveek in Septem- 
ber. The schools of this tribe, we regret to say, have taken a step backward. Crime 
and drunkenness are greatly on the decrease. With the exception of scarlet fever, in a 
very mild form, among the Menomonees, the sanitary condition has been excellent 
with these people. 

While the soil for Christian labor is unfavorable, and tares find root, to the choking 
out of good seed sown, yet we should take heart in the increasing desire on their part 
for better homes and farms, and the laying aside of the wigwam for good houses, the 
gun and rod for the plow and hoe. A slow and certain improvement in their habits 
from year to year is observable ; and, with kindness, honest dealing, and right in- 
fluence, the time is not so very far in the future when they can and will take a place in 
our nation not a whit behind many pale faces. 

FORT BERTHOLD AGENCY. 

Mr. Alden has resigned his position at this agency, and Mr. Ellis has very recently 
been nominated to fill his place. 

In spite of innumerable drawbacks and difficulties, these Indians have shown a 
patience and industry, in the face of centuries of contrary customs, truly commend- 
able. They have evinced a skill and energy in raising general farm produce seldom 
surpassed by the frontiersmen of Minnesota. Their clean-kept com and potato fields 
are a sure promise that they will before many years be able to raise an ample supply 
of all kinds of agricultural products. 

This year they cultivated about 800 acres of corn, potatoes, beans, squashes, &c., all 
of which produced a fair return for their labor. About three-fourths of this they have 
cultivated with no other implement than the hoe— without plow or cultivator. 

The great need now is to get them out of the village into better houses and on small 
farms, having for the present their herds in common, guarded by their own herders. 



96 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

The preliminary step to this end was made last year in tlie mannfacture of brick 
This Avas intended as a means of industry to the Indians, and to obtain material for 
mnch-needed chimneys on agency buildings, but above all to test the clay, and the 
ability of the Indians to make brick. Great difficulties were encountered in over- 
coming alkali and quicksand in the clay; but after weeks of toil and trial the work 
was successful. An excellent quality of brick was manufactured. The Indians en- 
gaged in this work with far greater interest and perseverance than I ever dared to 
hope. It was thought that during this summer, by making bricks for themselves, and 
procuring logs and lumber, the Indians might be aided in building enough new houses 
on small farms to induce the whole camp to remove from their close quarters in the 
village, where they have actually hitherto been compelled to stay on account of con- 
stant fear of an attack from the Sioux, their hereditary enemies. 

A full report was submitted to the department, with the request that additional ap- 
propriation be made for this work. But the appropriation was cut down, and this 
great and much-needed step towards civilization could not be taken. 

The school, atthough not so prosperous as we could wish, yet, without doubt, has 
been more successful during the last twelve months than ever before. A new school- 
house was erected during the summer of 1877, but the new furniture was not put in 
till near Christmas. Since that time great jirogress has been made. The average at- 
tendance during several months of the year has been from thirty to thirty-five schol- 
ars. We hope several boys and girls will avail themselves of the excellent oppor- 
tunity offered by the government, and proceed to Hampton for a three years' school- 
ing. 

SISSETOX AGENCY, DAKOTA. 

The farming has been attended with unusual success. At present there are 2,191 
acres of land broken on this reservation, 450 acres of which are new land broken dur- 
ing this season. Seventeen hundred acres are under cultivation by the Indians. Nearly 
all our Indians, who were without seed, were provided from the warehouse early in 
the season, and manifested a good degree of interest in planting and cultivating. 

Early in July, many of the Indian farmers were very earnest in their appeals for 
grain cradles and other appliances with which to secure their crops. A lot of grain 
cradles were bought and issued to them. Bxit the number purchased was insufficient, 
and a considerable portion of the wheat in small fields was cut with scythes. 

Several of our Indians who have large wheat fields have bought harvesters fortliem- 
selves, at a cost of from $165 to $200 each, and are to pay for them from the proceeds 
of their sales of wheat. 

All our Indians and half-breeds (with but few exceptions, and these generally con- 
fined to very old people) wear citizens' dress, and a large majority of them live in very 
comfortable houses, made of hewed logs, and are furnished with cook-stoves, tables, 
seats, and other housekeeping conveniences. 

There are some forty frame buildings occupied by our Indians, several of which are 
two stories high and painted, all having more or less land under cultivation. 

SCHOOLS. 

During ten months of the year (the Manual-Labor School eleven months) three 
schools have been in successful operation : the Manual-Labor School, the Good-Will 
Boarding and Day School, and the Ascension School. The Manual-Labor School build- 
ing, situated one and a half miles from the agency, was originally provided with seats 
for fifty-six scholars, but the sleeping accommodations for this number of children have 
never been sufficient, and during the past year our carpenter has made an addition of 
several new sleeping-rooms, and improved the condition of the old ones, which has 
added very much to the comfort and convenience of the pupils. 

There are only four or five boys of sufficient age to be serviceable about the farm or 
garden. When out of school they are kept at work preparing the ground for seeding 
and cultivating, besides attending to the stock and farm work generally, all being 
done under the immediate supervision of the principal, who is, fortunately, a good 
farmer. 

After the regular school hours, the girls are taught sewing of all kinds ; cutting, 
making, and trimming dresses, repairing garments ; darning, knitting, and use of sew^- 
iug-machiue ; also all kinds of house- work, cooking and the work of the dairy. After 
service in the evening, instructions are given in music, instrumental and vocal, in 
Avhich both boys and girls take an unusual interest and show a marked improvement 
during the year. 

In addition to these three schools, two others were opened, and reading, writing, 
and arithmetic in Dakota were taught by Indian teachers during two months in 
the s]>ring, with an average daily attendance of eighteen scholars each. The esti- 
mated number of children of school-going age on this reserve is three hundred, and v/e 
have two brick school-houses, which were built in 1873, at an estimated cost of $500 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 97 

each. One of tlieiii is situated about one and a half miles south of the agency, anil 
the other is at the Mayasan, twenty nnles distant ; hoth arethoroughly provided with 
improved seats, taVdes, &c., and will accounnodato forty scholars each ; jioither of them 
has been used for school pnr})oses to any extent since they were built, but allowed to 
remain uuoccniiied. 

s'kokomish agency. 

With gratitude we can say, that the kind favor of an oveiTuliu^ Providence has 
brouglit us tlirough the clianges of another year, with more than usual quiet and a fair 
anu»uut of general prosperity. Our schools (we now have two) have been prosperous 
and api)arently instrumental in doing good. In the one at the agency, there has been 
evident improvement every way. Tlie scholars have advanced well in their studies, 
have imi)roved morally, and several have, we hope and trust, become Christians. 

At Dunginess, 100 miles distant from this agency, is a small settlement of S'Klallam 
Indians, numbering about 100 all told. They have 200 acres of land, owned and held 
by them by purchase, each one having a deed for the number of acres paid for by him, 
u]>on whicli they have erected good comfortable houses, and raise considerable quan- 
tities of potatoes and garden vegetables. They belong to this treaty, and have been 
visited by your missionary, Rev. Myron Eells, occasionally. During the past winter 
and s[>ring they purchased lumber, and erected a building to be used for a church. 

I succeeded in getting a teacher allowed,, who commenced teaching school in this 
building in March last. This school has been very encouraging. They have sent their 
own children, and also in«luced other neighboring villages to send theirs, so that there 
have been 31 day scholars on the roll. These all board at home, come regularly, neatly 
dressed, and have evinced such a deep interest in their studies that they have ad- 
vanced remarkably well. The teacher, who is a pious man, conducts religious serv- 
ices on the Saljbath regularly, and the attendance is good. The whole number at- 
tending both schools for one month or more during the past year has been 70 ; while 
the average atteudanee, since the latter school has been established, has been over 50. 

In some respects the year has been nnpropitious. T© use a common expression, 
times have been dull and money scarce, and the Indians have been unable to get vork 
as much as usual. This has compelled many of them to hunt and tish, who are accus- 
tomed to work. I have regretted this retrogression the more, as I considered it unnec- 
essary. Had they been dealt with as they should have been in regard to their lands, 
I think it need not have occurred. 

To me it appears plain that the government should give them patents for their lands, 
and supply them with school teachers, who should act as sub-agents, under the super- 
vision of a general agent, who would have charge of a number of reservations. This 
plan, it seems to me, would be far more economical and satisfactory to the Indians, 
and more beneficial in its results, than any attempt at consolidation. 

This report closes my second term of office. Eight years is a longer lease of public 
life than is usually allotted to Indian agents. In all my official intercourse with the 
department, I have to say that I have been treated with kindness and consideration. 
My relations have been uniformly pleasant and agreeable. This is to me a source of 
pleasure, and for which I feel grateful. In reviewing the work of the past eight years, 
and comparing the present conditionof the Indians with Avhat it was when Ifirsttook 
charge, I see a marked advance with most of them, more than I expected when I first 
assumed the duties of the office. As I said many years ago, their advance has been 
slow, but I think more sure than if it had been sudden and spasmodic. I sincerely 
hope they may continue to improve as they have done in the past. 

Many of them seem to me to be so far along, that the question of citizenship will shortly 
require to be considered in their case. They own taxable property, some that are 
coming on can read and write; and as they are so far civilized, what is to hinder their 
exercising the full rights of American citizens ? 

At the agency j the average attendance on the Sabbath-school has been about sixty ; 
at the prayer-meeting, twenty-eight; and on public worship, sixty-three. I think 
there has been no Sabbath on which services have not been held. 

Fruits fioni the Christian work among the Indians are beginning to be seen 
more than during any previous year, and the seed which has been sown seems to be 
bringing forth fruit, through the blessing of God. 

I have attended during the year eight funerals among the Indians, as many as dur- 
ing any two previous years. Often they come for me now, while during the first 
years I was here it was difficult to induce them to be willing to have such services. 
Lately they have opened a new burying-ground, which they say is to be like that of 
the whites, with picket-fence, but no canoes, guns, cloth, or other things, at least 
above ground. This will be a great improvement over the old one, which is covered 
with such things ; and at the old one they have during the year put quite a number 
of bodies beneath the ground which had formerly been above ground. I have made 
350 visits among them, in all' of which I have made religion the main theme. A small 

7 I c 



98 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

liymn-book in tlie Cliinook language liaslx'on published, tlie soug.s of wliieli arc popii" 
lar aiuoiig tlieni. 

In addition to the work of the reservation, our ontstation at Dunginess has made 
marked progress. In July of last year the Indians 8i)oke to me, saying tliat they 
were thinking of huilding a small church. I encouraged them in it, and the agent 
afterwards did the same. In May last it Avas so far finished as to be usable, and was 
then dedicated. As far as finished it Avas paid for, although none of those Indiaus are 
members of the church, nor is there another church in the county, Avhicli has been 
settled by the whites for twenty years. 

Sabbath congregations and Sabbath schools have aA'craged .50 in attendance, and 
prayer-meetings 25. They have contributed about $140 for church buildings, and in 
various ways to the amount of |28 for ray su]iport. In addition, I have preached to 
the Indians at Seabeck once in two months on an aveiage, and to tlie whites at the 
same place on the same Sabbaths — 30 miles distant — and have held services with the 
whites at Oakland, Union City and vicinity, once a month on an averag<\, all in the 
region of the reserA^ation. 

Our Indian Avork has been kept up about as during the preceding year. The neces- 
sity of making some changes in the agencies in our nomination has thrown a large 
amount of unanticipated Labor upon us. For there are not a lavge number ot" men of 
the required standing and character, Avith bondsmen by their sides, who iwe eager to 
go out to these remote agencies and comply with all the conditions i)recedent. Of 
those Avho apx)ly or are recommended, a large proportion, after careful inquiry, are 
found to be deficient in some important requisite. Our only compensation for this 
rather thankless work is the hope that we are thus securing Christian men for these 
positions, Avho Avill not only deal fairly, but in the loving si)irit of the Master, Avith 
those under their care. 

Mr. Eells, our missionary at S'Kokomish, has continued his faithful Avin-k, and has 
receiA'ed four members into the church, three of them Indian boys, Avho have giA'en 
excellent proofs of their true piety. The Sunday-school Avork has been earnestly and 
successfully carried on. Mr. Eells has lately printed a little hynni book in the jargon 
spoken by the i)eoj)le, shoAving Avhat they sing before they are able to use our English 
hymns. 

The tribes under the care of agents nominated by us are some of them showing an 
increasing interest in education year by year. One of them appropriated $6,000 out 
of their own funds last year toAvards building a school-house. But the unsettled 
condition of Indian affairs, and the possibility of speedy remoA^al at short notice, con 
tinues to rob these efforts of their rightful success through this constant uncertainty 
as to the future. 

The representatives of the various religious denominations had their annual confer- 
ence Avith tl^e l>oard of commissioners in January, in M'hich they expressed their con- 
viction that the welfare of the Indians Avas largely bound up in these three recom- 
mendations : 

''First. The extension of law OA^er all the Indians, so as to pro Aide for the safety of 
property and human life. 

''Second. Legal pro Aisi on for the common-school education of Indian children by 
the general government until such education shall be provided by the scA^eral States 
in which they reside. 

"Third. Definite regulations to secure the Indians the possession of land in fee and 
in severalty in all practicable cases by titles properly guarded. 

" The convention regards these three things as of the greatest importance, indeed, 
as essential to the civilization of the Indians, and as calling for the action of Congress 
without longer delay. Further, the conA'ention would express grave doubts as to the 
wisdom of removing Indian tribes to the Indian Territory or to larger reservations in 
cases in which the Indians are in a good measure prepared to abandon their tribal 
relationship and to enter on civilized life. They should, at the least, have the option 
of remaining where they are, subject to the conditions of citizenship, before they are 
compelled to remove to distant places, at the great hardship and suffering and loss of 
health and life which such enforced removal always involves. At the same time this 
convention is deeply impressed with the importance of all Avise measures that look to 
early self-supj)ort of the Indians as citizens of our common country." 

It is quite possible that we may be relieved from this responsibility before another 
year has passed. The question of the transfer of the Indians from the Interior to the 
War Department, which has been and still is in agitation, would, of course, wholly 
remoA^e it from any responsible connection with religious bodies. The House of Repre- 
sentatives last winter passed a bill to make the proposed transfer ; Avheu this came 
before the Senate, the whole matter Avas referred to a joint committee, consisting of 
three members of the Senate and five members of the House, who are to iuA^estigate 
and report next January upon the expediency of the change. The committee has 
lately been in session at Saint Louis, and our association was, by iuAntation, enabled 
to make such statements as seemed advisable through its representative, the secre- 
tary 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 99 

Moamvhile, wq desire to put on record our clear conviction that the peace policy, 
so calb'd, lias by no means been a failure; that the record of the nine years last past 
has shown a pro»»Tess in civilization far beyond that of any i>receding period of like 
duration ; that agents nominated and appointed as at present are far more likely to 
seek the welfare of their clients than those selected on the old plan ; and that we 
should rej»ar<l it as a long step in retreat if these people should be given over again 
to the care of a department whose place is to be called in as a last resort, to kill and 
not to cure. If '*the only good Indian is a dead Indian," put him in charge of the 
army. If the good Indian is the Christian Indian, let Christian men care for him, 
body and soul. General Howard has said, as the result of his personal observation, 
that, '' wherever among the Indians there has been faithful teaching of the Scriptures, 
there have been most abundant and renmnerative results in civilization." 



CONGREGATIONAL. 

.Imcrioan Board of Commissionei'S for Foreign Missions. 

DAKOTA MISSION. 

In general it may be remarked that the work of the mission was carried on the 
past year much as in former years, with very little change in the matter of detail. 
The mission was called to part with one of its most valued laborers in Mrs. Thomas 
L. Riggs, who died after a short illness. The entire force engaged in the mission the 
past year consisted of thirteen American laborers, men and women, and twelve natives, 
preachers and teachers. 

For the year 1879 the number engaged is larger — eighteen American and fourteen 
natives — who are di8tribute<l in and about four central stations : Sisseton Agency, in 
Dakota Territory; the Santee Agency, in Nebraska; Peoria Bottom (Bogue), and Fort 
Berthold, in Dakota Territory. The expenditure on this mission by the board for 
1878 was 111,648. The amount appropriated for 1879 is a little in advance— .fP2, 183. 

A good measure of success has attended the more strictly evan«^elistic work. The 
churches have been well sustained. A small increase in membership is reported; also 
a general improvement in the moral and Christian character of the church members. 
A good degree of interest is shown in contributions to employ native preachers and 
teachers among th<5 purely lu^athen in other sections. 

The whole number of church members reported the past year was 583 ; the number 
of pupils in attendance on Sabbath-schools, 301 ; contributions for Christian objects 
of various kinds, .f.575. Much was also accomplished in the form of labor in the erec- 
tion of chuich edifices and school buildings. 

EDUCATION. 

At Peoria Bottom there has been very marked advance in education. Of the forty- 
three families occupying homes in the immediate vicinity of the missionaries fully 75 
persons can rea<l, and the larger part have also learned to write. The women have 
begun. to read, and many more are learning. Another phase of the work referred to 
with special interest is the improved condition of the people at and about that sta- 
tion — their cleaner habits, brighter faces, neater houses, and civilized dress. 

Much interest is felt in the scattering of families away from the villages and the 
opening of individual farms. This is a great step toward the holding of land in sev- 
eralty, and it is to be hoped that they may soon attain this privilege through the 
action of the IJuited States Government. 

It has been expected that a large number of Indians would locate to the westward 
of the Santee Agency and Peoria Bottom, convenient of access to teachers and preach- 
ers educated in the schools of the mission. These schools have made good progress 
the past year, and show their fitness to turn out a good and efficient body of native 
agents. The ])upils have shown a lively appreciation of the value of the education 
receivj'd and readiness to give up their old ways f<n- the usages of civilized life that 
have been a grateful surprise to their best friends, making it only the more evident 
that what they need is the opportunity of becoming men, and the needful facilities 
for the deveh)pmeut of genuine manly and womanly character. 

One of the teachers at Peoria Bottom writes of a young man of that station, who 
now lives with the missionaries, and is learning to work both in the house and out of 
doors, " He turns the wringer, hangs out and brings in the clothes, and seems to en- 
joy doing a woman's work. Yet the other Indians do not appear to be surprised in 
the least." This fact alone shows a great change in popular sentiment. 

The following passage is taken from our last annual report : '* The number of pupils 
in the schools reported at the Santee Agency the past year is as follows: Normal 
class, 3; Dakota^Home for^Girls, 39 ; Young Meu's^Hall, 27*; other scholars, 49; in all, 



100 REPORT OF THE BOARD OP INDIAN COMVIISSIONERS. 

118. In the list ot* studies pursued are included geography, history, arithmetic, algebra, 
book-keeping, English reading and translation, as well as vocal and instrumental 
music. In uidustrial work 27 boys and 36 girls took part, a result especially worthy 
of notice, in view of their former habits of life. 

^ At the opening of the boarding-hall the young men were required to do a part of 
their own housework, such as sweeping, washing the floors, washing dishes, and other 
domestic work. This seemed a doubtful experiment, but its trial is reported success- 
ful beyond all ex]>ectation. The young men go to their work as quietly and orderly as 
if they had always been used to it,. Their new surroundings have made them gentle- 
manly in many ways. Certainly the impulse which has turned so many youth to these 
schools means a desire for something better than the old life. 

The experiment of taking some of the youth connected with this mission to the 
Normal Institute at Hampton, Va., will be watched Avith great interest. Thus far 
from all reports the attempt is proving a success. It is certainly in the line of worthier 
eiforts for the civilization of the red man, and if those who are thus specially favond 
at this institute shall return to their own people to labor in their behalf, a new im- 
pulse will be given and new hope inspired in the public generally of the social eleva- 
tion of the race. It is hoped that the discussion of measures before Congress for the 
transfer of the Indian Bureau to the War Department will bring out fully to the pub- 
lic mind the great progress that has been made during the last ten years, and so 
vindicate the wisdom of the measures so successfully carried- for ward under the direc- 
tion of the Board of Indian Commissioners. 
Sincerely yours, 

N. G. CLARK, 
Foreign Secretary of the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions. 



FRIENDS. 



To the Board of Indian Commissioners : 

There are seven organizations or yearly meetings in the Society of Friends who have 
charge of the Santee Sioux, the Winnebagoes, the Omahas, the Otctes, and Missourias, 
the Sacs and Foxes of the Missouri, all in Nebraska, and the Pawnees in the Indian 
Territory. 

Delegates from these organizations have met during the past year in Baltimore, Wash- 
ington, and Philadelphia to compare views as to the condition of the respective tribes 
under their care, and to suggest to each other and to the department Avhat, in their 
judgment, is best calculated to x>romote the interests and advancement of the Indians. 

A central executive committee make frequent visits to Washington, and act as a 
medium of comnumication between the delegates and the department. 

In the spring of last year a bill was prepared by the delegates and approved by tlie 
Secretary of the Interior, asking that a law be enacted by Congress conferring title oiu 
the Indians to their lands in severalty on their reservations. This Ijill, intended to in- 
clude all the Indian tribes, Avas jpresented and printed, and it is intended to urge its 
X)assage at the present session of Congress. 

The question of transfen-iug the Indians to the War Department has at A'arious times 
occupied the attention of the society. During the late visit of Special Agent White 
he ascertained that the seven tribes under our care were nearly nnited in opposition 
to the proposed change, and, believing that such a transfer Avould be a serious detri- 
ment to the Indians and to their progress in civilization and Christianity, the delegates 
prepared an address expressive of their views on this subject, Avhicli has been submit- 
ted to the commission ai^pointed by Congress to consider the propriety of this measure. 

The society again appointed Barclay White as its special agent to visit all the tribes 
under its care, to make report as to their condition and pros])ect8, and to see that our 
agents and employ 6s r)erform their duties satisfactorily, a service Avhicli occupied him 
139 days. 

We regret to state that by order of the department the salaries of the agents have 
been much reduced, which adds to the difficulty of procuring suitable persons, who are 
willing to subject themselves to the privations of such a position. The wages of em- 
ployes have also been reduced, and a circular issued by the department forbids the 
furnishing of board as heretofore, which has proA'^ed a source of embarrassment. 

Tavo thousand dollars have been expended by the society in our Indian service during 
the past year, besides some clothing and a few juvenile books furnished to form libraries 
for industrial schdols. 

The report of our central executive committee and of our special agent, Barclay 
White, as also an address on Indian civilization, &c., submitted to the commission 
appointed to consider the transfer of the Indian Bureau to the War Department, have 
been published, and we respectfully submit them as part of our report. 

By direction of the delegates. 

DILLWYN PARRISH, Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OP INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 101 

RKPORT OF BARCLAY WHITE, FRIKXDS' SPECIAL INDIAN AGENT. 

Duriu«»- this toiii- of inspection I have been careful to avoid any acts of anthority or 
intciferencc Avith government officials at Indian agencies; have called no Indian 
coTincils, but have attended seiveral councils convened by the agents, in some of which 
I have been free to express my views. 

Each one of the Indian agents has received me with kindness, conrtesy, and atten- 
tion, and has attorded me such facilities ^s were in his power for the proper perform- 
ance and accomplishment of tlie duties apx^ertaining to my appointment. 

I have found the Indians at all these agencies'peaceable, well disposed towards the 
government and favorable to the continuance of the peace policy as it was inaugu- 
rated by President Grant in 1839 in the management of their affairs. 

During the settlement of Nebraska, prior to the year 1871, history records each year 
numerous innrders of white persons by Indians. Since 1871 no Indian belonging to 
either of the seven tribes placed in our care has been guilty of or charged with taking 
the life of a white person ; and although in several instances Indian members of these 
tribes have been wantonly killed by white men, they have sought no retaliation, but 
in all cases have left the pimishme'nt of the offenders to the authorities and the law. 

The advancement of these Indian tribes in civilized pursuits, tending to make them 
self-supporting when the wild game is beyond their reach, has been great in the aggre- 
gate, and with some of the tribes very remarkable, especially so in agriculture, result- 
ing during favorable years in a x>roduction of food fully equal to the needs of the mem- 
bers of the tribe. 

Some few Pawnee Indians have located farms during the year, and considerable 
contract breaking of prairie sod has been done by white men ; but there appears to 
have been no ma ferial advancement in the condition of the adult msmbers of the 
tribe. 

Very flourishing day schools and a First-day school have been continued during the 
school year, under the most advei-se circumstances, the scholars coming daily a dis- 
tance of from four to ten miles, most of them crossing a large stream of water fre- 
([uently swollen by rains. Although the school supplies were estimated for at the 
usual time in the preceding spring, none of them, excepting a globe and a few hymu 
books, reached these schools during the entire school year. 

I found 101 children in the day schools and 125 children, with. 25 adults, in the First- 
day school. The teachers of tliese schools were faithfully and successfully laboring, 
publishing text-books daily on the blackboards to supply the want of those that should 
have been furnished to them by the authorities, and working after school hours iu 
making garments for their scholars. 

A large one-and-one-half story building has been constructed of stone, by contract, 
for the pui-poses of an industrial boarding-school. This building is planned for the 
accommodation of eighty scholars, male and female, with their teachers and care- 
takers. It is now completed and ready for occupancy. 

As there are now 200 Pawnee chihlren of school ages not attending school, it is for 
the best interests of the government and the tribe that this buikling should be filled 
with Christian teachers and Indian scholars as soon as x>QS8ible. 

OTOE. 

Since my report of last year, the reservation of the Otoes and Missourias has been very 
much reduced in size. It is now 10 miles long from north to south, and 6| miles wide 
from east to west, containing 44,093 acres of land. The agency buildings are very 
centrally located. The entire reservation was appraised by commissioners in 1877 ; 
and under the provisions of an act of Congress, about three-fourths part of it has since 
l)een offered for sale to actual settlers, in tracts of 160 acres each, through the United 
States land-office in Beatrice, Nebr. Most of that land is now occupied by white set- 
tlers. Upon inquiry on the 13th day of Seventhmonth last, the receiver in that laud- 
office reported that 26,608.09 acres of this land had been sold for ^45,232. 49, its ap- 
praised value. Many of the white settlers, who have not yet entered their lands in 
the office, are evidently only squatters, holding their possessive right for the purpose 
of working the Indian timber or of selling their claims to others. Two saw-mills, 
owned ))y squatters, were running principally on government timber. Agent Griest 
had officially called the attention of the Commissioner to the subject, and had received 
instructions from him to thoroughly investigate and report upon the situation. 

This tribe has of late years experienced much trouble from the introduction of in- 
toxicating drinks upon the reservation. For this evil there appeared to be no remedy 
under the administration of the laws ; but many of the leading men of the tribe, sen- 
sible of its evil effects upon their people, about the time of my visit were voluntarily 
enrolling their names as members of a tribal temperance association, and as more 
stringent national laws have been enacted upon this subject, it is to be hoped that 
there will be an imi)rovement in this respect for the future. 



102 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

The Otoes and Missonrias have been among tlie slowest of our tribes to advance in civ- 
ilized pursuits. This has not been owing to a want of instruction, of example, a lack of 
knowledge of their importance, or even of industry in the tribe, but is princii>ally the 
resultof the combined and persistent action of the old hereditary chiefs, who tenaciously 
adhere to their ideas of the superiority of Indian traditions and customs over all white 
men's innovations, and who, although deposed from office, still exercise sufficient 
power in the tribe to draw followers around them and partially paralyze the authority 
of the younger and more progressive men whom the agent has elevated to the chief- 
tainship. A rei^ublican form of tribal government will- probably bo found to be the 
best means of correcting this evil. 

The Otoe chiefs, with others of the tribe, have this summer set their people an ex- 
ample by leaving the mud lodges in their villages and settling their families ui)on 
farms, where they have broken prairie sod and by industry exhibited evidence of a 
desire to change from their former course of life. 



Every Iowa family has a fenced field or farm who possesses the moans of cultivating 
it. Sixteen hundred fruit trees and 300 grape vines, donated to the most progressive 
Indians from the x)rofits of the trading post (over cost of merchandise, expenses, and 
six per cent, interest upon capital invested therein) have been planted, fenced, culti- 
vated, and cared for by them, and are now in a flourishing condition. Four wells have 
been bored for as many Indian families, proportionately paid for by the Indians bene- 
fited and from the above fund. Seeds have also been supplied to farmer Indians from 
the same fund. 

The Iowa industrial h ome and school i s well con ducted. Eighty acres of land thereto 
attached,, cultivated mainly by home labor, produces all the wheat, com, vegetables, 
and most of the meats required for the subsistence of the scholars. 

The lands of this tribe should properly be surveyed, divided, and marked in accord- 
ance with the system of the Land Department of the United States, and the Indian 
farmers would then find an advantage in an early adjustment of their roads and farm 
lines to the lines of such a survey. 

Of 52 children within school ages, 51 have attended school during some period of the 
year. 

SACS AXD FOXES OF THE MISSOURI. 

These Indians have cultivated rather more land than last year, and their crops were 
flourishing ; but during the night of Eighthmonth 30, a cyclone, accomi^anied with 
hail, passed over them, destroying three-fourths of their value. 

They have constructed a considerable amount of wire fence during the year, and 
while I was there were actively engaged in gathering hay. 

The ten western sections of land in this reservation, appraised by commissioners last 
year, and oifered for sale through the land-office in Beatrice, Nebr., are settled by 
white men, and there is every indication that all will be sold at their appraised values. 
Their remaining lands, which are surveyed and ample for their needs, should be allot- 
ted in severalty among the members of the tribe. 

The Sac boarding school is matronized by a Sac Indian and taught b^a Santee Sioux 
Indian. Their services appear to be ample for the age and progression of the pupils. 
The cost of maintaining this school is disproportionately large, but probably cannot 
be very materially decreased, the children being too small to be of much service in the 
cultivation of food crops. 

OMAHAS. 

The Oraahas are steadily increasing in population and making very rapid progres 
in the extent of their agriculture and the amount of its products. They have filled 
the day-school houses with scholars during the past year, but have become so scat- 
tered in settlement on home farms that many of the children are now too remote from 
schools for attendance, unless special attention is given to them and means of trans- 
portation provided for them. The Omahas have no spare funds for founding a costly 
boarding school, and it is a question of importance if one or more additional day- 
schools should not soon be furnished to them. 

The members of this tribe are peaceable, temiierate, honest and industrious, and 
deserve especial encouragement and protection in their laudable efforts for progress. 
They are somewhat agitated at this time by a tribal revolution, which Avill probably 
soon end in the deposition of the hereditary chiefs and the establishment of a repub- 
lican form of tribal goA^ernment. 

WINNEBAGOES. 

The agent of this tribe having resigned, the Commissionorof Indian Affairs has con- 
solidated the Winnebagoes and Omahas into one agency, and has appointed Jacob 



REPORT OF THE B JARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 103 

Vt)re, agent of the Oiuahas, to the care of the combined agency. As soon as he is com- 
missioned the property of the Winnebago Agency will be transferred to him. As their 
funds cannot be consoli<Uited, he will bo under the necessity of keeping two sets of 
iiceounts. The agencies are ten miles apart, and there should not be any very great 
dillficnlty attendant upon a qualilied person successfully conducting both if he is 
allowed a ])roper of experienced employ6s. 

Tlie Winnebago Indians have been self-supporting during the year; no subsistence 
supplies were issued to them, with the excei)tion of three pounds of tiour jier week to 
the parents of each child who had attended all the sessions .of an agency day-school 
during the week of issue. This issue was made only as an inducement for attendance 
on school. 

Such a result is in marked contrast with the condition of the Winnebagoes when 
Agent White assumed cliarge of them. During the latter nine months of his first fis- 
cal year, ending Sixthmonth 30, 1870, there was issued to the Winnebago Indians 
beef costing the government $11,35(3.11; fiour, ground at the agency mill, from wheat 
costing f;7,t)63.8(>, and salt costing $110. During his second fiscal year, ending Sixth- 
month 30, 1871, there was issued to them beef costing the United States $18,233.68 j. 
for the latit six months of the same year, flour ground from wheat costing $9,739.04, 
and salt costing $10(3.40. These issue subsistence supplies have been gradually reduced 
in quantity as agriculture has advanced in the tribe, until the Indians have become 
independent of tTiem. 

The Winnebago Industrial Boarding School was again opened in the Twelfthmonth, 
1877, and successfully conducted by Howard A. Mann, contractor, with an average 
attendance of fifty-six pupils. It was again closed Seventhmonth 7, 1878, and reopened 
by the same person during the early part of the Ninthmonth, 1878, under a new con- 
tract with the government, by which he enters into bond with the United States in 
the sum of $5,000 for the faithful performance of his contract, and furnishes the em- 
ployes necessary for the care, management, and tuition of not exceeding 80 scholars, 
at a compensation of $3.50 each scholar per month, the subsistence and clothing of the 
scholars being furnished by the government. This contract makes it the duty of the 
agent to decide whether the school employes are sutficient in number and of proper 
capacity. At tlie time of my leaving the agency there were 46 pupils in this school. 

But one of the three day-schools is now open, and it is not filled with scholars. 
Th(^-e are enough children of school ages to fill them all. Many of the parents are in- 
difi^erent to their children's attendance. The x)olice force, which should bring the 
children when al)senting themselves, is demoralized on account of a reduction in their 
numbers and a diminution of their pay ; and many of the parents seek work outside of 
the reservation, being able to obtain larger compensation among white farmers than 
the government allows them for labor, and when work is found they take their 
families with them. All these causes combine to lessen the attendance of day-schools. 
Tliis tribe especially needs such a system of compulsory school attendance as will 
affect the monetarj^ interests of the parents ; no other compulsory rules will be likely 
to prove efficient. 

The Winnebagoes do not appear to consider horse-stealing as a degrading crime ; 
consequently, some of them, encouraged by dishonest Avhite men, who buy horses of 
them for $5 each and ask no questions, make a *busines8 of stealing horses from the 
industrious Winnel>agoes and Omahas, and either accept the mild punishment of con- 
finement in the tribal jail, if detected, or join the renegade Winnebagoes in Wisconsin. 
If convicted oft'enders could receive two years' confinement in the State penitentiary 
at hard labor, and the tribe be compelled to pay all expenses attending their punish- 
ment and to compensate the owners of stolen horses for their loss, the crime would 
soon cease on account of its unpopularity. 

SANTEE SIOUX. 

During the last fiscal year the Santee Agency has been conducted by the resident 
United States Indian agents at Yankton Agency, Dakota Territory. Isaiah Lightner, 
who was then farmer-in-charge, w^as commissioned United States Indian agent, and 
entered upon the duties of tliat office Seventhmonth 1, 1878. No funds have been 
transmitted from the United States Treasury to the Santee acting agents for the use 
of that agency during the year. 

About four years ago a tribal revolution commenced which culminated in a republi- 
can form of government during the Fourthmonth of the present year. At that time 
the reservation was divided into four electoral districts, and two councilors elected in 
each by the votes of thcadult male members of the district. The councilors hold their 
office for a period of two years, or during good behavior, and while in office are the 
representatives of their district and the tribe. 

The Santees have heretofore confined their cultivation of lands mainly to the valleys 

of the Missouri River and small streams traversing the reservation ; but during the 

ast year some twenty Indians have made settlements and improvements upon the high 



104 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

tabic lands near tlicliead of the cast braucli of BaziUe Creek, wliere water can only Ije 
procured from cisterns or wells. These lands are superior to the bottom lauds for the 
cultivation of grains, and their selection as homes, away from the running water of 
streams, is a great departure from the usual custom of Indians, and an evidence that 
those Indians desire to discard nomadic habits and establish for themselves perma- 
nent homes. 

Another very encouraging evidence of progress is now x^revalent among the Santees, 
which is a volutary banding together for the performance of labor for individual ben- 
efit. A dozen or more young men, drawn together by ties of religious faith, friend- 
ship, or relationship, will form a Libor club and jointly assist each other in breaking 
prairie, building hous(;s, or harvesting. Such associations are now (juite common and 
popular. They assist very much in encouraging and advancing individual interests. 

In the articles of agreement between commissioners on the part of the United States 
and the different bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians, approved August 15, 1876, 
article 5 provides that ^Hhe government will aid said Indians as far as i)ossible in 
finding a market for their surplus productions and in finding employment, and will 
X)urchase such surplus as far as may be retpiired for supplying food to those Indians, 
parties to this agreement, who are unable to sustain themselves, and will also employ 
Indians, so far as practicable, in the performance of government work upon their res- 
ervation." I Avould call your attention to the above agreement, and in([uire", if the 
government contract Avith a party at Yankton, Dak., for the delivery of 200,000 pounds 
of wheat in the Santee Agency flouring-mill, when the Santee Indian farmers are seek- 
ing a market for the surplus of 10,000 bushels of wheat grown by them this year, is in 
accordance with its provisions. As also the instructions contained in Circular No. 10, 
issued from the Department of Indian Affairs, May 1, 1878, nnder which educated, 
skilled, and trained Santee Indians, who have been performing full and satisfactory 
services as agency clerk, miller, blacksnuth, herders, teamsters, and advanced api^ren- 
tices in mechanical employments, are limited to a compensation for their services, of, 
'^ in addition to full rations, or their equivalent, from $5 to $10 per month, according 
to the ages, experience, and degree of usefulness of the laborers" — a compensation so 
small as virtually to exclude them from employment in the government service. 

UNITED STATES INDIAN AGP^NTS. 

Since the time when President-elect U. S. Grant tendered to the Society of Friends 
the nomination of officers in the Northern Indian superintendency and its branches, and 
upon its acceptance of the trust stated to its representatives, ''Whom you nominate 
and indorse I will apx>oint," the society has exercised much vigilance and care in its 
selection of moral, honest, and competent Christian missionaries to fill the various 
official positions connected therewith, and results have proven that it has generally 
been eirunently successful in its nominations for agents. Most of the Indian agents 
whom it has placed in this arduous and illy-paid government service, which is encom- 
passed with privations, calumny, and resiionsibility, have been as competent, honest, 
and faithful servants of the government as can be found in any of its departments. 
Not one of the eighteen Indian agents nominated by Friends and commissioned by the 
President has been proven unfaithful t^ the trust committed to him. 

Under the care of the Interior Department our Indians are in tlie aggregate making 
good progress, and some of them very rajiid advancement in civilization and self-sup- 
Xiort ; they have given the government no trouble during the year on account of bel- 
ligerent acts. The question of their transfer to the War Department has been consid- 
ered and discussed by each of the tribes during the sunmier; they are almost a unit in 
opposition to it. I believe such a transfer Av^ould not only be a great misfortune to 
the Indians, but would be calculated to add to the long list of injustice, broken faith, 
and strife, of which we have already far too much upon the historical records of this 
country. 



TESTIMONY OF THE SOCIKTV OF FRIENDS ON INDIAN CIVILIZATION, SUmilTTED TO THE 
COMMISSION APPOINTED TO CONSIDER THE TRANSFER OF THE INDIAN BUREAU TO 
THE WAR DEPARTMENT. 

The nndersigned, members of the central executive committee of the seven Yearly 
Meetings of Friends having the care of the Indian agencies in Nebraska and of the 
Pawnee Agency in the Indian Territory, respectfully solicit th« attention of the Indian 
transfer commission to a concise statement of facts relating to Indian civilization, 
which have come under our own observation since we have been engaged in the Indian 
service. This statement will embrace the motives which induced President Grant to 
call us into this field of service, the condition in which we found the Indians placed 
under our care, the measures adopted for their improvement, and the results that have 
attended our labors. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 105 

At a mpetiii«: of our comniittee on Indian alTairs, held in Baltimore in the spring- of 
809, tlu» following letter, iuldressed to our secretary, was read: 

" Hkadquarters Army of the United States, 

*' JVmhlnyton, D. C, February 15, 1869. 
"Sir: General Grant, the President elect, desirous of inaugurating some policy to 
]»roteet the Indians in their just rights and enforce integrity in the administration of 
their atfairs, as Avell as to improve their general condition, and appreciating fully the 
friendship and interest which your society has ever maintained in their behalf, directs 
me to request that you will send him a list of names, members of your society whom 
your society will indorse, as suitable persons for Indian agents. 

"Also," to assure you that any attempt which may or can be made by your society, 
for the improvement, education, and christianization of the Indians nuder such agen- 
cies, will receive from him, as President, all the encouragement and protection which 
tlie laws of the United States will warrant lihn in giving. 
" Verv respectfullv. vonr oliedient servant, 

"E. S. PARKER, 
"Brer. Brig. Gen., U. S. J., and A. D. C. 
'' Bexjamix Hallowell, 

^^ Samhj Spring, Md.''^ 

After due deliberation and consultation by conunittees of the'several Yearly Meetings 
of Friends in correspondence with us, we concluded to accept the important trust, and 
in a circular addressed to our members the qualiticatious desired and needed in Indian 
agents were thus described: "First, a prayerful heart and a firm trust in the power 
and wisdom of God — and not in man or military force — for guidance and protection ; 
second, industry, economy, hrnniess, vigilance, mildness, and practical kindness and 
love ; third, a knowledge of farming and gardening, ability to superintend the con- 
struction of buildings, and see that schools are properly conducted; fourth, tact in 
managing or influencing persons, so as gradually to induce the Indians of his agency 
voluntarily to join in the various employments of farming and gardening, and in 
mechanical operations ; fifth, and, Mgh in the scale of qualifications, to be possessed 
of strict integrity, and to be perfectly reliable in financial matters, and know how to 
employ Avith economy and to the best advantage the funds intrusted to him by the 
government for the use of the agency." 

The Northern Superiutendency was assigned to us, comprising six agencies in the 
State of Nebraska, namely : the Santee Sioux, the Winnebago, the Omaha, the Paw- 
nee, the Otoe, and the Great Nemaha. We nominated a suj)erintendent and six agents, 
who were promptly appointed by the President and contirmed by the Senate. They 
proceeded to their several fields of labor in the spring and summer of 1869. In order to 
secure efficiency and fidelity in the management of the agencies, it w^as recommended 
to the several Yearly Meetings of Friends that a visiting committee be sent out every 
year to inspect the condition of the Indians and recommend such measures as Avould 
promote their welfare. Clothing for the children attending school, and suitable food 
for the sick and infirm, Avere supplied by the Indian committees of the Yearly Meet- 
ings. The first visiting committee went to all the agencies in the summer of 1869, and 
reported the condition of the Indians in Nebraska as follows : 

''These wards of the government were found in a very depressed and degraded con- 
dition, as a general tiling; poor, hungry, idle, from want of means and inducements 
to labor ; destitute of suitable clothing, complaining of unfulfilled treaty stipulations ; 
living in lodges with several families in a single apartment, thus excluding that health- 
ful })rivacy which decency and virtue require ; the lodges dark, unventilated, often 
filthy; and, as a consequence of this condition, sickness extensively abounding, espe- 
cially among the children — scrofulous gatherings and ulcers, sore eyes, debility, and 
consum])tion." 

The measures we adopted to promote civilization were : 

1. The establishment of schools, and the improvement of those already existing, care 
being taken to employ teachers whose moral influence would promote the growth of 
virtue. At all the agencies Sabbath-schools were held, in which Scripture lessons, 
blended with religious instruction, w^ere given to the childi-en, and such of the adults 
as were willing to attend. 

2. The allotment of lands in severalty to the tribes Avilling to accex>t of them. 

The Santee Sioux, the Winnebagoes, and the Omahas expressed in council their 
willingness to have their lands allotted to families, which was done soon after we took 
charge of the agencies. It has proved to be a great stimulus to industry, and a veiy 
large number of cultivated farms supply a comfortable subsistence to their owners. 

3. The distribution of agricultural implements, live-stock, and seeds. At first whitef 
men were employed to instruct the Imlians in the use of tools and methods of farming ; 
now they have generally learned to depend on themselves. 



106 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

4. The instruction of Indians in nieclianical omploynicnts. Many of them have 
learned to be carpenters, bhicksniiths, shoemakers, and millers. 

5. The building of houses on their allotments. In most cases the Indians, Avhen 
supi^lied by the agent with doors, window-sash, and Hooring-boards, have built their 
own houses, of logs ; in some cases houses have been built for them. 

6. The emidoyment of matrons to instruct the Indian women in household duties 
and the care of the sick. The peculiar adaptation of Avomen for this work has been 
too much overlooked in the efforts that have been uuide to civilize the Indians. It 
has been found by experience that an enlightened and good wonian, who will go 
among the Iiulian Avomen aiul manifest an interest in them and their children, can 
soon gain their confidence. She may instruct them in the projjcr care of their chil- 
dren, and in other household duties, and she will often find o])portunities of imparting 
religious knowledge, which, being associated with deeds of love, Avill make a lasting 
impression. 

The results that have attended our efforts to civilize the Indians in Nebraska have, 
in general, been very satisfactory. The report of Barclay White, Friends' special 
agent, who visited all the agencies during the past summer, is encouraging. He says : 
'*I have found the Indians at all these agencies peaceable, Avell-disi)osed toAvard the 
government, and favorable to the continuance of the peace policy, as it Avas inaugu- 
rated by President Grant in 1869, in the management of their affairs." During the 
settlement of Nebraska prior to the year 1871, history records each year numerous 
murders of white persons by Indians. Since 1871, no Indian belonging to either of the 
seA^eu tribes placed in our care has been guilty of, or charged with, taking the life of 
a white person ; and although in scA^eral instances Indian members of those tribes 
liaA'e been wantonly killed by Avhite men, they haAC sought no retaliation, but in all 
cases haA'e left the punishment of the oifenders to the authorities and the law. 

''The adA'ancement of these Indian tribes in ciA'ilized pursuits tending to make them 
«elf-supporting when the wild game is beyond their reach, has been great in the 
aggregate, and with some of the tribes very remarkable, especially so in agriculture, 
resulting, during faA^orable years, in a production of food fully equal to the needs of 
the members of the tribe." 

In the year 1869 tlie Wiimebagoes Avere so idle and improvident that they raised but 
little wheat or corn. They dei)ended chiefly for subsistence on rations of flour and 
beef issued to them by the government. The expenditure to supph' them one year 
Avas: For beef, |18,233.68; for flour ground from Avheat, $9,739.04; and for salt, $106.40; 
making an aggregate of more than |28,000. ' ' These issues of subsistence supplies haA'e 
been gradually reduced in quantity as agriculture has advanced in the tribe, until 
the Indians haA'e become independent of them and are self-supporting." 

The Winnebagoes number 1,444 persons. Last year they raised 8,000 bushels of 
Avheat, 30,000 bushels of corn, and 5,000 bushels of potatoes. One hundred and seventy- 
flve persons can read English, and their three schools have about 100 pupils. They 
have 125 houses, and nearly all the males Avear citizens' dress. 

The Omahas number 1,001 persons.. Their crops last year Avero 17,000 bushels of 
wheat, 32,000 bushels of corn, and 6,000 bushels of potatoes. 

The Santee Sioux number 757 persons. They raised last year 10,000 bushels of Avheat, 
9,000 bushels of corn, and 1,800 bushels of potatoes. 

The Otoes number 443, the loAvas 213, and the Sacs and Foxes of Missouri 107 per- 
sons. The aggregate of their crops raised by Indians was 1,779 bushels of Avheat, 
40,000 bushels of corn, and 2,150 bushels of potatoes. 

The Pawnees, at their own request, Avere removed by the gOA'^ernuient to the Indian 
Territory in the year 1875, and a reservation assigned to thesn there. They have suf- 
fered nn'ich from sickness caused by malaria, and have lost by death nearly one-third 
of their number. They now number 1,433 persons. Under such discouraging circum- 
stances no progress in civilization could be expected, but their health has improved 
during the last year ; they are building houses on their allotments, and manifest much 
interest in the education of their children. 

We heartily concur in the opinion that it is not expedient to transfer the Indian 
Bureau to the War Department. It is Avell known that for many years that depart- 
ment had the control of Indian affairs, during which time wars Avitli the Indians were 
frequent, and very few of the tribes made any progress in ciA'ilization. 

The peace policy inauguratenl by President Grant is, in our opinion, the only safe 
and sure method to prepare the Indians for performing the duties of American citizens 
and enjoying the blessings of Christianity. 

SAMUEL M. JANNEY. 
B. RUSH ROBERTS. 
BARCLAY WHITE. 

W^vsiiiN'GTox, D. C, Ttvel/lhm onth 12, 1878. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 107 
FRIENDS— ORTHODOX. 

We present the following? statement of the condition of the several agencies, and 
refer to the statistical table for further information: 

AGKXCY FOR INDIANS IN KANSAS. 

Poffaicatomief^. — In Jackson County, Kansas. Crops planted earlier than ever before ** 
Two Inmdrcd acres of fresh land broken this season l)y the Indians themselves. In- 
< leased dis[M)8ition to raise stock. Some ]>roniinent men, who for years stubbornly 
resisted schools, have now jjjiven up opposition and are actively ^jromoting efforts at 
civilization. Many superstitions jiud heathenish observances are surely relaxing their 
hold ui)on the people. Tlie inrtuence of a well-managed school on school-farm has 
been very perceptible n]>on the tribe. The agent bought a few cows for the school- 
farm, five years ago, which with their increase now make a herd of 50 cattle. This 
is a demonstration to the Indians, and many of them are preparing to do likewise. 

Kickapoos. — In Brown County, Kansas. Have broken 100 acres of fresh land this 
season. The tribe is divided on the question of moving to the Indian Territory. 
Those who oppose removal are very anxious to enlarge their farms, increase their herds, 
and su])port their schools, but are somewhat discouraged by the fear that their labor 
will l)e lost. The other party hope, by removing to the Territory, to be able to con- 
tinue their Indian habits. Some of them have already removed. 

QIAPAW AGKNCY. 

The Indians have worked well, put in their crops early, and are likely to have 
abundant crops, except wheat, which was cut oti" largely by heavy rains in fifth and 
sixth months. Under favorable circumstances, their wheat crop this year would have 
yielded 10,000 bushels. The Indians liAve broken 500 acres of new land this season, 
and put into fence about 125,000 new rails. Their interest in education continues to 
increase. Bible schools and religious meetings have been regularly kept up at the 
three boa-rding-schools and the two day-schools. Much labor, and with good success, 
has been extended in behalf of temperance. The religious organization, Avhich com- 
menced more than a year ago, has been merged in a *' General Christian Union," which 
embraces the "Temperance Union." Meetings have been held regularly for the pro- 
motion of the purposes of this Union, and have been very satisfactory. In sixth month 
a very pleasant and profitable union of the schools was held (except the Wyandotte, 
prevented by high water). The pupils were publicly examined on literary and 
Bible studies, and were exercised in declamations, addresses, essay reading, and sing- 
ing of hymns. Prayers were ottered in English and in Indian, and discourses delivered 
on religious subjects, especially on temperance. 

The Modocs continue to do well. Their wheat is thrashed and housed ; their 220 
acres of corn yielded a heavy crop; their cattle are in fine condition; their health has 
been A'ery good this season, and they continue entirely temperate. 

The Nez Percys (Joseph's band), who surrendered as prisoners of war in tenth montli 
last, in Upper Montana, have since been confined at Fort Leavenworth, Kans., until 
about 20th July last, when they were delivered to Agent Jones, who immediately re- 
moved them to the Modoc Reservation in the northeastern part of the Indian Territory. 
The intensely hot weather and long confinement in camp at Fort Leavenworth had 
])roduced a vast amount of disease, so that fully one-half of them were on the sick 
list. Two died on the journey, and three others the next day after their arrival. Nu- 
merous deaths occurred, but in a short time after their arrival the plague became less 
violent, and under energetic medical treatment it gradually disappeared. 

SAC AND FOX AGENCY. 

Crops are very good. Schools have been successfully managed. The Kickapoos, 
though recently brought from Mexico, are working well, and have nearly as much 
laiul in cultivation as the Sacs and Foxes. No provisicm has yet been made for the 
education of their chihlren. The absentee Shawnees are making good progress in 
agriculture and stock-raising. 

OSAGE AND KAW AGENCIES. 

The Osages have manifested an unusual interest in their farming oi>erations, but did 
not receive their agricultural implements until near the close of the crop season, though 
the agent's estimate was forwarded the middle of second month. They have com- 
mitted no depredations during the year. The school was opened in fourth month, with 
a large attendance, and is still in operation. The school at Kaw Agency was closed on 



108 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONER?. 

20tli of fifth month, on account of the breaking out of sniall-pox. By prompt resort 
to preventive measures, no new cases occurred. 

CHEYENNE AND ARAPAHOE AGENCY. 

This agency includes 3,291 Cheyennes and 1,700 Arapahoes. The season has been 
favorable to crops. The Indians have manifested more interest than ever before in 
industrial pursuits, but their agricultural imi)lements did not leacli the agency until 
too late for use this season. Some of the Northern Cheyennes, who came down about 
a year ago from Dakota, have been disposed to turbulence, on account t>f having been 
compelled to leave their homes in Dakota. Their dissatisfaction was increased by a 
deficiency in the rations, though they always had a Sufficiency of i)eef. The medical 
supplies, also, were exhausted at the time Avhen most needed, and, as they were unused 
to the climate, many of them sickened and died. They also objected to the manner in 
which the commissioners directed the rations to be issued. At length their discontent 
became so great that on the night of Septeuil)er 9, 1878, about 350 of them left the 
vicinity of the agency, and although pursued by the ndlitary, and several times en- 
countered by them, the most of them succeed«Ml in regaining their native section. They 
were, however, surrendered to the military, and it is understood to be th«^ intention 
of the government to punish them for the crimes committed in Kansas and Nebraska. 
About 40 persons are believed to have been killed by them. The Cheyennes who were 
held as prisoners at Fort Marion, Florida, were returned to the agency last spring, and 
one of them has induced 21 young Cheyennes to have their hair cut, and to put on 
white men's clothing. They at once applied for work, and have cut 200 cords of wood, 
and have since aided in hauling it to the military post. The school management has 
continued to be successful. The agent has provided a ranch at a fine spring about 
two miles from the agency, for the accommodation of the herd belonging t<^) the school 
children. A temperance society has been organized by the larger pupils, and 36 boys 
and girls have taken the pledge. 

WICHITA AGENCY. 

This agency includes 1,335 Wichitas and affiliated bands, who have continued to 
make favorable progress during the year past. The boarding-school was well sus- 
tained until about 1st of fourth month, when the building was burned. Since that 
time a school has been kept up in the agent's dwelling. A new school-building will 
be erected shortly. The Connnissioner of Indiau Attairs has decided to combine this 
agency with that for the Kiowas and Comanches, and to place the whole under Agent 
Hunt. 

KIOWA AND COMANCHE AGENCY. 

This agency has been consolidated with the Wichita, and Agent Hunt has his head- 
quarters at the latter point. As Agent Hunt was appointed without our recommend- 
ation, we have no responsibility for these agencies. The only agencies now in our 
charge are the Quapaw, the Sac and Fox, the Osage, and the Cheyenne and Arapahoe. 

THE WHISKY TRAFFIC. 

We are much gratified at the action of the last Congress in restoring the law by 
which the selling of spirituous liquors to Indians, either on or ott' their reservation, is 
made a penal offense. Already the diligence of our agents in giving publicity to this 
change in the law has had a noticeable etiect in restraining intemperance. 

CIVIL LAW FOR INDIANS. 

We have pre])ared and properly circulated a pamphlet on the need of law on the 
Indian reservations, and have procured the introduction into both houses of Congress 
of an appropriate bill, which we hope may receive favorable action at the next session. 

THE DISPOSITION OF THE INDIANS 

has been good, and no depredations have been committed by them during the year. 
In this respect there has been a vast change since we have been laboring amongst 
them, and they are every year manifesting an increasing receptivity of the ways of 
peace. To us this process has seemed somewhat tedious, but a recurrence to the past 
is interesting and encouraging as the results of faithful labor are exhibited in the 
dropping ofi', first by individuals and then by whole tribes, of barbarous customs. 
With prudent management and fair dealing we do not believe that these Indians will 



REPORT OF TPIE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS, 109 

ever again cnga«;c in acta of hostility to the government, though doubtless an opposite 
course might provoke them to resistance. 

IN INDUSTRIAL WORK 

fair ]>rogress has been made. The experiment of a year ago of distributing stockr 
cattle to Indians of several tribes has succeeded well. As might be expected, a few of 
these cattle have been lost, but the most of them have been well cared for. We be- 
lieve this to l)e the most suitable branch of agriculture for Indians who are al)andon- 
ing a hunting life, especially in a country well adai>ted to grazing and uncertain as to 
cultivated crops. 

The experinuMit inaugurated by Agent John I). Miles, of transporting the supplies 
f(u his agency by Indian labor a distance of 16.5 miles, was a gratifying success. It 
was not only performed with dispatch, but the Indians have purchased by this labor 
40 wagons and 40 sets of harness. 

The industrial training of boys and girls is now an established feature of all our 
boarding-schools, and the oi)position thereto of the Indian parents is gradually yielding. 

^RKLUilOUS INSTRUCTION 

continues to receive attention at all our schools, and on the first day of the week Bible 
schools for both children and adults have been encouragingly attended. Besides these 
regular labors we an-anged last summer for an extended visit by our Friends Elkanah 
and Irena Beard among the agencies, in Avhich they were diligently engaged in relig- 
ious services. Subseciuently most of the agencies have been visited by La wrie Tatum, 
a member of our committee, who bestowed much labor of a religious kind among the 
Indians and the employes. We have received interesting and encouraging reports 
from these Friends, and believe that their visits, as well as those of other of our mem- 
bers, have been vc ry useful, but we are still impressed with the thought that our relig- 
ious efforts among the Indians have been too spasmodic and desultory, and that, so 
far as the large tribes are concerned, we cannot expect the full measure of success 
until men shall enter the field as religious laborers who are called to it as a, permanent 
service, who are willing to plant themselves among the Indians, learn their language 
83 that they may preach to them in their mother tongue, organize churches among 
them, and give encouragement to a native ministry who shall be able to penetrate the 
masses of the tribes and carry the gospel message to every individual. By this pro- 
cess very large numbers of the Cherokees, Creeks, Choctai,ws, Chickasaws, Semmoles, 
Dela wares, Ofctawas, 4&c., have been brought to accei>t Christianity, and no doubt 
similar resiUts will follow like means applied to the Kiowas, Comanches, Cheyeuues, 
and Arapahoes. It has been discouragingly said that the type of Christianity exhibited 
by the Indians is a very imi)erfect one. So, indeed, was that of the Corinthian church, 
though jdanted and nourished by apostolic hands. So, indeed, is that of the churches 
of our own tavored land, with the accumulated wisdom and helps of eighteen centu- 
ries ready for our use. 

But even such a development of Christianity is better than heathenism, and has 
within itself, for the future of these people, the possibilities of perfection. Already 
it has wrought in some of them a wonderful change. For instance, thirty-four yeara 
ago the secretary of the Board of Missions of the Protestant Ei»iscopal Church visited 
the Indian Terfitory and described some of the Seminoles whom he saw, and who had 
recently been removed from Florida, as the most miserable looking men, women, and 
children he had ever beheld, and the question forced itself upon him, ''Is it possible 
for any agency to raise such creatures as these?" And then, Avith Christian hopeful- 
ness, he adds: ''Why not? Who will venture to say they are beyond the reach of a 
)ihi(fk-hearied,perserering effort to mvef That single-hearted, jjcrsevering effort was 
made, mainly, I think, by Presbyterian and Baptist missionaries, and now the contrast 
is wonderful. Then one of their chiefs was a drunkard. Noiv all their leading men 
are Christians, and one of them, at least, a minister of the gospel ; and the people are 
following their leaders in the good paths of Christian sobriety, industry, piety, and 
intelligence, and reaping the reward of temporal prosperity also. But the religion 
that has effected these results was planted and fostered by those who made this special 
service their life-work. Most of these missionaries have passed to their reward, but 
their works remain, and the Gospel message is periietuating and multiplying itself 
through native preachers, who luive accepted the truth in the love of it, and are hold- 
ing it ui> to their people as their true hope of salvation, both in time and eternity. 

Signed by direction and on behalf of "The Associated Executive Committee of 
Friends on Indian Affairs." 

JAMES E. RHOADS, Clei'k. 



110 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 



COMPAllATIVE PROGRESS OF THE INDIANS IN THE CENTRAL SUPERINTENDENCY (ABOUT 
16,000) AS SHOWN BY THEIR SCHOOLS, PUPILS, AND PRODUCTIONS IN THE YEARS 
SIXCE THE ADOPTION OF THE PEACE POLICY. 



Number of schools 

Number of pupils 

Acres cultivated by Indians 

Corn raised by Indians bush . 

Wheat raised by Indians do. . 

Potatoes raised by Indians do. . 

Hay raised by Indians tons. 

Horses, ponies, and mules owned by Indians 

Cattle owned by Indians " 

Hogs owned by Indians 

Houses owned and occupied by Indians 



1875. 



4 

105 

3,220 

31, 700 

633 

1,770 

750 

17, 924 

640 

1,070 

(t) 



15 

836 

14, 499 

320, 500 

28, 032 

17, 102 

4,996 

25, 921 

6,580 

12, 268 

1,042 



Not reported; mostly lost by rain. t None reported. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC. 



1878. 



15 

973 

18, 426 

440, 540 

(*) 

15, 200 
5, 820 
20, 844 
12, 699 
18, 025 
1, 135 



THE SIOUX MISSIONS. 

Our information concerning tliese missions is of tlie most favorable character, and 
promises flattering results for the future. 

Since our last published statement of their condition, four Sisters of Charity, under 
the direction of Abbot Martin of the Benedictine Monastery of Saint Meinrad, have 
joined the mission at Standing Rock, where previously there were two Benedictine 
fathers and two brothers engaged in missionary duty and teaching school. These 
sisters will open a school for girls, in connection with the one now successfully con- 
ducted for boys. 

Two additional priests have recently been located for service with the Red Cloud 
and New Si)otted Tail agencies, at each of which Abbott Martin informs us the In- 
dians desire that a church and school-house should be erected, and that immediate 
steps be taken to secure them these x)rivilege8. 

During the month of June one Benedictine father and one brother have joined the 
successful mission among the Sioux of the Devil's Lake Agency, Avhere live Grey nuns 
w ith four assistants have for some years been conducting a prosperous industrial 
boarding-school. 

It is now proposed to carry on, in connection with this school, a department for the 
larger boys of the mission. This department will be under the immediate supervision 
and care of the reverend father and brother, who will, in addition to an educational 
course, instruct the boys in the manual and industrial labors of the farm and shop. 

These new assignments give us at the present time an active working force of 
twenty-one missionary fathers, brothers, and sisters among the Sioux, where four 
years ago there were none ; and this entire number are all successfully engaged in 
their work of evangelization. 

During the visit of the Reverend Director of the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions 
to the Devil's Lake Agency, last year, he became impressed with the necessity then 
existing of having some building which could be set apart for hospital purposes. 
This necessity was the greater as all the sick and infirm Indians of the reservation 
had to be attended and prescribed for by one of the sisters acting in the capacity of 
attending physician. The hearty sympathy of the agent. Major McLaughlin, was 
enlisted to aid the bureau in securing an appropriation from the Office of Indian Af- 
fairs for this desirable purpose, as well as for an enlargement and improvement of the 
school buildings. 

The honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs, appreciating the merit of the appeal 
made in this behalf, cheerfully recommended that an allowance of |2,500 be apj)lied 
for such specific purposes. In accordance with such recommendation the appropria- 
tion was made and the amount expended in the direction indicated. This enables the 
sisters to accommodate all the sick of the reservation, as well as a largely increased 
number of school children. 

During the past winter a x>lau was submitted by the Bureau of Catholic Indian 
Missions to the Indian department and Congress with a view of establishing an in- 
dustrial educational school and model farm at the Standing Rock Agency, having for 
its object the instruction of Indians of all ages in the mechanical arts, farming indus- 
tries, herding of stock, &c., and by such method forming from those best ([ualifitMl 
native artisans, farmers, and herders for the several agencies of their nation, in lieu of 
the white employes now engaged by the government at high salaries. The plan was 
favorably entertained by both branches of the government, and we only failed in se- 
curing the appropriation of $10,000 asked from and recommended to Congress, by 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. Ill 

ivnsoii of the advanced stage of legislation at the date of its consideration. But not- 
withstanding the bureau's failure to secure the amount thus asked for, it has been 
able to so successfully establish the merits of its plan as to have secured the promise 
of an allotment of |;6,000 from the Indian educational fund, so soon after the 1st in- 
stant as this fund can be used, with a reasonable expectation of securing an addi- 
tional amount during the next session of Congress. 

Through the attainment of these measures and the continuance of existing or in- 
creased allowances for the schools among the Sioux, we feel th it these missiims are 
not only founded on a firm basis, but that in a few years they will be the largest and 
most successfully conducted of the many Indian missions. 

THE PUEBLO MISSIONS OF NEW MEXICO. 

These Indians, as their name implies, are now and for centuries have been dwellers 
in villages. They are subdivided into nineteen separate and distinct tribes or pueblos, 
each having a government organization of its own, though all are formed after the 
same model, their villages being situated on grants made to them by the Spanish and 
Mexican Governments. They derive a ccmifortable subsistence from the cultivation of 
the soil and by raising herds and flock.%of various kinds. Their recorded history is 
almost contemporaneous with that of America ; it forms an interesting page in the 
chronicles of the Indian race. 

When the present archbishop of Santa Fe took charge of the Episcopal See of New 
Mexico as its hrst Catholic bishop, in 1851, the Territory having then been recently 
ceded to the United States, he foun<l missionaries residing in many of the villages, and 
he, as well as others, bear testimony to the fact that, as a people, they are ** pious, in- 
dustrious, peaceable, and instructed, many being able to read and write." 

In an official report for the year 1877 their agent says: "They are law-abiding, 
peace-loving, industrious, reliable people, possessing much of the best land in the 
country ; they sustain themselves, with very little material aid from the government, 
by farming, fruit-raising, stock-raising, wool-growing, making pottery (for which 
they are somewhat famous), and hunting. All their work, farming, weaving, pottery- 
making, «S:c., is done with the rudest imi)lement8 ; but in this respect they are nearly 
as well off as the general population of this Territory, which is called civilized." 

Their houses «are generally two stories high, built of adobe (sun-dried bricks), and 
the entrance to them is from the roof, to which they ascend by a ladder, getting into 
the interior by trap-doors. This mode of entrance was adopted for protection against 
wild Indians. As has been stated, each pueblo has a separate government, the annual 
election of governor taking place on the Ist of January, shortly after which the baton 
of office, duly blessed by the priest in the church, in accordance with an ancient pious 
custom, is presented to him. 

These Indians had never been visited by Protestant missionaries until after the 
cession of the Teri'itory to the United States, and up to the date of the inauguration of 
the present Indian policy in 1870 but a single one is known to have settled among 
them. Upon the adoption of this policy they were assigned to the guardianship of the 
Presbyterian Church, notwithstanding the overwhelming record evidence that through 
successive generations for more than 300 years they had been devout followers of and 
worshippers in the Catholic faith. 

Within the past few weeks, the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions has been hon- 
ored by a visit from the Most Rev. Archbishop of Santa Fe, who was then on his re- 
turn from Rome to his Episcopal See. The presence of his grace was taken advantage 
of to intelligently present to the Office of Indian Affairs the religious status of these 
Indians, and more {particularly to invite attention to the many appeals made by them 
for Catholic schools. The representations made were favorably entertained, and we 
have every reason to believe that liberal appropriations will be made for the support 
of such schools before the commeucement of the present scholastic year. 

OUR MISSIONS AND SCHOOLS IN 1870 AND 1878. 

The church may well feel encouraged at the progress made by her in the establish- 
ment of missions and schools under the operations of the present Iiulian peace policy, 
notwithstanding the many aud varied obstacles that have had to be overcome. 

During the eight years' existence of the policy, through the exercise of timely efforts, 
by prudent and judicious action, and, above all, by being able to refer w^th commend- 
able X)ride to the uniform success attendant upon her conciliatory and equitable treat- 
ment of those intrusted to her ministration, she has been enabled to successively extend 
the field of her labor, and multiply the number of her representatives, so that the ex- 
piration of this eight years finds us, not only with the niimber of missionaries and 
teachers doubled, but with an increased number of missions, churches, and schools, 
and a very largely increased territory to be traversed, and thousands of additional 
Indians to be brought under the beneficent teachings of her zealous and devout repre- 
sentatives. 

To those not familiar with this question of the extension of missionary' work, it may 
seem an anomaly that there should be any difficulty whatever in founding new mis- 



112 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSI^ONERS. 

sions or schools. To sncli, however, we woukl say that, nndcr tlie forced and abstract 
coiistnictioii given by officials to the Constitution and laws of the land, the sco])e of 
a missionary's labor is restricted to the metes and bounds defined for him in official 
circles, and this irrespective of the Indians' religious faith or preferences. 

Again, it must be borne in mind that, before a new mission or school can be estab- 
lished, provision must be made for the support of those charged with its conduct, and 
frequently appropriate buildings be erected in which to hold services or impart in- 
struction. These require money, and Avhile the government is generously disposed, 
and has, particularly under the present administration of the Indian Office, been de- 
sirous of encouraging civilization through the instrumentality of religion, it, except 
in rare cases, declines to make allotments of money until there is some positive assur- 
ance that beneficial results will justify the expenditures. 

For these reasons, and that all denonunations are ever jealous of what they may 
hold to be their prescriptive rights, the church has had to advance by progressive 
steps, at the same time vigilantly guarding the widely-scattered interests intrusted 
to her from the attacks of open enemies or tlie innuendoes of secret foes. 

At the close of the fiscal year 1870, 70 missionaries and teachers represented tlic 
interests of the church among the various tribes of Indians, and were distributed as 
follows : 

AVitli the Pueblos of New Mexico 19 

With the Indians of North California 1 

With the Mission Indians of California :i 

With the Grand Ronde Indians, Oregon 1 

With the ITmatilla Indians, Oregon 1 

With the Klamath Indians, Oregon 1 

With the Tulalip Indians, Washingtcm Territory 8 

With the Yakama Indians, Washington Territory 2 

With the Colville Indians, Washington Territory 4 

With the Cceur d'Alenes Indians, Idaho 4 

With the Saint Ignatius Indians, Montana 8 

With the Saint Mary's Indians, Montana 5 

W^ith the IJlackfeet Indians, Montana ...» 2 

With the Saint Mary's, for use of Osages, Kansas 2 

With the Chippewa Indians 7 

With the Penobscot Indians, Maine 1 

With the Nez Percys Indians, Idaho 1 

Total 70 

As in contrast Avith the foregoing, wc find that at thci close of the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1878, the church had actively engaged 145 missionaries and teachers, many 
of whom were in receipt of salaries from the government as compensation for services 
as teachers. Their assignments were, according to latest statistics furnished us, as 
follows : * 

With the Pueblos of New Mexico 19 

With the Indians of North California 1 

With the Mission Indians of California 3 

With the Grand Ronde Indians, Oregon 5 

With the Umatilla Indians, Oregon 1 

With the Klamath Indians, Oregon 1 

With the Tulalii> Indians, Washington Territory 12 

With the Yakama Indians, Washington Territory 8 

With the Colville Indians, Washington Territory 8 

With the Conir d'Alenes Iiulians, Idaho 4 

With the Nez Percys Indians, Idaho 3 

AVitli the Saint Ignatius Indians, Montana 12 

With the Saint Mary's (Bitter Root), Montana 5 

With the Missoula, Montana 6 

With the Saint Marv's, Kansas 2 

With the Blackfeet, 'Montana 2 

With the Cross Village, Michigan 6 

With the Penobscot Indians, Maine 1 

With the Marquette Indians, Michigan C 

With the White Earth, Chippewas, and others 2 

With the Pembina : 1 

With the Menomonees, Wisconsin 3 

W^ith the Prefecture Apostolic, Indian Territory 10 

With the Sioux Indians 21 

With the Alaska Indians ..;. 2 

Total ^ 145 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 113 

In 1870 the church had oatahlished among the several Indian tribes forty-three 
churches, three boarding and five day schools, to four of which schools, viz, two at 
Tulalip, one at Saint Ignatius, and one at Umatilla, the government granted an annual 
allowance of $9,000. 

At the close of the fiscal year 1878, we find these numbers resi>ectively increased as 
follows : 

Total number of churches 57 

Total number of boarding-schools 11 

Total number of day-schools 19 

During the past year there was derived from the government an allowance of $20,900 
for the support of the schools at Tulalip, Grand Roude, Umatilla, Colville, Flathead, 
Devil's Lake, and Standing Rock Agencies. 

From the statements thus given, we find a respective increase for the year 1878 over 
that of 1870 to be— 

Missionaries and teachers 74 

Churches 14 

Boarding-schools 8 

Day-schools 14 

Government allowance in support of schools, $11,900. 

CONSOLIDATION OF INDIAN TRIBES. 

During the session of Congress just ended efforts were made to secure legislative 
authority to remove and consolidate certain of the Indian tribes on reservations other 
than those assigned to them by treaty and legal enactments, or secured to them by 
natural rights. Owing to the pressure of other public measures, action on this ''bill 
to consolidate certain Indian tribes," was deferred until Congress reassembles in. 
December next, Avhen active steps will be taken to secure its passage. 

The many thousand Catholic Indians of the Pacific coast are justly and earnestly 
opi)osed to any measure that will force them to abandon their present homes and the 
fruits of their civilized industry. So deeply rooted is this sentiment of home attach- 
ment among them, that we feel satisfied that no forcible change could be carried int» 
eftect without inaugurating new Indian complications and arousing new elements o^ 
discontent. 

The Indians claim and feel that they have right on their side, and that the enforce- 
ment by the government of the measures against which they petition would be but 
adding another to the many outrages that have been yearly perpetrated against their 
race during the past half century. 

They also hold that they are vested by nature or law with an absolute right to the 
land they occujjy, the fields they cultivate, the pastures they stock, and the homes 
their own industry and frugality have built, and that of these they cannot justly be 
deprived so long as they are law-abiding, peaceful, and industrious. 

They entertain the conviction that repeated assurances have been given them that 
they should not be disturbed in the possession of their homes, and that, by treaty or 
otherwise, the government is pledged to respect their right to their lands and the fruits . 
of their labor as it respects the rights of neighboring white settlers. And if, through 
any short-sighted policy, they should be forcibly removed, they would feel not only that 
great injury and injustice had been done them, but that they had in the most shameful 
manner been robbed of their cultivated fields, their homes and sar.ctwaries, and all the 
associations that advanced them in the paths of Christianity and civilization. They 
might not be inclined to resist the power of the government or display open hostility 
to white settlers on their homesteads, but such ejection would, in addition to making, 
them dissatisfied and factious, so paralyze their energies and dishearten them that 
during the present generation at least they would make no further progress in the arts 
of civilized life, nor make any attempt to become self-supporting by the cultivation of 
farms that, they could truthfully say, would have to be abandoned so soon as rendered 
productive. 

Under such contemplated eviction, the 4,000 Catholic Indians of the Tulalip Agency 
would be removed to and placed under the jurisdiction of the Protestant agent of the- 
Puyallup Reservation, with a narrow strip of territory totally inadequate to supply 
the wants of one-fourth their number, and this constantly subject to encroachments 
from the whites. The five tribes of Indians now composing the Tulalip Ag( ncy have 
nuide great progress in civilized pursuits, have many of them adopted the costume and' 
habit of the whites, erected churches and built schools, are cultivating productive 
farms, and living in comfortable homes; but notwithstanding all these surroundings 
of comfort and enjoyment, they might be induced to peaceably surrender them, if justly 
8ic 



114 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

compensated for so doing, and permitted to consolidate their several tribes on that 
portion of their own agency now occupied by the Lunimi. The legislation necessary 
to secnre such removal is simple : Erect for them on the new site churches and school- 
buildings; grant them the benefits of the homestead-law ; aid them in laying out and 
breaking ground for fjirms ; supply them with suitable agricultural implenjents and 
cattle. With such inducements, aided by the persuasive words of their missionaries 
and other sincere friends, they would, we are confident, speedily decide to remove by 
families — possibly as tribes; otherwise Ihey would not. 

The recommendation made by Inspector Watkins for the removal of the Colville 
Indians, would be so iniquitous in its completion as to nn^rit the indignation of every 
humanitarian. These Indians are the j)088es8ors of an immense tract of country — 
2,800,000 acres, not an acre of which has ever been ceded to the United States. For their 
own immediate use, however, they only occupy a narrow strip lying along the Colum- 
bia River. This strip they have, by their own industry, energy, and correct habits of 
life, been able to make sufficiently productive to supply their simple wants; but the 
soil is of so unproductive a character and so illy adapted to farming purposes that it 
would be unremunerative to white settlers. 

Notwithstanding this fact, and ignoring the improvements they have made, their 
peaceable disposition, and above all that they have struggled to their present position 
in the social scale without, under treaty stixmlation, ever deriving one dollar from the 
government for their support, it is proi:>osed by Inspector Watkins to dispossess them 
•of this poor fraction and remove them across the Columbia, to a mountainous and 
sterile section, where, with the results of their industry abandoned, and destitute of 
means, they would be unable to gather from the soil sufficient to aftbrd adequate sup- 
port for half a d( zen fannlies. What these Indians ask, and what is necessary to make 
them prosperous, is, to have this small valley surveyed, and they empowered to acquire 
title to their sections of land under the operations of a homestead law. 

As regards the Camr d'Alenes, the government is in all honor bound to secure to 
them titles to the land they now occupy under executive order. The pittance they 
would be thus granted would but illy recompense them for the noble and ])atriotic part 
tfchey 1 ook in supi ressing a coalition of Indian tribes under Chief Josej)h, in the recent Nez 
Percc^s cam|;aigii. Grant them their lands in severalty, purchase the lands they have 
sairendered, encourage their schools and industries, and permit them to remain, as 
they desire, imder the administration of the Colville Agency, and it will be found that 
the same integrity, sincerity of purpose, and respect for the law that induced them to 
protect the property of their white neighbors and decline the honor of citizenship 
tendered them, will, snstained by their religious faith, soon solve the problem of their 
80( ial and political status. 

The Umatilla Indians, though more disposed to roving habits than any of the tribes 
named, are nevertheless making fair progress toward their self-advancement. They 
occupy a very large tract of country, consisting of timber, grazing, and fertile arable 
landf;, the title to which is permanently vested in them by special treaty guarantee. 

These lands they are not desirous of vacating, and it would be unjust, injudicious, 
and impolitic to remove them without their assent. By proper encouragement they 
can be induced to abandon their instinctive habits of slothfulness, and assume those 
of industry. As an incentive to this, the lands of their reservation should be sur- 
veyed and conveyed to them in severalty, under the provisions of a homestead laAv ; or, 
should they elect to sell the territory now held by them and remove to another locality, 
they should then be permitted to select the sites of their homes, and when so selected 
'.have them conveyed, in accordance with law, to each head of a family, with an ex- 
emption from taxes for a specified number of years. 

Prudence and the interests of the Indians would suggest that the Grand Ronde Res- 
ervation remain undisturbed. This reservation is very small, and would hardly admit 
of an assignment of 160 acres of arable land to each head of a family. 

The tribes mentioned, together with others, have for several years made encourag- 
ing progress in agriculture. What they all need as an essential stimulus to further 
advancement is legislation (similar to the homestead bill now before Congress) which 
will cause a survey to be made of the lands now occupied by them, and empower the 
Indians to homesteads on their own reservations, in the same manner as the Indian 
homestead law which now exists enables them to acquire title to lands outside of the 
reservation. Such enactments, in connection with a just and honest administration 
of their affairs, under the continuing x>rotection of an agent, will, it is confidently 
believed, speedily cause them to abandon their tribal relations and become industrious, 
worthy representatives of their race. But such absolute investment of title is neces- 
sary to protect them from the encroachments of the white settler, and arouse in them 
that feeling of iitdependence that security of possession can alone give. Concede them 
•these measures in honesty and sincerity, and the Indians of the Pacific coast will make 
sure and positive advances from their lives of subjection and dependence. 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 115 



JOURNAL OF THE EIGHTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE WITH REPRESENTA- 
TIVES OF MISSIONARY BOARDS. 

Washingtox, January 15, 1879. 

The conference of the Board of Indian Commissioners with the representatives of 
the missionary boards e.igai^ed in Indian missionary work Avas held at the office of the 
board at 10 a. m. Present, Commissioners A. C. Barstow, William H. Lyon, D. H. 
Jero ue, B. Rush Roberts, E. M. Kingsley, Charles Tntle, Clinton B. FIsk, and William 
Stickney ; also, Rev. William H. Melntosh, D. D., secretary of hoifle missions of the 
Southern Baptist Convention ; Rev. Rush R. Shippen, D. D., secretary of the American 
Unitarian Association; Rev. John C. Lowrie, D. D., secretary of the Presbyterian 
Bi>ard of Foreign Missions; Dillwyn Parrish, secretary of Friends' Yearly Meetings; 
Benjamin Tatham, of the Society of Friends (Orthodox); Rev. M. E. Strieby, D. D., 
secretary of the American Missionary Asssociation ; Rev. Henry Kendall, D. D., sec- 
retary of the Presbyterian Board of Home Missions; Rev. S. S. Cutting, D. D., secre- 
tary of the American Baptist Home Mission Society ; Rev. Thomas D. Howard, of Boa- 
ton ; Rev. Sheldon Jackson ; Barclay White, special agent of the Society of Friends ; 
William Parry, Chalkley Gillingham, Richard T. Bentley, Cyrus Blackburn, Samuel 
Towtisend, Samuel M. Janney, Deborah F. Wharton, Susanna M. Parrish, Rev. Clay 
MacCauley, Pleasant Porten, Col. A. B, Meacham, Hon. E. A. Hayt, Commissioner of 
Indian Affaiis. 

The Chairman briefly stated the object of the meeting, and requested some one to 
lead in i)rayer. 

Dr. LowRiE made a short jirayer, asking Divine gnidance and blessing on the work 
of elevating and enlightening and christianizing the Indians. 

The Chairman. I had no expectation of saying more than to express my gratifi- 
cation at meeting you again at our annnal conference, and will only add that while 
the i)ast year has been one of general prosperity among the Indians, some things 
have occurred that occasion deep regret ; snch as the continuance of war among some 
of the tribes, the long imprisonment of Chief Joseph, and sending him into the Indian 
Territory (although some of us approved of that), the stampede and recent slaughter 
of the Cheyennes, which seems to me an unnecessary butchery. I propose to throw 
this, conference open to our visiting friends. They will take the lead of it themselves. 
I might further add that at the last session of Congress the board made strenuous 
ettorts in the introduction of an act to give homesteads to Indians upon their reserva- 
tions, so that they should cover their allotments of land which they have been improv- 
ing. This had been proposed by the Secretary of the Interior and the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs, and they recommended a bill, which was x)repared. The committee 
made a report, but the matter slumbered still, and is likely to slumber. I myself see 
no way out of this conflict with Indians, except by taking this first step toward per- 
manent settlement of them. I suppose the friends have come prepared with statements 
of their own impression upon this matter, and I will call upon different bodies in order, 
or I will leave the representatives to use their freedom as they please. Dr. Janney 
was not with us last year. Perhaps he should have precedence from that fact. 

Mr. Janney. I did not come prepared to make an address to this company, but our 
opinion in regard to the work will be presented when the time comes. My friend, Mr. 
Parrish, the secretary of our society, is ready to report. 

Dillwyn Parrish then read the report of the Society of Friends (Orthodox), and 
also a few extracts from Mr. Barclay White's report. Copies of the Friends' report 
were distributed. 

The Chairman. We will hear the reports from any other religious bodies that are 
prepared. 

Dr. LoWRiE. Mr. Chairman, we have listened with interest to the report of our friends. 
If we will follow the good example set by them we should have to stay here several 
days. It seems to be advisable that the rest of us should talk a little more extempo- 
raneously. There is a greater propriety in that plan, from the fact that our report has 
been sent in. I suppose that 8uperse<les the necessity of going into more detail. 

The Chairman. Our reports are printed. 

Dr. LowRiE. I would state in a general way that the Presbyterian Church, North 
and South, is now engaged in mission work in three organizations. For a long 
time the Board of Foreign Missions had charge of the work. After the war there 
was a separate organization which cariied on the Indian work. Within the last three 
years the home board has united in this work extensively. The report I sent in 
related to the work of the foreign board among the Indians in the State of New 
York, the Chippewas in Wisconsin, and the Omahas, among whom we have had a 
mission for thirty years. That mission is still maintained. We have the old mission- 
ary there, Mr. Hamilton. The boarding-school was discontinued after the peace pol- 
icy was introduced. I am not going to say a word about that. We thought at the 



H 6 REPORT OF THE BOARD OP INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

time it was desirable. The school was not doing very well, and we consented to dis- 
banding it. Since then we have carried on the work as evangelistic. 

There is a mission in Dakota, jtartly in the American Board and partly in the Pres- 
hvterian. There is work anjong the Creeks and Seminoles, chiefly in the line of schools ; 
1 here being some eighty pupils in the former school, and twenty in the latter. There 
is work among the Nez Percys in Idaho. The southern board has work amojig the 
Choctaws and Chickasaws in the line of schools and preachers. I will endeavor to 
have statistics presented to the board so that a complete view may be given of the 
Presbyterian work. We have the pleasure of the attendance of the secretary of the 
home board, who can give information in regard to that work in NewMexieo, Alaska, 
Sea. Now, by oiTr last report, I find that there are four native clergymen and ten 
jireachers in these different tribes besides the American missionaries. There are some 
tiftcen ladies in these schools, and seven assistants, with 450 scholars. In one of the 
schools we have support from the government, but mostly it is furnished by the board 
itself. 

The general aspect of the work is encouraging. Some of the tribes are civilized, 
and are ready to take their place as citizens. They are citizens as nmch as women, 
children, and minors among the Avhites. We ought not to speak of them as not being 
citizens because they do not vote. In general, the New York Indians are of that class. 
They are equal to the white peox)le around them. That is more or less true of the 
Indians in the Indian Tenitory. It is true of the Omahas, Nez Perces, and Dakotas. 
Tliey are better than many of the white people who do vote. I think that some action 
should be taken by the government that would recognize the right of Indians to vote 
when qualified. 

I want to make before sitting down two remarks upon the work under the foreign 
boards. The first is this : While we see all this manifest advance in civilization, tlie 
object of the whole and the means by which it has been brought about are Christian in 
distinction from humanitarian, or educational or ritualistic. I say ritualistic because 
we were told in one of these conferences that we were intruders ; but while there was 
ritualism wild Indians were bajDtized though they could not read or write. They had no 
schools, they had no ojiportunities for Christian civilization as we understand it. Now 
Ave all agree that that is not the way to civilize the Iiidians. Nor is the expedient to 
rely on education the true one. We all agree that Indian education is a necessity, yet 
the teachers must know something of the vernacular. This subject was brought up 
six or eight years ago, and I then made statements that were held in doubt at the 
time. Mr. Dodge thought it impossible that men should read, spell, and write a lan- 
guage beautifully, and yet not understand a Avord of what they were saying or doing. 
I referred to a fact as it came to my knowledge in regard to the Winnebagoes. I hap- 
pen to know personally the teacher, a conscientious lady. She knew no Indian and 
they knew no English. The result was that the Indians became mere parrots. But 
when I referred to it there Avas a missionary here who had been many years among the 
Creeks — I think his name might haA^e been Jones. He confirmed every Avord, and 
said he had known the same thing. I fear that Ave are making too much of education 
without the vernacular elements, Avithout some knowledge of it by the teacher. We 
find that in all our foreign missionary stations we cannot rely ujjon humanitarianism, 
for it is not a sufficient motive. It consists of a number of things that are not Chris- 
tian. We must go back to the Word of God as the foundation. I am not going to 
preach on the subject, of course, but I Avanted to give a fact in illustration of this. 
Take the Senecas and Tuscaroras. I heard an address a few months ago by William 
Hall among the Seneca Indians. He has been a missionary for fifty years among them. 
He took occasion in this address to state the progress they had made in that time. 
He pictured their previous degraded condition, and then he traced their history slight- 
ly, and came to the present state of things. They are about as good as most of the 
New York peoi)le. This has groAvn up as a steady work under Christian agencies. Mr. 
Hall had been there fifty years, and the Avhole policy of his mission had impressed 
til 'se ideas. Education has followed, all the arts of industry are in progress, and what 
is wanting is the right to vote. I do not know whether this board Avould interfere or 
not. There are difficulties growing out of their claims to land. It keeps them in a 
8tat6 of suspense lest they may lose all their property. It is touching to see how it 
works. I was riding one day on the reservation, and saAV coming doAvn the road a 
young lady. Presently overtaking her the missionary greeted her and then we pas:sed 
on. Said I, '* Who is that ?" ''That is the daughter of one of our farmers. She is 
au accomplished young lady, and has been at school at Buffalo. But her future is a 
uiitter of uncertainty. She is a very respected young person, but she is au Indian's 
daughter." 

If it were practicable to bring about an arrangement by AA'hich the Indians could be 
put on land in seA^eralty it would not be difficult to give them the right to vote. The 
State carries on the same system of schools on the reservations as in the counties. I 
t Li Ilk AA-e may look forward to the time Avlien the Indians will get up to the same de- 
gree of advance and be full voting cifcizeus. I will not take uji any more time. Per- 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 117 

haps we may refer to other matters after a while. I am convincecl that the work is 
going on, that we are in the right, and that God will prosper us in it. 

The Chairman. Will Dr. Kendall follow ? 

Dr. Kendall read a report. 

The Chairman. I intended that the representative of the Southern Preshyterians 
should follow, but I do not see him here. 

A Delegate. Unfortunately he is not. But I will endeavor to see the gentleman, 
and ask him to funiish statistics such as yon wish me to report. We have missioi s 
among the Choctaws and Chickasaws, including schools and preachers, and are doing 
a good work. 

The Chairman. Will any other follow ? 

Dr. Cutting. I hoped that I should be able to report better progress than I can. I 
promised myself this a year ago, but you are aware, sir, that during the year one of 
the two agencies committed to our oversight has been abolished, and no agency is 
left to our care except the small one of Nevada, and concerning that, there have been 
difficulties. I do not propose to detain you but a few miuutes. It is known proba- 
bly to the friends present that missionary labors by the Baptists were commenced 
sixty years ago among the Indians. We had for a long time, under charge of the for- 
eign board, the Indian missions. Some of them attained great prosperity, and several 
tribes were raised to comparative civilization. The progress of events and the pro- 
cess of putting tribes into the Indian Territory has broken these up into fragments. 
And these tribes, and these fragments, are regarded as civilized, so that our work 
among them has been necessarily of late an evangelizing work. 

The civilizing processes were broken up by the removal and by the condition of 
things during the war. It was not until after the war that the missions were trans- 
ferred to the Home Mission Board, and when three years ago I came into the secre- 
taryship of the society, I found these missions conducted with some vigor, and well 
organized ; that I have been seeking to continue ever since, under some tryiug diffi- 
culties. I have lost the help of an agent by the removal of the agency. It is supposed 
tliat it will be restored ; but I hope it will be possible to bring the work into better 
condition. W^e have maintained ten missionaries at a cost of over $4,000. There are 
certain things wanted by these tribes that have been impressed on my mind. I am 
satistied that there is a great deal of money that comes from the Government of the 
United States that mi^ht be better expended. I am told that in the process of main- 
taining schools there is a good deal of politics among the Indians which they have 
learned from their white brethren. ''You vote for me for this i)Osition and I'll vote 
for your son or daughter as teacher of the school." The question of competency is 
dropped out. I am satistied there should be better government supervision over the 
schools ; that the schools supported on money of the government might be better man- 
aged. I am happy to say that I was called to assist in procuring teachers, and I 
liear excellent accounts of their work, and of the schools ; I should be glad to see some 
attention drawn to the great schools in the Territory which are maintained at gov- 
ernment expense among the civilized tribes. I hope that if the agency is re-established 
we may get a better kind of mission work in the Territory hereafter. I think no mere 
process of evangelizing will raise tribes to civilization ; the process must be crystallized 
in the form of education in order that civ^ilizatioii may be substantial and enduring. 
In regard to the Nevada Agency, which is the only one we have under our care, we 
have difficulties there ; yet I was informed that tlie agent would be changed, and 
during the year we have been waiting that we might institute educational and relig- 
ious work among that tribe. I have had the co-operation, during part of the year, of 
Mr. Arnold, the farmer, who has been devoted to the religious welfare of the Indians, 
and who has given me a discouraging view of the difficulties. The Indians are not 
inclined to Christianity or industry. I have learned from various sources that the men 
live on the platforms of the railway cars, stopping at the stations to gamble. I feel 
very much the impossibility of better work among them while this lasts. We have 
nominated a very competent person to be agent there ; I should not advise him to 
accept ; but I hope an agent will be tlwre who will aid in this work, and that we shall 
be able to report progress in it. 

We are largely united in our views in regard to the transfer to the War Department. 
I do not say we are a unit. I think that generally our people are in favor of the 
retention of the service where it is. I am happy to see here to-day the secretary of the 
southern board, Dr. Mcintosh. At the time of the separation in 1845 the Southern 
Ba})tists formed a board of missions for foreign and also one for home work, the latter 
taking up Indian missions. 

The Chairman. I must say that every time I go over the railroad I do not like to see 
Indians traveling on the cars, stopping here and there to gamble. I once remon- 
strated with the officers of the road, and said that all our efforts were interfered with 
by their misplaced kindness ; that I did not notice the thing on the other part of 
the line ; and I asked that it be stopped. They said, " We cannot do that. The In- 
dians are the best freindsthe road has. They will walk ten or twenty miles to give us 



1 
118 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

warning of wasli-onts, &c." I insisted that the kindness was nevertheless misplaced 
hecause it induced idleness. But I could not intlueuce them much. Perhaps you cau. 
I think little can be done till it is stopped. 

Dr. Cutting. I think so ; hut the Indians should he removed so far from the road 
that they cannot do it. They are few in number, and it could be easily done. But 
their habitat should not be changed. Keep them in the same climate. 

Dr. McIntosh. This is the first time I have had the pleasure of meeting this board. 
I am unacquainted with the routine of work excejit as has been indicated by the gen- 
tlemen who have preceded me. 

•The Baptists have had missions among the Indians since 1845. About ten years 
after the organization the American Missionary Indian Association transferred their 
work to our care. It was placed under a mission board. Up to the war there were a 
number of missions among the Cherokees, Choctaws, and Seminoles, and there were 
schools that were transferred to us by the American Baptist Indian Association among 
the Pottawatomies. The war broke up our missions. As soon as we got organized 
these missions were re-established among the Creeks, Choctaws, and Chickasaws, and 
within the last eighteen months among the Onondagas. These are all in the Indian 
Territory. In the Creek mission there are four missionaries; one of them is Mr. Buck- 
ner, who has been among them thirty years. Besides him we have Mr. Perryman, a 
half-breed Indian of fair education, who taught a school of forty pupils. The school 
has been temporarily abandoned, but the building and property are owned by him, 
and he expects it to be resumed. It is dependent upon the Indian council. He has 
been employed during the past year as a missionary among his own people. We have 
also another native preacher, John Mcintosh, as well as Washington Canard. 

This people are anxious to obtain schools. There are a number of schools among 
the Creeks. The Methodists have a school very efficiently conducted. It is a manual- 
labor school, sustained in part by the council. Perhaps there are several other schools 
conducted by other denominations. They are solicitous to establish a manual-labor 
school further south, more removed from the railroad. They are desirous that we 
should establish a school where fifty boys and fifty girls can be educated. We have 
been trying to arrange for it. The work among the Creeks has been, as to the accept- 
ance of the Gospel, successful. There are now thirty-two Baptist churches, organized 
into an association as we have among ourselves. They show their appreciation of the 
Gospel by their willingness to give their substance for its support. They do this with 
regard to the missions among the wild tribes. John Mcintosh was sent out to preach, 
and he organized a church and reported these facts to our board. Whereupon, we 
began to arrange for a mission there. He returned and made a second visit, Mr. Holt 
a3Companyiug hiiu. They preached to the people through interpreters. The Co- 
manche is the court language of the plains. The tribes all speak it. We have estab- 
lished that mission with Mr. Holt as missionary. We have recently ap])ointed two 
lady teachers in the government school under the Friends. One of these ladies changed 
her church and joined ours. She seemed much interested in the condition of these 
peo]de, having an earnest desire to aid in their civilization, and has devoted herself 
to labor among the Avomen and children of the tribes accessible from that point. She 
writes very encouragingly of her work. The board is expending between three and 
four thousand dollars a year (|3,600) upon this mission. 

Upon the whole the outlook is favorable. We have missions among the Choctaws 
and Chickasaws, and one among the wild tribes. With regard to the transfer of this 
work from the parties that now control it, I am not prepared to speak. I do not know 
enough to hazard an opinion. My own impression with regard to this jjeople is that 
the influence of Christianity is that which is to elevate them above their present con- 
dition. Dr. Buckner has referred to a movement to have their land brought into a 
Territorial government. I do not exactly understand that. I suppose he means that 
the purpose is to XJlace them under a Territorial government of the United States, and 
make it open to the white race, with an idea of giving them homesteads in perpetuity. 
It strikes me that if such an arrangement is made, where land is given them as heads 
of families some provision should be made by which they can sell it. 

The Chaiumax. The bill limits it to twenty years. 

Dr. McIXTOSH. There is a danger, it strikes me, as it did Dr. Buckner, that is un- 
favorable to Territorial government. I do not know, Mr. Chairman, that I have 
anything else to say. I have sent our report of the work done last year. I may desire 
to have something'to sav when the matter is more open. 

The Chairman. Our Episcopal friends give a large amount of work among the In- 
dians. Their report is in. I do not see any representative of them, however. The 
American Board of Foreign Missions has not reported, either. The body represented 
by Mr. Strieby will please report. 

Mr. Strieby. My report is in the hands of your secretary. I am secretary of the 
American Missionary As-sociation. In year^ past we had many stations among the 
Indians, but to devote much of our time to the freedmen we have withdrawn some- 
what, though we still retain a large force among the Indians. By some chance the 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 119 

appointJTient of all agents assiojned to the Congregationalists is given to us. There are 
six of these agencies intrusted to our denomination. The reports are favorable. Our 
labors do not bring us so directly into the religious work. One of the most conspicu- 
ous posts is the Odauah, under Dr. Lowrie. But we are led to believe that there is 
progress in all these directions. There has been much anxiety in regard to agents. We 
have been able of late tq furnish good ones. It is one of our anxieties how to furnish 
good men, business men with ac(iuaiutance with the forms of business, a missionary 
spirit, &c. It is not so easy a thing to find them. 

In regard to two or three agencies there are facts I could give that would be rather 
interesting. I will speak of one, illuslrating the difficulty of prosecuting liquor deal- 
ers. Oue of our agents, who has charge of five reservations in Minnesota and Wiscon- 
sin, laid before the court at Madison fourteen charges against one seller. He sent his 
witnesses. The man was brought before the court and was sentenced, and then the 
grand jury found a bill of indictment against the agent for not prosecuting the liquor 
dealers among the Indians! I think a good many persons find just that difficulty. 
The great want among the civilized people is to find evidence to convict liquor dealers. 
But in these wild countries it is doubly difficult, and I have wondered how there could 
be found Indians who would testify in court in regard to it. 

In regard to the transfer to the War Department I think our board are decided that 
the present policy shouhl be continued. If that should be done, and we have looked 
forward to it as a sort of crisis, I think our board would take renewed interest in fur- 
nishing men to carry on the work. As to lifting up this people it combines all that has 
been mentioned. They must learn to work, they must acquire arts, be taught educa- 
tionally, and have the power of the Christian religion, which is a great lifiing-up 
power. And as we find among the negroes of the South, where the difficulty is not to 
convince them that the Gospel is true but to restrain their excited imaginations, the 
school is oue of the instrumentalities, so we believe that the Gospel work is to bo 
aided l^y the ap}>liances that can lift man up to civilization. 

The CiiAiiiMAX. I do not see Dr. Reid; if there is a representative of his church I 
should like to hear him. 

A Delegate. Mr. Reid will be present. 

Mr. KiNGSLEY. As Dr. Strieby has led to the question, does our secretary know that 
the question of the transfer would be submitted this week? Is that rumor reliable 
or not ? 

Mr. Stickxey. They have the whole of this month to report. 

The Chairman. There is another body of friends whom we wish to hear of from, Mr. 
Tatham. 

Mr. Tatham. I hold in ray hand the report of Dr. Rhoades. It was made some 
months ago, but is brought up to the present time. I have exandned it myself, and I 
shall therefore hand it in. 

As I understand the present readings, the work of civilization and of schooling has 
gone forward satisfactorily. In some places interruptions have occurred and other 
local circumstances. At the Wichita Agency a school-house was bunied down and the 
schooling interrupted. The agricultural work has gone on very satisfactorily. The 
interest which has been developed by giving to the pupils a share in the productions has 
proved very successful. At the Cheyenne Agency the schools have a large herd of cattle. 
They, of course, have the motives Avhich actuate mankind in such work. Upon the 
whole it is very satisfactory, and confirms all the information we have always had, 
that these Indians are men like ourselves, differing only by their circumstances. From 
the beginning of the government to the present time the treaties made with the In- 
dians have been made with a view of giving to the Indians a consideration for the 
cession of their lands, and one of the most important has been the education of the 
Indians and civilization to enable them to maintain their farms. That is in nearly 
all the treaties. Provisions are made for teachers, farmers, blacksmiths, &c. If we 
look at it a moment we see that is absolutely essential. We take them from their for- 
mer life and say, '' Give us part of your territory and you shall have the rest. We 
will also teach you how to live." But we have not fulfilled these conditions. It is a 
disgrace to the white race. I have often wished I had not a drop of Anglo-Saxon 
blood in my veins. This people are poor, but they are men for all that, and when, a 
few years ago, the peace policy was inaugurated, the great point was to teach them 
the arts of civilized life. It was proper to teach them religion, but what is the use of 
faith unless a man can live ? I have here a report, in the report of 1875, of the condi- 
tion when we had charge of that portion called the Central Superintendency. I will 
call your attention to a few items to show the improvements. The increase in all the 
departments has been tenfold. Where one bushel of corn was raised in 1869, ten are 
raised now ; cattle in like proportion. In the matter of schools, there were 105 pupils, 
then, out of sixteen or eighteen thousand Indians. Now there are a thousand. I don't 
say I am satisfied with that. We ought to have done more. But it shows the point I 
wish to call attention to. They raise many cattle now, where formerly they raisedl 
none at all. These statistics will be published in the regular report. 



120 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

The necessities of life presuppose the right to hold property, both land and the prod- 
ucts of labor. They cannot be held without law. I am satisfied that unless we can 
extend to these Indians the rights and privilegps as well as the responsibilities of law, 
all the attempts to civilize them will be lost. The idea of transferring these people to 
the War Department raises the inquiry, what can you expect from the Army in regard 
to such matters. They know nothing about civil law. Tlip idea of military men is 
simply obedience to authority. The Army is the right arm of the governu:eat. The 
right arm and clenched list are dangerous things to use. In all the Indian war that 
have occurred, the cause has been some arbitrary order. Now, if this matter is put 
into the hands of the military, what can we expect ? You may convince an officer 
that his orders are all wrong, but he will say that he must act in spite of himself. If 
you take away the commissariat of the Army, they could not support themselves. Yet 
it is the commissariat that is so necessary for the Indians and everybody else. I ap- 
preciate proper instructions in the Christian faith, but, if we do not, pay attention to 
the arts by which a man can live, the people will get tired of that kind of administra- 
tion, and our occupation will be gone. The necessity that some simple laws should be 
instituted is just as important. I have a draft of a law suggested to Congress at 
the last session. I think it is a suitable time to have the attention of this body drawn 
to it. 

Mr. Shippen. It gives me great pleasure to meet you and express our interest in this 
work, and our desire to co-operate with you all in brotherly love ; feeling that the policy 
of President Grant is a good one, and that we are a part of the grand army of wi^-kers 
in this work. We must accept the old geographical classitication of Indians into 
civilized, semi-civilized, and barbarous. 

W^e cannot give as good a report of i)rogress as some who have the opportunity to 
work among the more civilized Indians, and who have a more favorable territory to work 
in. We have disadvantages and obstacles to contend with ; among the Utes, for in- 
stance, who are a loyal people, just, honest, and humane. When one of our agents 
heard an expression of wonder that he could leave his wife among them, he said: 
" I'd rather leave her among the Utes than among the white iieople." 

One disadvantage we have in the high latitude of Colorado. One of our agencies 
was 9,000 feet high, where frosts prevented raising of crops. It has now been removed 
to a more favorable jjlace, though the ground is still rather sterile. Our agents report 
that with some expense for irrigation they could do better. In moving one of the 
agencies the government did not allow as much as was required, and hence the build- 
ings are unfavorable. Another consequence of this is that the Indians are sent oft" on 
their hunting expeditions. They are thus rather inaccessible to our agents. But 
under this disadvantage we have tried to do our best. We recognize the gospel as 
the central inspiration of all the rest, and remembering that the work of our Lord was 
to feed the hungry and the sick, we recognize industry and schools and the arts of 
civilized life as comprehended in a true Christian civilization. I can only say that I 
hardly agree with the sentiments of the last speaker. I believe in giving Indians the 
power to vote as fast as they come to the right preparation for it. Then I believe in 
a land tenure wherever they can cultivate and are willing to do it. Our agents say 
that getting a family into a house and clothes is a great step. Not the mere dress 
itself, but it is significant of the civilization which it only suggests. I think, friends, 
that we ought to rally the Christian sentiment of America in favor of the work as it is 
now going on as against the military power. When I talk with officers I see they 
have a case to make out. They claim that your civilians have not power to enforce 
authority; that the military power is strong against all intruders. The civilian can- 
not arrest a man who is selling drinks, for instance. They say that an officer holding 
his office for life has a sense of honor that makes him a more honest agent. But I do 
agree with the last brother in saying that the military arm rejireseuts a list to strike, 
and that the true treatment should be the open hand of brotherly love. When we see 
the relation of the people to the Indians I feel the same deep feeling of disgrace. The 
Christian sentiment of the country ought to be rallied to more faith. When I go to 
the Capitol and find men who have so little faith in this world, it is discouraging. 
A leading Senator from the West said, "O, the Indians are always reporting great 
progress; but where are they? Worse to-day than ever." And when that sentiment 
exists among our leading officers, I think we ought to do more and rally public faith 
in this work. 

The Chairman. I call attention of the friends to an exhibition lately given of the 
treatment of the Indians by the military. The Cheyennes were given to the care of 
the Army. When it was announced that they refused to go to the Indian Territory 
the military tried to starve them into giving up. They resolved to go back to their 
own friends rather than starve. They leaped out the windows and escaped ; the mili- 
tary pursued them, and forty were killed. These people were defenseless and were shot 
in cold blood. 

Mr. Stickney. What about the statement that they were armed ? 

The Chairman. I don't think they were. 



REPORT OP THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 121 

The Commissioner of Indian Affairs. They had a few pistols. 

The Chairman. I do not sse how they could ^et them. 

The Commissioner of Indian Affairs. They had them concealed ahout their 
persons. 

A Delegate. I recollect in Arizona an arrest was ordered once, and the military 
officer went down and shot iifty men for the sake of arresting one ; and so yon will 
ftnd all the way through. Yet this is the kind of civilization the military would 
m.ake. 

Mr. KiNGSLEY. While these secretaries are giving us their ideas on the management of 
Indian affairs, I want to say a word as to the result of my observation in a visit with 
the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in October through the Indian Territory ; that 
an essential line of effort looking toward civilization and improvement, and one that 
has been overlooked, is that of educating the women. I don't know how civilized we 
should be if we went every night to a barbarous home ; and when I saw the Modocs 
engaged with eminent success, and to an extent that is highly commendable, in the 
arts of civilized life in the mission, and yet drove around among their cabins and saw 
their women barefooted, in filthy rags, and found them in squalor, without the habits 
of civilization inside their cabins, I was more impressed with the necessity of training 
these women in the habits of civilized domestic life. 

Mr. Strieby. I would like to add the experience we are having at Hampton. My 
slight acquaintance with this case is that it is going on with great success. The last 
lot brought on included about twenty females. 

Mr. Roberts. I would like to say in this connection that one of the earliest views 
held in regard to this matter was that the females should be educated. They need a 
good woman teacher to teach them in their cabins. We have succeeded so far as to 
obtain propositions Jbr matrons in several reservations. Women have had as much 
to do with the civilization of the Indians as any other instrumentality that can be 
thrown among them. 

Dr. CuniXG. I would like to say that in addition to the ten missionaries employed 
by our society, the ladies have already undertaken a work for the Christianizing of 
Indian homes. They have appointed two or three missionaries for the Territory, 
Avhose business is to do missionary work among the women and children, with the 
conviction that you cannot raise a people to civilization unless you elevate their 
homes. 

Mr. Jaxney. I would like to make a remark or two. If we can elevate the women, 
all the rest will follow in due lime. Among the means of our society we see the em- 
ployment of matnjus ; their peculiar adaptation to this work has been overlooked. 
An enlightened and good woman will show an interest in the women and soon gain 
their confidence. She will instruct them in the care of chiklren and of the house, and 
will find many oi>portunitiesto impart Christian knowledge. This has been one of our 
ertbrts in this cause in every tribe, to have women of this character go among the 
women and endeavor to elevate them. 

General FiSK. Dr. Reid was directed to be here, but he may not arrive. I can say 
generally that our j>e(iple are greatly encouraged by the progress of civilization among 
the tribes to which we send agents, notwithstanding the difficulties that oppose us. 
We have fifteen agencies under our charge, and we have succeeded in placing good 
men in them all. Some of them are superior men. Father Wilbur is well known to 
you all, and Mr. Young, among the Blackfeet, is developing splendidly. Where the 
military aiti near at hand, we do not do so well. (A voice : Pretty good from a gen- 
eral.) There is no soldiery near Father Wilbur, anywhere. He is doing a good work 
in elevating the Indians, in teaching them the arts of industry, in educating them, 
preaching to them, and establishing schools. The Yakama reservation is a great uni- 
versity, where they are taught everything, and they are constantly graduating young 
men into the ministry. Taking it on the whole, our people are greatly encouraged, 
and will do more if the j^olicy can be settled. Our board and all our people are a unit 
against the transfer. 

Mr. Chairman, the Southern people have been doing a good work for a long time, 
and Col. Pleasant Porter will give us a few words on the subject. 
The Chairman. I shall be glad to hear him. 

Colonel Porter. I can say that the Methodist Church has established one large mis^ 
sion school. They have eighty boys there. This has been in operation twenty-nine 
years. The greater number of these children have proved to be useful men and women 
in our country. The Methodist Church in the Creek country has a membership of 
1,800. In the Choctaw country they have a large membership, and also in the Chicka- 
saw country. I would like to speak of the transfer, being well acquainted with the 
Indian sentiment on that subject. The five tribes of the Indian Territory, without 
any exception, to a unit are opposed to the transfer to the War Department. 
The Chairman. These tribes all hold their land in fee ? 

Colonel Porter. Yes, sir ; the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokees, and Sem- 
moles. The transfer would not so much afltect them directly, but they see that it 



122 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

would be disastrous to the leas civilized tribes to be placed under the military. It 
would also aifeet them, because the consequences are that where Indians have been 
placed under officers and soldiers it has almost always terminated in war and remov- 
als of Indians. Now it has been stated very often that the strong? arm of the military 
can remove the intruder, &c. That lias never been the case where they have been 
placed in char^re of Indians. On the other hand, when intruders came in,' if the Army 
did anything it was to light the Indians and protect the intruders. Again, the partic- 
ular reason wliy the live civilized tribes are opposed to the transfer is this : their ex- 
perience while under the War Department is verv painful for them to reflect upon. 
They lost their country east of the Mississippi. They were taken in chains by the 
military to the country where they now are. About one-third died on the road from 
their old homes to the new ones in the West. All of our old persons are bitter a<jjainst 
it, and they have embittered all the young people. Among the Creeks there was a 
military post. Fort Gibson. It demoralized all that section of the country and affected 
the progress of those Indians so badly that the Cherokees requested the removal of 
the military. There was more murder, horse-racing, &c., in that section of the In- 
dian Territory than in any other, but it has now become one of the best parts of the 
Territory. So far as the Creek people are concerned, I may speak with more authority, 
because the Creek council considered this question and passed a resolution strongly 
opposing it, and requested me to present it here to the government. If any of yoii 
could have been present and heard our old men talk, you would have felt that they 
were right. They say conclusively that the effect of the military in the Indian country 
always degrades them beneath what they are in their most barbarous state. 

Mr. KiNGSLEY. How many are there in these nations ? 

Colonel Porter. About li'fty thousand. 

The Chairman. I have a telegram from Dr. Clark asking me ^o represent him on 
this occasion. I am not ready to report for the American Board, but I will say that 
their missions are on the Missouri River. They are doing a good work, especially at 
Santee, where they have a school for young men, and one for females, where they are 
training teachers. There are some fifty or seventy-five thousand Indians speaking the 
Sionx language. 

Before we adjourn for lunch perhaps the honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
will say something. 

The Commissioner of Indian Affairs. I have very little to say at present. I would 
like to talk with you all for an hour or two in a quiet way. I intended to bring with 
me a bill that we have prepared with great care, to give the Indians a title in sever- 
alty to their lands. Under this bill every Indian can take up lands, inalienable for 
twenty-five years, not liable to taxation. Our Indians are seeking to obtain land in 
sufficient quantity which they can call their own. They are anxious to go on and im- 
prove the Ian I; but as their present title is good only for a dav, they are paralyzed. 
They do not care to plant and have another gather the fruit. They want to bring up 
their children in industry, and to teach them to work ; they are anxious to work. In 
case influence can be exerted upon Congress to get a permanent land-title for the 
Indians, and to consolidate them on reservations, the problem of Indian civilization 
can be solved. 

As to the work done by the Sioux, Cheyennes, and Arapahoes, it is very remarkable. 
Last year the Cheyennes and Arapahoes began hauling their supplies to their reserva- 
tion. They were paid for this transportation over a distance of 165 miles, and out of 
their pay they bought wagons, harnesses, &c. This year, unfortunately, by a mistake 
of the clerk in New York, the goods were marked wrongly. The Indians were at the 
terminus of the railroad with their wagons, and were greatly disappointed because the 
contractor would not deliver the goods, and went off' in high dudgeon at the white 
man's trickery, as they considered it. After the Sioux had removed, we advertised in 
the usual way for transportation, but all the bids received were too high. One dollar 
for 100 miles is ample compensation. While I was visiting their agencies with the 
Sioux commission, I asked the chiefs whether they would do the work for themselves. 
They said they would ; so we determined to purchase wagons and harness and to en- 
gage the Indians to do their own transporting with their ponies. About the time the 
wagons were ready to be delivered, men interested in transportation sent up and down 
the river and fired the grass. Thus 60 miles north and south and 40 miles east and 
west was thoroughly burned over. Under the circumstances, we had to do as best we 
could. We had a considerable supply of corn, and gave the Indians enough to take 
them over the burned district. They began their hauling, and have done it as well 
as any other men could do it. The Spotted Tail Indians have transported all their 
goods with their own Indian ponies. After beginning to transport for ourselves we 
recived offers of a few ox-teams at |1 for 100 miles. The Spotted Tail Indians, this 
year--there being no bridges— have had to go by way of Fort Randall, which made 
the distance 100 miles. The Red Cloud transportation outfit has made two trips from 
the Missouri River (182 miles), and they have performed the work very well. The In- 
dian will carry his bill of lading sacredly, get his receipt, and get his pay, and do it 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 123 

honestly. Tlie goods are faithfiilly delivered, and the Indians are entirely trnstworthy. 
It became a question whether we'conld supply them with a sufficient quantity of food 
this winter by depending only on Indian teams for transportation. In order to do so, 
we opened a de])ot of sui)plie8 at Sidney. The Red Cloud Indians came down with 
their men and ponies, and 50 wagons were loaded up in three hours, and the train went 
off in line style. It is 170 miles from Sidney to the Pine Ridge agency. These Indians 
break their horses in a short time. We give them shoes, harnesses, &c., and they are 
carrying tlieir goods successfully ; and from this time forward we shall not need any 
white men to carry any of their supplies. 

The Chairman. I would like to ask the Commissioner to invite Joseph, chief of the 
Nez Percos, to meet us here. 

Mr. Tatham. I am nnich interested in what the Commissioner has said. Something 
like that was done in Arizona. The Indians there engaged to cut hay and supply the 
post. In order to prevent them from doing this they were massacred. I hope the 
Commissioner will look out for this danger. 

Dr. CuiTiNG. I would like to know whether, in the legislation in preparation, there 
is any provision for schools ? 

The Commissioner. We have an increased appropriation this year. 

Dr. CuiTiNG. Now, the impossibility of schools among the Indians, like those in 
the States, is one that has been brought up before. It is urged that the United States 
ought to make provision for the education of children. It seems to me that it would 
be a great step in the right direction. I doubt the expediency of putting school funds 
under the care of people not used to the work. It should he under the care of the 
United States. I should l>e glad to see that incorporated in the hill. 

Dr. LowRiK. This was brought before the President last year. Gentlemen present 
will r<nnember that Mr. Hayes took a deep interest in the matter, and at the close of 
the interview suggested that the Indian board should prepare a bill and lay it before 
Congress, taking sufficient time to elaborate it fully. I was ranch impressed by the 
interest he showed. The practical shape in which he put the matter seemed to strike 
everybody. I talked with one or two of this board, who were much in favor of it. 
I have been watching for it, but have not seen a word of it. Has this been attended to ? 

The Chairman. There was a bill prepared. 

Dr. LowRiE. I am afraid that this point has been overlooked. I can account for it 
hy the fact that we have all been interested in the question of the transfer. But we « 
should not leave it undone. 

The Chairman. The bill was drawn, and is the bill to which the Commissioner 
just referred ; but nothing has been done. 

Mr. Roberts. In relation to this bill, it has been under consideration hy this hoard 
for the last year, pretty nearly. We have worked a good deal in the case, but failed 
to get anything definite before Congress. So far as I am concerned it is one of the 
most important steps for the friends of the Indians to take at this time, as to getting 
them tixed and settled in regard to their titles. And I ask that this meeting adjourn 
to a time when the Commissioner of Indian Affaift shall present a draft of the bill and 
give his views in regard to it before this association, and that if possible we may get 
a bill that can be supported in unity by this whole body. This is important, and it 
apjjears to me that nothing but a united effort can get a bill before Congress. It is a 
step in the direction of civilization, and even if it goes out of our hands it is all-im- 
portant to the Indian, at least. I therefore move that this meeting adjourn, and 
meet this evening at some point for the purpose of discussing that bill and for taking 
some action upon it, thiit we may get a bill that we may be vmited upon. 

Dr. Cutting. Pardon me for speaking again so soon ; but the bill was to extend 
law over the Indians and provide them with courts. I had the President's assent to 
this idea ; that if distances were too great to bring the Indians to courts, we could 
take the courts to them. 

The Chairman. The trouble has been that the courts have been used to vex the 
Indians. 

Dr. Cutting. Well, I suppose the United States has jurisdiction over the reserva- 
tions. But I can see no reason why officers should not be appointed that could go and 
hold courts on all the reservations. We talked about this a good deal last year, and 
it was considered as an important element. 

Mr. Kingsley. I rise to the defense of the Board of Indian Commissioners. They 
are said to hold people to their respom ibilities. I have been assuring my friends that 
the board was pressing for three things. First, law ; second, the right to hold prop- 
erty; and. third, the connnon-school system to be adopted by the government, and 
made apj licable, so far as possible, to all its wards. Our board last year were ex- 
pected to take action upon it. I want to defend the board, and naiTow down the 
responsibility where it belongs. The board appointed a sub-committee on legislation 
to look after these things, so that the board did its duty. 

The Chairman. I should like to call the attention of the Commissioner to his report 
where he mentions the Indian police. 



124 REPORT OF THE BOARD OP^ INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

The Commissioner. In regard to the Indian police, I placed their pay at a very low 
snin in order to secnre legislation by Congress. The committee looked npon ic as an 
experiment. This year I showed them tliat it had worked very well since its organ- 
ization in Jnly last. The House committee struck out ^30,000 of the $60,000 I asked 
for, but I had it restored in the Senate, and I am sure we shall get it. 

Now, as to their efficiency, we find tliat the report from all quarters is that the In- 
dians take hold of the work readily. At White Earth they have a fine jiolice force, 
and also at twenty-two other agencies. Even at the low wages, $5 per month, we 
find we can get a good force. 

When the Cheyenne outbreak was threatened, on the 5th of September, Agent 
Miles informed the military officer that there was danger of an outbreak. The mili- 
tary then sent two companies to watch the Indians; but they encamped four miles ott\ 
The troops had with them eight policemen of the Cheyenne force. On the 9th of Sep- 
tember the commander went to sleep, and the Cheyennes broke out and went oif. Two 
of our policemen were watching them, however, and saw when they broke out, and 
immediately notified the agent. Agent Miles sent word to Fort Reno, and the fort 
sent word to Captain Rendlebrook. By that roundabout way nine hours were lost. 
However, he started in pursuit. At the close of the third day he came in sight of the 
Indians. They were running through a canon. He ran on at the top of his speed, 
following the Indians, who appeared to be mostly women and childre i. He had two 
policemen with him, having sent back the others. These men told him that the 
Indians were in ambuscade, and that if he followed them he would be cut to pieces, 
but that if he would turn to the left the Indians would all come out. Rendlebrook 
thought the advice was good, and went to the left, and the Indians all came out. He 
lost four or five soldiers and retreated ; but he came within an inch of meeting with 
Custer's fate. One of the policemen who gave the information was shot. Now this 
shows the value of an Indian police. These policemen were Cheyennes, as well as the 
Indians whom they pursued. 

Mr. Stickney. As I have the honor to be one of the committee on legislation, I 
will explain. We went to Congress with a bill several times. The records show 
that the bill had reference to education, law, and allotment of lands. The committee 
thought they would try one at a time, and took up the entering of lauds. After a 
long time the bill was reported and referred. I went to see the conmiittee more than 
once. Congress soon adjourned, and there has been no time in the present session to 
bring it up. What is of first importance is, that the gentlemen here who have personal 
influence should go and visit members of Congress and impress npon them the impor- 
tance of giving some attention to the subject. 

Mr. Tatham. The efi"ort which is referred to seems to have resulted in nothing. 
There are yet about six weeks of this session. It is likely all our Indian work would 
be put off, and yet if these three points are not to be accomplished we had better dis- 
band. They are absolutely essential to the success of our Avork. This body ought 
to act in some way, and exhaust our abilities in this attemjjt. We may just as well 
throw our money away if it is not (k)ne. 

Mr. Stickney. There is a bill that has been reported in either house, and it is, as an 
amendment to that bill that it is proposed to add the bill prepared by the Commis- 
sioner. It has been proposed to agree upon the treatment of it and urge its passage. 

Dr. Cutting. If it were not the rule to make a man chairman because he proposes a 
bill, I should move to have this reported upon this evening. We should take some 
measures to give to the country a comprehensive policy that should embrace these 
points. I do not suppose between now and the evening anything could bedcmeinthe 
way of a statement of a comprehensive policy that should introduice these things ; but 
if a committee were appointed now they might report on the subject in the evening. 

Mr. Steieby. It seems to me that the question is to avert the transfer, and that if 
we should attempt now to push this matter we should only defeat all. We should do 
what can be done for securing this policy. 

Dr. LowRiE. Mr. Chairman, I rise to make a suggestion about the time of meeting. 
Our experience of meeting in the evening in the jiast has been vmfortunate. We come 
together fatigued, and are not as clear as Ave are in the morning. I think it would be 
better to adjourn this conference to meet to-morrow morning, and let us take these 
points up. As to Dr. Strieby's suggestion, I am in doubt whether it is Avise. If our 
men in Congress see that there is a resolute body of men all OA'cr the country who are 
determined to have what is right, it may go very far toAvard shaping this (juestion of 
the transfer. I feel noAv, and I liaAe felt for some time, that we may have made a mis- 
take in thinking so much of the transfer and in not thinking so much of all these vital 
questions. I think the bureau had better be made a department. The reputation of 
the country is more seriously affected by the management of the Indians than by any- 
thing else. I don't know as I should make aiiy change in the pet'sonnel of the bureau. 
I think I see some mistakes, to be sure. But the point is, is it best for us to meet in the 
evening or wait till to-morrow ? 

Dr. Cutting. What I am after is what Dr. Lowrie expressed. There should be a 
rejjresentation of something Avhich the religious people Avish to bring up in behalf 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 125 

of the ludijuis, and to have that necessary legislation about it to set forth before 
the public, that tliey may see that we are in earnest about it and know the elements 
which the problem involves. If I could say to-morrow morning, for an expression of 
the gentlemen here ])r<?sent in regard to these things, I should feel that we had made 
a great advance. This company would be far more respected and would carry far 
greater weight if they would give tlie country a thorough Indian policy containing all 
these points. I move the appointment of a committee to report upon this at the next 
meeting. 

Mr. KiNGSLEY. It has occuiTcd to me that it would be a great help to have a com- 
mittee of this kind to bring in a concise, well-matured statement of the case. But we 
should have the connnittees of the House and Senate with us. Then I wish to say that 
it strikes me that if our legislators and the country see that we have in these three 
simple points something to attain, we shall enlist a good deal of help on the transfer. 

Mr. Roberts. I am afraid we are undertaking so wide a field that we will defeat all 
purposes. I agree in the desire for just laws and schools, but as we have one matter 
now before us in relation to land titles, I think that if any action is taken it should 
relate to this bill. It will be an entering wedge for our work, and it will be easier 
hereafter to get law and attention to matters of government, after we have once ob- 
tained the Indians' rights on their own reservations. I would made no objections to 
the appointment of a committee for representing our views to the world at large. But 
I want that they should take innnediate action. I therefore hope that we may ap- 
point a committee and adjourn. 

The Chairman. The suggestion is that we appeal to the public, as I understand it. 

Mr. Kendall. Mr. Chairman, the more we ask, the more we shall get. If we 
narrow it we may lose all. 

Mr. Tatham. What will be the result of this? You must go to the full extent. 
The land will be of no use unless you get education and law by which the Indian can 
secure the fruits of the land. 

Mr. MacCauley. I am heart and soul in favor of the present policy, but I think that 
if the transfer is to be avoided the present board must show decided reasons for not 
transferring it. I very nmcli fear that unless such reasons are shown such transfer 
will be made. If men go to the country and say that under the peace j)olicy we are 
determined to do these things, the thing is clear. If the Indians are to have civil law, 
the people see the way out of the difficulty. 

Dr. Lowrie, Dr. Cutting, Dr. Strieby, Mr. Janney, and Mr. Tatham, were then elected 
to serve on the committee for drawing up the resolutions. 

General Fisk moved to adjourn till 7.30 p. m., to meet at the Interior Department. 
His motion was carried. 

the evening session 

took place at the room of the assistant attorney-general of the Interior Department. 
There Avere present, in addition to those present at the morning session, a delega- 
tion of Utes in charge of Agent Kelley, and Colonel Adair, of the Indian Territory, 
and others. The chairman called the meeting to order at 7.50. He stated the object 
of the meeting, and asked Col. A. B. Meacham to say a few Avords to the company, until 
the honorable Commissioner of Indian Affairs should arrive. 

Colonel Meacham spoke as folloAvs: 

*' I hold myself in readiness at all times to speak for the Indian. I do not claim to 
knoAV more than other men, but what I know is from practical experience. I am in 
earnest, and I have made the discovery that I cannot spread over much ground. I 
must tix on one i)oint. I am giving all my ability to this Indian question in m}^ paper 
and otherwise, in the very best brains God gives me. My paper has but one object 
and theme: the disseininatioir of information on the Indian question. (For fear I for- 
get it, you must notify me Avhen my time is up. My trouble is to know when to shut 
off.) The Council Fire needs assistance. We have circulated twice as many as we 
have had pay for. We are doing a great deal of good. The subscription price is $1, 
for a paper of sixteen pages, no advertisements, on one theme, on one point, viz, jus- 
tice as a solution of this great Indian problem. We need the subscriptions but we 
haA'e not asked for donations of money. Some good friends have sent us some, but 
we need sul seiiptions; I want names and dollars enough to keep my brains from be- 
ing worried. 

"Upon this Indian question, let me say, th.at the more I give my time to it, and 
think about it, and exchange A'iews about it Avith other men, the more the question 
groAvs in importance. I am fully persuaded that Ave are on the eve of a great change 
in Indian affairs. Agitation is a great lever to move the whole work. I am per- 
suaded, from observation, that the men who are at the head of iTidian affairs are earn- 
estly working to improve the service. The machinery of the serA ic \ and I speak from 
observation, :s bet er systematized than ever before, and I believe that if this question 
can be settled for the bureau to stay Avhere it is, but one year hence will find this 
system vastly i'liproved and in better condition than ever. I do not believe the trans- 



12G REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

fer will be made. There have been threatenings. But withal I cannot forget and I 
cannot fail to believe that there is a hidden power that will control this affair. I do 
not know how many little pebbles it swung upon last spring. But had any one of 
several little things been wanting the transfer would have been made. Now, I think 
we were in great danger ten days ago. The danger was that America would go back 
in civilization. But the danger has lessened, and it was done one coJd night at eleven 
o'clock at Fort Robinson, in Nebraska. You never will convince the people that it 
was not a deliberately planned scheme for the destruction of those people. The 
American press, thank God, has at last broken its fetters, and has dared to denounce 
that act. I do not know that it was planned, but I will show it by one single thing. 
I tried to leave my bitterness in the lava bed, but while lying there, helpless and 
blind, a man came to me and said, ' There is the i)rettiest little game planned for to- 
night. They have a Modoc prisoner. They are fixing to let him escape, but they 
don't mean to let him get away.' That man is still living. The guards, I say, were 
properly i)laced, and everything was in readiness. My nurse was trying to keep me 
awake to 'see the fun.' The soldiers were placed at different distances and the senti- 
nel at the gate slept, or pretended to sleep. A distinguished visitor is just coming 
in, and I wait for a moment." 

(Here Joseph, chief of the Nez Percys, and his friend, Yellow Bull, entered the room 
with their interpreter. Chapman.) 

''But I want to finish the story," resumed Colonel Meacham. "The guard slept, 
and the Modoc prisoner hearing the snoring of the sentry, arose ; he listened ; the 
thought of liberty — one moment of hesitation, he places his hands upon the wall, and 
was free. He escaped without harm, in spite of the shower of bullets that flashed 
after him. I can tell you the names of the Avitnesses. Not a musket-ball touched 
him. 

"That Fort Robinson affair was unfortunate; starving men to surrender, and then 
allowing seventy of them to escape, and then opening upon them with the cavalry. 
I hope the nation will hear of few such dark crimes. These things will move the peo- 
ple's hearts. If one man can go from the Indian race with his tongue afire to move 
the people, then these things will do it. But let us know that the red man shall have 
justice; that he is no wild beast. There sit eight men [pointing to the Indians] and 
they are denounced as 'bucks.' There they are; wild men, so called; denounced as 
'good men under ground;" no better men than those who fled from Camp Robinson; 
men to be trusted with your life, but who, if driven to madness, till patience is lost, 
there are no eight men a match for them in the mountains." 

The Chairman. I want to introduce Joseph and Yellow Bull. I visited the Nez 
Percys last year. When I left, this chief was in tears because he could not stay where 
his father had lived and died, which land he had never surrendered. We would 
have let him stay if we could, but we tried to urge him to go on to the reservation 
where the President could protect him. The country where he was, was out of the 
reservation-lines; nine-tenths of it had been ceded by a majority of the headmen 
and chiefs, but the remaining one-tenth did not honor the treaty. Joseph wanted to 
stay and live where he had always been. I wish he had come on to the reservation, 
it would have saved his brother who was slain in the war ; but I hope we will have 
no further strife with the Nez Percys. That was the first ; they had always been 
loyal. 

Mr. Tatham. I hope Joseph will meet an audience in New York. 

The CuAiKMAX. Joseph has great power of leadership, and I have seldom been more 
impressed than by some words of his. I hope he will speak to us through the inter- 
preter. 

Mr. KiNGSLEY. I want to say to the friends present that the Commissioner and I 
traveled with Joseph and one of his chiets 200 miles in a wagon, and he ate at the 
same table and was entertained with us, and there was in all his behavior the utmost 
propriety and dignity. He would not have done any dishonor to any of our parlors. 

Chief Joseph. All of you gentlemen thai are collected here, I will express myself 
to you. I understand that I am to speak in a day or two from now, and then I in- 
tend to express myself thoroughly, and then you will learn what I have in my heart. 
Since I was large enough to understand anything I have tried to learn the ways and 
the hearts of the x^eople I have met, and I think that God gave me a heart and brains 
to understand the world. I have not a deceitful heart. I have met many of the rep- 
resentatives of the government. My friend standing by my side understands me ; he 
knows my heart's workings from my boyhood ; so does Colonel Meacham. I once 
talked with him, and tried to impress upon him the necessity of keeping my country. 
I was small then ; I was inexperienced, but I tried to express as well as I could what 
I wanted. I could not see then as far as I can to-day, but still I had pretty nearly the 
same ideas. I am a wiser man to-day than I was then, but I think I have the same 
right to my country that I had then. I am growing both in body and experience 
every day. It is the sams with all of you gentlemen here to-night. The more you 
806 and the further you travel, tho greater experience you have. I see from your 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 127 

presence here that you are inclne I to do good to all people and classes. My heart is 
growing in that direction and I hope it will always remain so. I will express my 
views to you that you may hear and understand them. I do not want to do anything 
that would not be good in the right way. I am very thankful to meet you here to- 
night, all of you gentlemen. That is all I have to say. 

Colonel Porter introduced himself to Joseph, and said he was glad to hear that he 
"was so merciful a wan'ior. 

The Chairman. It may interest the company to know that he is called Young Jo- 
seph. His father was Joseph before him. He was christened by that English name 
in a church. When that treaty to which I alluded was made by Governor Stephens, 
Josei>h's father tore up his testament and said that if that was white man's religion 
he did not wish any more of it. We have jiresent some of the Ute Indians from 
Colorado. If their interpreter is here, we should like to hear from them. 

Mr. Tatiiam thought they had better go on with the business of the meeting. 

Dr. Cutting then read the following report of the committee appointed in the 
morning: 

*' Members of several religious associations of the United States which are engaged 
by missionaries and teachers in promoting the civilization of the Indians being in- 
vited, in consideration of their official i)osition, to a consultation with the Board of 
Indian Commissioners in the city of Washington, January 15, 1879, take the occasion 
to reaffirm their common convictions on several points deemed by them important to 
the progress of that civilization. 

"1. It is our conviction that the care of the Indians should remain in the Depart- 
ment of the Interior, or be lodged with a civil department created for the purpose. 

"Some of the religious associations with which we are connected have been engaged 
in the work of Indian civilization for more than half a century ; and all, whether en- 
gaged in that work for a long or short period, have had occasion to consider the ques- 
tion of Indian administration in all its manifold forms and bearings. On the basis of 
such practical knowledge and experience, the members of those bodies here assembled 
reaffirm it is their judgment and belief that a civil department of the government, 
sustained by the moral and religious sentiment of the people, constitutes the true and 
proper agency under whose care this great work of humanity should be performed. 

"2. In respect to lands not already held in fee by tribes, bands, or individuals, it 
is our conviction that legislation for the allotment of lands in severalty and in fee to 
Indians sufficiently advanced in knoAvledge and industry, under proper temporary 
safeguards against alienation, and with proper provisions securing the rights and 
interests of neighboring whites, is indispensable to the progress of civilization. 

"The Indian is a man, and to make him industrious he must have and enjoy the 
rewards of his industry. He can never have hon)e or property without the essential 
right here solicited. This measure urged by the Board of Indian Commissioners, and 
by the present and previous Commissioners of Indian Atfairs, in the years 1868, 1876, 
1877, and 1878, seems to us fundamental in the solution of the Indian i)roblem, and is 
respectfully urged upon the consideration of the President and the Congress. 

"3. It is our conviction that Indians not by treaty or otherwise already placed 
under the administration of laws adapted to their condition should be brought under 
resjionsibility to law and be placed under the shield of law, as other men are, and that 
for this purpose courts should be instituted on the reservations, or be brought to. them 
at stated periods, for the protection of Indians in their rights, and for the punishment 
of their crimes. 

** No experiment has ever been tried of educating men Avithout law, nor is any such 
measure likely to attain success while human nature remains as it is. The absence of 
law and of courts of law is a felt evil of such magnitude as to call for the early atten- 
tion of the government. 

"4. It is our conviction that a common-school system for the education of Indian 
children aiul youth, adjusted to the necessities of the Indians as they are, and in which 
instruction in English shall be indispensable, is an immediate necessity, and is like- 
wise fundamental in the civilizing processes. The States and Territories furnish com- 
mon schools to children and youth under their jurisdiction. The United States have 
reserved jurisdiction over reservations and the population there residing. Why, then, 
should not the United States perform here the duty which in their own sphere is un- 
dertaken by the States and Territories? Such a system inaugurated and sustained, it 
is believed, would in a few years accomplish essential changes in Indian character and 
habits, and sot forward greatly the whole work of Indian civilization. 

" It is unquestionable that the Christian sentiment of the people of the United States 
turns strongly toward the Christianization and elevation of the Indian population. 
There are elements of civilization which the government only can provide. It alone 
can give title to lands ; it alone can spread over these peojile the authority and the 
benefits of law ; it alone can provide for them an adequate system of common schools. 

"These things done by the government, with fidelity to treaty stipulations, with 
reasonable present supplies of provisions, clothing, and agricultural implements, the 



128 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

day of wardship and dependence will pass away, and the problem of the destiny of 
these people will have been remitted to the operation of the natural laws of society. 
Once placed in a condition to take care of themselves, they Avill be left to do this under 
the same conditions as other men, and will stand or fall on their own responsibility. 
^'Already, by processes now in oi)eration, a large portion of the Indian population is 
advanced to a condition of self-support. Ten years ago there were tribes dependent 
on the government for large appropriations which now rec^uire nothing. Witli own- 
ership of lands, witli the authority and protection of law, and with education provided 
by the government, the religious sentiment of the country, through the various mission- 
ary organizations, will give them Christianity, and so supply the moral basis without 
which their elevation is impossible. 

''Signed by order and in behalf of the conference, and by its order committed to the 
Board of Indian Commissioners. 
''Washington, January 15, 1879. 

"SEWALL S. CUTTING, 
"M. E. STRIEBY, 
"JOHN C. LOWRIE, 
"BEN J. TATHAM, 
"SAME. L. JAISNEY, 

"Committee." 

Dr. Cutting. Mr. Chairman, when I was on my feet this morning alluding to these 
topics, I had in my mind vaguely the idea that I had seen these (juestions discussed 
before. I afterward remembered that it was in a report of the Comndssioner of Indian 
Affairs; and I have here only put into form for a statement by the committee consider- 
ations which, if it please this body to adopt, they may possibly desire to improve upon 
for publication. 

Mr. Tatham. I wish to say that in drawing up this document it was thought best 
to make no allusion to the Army, except by showing that the Interior Department is 
essential to the work. That is the idea of the committee. I am not quite unanimous 
with myself on the subject. What disposition is to be made of this report? 

Mr. KiXGSLEY. That will be as the coimnittee wish. I hope it may go out with all 
the indorsement and emphasis that this meeting can give. There are some things not 
in it that I could x)ut in, but I think it is to the point. I believe that Ave do more by 
magnifying our own office than in throwing dust at the other department. 

Colonel Adaik. I was not invited to come here, but I understand that the invitation 
was general, and I knew I should be among my friends here. I was one of the tirst 
men who agitated this peace jjolicy. I want to ask whether this is designed to affect 
the Indians of the Indian Territory. My reason is this: Myself and Colonel Porter 
have been delegated here from the Indian Territory to look after the interests of our 
j)eople, and they will be my pledge for having thus asked the question that I have. 
With regard to the Indians of the Indian Teiritory, the civilized tribes, the manner of 
portioning, surveying, and allotting their laud is x^rescribed by treaty stipulation. 
The treaty made in 1866 with the Cherokees provides that, whenever the council re- 
quests, the government will survey and allot our lands. I believe the treaties with 
the Creeks and Seminoles are silent on the subject, that being left to previous treaties. 
The land belongs to them and they have patents for it ; and I would like to know 
whether the provisions in that report will apply to our people. With regard to the 
first proposition of a transfer, our people generally are opposed to it. We have been 
fighting it two or three years with all our power. We coincide with that part of the 
report. But if the second proposition is to apply to our people, we shall interpose an 
objection and ask that our treaties be carried out. With the balance of the report we 
coincide; and if this bcdy is to adopt a series of resolutions, w^e hope you will keep to 
our treaty stipulations. We do not want to be compelled, in carrying out our treaties, 
to surrender anything that has been given us by compact. With regard to the latter 
part, I would say this: That part is well enough, if you mean the law regulating in- 
tercourse with the Indians. We protest against a change of government over us. We 
wish to retain our tribal goverument. We have a Avritten governujent like yours. 

The Chairman. The board understand the land belonging to the five tribes is theirs. 

Dr. Cutting. The report Avas not intended to apply to cases where provision is 
made by treaty. In that case it is already settled. 

Colonel Adair. That is the design of the paper, but it should be so expressed. 

Mr. Tatham. It is specified. 

Mr. Shippen. Should we not hear the honorable Commissioner before we act upon 
this paper? While I agree heartily with the purport of the report, i^articularly the 
first and last parts in regard to the matter of land, it seems to me questionable Avhether 
we should go into detail on so important a point as that does. That is a subject 
rather new to myself, and I should want some more information before committing 
myself. As I understand it, the report was that lands should be granted to Indians indi- 
vidually and they prevented from sequestrating. Might not that be a serious embar- 
rassment ? 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 129 

Dr. CUTTIXG. I think that if one had read the report of the Secretary on that sub- 
ject, he would bo likely to be satisfied that experience has demonstrated that the In- 
dians need protection of that character. 

The Chairman. The first thing is to give them to him. 

Colonel Adair. The Secretary's report is a very able one. "We have a system of 
lands which has shown itsolf to be very good. We cannot sell out our lands. We 
are in patriotism a unit. We have tried the individualizing of lands, and so have 
other tribes, and it has been a failure. We put a safeguard in the treaty, in which 
the government had to tell us that they would not sectionizo our lands till we got 
ready to do it. I know you all want to keep our treaties, and I only make this re- 
mark to call your attention to the treaty. Yon may read the Commissioner's report 
of last year, and you wiirfind an assertion that our Indians have made more progress' 
in one hundred years than the Britons did in five hundred years. That's a fact. 

Colonel Meaciiam. Might I say one word ? If we make this point emphatic, to re- 
iterate again what the Secretary said, we shall have the right solution of the Indian 
question. I understand the position of our friends in the Indian Territory. Till they 
have their lands allotted in severalty there is no peace for them, and there never will 
be. The most essential thing in the enunciation of the principles of this subject is a 
strict fulfillment to the letter of the treaties on these subjects. There is scarcely a 
treaty that does not provide for it. It is so in Oregon, and yet to-day the Umatilla 
Indian is in a worse condition than any other. They have no peace for their Jbeau- 
tiful land given them with no titles in severalty. The principle of giving the Indian a 
home by himself is the right one. Till the Indian has a home he can call his, there 
will be no settlement of the Indian question. If you give him a home without re- 
stricting him, five years will strike out half of them, and in twenty years less than 
10 per cent, will be holding their lands. 

The Chairman. The trouble is that the reservations are simply lands set apart by 
proclamation of the President. Congress can at any time attach the whole reserva- 
tion. 

Mr. Tatham. We had better not take up that subject, but go on with the regular 
business. 

Colonel Adair. I feel a deep interest in our people. Our friend made a remark j ust 
now that our reservations 

Dr. Cutting. That does not apply to land held in fee. 

The Commissioner of Indian Affairs. The remarks made by Colonel Adair I am 
glad to hear. In the first place, the civilized Indians we are not anxious about. It 
is those who are struggling up from below. The civilized Indians haA'e their terri- 
tory in fee. If the United States wants any part of it, they must buy it of them. In 
regard to law for the Indian reservations, the treaties of the five civilized tribes give 
them courts of law, and of course where we have courts there must be law. It does 
not interfere with their local aftairs. I understand that there is no objection by the 
Indians to the establishment of a United States court in the Indian Territoiy. We 
do desire to establish law on all the reservations outside of the civilized Indians, for 
the reason that at the present time they have no law. They have to redress their 
wrongs with their own hands, and of necessity there is no ax)peal except to the rifle. 
We Avant for the Indians who are struggling toward freedom better help than the 
Cherokees and Creeks and Chickasaws had. We want to make it easier for Indians 
to be civilized. All over the country there are Indian reservations set apart by treaty 
and executive order. We want on all these reservations to have a uniform law. It 
is a difficult thing to form. Good lawyers have given it up as impracticable. There- 
are still other gentlemen who are trying to formulate a code to present to Congress 
for its adoption, and I trust such a code may be formulated as shall answer every prac- 
tical purpose. 

Now, in regard to title to land, the great trouble has been that in the experiments 
that have been tried, the lands, after a short time, went into the hands of the specula- 
tors. Indians have sold their lands for five dollars. When they become citizens they 
are liable to taxation, and an increase of taxation likely to ensue will take away from 
them their land. We want to guard against all such things. The title, to be valua^- 
ble, must be inalienable for twenty-five years. In order to do that, we have framed a- 
bill, which will not apply to lands already patented. I think it will meet the approva I 
of friends present, and I think it will pass Congress. I have assurance of influential 
gentlemen on the coirunittee, and they say that they are ready to legislate on that 
I)oint now. The bill is not entirely perfect, but it covers all the possibilities that need 
to be coveretl, so far as we have learned from experience. 

Here the Commissioner read the bill. 

Mr. Roberts. Mr. Chairman, it is with great diffidence that I rise to make some 
objection to the form of this bill. I cannot conscientiously give my assent that it be 
passed in that form, in which it leaves the settlement of the quantity of land remain- 
ing in those reservations to future time to determine. The period prescribed iii: this. 
9ic 



130 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

1)111 is indefinite. It may be a hundred years before the reservations can be finally 
closed. Looking at the bill all the way through, it has been a view of mine that it 
was an important matter that there should be a period fixed at which the benefits de- 
rived from these reservations are portioned out to the present living population, and 
under most of the treaties the grant of land stipulated to be left them will be abun- 
dant for their supi^ort for years to come. Do that which is allowed there — 160 acres to 
the head of a fjimily and 80 acres to minors. But in most cases there would be a large 
proportion of these reservations that would remain unsettled for years to come. There 
is a great objection to this. That land remaining idle, the white people of this coun- 
try, especially in the new countries, where speculations are carried on to a large ex- 
tent, will become the possessors of it. I have no shadow of doubt of that. As settle- 
ments gather round an unsettled tract of Indian land, the public clamor will be 
brought to allow white people to settle it. In my judgment it would be best that, 
after the division has been made among the tribe, the balance of the land should be 
sold and be open to settlement, and the Indians get the money given for the sale of 
it. Let the Indians on their land to-day have each man his' farm, and he has but 
that. Without the education to manage it he will starve to death if he lias nothing 
to stock it with. He would be worse off than a white man in such a condition. If 
the rest of the land can be sold, and the money given to him to educate his children, 
he will do well. In ten years this law should be carried out. There is another point, 
and that is, leaving the discretionary x)ower in the hands of the Secretary of the In- 
terior. Judging from what has passed heretofore, such laws, though passed, have 
never been carried out. Therefore I should like this law to be imperative, and the 
exceptions and provisos to be in the bill, instead of leaving them to the Secretary. 

The Commissionp:r. I wish to say a word in explanation. Now, if the Indians are 
settled u]30u barren plains, the Secretary ought to exercise his judgment, and not locate 
them there. We do not want to put them on the poor part of the reservation. The 
.Secretary must select tlie best lands and put the Indians there. I must object to let- 
ting in the white people. There is land enough for them outside. We have another 
bill for the consolidation of Indian agencies. The object is to concentrate the tribes 
equally upon the reservations. We have in some places too much laud. We propose 
to sell that and pay the money into the Treasury for the use of the Indians. That 
proposition cannot be incorporated in this bill. This bill we can jmt through Congress 
'quicker than any other. The consolidation bill jirobably cannot be passed at this ses- 
>sion, but we hope to get this through. If we do, we shall provide for all these 
things that Mr. Roberts is anxious about. We must take the situation intelligently 
into consideration. We muet put friendly Indians together. Then we want to sell 
all the surplus lands. We can tell from the number of Indians how much laud we 
need, and the rest they would get interest on Avhen sold. 

Every year Congress is more and more unwilling to appropriate money for the In- 
dians. The appropriation three years ago was $7,000,000. They tell nie that only 
$4,700,000 will be appropriated this year. In this bill I think I told Mr. Roberts that 
one word might be modified to make it more positive. We can locate them on the 
reservations and save them from all taxation, &.c. We must locate them as comjiactly 
as possible, and then keep the white people out of it sacredly. They have no busi- 
ness there. The white men around the reservations will work in and outwit the In- 
dians in some way. lu this bill we give the Indians a jjrotectiou they never had be- 
fore. They can have a farm and everything, that cannot be taken away. In Michigan 
.and Wisconsin they all became paupers, because the white men managed to get their 
land away from them when the Indians were off it. The Indian may enter a home- 
stead and go off' to hunt, then a white man comes in and takes it away from him. 
By keeping the reservations sacred, reducing them in size to the wants of "the Indian, 
selling the remainder of the land and putting the money in the Treasury for their 
support, we think we will provide for them permanently. 

Mr. Tatham. I suppose this bill has been read as a matter of information. There- 
fore the subject is the document that has been presented. 

Mr. Roberts. The object was to call for discussion of a bill of this character, on 
which I hope that the religious bodies represented here should be able to unite ; that 
there should be a bill on which we could unite in presenting it to Congress, and if we 
«can do that in unity, I have contended that there is a power that can probably force 
this bill through. If we make any effort on the subject and are not united on it, it is 
probable that Congress would not pass the bill. Therefore I do not want my friend 
to cut down our liberty to discuss the question till Ave come to a basis on which we 
•can all agree. I have no special objection to make to this bill except 'what I have 
stated. The modification of the Commissioner, placing power in the hands of the Sec- 
Tetary, is all right, so that the power does not absolutely lie in him to check the law. 
Therefore we will pass over that. But whether this is the i»roper i>lace to discuss 
other matters in connection with this bill or not, I will say a few words further, on 
the subject of the consolidation of the agencies in regard to which a new law is pro- 
jiosed to be passed, by which some Indian reservations shall be disposed of. I was 
looking to this law to settle an important question in regard to Indian lands outside 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF IMDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 131 

of the Indian Territory. It should not be presented or left to a future generation 
to determine what shall be done with these reservations, because the white men 
are daily encroaching upon the reservations. All past experience has shown that the 
Indian reservation cannot exist for any great length of time in a civilized State, on 
account of the })olitical pressure brought to run these Indians out. It would not 
be good policy that a large part of the Territories should remain uncultivated, wait- 
ing for a generation to aiise, to keep them while they might be rendering service to 
the Indians by allowing them to be sold and the money devoted to their education. 

The Chairman. The Commissi<mer says he has a law which covers that i)oiut. 

Mr. KoBKKTS. I cannot exactly see another point, not exactly germane to this sub- 
ject, the question of consolidation. If these Indians are to be a part of our j)opula- 
tion, instead of consolidating them into masses, it is my opinion that the best way to 
make men of them is to scatter them everywhere. Give them their rights and lands 
with inalienable rights for years, and let thenj mingle in as any foreigners coming 
into this country, like the Mennonites, for instance. We can as well civilize the In- 
dians as we can take in the Russians and settle them in among us, but they must not 
be in too large bodies. 

Mr. Sthikby. I think this question of Indian civilization is one that we might ap- 
proach by analogy somewhat. My work among the freedmen is suggestive to my 
mind upon the sui)ject, and yet how nearly these two bodies can be compared is an 
open question. One thing that has become very apparent to us among the freedmefi. 
is, that to hold pieces of land is no great boon. Forty years ago Gerrit Smith gave a 
number of pieces of land in New York to a number of colored men. It was almost 
totally a failure. There was not capital enough or experience enough. He gave a 
lot and a cottage to several Avidows. He told me seven years after that he was weU. 
satisfied, and that he would hereafter give to women and not to men. 

Now, on another point: when bodies of ignorant men are thrown together, they do 
not do so well as when they are mingled with others. My observation among the 
freedmen entirely sustains JMr. Roberts on this point. Wherever there is a mass of 
them together they degenerate. Of all the problems that were suggested for the im- 
provement of this people, the most ridiculous was the idea of colonizing them into 
States by themselves. I believe they would sink down to the barbarism of Africa. It 
is really a very serious question how you can give to ignorant men, when genera- 
tions of expel ience and public sentiment have led them to be averse to industry — how far 
it is worth while to give them 160 acres of land and nothing else. The question in 
my mind is simply this, whether we have reached that point in the civilization of 
most of these roving tribes as to make these measures entirely timely. 

The Commissioner. The want of power is the only defect of this measure ; but I 
must answer Mr. Strieby in some particulars. These Indians are not in any sense 
analogous to the black men that Gerrit Smith undertook to raise up. AVe give them 
wagons, horses, seed, harness, &c. Now if under these conditions they cannot be civ- 
ilized, then they never can be. The state of things is entirely different. You cannot 
compare the freedmen with the Indians. The negro is civilized. We are trying to 
helj) the Indian of the present day to get along a little faster than the Creeks, &c., 
did in their day. It has taken them fifty years to become civilized. Civilization can- 
not be created in a day. It is a work of time. The five tribes of the Indian Terri- 
tory are in a state to support themselves. The wild Indians are not. We are giving 
them supplies continually. They want all the help we can give them. If with the 
reservation system and land allotted to them, &c., they cannot succeed, then I must 
admit that they are a failure. 

Dr. Cutting. I agree with the Commissioner that no analogy can be drawn from 
Gerrit Stnith's gift. I know all about that. The lands that he gave those negroes 
are from 1,700 to 2,000 feet in the air, in the midst of the Adirondacs, where no white 
man can live, and where, if he had given them a pension equal to half the gift, they 
could not have earned the other half. Those negroes were under the leadership of 
John Brown ; and there his sepulchre remains on the bleak hillside to this day. His 
name is on a large rock in the midst of the territory given to those negroes. There 
never was a greater mistake than Gerrit Smith's when he put those negroes in there 
to take care of themselves. 

Mr. Shippen. In regard to the assignment of lands, fixing the limit of acres, I ask 
the fiuestion Avith great deference, but I was struck with General Hatch saying that 
in Santa F<5 the soil is favorable to herding. Now, would they not need more land 
there than the bill gives them ? 

The Commissioner. The majority of the Indians must be engaged in agriculture; 
but a small number can find employment in herding. One or two herders can take 
care of large numbers of cattle, but agriculture will give support to all. The ques- 
tion is to make the Indi.ans support themselves. We have succeeded in that, only 
through such measures as these. 

The Chairman. A report went out a while ago that I thought we could civilize the 
Indians in five years. What I did say was, give us the money you give the Army, and 
we will civilize the Indians in 



132 REPOKT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Mr. KiXGSLEY. We thonj^lit the committee would not be able to report to-niglit. 
But as tliey have come, I don't know but that we should profitably spend our time in 
discussing a bill of that kind. It is one part of a scheme, but it makes part of a whole, 
which, in the main, covers Mr. Roberts's objection. He yields one point here, and the 
Commissioner tells us that the other bill covers the other point. 

The Chairman. The accompanying bill is designed to carry out the views of the 
Commissioner and Secretary, expressed in their report. 

Mr. KiXGSLEY. But if we are not to act upon this at all, I think we could not get 
up a much better bill, and I think it covers even Mr. Roberts's objection ; does it not, 
sir ? Or do I understand that you would limit it to persons now living ! 

Mr. Roberts. No ; I would divide the laud among the generation that is now living, 
and limit it there. I came here with the intention of expressing my opinion fully on 
the subject. I am prepared to support any bill that will give the Indians their lands 
upon their reservations ; but, at the same time, in presenting a bill to be carried 
through by us, all I wanted was to get the best bill that could be obtained. 

Mr. Farrish. It is exceedingly important that some act of that kind should be passed 
directly. Future legislation may be had as to the limitation of lands. I wcmld leave 
it to the President rather than to the Secretary of the Interior. I prefer that the 
President should have the authority to direct. 

Mr. Tatham. It seems to me that the details cannot be discussed here. It is emi- 
nently proper that the board should take it up and discuss it. But you see we have 
the committee that has brought forward this address. They had three x)oints in view. 
The bill only takes up one. AVe cannot discuss all these here to-night. The only 
(piestion we can discuss is the disposition of this document. If we are ready to indorse 
it that is about all we can do to-night. It seems to me that it should take the form of 
a memorial to Congress. It is of a general character and embraces the other bills. I 
would suggest, if it meets the views of this body, that it should be in the form of a 
memorial to Congress. 

Mr. Roberts. I do not think the bill has anything to do with the report brought by 
the connnittee. The bill was gotten up a year ago, but, through a defect in the com- 
mittees of Congress, it was never got before Congress in the shape Ave intended it 
should. This was with a view to making an amendment to these bills, and bringing 
them up in that form. 

The Commissioner. There is a gentleman here to-night who has made this question 
a practical study. He has been among the Indians, and he has derived informatioti 
from personal observation that could not be obtained in any other way. I would like 
to have you listen to him a few moments. 

Mr. Brooks. I would like to say that if it is not desired by the religious bodies here to 
sit and hear the discussion of this bill, that I could give my views to the Board of In- 
dian Commissioners, perhaps, at a time that would suit their convenience ; but if de- 
sirable, I will give them to-night. 

The bill which our friend Mr. Roberts refers to is one that was introduced last winter, 
the Senate bill 801. It is not really a bill for the allotment of lands to Indians, but 
allowing them to take homesteads on the lands which they now own. The treaties 
give the lands to the Indians. This bill proposed to allow them to take an allotment 
u])on the lands which the government gives them. It exposes them to all the dangers of 
taking a homestead ; the trial before registration, &c. If they take a homestead they 
have to pay a fee of $14. The office did not consider their bill judicious, and it, 
therefore, was withdrawn. 

In the first place, it is apparent to every one of you that the great danger to the In- 
dian arises from Congi'essional government. Everybody has noticed that as soon as 
civilization closes around a reservation, in almost every case the Indian has had to 
succumb. Now the first object that the bureau undertook to accomplish by this bill 
was to protect the Indians against Congress by giving them a title in fee in their lands, 
so that Congress could not step in and remove them ; so that the government could 
not take it except by condemning it and paying for it. To do this we thought it nec- 
essary to give to every Indian a selection upon his reservation, and give him a restricted 
patent. That we should give the Indian a title in fee simple has been suggested here 
to-night. Many difficulties will arise. Y»u may take the Indians in the State of Kan- 
sas, to illustrate this case. In this case patents were given to the Indians for their 
selection, with a restriction on the right of sale requiring the deeds to be approved by 
the Secretary of the Interior, The balance of lands were disposed of at public auction. 
Within five years after those lands had been allotted and patented, almost every In- 
dian in those tribes had parted with his land. He had conveyed it away. The deeds 
had been submitted and been ai)proved. In most cases a sufficient consideration was 
paid. The cause of this lies in a peculiarity of the Indian. He cannot retain money 
in his possession. I have had long experience with them, and I venture to say that 
there is not one Indian in a hundred that would not spend as much as you could give 
him in the next week. Now, these Indians sold their land. They were immediately 
thrown ux>on the communitj'. They were paupers. The State refused to j)rovide for 



REPORT OP THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 133 

hem. They could not earn their living, and what was their condition? They were 
thrown hack upon the government, and the government has heen obliged to set aside 
reservations for the Sacs and Foxes, Pottawatomies, Kickapoos, &c. ; and you see the 
whole of these tribes have been practically swept out of existence. There is another 
class of Indians, the Chippewas, in Michigan. Lands were given to them in fee sim- 
ple, and more than five-sixths of them sold their lauds before the allotments were ap- 
proved by this office. For these reasons it was deemed expedient, when this bill was 
drawn, to make the title inalienable, and to keep around these Indians the line of the 
reservation over which a white man cannot pass. 

Mr. RoBKiiTS. I think there has been no bill presented but what lands were made 
inalienable. The cases he mentions are not applicable. 

Mr. BiiooKS. No, sir; not exactly. But your bill proposes to dispose of the lands 
now held by the government for them. Now, in the event that the department should 
follow your suggestion, then the Indians occupy just the j)osition that those I have 
mentioned did a few years ago. 

Mr. lioBEiiTS. Did they ever have their lands that they could not alienate ? 

Mr. Brooks. They had them so that they could not alienate, except by consent of 
the department. In that case, Avithout the lines of the reservation about them, in all 
cases of the death of a parent, it is doubtful whether the limitation would attach. 
There is another question which leads the department to desire to keep the line of the 
reservation around the Indians. If the lands are covered by the reservation the State 
laws cannot attach to the lands, but if you divide the lands and you break up the res- 
ervation, you remove the reservation lines and the lands are subject to State laws. 

The Ciiair:max. Suppose they had the patent with no right to alienate for 25 years, 
could he not give a deed to alienate, which would be valid at the end of 2b years f 

Mr. Jeromk. Does this bill protect them in case a person dies before 25 years ? , 

Mr. Brooks. Yes, sir ; it does. 

Mr. Perry. I think we have tarried as long as we ought on this bill. We are all 
aiiaing at one point, and the bill is generally satisfactory, and I am willing to leave 
it with the men that have presented it. Let them get it up and go forward with the 
unity of this body. 

The Chairman. I suggest that we stoy) here and hear the committee. If they have 
made no additions, the question is upon its adoption. 

Dr. Cutting. I have made an alteration upon the words mentioned by Colonel Adair, 
in regard to the holding of lands in fee. (Read the amended clause.) 

The Chairman. The limitation then, should be to tribes of Indians not already 
holding lands in fee. 

Mr. Perry. It seems to be perfectly safe as it stands. 

Dr. Cutting. The committee was appointed to draw up some document which in 
some manner might be set before the public as an expression of the common sentiment 
of the ditierent religious bodies here assembled. The method of presenting it was not 
considered. 

The address was unanimously adojited. 

The Chairman. Shall the report be published as the board thinks best ? 

Mr. Tatham. It should go as a memorial to Congress. I would move, and it has 
occurred to me whether it would not be well to finish it uj) in somewhat this way, that 
we consider unnecessary the proposition to relegate the interior of our community 
over to the care of any other department. 

Mr. KiNGSLEY. It strikes me, Mr. Chairman, that there is a good deal involved in 
this matter. It is important that this paper be addressed to the President or to Con- 
gress. And then it comes before the public ; they are the representatives of the whole 
public. 

Mr. Kingsley's suggestion was unanimously adopted. 

Mr. Jerome. I asked the Commissioner to furnish copies of his bill, and to ask Mr. 
Brooks to meet us to-morrow. 

The Commissioner. I want to give you a few facts, very curious and suggestive : 

In the rear of General Howard's command a woman was found scalped. Civilians 
cared for her. 

In a fight with Cheyennes, one man and eleven women and children were killed, 
and thirteen women and children were made prisoners. 

A great many horses, and all the women and children were killed in a fight with 
the Bannocks. 

Dr. CurriNG. Does that refer to the fight last summer ? 

The Commissioner. It refers to the fight in Idaho witliin a year, with the Bannocks. 
It was the closing of the war in August. This was after the war h;ul closed. These 
reports came to us from the War Department. You are all familiar also Avith that 
last escape from Fort Robinson. Quite a number of women and children were killed. 
It is a matter of frequent occurrence. It seems time that we stopped killing women 
and children. If we fight the men, that is one thing, but we are not supposed to war 



134 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

against women and children . I want to give these items, because gentlemen might 
not meet them in any other place. I will give you a copy of them if you Avish. 

Mr. Tatham asked how the memorial was to' be sent. 

The Chairmax. I hope it will be sent by the committee and such others as they wish 
to unite with themselves. It had better go from outside of the Board of Indian Com- 
missioners. 

Mr. Tatiiam. Would it be well to have all the representatives here present ? Shall 
the committee send in behalf of the meeting ? I would make that motion. 

The motion was unanimously adopted. 

Dr. Cutting. I do not know, sir, how that passage about women could be introduced 
into a memorial, but I would like to have that left discretionary with the committee. 

(Agreed to.) 

And I would like further to say that in the original form of the report it was ex- 
pressly stated that this meeting would regard a transfer to the Army as calamitous, 
for the reason that the Army is not used for the performance of duties of this kind. 
It was suggested by one of the members of the committee that it would be better to 
set forth the fitness of the civil departnuMit, without saying anything about the Army. 

Mr. KiNGSLEY. I took occasion when called before the conm'iittee on the transfer to 
give my views in this form. I said that I thought they ought to determine what their 
ulterior purpose was for the Indian. If they were to be molded into the community 
under law, that was one thing ; if to be driven off, that was another thing. They 
should adapt their means to the end. I still hold that the service belongs in four dif- 
ferent departments, which are in every sense civil: educational, industrial, mercantile, 
and domestic. The first means sitting down, and teaching children to read, write, 
&c. ; the next means teaching them to use the plow, hoe, &c., looking to their sup- 
port. Mercantile was the handling of their supplies. Fourth was the domestic life 
of the Indian, and I held that the military was unsuited to this work. You can take 
up these points and cook them as you like. 

The Ciiaiuman. Perhaps I had better say that I have been called home by a telegram, 
announcing the death of a grandson. We must have to-morrow morning for the busi- 
ness of the board. If the gentlemen of the conference desire another meeting it can 
be had to-morrow afternoon; but I judge that the board will need all to-morrow 
morning. 

Dr. CuTTiXG. If there is to be no further meeting, this committee should be instructed 
as to what they should do with this document after they have signed it. 

The Chairman. Our secretary Avill see that it is presented in proper form. 

Dr. Cutting. Shall it then be handed to the board ? 

The Chairman. Mr. Stickney will take charge of it. 

Dr. Cutting. In the form of an address to the President and Congress? 

The Chairman. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tatham. Perhaps the committee had better have it printed, and remodel it 
somewhat. 

The conference then, at 10 o'clock p. m., adjourned sine die. 



LIST OF INDIAN AGENCIES ASSIGNED TO THE SEVERAL RELIGIOUS 

BODIES. 

Friends. — Great Nemaha, Omaha, Winnebago, Otoe, and Santee, in Nebraska, and 
Pawnee, in the Indian Territory. B. Rmh Boherts, Sandy Sjmrig, Aid. 

Friends (Orthodox). — Pottawatomie and Kickapoo, in Kansas ; Quapaw, Osago,Sac 
and Fox, Wichita, Kiowa and Comanche, and Cheyenne and Arapaho, in the Indian 
Territory. Dr. James E. Bhoades, Germantown, PMiadelphia, Pa. 

Methodist. — Hoopa Valley, Round Valley, and Tule River, in California; Yakama, 
Neah Bay and Quinaielt, in Washington Territory ; Klamath and Siletz, in Oregon ; 
Blackfeet, Crow, and Fort Peck, in Montana ; Fort Hall and Lemhi, in Idaho ; and 
Mackinac, in Michigan. Bev. Br. J. M. Beid, secretary Missionary Society, Methodist 
Episcopal Church „ 805 Broadway, New York City. 

Catholic. — Tulalip and Colville, in Washington Territory; Grand Ronde and Uma- 
tilla, in Oregon ; Flathead, in Montana ; and Standing Rock and Devil's Lake, in 
Dakota. General Charles Ewing, Catholic commissioner, Washington, 1). C. 

Baptist. — Union (Cherokees, Creeks, Clioctaws, Cliickasaws, and Seminoles), in the 
Indian Territory ; and Nevada, in Nevada. Bev. S. S. Cutting, D. D., secretary American 
Baptist Home Missionary Societ'u, Astor House, New York City. 

Presbyterian. — Abiquiu, Navajo, Mescalero Apache, Southern Apache, and Pueblo, 
in New Mexico ; Nez Perc6, in Idaho ; and Uintah Valley, in Utah. Bev. Dr. J. C. 
L'>wrie, seoretary Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, 
23 Centre street, Netv York City. - 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 135 

Congregational. — GreonBayandLaPointe, in Wisconsin; Red Lake, in Minnesota; 
Sissetou and Fort Berthold, in Dakota ; and S'Kokomish, in Washington Territory. 
Jiev. Dr. M. E. Str'whi/, aecretary American Missionary Association, 56 Eeade street, New York 
City. 

Reformed. — Colorado River, Pima and Maricopa, and San Carlos, in Arizona. Bev. 
Dr. J. M. Ferris, secretary Board of Missions of Eeformed Church, 34 Vesey street, Neio York 
City. 

Protestant Episcopal. — W^liite Earth, in Minnesota ; Crow Creek, Lower Brul6, 
Cheyenne River, Yankton, Rosebud, and Pine Ridge, in Dakota ; Ponca, in Indian 
Territory ; and Shoshone, in Wyoming. Eev. Eohert C. Eogers, secretary Indian Commis- 
sion of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 30 Bible Home, New York City. 

Unitarian. — Los Pinos and White River, in Colorado. Eev. Eush E. Shippen, secre- 
tary American Unitarian Association, 7 Tremont Place, Boston. 

Free-Will Baptist. — Leech Lake, in Minnesota. Eev^ A. H, Chase, secretary Free-^ 
Will Baptist Home Missionary Association, Hillsdale, Mich. 

United Presbyterian. — Warm Springs, in Oregon. Eev. John G. Brown, D. D., 
secretary Home Mission Board United Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Christian Union. — Malheur, in Oregon. Eev. J. S. Eowland, Salem, Oreg. 

Evangelical Lutheran. — Southern Ute, in Colorado. Eev. J. G. Butler, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS, WITH THEIR POST-OFFICE 

ADDRESS. 

A. C. Barstow, chairman, Providence, R. I. 

E. M. Kingsley, 30 Clinton Place, New York City. 

Clinton B. Fisk, 3 Broad street, New York City. 

David H. Jerome, Saginaw, Mich. 

John D. Lang, Vassal borough, Me. 

W. H. Lyon, 483 Broadway, New York City. 

B. Rush Roberts,. Sandv Spring, Md. 
Charles Tuttle, 32 Park Place, New York City. 

William Stickney, secretary, NewY^ork avenue, corner Fifteenth street, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



136 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 






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REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 139 

The foUowiiif? letters of the Secretary of the Interior are puT)li8he(l to show the man- 
ner ill which charges are often nisulo against the integrity and efficiency of Indian 
agents and the facility with Avhich such accusations are explained when made in a 
specitic form. 

The lettei"s of the Secretary reveal a prudence and watchfulness in his administra- 
tion that do him as much honor as the masterly ability with which he defends it. 

Department of the Interior, 

Office of i'he Secretary, 

Noremler 29, 1878. 

Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your lette'r of the 23d instant, 
transmitting indorsements of Lieutenant-General Sheridan and General Sherman on a 
comnumication addressed by me to the Secretary of War, under date of October 7, 1878. 
This correspondence, the necessity of which I sincerely regret, grew out of the follow- 
ing facts: On August 27, 1878, P. B. Hunt, United States Indian agent, informed Major- 
General Pope that, on September 1, the Kiowa and Comanche Agency would be consol- 
idated with the Wichita Agency, and made the request that a company of cavalry 
should be stationed at the Wichita Agency "to keep the more turbulent Indians in 
])lace," and added that "by such an arrangement the officer stationed there can make 
all inspections of beef and flour, thereby avoiding the weekly ride from Fort Sill to 
the Wichita Agency as heretofore." 

General Pope forwarded this request to Lieutenant-General Sheridan with his disap- 
proval, and Lietenant-General Sheridan put uj)on it the following indorsement : "I 
fully indorse the views of General Pope, and I am well satisfied, after an experience of 
more than twenty years, that the principal objection to troox>s at Indian agencies away 
from military posts has for its main motive a desire to cheat and defraud the Indians 
by avoiding the i^reseuce of ofl&cers who would naturally see and report it." Against 
this indorsement I remonstrated in a letter to the War Department under date of 
October 7, 1878, and now Lieutenant-General Sheridan and General Sherman state in 
their indorsements, transmitted to me November 23, that they have been on the spot 
themselves, and that the water and soil at Fort Sill are excellent, and the buildings as 
good as at the Wichita Agency; that the saving of moneys to be accomplished by the 
consolidation of the agencies will be a few hundred dollars only, while the removal of 
the military post from Fort Sill to the Wichita Agency, which would follow the con- 
solidation, would cost $100,000, and that "the President, in giving the order for the 
consolidation, and the Secretary of the Interior and the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs, in advising it, must have been deceived by an Indian agent." 

Without taking notice of the other personal points in the two indorsements, I beg 
leave to again reply that the present Indian agent at the consolidated Kiowa and 
Comanche and Wichita Agency. has had absolutely nothing to do with the consolida- 
tion, either by advice or otherwise, since he was appointed after the consolidation had 
been determined upon. That measure was ordered not, as General Sherman and Lieu- 
tenant-General Sheridan seem to suppose, hastily, at the request of an Indian agent, 
for that is not the way business is done in this department ; in fact it had been under 
consideration for years. On October 10, 1872, Capt. Henry E. Alvord, commissioner 
to the Kiowas, Comanches, and other tribes in the western part of the Indian Terri- 
tory, instructed by this department to visit and inquire into the condition of Indian 
tribes and their agencies in the Indian Territory, reported as follows : 

" This agency is on the west bank of Cache Creek, about a mile and a half from Fort 
Sill, Avhicli is farther up the stream, at its Junction with Medicine Bluff Creek. * * * 
A change in the location of this agency demands the first attention. It never should 
have been placed where it is. The agency and the military post with their attach- 
ments monopolize all the jvood, water, and grass of that vicinity, making it out of the 
question for any Indians, no matter how well disposed, to remain near by. The agency 
is also so located with reference to the post and the best camping grounds of the reser- 
vation that in passing from the latter to and from their agency the Indians are com- 
pelled to pass through or just around the fort, which is very undesirable. Consequently 
no Indians of the reserve are located within a day*s march of the agency, nor have any 
been nearer for a year or more. If the agency is to be merely a temporary depot for 
distribution of rations and goods, it might do where it is ; but even in that case it 
ought to be of easier access. But, regawling the agency as a permanent nucleus for 
an Indian settlement, which I consider its main object, it sliould be located with refer- 
ence to abundance of wood, water, grass, and fertile land in its immediate vicinity. 
* ** * No other reservation visited needs so much the effect of having its agency in 
the right place, yet no other has been so misplaced. To this important matter I ask 
innnediate attention, referring to other recommendations to the same effect already 
forwarded to the department." 

Special Commissioner Alvord recommended for the location of the new agency a 
position on Chandler Creek on the road north. In the same year Superintendent 
Hoag expressed himself in his roport to the Commisaiouer of Indian Affairs as follows: 



140 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

'' By reason of influence, irresistibly evil, l)ut little progress lias been made in this 
agency ; the large military post with its surroundings i>resents a barrier to Indian 
civilization. No Indian agency should be permitted at or near a fort, especially where 
the garrison comprises a formidable force. Its demoralizing influence upon the Indian 
in itself is reason sufficient for their separation. * * * That no more time be spent 
or treasure lost, returning no beneficial results, I recommend the removal of the Kiowa 
Agency to a suitable location some ten to fifteen miles northeasterly of its present loca- 
tion, apprehending the War Department will take the improvements at their value, 
providing the latter department do not find it expedient to remove the post to the Red 
River. In the latter event, the agency would be well located." 

In 1873, Mr. Lawrie Tatum, who had been one of the first and worthiest agents 
appointed under the ''peace policy" of President Grant, and who resigned in 1873, 
expressed himself in a letter written after his resignation, and referred by President 
Grant to this department, in the following language: ''In reply to your inquiry as to 
the eftect produced by Fort Sill being located near the Kiowa and Comanche Indian 
Agency, I have to state, from four years' experience, that it is decidedly injurious to 
the effective working of said agency. The agency should be so located that the 
Indians could not only camp, but those who are ready to farm could have their fields 
also near to the agency, and thus give an opportunity for the agent and his employes 
to daily exert a moral and Christian influence with the Indians. This, however, is 
excluded by the proximity of the mili tary post to the agency, for the reason that if 
the Indians are camped near to the soldiers the latter will frequently, and sometimes 
in large numbers, be in the Indian camps both day and night, thus more than counter- 
acting all the good the agent is likely to exert. I am glad, however, to be able to 
state in this connection that the officers, so far as my knowledge or belief extends, 
have not been guilty of these irregularities, and would if they could control their 
men, but they cannot. On several occasions, when the Indians were camped near the 
agency, the commanding officer sent out a i)arty to arrest such persons as were im- 
properly in the Indian camps. On one of these occasions there were seventeen soldiers 
picked up there after nine o'clock in the evening." 

I quote these statements not without a certain diffidence. I would attach some 
weight to them did I not remember that a casual remark made in conversation in the 
presence of several high military officers, by the present Commissioner of Indian Af- 
fairs, alluding to reports about similar things at another Indian agency, called forth 
from those military officers voluminous reports accompanied by indorsements couched 
in the severest invectives against the Commissioner, and promptly published in the 
newspapers, all intending to vindicate the remarkable chastity of the private soldiers 
in the Regular Army of the United States as compared with civilians. 

The question whether the removal of the Kiowa and Comanche Agency from Fort 
Sill would be desirable, engaged also the attention of the Board of Indian Commis- 
sioners — a board composed of gentlemen of high character and standing in society, in- 
trusted by law with supervisory powers. This board sent out its own agents to exam- 
ine the condition of the Indian tribes in the Indian Territory, and received advice from 
them in favor of the consolidation. They also addressed a request to Agent Haworth, 
at that time in charge of the Kiowa and Comanche A<^ency, but who afterwards re- 
signed, to express his opinion upon the subject, and received the following reply : 

"There are many reasons why this agency should have a change of location, and none 
that I know of why it should not. At i)resent it is scattered over a wide area. The 
commissaries, in addition to being depots for subsistence stores and annuities, serve as 
residence and office for agent, and mess-house for commissary employes. They were 
built a few years ago, under contract, by the military, nearly all, including shingles, 
of cotton- wood, which is now so badly decayed and warped as to require props to keep 
them from falling down. I regard them as unsafe. They are situated on the military 
reservation, about one mile from the post of Fort Sill. The*other buildings, including 
the school-house, doctor's house, mechanics' houses and shops and mill, are one and 
three-foiirths miles south from the commissaries ; the ftirm-house about one and a quarter 
miles southeast from the shops, &c., while the beef-corral and ranch is about three 
miles north from the commissaries. The mill and doctor's house might be ti'ansferred 
to the military, who are now without a mill, theirs having been burned down some 
time ago. The location of the agency building is especially bad, on account of Avater, 
which cannot be had by digging, the fact having been thoroughly tested, all the sup- 
ply having to be hauled from Cache Creek, the waters of which in summer are very 
impure and. unhealthy. The agency buildings being farther down stream than the 
post, have the benefit of the filth which the ereek collects from it. Last year, those of 
the Indians who encamped on Cache Creek suffered much more from sickness and death 
than those who camped at other places, and in order to remain near the agency a large 
part of them had to camp on it, as they are not allowed to locate on Bluff" Creek, from 
. which the post gets its water, on account of rendering it impure and unhealthy for the 
post people. 

"Bluff Creek has its head or source in spring near Mount Scott, and flows into Cache 



REPORT OF THE BOAliD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 141 

Creek at the post above the agency. This year the Indians are unwilling to encamp 
on Cache Creek, giving as a reason its nnhealthiness. Our location is now only 
a night's ride or drive from Red River, the Texas line, hence it is very easy of access 
l)y tlie thieves and desperadoes who infest that section. They can come in and steal 
a herd of ponies, and by the time tlie fact is ascertained, and a detail of soldiers ready 
to pnrsne them, they are safe across Red River, and very seldom are captnred, or the 
stock recovered, thongli all vigilance and i>romptness that can he are vised. General 
Mackenzie, (!onnnanding this post, has responded very yiromptly and used every exer- 
tion in endeavoring to ntcover the stock stolen, and to the location more than any other 
canse may be attributed the tailure of success. Since the Indians have been required 
to encamp near the post, their loss in stock stolen has amounted to a very large number. 

"The consolidation would remove the agency thirty-four miles farther north, and 
leave the post between it and Red River. If a telegraph line were established from 
here to that i)oint, when the stock were stolen a timely notification here might enable 
them to intercept and recover. The best portion of this reservation lies nearer to the 
Wichita Agency than to this ; the Washita River, which is the northern line of this, 
flows within a few hundred yards of that agency ; its valley is tine land and does not 
sufter from drought as much as this region of country, the rainfall being much oftener 
along that river. The valley of the Little Washita is very fine laud, and is nearer 
that agency than this. The ultimate object being the good of these people, that end 
should be adopted which bids fair to accomplish most for them. They are now anxious 
for homes where they can begin to gather around them those little comforts which are 
essential. Many of them, I believe, fully realize the inevitable that is before them, 
and are anxious to commence the new manner of living. Houses and fields should be 
made for them, and great pains should be taken to make good selections. Their 
nomadic habits being broken up by fixed abodes, their civilization Avould be rapid, 
8uri>rising even to their most sanguine friends. All these matters could be looked to 
from that agency as well as any other location, and need not conflict with the Indians 
of that agency, or the duties to them, their territory being all on the other side of the 
river. There is no question in my mind about the necessity of a new location of this 
agency. The Indians are anxious for it and earnestly petition for it to be done." 

In consequence of such information received by them from several sources, the Board 
of Indian Commissioners, on August 9, 1876, passed a resolution recommending "that 
the Kiowa and Comanche Agency be consolidated with the Wichita Agency as early 
as i>racticable." In 1876 and 1877, the superintendent of the Central superintendency 
and the chief clerk of the Indian Office made an inspection of the agencies in the 
Indian Territory, and the report refers to the Kiowa and Comanche Agency in the 
following language : 

" 2d. That the agency be immediately removed to some other point ^n the reserva- 
tion. The proposed removal has nothing of novelty. It has been the subject of re- 
peated and concurrent recommendations from the regular and special agents of the 
service since the civil agents have had any position in the management of these In- 
dians. The erection, subsequent to the location of the agency, of the large post of 
Fort Sill, which makes heavy drains upon the grazing and water facilities of the 
neighborhood, has seriously curtailed all the former advantages of the site, while the 
disadvantages arising from the proximity of the troops to the Indians — disadvantages 
which cannot be wholly removed even by the hearty co-operation so liberally shown 
by the officers at this post throughout its whole history — add greatly to the difficulties 
of the situation. 

" Were it not that by long custom these Indians had come to regard Texas as a legit- 
imate subject of plunder and raiding, I should recommend, from all the information 
obtainable, that the agency be located south of Fort Sill, on some of the streams which 
feed the Red River. The land there is unquestionably as fertile as and nearer a market 
than any other available. It is, however, but a very few years since Satanta sent a 
message to the President to the effect that if he did not want the Indians to raid in Texas 
he nmst move Texas farther away, and the memory and' influence of such leadership 
are i)robably not yet forgotten. The move should, therefore, be made in the opposite 
direction. If Indians entirely peaceable could be settled upon the Red River, and the 
Kiowtis, Comanches, and Apaches receive suitable remuneration for the lands thus 
occupied, such location would prove mutually advantageous. During my stay at the 
agency I spent one day in examining a site which had often been proposed for the 
agency, and which would be entirely satisfactory to the Indians — a place on the north- 
ern side of .Mount Scott, about 12 miles northwest from Fort Sill. This proposed site 
for the agency is favored by Agent Haworth and General Hatch, and was reported to 
me by Messrs. Maltby and Batte, both of good judgment, and having large acquaintance 
with all parts of the reservation, as, in their opinion, the most suitable within any mod- 
erate distance of Fort Sill. Here is an abundance of pure water from MedicineLodge 
Creek, and rather more timber than is usual in that section. Much of this timber, 
however, is postoak and blackjack, and of little value except as fircAvood, though 
perhaps enough could be obtained for the erection of the agency buildings. The 



142 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

land, too, is not of the best, the substratum of hard-pan often coming too near 
the surface. All the available land near the agency would thus of necessity be 
taken up for agency and school purposes. Waiving nil those objections, how- 
ever, there is another serious one, viz, that the Wichita Mountains, of which 
Mount Scott is the most prominent peak, entirely cut off the southwest wind, from 
which, as the i)re vailing wind of summer, comes the only relief from the intense heat, 
while, on the other hand, there is no protection whatever from the 'northers,' which 
come so suddenly and with such intense cold during the winter. Indeed, the agency 
thus located, on the south side of a valley three or four miles wide, stretching east and 
west, would be especially exposed to winds from the north. These 'northei^s' are 
peculiar to this longitude. It is of record that during one of them the mercury in- 
dicated 30° below zero at the Wichita Agency. Were there similar advantages of 
land, wood, and water upon the southern side of the mountain, I should recommend 
the location of the agency there; but water and timber are both lacking there. 
While at the Wichita Agency, I went some eighteen or twenty miles up the Washita 
River, and am satisfied that a j)lace combining all the essentials of water, wood, soil, 
protection from cold, and accessibility, could be found near the site of old Fort Cobb. 
It seems to be the general impression that the raius in the Washita Valley are more 
regular and steady than those njjon the smaller streams, either north or south of it. 
Certain it is that the cixjps in the Washita bottoms nuiy be depended upon with much 
more safety than elsewhere. Whether this superiority is due to an excess of rain, as 
is the current jwpular belief, or rather to the fact that there is less of hard-pan upon 
the Washita, is a question which I am not competent to determine. If the latter 
hypothesis be true, the superiority of the W^ashita is properly and readily attributable 
to the fact that the soil there absorbs more of the rainfall, Avhich in a hard-pan soil 
runs off readily, and at the same time permits the moisture from below, which a sub- 
stratum of hard-pan abuts oft', to feed the vegetation. But, this speculation aside, the 
actual superiority of the Washita for agricultural purposes is untiuestioned." 

The report exx)resses itself also as follows about the buildings on the Kiowa and 
Comanche Agency: 

"The agent's office and his private apartment are located in opposite ends of one 
of the two commissary buildings. These buildings staiid upon the military reserva- 
tion, and about one mile southeast of Fort Sill. They are two hundred feet in length 
by thirty feet in Avidth, and are i)arallel to and about fifty feet distant from each other, 
the space between them being inclosed by a fence at either end. One end of one of 
them is used as a stable for the agent's teams, and the remaining space, not used for 
mess-room and sleeping-rooms for the connuissary employ<$8, is devoted eutirely to the 
storage and issuance of annuity goods and sux)plies. They were built in 1867, for the 
Indian service, at a time when the military authorities were in charge of the Indians 
at this point, and cost, as I am informed, .$17,000. If they were ever safe or suitable 
for their present use, that time has long passed. The frames are light, there are few 
if any mortise-joints, and the buildings are kept from falliug to the ground only by a 
complete system of props, x>iaced in position by the present agent. Indeed, in spite 
of the outside assistance thus furnished, the frame of one of them leans outward more 
than a foot from a plumb line. The roofs are in many places leaky, while the sides, 
being of cotton wood, are so shrunk and w^arped as to afford no protection against the 
driving storms of snow, rain, and sand which prevail. General John P. Hatch, com- 
manding at Fort Sill, to whom I am indebted for much of courtesy and valuable infor- 
mation, told me that if these buildings had been directly in the line of a * norther ' 
which struck the post a few days before my arrival he had no doubt they would have 
been blow^n dowm." 

The |)resent chief clerk of the Indian Bureau, Mr. Leeds, was formerly in the em- 
ploy of the Board of Indian Commissioners, and was sent by them on a tour of inspec- 
tion to the Indian agencies in the Indian Territory. He then verbally reported to the 
board, and repeats now his oxiinions in a communication to the Commissioner of In- 
dian Affairs, as follows : 

'•My two visits at the agency (1876-77) included a period of more than six weeks. 
The commissary buildings were miserable structures. They were kept from falling by 
heavy timber props placed slantwise on the outer sides. The cotton wood sheathing and 
shingles were warped and shrunken, and afforded but a partial protection from rains, 
snows, and sand-storms. It was necessary to cover the supplies within the buildings 
to X)rotect them. I fouud the building in a dangerous condition, notwithstanding the 
bracing which had been done. The roof w^as liable to fall at any time as a result of 
the faulty construction of its supports. At the north end of the easterly building w^ero 
five small rooms partitioned oft* for the agent's dwelling, and at the south end was a 
room where the Indians congregated and held councils on the days when rations were 
issued to them ; it was also used for an ofiice. At the south end of the westerly build- 
ing, rooms were partitioned off for the use of the employes, and at the north end there 
was a room for annuity goods, and a stable. In each building fires were kept burning, 
and b3caus3 of the dry and intiamraable material there was constant danger of total loss 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 143 

of the year's supply of annuity ^oods and subsistence stores. The structures might be 
properly characterized as shanties. These buildings stood a mile or more from the fort 
upon the military reservation. The other buildings were situated from a mile and a half 
to two miles distant from the commissary building, and some were two miles distant from 
each other ; the cattle corral was four miles from the agency in an opposite direction. 
The cattle corral was removed after the first report was made. The structures were 
of but little value excepting the small dwelling occupied by the physician, and a school- 
house, the latter too small to meet the present requirements of the service. If the 
agency were continued at that point, there would be needed the following new build- 
ings : A dwelling for the agent, a commissary building, three houses for employes, a 
school-house, a stable, and a hospital; all of which would cost from ^17,000 to ^20,000. 
As to the propriety of erecting new buildings at the same location, I found that 
each year, since 1870, the location of the agency had been complained of, and its 
removal urged. The buildings were so near the fort that the Indians did not camp in. 
the vicinity of the agency. I was informed that their disinclination was due to the 
fact that the soldiers could not be kept out of their tepees. The commissaiy build- 
ings were situated on ground much lower than the fort, and there was constant com- 
plaint and warning of the malarial character of the country near by, and between it 
and the other buildings. The water in the well at the agency was plentiful but unfifc 
for driuking purposes, and during all the time that I was there, water was brought 
from Medicine Bluft'Creek, some two miles distant. The water of Cache Creek, which 
runs near the agency after it has passed the military post and become defiled, was 
used by the Indians to their great injury and dissatisfaction. Wood for agency pur- 
poses is fast disappearing from the vicinity of the agency, because of its consumption 
at the post. The whisky-shop at the post was in full blast, and drunken men were to 
be seen on each occasion that I visited it. A sale of condemned property at the post 
brought buyers from Texas, who arrived in themoniiug and left at night, with Indian 
ponies which they had stolen. The scattered locations of the buildings, and the haul- 
ing of wood and water, added at least one thousand dollars annually to the running ex- 
penses of the agency. It seemed to be unwise not to place more Indians upon the 
territory lying between the Wichita and the Kiowa and Comanche agencies, but it 
did not seem to be wise to move the Wichitas. Many of them had broken land and 
conmienced farming, and were producing good crops. As good buildings, far superior 
to those at the Kiowa Agency, were already in use at the Wichita Agency, and there 
were but 1,200 Indians there, and some eight to ten thousand dollars would be saved 
annually by consolidating the two agencies, it seemed to be very desirable that 
the Wichita Agency should be made to do service for both agencies. As the In- 
dian settlements were located from five to twenty miles southward, westward, and 
northwesterly from the agency and military post, there did not seem to be any good 
reason for not changing the encampments of such as were southwest and west to loca- 
tions fifteen or twenty miles north of Fort Sill. 

"It seemed desirable that the Indians should be located further than they were from 
the Texas border, and that they might as well go 20 miles northward toward the 
W^ichita Agency to get their supplies as to go 20 miles eastward to the Kiowa j^nd 
Comanche Agency. The protection to either Texans or Indians, by reason of the loca- 
tion of the post, seemed to be scarcely worth mentioning. The losses of Indian ponies 
by theft were continually recurring. With Indians 60 to 80 miles from the border and 
the post half-way between the Wichita Agency and Texas line, there seemed to be a 
better chance for intercepting any raiding parties of Indians than with the Indians 
but half that distance from the border and between Texas and the post. Another fact 
which seemed worthy of being taken into account was the large saving that might be 
made by the Indians hauling their own annuity goods and supplies. It did not seem 
possible to set them at such work over the route from Caddo to the Kiowa and 
Comanche Agency for various reasons, among others the fact that the road crosses the 
Washita where it is often wide, deep, and dangerous, and is the cause of great delay 
and expense. The sum paid for transportation to contractors was about $10,000 an- 
nua,lly, and one-half of this amount was to be saved to the government by their doing 
their own transportation. The first year the Indians were to be paid for the services 
of themselves and ponies by furnishing them with wagons and harness. For the 
reasons herein set forth it seemed desirable that the consolidation of the two agencies 
shouhl be made. As matter of fact the consolidation of the agencies has thus far 
resulted in saving to the government an outlay of $20,000 for new buildings, and 
a reduction of the annual expense from salaries of employes and agent of $9,800, 
which sum at the government rate of interest is the equivalent of about $250,000 
capital. Next year and thereafter there will be a further saving of $5,000 on transpor- 
tation, which sum is the equivalent of $125,000 capital, thus making a sum total oi 
$375,000." Thus it appears that the information from which the consolidation of the 
Kiowa and Comanche and the Wichita agencies appeared highly tlesirable, was 
derived from persons who had not only visited the locations themselves and seen 
what was to be seen with their own eyes, but some of whom had spent several years 



144 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

tliere, ami could ftive an opinion baaed upon long experience. Amonoj these persons 
were not only Indian agents, but two successive superintendents and other gentlemen 
sent out for such inspection by the department directly and by the Boaud of Indian 
Commissioners. Their opinion is absolutely unanimous. The case then stands thus : 
General Sheiidan asserts that the buildings of the Kiowa and Comanche Agency are as 
good as those at the Wichita Agency ; the fact is, that the main building may be ex- 
pected to fall down at any moment. Already, in 1870, Agent Tatum rep(n-ted: ''The 
commissary buildings erected during the i)ast year under the supervision of the mili- 
tary department, and transferred to me on the'lsfc of the Seventh month last, are both 
very frail and defective ; one of them has leaned 7^ inches in a story of 10 feet. I have 
props against it to prevent it from falling." That was shortly after they had been 
erected by the military authorities at an expense of $17,000, as is reported. It appears, 
then, that the military had erected, and turned over to the Indian service, very bad 
buildings that had cost a large amount of money. Their subsequent condition "is de- 
scribed in other rej)orts here quoted. If the agency were to remain there, they would 
necessarily have to be re]ilaced by others at least safe enough for the accommodation 
of persons and the protection of stores and sup]>lies. 

Secondly, as to the water. General Sheridan lays great stress on Medicine Bluff Creek 
as ^ ' the largest stream of pure water in tliat country, " and adds that ' * the largest number 
of the Indians were located on it when he was last there." The trouble only is that 
"the largest number of the Indians," if located" on that creek, are located on it be- 
low Fort Sill, after it has drained the military post. What General Sheridan says of 
the pure water of that creek is certainly true at the point where the creek Hows into 
the military encampment ; but the creek is not so pure when it flows out of it. The 
soldiers receive that water in its purity, for, with a keen appreciation of the case, the 
military, as the reports here quoted state, do not permit Indian settlements on Medi- 
cine Bluff" Creek above the fort ; but the Indians, who have to gather in large numbers 
below Fort Sill to receive their rations, are obliged to take the water of that creek with 
the additions it has received in the military encampment. The effect is desciibed in 
the report. It is natural, therefore, that the Indians should prefer water elsewhere, 
Avhich has not to run through a military encampment before they get it. They will 
iind such water without difficulty between Fort Sill and Washita River, where they 
are to be located. What is said in the reports about Cache Creek, on the subject of 
wells and of malarial diseases, is also worthy of attention. 

Third. The land near Fort Sill may be as good as Generals Sherman and Sheridan 
say, but it is evident, as the reports here inserted state, that the consumption of wood 
and grass and hay, and the use made of the water by the military, as well as the cir- 
cumstance that the country near Fort Sill is much more exposed to droughts than the 
country nearer the Washita River, and that the latter is generally conceded to contain 
land of superior quality in an agricultural point of view, render the settlement of the 
Kiowasand Comanches in that locality, »nd nearer to the Wichita Agency, decidedly 
desirable if these Indians are to have permanent homes and are to become a working 
and self-supporting people under favorable auspices. 

Fourth. The stealing of cattle and ponies on the part of the Indians in Texas, and 
on the part of the Texans from the Indians, is certainly a great annoyance. It may 
sometime lead to serious trouble, and the location of the military post relative to the 
Indians, or of the Indians relative to the military post, should be so arranged as to 
render the interception of raiding expeditions either way as easy as possible. At pres- 
ent most of the Indians are located between the post and the Texas border on the west 
and south ; and as the post cannot be moved it is certainly best that the Indians should 
be moved, so as to have the military post between them and the Texas line. General 
Sherman expresses the opinion that the consolidation of the two agencies is a wise 
measure, but he thinks that the Wichitas should be moved to Fort Sill, and not ihe 
Kiowas and Comanches in the direction of the Wichita Agency. This would ap- 
pear to me a very unwise measure, for the following reason, in addition to those al- 
ready stated: The Wichitas and affiliated tribes are satisfactorily settled, have large 
tracts of lands under cultivation, have many houses, are generally doing and feeling 
well, and are rapidly improving from year to year. The Kiowas and Comanches are 
in all these respects far behind them. To break up tlio settlements of the Wichitas 
would be to destroy a very hopeful beginning to civilized life, and to force them to 
begin anew under unfavorable and discouraging circumstances. The removal of the 
Kiowas and Comanches, on the other hand, and their location in better surroundings, 
will do away with much dissatisfaction and enable them to settle down permanently 
under much more favorable and encouraging circumstances. Both will gain, the 
Wichitas by staying and the Kiowas and Comanches by moving, while the government 
service will be simplified and much money saved. 

I beg leave further to say, that I am very far from desiring to impugn the state- 
ments of the two distinguished generals as to the character of the country around 
Fort Sill ; the difference between us seems only to be that they look at things from a 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 145 

point of view most favorable to the accommodation of the military, while this de- 
partment looks at the same things from a point of view most favorable to the welfare 
of the Indians ; that the accommodation and convenience of the military and the 
welfare of the Indians cannot always be made to agree, and that in snch a case the 
military are snfhciently able to care for themselves, while the welfare of the Indians 
mnst be otherwise looked ont for, as this instance illustrates. General Sherman and 
Lieutenant-General Sheridan will scarcely assert that all the persons whose utter- 
ances concerning this matter I have quoted — as special connnissicnier of the Interior 
l)epartment, two superintendents, and inspecting officers, together with the Board of 
Indian Conmiissioners — can have been engaged for years in a cons^jiracy to bring 
about a thing in which most of them could not possibly have the least personal inter- 
est. It is upon snch a state of facts that General Sheridan officially speaks of this 
measure as " having for its principal motive a desire to cheat and defraud the Indians, 
by avoiding the presence of officers Avho would naturally see and report it," and this 
in an indort^cment on a communication from the first agent of the consolidated agency 
requesting that a military officer be stationed at that agency expressly for the very 
purpose, among other things, of making regular inspections. This is on a level with 
the intimation recently i>ut forth by General Sheridan, in another official paper, that 
the reujoval of the Red Cloud aud Spotted Tail Sioux was owing to ''systematic 
working up on the part of traders and contractors," while that removal was known to 
be ordered on the earnest advice of General Crook. 

These instances serve to show with what levity such charges are indulged in. Upon 
the same state of facts General Sherman officially states that the President has been 
misled by the Secretary of the Interior and the Commissioner of Indian Atfairs, after 
the latter had permitted themselves to be ''deceived" by some Indian agent, and that 
the whole proceeding was aimed at the removal of the military post from Fort Sill to 
the Wichita Agency, which would cause an expense of |100,o6o. I may assure Gen- 
eral Sherman that nobody in this department dreams of removing the military post. 
This department desires Fort Sill to remain exactly where it is. All that is contem- 
plated is that the Indians be so located as to have Fort Sill between them and the 
Texas line, and be placed on better locations between Fort Sill and the Wichita 
Agency, where they can make permanent settlement so as to be supplied from the lat- 
ter point, which will better promote the welfare of the Indians and sav^e a large sum 
of money annually to the government. The stationing of a company of cavalry at 
the Wichita Agency will probably not be needed ; and I may say here that the request 
of the agent to that effect was made without the knowledge of this department. The 
Cheyenne outbreak on the reservation near Fort Reno has again proved that the vicin- 
ity of a military post is no reliable protection against such occurrences. It is well 
known that a large majority of the Indian agencies are without military posts. A 
telegraph wire between the Wichita Agency and Fort Sill will probably be all that is 
needed, and the inspecting officer, if that arrangement is preferred, may ctmtinue his 
weekly rides from the fort to the agency as heretofore. If the Indians are to become 
self-supporting by agriculture or stock-raising, or both things together, they cannot 
remain herded together under the fort under any circumstances. It is therefore best 
to locate them permanently where the land is best for their pui-poses, where they will 
be within protecting reach of the fort, and cause the least expense to the government. 

While protesting against unjust aspersions, I desire to be distinctly understood that 
in the conduct of Indian aftairs I do not repel but invite inspection and observation 
on the part of military officers. I have always done so since I entered upon my pres- 
ent duties ; it serves my purpose, by giving me information which enables me to im- 
prove the service. But I Avaut fair play. You will, therefore, oblige me by calling 
once more upon General Sheridan for detailed specifications to the sweeping charge^ 
nuule in his official report, that at all the agencies in the Military Division of the Mis- 
souri, excei)t the Red Cloud and Sjjotted Tail Sioux Agencies, the appropriations made 
by Congress for the support of the Indians, wliich in General Sheridan's opinion were 
sufficient, hael. been during the last year either not applied at all or partly diverted 
from their purpose. If General Sheridan has any such specific knowledge, it is very 
much to be regretted that he did not produce it before, so that the infoi-mation given 
could have been acted upon. L make this demand in good faith and in the interest 
of the service. In order that the abuses which have not yet been corrected may be 
conected promptly, I hope General Sheridan will make his revelations without delay, 
which he must be able to do; for it should not be assumed that he is under the ne- 
cessity, after having pronounced the verdict first, to look for the evidence afterward. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

C. SCHURZ, 

Secretary. 

The Hon. Secretary of War. 

10 I C 



146 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

Department of the Interior, 

Washington, D. C, January 6, 1879. 

Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 2d instant, in- 
closing a " Sapp lemental Report to the Annual Report of Lieutenant-General Sheridan 
for 1878," which purports to be an answer to certain inquiries made by me in a letter 
addressed to you, dated on November 16, 1878. 

In this annual report General Sheridan made the following statement: 

"The Indian situation at the present time is, I am sorry to say, unsatisfactory. The 
Indian Department, owing to want of sufficient appropriations, or from wretched mis- 
management, has given to the settlements in the western country constant anxiety 
during the last year, and in some places loss of life and loss of property, attended with 
dreadful crimes and cruelties. There has been an insufficiency of food at the agencies, 
and as the g ame is gone, hunger has made the Indians in some cases desperate, and 
almost any race of men will fight rather than starve. It seems to me, with wise man- 
agement, that the amounts appropriated by Congress ought to be sufficient if practi- 
cally applied to the exact purposes specified and if the supplies are regularly delivered, 
but the reports of the department commanders forwarded herewith would indicate a 
different result, except in the case of the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail bands of Sioux, 
who, although threatening in their conduct, have been the best suj)x>lied, and have 
been humored until their increasing insolence constantly threatens to bring about a 
breach of the peace." 

This sfcateinent contained the following distinct propositions : That the amounts 
appropriated by Congress for supplying the Indians seemed to Lieutenant-General 
Sheridan " sufficient, if practically applied to the exact purposes speci tied and regu- 
larly delivered." 2. That '^ the reports of the department commanders indicated a dif- 
ferent result, except in the case of the Spotted Tail and Red Cloud bands of Sioux." 
3. That the failure of the Indian Department practically to apply the appropriations 
deemed by General Sheridan sufficient, and to deliver the supplies regularly, except in 
the case of the Spotted Tail and Red Cloud Sioux, ''gave to the settlements in the 
western country constant anxiety, and led in some places to loss of life and property, 
attended Avith dreadful crimes and cruelties, during the last year. 

I so understand General Sheridan's official statement, and I believe it can scarcely 
be construed otherwise. I then addressed through you to General Sheridan a respect- 
ful request to furnish me with the specifications required to substantiate so grave and 
Sweeping a charge, so that if really at all the Indian agencies in General Sheridan's 
military division except two the appropriations made by Congress, which to General 
Sheridan "seemed sufficient," had not been x^ractically applied to the purposes speci- 
fied, or partly diverted and not "regularly delivered," thereby causing such dreadful 
consequences, this department might obtain the information necessary to enable it to 
hold the guilty parties to account and to remedy the evil. 

I have carefully read General Sheridan's " supplemental report," made in response 
to that request. There are, I think, forty-five Indian agencies in General Sheridan's 
inilitary division. His charge would seem to apply to all except two, that is to say, to 
forty-three. But I feel warranted in saying that General Sheridan, after an evidently 
most diligent search of the records of correspondence, has not been able to sustain his 
general charge with regard to a single one of those forty-three agencies, during the 
period named in his annual report, and I am confident every fair-minded man care- 
fully reading his " supplemental report " will agree with me in this conclusion. Gen- 
eral Sheridan now says that he did not mean his statement as I, from a literal interpre- 
tation of his language, had construed it. This disclaimer must, of course, be accepted. 

But General Sheridan seems to have in other instances used language similarly liable 
to an interpretation now unacceptable to him. In his annual report he said with regard 
to the removal of the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail bands of Sioux from the Missouri 
River : 

" I had hoped that the agencies of these Indians would have been retained on the Mis- 
souri River, where they could have been fed and looked after at comparatively small ex- 
pense ; but this would not have suited the traders and contractors, who, I fear, labored 
systematically last summer and fall to work up the result which has been obtained." 
" This statement, as it reads, means, if anything, that General Sheridan had reason to 
think that "the traders and contractors labored systematically last summer and fall 
to work up the result obtained," and that " the result obtained," namely, the removal 
of the Spotted Tail and Red Cloud Sioux from the Missouri River to a location of their 
own choice, was owing to such working up. I replied that this measure had been or- 
dered by the President, in accordance with a promise made to the Indians, at their re- 
quest, upon the urgent advice of General Crook. General Sheridan now says tluit he 
did not mean in this instance what his language obviously implied, and the disclaimer 
must be accepted again. 

In another official document lelating to consolidation of the Kiowa and Comanche 
and the Wichita agencies, ordered by the President, upon the advice of this department, 
General Sheiidan expressed himself with regard to this measure as follows: "I am 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 147 

well satisfied, after an experience of more than twenty years, that the principal objec- 
tion to troops at Indian agencies and the removal of Indian agencies away from mili- 
tary posts, has for its main motive a desire to cheat and defraud the Indians, by 
avoiding the presence of officers who would naturally see and report it ; " thus obviously 
indicating his opinion that this consolidation involving the removal of the agency 
from Fort Sill was prompted by such motives. Upon a remonstrance by this depart- 
ment against so insulting an imputation. General Sheridan replies that he did not 
mean in this instance what his language obviously indicated. The disclaimer must 
be accepted again. But I may be pardoned for saying that, if it is so difficult to draw 
correct conclusions from what General Sheridan says as to what he means, it was cer- 
tainly unkind on his part to accuse me in an official report of ''disingenuousness" for 
assuming that he meant what he said. The word disingenuous would ordinarily be 
taken as an oifensive term, but the cases above mentioned justify the supposition that 
in this instance, also. General Sheridan did not mean it, and there let it rest. 

These cases being thus disposed of, I may now turn to what General Sheridan further 
says in his ''Supplemental Report." The sweeping assertion made in his ''Annual Re- 
port" led me to expect some new information, which might be turned to advantage in 
improving the service. But that expectation has been disappointed. General Sheridan 
has collected from his files a number of extracts from letters and briefs of reports of sub- 
ordinate officers. Considering the long time devoted to the making of this collection, 
and the circumstance that General Sheridan deemed it necessary to draw, not only 
upon military officers, but also upon old reports of the Board of Indian Commissioners 
and of Indian inspectors, it is certain that the work was not lacking in diligence and 
zeal, and it may justly be assumed that we now have the whole case before us, as strong 
as General Sheridan can make it. A large majority of the statements contained in 
the "Supplemental Report" refer to a period several years antecedent to the pres- 
ent administration. The task of answering the allegations contained therein I might 
fairly leave to my predecessors. In the statements referring to the period commencing 
with the present administration, only fifteen of the forty-five Indian agencies in his 
military division are alluded to, aside from some Indian tribes that have no agents ; 
of two-thirds of them it seems General Sheridan's records contain nothing that can be 
turned to account in the way of censure. And in what is said of these fifteen agencies 
I discover nothing that is new to me. In fact, the " Supplemental Report " warrants 
the conclusion that this department is far better and more completely informed than 
General Sheridan. The statements made by him and the military officers under his 
orders, as far as they are at all substantiated, only contain complaints about agents 
who have already been dismissed, and about defects in the business methods which 
have already been remedied by this department. The " Supplemental Report " comes 
therefore too late for practical purposes, and is, in this respect, as much out of date as 
last year's almanac. I append to this letter a statement made by the Commissioner of 
Indian Affairs from the records of this department. It takes up, one after another, all 
the charges contained in the "Supplemental Report," inclusive of the letters of Lieu- 
tenant Lee and Colonel Mizner, and it fully substantiates what I say. The Commis- 
sioner's comments on the letter of Lieutenant Lee, which was written about six weeks 
after the appearance of Lieutenant-General Sheridan's annual report, and thus gives 
some color to the apprehensions I expressed that the general had made the charges first, 
and might have to look for the evidence afterward, are particularly interesting. It is 
also worthy of remark that Lieutenant Lee's letter refers to an Indian tribe which was, 
according to General Sheridan's annual report, very well, perhaps even too well, sup- 
plied under the present administration, and which was since I came into office, under 
Lieutenant Lee's management until recently. It may have escaped General Sheridan's 
notice that in June, 1877, I appointed a commission to inquire into the condition of 
the Indian service. That inquiry was very thorough and comprehensive ; it laid open 
many abuses and defects, and led to important changes in the personnel of the office, 
as well as improvements in the business methods and the system of supervision and 
accountability. These changes aiul improvements could, of course, not be eff"ected in 
a day, but they have gone on as rapidly as possible, and have already taken a much 
wider range than the complaints of military officers contained in General Sheridan's 
" Supplemental Report " seemed to call for. 

It is, perhaps, just to General Sheridan to assume that during the six weeks de- 
voted to the search for old evidence against the Indian Bureau, and to the prepara- 
tion of new testimony, he could not find time to inquire into the improvements intro- 
duced by the present administration of this department, although he might have 
easily had the information had he asked for it. Had he been able to do so, his sense 
of justice would have suggested to him the propriety of appending to each complaint 
in his "Supplemental Report" a statement of the action meanwhile taken thereon by 
this department in punishing oft'enders and in correcting defects in business methods. 
In that case his "Supplemental Report" would have presented a very different aspect. 
He would have had to mention not only that Contractor McCann, of whom his report 
speaks, was criminally prosecuted by this department, and has been tried and con- 



148 REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 

victed; that Agent Livingston and otliers with him have been indicted, and are being 
criminally prosecuted ; but that similar prosecutions of agents and contractors have 
been set on foot in other parts of his military division. He Avould have had to state that 
not only the agents who are justly complained of in his "supplemental report" have 
been removed, but many other similar changes have taken place about which General 
Sheridan seems to have had, so far, no information. He would have had to recognize 
that the methods of business and accountability have been improved far beyond the 
changes which his complaints suggest as necessary. Had General Sheridan found 
time to seek this information, and produced it, his ''Supplemental Report" would 
have become as complete a vindication of the efficiency of the present administration 
of Indian affairs as I could desire. If I could induce General Sheridan to give me the 
honor of a jDersonal inspection of the business methods now introduced in the Interior 
Department (as I also, when testifying before it, invited the joint committee of Con- 
gress examining into the transfer question), I am not only confident that he would 
tind those methods infinitely superior to those Avhich prevailed in the Indian service 
when it was under military management, but it is quite possible that he would have 
to admit them to be at least equal, if not superior, to those of the military service now 
in point of regularity and precision in the system of accountability, the safeguards 
against fraud and peculation, and the strictness of their enforcement. General Sheri- 
dan had evidently not inftnuned himself about these things, and only thus can it be 
explained that during several years previous to the incoming of the present adminis- 
tration, when the large majority of the cases of fraud and mismanagemeut alluded to 
in his ''Supplemental Report" occurred, very many of which passed with impunity, 
and not one of which led to a criminal prosecution, he had, although advocating the 
transfer of the Indian service, not a single word of denunciation for them in his annual 
reports; while now, under this administration, when the thieves are at last on their 
way to the penitentiary ; when dishonest or incomj)etent agents are held to account 
and dismissed without mercy; when the ring-men and fraudulent claimants unite in 
a chorus of curses against the Interior Department and struggle to get out of its 
clutches ; when the leaks and opportunities for fraud and peculation are stopped one 
after another by effective business reforms, and when every possible effort is fearlessly 
made to raise the service to a proper level of honesty and efficiency, now, the General 
does not hesitate to assail in his official report this department of the government 
with unmeasured allegations, the literal meaning of which he finds himself compelled 
to disclaim as soon as he is confronted with it, and Avhich he strives to support with 
an enumeration of delinquent officers who have already been punished and dismissed 
and of abuses which have already been corrected. Had General Sheridan better in- 
formed himself he would certainly have preferred not to stand in such an attitude. 

The question is not what the management of Indian^affairs has been under former 
admmstrations or at the beginning of this; the question is what it is now, and what 
under the present method of direction it is likely to become. I do not pretend that it 
is now what I desire or hope it will be made. Further changes in the personnel, as 
well as in the business regulations, may be suggested by experience. Neither do I 
pretend that we can accomplish wonders with the means allowed this department for 
the Indian service. General Sheridan, who speaks about the sufficiency of appropria- 
tions, is perhaps not aware that last year all the Indian service had to spend for goods 
and clothing, for subsistence, for agricultural improvements, «&c., inclusive of all its 
transportation, was |2,890,097, while the Army was allowed |4, 200,000 for transportation 
alone ; so that the one iteiii of transj)ortation alone in the military service cost over 
$1,300,000 more than all the food, the clothing, and the agricultural tools and implements 
Ave furnished to a number of Indians many times larger than the Army, inclusive of 
transportation. This year the proportion will be about the same. This proves that 
the Indian service is by no means particularly favored with abundant appropriations, 
and a thorough inquiry into the subject would undoubtedly show that in point of eco- 
nomical management, it will compare favorably Avith any branch of the public service, 
and especially with the Army. About some instances of that economical management. 
General Meigs, the Quartermaster-General of the Army, found occasion to express sur- 
prise when testifying before the committee of Congress on the transfer of the Indian 
serA'ice. But that we cannot furnish food to Indian tribes for which Ave are alloAved 
no money, it needs no argument to prove. 

There are many expressions in General Sheridan's " Supplemental Report" calculated 
to leave the impression that most of the Indian Avars originated in some mismanage- 
ment of Indian affairs by civil officers of the government. Every student of the sub- 
ject Avill agree with me in saying that this is historically unfounded. While such 
'mismanagement has undoubtedly taken place, it is an historical fact that a very large 
majority of the Indian wars Avere caused by the encroachments of white people upon 
the lands and rights of Indians, and that where one conflict can by any possibility be 
traced to the mismanagement of Indian affairs by the government or its civil employes, 
at least three were owing to the indiscreet rashness of military officers in the use of 
force. I st ate this merely to correct an erroneous impression which is widely indulged in . 



REPORT OF THE BOARD OF INDIAN COMMISSIONERS. 149 

I desire to say, in conclusion, that this correspondence has not been of my seeking. 
It is especially distasteful tome to have been forced into a controversy with a military 
officer whose services in the tield are so conspicuously recorded in the history of this 
country. It is due to you, sir, as well as to the i)ublic, that I should state the reasons 
which compelled me to take it up. General Sheridan's annual report was made not 
only '* for the information of the General of the Army," as he represents it, but it was 
an official document to be placed on the records of the government, and it was spread 
broadcast before the public. In fact, I saw it first in the public prints. That an officer 
imder one executive department should in such an official document publicly arraign 
another department in unmeasured teims may be regarded as a performance unprece- 
dented in the history of this government. Still, I should not have objected to it had 
the grave charges thus made been confined to the guilty parties, without casting un- 
just imputations upon honorable men, and without omitting circumstances essential 
to a fair representation of the truth. But such not being the case, I considered it my 
duty to call for proof. 

I did not do so for the purpose of '* lecturing Army officers into silence," as General 
Sheridan intimates Avith somewhat questionable proi^riety. For I very pointedly and 
repeatedly asked him not to be silent, but to speak, and the reply came only six weeks 
after my first request. In this case, as in others, I wanted the truth, the whole truth, 
and nothing but the truth. It has never been my desire to conceal anything with re- 
gard to the Indian service. I may justly say that I have done all I could, by insti- 
tuting inquiries and calling for reports, to bring its defects to light. I have not only 
not repelled, but I have invited information from Army officers, and I shall always 
be grateful to them for co-operating with me in this respect. But when in official 
documents vague and sweeping charges of so grave a character, involving a whole 
branch of the service, are put forth, such as appear in General Sheridan's annual re- 
port, it is my duty to protect worthy officers under this department so that they may 
not suffer in public estimation with the guilty. I have to protect the honor of the 
department itself. 

Earnestly endeavoring to elevate the moral tone and the efficiency of the Indian 
service, I consider it of the first importance that every officer in it be inspired with 
proj)er self-respect. He must feel that he can maintain in public estimation the name 
of an honest man if he deserve it. There are many men in the Indian service as pure, 
high-minded, and faithful to duty as any officer of the Army. I cannot permit them to 
be indiscriminately classed with thieves or imbeciles, without detriment to the honor 
as well as the efficiency of the service. Nothing can be farther from my intention 
than to defend abuses or shield guilty or incompetent persons in the employ of the 
government. Every officer under this department knows that if he commits a dishon- 
est act or is faithless to duty, or shows himself incompetent to perform it, he will be 
rigorously dealt with according to the merits of the case. But those that are and 
remain honest, faithful, and efficient in the discharge of their duties have a right to 
look to the head of the department for the protection of their honor against any un- 
just assaults, from whatever official quarter they may come. And that protection they 
shall have. 

These are the reasons which compelled me to challenge the charges in General Sheri- 
dan's annual report, involving the whole Indian service without just discrimination. 
Upon such principles I shall deem it my duty to act in every similar case as long as I 
am at the head of this department. 
Very respectfully, 

C. SCHURZ, Secretary. 

The honorable the Secretary of War. 



INDKX 



A. 

Page. 

Abstract of awards 21 

Adair, Colonel, address of 128 

Adams & Westlake Manufacturing Company §.. 34 

Agencies visited 20 

Agencies visited in Wisconsin 3 

Agencies visited in Colorado and Indian Territory 3 

Agent at Sisseton, farming reports 6 

Agents, Indian 4, 79, 85 

Agricultural implements 19 

Aikman, James «fe.Co 34 

Allen, E.&B 21 

Allen, J. &B 30 

American Board of Missions 99 

American Glass Company 34 

American Linen Thread Company 31 

American Missionary Association 93 

Ammidown,C.H 18,29 

Annual Conference 115 

Annuity goods 81 

Anthony, E.W 34 

Armour, Plankinton & Co 22 

Articles of agreement 48 

Atkinson, letters of 65, 67 

August, Bernheim & Bauer 31 

August, D 31 

Austrian,.! 22-25 

Awards, abstract of 21 

B. 

Bacon 22 

Baker, J. G 21,23,26 

Baking-powder - 22 

Bannock war 5 

Baptist Indian Missions 91 

Baptist, Southern 92 

Barr, J. C 26 

Barr, Lally & Co 22 

Barley 22 

Barstow, A. C, report of 42 

Barstow, A. C, mention of 16, 17,20 

Baystate Shoe and Leather Company 31 

Beans 22 

Beef 18 

Bell, F. H 21,24 

Bellah, Qiiigley & Co 32,34 

Bernheim, H. and August 31 

Berthold Agency 76 

Best, William 18 

Biglin & Phillips 34 

Birdsall Brothers 30 

Bishop Hare, statement of •. 85 

Blankets 18,29 

Blun &Co 31 

Board of Indian Commissioners 12 

Board of Indian Commissioners, changes in 3 

Board of Indian Commissioners, meetings of 3 

Bois Forte 95 



152 INDEX. 

Page. 

Booth, L. F 25, 2G 

Bosler, J. W 21 

Burrell, W. E 32 

C. 

Catholic, Roman 110 

Cay uses treaty 69 

Central Superintendency, progress 110 

Chairman Board Indian Commissioners visited Wisconsin agencies 3, 42 

Changes in Board Indian Commissioners 3 

Cherokee Nation 14 

Cheyenne and Arapaho 108 

Cheyenne, ^^orthern, raid 5 

Chippewa Mission 83 

Chippe was in Wisconsin 5 

Civilization 80,84 

Claflin,H. B., & Co 18,30,31 

Clark, N. G 100 

Clark, N. P 21,22,24 

Clothing 18,31 

Coffee 19,22 

Cohen, A. B 32,33,35 

Colladay, Trout & Co 30,31 

Collins & Co 34 

Collins, Downing «fe Co 30 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, address of 122 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, visited Indian Territory 3 

Committee of conference, report of 127 

Committees, Executive, mention of 4 

Committees, Executive, report of 17 

Committees, Purchasing, mention of 4 

Committees, Purchasing, report of 17 

Comparative progress 110 

Condict & Patten 33 

Confederated tribes, treaty 70 

Conference with missionary boards 115 

Congregational 93, 99 

Congress, act relating to homesteads 72 

Consolidation of Indian tribes 9, 113 

Contributions of religious societies 82 

Cordier, Charles X 35 

Corn 22 

Corn, Samuel 31 

Comings, E.D 22,24 

Cost of missions 84 

Cotton goods 30 

Coulter, Flagler & Co 35 

Cramer, A. J 25 

Crane, John » 33, 35 

Crockery 32 

Crossman & Brother 34 

Crossman & Co 34, 35 

Cutting, S. S., address of 117 

D. 

Dakota Mission 99 

Davidson, S. &M., &Co 31 

Deering, Milliken & Co 30 

Disposition of Indians 108 

Dix, JohnD 18 

Dobson, John 18,29,30 

Dodge, Lieut. Col. R. I., author of The Plains," «fec 4 

Dry goods. 18 

Dunham, Buckley & Co 18,30,31,1^ 

Durkee, E. R 24 

Durree, H., & Co 35 



INDEX. 153 

E. 

Page. 

Earle, A. L 20 

Edmation 80,99 

Eells, Edwin, letter of 56 

Eells, Myron, lettei-s of 61, 63 

Elsan & Lauferty 31 

Episcopal Missionary Society, report of 82 

Evans, Peake & Co 30 

Evening session 125 

Executive committee 4 

Executive committee, report of 17 

F. 

Fair on Menomonee Reservation 5 

Falconer & Carroll 31 

Farming, reports from Sisseton 6 

Farming, reports from White Earth 5, 6 

Farming, reports of 80 

Farrington, H 18 

Fechheimer, Rau &, Co 31 

Feed 22 

Fenlon, E 26,27 

Fisk, C. B., letterof 50 

Fisk, C. B., mention of,. 3,16,17,20,46 

Flandreau Sioux 6, 8, 85 

Flathead treaty 71 

Fond du Lac 95 

Forchemier, D 31 

Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Board of ^ 87 

Fort Berthold Agency 76,95 

Fort Buford Agency 77 

Friends 100 

Friends, Orthodox 107 

G. 

Gale, Buchanan B 40 

Gameaw, J., «fe Co 23 

Goldberg, G 21-25,27 

Goodyear Glove Manufacturing Company 35 

Grand Portage 95 

Grande Ronde Agency 6 

Green Bay 95 

Groceries 32 

H. 

Hageman, A :.... 18 

Hall, W. A 18 

Hard bread 23 

Hardware 19 

Hare, Bishop, statement of 85, 87 

Harvey, S. S 21,23 

Hats and Caps 31 

Hay 23 

Hay and wood 81 

Haywood, R. C 22,25 

Hendrickson, J 33 

Hides 81 

Higbee, S. A 35 

Home Missions, Presbyterian 87 

Homesteads 7 

Homesteads, act relating to 72 

Homesteads, forms of application for 74 

Hominy 23 

Hood, Calvin 21 

Howard, Enoch 24 

Howard, E. T 33 

Howard, General O. O., letter to 60 

Hunnig, S. & H 23 

Hurlburt, William H , 18 



154 INDEX. 

I. 

Page. 

Indian agents 85, 104 

Indian bands, treaties with 68 

Indian mission schools 92 

Indian Territory, visit to 50 

Indians entitled to patents 57 

Industrial work 109 

Inspection 19 

Inspectors 18, 19 

Interpreters 80 

lowas 102 

Iron-Clad Manufacturing Company 35 

Isadore & Hein 31 

J. 

Jadwin, O. H 19,40,42 

Janney, Samuel M 106 

Jerome, D. H 16 

Jerome. D. H., report of 54 

Jessup, F.W 35 

Johnston, G.W 23 

Joseph, Chief, address of 126 

Journal of Eighth Annual Conference 115 

K. 

Kansas Agency 107 

Kansas Manufacturing Company 33 

Kelly, P. H 23,31 

Keokuk chief 15 

Keshena Fair 43 

King, Thomas 18 

Kingsley, E. M., report of 50 

Kingsley, E. M., visited Indian Territory 3 

Kingsley, E. M 16,17,21 

Kiowa and Comanche 108 

Klamath treaty 71 

Kootenay treaty 71 

L. 

Lac Court Oreille 94 

Lac du Flandreau 94 

La Caste 18 

Lake Superior Agency 94 

Lang, John D 16, 17 

Lard 23 

Leopold & Austrian , 27 

Levy, A., & Brother 31 

List of Indians entitled to patents 57 

Loder & Lockwood > 18 

Loenstein, W. C 33 

Louderbach, Gilbert & Co 35 

Lowrie, J. C, address of - 115 

Lyon, WilliamH 4,16,17,19,20 

Lyon, William H., report of ^ 54 

M. 

McCranor, D 21,24 

McGarry, J 27 

Mcintosh, WilliamH., address of 118 

McNutt, J. W 27 

McVay 22,24 

Magovern ife Co 31 

Marble, Hon. E. M 17 

Markley, Ailing «fe Co 33,35,37 

Mason & Hottel 23 

Masterton, R. M 24 



INDEX. 155 

Page. 

Maxfield, L 22,24,32 

Meachain, A. B., address of 125 

Mechanics 80 

Medical supplies 19 

Meetings of the Board 3 

Menomonee Reservation, fair 5 

MeiTiam, J. L 22,23 

Methods of Purchasing Committee 20 

Miner, W 23 

Miscellaneous 32 

Missionary Societies 9,82 

Mission schools in 1870 and 1878 Ill 

Modoc treaty 71 

Moline Plow Co 33 

Monteith, John B., letter of 68 

Mott, Henry A 18 

N. 

Naumberg, Kraus & Lauer 18, 31 

Navajo Agency 6 

Navajoes, morals of 16 

Neah Bay treaty 68 

Newburger & Hochstadter 18, 31 

Newman, A. A 23,27 

Nez Perc6 treaty 70 

Niobrara Mission 82 

Noble, W. P 21,27 

Norton, superintendent 16 

Notions 31 

O. 

Qa^g 24 

Oberteiiffe'r,' 'ihegg & Co .... '. ' '. '. '. '. '. '. '.'.'.. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. .... '. . ].*-.*!!."."!! ." '.'.'/.'.'.'.'. '. 30 

Omahas, agency of 6 

Omahas, report of 102 

Omahas, treaty with 71 

Oneida Mission 83 

Osage and Kaw Agency 107 

Otoes 101 

P. 

Parker, E.S :.. 105 

Parrish, Dillwyn 100 

Parshall, W. A 22,23,25 

Patents, Indians entitled to 57 

Pawnee Agency 52 

Payments of bills 21 

Peace policy, results of 7 

Peck, C. K*. 27 

Pemmican 24 

Pend d'Oreilles treaty 71 

Peters, J. Hugh 18 

Pioneer Woolen MiUs 18,29,30 

Plains (the) of the Great West 4 

Poplar River Agency 76 

Porter Brothers & Co 30,32 

Porter, Colonel, address of 121 

Potta watomies 107 

Power, T. C 21,22,23,24 

Presbyterian Foreign Missions 87 

Presbyterian Home Missions 87 

Presbyterian Southern - 89 

Press (the) and the Indians 86 

Priest, Page «fc Co 37 

Probst & Kirchner 21 

Proclamation by George Washington 14 

Progress, Indian 5 

Proposals 18 

Protestant Episcopal 82 

Pueblo missions Ill 



156 INDEX. 

Page. 

Purchasing Committee 4 

Purchasing, methods of 20 

Purchasing, report of 17 

Q. 

Quapaw Agency 107 

Quinaielt and Quillehute treaty 71 

R. 

Rations 81 

Red Cliff 94 

Red flannel shirts 19 

Red Lake Agency 93 

Reeves, Osborn & Co 19,25 

Religious instruction 109 

Religions societies 82 

Report of Barclay White 101 

Report of Commissioner Barstow and E. Whittlesey 42 

Report of Commissioner Fisk and Stickney 46 

Report of Commissioner Jerome 54 

Report of Conunissioner Kingsley 50 

Report of Commissioner Lyon 54 

Report of committee of Annual Conference 127 

Report of E. N. Stebhins 75 

Report of P^xecntive Committee 17 

Rejjort of Purchasing Committee 17 

Report of Superintendent Norton 16 

Reports of missionary societies 82 

Resolutions of Congregational Association 60 

Results of peace policy 7 

Rhoades, James E... 109 

Richards, J. F 33 

Roberts, B. Rush 16,17,106 

Robinson, Lord & Co 32,33,37 

Rogers, Robert C 84 

Roman Catholic 110 

Roosevelt, S., & Co 37 

Rosenbaum, L 22, 24 

Rosenthall, H., & Brother 37 

Rowland & Humphreys 19, 25 

S. 

Sac and Fox Agency 107 

Sacs and Foxes 102 

Salt 24 

San Francisco letting 19 

Schools 92,96 

Scott, General, report of 15, 75 

Schurz,Hon.C 139,146 

Secretary, Assistant, mention of 3 

Secretary, Assistant, visits to agencies in Wisconsin 42 

Shawano Journal, quotation from 5 

Sherman, General, reference to 5, 139, 146 

Shippen, Rush R. , address of 120 

Shirts, red flannel 19 

Shoshones 84 

Simmons Hardware Company 37,38,39,40 

Sioux, Flandreau 8 

Sioux, Minnesota 83 

Sioux missions 110 

Sioux, Santee 103 

Sisseton Agency 96 

Sisseton, report of agent as to farming 6 

S'kokomish 57,97 

Smith, W. H 23,32 

Societies, missionary 9 

Soda 24 

Southern Presbyterian Missions 89 

Southern Baptist *' 92 

Sperry. D. R 40 

Spiegeiberg, L , 22,27,28 



INDEX. 157 

Pafje. 

Squaw-men 81 

Squier, C. H 31 

Staab, Z 21,24,27,28 

Stauding Eock 77 

Stebbins, E. N., mentiou of 3, 20 

Stebbiiis, report of 75 

Stitt, James, & Co 32 

Steveus, F. S 21 

Stickiiey, William 3,16,17,20,46 

Stiekney, letter of 50 

Strieby, M. E., address of 118 

Strauss, L., & Co 32,33 

Strasberger, Pfeiifer & Co 32 

Studebaker & Brother 30 

Sugar 18,24 

T. 

Tatliam, Benjamin, address of 119 

Tea 25 

Testimony of the Society of Friends 104 

Thompson, John - 22 

Thurber, H. K. & F. B 24,32 

Traders 81 

Transfer of the Indian Bureau 9, 104 

Transportation 18,25 

Treaties 8 

Tribes, Indian, treaties with 68 

Tuttle, Charles 3,16,17 

U. 
Umatilla treaty 69 

V. 

Van Volkenburg, Beach & Co 18,30 

Victor, F., & Achelis 30 

W. 

Walla-Walla treaty 69 

Walz, E. A 21 

Wanamaker & Co 18, 31 

War Department, transfer of Indian Bureau 9 

Washington's proclamation .' 14 

Wells, N. W 22,23,29 

Whisky traffic 108 

White, Barclay, report of 101,106 

White Earth Reservation, results of farming 5, 6 

White lead 19 

Whiteside Brothers 30 

Whittlesey, E 42 

Wichita Agency 92,108 

Wilde, James, jr 18 

Williamson, John P > 8 

Wilson & Bradbury 30 

Wilson, Levi ' 33 

Wing, D., & Brother 22 

Winnebagoes 102 

Woodhouse, L. G 18 

Wood, William 31 

Y. 

Yakama Agency 6 

Yakama treaty 69 

Yankton Agency 6 

Z. 

Zeckendorf, L 22,23