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TWENTY-SEVENTH 



Annual report 



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AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY, 



WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 



AND OF TIIK 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SOCIETY, 



JANUARY 17, 13-44. 



•^Mk 




WASHINGTON: 
ALEXANDER AND BARNARD, PRINTERS, 
SEVENTEENTH STREET. 

1844. 












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TWENTY-SEVENTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOC^F.TY. 



In the opening of this Keport the Executive Committee acknowledge 
with reverence and submission, the afflicting visitation of Providence, by 
which the venerable Dr. Proudfit, a Vice President of the Society, and 
for several years the devoted and able secretary of the New York Colo- 
nization Society, has been removed from his labors to his reward. He 
died, after a short illness, on the 17th of April, cherishing even in his 
last moments, the holy sentiments that had so long animated him as a 
Christian minister and philanthropist, and an unwavering confidence in 
the character and success of this institution. His eminent faith, devotion, 
and charity were evident to all who knew him, and the people of Liberia, 
and thousands in whose bosoms he excited sympathy in their behalf, 
and from whose benevolence he drew generous contributions for their 
benefit, will cherish the remembrance of his distinguished exertions and 
virtues. His voice of persuasion and encouragement was heard in this 
hall, at the last anniversary of the Society, and though dead he still 
speaks. By his works and his example he will continue to live, and by 
an influence to which time shall add only increasing extent and power. 

With painful regret, the Committee also record the decease of the Hon. 
Wm. Halsey, of New Jersey, a gentleman, who, during several of the 
closing years of his life, engaged with zeal, energy and perseverance in 
efforts to make known the views and increase the funds of the Society. 
He visited repeatedly many parts of New Jersey, excited the public 
1 



f TWENTY SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF 

mind to confidence and nciirity in the rnterprize, difftifcd information, 
replied to objection*, and induced many who had been indifferent, to feel 
and manife«t an interest in iia mccesa. Amnn^ the last acts of his useful 
and honored life wat the publication of a pamphlet, exhibiting a brief ac* 
count of the orijin and result*, as now eviiicnt. of African Colonization, 
ftod of lilt own endravois in ro-operation with the Stale S.>riety of New Jer- 
Mf. for (he advancement of ihecauce. This inatttuiion. the State in which 
' " 'ned to his laborti, will remember him with 

On the ninth of May last, ietenty one of the slaves left by Mrs. Marga- 
ret Ali«<'n Reed, of Mi^^i'sippi. to Ur. Stephen Duncan and the Rev. Zebu- 
Ion Ru'.lt r, rmbarkcd at New Orleans, in the harli" Ktnown," chattered by 
the Amencan Colonixation Society, for Liberia. Six others, free persons 

of«*olor from Mi»«iMippi ^... i .1 .^^^^.j^jpJ^ (one child a few months 

old harinedied on thr \ ..) with thr*'e of the same class 

from Charleston, made the whole company that sailed from this last port, 
•erenty nme. In this vessel, lumber and trade goods for the benefit of 
recaptured Africans to the amount of 1 1,500 were shipped by order of the 
GorenuneiiL •■• > «ent out a? freight to the amount of 1,840t barrels 

of provisions, ■ > d at Fort I'raya.in the Cape DeVerd Islands, for the 

U- 8. Squadron. This vessel was, afier havin^lsnded .•» part of her cargo, un- 
r d at theCape I)c V> -. 1 all the 

' •• - ivrd, and ihniugli i : - of our 

eoosul. F. Gardner, Ksq.. transferred to the barque Jane, of .Massachusetts. 
prompUy 1 by him to convey them to the colony. Though the 

loss of • 1 provisions may have causctl some inconvenience to 

these emigramA, all claim on account of the Renown ceasing with the 
oonfulfiitment of the terms of the charirr-party, this unfortunate event 
proved of no pecuniary di<aJvant.ige to the Society. Intelligence cf the 
unvalofihis company at the colony, though for some time expected, 
bM not yet amred. 

Early m November, the barque " Latrobe," sailed from Baltimore, with 
bttwoeD * trly all manumitted slaves, and 

■■dtr the , -.. . . .... •!... . ...zaiion Society, destined to the 

eolonjatCapePalmas. A worihy colored famUy, Mr. Herrmgs, and an in- 
ItUigtai'- ■' " \ . embarked in this ves- 

ftlforM -. .. i,t:ue of the Parent Soci- 

ttf. Of lh«o«Bb«r r '.o Cape Palmaa, thirty -one were maoi- 
■Iili4 by a auigk pbila -t, 

imp W M tT» r^lifinns •»rvicp« ai their departuiv 



THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 3 

By a recent legal decisiuu, twelve slaves in Flemingsburg, Ky., are to 
receive their freedom and are now ready to emigrate, and a final decree in 
favor of the liberty of twenty-one at Richmond, Va., is expected the present 
mnnih, while three in Nansemond county are now ready to sail, and a num- 
ber from Gloucester county and other places will soon, it is expected, be 
placed at the disposal of the Society. 

The message of Governor Roberts to the colonial legislature in the 
early part of the year, and his subsequent despatches, afford gratifying 
evidence of increasing attention to commerce, agriculture, education, and 
various public improvements. By the colonial law, a common school 
is to be established in every township of the colony, under the direction 
of a school committee, to which all persons are compelled by law to send 
their children ; and, while all monies arising from licenses and un- 
appropriated military and court fines are set apart as a fund to support 
education, the inhajuitants of the several towns and villages are autho- 
rized to impose taxes to supply any deficiency. To this subject, the 
Governor invokes the consideration of the legislature in appropriate and 
impressive terms. " The condition of our race," he observes, " in other 
parts of the world, and especially of the inhabitants of this heathen coun- 
try, should be motives to rouse us to greater diligence, that we may show 
to the world that the African race is as susceptible of mental improve- 
ment as any other. At present there are schools established in several of 
our towns and villages ; these, however, are under the patronage and con- 
trol of various religious institutions in America, and may be discontinued 
at any moment. It therefore becomes us to assist ourselves in this gieal 
work of improvement, that we may be prepared for any emergency. We 
can do something and should do something. Let us put our shouldeis to 
the wheel, and when we have done all we can do, I pledge myself there 
will be no lack of aid. The sympathies of the benevolent every where 
are enlisted in our favor, especially with regard to this subject; and 
when it is known abroad, that we appreciate learning, and are doing all 
in our power to obtain it and cannot succeed, then, and not till then, shall 
we have the efficient aid of our friends abroad, and be able to establish 
permanent schools for the education of our youth." There is evidently 
a want of competent teachers, and of means for their support, and more 
effectual measures are suggested to the legislature by the Governor to 
meet the necessity of a more general and thorough system of instruction. 
Though the commerce of the colony has suflfered from occasional dis- 
asters, and particularly from the competition and interference of foreign- 
ers, yet it is steadily on the increase. It is stated in the message of the 
Governor just quoted, that " during the pist year three new vessels have 
been launched at Monrovia, one at Bass?. Cove, two, which were foreign 



4 TttKN-ry-SEVENTH AXNl'AL RKPORT OK 

bttill (HirebaMxl by colonitu." and thai threu oihcra were about to b« 
lat:' "'kt. Il may be expected tbnt coiifulence will arise 

ani. AiiuTican tradern niul the inercliant'* of the cnloniea 

of great mutual adrantage*, and that these aettleinenui will at no distant 
day ailrart to the ' i very vahiable rommerce from various pointa 
o\ the ruBst, u:: . . crful tribes of interior Africa. It is to be re- 

fretted, that while Liberia ban already done much to enlighten the minds 
of the native Africans, to cxritc their industry, and direct their attention 
lo the vast resoiircrs of their eoiintry. ivt well as tt) protect the lives and 
advance the interests of Americans en|;aged in lawful trafTic upon thai 
coast, it has looked in vaiu for that encourafcment and support, which it 
•o well merits Irom the Con«rres8 of Uie United States. The committee 
trust tliat such instructions huve been or will be (riven to our Afiican 
squadron, as shall enable it tf) n-nder that protection and aid to the auihor- 
ilies of Liberia, as arc consistent with the specific objects of its move- 
n'^' ■ !•* conslitulioti and true policy of the country. 

i tillural interests of the colonv, have neither been prosecuted 

wiiJi suHicient vigor, nor wholly neglected. Of necessity the farmers of 
Liberia labor under great difliculties and cinharrassinents, and in the cul- 
tivation of the most valuable prodiictinuK of the tropics, must be expected 
to make but slow progress. Trade, as the moie easy and lapid means of 
•*'' "iy occupied the attention and efforts of the 

«^' I agriculture, the more sure and certain 

•ouree of comfirt and prosperity. ••The «oil,** remarks the Governor, 
in his last mc»s.iirc, •• it (.ro»Kl an«l capable of pnulucing abundant harvests ; 
this will \h- :i.l(ui!ieil by all. and in every in«tano«» where individuals have 
peraeveringly given the business a fair Uial, it has not failed lo yield them a 
handsome reward." Auriin In ' . " ' ' ' i^tg the 

nativrft laHi \);ir. ill a t'r< .u i! ly in the 

upper seiilemeniR, were generally free from want, and in many instances 

"erea'-' • ;>ly the n. ' ' - - - "I" .son has been 

oo« of among I':. . v, hare been 

abundant, ami 1 rejoire to find that tjje people liiroughout the commonwealth 

are brcoming »v. i 'rir true interests, and convinced that the future 

prosprnly and t ice of llie colony, depend up<»n the agricultural 

rr»ources of the ruuuiry Scvoral gentlemen both in this and Bassa county, 
•re turning iheir aiirniion lo this subject, and are establishing coffee and 
eufar eiiatee, though at prraent on a small scale. The experiment has 
P'" ■ '. and established beyond a doubt, the faci. that farmers 

lit I . ... JUStriiinn rriu'ii ntii! iutri'X >' tmi k ik'ic ti.'><.iiii«. iioi onlv 

independent, but neb 



THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 5 

A number of valuable public improvements have been made in the 
colony, and in his message early in the year, the Governor states, that the 
revenue of 1842, arising from duties on imports, tonnage and other , 
sources, amounted to $5,403 53, and the expenditures on public works 
to $3,1 11 12, leaving a balance in the treasury of $2,242 41. 

The constitution and laws of the commonwealth of Liberia, including 
an abstract of legal principles and rules, with an appendix of forms for 
legal proceedings, published by order of the Legislative Council, has been 
transmitted by the Governor to the Society, and leaves it impossible to 
doubt that intelligent justice and humanity pervade the public mind of the 
colony, and that in their enactments, a due regard will be had to educa- 
tion, to the necessities of the poor, and to the rights and interests of the 
native African people. The abstract of legal principles and rules, appears 
to have been compiled vvith care, by the former chairman of the committee 
(Judge Wilkeson) and transmitted to the colony, and to them, by an act 
of the legislature in 1841, was given the force of law. 

On the whole, the committee are of opinion, that during no one year, 
since the origin of the Society, has the colony been as healthy, quiet, and 
improving as the last, and that its friends have occasion for special grati- 
tude to Almighty God for his favoring providence towards it, for the good 
order and harmony of its inhabitants, for their increasing regard to the 
I)ublic welfare and the true resources of permanent individual prosperity, 
for the spirit which has animated the colonial legislature in the enact- 
ment of good laws, and for the wise administration of the same, and 
finally for the abundant evidence they possess, that the public affairs of 
Liberia are settled on firm and peaceful foundations. 

Peace has prevailed during the year, between the colony and the native 
tribes, and some negotiations have been concluded, mutually beneficial 
and promising an extensive influence for the abolition of the slave trade, 
and the advance of civilization. In the month of February, Governor 
Roberts visited the Golah country, some eighty to one hundred miles in 
the interior, and of this region he remarks : " I have traveled considera- 
bly in the United States, but have never seen any where a more beautiful 
country than the one we passed through ; well timbered and watered, and 
the soil, I venture to assert, equal to any in the world." 

A treaty of amity and alliance was formed between the Colonial Gov- 
ernment, and the principal king and other kings and head men of the 
Golahs, by which it was stipulated, that all matters of difference which 
might arise between the Liberians and Golahs, or between the head men 
of the Golahs, or between this tribe and any other, should be referred to 
the Governor for adjustment, that the natives of the interior should not be 
obstructed in their intercourse or trade with the colony, that the slave 



TWCJn'V SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF 

inMl* ahould t>fl banished from the couiiiry, and iho tfupertuuous trial bj 
, n mnitfru »l»oiild be forerer abnmlonetl. 

\\ -J cliiefii, a irt'ity W3H coiicluiled in 1840, 

and in iIm early part o( laat year« Guvrmor Roberta waa requested to 
in'.rr{>o«r '' ' ■ (, Cfovoiniiia. who had taken 

and, St ».<•« • , , ^ ;'«>ople of Hallasada. On the 

reqiiiciiion of the CIo»emor the people (who were yelalire) were restored, 
and war ; ' V. " .la has expremcd Wu do!«ire of removing 

with ha ir - of i!ie rol>>:iv, and a tract of land has been 

asaifned to him 

Ii )) ' .cd, ihat ihi"* jrcTiu iii;i\ open comiii-rc i.ii iniorrourse 

with I .iid the •ourcca of tljc Ni^cr, and taken in connection 

with the fact, that treaiiea of the aamc general chararlvr have from time to 
ti - ' 1 made with aoine thirty other kine«. proves that. " however the 
c f.dl sliort of l>eing what it should be, it has established aniong 

its ncij{iit>ori«. who ha»e watched it for twenty years, such a repuiaiion 
for aupeiior intelligence, equity and good guvernment, that they think 
their condition improved by placing Uiemselvcs thus undei its control," 

Anxious to adopt every measure, which might conduce to diffuse in- 
information and elicit aid from the churches of the country, in the month 
of April a eircntar letter was prepared, and distributed to the number of 
about rttr'it t!i'Mi«ind, among ihe mininteis of nearly every religious do* 
Domins'.KMi in the 1:mii1. This letter was copii d in several of the religious 
newspapeni, and there ia reason to think was rend by a large portion of 

0,. .. ■ - ■• r • --■ .s. 

1'. se has, the Committee arc convinced, been 

revivod and atiengthenetl during the year in many parts of the Union. 
T '■ ' '• ' . us Colonization Soirieiy resolved, that vi- 

£ • d by the circumstances of the Society and 

eolonjr, and in a public address recommended it to the regards of the 
r' ' ' ' . v-ry name. The Stale Colonization So- 

r ' /( d at Ilailford, in the month of , May, 

and that of Delaware, about the tame Ume. The Colonization Society of 
V ■ -ont, still continues its aid to the cause, and in New Hampshire and 
r iirr sAmo n( tin m<»»t warm and devoted friends. The New York 
•nu I' 'ie«, have continued to cherifh xeal in the enler- 

f" •■ js causes (in tlie case of the former repeated dis- 

its in securing the services of a secretary and general agent.) 
•'an in several former years. The Col- 

' : ; Lat of MiBsnuri, have renewed their cx- 

•rtioos, and Virginia retains for the scheme her early confidence and 
altaehm*nl The Committee arr assured that there in no abatement of 



THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 7 

zeal in its behalf in Mississippi and Louisiana, though prevailing financial 
embarrassments in those Slates, and the want of an able agent, as in many 
other portions of the country, have prevented the usual amount of contri- 
butions to the Parent Society. In New England and some other sections 
of the Union, the cause of this Society has been assailed by every weapon 
which the subtlety and ingenuity of opponents could direct against it. 
So fierce and ungovernable has been the spirit of hostility, so disturbed has 
been the peace of ministers and churches, so extensively has suspicion been 
excited, and so many doubts thrown over the cause, that many intelligent 
and benevolent men have been led to pause and suspend their efforts for 
its benefit. Unfortunate impressions, produced by slight and transient 
causes, and individual dissentions on the African coast, of the influence of 
the colonists upon the cause of missions, have diminished confidence and 
sympathy in churches and prevented collections for the Society. Re- 
examination has re-established the merits of the cause in the minds of 
thousands, and made them its friends forever. 

The committee have neglected no proper means of securing the services 
of able and judicious agents, but their endeavors have been attended with but 
partial success. In Pennsylvania, the Rev. J. B. Pinney, secretary and gen- 
eral agent of the Pennsylvania Society, has continued his earnest and useful 
labc 3, though various causes, especially the pecuniary embarrassments of 
the State, have rendered the collection of funds a work of toil and diffi- 
culty. 

A.S secretary and general agent of the Massachusetts Society, the ser- 
vices of the Rev. Joseph Tracy, have been of great value, and his able 
writings have effectually contributed to diffuse information, correct errors, 
refute objections and strengthen confidence in the cause. 

Mr. Franklin Knight was appointed early in the year to visit, as agent, 
various parts of Virginia, in the hope that a number of large unpaid sub- 
scriptions might be collected, and that a fund might be raised to enlarge by 
purchase, the Liberian territory. The pecuniary embarrassments in that 
Slate rendered it impossible to raise large sums of money, yet the fa'th- 
ful exertions of Mr. Knight, it is hoped, will not only result in the addition 
of a valuable amount to the funds of the society, but in awakening the minds 
of many to interest in the cause, and the formation of several auxiliary so- 
cieties. 

Rev. Samuel Cornelius, who had in previous years rendered very im- 
portant service to the cause, has been earnestly engaged in advancing the 
interests of the Society in the State of Connecticut, and for a portion of 
the year in New Jersey. 

Captain George Barker, who has long labored indefatigably and sur- 



U TW! N ! V M \ I vru A-Wl'AL RFPORT OF 

..^... . Ill the New England Slates, 

^j. . .iiiil New York, principally 

IB mkkinf collrcuon* tnd obtaining fubtcriptioni lo ihe African Reposi- 

. . Krv. M WalUcf, of Ohio, tujil the Riv. Mr. Williams, of Ken- 
tockr, hm»c n»»«l«' some rfforui in ihcir irtpcciirc Stales during the year, 
and the Rrr. Mr. M. A«Uin has recently been appointed for ihe Siale of 
Tetine««K>e, but a« yet, n" inirll«?rnrr is received of his movement*. 

While during ll»e year a r. amounl of debt has been paid in 

the colony, and the pecuniary us of the Society been Uierc re- 

doecd: yel the Com luttce reprel lo say, that owin^ to the failures of the 
otaal rrtourres from some of the numt wcnlihy Sutes of ihe Union, the 
full amount proposed to Ik? raised at the last .innual meelinji, has not been 
w^eired. The operationa of tlie Society have thus been restricted and 
rmbarraaaed, and the still r. • '. ht of the Society not materially 

diminished. The jwcuniary < - of the country fell by all benero- 
lent societiea, and by almost every individual, the absence of the usual 
amount of nid from New York, Pcnn«ylvania, Mississippi, and Louisiana, 
ihe ino grneril neghri of ministers and churches, disposed to avoid 
af itated and controverted topics, to take up coUecUons ; the impossibility 
,,( ' in districts of eountri', the obsinclea 
t;, .»rieiy in the way of iho<e who have 
been employed, will alTortl an explanation of the financial condition of the 
Soetety. It should * ' ' ' ■' " pt« from lej^acies have been small- 
er ike last, than in r ^n. Some bequests are still due 
the Borirty, but embarrMs^d by pending suiu. It has been deemed 
•spedirni •'■- '--' -■• «n previous year», from motives of economy, in the 
MCMeary ^es at the colony, to send a small stock of trade 
goods lo ' "lore, and the returns hive been as large as rould be 

^it;><»ri«d. 1: ..;n more largely into this commerce, could permanent 

»■ fensents be maiie. for securing regular intercourse by vessels under 
the control of • -n this country and ihe various setlle- 

■Mals e( the r ; , ;nu on the eon»t, the Coinmitlee doubt 

not the means of the Institution might be much augmented. 

From »• • ■ ■ . nnd from iuiereoun<e wnh nu- 

merous l^ "f the country, the Commiilee are 

wi\ Msursd. that Uie limited income of the Society tlie last year, ie not 
lo be if^-r ' ■ ' ;i the contrary, 

ibol dM k - ;:, and tlmt in 

more (iitnr«l»|r time* and rirrtimsiaiM'cs they will extend to it that ossisi- 
■or« which It mrnis «ad rrquirrs. 



THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 9 

The difficulties which the colony has experienced from the interfer- 
ence of foreign traders, and the collisions and injuries to which it will be 
exposed, should any foreign Power /;stablish itself on any portion of the 
coast to which its Government has pre-emptive rights, or so near in its 
vicinity as necessarily to restrain its advantages and restrict its growth, 
are subjects whicii have not escaped the consideration of the Committee. 
They have invoked the friendly interposition of our own Government to 
induce both the authorities of England and France to abstain from plant- 
ing establishments on any portion of the coast from Cape Mount to Cape 
Palmas, but they are not informed of the results of the representations 
which they are assured have been made on behalf of the Society, through 
our ministers, to at least one of these Governments. 

Near the close of the last session of Congiess, Mr Kennedy, of the 
Committee on Commerce, to whom had been referred the memorial of the 
Colonization convention, held in this city in May, 1842, presented a very 
valuable report, which has since been printed by order of Congress, 
with a great variety of documents relating to the history of African Colon- 
ization, the slave-trade, the condition, climate, people, commercial and 
agricultural resources of Africa. This report says : 

" It is vitally important that the territory of the colonies should be enlarged, and 
that their jurisdiction should become clear and ijicontestible over the whole line of coast 
between Cape Mount and Cape Palmas, a distance of about three hundred miles; and 
that in case of hostilities between this and any European country, their rights as neutrals, 
should be recognized and respected. The increase of legitimate commerce on the western 
coast of Africa is already strongly tempting the enterprize of English merchants, and se- 
rious difficulties have arisen between British traders claiming rights, independent of the 
governments of Liberia and Maryland within their territorial limits. Naval olficers of 
Great Britain have been called on by British subjects to interpose and defend them against 
the revenue laws of the colonics ; and the French, the committee are informed, have 
sought to obtain a cession of lands within the limits of Liberia just referred to, and to 
which the people of that colony have a pre-emptive rii^ht. 

" As neither Great Britain nor any European Government, has to the knowledge of 
the committee claimed political jurisdiction from Cape Mount to Cape Palmas ; as such 
claim if by possibility it exists, has arisen long since the colonies were founded ; as those 
who occupy these settlements have gone thither to establish for themselves, their pos- 
terity, and multitudes who may follow them, a republican commenwealth, capable of in- 
definite enlargement, it is essential that they be not disturbed in the exercise of rights 
already acquired, or precluded from extending their authority over the entire hne of coast, 
(from Cape Mount to Cape Palmas) generally known as Liberia. An appropriation of 
a few thousand dollars to enable the colonists to effect negotiations with the native chiefs, 
by which the native title to this region of Africa should be extinguished, and the juris- 
diction of their Government over it rendered unquestionable, would in the judgment of 
your committee, whether regarded as a measure auxihary to the suppression of the slave- 
trade or to the interests of American commerce be highly expedient. In all treaties for 
the purchase of lands, it might be stipulated that on the part of the African chiefs the 
2 



10 1 WK.NTV SEVENTH ANM'AI. RKPORT OF 

iii»»tr>dr ahoukl b» (onttr tbaoioaeA, aiul (heir •drntion JirrctMl to the nioiv gainfal 
purwilB of acnruhunJ induMrjr, and (o thr rxrhangc of ibc rich prudurU of their coun- 
try. Cm thoac of the uiauufarturing akiU of thu and other civilized nation*. The people 
of (he eolonie*. thu* cnrouraffrd, would ro-o|N-ralc iuo«t e/Trctively trith our naval aquad- 
roo in carrying out the huiuanr jti'l philnnthropic |iurpoi>c of llie recent trcaly. for tba 
overthrow of the »ls«f>-irai!c aiiJ t«^ .- >mc fac-tor* and aconl* to inrreaae and extend 
Aaeheai: . in that <]uartcr uf ilu- world. It i - ex- 

pMMled \» : more for the furtheraim' of Iwlh ; i' ex- 

pei; <itlirf way. 

° I iit(r« lutve atmiidant evidence, to which tliey rofer in the doiumenU ac- 

comptuiyins tliu report, tu nhow tlic incrvsM of lawful commerce ou thu African coaat, 
and that for want of adequate protection, and the dui> atli^'ntion of onr (iovernment to the 
•abject, it haa been pro*erulc<l by our own citizen* under Rn-al (lisaiivaiitii);e«. To the • 
laattmonT of Dr. Jame* Hall, a Kcnllcmun entitled to full conritlt-nce. mid who hiu reaided 
looK in .\fnca. the commilttv iinite the H]Hviul uttention of tin- Iloune. 'i'hia letlimony 
•• ' I ition retvnlly sivrn to iho world in i comimny- 

in.' i.itce of the lint; I iith House of Coh. U> in(|uire 

into Uto ruiuliuun of the Urilixh M'ttlemontM iind their rctutionit to Uie niilivo tribe* of 
Woatem Africa. The annual inijiortu from Wenlrrn Africa into thi* country probably 
eiOMd a million of dollar*, and into Great Britain arc alwut four million*. The palm- 
oil trafde now becominK of great value bad hardly an exi«tenre twelve year* ago, i* rapidly 
incrcAMng, and may l>e increaMnl to on alraoMt indefinite extent Hitherto the alave- 
inde has been at war willi alt iinproveiucnt and cxcry kind of inntH-rnt commerce; ita 
eMnlMMi will be kucm-ded liv the rullivniion of the noil, and tlie growth of trade in all 
the varied «nd »alu ■ ,.n» of the ' It i* of ii 

that the nauvr* of lbecon\in< il labor, an . 

of lawful trade lor t coninutcv in human (Hint;*, will t« fur tiuir advantage, 

and that in thru n .iih them, our own tneri!.,ih'..'< >-li<>ui<I uismim every phv- 

ik^ (Tsnlrd to thoac of Englaiid, or any other nation. 

"The ew uNnhmrnt of a commercial agent, (a* ri<v>»....< ..... .. .., l;r. Hall.) to reside 

in Liberia, and oeeaaionally to visit in a Liovcniment vcmuI, various |Minu on the coMt, 
to ■orwiain the beat sitea ! .to form ronvcutions and treatiea 

of eoauntrce and (or tlx- . with ili<< i-riic-iiMil rhirf<. to take 

charge of the stores and oUui , s 

and intereat* of our acameu, ai. i 

ol tnde at all unporlant ataltuns, tiio comrailtoe would recuinmeiid us an object urgently 
iWaMndtid by interest and humaiuty. 

"The time has arrived, in tlte opinion of tlie committee, when thiaaubject of Afncui 
Colooaatioo ha* lircome nulTtriently iin)Mirunt !<• :iitntrt the ultrntion of the |ieo|.lr in its 
I with tlte ((uestiOii of the {Hililiral rrlatioim which lliew colonies aic lo hold 



by our law*, and eveti owm;; iiixr rri;uiniion in ": u- 

of llua I'nion, (aa in ibr nur ol ^Ur)UiHl) i!,' ,; , . i, >t - 

vioaaly,th«y inuaC very aooii berome objorta of eunsidrration lo the world, both for the 
eoounerre whirh may hr under their rontml, mn\ for the agency they are hkely to escr- 
eim ia the final ditenlhralmenl of the n>flUneul lo which they l>e|ung. it may »peedily 
appamat toihe obarrvalion of I'hiistendom, that the *iavc-tr*do OM^ mon oar- 



THH AMERICAN CpLONlZATK^N SOCIKTY. \l 

tainly, effectually and cheaply be destroyed by the colonial power on shore, than by all 
the squadrons of Europe and America afloat. The growth of such a conviction will in- 
evitably draw an anxious and friendly eye' towards the American colonics, from every 
power which sincerely pursues the charitable work of relieving Africa from her horrible 
traffic, and mankind from the reproach of permitting it. The influence of such a senti- 
ment, we may conceive will greatly advance the interests and magnify the value of the 
colonies. It would appear to be our duty, before an occasion of conflicting interest may 
arise, to take such steps towards the recognition of our appropriate relations to these com- 
munities, as may hereafter secure to them the protection of this Government, and to our 
citizens the advantages of commercial intercourse with them." 

The following resolutions are submitted at the close of this report. 

" Resolved hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America 
in Congress assembled, That the increasing importance of the colonies on the western 
coast of Africa, both in regard to the commerce of that coast and their influence in sup- 
pressing the slave-trade, renders it expedient that an agent should be appointed by the 
Government to protect and advance the interests of American trade in that region; that 
said agent should reside at some convenient point in the said colonies ; and that he 
should be empowered to form treaties or conventions with the native tribes on the coast 
of Africa, for the advancement of American trade, and for tne suppression of the traffic 
in slaves. 

"And be it further resolved, That the subject of settling the political relations proper to 
be adopted and maintained between this Government and the colonies now established 
or which may hereafter be established, on the coast of Africa, by the citizens or public 
authorities of the United States, or any of the States, be referred to the Secretary of 
State, with a direction that he report thereon to the next Congress." 

The committee cherish the hope, that some early and effectual measures 
in accordance with the general views of this report, will be adopted by 
Congress. 

The value of this document, as a source of information on almost every 
topic connected with the enterprise of African Colonization, cannot well 
be over-estimated. The subject is now fully and fairly before the nation. 
Every consideration connected with the suppression of the slave trade, 
and the protection and advancement of our commerce on the African 
coast, the very objects, for which our squadron is there maintained, de- 
mands that a fostering care should be extended by the Government, to the 
colonies of Liberia. " Here," says Dr. Hall, " our Government finds 
ready at hand the very establishment wliich a sagacious statesman would 
have desired, a key of that vast continent, to unlock and open its treas- 
ures to our commerce, a foothold from which, with the least possible pro- 
tection, we could not be dislodged. We have thus far realized all the 
advantages of colonial possessions without the expense of founding and 
supporting them. We have the material for extending and perpetuating 
colonies on the coast of Africa, not possessed by any other nation in the 
world ; and why should all these advantages be sacrificed. Why should 



l.> I WENTY.SEVEMIl ANMAI. RKPOKT U> 

w« not «( \vA*U srek lo retain what we already possess, wlieii it can su 

«' are gratifird to observe, that the report of Mr. Kennedy 
has aitnieted much attention, nnd they are happy to conclude this report 
*'i ■•« able nnd inntruclivc article in the last number of 

ill' :'• . , 'V and I*rinr«'ton Review. 

" No idea,** says the writer, '* is dearer to them [the Lilicrians] than that 
of ' ■ " III nniion, and wo ack . that it is our 

et' I may never become dt ^ .■;i any nation. 

1^1 it under proridence, become a ^reat and virtuous Republic. No 
nation, in i' ;'.npever had a brighter prospect before it. I^t the 

Americinti ;it bfcome the ally an<l protector of these colonies. 

I*et them assist them, to complete the purchase of those portions of teri- 
tory, the title of which ha« n'»t yet been acquired from the natives. Let 
them avail themselves of the advantages, which these colonics present. 
for prosecuting that valuable commerce, which is now openinij to the 
world ; and l«-i thera combine their efforts with those of other nations, in 
untiring efforts to suppress the slave trade, in which benevolent enterprise, 
they will find the Liberians their most efliicient coadjutors. Bi'T let 
Liberia forkver rb FREr. The grratest difficulties attending the estab- 
lishment of a colony, are already overcome, and we do entertain the confi- 
dent and ploaning expertaiion, that Liberia is destined to be a grand re- 
public, which shall extend its benign influence into the very centre of the 
dark continent of Africa. And wo do believe that it is the design of a 
wise and benignant providenci* to make Liberia the asylum of tJic whole 
African race, now dispersed over a large part of this continent, and the 
West India Islands. In our view, there is no spot on the globe better 
calculated to interest the Christian and philanthropist, than this little re- 
public on the western coa«t of Africa. When the histcirian shall survey 
the events of the nineteenth century^ wc are of opinion, that his eye will 
fix with in'' ' «t, on tlif ln'l ' ' H'volent enterprise, of colon- 

izing the I. , ' "^ col«»r on \ f Africa. And that such an 

enterprise should have been undertaken by a voluntary association, 
without the ro-oprniiion of the (JovrmmiMit ; nnd that it should have been 
tticcessful, will !»«• a Mibject of wonder lo futun* ages. It is our sincere 
pentuasion, that no event, which has orcured in Uic world since the com- 
mencement of the nineteenth century, is at all equal in real importance 
lo the sucrrssful c»taIiliKhment of this litde colony. We do not think. 
that the histor)* of ihn world can furnish a parallel lo the accomplishment 
of this work, by volnntary association of benevolent men." 

Thr rommiitee will adil only, that however wide and fair a prospeet In 
opened by this enterprise to the eye of philanthropy, however great the 



THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 13 

wisdom and sagacity that devised it, or the benevolence and piety of those 
who in the service of the Society have sacrificed their lives on the coast 
of Africa, none deserve higher praise than those men of color who have 
engaged in it with an unconquerable resolution, determined at all hazards to 
lift the covering of night and barbarism from the African mind, to re-kindle 
the extinguished hopes, and re-build the broken fortunes of their race. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

OF THE AMERICA!* COLONIZATION SOCIETY, AT THEIR ANNUAL MEETING. 

Washington City, January 17, 1844. 

The Board of Directors of the American Colonization Society met. 
Present, 

Rev. C. C. Cuyler, D, D., P. T. Jones, Esq., Rev, A. D. Gillett, 
Delegates from the Pennsylvania Colonization Society — A. G. Phelps, 
Esq., Netv York Colonization Society — Rev. Joseph Tracy, Massa- 
chusetts Colonization Society — Rev. Elias Harrison, Rev. John Davis, 
District of Columbia Colonization Society — Elliott Cresson, Esq., Life 
Director— Itev. R. R. Gurley, W. McLain, M. St. C, Clarke, Esq., H. 
L. Ellsworth, Esq., Members Executive Committee. 

Rev. Dr. Cuyler was called to the chair, and the Rev. W. McLain was 
appointed Secretary. 

The minutes of the last Annual Aleeting were read. 

On motion of the Rev. Joseph Tracy, it \vas 

Resolved, That the Annual Report be taken up, and so much thereof as relates to 
the state of the colon)- be vefeiTed to a committee ; and that so much tliereof as relates 
to the state of the cause in this country be referred to another committee, each com- 
mittee to consist of three members. 

Whereupon the Chairman appointed Messrs. Tracy, Gillett, and 
Davis, a committee on the state of the cause in this country; and 

Messrs. Cresson, Harrison, and Jones, on the state of the Colony. 

The Rev. R. R. Gurley oflfered the following resolutions, viz : 

1. Resolved, That a committee be appointed to con.=;ider the financial interests of the 
Society, and by what means the income of the Society may be increased. 

2. Resolved, That a committee be appointed to consider what, if any, further inea»- 
urcs should be adopted to increase the confidence of all the friends of missions, and to 
secure their aid to the cause. 

3. Re'>olved, That a committee be appointed to consider what, if any, further meas- 
ures should be adopted to secure aid from the General and State Governments, and also 
to secure a friendly recognition by foreign powers of the rights and interests of Liheria. 

4. Resolved, That a committee be appointed to consider whether any and what meas- 
ures should be adopted to secure some increased advantages from trade with the Colony -, 



14 rWENTY-SEVKNTH ANNL AL KKPORT OF 

«ad, alao. wbrthrr uitl what snwigmMato abould be lumlc to rdabiuh a regukr lint of 
parkH*. lu Mil at lm*t iwirv a vrai at crrlain tinir* for tlie Coiuiiy. 

On iiioiion of ilif Kev. W. .ML-LAis.tlic fir.tt mid third of these resulu- 
tioM wprr Ttferrti] lo the coiiitniitre appointed on iho state of the caiue 
in ti v.and the second and fourth to the committee on tJie pres- 

ent > .<■ colony. 

On motion, it was resolved, that James Hall, M. I)., Secretary of the 
Maryland ('oh>Mization Society, he invited to 'Ai witli the Board as a cor- 
recponding mi-nihcr. 

Messrs. Paul T. Jones and A. G. Phelps, were appointed a commit- 
lee to examine the Trtasurer'a account, and the financial transactions of 
the Execuii\e Connnilltp. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, it was resolved, that a committee of three be 
appointed lo examine the records of the Executive Committee for llie 
past year, and report durinj^ the meeting of the Board. 

Messrs. Cuyler, Tracy, and Davis, were appointed said committee. 

Adjourned to meet at 7 o'clock this evening. 

The Board met agreeably to adjournment. Present, as in the morn- 
inp, with the addition of Hon. II. A. Wise, Delegate from the Virginia 
Colonization Society ; Hon. Jolm Stewart, Delegate from the Connecti- 
cut Stale Colonization Society ; Hon. Joseph Vance, Delegate from the 
Ohio Slate Colonization Society ; lion. J. Huntington, Delegate Con- 
necucut Colonization Society. 

The Rev. Joseph Tracy, from the committee on the j<tate of the 
colony, made the following report: 

•* The (\>inmiite<- lo whom waa referred ho much of the Annual Report 
as relates to the condition of the colony, beg leave to report : — 

"That the alTairs of the colony, and of the society with respect to it, ap- 
pear to have been conducted on correct principles, and willi :i« much suc- 
CMs as it was reasonable to expect. The distance of the colony from 
the directing power at home, and the con!«e(juent necessity of acting often 
on imperfect information, both here and there; the influence of the dis- 
advantageous position of the colonists, before emij^ralion, on their menul 
culture and habits of thought and action, and the adverse influences, both 
African and Kuropean, with which they have had to contend in their new 
abode, arc formnhible obsiacle(< ; and the drgree in which these obstacles 
have been overcome in the short spice >>\ .l.,.iit tuii.iv vmi-i, .•ni-.>nr;inp« 
the most cheering hopes for future ac 

"The Cominiltee notice, with i i. liir proviMun in.ule 

by law, for a ttyitiem of Commo'i "^ i to meet the wants ol 

the whole colonial population Where a Slate fails to provide for the in- 
•Iniciion of its youth, it ia well for private enterprise or liberality, or nsso- 



THE AxMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 15 

ciated benevolence, to step in and supply the deficiency ; and perliaps this 
can be done in no better way than by the action of churches. It is cer- 
tain, however, that a system devised and executed by the public author- 
ities of" a Christian people, can be more efficient in reaching the whole pop- 
ulation, in teaching throughly the rudiments of knowledge, and in forming 
correctnioral habits, than any system which depends on the will of a few, 
and which is not armed with the power of the State. While, therefore, 
we would sincerely thank those "religious institutions in America," who 
have done so much for education in the colony, and would earnestly re- 
quest their continued aid, so long and to such extent as may be necessary, 
we would also express the earnest hope, that the colonists will effectually 
take the work into their own hands, and soon render their system of ed- 
ucation independent of charitable aid. In this attempt all depends, as it 
ought, on the several school districts. Let them first tax themselves lib- 
erally and then see to it that dieir money is well expended, and the work 
is done. 

"The Committee are gratified to learn, that the commerce of the colony 
is prosperous, and that agriculture is receiving increased attention. Agri- 
culture ought certainly to be the business of the great body of the people, 
and should be so conducted, that, as far as practicable, each shall produce 
on his own farm, whatever is necessary to sustain life with comfort. By 
pursuing such a course, the farmer secures himself against being reduced 
to want in a single year, by the failure of a single kind of crop, or by a 
change of its price in the market. He secures that noblest boast of his 
calling, independence: and he takes the surest, though not the most flat- 
tering, road to wealth. 

" In respect to both agriculture and commerce, the Committee regret the 
want of more full and definite statistics. The circumstances of the case 
go far to excuse this deficit hitherto. We hope, however, that returns 
from the colony will hereafter be such as to furnish the desired informa- 
tion. 

" The Constitution and Laws of Liberia, the Committee have not been 
able to examine in detail. The fact, however, that such a volume, sanc- 
tioned by an African Legislature, has issued from an African press, ought 
to give joy to the civilized world. 

" The relations existing between Liberia and the neighboring tribes, is 
highly gratifying, and cannot fail to be mutually beneficial. The popu- 
lation of the allied tribes, before the late treaty with the Golahs, has been 
estimated at 60,000. Yando, head King of the Golahs, boasted that he 
had .50,000 subjects. His residence is supposed to be 80 or 100 miles 
from the coast, and his country to extend to a considerable distance be- 
yond. After all due allowance for exaggerations, we may safely suppose 



16 TWE.VTYSEVKNTH ANNUAL REPOKT OF 

that iheM treaties cover an extent uf lUO inilu8 inland, and embrace near- 
\j 100,000 natiTea. Among all these, war and the sluvo trade are abol- 
iihed, nuu'h of barbarism and t»f rruel and detfradin«r superstition has been 
removed, and civilization and (.'hristianiiy are making progress. They 
are brought, or rutljrr, hnvin-^ watched and considered the subject for 
twenty yeara and become convinced of its advaniagcs, they have sought 
and obuined admittanec, into habitual and friendly iutrrcourse wiiJi civil- 
ised and Christian men, in the hope and for tl>e sake of learning lobe 
like them. .\nd more tlian this : tlit-y think t!uMn»elves gainers by surren- 
dering some part of their national independence, and placing themselves, 
in somo imporia!" • under the control of tlieir Christian neighbors, 

The influence «»f • iions on the difl'ii-iion of t^Miri^tinni'.y cannot be 

doubtful. 

^'Thi« seems to l>e the proper place for ecmsiilerinjr, :\s tlie (\»:nmittee 
were directed, " wlial, if any, further measures should be adopted to in- 
crease the confidence of the friends of missions, and to secure their aid to 
the cause." What can he necessary, more than a fair and full statement 
of the facts in the case? Indeed, that confidence, which was certainly 
somewhat impaired for a little while, seems to be reviving ; as, with one 
exception, every society which has nunisters there, is strengthening and 
enlarging them. Of that one exception, '.he mission of the American 
Boprd at CapePalmas, it miolu he suflicient to nay that it is not within the 
limits of our colonv, and we are no more responsible for its history than 
if it had been at the Cape of Good H<)pe. But we choose to add another 
answer. 

"That mission was commenced with tlie intenti<m of making Cape Pal- 
roas, not the principal 5eld of it« labor, but a mTO stepping stone, from 
which to reaeh >• t" Central .\friea. There was then no other 

mission there 1 I was urged to embrace the colonists, as well 

M the natives, in tlie field of its labors ; but being chartered for ihe specific 
purpose of nuHsion" to the heathen, thought itself restrained from sending 
roiMions to Christian eolouisi-s. It was the policy of the colony to 
aroalgamaie the interests of the natives with tlieirown. 1'he policy of the 
roit>ion, then almost as strong as the colony, and expending all it.s labors 
for the beneiit of the natives, naturally tended to raise up a native interest, 
distinct from tlm colonial. This was the tnie root of the difficulty. All 
the unpleasant collisions of the missions of that Hoard with the colony, 
arc to Im* trac«'d ultimately to this source. The two rommunilies were not 
well constituted for working together in a feeble colony, and in n district 
of small fxtrnt It is within the knowledge of your Committee, that some 
of the pnncipal oflieers nfiiie American HotrtI became convinced of this, 
and frartd that if present difficulties were settled, others would arise from 



THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 17 

the same cause. Meanwhile two other missions had been planted there, 
and three missions could not be expected to labor permanently in such 
close contiguitv, without collision with each other. Meanwhile, also, an 
opening was found at the Gaboon river, a thousand miles nearer the point 
which the mission was intended to reach. It was occupied, and soon 
found so favorable, that the Board resolved to remove its whole establish- 
ment to that place. In all this, there is nothing to prove that missions, 
conducted on a plan adapted to the slate of the country, cannot flourish, 
even at CapePalnias ; while the in(;rease of other missions there, proves 
that they can. 

"It is said by some, that the colonies are prejudicial to missions, because 
the example of irreligious colonists corrupts the natives; but such objec- 
tors surely cannot know what the natives were before they felt the elevat- 
ing influence of tiie colony. Blind adherents of the most degrading idol- 
atry, polygamists,]\idnappers, and some of them cannibals from time im- 
memorial, and having been for nearly three centuries under the exclusive 
tuition of European slave traders and pirates from whom they had tho- 
roughly learned all the vices of civilization which savages are capable of 
learning, they were incapable of being demoralized. Numerous attempts 
were made to plant missions among them, and everyone failed. And be- 
sides all this, the treaties before alluded to shgw conclusively, that not- 
withstanding the bad examples of some colonists, (which are not so bad as 
the slave-trading specimens of Christianity which the colony has driven 
away,) the natives know that the Christian system is better than theirs, 
and produces a better state of society ; and therefore the balance of influ- 
ence is immensely in its favor. 

'•The resolution concerning the increase of trade and the establishment 
of packets, the committee have not had time to consider. 

" Respectfully submitted for the committee. 

JOSEPH TRACY, 

Chairmany 

On motion of Paul T. Jones, Esq., the report was accepted. 

On motion of the Rev. J. B. Pinney, the report was adopted. 

Elliott Cresson, Esq., from the committee on the present state of the 
cause in this country, made a report, which. 

On motion of Mr. Tracy, was accepted; and, after some amendments 
was laid on the table ; (and at the close of the proceedings was again 
taken up, further amended and adopted, and will be found in its proper 
place.) 

On motion of Mr. Jones, the Board adjourned to meet at H o'clock 
to-morrow morning. 

3 



IS IWKNTYSEVEXTH ANNUAL HKI'ORT OF 

January 18, 1844. 

The BoanI lui-i a^reably lo adjuurainciit. The ininuten of Uie meet- 
ing ycntiTilay luonung vert' read and nppruvcd. 

The commiltce appuinted lo examine the Treasurer's acrount, and the 
finTsncial i; h of the Kxecutivo Comnultee, made the followini^ 

rrporl: — ^ a current for 1813, on page 'Jl. 

On motion of Kev. John Davis, this report was accepted and adopted. 

On niuliou of Air, Duvis, tlic Board adjourned to meet at 5 o'clock this 
erening. 

5 o'clock, P. M. 

The Board met ajjrerahly to adjoununenl. The minutes of the morn- 
ing's session were read and approved. 

Dr. Cuvler, Chairman of tlie Committee on the recoids of the Exe- 
cutive Committee made the following Kepor 

"The committee on the records of the Executive t_ onumitcc, beg leave 
to report : 

"That those records show thai the duties of the execuliTe commitiee 
have been nunier»)us, difTicult and important, and have been performed 
with a degree of irulumry, fidelity and inlelligence, for which that com- 
mittee well deserve our Ihanks. Time has not allowed us in all cases to 
examine the grounds of their decisions, so ns to give an opinion of their 
corTeclne.<?8 ; but we liave iiotirrd nothing which appears to demand a re- 
examination or revisal. 

** We would ?»ipgrnl ili. ,i,.,..i.y, wjielher there may not be, during the 
year now commencing, a more extensive and efloctual pre!<eniation of the 
claims of this society before public bodies, both legislative and eclesiasti- 
cal, and indeed, before the whole eimnliy. Tlie deliiils of the plan of 
operations for this purpose, must of course i)e ai ranged from time to time 
by the executive eonuniitce. Much may be done by correspondence ; 
and the Secretary and Treasurer, and other suitable agents, if such can 
be found, may attend important mreiings, visit inlluentiid individuals, and 
rt information, courage and activity to our friends in various parts of 
•untry. 

" Respectfully submitted, in behalf of the commitd ' 

" TOR'S C. CI:YLL:11, Chaimmn:' 

*»ii iiKUHMi III .ill J. i{. I'iNNKY, this report was accepted. 

linn. \V. C HiVKs, appeared and took lii?« -oM ns n Delegate from tlie 
Virgmia Hiatv Colonization Society. 

Hon. K C. KniCNt-K, apjM'ared an a Dele^.m iumii lu' «'liio Slate CM 
uoixalion •Society and took his scat. 



THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 19 

On motion of Mr. Jones the report was adopted. 

On motion of Mr. Piielps, the Board adjourned to attend the public 
meeting in the Capitol, and to meet again to-morrow morning at 10 
o'clock. 

January 19, 1844. 

The Board met. Present Messrs. Cuyler, Phelps, Harrison, Davis, 
Rives, Cresson, Tracy, Jones, Gillett, Stewart, Clark, Ellsworth, Gurley, 
and McLain. 

The minutes of the evening session were read and approved. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, it was resolved that we now go into an elec- 
tion of members of the Executive Committee. 

On motion of Mr. Stewart, it was resolved that a Committee of three 
be appointed to make a nomination. 

Messrs. Gillett, Tracy and Davis, were appointed said Committee. 

Mr. Gillett, from the above Committee made a report. 

"The committee appointed to nominate members of the Executive 
Committee, beg leave to leport the following names, viz : 

" Hon. H. L. Ellsworth, Hon. M. St. Clair Clarke, Hon. W. W. Sea- 
ton, H. Lindsly, M. D., Hon. C. B. Penrose, Hon. A. O. Dayton, Rev 
C. B. Davis. 

"A. D. GILLETT, Chairman:'^ 

On motion of Mr. Stewart, this report was laid on the table. 

And, on motion of Mr. Phelps it was resolved, that it is expedient for 
the Board to elect a Corresponding Secretary of the Society. 

On motion of Mr. Stewart, it was resolved that the Board now proceed 
to the election of Corresponding Secretary. 

Whereupon, the Rev. R. R. Gurley was elected. 

On motion of Mr. Jones, the report of the Committee on nomination 
of members, of the Executive Committee was taken up, and on motion 
of the same, it was adopted. 

After which Mr. Gurley, formally tendered his resignation of the office 
of Corresponding Secretary, and expressed his good feelings for the cause 
and his fervent wishes for its future prosperity. 

On motion of Mr. Phelps, it was resolved that, the resignation of Mr. 
Gurley be accepted. 

And, on motion of Mr. Phelps, it was resolved that the thanks of this 
Board are due, and are heartly tendered, to our late Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Rev. R. R. Gurley, for his long continued and valuable services, and 
and that while, in the kind wishes for the prosperity of the cause, and 
good feelings toward the members of the Board, expressed by him in re- 
signing his office, we find assurance of his future friendly influence, we 



90 rWTNTY SF.VKNTH A.NNLAl. REPOHT. 

assure him Ui«l lh»« HoraA and im iiidividoal iiiPmbcrs recipromte the fecl- 
ing« «nd ihai our good wishes will follow him in subsequent lif. 

On mniion of Mr. Trary, it wa" resolved that we proceed m uif rier- 
lion of a Correspondinu fierremry. 

Wl.orcupon, llev. W. MrK^iin wm unanimoufly elected. 

Onntiv.ionof Mr. Pinney, it was resolved dni, Kx' " Pommittee 

b« authorized to appoint a Trcanurer of the Sociiiy. 

On motion of Mr. Phelps, the report of the Commiiiee on that part of 
the Annual Report, relniing to the stale of the rut -,■ in i'ii« i<,.(i.,irv v.-n^ 
taken «p, amended, and adopted and is as folio-, 

•* Tlie committee appointed on that part of thu .Aiiuuiil Uipuri, wliicli 
relates to the slate of the cause in iliis country. I'cj leave to report: 

"That in relation to the financial interests of the Society, the committee, 
in view of the reduced state of our income, feel assured of the imperative 
necessity of strict economy in the expenses at the scat of Government, and 
therefore recommend tlieir immediate reduction, to a sum not exceeding 
S2000, per an., viz : 

"For Corrcspondinff Secretary - . . - $1500 

♦' Rent - '200 

*• OfTirf exnensrs 300 

62000 

" With thi.s evidence of a determination to make an economical disburse- 
ment of the funds intrusted to our care, we belieye tliat men of a high 
Order of usefulness may be obtained, to advocate the claiins of the American 
<" • iz.ition Society, and to swell the amount of its funds. It is only hv 
r. — ring the cause popular and securing the love of the citizens at large, 
that we can hope to operate successfully upon our republican government, 
". h always follows, and never leads public sentiment and action. 
M nwhile, we shall be happy that the local and State societies, should 
invoke the co-operation of the individual Slate Governments, and recom- 
mend this course of action. 

" All of which is respeclfullv submitted, 

i:m,iot d. cresson. 
paul t. jonf.s." 

On motion I'l' An'niil TJfmrr w-.yn rrfi rn i1 l,» tlir> F vi-rii I i Ic ('\ i iii in i f loft 

for poblicaiioi 

And, on mouon ut' Mr. Juiit*. i\w Board aujourut^il. ti> iik < t i>n liu- tliird 
Tue»d»v of Janiiarv. I84.S. 



ANNUAL MEETING. 21 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE ANNUAL MEETING 

or TUE AMERICAN COLOXIZATIOX SOCIETT. 

The Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting of the American Colonization Soci- 
ety was held in the Capitol on Tuesday evening-, the 16th ult., when the 
Hon. John C, Herbert, the first on the list of V Presidents loolc the chair. 

Prayer was offered by the Rev. Dr. Laurie. The Report of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee of the Society was read by the Secretary, Mr. Gurley. 

On motion of Rev. R. T. Berry, the following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved, That the Report of the Executive Committee just presented, be accepted 
and referred for consideration and pubUcation to the Board of Directors, 

On motion of the Rev. C. M. Buller, 

Resolved. That in view of the past success and present prospects of the American 
Colonization Society, its friends are called upon to exert cheerful and continued efforts 
in its behalf; and that in the vigorous prosecution of the plan of African Colonization, 
is to be found the best means of arresting the slave trade, and of preparing a way for 
and promoting the cause of Christian missions in Africa. 

On motion of the Hon. J. R. Ingersoll, 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this meeting, the friends of this Society in every part 
of the Union, should more and more appreciate the grandeur of their enterprize, as in- 
volving very materially in its ultimate consequences the dearest interests of two races of 
men, in two of the largest quarters of the globe. 

On motion of the Rev. Dr. Cuyler, 

Resolved, That in the decease of the venerable Dr. Proudfit, a Vice President of this 
Society, and long the devoted and efficient Secretary of the New York Colonization So- 
ciety, this Institution ha? sustained a heavy loss, and that the memory of this eminent 
Christian philanthropist will ever be cherished by the members of this Institution, and by 
all the friends of Africa. 

On motion of the Rev. J. B. Pinney, 

Resolved, That in the judgment of this meeting, the advances of the Colony of Libe- 
ria in agriculture, commerce, and other public improvements has equalled all reasonable 
expectations ; and that, although the progress of such improvements in such a colony, is 
at first necessarily slow, they have already been such as to demonstrate the general indus- 
try and enterprize of the people, and the vast resources of the country. 

On motion of the Rev. J. N. Danforth, 

Resolved, That the moral, civilizing and Christian influence exerted by the people of 
Liberia over many African tribes, and the earnest efforts of its ministers of the gospel, 
and many of its citizens to enlighten the minds of the neighboring heathen with the 
great truths of Christianity, should excite the sympathies and confidence of all the friends 
of missions, and induce the clergy and churches of every name to extend to this colony 
a more constant and liberal support. 

On motion of M. St. Clair Clark, 

Resolved, That this Society will cherish an affectionate remembrance of the Hon. 
William Halsey, for several years very earnestly and successfully engaged in the promo- 
tion of the cause of African Colonization in the State of New Jersey. 

On motion of the Hon. Mr. Morehead, it was 

Resolved, That the Society hold another public meeting in this hall on Thursday 
evening the 18th inst. 

After which the Society adjourned to meet in the Colonization Office 

at 10 o'clock, A. M. to-morrow. 



ANNUAL MEETING OK THE 

Al • roeeiing of Uic Society, at Uie o01ce of the same on Wednesday 
in« r ' I7ili at 10 o'clock, the Hon. L. Q. ('. Elmer, one of ilit 

Vi. ilia, look llie chair. 

The Serrciary, Mr. (iurley, moved the njipointnieni of a conimiitee to 
nor • ■' !*'■ • ' n and Vice Presidents of the Society. 

1 uuMi were appointed on the committee : Messrs. 

A. <i. riiflp!", Piiinty, Jonef, Tracy, and Davis. 

Mr. Phelps, from the committee, after retiriniT for a short tune, made 
the following nomination wiiich wa^ approved: 

Honorable HENRY CLAV, PreslJml. 
Vice PrtsiJtnts. 
\ John C. Herbert, of .Manlaml, | 33 Jamri Gurlund, of Virginia, 

M..rn4. Bishop of iha 



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at I'rtrf l>. > 

Mr. Gurh;. ..! »{)okc of thelon;^ continued and imporLintsei vices 

of Col. W. It. 8tone, and moved that he also be appointed a Vice Pre- 
sn! !. — Rev. J. B.Pinney ro.^eandofTered the 

fo!; •,. 

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New York, 


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I their inierecu, ha* 



1 hr prrami inierevia and tuiur» w^tar* of ihs Uoloniea in Africa, hmJ 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. g3 

the fostering care of some friendly State ; and, Whereas, by reason of Constitutional and 
other obstacles, such care and protection has not been obtained from the Government of 
the United States, and is not likely to be extended ; Therefore, 

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to consider the wisdom and propri- 
ety of cedini; said colonies to some European power — or of securing their friendly pro- 
tection for the colonies, and also to report the measure proper for such action. 

This resolution, after some discussion in which Messrs. Pinney, Tracy, 
Cuyler, and Gurley, participated, was, on motion of Dr. Cuyler, referred 
over for consideration to the Board of Directors. After some further re- 
marks from Messrs. Harrison, Cresson, and Gurley, on motion of the Rev. 
Mr. McLain, a committee was appointed by the Chairman to make arrange- 
ments for the public meeting to be held to-morrow evening at the Capitol, 
consisting of Messrs. Cresson, Harrison, and McLain. 

The Society then adjourned until to-morrow evening at 7 o'clock. 



House of Representatives, Jan. \9th, 1844. 

The Society met agreeably to adjournment. The Rev, Dr. Laurie, 
one of the Vice Presidents, took the chair. The minutes of the preceding 
meetings were read. 

The Hon. Mr. Morehead presented and ably advocated the following 
resolutions, which were adopted. 

Resolved, That since the colony of Liberia is powerfully contributing to the sup- 
pression of the African slave-trade, and the protection and increase of American com- 
merce on the African coast, as well as to the cause of African civilization, it be recom- 
mended to the Board of Directors and to the several State Colonization Societies to 
continue their applications to the general government, for such aid, by the direct appro- 
priation of funds, and the co-operation of the United States squadron on that coast, as 
shall enable the Colony of Liberia to acquire entire jurisdiction over the whole line of 
ihat coast from Cape Mount to Cape Palmas. 

Resolved, That in view of the vast benefits to mankind of the enterprize in which the 
Colonization Society is now engaged of planting a colony of colored freemen, on the 
coast of Africa, it is incumbent on the people of the United States to give to that Society 
a cordial and efficient support. 

Elliot Cresson, Esq., addressed the meeting on the vast objects contempla- 
ted by the Society, and the advantage which the agricultural and manufactur- 
ing interests of this country would derive from their vigorous prosecution. 

The Rev. Mr. Gillett offered and advocated the following resolution 
which was adopted. 

Whereas, The Colonization Society belongs to no party in politics, to no one de- 
nomination of Christians, and to no one section of our beloved country — Therefore, 

Resolved, That it is the duty of all philanthropists to promote its civil and educational 
prosperity, and of all churches to co-operate with its religious inhabitants in spreading 
amongthem and the contiguous native tribes, the glorious gospel of the blessed God. 

On motion of the Rev. Mr. Tinsley, the Rev. Dr. W. B. Johnson, of 
South Carolina, was added to the list of Vice Presidents of the Society. 

Paul J. Jones, Esq., addressed the meeting on the importance of in- 
creasing the contributions to the Society, and extending its operations both 
in this country and in Africa. 

After which the Society adjourned to meet again on the third Tuesday 
of January, 1845. 



21 



KECEIPrS AND EXPENDITURES. 



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TWENTY-EIGHTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



iifflM(BiiSI (B(Da.(DSIliaii!JI!(DSI S(D(BlISm 



WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 



AND OF THE 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 



JANUARY 21, 1845, 



WASHINGTON: 
C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER, 

BEVENTEENXn STREET, 

184 5. 



CONTENTS. 



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TWENTY-EIGHTH 



ANNUAL llEPORT 






WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF TUE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 






W^ \U 



AND OF THE 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 



JANUARY 21, 1845. 



WASHINGTON: 
r \LEXANDER, PRINTER 

SEVENTEENTH -■■•"'■'- r 




OFFICERS OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 

PRESIDENT: 
Hon. henry CLAY. 

VICE PRESIDENTS: 

(VIDE PAGE 27.) 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER: 
Rev. W. McLAIN. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 

Hon. H. L. ELLSWORTH, 
Hon. M. ST. CLAIR CLARKE, 
HARVEY LINDSLY, M. D., 
Hon. H. 0. DAYTON, 
Rev. C. a. DAVIS, 
JOSEPH H. BRADLEY, Esq., 
Rev. De. BACON. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS: 

Rev. D. L. CARROLL, D. D., New York State Col. Society. 

A. G. PHELPS, Esq., 

Rev. a. D. GILLETTE, Pennsylvania 

Dr. JOHN BELL, 

Rev. JOSEPH TRACY, Massachusetts 

Rev. S. K. LATHROP, 

Rev. a. D. EDDY, D. D., New Jersey 

Hon. L. Q. C. ELMER, 

Hon. W. S. ARCHER, Virginia 

Hon. G. W. SUMMERS, " 

Hon. J. W. HUNTINGTON, Connecticut 

Hon. C. W. ROCKWELL, 

Rev. J. B. PINNEY, Pennsylvania, Life Director. 

ELLIOTT CRESSON, Esq., " 

Hon. S. WILKESON, New York, 

Hon. THOMAS W. WILLIAMS, Conn., " 

Rev. L. bacon, D. D., Conn., 

FRANCIS GRIFFIN, Esq., Miss., 

Gen. JOHN H. COCKE, Virginia, 

THOMAS R. HAZZARD, Esq., R. I., 

Rev. E. burgess, D. D., Mass., 

JOHN McDONOGH, Esq., Lou., 

JONA. COIT, Esq., New London, Conn., " 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Another year in the liistory of 
colonization has passed away, and 
in commencing a review of its varied 
events, we are called upon to dis- 
charge the mournful duty of record- 
ing the death of some of its valued 
friends. The Honorable Mexander 
Porter, of Louisiana, the Honorable 
Ahel P. Upshur, of Virginia, and 
Colonel W. L. Stone, of New York, 
three of the Vice Presidents of the 
Society, have ceased from their la- 
bors. 

Judge Porter had long been known 
as a zealous advocate and liberal pa- 
tron of the Society. Endowed with 
great natural abilities, a finished scho- 
lar, and a perfect gentleman, residing 
in the extreme south, his example 
and influence were of vast advan- 
tage to this cause. 

Mr. Upshur, though more recently 
numbered among our active friends, 
was not less true in his devotion, nor 
energetic in his efforts. The noble 
and important part which he took in 
conducting the correspondence be- 



tween the Executive of the United 
States and the British government, 
in behalf of Liberia, will long be re- 
membered with gratitude to his me- 
mory. From his high station and 
commanding influence, and his great 
anxiety to see the colony flourish, 
and rise to greatness, we had reason 
to anticipate great good from his con- 
tinued labors. 

Of the general character and influ- 
ence of Colonel Stone, it is not in 
our power adequately to speak. All, 
however, who have been familiar 
with the columns of the " Commer- 
cial Advertiser," know how contin- 
ued and ardent was his attachment to 
this scheme of benevolence ; how 
powerful were his appeals in its be- 
half; and how cutting were the re- 
bukes, and convincing the argu-* 
raents which he dealt out to those 
who were disposed to decry its pre- 
tensions, or oppose its progress. He 
had a large and benevolent heart, a 
vigorous and well-disciplined mind, 
and he was frank and fearless in the 



AHIW AL METOST OW THE AMBKICaN COLONIZATION BOCIETT. 



T>aiii tt ■ii|irt to Ik* Mwnnry oT Hd«. E. M. »»n— wd Dr. Wariry Jeka 



•ruwal of hi« opinions. To the rn-' 
Urged tiewa of a pliibnihropi«t, he 
added the eipaiuiive benevolence and {! 
fenrcnt ho|»e of a Chrimian. The], 
combination of all Uiese noble trails |, 
of cbararier, gave to his advocacy of j 
this rau«e, a considi-rntion and nn in- li 
fluence which few men are so fortu- / 
Bale as to acquire. He considered 
it as pre-emincnlly a schenie of phi- 
lantltropy. designed to carry civiliza- , 
tion and establish Christianity in a ' 
land all lost and ruined, and irredrcni- 
able by any other process of henevo- 1 
Iraee. Hence, while he explain- | 
•d its principles, demonstrated it.s 
practicability, and enforced its im- : 
portance, he drew from the great i, 
treasury of Christian love, motives 
broad and deep as the woes of man, , 
and vast as eternity, to excite the I 
careless and 8ei68h to give it their ' 
support. 

But he has been called, in the 
vigor of his intellect and the slrenpth 
of his faculues, lo a higher sphere I 
While we weep over his tomb, 
may we emulate his virtues and 
aacredly cherish the memory of his 
worth ! 

In addition to thc-Hc, wc have :ll^o 
lo pay a tribute of respect to the me- 
mory of the Honorable Jioger Minott 
Sherman, President of the Connec- 
ticut State Cnlonizatiun Society, w ho 
btit recently departed this life. In 
him coloniiaUon has ever enjoyed a 



warm and devoted friend, a ready and 
able counsellor and bountiful contri- 
butor. He was intimately and tho- 
roughly acquainted with its origin, 
progress and achievements. Some 
of the purest and strongest feelings 
of his generous lieart clustered around 
it, and he iievei ceased to cherish the 
firm belief that it would ultimately 
triumph over every towering obsta- 
cle, and acrumplisli the ^raiid results 
which it contemplates. Among the 
last efforts of his pen, was a letter 
which he addressed lo the Secretary, 
in regard to ilie best meiliod to be 
adopted to secure the attention and 
command the patronage of all the 
churches and ciiizena of his own state, 
extracts from which appear in another 
part of this report. Wc cannot 
but deplore and deeply feel the 
loss of one whose influence and 
exertions were so eminently devo- 
ted to the interests of this institu- 
tion. His name shall be honored 
among Africa's distinguished bene- 
factors, and his benevolence be held 
in affectionate and perpetual remem- 
brance.* 

We have also to record the death 
ol Dr. If'fslry Johnson, who several 
years ago went to Hassa Cove, as 
colonial physician, under the direc- 
tion of the New York and Pennsyl- 
vania colonization societies, while 
tliey maintained a separate organiza- 
tion. After residing in the colony for 



**{»**<^'j||ttbi> rrport ws bavs letroed that be left by hii will a b«)atst lo this 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETT. 



Health of Colonists. — Expedition from New Orleans. — Lime Bock. 



some time :ind making himself gene- 
rally useful, his health failed him, 
and he returned to New York, his 
native state. He, however, had 
formed such an attachment for the 
colony, and felt such an ardent de- 
sire to make himself useful in pro- 
moting its welfare, that he again 
returned to it as superintendent of 
the high school on Factory Island, 
under the patronage of the Ladies' 
Liberia School Association of Phila- 
delphia. 

\n their last annual report, the 
managers of that association thus 
speak of his usefulness, and their 
and Africa's loss in his death : 

" We have also to mourn the loss of our 
excellent friend and helper, Dr. Wesley 
Johnso7i. In the death of this estimable 
Christian, we have lost an invaluable teach- 
er, and Africa a devoted fiiend and martyr. 

"The failure of his health, which neces- 
sarily suspended the high sciiool of Liberia, 
about a year since, was to us a source of 
deep solicitude ; still we trusted that his 
life might be spared many years. He re- 
turned to New York last May, in cheerful 
hope that his complicated disease was not 
incurable, that strength and time would still 
be granted him for further labors in the 
cause of human improvement. 

" Btjt,in the designs of an all- wise Provi- 
dence, it was ordered otherwise. He lived 
but a few days after reaching the home of 
his childhood. 

" To the piety, zeal and talents of Dr. 
Johnson, our society is mainly indebted for 
its success in founding the high school in 
Liberia. He watched with unceasing care 
over the erection of the building, organized 
the school, and proved by experience that 
its plan was practicable, and promised the 
best results. 

" He had in the school about twenty-five 
scholars, who were received on condition 
of their paying 75 cents per week for their 
board, in labor, cash, lumber or provisions. 

" Dr. Johnson, just before his death, ob- 
served, that he never regretted going to Li- 
beria, for he hoped, in the erection of the 



high .school, there was one bright spot that 
would shed its influence far into the inte- 
rior of Afiica. 

" Governor Roberts, during his late visit 
here, bore warm testimony to the estimate 
the colonists place on the school. He was 
very anxious to have it re- opened as soon 
as possible, it being, as he termed it, ' the 
hope of the colony.' "* 

While we record these instances 
of mortality among the friends of the 
cause in this countiy, we are happy 
in being able to state that the past 
year has been one of unusual health 
among the citizens of Liberia. And 
it is now an admitted fact, that new- 
ly arrived emigrants suffer less in 
their acclimation, than the inhabi- 
tants of the northern sections of the 
United States do, on their removal 
to the extreme south or the far west, 
and that after a residence of a year in 
the colony, they will find the climate 
more congenial to their constitutions 
than that of America. 

Immediately after the last annual 
meeting of the Society, the Execu- 
tive Committee concerted measures 
for despatching an expedition from 
New Orleans. It being impossible 
for the Secretary to perform this duty 
in person, the services of Wra. A. 
Bartlett & Brother were secured, 
who attended to chartering a vessel, 
receiving and taking care of the 
emigrants, purchasing provisions and 
trade-goods, and doing every thing 
necessary in the premises, under 
full and explicit instructions from 
us. And it is due to them to 
say that they deserve great credit 
for their promptness, efficiency and 



*The friends of the school will be glad to learn that another teacher has been obtained 
for the high school, hhmael Lock, a colored man, well qualified for the station. 



uf..Kr .-i- m* ^•.:i.uiLA.s n lvMZaTION socicir. 



Mwii ,. 



-ui i-oi bjr Dr. Uubchh wi4 Be* Zcbttliw Bwtkr. 



acrnwry, and h«ve inspired i. 
ihc ii.. . >t cuiifidi'nee in iheir lu»- 
nesiy, iuilu«iry,ttiid business dim 
icr. 



and seventeen hundred dollais worth 

of L'oods, to be expended in the pur- 

of ifrrilory, and carrying on 

.^ricus improvcnients in the co- 



The brig " Lime Rock," charur- lony: making a total exiXMiditure 
ed for thid expedition, sailed frmn on niMMuni of this expedition of 
New Orleans for Monrovia and i $7,0hl» 21. 

Sinou on the lOih of Mareh. She |# The Lime Rock anchored at Mon- 
had on l>oard niiuiy-lwo cniijjraiits, [ rovia on the Olh of .May, after a pas- 



of whom seventy-two were sent <"" 
by Dr. Duncan and the Rev. Zt 



of fifiy-fivc days. Two of ihe 
ants died on the passage. 



Ion Huilcr. of Missi.ssippi. Four- iNinetccn of them stopped at Mi»iiro- 
teen were from Tlemingsburg. Ky., via, and the others went down to 
liberated by the will of the lalcThos. Sinou, and settled in the Mississippi 
Wallace; and six were free people colony, in lljc same neighborhood 
of great resj.ectability from ihc city wiili those sent out a year before by 
of New Orleans. They were wtil Dr. Duncan and Mr. Uutler. Gen. 
Bupplird with provisions, and all the Lewis, of Monrovia, who accompa- 
ariicles necessary for their comfort i nied these people to their new home, 
and happiness in the colony. A cor- gives the following description of the 
icspondent who visited the brig just appearance of the settlement, and of 
111 ii«. 1^ i,ii- the meeting of the two (•(Miiii:Miii~ of 
ihc same family : 



beforr ^lu• 
low- 



C|'l|l 



.-..I.J. 



liic 



■I »i'"^'H- 

'1 :ing out ll 

ninety-two people amounieil 
$5.31)1 80, viz: ch.-irter of ;' 
$3,500 ; provisions for the ^ 
■nd six months in the col< 
f 1.588 8*2; water, fiul, berths. :.i,.i 
other small itrms iJ.'tO.^. l»8. 'I"l is "™-^<'«' •' 
makes the expense for each emi^'i 
$5«. ■ ' 

mr,. 

when sick, and other small exp<v 
lo be paid in the colony. We 
sent III the vmacl belwern n\x 



III rom 

lilt Atlld. 

Ihe set- 

■oT uiifor- 

pl.ifcd. 

t-ar- 

iti- 

liad 

,1.. 

\ to 

■i in 

uU. 

len- 
.md 

lies 

in a 

I mr 
. nl. 

l.lt(! 

H lo 

..Ijr 
And 
•If 

PK- 
the 

!<ed 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Condition of the Settlement at Greenville. — Expedition by the Virginia, from Norfolk. 



lervened todamp the ardor of their feelings ; 
it was truly a happy time, and my feelings 
flowed in unison with theirs." 

Capt. Auld, master of the Lime 
Rock, in a letterof 26th July, makes 
the following allusion to the same 
thing: 

. " Dr. Lugenbeel, his student. General 
Lewis, Mr. Murray, and myself, visited the 
new settlement up the river, where tlie 
Renown's emigrants had located, and were 
agreeably disappointed. Notwithstanding 
the destitute situation they were in, after 
losing every thing they possessed, when 
cast away, they had built themselves com- 
fortable houses, and had an abundance of 
every thing growing in a thriving condi- 
tion, such as corn, potatoes, cassada, beans, 
peas, he, fruit of various kinds, such as 
water-melons, cucumbers, cantelopes, pine 
apples, bannanas, plaintains, &c. All those 
improvements have been done in the space 
often or eleven months." 

The emigrants by the Lime Rock 
all passed through their acclimation 
with very little sickness. Dr. Lu- 
genbeel remarks of them-^ 

" I spent three months at Greenville, 
during which time all the emigrants who 
were landed at that place, sixty-eight 
in number, experienced one attack, or 
more, of acclimating fever ; but, with 
the exception of two small children, 
whose death was caused by the effect 
of worms in the alimentary canal, they 
all recovered, and I left them in nearly 
or (juite as good health as when they first 
arrived. Several of them had their lands 
cleared and their houses nearly built be- 
fore I left." 

The next expedition sailed from 
Norfolk, Va., on the 14th June, 
with fifty-eight emigrants, in the 
ship Virginia. This company were 
generally well prepared for emigra- 
tion •, many of them had been well 
instructed, and maintained uniformly 
good characters. They were all sup- 
plied with every thing necessary to 
render industry and economy sources 
of comfort and plenty. The bare 
outfit of one company of twenty-two 



of them cost upwards of eighteen 
hundred dollars, which was paid by 
the executor out of the estate. They 
were liberated by the will of the late 
Hardinia M. Burnley, of Hanover 
county, Va., and have been under 
the management of John H. Steger, , 
Esq., who has acted a most liberal 
part toward them. He also libe- 
rated one of his own best servants, 
that she might accompany her hus- 
band, who was one of the above 
number. 

Four others were from Richmond, 
Va. They were liberated by Mrs. 
Sarah Brooke, to whom they were 
left by her sister, Mrs. Catharine 
Ellis, deceased, with the request that 
she would send them to Africa. She 
also made a bequest to the Female 
Colonization Society, which, how- 
ever, was void, the said society not 
being incorporated. These people 
have been under the care of John B. 
Young, Esq., of Richmond, who 
deserves much praise for the interest 
which he has shown in their wel- 
fare. 

One was from Fredericksburg, a 
young man of fine appearance and 
good character, liberated by Wm. M. 
Blackford, Esq., and furnished with 
the conveniences necessary to render 
him useful and happy. 

Seven of them were from Wash- 
ington county, D. C, liberated by 
our fellow citizen, Wm. G. Sanders, 
Esq., and provided with tools, cloth- 
ing, and furniture, requisite to their 
comfort in commencing life in a new 
country. 



10 



AWI »L lUI'iiIlT «l^ Tin \MkHlC\N HiLoM/.VTI»i.\ S(H IKTY 



« rery cxpt'itsire outfit^ under ilie 
direction «»f tJ. C. Sibley, V.>i\. 



Kighieon uf ihem wero from . n has been said that when slaves 
Charlfs, .MiMouri, having been lilic-Kare liberated lobe sent lo tliecolony« 
rated by tho will «»f ihu lute Tlio- ' their masters nre governed by selfisli 
mas Lindsay, and provided \xith, motiveH ; that none are set tree un- 
less they are old and woiihless, or 
young and vieittus», and tlien only to 
As an evidence of their g<>od clui- avoid the trouble and expense of 
meter and industrious habits, it is jj keeping them. Would that every 
vrorlliy of reniark that while li .,,n xvh«» lias entertained such a 

were detained in Norfolk, hu* , uioii could have seen this corn- 

arrived some six weeks before the " pany as they were ready to sail. It 
V pailetl, they supported would nioJ't undoubtedly have cor- 

I •« by their own labor, and reeled their impressions, and con- 
won for themselves the confidence: vinced them that those who arc seek- 
aiid re-jHJct of the good citizens of jn^ ilic removal lo Africo of the co- 
ihat burtiijgh. lored race are governed by the most 

Three of them were from Nanse- i benevolent and philanthropic feel- 
roond county, Virginia, liberated jnpg i 

for the purpose by the will of the The invoice of goods sent to the 
late Mr. Kelly, having for some colonial store by this vestel amount- 
lime been under the direction of ^ ed to $2,222 02. For that part of 
Hugh H. Kelly, I>q., of Sullolk, the hhip occupied by the emigrant-s 
and hired out for their own bene- n and ilieir provisions, &c., we paid 
fit. They weie able-bcnlie*! young ^1,710. Their provisions, water, 
men, and took sdmic moutv wiih fuel, berths, and other fixtures for the 
them. passage out and 8up|>ort six months, 

One was Irom Augusui county, ,. cost €(I,.'J9'» — biiui.' a total expense 
Va. He had purchased himself, and for each one of $•>! 05, not includ- 
had been very anxious to purchase \\ ing house rent, medical attenduncef 
his wife also, but was obliged to leave K.C., in the colony. Adding the 
her behind,' intending, if life and freight on the goods sent to the colo- 
heahh were K|mred, to return for ii nial store, ^10, insurance, :<^11 60, 
her. ■ other small expenses. 

One was a free man from Sun ii makes a total expenditure 



field, Nortii Carolina, who had been 
anxious to see the colony for liiui- 
M >i. He paid his own imssuge 
uuL, and if ho is pleased with 
t)ie place and his proniMTin tlf ' 
will return «)r send over lor 
(arodv. 



on account of tliis ex|x;diiion, of 
$.'■>,« i7ti 72. 

The Virginia an ivcd at Monrovia 
on the 3d of August with the eini- 
iH nil well, who were safely 
:< d and comfortable houses ap- 
propriated to tltcir use. At our latest 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



11 



Acclimation of Emigrants. — Expedition by the Chipola. — Receipts. 



dates, 23d October, Gov. Roberts 
was making preparations to locale 
them on the St. Paul's river. He 
remarks : 

" Dr. Lugenbeel has been exceedino;ly 
successful in carrying them throuf^h the 
acclimating fever. Of the two companies, 
but five have died, one only of that num- 
ber being an adult." 

Di. Liiffenbeel, under date of 22d 
October, remarks : 

" Nearly all of the last company (by 
the Virginia) have experienced one attack 
or more of acclimating fever. None are 
on the sick list at present ; and, with the 
exception of occasional slight attacks of 
intermittent fever, they are all enjoying 
good health. About one-third of them 
have been going to school during most 
of the time since their arrival, and seve- 
ral of them have made considerable pro- 
gress in learning to read and write. 

" From my experience and observations, 
I am fully satisfied that forty-nine persons 
in fifty, if not ninety-nine in one hundred, 
who come from the United States to Libe- 
ria, might pass safely through the ac- 
climating fever : provided their constitu- 
tions were not much impaired by previ- 
ous disease, aiid they could be prevailed 
on to exercise that prudence which is neces- 
sary." 

The only other company of emi- 
grants sent out this year sailed from 
Baltimore on the 18th November, in 
the brig C/iipoIa, chartered by 
the Maryland Colonization Society. 
'They were twenty-one in number, 
having been liberated by Joseph H. 
Wilson, Esq., of Wilsonville, Ky., 
and furnished by him with a liberal 
outfit. To the indefatigable agency 
of the Rev. J. B. Pinney we are in- 
debted for bringing these people from 
Kentucky and fitting them out for 
their voyage. The whole expense 
attending their departure, their pas- 
sage out, and support six months, is 
^1,425 38, not including house rent, 
medical attendance, &;c., in Liberia, 



being an average cost of ii!67 87 for 
each one. 

Thirty-seven of the other emi- 
grants who sailed in the Chipola 
were from Virginia, and had been 
offered to this Society ; but not 
having the means to send them, they 
went out under the patronage of 
the Maryland Society, and will be 
located at Cape Palmas. 

We have been under the necessity 
of declining to send out a great ma- 
ny persons who have been anxious 
to emigrate the past year. The re- 
sources of the Society have been en- 
tirely inadequate to meet the demands 
upon it. These difficulties in the 
way of persons obtaining a passage 
to Liberia, have a tendency greatly to 
check the spirit of emigration, and to 
discourage a great many masters 
who have been hoping to send out 
their slaves. How important, there- 
fore, that our friends should all bear 
this in their memories, and greatly 
enlarge their contributions the com- 
ing year ! 

From the accompanying financial 
report of the Treasurer, it will be 
seen that the whole amount of the 
i-eceipts of the Society the past 
year was $33,640 39. The whole 
expenditure was $38,237 52, be- 
ing an excess of the receipts of 
$4,597 13. 

The expenses of the office in this 
city have fallen below the amount 
appropriated by the board at their 
last annual meeting, being only 
$1,910 56. 



li» 



jhT or THE AUUUCAN 



.^.^.ATlOtt SOCIETY 



of TwntMj. 



i m- II << ij-i--- iKMii subscribers to 
ihe Krpottilory e-xcced Uic exj>rri!*e8 
of ii» publication by upwonlH of 
♦700. ami would be prcaily i«K*rt:i»- 
cd if Hubfcribcrs would genemlly be 
more punctual in making their rvmitp 
tances. 

No payments of ronttequcncc have I of which about one hundred and fifty 
been made on the oU debts of the | is now owned by the Society. It is 
Society. The Committee found it i. thought that the remainder can be pur- 



purchase of territory . EI very arrival 
from tiie colony convinces us mors 
and more of the indispensable neces- 
sity of obtaining possession of all 
U»e territory lying between Cape 
Mount and Cape Palmtis, a dis- 
tance of about three hundred miles, 



impossible to meet tlie indispcnsahic 
engagements, and perform the indis- 
pensable buHiness of the year with 



chased for about $20,000. One im- 

I porlant tract has been secured the 

past year. Alluding to it, Gov. Ro- 



llieir limited resources. They con- hcrts says : 

aider it an object of the first impor- " ^^u will see by the accompanyinc do- 
. ' riinj»«nt »!inf 1 have s'irrcp<1«"! in r<»irclia»- 

tancc that the Society should be en- •.,! in 

lirely relieved from debt. There is , '"K 

' - ; .. . .... >. 1 j)ur- 

about $0,000 of the old debt yet chase we a to the colony the 

I It . At /»«.• <><v e .1 principal i we in that country, 

unpaid, and about $7.0 12 1)7 of other , ^„j , J,,,;,,^, ^^^, -i,^: ^.^„t «f f„,.,,, ^^^,J^; 

debts.' ^^f^ Society from owning very soon the en- 

To meet these we have debts due the 

the Society amounting to $.1,002 70, ■ ■ ' '•'"' 

^ I country, ' 

together wiih $1,000 due from sevc- ' vll T\ 

.., ,.,..,.,.„■ to 
I .shall lo9« 
them." 

I Other tracts of land are also of- 

' fered at present, on advantageous 

I terms. 

In his last annual message to the 



^4 to 



ral legacies, that will probably be 
paid in the course of another year or 



two. 



We have also debts due the colo- 
nial store, and goods there for sale 
amounting U> about $0,000. \Vc, 
•however, do not expect to receive 
any immediate assistance from the I Legislature, f Jov. Hoberts makes the 
colony to aid us in paying our debts 
in this countr)'. Gov. Roberts ia 
under inntructions to prosecute the '' 
purchase of territory as rapidly aa 
possible, and to appropriate all 
the available rcttources to that pur- 
pose. 

One of the most prominent oli|< t> 
for whirh we hare m- ' "f- 

forts to niino inoncv, ; 'lie 



fdllowing st;itemfiit, viz 
'• I have to n 



the 

.<ih- 

. the 
I on 
hut 
ct- 
lon- 
will 
inf.. 



ANNUAL REPORT OK THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



13 



Efforts to buy New Ccsters. — Treaty with the Kroos. 



try to the blessings of civilization and i 
Christianity. Tribes far beyond us are | 
now makioEj application for citizenship, 
and to be identified with us in laws ami i 
government. 1 have not failed, in my in- i 
tercourse with the native chiefs, particu- ! 
larly those on the seaboard, fo introduce to 
them the subject of colonial jurisdiction, 
and to obtain from them an expression in 
regard to the purchase, by t||e Coloniza- 
tion Society, of the entire coast from Cape 
Mount to Cape Palraas. In almost every 
instance, the question has been favorably 
received ; and if means had been within 
my reach, instead of securing only ten, I 
could have purchased more than one hun- 
dred miles of sea-coast the past year. The 
resources of the Society, however, have not 
been sutficient to enable them to make an 
adequate appropriation for the j)urchase of 
territory. They are, nevertheless, fully 
awake to its importance, and are now mak- 
ing strenuous efforts to raise twenty thou- 
sand dollars, to be applied to that especial 
purpose." 

It is of great moment to the pre- 
sent welfare and ultimate prosperity 
of Liberia that its jurisdiction should 
be extended over an unbroken line 
of coast. 

In his last despatch to us of 22d 
October, Gov. Roberts says : 

" I have just been informed that the 
King, chiefs, and head-men of the New 
Sesters Territory are disposed to sell their 
country to the Americans ; and as no time 
should be lost in acquiring it — as two great 
objects will be gained, viz : that of extend- 
ing our territory along the coast, and ex- 
tinguishing forever the slave trade between 
Monrovia and Cape Pabnds — I have this 
day sent a commissioner to treat with them 
for the purchase of their territory, and 
wish him success with all my heart." 

Surely, in whatever light we view 
it, the purchase of that territory is an 
object of commanding importance, 
well calculated to stir all the deep and 
tender feelings of our natures, and to 
draw from the benevolent and philan- 
thropic their very largest contribu- 
tions. 

We regret to say that the receipts 
of the past year for this object have 
fallen far below our anticipations. 



During the summer a plan was pro- 
posed by a gentleman in Nevv York to 
raise $15,000, by pledges of $1,000, 
payable when the whole amount 
should be subscribed, and promising 
himself to be one of the number. 
Since that time three other pledges, 
of $1,000 each, have been given, and 
we have strong hopes that several 
others will be added shortly. 

An important Treaty of peace and 
friendship has been made with the 
Kroos, by which they bind them- 
selves to abstain from all participa- 
tion, direct or indirect, in the slave 
trade, ^^ that no foreign officer, agent 
or subject, except of the colony of Li- 
beria, or the American Colonization 
Society, shall purchase, have, or in 
any way, by sale, lease or gift, obtain 
right to, or claim upon, the Kroo ter- 
ritory." They also bind themselves 
to foster and protect the American 
missionaries. 

This Kroo country possesses 
many important commercial advan- 
tages; and foreign traders, and nations^ 
have shown special desire to obtain 
possession of it. The Kroomen are 
the pilots of the coast, and their ser- 
vices are almost indispensable to for- 
eign vessels. They have never been 
engaged directly in the slave trade, 
!i but have always been of great ser- 
j! vice to the slave ships, in assisting 
ji them to get their slaves on board. 
Jl If they should strictly adhere to the 
;| terms and obligations of the treaty, it 
jl will subject the slavers tb a very great 
I delay, and thus render them more 
,1 subject to capture. 



14 AJtirvAL axroftT of tiii: amuucan colonization societt. 

hitmmm •Tlks U. •. ■ <i<rwi.— K « h i ioM wUk KMl«a TribM.— CoMMfW.— Acrieuiiur*. 

The influence of the United Smtes f and was happily settled, and the two 
squadrun on ihi* African coast has! iribea have conumitil lo live in peace 
been of *ajn advantage to Liberia. j| and harmony ever since. That the 
It ha« given ilic native tribes a bitter influence of the colony is extending 
idea of the American character and rapidly into the interior and along the 
resources, and lias tended to quell' coa»i, ilicre cannot be a doubt, 
their turbulent feelings, and cause The rmimerce and trade of the 
iheraio seek a more intimate acquaint-' colony have been steadily on the in- 
ance, and a closer connection, with crease. According to the official re- 
llie commonwealth of Liberia. turns, the imports for a single quar- 

Lieutenanl Governor Benedict, in ;cr, exceeded $40,000, and the ex- 
a letter under date of September 10, purls were about the same. The 
••ys: country has immense resources. It 

of"J''^.':^"l'?lf!!'J"''!"'f,T,.^".^? ""'y rvi\u\Tc» industry and indomila- 

ly - perseverance to develope them. 

^'.'^' . , ,. . it is worthy of remark in this con- 

M^ i"l Craven, will nection, that tlie receipts into the co- 

ev«T I' ::iai. i.i; , i- iiH ii.ucTctl in Libtria." , . , , „ ,• 

_,,,.' - , , . , lonial treasury, chiefly from import 

1 he relations of the colony wiili , . „ . 

, ., . , r I ' duties, were sumcient to meet the 

the native tribes have been of the 



most friendly character, during the 
year. Peace has l)cen steadily main- 
tained. This has resulted, as Go- 
vernor Roberts remarks : 
"Cenorallv from a conviction that w« 



1, 



current expenses of the common- 
wealth. These leceipls would be 
vastly increased if all the sea coast 
was under the jurisdiction of the co- 
lony, by which smu<;gling and the 
introduction of goods free of duty 
would be i)revented. 

u piuiing »trcnKth Uaily, ami will amply While we have these assurances of 
rrquite u" for tTiP justice and fri<iiii>liii) . . 

pr.cticf<l ' in. Thry continue to the growing interests of the corn- 

refer to 1 .» of the colony, for ,„ercc of the colony, we are happy 

in being able to state that the spirit 
., , I ., .of Iradr. which has been so rife, is 

lamitirs that \^ .>n|y fulluw." subsiding, and that a growing inte- 

A very remarkable instance in j 'est is felt in agriculture. Dr. Lu- 
proof of the powerful influence ex- ff^nbeel, in whose statements the ful- 
erted over the moHt warlike tribes by '«•«» confidence may be reposed, al- 
ihe goremroent of Liberia, ia cited in jj lutJ'"*? »» »•"" •»«hji« ^ remarks: 

th.- . ^ !i.pute which threalened " ^ ' - ' ■ .-^..;^-«;e thjt ^ 

lot; • whole ^f'tm/fi/i country Mit-i to takeup 

in a ciael war with the Condon. It , that tho 

wa* ' to the LririMlatun of 'line. 

'"K. 
I«l'»' / '//(iJ(J(/(j, a(ioulalichief, are 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



15 



Internal prosperity of Liberia. — Gov. Roberts' message. — Education. — Improvements. — Court House. 



not now so easily acquired, as formerly, in 
that way. I rejoice that the citizens of 
Liberia, geiieraiiy, are convinced that the 
true source of wealth is in the soil — that in 
order to the maintenance of themselves and 
families, and the preservation of their stand- 
ing as a free and independent community 
of people, endowed with the ' unalienable 
rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness,' they must cultivate the land ; 
and to a *reater extent than formerly, live 
on the fruit of their own planting." 

In his last annual message to the 

Legislature, Governor Roberts says : 

"I feel particular satisfaction in remark- 
ing that an interior view of our country 
presents us with grateful proofs of its sub- 
stantial and increasing prosperity. Agri- 
culture is in a steadily progressive state, 
and continues to be a subject of much inter- 
est to many of our citizens. It is calling up 
in a greater degree than formerly the atten- 
tion of men of capital ; and when such im- 
provements have been introduced, as the 
present system requires, it will doubtless 
become a general source of affluence." 

This important and able document 
(the message of Governor Roberts) 
makes a most satisfactory exhibition 
of the present condition and pros- 
perity of Liberia. The laws are re- 
spected — peace prevails — plenty is 
in all their borders — religion is in a 
healthful state, education is increas- 
ing, agriculture is advancing, and con- 
tentment and happiness every where 
prevail. It exhibits most conspicu- 
ously the beneficial tendencies and 
the happy results of colonization. 

The Liberia Herald, speaking of 
this message, says : 

" The Colonial Council assembled on the 
4th March, in the neat and commodious 
room prepared as a permanent place of 
meeting of the Legislature, over the court 
room in the new Court House. From the 
spirit manifested by some, and the known 
ability of others of the members, we argue 
something beneficial. 

" Governor Roberts delivered the Annual 
Message. It is an able and interesting 
document, and does great credit to its au- 
thor. It is to be published. It will mani- 
fest what every Liberian must be proud of, 



that our trade, our strength, and our popu- 
lation are all on the advance." 

The meetings of the Legislature 
were all marked with great decorum, 
and their proceedings would do honor 
to many similar assemblies in much 
older countries. 

Increasing attention has been given 
to the education of the rising genera- 
tion. The colonial council are con- 
certing measures for establishing a 
general system of public schools, in 
which efficient and competent teach- 
ers shall be employed, and a thorough 
course of instruction be given. 

The spirit of improvement has 
been abroad in the colony. The Li- 
beria Herald says : " The number of 
buildings at present going up in the 
colony, as well'as those undergoing 
repairs, is truly cheering." A large 
stone jail has been erected in Mon- 
rovia. Also a most substantial, well 
constructed and commodious Court 
House has been completed. This edi- 
fice is built of the stone with which 
Cape Mesurado abounds. It stands 
on a site which commands a beau- 
tiful view of the lower part of the 
town — overlooks the bay and anchor- 
ing ground, the bar and entrance into 
the river, Stockton creek, Mesurado 
river, and a vast extent of the interior 
country. It is thirty feet by forty in 
the clear. The first story which is 
occupied as the court room is twelve 
feet four inches high, from the floor, 
which is brick, to the ceiling. 

The second story is fitted up for a 
council chamber. It is a large airy 
room, reached by two flights of stairs 



16 



AflNUAI. MCrOftT or TUe aMUUCAM cui^umzaIiu.-v »cx:iCTr. 



UtfUl 



•I MMNwk— ColMjr Mwi •dv 



of it 



of e*ay :' - ad workmun* 

»hip. 1 met llu-rt' last 

March. The Uiird story is diviJed 
inio jury rooms. ." 'V' 

windowH of ihis .-. 
are all arched, with iihuttcra mn 
durable wood, and well painted. I 
building ro.st $4,500, and haii ) • 
paid for entirely by tJic commun- 
wealth. 

The light house on the top of the 
Cape has also been completed. This 
is a substantial buildin;, two sturics 
high, with a cupola suiririenily «le- 
vatcd to be seen fronn any direction, 
and in any weather, at a distance of 
ten or twelve milen, unless when a 
thick fog covers the very Cape itself 

Dr. Lugenboel says of Monrovia: 

" In ^i•.i^ifl■^ t'ris plaro, ,t «.•-;,,:■_.., ^ j, jt 

' ap- 

and 

.... .... .-. 1 4... I , ,,,,.-- 1, uiiii xLui^ li» bo 

depicti-d oil every couutetiiUiCi'." 

Of the country, and other town.o, 

he savs : 



Captain Wm. M. Ilanbur}', of New 

Orlcnu!', f-:iv< : 

"I ' colonies of Liberia 

iTf • n ijrcnt, flotirishiiig 

ced. 

:iabi- 

the 

I olo- 

Mon- 

il, and liave^ileoty of 

:iein." 

Commodore Perry, in a letter ad- 
dressed to the Secretary of the Navy 
about a year ninre, says : 

t " It 11 to witness the com- 

fi>rt« tlint 1 ["•"I'lfhave fjalheied 



1?^ 

St. 

»tr« 



An ofliccr in tin.- I'liiiiJ Si.iU-s 
squadron say- 





. • ianiiliar 




.vn to the 




• iiil would 




1. Ifanjr 




jucnce of 


llicir i>\\ li 




"At all 


:!ient8 the established 


... ... .._ . 


• ', *':. 'norals 




. H of 




1. the 




be strong- 




liut think 


mo? 


.Is. The 

.. .-..I.,....! 




.iOli, 




.-de- 




• 1 UM- [Ml. 1.1 .TUTS .in Mr'itined 




an iutdliLCcnt and a thriving 



These facts, and this testimony of 

■ IIS, which mightbe 

ly, certainly show 

that Liberia is in a healthful and pros- 

lon at present, and that 

" ill lor the future. Wc 

illy behold what Pitt thought 

when thirty 

• -.peech in Par- 

icnt on the sluvo Irnde, he said : 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETr. 



17 



Census of Liberia— Slatistical History— Commerce— Agriculture. 



gion, may illuminate and invigorate the most ] 
distant extremities of that immense conti- 
nent." 

We have received in the course of'| 
the year a census of the colony — also 
a slatistical history from the arrival 
of the first emigrants in 1820 down 
to September, 1843, which is full, 
minute, and definite, and contains j 
nearly all the information that can be \ 
desired on all important points. 
Governor Roberts, in his letter ac- 
companying it, gives the following 
description of its contents : 

" It is in two parts : The first contains a 
roll of" all emigrants that have been sent to 
the colony by the American Colonization 
Society, and its auxiliaries ; showing their i 
ages — state from which thej' emif^rated — 
whether free born, purchased their iVecdom, 
or emancipated in view of their emigrating 
to Liberia, and by whom — where located — 
♦^xtent of education — prol'ession — if dead, 
time and cause — if removed, to yvhat place 
— showing, of course, the numberstill living 
in the colony. 

"A recapitulation, showing the number 
of emigrants from each state — the number 
of recaptured y\fricans tiiat have been sent 
fo the colony by the United States govern- 
ment, &c., &.C. 

" Ilecapitulation — showingthe total num- 
ber of emigrants that were free born, num- 
ber that purchased their freedom, number 
emancipated in view of emigrating to J^i- 
beria, cause and number of deaths in each 
year, number of removals from the colony, 
&c., &,c. 

" The second part contains a census of 
the colony, showing the age, time of arri- 
val, connections, profession, extent of edu- 
cation, health, &.c. 

"Recapitulation — showing the number in 
the colony this day, that have arrived in 
each year since 1S20 ; number of children 
now living, born of American parents, num- 
ber born of American and native parents, 
and number of native children adopted into 
the families of colonists. 

"Recapitulation — names of heads of fami- 
lies, occupations, classification of age and 
sex, number of idiots and paupers in the 
colony. 

" Agriculture — names of farmers, des- 
cription and number of buildings on each 
farm, description of crops, quantity of land 
owned and number of acres under cultiva- 
tion, where located, number of cattle and 



other live stock, with an estimate of the 
value of each estate. 

" Commerce— names of merchants and 
traders, description of buildings they own, 
number of vessels owned in the colony, 
their tonnage, whether colonial or foreign 
built, amount of commission business trans- 
acted in the colony fortheyearcnding 30th 
August, 1813, amount of stock employed 
in trade, an estimate of the value of pro- 
perty owned by merchants. 

'■ A table showing the number of foreign 
vessels that have visited the different set- 
tlements during the two vears, ending 30th 
September, 1843. The 'kind and amount 
of merchandise imported into the colony 
by each vessel. Amount of imports and 
exports of each port of entry, 

" Schools — names of teachers, where lo- 
cated, number of children of each sex, dis- 
tinguishing between American and native, 
by whom supported^ he, &.c. 

" Institutions for religious improvement, 
the number of churches in the colony, 
location, description of buildings, number 
of communicants, distinguishing between 
American and native. 

•' Statement of crime, names of culprits, 
whether Americans, captured Africans, or 
natives belonging to some of the contiguous 
tribes, number of convictions for murder, 
kidnapping, burglary, grand larceny, petit 
larceny, Sec, date of trial, court and punish- 
ment awarded, and lastly a map of Liberia. 
The principal object of this map, is to give 
you some idea of the course of the rivers be- 
tween Cape Mount and Cape Palmas ; par- 
ticularly the rivers St. Paul and Junk, as cx- 
I plored last season, and to fix the location of 
a number of native towns visited during that 
time, and others that have not appeared on 
any map, to my knowledge, before. There 
are still a number of native towns and villa- 
ges in the vicinity of the American settle- 
ments, that could not be entered for want of 
space. At some future time I will try to send 
you one on a larger scale, embracing all." 

We forbear in this place and time, 
making any extracts from this inter- 
esting document, believing that the 
whole of it ought to be printed and 
laid before the country as an irrefraga- 
ble, unanswerable argument in favor 
of colonization, and hoping that 
means will be furnished to print and 
publish it as an appendix to this 
report, the estimated cost of which 
is $1,166.* 



' This Census and accompanying documents will shortly be published and ready for distribution. 
O 



18 



AMIVV. 



V r IHZ AMUUCA.^ COLO.MZAT10:t »OClCTV 



TIm Cmm i* • ft~^. 



'(■i«« w Um I-'. H.'i If r»«»ed circuUlNta of HcpoMlary — Pulplu opcB«4. , 



The cause of colonization is be- '^ 
liered lu be in a healthful and flotir- ' 
Uhing cuntliiion in thiscountn'. The I 
number of it« friends has greatly in- 1 
creased during the past year. The ^ 
number of subscribers to, and readers J 
of the African Repository, has been 
considerably enlarged. Many of the j! 
daily and weekly newspapers of the 
country, lliat formerly were silent on 
llie subject, have opened their col- 
umns to communications, and have 
come out themselves strongly in fa- 
Tor of the Soeieiy. A number of 
new auxiliary societies have been 
formed, and old ones which had been 
suflered to languish, havebeen reviv- 
ed. Many clergymen who for years 
had been silent on the subject fur va- 
rious reasons, have come to the con- 
clusion that they would bo doing 
wrong longer to conceal •• their li"'!' 
under a bushel,'^ and have delivi < 
discourses in favor of therausc.whuli 
hare met a hearty response in the 
breuts of their people. Many 
churches, long shut, have been o[ 
ed for a presentation of the cla.;.i 
of the Society. Ecclesiastical bodies 
that have for ycnrN thouf^ht it iiiiad- 
▼liable to have the cnuse mentioned 
among them, for prudential reasons, 
are now anxious that the Soi ■ 
should come and take rank witi: 
other ^reat benevolent institutioi: 
the day, and tharr in the contribu- 
tions of the churches. 

Aa a apecimen of tiie changes \ 
are takinjr place in favor of the ^ 
ciety, wr mscrl the following 1< 
Dr. Tenncy and Mr. Tracy arc 



gentlemen who are apt to be deceiv- 
ed in such matters. 'I'hey are cool and 
dispassionate observers of men and 
things, who always examine the rea- 
sons and found their opinions on the 
most substaiitiul evidence. The full- 
est confidence may therefore be 
placed in their deductions. 

" CoLONiiATios Orric e. 

Botlon, (Mober 11. 1844. 

" Rrv. ANP Dkar Sir : — Yo«i are awar« 
that the Rev. C. J. Tenney.I). U., Iiaa for 

■ •' ■ • '- !; aciiiifj as areiit (or 
iii/atiuti Society, in 
Mti'. I liavf- jtisl re- 
crivcil a iclU-r liutij liiin, containing .wme 
evidenr»'ofn rli;ir»<;«' in (lublic sciitunent, 
\*hi<! iiig to you, and per- 

liap-- ' 

" iJ. 1 . . me a li«t of hventy- 

Iwo parishes, wlieie he has lectured, or has 
made arran;;einents to lecture at snuie fu- 
ture time, on colonisation. Twii of tJiese 
lectures have beeti dilivered. and one is to 
' ''■-';■■>■ ^' ■■' I • '.vays 

: I lie 

■ ' , . ■ ■ ■ ircii 

in MX |)iil|)itJ), ami liuii obtained llic u<<e, at 

n future time, of tliirleen othetM, into which 

ined 
for 

■ |v . . .■ ..^- .•■ itiree 

pulpits, at least, formerly inaccessible, 
v\hich I do not fiinl in fii^ list. 

" In some of ' -s. the pastors 

have formrrly •!. laldvofouren 

' ■ '^ in a ina- 

ir juilpits 

., hichhavc 

any! \ . Iroin the conviction 

th :»( ' tli'-y should only in- 

')d hurtful quar- 

liolh inclosing 

.1" 1 • tors have 

veiy . their peo- 

I'll- . . : . ■• nrruratc 

. It ha.1 U-cli dune hy the united voico 

'or and people. There are still many 

!nTe nothing can Im? done but by 

individuals, witliout any public 



" iJr. i enney remark* : 

•■ * Tti. t.itt. ii,i<> of opposition from the 

:'ly ohated since (hej 

I action. There it 

' . ■< on 

I ■.\ inj; 

I . !ian 

1 itv of the 

• the can- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



19 



Increase of friends in Massachusetts. — Tracy's letter. — The Recei|it9 show increasing prosperity. 



did and pious, of the great importance of 
the colony to Africa. There is most deci- 
dedly, a reaction in public sentiment, re- 
spectinoj colonization ; althou^jh the amount 
given by individuals is not increased in equal 
proportion ; still, several who had discon- 
tinued their donations for three or four years, 
have renewed them. I feel persuaded that 
next year we ought, anew, to bring our en- 
terprise before associations and ecclesiasti- 
cal bodies.' 

" This last sentence may need explana- 
tion. Nearly all the pastors in Massachu- 
setts, of various denominations, are mem- 
bers of associations, meeting usually four 
times a year, and each on a different day 
from the others. Agents of various be- 
nevolent societies practice attending those 
meetings, to lay their claims before the pas- 
tors, and make arrangements for addressing 
their congregations. In some communions, 
ecclesiastical bodies of other names, answer 
a similar purpose. For some years past, 
even our friends in the several associations 
would have regretted the presence of an 
agent of our Society, as an occasion of un- 
pleasant and unprofitable excitement. By 
another year, Dr. Tenney thinks, they may 
hope to be generally welcome ; which is as 
much as to say, that colonization may then 
take its place among the benevolent enter- 
prises which our churches generally think 
it their duty to sustain. This, however, 
you must understand not as a promise, 
but as the present opinion of one well quali- 
fied to juiige. The facts, I think, give a 
fair sample of our past depression, and of 
the rate at which we are emerging from it. 
Very truly yours, ' 

JOSEPH TRACY. 

Rev. Wm. McLai.v." 

In a letter of later date, Mr. Tracy 
gives some extracts from a commu- 
nication received from another cler- 
gyman in the state, of which the fol- 
lowing are a sample : 

" I inclose you two dollars as the first 
fruits of my labors in this county, in behalf 
of the colonization enterprise, 

" The people seemed to be heartily 
ashamed of this small contribution ; but 
they came together supposing that nothing 
could be said to justify their giving at all. 
The facts, however, which were communi- 
cated, changed all their views on the sub- 
ject, and they promise to do better next 
time. 

" The places which Dr. Tenney regard- 
ed as accessible, I found to be closed, be- 
cause the time devoted to taking collections 
for this Society, had gone by, and other ob- 
jects of charity must have their turn. 



" I have stated the facts, so far as I know 
them, in relerence to the claims ofthe Colo- 
nization Society, to our association ; 

nnd, with two or three exceptions, all are in 
favor of !J:iving the cause a hearing before 
tiieir peojile, and of allowing me to address 
them as soon as ciiciimstances permit. The 
month during which, heretofore, collections 
have been taken, is that of July; and I do 
not expect tliat, till then, much can be 
done, except to prepare the way by scat- 
tering light and truth on the subject, among 
the ministers and churches. I am amazed 
at the ignorance of some of our best minis- 
ters, as to what the Colonization Society 
has done lor the benefit ofthe African race 
during tlie last hall a dozen years. They 
seem to have got the impression that this 
Societ)' was dead and buried long ago. 

"This change in their views, I think, 
may be expected to give us collections next 
summer, in twenty or twenty-five congre- 
gations from which we have hitherto been 
excluded. The first collections will proba- 
bly be small ; but if our afiairs go on well 
abroad, will increase from year to year." 

We might give many facts, con- 
nected with the operations of the 
secretaries of the New York and 
Pennsylvania colonization societies, 
showing changes of public sentiment, 
and unfolding new openings to the 
churches, similar to those exhibited 
in the above extracts, all evidencing 
that the cause is becoming increas- 
ingly popular in the country. 

The same thing is exhibited in the 
receipts of the past year. Every 
reflecting person is aware that the 
intense excitement which prevailed 
throughout the country during most 
of the year, in regard to the pre- 
sidential election, so absorbed the 
public mind as to render it almost 
impossible to call attention to any 
other object. Almost all the great 
charities suff'ered in their receipts in 
consequence. And yet the contribu- 
|[ tions from the churches, and from 
jj private individuals, to this Society, 
;; considerably exceed what they were 



20 



AnnVAL RETOST or THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION BOCIETT. 



the \ta: 'Ihii is 

tainly a n. i raging fact, c^, 

cially when it ia considered tlint, i'ur 
a f. "' part t»f il. 

(notv iiig the etTorlii i 

engage them,) not a single agent \va« !| 
empl'ivfil liy the Society. ' 
Barker ha» hibortd for this ^ 
and in connection with ihe African 
Repository part of the time, niul : 
balance of the time for the M: 
chuseits colonization society i 
Rev. J. B. Pinney jMrformetl a inij- 
porary n;,'ciicy of three months in 
Kentucky and 0!ii<», during the sum- 
mer, for thiii Society, and was very 
successful in raising funds*. Except- 
ing these, no agent has been cm- 
ployed hy this Society until since 
the presidential election. We have 
appointed H. I.. Ilosmer, Esq., in 
Ohio, Rev. A. .M. Cowan, in Ken- 
lucky, and Kev. J. H. Crist, in 'IVn- 
nessec and Alabama, who have just 
enl/?red on their labors with flattering 
promi.-'eH «)| siicce.is. 

The Rev. D. L. Carroll, I). D., has 
' 'inted by the New Y ■ 

"^ ion society their m 

and he has made liisarrangemcnLsfor 
vigorous eflorts the coming year. 

The Rev. S. ('orneliun Uivt la!>or- 
ed part of his time in Connecticut,! 
as t]p 
and 

ml agent of that society; and in both 1 
thcHc states his efforts have been 
very •uccesaful. I 

The Rrv. J. B. Piniiey still con- 
tinues his importaii' 
rrtarv ..f ih<' I 



' ly, by which he was made a 

'irecior of the American Coloni- 
zation Society by the contribution 
of ^1,(KK) just before the close of the 
year. 

The Rev. Joseph 'I'racy continues 

' lary of the MafJsachusetts colo- 
lon society. He has lately pub- 
lished an able and very important 

iiient in favor of the missionary 
icler of colonization, under the 
following title : ^^ historical exami- 
nation of the state of society in 
Western .Africa, as formed by Pa- 
ganism and Muhammedatiism, Sla- 
very, the Slave Trade and Piracy, 
and of the remedial injhience of Co- 
lonization and Alissions.*' It ia a 
pampldet of forty page?, and it is 
not too much to say that, from the 
facts which he has recorded, an in- 
contestible argument is deducible in 
favor of African colonization ! He 
places il in one single light, that is, 
as it influences .Qfrica, in which 
none but a dark and prejudiced mind, 
or a malicious heart, can perceive it 
to be aught else than one of the no- 
hlcat and most benevolent works of 
Ihe present or perhaps any other 
century. 

Tile Missouri state colonization 
society has lately been reorganized, 
and has secured the services of that 
linn and long-tried friend of the cause, 
the Rev. R. S. F'inley, w ho hopes to 
be able to add niuth to the resources 
of the Society duriiijr the coming 
year. 

It is known i<> r<ur Iru-tuls that we 
I moved a vijiit from the able and 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETT. 



21 



Visit of Gov. Roberts to this Country. — Opinions of Doctors Lugenbeel aiid Hall. 



"No unprejuflicpd individual could iiave 
attended tlie meetinp;s of tliis bodj', and 
listened to t'leir deliberations, without be- 
was attended with the most happy H '"S <=o"7,^'^"lt''«';i'ie citizens of Liberia 

'^^ ■' are capable of self-government. 



talented Governor of Liberia last 
summer. His presence among us 



results. The communications which 
he made to various public assemblies, 
and the information which he im- 
parted to the many influential gen- 
tlemen with whom he had intercourse, 
tended greatly to inspire new confi- 
dence in the stability and growing 
importance of the commonwealth of 
liiberia. He was introduced to the 
PuEsiDENT'of the'United Slates and 
Heads of Departments, who receiv- 
ed him with great respect, and were 
much interested in his statements re- 
lative to the colony. 

Gov. Roberts may be considered 
as the first ripe fruits of Liberian 
culture and training. As such, he 
stands forth at once an evidence of 
the capabilities of his race, and of the 
practically benevolent spirit of colo- 
nization, as it necessarily rouses up 
and evolves faculties of mind, which, 
in a state of slavery or freedom in 
this country, or in Africa, must have 
remained torpid and dormant forever! 

The question was repeatedly ask- 
I ed him, whether he considered the 
colonists capable of self-government, 
if now left entirely to themselves ? 
And his uniform answer was, that he 
believed that if the Society were no 
longer to render them any aid or 
counsel, the colony would live and 
prosper, if they were not interfered 
with by any foreign nation. 

Dr. LuGENBEEL, alluding to the 
meeting of the colonial legislature 
last March, says: 



Dr. James Hall, who, during his 
long residence in the colony, became 
intimately acquainted with all its 
settlements, and whose perfect can- 
dor and integrity, accuracy of obser- 
vation, and soundness of judgment, 
impart to his opinions great weight 
and value, says : 

" The Liberians have shown a capacity 
for maintaining a free and independent ^o- 
vernment, a capacit}' and disposition for a 
fair degree of moral and intellectual im- 
provement. Tlie .soil of Liberia is one of 
the most productive in the world, and capa- 
ble of yielding all the varieties of vegeta- 
bles, and all the staple commodities of the 
tropics. The climate of Africa is one that 
will prove as favorable to the American 
emigrant as does the climate of the western 
States to the New Englander. In fine, all 
that is necessary to favor and perpetuate, 
on the coast of Africa, an independent 
Christian government, is an increase of the 
number oi select emigrants, an increase, for 
a certain period, of the appropriation to 
each individual on his arrival, and a gene- 
ral protection from the Government of this 
country." 

Early in November last, letters 
were addressed to the secretaries of 
the state societies, and to other dis- 
tinguished friends of colonization, 
making various inquiries in regard 
to the present state of the cause in 
their various sections of the country ; 
the number and warmth of its friends ; 
the eflforts made the past year, and 
the obstacles in the way ; and as to 
their opinion of the best measures 
to be taken, to give increased energy 
and efficiency to its operations, at 
the beginning of the approaching 
year. 

The various answers to these in- 
quiries which have been received, 



ATCXVAL RtiroRT OF THE AMERICl^t COLONIZATIOTT SOCIETT. 



Csitaru ttT bu«r« tt«m Um Hm. J«iig« Buhmi u4 R. M. 



preMnt many fans niui truths touch- 
ing ihc prrseiii and pro^pociivc «on- 
diiion of our enterprise, in a mniiner |j 
more sali^^aclory ilian could other- 
wise be done. As we cannot, how- 
e»er, present ihcm entire in this re- 
port, we shall make such extracts , 
from them as st-em rcquiuiie to illus- , 
trate the subject. II 

The lion. Judge Bi'RNET, of Cin- 1 
cinnatt, Ohio, says : j| 

" A Imrg* proportion oflh* pM>pl«> in lh«t ll 

Mi V " . ..... 

lioi 

lye 

" i t>e chiei 
a local «spnt (• 
on thf pii' 
lion* in ' 

drn«e »oiii. in. 



in the wnnt ol 
ilijcct con<itnnlly ' 
iij i to »olicit coiiltibu- 
:\» well as the ninr< 
j| thf coiiiilrv. OiH- 
agent, *uch as Mr. Finney, would Plii-ct 
more than all tho <ir<:aiii7.<(! sociptics in the 
Uhio valley, and in fact, it requires such an 
agent to k.ep the "ocieiies alive. i 

*• .V lai_ i.bably three-fourths,! 

of your <- • arc made in •tmall 

»Uin», tin- .... of Ml. 1.1. r. .,1,,,. - 

much time, and (;'''''■' l'-^'' 

ver^nre. Men eiijjaged in 

spare the time neresnary for tl.u ^u{|m>si- . 

nor <lo they pos^e-^ the information firce«- 

»ary " ' ' " «.,•'•' 

pr..; 

one I 

in two. an<i inight approiich 8iirce»4|iiliy 

njanr pT*""* who would not listen to an 

Ofdii >iit. j 

" I . Iiut very little aid hat b«eo I 

rec... 1 • ' • - ••••' ' ' '■'-■ 

preat body of i 
in the country i 
attended to. 

" The eolnnivalinn eaui* ha« many warm 
fri.' • 

thrr 

thtij 

in*inicatiooa as an a^enl ought to be able 
to ^ve. 

"It i» r 

rican Hei 



0u«nrr nil the ; 
rvvolutioti I 
one in a ' 
who hai > 



ll nut nn < iilir* 
" |m. mor«» than 



*■" ' . ;• ; ■ ' ■ ■ and 

- in 

. :..■ ., , ;.. >lave 

trade, and on the commerce ol our own 

rottn!rv. as well as of the world. Ttiis 

'•• would be obtained from that 

II, were it universally read ; and 

.•• time such an extended circula- 

M b«- made to contribute largely to 

\ .'I 1 .'.'IS." 

The following extracts are from 

the letter of the late Hon. Hooer 

.MiNOTT Sherman, to which allusion 

has been made in this report : 

" In this village, (Fairfield, Connecticut.) 
the Coneree.itioiial Society have seven an- 
' • ' • iis for religious and benevo- 
wliicii this Society is one ; 
1 ., ■ i it was receiving regular 
aid. in a «iinilar form, in other places. But 
iipr>n inquiry. I am mtieh di«.ippointe<J to 
■ 'liere is not rch id this 

. which c '!ce among 

I -..II. Mil s. In fioiiii . .... I.... .< iice of abo- 
litionism i-i the great ob!*tacle. A clergyman 
ii not willing to hazard the peace of his 
parish bv excitins that reckK-s.«, turbulent 
>ipirit. iBut ill mo«.t instances, the neglect 
is owing to the fact, that the attention of 
the clergy has not been tiirii<'<l to the siib- 
" '•« .\ majority would, I ap|<rehend, be 
V to adopt a regular system of collec- 
in thrjr respective parishes, if the 
I the enterprise, and the in- 
- which it embraces, were 
... I . . . , I |„ order to 
, their Patlori 
ieration in their 
n'»|M-ctivc p»ri:»lies. Without Ihfir aid, we 
can do comparatively nothing, and with it, 
much may be accomplished. From the 
inquiries which 1 have made, I think the 
■ 1 ■ ■• ■ '• - '-r^it of the State may Ik? ex- 
. excejit in those places 
ilrtern-cl by the fear of the 
s. All wc want is revenue. 
'.•• obtained in this State in no 
• ■ ■' ' ■ - loni- 
and 
: re- 
\rttt. 
"J. to 



■ '" -> ..,.->u.^,.". . .- ..,.;iu-y 

■n be ascertained only by the expert- 

I " Could the attention of the clergj- of the 
I vnrioM* «l«-r>nmi nut ions he railed to the siib- 

■■,■■,'" ,,)ul I 

ron- 

...... •..,. ! .nuttl 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



23 



Opinions of Professor Lee, Hon. E. Whittlesey, Professor Greenleaf, Rev. P., LiDdsIey,.D. D. 



remittances. I hope tlie attention of our 
most inlhiential men may be arrested, and 
if this can be done successfully, I shall 
look for an increase of patronage. Your 
' Address to our Friends and Patrons,' late- 
ly published in the Journal of Commerce, 
and Commercial Advertiser, is well calcu- 
lated to arrest attention, by an impressive 
presentation of the influence of the Coloni- 
zation Society and its wants. 

" Accept, dear sir, my grateful acknow- 
ledgments foi your important public ser- 
vices, and the assurances of my personal 
respects, ike." 

Richard Henry Lee, Professor 
in Washington College, Pennsyl- 
vania, says : 

" The opinions of the people of th'is part 
of Pennsylvania are very generally favora- 
ble. AbolUionism has made no great pro- 
gress here. The calm and patriotic in this 
res'ion see plainly that colonization has af- 
forded them the most effective arguments 
and facts against its visionary and agitating 
schemes. 

" With regard to the present position of 
our cause here, it is still strong. In this 
county and Fayette there must be between 
twenty-five and thirty auxiliary societies. 
Many others might be formed by an active 
agent. 

" I can think of no surer means of in- 
creasing the energy of our friends and so- 
cieties than the employment of agents. I 
can speak from much experience in this 
matter, that,whenever political excitements 
are abated, the subject of colonization be- 
comes the most interesting to the people at 
large ; but this interest must be roused into 
activity by the frequent bringing of the 
subject before their minds. I would sug- 
gest, then, that you prepare an address, for 
the end of this, or the beginning of the next 
year, urging a renewal of the attention of 
the friends of the cause, after the political 
excitement has passed away. The increas- 
ing prosperity of the cause— its enlarge- 
ment of operations— its soothing influence 
on the political and religious interests and 
passions, &c., might be urged as mo- 
tives and reasons for renewed attention and 
energy." 

The Hon. Elisha Whittlesey, 
of Ohio, says : 

" The intelligent part of the people in 
this section of the State, who are not abo- 
litionists, are generally friendly to the 
cause of colonization. Very many who 
were formerly its friends, have become its 
bitterest enemies, by uniting with and be- 
coming abolitionists, taking, however, more 



recently the designation of 'Liberty Men.' 
Nothing has been done for some time past 
to revive the colonization societies. The 
friends of the cause here have hoped, by 
retiring from all grounds of controversy, 
that the exertions of the abolitionists would 
be less vigorous and successful. In this, 
I think,they were mistaken. Lester King, 
their candidate for Governor, resides in this 
county, and he has been, with most of his 
supporters, very active during the past 
year. The friends of colonization have 
been very unwilling to have the cause 
mingled with politics, and, therefore, the 
efforts of the abolitionists have not been 
resisted or counteracted. The decision of 
public sentiment prevents clergymen from 
taking an active part in favor of coloniza- 
tion W'hen they are its friends ; and when 
they are abolitionists, they lecture and 
preach on the subject everywhere. 

" As to future operations, I think the 
State Society should be resuscitated. I 
shall go to Columbus, and if possible assist 
in its reorganization." 

Professor Simon Greenleaf, of 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, says: 

" I have reason to believe that the vio- 
lence of political abolitionism in the north 
has already created some change of feeling 
and opinion in favor of colonization, and 
that the present is a favorable season for 
renewed action on the part of its friends. 
Since abolitionism has assumed a separate 
political organization, I think it has lost 
much of the sympathv of the real friends of 
the African race, and that it will soon fol- 
low the fate of political anti-masonry, from 
a similar cause — the want of a true political 
foundation, and a departure from that of 
good morals and honesty of purpose. 

" I should think, in the present state of 
the pubfic mind, that a calm but energetic 
address or circular to the real friends of 
Africa and her children, would be very fa- 
vorably received. Such an address, freely 
circulated through the northern States, 
I think, could not fail of being of great ser- 
vice to the cause." 

The following extracts are from 
the letter of the Rev. Philip Linds- 
LEY, D. D., of Nashville, Tennessee. 
They bring to view an entirely 
different class of difficulties in the 
way of colonization. He says: 

" 1 duly received your communication of 
November 1st, but was at that time too ill 
to attend to its contents. It was a season, 
also, of extraordinary political excitement. 



24 



A!f IfVAL RETORT Of THE AMERICAN COLOMZATION BOCIBTT 



OfWoM *t Dr. R«rai, Rm. JowfAi Tntj.^-CttamkmMm ia MMwrhMcH* ( 



Ami. 
had ' 



of f 



; thit ^^' 
;m ; that v. 

; 1 fear the prospect i- 
', mj own dclibrntc < 



tinc 

H'Oi;' 



I - 



htalF. but scattered ; uncori'cious ol i 
•tien:;th, and therefore somewhat ir 
and irresolute. 

•• It will ♦'vcr afford me pleasure to aid 
the L' ^ way practicable, and 

rjp. icli agent as you may 

tend iv. .^. .• ^ us." 

David M. Rkeje, M. D., of New 

York city, says: 

"T- -■ 

•en' 
peo; 



•O great ptomise ol auspicious results to 
benevolent effort*, or rnll so loudly for 
stre' on. The num- 

ber rei;ion is undi- 

mint-iw u, ..■ ._ 1 I.' I- .■..iiiiiih f ••- • '• 
port ha« lallcii oif, I Irar. to a cr 
from a variety of cjimri. Tl 
obtticlcs are the hoslilily uf tin 
till in many part* of ihi« St«»«>. ,i 



aod 



ilie cjuse, 



11. 

> to 

.•.»»o 

:nd 

, ,,in. 

.... had 

s of the 

_'s Mr. 

red. 

s or 

has 



on. 

^•nly 



of our claims 



■le. 



The Kcv. Joseph Tracv, of Bos- 
ton, Mans., anys : 

"Tt. i.ii!< • 'it, ! fl <■ irfttfd poailion of 
eol' ve must look at 

ita ; •" 'hut. I am 

m».: 
our 

v.. 

rail) 

oe whaw l-^fri(;n Uii»iio:u di \.i .,.;< .; lot 

•Qpprirf. Thnr favor, ai I am now per- 



1. in 

ration 

We 

- ' • • ,y pulpit 

lal asser- 

:. in our 

- of good men came 

.1 as a moral felon, 

' il, c>'iid' i:jii< (!, executed, nnd bu- 

. beyond the possibility of a resurree- 

" But since laM spring, access has been 
gained to neailv fifty pulpits. I think it 
safe to expect that by July next the num- 
ber may be double. 

"The number of our friends is consider- 
able, and is inerea^ini^. 'Their warmth,' 
,'. i-'i I'W I \. •.'•..'.-, : .\iir blood- 

; ■ . • ,11 in this 

■ '..l.i 111.- • i • .. Ill ich \ndoe- 

'fd in our He likes to 

our piibln know what we 

•r« doing, and i» Milling to give us 95, or 
less, now and then ; and that i« all He it 
an intellij' pro- 

moter of .ind 

were he ' . '.liink 

of givins; iis less than S\oo a year. He 

i< a fair specimen of very many of our 

• U, except that he knows why he 

iio zeal, and they do not. They are 

'• hut are not 'indoctrinated,* a* 

must be before they become 

" The obstacles in our way are the slate 
of initid already describc<l, and especial* 
ly the erroneous impreMion that colon!- 
xation and mission* are hostile to each 
other 

" Our principal efforts have been by 

'-ftitsion, cirf ' • — •:r an- 

I>r. Tenti 



idatc- ' (lit KiHxi ptOpld ul M.IA 

The result U, an octavo pam- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



25 



Dr. Carroll's views of Colonizalion in New York. 



plilct of some forty pages, which is now in 
I he press, and will reach yoii almost as 
poon as this letter. Its object is, to secure 
(he intelligent support of the friends of 
foreign missions. I liave aimed to cxiiibit 
the argument on this point with as much 
fullness of detail as f could in a pamphlet 
of a readable size. 

" To ' give increased energy and effi- 
ciency to' the cause,' we must keep Dr. 
Tenney in thelield ; or if winter drives him 
within "doors, as I fear it will, get a good sub- 
stitute, if we can: but a good one, or none. 
' Circulate the documents,' as politicians 
say. Work with the Repository. Diffuse 
inibrmation through the newspapers, and 
in other ways, as found practicable. Make 
arrangements, as far as possible, for paro- 
chial contributions next July. Carefully 
avoid all spasmodic efforts ; all attempts to 
get up a ' vigorous movement,' as the old 
expression is, at some particular time. 
Our future patrons are yet too ignorant, 
and conscious of their ignorance, to be 
wholesomely moved in thai way." 

The Rev. D. L. Carroll, D. D., 
of New York, says : 

" The answers which you seek to these 
inquiries are of great moment, and ought 
to be given intelligently, and with the 
utmost candor. 

" I do not understand you as asking my 
opinion of the cause of colonization in 
general, or in the abstract ; but my opinion 
of its position within the more immediate 
sphere of my knowledge. My opinion of 
this general cause has long been known. 
The spirit, the conception, the execution, 
of the enterprise of African colonization, 
exhibit some of the loftiest qualities — the 
noblest combinations of thought, and the 
grandest and most august benevolent action 
that pertain to fallen human nature! But 
this is not the general estimate of the cause 
in the ' Empire State.' I therefore proceed 
to ' define its present position' here. It is 
not as flourishing as it should be in this large 
and flourishing portion of the north. A 
number of causes have contributed to this 
result. Abolition excitement became so 
tumultuous and alarming, some years ago, 
that the friends of colonization cowered 
before it, and, for the sake of peace, ceased 
to defend, or do any thing to promote, the 
cause. Our late most worthy and venerable 
secretary, Dr. Proudfit, for three or four 
years previously to his death, ceased to 
speak ol' colonization 7)u6h'cZi/, and from the 
pulpit, or to impart information, or to give 
impulse to the cause in this way; so that it 
has measurably ' fallen out' of the popular 
mind to make way for other things that 



have been more exciting, and that liave 
been prominently urged upon public atten- 
tion. 

" Some of the obstacles wiiich have stood 
in the way, are, utter want of information 
respecting the present condition of the en- 
terprise; total misapprehension of the real 
nature of the cause ; violent prejudices, ex- 
cited by the misrepresentations, lalsehoods, 
and untiring vituperations of abolitionism ! 
— the grand throes and agony of political 
excitement; the lingeiing elfects of the 
late prostration and pecuniary pressure of 
the country. 

" In regard to future measures, one thing, 
it seems to me, will be indispensable, and 
that is, to diffuse information on the subject. 
Wherever 1 have obtained the ears of peo- 
ple, and communicated the facts respecting 
the present condition of the enterprise, I 
have conciliated favor to the cause, and in- 
creased the number of its friends. So that 
the colonization interest in this State is now 
a little on the increase, and the cause begins 
to look up from its deep depression with a 
commingling of smiles and tears on its 
face ! If some good, never-tire agent for 
the Repository could be procured to tra- 
verse the States and thrust that periodical 
upon people as other publications are 
crowded in, this would be a great desidera- 
tum. Another thing tiiat ought to be, 
and must be done, to give increased energy 
to this cause, is, to induce pastors to consent 
to have it brought back to the pulpit, from 
which it has been most iniquilously exiled, as 
a mistaken concession and costly peace- off er- 

j ing to the fiery and inexorable Moloch of 
Abolition ! The secular and religious press, 

I too, ought to be laid under contribution to 
our cause to a greater extent than hitherto. 
Some means ought also to be used to diffuse 
more courage and determination in the 
iriends of this cause. If a general conven- 
tion could be appointed at such time and 
place as to secure a good attendance of the 
friends of colonizalion, and be addressed 
by some of the most distinguished speakers 
that could be obtained for the purpose, this 
might have a salutary eil'ect in creating a 
new interest, and infusing a new and indo- 
mitable energy in this cause. The fact is, 
we want something more of the fierce and 
unconquerable spirit of determination, in 
this cause, which politicians manifest in 
theirs. Inflexible determination and unfal- 
tering perseverance, are the two great ele- 
ments of success in every human enter- 
prise! The truth is, we must make a 
mighty aggressive movement for the con- 
quest of new influence and resources. 
There are so many objects of engrossing, 
not to say maddening excitement, pressed 
upon the popular mind in this country, that 



'Ul»> li A J 1\J.'» SLH.li.ji 



26 A.NXt'Al. MECTINO OF Till; AMCRICa.N 

('«wl««ni oT lUyow—f iw iii t l m of Uc AmmI MsrUag of iIm AafrioM ColoMaUoa Society. 



Colo- 

call 
thv 



»ill ti.* Iii«tlf.l nlir 



U ;:4i:t Jaluu- the • Jjull.; ul l Jiu- 

.tt whtch other surrouinliiii: ob- 



The preceding extracts are pufli- 
cient for the object we had in view. 
They furnish a mass of roncurrent 
testimony in favor of this great cause 
which cannot be ^insaycd, or re- 
sisted. In view of them, it is impos- 
sible to doubt ttiat colonizaliun lias a 
deep seit in the aflections, and a 
strong hold on the benevolence of the 
great body of i>ur counlryiucn who 
have given to it the slightest atten- 
tion. They also fully show that a 
cause so admirably desij^ncd to bene- 
fit our own countrVi and so adapted 
to dispense the richest blessings to 
the whole African race, can be sus- 
tained and rendered efTectual in ac- 
complishing the great ends coijicm- 
plaied ! 

It is tnie, there are obstacles in the 
way ; there are dilTieulties to be sur- 
mounted. But are not our friends 
ready to buckle on their armor ? Ih 
there any shrinking among tlicm ? 
Any irresoluteni'HK ? Any doubl that 
the work can b<* accomplished ! 



Surely not. They all speak the 
juage of confidcnce^-of determi- 
nation, and of perseverance, until 
the nation is awakened — until a mo- 
ral and Christian inducnco in favor of 

|l this Society has reached every heart 

'' in our country ; and until the colony 
is erccied into an everlasting monu- 

. ment to the praise of American jus- 

: tice and benevolence ! 

Rise, then, ye friends of liu- 
inanity ! ye statesmen and orators, 
join all your eloquence, and your ex- 
alted ixjwers in this noble cause. 

'[ Animated by the encouragements to 
be drawn from the past, fully im- 
presi-ted with the magnitude of the 

j' work to be accomplished in the pre- 

'' sent, let us press forward under the 
cheering prospects of the future ! 

' The God of heaven is with its' 
The enterprise is undoubtedly His, 
and II is richest bles^^ings have been 
upon it. He has brought it safely 
thus far, and He will pursue with a 
steady and uniform course, and com- 
pleic, with a splendid and glorious 
triuuipli, wlmtcver and every work 
wliicli Ilis wisdom has devi.Mcd. and 

, His hands have begun ! 



Crtnui' ii'ii i- ( "yiviifi'iitfto uf tlir tnirntD-(i|ibtb IXiiMiml fllrrtiiifi of tbr iKtnrriran 

Coloiiiiatioii .^oridn 



Fiarr rRXKnTTERiAN Church, 

January 21, 1945. 

TiiK American Colonization So- 

ciriy lucl according to adjournment. 

In ihc absence of U»e Piiksidknt ofii _ r i t> i 

. ,. ... . ^. „ n On motion of the Rev. Joseph 

iho SociPtv, the Hon. L. CJ. C. El»h.., 

• , „ „ . , f ••■" ti was— 

MRH. one of the ^ icc l»rel.ld...nt^ was .j,,^^, ,^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^ 

called to the chair, and the Rev. A. n . i. .,,.1 of Uirccton (or their sction. 



I). IMdy. I). I) , opened the meeting 
witli prayer. 

W. .McLain read extracts from the 
annual report; after which — 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



27 



Resolutions offered by Messrs. Schenck, Carroll, Eddy, and Gurley.— President and Vice Presidents. 



On motion of the Hon. R. C. 

SciiENCK, it was — 

Resolved, That the degree of success 
which has attended the operations of this 
Society, in the effort to found a colony and 
buiUi up a free and civilized nation in Af- 
rica, should be encouraging to the heart of 
every Christian and philanthropist ; and 
that the results of the work, thus far, will 
compare most favorably with whatever is 
seen to have been accomplisljed, with 
equal means, and in the same period of 
time, elsewhpre or in any other age, in the 
history of colonization. 

On motion of the Rev. D. L. Car- 
roll, D. D., it was — 

Resolved, That in the great principles to 
which the entcrpiise of colonization ap- 
peals, we see the evidence of its perma- 
nency and ultimate triumph. 

On motion of the Rev. A. D. Eddy, 

D. D., it was — 

Resolved, That, in view of the increased 
favor manifested towards this Society by 
the philanthropic and Christian community, 
and the unusual success which has attend- 
ed its operations during the past year, its 
friends and directors should feel encouraged 
to prosecute, with increased energy and 
hope, their efforts in the cause of African 
colonization, relying upon the blessings of 
God for the full attainment of its benevo- 
lent designs. 

On motion of the Rev. R. R. Gur- 

LF,Y, it was — 

Resolved, Th^ this Societj' express its 
profound regrets at hearing of the decease 
of the several distinguished individuals 
mentioned in the Report, and that, while 
we bow with submission to the divine de- 
cree, we will cherish their memory with 
feelings of gratitiule for the important ser- 
vices which they have rendered to this 
cause. 

On motion of the Rev. J. B. Pi\- 
NEY, the Society adjourned, to meet 
in the Colonization Rooms to-mor- 
row at 9 o'clock. 

Adjourned. 

Colonization Rooms, 

January 22, 1845. 
The Society met agreeably to ad- 
journment, the Hon. Mr. Elmer, in 
the chair. 



Messrs. Eddy, Phelps, and Tracy 
were appointed a committee to nomi- 
nate a President and Vice Presidents 
of the Society. They reported the 
following persons, who were unani- 
mously elected, viz: 

PRESIDENT : 

Hon. henry CLAY. 

VICE PRESIDENTS : 

1 John C. Herbert, of Maryland, 

2 General John H. Cocke, of Virginia, 

3 Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts, 

4 Charles F. Mercer, Florida, 

5 Rev. Jeremiah Day, D. D., of Conn., 

6 John Cotton Smith, of Connecticut, 

7 Theodore Frelinghuysen, of New York, 

8 Louis McLane, of Baltimore, 

9 Moses Allen, of New York, 

10 General W. Jones, of Washington, 

11 Samuel II. Smith, of Washington, 

12 Joseph Gales, of Wasliington, 

13 Right Rev. Wm. Meade, D. D., Bishop 

of Virginia, 

14 John McDonogh, of Louisiana, 

1.5 Geo. Washington Lafayette, of France, 

16 Rev. James 0. Andrew, Bishop of the 

Methodist Episcopal Church, 

17 William Maxwell, of Virginia, 

18 Elisha Whittlesey, of Ohio, 

19 Walter Lowrie, of New York, 

20 Jacob Burnet, of Ohio, 

21 Joshua Darling, of New Hampshire, 

22 Dr. Stephen Duncan., of Mississippi, 

23 William C. Rives, of Virginia, 

24 Rev. J. Laurie, D. D., of Washington, 

25 Rev. William Hawley, of Washington, 

26 Rev. Wm. Winans, of JMississippi, 

27 James Boorman, of New York city, 

28 Henry A. Foster, of New York, 

29 Dr. John Ker, of Mississippi, 

30 Robert Campbell, of Georgia, 

31 Peter D. Vroom, of New Jersey, 

32 James Garland, of Virginia, 

33 Rev. Thomas Morris, Bishop of the 

M. E. Church, Ohio, 

34 Rt. Honorable Lord Bexley, of London., 

35 Wm. Short, of Philadelphia, 

36 Willard Hall, of Delaware, 

37 Rt. Rev. Bishop Otey, of Tcnn., 

38 Gerald Ral<ton, of London, 

39 Rev. Courtland Van Rensselaer, N. J., 

40 Dr. Hodgkin. of London, 

41 Rev. E. Burgess, D. D., of Dedham, 

Massachusetts, 

42 Thos. R. Hazard, of Providence, R. I., 

43 Dr. Thos. Massie, of Tye River Mills, 

Virginia, 

44 Gen. Alexander Brown, of Virginia, 

45 Maj. Gen. W^infield Scott, Washington, 

46 Rev. Thos. E. Bond, D. D., N. York, 

47 Rev. A. Alexander, D. D., N. J.. 



r'l.NO* or TUC BOARD OF l>llw.^ i i^na uF THK A. C. S 



fill. rauM> of *f'i-" rolo- 

•iisly one iin({ 

I in il« I'l • re- 

toiicditraU'd v^l^.iull• uf its 

\jiiou( parti of this country ; 

'. That it if exprdient to elect, 

•'■ 'irne, honorary and coitm- 

I > of the tioaril of Directors 



T. 



After which the following pream- 
ble nnd reeolulion were aiiopleil : 



i'hc Society then elected fifteen 
lioiiorary and correspomliiig mem- 
bers, in difl"i.Tcnt parts of the coun- 
try, whose names will be announced 
at a future iime.3 

And after the lraii>.iriM>ii ni Mime 
other business, the Society adjourned 
to meet on the 3d of January, 1846, 
at 7 oVlork p. M. 



Crtrartt frcm" i(ir Prctft>inc5 of H>f Doarb of Pirrflor* of t|)f iKmcriran 
(£oloni.ialion Sccttli^. 

The Board of Directors of the The Rev. J. F5. Pinney, and Elliott 
American Colonization Society met , Crcsson. r-.:.. wire urcsfiit :is I.ifi: 
at tiie Colonization Rooms, in the Director 

City of Washington, January 22, Hon. 11. L. l.li wurih, .Maiiliew 
|g45 St. {^lair Clarke, Esq., II. Lindsly, 

Thellon.L.Q.C. Elmer, of New ^^- ^^- ""^ R'''^- ^ ^ Davis, were 

- II 1 .1 r'l 1 pre««ent as members <^he Executive 

Jeraey, was called to the Chair, and ' .,,,",„..,. 

. ./ . t-» »^ 1 1 f VI .1 I t ommill««e. And luv. \> . .McLain, 
the Uev. A. D. Eddv,of NeWJer»ev, ^, ,, ^ . 

, .. ■ ' I a* Secretary of the Society, 

was appomlcd becrilary. •' 



Testimonials of the appointment 
of the following delegates, were then 
retd: 

Rev. D. L. Cabroll, DD. ) « y g ^ g 

A. G. PHKLrt, r.»q., 5 ' 

Rev. A. D. GiLLETTi:,) p^. jb /? c 

Vt. JOHK BeI L. J '^'""- *• *^- '^• 

Mev. Jotcrii T«Acr, ) ,- .. a r v 
Rev 8. K. LATH.or.5*'"* * ^- ^ 

Rev. A. U. Ki>DV, I). I). ) .. , 
Hon I. Q C EtMca. J ^- "' 

Hon, W. S. Aaciixa, I tf. «• / 
Hon (; W. Ki-MMSRS, 5 '^■- '^ 

Hon. J \V llt'MTINCTON. } f, c /I c- 

on ( . \\ . RocRwrt r ^ 



MPh.frs. Tracy and Phelp?, were 
a|)poii)ted to cxsmine and audit the 
accounts of iJie Treasurer for the last 
year. 

So much of the annual report, al- 

' ready submitted to the Society, as 

relates to the emigration of colonists, 

was r«fcrrcd to Mi't»»rf«. Pinney and 

Carroll. 

So irmrli of the report as relates to 
the sUii)- of the cause of colonization 
in this country, was referred to 
Me«-r- •''•--on nnd Davis. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 



29 



Report of Committee on the state of the Cause in this Country. 



So much as relates to the present i 
state of the colony, was referred to ; 
Messrs. Pinney, Huntington, Bell, 
Tracy, Ellsworth, Summers and Ar- 
cher. 

Messrs. Tracy and Piielps, were 
appointed a committee to examine 
and report upon the concerns of the 
African Repository. 

Messrs. Pinney, Eddy and Dr. 
Carroll, were appointed to nominate 
members of the Executive Commit- 
tee, and a Corresponding Secretary 
and Treasurer. 

On motion, adjourned to meet to- 
morrow morning, at half past 9 
o'clock. 

Thursday M9RN1.NG. 

Half past 9 o'clock. 

The Board of Directors met ac- 
cording to adjournment. The minutes 
of the last meeting were read and 
accepted. 

The committee on that part of the 
annual report which relates to the 
emigration of colonists, made a re- 
port, which report was re-committed, 
and the committee were instructed to 
prepare and present resolutions in 
accordance with the first and third 
subjects embraced and recommended 
in said report. 

The committee on that part of the 
report which relates to the cause of 
colonization in this country, made 
the following report : 

" Your Committee beg leave, respectfully, 
to report, that they find much cause for con- 
gratulation on the general aspect of our 
affairs in this country, and in their manage- 
ment during the last year, but we believe 
that enlightened economy will dictate an 



appropriation of the additional sum of $400 
to the office outlay of ;g'2,()00, for the com- 
ing year, so as to alford tlie aid of an assis- 
tant, for the relief of our able and indcl'ali- 
t;able Secretaiy, and accordingly recom- 
mend the grant of'tiiat sum. 

" We note witli great regret, tlie inade- 
quacy of our funds to meet the many cases 
where benevolent slave holders have offered 
the gratuitous emancipation of their people 
for settlement in our colonies ; and that your 
Kxecutive Committee has been compelled 
to reject these proffered trusts, on the sole 
ground of pecuniary inability. We are 
well aware of the difficulty of procuring 
suitable agents ; but with full conlidence in 
the benevolent feelings of American phi- 
lanthropists, and in their leadiness to con- 
tribute towards the moral regeneration of 
Africa, and the restoration of her long 
exiled children to her bosom — vvlien made 
acquainted with our wants and their exi- 
gencies — we cannot doubt that important 
service would be rendered to the cause, by 
calling forth the volunteer labors of our 
friends in the different States. We would 
therefore suggest that the Executive Com- 
mittee, be instructed to present some of the 
most striking cases where large bodies of 
valuable slaves, trained specially for future 
usefulness in Africa, have relapsed into 
hopeless bondage, from our inadequate re- 
ceipts; and to invoke the co-operation of our 
friends in calling forth the requisite funds 
for preventing similar catastrophes, as well 
as for the completion of our territorial pur- 
chases between Capes Mount and Palmas, 
now, perhaps, the most important duty de- 
volving upon the American Colonization 
Society, in view of the claims of three mil- 
lions of unfortunate fellow creatures, upon 
the best sympathies of the American people. 

" Our own observation happily corrobora- 
ting the views of the annual report, in rela- 
tion to the growing interest manifested by 
various religious bodies, towards this truly 
Christian and constitutional mode of blessing 
the African race, we would further suggest 
the selection of some of the most affecting 
cases of slaves reverting into bondage, to be 
embodied in a circular to the clergy, asking 
their active services in preventing the re- 
currence of similar circumstances. 

" All of which is very respectfully sub- 
mitted. 

"ELLIOTT CRESSON, 
" Chairman." 

The committee to whom the ac- 
counts of the Treasurer were referred, 
made the following report : 



30 



raOCiJLi'i.^uo uk THE BOARD OF DIRJCCTOR& OF THC k. C. S. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 



31 



Report of Committee on Liberia. — Election of Ex. Committee and Cor. Secretary. — Important Resolutions. 



The committee on the present 

state of the colony made their report: 

"The Committee to which was referred the 
subject of the state of the colony, report — 

" That the colony of Liberia exhibits in 
all its aspects, whether as regards the exten- 
sion of agriculture and conurierce, the in- 
crease of buildings, and all the evidences 
of material prosperity or the coiitinued 
salutary workings of its municipal laws 
and educational and religious institutions, 
a state of things every way gratifying 
to the Society and the friends of the color- 
ed race every where. 

'' January 23, 1845." 

The committee to nominate mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee, 
Secretary and Treasurer, reported 
the names of Hon. Messrs, H. L. 
Ellsworth, and M. St. Clair Clarke, 
Harvey Lindsly, M. D., Hon. H. 0. 
Dayton, Rev. C. A. Davis, Joseph H. 
Bradley, Esq., and Rev. Dr. Bacon, 
as members of the Executive Com- 
mittee, and the Rev. W. McLain, as 
Corresponding Secretary. 

The aforementioned gentlemen 
were unanimously elected to the of- 
fices for which they were respectively 
nominated. 

Resolved, That the whole expense of the 
office at Washington, be limited for the 
ensuing year to a sum not exceeding twenty- 
four hundred dollars. 

Resolved, That the appointment of a 
Treasurer, be referred to the Executive 
Committee. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee 
be instructed to inquire into the expediency 
of memorialising Congress, that measures 
be adopted to foster ancl protect the Ameri- 
can commerce on the western coast of Af- 
rica, and to give encouragement to the com- 
monwealth of Liberia, and to take into con- 
sideration the disposal of the census of Libe- 
ria, and whatever may relate to the Ameri- 
can commerce on the African coast. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee 
be instructed to confer with the subscribers 
to the $15,000 fund, for the purpose of pur- 
chasing territory in Africa — on the impor- 
tance of entering upon immediate negotia- 
tion for such purchase, and to see if the 
terms of such subscription may not be so 
modified as to allow donations to be applied 
at once to such purchase of territory. 



The following resolutions were 
presented by Dr. Carroll, and 
unanimously adopted, viz: 

Resolved, That the very nature, the ob- 
jects, and the great ulterior aim of coloniza- 
tion preclude iihUffercnce and impose upon 
every patriot, philanthropist and Christian, 
the imperious duty of actively and zealously 
j)atronizing this cause, orof presenting satis- 
factory reasons for witiiliolding from it that 
countenance and support due to a professed- 
ly great and important enterprise. 

Resolved, That it is expedient and desita- 
ble that a series of district meetings, or con- 
ventions,should be held during the approach- 
ing spring and summer,with direct reference 
to enlisting the great body of the cler^'V 
more zealously in this enterprise, and to 
induce them to bring it back again to their 
several pulpits, and give at least one annual 
collection in aid of the funds of the Society. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee 
be instructed to review the proceedings of 
the Society and of this Board, and to pub- 
lish such portions of their minutes as they 
may think proper. 

The committee on the African Re- 
pository, made a verbal statement of 
the condition of said publication, 
which was satisfactory to the Board. 

The committee on Emigrants, 
whose report was recommitted, made 
their report, which was referred to 
the Executive Committee for such 
action upon the subjects therein con- 
tained as they may deem expedient. 
The annual report was referred to the 
Executive Committee for publication. 

Resolved, That the tiianks of the Board 
of Directors are due and are hereby tender- 
ed to the Corresponding Secretary and the 
Executive Committee of the last year, for 
the faithful and efficient manner in which 
their duties have been performed. 

A vote of thanks was also passed 
to the Hon. Mr. Elmer, for his valua- 
ble services at the present meetings 
of the Board, and for presiding as 
Vice President over its deliberations. 

The Board of Directors adjourn- 
ed to meet on the third Tuesday 
of January, 1846, at 12 o'clock, i>t. 



an.mai. h.s:iv.;iATn.».N ni lulkia. 



AiiSTUACr 

IIECEMKUSUKLIBI 



PTCMBBR, 1 DO 



i 


•a 1 










1 


ill 


1820 


8^-. 








1S21 
1S22 


3 : 

3; 




.k 

7 


.^ 


6 
9 


8 
5 


^ 


18-23 


Go 


13 


2 


1^ 


15 


8 


111 


1821 


103' 


16 


5 


21 


34 


8 


188 


1825 


6(^ 


13 


8 


21 


16 


3 


230 


1826 


182 


40 


8 


48 


.5S 


6 


358 


1827 


234 


20 


9 


29 


(.:; 


14 


5A9 

69^ 


1828 


3011 97 


40 


137 


"JS 


21 


1829 


147j 37 


30 


67 


49 


25 


7541 


1830 


326 75 


35 


110 


123 


25 


915 


1831 


lOoi 32 


51 


83 


71| 


12 


1,0US 


1832 


655' 92 


37 


129 


2S9 


83 


1,451 


1833 


<i;ii^ 170 


47 


217 


193' 


122 


1,751 


1834 


2371 70 


70 


110 


87 


31 


1.817 


1835 


183; 17 


66 


83 


9G 


32 


1,885 


1830 


20^ 51 


94 


145 


105 


13 


1,936 


1837 


76^ 37 


104 


Ml 


30 


6 


1.S65 


1838 


205! 50 


135 


\<i 


102 


12 


1.873 


1839 


56 


6 


, 129 


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10 


1.7S4 


1840 


, 115 


52 


, 128 


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1841 


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21 


79 


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15 


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1842 


2:i9 

1 >3 

4.4:->-i 


25 


66 


91 


169 


15 


1.S13 


1843 


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70 


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2.60 


3 


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4.16 


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3 


379| 


3.22 


6 


576 


2.37 


12 


638 


6.94 


20 


siaj 


4.70 


20 


1,024' 


4.30 


30 


1,117 


4.9S 


13 


1.573 


3.31 


41 


1,917 


2.98 


33 


2,016 


3.65 


48 


2,132 


357 


47 


2.230 


4.40 


5S 


2,217 


466 


56 


24^81 


6.08 


5.5 


2.247 


5.66 


40 


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6.69 


78 


2.271 


3.66 


35 


2,429 


2.90 


09 


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4.33 



(JiiiirciK'.", Ji ; t 'iiiiinii;i \ .icriciiii, l,»)ll, lirrapiurfti Alruaii^, 

116, Afrirai), ;i53 ; Total, 1 

S.Ik.oIs, ](]; .Srliol.'irt, Aiii- in ni, 370, Afrirnn, 192; Total, 562. 

(,'uiiviriioiiH ; Munlrr. 9; Kiilnuppiii«?. 11; r>iir},'lary, 17; Ctraiid Lar- 
rciiy, 107; IViit I '' • iircs, 47. 

lm'>ort'« iM I'.v.. ;•<. (li>. $123,694 ; Slock in trade, 

III! 

( 

di.i 



i<rclt.tu(«, ii^i9,550; CommiHion business an- 



Arrcs Hiigar ranc, 54 ; Acres in rirc, 62 ; Do. In- 
! > ^ i ' > • •round nuts, 31 ; Du. Potutuos and Yums, .30(> ; Do. 
,.".. Acrfit owned, 2,5.' M ; I ndor culiivaiion, i>48. Cat lie, 71 ; 

Shccj, a;rl (i.*«ia, 214; .Swine, iJb5 ; Du.l* ..-I H, ..s, no ,|oz. ; Total 

value owned by farmers, #21,775. 



CONSTITUTION OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Article 1st. This Society shall be called " The American Society for Colonizing the Free People of 
Color of the United Slates." 

2d. The object to which ils attention is to be exclusively directed, is to promote and execute a plan for 
Colonizins; (with their own consent) the free people of color residing in our country, in Africa, or lueh 
other place as Congress shall deem expedient. And the Society shall act, to effect this object, ill co-operatioo 
with the General Government, :incl such of the Slates as may aJo|>t regulations on the subject. 

3d. Every citizen of the United Slates, who shall have paid to the funds of ihc Society ihe sum of one dol- 
lar, shall be a member of this Society. 

4th. There shall be a Board of Directors, composed of delegates from the several State Societies, and 
Societies for the District of Columbia, and the Territories uf the United States. Each Society contributing 
not less than one thousand dollars annually, into the common treasury, shall be entitled to two delegate*. 
Each Society having under ils care a Colony, shall be mtilled to three drlega'cs ; and any two or more 
Societies uniting in the support of a Colony, composing at least three hundred souls, lo three delcgalci each. 
Any individual contribuling one thousand dollars to the Society shall be a Director for life. 

5lh. The Soeitly and the Board of Diiectors shall meet annually at Washington, on the third Tuesday in 
January, and at •.uch other timrs and places as they shall direct. The Board shall have povN'er to organize 
and administer a General Government for the several Colonies in Liberia; to provide a uniform code of laws 
for such Colonifs, aiid maiia;{c the general aflair.^ of Coloniialion throughout the United Slates, except withiu 
the States whirh planted Colonies. Tluy shall also appoint annually, the Executive Committee, to consist 
of seven, with such other olTi:ers as they may deem necessary. Any two members of ihe Executive Com- 
mittee, with the chairman, shall form a quorum for the transaction of ordinary executive business; but all 
appropriations of money, or measures involving the cxpemliliire of funds, otiicr ihan for the payment of debts 
previously contracted by order of the Executive Committee, shall be approved by at least four members of 
the Executive Committee. The o/ilcers of the Society shall be ex officij members of the Board of Directors, 
and shall have a ri^ht to speak, but not to vote. The saiil Board of Directors shall designate the salaries of 
the officers, and ad.ijit such p!ans as they may deem expedient for ihe promotion of the Colonization cause. 
It shall be tiicir du!y to provide for the fulalment of all existing obligations of the American Colonization 
Society, and nothing in the following arlicle of these amendments shall limit or restrain their power, to make 
such provision by an equilable assessment on the several Societies. Wliemver a meeliug of the Board of 
Directors sh.ill be regularly called, and there are not at least six members in alteiidanee, in such ca«c five 
members of the Execuiive Committee, t!ie cliairman btiiig one, with sueh Director.', not less than tv^'O, as 
may be present, shall eonstitulc a Board, and have competent authority to transact any business of the Socie- 
ty ; provided, however, the Bjanl so eonslituted sliall carry no ipiestion unless the vote be unanimous. 

6th. The expenses of tlie Gencr.il Governm';nl in Africa shall be borne by the several associated Societies, 
according to the ratio to be fixed by the Board of Directors. 

7th. Every sueh Society which has under its care a Col >:iy, associated under the General Government, 
shall have the right to appropriate ils own funds in the Colonization and care of its emigrants. 

Sth. The Board of Directors sliall have the exclusive right to acquire territory in Africa, to negotiate 
treaties with the native Alriean tribes, and to appropria'.e the territory and define the limits of the Colonies. 

9th. The President and Vice Presidents of ihe Society shall be ckcteir annually by the Society. 

10th. It shall be the duty of the President, (or in his absence the Vice Presidents, aciordin^ to seniority,) 
to preside at meetings of ihe Society, and to call moetiiigs when he thinUs necessary. 

11th. Tho Board of Directors and the Executive Cunimittce sliill have power to fill up all vacancies occur- 
ing in their respective numbers during the year, and to inalie such By-Laws for their government as they 
may deem necessary; provided ihe same are not repugnant to this Constitution. 

12lh. This Constimtion may be inndiiied or altered, upon a proposition to that effect, by any of the said 
Societies, transmitted t») each of the Societies three months bef ire the annual inoeliiigs of the Board ofDi- 
rcctors; provided such proposition receive the sanction of two-thirds of the BoaiJ at their next anuud 
meeting. 

13th. The representatives of the Societies present at the annual meeting, adopting this Constitution, shall 
have the power to elect delegates to serve intheBoaidof Directors, until others are appoinlcil by their 
Societies. The delegates shall meet iminediately after tiicir election, organize, and enter upon their duties 
as a Board. 

14th. All sums paid into the Treasury of the American Coloni/.ation Society shall be applied, after defray- 
ing the expenses of collection of the same, and a lalcable [lortion of the subsisting debts of the Society, to 
the advancement, use, and benefit, of the Colony of Monrovia ; and the Agent of the Society, or Goyeriior, 
ihall reside therein. 



n w 

T WENT Y RK ' *" " V '"" T '! r civ^p'-'^S OF L ! " '^ 'M \ . 
1. The African iiion— tlie n 

••*■>•"- I'Uft I... j,..^ „. ...>. -»»» , ..ii, andcau^^ - ini 

■ rpri^r h3<i the faror, nnl will realise the aid, ol Ihe civilized world — es- 

(loin and mott eminent virtue of this country, 

a leading object. 

^hed, in succetsrul ope- 

. and to give full 

1 „.,, ..iiti increased vigor, 

by th« 

9. I' t to Ihf imprnvrment anf^ rlex'ation 

t. 

> aic >iiiK ii'iiii^ uii:»(Mi. 1UU3 ii> .lu- il it 

- ;i!I ;iii.l {])!> v.rr elementa efnenlial to 
it- I Ives and their posterity, 

w , III ilicir liop^ji. 

1..- - , _„- , - .u- 

ditpeii' > a hdUon. 

14. HI ih<* world, and Libe- 

ria inn\ i: \Ut we»t. 

15 1 ct. 

V- ' . .,■■ .1 lUL in >i ,i-.i ^-1 lilt II i,<iiiiiM .^ ,.nu ui the extension of their 

j' ■■ litcly, by eu.igration fiom the United States, and by the incor|>ora- 

I tr ■ ' «. 

17. Thtf L'ltiifd States and Great Britain will be rival competitors for their com- 
merce, aiul are liki'lv in be co a* |istrnti« xiui «jiiardiaii«. 

18. i: ■ ■ '..ir b.-half. 

19. I ' Africa, Tor the wrongs they 

hav . :... ^ .-i.d. 

-ii IS indispensable to imi>ortuut political and commercial 

I'f} It ha*^ 1 ' tin of an empire in the 

it M — on I I'j. a hlilo lurth of the 

, !>/. 
; 1. . 

, •' I UMil, Mith 

, 111 .itlil desci"!!- 

i da: " . i r 

th. ,. 

! Wl . 

j •' , ; J/i«Tf art 

ai ;rrlii-«. «. 

m 
' t<. 

.J" 
I ii 

! f.. 
I' 

It.. 

j Of. .1' : 

I don« Hi 



by all 



lb« 



woik or the A 



-» 



TWENTY-NINTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



aillBMiii (B$lL(Dlt92iitIira a(D(iiM^?, 



WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 



AND OF THE 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 



JANUARY 20, 1840. 



WASHINGTON: 
0. ALEXANDER, PRINTER, 

lEVEXTEEMTII STREET. 

1846. 



TWENTY-NINTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 






WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 




AND OF THE 

\ J 

/ 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING. 



JANUARY 20, 1646. 



WASHINGTON: 
C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER, 

■ EVENTEENTH STREET- 

1846. 



CONTENTS. 



inual Report of the American Colonization Society 5 

^ath of Rev. W. Hawley and S. H. Smith 6 

lathof J. Cotton Smith and Daniel Waldo 6 

lath of Elizabeth Waldo and Oliver Smith 7 

le American Colonization Society out of debt 8 

irmony among friends — Prospects in Illinois and Indiana 9 

ospects in Oiiio, Missouri, and Kentucky — Expedition from New Orleans 10 

mnessee — Mississippi $6,000 — Louisiana — Alabama — Georgia — S. C. andN. C..1I 

jspects in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and New York 12 

. Carroll — New Jersey — Dr. Alexander's History — Connecticut — R. Island 13 

ospects in Massachusetts — Agents employed — Ladies and Friends 14 

ospects in Vermont, New Hampshire, Delaware, Maryland, and Maine 15 

ch men ought to consider the claims of Colonization — Cause prosperous 16 

Qount of Receipts $53,233 18— The $20,000 for Territory secured 17 

Roanoke" and her Emigrants — Liberia and Chesapeake Packet 18 

esent condition of Liberia — Remarks of Gov. Roberts 19 

rchase of Bah Gay's land — Purchase of Sinou — Eleven Settlements in Liberia. . .20 

neral education in Liberia 21 

2thodist Missionaries — Extracts from the Journal of an African Cruiser 22 

k'aluable testimony in favor of Liberia — Sentiments of Colonists 23 

itish interference, the only cause of disquietude in Liberia 24 

rrespondence of Mr. Fox, Mr. Upshur, &:c 25 

beria not a colony of tiie United States — British traders instructed not to pay duties. 26 

le John Seys seized — Considered as a gross outrage 27 

le John Seys cleared by the court at Siena Leone — Opinion of Dr. Hodgkin 28 

beria has claims to peculiar regard — Relations to the American Col. Society. . . .29 

beria ought to sustain the entire re.sponsibility of its own Government 30 

:tion of Legislature of Liberia on their sovereignty 31 

marks of Gov. Roberts— Proposal to alter the Constitution of the Am. Col. Soc..32 

including remarks 33 

inual meeting American Colonization Society — Election of officers — officers.... 34 

oceedings of the Board of Director? — Members present 35 

eclion of Secretary and Ex. Committee — The relations of Liberia to the Society.. .36 

nended Constitution of the American Colonization Society 37 

aancial Report — Receipts and Expenditures 38 

eparations for making Liberia an acknowledged sovereignty 39 

including resolutions — Old debts, IStc 40 

tters of Messrs. Eddy, Wilkeson, and Perry 41 

fe Members of the Ameiican Colonization Society 42 

iicers 43 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Death of Rev. W. Hawley— Death of S. H. Smith. 



In commencing a review of the 
most prominent events which have 
occurred in the history of coloniza- 
tion during the past year, we are 
called upon to pay a tribute of re- 
spectful remembrance to the '' noble 
dead." 

Just at the close of our last annual 
meeting, the Rev .William Hawley, 
of this city, was called from the field 
of his labors here, to the scene of his 
reward on high. For nearly thirty 
years he had maintained among us 
an unblemished reputation as a min- 
ister of the Gospel, and had been 
ever active and zealous in the pro- 
motion of every benevolent institu- 
tion. For many years he was one 
of the most earnest and laborious 
managers of this Society. He stood 
by it, with faith and hope, in its 
most dark and trying periods, cheer- 
ing the sanguine, and encouraging 
the doubting, by his nevei-wavering 
confidence in its ultimate success. 
He was one of the Vice Presidents 
of this Society, and was its ardent 
friend and patron to the last. But 
1 



he has ceased from his labors, and 
"his works do follow him." 

More recently, another of the 
Vice Presidents, also a resident of 
this city, departed this life. We al- 
lude to Samuel Harrison Smith. 
Of his high moral worth, his unsul- 
lied reputation, and his general in- 
fluence as a member of civil society, 
it is not necessary for us to speak. 
He was knoivn in this community. 
Being the friend of the friendless, 
and ever ready to succor the needy, 
his sympathies were early enlisted 
in behalf of the colored race. He 
was the early friend of this Society, 
and was long one of the Board of 
Managers, puncfual in his attend- 
ance, upright in the discharge of his 
duties, and zealous in his advocacy 
of the cause. 

As an evidence of his warm attach- 
ment to the Society, and Jiis great 
benevolence and liberality in its sup- 
port, we mention with gratitude the 
fact that he left it a legacy of two 

HUNDRED dollars. 

Seldom has it occurred that the 



ANIfUAL RCrORT Or THE AMCaiCA.X COLO?llZATIO:« 80C1CTT. 



IV«tli af J. CoUmi Saidl— OMtk of Daaitl W«14o. 



Sttrieiv has been called to mourn the ' 
lo««, ill one year, of (WO surl) fiiends 
•nd fellowlulper«,boih having been 
managers uf it« aHairtf and residenta 
of ibie cuy. We would gratefully 
cheri»h their memory, imilaic their 
virtues, and cornmeud their liber- 
ality. 

Among the oldest of the Vice 
Piesidenis at the laHt annual meet- 
ing, sUkmI the lion. John Cotton 
Smith, of Connertirut; he also has 
rested from his labors. In a good 
old age, "as a shock of corn fully 
ripe," he has fallen. Many are the 
friends who mourn his loss. He 
had filled, with honor to himself and 
profit to the community, many hiyh 
places of trust and power. lie was 
wise in council, discreet in judg- 
ment, and resolute in action. The 
advocacy of such a mind was of vast 
value to our great enteiprise. The 
community were accustomed to re- 
pose large confidence in his opinions, 
and to regard with favor whatever 
benevolent scheme he presented to 
their consideration. 

Though of late years his age and 
infirmity incapacitated him for ren- 
dering any active service to tlie cause, 
yet are we greatly indebted to him I 
for his friindship, counsel, and pat- 
ronage, when the Society was in its 
infancy and needed helpers such as 
be ; and, though now he is niimhcred 
among the " lionort'd dead,'' hif* 
name stdl lives and shall live, whilr 
his intluence shall widen and e.\ten<i 
and onward (low, until the latest 

(•ovraiiuns ' | 

I 



We are also called upon to record 
the death of another of the Vice 
Presidents of the Society. During 
the past year the Hon. Daniel 
W'alpo, of Worcester, Mass., has 
been called to his rest in the skies. 
Few men have been taken from any 
community, who were more gener- 
ally known and more univcrisally 
respected : and no one could have 
been taken, whose death would be 
more extensively, and deeply, and 
permanently deplored. He was a 
true patriot, an intelli|(^ent philan- 
thropist, and a pri>found Christian. 
The peace and good order of society, 
and the prosperity and happiness of 
his country, were objects of his con- 
stant thoiiglit and untiring devotion. 
Almost every benevolent institution 
can mention numerous tokens of his 
affection, and has ruu.^e to rejoice in 
the largeness of benefactions. His 
interest in all well directed efl»irta, 
to enlighten the igiionuil, and relieve 
t\)e wants of the destitute, and pro- 
n>ote the moral and ."Jocial welfare of 
all, was active and untiring, and his 
charities were as munificent and free 
as they were discriminating and un- 
ostentatious. 

••The nam« of Waldo i« intimatrly »»- 

sorinli'i) will) many of the relit;iniis nmi 

<!iaiilal>lc ini((i(ution» of lh<' coimlry. 

• • • l>..--i> ■■• i>iiff| wiih rclimmu 

l.iilh. mill fp<l ••.(•(I wiih a »cn»« 

..I .ill ("lirixli.i! . in the lihrrnlity 

(>l A nillivalptl dixl < iilitililcnrtl iiiiiut, he 

ilr\ iM i| thiiii^r« libfriiUy. nii<l Miih a \ir\v lo 

! H«« liMtkf<| far bt-yoiMl *fct 

trove to irnrn lioin tin* in- 

. !Mi'ut tciirluT an«l inn.t- 

; ity lo the whole rnr. 

iiid the aim of hid hd . 

WW iu l^iUilul aai acceptable peiform- 

aacf. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Death of Elizabeth Waldo— Death of Oliver Smith. 



"Thus has passed the long and useful 
life of this good u)an. He has been boiiie 
to the tomb, full of years, and in honor- 
ed renieiribraiice. The tears of bereaved 
relalives and friends bedew the green 
sod of his fresh- made grave, but the deeds 
of public munificence and of private 
benevolence which he has wrought, will 
survive all temporary afiliction, in the 
cherished memory and lasting influence 
of his exemplary character and vir- 
tues." 

Among the various objects of be- 
nevolence to which he was devotedly 
attached, this Society held a very 
high rank. For many years, he has 
been a regular and liberal contributor 
to its funds. As soon as it was pro- 
posed to raise $15,000 for the pur- 
chase of territory, in $1,000 sub- 
scriptions, he became one of the 
number; and soon thereafter paid 
the amount, although it was condi- 
tional upon the whole sum being 
made up. And he left by his will to 
the Society the munificent bequest 

of TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS, which 

has been promptly paid into the 
treasury by his executors. It will 
thus be seen that we have good 
cause to remember him with grati- 
tude, both for his friendship and as- 
sistance while living, and his rich 
legacy when dying. 

" Peace to the memory of a man of worth, 
"Of manners sweet, as virtue always wears." 

Soon after his decease, died also 
his sister, Elizabeth Waldo: a 
worthy sister of such a brother. 
J-Fe cannot pay any adequate tribute 
to Ijer worth, or sketch the various 
excellencies of her character. Suf- 
fice it to say, that she was a Chris- 
tain, most devout and zealous, whose 
Xn'hole spirit was imbued with divine 



benevolence, and whose every delight 
was found in doing good. She was 
one of our best friends. She was 
always liberal and systematic in her 
contributions to^his Society; and if 
at any time we were in special need 
of funds for any particular object, 
we had only to make known to her 
the facts, in order to obtain assist- 
ance. 

She with her sister, subscribed 
one thousand dollars towards the 
purchase of territory, and paid it in 
anticipation. 

She made this Society one of 
her residuary legatees, from which 
source it will ultimately receive 
about TWELVE THOUSAND DOL- 
LARS. 

We believe that of her it may be 
said, with emphatic truth, "she hath 
done what she could." Truly "the 
blessing" of the poor African "ready 
to perish," will come upon her! 

Since writing the preceding para- 
graphs, we have received intelligence 
of the death of another devoted friend 
and liberal patron, and we are com- 
pelled to 

" Add to the list another 
Gone to the silent dead." 

Oliver Smith, Esq., of Hatfield; 
Mass., who died recently, was ar 
ardent friend of this Society, 
was one of the persons who si 
scribed $1,000, each, toward the 
chase of territory, of which he 
paid $500. Among his nume 
bequests to charitable institutiojj 
one of $10,000 to this S( 
Much of his very large estate 



Anavu. turoKT or tu£ amkricam covoxizxriosi socuctt. 



ru Aairi— CilnilMlliB ■lihty «1 of 4«M ! 

for chariiable purposes, and a large H on Uiu dollar. ThU wa« conitidered 
ajuuuiit for bcnevohnl and pliilau- by the Society as a measure indis- 
Uiropic object.s. 'I pfcnsable lo iia future existence, and 

Thus have p.ishtd away, in one by tlie creditors, or at least by a 
year, six of ilio most valued friends majority of them, as a very advania- 
and patrons of this Society : two of || geous arrangement, there being very 
whom had, for many years, been IJitlc proj«pect of their ever realizing 
members of ilje Board of Managers: o,e whole amount. At the last an- 
lotB of whom were enrolled among | nual meeting there were yet due on 
the number of Vice Presidents: these compromised debts, $6,477 33. 
THKEE of whom M-ero contributors -j'his amount has since all been paid, 
to the #lo,000 fund for the purchase ij ^j^h the exception of $775 27, due 
of territory ; and three of whom left, creditors who have refused to accept 
each, a legacy of $10,000, or up- of the terms of the compromise, and 
wards, to tlte Society. | ij,, committee have not felt them- 

While we mourn the loss of these selves authorized to make a distinc- 

cflicient and illustrious patrons, we j,^,„ ^^ ^]^^.■^^ f^jy^r by paying them 

would acknowledge, with emotions , ^^ ^^^y ^^^er terms than have been 

of profound gratitude, the goodness ^cted upon in settlin!,' with other 

of God, in bestowing upon them so creditors in like ciicumstances. 

much of Uiis world's goods, and in I ,_. , , , , , .i o 

" . - The other debts due by the So- 

giving them a heart so to use it for . , , , . . 

•* * ciety at the last annual meeting have 



all been paid ; while the current ob- 
ligations of tlie year have been met 
and discharjred. 



the advancement of His kingdom in 
the earth. And we would unwav- 
eringly confide in Him to raise up 
others for the reinforcement of our 
ranks, and for the means necessary ti ^^'^ "^« **'"» periniited to announce 
to carry forward and consummate our' '»'« pleasing fact, tliai the Amkrica.v 
enterprise. Colonization Society is out or 

In recounting the labors and trans-. "K«t! (with the above exception.) 

actions of the past year, we begin with '*'" •'!' ""' '"' '^'"•1" '" '^^'^'^y P"' "^ '''« 
the elTorls which wo have made to t-ountry, this will be cheering inlelli- 
L relieve the Society from debt, as this K^'X'^^^- The Society now stands firm, 

^^ is • mailer of the chiefesl impori- in-c and unembarrassed, ready to ap- 
^^kanc«. Out friends are aware ihui, propriate its entire resources and de* 
^^rfor many years past, the Society voic all its energies to advance the le- 
^^k «» been exceedingly embatrassed by gituiiate work of colonization. Ills 
^^■jjA o/(/ debt which was rntimg upon uut of debt ; it has a credit as f^od 
^^HT in 1839, a compromise was ' :"• »•" years «)f pum-tual payment of 
^^^made wiih the creditor*, by which ^1 i^ notes, drafii», and obligations, 
^K the Society ajjreed to pay 60 ceuia j without a single failure, can warrant, 

i 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Harmony among friends — Prospects in Illinois and Indiana. 



and it has in the treasury at the 
present time, $11,159 43, to pay the 
expenses of the expedition to sail 
this day from New Orleans. 

It is with feelings of the most 
profound satisfaction that we con- 
template this result. None but those 
who have been engaged in managing 
the financial affairs of the Society, 
can ever know or understand the 
trouble and embarrassment which 
these old debts have caused the So- 
ciety. Now, to be relieved from 
them, with a surplus in the treasury, 
and a public interest in the country 
on which to depend for future means, 
is a state of things of the most grati- 
fying character. 

During the past year, many things 
have transpired, which have placed 
the cause of colonization on a firmer 
and more promising basis than it has 
hitherto^hjoyed. Among these we 
may enumerate the great increase of 
harmony among the various friends 
of the enterprise. From the North 
to the South, and from the East to 
the West, there is now believed to 
be but one sentiment on this great 
subject. There has been the most 
free interchange of opinions ; minor 
preferences and occasional prejudices 
have been yielded up ; the policy of 
the Society is firmly established and 
well understood, and many new and 
substantial friends have been made. 
A lajge number of Auxiliary So- 
cieties have been organized, and 
through their operation a great mass 
of useful inteliigence has been dif- 
fused. The seed has thus been sown 



in many fields never ploughed before, 
from which we have a right to ex- 
pect an abundant harvest in the future. 

In Illinois, a State Society has 
been formed, which embraces among 
its oflicers and members, a large 
number of the most talented, influen- 
tial and distinguished men in the 
State. The services of a Stale 
agent have been secured, who has 
been successful in raising funds, and 
has formed between thirty and forty 
Auxiliary Societies. Heretofore, 
very few eflforts have been made in 
that State, and of consequence, the 
cause there was in a very inactive 
condition, if indeed it could be said 
to have any existence at all. 

The State Society of Indiana has 
been reorganized, and an agent ap- 
pointed, who purposes devoting him- 
self wholly to the work of raising 
funds. He has associated with him 
some wise counsellors, and warm 
friends, whose co-operation will be 
of immense advantage to him. Most 
of the newspapers in the State have 
opened their columns to communi- 
cations on the subject, which will 
tend greatly to awaken public atten- 
tion. We are assured, from many 
sources, that the State will come up 
nobly to the work. One ground on 
which this assurance is based, is 
found in the public sentiment 
which entertains in regard to the 
free negroes within their bounds. 
There is a very earnest desire ex- 
pressed, that their condition should 
be improved, and a general hopeless- 



10 



A:*yVkU RJCrORT or THE AMEWCAM COLONIZATION SOCIBTT. 



•• i|irif M elite, Mteewi, m4 Eatackjr— CtpOiliM fro« New OriMM. 

oeM of ever effecting any thing for the pa«t year, nnd with wonderful 
them in ihid respect, while they re- ^ »urrt'»«. Ilis cash receipia have 
main under the shadow of ilic whites, i been $1,929 09, while, in addition to 
Among the cohued pec'ple, aUo. this mnoiint, he has obtained upwards 
there is an inquiry awakening in of $.'),UOU. in »ub8cripiion», for the 
regard to I^iberia. Several families I purchase of territory ! He early in 
have applied for a pnsBage there, the year proj)08ed the plan of raising 
They contemplate sending out one the means to purchase a tract tif land 
of ihcir number lolook at the coun- for the use of emigrants from that 
try, and return and report the facts ; State. And no nooner had he madr 



to them. 



the proposal, than it became popul 



In Ohio, no very thorough efforts with the citizens. They were anxi- 



have been made during the p3>'. 
The State Society has but a i 



IS to sec some practical results of 
.<ir labors. They believed coloni- 



life, if indeed it can be said to live zation essentially adapted to benefit 
at all. The agent on whom we de- ihe free people of color in ilieir own 
pended, has been prevented, by sick- bounds, and were anxious to have in 
ness and other causes, from making j Liberia a place to which they might 
general collections throuirh llie Slate. ' be sent, and where they might be 
Still we have many warm friends in located together. Pledges were given 
that Stale, who have rendered good ^i to them by this Society, that they 
service. Several Auxiliary Societies, should have such a place, say a tract 
also, are very efficient, and do not of land, forty miles square^lul (Jov. 
fail to send us their annual collections, {{oberts has been instructed to lay 
The State Society of Missot'Ri ' off, on the north side of the St. Paul's 
under the efficient influence of their river, such a tract, and locate on it 
agent, has been Mtively engaged in ll all emigrants from that Slate, and to 
i' /^ Mielligence during the year, call the settlement Kentiickv. A 

'1 held many important pub- number of the colored people were 

lie meetings. About three hundred anxious to go to Liberia this winter, 
copies of the Repository have been ami be the pioneers of this new set- 



•enl to the clergy of the various re- 
ligious donominations. From the 
ri -lilts of ihesc labors, they antici- 
j.:i; a large incren«o of funds ihe 
coming year. 



iliinont. 

We have accordingly made ar- 

r:int;i ments for a vessel to sail from 

New Orleans ihis dai/ with them, 

nd some from Tennessee, a few from 



InKEXTiTKy iMc raiioi l,a» aH^uiu- (,)hio, and some from Mississippi, if 
ed an entirely new aspect. A short they get ready in time, 
titse bcforrthc last annual meeting,wei The sailing of these people from 
Mcured an agent for that State, who" Kentucky, it is believed, will give a 
hu been laboring faiUifully during;; new impulse to Uie cause in that 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



11 



Tennessee— Mississippi $6,000— Louisiana— Alabama — Georgia— South Carolina and North Carolina. 



State. An effort will be made, dur- 
ing the present session of the legis- 
lature, to get them to make an appro- 
priation to aid in the transportation 
of their free colored population, and 
of such slaves as may be set free for 
the purpose. And from the many 
encouraging assurances which we 
have received, from different parts of 
the State, we cannot doubt that such 
an appropriation will be made. But 
even if this should not be done, we 
have no fear for the prosperity of the 
cause of colonization in that State. 
Our agent there is zealous and effi- 
cient, and universally acceptable to 
the people; and he has around him 
a company of advisers and fellow la- 
borers who are not accustomed to 
faint or fail in any laudable enterprise 
which they undertake. 

Early in the past year we made an 
effort to establish an agency in Ten- 
nessee, but with no encouragement of 
success. The agent who undertook 
the labor very soon became disheart- 
ened, and, in counsel with some de- 
voted friends of ours in the State, be- 
came convinced that the way was not 
yet open for any advantageous efforts, 
and therefore declined further opera- 
tions. Theie is something in this 
position of the cause in Tennessee, 
which we cannot understand. There 
are many friends of colonization in 
the State. We have applications from 
many of the colored people for trans- 
portation to Liberia, Many slaves 
have been manumitted for the pur- 
pose of being sent there, and yet lit- 
tle or no money can be raised for the 
advancement of the enterprise. 



In Mississippi we have many warm 
and devoted friends. The State So- 
ciety, though without any regular 
agent, has succeeded in raising con- 
siderable funds from various sources. 
They deserve great credit for their 
noble and systematic efforts. Our 
agent, the Rev. J. B. Pinney, made 
them a short visit last spring, and 
while there received six subscribers, at 
$1,000 each, towards the $15,000 
fund for the purchase of territory. 
So that Mississippi stands at the head 
of the lisl of states in the effort lo 
complete the purchase of territory. 
For their noble generosity, and their 
unexampled liberality in this particu- 
lar, they deserve unbounded praise. 

In Louisiana less has been done 
than in Mississippi. Excepting in 
New Orleans, we have very few 
friends in that State who take any par- 
ticular interest in the cause. There 
has never been any thing like a regu- 
lar systematic effort to bring its claims 
before the great mass of her popula- 
tion. And from the peculiar state of 
society there, little can be expect- 
ed from them until great diligence, 
labor and pains are taken to inform 
them of the past achievements, pre- 
sent position, and future obligations 
of colonization. 

In the other Southern States little 
has been done the past year. There 
is no State Society in either Alabama, 
Georgia, North Carolina, or South 
Carolina, and there has been no 
agent in them for many years past. 
In many places, considerable interest 
is manifested in the operations of tlie 
Society, and there are some liberal 



IS 



A.N3UAL Rcroar or the ameucan colonizatiom society. 



PrMfvet* b Viffteia, PMMjrlrmBU, kad New York. 



contributoni to its funds. But owing 
10 the fact that no agent has railed 
upo' tid that the pastors of 

ihe 1 nave neglected tobriiii.' 

the aubject before tlieir people, 
havi U additions lu 

our 1 . ;ilcs. 

In Virginia there is much interest 
in die cause. But there have been, 
the past year, but few efl'oru made to 
turn it to good account. AVe have 
not been able to secure for the State 
any ajrcnl of qualifications tiuitablu 
to the emei gencies in tlie case. When- 
ever any efTorts hove been made to 
raise funds, they have been success- 
ful to an encouraging degree. Many 
of the pastors of the churches have 
preached on the subject and taken up 
collections. Most of the funds which 
we have received from the Slate liave 
been raised in this way. To all such 
pastors we are greatly indebted, and 
we ! I have Fuch coadjutors. 

T ciety of Pr.wsYi-VA.MA 

still continues its operations with en- 
couraging success; and :.' ' ' ''. li 
former oclive and iudcl 
the Rev, J. B. Pinnc), has been en- 
gaged most of the past year in other 
parts of the country, we have re- 
ceived from them substantial aid. It 
as very dcdirable that they should se- 
cure some talented agent, who would 
visit every part of the Slate, to culti- 
vate and enlarge the wann interest 
alresdy taken in the enterprise. 

The Nr.w YoRKSlnio Society has 
also rendered us important asnisiance. 
They enu^red upon the year with 
dslfrnng hopes of sureets. In their 



annual report^ 
they say : — 



u\iu\fi in Miv last, 



•' In tlir labors of the past year, and in 

thrir i«-'ti!^«. \hf Hf>nrd lave im'ifvinu and 

]i]i*r- 

>» it'-n tho 

at tlie com- 

1 the {>oculiar 

.i-iil vi ihr year, aie taken 

•I, it i» not to be reasona-' 

' f(icces<i would 

' period. The 

'■■•••' ■ ■•"' year 

.ind 

:> the 

t>y li cUin-s or 

■•it the people, 

' ope- 

for 

• and 

in tlie cause o( colonization, 
.^hstandinv these obstacles, the 
c ;i;; • > I colonization has been perceptibly 
advanced within the la>t twelve months, 
and is now looking up from its fonner de- 
pression with a commingling of smiles and 
tears on its face I 

"During Ihe Inst summer and autumn, 
most of the towns and cities on the ^reat 
line of travel from this place to liuitalo, 
have been visited bv the Corresnomling 
" - • , -1 . . ! to 

iiity 



i;,iliiitis 

Ivsrir,- 



.jc a-'pect and 
Vfrirn, and of 



' ions 

. > . . s and 

INTENTLY 

um of the 
«l.ole wi>il»l. Auuit'ious lecture.'* Were de- 
livered durinr the week, ml.iptod to cor- 
.liject, and 
■A le-iti- 

i to dilliise 

l)resent comli- 

', jmlifirnl and 

' ired 

the 

lous 

■lies, 

: ' '•'•' 

l"_v tlie unitufiiUeled 

.'iivvealth of Liberia. 

■•■■ 1 • ' I V <-ri :il !• witneasesoDlhe spot. 

and I, MA iir\v Iri) ikIh and patrons gained 

to lite c.iuiie. 

" That tho amount of funds collected 
during llie year has not been proportioned 
lo Ibe exertions made and to the intrinsic 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETT. 



13 



Dr. Carroll — New Jersey — Dr. Alexander's History— Connecticut — Rhode Island. 



merits and pressing wants of the cause, is 
very true." 

But these flattering prospects have 
not been realized. We, in common 
with the officers of the Society and 
friends of the cause in that State, an- 
ticipated great things from the labors 
of their Secretary, the Rev. D. 
L. Carroll, D. D., and we doubt not 
our most sanguine expectations 
would have been fully realized, if 
he could have continued his labors. 
But early in the summer his health 
failed, and though he still kept on 
withvigorand determination, he was 
at last obliged to yield. He has gone 
to the south, in the faint hope that its 
healing breezes may iavigorate his 
failing powers, but we fear there is 
but small reason to expect, even 
should his life continue, that he will 
ever be able to resume his eflbrts in 
connexion with that society. 

In New Jersey we are not aware 
that any particular change of senti- 
ment has occurred on this subject. 
We have ever had a strong body of 
friends and patrons in that State. 
Their society is under a good organi- 
zation, and has a large number of 
annual contributors, and the com- 
munity are generally well informed 
in regard to its operations and designs. 

We however anticipate a great 
increase of interest in that State, as 
well as in other portions of the 
country, from the forthcoming His- 
tory of Colonization^ by the Rev. 
Dr. Alexander, of Princeton. The 
work has been prepared with great 
labor and care, and issuing from such 



a source, it cannot but have a very 
important influence in arousing the 
attention of the community to the 
transcendant importance of the cause 
it advocates. 

The Connecticut State Society 
is acting with its usual vigor. 
From many of the pastors of the 
churches, we have received during 
the past year, accounts of a growing 
interest on the subject among their 
people. The sentiment is rapidly 
obtaining, that colonization should 
be admitted to a rank with the great 
religious and benevolent institutions 
of the day, and that it has a 
just claim to an annual contribution 
from the churches. In Connecticut, 
however, it is hard to eff"ect any 
change in their accustomed ways 
of doing their benevolent deeds ; and 
it is especially diflicult, in regard to 
this subject, owing to the strong op- 
position to be overcome. But not- 
withstanding this, the work is going 
forward steadily, surely, and to a 
certain triumph. It is well known 
that wherever authentic informa- 
tion is diffused, palpable good is ac- 
complished. Wherever the bearings 
of colonization, in the extinction of 
the slave trade and the civilization 
of Africa, are properly exhibited to 
the thinking, calculating minds of 
Connecticut, a salutary impression is 
made, and contributions, in aid of 
the cause, are the happy result. 

In Rhode Island there does not 
seem to be any State Society. We 
are unaware of any good reason for 
this. We have many friends in that 



14 



4ifffl.'AL UVOBT or THE AMEaiCAN COL0NtZATI0!( SOCIETY. 



r>Mfi«li is Mwfliiwiili Igwii tmfhyU—lmUmtmtriinit 



Slate who are zealous for the cause 
and librrai in their cuiilribulioiii<. 
Bui lliere has been no regular agvui 
in the State, and ofconsequence the 
recripis have nol been larpe. Little 
has been done to make new friends. 
It would probably be found that tlie 
number of thone who made donations 
three or four years ago, was about 
the same as at the present time : 
tliat about tiie same interest was felt 
then as now : and about the same 
opposition was made then as now. 
Thiit state of things is not to be 
found in any Held where an agent 
has labored faithfully, or where the 
pastors of the churches have con- 
scientiously btought the subject an- 
nually before their people. If the 
whole State could be cultivated as 
thoroughly as one or two spots have 
been, there is not a doubt but that 
vre should receive a larger amount 
of means from it than we have re- 
ceived from some larger State." 
May we not anticipate something: 
more favorable and efTirient in that 
Slate durin" the coming year ? A 
little timely exertion by aomebodi/ 
would secure it. 

The .Mas^aciu'setts State Colo- 
nization Society has been operating 
with increatting energy and success. 
At their last annual meeting they re- 
ported receipts more than doubh 
those of the preceding year. In 
tljeir report they attril)Ute this in- 
creased prosperity to the following 
six causes :^ 

" I. The fint it a more efficient tyttcin 
of SKrnciM. 
" i. Tht dtfioits and eBcour«|png ac- 



eniiit* from Liberia, fiven in the annual 

\a»\ yrai, and in other piiblica- 
. <• runtribiited to ottr «tirrr>.«. 

• J. Wc have also lii - 
rroiii lh<! trriuination of .< 

Iw. '' ' .• ition Socicin 1 auu iJL..ini» 

ol 

I irings of coionizstion on the 

fvaii);rli<aiion of Africa have come to be 
brtlPf uiidrtBtOod. 

" .'). \V«? Iiav** derived i 
tujp from IhpfXtiicaiion ' i 

tlif fal»e |>u»itioti Mhich r. »..c 

tu occupy in many niitids, lu rrspect to 
5la»cry. 

" «. In this connection it would be nn- 
iu»t as vsell as uii$;rateful not to mention 
the lib(*rahtyof afew dts(iii^ui!>ht.-d friends." 

The following remarks which 
they make, in regard to the employ- 
ment of assents, will be found true, 
if we mistake not, in regard to al- 
most every State in the Union ; — 

" Our expenditure for agencies the past 
vcnr, including the secretary's salary, has 
been about SL.'JOO. For the year to come, 
and peihaps still lont;er, a judicious ecuno- 
iny will require it to be increased rather 
than diminished. If our whole field could 
have been as thorou-^hly cultivated the 
past year as some parts of it have been, it 
IS a luwierate estimate to say that our re- 
ceipts would ha\ e been twice a« great. And 
it seems a duly to keep up a \i)corous sys- 
tem of agencies, till the claims of coloniza- 
' ' ij brought distinctly and in- 
• re the minds of the wliolc 
. , , , ..iiion of this commonwealth. 
Wiien this has been done so etfeclually 
that those who think well of our enterprise 
will lemember aiid aid u.« without solicita- 
tion, we may dispense with agencies. 

• '^! iwliilc, we hope our decided 

iiilorined friendii in ilillfrent parts 
lie, will do what they can to le- 
liive us of Uiis expense. \N e ho|>e that 
many pastors will bring the subject before 
ihrir congregations, and take up collet- 
liuiis. 



own iiiii A geiitle- 

tiiaii or , foi wards to 

ti% twenty In c Li l.Hy ili ll.ir.*. not oidy 
itnves ut a sum equal to the salary of an 



tlut, «l>tle WiorroUiijjiil lu cuipluv .>.;■ niH 
at all, Uie pecuniary advantage of raiMi.j^ 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



15 



Prospects in Vermont, New Hampshire, Delaware, Maryland, and Maine. 



funds by the voluntary efforts of indivi- 
duals, rather than by the visit ol' an agent, 
is equal to the whole anioiint thus raised. 

"01 the mode of proceedinjj best adapted 
to each place, our Iriend.s residing ihere are 
the best Judges. In some places, it may 
be advisable lo Ibrin auxiliaries. In othcis, 
a few friends may meet and agree to act in 
concert, without a formal organization. In 
others still, a single individual, self-moved, 
will prove the most ethcient agency." 

From the following remarks we 
perceive that they entered on the 
present year with hopes of ever in- 
creasing success: — 

" With the aid afforded in these and simi- 
lar modes, we may hope that our receipts 
will not fall off for the year to come, even 
if we should receive no large donatioris, 
such as have swelled the amount for the 
year now closing. We hope, however, 
that the liberal w ill not cease to devise lib- 
eral tilings, and that many, whom the 
Great Dispenser of wealth has made re- 
sponsible lor its judicious employment in 
promo;iiig human welfare, will afipreciate 
the opportunities for doing good, which our 
enterprise presents. Of tlie intentions of 
some, we have ah'eady been informed." 

From Vermont, we have re- 
ceived very encouraging^ accounts of 
the prospects of the cause. Their 
agent says he is encouraged not so 
much by the present amount of his 
receipts, as by what he considers " a 
rising interest in the subject." Their 
last annual meeting was one of un- 
usual interest. We have not yel 
received a copy of their annual re- 
port. They resolved, however, to 
raise ^1,000 the present year, which 
is an advance on the receipts of 
any preceding year. 

The New Hampshire State Colo- 
nization Society has been reorganized 
with encouraging prospects. For the 
want of an agent who could devote his 
whole time to the business, the 
agent of Vermont has been invited to 
Jabor in New Hampshire, and he has 



already made some efforts to raise 
funds, and has done much for the 
circulation of the African Repository. 
He hopes by this means to induce 
many of the pastors of the churches 
to make collections among their 
people in the course of the present 
year. He says, that there is mani- 
festly an increasing willingness 
among them to have the cause pre- 
sented to their people, although 
many of them are not yet prepared to 
make the presentation themselves. 

In Delaware there has been no 
special effort made the past year to 
raise funds, or to diffuse information. 
The State Society lately held its an- 
nual meeting, and after some stirring 
addresses resolved to raise one thou- 
sand dollars. Several influential gen- 
tlemen have taken the matter up in 
earnest, and we doubt not will suc- 
ceed in obtaining the amount. 

The Maryland Society, acting on 
the principle of independent State 
action, still continue their operations 
with commendable zeal and success. 
They enjoy the benefit of an annual 
appropriation from the State of ten 
thousand dollars. Their colony at 
Cape Palmas is remarkably pros- 
perous. 

In Maine there is no State Society^ 
and, having no agent in the State, we 
have been compelled to rely mainly 
upon the voluntary offerings of pri- 
vate individuals. Of their generosity, 
we have no cause to complain. From 
some* of them we have received 
very encouraging communications, 
showing that they have a deep and 



!•• 



XJCtt'AL &£rO&T or Tll£ AMERICAK COLONIZATION SOClETr. 



Rm4 mm m^I *• eoMMvr Um fWaa •TCakataliMi— Cwmt ptafpriwu. 



l«ni)t'r tyrapaihy wiih us in all our 
op«ruu<>i)(i. Some o( tluin have 
pledged iheniselves to the peiform- 
ance «»f iiomr specini nervice ihe pre- 
sent year, fur tlie purpose of rnising 
fund* from aoioni^ihe present friends, 
nnd inducing ihcni to en^ge with 
ire*\\ ardor in the work, and, if pos- 
•ible, to eulist new friends* and call 
fordi the resources of those who 
have huherto Inil us no aid. We 
trust that at the close of another 
year it may be said of diem, ** they 
ha**e done wliul thoy could." There 
are genUemen in that Slate whose 
resources arc abundant, and whose 
hearts are lar^e. They are now im- 
mersed in politics, engrossed with 
their business, and find litde time, as 
they suppose, to coiis'idt-r new ob- 
jects of benevolence which may be 
presented to them, f 'ould they once 
be brought to consider the un^^peak- 
able importance of the great scheme 
of African Colonization to the wel- 
fare of our own country, and the 
salvation of Africa, they could not 
fad to render it their liberal support 
Compared with its mngnituile, they 
would see that most of the objects of 
public excitement 

" Stand Jiwouiitroutrrd, utd Itlic (ulljr •bow." 

They would perceive that in order 
to meet die inosi urgent nnd solemn 
obligations of till' Imr o( tare to their 
neighbor, ihry must rundei to this 
Society a hearty and libfral support. 
From diis hasty ri'vii-w of iho 
farui in the history of ctilonizutioii 
for the past year in the various sec- 
tions of the country, it is apparent 



that the cause is in a healthful and 
vigorous condition. There are in 
I almost every Slate a large body of 
I intelligent and influential citizens, 
I who are so wisely attached to this 
Society, that they will not rest unless 
they believe it is profjiering. The 
real merits of the cause are generally 
appreciated, and are gaining favor 
e\arily in pioportion to the efforts 
wliich are made to establish them in 
the affections of the people. As far 
as our knowledge extends, it has not 
been said by uiiy one, after having 
properly turned up die fallow ground 
and scattered upon it the seeds of 
truth, " I have labored in vain." Our 
I agents have said, *' I find this year 
an advance on the public favor of 
la.st year." Pastors of churches have 
written us, " My people never were 
so much affected by the presentation 
of ihe claims of the Society 
as they were last Sabbath ; it has 
now become with most of ihem a 
matter of principle to contribute to 
it" 

^' 1 consider the colonization 
scheme as one of the most important 
and useful of any which distinguish- 
es this age. Unless I am mistaken, 
it is rapidly gaining the confidence 
of the people in this rejrion, ns well 
as all iliiuugh the nordi." 

The great work of christianixing 
•///"riVrt, is believed to devolve on 
AnuTir.-in enterprise and American 
ChrisiiaiiN. And the people begin to 
appreciate tlie value of colonization, 
as a means in the reach of American 
Chrisuaniiy, by which to diffuse it- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETT. 



17 



Amount of Receipts $53,233 18— The $20,000 for Territory secured. 



self through those habitations now 
60 full of " horrid cruelly." It there- 
fore must rise in their regards, as 
tliey rise in benevolent feeling. It has 
its home in their hearts. They have 
come to a deliberate judgment in its 
favor, aftera dispassionate considera- 
tion of all the premises and conclu- 
sions in the case. Time and new 
achievements will only tend to 
strengthen this decision. 

From the accompanying financial 
report it will be perceived that the re- 
ceipts of this Society during the year 
now ending, have been $53,233 18. 
In addition to this amount, we have 
obtained re/ia6/e subscriptions, to be 
paid during the coming year, amount- 
ing to several thousand dollars. It j 
will be perceived that of the receipts 
of the past year, only a small sum 
is from the trade with the colony. 
This has resulted from the fact that 
we have sent out but few goods, and 
that they have been mainly expended 
in carrying forward our operations 
there. 

In this view of the subject, and 
regarding liberality as an evidence 
of favor ; large donations, indicative 
of large interest ; the past year has 
been one of great prosperity and en- 
couragement. 

The plan proposed by A. G. 
Phelps, Esq., of N. York, to raise 
$15,000 for the purchase of territory, 
has not been lost sight of. At the last 
annual meeting $4,000 were pledged 
toward the amount. Since that time 
we have received eleven pledges of a 
thousand dollars each, making a to- 



tal of $15,000. We have also re- 
ceived subscriptions in smaller sums, 
amounting to upwards of $5,000.^ 
So that we have now secured the 
whole sum of $20,000, which we de- 
sired to complete the purchase of the 
entire coast between Cape Mount 
and Cape Palmas. 

All the $1,000 subscriptions were 
made conditional on our raising the 
whole amount. But so confident 
were our friends that we would make 
up the sum, that about half of thern 
paid their subscriptions in anticipa- 
tion. We have already sent upwards 
of three thousand dollars to Liberia 
for the purchase of territory. The 
last $1,000 subscription was received 
only a few days since. 

We cannot express the deep sense 
of gratitude which we entertain for 
the great liberality which our friends 
have shown for this particular ob- 
ject. It is one of vital importance 
to the welfare of Liberia ; and one 
which we have been most intensely 
anxious to secure, and we now can 
say 

" Joy I Joj forever I The task is done." 

We would respectfully recommend 
that each of the contributors be 
made a Life Director of the So- 
ciety. 

A larger number of emigrants have 
been sent to Liberia the past year 
than during the preceding year, but 
still a much smaller number than, we 
could have desired, and, wereanxious 
to go. We considered it an object 
of the first importance to relieve the 
ll Society entirely from debt. To do 



18 



▲jmuAi. axfoKT or tuc amu^.^a.^ «.uu>MZATion soctrrY 



Uiis. and cany forward other indif- 

prnsable object*, left not a largi 

•mount of money to be applied to 

the (ranvportalion of emigrants. 

"The fine ship Koinokp, of Ballinmt. 
chartrrrd by t'li* Socirly for llic p. 
»«iUil from .Norfolk, \'.i , lor Monroe. 

hrrin. on Ihr '■■ i, vvilll ulic 

hiiiuiri.l .iiji! raniK and • 

IWfJe MiJ>,il> ■ l; ".(Is. fctC. 

•' Of thc«p ine hundred and 

•IK from Kii " ^ • '■'• 

eratrd by I In 

Hooe : ten w<r • 

t^, Va., hborati .t (*> tl>« Uct . Jol.i. 1 umU* : 

five \Krrf from Prifn>hnr!r, librrati'il bv tbo 

R- " 

K 

bN 

b\ 

tl.. 

fr 

M 

fc. ; O- 

ci' I', nnd 

ot; , , ■ cif al- 

loMin^ llum lu accuiiip.my tli-ir lri<*nd<) to 
Liberia : thirteen were* from Malifix, N. C , 
liberati-il by the will of Tl,n!i.:is \V. La«ri- 
ter : two were fri>m Kredi-ricksbtiitr. Va., 
lih-r.i-.i t.> ti- V. . I ■! tli<< late William 
B Vi ^'a.: one was a 

fff z, Va. : one, nl«o 

free, iii>iu L^tdilintui), b. C .and seven Iroin 
Molina, Or*n?e Cuuniy, N Y. 

•' .Many ol • 'M* of mneh 

innre lliaii ci citizr-nt ol 

I.l' - •' ;..... 

Wi 

car 

were inciuRlrioiis and ptmlriit. (fii-at litir- 

rali'y ha* b^en •bnwn bv 'be mi^'cr* mIh» 

ha.. 

tb' 

ajtw ;..• . ... 

••Th' ;'*"y ^''f'-' well Aiipplird 

with p! .-' . for th<' ('!••. ••■ .11, ! 

for oix month* alter they n 

colorv N. -rlv f^p wt'olf f.f • 

• I I ■ 

tb. 

Ol! 

• ' 1. \\i f'irtii«b 

them b«»ii»r» III li»p iri lui ■■« i 
Ihem • pieee of lund for tttrit 
lb. 

f- ■■■■ K ••-•■ 

•<- Itria a Iwr chatter 



' ' ' ' ' \^tlo b.iil n;iiirn'd 

were leM b< tuiiil. 

. not pet n .i.iy 

in lime. l.,e|^i dilticulties were tbiown 

!•. |l • wny ol oilier*. One family wo.M 

ihe husband and falber had 

lo raise money to buy him- 

<< i!iM- i<ii sumo, we could nut afford 

, ly thcex|»ensei, at Ihe present time." 

All efTort has been made to estab- 
lish a rej^tilar I'acket to run between 
this country and Liberia, (o be call- 
ed the '• Liberia & Chesapeake 
Puckel," and to be owned by colored 
men. The company has been char- 
red, and the slock, $15,000. has all 
■n taken. The .iiiutica>t and the? 
1 iryland Colonization Societies are 
jiMiitly interested in it, by enpa«:ing 
lo give it a certain amount of busi- 
ness annually. The building of the 
vessel, however, is for the present 
delayed, awaiting the adjtistinent of 
the present uns^cllled slate of affairs 
in this country. 

In the condition and history of 

Liberia dining the year that has just 

closed, there has been what might 

appropriately be culled a mingling 

l>r(ispcrity and adversity: of pros 

I'liiiy in every thing internal and 

depending on the character of its 

izens; of adversity as respects 

-'•iiie of its external relations and the 

di!<position of sotno other powers 

:iiife»ted toward it. 

Ltni iiiA still presents itself lo the 

w of llie civilized woilil. as a 

bri(;hl and luminoutf spot on Africans 

' .ik border. 1 1 is the brightest star 

I promise which kindles its liglit 

I lier black horizon, his the most 

apparent means of her delivcrancft 

and talvuliuii. ll pOMC»»cs clcinGnt« 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



19 



Present condition of Liberia — ^Remarks of Governor Roberts. 



of moral power which do not apper- 
tain to any other scheme of benevo- 
lence. No candid person, we are 
persuaded, can compare the state of 
Liberia and its immediate neighbor- 
hood, with the rest of Africa, and 
not be convinced that it is a success- 
ful enterprise, fraught with innume- 
rable benefits, unattainable in any 
olher way. It lias met and over- 
come all the peculiar evils under 
which the African race are suffering, 
and has rendered apparent every 
means which need be employed for 
their redemption ! 

Slavery and the slave trade and 
piracy, have ceased wherever the 
influence of Liberia has been felt. 
While law and order, civilization 
and Christianity, with all their attend- 
ant blessings, have been substituted. 
As in the land of Egypt, of old, dark- 
ness and plagues desolated all its 
borders, save only where Israel 
dwelt, and there was light and mercy: 
so moral darkness and seven-fold 
plagues curse all Africa's coast, save 
only where the colonist abides, and 
there blessings abound and safety 
dwells ! 

" I rejoice," says Dr. Liigenbeel, the colo- 
nial physician, in a letter published in the 
Christian Advocate and Journal, " that the 
standard of Christianity has been erected 
on the shores of Africa, and that the ban- 
ner of the Cross of our Emanuel is now 
waving in triumph over many place?, which, 
a few years af^o, were the sites of the bar- 
racoons of the abominable slave trade, or 
of the slaughter-house of human sacrifices. 
With heartfelt delight, I have beheld com- 
panies of the rising generation, assembled 
in the schools of Christian Mission- 
aries, and attentive audiencies sitting un- 
der the sound of the Gospel of Christ. But, 
on the other hand, I have seen exhibitions 
of the debasing influences of the grossest 
superstitions, operating alike on the child- 



ish tyro, and the venerable and patriarchal 
looking 'sire,' tottering on the brink of 
eternity, without God and without liope in 
the world." 

Tn this liglit we have contemplated, 
with feelings of peculiar satisfaction, 
the advancement which Liberia has 
made "in every good word and work,'' 
during the past year. 

Governor Roberts, in his last an- 
nual message to the legislative coun- 
cil, remarks : — 

" It affords me great pleasure to congratu- 
late you, that the afi'airs of the common- 
wealth are, in all iini)ortant respects, in a 
prosperous condition, and the most devout 
acknowledgments are due to our Divine 
Benefactor, for the bounties of Providence, 
and the general health and tranquillity 
which at present prevail throughout the 
commonwealth. It is also a subject for 
grateful remark, that Ihiongii the interpo- 
sition of this government, the cruel and in- 
human wars that have existed for the last 
five years, and furnished so many cargoes 
of human beings to be transported across 
the Atlantic into perpetual slavery, and 
which have almost annihilated the ti-ade of 
these colonies with the northeast section of 
the interior, have happily been brouglit to 
a close — and we are permitted to rejoice 
in the prospect of returning intercourse 
with the tribes of that section of coun- 
try." 

Uninterrupted peace has been en- 
joyed by Liberia with all the allied 
tribes. Some troublesome disputes 
which had existed between the 
various chiefs and head men of the 
Little Bassa country, have been hap- 
pily settled by the intervention of the 
Liberian authorities. But for the ex- 
istence and influence of Liberia, a 
most bloody and desolating war would 
have raged among these kindred tribes. 
But now they are all at peace ; their 
diflSculties are adjusted, their quar- 
rels are at an end, and their whole 
territory is put under the govern- 
ment of the commonwealth of Li- 



AXSivxL teroftT of the amcrican coLo:«iZATio:f societt. 



beria. la February Ia«t, the whole I country has llius far been unsuccess 



(ti* ilie u;rriU)ry uver which Uah 
Gay is king, wa« purchased by au 
ihoiiiy of the po>Trnmenlof I,iheria. 



J 



ful. Ii cinbracftf the only elave fac- 
tory remaining ua the 300 luileit of 
sea board which we hope to pos- 



The king subsmbt-d ihe confiitulion si'ms. hi re-fard lo il, Uoveroor 
and laws of the common weahh.tliere- ! Uoberw says: — 



hOfry to illfor; 
lo Uie J. 

■:(• slaver • 



■iTort 
has 



ivi\ , 

•I liis iiK 

■l.ii.g." 



by nu'crponiiing himself and his peo- 
ple with the oitizcns of Liberia, enti- 
tled to its care and protection, and lu 

share its privilegeM and iminuniiies. < 

In the »aine iiionili, Governor !■.. 

with the SiNor people, by which 'ioliars m 
ihey ceded l<i Liberia the whole of 
their terrilor\ 

These purchases },'ive ihe Society 'I'he Governor however thinks tliat 
an unbroken line of sea coast from ibe prospect of making other pur- 
DicBV, on the N. W., to Grand chases is very fair. He says, under 
Dassa Point, on the S. E., and from date of April last: — 
Blue Harre to Tassoo. " ^f "^ '•'"' '''^ funds. I have no doubt 

Of the beneficial iniluencc result- 
ing from them, Governor Hoberts 
says : — 

*• The proBpects of the people in Grand 
Da9!*a, tlto«e of K<!ifia nii'l B;i««i» Cove 
parr 
at ■ 



. .4y to aKncultiire. ihe 
.• tliey \m\v n tuiiHrired in 

r««l r^nrkt, and in a f(\s U l>c 

able, no doubt, to rxftort .m- 

ble (quantity. *•' " ring 

in hi* crop*, ■■■ 'X- 

pecta to loo«« u'. . r the 
want of foice and m 
clean it, «till he will 



po<i 



|K>iJit!i, via: Nuunukfuu, Km^ ^^ o^y Iumu, 
aijil Tasso, are now oiicrvd, but we havo 
not tile means. " 

Since that dale, wc have sent him 
tlie means to make additional pur- 
chases, and have instructed him to 
prosecute thetn with all possible ra- 
pidity. 

There .m- m>w h.^.m-s settle- 
ments in Liberia. Of iliese, Mo.\- 
und RoviA is the largest, and the seat of 
Ciovernmenl. It conuiinn about 1,0(K) 



purchaae) may be juhabitants. 

.1 1.. 1 ... cojo- 



On the 8t. I'aul's river there are 
Ifirre settlements, Caldwell, Mills- 



l.ur- 
. now 
■lit oil (litlirukcii 
■iiiv inilm irum hiiftj, and MoDono;;!). The first 

It ten miles, the second about 

twenty, and the third about eighlueii 
ira- ' . 

miles from Monrovia. On an arm 

It w deeply to be regretted thai of the Su I'aul's river, called Stock- 

ihe effort to purchMe tl»e New Cess 1 ton crsek. is New Georgia, the set- 



III). 




Iin< 
iheS 
Iha N 


i: 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



21 



General Education in Liberia. 



dement of recaptured Africans. At 
the nioutli of the Junk river is tlie 
settlement of Marshall, about thirty- 
five miles by sea south of Monrovia. 
On the St. John'.s river are the settle- 
ments of Bassa Cove, Edina, and 
Bexley, about seventy miles from 
Monrovia. Farther down the coast, 
at the distance of about 130 miles by 
sea from Monrovia, at the mouth of 
the Sinou river, is the settlement of 
Greenville, and up the river about 
six miles, is the settlement of the 
people liberated by the late Mrs, 
Reed, of Mississippi. 

Some progress has beeii made 
in the eftort to educate every child 
in these settlements. In his last 
message to the legislature, Gov. 
Roberts says : — 

"I am happy to be able to inform you, 
gentlemen, that during the past year we 
have succeeded in establishing a primary 
school in each of the settlements of Mar- 
shall, Edina, and BassaCove. These schools, 
according to the reports of the commit- 
tees, are well attended, and in a prosperous 
condition ; they are, nevertheless, far from 
being adequate to the wants of the people ; 
the limited means of the government will 
not allow, notwithstanding the legislature 
have done all in their power to meet the 
wants and wishes of the people in this re- 
spect, to employ such teachers as the ad- 
vancement of many of the children re- 
quire." 

From the letters of other citizens 
of Liberia, we are assured that the 
most commendable eflorts are mak- 
ing, not only to educate the children, 
but also to increase the intelligence 
of the already grown part of the 
population. Dr. Lugenbeel says : — 

"There appears to be a growing interest 
among the citizens of this place (Monro- 
via) in regard to intellectual improvement. 
At present we have two flourishing ly- 
ceums, which meet weekly. 



"In regard to the citizens of Liberia, 1 

may state, that although many of (hem are 
ignorant, yet there is a considerable num- 
ber whose intellectual acquirements are ol 
a hif^her order than some of their oppo- 
nents in the United States imagine it possi- 
ble for any of their race to attain unto. 
And I may further state, that those among 
them who are most intelligent and influen- 
tial, acquired most of their knowledge in 
this country. 

"Tlie majority of persons who are sent 
to Liberia are totally illiterate, most of them 
liberated slaves — persons who were never 
in the liahit of providing for themselves ; 
and some of them are not capable of appre- , 
elating tlie privileges of freedom. Conse- 
quently (here are some persons in the colo- 
ny who, instead of being of service to it, are 
obstacles to its prosperity. 

"I think it is probable, however, that, in- 
dependent of any further accession of num- 
bers by immigration, l/ie colony ivould con- 
tinue to prosper, for the advantages which 
are enjoyed by the children ancl youth of 
Liberia in acquiring knowledge, induce me 
to believe that the little ship of state will 
never become a wreck for the want of com- 
petent oflicers to direct her in the proper 
course. 

"One remark more in regard to the young 
people in the colony. In addition to what 
I have already stated in reference to the in- 
tellectual improvement of the rising gene- 
ration, I may remark, that the physical sys- 
tems of the second generation will be as 
well adapted to this climate as the abori- 
gines are. This is certainly encouraging 
in relation to the future prosperity of the 
colony; for, even should the lives of adult 
emigrants be abridged by coming to this 
country, it ought surely to be a consolation 
to them to know that they are providing a 
permanent home lor succeeding generations 
of their race — a home in which they will 
live in the enjoyment of health, happiness, 
and independence.'* 

His opinion in regard to the ad- 
vantages which Liberia presents as a 
home for the colored man, is con- 
tained succinctly in the following 
paragraph : — 

"I am decidedly of opinion that, with 
honesty, industry, and economy, colored 
persons may live in Liberia more easily, 
comfortably, and indei)enden(ly, than they 
can in the United States. But it is lolly for 
any person to come to this country with the 
expectation of living without working, or 
without makino- any ellbrt to provide for 
themselves. 1 believe this is the only land 



» 



A2f9VAI. RCrOIlT or THE AMCmiCAM COLO.M/. atiuM SOCICTT. 



MrtWrfMl MMMo«vk*-K>trMl* bmm iIm Jovml ofM AfruM Cr«iMr. 



in which the prosrnbM (1<>ic<>n(tanU of 
Htm can b<* rr.«llv anil trulv (ne. Ami 



lti« liuvvrr* ol inv lurrldtttprv' huiiir u. 
the Vf-rtljtit Uiulscapp. 1 would live .. 
toil >ii<l (lie in Africa." 

The cause of ri-ligion has proiipered 
much, both aninn;^ iho citizens of 
Liberia and at the missionary sta- 
tions anionif the nativesi. The Metho- 
dist board of Miitoions sent out a 
large reinforremont to tlieir mis- 
sions. Six niittcionaries sailed in 
the ship Roanoke, three white men 
and their wives, of whom, four were 
to be located in the nei^hhorliood of 
Monrovia, the oilier two at Capt 
Pal mas. 

In order to present Liberia as ii 
appears to an intelligent, disinterest- 
ed person, we cite an extract from 
the ''Journal ofan ,']frican Cruiser,''^ 
abook which was published last sum- 
mer, wfiiten by an officer in our 
navy, who was on board one of our 
men-of-war during her cruise on tlw 
western roast of Africa. He visit- 
ed, repeatedly, the various settle- 
ments : saw whatever could be seen: 
and heard whatever could bo heard ; 
and was well prepared to give an 
unbiassed opinion of all, as will be 
seen from the following extract from 
the prefricr' : — 

" A ««'" liiit not iinacqu.nr 

with lh« - iiori« of oiir ovM^ 

oth. I 
« • 
wit.'. 
far , 



• ' A > • and what 

!. With 
It-ast lio|id 
; .u ••ntire- 

• noi eue- 
' <>t tins iiili-ii->liii^ culuny." 

i'lie following is the concluston of 
what he has to say of Liberia, the 
summing up of his opinion from the 
facts before him : — 

" It is now fuurtei>n months since oar 

.till. iir«t viiiiioii Munruvia. Within that 

r.- has biM-n a ver^- peicepiible im- 

; ill its cuiiditiuii. 

• ri;i liiiuses are in b«'ttor repair; the 

;anlcn« iindor sutK-ri >r cultivation. Thtre 

' . I . . . I. ... ...I \^llich have 

More 

- tlu'ir pt>ri, 

briii^iiij; i;uu«i!i liitiit-r, ami crv<itiiit( a uiar- 

k"t tor tlif coiniuodities. live stock and 

- of llic coluiii>Ui. An iucrcoS'-d 

iiioiiey in in circulation ; and the 

;> find that they can dispo«e of 

ilic proiliicts oi their industry for .sotiit-tliin;; 
lirttiT than the cloth and tubarco wliicn 
lliey were Ibruierly obliged to take in pay- 
iiii-iit. Tlie squadron of United States 
iin-ti-of-war, if it do no other good, will at 
Itasl have an ensential .share in proiiioiing 
the piosperity of Libeiia. AHer having 
s*-(>ii much, and retlccted upon the subject 
even to weariness. I write lif.wn my opin- 
ion, that Liberia h i 'd, and is 
dculined to increase . That it 

■■ ■' ' •' '■ ■" • • (■ •:» the 

• [wr- 

M ■••. ar« 

'fill tupUc<;a just ea- 

even to comprehend 

lint they are gener- 

re>pec« ; and lliere is 

iiteriiiixture of intelli- 

!;*-tit, eiileiprisng and sagacious men, to 

give tlie iiroper tone to the colony, and in- 

oiiri- iti ultimate success. Tlie great hope, 

liokM'Nrr. i<i in the i;eneralion tliat will tol- 

.•^en ; 

., !o bw 

111 a lew yenri, plactf 

!<-!it enterprise in th« 

iir .\frica. 

• \periment 
. . ; the ability 

port and »e|fgo. 

. trn-d, Mv be- 

1^ liiiu 111 4 trt\oi.tlilu retiilt. Alean- 

it would be Winer in the rolonization 

' It. to 

,.ng- 



; 1 l;.;iiol.ilit. 


|1 tim.iti- on : 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



23 



Invaluable testimony in favor of Liberia— Sentiments of Colonists. 



Unquestionably, it is a better country than 
America ibr the colored race. But they 
will find it very far from a jjaradise. IMen 
who expect to become indcjiendent and 
respectable, can only achieve their object 
here on the same terras as every where 
else. They must cultivate their minds, be 
willing to exert themselves, and not look 
for too easy or too rapid rise of fortune. 
One thing is certain. I'eople ol' color have 
here their fair position in the comparative 
scale of mankind. Tl:e white man who 
visits Liberia, be he of what rank he 
may, and however imbued with the preju- 
dice of home, associates with the colonists 
on terms of equality. This would be im- 
possible (speaking not of individuals, but 
of the general intercourse between the two 
races,) in the United States. The colo- 
nist feels his advantage in this respect, 
and reckons it of greater weight in the bal- 
ance than all the hardships to which he is 
obliged to submit, in an unwanted climate, 
and a strange country. He is reclaimed 
from ages of degradation and rises to the 
erect stature of humanity. On this soil, 
sun-parched though, he gives the laws ; and 
the white men must obey them. In tiiis 

f)oint of view — as restoringto him hislong- 
ost birth-right of equality, Liberia may in- 
deed be called the black man's paradise. 
It is difficult to lay too great stress on the 
above considerations. When the white 
man sets his foot on the shore of Africa, he 
finds it necessary to throw off' his former 
prejudices. For my own part, I have 
dined at the tables of many colored men in 
Liberia, have entertained them on ship- 
board, worshipped with them at church, j 
■walked, rode, and associated with them, as | 
equal with equal, if not as friend with 
friend. Were I to meet those men in my 
own town, and among my own rjlafions, 
I would treat them kindly and hospitably, 
as they have treated me. My poiilion 
would give me confidence to do so. But f 
in another city, v\'here I might be known 
to few, should I follow the dictates of my 
head and heart, and there treat these color- 
ed men as brethren and equals, it would 
imjily the exercise of greater moral courage ; 
than I have ever been aware of possessing. 
This is sad; but it shows forcibly what the 
colored race have to struggle against in 
America, and how vast an advantage is 
gained by removing to another soil." 

This testimony we consider in- 
valuable. In view of it, who can 
doubt that the experiment of African 
colonization has been successful } 
Who is not convinced that when all 
the facts in the case are seen, and 



all the circumstances are considered, 
there is every reasonable ground of 
encouragement in regard to the ulti- 
mate success of the enterprise, and 
the incalculable good to the colored 
race every where, which will accrue 
from it? 

These views, we believe, are en- 
tertained by the great body of the 
citizens of Liberia. The editor of 
Africa's Luminary, .a colored man, 
makes the following judicious re- 
marks on the subject: — • 

" Without any particular advocacy of 
either the system or measures which the 
American Colonization Society has ap- 
proved of, we assert, in the iace of its 
friends and foes, that it has solved some 
important problems, the truth of which, 
but for this efibrt for our good, must have 
remained doubtful for centuries to come. 

" In the first place, it has demonstrated 
tliat the people of color immigrating to the 
American colony of Liberia, with the usual 
success attendant upon industry, can be, 
not only //•<?<•', in all the meaning which that 
significant word embraces, but happij to the 
same extent of meaning. It has demon- 
strated that we onlyrequire ])ecuniary pow- 
er to })lace our various interests upon the 
footing of which they are obviously capa- 
ble, and we need envy no man or nation of 
! men on earth. We do not envy them now. 
" In the second place, it has demonstra- 
ted, we think with sufficient conclusiveness, 
that the colored race, in common with other 
races of the same Creator's forming hand, 
possesses the faculty of self govennnent. 

" Theory and speculation have contest- 
ed this point with great diversity of object 
in view, and with various decrees ofsuccess- 
ful argumentation; but it has remained for 
the American Colonization Society, in the 
nineteenth century, to give tothenalions 
of the earth a practical demonstration. 

" Third. It has demonstrated, in the great 
mortality of the whites, their admissions 
on this subject, and the success with which 
the labors of colored men have been at- 
tended — moral and intellectual qualifica- 
tions being supposed — that the colored race 
is the proper medium through which to 
convert the swarming posterity of their 
ancestors. 

" Fourth. It has demonstrated, with the 
clearness of a sun-beam, that an Ameri- 
can colony is a most effectnal antidote 
against either domestic or foreign slavery^ 



I UNUATIOM SOCIKTV. 



UnuWi iklrrirr 



•ul, 



I aiKjuMlada im UWfte. 



ail' 
d. 
U> 
d< 

•titution will 

d.- 

u. 

a 

A<. 
0. 

\v 

e-j 
u 

t'l 

I'' 
I). 
Ill 

it.' 

V. 

|}:. 

Hi 



rt. 

whnt moiT tntiiral than 

\ i\u in- 

utal in 



l)V tt)«*ir over- 
a )r\ . I b'lt littlr- 



every tnan bring u man aniont; tiiti leUuws, 
an'!, t'.liovo all, oiir »'X[>t>rtntir»ii, at «;om'' 
fi.' '. ■ ' • 

V ■ . 

.1 1 

»■ . . <» a ptcultar 

f, I inrn. Hut 

nioif lluiii il.if. iIk' iiuuiaii iniml is con- 
fc»ti-itlv a iniit, liut itlill divisible, in men- 
t..' ' ' ' ' ■ ■ ■ ' 



r 

ficalionn <ue iXH|ijirtil, Mitli uriiil/y 
iiM-«-i "f a l<«-<>tiuiliv«' Why ' 
tl, ■ ■ 



b. 



'' ' .V ins; Ibat, \n' ..e 

>M?>,'*«-il in " 

, . 'I' 'Ik- Wa_v , ,.,.v^:j 

11 ol virtii . '11 not bein^ o|K'n to 

I u*. \v< Iv (ii ) not have, ;uiil 

II c< .in»l iiui>n)v- 
ii.. Imp! \\liicli 
' 11 with till- 

. :..ition. Nut 

, , !i in it-, chur- 

'•■r, but \vc lidte iiicUemcnU to at lea>t 

• rit:il iifl'l JK'litiral isrtivjtv wIllcU We 

to ihi' same 

■ ria. Kvery 

: ..... ' ... blame us if 

honif .' \Vill they ridicule 

. M eitiier unnatural or incun- 

tii.l. Wbik- we i>ay to all, without the 

-t fe^lini; of animosity, *' enjoy your 

." Iiavi- we not a li^^it to llie 

iicc from tlio<>e who think 

, . ._ ...l-r from us r We ihiuk we 

nave." 

' The only cause oi' disquietude or 
alarm which has existed in connc^ 
'I'lii with LinERiA, has been the old 
uilUcuhics with the British Govern- 

\> ment ; originating in the seizure by 
'n- collector of Hassa Cove of ccr- 
.1111 goods valued at about .^300, 

' which had been landed by a Dritisii 
subject, in violation of the revenue 
I.1WS of the comraonwcalth. 
.Scvenil years at^^, an J aflcr the coio- 

. Ii.id i.iiirli.i^. ll ill.' ..iii.i I m.- inri.^dictioU 

a ci\il 

.irlioAcd 

l.)iiii^, a lirili-tb 

tluTc. and refuHed 

' •' ' wsofthe 

of the 

bo Htill 

; to |i.iy lliu iiulic«, liiu goodd Were 

|>;iy tiu-ni. 

il< iiKMi rom|)laincd t ' i ,' . imncnt; 

i r.ijit Deinnan, tlie ; ikUt of 

'*'"'-•' ''•:■! "liDn >.. Lsi, wan 

luajid indiMiinily of tliu 
. on tbr ifniund, "that 
1 matnlained by Brititk 
V fminli, and thai for a 



•I •l<j;fi-c "I l(il< lb ' I'lal uiij'lu. 

v*. inakr lhr«e rrmafki for the |>iii 



.ry 

>re 

iiu'l i>l(il>li>h fitc- 
iitfi by (I BnUth 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



25 



Correspondence of Mr. Fox, Mr. Upshur/ lie. 



To this Gov. Roberts replied in sub- 
stance, tliat Cupt. Drins^ was 7iot the person 
who had purchased the right to establish 
factories and trade with tlie natives — and 
that there was no evidence that this pur- 
chase, or the benefits of it, had been in any 
manner transferred to hijn, and that he was 
therefore entirely without excuse for violat- 
ing the revenue laws of Liberia. 

He also proved, in a manner that 
was considered conclusive, that the 
commonwealth of Liberia had pur- 
chased the territory itself, including 
right of soil and jurisdiction, prior to 
any contract with the native chiefs 
made by any British subject. Indeed 
it was asserted that there was no 
proof that Captain Spence, or any 
other British subject, had ever pur- 
chased Grand Bassa Point, or any 
part of the Bassa country, and Com- 
mandant Denman and Captain Oake, 
of the British Navy, were both chal- 
lenged to produce any documents to 
prove the fact. And they were 
never able to do it ! Under this 
view of the subject, the Governor 
very properly refused to grant any 
redress for the goods seized and sold 
to pay duties. 

In this positit»n the matter for 
some time rested ; and it was hoped 
that no farther difficulties would 
grow out of it. 

Soon after, however, as it 
seems from the letter of Capt. Oake, 
" it was submitted to the considera- 
tion of Her Majesty's Government." 

Full statements of all the facts in 
the case were also laid before Mr. 
Fox, while he was British minister, 
together with a correct exhibit of the 
relations of Liberia to this country 
and to the American Colonization 



Society, and of the extent of territo- 
ry owned by it on the African coast. 

The next thing heard on the sub- 
ject was in a letter of Lord Aber- 
deen to Mr. Everett, in which are 
these significant words: "Her Ma- 
jesty's naval commanders afford ef- 
ficient protection to British trade 
against improper assumption of 
power on the part of the Liberian 
authorities.''^ 

The inquiry immediately occurred, 
when or where have the Liberians 
assumed power which did not right- 
fully belong to them ? In no instance 
did they even attempt to restrict 
British commerce except according to 
laivs regularly established by the 
colonial council, sanctioned and ap- 
proved by the American Coloniza- 
tion Society. — And never did they at- 
tempt to extend these laws over any 
territory except that which they 
owned, and for which they could 
show a good and sufficient title ! 

And yet Mr. Fox, in his despatch to 
Mr. Upshur, charges them with 
showing a disposition to enlarge 
very considerably the limits of their 
territory ; assuming, to all appear- 
ances quite unjustifiably, the right of 
monopolizing the trade with the na- 
tive inhabitants along a considerable 
line of coast, where the trade had 
hitherto been free ; and thus " in- 
juriously interfering with the com- 
merce, interest, and ptcrsuits of Brit- 
ish subjects in that quarter. " 

To this Mr Upshur replied : — 
" It is believed that the colony has ad- 
vanced no claims which ought not to be al - 



ANNUAL KtfORT OF THK AMUUCAN COLONIZATION SOCICTT. 
UWrte mtt • eatMy af Ih* Uaitt4 Xitw - UrilMi lfwl«t« iaHnteiti ■•( to pay 4«Mm. 



AiiC«. 

••It i* rot prrrrivril that anv nitioncait 
h«v. ,t ihii fi-\- 

X\n: the limib 

of.' 
rrq 
Her 

•o far OS 1 am i 
piirc^a*^ from • 
act. 



Jtle- 
' ont 

it is 



in lUiitrliviaiiii;; liic luiiutltuti ul Alrtcaii 
•lav^«, will 1h- wiirtli vciv little, if thry 
•hot;' ill anyone 

of t' icf, it is 

hopi ;....... ■. i, witliout 

denying to Liberia powr* »o nece9<«ary to 
the »aKty, tli<> prusperilv, and the utility 
of that settlement a5 a philanthropic estab- 
lishment." 

In ilie conclusion of his despatch, 

Mr. Fox had said: — 

" It i« not for a moment supposed that the 
United States (iov<rinnent woiiKI, either 
directly or indirectly, sanction snrh pro- 
ceedin?*; h'lt, in ra"«* ofit< b'-rorninc^ ne- 
' -uch 

! vetv 



to avert eausm of i 


con- 


tentioii. 11. .1' M. r .; 


M tit 


•ho . 




ofl 




on fi 


' ' ' r, 


if It.. •. 


' .III- 


ltt)l . ! 


,1 ,. 


to ! 




ben. 




to may ui^j.fi. it. " 




To which .Mr. Upshur ro 


.li.d :— 


"This Government does not, ' 




onjirtnkc To «.t'l.- .,;,,! ., ?;,|vr 




whr 




•nd • 




thorj 




•od 




•up|. .• . . 




In any act ol injustico u>\\ 




or nsfif^m It;:!, a< I';--, 






>.!ur llic 


i,.. 


1 the jus- 




ts enter. 


lAier 


lit tJX'di- 



' ul liif t litltti ^idtuik. It ts <iue to Her Ma- 

I jesly's fiovernment that I f*hr»«d<l inform 

. ' * ' ' ■ l-. it as oc- 

- jvjssess- 

.\ coiisider- 

ol all C hnilian powers; that Ihis so- 

1' :it will be, at all timet, yrrjtartd i0 

til pood officrn to prrrent anif 

• nt bti the (olonu vpon any j'utt 

...... ..1.1... ' ' I ,- ^.ffy 

'ory, 
■ lined 
rjriLne vj lit ntcri^ury rtfihtt and 
t at an independent settlement." 

Here it seems all correspondence 
ceased. It is probable tlie British 
Government had obtained all the in- 
formation they desired — viz : that 
.i Liberia iras not a colom/ of the 
United Stales Government. 

Soon after this the matter wa» 
again brought before the colonial 
authorities in a letter addressed by 
Commandant Jones, of Her nriiaiinic 
.Majesty's ship Penelope, dated Sep- 
tember 9, 1814, in which he denies 
the rifjht of the commonwealth of 
Liberia to exercise any of the pow- 
ers appertaining to a sovereipn in- 
dependent stale; tlenics that it has 
any authority to exercise jurisdic- 
tion over its own territory. If we 
may credit British traders, on the 
coast, this doctrine was nulhori- 
mtivcly promul^ted amonir them 
whortly afterward. A captain of a 
iradiof^ vessel told the collector that* 
they were instructed not to pay ihe 
duties. And acconlinjjly, Captain 
Davidson, of the Knglish schooner 
*»LilUc Ben," arrived at Bassa Core, 
landed poods, and refused to pay the 
hnrbor dues, and nssiirncd as the 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



27 



The John Seys seized — Considered as a gfross outrage. 



reason, that Commandant Jones had 
notified the British traders that such 
charges were illegal, and should be 
resisted, and that the squadron under 
his authoiity was ready to protect 
them in their resistance. The col- 
lector seized goods of his, enough to 
pay the duties. He left, as he said, 
to report the case to Commander 
Jones. 

A day or two after, the British 
tnan-of-war "Lily" came into the 
harbor and took possession of the 
colonial schooner "John Seys," 
■belonging to Stephen A. Benson, 
having on board a cargo of trade 
■goods valued at about $5,000, and 
ready to proceed on a trading voy- 
age to the leeward the following 
tlay. The captors refused to allow 
the captain to come on board, and 
■when he made the attempt, they 
levelled their muskets at him and 
compelled him to desist. They of- 
fered no explanation of their con- 
duct, and refused to hear any thing 
in regard to the character of the 
•schooner. 

There was every thing in the cir- 
cumstances to induce the belief that 
the vessel was taken as a reprisal 
for the goods seized by the collec- 
tor, and sold to fulfill the require- 
ments of the law. There are but 
two other suppositions possible in 
the case ; one of which is, that they 
suspected the " John Seys" of being 
engaged in the slave trade. This 
however is perfectly improbable and 
untenable. There was no reason in 
the world for such a suspicion. 



Every body knew the John Seys as 
a regular lawful trader along the 
coast ; she had nothing on board at 
the time which could be possibly 
construed as proof that she was a 
slaver. And in addition to this, her 
captors did notact as they always do 
when they suspect a vessel ; they 
made no search of her, they insti- 
tuted no enquiry about her, but 
seized and carried her off. They 
could not, and did not, then, take her 
on this ground. 

The only other supposible ground 
for this outrage is, that it was intend- 
ed to lest the disposition and abili- 
ty of Liberia to sustain itself. So 
long as it was supposed to be pro- 
tected by the strong arm of this 
country, no attempt was made to 
interfere with its rights and privi- 
leges, although there was the very 
same reasons existing then as now. 
But the moment it is known that the 
Liberians must look to God alone for 
support, an order is sent out by the 
British Secretary of State for foreign 
affairs, directing that no port charges, 
light duty, or tariff, shall be paid by 
British vessels in any port of Libe- 
ria. It is not to be treated with as 
much respect and consideration, as 
the native savage tribes along the 
coast. A British officer, by authority 
of instructions from home, informs 
them that they are not an acknow- 
ledged nation ; therefore, have no 
right to navigate the ocean, and that 
even along their own shores, their 
flag will not be respected ! A ves- 
sel belonging to one of the colonists 



28 A.flfVAL RCrOBT OF THE AMERICAN CXILONIZATION 0OCIKTY. 

ia wiied while lyin^ id one of their]] taken, she had on board two good 

own port*, tnd rarricd off n- 'horf, with chain cables ! 

prize! Ir. Bimimuii declined litis propo- 

In this view, this tmnsnciion |! sal of the court, and determined 
seems like a prt^mediinieii exercise . not to submit to such injustice. Of 
of inhumanity, injuiitice and oppres- , course, the vessel would be sold to 
sion. While it was iiuppoved that 'I pay the charges, and with the eargo, 
Liberia was a rolomj or a^mey of'' would be a total loss of from ten to 
the United Staler, no attempt was twelve ihoosund dollars to the owner ! 
ever made to interfere with their j I'nder these circumstances, the 
trading voyages. The stripes and (juestion has verjf naturally arisen, 
erou vieti: as well known along the what method can be.'<t be devi(«ed to 
whole coast from Goree to Cape Hpciire Liberia from like interference 
Palmas, as were the stripes and slars, in the future ? 
und were always as much respected. ^f- Hodgkin, of Loudon, an emi- 

But it is not so now. The John i^^nt philanthropist, and a fast friend 
Seys was carried to Sierra Leone i, of Liberia, in a letter addressed to 
and there entered for adjudication , ihe Secretary, makes the following 
in the Vice Admiralty's Court, on i ""emark-s : "This untoward circum- 
the charge of being engaged in the 1 stance (the seizure of the ' John 
slave trade. But the charge could Seys') must not be contemplaleil as 
not be sustained; tliere was not tlje J anisolaud fact^but must be consider- 
shadow of proof against her. The |! c<' '" conneclion with occurrenceg 
officer who captured her, committed ' atUectdcnt und snbscqxicnt to U.'* 
suicide by cutting his throat, in con- 1 ^^^ further on lakes the ground sub- 
sequence, as it is said, of chagrin, I "t^'H'-JlVi »l»^l '^ic only way to pre- 
caUBcd by the unenvi»blc circuni- ^*'"* *"'^'' '"'^''■fcrence with tlio af- 
sunccs in which he had placed him- 'l '""'"' "•" I'i''t'r«n h' Hritish vessels is 
self. After adelayof more than three '] *" obuiin from England an acknow- 
»«on//u, the case was decided and the' '<'*^»f'n<'"* '*f *'»c independence of 
vessel was cleared; and .Mr. Uenson, i; I'll't'^a : >l>:»i >l»»'y are obliged to act 
the owner, was informed that he could ^'» *''*^ maxim of the lawyers—" J)e 
hove his vessel only on condition ""'» apparcntibtu et non existenti. 
that hr would pat/ the emit of the ^"' c»devi est lex.'" 
ndjudicalion, amounting to about From the letter <»f (vom. Jones, it 
•14200. Such a decision we presume | is clear tliai Uic only remedy for the 
wan never hefore heard of? One j evils of the present controversies 



Item in the long list of rosts^ is a 
charge of $1 /lO a day for the hire of 
.-in anchor, for 9i) ilayw, notwiih- 

flaiidiiii^. \\)iL-ii till -ilifiMii. r %i >- 



with the Itritinh, is to be secured by 
the prosecution on ilio part of the 
government of Liberia, »)f wise and 
vigorous measures to obtain from 



ANNUAL RKPORT OF THE \MERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIKTY, 



29 



Liberia has claims to peciiHar regard — Relations to the American Colonization Society, 



England and other countries a full 
recognition of all its rights and privi- 
leges as a free and independent 
sovereignty. 

The claim which Liberia has to 
sovereign rights and authority is 
based on the fact that they are a 
community living on their own soil, 
owing allegiance to no other power 
or government under heaven, no oth- 
er nation having, or claiming to ex- 
ercise any government over them ; 
and being themselves a political body, 
well organized, with good laws, tri- 
bunals of justice, all sanctioned by 
the legitimate authority and recog- 
nized institutions of Christianity. 
Thus situated they claim, from the 
obvious necessity, as well as the 
propriety of the case, the rights of 
self government, and demand, as an 
act of simple justice from all other 
nations, " /o he let alone T"* 

They are a few true and noble 
men who have planted themselves 
there, with the hope of doing some- 
thing for the elevation of their long 
oppressed race. They have met 
with great difficulties — have had to 
struggle against a thousand adverse 
influences, and yet they have been 
undismayed. ■ They have risen to 
somewhat of importance — have es- 
tablished all the forms of govern- 
ment, and have done much for the 
welfare of themselves and their kin- 
dred. They have formed and sup- 
ported Christian missions among the 
natives, after having suppressed the 
slave trade for several hundreds of 
miles along the coast ! They may 



thus be said to constitute the last 
hope of their race. If they cannot 
succeed, no human sagacity can de- 
vise any means for their moral and 
intellectual elevation! 

Such is the appeal which they 
make to the sympathy of the civi- 
lized world ! In view of it, we 
trust that every thing which is pos- 
sible, will be done to continue their 
internal prosperity, by guarantee- 
ing their external peace : and that a 
little reflection on the part of any who 
may have wronged them, will pro- 
duce a salutary change of conduct 
and a happy recognition of their 
righteous authority. 

It has been thought that the rela- 
tion existing between Liberia and 
the American Colonization Society, 
imposed an insuperable barrier to 
the recognition, by any other go- 
vernment, of her independence. 
This is plainly intimated by Com. 
Jones. It is also inferred from the 
conversation of British officers with 
the Liberian authorities. Gov. Ro- 
berts remarks : — 

"In conversation with Capt. Buckle, 
I endeavored to draw from him some ex- 
pression that would give me some idea 
of the real object and intentions of the 
British government in respect to these co- 
lonies. He, however, was very guarded 
in his remarks — in fact told me he was 
not authorized to enter upon any discus- 
sion of the subject. He, however, gave 
me to understand that his Government icould 
not, so long as the colony remained depen- 
dent or subject to the Colonization Socielij, 
relinquisli one foot of tlic ground assumed by 
Commander Jones." 

Under these circumstances, it be- 
comes necessary to consider the pro- 
priety of changing this relation, and 
thus removing every shadow of con- 



30 



A.^.^lAL RCrORT OP THK AMUUCAN COLUl«UE4TiOI« tOCIBTT. 



Utevtt oHtm^i "" !" I>»— UrtrMfan l Mlity of iuow On tt t—w t. 



•titutional objection, and every appa- 
rent gruiini) uf complaint. 

It is well known that from the first 
organization of this Society, it has 
been a selili-d policy to place the co- 
lored man in circumstances the most 
conducive to the development of his 
natural faculties, and the elevation of 
his character; to invest him with 
all Uie responsibiliticB and immuni- 
ties of his government and the main- 
tenance of tlie iojititutions of reli- 
gion and education : and finally, tcv 
place him upon an equality with 
llie moM favored povernmrnts of the 
earth. 

The Soneiy lias rctamcd the 
power of appointing the Governor, 
but the Lieutenant Governor has been 
elected by the citizens of the com- 
raonwealth, together wiih all the oth- 
er ofiicers. The Society has also 
retained a vrfo power, «»vor the nets 
of the Colonial Le^nslalure, but for 
years past, has not exercised it, in u 
single instance. 

The legislature has from time to 
time enacted whatever laws they 
thought necessary to the welfare of 
the commonwealth ; their laws am 
iheir own — the offspringof theirown 
judgment and discretion ; their gov- 
ernment is Bubttantially ihcir own, 
and Uiey have shown themselves 
competent to its stability and pcrpe- 

luity* i( ihfV ran onlv lie lift to 



I the exercise of their rights and privi- 
leges without molestation or inter- 
ferenco from any external power, 
or incidental cause. 
J It has always been the intention 
I uf the friends of colonization to 
place in tlie hands of the citizens of 
l«iberia, the entire responsibility of 
their own government, at such time 
as it seemed prudent to do so, or 
when circumstances demanded it.* 

Ill the opinion of the majority of 
the citiz(na of Liberia, this lime has 
now come. 

The subject was brought before 
the legislature of the commonwenlih 
at their last session, by the message 
of Governor Roberts. After much 
deliberation, a preamble and resolu- 
tions were adoptetl, and a committee 
appointed to communicate them to 
the Hoard of Directors of the Ameri- 
can Colonization Society, with a full 
statement of their views. From 
them the following letter has been 
received, inclosing the resolutions 
accompanying : — 

"MOXBOVTA, 

January lHUi, 1845. 

" 7') Ihf Hoard of Matnigtn oj the J. C. S. 

'• ('ivTi rMfN — We, t''riitifVr<i'rt»rd,ap- 

-sion 
■I. of 
vital 
r at- 
ition 

1 \v<» owf to 



i.^, ^i^U i.u\C 



•I 
hU. 

1M23 



•)■ tlic Ani' 



nt of the 
. .2a.Mny, 



".irt. 2. 'rh<* Coloniialinn Sociriy »hall, from lime to liinc. make »uch rulci at the^ 
■ay Ihiok fit for lJ»o KOvrmmenl of tht MtllemiKit, until \\\^y ahall withdraw their 
afvnta, and Uain Uu ttttlert to the Gormmenl uf IJumMlret" 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



31 



Action o( Legislature of Liberia on their sovereignty. 



cheerfully mnde for us — how you have with 
more than paternal solicitude watched over 
our interests, and at tlie same time regard 
the sentiments of deep gratitude and pro- 
found respect which agitate and swell our 
bosom, we feel confident that in laying our 
case before you we shall ohtaiii more than 
ordinary sympathy and regard. 

" We cannot easily conceive of any thing 
^ which would be more painl'ul to our feel- 
ings than the knowledge of a suspicion en- 
tertained by you from whom we have re- 
ceived so much, and to whom we owe a 
debt of gratitude we can never cancel, that 
we entertain for you any sentiments but 
those of profound respect and unshaken 
confidence of a grateful heart in a triod 
benefactor, which emboldens our communi- 
cation. The subject we have been charged 
to bring before you, is th? claims which 
British traders tiave set up to points of 
coast included in our purchased territory. 
While these claims were urged by these in- 
dividual traders only, we were not disposed 
to attach much importance to them. We 
supposed 'hat no argument could be urged 
in favor of an individual claim that would 
not be good in favor of ours, and that even 
denying us national character and attri- 
butes, still, in a contest with an individual, 
'priority of claim must decide. But by a 
political metamorphosis the nature of liie 
oispute is sought to be entirely altered. 
The British Government has taken the 
place of these individuals, and having thus 
changed the character of one of the claim- 
ants, proceeds to deny to us the right to ex- 
ercise aiitiiority in any degree affecting the 
interests of British traders, by declaring 
we have no sovereign and independent 
authority. We confess that this determi- 
nation on the part of the British people has 
caused us great disquietude and alarm, see- 
ing that this argument carried out to its 
consequences, would deprive us of the 
right of even self defence in any and every 
part of this our last asylum. 

" If we were able to argue this grave 
question, trusting, as we most sincerely do, 
to your known and tried interest in our 
welfare, and your ability to grasp it in all 
its results ; we would still think it but a 
tribute of that respect and deference which 
is due from us to you, to refer at once the 
matter to your consideration. 

"We therefore think itunnecessary to do 
more than lay before 3-ou, as the best expo- 
sition of the sentiments of the legislature, 
the resolutions, which after long and 
anxious deliberations were adopted at its 
present session. These resolutions we have 
the honor to enclose. 

" We need not say how anxiously we 

* fihall await your action upon this subject. 

We conceive it by far the most momentous 



question we were ever called upon to de- 
liberate, and therefore sliall be prepared to 
enter with energy upon any course likely 
to avert the impending calamity which you 
may point out to us. 

" We have the honor to be. 

Gentlemen, your ob't serv'ts, 
IL^TEAGE, M. C, 
J. B. GRIPON, 
H. P DAVIS, 
LEWIS CIPLES." 

The following are the resolutions 

alluded to above: — 

"The committee having carefully and 
patiently examined the correspondence be- 
tween the executive officers of tiiis com- 
monwealth and the British naval officers on 
this coast, on the vexed subject of our ter- 
ritorial limits and political authority over 
the territory claimed by ris, and regarding^ 
it a question in which our very existence 
is involved, are of opinion that, as speedily 
as circumstances will admit, measures 
should be taken to have the question de- 
finitely and finally settled: and, 

" Whereas, T!i ■ British naval command- 
er on the western coast of Africa, Com- 
modore Jones, in a communication to the 
Governor of this commonwealth, has denied 
the right of the Auierican Colonization So- 
ciety to exercise authority in any degree 
afiiicting the interests of British traders, or 
even to acquire and hold territory on this 
coast, or to exercise any of the functions 
and rights usually exercised by sovereign 
and independent communities, and by pari- 
ty of reason has denied the rights to us who 
profess to act under authority derived fromi 
said Society ; nnd, 

" Whereas, The same process of reason- 
ing would not only wrest from our hands 
political jurisdiction over every part of our 
purchase, but also extinguish our claim to 
territory honorably purchased and paid for, 
.seeing we have no right to hold what we 
have no right to purchase ; and, 

" Whereas, It is a matter of demonstra- 
tion, that we cannot long continue to exist 
without not only territorial but absolute po- 
litical jurisdiction over a certain extent of 
country ; and, 

" Whereas, We have in common with 
the rest of the great family, of a common 
parfent, certain rights which cannot be im- 
paired but by conventional agreement : 
I " Resolved, That the present crisis im- 
1 peratively demands that we at once betake 
i ourselves to that position where we may 
urge those claims which, while they would 
i strictly accord with principles of a just de- 
mand, would also appeal to the sympathy 
j of the world. 
I "Resolved, Therefore, that a committee 



32 



.\"«?IUA1. Kf.f 



••<K AMSBJCAN COLOXIZATIOX SOclKTV 



K*a»rh* vfUut. Kukerto— rr 'jxnal (» all«r Um CoMlllMliaa of (Ik Aarrkaa CotuoiaUuu tiucirlj. 



off 

ol 

So. 
c«> 

•' LKWIS C1PLE8, 

Chairman of Com. of IVhot*." 

Gorenior Koberts, in tratisiniliing 
the al»<»%T liMUT and rewoluiions, 
adds 



■ly in seiiBiun ut the present time, 

1 eiit(age(l in iIh- >i,l. i.ii.n, «.(" 

> 8ubjeci. 

A |ir0[>O6iuuu ha8 l>«.fii duly tsub- 
mitted to the various Slate SucietieK 
liy the Massarhusetts Society 80 to 
alter the co.nstiti'TIO.v of the Ameri- 
can C<»i.oMZATioN Society as to 



th., 

ti.' 

of 

the luiui 
pie of ft 



■ I Die jKt>- 



..Th^ l^ri^lMMr^ ronM.m*.^ m.irh of '•"«'^'« »'»« l^"»fJ of Directors to 

mjje, in kou^c ini|>orlaiil respocijj, 
rchitiiMiK whirli Liberia now aus- 
:is to the Satiety, and to transfer 
llif entire respon«iliility of ihi-ir own 
!i«s not ra- poverninenl to the citizens thereof. 
The preceding statement of facta 
will he Buiricient to briiiir llie case 
fairly and fully before the Hoard of 
Directors and the friends of the 
cause in this country. They em- 
brace a complete history of all the 
diHicullies which have uriseu in con- 
l' iin- nection with the Icjjislation of Libe- 
ria in re^rard to their commerce with 
other nations. In view of them llic 
Boanl, and the friends of tlie cause 
LTcijcrally, who arc interested in the 
jiosal of this vexed question, will 
lie able to arrive at satisfactory con- 
clusions, and adopt huch measures 

iiic receipt of your let. a* «''«'• '^"^ ^'^ ^'»e enlarged opera- 

'■ '■ ' us of the Society in this country, 

■1 to the |)eacc, permanency and 

; pincss of ilie coroiuon wealth of 

I ''cria. 

Slionld mea«urc8 be adopted to 

< c liiberia in a position of cDlirc 

i-<lcpendence and self-povernment, 

: . IS believed lh:it no serious evils 

The aboTc is the la«t intelligence j! will result from it, but on the con- 

which wc have received from Libe-'l trary, tliat it wdl add stronptl) to all 

ria The legulature tlicreof is pro- '■ tlie virtuou.-* eutotious which now 



'1 <ii8 adopted at the 

last moetiog of tiie Board of Direc- 
tors, in rri»^ard to this subject, were 
sent to Clovernor Roberts. On the 
2d of October last, he wrote in re- 
ply:— 

"The «tib»r»ct, fir. i* on«' of vifnl import 
aiK • 
nor' ■'•* of 

E' 

criL.' ' . . . ■ 

people. 111 i;ciiur<tl, aik aMdrc ui i\x tin- 

portsnr" ann will nnt «»nt'T upon I'm «iih- 



Of 1 1 

of 

to 



ANNUAL REPORT OK THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 
Concluding remarks. 



33 



they feel, and new power to the 
motives which tend to lilt them up 
in the scale of humanity. Errors in 
legislation they may commit ; mis- 
taken courses of policy they may 
adopt. But age and experience will 
correct them all. The tiny hand of 
infancy may be unable to bend the 
bow of Ulysses, but strength will 
come as years roll by, and ultimate- 
ly, and by almost imperceptible ad- 
vances, he shall si and forth in the 
vigor and glory of ripened manhood ! 
In the past career of its success, Li- 
beria has indeed outstripped the most 
sanguine anticipations of its friends. 
In its future progress, who shall at- 
tempt to limit its influence, or to set 
bounds to the tide of civilization and 
Christian liberty which shall from 
it flow onward and flow ever! 
Through its agency, Africa shall re- 
generate herself, by her own sons 
returned, from their long exile, to 
her bosom. " The wilderness shall 
be glad for them, and the desert shall 
rejoice and blossom as the rose : it 
shall blossom abundantly, and re- 
joice even with joy and singing ! 
The glory of Lebanon shall be given 
unto it, and the excellency of Car- 
mel and Sharon." 

The magnitude and grandeur of 
such an enterprise cannot be over- 
estimated. It embraces the destiny 
of many millions of the present in- 
habitants of our globe, with their 
descendants for many generations to 
come ! 

Much praise is due to the brave 
and heroic colored men, who, inspir- 



ed with a desire to enjoy the full 
blessings of liberty, left the land of 
their birlh and early associations, 
and went forth to try the experiment 
of planting themselves in the most 
barbarous quarter of the globe. 
They embarked in a great under- 
taking, at the peril of life. Many of 
them never lived to see the fruits of 
their labors. But, 

" Altlio' no sculptured form should deck the place, 
Or marble monument their ashes grace, 
sun for the deeds of worth, which they have done, 
Sliall flowers uufading flourish o'er tlieir tomb." 

On those who still survive, rests 
an immeasurable responsibility. If 
Liberia is still to live and rise to a 
glorious nationality, they must rely 
mainly on their own awakened ener- 
gy, their indomitable courage and 
perseverance, their industry and 
economy, and their trust in God. 
They must do for themselves, what 
no body else can do for them. They 
must accomplish for others, a result 
unattainable in any other way. 
Millions of their brethren, now bound 
by slavery, and shrouded by super- 
stition, appeal to them for deliverance 
and salvation, to whose wondering 
eyes is to be exhibited the beautiful 
spectacle of towns erected, forests 
opened, temples of public worship 
built, schools established, and the 
superior advantages of that social 
and moral system, formed and mould- 
ed under the genius of our divine 
Christianity, spreading its healing wa- 
ters over the entire surface of society ! 

"Far off shall shine (he unextinguished ray, 
A mighty beacon, lighting glory '3 way, 
Wliose living lustre shall the world adorn. 
And bless and save to ages yet unborn." 



34 kSVVAL MKCTIMO OF THE AMUUCA.'V COLO.'VIZATIOM SOCtCTT. 



Crttarif from ibr JfxKtti'tntt of tkt tairnto-ninib iXnnual iBrrling of Ibr ^mrriran 

(iColoiiUation JSotUtQ. 



FlMT P«EtBTTCIIIA!f ClIORCH, !' 

Wasicixcto.k, 

January 20, IS 46. 

Tub American Colonization So- ;| 
ciety met a^eeably to aiijournmcnl I 
at 7 o'clock, in ihe First Presbyterinn 
Church. 

In ihe absence of tho Hon. li. , 
Clay, President, Gen. Walter Jones, 
a Vice President, took the Chair, and 
Rev. W. Mcf^ain acted as Secretary. 

The Rev. James Laurie, D. D.. in- 
voked the Divine blessing. 

Extract.s from the Anm'al Kr-PORT , 
of the Kxeciilive Committee were 
read by ihe Secretary, and on motion 
the Report was referred to the Board 
of Directors for their consideration, i 

The Hon. William F. Giles, of ' 
Baltimore, offered the following re- ' 
solution, which he accompanied 
with an eloquent address on the sub- 
ject: — 

Petolcfd. Tliat till- l)i-f,ffi<-i.i! iiif!i<'nccs. 
{wlitical, < 
Afiicaii ( 

liberal p.iiK ii.i^e ci tin 
every «I»«t«". 

The Hev. E.N.Sawtoll, of New 
York, offered and earnestly advoca- 
ted the following resolution : — i 

/^ 
tion I 

p«r1 "1 U;'- ' ' :• ; I HI. i,..,\ lu uin riniii- 
try, u writ tt» totliooc III Africa. 

The Rrv. John CliamberH, of Phila- 
delphia, olfered the folltiwing re«tilu- 
tioHt and delivered s fervid and im- 1 
pressive appeal in favor of the great 
prmciplen c»f eMlnniznliMn : — | 

HfuArtd, Tl. ; .rt 

uA itiittiutur} I on 

Afrira, wf ita clAiiu ju a lutiimut ul tut 



r. of 

ihi- 

ali'l t.'.i- "Ood 



tiiiiiii,' riirittain missions th^rr, on the 
llic prayers and lilxrraJiiy of 
in* and labor for the conversion 

oi III \M,(>lc worl !. 

These resolutions were all adopted 
and the Society adjourned to meet in 
the Colonization Rooms to-morrow, 
at 12 o'clock M. ('oncliided with 
prayer by the Rev. Dr. Maclean, of 
Princeton. 

COLO.MZATION RoOMS, 

January 21, 1846. 

The Society met agreeably to ad- 
journment, and elected the following 
officers : 

rRKSIDCVT : 

H05.HENRVCLAY. 

VICE PRIIKIDEXTS: 

1 John C. Herbert, of Mart-land, 

2 Geiiorul John il. C(Kkc, of Virginia, 

3 Daniel Wcbetor, of MaMjichuMlU, 

4 Charlet V. MiTrer, Florida, 

5 Hev. Jcreniiuli I).i_v, D. D., of Conn., 

6 Til. . ! r,- Irrlinstiuysen. of New York, 

7 I le, of Baltimore, 
ft N: I. of New York, 

9 (irnrr.il W, June*, of W'uitliington, 

10 JoM'pli Gales, of W'aiihinpton. 

1 1 Umhi liev. \\ in. .Mi-ttdc, U. D., Bishop 

of Viiciliiu, 
I" John ^t ' .'f Louikiana, 

13 (m-o. \ Liiliiv file, of France, 

11 Itrv. J.I I . - . t. ,11 in-v, ni«liop of tba 

M« l!ll».l|^^ I'pi.i-.ipal (.'liurcb, 
15 W'illinin Mnvui'li, ot \°iri;inia, 
in Kli.li.i \\ liitt!iM-v. of Ohio, 
17 NWiiier l.owrie, of .Vow York, 
IK Jnrob Hurnct, of Ohio, 
ID Juslitia DiiilinK. of New Hampchire, 
'.'0 Dr. Sirpbni Diinean, of Mi*iii««ippi, 
'i\ Willinni ('. Itivrn, of N'liuinia, 
"'i \u\. J. I.4urie. D. D., ot Wnikhinslon, 
'i'Ji Krv. Win. Winaiin, of MiwiKvipjii, 
24 Jnine* Boorman, of .\pw \ ork city, 
"b Urnry A. Fotlrr. nt .Now York, 
!iO Dr. John Ker, of .Mii>iiiit»ippi, 
U7 Hol>ert CainplteJI, of (irorgia, 
2H Peter D. Vr»K»in, of .New Jersey, 
"'J Jamm (tarl-^iid, of Virginia, 
no Rev. Tlioinaa Monia, Buhop of tha 

M. i:. Churcb. Ohio, 



PROCEEDi:VGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 



35 



Proceedings of tVie Board of Directors — Members present. 



31 Rt. Honorable Lord Bexloy, of London, 

32 Win. yiiort, of Philadelphia, 

33 Willard Hall, Delaware, 

34 Rt. Rftv. Bishop Otey, ofTcnn., 

35 Gerald Ralston, of London, 

36 Rev. Courtlarid Van Rensselaer, N J., 

37 Dr. Hodgkin, of London, 

38 Rev. E. Bur-ess, D. D., ofDedham, 

Massachusetts, 

39 Thos. R. H^izard, of Providence, R. I., 

40 Dr. Thos. Massie, of Tye River Mills, 

Virginia, 

4 1 Gen. Alexander Brown, of Virginia, 

42 Maj. (Jen. Winficld Scott, Washington, 

43 Rtv. Thos. E. Bond, D. D., N. York, 

44 Rev. A. Alexander, D. D., N. J., 
4.5 Samuel Wilkeson, of New York, 

46 L. Q. C. Elmer, of New Jersey^ 

47 James Railey, of Mississippi, 

48 Rev. Geo. W. Bethune, D.D.. ofPhila., 

49 Rev. C. C. Cuyler, D. D., of Phila., 
60 Elliot Cresson, Esq,, of Philadelphia, 



.51 Anson G. Phelps, Esq., New York, 

52 Rev. Leonard Woods, D. D., Andover, 

Massachusetts, 

53 Jonathan Hvde, Esq., Bath, Maine, 

54 Rev. J. P. Durbin, D. D., Carlisle, Pa., 

55 Rev. Beverly Waugh, Bishop of the 

M. E. Church, Baltimore, 

56 Rev. Dr. W. B. Johnson, S. C, 

57 Moses Shepherd, Baltimore, 

58 John Gray, Fredericksburg, Va., 

59 Bishop .Mcllvain, of Ohio, 

60 Rev. Dr. Edgar, Nashville, Tenn., 

61 Rev. P. Lindsley, D. D., do. 

62 Hon J. R. Underwood, Ky., 

63 Hon, J. W. Huntington, Conn., 

64 Hon. P. White, Putney, Vt., 

65 Hon. C. Marsh, Woodstock, Vt. 

After which the Society adjourned 
to meet on the third Tuesday of 
January, 1847. 



ProcccJiinga of tljc jjoavti of Jlircctoro 

Washington, 

January 20, 18 IG. 

Thk Board of Directors of the 
American Colonization Society met, 
according to appointment, at the Co- 
lonization Rooms, at 12 o'clock at 
noon. Present, from Fer/non/, Hon. 
P. W^liite, and Henry Stevens, Esq. — 
From Massachusetts, Rev. Joseph 
Tracy — From New Fork^ A. G. 
Phelps, Esq., and Dr. D. M. Reese — 
From A^ew Jersey, Rev. John Mac- 
lean, D. D. — From Pennsylvania, 
Paul T. Jones, and Archibald 
Mclntyre, Esqs. — Secretary and Di- 
rector for life, Rev. Wm. McLain — 
Of the Executive Committee, Rev. 
C. A. Davis. 

The Rev. Wm. McLain, Secretary 
of the Society, called the Board to 
order, and nominated the Rev. John 
Maclean, D. D., of New Jersey, as 
Chairman, and he was unanimously 



of ti)c iXmcriciin Colonisation .Soctcti). 

elected. The Rev. Joseph Tracy 
was chosen Clerk. 

The minutes of the last meeting 
were then read by the Secretary, and 
on motion, were approved. 

The proposal of the Massachusetts 
Colonization Society for the amend- 
ment of the constitution of this So- 
ciety was then taken up, and read 
by the Secretary. 

On motion of Dr. Reese, the 
amendments were referred to a com- 
mittee of three. Dr. Reese, Mr. Tra- 
cy and Mr. McLain were appointed. 

Mr. Jones, by direction of the 
Pennsylvania Society, submitted a 
paper signed H., which was referred 
to the committee on the constitution. 

Mr. Tracy moved that a commit- 
tee be appointed to consider the con- 
stitution of the commonwealth of 
Liberia, and its relations to this So- 
ciety. The motion was postponed 



36 



raocuiuiNGii o» the buaro ok uiaecToaa of the a. c. ». 



KWctkia vtttuttmy Mid Esacaiit* Co— in— T>i« r^kliomU lilwria to Um Soeicly. 



till ....^i ^ii reading o( ilu- Annual After the meeting of the Society, 
Repiirt. the Hoard again came to order, and 

Mr. .'oncj submitted riipies of let- pntri'i-ded to llie cliuice of olfirers 
lerJ from Dr. Ilodgkin. of Ix»ndon, i.ir ilie year ensuing. The foUow- 
which, on motion, were laid on the 
table. 

Adjourned to U a. m. to-morrow. 



ing were chosen, 

I'xEttTivE Committee; 



M sr. CLAIR CLARKE, Esq.. 
W. W. SKA T(».N. Esq., 
HAUVEV LLMJSLY. M. U., 
A. C). DAYTON. Esy.. 
Kkv. C. A. DAVLS. 
JDSEFH H. URAULKY. Esq . 
Rev. J. C. RACON, D. D. 



Secret AH V a.np Treasi'reb : 
Re#. WILLIAM McLAI.N. 
Messrs. Phelps and .loues wen 



Junuary 'Jl. 1S1(>. I 
Met at i> A. M. according to ad- 
journment, i 
The minutes uf tlie first (session 
were read. 

The Secretary read letters from 
the Uev. A. I>. Fxldy. H. 1).. »»pi)oint- ' ap|>oi!ited u committee to audit the 
ed Delegate from New Jersey ; S. Treasurer's account. 
Wilkeson, Esq., of Buffalo, New li The reading of the Annual Report 
York, and Commodore M. C I'erry, i was resumed. 

of the U. S. Navy. ]| On motion, Messrs. Ellsworth. 

The Hon. H. L. Ellsworth appear- ,' Reese, Tracy, McLain, and Stevens, 
ed and took his seat, as a Delegate were appointed a committee to con- 
from Intliana. ' sider and report upon the relations 

Dr. Reese, from the committee on \\ of llie commonwealili of Liberia to 
that subject, reported amendments to ; this Society. To this commillee, 
the constitution. j' the Chairman was added by vole of 

After reading article by article, du-j the Board, 
ring which sundry ameiidinenlrt were The subject of the old compro- 
adopled, Dr. Reese moved that the mised debls of Uie Society was 
•mended constitution be adopted as [I brought up by the Secretary, ami 
the constitution of this Society. ;' after some discussion, was laid on 

On motion of .Mr. Tracy, the mo- ilie table, 
tion was laid on tlic table for the I On motion of Dr. Reese, the sum of 
present. ' two thousand seven hundred and fifty 

The Annual Report of the Execu- I dollars was appropriated lor cxi)cMises 
tive Coromitteo w:is taken up, nnd l at this office for tlie year ensuing, 
niid by the .SecreUiry. Dr. Reese, from the committee to 

At I'J o'clock, the reading of the i| wliich the paper signed H. had bern 
report was discontinued, and the re- {J referred, reporU'd, that it be referred 
port was laid on the table till after ' to the Executive Committee. The 
llu- meeting of the Society, which i papi-r was referred, accordingly, 
had adjourned to tliis time and place. j| Mr. Mclntyrc presented resolu- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 



37 



Amended Constitution of the American Colonization Society. 



tions of the Pennsylvania Coloniza- 
tion Society, relating to the afore- 
said paper. 

The vote referring said paper to 
the Executive Committee was recon- 
sidered, and the paper was referred 
to the committee on the relations of 
this Society to Liberia. 

Adjourned to 5 p. m. 

Met at 5 p. m. according to ad- 
journment. 

The Amended Constitution was 
taken up, and adopted as the Con- 
stitution of this Society ; and is as 
follows : — 

'■'■ Article 1. This Society shall be called 
' The American Colonization Society.' 

"jlrt. 2. The object to which its atten- 
tion is to be exclusively directed is, to pro- 
mote and execute a plan for colonizing, 
with their own consent, the I'ree people of 
color residing in our country, in Africa, or 
such other place as Congress shall deem 
expedient. And the Society shall act, to 
effect this object, in co-operation with the 
General Government and such of the States 
as may adopt regulations on the subject. 

"Art. .3. Every citizen of the United 
States who shall have paid to the funds of 
the Society the sum of one dollar, shall be 
a member of the Society for one year from 
the time of such payment. Any citizen 
who shall have paid the sum of thirty dol- 
lars, shall be a member for life. And any 
citizen paying the sum of one thousand 
dollars, shall "be a Director for life. Fo- 
reigners may be made members by vote 
of the Society or of the Directors. 

"Art. 4. The Society shall meet annual- 
ly at Washington on the third Tuesday in 
January, and at such other times and places 
as they shall direct. At the annual meet- 
ing, a President and Vice Presidents shall 
be chosen, who shall perform the duties 
appropriate to those offices. 

"Art. 5. There shall be a Board of Di- 
rectors, composed of the Directors for Hie, 
and of Delegates from tlie several State So- 
cieties and societies for the District of Co- 
lumbia and Territories of the United States. 
Each of such societies shall be entitled to 



one Delegate for every five hundred dol- 
lars paid into the treasury of this Society 
within the year previous to the annual 
meeting. 

"Art. 6. Tiie Board shall annually ap- 
point a Secretary, a Treasurer, and an Ex- 
ecutive Committee of seven persons ; all 
of whom shall, ex officio, be honorary mem- 
bers of the Board, having a right to be pres- 
ent at its meetings and to take part in the 
transaction of its business ; but they shall 
not vote, except as provided in article 7. 

"Art.7. The Board of Directors shall 
meet annually in Washington, immediately 
after the animal meeting of the Society, 
and at sucii other times and places as it 
shall appoint, or at the request of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. Seven Directors shall 
form a quorum. But if, at any annual 
meeting, or meeting regularly called, a 
less number be in attendance, then five 
members of the Executive Committee, 
with such Directors, not less than four, as 
may be present, shall constitute a Board, 
and have competent authority to transact 
any business of the Society ; provided, 
however, that the Board thus constituted 
shall carry no question unless the vote be 
unanimous. 

" Art. 8. The Executive Committee shall 
meet according to its own appointment, or 
at the call of the Secretary. This Com- 
mittee shall have discretionary power to 
transact the business of the Society, sub- 
ject only to such limitations as are found in 
its charter, in this Constitution, and in the 
votes that have been passed, or may hereafter 
be passed, by the Board of Directors. The 
Secretary and Treasurer shall be members 
of the Committee ex officio, with the right 
to deliberate, but not to vote. The Com- 
mittee is authorized to fill all vacancies in 
its own body; to appoint a Secretary or 
Treasurer whenever such offices are va- 
cant ; and to appoint and direct such agents 
as may be necessary for the service of the 
Society. At every annual meeting, the 
Committee shall report their doings to the 
Society, and to the Board of Directors. 

" Art. 9. This Constitution may be 
amended, upon a proposition to that effect 
by any ofthe societies represented in the 
Board of Directors, tran.'milted to the Sec- 
retary, and published in the official paper 
ofthe Society, three months before the 
annual meeting ; provided such amendment 
receive the sauction of two-thirds of the 
Board at its next annual meeting." 

The committee on the Treasurer's 
account reported, and the report was 
adopted, as follows : — 



rmocuoiROS or the board or djeectobs or the a. c. « 




PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. 9. 



39 



Preparations for making Liberia an acknowledged sovereignty. 



The committee on the relations 
of Liberia to this Society reported 
as follows : — 

Whereas, The citizens of the common- 
wealth of Liberia have most respectfully 
submitted to the Colonization Society, the 
great embarrassment they experience from 
the alleged want of sovereignty, and have 
also expressed their desire to enjoy further 
privileges that tliey may be recognised by 
other nations as possessing the distinctive 
qualities appertaining to sovereignty; and, 

Whereas, It is believed that the time has 
arrived when the desire of said Liberians 
can be granted without sacrificing the fa- 
cilities wiiich the Society now enjoys for 
making Liberia a home for recaptured Af- 
ricans, as well as free people of color from 
the United States: 

Resolved, That, in the opinion of this 
Board, the time has arrived when it is ex- 
pedient for the people of the commonwealth 
( of Liberia to take into their own hands the 
whole work of self-government, including 
the management of all their foreign rela- 
tions, and that this Society should cease to 
exercise any part of the same. 

Resolved, That we recommend to them 
so to amend their constitution, as is neces- 
sary for the accomplishment of this object. 

Resolved, That we recommend to them 
to publish to the world a declaration of 
their true character, as a sovereign and in- 
dependent state. 

Resolved, That the Government of Libe- 
ria be requested to appoint a commissioner 
or commissioners to confer and make 
definite arrangements with the Executive 
Committee of the American Colonization 
Society, with reference to the property now 
held by the Society in Liberia, and also 
with reference to the location and support 
of emigrants and recaptured Africans. 

Resolved, That the Society stand pledged 
to continue their sympathy and assistance 
in carrying out the great principles upon 
which the colony was established, and has 
been so much extended in population and 
territory. 

Resolved, That the Executive Commit- 
tee be intrusted with full powers to carry 
the foregoing resolutions into effect in a 
manner satisfactory, if possible, to the citi- 
zens of said commonwealth, and as best 
calculated to preserve harmonious relations 
between the Society and said citizens. 

The report was accepted, and the 
preamble and resolutions were adopt- 
ed. 

On motion of Mr. Stevens — 



Resolved, That the several State Socie- 
ties be requested to make donations of the 
statute laws and decisions of the Supreme 
Courts of their respective States, to the 
Government of Liberia ; and that the Ex- 
ecutive Committee apply to Congress for 
one copy of the American archives. State 
papers, and decisions of the Supreme 
Court, for the same purpose. 

On motion of Hon. Mr. Ellsworth, 
it was 

Resolved, That the Board approve of the 
doings of the Executive Committee in re- 
lation to the liquidation and payment of the 
old debts of the Colonization Society. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the Annual Report be 
referred to the Executive Committee for 
publication. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That the donation to the Co- 
lonization Society of a sum not less than 
$•1,000, whether the donation shall be for 
a specific or general purpose, shall entitle 
the donor to the privilege of a director 
for LIFE : Provided, however, the donation 
is received by the Executive Committee — 
and all donors shall have the right to desig- 
nate the person who shall be entitled to 
said directorship. 

On motion of Mr. Ellsworth, it 



Resolved, That the communication signed 
H. submitted by the colonization society of 
Pennsylvania, be referred to the Executive 
Committee, with instructions to meet, as 
far as practicable, the views and wishes of 
its author. 

Dr. Reese submitted the follow- 
ing preamble and resolutions, which 
were adopted : — 

Whereas, The Board of Directors are now 
about to adjourn, they feel called upon to 
express their devout gratitude to God, for 
the encouraging tokens of his favor which 
have been signally bestowed during the 
year just closed, both upon the operations 
of the Society at home, and upon Liberia ; 
therefore — 

Resolved, That in the continued health, 
peace, and prosperity of our settlements in 
Liberia ; in the discretion and ability with 
which the administration of Governor Ro- 
berts has been conducted ; and in the eco- 
nomy, skill, and success with which our 
financial concerns have been managed by 
the Secretary and Executive Committee ; 
we recognise signs of improvement which 



40 



miKtKDino'? or THE BuARU or uikkctofis vr the a c. s 



Cewlat^taf rmWllaw OM dtbu, lu 



our a.- 

it lo the ii'jM.iiuv anil j'ln III "u iwi \ 

patriot and Chriiti&n, throughout om 

coif ':\ 

I. 
Wt. 

tio 

pu 

tb' 

be: 

thr 

for 4. 

J: iiro«pi»roiu 

CO!l 

COf. 

^k>cK ;.. . 

our cntcq)n4c. lor 
pvo an ir.^rr.i<( 1 
dur 
Li!' 
no '. 
;, 

arc • ■ 

ofiliit'Tcrit (Iciuiiiiiiiatiuiii wlio liuve al- 
(oni"1 t" ♦h-'ir f«»«'><»ctive conarre^ations an 
opi' "lie year lo conlribufe 

to ' it \vi' e;iniestly and 

nif 1 .r 1 ,, ,1 , '•■Sratice 

ail! rally, 

by .1 ch in 

the Uuii. 

On rooiion of Mr. Jones, it was 

Retdvtd, That the tiianksofthc Boariiof 
Director* ar* due, ami an* hi-n-hy t<Midered, 
to the Sfcrelaiy and the Executive Commit- 
tee of tin- l4«t var, for thft fnithfii! and 
cffi 



/, 










Hoard 


ar<' 










' > the 


H. . 










valua- 


bl.- 












After 


prayer 


by 


tlic 


Ke\ 


'. Dr. 


Dacon, 


adjourned to 


10 


A. 


M. to- 


morrow 


, 











January 22, \HM\. 

Met at 10 A. M. according to ail- 
journmi'nt; the Hon. W. W. Camp- 
Iwll, Dclegntp from New York, ap- 
peared and took. Iiin neut. 

On motion of t' • V • !»• M ■- 

lean, it wsn 

li 
lio 



'lation or treaty. 

1 ; of Ueuj. Merrill <kE.Por- 

. assignees of D. Abbott ii Sonfi. 

itin^r to interest on a comproniiced 

...ijl, having l)een read, and also tlio 

letter of Hon. Daniel F. King relating 

. it was 

/, Tliat we can see no reason for 

- ill their case from the pinral 

(onnerlv adopted OD which si Itli- 

•vith the other creditors 

". and to whom no 

■'■' ..-'J- 

The minutes were read and ap- 
proved. 

After prayer by the Chairman, 
the Board adjourned without day. 
JOIIX MACLEAN, 

Ch'j'innan. 
Attest : 

JoSKPIt Tit \i \^ ( n IK. 

The following are the letters 

of Rev. A. D. Eddy, I). D., S 

Wilkeson, Esq., and Com. M. V. 

Perry, alluded to above : — 

Newark, N. J., 
January 9, 1846. 
To the Dirtclort of i>' > '' "^ ■'•• 

Th.-. y.I.Ti>iir.' 1 r. . ; ii. 



i.'ii It I 



.1 cn.iiM. It I 

^^•♦•d upon \ 

I r.at ' 



qu( 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 



41 



Letters of Messrs. Eddy, Wilkeson, and Ferry. 



when an experiment should be made of the 
capabilities of the colonists for tlieir own 
support and self e;overnment. As long as 
they remain wiithout acknowledged inde- 
pendence, these capabilities can never be 
properly developed. I am then strongly in 
iavor of an immediate and open declara- 
tion of the entire independence of the 
Liberian government, and of her rights to 
the exercise of all thv:; privileges, and the 
enjoyment of all the immunities of an 
independent sovereignty. Having made 
this declaration, I would have immediate 
application made to the governments of 
England, France, and of our own country, 
to recognise the independence of the same. 
So important do I view this subject that if 
necessary I would despatch to England and 
France a speqial messenger to secure the 
end contemplated. 

Our own State Society at its recent 
annual meeting, almost unanimously, two 
only dissenting, recommended the adop- 
tion of the constitution proposed by the 
Massachusetts Society. I am more and 
more convinced, and from conversation 
with intelligent gentlemen, I am fully con- 
firmed in this opinion, that the only pre- 
sent prospect of benefit to the colored race, 
is to be found in the colonization enterprise. 
It has had my hearty co-operation, for 
more than twenty years, and I am happy to 
say that the interest taken in the cause, in 
my own congregation, and indeed through- 
out this vicinity, was never greater than it 
is now. 

May you be wisely guided in your de- 
liberations, and may a kind Providence 
smile more and more upon our interesting 
cause. 

I am, gentlemen, with the highest regard. 
Yours, 8tc., 

A. D. EDDY. 

By his daughter, 
B. A. Eddy. 



Buffalo, 
January 16, 1846. 

Rev. "W. McLain: 

Dear Sir: — Nothing but my inabilty to 
travel, prevents my attending your annual 
meeting. 

I hope the Directors will come to the 
conclusion, that the time has arrived when 
Liberia must assume her independence. 
On some accounts, it would be better, that 
the present relation should continue ; but 
I have no fears of the ultimate success of 
the colony, if they are left to manage their 
own political affairs. The American Co- 
lonization Society will still exist, and 
1 hope with increased power and effi- 
ciency, and will continue to exert as 
great an influence on the colony, should 



it become independent, as she ever has 
done. 

Present my respects to the members of 
your Board ; and believe me. 
Your friend, 

S. WILKESON. 

New York, 

January 19, 1846. 

Mv Dear Sir: — I have received your 
letter of the 9th inst., in which you express 
a wish that I should attend the annual 
meeting of the American Colonization So- 
ciety, which commences its session to-mor- 
row, at Washington. Nothing would give 
me greater pleasure, than to become ac- 
quainted with the distinguished officers 
and managers of that excellent institution, 
and to communicate freely to them all the 
information I possess in regard to the Afri- 
can settlements, but the necessary execu- 
tion of, some particular duties assigned me 
by the Secretary of the Navy, will put it 
out of my power to visit Washington at 
this time. 

I should regret this the more, if I could 
be satisfied that any thing I could say in 
addition to what has been embodied in my 
official and other written communications, 
would have any influence in bringing oth- 
ers to think as I do upon the subject of 
African colonization. 

From the earliest period of my acquaint- 
ance with your Society, when as 1st 
lieutenant of the sloop-of-war Cyane, I 
sailed from this port in company with the 
ship Elizabeth, freighted with the first par- 
ty of emigrants to Africa, and during sub- 
sequent cruises to the coast, the last as 
commander of the American squadron on 
that station ; I have never for a moment 
ceased to believe that the cause in which 
you are embarked is one of righteousness 
and justice. 

Few have had better opportunities than 
myself of tracing the fortunes of the Libe- 
rian colony : I have seen it in every vicissi- 
tude of trial, and have been astonished, 
that a handful of uneducated blacks, many 
of them emancipated slaves, should have 
reared up a government of their own ; pos- 
sessing as it does so many claims to the 
characteristics of wisdom, order, and mo- 
rality. 

In looking at these extraordinary results, 
and in witnessing the comforts, and the re- 
ligious and social order of these people, 
one is irresistibly led to the conclusion, 
that the Almighty has had them in his espe- 
cial keeping, and for some wise purpose of 
His merciful providence. 

It would seem that this part of Africa 
was never designed for the habitation of 
the white man. Its pestilential climate 



42 



Liii. -: -- 



lUCA.'V CUUIStiZATlOM SOCl£Tr. 



\Jsm M WMffV oC IW AlMfinB GOMSHMMl 8oCMty< 



telS4&. 



ii... 1. 1 ...I. 



But i( ■■ to Ibr wliils mau lime vrr) dea- 

Cfntiin?* sr^ to l«v>k for ai'l to fnaM" t!i*ii) 

to 1. . 

rou 

in I 

tio^i ■ men. 

It 'i surpritt- 

Yo me. il.dt (lit- tiK>cl-> ul llie Colonization 
SoriPly have not bt'cn more liberally »u«- 
teid' ' ^ :i<> charity wliicli 

eotii . tly to th«* sytn 

patli. >, both in thi; 

countr)' ^ by contributing 

freely t" ' It institution, the 

will' .. m jui'.ict' in part, lor the 

wrr< upon the ne^io in teimng 

hill. "v 

I >!' late to doubt the 

•inc . ^ ■ill her exclusive pre- 

tetuiutui uf F) uipatliy for the condilion of 



i-stroynl yrars agv il the poweis 
who by treaty stipulations have 
li^ht of Search, upon 
:, had coupled this 
u .4. V •' similar to that of 
»," making it piracy lot the 
■i-ts of the contractiii;; pow- 
er* to bo t.'ii^Jt;ed in the transportation of 
slaves Croin Alrica. Of the hiinilreds of 
"'*.«'■ and 
.1 in 

• ■ .• • ~. -.■..-..'. ^tUi', to 

lar as 1 knoM, has ever been brought to 
p>iiii«hmeht. 

With every wish for your success in your 
benevolent undertaking;, | 
I am, dear sir. 
Your most ob't serv't, 
M. ('. PKKUY. 
Rer. W. McLaiv. 



Cifr IHcmbrrs of tbr .^tnrricatt (Holonitaiion Jiorirto, 

COHSTITt'TltD l!« IP-t.l. 



Rkt. C. B. Kittredwe, Westboro*. Mass.; 
Rev. A. A. Won). W S-ninrftMI. Mt--- : 
Rev. N. Gale, \^ 



Rev. Calvin 11, 




Mn---' .'• . .M * ,.v 




N.ir tb?; Kev. . 




Ba! it-: Dea 




T. Karwell.i-ilctibm isetts 


Kev 


G. \V. .McPf ail. Kr Vn 


R^v 


B. Kro.r. • 




M. I». H 




•el?- ^: 




ver- 




Har 




BlaitCdfJ, H.t: -{{a. 


Kev 


Mr. Fit/. ![.... .Its; 


Kev 


M (;. Whe.lrr, \> . 




•etts; Rev. John J- 




New .l.',.-v M>. 




No: 




Ph. 




Jo!^ 




K. . 




Re» ■ 




Rev. D 1 




Janxs 11 




•ef 




•ar' 




tO" 




ter. 




Qu.i..-. 1.. ..,.,, 




Clay, K«q., Lexington, K 




Scott. K'.] . I.rTJti^.m. 1, 




A - 




W 




R' 'n r, »S iiiir, .-^..•iir,:i;i,|,r,,ri. 


>i.\» 



sachusett<s; Rev. John H. Brisbee, U'orth- 

in;:ton, Massachusetts ; Jonathan .\. Hyde, 

' •^(enille, Maine; Edward C. Hyde, 

,'or, Maine; Mrs. Jane Kcll, Princeton, 

; William Rodes, I.,exinijlon. Kentucky; 

James Shelby, I.exitii:toii, Keii- 

vy; y. Dewcs, Lexinijton, Kentucky; 

K. C. Bo:;^, Athens, Kentucky ; James 

F!mbry. \fh»n«, K-ntueky; Hector P. 

' ' ky ; Rev. Timo- 

. Kho<le Island ; 

........ ..... .1.-, Kentucky; Dea. 

iS.'nnett, Kail field, Connecticut; 

I Winn, Athens. Kentucky ; Rich- 

.1..1 .^jdirr, Athens, Kentucky; Robert 

Marshall. Athens, Keiitiirkv; .John (>es>«. 



iiiio : 
R.-V 



W. Wn^ht. 

John Wfiitp 



> IMwin Hall. 

' . i ;-. Jane .Mc.MiLS- 

i'liiicelon, ind ; Mr*. Ann Fleiuming, 

•>-\nn, Ind.; Rev. I). H. Hamilton, 

\. Y.; Charles N. Talbot, 

ii. \. v.; Mrs. K. M. Mon- 

. .N Y.; Mrs. Hariict Dour- 

<w York, N. Y.; Georjje 

.New York, .\. Y., William 

i:*-j , .New York, N. Y ; Rev. 

t>ot. Peterborough, New Ilamp- 



OFFICERS OK THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETV. 



43 



President — Vice Presidents — Secretary and Treasurer — Execut've Committee — Board of Directors. 

OFFICERS OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



PRESIDENT: 
Hon. henry CLAY 



VICE PRESIDENTS: 

(VIDE PAGE 62.) 

SECRETARY AND TREASURER; 
Rev. W. McLAIN. 



EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: 

M. ST. CLAIR CLARKE, Esq., 
W. W. SEATOJV, Esq., 
HARVEY LINDSLY, M. D., 
A. O. DAYTON, Esq., 
Rev. C. a. DAVIS, 
JOSEPH H. BRADLEY, Esq.. 
Rev. J. S. BACON, D. D. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS FOR 1846. 



Rev. J. B. PINNEY, Pa., Life Director. 

ELLIOTT CRESSON, Esq., « " 

Hon. S. WILKESON, New York, " 

Hon. THOS. W. "WILLIAMS, Conn., " 

Rev. L. BACON, D. D., " « 

FRANCIS GRIFFIN, Esq., Miss., « 

Gen. JOHN H. COCKE, Virginia, « 

THOMAS R. HAZZARD, Esq., R. I., « 

Rev. E. burgess, D. D., Mass., " 

JOHN McDONOGH, Esq., La., « 

JONA. COIT, Esq., JV. London, Conn., « 

Rev. W. McLAIN, Washington City, " 

A. G. PHELPS, Esq., New York, " 
STEPH. DUNCAN, M. D., Natchez, Miss.," 

JOHN MURDOCK, Esq., MUs., " 

JAMES RAILEY, Esq., " " 

ALVAREZ FISH, Esq., " " 

DAVID HUNT, Esq., « " 

JAMES BOORMAN, Esq., New York, " 

CHARLES BREWER, Eiq., Pa., " 



HERMAN CAMP, Esq., New York, Life Director. 
Hon. PHINEAS WHITE, Delegate Vt. S. C. S. 

HENRY STEVENS, Esq., " « « 

Prof. GREENLEAF, " Mass. « 

Rev. J. TRACY, " " " 

Hon. J. W. HUNTINGTON, " Conn. " 

Hon. C. W. ROCKWELL, « " " 

D. M. REESE, M. D., « N. Y. " 

Hon. W. W. CAMPBELL, " " " 

PAUL T. JONES, Esq., " Phila. " 

ARCH. McINTYRE, Esq., " " " 

Rev. JNO. MACLEAN, D. D., " A^. J. " 

Rev. a. D. EDDY, D. D., " " " 

Hon. W. W. WICK, " Jnd. " 

H. L. ELLSWORTH, Esq., " " " 

Hon. E. D. BAKER, " Ufa. " 

Hon. S. a. DOUGLASS, " " " 

Hon. J. J. CRITTENDEN, " Ky. " 

Hon. j. F. MOOREHEAD, « % " « 



THIRTIETH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



aiaaasiiH ®(Di®aiiaii5iii(Dsi §(D®iiiaiic 



WITH THB 



PROCEEDINGS OFTHE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 



AND or THE 



EOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 



JANUARY 19, 184 7. 



V^ASHINGTOxNT: 
C. ALEXANDER, PRIJVTER, 

■ EVBKTEEtiTH KTREUT. 

1847. 



-iVS 



THIRTIETH 



ANNUAL REPORT 






WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 



AND OF THE 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 
1^ 



^- - ?/ 



-^ I li^ JANUARY 19, 1847. - *f *7 



WASHINGTON: 
C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER 

■KVEKTEENTn STREET. 

1847. ,,^r^ 



|V\^' 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Report of the American Colonization Society $ 

Barque " Rothschild" with emigrants i'rom Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, for 

Liberia 5 

Barque Chatham. — Relief of the Pons recaptives 6 

The first and second view of Liberia. — Sailing of the Liberia Packet 7 

Vessel from New Orleans — disappointed in the number of emigrants 8 

A colonist's etforts in Connecticut to get his kindred to go with him. — Opposition 

among the colored people 9 

The "Randolph negroes" and Mercer county resolutions. — Abolitionists, C^.c... 10 
These things ought to convince colored people. — Sentiment from the North Ameri- 
can Review 11 

Colored people will soon be crowded out of employment. — Dr. Alexar.asr's opin- 
ion.— Ellects, &c 12 

Importance of Colonization. — Liberia PaczvET built, and inCuence cl' ^3 

The receipts of Society, §39,900 02. All things considered they show an increase 

of favor 14 

Opinions in favor of Colonization. — Newspapers. — State of Liberia, fi-om Governor 

Robert's message 15 

Receipts of Colonial Treasury. — Relations of Liberia with surrounding tribes. — 

The " Pons " recaptives 16 

Character of the " Pons" people — trouble — expense — they are now improving. • . . 17 
The law of 1819, and the imposition of landing them destitute, and leaving us to 

support them 18 

Purchase of Territory, about SO miles . . . » . ... 19 

Independence of Liberia. — Action of Legislature thereon, and the vots of the citi- 
zens, &.C .,,... 20 

The Liberia Herald witli regard to independence ... 21 

The colonists generally in favor of declaring their independence 22 

The weakness of the colony a guaranty of its safety. — Dr'. Ale:::and3r's cpir.ic; 23 

Anticipations of a bright career tor Liberia 24 

Concluding remarks. — Annual Meeting American Colonization Qochiy. — E^r^arirs 

of J udge Douglass 25 

Colonization — its bearing on American cciKraerce, &c 26 

Remarks of Rev. Joel Parker, D. D. — Capabilities of the colored ra^.e 27 

Present condition of Liberia — her influence on the character of th j African race . 28 

Colonists in America — An objection answered 29 

Prospective improvement in character and wealth 30 

Resolution and remarks by Rev. A. D. Eddy, L. £ 31 

Situation of colored people in Canada, 8ic 32 

Origin of Colonization— Proposition of Mr. JefTerscn, Cx 33 

Election of officers. — Officers — f.leeting of the Doard of Directors 34 

Proceedings of the Board. — Rosoluticn concerning the slaver "Pons" 35 

Financial Report — Receipts and Expenditures 36 

Report of Select Committee on relations of Lii;e;ia to i,h:: S„cJety 37 

Resolutions. — Appointment of E;;ecutiva Committee, Correspondi.-.g Secretary and 

Treasurer 38 

The Liberia Packet— dimensions, &c.— 1'orint.tion of a Joint Stock Company 39 

Sketch of the Liberia Packet and Plan of Vessel 40, 41 

Life Members of the American Colonization Society — constituted in 1846 42 

Second voj^age of the Liberia Packet 43 

Expedition Irom Savannah, Geo 4« 



THIRTIETH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



AMERICylN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



January 19, 1847. 



Barque " Rotlischnd," with emigrants from Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee, for Liberia. 



As we survey t'le transactions of 
the past year, in order to present a 
ooiieisc history of them and their 
results, we are filled with no ordin- 
ary emotions of gratitude to God for 
his preserving care, and his abound- 
ing favors. Many have been the 
tokens of his love, and unceasing 
the manifestations of his Providen- 
tial regards. In obstacles surmount- 
ed, in dangers avoided, and in good 
<ichieved, he has graciously minis- 
tered to our hope and confidence for 
future exertion. 

Shortly after the last annual meet- 
ing, the barque " Rothschild" sail- 
ed from New Orleans, with emi- 
grants from Ohio, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee, for Liberia. Our friends 
in Kentucky, had expressed great 
anxiety that something should be 
done to give a new impulse to the 
cause in their State. For this pur- 
pose, it had been proposed to estab- 
lish a settlement in Liberia to be 
called Kentucky, and to form a 



j home for all whom they miglit send 
to it. Of the sixly-one emigrants 
j by the "Rothschild,'' thirhj-Jive 
were from Kentucky, the pioneers 
in this new and noble enterprise. 
They were well adapted to their 
peculiar work. Twelve of them 
were members of the Church ; two 
were Ministers of the Gospel ; three 
were carpenters ; one was a black- 
smith, and one a shoemaker, while 
nearly all of them were under thirty- 
five years of age. 

The " Rothschild'' reached Mon- 
rovia, on the 15th of March, with 
sixty-three emigrants, all in good 
health and spirits. A tract of land, 
beautiful and fertile, had been select- 
ed for " Kentucky," on the north- 
west side of the St. Paul's river, 
extending along the river, froni 
the settlement of Millsburg, tweaty 
miles, to the sea; thence running 
along the seabeach in a northwest- 
erly direction, about thirty miles, 
and thence into the interior about 



AX.xfAL ittrtmT or the amoucax coloxizatiox societt 



H>r....r I 1..II...,. _i(.i>.( .1 ii.> f.4M racapiivM. 



li!;y tmiis. Kor |iitiiiiy, ^:litl;•(l^y, 
and cunviMJK'Uce, u lieiiL-r lt»c.irKMi 
cuuIJ nol linvc bcfii iiiuile (»n liu* 
coa^t. In an fli;;i!ile t>iiuuliuii i»n 
iliiA trad uf laud, lidceii cuinfdria- 
ble houses of native ct)ni«liuelion. 14 
by 2S ft-ri, lia«i been t-riru-d beforr 
iheir urrival fur the accninniuilHtioii 
(if tlic cniiirrants, and inio wliieh 
tliry moved itnuiediutely after iliey 
were landed from the vesj«el. The 
eini;;rant8 from 'IVnnesifce were lo- 
cated with ihem, and one of those 
from (>hn> was employed as a srhool 
teacher r»>r the settlement. He has 
t small, l)Ul excellent rolleoiion ui' 
book^, aivl is a member of ilso As- 
tociate Reformed Chnrrli. ^Ve can- 
not but retr^f'' 'his as a mutil propi- 
lious commenrcmrni of a settlement 
which will eveninnte in imtuUI good 
to Africa, to the Siaio of Kenwicky. 
and to the en>ii;rants who may hrre- 
afier cast in their lot uith litosc al- 
ready there. 

On the Ut of .M:iy, the barque 
" Chatliam," chartered by the New 
York State Colonization Suciety, 
•ailed from the p<»rl of New York, 
laden wiih provisions aod clothing' 
for tliu relief of the rccaplives land- 
ed at Monr«»via by the slaver "I'o.ns." 
Two valuatde emigrants look {ms- 
aagc in this vewel, one from Ohio, 
and the oilier fjom New York City, 
and both of them posKCHfing lal- 
etils, education, and character, which 
qualify ih* m for great uscftdness in 
Uicir new sphere of action. 

Hcvcral other persons had applied 



10 liu- Board of Mana;,'crs of tin 
"New York Society for a passajje l- 
l^ili-ria, and great hopes were en- 
tertaitu-il that n l.trge and respect- 
able company would go fr«»m ili< 
free Slates; but as the day of vail 
iii^ dr» w near, their hearts failed 
tliein thiough fear, and the pcr.'^iia- 
sions of ihe enemies of coU>nizati«(ir, 
until they all derlined ihe oppor- 
ttmity. This failure of emigiuuts \* 
i!ie moic worthy of consideration 
from the fact that ihe " Cliathain" 
was the first vessel which iiad, for 
several years, sailed from a jmrt in 
a free State, and coiis-equently of- 
fered ihe strongest indiicoinenis to 
colored people in New Y'ork and 
vicinity to embark in her. 

Tlie expenses attending iliis ex- 
' pedition, amounting to upwards f>f 
Co, 000, were defrayed by the New 
York Sorietv, who, in their last re- 
port, say : " We feel called upon to 
express our gra'.eful sense of ilu- 
liberaliiy of «)ur fritiuls in •hi'* ''il\ , 
in Brooklyn, iu Newurk, and other 
places, who have so pronijuly aiilcd 
us. It has served to sirem^ihen our 
hands, and enable us to ;;ive subs- 
tantial proof to the colonists, and 
to the recaptives, of the i>yinpalhy 
of Anierican Christians, by ncn(T- 
ing out this supply ship, which will 
nmjily mcel ihe present exijjency. 
and, as wo hope, be adequate to th< 
permanrnl relief of those who ar, 
not otl;erwi^e provided for.'' 

The •• Chatham" arrived at Mon- 
rovia on live 8th of Juno- and hei 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETV. 
The first and aecond view of Liberia. — Sailing of the Liberia 1 ackti. 



reasonable supply of provisions was 
distributed as circunistanccs seemed 
to demand. Tiie two emigrants, by 
!)er, express themselves in terms of 
liigh admiration of their new homes ; 
and one of tiinm having very influen- 
tial connexions in New York, has 
written home letters in which he 
gives utterance to liis convictions in 
the following language: 

"On a person's first view of this 
place, he is very apt to form a poor 
opinion of it. This was the case 
with me; but after 1 had been 
amongst the people, and saw llie 
manner in which they lived, and 
iiow intelligent and refined they 
were, and, above all, that they enact- 
ed, and were governed by, their 
own laws, and wlien I considered 
that I was for the first time in my 
life breathing a free atmosphere, and 
in a country where the white man 
does not hold sway, and an indivi- 
dual, however humble, if he quali- 
fies himself, may attain to eminence 
and distinction, I really felt sur- 
prised that I could have remained 
contented so long in America. 

" I sincerely think, that if the co- 
lored people of the United Slates 
could only see what a fine country 
this is, and might be made by a little 
exertion, their prejudices against the 
Colonization Society and tlie Colony 
would be entirely removed.'' 

Early in April, we resolved to 
send a vessel from Norfolk, with 
emigrants, to sail about the last of 
June. This determination was form- 
ed in view of a])plications made to 
us for a passage for upwards of one 
liundred emigrants. Before having 
made any definite arrangements for 
the expedition, we ascertained that 
very few of that number would be 



ready and able to go at that time. 
Upwards of sixty of them were 
wheedled away to the free States. 
Some few of them chose finally to 
linger out a miserable and degraded 
existence here, rather than go to Libe- 
ria, where they might enjoy advan- 
tages which would elevate them to the 
dignity of men ; while others of them 
vveredetainedby circumstances which 
neither they nor we could control. 

In view of this state of things, 
it was determined to postpone the 
sailing of the vessel until the time 
of our regular fall expedition. 

The "Liberia Packi^t'' sailed 
from Baltimore on the 3d of De- 
cember, carrying out twenty-seven 
emigrants for the American Coloni- 
zation Society, and fourteen for the 
Maryland Society, and a large supply 
of goods for the purchase of territory, 
and purposes of general improvement. 

We were greatly disappointed in 
the number of emigrants who were 
read}' to sail in t!ie Packet. From 
applications which had been made, 
and assurances given to us, we were 
led to anticipate from a hundred and 
twenty to a hundred and thirty per- 
sons. Among those who sailed for 
Liberia, were some very intelligent 
and well educated men and women, 
in the prime of life, devotedly pious, 
and breathing the right kind of 
spirit, in view of the dangers and 
privations which were before them. 
A large part of them were set free, 
by masters now living, for the pur- 
pose of going to Liberia. The 
others, with two exceptions, were 



4>V. a Kf I. HT Of THE AMERICAN OOLOSIZATiON 80CIETT. 



Orl.t»^-Ji"l'|«iM««l IB Ik* •••>» of €•%!»•»». 



lefl ihfir luiili'tii l.y >iu ir nif-n. >-. 
late i»r Weslmorrbiul romuy, Va- 
Duriitf; ihe past i»'jminer, we were 
inrormeil, by ixituuts in Tenne«- 
sec, that thirly-live »Iavtu, under 
their care, must be fcni to Liberia 
at the ilohc <.f tlie year. Our 
friends in Kiiitnrky, were very 
anxious that a leinforceracni should 
be sent from ihi ir State to lluir ntw 
Bettlcmenl on ilie St. I'aul's. Oiir 
agent, the Hev. A. M. Cowan, after 
muih corrcspomlcnce, a-.id vi.«iiing 
various parts of the Smic, was ••per- 
suaded that at least sixty persons 
would be ready to leave Louisville 
by the lijih of December," and was 
much impressed with the benefit 
which would accrue to the cause in 
the field of his a(,'eney, from the de- 
parture of a large number of emi- 
gran..*. We accordingly gave no- 
tice lltat an expedition would sail 
from New Orleans about the 20t!i of 
Dectiuber, with cmigriii la from the 
soutliwestern Slates. 

IJut wo were again destined to be 
disappointed. The emigranui, from 
Tennessee, were unable to leave ai 
that lime by reason of legal difljcnl- 
tics being thrown in their way. 
Those from Kenturky, with the ex- 
ception of three, failed to appear at 
Louisville, where our agent had gone 
to receive and accompany them lo 1 
New Orleans. NVbai particular rra- 
aona operated to deter l!um, or what 
prrnliar causes prctcnied them, wc 
liatc not ycl learned. Doubile.-H 
ihey were similar to thoKo which 
bave operate*! in similar eaaei on 
thi$ aitk of the nouoUitM. li 



The" MaryWilka" therefore sail- 
eil from New Orleans with only 
Vleven emigiants. She took out, 
however, a full cargo of freight, a 
part of which i< for the purchase of 
territory, and the uniaiiider for sale. 
The learned bbck^nulh, Kllis. and 
family, sailed in this vessel. The 
departure of ^uch a person for Li- 
l)eria is, of itself, an event of im- 
inruse importance. 

It will be observed, that the num- 
ber of emigiant!« !<? iit out dnring the 
pabt year is smaller than we had 
been led to anticipate. 

How ia this to be accounted for > 
Is theie any thing in the present 
stale of alTairs, in thi•^ country, 
which will account for it? Or is 
it true that many of the slave?, a« 
well as the free coU>rcd people, are 
unwilling to go to Liberia ? We are 
aware that several large families 
have been ofTercd their freedom, 
!)y their misters, if they would cmi- 
i,'rate, who have declined ii. We 
know, too, that very active eflorta 
have been made to induce them to 
remain in their present condition. 
We know that there are in almost 
every community, men who claim 
to be the exclusive friends of the 
co'.i.red population, and yet who 
are industriously instilling into their 
i minds the most bitter prejudicca 
rigainnt colonization. It seems lo us, 
that if the col«>red people could 
properly appreciate the blessings of 
freedom, and the great social, moral, 
and political advaniagcs they would 
enjoy in a country governed and 
regalatcd by lawa of ihcir own en- 



ANNUAL BErORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



A colonist's efibrU in Conn, to gel his kindred to go with him.— Opposition among the colored people. 



actment, they would toil lafe and 
early to raise the means necessary 
to carry them to this land of pro- 
mise ; and yet the history of tlie 
past year proves that the great body 
of them are so blinded to their own 
best interests that they will not con- 
sent to go, even when their expenses 
are paid. One of the colonists 
returned to this country early in 
the 5'ear, having many kindred and 
friends res'iding in the State of Con- 
necticut, whom he was anxious to 
convince that they could vastly im- 
prove their condition and prospects 
by returning with him to his adopted 
home. He spent the summer among 
them. Talked the whole matter 
over with them. They saw, and 
admitted, that there was not a coun- 
try in the world where greater ad- 
vantages were held out to the in- 
dustrious setder. And ^ did they 
hasten thither as their friend advised 
them to, and as they were persuad- 
ed would be best .? No. They let 
him return, and they chose rather to 
stay in a country where they are de- 
nied, and must forever be denied, all 
the rights and privileges of freemen ! 

Through the labors of our agent 
in Indiana, a considerable degree of 
interest v.'as, early in the past year, 
awakened in the minds of many of 
the colored people in the vicinity of 
Terre Haute, who, after deliberate ' 
consultation, selected one of tlicir 
number, and appointed him their 
agent to go to Liberia, examine the' 
country, and return and report to j 
tliem the state of facts, in order thai' 



they might make up their minds 
with evidence before them whicli 
they could not doubt, derived from 
one whom tbey could not suspect. 
The person chosen as their agent 
was a Presiding Elder in the Con- 
ference of the African Melh. Church; 
a man of undouI)led piety and of 
high standing among them. 

But no sooner had the enemies of 
colonization heard of it, than they 
made a regular effort to prevent him 
from fulfilling the appointment, re- 
solving that they would turn him out 
of the church if he attempted any 
such scheme, and that if he left the 
State on sucli a;i errand, he should 
never, with their consent, return to 
it again. 

What inference can be drawn from 
their conduct on this occasion? 
Manifestly this, they know that Li- 
beria is a belter place than they have 
represented it to be, and they are 
afraid of the result of a fair investiga- 
tion under circumstances altogether 
favorable to themselves. 

About the middle of April last, a 
large meeting of colored people was 
held in Cleveland, Ohio, to consider 
certain propositions, made by .«onie 
of their number, for emigrating to 
Oregon or California. The assem- 
bly was addressed by several individ- 
uals, and the discussion grew so 
warm, and the feeliug so general and 
strong against emigrating, that the 
parly in favor of it withdrew from 
the meeting, abandoning the ground 
wholly to their opponents, who 
with frrcat vehemence and enlhusi- 



)0 



AXMAt RErORT OF THE AUUllCAN COLOXIZATIO:* 80CIETV. 



RmUoIpIi wgrot*** tmi Mrrar fmuij rr*utuiia*^— AMiUtNiiti*, tu. 



•Sin paMCil a bundle of re«oluiions, 
•leclari 1^ ** iliai in the present acpeci 

of alTiiis, the cunilitiuii of iIk- rnlor- 
«•«! racp would not be improved by 
eini^aliun : that colonization is, and 
onglit to be rondenined l)y ihi* color- 
ed peojde: lint il>e cohrdl coloniza- 
tioni.>l is as bad as llie tvUite coloni- 
zutionist, and tl>:it both ought to be 
rondrnuied : :ind that it is tho duty 
of the colored people to stay where 
they are, and continue to contend 
earnf«i!y for llieir riglits, trusting in 
the power of truth and the God of 
juflice for a fiu:d triumph! '' 

It would be 8tran;:e indeed, if 
from lltat r<-;,Mon, and under the 
influeiirc of those men, any body 
should determine to emi;:ralc to Li- 
beria ! 

It was not very long after the 
sdoplion of the above resolutions, that 
about FOUR nrsDiiF.D slaves were 
liberated by the will of the laic John 
Ranuoi.th, and iientto Mercer coun- 
ty, Ohio, where land)* had been pur- 
chased f<»r ihrm and where they ex- 
perled to live together in the enjoy- 



f| mcnt of good neighborhood and all 
,. the sweets of liberty. When they 
had riaohedthc threshhold of their 
nntii ipateil homes, they were met by 
an armed company of men and driven 
back,* and after spending most of 
. their n;oney, they were scattered 
I about in the ailjacent country, here a 
few, and there a broken fragment of 
a family, in :\ manner most shocking 
even to ihtir ideas of the social rela- 
tions. The principal one among 
them, and his family, h;i\ ijig some 
means at command, made his way 
back to Vi mi Ilia, perferring to live 
in slavery, to slaying in freedom 
under such circumstances. 

Not long since, a con:pany of 
liberated tlavcs was taken from 
Western Virginia intt^ one of those 
fiercely abolition counlies in Ohio; 
but such opposition was made by the 
;' citizens to their settling among them, 
that the per.'«on who had them in 
charge, left them in the pulilic road, 
. at midnight, and (led ! t 

It seems almost impos<<ilile, that 
acts like these, continually oreuiring 



on I 
Ihri 

hav 

COU' 



•mhle<l people of .AJercor cotiniT 
i.tiv fiiTCc ccrtaitilv. Wc lliiiilc 



solllnl hrrc fir«t, we 
.ind tiiulattoos in thin 



v./. 



. .lie hpr(»hy, rcApectfully re- 
. M irrh. 1*17; nnd in the ca*** 
I, we plcil;;r otimrlvet to removi 






■ of lo employ or trade 
. :iiit thi'in to have anv 



♦ 'r . .- . - , ,,,,; 

fli< I. :'- 

t>%\ . . . . , .............. . ;....-.. .1. ...^ .,..■...'■, ^ ... : -. , . .,..i> II, a 

Mr. C , a native of Y if (inia, who iflcr a tcaidvaco Uirrc for «omc ri];ht or ten }\u$t n 



•ANr^UAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETT. Jj 

These things ought to convince colored people. — Sentiment from the North American Review. 



vn the free States, should not have 
some influence on sensible reflecting 
tjolored men. How can they fail to 
see, that, however much we de[)Iore 
it, continued tronble, deeper depres- 
sion, and more hopeless degradation 
awaits them in this country ! Can 
they ever attain to the riglits and privi- 
leges they are now struggling for, 
and demanding! How is it possible 
for them to dream that they can ever 
enjoy a comfortable, quiet, and hon- 
orable home here, and possess that 
share in the management of public 
affairs which alone can make them 
feel and acl as men and as ciiizeiis ! 
Must they not come, however rehic- 



tantly, to the conclusion, and ac- 
knowledge, that the policy of colon- 
izationists, is tl'.e only true and san- 
ative policy ever yet adopted ? It 
proposes to place them in circum- 
stances propitious to the full de- 
velopment of their powers. In this 
country, while things remain as they 
are at present, there is no place 
where this can be done. Go where 
they may, tliey encounter an invinci- 
ble prejudice, which excludes them 
from the honors of political, and the 
comforts of social life, and reminds 
them of their deeply depressed con- 
dition.* On every hand, the more 
favored race is multiplying around 



turned to Vira;inia, on a visit to see a brother who still remained in the ' Old Dominion.'' 
Mr. G. gave his brother ;in interesting account of the prospects and policy of Ohio, with 
which he was much pleased. The Virginia brother remarked to Mr. G. that he Ibiind his 
slaves a great burthen to him and requested him to take them all to Ohio and set them 
-free! ' I cannot do it,' said Mr. G. ' Why.'' asked his brother. ' The citizens of Ohio 
will not allow me to bring 100 negroes among them to settle,' said Mr. G. ' But,' said 
he, 'I can putj'ou upon d, plan by which you can get rid of tiiem and get them into Ohio 
very eas}'. Do you take them to Wheeling and there place them on a steamboat for Cin- 
cinnati, and speak of taking them to New Orleans ; and while you are looking out for 
another boat, give the chance, and the Abolitionists will steal the whole of them and run 
them off, and then celebrate a perfect triumph over them. But if you take them to the 
eame men and ask them to receive and take care of them, they will tell you to take care 
of them yourself.' " — Rev. B. T. Kavanaugh. 

* " How it is that the free colored race can look with complacency on their condition 
in any part of this country is more than we can understand. True, it may be better at 
some future day than it is now ; we hope and trust that it will. But we speak of it as 
it is now, and surely there is no immediate prospect of a change for the better; and we 
cannot comprehend why they should wish to detain those wlio are desirous to make the 
experiment of other influences and a more favored land. We are well aware, that the 
free people of color in this country have now a great prejudice against expatriation. 
This, they say, is their native land, and why should they leave it ? Ay, why should they 
leave it, if thuy can find an inducement to stay ? E2:y[)t was the native land of Moses 
and the Israelites; but their native air was not particularly gooj for their constitutions, 
and though they sometimes sighed for it in their discontent, they would doubtless have 
been soiry enough to have been taken at their word, and sent back again to the llesh- 
])ots, cucumbers, and melons, not to speak of the brick-yards. We cannot see the espe- 
cial fascinations in any ]>art of tins countr}', which should make a separation from it so 
heart-rending. We apprehend that, if our portion in it was like theirs, we should sound 
a retreat at the first opportunity, and without incurring the penalty of Lot's wife by look- 
ing back on the forsaken home. It passes our comprehension to discover what they can 
find here, in the way either of enjoyment or hope, that should be so difficult to resign. 
It is true, that better days may come in process of time; but meanwhile, it would seem 
its well to go to better days wherever they can find them, even if beyond the sea. But 
this is matter of taste ; and if the colored citizens of America prefer their present condi- 
tion, such as it is. no one asks them to leave it; they are at perfect liberty to remain to 
ifae end of lime, if such is their pleusuie." — yorlh Slmerican Review for October, 1S46. 



12 



AMKL'AL RETORT OF THE AMERICAN COLOMZATIO.X SOCIETT. 



them, filling evury avenue lo wenlih, ' ness und degradation which uwuit 

engrottsiiig e»ory de»irable business, ih«m. And we therefore present co- 

and roonopolizint^ every honorable ionizatiou to tiiem at every opporlu- 

eniployment. The rapid increase of niiy, as the only practicable remedy 

our own population, the immense for llie ills wliich at present betide 

indovr of I'orcigners, who must gain them.* 

tt living by their labor, and who can During tlie past year we have cir- 
labor to the best advantage, arc (<ad culated among them a large amount 
evidences that the day is not far of inrorniuiion on the subject of Li- 
dislant when they will be crowded l>eria. Many of them lake the Ilepo- 
oui of every lucrative employment, vitory. Many of tlicm have sought 
and thereby depressed lower than information from us in various ways, 
ihey are at present, and thus com- Some of our friemb have also taken 
pelled, in self-defence and for sell- much interest in imjiarting to them 
preservation, to seek a home in some all necessary information, 
other land ! This result may not be In many places we can now see 
for years yet, but premonitions of its the benefits aribing from these labors, 
approach are now seen in every city , A spirit of imjuiry has been awaken- 
in the land. i ed in many minds heretofore careless 

I! •' 

Much xs we deprecate this slate of ^'"'l indifllrcnt. Were tlicrc no op- 

Ihinps, we would anticipate its ap- posing inilucnrcs exerted upon them, 

proach and in advance prepare a liome «c doubt not that a large number of 

for them when it comes. "We would «'»« most intelligent among them 

have them aroused from their present would in the course of a year or two 

dreams to the reality of its approach, emigrate lo Liberia. Some of them 

and led to take the measures neces- will doubtless never be convinced. A 

•ary to save themselves and their correspondent in one of our western 

children from the certain wreirhcd- cities, makes this remark, " There ia 



* " It in in vain lo tlerljim al> 




;wi|l 


lon^ conliiiuo to cxiot, ai.<I v. ill 




;. iiient 


of the •amr |>rivil«-(j'*"t an ' 


mIiicIi tli<- vsliit 


1- |K>|>Uuth»n etijoy. Il 1 v^crva 


color*"! mijfi, I w«miJ.| not ' 


>mptit trt r«l!'i<|ii 


ii.y» n rontilrv wlicri- n til.irk skin 


•n<i ' 




' ' ■ ■ .tion 


oft 




MSlS. 


•ti ! 




and 


1m 




..)r. to ap- 


p«ai i 




\vit!i con- 


trui}<t i.jt'it Ui' 




I i of 


thr nation. I < 




< ini- 
own 

...lilil 
• run 


•rrr 




i'iivy \«t.iil nut, iiicc .Vliialiam. 


not 




• ! (Ii«m Afvl tli<* pvpht proved. 


^,^ 


^^ 1 


,.;.... ,.,..,.. 



iwodcocc, and p«rtupt, to lii(;ti aiid iiooorablo olltc«." — Jt. jUeiandtr, U. il. 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 
Importauce of Colonization. — Liberia Packet built, and influence of. 



13 



a very prevalent prejudice among our 
colored people against the noble en- 
terprise of colonization, and it seems 
almost impossible to induce them to 
attend to its claims. A colored Bap- 
tist preacher of our citij, prays God 
reguluili/, thai he may never he con- 
vinced of the righteousness of Afri- 
can cohnizafion .'" 

There is perhaps no one aspect of 
our enterprise to which the energies 
of its friends should be directed with 
more intensity and perseverance than 
the one we have been considering. 
It is not for a moment to be supposed 
that the efforts of private benevolence 
will suffice to develope Liberia and 
remove thither the colored people of 
this country. Part of this work it 
has already performed. The corner- 
stoneofagreatand enlightened repub- 
lic has been laid. The structure has 
been reared in part and prepared for 
the comfort of its inhabitants. Those 
already in it could not be persuaded 
to exchange it for any other. They 
give to the woild the example of a 
moral, well ordered and free commu-l 
nity, governed by wise laws of their 
own enacting. 

Now what we need is that the 
eyes of the colored people in this 
country should be opened to see the 
inviting light which Liberia throws 
across the deep ; that their hearts 
should be cultivated to feel the attrac- 
tions that ate there, to such a degree 
that nothing can keep them away; 
that unaided and of themselves they 
will cross the Atlantic and make Li- 
beria their home. Then, and not till 



then, will the full energies of coloni- 
zation be developed ! 

In our last annual report we men- 
tioned that a company had been 
formed who intended to run a regu- 
lar packet between the Chesapeake 
and Liberia, and that Xhc .stock had 
been taken. 

We have now the pleasure of stat- 
ing that a vessel has been built at a 
cost of more than $19,000 with spe- 
cial reference to the accommodation 
of emigrants, having every arrange- 
ment and fixture which can be de- 
sired for their health and comfort, 
and second only to those of the first 
class of passenger ships. She sailed 
on her first voyage on the 3d of De- 
cember last. It is intended to keep 
her running regularly, making two 
or three voyages a year according to 
the amount of emigrants and freight 
ofl^ered by the Colonization Societies. 

It is believed that the running of 
this packet will not only reduce the 
current expenses of sending out emi- 
grants, but will have a happy influ- 
ence in removing the prejudices of 
the colored people, disabusing their 
minds of the false impressions which 
they have entertained respecting Li- 
beria, and uniting them to their free 
Liberian brethren in bonds which can 
never be sundered. On this subject 
the editor of the Maryland Coloniza- 
tion Journal thus remarks: 

" The building, the launching, and 
the sailing of this packet, thus devot- 
ed to this great missionary work; 
owned in part, and to be mainly own- 
ed by colored people themselves, has 
produced a new eja in colonization. 



1 J A.^Nl 4L RETOIIT OK THE AMEBICAN COLOXIZATIOJC 80CJETV. 

., 4X1,900 <H. AltUafcoMtactaailMytkow uiMfMMoTbTor. 



it lia* awakened the colored man 
from liiii lorptir— it luis hroken ilie 
Hhell o( prcjuilire in wiiicli lie hail 
been loiif; enveloped — it lias prove<l 
in lart ' (he eonnd of n goin^ in the 
lops of ilio iiiull>crry ireet*,' unii no fear 
net'il exist, but • llie bfsiiriiin of theui- 
jiflvet.' will fi>llo\v. We have Innjj 
sinre declared, and we were the first 
to derlure it iircclively, that if I^i- ' 
licria was ever to be frt-c, and to be 
well »T((vcriied, lliat ^uvernnientinuNl 
l)e ailiiiiiii.xlcrfd by u ndort-d iiiun; 
and we now as firmly bulievr, ihut if 
the cause nf cotoni/utioii is to pros- 

tier — if the culoriies are to receive 
ar^er and valuable accessions' of 
emigrants from this country, it nnisi 
be through the agency and aclion «>f 
llie colored people themselves ; it 
must be in vessels of their own, and 
uniler their own direction, and we 
view this one iKircjue, this • Liberia 
packet,' (»f which wc have said so 
much, for which we have felt so i 
much and lal>ored so hard, as but the 
small l>e:,'iiiiiiii^ of an extensive sys- | 
tem t>f operations to be by them 
prosecuted and j)erfeclcd !" 

The rereipta of the past year were 
•39.900 02. This falls hhort of the 
aroouiil received during the year pre- 
ceding. Rut by a comparison of the 
Financiul Heports of the two years, 
it will be perceived that this can be 
accounted for, without attributing' 
any decreaae of interest to the pat- 
rons of the Society, or any want of 
efTicicncy and succeas to its agents. 
At the openin:,' of our last report, it 
was our mournful duty to record the 
death of several valued friends and 
liberal rontribulors. From legacies 
left by them to the Society, wo re- 
ceived durinf; thai year $17,3U.> 11. 
Our present report opens with no 
•ucli record of departed friends, 



white i\^e Financial Report showa 
llie total receipts from legacies to be 
only 81,307 '2(i, making a tlillVrence 
in the receipts of the two years of 
$1(),USS 21, fiiim t .is boiirce alone. 
Ill ISI.J we received lij»977 GS for 
the passage of emigrants. The past 
year we have received nothing from 
this source. 

In ISl-i the New York Society 
paid their money into our treasury. 
The past year, as already mention- 
ed, ihcy iipiiropri.iltd it l!.. natives, 
without any of it pasbing through 
our hand.>. 

These three items alone, added to 
the acknowledged receipts of the 
pastycar, would increase them several 
thousand dollars beyond those of the 
year preceding. 

Wc are tiierefore convinced by the 
receipts of the Society that llierc has 
been during the year a gradual in- 
crease of attachment to this cause; 
that old friends have held fast their 
integrity ; that new friends have been 
' made, and that nothing can shake 
the pul)lic confidence in the benevo- 
lent character of the enierpiise and 
its adaptation to the stupendous 
achievement riintcni|)I.iit(! by its 
founders. 

We have also arrived at this same 
conclusion from other sources of 
evidence. From t»ur numerous and 
atti'iitive correspondents in all parts 
of the country, we have received 
numerous and gratifying tokens of 
increasing favor in their various sec- 
tions. Our ngenui are nil encouraged 
lu ilicir laboriuua work, anu ull,willt- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETV. J^ 

Opinions in favor of Colouizaticu. — Newspapers. — State of Liberie, from Gov. Roberts's message. 



out a singlo exception, think they 11 
see still brighter days approaching. 
They are also successful in raising \' 
money beyond the most sanguine ' 
expectations of the best informed J 
friends in their respective fields of 
labor. I 

The New York Society in their I 
last annual report, say : 

"Never before in tlie history of 
our enterprise has there been a year 
so fruitful of good as that now termi- 
nating." 

The i\Iassachusetts Society in their 
last annual report say that their agent 

" Has collected funds in about 
eighty parishes, from forty-five of 
whicli nothing was received last year 
and many of which were not previ- 
ously accessible.'' 

By other societies similar senti- 
ments have been expressed. The 
circulation of the African Reposi- 
tory has increased during the year. 
A new paper called " The Liberia 
Advocate," has been established at 
St. Louis, Mis.souri, by the Rev. R. 
S. Finley, on his own private respon- 
sibility and cost. Another has been 
established at Indianapolis under the 
supervision of the Indiana Coloniza- 
tion Society, called the " Coloniza- 
tionist ;" and another at Frankfort, 
Kentucky, by the agent of the Ken- 
tucky Colonization Society. One 
peculiar feature of these two last pa- 
pers is, that they are composed of ar- 
ticles furnished by their editors to 
one or more of the political news- 
papers in the places where they are 
published, and then at the end of the 
month they are thrown together and 
published, at little or no expense be- 



yond the mere cost of paper and 
press work. This indicates a good 
state of feeling on the part of the 
political press, and a strong confi- 
dence in the goodness of the cause, 
as well as of its popularity among the 
people. 

The state of public afTairs in Libe- 
ria, during the past year, has been of 
the most encouraging character. 

In his last message to tlie Legisla- 
ture, Governor Roberts remarks: 

"Under the fostering care of the 
American Colonization Society, the 
colony ha^ continued to increase in 
population, intelligence, wealth, and 
importance; 'a little one has be- 
come a thousand,' and is now at- 
tracting the attention of the civilized 
world. It therefore becomes us, in 
entering once more upon the duties 
of legislation, humbly to acknowl- 
edge our dependence upon Him, who 
is infinite in wisdom and power, as 
our guide and protector ; and to im- 
plore a continuance of His watchful- 
ness over the afl'airs of these co- 
lonies. 

" We have continued cause for the 
expression of our gratitude to Al- 
mighty God, that another year finds 
us in the enjoyment of the ble.'=!sing3 
of peace, law, order and religion ; 
that the health of our fellow citizens 
has been preserved ; that the earth 
has yielded abundant fruits to the 
labors of the husbandman ; that, 
notwithstanding the interruptions to 
trade, new activity has been impart- 
ed to commerce ; and that every 
department of the government seems 
to be going on well and prosperously, 
excepting only the unsettled state of 
our affairs in regard to jurisdic- 

tion of the colony, a' -"stric- 

tions imposed by • ,Min, 

denying to us the 
sovereign and ind.^ 



IQ AXNl'AL HETORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



IUntf»» of Cotoaial TrMMfjr.— lUbuoM oT UUri* wilk mtrrommUmg IribM.— TIm •* Pom** rM«|i(iTrt. 

In almost crenr department ofT " Disburecraenta : — Pnid expenses 
civil, BiK-ial, religious, and poliiical ^^ ••'C I-fpislature for I84r), <:ns: 

enicrpiise, there is a manliest un- ^ • i^. « .->,.,. i> I 

' for services in 1^11, !:<3UU : Paul 

provemenl over the preceding yeats. Judiriury Dcpariiuent, cyi8: Paid 

Measures were adopted by the Lc- for tlie support of prisoners, Ac, 

gislatureearlv in 1846, to extend the ^l.Oil: Paid for elections, ^yO; 

benefits of puhlic education more **''"' ^M^^'^scs of l.nl.t-house an.l 
., , 1 ',. • 1 , II. ' sifiiai master, S'J'JG; Pa.d peiiMon.>*, 

widely andenicenily than had been ^-j ^ p^^j^, ,.,^ ^^y^y^^ improvements; 

previously the case. Several irapor- »-J.lM'»: Puid for territory, $157: 
tant acts were also passed respecting Paid colleetors and school teachers, 
public morals, one of which respects •L^'^'^.- !'»''' balan.-e due the estate 
., , , f I t. 1 1 1 of W.Savauc, $:2G3: Coniinpencics, 

the better observance of the Sabbath; ^o,o. n.^^i,,. a total of $7.53(5; 
while another restricts the sale of leavini; a balance in favor of tlie trea- 
ardeni spirits to those who have ob- sury this day of $9SU." 
tained a license, for which they are t^,,^ ^^^^^-^^^^ ^f , j,,^^j^ ^,.^^^ j,^^ 
Obliged to pay five hundred dollars. , gunounding tribes cuntim.es of the 
The receipts into the public trca- „,y„ f,i^,,j,y character. The Com- 
»un/ of the Commonwealih exceed- ' monweahh has pursued a benevolent 
ed those of any preceding year. In | as well as a just policy toward all 

1814, the revenue was $8,175. In ' ii,e neighborinjr tribes, which has 

1815, it was $8,853, being an in- ^on upon their affections and con- 
crease of $078. The balance in the f„ienre, and opened the way for 
treasury at the close of 1844, was exerting a favorable inlluence to civi- 
•201, at the close of 1815, it was lize and Christianize them. Hence, 
•989. The revenue has been suf- ,j,o,e i^ii^s are now accessible to 
ficient to meet all the current ex- ' missionaries and school teachers, 
pcnses of the (iovernment. and leave many of whom, from among the 
a considerable sum for miking iin- 1| colonists, arc laboring among them. 

provemenis, as will be seen by the i . , , • • r 

r ., . r 1 ' ^ '"°^' interesting exhibition of 

following Stat 'ment of the receipts ' i i • i r •• . . • ■ ■ i 

* ' tlie kind feelings entertained l»v the 

and expenses laid before the Legis- ... ri i . i .i 

' , « , citi/ens of Liberia toward the nn- 

lature at their last annual assemblv : ... . ,, • i i 

lives IS seen in the manner in which 

•' Heccipts -.—Duties on iinp..ri.s4 ,|„.y received and provided for the - 

•«'j,S5i{ : Anrhorate and liL'hl dutv, .• r .i i. c i> »• 

A.i,.r . 1 • r . recaptives of tlie '' Si.avkh Poxs. 



•.'^•5: Licenses to colonial vufself. 



•2M: LiceriHes to commission mer- /''''"'' ^''♦•''•^ ••'^■^■" '"""'''''' ^'"' '''^^■■ 

chants, retailers, and auclinneprs. »ix, naked, starving, savage /»a»//)<-r.^ 

•834: .Miliiary and rourt linen, <»'Jlii: thrown upon iheir shores. What 

Sale of public lands. $140 : Sale of ,i,^| ,i„.^. ,i„ ^.„i, ,|,p,„j j^„i „.|,„, i,,^ 

HundricM at Crntral rort, $78: I)c- ., ' „ , , . , , 

, I I .. ,1 •• ...nil ".Merccrcounty people did with the 
poHiU'tl \>\ the Kxerutor «•! I). Joliu- •' ' » 

•ton'r ^1,U75: making a to- *' Handolph neiproes." They took 

'•aI oi [ thciu into their houses, clothed and 



1 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



17 



Character of the " Pons" people— trouble— expense — they are now improving. 



fed them, and made provision for 
their education. Where is there to 
be found a community in this coun- 
try, ready to receive such a popula- 
tion and do for them the charitable 
and iiuniane part that the Liberians 
did by these poor wrctchos ? To 
educate in all the arts and refine- 
ments of civilized life, such a com- 
pany of the wildest savages, is a 
work of no small difiicully and ex- 
pense ; but still it was undertaken 
with cheerfulness, and has thus far 
been carried on v.'iihout complaint. 
And yet the citizens of Liberia have 
had a vast amount of trouble with 
these vecaplives. Tliey knew noth- 
ing of laboring for a living — they 
were destitute of moral principle — 
they were adverse to all kinds of 
restraint — they were unwilling to 
submit to law, or observe order; 
licnce, ihey were ready for any 
wickedness that offered itself. Many 
of them left the homes that were 
provided for them, and wandered 
about in the neighborhood of the 
settlements, stealing whatever they 
could lay their hands upon, and 
committing all manner of depreda- 
tions. Nor is this to be wondered 
at, when we remember that many of 
them came from tribes who 

" Devoured each other like the beasts, 
" Gorging on human flesh;" 

and that it is not the work of a day 
or a year to tame the savage breast, 
or to transform the tiger into a lamb. 

We are however happy to have 
it in our power to state that many 
of them have uniformly conducted 



themselves with propriety, and that 
they are making rapid improvement 
in civilization, manners, industry, 
and the minor branches of educa- 
tion. INIany of those who left their 
homes to roam about the country, 
have returned to them, and now 
seem contented. 

They all express the most heart- 
felt gratitude for (heir deliverance 
from the wretched doom tiiai awaited 
them in tiie "Pons," and for their 
being landed at Liberia, rather than 
at Cabiuda or vicinity, from whence 
they would soon and certainly have 
been again lorn and sold to the slaver. 
They are proud to adopt civilized 
habits, and show great eagerness and 
aptness in their acquisition of the 
English language. 

From these considerations, we are 
led to hope, that, ultimately, they 
will make good citizens of Liberia, 
and be the honored instruments in 
the hands of God of introducing the 
principles of civilization and Chris- 
tianity among the heathen tribes to 
which they originally belonged, and 
thus add another to the already 
numerous instances in which God has 
"educed good out of evil," caused 
the " wrath of man to praise him, and 
restrained the remainder of his wrath" 
in the dispensations of His Provi- 
dence toward the African race. 

We cannot, in this connexion, re- 
frain from making a remark or two 
concerning the manner in which 
these recaptives were thrown, thus 
destitute, upon the bounty of the 
Liberians. 



IS 



^ Xt'At «ErO»T or Tlir. AMIUllCA.N COLOJ(IZaTIO.\ ROCIETy. 



, aa^ if*»<af «• to MtfipM I ikca. 



I 

part M 

Si 

•Utr » 



»(1 iliBl it i« a 
r ihtf Uiiied 



fiiutiii on bonnl ol 
j'-. «ii.--h ire captured by 
our mrn-jf-irBr, to the coast, and 
Uod ilirm at Liberia. Hut it i> 
nut to wril urtdrraluud liiul tin- 
Gorrnirornt makea no provision 
fur thrir roinfurt and siipptirl afler 
ihf)* «!< * <» liiulfd. What right 
has I' Slates (tovcriimeiit 

t" • ilip mercy of 

th' iIhtc"' Muni- 

fotly none at ull. 

r . the law of ISlO was 

u.. ■ to nj.ikc provision for 

aappori:;ig reraplives after boin^r 
landed in Liberia, until they could, 
lake rare of tliemnclves. I*ret»ident 
Monroe %n inifrpreted it, and acted 
•c<ordin;;ly. lint of late ypnrsthe' 
•ttorncv t'eneralu have contttriitd the 
law diflrrenily, and have decided 
that It SI in ply provides for return in^^ 
rrrjj.;i\ca to Liberia, ai.d fur kecji- 
ing a • ngeul f«»r re- 

<»ptuti ,. ;:.ere;»nd then 

leaves iIicid entirely desiittite, and 
lo • to provide for 

i''' 1 .. 1*1 a most sin- 

fuUr rose indeed. Our government 
'•■>- 1 in a hiiiiiaiie olTurt to 

b' pour Afrirans, by snp- 

preaaing Uie alave trade. For this 
puq>oir, it supj 
tite ruaai at a t 

Ooe uf iJio vrMcU ol Ibis M|Uadron, 
CAiiyitif out hrr in>trurti..ii«, seizes 
• aUtr alop %riUi ujiHsr.U of nine 
Ai/aJffJrhddrea and youth oo board, 



earries them back, to iho coast ancf 
pitches them on shore, in a sick and 
'\ ii!<r coiidiiion, and iiiaki!> no provi- 
. i!i for takiiifj cure of ilieni even for 
a Miigle day ! This canaol be re- 
garded in any other light than that 
of s!»err iiiju»tii-e to llie rerapiivc?, 
and oppression to the citizens of Li- 
beria. There is no obligation rest- 
inv on ihcin to support ihe^e people. 
Tliey have to struggle hard to take 
care of theinsclves, unaided by gov- 
crninenlal prou-ciion, and oppress- 
ed by tliu»e blronger than ihetu- 
stlves. 

We, therefore, earnesily hope that 
the United Suiles Cioverunienl will 
soon make some UMrc libeial pro- 
vi.'iion for carrying out their clToris 
fur lltc t>U{>pre9;>ion of liie nlaxe iraili*. 
It ought not to be expected that the 
citizens of {..iberia should assume 
the resjionsibiliiy, and meet the ex- 
pense of the support utd tdticalion 
of all rccaplivcs whom the United 
States squadron may land on their 
soil. 

li is an acknowledged fact, that 
Liberia has done, and is now doing, 
more for the suppre^si•)n of the 
slave trade than the combined na- 
vies of the world. Her influence 
will be powerful for this niil, just in 
proportion to her general prosperity 
and enlargrment. If, therefore, the 
ri.itcd States Government is anxious 
I •^jjjpresB the slave trade, and we 
doubt not she is, and if she desires 
to arrom|dish it in the mont expedi- 
tious and sucecssfiil wny, it is a ilir- 
. late of lound wisdom, that she should 



ANNUAL UErOnT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETV. 



13 



Purchase of territory, about 80 miles. 



in every constitutional and roiirfiva- at tlieir own pprcial request, they 

We manner assist (instead of retard) ''■'>^'« ^'^^'" permitted lo incorporate 
I , r T 1 • themselves with the colonists, siib- 

the Commonwealth of Lihcna, m^i- scribe to the constitution and laws 
kin^ it the instrument for the sup- ^f the cmmonweaMi, become ciii- 
pression of that <rigantic evil, and the |zeiis of Liberia, and as such are cn- 



exlensionf)f the principles of eiviliza 
tion and good e;overnment, and llie j 
enlargement of the sphere of Ameri- 
can commerce. 

In the last Annual Rejiorl it was 
stated that the fund for ilie purchase | 
of territory had all been subscribed, 
and more than half of it paid into 
the treasury. Since that lime, the 
balance of it, exce|)ting $1,500, has 
been paid, and forwarded to Liberia. 
With these means, consideralde pro- 
gress has been made in achieving 
this desiiable object. Governor Rob- 
erts in iiis message, .Tanuary, 1846, 
says : 

" In conformity wiili an art of the 
last session of the Legislaiure, au- 
thorizing the purchase of certain ter- 
litory in the Little Ra 



'ssa country 



I titled to the care and protection of 

j this government.'' 

The sloop " Economy " was 
chartered by Governor lloberts, and 
sailed on the 9ih of January last 

I with a full and suitable cargo of 
merchandize, in the charge of two 
commissioners who were appointed 
for the purpose, and who were au- 
thorized to contract for all the un- 
purchased territory lying between 
Grand Bassa Point and Grand Ces- 
ters. 

Of their success. Governor Rob- 
erts remarks in his despatch of June 
25th : 

" I am happy to be able to 

inform you that the commissioners 

'despatched not long since, of which 

1 you have been advised, lo treat witli 

the natives for territory, have sue- 



-Messrs. 'J'eajre and Brown, duly ceeded quite as well as I had any 
commissioned, proceeded lo Bassa, I' reason to expect, indeed, beyond 



in Febnary last, and succeeded in 
purchasing the remaining portion of 
tiiat country, which secures to the 



my most sanguine hopes. 

"I have the honor herewith to 

transmit to you copies of deeds for ten 
commonwealth an unbroken line of; tracts of country purchased from the 
coast from Digby to Grand Bassa j native chiefs; commencing at the 
point. VVe have also succeeded in [ south-east termination of our pur- 
cxtinguishing the native title to the j chase from the Blue Barra tribe, and 
entire Sinou country, which gives us , extending along the coast about eigh- 
at that point some forty miles of sea | ty miles, embracing all the territory, 
coast, and will be a great acquisition ' except Settra Kroo, lying between 
to the settlement of Greenville. In i Little Kroo and Little Sostors inclu- 
both instances, the native tribes have j sive ; also eight miles of sea coast, 
not only ceded to the colony the farther north, embracing all the 
right of soil, but have also, by a for- | Tassoo and BafToo Bay territory. 
raal compact, surrendered to this',! "I feel pretty sanguine that, with 
government the supreme judicial an- j the twenty thousand dollars, we 
thorit}' and political jurisdiction and '■; shall be able lo secure all the tern- 
control over the persons and proper- 1 tory we need, lam, at present, 
ty of all within that territory — and, l more concerned about NewCesters, 



20 



tVkL nrrr,nr or the aMerjcan colokizatios societt. 



U«*^M« Ifciww, mU iIm «oU «r Ika ciiiiMa, kc 



1 . 
•f 

r 

u 



\T% Rroo, than' 
'!« ihe roa»l. 

iirr and fiif' ■" 
rm, arn > 
■tfsi our »<_■'«• 



"W V b! jII. li.J«i\«T. HO llmihl «IIC- 

ecr»l ; ih'Mtjh %«c may, in conse- 
uu< icitCL-, have lo 

P 



(V 

to . - - 
o«r doing*. 



»uin. Oranfl 

' aNo havo if 

Iter the arrival 

with mipplics, soon 

.» .'..ml ai'couiil of 



II ri.IaU\c to the 
, l.ilifria, adopted at 
ihe ImI annual meeting of the Uuatd 
of T -.wasHcnl lo Governor, 

R the first oppnrliiiiity. 

lie u»nrda proclamation, conveninir 
lh« I.e|;i»!a(irc Council on the l!{'.h 
of July, til riMi-i !cT what measures 
tiiejr would adopt on the subject. 

Tf:-v - ■•'■'- ii)n three dayg, 

di:.. . Mieinhcrs ex- 

preawcd their acnuincntfl fully and 
rarnettly. (trrat interest prevaile<l 
amonr the conitiiuniiy, who (locked 

1. : - deliberations, 

WM erolHulird iu tlie fulloiring reso 
laiiuo : 

u /,''..'.. /, 'I'liat the Governor be 
in- >niiuiiand the people by 

pf' '. i*iiucd in ii-asoualile 

U't '. in the rf»pertive lowuK 

•ti ' '•iniiionweallli. 

oil ( :<ivi rnor niav . 

'11 of 

r.L..f 

IJ' ' :il7.a- 

U" rihir 

•* -. a» in their 

• " ^ \n pr«»prr.'' ' 

Of Uita rrtotuUoo Governor Ho- w 



berln, in his despatch of the 19th of 
Oriober, remarks : 

" Vou will perceive by the pro- 
.lin^»« id lliL- legislatuie, herewiih 
tiatiMuitted, that the preiiiiibje and 
resolutions linvc been siibiiiilted lo 
the f onsidtTution of the poo;i!i'. who 
will determine, by a solemn vole, 
what dispoKiiion shall be made ot 
them, and chiiuld a new orguuization 
lie determiiicd upon, lo fix upon the 
course proper lo be adopted for 
earryintf into efTeci the susrtresiions 
of thu Hoard, contained in b^id rcKu- 
lutiouN. 

"By proclainaiiiin, Tu'-sday, !27ih 
instant, is fixed as the day <mi which 
the peojtle. tbrouehout the eommon- 
wealili, will assemble in the various 
towns and villages to vote on the 
question." 

The election was accordingly held 
on the 27ih Oi'to!)erand it was ascer- 
tained thai a m;ijoriiy of the people 
were in favor of assuming tlie entire 
resjionsibilily of iheir povernmenl. 

In his despatch of Noveii.brr 9, 
Governor Roberts says: 

** I have only time t<"> inform ymi 
thai ihe vote of ihe cuiz* ns. taken 
on tlie !27ih ultimo, on the (juestion^ 
of indepeiidenre, is in favor of odopi- 
inj; the suc^tiestions of the Hoard, 
and recommends the call of a con- 
vrn'ion lo (Ir.nfl a consiituiion for the 
roinmonwealih. The le<»isl:iiurft nt 
its session in January nexl, will, of 
course, order a convention :»ii>i adopt 
rules for its governinenl." 

It will thus appear that the I iiizens 
of Liberia are proceeding in ihis 
dilTieult and responsible matter, wilh 
ihaicilmness and delilMrniion which 
the importance of ihc ocenHion de- 
mands. In this respect, they give 
us much hope thai in the future ihey 

11 manage Uieir afTairs wiUi wisdom 



ANNUAL KEPOUT 0¥ THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 21 

The Liberia Herald with regard to independence. 



and discrelion; that when the hour ! —when these circumstances are pres- 

f.. , .1 -11 , , (•,,,! ,^ 1 em to ilie mind, not onlv iloes the 

of trial comes, thev wdl be hiuiKl to . ' ' , i i * 

r question not appear unnatural, but 
^lossess snfl'icient nerve to meet it, j ,.aUier one which would ari^e with 
sufficient knowledge and weiglit of I prompt and ready sponianeily ; and 
rliaracter, to carry themselves nobly :| thus arising become the subject of 

.1 I 'pu -M 1 1,1^,^ „^.,' , deep and anxious thought, 

through. 1 hey will doubilei-s con- i ' » 

'•But we tbink we do but speak 
the fixed sentiment of the whole peo- 
ple of these colonies, without the 
exception of a single individual ca- 
pable of thought, when we say, the 
great object which at first broughi 
us to Africa is still kindly and ten- 
derly cherislied. That great object 
whicli loomed in all its grandeur of 



struct their new constitution on the 
soundestrepublican principles, wisely 
arranged, and judiciously adapted to 
tlieir peculiar condition and circum- 
stances. 

'J'he question has been frequently 
asked vis, "what reason have you to 



believe tliat Liberia will maintain her ' oudine before our eye — which daz- 

independence: that she will not be ;! f ^f > ^'^ "»^ imagination and roused 

' , , , , , , :! lofiv aspirations, and lured us on 

persuaded, or bought, to be the colo- 'I ^^.^^;^,^^^;^^g^^,, J 1..,^^,.^^ ^,,^, ^^^-^^ 

ny of some more influential and 
powerful nation ?" AVe cannot an- 



swer this in any waj' so well as by 
quoting the following language from 
the Liberia Herald : 

"It were not unnatural for the 
members to ask themselves what as- 
surance have we, that the people of 
Liberia will not, when sovereign 
power be lodged in their own hand, 
seek some other alliance as a means 
of strength and of security against 
insult and aggression. And when it 
is recollected how much AmericSan 
philanthropy has done for the colony, 
how great sacrifices colonizationists 
have made of time, of ease, of money 



endearments — which induced us with 
patience to suffer, and with fortitude 
to endure — which gathered motive 
from dansjerand strength from defeat: 
that grand object, to plant a nation of 
colored people on the soil of Africa, 
adorned and dignified with t!ie at- 
tributes of a civilized and Christian 
community, is still the object dearer 
than all others to every Liberian. 
Indeed, so throughly are we pene- 
trated with the conviction of the ne- 
cessity, that in order to the consum- 
mation of this purpose we slic*jld 
stand alone and unembarrassed with 
any foreign allegiance, we should re- 
gard the document which conveyed 
away our independence nothing less 



and of life, to conduct it to its present than the record of an abject fate to 
condition ; how highly tliey prize it J last through all coming time. Better, 
as a practical illustration of the effuu- {[ far better will it be for us that a cei>- 
ency and energy of American benevo-ii tury find us still a weak and '• feeble 
lence, and with what intense interest ! folk" than to bend an ignoble neck 
they cannot but regard it as an ex- jl to the Anglo-Saxon yoke — of whose 
tension to the eastern hemisphere of ' unclenching tenacity, when once it 
those principles of republican liber- ;| has grappled, the whole history of 
ty and popular institutions, which, the modern world affords mostmelan- 
among the moderns, their fathers [ choly examples, 
were the first who had the sagacity :| "On this score the society need 
to discover, the independence to ii entertain no apprehension. Here 
proclaim and the courage to defend' motives the most powerful — fvjar and 
2 11 



1 YXVAL MCfORT or rut AUUUCA.N COLOXlZiTlON SOOCTT. 



hnpr an-J b'-n: . a'l ronrur :U once, lo be Bcnt to Liberia, were 

!iey fully tfulinfit'ct thai ilifV wuitikl 

iliiTf liiiJ n |ii'rinanci)(, safe, anil in- 
8eni.mml« ...nU.r lo thctc. arr j .„j,.,„ ^,,,,^1^, f^^ ,,,^.,„ 
, . . . . f .1 • ^ 

'I'iiu aiu-niiun urinuny <:l tlif Soulli 

' ' ii iJirecieil lowarild Liberia wiili in- 



•ft!,. .!uiy ihey owe to .hem- I ^^.^^^ ^^ „,^. ^.,,,,,^ '^^ ^,,^,^ ^,^,^.^,^ 

•^ ' ' '^ IvMteniy. •l'o««M will, il.c in.niliou of hcmling il.cm 

cry iiciion ihuy »ro j^^, L|,^^.^i^ ^, ^^^,,^^. ^^,^,,^^. ,j,,^g jj,,^^ 

perform, and evrry ^i„,p„rta„t j, ;,, ,!,crcfore, tl.ai all 

•' » P'»'"'y "" «''''<^'" shouM be able U> casl lluir eves 
han^ ihe fuiurc .lo..iny of their i ^^^^,^^ ^,,^ ^^^^ ^^j ,,^,,^,,j ^,, „,^ 

t" -"puMic. Tl.cy 5oem fully ^,,,„^^., ,„• ^f^,^„ ^ f^^^. .„„, ,,^,.,py 

acil.cimiK,rianif..ct, ihut,,^j,„,,,i^^ composed aiul governed 

a crui* »!«• now arrived, when, by a entirely by colored men, where every 

firm and nnbendinjj curse, by Idffh ' |,„„e.st', hizen fcjU that ihe innibiis 

rrv.Ive and united efT^rt, and sUicl j ^hich pressed him down in every 

inifgriiy und virtue, ihey may prove ,iand is gone, and ihai he stands up- 

■ . a demonslraiion, and show to the | on an equ iliiy, as lo ri^htsi privi- 

vrorl.l th-,! thfh rnrf \n npaMf. of '|pg(.s and pr.'si»ec;>J, with any oilier 



man in the wot Id. 



ii rii!i\ • j'lui: men 



I The past histotv of Lilieri;i, thi»iifjh 
f"'"' '• " will have a it^ results are but imperfecily de- 



u. •ur-nilom iniluenrc in their favor. 
ds of their own 
, who do not be> 



vclopcd, convinces us thai her fu- 
turily will be bright nnd glorious. 



"Enough," in the language of the 
li»ire that Ihey can ever maintain a x„rih Ameriean Review, " already 

f' '" -,..-. •Iipjii^pIv^.k, iripears to make it certain, llint il 

There ar>" ^^ '" '"-''"'^in its existence; that il 

/,„. „i:.. I will be a strong and flourishind re- 

•I me whitei whoaro very ,, 111 .. 11 

pnMir. and. like other repubjirs, 

.• on the tame grounds. „.ith all its f.nlm, it will l)e n nfuge 

• '•ob>r*(l people are manv for ilie oppressed; that it will have 

lo Libiria were ih.v P'»«'*''' •" •'<■"*«' »'»o slave trade from 

. .1 .. ^ II ^ I ' Its borders, and to send the lii^Mit of 

iiiai they would Hnu a • • 1,1 ,1 

' hiiinanitv into the darkneHH (if the 

" home there, and find ('o„i.n.-nt. where it si.mds. like sun- 

' tbriraai(»eiau>4 inrir- ''lifrht on the edge of a Idark rloud, 

■•'•'-• '. . thrir rising ?'*'•"? promise that the shadow shall 

- among Uu- ,1' . », , , 

^^. . . .. •»*(.• .>|,,re than onre it has enrniin- 

'■"> "'"vt- tfrrd the tempest of resistnnrc which 
buUler* w.r^l.l ^,., „,, ,hc„ ,|ayp, (would have destroyed it, had it been 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 03 

The weakness of the Colony a guaranty of i<s safety. — Dr. Alexander's opinion. 

less firmly sot in the conscience and jl a boolc wliich will richly repay the 
anreciionofits suppurlers, but which, [| ,„ost careful perusal, 
as it is, has yiven up a deeper rooi, . 

a miirhiier bough, and a riclier depth [I "Whether tliis colony was com- 
of folia<re, to shelter those who sit [| menced in wisdom, or iinprutlently, 
under its extending" shade. U has |1 it novv exists, and cannot l)e al)an- 
yet much to contend with, as our :j doned. Tiierc it stands on the sav- 
<iovernnient cannot take it under its age coast of Africa, at\il is likely to 
full protection, it must depend in a' exist for a lonjj time to come, llith- 



grcat measure upon the sense of 
honor and right, which prevails 
auiong the nations of the earth. We 
wish it could place more ample con- 
fidence in this moral sense ; but, if 
the conscience of nations is weak, 
there is nothing which any one of 
them co.ild gain by injury to Liberia, 
and this is a guaranty on which ii 
can more safely rely, sometimes a 
small naval officer may glory over it 
in the wantonness of power, whicli 
lias been committed to his unworthy 
liands ; but it is hoped that such airs 



erto no ill consequence has ft»llowed 
from the prosecution of the sclieme 
of colonization, except the sacrifice 
of a number of valuable lives on a 
coast peculiarly unfavorable to the 
constituiion of white men. It has 
provided a home for some thousands 
of colored people, a large portion of 
wliom exchanged slavery for free- 
dom, and a degraded condilitni in 
society for one of independence and 
dig-nity. Who can doubt that the 
colonists of Liberia are in a far more 
eligible state, than if they had re- 



of importance will be prevented, if mained in this country? And who 
not censured; they cannot be per- 1 can tell the beneficial influence which 
mitted without reproach to the nation ji they may hereafter exert on the na- 
which allows them. Our own ofli- j! live inhabitants of the dark continent 
cers have done themselves great ; of. Africa .•* This little free republic 
lionor by the kind and manly inter- ' may, for ought we know, be thegerm 
est which they h-^ve manifested in I of a great and flourishing empire, 
the colony, and the open testimony fiOok back three hundred years, and 
in its favor which they have been |' yon will see ;'. i'riw feeble colonies of 
ready to give. We hope that it will 
be strong enough to work out its 



own results in peace. Prejudice itself 
cajinot well jiointoutany harm which 
it can do; while there is good reason to 
hope that it will afTord a refuge for the 
oppressed, and be the means ofmak- 
ing to injured Africa some late atone- 
ment for its numberless wrongs." 

In connection with these senti- 
ments, we cannot refrain from calling 



Euro[)eans siru'jgling with the most 
formithible diHiculties, and often on 
the very verge of extinction. And 
now behohl these small colonies 
grown to be one of the most ])ow- 
erful nations upon the earth ; ex- 
lending their commerce to every 
quarter of the habitable globe ; pro- 
ducing by agriculture, in rich abun- 
dance, all the articles most necessary 
for man's subsistence; and manufac- 
turinc: clothinor far more than is 



attention to the following views of j, „eeded by its twenty millions of in- 



Rev. A. A. Alexander, D. D., one of 
the oldest and most carefully obser- 
vant friends of colonization. They 
are contained in the " Introduction" 



abilants. Let it be considered that 
the samebenignantProvidence which 
watched over this rising countr}', and 
raised it to its present eminence 
among the nations of the earth, has 
to his •♦ History of Colonization," jj also smiled on the infant republic of 



ASiirDAL KcroftT or the amcsica^t coLo.vt7ATion soacrr. 



I 

f^ 

P' 

l> 

•(■ 

f. 

en 

r 

a' 

tic 

u 
h 

«ri; 

ADil I ' 

plalion, 



I 

I 

r 

ii ' 
I 

C- 

C 

r 

I 

I 
f 

I 

A 

U.r . 



l,-,v..1-.. 



'it ixil. :i;)- 



•f Dir^nf ' The only rntionnl fear ilial can be 

i'.rriained in reg^.iril lo the probabil- 

. lli:>l iho riiizens of Liberia will 

■ foimtl iiittdfqimin lo lh«* cini*r<;onpy 

II of telf-govcrnment, nrisos from the 

''■■If in which they have been irain- 

for this rt*!<|>i»uf«ible <hjiy. As 1i> 

' ir natural capacUieSy it is loo late 

til (loiiht. 

**'!"lu» primary elements of mind,*' 

f Iir.-l^ [>\rl of I'll- snys a late «l«)f|iiiiu wiiicr, "ii« Africa 

ry. No nurh work „re. l•s^en^ially, what iliey are in 

■ ' "• iinilar (:irr^lm^I!l^^l^'« every where 

' ' " i-e in the world. The powerful 

• il iiu- fii- appliances «if civilization, science, 

iu'\er have },nd religion, will find Kusceptihililics 

i. Ins I., us, who have , j„ ti,e .African intellect, and plied 

i:i rked every disaster, 1 h,|)jr enough, will effect the same 

o| the progress, a 1 fvi.liilions of mental capacities, ihe 

-; <»bjpct <>f coni'*m- s;,,ne inventive powers — llie same 

that a priraiK association, in .-nterprise, and will aive the same 

more ihnn twenty years. ^,,Mieral direction to the deatliless 

by voluntary eonlrihuiions, ,.,„.rsTv of mind ilare as in any odier 

' of ^M-neral povern- quarter of the jjlohc. Ii is a I'lhel on 

i able to establish a ; thi- henevohnce uf Cod, to suppose 

!•>' republic on I i|,jn |,l. has created a rare of rational 

^ ira. (It I'le dis- j{ (j^.jijjrg \v'i\h so stinted mental endow- 

""' ">'lis ! iHP„t«, that with proper culture they 

•<•}} w(t!il(| , :,„„ot |)f sufTicientlv developed and 

'Ciplined, lo avail themselves of 

.:.e bounteous means of a happy 

■Mnjj all liie u-mporal existence within their reach, 

I'* country, .,,,,| jjI^^ to rise lo those noble dcs- 

lulanilim- ijnjcs of an immori.il nature, for 

•" "Inirt the ^ which man wns made." 

of nerompliNli- i' , . • ,i i i 

, I ■', hnterlainiUL' these views, and be- 

•••-• " b« desirnble, in < 

to Ihu unhappy race, yet let ''eving ihal the pasl Imining of the 

' ■ \ thai whatever „ Liberinn mind has disenthralled it, 

• il. it so innch «.|ithroned il in its peculiar sovereiffn- 

. and power, and invested it with 

!<• ninjesty of nn enlightened con- 

tence and (christian sentiment, suf- 

■ lently to enable it to stand creel 

i<!er the iiniuense responsibility of 

>lf control, we anticipalo for Li- 

.iy,ci»Uuauon,l '"■'"» » '»r'gl'» "rcer of future use- 

1 fulncM ! r,M rv faculty will be 



ANNUAL MEETIN'G OF THE AMEPJCAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 25 

Concluding remarks.— Annual Meeting American Colonization Society.— Remarks of Judge Douglass. 



aroused — every energy awakened, 
and with the favoring smiles of a 
bene-ficent Providence, tlieir course 
must be onward and upward. 



wise. But the amount paid into the 
treasury the past year, lias been 
given under the influence of no 
special plea. No popular enlhusiasra 



In closingour review of the promi- j has gathered around some emergency 



nent events of the last year, we 
allude to one evidence that the sup- 



— lifted it, and borne it onward. On 
the contrary, the great principles, 



pott of this cause has become a mat- 1 and the general operations of the 



terofdeep principle with the com- 
munity, generally. "\V^e have made 
no special appeal for funds during 
the year. AVe have presented no 
strong case, calling for immediate 
relief. During the preceding year, 
there were several such topics pre- 
sented, and many persons were in- 



Society,being well understood, it has 
been sustained by the thoiightful 
convictions, and the enlightened be- 
nevolence of the wise and the good. 
We may, therefore, rely upon 
them for assistance in our future 
operations, at the same time that we 
calculate to make many new friends, 



duced to contribute in view of them, i and greatly enlarge the sphere of our 
who would not have done it other- ii usefulness. 



»Crtracts from tljc Prucccliinss of tijc tljiftictfj 5vnnual itiating of tijc ^mcricnti 
(Eoloai.wtioii .Socicti). 



Washington Citv, 

January 19, 1847. 

The American Colonization So- 
ciety met in the First Presbyterian 
Church, at 7 o'clock, p. m., agreea- 
bly to adjournment. In the absence 
■of tlie President, the Hon. Elisha 
Whittlesey, the oldest Vice Presi- 
■dent present, took the chair, and 
called the meeting to order. 

The Rev. ]Mr. Wynkoop invoked 
the Divine blessing. 

The Secretary read extracts from 
the Anmtal Rkport. 

'I'he Hon. Judge Douglass, of j| by colonization, we infer that it has 
Illinois, offered the following rcsolu- I an inherent power which noiliing 

'else possesses; and lookintr at the 
tion : i • • 1 I • I I . II I • 

I principles whicli have controlled its 

Reaolvcd, That the report be ac- ^ movements, we discern in them an 
Tsepted, and referred to the Board ji adaptation to this very result. Two 
of Directors. | important influences are exerted by 



Judge D. said, he did not rise to 
m;ike a speech; but there were two 
thouglits presented in the report 
j which he considered worthy of some 
I ampliiication. One of the most in- 
1 teresting features about the scheme 
of colonization is its influence on 
the slave trade. The experiment 
of the value of naval forces to sup- 
press this trade has been fairly made, 
and has failed ; an<l it is now the 
deliberate sentiment of all who have 
considered the subject, that some 
more eff"ectual and rapid means must 
be devised before we can ever hope to 
see the extinction of this enorinoirs 
outrage on humanity and religion! 
From what has been already done 



A^xv4L Mcrrixo or tue amciiica.v colom2atiox socierr. 



i \ Tfirf It rfii-:. .! al.iii» till' ihcir national efforia hy ihissocieiy, 

!iey will ever be iiirlined lo irac'e 

< wiili tliid rouiiiry, uiu! tliui> (>|)«>ii lo 

who alone 'our inerchnnt eliijtii wide fields uf 

•. ir 1 1I .i;ii- li luH irnflic : wcultli! 

.1 rinew mUixUe I«>wm or 'pi.j. j,rp„t rivalry between Amcii- 

\e« by iiii (.;, and Kii<;land is a sirujrijle lo con- 

. <r, rbanqes ,,„| (i,^. coiiunerce of ibe woild. 

IS tr;inn'— 'j'ljg ^^jj^ „(• pj,p\, country now 

..'•« «if a no- whiten every st-a. We are rivals for 

ihein to a |,„\ver, for coTnnurce, for the wialt!> 

■• •'"'' 't'"" of other lands. 

'Die policy of England i« to fix 

l.i-rstif on this point, and plant her 

I who IB wi!ii!)«;: Mandard «)n that promontory, and 

- to the flavcr tlms spread abroad h<r influence and 

the work IX done— done eHVr- i,,.^ ,>,)„er until she can control the 

V " .'.| ii thiown up by ihf , coin;ntree of the world! 

irnis alon<r t!ie coast, I ., ■ »r- .1 . m li r> . 

, ;: ., ; How is Afnea toberontrcdled? l.v 

it.-, us a defence. untiL ••■■.».. .1 .■ . '1 

- . . , Liberia r INo other setilenient, uiid 

of the oniives can be ., 1 1 1.- c • .. „ 

, , ,, ^ ,, no otlier power lins hall so lair an op- 

vi Hiid chnnged uive tins . • r 1 • 1 ._ i .. 

. • I , I I porliiiiiiv of laviiiL' under coiitribu- 

V tlie all] It t]e'nnn(i!>, ami in '. , • i- .1 . 

lion tlie vast iniirior ol luat con- 
tinent! IJberia is destined, and at 
no distant day, to rontrcd a coninierce 
of iinniensc value, iind it must thu» 
lif<-(nne, itself, a wealthy «nd power- 

'' ^ ' '■ . 1 '. . ; .. \\:v iijiposed that America will have no 

'iHte in tlicir favor, and no part in 

— . .- t..'. .. (|n^.ir trade. Their government ori- 

is . It ap- j,j„j,jp,| aniong those »vho were born 

■* "' *'"'"- (in American soil. The feelings of 

ronperity of ^,^,1,,,,!^. ^.jU j,;,,,! it„.,„ t,, |,^ — jhc 

•.IN. 11 there chali ,.oimiuiniiy of langnnpe — <>f feelings, 

"" "P"" ''^'' "''"'•••'' !.iid of climate, wdl nil tend lo 

licn.ite tltcm from other govcrn- 

i leiits and bind them to ours ! 

in this aspect of the Mibjcet. every 

\ii»erican cilizj-n has a deep in- 

'•r< ct in the prosperity nf Liberia. 

..nd the civlargment «»f the means of 

hut this ,],p Colonization Society. 

In concliiMon, Judge j). cnm- 

n<t:<!rd the cause to the lil»eral pat- 

of orery piiriol, philan- 

! ri-id ('hri^lian in the land, 

,lv worthy «if their true 

.11(1 liltcral conuil>iitibn«. 

, The Rev. Joel Parker, D. D., of 

ki cur 1 f.f rir:g rare SU'J aiO, in . PliiUOelphia, iccoiided ihc resolu- 



; soon thev 

Ills uil ft!i>|;ir 

u mble fc<»i)rj.'e 
the enrlh ! 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 
Remarks of Uev. Joel Parker, D. D. — Capabilities of the colored race. 



27 



tlon offered by Jmlge Douglass, and 
said — 

I feel a great interest in this colon- 
ization movement, and have done for 
many years. FourtLen years ago, 
1 first went to reside in a slave state. 
] had previously studied carefully 
the condition of the I'ree people of 
color in the free States. Then, I 
commenced acquaintance with them 
in the slave Slates, as well as with 
the slaves. And the result was, 1 
became convinced of wliat 1 had long 
felt — it is important that we do some- 
thing for these people, and that we 
do it in the riglu time, and wiih the 
right spirit. 

But what shall we do for them r 
What can we do ? Where sliuU it 
be done ? How ? 

I am thoroughly convinced that 
there is a belter thing than the mere- 
ly doing away witli slavery, which 
some persons seem to think is the 
"chief end of man." 'i'he elevation 
of l!ie Cf)lored race is that better 
work ! We must raise their charac- 
ter by education and religion ! If we 
do our duty in this respect, the in- 
fluence of it will be seen every where. 
Convince the world that they are 
capable of self-government — educate 
them to the ability to enjoy freedom, 
prepare a place where Uiey l)e indeed 
free, and more slaves will he otfered 
to yon than you can get the means 
to transport. 

There seems to me in connection 
with tiiis subject a heauliful illustra- 
tion of what Hall chILs, " a fetch in 
Divine Providence." God had a 
design in bringing these people to 
this country in tlie way he did. We 
cannot probably comprehend the 
whole of it, but this we can see, he 
has secured the education of those 
who to all human appearance would 
not and could not have been educated 
in any other way. There are now in 
this country more than 300,000 Afri- 
cans who can read and write, who 



could not have done it if it had not 
been for the slave trade ! There arc 
many in this country and in Liberia, 
who are capable of preaching the gos- 
pcd, editing papers, and performing 
all the duties of civil life, who must 
have remained in total daikncss but 
for this trade ! How came those peo- 
ple by all this knowledge ? Did any 
body cro to Africa and teach them ? 
No ! It has been done by slaverij ! It 
has often been said, that " the scliool 
of adversity'' is one of the best that 
has ever heen established. It may 
have a practical application in their 
case. They have been in many in- 
stances hardly dealt by. They liave 
indured ranch. But they have arisen 
through it all. And you compare 
their present condition with that of 
their kindred in Africa, and the one is 
infinitely above the other. No body 
can doubt this. Some of them have 
come np faster than others. 'I'he 
most hopeful among them take the 
foremost rank. But have all been 
benefited by being brought to this 
country ? 

And now we send them back to 
Africa, with a preparation for doing a 
great work there, which we never 
could have imparted to them in any 
other way. The Liberians have ideas 
of education, of government, and of 
all the relations of life, such as can 
be found at no Missionary Station on 
the face of ihe earth. We cannot 
make the Sandwich Islanders feel and 
think as the Liberians do ! 

In this view of the subject, we 
may perceive atleast owf^oorZ which 
slavery has done to Africa, and the 
question may with propriety be asked 
whether it has not done for Africa 
move (rood than harm? Are there 
not 10,000,000 of slaves along the 
coast and 40.000,000 in the interior, 
whoso condition is infinitely worse 
than any in this country ! 

It is not for me to say what might 
have been done for the welfare of 



AJinvki Mttrina or the American colomzatiow societt. 

. >.— Wr isSiM-arv t» IW clMraeur of Um Africa* net. 



im!<-i*i;i ' :vliaiiil, ill ihis eotintry and in 

i. ■:». We iniisl tljcrefore go on 

. .....Iv. Ii Ii;i8 buen, pcrljaps, ihe 

.-. Vh-ch under »a|va(iitn of Liberia ihut bnl few emi- 

li. Ill I. II HI aiitwvr Uii» grnniii liave been pcnl earTi year. 

wlml ought to induce* the Time lititt then beiii given for llkem 

'. the inilliunK in to graw up to full strengdi and xifij'or 

ir drf|> wrt'tdifd- «»f intclli-cl, nnd to feil the vuhie of 

ruiu ' \S ho cun look upon th«'ir povcrninenl. Had ihtre l»een 

I f«rl drcply and dfsire to "JO. (JOU or oO.OUl) raw rccruil> ilirown 

rcliei ! Wt'il then, if , in upon ihem, they would have con- 

wrrtrhcd coiiiUiion is Jfiituied an ungovernable mass and 

of whatever has endanjjorcd the republic. Hut wo 

II, and if the slave have ijone on slowly — we have now 

Ua'- ' their coiidiiion worse a few men, able to govern a (<inall 

lUiii .>ii."<c wouhl have been, 'nation — have Hrhools for all — 

Uien »urcly more han been done for ' rlnirches foi nil — all are usider good 
them, llio.i Would have been done, if , iraininj; — they are able to receive 756 
thr»ta%e trade had not existed? U not ' wild nava^cH at once, and take care 
iliit f'lir reasonnif;.' 'i'iic contrary I, of them and ])Ut them in a course of 
ccruinly cannot be proved, liui we 11 training for future usefulne??. There 
hare nodiinif to do witii the ifs and '' are men of wenlih among them and 
ihe liMt/j ill the i-jufc, NVehave taken \ men of experience, and now they all 
llie broad ground that slavery has ii move «>n s?afrly. 

d«M»»« Mrir.i and the African race, a And yon inuft go to Lidkria, if 
'.', and we believe '; vou would appreciate the full bless- 
. ihe facts! , ings of colonizalioii. You niu."! sln<Jy 

'I'iio question, however, ntill re- '' chcirarttr i/i'rc and rtmipare it with 
mr«, uh;.t i!i'ir<- can we, ought we T character here, in order to ?re what 
»o 1 for this country ? , a redeeming inlluencc tliere is in plac- 

D« : . lids liiat^oiiu-lhing ing them out from under the sha(K)W 

be done. Their condition is far from ' o( the whites, ami in circumstaucca 
coM'f'"' •'■!<•, fven in the free States,; where the fi:ll responsibility of their 
•H'. iniKt favorable circuin- 1 own government and elevation rests 

■lain •- 1.1 t.iis country. I freely eon- ' upt>n themselves. Liberia imparl-'' a 
fc«« 1 can Bcc no prospect ofulli- new tone to the character of the Afri- 
ma' ' ' by liber- c:u\ race, snch as they can get no- 

•»•: .. them to where else, and such as will distin- 

Ujc lr< .• ^ j!. ^. ,\.iil It In.ovvs there- ' guisli thtin wherever titcy go. When 
fore, that I run t^ec no prospect c)f I was in New Orleanc, Home of the 
*1»"^ to that point at ccdonisls who had gmie from Mistin- 

• 1- '.<» be. while they '<ii)pi, returned to see tlieir friends 

'*' Without I and attemi to §ome business, and 

^'' '\<innti'. .1111.11;: them was a prntr/irr, who 

Iv improved in his personal 

1 ,, .: iice, in his language, in hi« 

into and ,' rtresn and address, which showed tliat 

' ' - " ■« '■' hail studied much, and hcen much, 

■ Un had fell new influences opcr- 

* • • • •• ' ■• ^»< .: ii'X upon him, that he rrxprctfil 

lw«t difficulttM to cocvunlcr on . himnrlf^ and he thereby commanded 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 29 

CuloiiisU in America. — An objection answered. 



the respects of olliers. I saw this in 
that coiniminity, in my own church, 
and ainon[^ my elders, for he was in- 
vited to preach on Sahbath night in 
a church on ihe other side of La- 
fay cite square from wiiich mine stood, 
and in wliich I was to preach at the 
same liour, and lo 1 my congregation 
left me, and some of my elders went 
to hear him ! What was it that crea- 
ted this interest ? He felt llic influ- 
ence of freedom ! 

An instance was related to me by 
a friend in Kentucky, which illus- 
trates this idea well. A man by the 
name of Dick Jones had gone from 
that neighborhood, and having resid- ! 
ed four years in Liberia, came back ! 
to tiie county town wliere he had j 
formerly resided, the court was in j 
session at the time, and much anxiety j 
was shown to see Dick and see how i 
he liked Liberia. So they brought 
him among them to have questions j 
asked him. One gentleman inquired, 
" Dick, how do you like living in 
Africa ?'' to which Dick replied that 
he liked very well, and went on to 
give a few items which contributed 
lo this. All felt that the answer was 
a good one, and then a manifest glow 
of pleasure on many countenances. 
After he had ceased speaking, an- 
other gentleman said, " Richard, 
what sort of a government have you 
there ?" To which Richard gave a 
very satisfactory statement of the 
form of government, and the manner 
in which they manage their affairs. 
And then another enquired, " Jones, 
if a white man was with you, in j'our 
house, how would you treat him.'" 
" Oh, sir," said Jones, "we should 
treat him with much respect and in- 
vite him to sit down at the table and 
dine with us !'' The next gentle- 
man who questioned him, said, "Mr. 
JoNF.s !" They had thus insensibly 
to themselves risen from calling him 
Dick, to that of the most respectful 
appellation. 



They saw in him that indepen- 
dence of thought and that manly 
bearing which an American always 
evinces, and they treated him accord- 
ingly. And who does not see that 
this state of feeling is indispensable to 
their true and permanent elevation ! 

But an objection is made to colon- 
ization because the work goes on so 
slowly. We arc asked, if in some 
twenty years you have sent nut about 
5,000 persons, how long will you be 
in sending the 3.000,000 and more 
now in the United States.'' This is 
a question, any person may see, 
that is not solvable in the rule of 
three. It is like the question of the 
Lishman, " if one stove save half 
the wood, will not two save it all !'' 
The Society never proposed to send 
them all. Its past labors have not 
been confined to sending over emi- 
grants alone. Can any objector tell 
what proportion of the means of the 
Society have been expended in the 
purchase of territory, and in making 
preparations in Liberia, which once 
made, will not neetl renewing again ? 
It is like building an immense edifice, 
much of the work is done under 
ground, as it were, in diiming down 
to solid earth and laying firm the 
foundation! 

How long will jt be after the resour- 
ces of Liberia are fully developed, and 
it is shown to be a safe and comfortable 
home for the colored people, before 
they will begin to go there spon- 
taneously .' And who can tell how 
long it will be before they begin to 
go because thej- cannot help it.' The 
inducements there and reasons here for 
their emigrating will be overpowering. 
It will be like it was when Joseph 
went down into Esrypt. He hesita- 
ted, and doubted, and feared a long 
time — but when the wagons came 
for him, he understood the whole 
affoir. He knew the truth of what 
had been told him. The wagons — 
the wagons, coming for him and his 



30 A!«!frAL Mcrrixo or the jiMc»iCA?f colo.mzatiox sociETr. 

far ''''1 ili« quMiion. ' a coral continent — there are a few 

\\ irli ihf I{f|MUl givrn opoitt, and a tfniati ^ailicriiis; of 

lt&- ■ ' -^ ' ■ i^icra, unil lii*re antl ilitie uuinc 

rki ~li patchftf, until (ho cuniineni shall 

«ii I..1 ( ii.i ( oiiH- li-e lip all green with Iruits uitJ 

o\< . iiul are liuini; lluwcis. 

bu»»n«'»>'!» 1 1 ;,!• t.jauil.', that will One ruinilv now mill to Africa, 

•rltlr Uie i|ui>»iuiii. Unc iniiii will will in ilie murine uf liiac increase 

c«i, - "(XJ — and into a whole inbc. 

ail — ^and iliey 1 met a man not long ago, fully 

». 1 .•.tiaciir and ii-- »ix fi-i-l liiifh, wi-arin;; a drab coal, 

•I ' I :i'ii)(il till-Ill — and who u>ked il' 1 did nut know hini, 

l!.< (- will hfgin to and tidd mu thai he nni-d to live in 

oj.< . . \\liai can hin- New Orleans. And then I recognized 

iter llirni irom going there I They the buy, with a tfairhel on hiii arm, 
will find uut what a cuniilry il ia— n whom ^ix or eighi yearH ago I 

•0(1 III the inran lime the country knew in the alreetd uf New Or- 

ll*rir will be improving, and liiete , lean*. Said he, '* they cull me 

will be men there whu will want a Major Wilkinson now. I am a 

college, and odier men who will lie preacher. 1 was down tlietp until 

able to endow it, and wlio will do il, I bonghi myself. 1 pnid $SOU for 

and there is nu liuiil to their inipruve- my free papers'. Tlieii I bought one 

tnvni. hister, and paid fur her. 'I'lieD I 

1 •■ not in a htirry. It i:* went to Illinois, and Cod converted 

m Ml iliat We aUeiid t«> the me, and I bi'can to |>reach. Then 

^u taiitity of our emi- 1 went hack to IS'ew Orleans, and 

gi ;d of i^ruin of real my frieiidM wanted me to preach 

gi . in wurtli mure than a there. Rut the recorder ihou<:lil I 

».'•• . mg no f'i/«/i/i/ in iliem. | had belter iiol preach there, and 

The law ol Its pro o^rcfs IS to be eon- > then I moved to » Ohl Virginny,* 

»iih r< ,1 We want the right i*eed. and 1 am now come to you lo get 

8< ' jt which was Mfte<l for some money to help me to buy my 

01/ - 'id «iul of which this family.'' *• Hut why do you come 

ff rown ! lo me ?'' •• 1 think you feel for the 

A '. I, tiierv is something in colored jieople !" ".Are you an 

!!• '•, wliicli i» important in aliolnioniHt ?" •' Yes, I am '' "Then 

1 .(the \ery wliv do you not i;o lo ihe aholiiion- 

who are i.</»!' I am noi oneof ihrm." •• They 

V- lie. Ilia a V' liuniiiess. will not d«» any thing htr me. 'i'licy 

\\r «»iti |lf Ml' I d'> imM want to j^'ei us idl free at (Mice. I 

W I'l Willi for lh:il tune to come. 

I ' mI then the •toiiih want sumehody 

mil/ to buy all their slaves, and so I goes 

'riiin-i to ihem, as aint on eiilier side." 

») "r at some fu- " Why «lo you not go to Liberia?" 

•«•■ ,! i,.i 11. riiT.- .Siirii-hitig up hllll«rlf lo the full 

■' • :lit, Hitd o|v«ning his big eves, he 

•^ ' ... !,.w I \>|iiimrd. '♦and do you think 1 ic 

*' ' >'i Afrirn going lo espnirinie myself? Why 1 

•' ..,.,,. -•ed' The I nm deKcended from one of the first 

ff* ■ may be slow, like familica in Virginia." 



ANNUAL MKETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 
Resolution and remarks by Rev. A. D. Eddy, D. D, 



31 



This is, sir, but a spocimcn of the 
way in wliich ihey are cleceivetl, and 
a proof of what we have often as- 
serted, that tlie real friends of tlie 
Africans are the colonizationisls, 
and that tliey themselves will find it 
out whenever they are in straitened 
circiinistances. 

I am, thereiore, for j^oing forward 
in tliis great work, trusting in the 
wisdom which comelh down from 
above to order the progress of the 
work in such way as shall be most 
advantageous, and as shall work out 
the (Treat result in the best manner 
possible. 

The Rev. A. D. Eddy, D. D., of 
Newark, N. J., oflered the following 
rei-oliilion ; 

Jieanlved, That every year's ex- 
perience seems to increase our con- 
victions of the value of the princi- 
ples of the Colonization Society, 
and that now embraces the only 
acknowledged method of elevating 
and blessing the colored race. 

Colonization had its origin in 
genuine Christian philanthropy. Its 
conceptions were tliose born of 
philanthropy and of patriotism. The 
development of those principles have 
been seen all along its history. It is 
now no longer a matter of experi- 
ment. It is a fact now. It is his- 
tory. 

What great enterprise has ever 
been achieved witliout strong op- 
position being made to it? But by 
ihe manner in which they have met 
and mastered this opposition, they 
have commended themselves to the 
world. So it has been with coloni- 
zation — treated withdi.«like and con- 
tempt even by those who of all 
others had most interest in it. 

And yet what has it done ? It 
has founded a Kepublic, established 
.'schools and churches, introduced 
Christian morals and education into 
many dark places full of horritl 



cruelty — has opened a highway for 
commerce — has .stricken a deadly 
blow to the slave trade for more than 
300 mile.s_of coast, where formerly it 
raged in the most alarming manner, 
has proved that the African race 
can be elevated, and are capable of 
self-government, and has done more 
for tliem wlierever they are scattered 
over the face of the earth than any 
scheme which has over yet been 
adopted. 

We look over this country and 
over Africa, and there are three 
aspects in which we view the colored 
race. 1st. In a state ol' slavery. 2d. 
Enjoying nominal freedom; and 3d. 
On liie shores of Africa — heathen 
and savage, and deeply degraded. 
And we ask by what principles is it 
proposed to do them all the greatest 
amount of good ? Does not coloni- 
zation embrace the only certain and 
efficient means of elevating and 
Christianizing them as a race ? 

Christianity is a powerful means 
of elevating mankind. What do we 
all owe lo it.' But this alone will 
not do all for the Africans that they 
need. Look at the South for ex- 
ample. There is, perhaps, a large 
propoilion of the slaves in some of 
the Stales who are members of the 
Church than of any other class in 
the country. And yet they are left 
degraded, and will be until their re- 
lations are changed. Look at the 
North ! Can the Africans there rise ? 
Are they rising? Have they risen ? 

Look at Africa! Can the millions 
there be elevated without coloniza- 
tion ? Look at Lil)eria — the.e you 
see real elevation of character, en- 
laigement of mind, and fixedness of 
principle, and all those things which 
mark a state of society rapidly ad- 
vancing from a lower to a higher de- 
gree of refinement. Now what has 
made this difference ? 

Colonization then presents the only 
method of doing them substantial 



3S AMItVAL MCrrtNO OF Tfie AMKttlCAN COU).VI2ATION SOCIETT. 

, .< la C«ii*>]a, (^ . 



It! litUii^ ro4Hl. Dr. WiKuU.'nf 



A 



%» I. If ihc Al'ricnii 

. ■■- Ni-w Jfr»t*y, ill 

.1 New York, Biiil III the Suuiii, 
" ' I iltai ilifre is tn» 
^ tu ilit-iiieiluca- 
' iihiirr III liii I 
I ". Vain 19 ih . 

I ..lii wuuiil alUMiipt Uj 

V ■ 'III lii-rr. Voii may 

■ ri'l.ttioiiit, uiiJ 
I'.f, I'ui w hat IS 
•/« wlmii vou have ^ivcii 
It FK»:i:i>uM ? li' you 
iiuMT carry and olUr il lo ihe 
. w >ulil ihuy acci'pi of il ihis 
•' kiicu all thai helung!) (o 

Il . •■•■■ lo lieKtire, Mime bil- 

let ll • slaviTVi l)Ul when 

Jill il" i.'u' are considercii, iis 

I'fiK ril luavn-.-'i weight is .•.ffii n<»l 
lo l.iil iijHin ihe slave, but npon his 
in-ioU r. 1 tlo lint believe ihut niviiin 
nurily iiiiiiiii:!il frci doiii is ihtt way 
I" ' • * •'»• ■'I'-rii. Siill ihey are un- 
' ■li<l, and have iieithor 

'• rt.Kiiiy lo rife. 

A 1 . e I was travcl- 

'•"i^ • , and desiring lo 

reiiuu ol Ircitioifj, as ihey 

Il in iheir northern fligiit, 

wiiti ihcir eyes fixed on llie |)«dar 

•I'f And I inquired aboul them, 

i'«und that when llier lirsl came 

• ••'••■y were docile and iull(»f hope, 

but souii tlieir aj)|K'araiire clianjjrti, 

'' ' liioyaiiry of ppirils, 

< Ml, unwillitiK lo Mih- 

i;.i ii'.iiratnls of ^oclely 

die Mrhl!<>M->|l><!liMn, and lis a 

■<■ nuni> 
iiiiiiti- 



**»«», Mtl aiiurrd liiciu on. One man 



said to me, after a lonf^ and candid 

>uvcr>>uuon, •' 1 never knew iuii*ery 

..li 1 came to this freedom," and he 

bt'U^ed inc. *' sue out u hocui pocus 

, for him and get him buck." 

I There i^ no advantage grained bv 
t(oint( to Caiiadii. liriiisu phiian- 

t ihro|iy may l)oa*l as loojj us ihey 

■ , the facts in llie ease are all 

I ihem. 

Ijii and sit down with the ctdoretl 

man, and a^k him where I'o \on find 

yiiur best fiaiids f And he vriU icU 

you anions die ci'limizalionists. 

I Does the principle (iroinise all 

; that we think ? Experience ihu."* 
far proves that it does, and nniil 

. I find another iuelhod by wiiicli 
the African can c(nivinco the world 

^ that he is a man, rise lo a standin;^ 

{ ainon^ the most favored of Adam's 
children, and send the lit;hl of civi- 
lization and Christianilv through 
Africa, Ucul forl'itl that I should 
abandon this only ho|ie, on which 

I Heaven has smiled, which embodies 

, the rvlief demanded, and is capable 
ol bemp carried inlo full execiuiiui ! 

' Hut let us test this a little fur- 
ther. I have known a man in New- 
aik, well eduralcd, highly intelli- 
ge.'it, who writes well, anil pu-ise*' 
ses every requisite f«»r a first rate 

I meinbei of society. He tried to in- 
troduce his family into society. 
'I'liey were well niucaled and per- 
fecily j^eiileel in their manners, lie 
tried lo j^et his children inlo the 

, schools in New York and other 
places, but he found it eniirely 
hopeless, and had t«» jjivc it up. 
lie has been Mrtmuly opposed tu 
coloni/ation, but one of his .oons. 
Uvlnxfi Ins dark prospect in this 
iintry, dcterinined to ^o to Liberia, 
.d no sooner had he gained a foot- 
ed there, than he felt the vanluge 
lound on wliicli he alnod, and lie 
' rule home th.it his mind was in a 
ri.ite of peace and hope never known 

4 before. 



AN^'UAL MEETING OF THE AMKRICAX COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 
Origin of Colouizalion — Proposition of Mr. JcBcrson, &.C. 



33 



Wo believe, therefurc, tliat the 
principle is now (ioiiiir :iU that can 
be done wiiii ndvaiitaiie, and that 
enlarged means only are necessary 
to en:ihle ii, under Divine Providence, 
to accompli.*!) ;dl that we (!an reason- 
ably hope i'or. 

Now, with this cause before us, 
throwing liaht upon the future, and 
pleading for the salvation of mil- 
lions, we appeal to the friends of the 
race every where, to come nobly 
up to the work, and render that aid 
which the necessity of the case, so 
eminently demands ! 

The Rev. J. B. Pinney seconded 
the rt'?<)huion and said, that instead 
of iuilf an hour, he wanted three 
hours to say all that was passing in 
his thoughts. 1 have spent many 
years in serving this cause, both in 
this country and in Africa, and as I 
am now on my way to enter on the 
duties of a pastor of a church, and 
seek rest from the arduous and re- 
sponsible duties of an agent, I feel 
my heart kindling while 1 mingle 
with you in these exercises. I do not 
expect to quit this cause ! VVhere- 
ever i am 1 shall plead its merits, and 
hope to add something to its treasury 

Mr. Pinney traced the original 
idea of colonization to Thos. Jeffer- 
son, that sage patriot, and drafter of 
the '■' Declaration of Independence." 
Two years after he penned that me- 
morable document, he prepared a 
draft of the Constitution for the State 
of Virginia, in which he incorpora- 
ted the plan of colonizing the slaves. 

At first slavery was profitable, and 
New England and Old England were 
benefited thereby. Bui Virginia felt 
the curse, and began to fear for the 
result, and said to the mother coun- 
try, give us no more slaves ! Eng- 
land would not hear her remonstiance 
so long as the trade was profitable 
to her manufacturers and commercial 
men. jMr. Jefferson proposed that 
in ten years they should become free 



and be held by the State, and in 
twenty years be sent back to Liberia. 

Some plan of colonization became 
the popular idea in Virginia. In 1S04, 
the Legislature instructed Mr. Mon- 
roe, then governor, to open negotia- 
tions with the President of the Untied 
States, to see what could be done on 
the subject. In 1816, they again acted 
on the subject, and desired the Pre- 
sident to find a home for them in 
Africa, or elsewhere. Mr. Marshall 
proposed that western lands should 
be given for this purpose. Madison 
was a warm friend of the Society, 
jand left it a handsome legacy. Clay, 
land Meade, and Alexander, and thou- 

I sands beside who stand high in the 
] Slate and in the church, became and 
; still are its warm supporters. 

After ten years labor in this cause 

I I am fully persuaded that no other 
plan is so prolific of good. 

Let the Society go forward, it will 
jbe supported. Prayers are not for- 
i gotten in Heaven. Africa will be 
blest. America will be blest for start- 
ing colonization. 

The thing is practicable. Twenty 
thousand paupers from Europe cross 
the Atlantic every year for our coun- 
try. 

But we cannot pretend to follow 
Mr. Pinney in his rapid descriptions, 
in his unanswerable arguments and 
his moving appeals. 

We have given but r meager out- 
line of any of the speeches. 

After Mr. P. had concluded, the 
Society adjourned to meet in the Co- 
lonization liooms, at 12 o'clock, to- 
morrow, for the transaction of busi- 



COLONIZATION RoOMS, Jrtrt. 20, 1S47. 

The Society met, A. G. Phelps, 
Esq., took the chair. The following 



31 nuiCKKoi.xu* or tiic board of DinecToas of the a. c s. 

M««iiae ttt iht Board «t Director* 



uUici:» «rriv r!. rinl ftif l!io rii»uiiiL» * 

rt 



Ho«. 



JIlMtV CLAY. 



'**• 



I 

I - 



J. U 



a. 

S9 1. I. 



.\. Vork, 



.^t*i.iiu«., D. L)., iitsliuj* 



.1 ii,.- 



■ ■ w York, 

of Mississippi, 

Vir^riiiia, 
u< f. L>. L)., of W.isliinfTlon. 
\\*(n">ii«, of .Mi«si48ippi, 
New York city, 

N .w Yolk, 

I, Ol (i.'Oljji.T, 

. of New Jersey, 

"f Yirgiiiiu, 

>Ii>rri*, I]i<ibop of tlie 

\ . of London, 
Iptiia, 

■'<-'• 

> , of Tcnn., 
?! 'ii. cf London, 



ni Itev. Coiirllanti \ an U<-nfselaer, N. J., 

■ I):. II(Ml;:kiii, of Loiiilon, 

n K.v. i:. !i.irtj<*«. U. D.. of Deilhain, 

M 

37 ri. I. of Providence. II. I , 

S» Dr i ;e, of Tje Uiver MilU, 

\ irginia, 
30 (Jen. .Alexander Brown, of Vlrjjinin, 
■10 Maj (I'll. Winfield Srott, Wafhin^ion, 
-II Ui-v. I ho*, t. liomi. U. O.. .N. York, 
■12 Kfv. \. Al. xai.>K-r. IJ D.N. Jersey. 
•13 SAiniK-l Wilktso!!. of New Yoik, 
II T- ii. V Kirn r. ..f Now Jers-y. 
• ' ' i'<'V. of MiMis.«ip5»i, 

U. llrtliune, U.b..of PhiU. 
li ii-\. K (.'. Cinl.T. I). I>.. Pliila., 
■18 Elliot Cressoii.'Esn.of Pliil.ii!.||ihia. 
I'i. iii«, K^q.. New York. 



''.\)od», D.D.. AndOM-r, 



•19 Ans. 
50 H.-\ 
.M 
■I J.>:.;ii:..i II..; . i:«q.. B.itli. Miine. 

• Ucv. J. P. Durhin. I). D . Carlisle. Pa. 
4*J Uev. IJeverly \'.' ' " ^.ou of llic 

M. K. Cl.ur. 
54 U.v. Dr. W. 1: i >. C. 

65 .Mi>Si-S Slirptifi.l, D-illliiiiTr, 

.•jfi John (jriv, Kr.'derirk'<hiir';, Va., 

57 Ui^hop .Mrllvj^in. of Oliio, 

5* Ucv. Dr. i:ili,'.ir, .Nashville, Tcim., 

ftf» U.v. P. I.ii.M.y.D.D.. i\o 

Wi Hon. J. U. riiiicrwofHl, KentiicWr, 

(»l lion. J. W. Huntingdon. Conneciicul. 

1)2 Hon. P. Willi* . riUi,cv. Veriuoiit, 

(»a Hon. C. Maish, \V'o..ii»iock. \'"ruionl, 

«!« Uv.J.J ■ ! '.D.N.Orleans. 

<!■"> H-ii. S. \ lllinoi!.. 

Mi H. L. L.., Alliens, Geo, 

67 Jaiiji-s Lenox, .New Vork. 

AfiiT wliicli ihc Socieiy ailj.mrneil 

to meci on the third Tin'sduy of 

Janimrv, 1S19. 



Vr«((r»in0« ef Ibr B.'arb of Pirrftors 

Wa»iiinut*>v. 7f/fi. l'.», IS 17. 
I ! :r.| iif Dircrinri of iho 
A:i. ( MIoiiizalion Suriely met, 

Bl tho Colonization Konni!*, at 12 
oV|.«-k, .M , arriirdiiii; to adjourn- 
inrni, and wm ronntiluled hy the ap- 
pointmrnt of the Hon. L. Q. C. F.l- 
onT Prraidrni, and tho Kiv. A. D. 
Ijddy MTfelary. 

The He?. .Mr. Wynkoop ofTcrcd 
prtytr. j 



of Ibr .^mrricdn Ci^loni.totiifn JSrorirlQ. 

( Tho followin}; individualii nppraro d 
au DinTlnrs — lion. I. (i. ('. Ml;, .it 

||«nd iho Ri:v. A. D. IMdy. 1). D., 

. friim .Ytw Jersey. 

'; K.v. Joel I».irk.r. I). I).. Archi- 
hald .Mflinyrf, nnd l':uil T. Jones, 

{from Pennitjlvania. 

Hon. W. W. ('..mplx'll and D. M. 
Iloptc, .M. n., from Arir York. 

Ucy. 8. U. Wynkoop, from Dela- 
ware, 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRFXTORS OF THE A. C. S. 



35 



Procecdin"* of the Bowd.— Resolution concerning the slaver " Pons." 



A. G. Phelps, E:jq., E. Cresson, j 
Esq., and Kcv. W. M.-I/iin, life Di- 
rectors. 

William (^untnn, Ulysses Ward, 
oi' tlie Exet'iitive CcuuinitU'e. 

Tlie iniiuites of the last annual 
meeting were read by the Secretary 
of tlie Society, tlie Rev. W. McLaiii. 

The Annual Rkpokt was read by 
the Secretary ; which was coaimilted 
to the Rev. Dr. J'arker, Dr. Reese, 
and Mr. McLain. 

Messrs. Phelps, Jones, and Dr. 
Parker, were appointed to examine 
the 'I'rcasnrer's accounts. 

Adjourned to meet at half {)as'. nine 
o'clock to-morrow morning. 

Wedxesday morxixg, 
9 1 o'clock, Jan. 20, 1847. 

The Board met according to ad- 
j>)nrnaient. 

Present as before, with the addi- 
tion of the Piev. Dr. Janeway, direc- 
tor from A'^cw Jersey, and the Rev. 
J. B. Pinney, a life Director. 

A communication was made to the 
Board, by Mr. McLain, Secretary of 
tlie Society, respecting the present 
condition of the Colony of Liberia, 
and the arrangements which are re- 
quired to be made in view of the 
change in the relations of the colony 
to the Colonization Society. 

The Hon. Jabez Huntingdon, ap- 
peared as a delegate from Connecti- 
exit. 

On motion of the Rev. A. D. Ed- 
dy, the subject introduced by the 



Secretary, Mr. McLain, was referred 
to a Select Committee for considera- 
tion, to report at the present meeting 
as far as practicable. Messrs. Elmer, 
Mclntyrc, and Reese, were appoint- 
ed as the commiitee. 

Dr. James Hall, Secretary of the 
Maryland Coloniz Uion Society, be- 
ing present, was invited to sit with 
the Board, at its present meeting. 
On motion of Dr. Reese — 
Uesolved, That the Correspond- 
ing Secretary be request' d to report 
to. the Board at the afternoon session, 
what legacies to the Society are yet 
unsetth^l, and whether any f'uch are 
in litigation, with such information 
itiereon as may be in possession of 
the Executive Committee. 

On motion of Rev. A. D. Eddy — 
Resolved, That a committee be 
appointed to present a memorial to 
Conoress to secure remuneration for 
the support of the recaptured Afri- 
eans. from the sliip "Pons" landed 
at Monrovia, and if necessary, to 
make efforts to secure a law to meet 
the exigencies of similar cases that 
may occur in future. 

Messrs. Elmer, A. G. Phelps, A. 
D. Eddy, J. B. Pinney, and Cresson, 
were appointed the committee. 

On motion, the Board had a recess 
to meet at the call of the President 
for the purpose of attending the meet- 
ing of the Society. 

After recess, the Board were called 
to order by the President. 

The committee appointed to ex- 
amine the Treasurer's account made 
the following report, which was ac- 
cepted, viz: 



30 raocexoi.xot or thc noiRo or DiREcrons of the a. c. s. 

1^' .i Ci|Ma4itMf 



t V 



=■ S . * a 



-3 C. 






2.<' 



Ml 



.£•>.• 



: r 



Z "^ 

B '= 
«1 






1 



is 



, yj t/ 



c e 



. . - '- 7. ~ <- = I a'Z 

-^ " - ^. - £ ■= •= « ^ a 

'w ;^ c cs o 




— • 



el 

O . 



•c 



19 e 

hi! 



-ci 






PROCEEDIXC.S OF Tilt: BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 
Report of Select Commiltec on relations of Liberia to the A. C. S. 



37 



The Select Comniitlee on the re- 
lations of the Colonization Society 
to the contemplated independent go- 
vernment of Liberia, reported, and 
iheir report was adopted, and is as 
follows — 

The committee to whom was re- 
ferred tiie relations of this Society 
Willi the contemplated Intlependent 
Government in Liberia, report: 'I'hat 
the time does not seem to have come 
when the.se relations can be delinite- 
ly settled. Our latest advices from 
Gov. Jiobcrts, inform us that a ma- 
jority of the people have conchuled, 
but not wiiliout considerable hesita- 
tion and opposition, to become inde- 
pendent, and that the Legislature 
which was to meet during the present 
month of January, would provide for 
calling a convention to adopt a con- 
stitution. It is expected that in i)ur- 
suanceof the suggestion of this Board, 
Commissioners will be appointed by 
the Government of Liberia to ar- 
range with us the future relations 
between that Government and this 
Society : but whether that commis- 
sion will be sent here before a Con- 
stitution of Government is framed 
and submitted to the people, or whe- 
ther a constitution will be first adoj)t- 
ed, we are not informed. Tlie Com- 
mittee are of opinion that it may be 
desirable that this Society and its 
general rights in Liberia, should be 
in some form recognized in the con- 
stitution. They therefore recom- 
mend the adoption by the Board of the 
following resolutions : 

Firs'. That the E.xecutive Com- 
mittee be instructed to suggest, in 
the manner that may be deemed by 
lliem most likely to be acceptable to 
the authorities and people of Liberia, 
that this Board is desirous that com- 
missioners on the part of Jiiberia 
should comchereand have a full and 
free conference vvitli us before a con- 
stitution is framed; and that, in case 
3 



such commissioners should come 
before the next annual meeting of 
the Board, the Executive Committee 
call a special meeting at such time 
and place as they siiall deem most 
expedient. 

Second. That the Committee be 
further instructed to suggest to the 
said authorities and people of Libe- 
ria that, in case they deem it most 
expedient to frame a constitution be- 
fore their commissioners meet us, 
this Board would be pleased to have 
the existing rights of the Society re- 
cognized in the constitution, at the 
same time assuring them that it is our 
earnest desire to lake such a course, 
in reference to our properly in Li- 
beria, and to all our future rela- 
tions with the Government there, as 
will be most acceptable to and most 
promotive of the interest of the 
people. 

Tkircl. That in case circumstances 
shall render it desirable, tiie Execu- 
tive Committee be authorized to ap- 
point a commissioner or commis- 
sioners to Liberia, with full powers 
to settle the future relations of the 
Society with the Government and 
people there, by provisions to be in- 
serted in the constitution to be adopt- 
ed, or by a compact between the So- 
ciety and the authorities organized 
under the new constitution as shall 
be found most expedient. 

L. Q.C.ELMER, 

Chairman. 

The Secretary, agreeable to a re- 
solution of the Board this morning, 
made a full statement relating to un- 
settled legacies made to the Society, 
and the circumstances attending them. 

The committee to wliom was re- 
ferred the Annual Report of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, reported, that 
they had examined the report, and 
expressed their approbation of its 
general character — whereupon ; 



39 



rjU>CUtH50S or TIIK •OARD of niBECTORS OF THE A. C. 8. 



J? l..V'.^ Thii ihr rer"''' be re- 
(eti> I'lxcruiirc Catiiimiuee 

(u( , n. 

The fodnwinf resoluiiun* were 
the IXvv. Mr. Mrl^in, 
■I. liny v« Iff iiriaiiiiucua- 

ly aJopird : 

Whrrrai, wi- Imve lrnrnr«l li.al the 
Rev. J. 11 I'.OIKV. llN* r!•^^llvl•(| M 
■rrrpi ol a |iitMliiial rtiaigc. ami rrlirc 
from llir nriivr ttiitirn or uii :igi-iil ol 
till* Socirl\ ; «ht rrforr. 

Rrtofvrtl, Thai »vi' i!i«'|»ly rogrel 
ihr loi.« ulnch wo *u»utm in \Uv r»*- 
iirrnirni »( our long um\ and irti- 
rirttl nintljtilnr. 

HfohfJ, Thai itic rordial grali- 
liiilr of till* Uoaitl be tcnilcrtd to 
Mr. Pinnrv, fur Ui* rtiiliful and in- 
▼iilu ddi* labom in runncriion widi 
ilii« r:4Ui««*. nnd that ho he assured 
thai (iiir l>cKl ui^iiit'? nllPid him in 
hi* nrw fit- Id of hdior, :iiitl our hope, 
that die lime niny nni he far distant 
\rl»rn with runt'wrd ciuTtry and vi- 
Kor, he wdl aoaiii return tu our nsfis- 
unrc. 

Mesara. Kcrsc and Dr. .'ancway, 
were appointed to nominate ofTiccrs 
for the rn«uin^ year. 

The aHovc romniitteo reported as 
follows: — The Kev. .Mr. .MrLain, 
for Corresponding Secretary aud 
Treaaurer. 

For ihe Kxecuiire Committee, M. 
Ki. C Chrkr. II. hindfly. A. O. 
Dayton, J«hi. II. jlradliy. J. C. Ba- 
oon, William Uuntun, and IJIyasea 
Wan!. 

The report was aiTimliiiL'lv ailopt- 
•d. 

The <- aCP'U'iiril lo pre- 

sent a ni< <» i»ie l'r(-»ident of 



the United States and to Congrrf>!'« 
praying for remuneration for ex|>«-n«e« 

. meurred in tlie luaintenanre of the 
leraplurtd Africans <<ii hoard lite 
slave bliip " roiiB," if., repotted a 
memorial, uliich was niiuniinoiisly 
adopted hy the Board, and tlirerted 
to he prcsenied to the FAtctiiive ami 
to hoth lloiises of Congress. 

[ The commiuee were also contin- 
ued to act ill the eas'e. 

Rrsolvrd. Tliat the thanks uf iIir 
Board of Directors ure due, and are 
herehy tendered to llie Coirenpond- 
inU Secretary and the Kxecutive 
Comuiiilee tu the Inst year, for the 
faithliil nnd ellicicnt performance of 
their duties. 

Itcsolvfd. Tliat the thinks of the 
Board are ilue an<l are herehy tetnler- 
etl to the Hon. I,. Q. C E mer, for 
his valuable services as their presid- 
ing,' ofiicer. ' 

/ft.ioJvcJ, 'i'hai, in tlic caae of the 
will cf the late Mr. William Smart, 
llie Correspondinj; Sccrc'.ary and 
TiCTsiirer, he and ln' hereby in vested 
with lull power aud autlnTity, to 
siifu for, and jifllx the seal of this So- 
ciety to ilu' requiied bond**, on be- 
half of the Aiuerican Colonization 
Society. 

The minutes of the Board were 
read nnd approveel. 

The Board adjourueil to meet the 
third i'liecday of January, IS IN, at 
12 o'clock, .M. 

Concluded with prayer hy ilie Kev. 
M. P.nni.y. 

I., g (• ll.MKU, 

PrrsiJrnt. 
\ I> ri.:.\, Sf,n-I,ir,/. 



THE LIBERIA PACKET. 39 

TLc Liberia Packet — Uimcnsions, &c. — Formation of a Joint Slock Com|iaiiy. 



<£ Ij e C'lbtixa V a c h e t . 



Wii'HiN is a sketch of tlio hull of 
this vessel antl her proposetl spars 
aiui rigy;ui|i^, also a view of a section 
ilirouiih the centre line, and a plan 
of the deck viewed from above, all 
enirraved on wood by Mr. Manning 
of this city. 

The sketch represents the vessel as 
havinjr just rounded to, and let jro her 
anchor oil" llie coast — say at Messu- 
rath) or Cape Pahnas. This mere 
prolile or side view, on so small a 
scale, although actually drawn from 
//"/e, can give but a very imperfect 
idea of the beautiful model of the 
vessel ; yet 'tis enough to demon- 
strate to the practiced eye that she 
is no lugger. Tiie first object in her 
conslnu-tion, was the comfort of the 
emigrants, the next, speed — and 
there can be but little doubt of her 
perfection in botii respects. The 
length of her keel is 112 feet; 
breadth of beam 2o feet; draught of 
water when loaded, 13 feet ; dead 
rise 18 inches; rake of masts 1| in- 
ches to the foot ; she is well but not 
heavily sparred. She has a poop 
deck rising from the main deck 2^ feet 
extending 66 feet, forming the emi- 
grant's cabin ; the floor of which is 
sunk 3^ feet below the main deck, 
leaving 6 feet in the clear. This 
cabin is well lighted and ventilated, 
having windows looking forward in 
the break of the deck, ( well secured 
in rough weather by dead tiirJUs,) 
also stern windows such as are usu- 
ally placed in vessels of her class. 
The companion-way varies from the 
one represented in the section of the 
vessel; it is made like the entrance 
to the main cabin of steamboats, 
open on both sides descending to a 
broad stair, the front part being left 
open for the free admission of air. 
The booby hatch, K, is surrounded 
by glass windows and iron gratings 
that admit of light and air freely. 



Bull's eyes or sky lights will be 
placed in the deck between this and 
the stern, on each side of the deck 
cabin. Two |;atent water closets 
are also placed in this cabin. There 
are II lengths of berths, 4 feet widt; 
each, three tiers on each side witli 
the exception of the siernmost. A 
tank h(jl(ling over 2,000 gallons ex- 
tends through this cabin from the 
keelson to the upper deck. A scutUe 
communicates with the lower hold, 
under which rhe emigrants' provi- 
sions and water is placed. Tlie 
lockers, N, N, under the fore win- 
dows contain their small stores. 

From this brief sketch it must be 
apparent to any one at all acquainted 
with nautical matters, that the accom- 
modations afK>rded by this vessel to 
the emigrants to liiberia, are all thai 
can be desired for their hc.allk or 
comfort^ and second only to those of 
the first class passenger ships. 

The upper cabin for those paving 
their own passage, is placed on the 
poop deck, made and finished in the 
ordinary manner for vessels of her 
class. It is divided into three parts, 
viz : the ladies' cabin aft, with 2 
state rooms, containing 4 berths ; 
the gentlemen's cabin, with 8 0[<en 
berths, and 2 state rooms forward 
for officers and steward. 

This packet is owned by a joint 
stock company, formed under a char- 
ter obtained from the Legislature of 
the state of IMaryland, under tlie ti- 
tle of "The Chesapeake and Liberia 
Trading Company.'' It is most lib- 
eral in all its provisions, allowing the 
Company to extend its capital, if de- 
sirable, to $100,000. 

This charier was obtained in the 
hope and belief, that an amount of 
stock sufficient to put one vessel in 
operation, would be subscribed for 
by colored people of the Uiiited 
States and Liberia ; as such a mea- 



49 



u>£ MkJiMcas o¥ Tiu amuucan «:utoxiXATio?r s«x:iLTr. 

. Aac»*4y, rontlilaud in IMS. 



•are wouM U*n<l qiiirh lo ditahiise ' 
Ui« luiiiJ* (M lite culorvil |ipo|)tt! nf 
llita roiiiiuy iif llic I'uUr iiii|irci>aioil« 
whirit ihey have licTtMufurw cnirr- 
tainrO with r^c^ril i*> l<i)>crin, nikI 
brini; ihrin atvl llirir ir:iii««llHiilic 
brrilircii nejrcr u»5«tlic«r. — Tlii* hope 
hoMrtrr. Iia* not br«*ii lully realized. 
Ma ' llip colort-il |»eO()le wlio 

«irr iii>u« to have (lie lliiiii; 

:. iMva (lerlineJ makiiitf 
r •u'torrtpltuiis 1111(1 tlio re- 
•utl itas >>ccil a iiul>i«('ri|>lioi) lor a iiia- 
j'>rt«v «»f tlif »lo»-k n«'reK>ary ftir 
tlic l'.ick«-l by several xvliiit- 
II I'uvorablL- !•) llie Hclieiiie. 
All •mh mib'rrip'UHis, however, are 
iiiatie «»n tlie coiuliiioii of a translVr 
of me KMim- ai im l.tir iiiurkel vaUie 
when It Bhall be tlcHireJ by any 
colored person, either in (he United 
tfiatrtor I-iImti.i. The whoh* aninuni 
(if funds uri^inally ubiained on hii!>- 
•cription l<» the "Cape i*aliiia«> Pack- 
et," Ilia been inveAted in the tflnek 
(tf thi« Company, in the name of die 
Maryland State Colunizaiion So- 
ciety, B» it \\a» believed tlie (iresent 
plan would prove equally advanta- ' 
geouA to the Society in it)< general 
reiulis and more ccononiiral. A 
very librnl Buhsrription has been 
made in advance by several pronii- 
nrnl citixena of Liberia, which we 
doubt not will be inneaned un the 
(inl voyage nf the Packet to (he , 
•mount detirrd, viz : (me-half of her ' 
value. It ia intended U) keep the veaael , 



ninniii^ rejfii'wrly between tJie pons 
of It.tliiniori- ami Norfolk, and ihu 
i»evcriil Liberia colonies, making two, 
lliree, or even four voyages a year, de- 
pending in a pfeat mea>»iire upon the 
ainotiiilof frei>;ht or einivranis offered 
by the Colonization Socieiiep. 

It is not intended to take freight 
fur oilier particii, unless the Miwsion- 
nry S<)rielie8 having station)* in the 
colonies, mIiouIiI see lit to guarantee 
a certain ainoiim of fit-ight annually, 
as the Coloiiizalioi) Societies have 
done, in which case, the same facili- 
ties for regular hhipmenis would be 
granted them. Cabin passengers, to 
ilie exieiil of (lie uccoinmodutions, 
will be taken at tlie Ui'uul lale.s, aiul 
every alteiiiioii paid to tlieir rtuive- 
nience and comfort. The under of- 
ficers and ciew of the vessel will be 
colored men, and it is iiilended to 
put her in churge of a colored man aH 
master, h** soon as one coiupiMeiit can 
lie found. Letters and packages 
will always receive ulleiilion. and 
be delivered as directed, if practica- 
ble. 

The vessel is under contract to be 
launched by the first of November, 
and there is no doubt of her beinjj 
ready for sea by the loth. 

All cominiinicalions relative to the 
Packet or tlie Company may be ad- 
dressed to 

JAMKS HALL. 

A/iuin;^iii^ ,1gent. 
Uai.ti.moiie, October 20, 1S46. 



fifj iV(mbrt« pf tbr Amtriran CoUiiii alien ^Scfiflp, 

lOSiTITUTIlIJ IN I3l<>. 

Witlbm li. IIubHird, K<u| . Uich- Hampshire; Mrs. Emcline Kuck- 

inoail, V«.; Il<»n. P. Wluic, Putney, well, Norwich, Connecticut ; Thos. 

Vrrmunt, Zina Hyde, i:..| , lUih, McMullcn, Ksq., Albany. New York ; 

M*in«; T. W.Uillis, Y\%<\ , .Naah- hiael .Scarle, P.mj , Southampton, 

UB. Nrw H»<np«hire: .Mim ILirrict .Massarhusrtis: Dr. J. C. Uichard- 

lltrb'jtbi, U«*ion, Maat , Uev. Jithn son, Fnyettc, Kentucky: Daniel 
M. C. Usnlry. IUiop«lcsJ, Ncwl Fry, Esq., AlUiny, New York ; Pea. 



SECOND VOYAGE IJBERIA PACKET.— EXPEDITION FROM SAVANNAH. GA. 43 
Second Voyage of thp Libeiia Packet — Expedition from Sarannali, Georgia. 



T. Walker, RockviUe, iM;iss.-, Har- 
vey Biililwiii, Esq., Iliulson, Ohio; 
IMrs. Pr-rses Bell, Cliestcr, New 
Hampshire; Mrs. R. W. Francis, 
and Prof. Geo. VV. Reneciict, Burling- 
Von, Vcrtnont; Rev. G. h. Brow- 
nell, Sharon, Connecticnl; Joseph 
S. Fav, Esq., and Noble A. Har- 
dee, Esq., Savannah, Georgia; A. 
Knapp, Esq., and A.Gascoigne, Mo- 
bile, Alabama; Miss Elizabeth Ber- 
tram, Jamaica, New York; Dean 
AValker, East Medway, Mass.; Mrs. 
C. P. Hall, Dayton. Ohio; J. Early 
E«q., Im Porte, Indiana ; Samuel 
Organ, Esq,, La Porte, Indiana; Ja- 
mb Fuller, senior, Esq., Lexington, 
Viriiinia; Mosps Kitlriclge, St. 
Johnsbnry, Vermont; Rev. Benja- 
min R. Allen, South Berwick, Me.; 



Erastus C. Scranton, Esq., INIadison, 
Gonncctirut ; J. H. Scranton, Esq., 
Aiignsta, Georgia ; Peter Smiih IIol- 
loway, Esq.. Henderson County, 
Kentucky; Rev. B. H. Williams, 
Natchez, AFississippi ; Mrs. Eliza 
Smith, Carlisle, Massachusetts ; Rev. 
John Gretter, Greeensbnro\ North 
Carolina ; Mrs. Maitlia Boggs, Wal- 
nut Hill, Indiana; Rev. William 
Wilson, Cincinnati, Oliio ; R. W. 
Keys, Esq., Cjncinnati, Ohio ; Alex. 
Guy, Esq., Cinrinnati, Ohio; Mrs. 
Hannah, Pittsburg, Penn.; Rev. H. 
McMillan, Xenia, Ohio ; William 
Bixby, Esq., Francistown, N. H.; 
Isaac Shelby, Esq., Lexington, Ky.; 
Rev. R. F. Caldwell, Sharpsburg, 
Ky.; Rev. William Cox, Lancaster, 
Ohio. 



JS-crojift Voi)a(\c of tljc fibcria jacket. 
The Liberia Packet will sail on her |] doubtless be able to give first rate ac- 
second voyage, from Norfolk, Va., for commodations to all emigrants who 
Monrovia and other ports in Liberia, ' may be ready to go at that time. We 
about the 1st of May, or as soon after , give this timely notice in order that 
lier return from her present voyage |i there may be no disappointment when 
:is she can be gotten ready. She will !: the day arrives. 



dp cliiti an frciit .$• lU' a u n a t), (Scorflin. 



IMany of our friends in Georgia are 
anxious that we should send a vessel 
from Savannali, to sail about the first 
of April next for Liberia. We there- 
fore "ive notice that a vessel will sail 



justify our incurring the expense. If 
SIXTY persons are offered, ccrfain^ 
we will dispatch the vessel. From 
what our agent, the Rev. Thomas C. 
Benning, and others, write us, we 



from Savannah on the first day of 1; think there is but little dou!)t that 
April, or as soon thereafter as there ; number will be ready, 
shall be emigrants ready, sufliicientto i' 



CONSTITUTION 

OF 

THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



"Jrticle 1. This Society shall be called 'The American Colonization Society.' 

"Art. 2. The object to which its attention is to be exclusively directed is, to pro- 
mote and execute a plan for colonizing, with their own consent, the free people of 
color residing in our country, in Africa, or such other place as Congress shall deem 
expedient. And the Society shall act, to effect this object, in co-operation with the 
General Government and such of the States as may adopt regulations on the subject. 

" jlrt. 3. Every citizen of the United States who shall have paid to the funds of the 
Society the sum of one dollar, shall be a member of the Society for one year from the 
time of such payment. Any citizen who sliall have paid the sum of thirty dollars, shall 
be a member for life. And any citizen paying the sum of one thousand dollars, shall 
be a Director for life. Foreigners may be made members by vote of the Society or of 
the Directors., 

"jirt. 4. The Society shall meet annually at Washington on the third Tuesday in 
January, and at such other times and places as they shall direct. At the annual meet- 
ing, a President and Vice Presidents shall be chosen, who shall perform the duties ap- 
propriate to those ofilces. 

"Arl. 5. There shall be a Board of Directors, composed of the Directors for life 
and of Delegates from the several State Societies and societies for the District of Co- 
lumbia and Territories of the United States. Each of such societies shall be entitled 
to one Delegate for every five hundred dollars paid into the treasury of this Society 
within the year previous to the annual meeting. 

" jlrt. 6. The Board shall annually appoint a Secretary, a Treasurer, and an Executive 
Committee of seven persons; all of whom shall, ex officio, be honorary members of the 
Board, having a rie;ht to be present at its meetings and to take part in the transaction of 
its business ; but they shall not vote, except as provided in article 7. 

"^ri. 7. The Board of Directors shall meet annually in Washington, immediately 
after the annual meeting of the Society, and at such other times and places as it shall 
appoint, or at the request of the Executive Committee. Seven Directors shall form a 
quorum. But if, at any annual meeting, or meeting regularly called, a less number be 
in attendance, then five members of the Executive Committee, with such Directors, not 
less than four, as may be present, shall constitute a Board, and have competent authori- 
ty to transact any business of the Society ; provided, however, that the Board thus 
constituted shall carry no question unless the vote be unanimous. 

" jlrt. 8. The Executive Committee shall meet according to its own appointment, or 
at the call of the Secretary. This Committee shall have discretionary power to trans- 
act the business of the Society, subject only to such limitations as are found in its 
charter, in this Constitution, and in the votes that have been passed, or may hereafter 
be passed, by the Board of Directorj. The Secretary and Treasurer shall be members 
of the Committee ex officio, with the right to deliberate, but not to vote. The Commit- 
tee is authorized to fill all vacancies in its own body; to appoint a Secretary or Trea- 
surer whenever such offices are vacant; and to appoint and direct such agents as may 
be necessary for the service ofthe Society. At every annual meeting, the Committee 
shall report their doings to the Society, and to the Board of Directors. 

^' Art.9. This Constitution may be amended, upon a proposition to that effect by 
any of the societies represented in the Board of Directors, transmitted to the Secretary, 
and published in the official paper of the Society, three months before the annual 
meeting; provided such amendment receive the sanction of two-thirds of the Board at 
its next annual meeting." 



AX ACT OF THE LEGISLATURE OF MARYLAND, 

PASS El) MAItL II •>->, 1H37, 

* ' wf/i act to Incorporate the .American Colonization Society."'* 

. .. ^T »n a-t ,-.f tl:f Hrnrral A««rn » !v .,f Mirvlnn,!, rntitlcd « ,1i\ art to Incoiyo- 



uiii alleged omusioiu ou the part of Mid 



I \V. ^^catoll, ol ' 



.iSo- 
•., to- 
., by 
.11 be. 



.1.1 iii.i) lia\ c ai. 

i( , aiitl ^llall ha\ 

i ulhcrwisc, any 1 

utliiT act ul* any pcntoii 

nT•^■ Mtm or 'itTir" of ii. 



>Mcl», a* tlicy shall licU-i-niinc to be most conducive In tli' 
i;t, in Afrt'-a, "t'lJu- Irce |jco|)lc ofcolur residiof; in the L'l . 

' r ; and a» soon aflcr llie passaf^c of link ail a» 
tiny <ir a majorily of ihcui present may deem 

'■ 'Million, by-laws, ordinani-is, and r(; ' •• 

: r llic orf^ani/.atioii of the said i^ocicty ; and to repeal, all ' 

■ ' p Uii- limes of mectinfr, the qualirications .tii.I ti ii;ii of i.. 

: U and decdii as Ihcy uliall d<-tni i i recuLuiie ui'id 

I tlie ^ald boily eor|K)rate : Provai , that the Consti- 

-. ..... .^uicaud of the Lulled Slates, and u.., ^ i ui .Vucmbty, be not 

y. 

)t itrtxnrtrii, Tlsat fir the object ■forc'ai.l all pi^ Ifilv. r.^il. prr*onal and 

ill ripbts, .1 :,d, held or 

and alt m. !i1i. andde- 

... J. I leafier be i.,-\ ... ' • ' , said 

1 4 red lo vest in ihe saii suc- 

(::tvr, circniil.j li3\r \. . . and 



'.y 111 the I 
ir», or the \ 



liall forever 
, the yearly 
■ '( Hi inucii 



) .V««embly 

n huidrrd 

~tr, to the 

i llie rifrhls 



t Ul al Ml} 
kc^ilr. 



"1 I \) iLl saiJ ptjuui.oi ail) ol tLu4i, urto 

1 '■ "xltbriHiwrcniandprivilrKri irrantcd thercbr, 

tvfcalol, muOilicd aaMiaMl or cluiiged, at iLo diKrcUou of the General 



Z' 



THIRTY-FIRST 



ANNUAL REPORT 






WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 



AND OF THE 



u' 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 



JANUARY 18, 1841 



WASHINGTON: 

C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER^ 

NEAR WAR AND NAVY DEPARTUEHTSi 

1848. 



THIRTY-FIRST 



ANNUAL REPORT 



iiiaSMim (B(DlL(DlMiiM®l!I ^(D^MIJII, 



WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 



<\ 



\X (K 



''W'^ 



AND OF THK 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 



JA NU ARY 18, 1848. 



WASHINGTON: 

C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER, 

NEAR WAR AND NAVY DEPARTMENTS. 

1848. 



CONTENTS. 



Annual Report of the American Colonization Society 5 

Preparations for, and deciardtion of, lndej)endence of Liberia 6 

Prospective f^rowtli of Liberia 7 

This result plea-iin^ to early friomls — and the citizens of Liberia 8 

Impressions made on the colored people in the United Slates by Declaration of 

Independence 9 

Condition of colored people here, will induce them to go to Liberia 10 

Dr. Roberts and Dr. Smith — Purchase of Territory 11 

Purchase of Territory — N^ew Cesters — Slavers 12 

Colonization the only means of ?topnin°^ the .slave trade 13 

The Pons recaptives— claim against trie U. S. Government for supporting — Receipts 

and Expenditures 14 

Death of Dr. Tenney, and Hon. Mr. Huntingdon If) 

Favorable appearances — Liberia Packet 16 

Expedition sailed from New Orleans, 129 emigrants, expenses of , 17 

310 emigrants to be sent out — Great need of I'umls 18 

SoO.OOO needed — Annual Meeting of the Society — Mr. Dayton's speech 19 

Speech of Hon. H. Clay — Formation of the Society 20 

The Society has had to encounter difficulties 21 

The separation of the two races, necessary to their mutual happiness 22 

It is possible to transport the whole colored population 23 

Liberia compared with Jamestown and Plymouth. — All great enterprises have had 

small beginnings 24 

The General Government or the States may aid. — Difficulties in the way of colored 

people remaining in the United States 25 

No other means so good as Colonization 2fi 

The society congratulated on the past achievements 27 

Resolutions adopted. — Officers of the Society elected 28 

Board of Directors —Members present — Committees appointed 29 

Treasurer's Report, Receipts and Expenditures, approved by the Auditing Com- 
mittee , 30 

Secretary and Treasurer and Executive Committee elected— Resolutions 31 

Auxiliary Societies urged to increase their efforts and enlarge their contributions to 

the Treasury — Adjournment 32 

Appendix. — Information about going to Liberia 33 

Land given each emigrant— Schools — Aid given by the Society 34 

How to make a living in Liberia — Health 35 

The grand motive forgoing to Liberia.' 36 

The importance to every emigrant of being correctly informed in regard to their 

prospects 37 

Emigrants must expect to begin life for themselves — They must not depend upon 

the Colonization Society ." 38 

On their arrival in Liberia they are invested with all the rights of citizens.. 39 

The importance of educating their children '. 40 

Information — how to be obtained 41 

The natives bound by treaties to abandon forever all participation in the slave trade 42 

The soil produces abundantly — Difficulty of convincing: colored people 43 

They cannot hope for a permanent home in this country ^ 44 

The Government of Liberia considered as firmly established 45 

Declaration of Independence 46 

Appeal to the nations of the world. — Declaration of Rights 47 

Manner of Elections — Powers of Government — Liberty of the Press 48 

Senators and Representatives — qualifications ^ 49 

President, Vice President, and Secretaries , 50 

Judicial Uepartment. — Miscellaneous Provisions ^ 51 

The Legislature shall make no law prohibiting emigration 52 

The Constitution submitted to the people. — Insignia of the Republic of Liberia. 53 

J. J. Roberts' Inaugural .\ddress ^ 54 

Settlement of the Colony. — Intercourse and difficulties with British traders.. 55 
The intention of the Colonization Society to prosecute its work as vigorously as 

heretofore ^ . .^ 56 

Population of Liberia proper. — Capabilities of colored peoplefor self-government. 57 
The people of Liberia have not acted rashly or unadvisedly, with respect to their 

indepenilence 58 

The redemption of Africa 59 

Appeal to the citizens of the Republic of Liberia .60 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Thirty-one years ago, the Ame- ' 

RICAN CoLOMZATION SociETY WaS 

organized and commenced its labors 
in the cause of humanity. 

Twenty-five years ago, the first 
company of emigrants landed on Cape 
Montserado, to seek a home for them- 
selves and their children. 

Six months ago, the citizens of 
that colony organized the Republic 
OF Liberia, adopting a constitu- 
tion and announcing to the world 
their independence ! And now we 
meet to celebrate, as it were, the first 
anniversary of that infant nation, 
standing in lonely beauty on the Af- 
rican coast! 

In reviewing the transactions p»'| 
the past year, and entering upov the : 
labors of the present, we ars' called 
upon to present our gratitu(^e to the 
Great Ruler among the i^ations, for 
the distinguished favors which he 
has shown to our enterprise. Through 
his abundant goodness we are per- 
mitted to look to the past with feel- 
ings of pleasure, and to the future 
with anticipations of hope and en- 
couragement ! 



The history of the past year is re- 
plete with events, in themselves of 
imposing magnitude, which are the 
more remarkable by the vast influence 
which they may hereafter exert in 
the fortunes of the whole African 
race. During this period, the unique 
political system, or elements of po- 
litical power, which had been for 
years growing up op the western 
coast of Africa, ha? put on, for the 
first time, the* form, and assumed the 
character, *vhich it is likely to wear 
for cepturies to come. The early 
histo/y? and the peculiar manner of 
tlv formation of the Republic of Li- 
beria, will doubtless be regarded 
hereafter as one of the most extra- 
ordinary, as well as fortunate, events 
of modern times. The principles 
and the policy have been totally un- 
like those which have in all other 
instances resulted in the planting of 
colonies, and the erection of States. 
For nearly one-third of a century 
the American Colonization Society 
had been laboring to elevate a portion 
of the colored race from their de- 
pressed condition, to accustom them 



L »mfO«T or THE AMUUC1.X COLOXIZATIO.X sik M 



ihfin wi :iiuiiUon ul Uic Socuiy lo 

. I .. i.ifj uikUt which ihi-y l:i- 

()reil, anil proposiog a« a remeily 
. », ntiJ •omo change in their political organi- 
• ••'""" /aiiiin. 

Accordinely, the Boanl of Direc- 
luary, IHIG, 
~ to usiiuaie 



I. 



great « 11 il»e rcuponaibililies of their gov- 

bound logelhvr by ernin.nt, andhfcomc, to all iuu-nts 

\r% of unloii. and piirposee, an independent nation. 

wiihio llu-m ')'•» this proposition, ihcy, afier 

lomc r,.fn , •. ..tiinato of U>o nalur. mnrh d.rliberalion, yielded assent.— 

rc« of the duties dt- To elV.ct it, con«idtraMe changes iii 

ihfin. This process their affairs were lequisite. in making 

h.a r on, until there ap- which llie intervening time has been 

pru. . . ...,.r the colonist* suf- spent. 

licani in md virtue to con- i, In July last, a convention of dele- 

duct Uieir o«n public affairs with L'aies elected by the people met in 

honor and ndvanlage. Monrovia, and after twrniy-one days 

T',..r. W.M, M.O some thin^ ex- ' "f ^Icliberation adopted the form of a 

IHcuUr condition, and' constitution which was submitted to 

to t^e Unding govern- 1 '»'« vote of the citizens m September. 

world. wl..h .eemed «"J ^ns with great unanimity adopt- 

. d. This constimiion reflects upon 

•li, 111 the higiicsi honor. The new 

p^i,Me' to their futur« „f ihe Republic was hoisted, and 

.ir independence declared and cele- 



an.! 

jy ^ ; _ lir lied, Willi appropri:it<> ceremonies. 

3mh«.riuw of Libefi* any riirhl toiit^e past year. Uien, may bo con- 

' ■ ' ich when the 

,„, uinril its prn- 

on whirti oUiert should hold- 1 >n.l i^rmanent position in the 

e„- • ■ ' woildl 

,1, doubt* should be hazzarded 

iiipitsed by ihelawK whether these xneasurea arc not 
ui U .ciiA uxi ^uoUa brought into her if — wlieiher the institutions 

J , ;, .i\L' he'-n thui" eiinblishcd are 

. r ih«M oireumsiancrs, ihe di manded by the cireumsuincos and 
\ ' '.^icir ^t■l>•ion in •triiMly ronformablr lo the state of 

J a la resuluiion, soriety and the character and con- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AM.ERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Prospective growth of Liberia. 



^r^ 



dhion of the peoi)le, and that tliey II past history of the enterprise to its 



cannot therefore be permanent? We 
can only hope that the same causes 
which luive proilueed these effects, 



present position, we may confidently 
anticipate it. To doubt, therefore, is 
unnecessarily to look on the dark 



will continue to display thairefTicien- ! side of the possible future, and appa- 
cv. Circumstances have all con- I rently to nip in the bud the brilliant 



spired to call for their independence. 
We therefore hope that their institu- 
tions may be found sufTiciently well 
adapted to their situation and capa- 
cities to go quietly into practice. In 



promise of this young Republic. 

It cannot of course be anticipated, 
from present appearances, that they 
will enter immediately upon a career 
as splendid as that which the United 



that case, we need not wish for any i Stales have been pursuing; but, with- 
thing better, as our own experience ! out doing all that we have done and, 
amply proves. They have had the I are likely to do, they may still ac- 
good sense to copy after the most ij complish much. Their character and 



nia£:nificent form of Government 
which the world has ever beheld! 
The institutions which have been 
the sources of so much happiness to 
!he citizens of the United States 
!;ave been the models for the forma- 
tion of theirs. As far as their circum- 
stances rendered possible, they have 
adopted the forms of government 
which exist in our own country ! 

They may therefore be expected 
to follow us, with perhaps a faltering 
step, and at a considerable distance, 
''proxirmis huic, Ion go sed proxi- 
rnits intervallo^'" in the brilliant 



institutions are founded substantially 
on the steadfast and immoveable rock 
of truth ; and if the strong induce- 
ment to private virtue held out by 
their position only prevails on them 
to do what they know well enough 
to be their duty, the gseatest practi- 
cable amount of good will be the re- 
sult. 

They inhabit a country almost 
boundless in extent. They cultivate 
a soil rich in all the most valuable 
productions of the earth. They con- 
trol the resources of a commerce of 
immense value to aJi other nations. 



career which we have been pursu- ll They have churches and schools, 
ing! They may increase in virtue |' and the opportunities of social inter- 



and intelligence — advance in popu- 
lation, wealth, and commerce, and 
establish a prosperous, tranquil, and 



course and tlic means of intellectual 
improverae-'it. Under the operation 
or such s state of things, their char- 



well governed Republic, which may actor .-ind morals must be improved, 
ultimately give political character il until they assume their proper rank 
and importance to the whole confi-|tin the human race, as rational beings, 
ncntof Africa. All this is yet wholly I Their faculties will be developed, 
infiituro^ and but imperfectly fore- ' their hearts enlarged, and their spirits 
shadowed. But reasoning from the gladdened and refreshed; and, accord- 



AVViiAL ncroftT or Tiie amuucaji colomzation Bocirrr. 



iaf U> the mruurc of their rapaciucs, 
ihfv " ' -i.iuc virtuouB and happy. 

> - ituruf ihecirruinsiaiicei) 

tod aol«ripaUon« which led the Hoard 
of Dirrrlur* lu rrcomnuMK), and the 
ritixrua u( Liberia to ii»»uii!(>, their 
prrMTUl oalional character. 

To the early friend* ami l^ur^lll^ 
of till* enterprise, the priM-nl ribult 
must be exceedingly giatifying, as a 
partial realization of their fundcst 
hope*. They undertook the work 
in great fear and trcmblinrj. It waa 

• thankle»«, and seemed almost nn 
hopelcM tAsk. They labored amid 
diacour.igements, and breasted the 
most appalling obstacles. Amid 
scenes the most tryinjj and days the 
most dark they persevered, unwil- 
Un|( to relinquibh hope, and yet un- 
checrod by any brilliant promise. — 
Many of tlieir ftllowlaborcrs became 
ducnuraged and gave up in despair. 
Somf turned their hands against tliem, i 
and front havingbeenwarinestfriends, 
bccatuc btiierest «neinie8. Opposi- 
tion arose from every quarter, and 

'1 as both im- 

j .It WAS at 

length pronounced hy many platform 

■ rs, to be 

pl)^ii!lJ- 

litjr of ■ resurrection ! 

Hut amid all tliDie (o«((,|,(r u\,. 
•laeles, it had a ft w frienii* who, 
Willi a eourvge alnuMit superliuiqnn, 
and a zeal •' 11 prai»f, 

■i'>od by It, (t . . iiial and 

• icfiflre, with labor and lil>erelity, 

I 

Acre,' 



hare not lived to see the present day. 
They have rested from their labors. 

To those who survive, of whom 
the most (listin;^uished is now presi- 
dent, we teyder our warmest thankf, 
our heartfelt acknowledgments, and 
we congiaiulale them on beholding 
the result of their labors ir. the pre- 
sent developed manhood of the child 
of their prayers and their Iiojkjs 1 — 
They bore the burden and the heat of 
the day, and wc, who are younger in 
the field, have, as it were, eiilcred 
inlo their labors, and are i)ermillcd 
to rejoice with them, as we behold 
the beautiful structure which has 
arisen in Africa as u monument to 
their praise,' 

We cannot, in this connection, re- 
frain from paying a tribute to the 
early selders of Liberia. When iliey 
look back to their first landing on the 
heights of Monlserado to lay their 
destinies there, and remember the 
many dark hours of their trial, and 
the long years of their toils, the perils 
they cncounleied, and the alllictions 
they have fell, it must be sweet 
to reflect upon their present quiet 
homes and organized nationality. — 
.May the ptoud satibfaclion w hich they 
ii.iii^rally feel, at seeing themselves 
[:u^(■(l to u commanding height 
among the nations of tlie world, be 
tempered with a sentiment of awe, 
while they consider the immense rc- 
"ponsibdily, the grave and sacred 
du'.jvs, involved in the exercise of so 
much powrr ! 

The impression made in this 
cotintry and eUewlirrc by the Dt- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Impressions made on the colored people in the United States by Declaration of Independence. 



CLARATION of the INDEPENDENCE of 

Liberia, is, and will continue to be, 
of immense value to the cause of Co- 
lonization. Already among the co- 
lored people has a most favorable ef- 
fect been produced. A convention 
of between seven and eight liundred 
of them, in Illinois, has selected one 
of their number, and authorised him 
to go to Liberia as their agent, and 
return and report the facts to them. 
In the city of New York another 
mission has been appointed for a 
similar purpose. And, although it 
is but a short time since the Consti- 
tution of Liberia was published in 
this countr)^ we have learned tliat 
in many places it has called forth the 
approbation of the more intelligent 
among them, and that a determina- 
tion to emigrate and become a part 
of that free and happy community, is 
beginning to prevail. 

It may appear rather strange tliat 
it should be so, and yet it is a fact, 
that, among many of the colored peo- 
ple themselves, there has prevailed 
the greatest doubts whether they 
tvere capable, under the most favor- 
able circumstances, of governing 
themselves, and whether Africa 
could ever be made to afford to her 
children a safe retreat from the ills 
which betide them. To all such, the 
result of the experiment already made 
comes with cheering influence. It 
is like the sunlight of truth breaking 
forth in gentle beams, and writing 
above their depression, " Arise, shine, 
for thy light is come, and the glory 
of the Lord is risen upon thee.'' 



This work of conviction and con- 
version among the colored people in 
the free States, must go on until the 
tide of emigration sets in towards 
Liberia witli great force. 

Circumstances existing at present, 
touching their position and prospects 
in the United States, will undoubted- 
ly hasten their decisions, and con- 
vince them of their only rational 
policy. 

All the developments of society in 
this country are rapidly establishing 
the truth of the policy of the Ameri- 
can Colonization Society, that the 
most feasible way to elevate the Af- 
rican race, and to bestow upon them 
those civil, social, and political privi- 
leges wliichare the inalienable birth- 
right of mankind, is to separate them 
from the overshadowing influence of 
a stronger and more intelligent race, 
and place them in a situation where, 
free as the air they breathe, and un- 
trammelled as the bold eagle in mid 
heaven, they may start in the career 
of personal improvement. As far as 
we can ascertain or understand the 
indications of the times, the free 
States are becoming every year more 
fixed and setded in their policy of 
prohibiting the introduction of color- 
ed people from the slave States, and 
of preventing those already in them 
from rising to a participation in any 
of the privileges of citizenship. We 
say not that this policy is wise or 
right. But simply, that it is a fixed 
fact, which cannot be changed until 
society is completely revolutionized 
in its modes of thought and feeling. 



10 



rrsiHTot THI t\irBl('%\ ( 1)1 IIXIZATION SOCIETY. 



Conrroiinn uf the Siaie o( lllinow, 

««■• - • • 

p, 

lor iruin MtUiag 

|.r 

•1- 

or ihc rrtuli oi the iaie riloti to al- 

low ilirm to vote in New York, 

uluili w«s |u«t by an uvcrw lulining 

mijority ; or, in Connecticut, where 

it « — -.-■■ ' ' - ; by four to one.-— 

'Ml ■ . i« not here. Kea- 

»unabio and uiiiiKirg men every 

where among theiu. uic begianiug to 

•e« and frel the true su.c of the case. 

A» liiey become more enlightened, 

they will »co and I'lcl this state of 

il.mca more deeply ', and if, iu these 

rir "f, wc can eliow them 

ll... I IS a desirable place lor 

liiem. far removed from all these em- 
b»; : be convinced 

tl. It) to emigiate. 

\\ . lently believe 

U.I inds 

of I ,. -- :.- iund, 

fiayinir ilieir own cipeDsea, and 
be- .low. 

1; <^ . for a moment 

10 be imat^incd, that, because Liberia 
luk> ni, the work of 

Cu'..-. ;.»c to a conclu- 

•ion. By Ho meant. Henceforth the 
C. 

•«»' -. - 

of as hercU»forr. the (tlantrr and pro* 

nov ..., - . 

•idtti lo iDc«t Uit loeremsed ic*iK}nai> 



ics of her position. Her inde- 
aUui eharucier places her eluinis 
to our sympathies^ u|)on new (^lound. 
*■"'{• needs more men in all the de- 
.iittMiis of her governmeul, in all 
liranches of her industry, in all 
i-hannels of her commerce, in all 
r churches and her schools. These 
men must, for the present, mainly be 
sent from this country. Mott of 
them are destitute of means to defray 
iheir own expenses. The Society 
must raise the money and aid them 
I to (he full extent of their necessities. 
As far as all the appropriate duties of 
Colonization are ronrerned, the So- 
ciety stands related to Liberia in pre- 
cisely the same situation that it did 
before their independence was de- 
clared. It is, by this measure, re- 
lieved from the appointment of the 
, Governor, and the payment of his 
salary, and other expenses connected 
with the administration of the go- 
vernment; and thus it will be en- 
abled to apply its funds more direct- 
:ly to the sending out of emigrants 
and thfir support during the period 
of their acclimation. It will con- 
tinue to sympathise with the citizens 
of Libciia in all their trials, to aid 
iliem in all their noble endeavors to 
do good, and to hcnd forth, to tiie 
full extent of its means, eim^runis to 
he incorporated into the iU-public of 
n:i, upon the same terms, and 

; the aamc rights and privileges, 

UB haw heretofore been the case. 
lIiMiv J. IloiiKKTs, a colonial, 

'. brother of Gt>v. Roberts, who 

has beet) studying wcdicina at the 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



11 



Dr. Roberts and Dr. Smilh— Purchase of Territory. 



Pittsfielil Medical Inslilute, during 
the regular course, took his M. D. 
last October, with great credit and 
honor to himself and his fi lends. — 
He will sail in the Liberia Packet oa 
her next voyage, which, we pre- 
sume, will be in a few days. He 
goes out with greatly increased at- 
tachment to Liberia. He has no de- 
sire to remain in the United States. 
He left this country at too young an 
age to understand and appreciate the 
social, moral, and political disabili- 
ties under which his race labors here. 
But he has now a full conception of 
them, and, in contrast with their 
condition in Liberia, he feels it deep- 
I5-. It is, therefore, not strange that 
he is impatient to reach his chosen '' 
home. He is well prepared to prac- 
tice the profession which lie has 
chosen, and to render himself gene- 
rally useful there. 

It will be remembered that he is 
indebted to our Colonial Physician, 
J. W. Lugenbeel, M. D., for his ear- 
ly education in connection with con- 
siderable practice, having studied 
with him two years before he came 
to this country. 

James S. Smifh, who was his fel- 
low student in Liberia, is now in this 
country prosecuting his studies. He 
has attended one course of lectures 
at Pittsfield, Mass., and is now at- 
tending one in Albany, N. Y. When 
he shall have completed his studies 
and returned to Liberia, we hope to 
be able to dispense entirely with the 
services of a white physician. 

As far as internal peace and pros- 



perity is concerned, in the welfare of 
the citizens of Liberia, they have 
been highly blessed during the past 
year with the exception of an unpre- 
cedented flood in the Sinou river, 
whicli caused much damage to the 
crops of the natives and colonists 
settled on its banks. The settlement 
of Greenville, situated four miles up 
the river, was completely inundated, 
the farms for two miles around be- 
ing four feet under water. 

In his last annual message to the 
Legislature, Gov. Roberts remarks : 

"On our present meeting, it is my 
first duty to invite your attention to 
the providential favoTs which these 
colonies have experienced during the 
past year, in the unusual degree of 
health dispensed to the inhabitants, 
in the rich abundance with which the 
earth has rewarded the labors of the 
husbandman, and in the success 
which has attended the elForts of our 
merchants and traders. 

" In the successful cultivation of 
other branches of industry, and in 
the progress of general improvement 
everywhere manifest, favorable to the 
national prosperity, there is just occa- 
sion also for our mutual congratula- 
tions and thankfulness. 

" I have the satisfaction of inform- 
ing you that the market-house in this 
town has been completed. * * * 
1 am happy to be able to inform you 
that the state of our finances con- 
tinues to fulfil our expectations. * * 
* The revenue received during the 
last year exceeds by a small amount 
that of the preceding ; and it may 
reasonably be expected that the re- 
ceipts of the ensuing year, with the 
sum now in the Treasury, will be 
sufficient to defray the current de- 
mand of the year, and meet any ex- 
pense which may be incurred, should 



12 



— UCAX COLOXUUTIOir socubMt. 



f>.i«).»^ .rT«rfii..r,-X.« C tt un Hhu t i .- 



il,,. ' x lo ilif . - of the vessel ami rom- 

ij,, .-lies lur Moen liuiulred and »ix- 

of . iu ft^aiil lu I'Tiuiug a ttcii ilulUid and fiUy cenU. 

Ut\. iirlll." 



(*(>o»idenible progrcu hat been 
mailc in ihf purrha»e of Territory 
during the year. CJov. ftoiuTt"', iu 
hit mcttage, remarks : 

••Since the last anmi:ii mntiiiiz "I 
thi* lA'jjicUlure.'annlher inj|)«itlant 
sequisiiinn «»f territory hn^ ' 
made. In February Inst, the n . 



Tlie ronimis5ioijer!J returned lalo 

ill April, ninre which time, in conse- 

<liifnrc of the preat difiiculty of &&• 

Keinhlint; the natives at this season 

i>( tlie year, when they are all, more 

u-8i«, engaged in ugricullural pur- 

i.,i.s. and tlic unfavorahleness of Uie 

wcather,whicli diiriiis: the last five or 

•-. weeks, has been very rainy, with 

:i wind* — no further purchases 



itr the lands lying betMctu n^vo been made. The vessel, how- 

ever, with a suitable cargo of goods, 
now ready for sea, and will be de- 
iched as soon as the weather be- 
acs .•<uiriciently seliled." 

More recently they have succeeded 
in purchasing the northwest section 
of the Little Cape Mount Country, 



1. i; irra and (irand Cess, the t»T- 
ritory of Settra Kroo, coinpr 
■bout six miles of sea-coast exfr 
ceded to this government, incl- 
ihc riglils of sovereignly, their • 
ternloiies: also two tribes further 
touth, occupying the territory known 
u Tassoo and IJalToo Hav ; reserv- 



ing for tlieir member^ only what is or all that part of it lying northwest 
•uiFicient to maintain them in an ag- "of the Little Cape Mount Kiver, ex- 

riculiurul wav. A few days ago, , , i i . 

'. ! - . . ,- f, tending along the seabeach about 

lien. IjCwis, comin!s:$ioneu on tlie ^ '^ 

part of rnm.nt. su.-ceeded nine miles, and from thirty to forty 

in pur out fifi<'en miles of miles into the interior. 

tea-coMi, couipri.Mng portions of the ,,^ ,,), dispatch of the 9ih October, 

irrriloriea of .Manna, Curroo, and i> i . .. -ri i 

,„ , CJov. Roberts says : " Flic sloop 

I 1 :: oo. • ' 

• Iti»nndcrRtowl,ineachca8e, that Economy will be dispatched early 

we shall extend to them our pniron- next week with Commissioners, and 



age and pro'.eclion; that we will es- 
tabliph trading factories among them, 
f„r. ,!,,..,. ilirm necessaries at mod- 
f. . in exchange f«»r their 



a suitable cargo of merchandise, to 
negotiate, if possible, for the territo- 
ries of Settra Kroo, Grand Cess, ami 
and protect them ibe unpurchased tracts in the neigh- 



'. the incurniona of their ma- 
rau .:i)g neighbors." 

And in his di«pnlrh of the *^i)\ 
Juac, be tiyt: 

"I haSlan to t::i:i»:mi \<mi ri>|ii< ■, 

uf lUeilt for lands puri'h.-i«e<l from the 

n- ;■ ■ ' "" 

r 

ri< • ul I'mir Kl\!:, l!i)'i. ( 'isn. >^:::i- 

f^utn. and Lililc Itiitoo.ind n part of 
hr irrritorv of (irand Co|:ih ; and 



bnrhood of New Costers. We shall 

not be able to secure the New ('esters 

nintry, except at a very cxirava- 

iit price, At long as the slavers 

cniitinue their establishments there. 

*'. iihin the last three months they 

vc succeeded, notwithstanding the 

vi;,'dance of the oiliccra of the mcn- 

of war, in ahipping two cargoet of 



havo cost the Society, cxcUmivc of "laves. One, I am told by a Frcitch 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETr. 



13 



Colonization the only means of slopping the Slav* Trade. 



officer, is an American vessel ; rather 
slie 7vas American, a few hours be- 
fore the slaves were shipped. This 
success has so elated them, that they 
now openly avow their determina- 
tion to prevent any negotiation for 
the territory, and have recently made 
large presents to the chiefs, on con- 
dition that they will not transfer their 
territory to the Americans." 

This slave factory ought to be 
broken up. Is it not strange that 
with the men-of-war of two power- 
ful nations stationed on that coast, 
and the ftictory being known, it be- 
ing the only one now existing on a 
coast of more than four hundred 
miles in extent, and being capable 
of no defence, should still be able to 
ship within a fev/ months upwards 
of a thousand slaves ? This case 
furnishes a striking illustration of 
the inefficiency of naval forces in 
breaking up, or even arresting the 
slave trade. Men-of-war have lain 
within sightof this factory for weeks 
at a time, watching the slaver, which 
was hanging round waiting his op- 
portunity. At length, they leave the 
ground to cruise for a season up or 
down the coast, the slaver seizes his 
chance, dashes in, takes on board his 
cargo, and in less than a night is out 
of danger. 

Now, look again. You give to 
Liberia the sum necessary to pur- 
chase that territory, even at the enor- 
mous price which is asked for it, and 
_ in less than twenty-four hours the 
colonial authorities would break up 
the factory, liberate the slaves, and 



probably hang the perpetrators of 
such enormous crime ! Very soon 
the natives, having been removed 
from under the accursedly corrupting 
influence of the slave trade, would 
turn their attention to .some honest 
pursuits. They would begin to as- 
sociate with the colonists and the 
native tribes more immediately un- 
der their influence, and they would 
soon come to regard the slave trade 
with horror, and couUrnot be in- 
duced to engage in it again for any 
consideration. Thus a permanent 
and effectual check would be given 
to the traffic, and ultimately the na- 
tives would rise in the scale of intel- 
ligence and civilization, and become 
useful and happy members of socie- 
ty. And all this probably at a far 
less cost than it took to pay the ex- 
penses of the men-of-war for the few 
weeks they watched that factory ! — 
Could any thing more beautifully 
illustrate the superiority of Coloni- 
zation over every other means which 
have been resorted to for the sup- 
pression of the slave trade ? 

In this lighi, it will appear very 
unreasonable that this Society had to 
make provision for the support of 
the recaptives landed at Monrovia 
from the slaver Pons, by one of 
the U. S. men-of-war. This vessel, 
it will be remembered, was seized 
with about 900 slaves on board, of 
whom about one hundred and fifty 
died before they reached Monrovia. 
Seven hundred and fifty-six were land- 
ed, of whom nearly all were under 
19 years of age. The U. S. Govern- 



i\M-»L rcmRT or the AMEBiri?* rOI-OMZATlON SOCIETY. 



Hcro Uirown upon ilie 



.-. ^ or the noard 

of Director*, a cotniuiilce was ap- 
|)oiuieil lo : I 

lite and C\ . ., -, : 

ration for the heary exjxiiiiics incur- 
red). Uul iiolliing lias yutbecn done 
in the cam'. Wc iruct (hat it will 
not be lung before Uie government 
will do UM till* justice which i« de- 
mandid Isy every consideration of 
honor and propriety. Weaitk noth- 
ing more than a fiiir compensation ; 
and It in not (liniruit id i!fti riniiu* 
what that i^. 

On the *J->lh IWni^-^ry, IbJb, the 
Hon. .Mr. .MrDuilie, from the Cora- 
raitiee of Ways and .Means, reported 
a ' " y for rc- 
cii, - :,io trans- 
fer the properly belonging to it to 
lh< iL'ty, and pay 
lliL _- .J , - irs for the 8up- 
port of every re-captive delivered lo 
iia ai;cntx. Mr. McI). roportrd this 
bill fixing that amount not as a favor 
10 the Society, but as an act of jus- 
tice on hfhslf of the governmtnt. — 
Fifty (hdlars each, therefore, may be 
ron»i)!rrcd as the lowest amount 
which it was considircd ought to be 
paid. If any {KTi'on thinks this is 
too much, let him find any where a 
r< • '.rikc that num- 
I" ' 1 biurving Bi- 
nd provide for them as per- 
il iSrrs of i! 
» . - ;it. No tlii ;.:..;.....'.) 

can be found. Why, then, should 



1 do it for . Allowing, 

then. S^ each, it gives us ilie sum 
^00. This is not large, if we 

I the amount of food, raiment, 

ixiuoe room, medical attendance, and 
:i, which must be furnished 

.1, until they are able to lake 

care of themselves 1 Why, the offi- 
ce ra uf the man-of-war which cap- 
lured the Pons received, over and 
above their ordinary salaries for the 
lini s prize money, upwards, 

of . . '. And yet ihere is no 
compiirison between the amount of 
Birvicc rendered in the two ca^es ! 

Certainly, therefore, our govern- 

:it will not refuse to meet this equi- 
table claim against them? Were it not 
for Liberia what would the United 
States do with these poor victims of 
the flave trade, who may be rescued 
by our men-of-war ? 

The receipts of the Society the past 
year, including the balance on hand 
as pec last report, were $3-, 101 11. 
Tlie balance of cash in the treasury 
ul the present time is 9'JOS 10. 

But the cxpc'iditures were actually 
several thousand dollars more than 
appears in the above statement, 
owing lo the fact that we despatched 
a vessel from New Orleans on the 
7ili in!»lant with 129 emigrants, none 
of the expenses of which are in- 
cluiled in the above BtalemenU 

- have operated tf> 

,... . li-^s iliaii we had - 

:iii(i>Mpated. 

Tiicre has lum iii> case of inuue- 

. ic and prcHftmg necessity for 

which means were iudis|>cn9able.-* 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



15 



Death of Dr. Tenncy^and Hon. Mr Huntiugdou. 



The fund for tlie purchase of terri- 
tory, whicli had so eloquently plead 
for us the two preceding years had 
been completed. The collections 
■which were made in all parts of the 
country for the suirering poor in Ire- 
land, materially interfered with the 
operation of our agents, and dimin- 
ished our receipts, so that in com- 
mon witli other benevolent societies 
our receipts have fallen short of what 
we had anticipated. 

We have received very litde from 
legacies the past year, and our 
auxiliary societies have rendered us 
less assistance than at any former 
period. Jn the Soutlnvcst we have 
had no agent at all during the year, 
and that hitherto fruitful field has 
yielded us scarcely any assistance. 

Some of our most active and suc- 
cessful agents and fellow-laborers 
have retired from the field, and en- 
gaged in other more pleasant and 
less laborious avocations. AVe have 
not had it in our hearts to reproach 
them ; but we have felt the loss most 
deeply, and been unable, as yet, to 
supply their places. 

One of our agents, who from his 
age, experience, and great wisdom 
and prudence, had been most useful 
in winning public favor and influenc- 
ing the clergy to open their pulpits 
and favor the cause in Massachusetts, 
has ceased from his labors on earth, 
and his works do follow him. Our 
friends will readily understand that 
we allude to the Rev. C. J. Tenney, 
D. D., of whom they have never 
heard any thing but good, and they 



will be prepared to sympathise with 
us in this afilictive event. 

It is also our melancholy duly 
to record the death of the Hon. J. 
W. Huntingdon, of Connecticut, one 
of the Vice Presidents of the Socie- 
ty, and a member of the last Board 
of Directors, who was present at our 
meeting a year ago, and aided, by his 
council and wisdom, in the delibera- 
tions of that occasion. 

We have received during the year 
many tokens of increasing favor and 
attachment to this cause. The num- 
ber of ministers v/ho preach a ser- 
mon annually in behalf of this cause 
has been considerably increased. — 
The churches which place coloniza- 
tion with the list of benevolent so- 
cieties to which they intend to make 
an annual contribution has been 
greatly enlarged. The political pa- 
pers throughout the country are ad- 
vocating the claims of this enterprise- 
They abound in notices of Liberia^ 
with extracts from the African Re- 
pository, and with reports of sermons 
and addressee, delivered by distin- 
guished speakers, on the subject. 

The Rev. Dr. Humphrey, late 
President of Amherst College, has 
been laboring in the cause for some 
months. He has been admitted to 
the principal churches in Boston and 
New York, at their regular hours of 
worship on Sabbath, and has been 
heard with the deepest interest ; — 
misapprehensions have been remov- 
ed, and many new friends have been 
made. 

Such would not have been the 



16 



ii-..i:t <■> Till aMKUK AN IDLOMZATION SOCIETY. 



ea»c a few \ In many in- of tlje country \?here very little has 

•uorra a C'. > ai;»'nt woulil iver been haiil about the principles 

not rreo hare been allowed the use of or operations of the Colonization 

the church on a week-day evening. Society. Scarcely any thin? is 

much le»» would ho have been allow- known on the subject. 'J'liere are 

ed to enter it on the Sabbath, and at other places where the community 

the rrjrular time of public worship, have, through various causes, been 

llcrethen.and the same thing is true so prejudiced afrainst the institution, 

to a certain extent in other parts of as to require very great exertion to 

the country, we see one evidence of set them right. They have no ude- 

a favorable change of sentiment re- quate idea of the immense amount 

cpeeling this Society. of pood which the Society is accom- 

Several of our agents have been plishing. 
employed in fields hitherto almost In these circumstances we cannot 
abandoned entirely as barren and suppose that they will make contri- 
unfniitful. Their labors have been butions for its support. On this 
arduous and their receipts have been account agents must be employed to 
exceedingly small, and but for the change tlic public sentiment, to in- 
prospective good which they have doctrinate the people, and to prepare 
done, we should not have continued the way for future collections, or we 
iheni. Hut we have thought it best must give up the expectation that 
not to withdraw them until a fair this change will be eflected in any 
experiment was made. They have, reasonable time. Agencies, loo, will 
therefore, continued to talk and be more expensive in these regions 
preach, ami circulate document.s, and than in others. But the necessity 
publifih articles in the papers, for the for agencies, and their expense, will 
ptirpone of calhng |)ublic attention diminish just as adequate informa- 
lo the Society, and uUimately of en- tion becomes generally diflused 
listing a strong feeling in its favor, through the community. 
And they give us assurances that The " Liberia Packet," to which 
tliit actually has been done to some allusion was made in the last Annual 
exirnt, and that the way is manifest- Report, has thus far proved a proili- 
ly preparing f<»r an increased interest. iil>|c investment to her owners, and a 

From the financial statement it powerful auxiliary to tlie cause of 

will be icen that the expenses of (Colonization. She more tlian meeti« 

agencira the pawt year have been ihr most sanguine expectations of 

larife. The expediency of spendmg Iht projectors. She has proved n 

money in this way may Ik? doul)teil v:c.t convenience as well as a i<aving 

by some. Rut a little reflection will of expense to this Society, as she 

doubtlraa place the matter in a dif- ip.kes out otrr emigrants at lower 

fercni light. There arc many prts rates than any other vessel could. 

1; 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



17 



Expedition sailed from New Orleans, 139 emigrants, expenses of. 



She sailed from Baltimore on her 
second voyage on the 3d day of last 
September, with eighty-(3ne emi- 
r grants, of whom forty were sent out 
by this Society. She took out also 
a full cargo of goods and several pas- 
sengers in the cabin. 

She was expected back again in 
time to have sailed on her third voy- 
age about the middle of the present 
month. We have made arrange- 
ments for the departure of about 
fifty emigrants in her. 

We have not the means to defray 
the expenses of this expedition at 
the present time. But as the emi- 
grants are mostly persons whose 
freedom is offered them, if we can 
send them out, we have not felt au- 
thorized to decline. In thus sending 
them we must incur a heavy debt, 
and we rely upon our friends to fur- 
nish us the means of paying it. 

On the 7th instant the bark " Ne- 
hemiah Rich," chartered by this So- 
ciety, sailed from New Orleans for 
Monrovia, with one hundred and 
twenty-nine emigrants on board, and 
• a good supply of provisions, and 
timber to build their houses. Of the 

r 

emigrants, six were from Illinois, a 
free family of great respectability. — 
Twenty-eight were from Kentucky, 
sent out by the Colonization Society 
of that State. Among these, are 
three, who have been liberated by 
the colored people, and commis- 
sioned to go as their agents, and 
return and report the results of 
their visit. Twenty-three were 
from Eutaw, Alabama. They were 



left by the late Rev. Mr. Wither- 
spoon to the Hon. Henry Clay, and 
he sent them to Liberia. Thirty-five 
were from Louisiana. They were 
liberated by Henry Patterson, Esq., 
of Baltimore, who gave them a libe- 
ral outfit and will pay the expenses 
of their transportation and support 
for six nfcnths in Liberia, Too 
much praise cannot be given to this 
gentleman for his distinguished kind- 
ness to these people. Thirty-five 
were from Mississippi. They are 
a part of the large family left to this 
Society several years ago by the late 
Captain Ross, of that State. It is 
known that a suit has been pending 
about these people for many years 
past. We have lately effected a 
compromise by which we secure the 
liberty of the people, but get nothing 
to defray the expenses of their trans- 
portation, and settlement in Liberia. 
We have received and sent out as 
pioneers the above number, and are 
to send the remaining tivo hundred 
at the close of the present year. 

The bills and accounts for the ex- 
pedition from New Orleans, on the 
7ih instant, are not yet fully made 
up, and are, therefore, not included 
in the transactions of the past year. 
We are not able to say pret;isely 
what the whole expense will be, but 
we have evidence that it will not fall 
short of $7,000. This large expen- 
diture is mainly owing to the fact, 
that under the operation of the acts 
of the 22d February and 4th March 
last, " regulating the carriage of pas- 
sengers in merchant vessels," we 



H 



<iinmodatinn« 



''e, il will ap; 



Indretl we could not do ollicrwii^r. ' 
:rf roulil nol ' 

i- were not n>U 
the certainly of their going loii-j 

ruf • ' ■ ' ; ' • . l)(g tlic mcari^ 
til : <'■'.-. Cim\i\ wr- 

hivi- '.ftu ni'stired, six monilis 

. would all have been rtu ly 
• v.-'un ihey did, we should, 
e been able to r.iisr 
'1 to pay the t 
■irtnMon and s( 

'.lansactionsofihe 
■ ip to the prc^rnt 
re wonld be found n >' 
p's of $9,oU0. 
ri\ constrained to 
> our friends for an cnlarge- 
•■ irces for the year 
.It this, il will lu! 
; le for on to niecl our ohli- 

! rin all the dinitH 
I of us. 
We have already cngajjed to send 
1 ' ' ' .' 1 :i year from 

. !r(tl and t' rt 
'$, and we arc ezpociin;r 
' for many othi-rn. Two oi 
.<!• in the .'viiiih niti<ure tiK 
Uiat there will be in ihrir vin: 

frnr - - ' .... . . 

Ita 



/III il a vi'^sfl, as 

I r over eixiy are 

W'c have no ajiplications 

.■''•.) K.MUucky as yet. There will, 

•! 1 '!.i;i*it, !v- atiollier company from 

ihe cnur«e of the year. 

:.p. 

;<>re 

thoic who ar' ..ly have de- 

il, and ' present in- 

•dne«s o! aty hus been 

pai.i. 

Tlie aN of transport- 

in : to I,, oiling there 

::ionthii, . mt, may be 

Ml liown III C > '. 1 li.s inrlii(!es out- 
fit, passage mor.ey, and provjaiona 
o!i the voyage, a house to live in, 
provisions, nu-dicino and mcilical al- 
tendancc, and tJiirsing when they are 
sick, for six months, and more or 
in various other ways in os- 
; them comfortably, and in 
ulition to thcnceforlli take care 
1,1 tilt insL'lvcs. 

'I'o send out the 310, ns we have 

already engaged to do, will therefore 

ro.--' 'Mo meet 

ihe i ^ ! t ilie fifty 

in the Liberia Packet, expectad to 

Anil tiiis month from naltim«»rc, to 

which we have alluded in another 

(lart of this report, and who ate not 

in the above ntunhcr, and 

tii^ent expenses of lending 

veasel from Savannah, CJeorgia, 

;ing, with f\\\ oi:e hundred 

■.■■*, which wdiilil he $.i,000, 

wo have the aum of 82;}.000, 

!i we thall need the coming 

. to meet one single item of our 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



19 



§50,000 needed — Annual Meeting of Ihe Society — Mr. Dayton's speech. 



operations, the transportation and 
support of emigrants. 

If we add, for the present indebt- 
edness of the Society, say $9,500, 
and indispensable contingent expen- 
ses in this country, say $4,000, and 
in Liberia i!;3,000, we hi\e 842,500 
as the lowest possible estimate of the 
means indispensable to meet our pre- 
sent engagements. But we expect 
many more emigrants before the 
close of tlie year. What shall be 



j done with them ? They are needed 
in Liberia, and ought not to be de- 
tained in this country. 

To prosecute vigorously and with 
advantage our operations during the 
year upon which we now enter, and 
not incur a heavy debt, will there- 
fore require at least 850,000 ! And 
for this amount we make the most re- 
spectful, but urgent, appeal to the 
country ! . 



€iiirti)-firflt iXnniticrsartj of ll;c iXmcvirnn Cctanijaticn <S-£iticf!;. 



Wasiiingto-v, Jan. 18, 1848. 

The American Colonization Socie. 
ty met in the Hall of the House of 
Representatives at seven o'clock P. 
M. 

The Hon. Henry Clay, President 
of the Society, took the chair and 
called the meeting to order. 

The Rev. Wm. Wilson, of Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, invoked the Divine 
blessing. 

The Secretary of the Society 
read extracts from the Annual Re- 
port. . 

After the report was read, on mo- 
tion of Prof. Maclean, of Princeton, 
New Jersey, it \vas referred to the 
Board of Directors for publication. 

The Hon. Wm. L. Dayton, of 
New Jersey, then rose and offered 
and advocated the following: 

Resolved, That in the recent for- 
mation of a constitution by the citi- 
zens of Liberia, and the declaration 
of their independence, and the as- 
sumption by them of all the duties 
and responsibilities of their own 
Government, we recognise the fulfil- 



ment, in part, of the original design 
of this Society. 

Tills resolution was supported by 
the honorable mover in an able, elo- 
quent, and forcible speech, though 
commenced amidst not a little confu- 
sion, produced by the concourse in 
the Hall and the stui(iglesfor entrance 
which still continued at every avenue 
of access to it, asserted iisown pow- 
er on the minds of the auditory, and 
gradually reduced the vast assembly 
to order, and held it in mute and de- 
lighted attention. We expected to 
have published a full report of his 
speech, but are at presicnt unable to 
do so, the reason for which the fol- 
lowing letter from him v/ill explain : 

Washington City, 
\2'h Ftbmary, 1848. 

Dear Sir: — In yonr note of this 
morning, you say that you have prom- 
ised a report of my remarks at the 
late meeting of the Colonization So- 
ciety ; and that Mr. Stansbury, the 
reporter, informs you that he loft his 
notes of the speech in my liands for 
correction. 



20 



rrivt; en TiiK amkk:< a\ ( oloXIZaTIo.N scxiktV. 



i M* 1*. i I nil vf, nil 00 ; but M» I" 
WM i>o parly lo yuur proiui»e, and 
nov» rt*j»orirr'« iioics in my 

ow !. '». I inny be runiiiiiertil 

u having Uirly ouiuinand of the 
:)ur«iiun ! 1 brg ilitTfl'orc lo fay, 
iliai my reiuark* aie loo cruile and 
ineaprc, in my Judgmenl, lo merii 
publicaiton. l''or ilie vtTV kind lerinii 
in wlueh you andotliens have chosen 
lo speak oi them. 1 am lliankful, but 
ihu cannot intiut-nre my ])Uri)Otfe. 
'I'riilv vours, 

W.M.L. DAYTON. 

IvlV. W. Mtl.AlN, 

Sfcrdury of Col. Society. 

The resolution iiaving been adop- 
ted, Mr. Clay rose and addressed the 
audience nearly as followa : 

Gcnllemenof ihe Colonization So- 
ciety : I liave been committed to say 
a few words on this occasion, rnthcr 
against my own wishes, and (}uile 
unexj/cctedly. Indeed, 1 believe it 
has been advt-rtised in some of the 
papers that 1 am to make an address 
this evenin|T. Now, though I have 
no reproaches to make against those 
who have thus placed me in so con- 
spicuous a poMiion, 1 have no expec- 
tation of heiiii; able to fulfil tlieir an- 
ticipations or to do junlirc to the sul)- 
jcci. I have just terminati-d an ar- 
duous journey of many luiiidreds of 
inileB, made in midwinter; and wher- 
ever I have been 11 haw invariably 
been my lot to be surrounded by 
ihroni;* which did not h-ave to lui* 
the lime necessary 4o make that pre- 
paration which ithould ever precede 
the attempt to address an auditory 
»o intrllif;ent and so highly respecla- 
ble as this. I have come here with- 
out a solitary note, with no prepared 
or claboralr speech, and with but lit- 
tle mental preparation ; and, as I 
have no formal and hi|;lily fini ' 
ftddrr** lo deliver, I would ndvi ■ . . 
who have r<»mc with any ^timi rx- 
prcta'.Kjusufa speech luleau tiahall. 



And yet I own there is some pro- 
priety tliat I should say u few words 
to you tins evening, apart from the 
circuinsiancc which has been more 
than once alluded to, that I was one 
of that company whu'li, some thirty 
years ago, met lo form this Society. 
It is now sdioe years since 1 had the 
honor of sitting in your society as I 
now do, and allow me to 8<iy that in 
all human probability this is the last 
instance in which I shall ever be per- 
mitted to do BO. (J real events too 
have happened lo the colony since 1 
was last here. 

You have been told by the elo- 
(juent gentleman who precctled me 
of the formation of this association. 
It is now nearly thirty years since 
.Mr. rinley, Mr. Caldwell, and some 
other g( iiilciiien met by agreement 
with a view lo form a Colonization 
Society. 1 was one of that number. 
We (lid not intend lo do more or less 
than esial)li8h on the shores of Afri- 
ca a colonv, lo which free colored 
persons with their own voluntar)' 
consent might go. There was to be 
no constraint, no coercion, no com- 
pulsory process to which those who 
went miisl submit: all was lo be per- 
fectly voluntary and uncoiistrnined 
in any manner or degree. Far, very 
far. was it from our purpose to inter- 
fere wilh the slaves, or to shake or 
alTecl the title by which they are held 
in the least degree whatever. We 
saw and were fully aware of the fact 
that tlie free white race and the co- 
lored lace never could live logether 
on terms of equality. We ilid not 
t*to|) to ask whether this was right or 
wroiii.': we looked at the fact, and 
on that f.ict we founded our opera- 
iioiiN. 1 know, indeed, that there arc 
III' 11, many of them of high resjicct- 
:i' liny, who hold that all this is pre- 

': -e ; that it should be expelled 

Ml our minds, and that we ouclit 

III rr<-i>i»iu-i- in men, ilntugli of dif- 

fcMiit coloi from ouisclvcs, members 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



21 



The Society has had to encounter difliculties. 



of our common race, entitled in all 
respects to equal privileges with our- 
selves. This may be so according 
to their view of the matter; but we 
went on the broad and incontestible 
fact, that the two races could not, on 
equal terms, live in the same com- 
munity harmoniously together. And 
we thought that the people of color 
should be voluntarily removed, if 
practicable, to their native counlry, 
or to the country at least of their an- 
cestors: there they might enjoy all 
those blessings of freedom and equal- 
ity of condition which to them were 
impossible here. Our object, let me [ 
repeat it, was limited to the free ; we J 
never thought of touching in any I 
manner the title to slave property. — i 
We hoped to be able to demonstrate 
tlie practicability of colonizing them; 
ai)d when that should have been de- 
monstrated, those who owned slaves 
might avail themselves of it or not — 
might send liberated slaves to Africa 
or not, precisely as they pleased. — 
All our purpose was to establish, if 
we could, a colony of free colored 
men, and thus to demonstrate to the 
world that colonization was practi- 
cable. 

It has been truly stated, that from 
the day of its formation to the pre- 
sent hour, the Society has been sur- 
rounded with difficulties. It has had 
to stand the fire of batteries both in 
front and rear, and upon both flanks. 
Extremes of opinion and of action, 
which could unite in nothing else, 
united in assaulting us. Those whg 
cared for the safety of the institution 
of slavery assailed us on one hand, 
while the Abolitionists assaulted us 
on the other. But on what ground 
should either oppose such an enter- 
prise ? Our ground in regard to 
both was total non-interference. We 
meant to deal only with colored per- 
sons already free. This did not in- 
terfere with the projects of the Abo- 
litionists ? For myself, I believe 
those projects to be impracticable; 
2 



and I am persuaded that if the same 
energy and efl'ort which have been 
expended in getting up abolition 
movements, had been directed to the 
work of colonization, a vast amount 
of benefit would have resulted to the 
cause of humanity and to the colored 
race. AVhy should they atlack us ? 
We do not interfere with them. — 
Their project is to emancipate atone 
blow the wliole colored race. Well, 
if they can do that, then our object 
begins. The office of colonizaiiou 
commences only where theirs would 
end. The colored race being here 
in the midst of us, and not being ca- 
pable of enjoying a stale of equality 
with the whites around them, our 
object is to carry them to a place 
where they may enjoy, without mo- 
lestation, all the benefits of freemen. 
Here is no incompatibility ; and in 
point of fact we have thus far gone 
on our way without disturbing any 
body, either on the right or on the 
left. 

But it is said that our Society is 
incapable of effecting any great ob- 
ject. That our aims never can be 
accomplished without aid from the 
State governments, or unless the gen- 
eral government shall send out of 
the country all the free blacks. It is 
our purpose to show the power of 
colonization, in competent hands, 
fully to carry out the benevolent 
ends we have in view, to work all 
the great results for which this So- 
ciety was formed. Our purpose is 
to demonstrate to the American peo- 
ple, that if they choose to take hold 
of this great project in their State 
legislatures, or otherwise, the end 
sought is practicable, and the prin- 
ciple of colonization competent to 
carry abroad all the colored popula- 
tion who shall be emancipated. That 
demonstration has been made. 

But it is urged that this is the 

country of the black man ; and that 

therefore he should not be sent to 

j Africa. Africa is not his home. Why, 



i^nVkl. MUnifO OF THB AMDUCATf COLOXtZATIOIT BOCIETT 



it M ru' . m Home icnse, thai every " 
:'.3.!*, ru colurtd mail may claim 
« country. Ami «o miglu 
iU-jf, while captives in 
r.t \ ; !, li^ivc claimed Kgypt aa llieir 
::a:ivt' country; and tliosc born 
MkUile trnvelling through the wilder- 
iir»4 to till- land proini!<cd them, 
iiiU'ht still regard themselves aa na- 
iivrs of that wilderness. Hut still, 
la the contemplation uf that infinite 
-nd all-wise Ueiiig who directed the 
, t jre»« of that remarkable people, 
i^sptwas not their country, still 
lf>8 was that howling wilderness, 
where many of them first saw the 
light. It was Canaan, the land of 
promise; and thither accordingly 
were they taken, as to their home. 
Who can doubt thui Africa is the real 
home of the black man, thouL'h, a? 
a casual event, he may have hail his 
birth on these shores .' There his 
ittce was found, and there alone, till 
It was Unix from thence by the hand 
of violence. Here, though nominally 
free, he cannot live in eiiuality with 
those around him; and it does seem 
lo me one of the disposals of an all- 
wise Providence to permit him to 
htY* been brought hero with an ul- 
timate view to the further accom- 
; ' ■ .;, by him, of his own in- 
, but wise and merciful dc- 

• JJJUS. 

The separation of free colored peo- 
ple from tlie white race is a tnea.'iiire 
recommended not only by the niii- 
taal and the Bcp:iratc good of both, 
but by tilt! pro!<pecl that Africa, whidi • 
has so long lain in barl)arism, wor- 
shipping unknown and forbidden 
fod<i, may tiitin be brought to the 
lii^lit and blessings of Christianity. 
Tliose who met to form this Society 
■;iw not only that great u""»d would 
arrrup from their design to the col- 
ored race, by elevating thrir charac- 
ter, and restoring them to the pos- 
•ewifjn of rights they nrver can 
•fijny here, but that it woiibl be a 
probable means, m llic end, of cur- 



l» iMr aniMllMppiMM. 



rying to Africa all the bletsings of 
our iioly religion, and all the benefits 
of our civilization and freedom. 
What Chrisfiian is there who does 
not feel a deep interest in sending 
forth missionaries to convert the 
dark heathen, and bring tlicm all 
wiiliin the pale of Christianity ? But 
what missionaries can be so potent 
as those it is our purpose to trans- 
port to the shores of Africa.' Afri- 
cans themselves by birth, or sliaring 
at least the African blood, will not 
all tlieir feelings, all their best affec- 
tions, induce them to seek tlie good 
of their countrymen T At this mo- 
ment there are litiween four and live 
tliousand colonists who have been 
sent to Africa under the care of this 
Society ; und I will venture to say 
that they will accomplish as mis- 
sionaries of the Christian leligion 
more to disseminate its blessings 
tlian all the rest of the missionariei 
througliout the globe. Why, gen- 
tlemen, what have we heard .' In 
the colony of Liberia there are now 
twenty-five places of public worship 
dedicated to tlie service of Almighty 
God, and to tlic glory of the Saviour 
of men ; wliile thousands of the 
neiirhboringiieatlicn are flocking into 
the colony to obtain a knowledge of 
llie arts, and who may uliimaiely re- 
ceive the better knowledge which 
Christianity alone can bestow. 

These are the great purposes we 
had in view wlien a few of us met 
lo f.irm this Society. As soon .is a 
• purchase of territory had been clTec- 
ted bv the agent we dispntched to 
Afrirn lor tliat purpose, the first co- 
lonists, about twenty-five years since, 
left tlie American shores, and were 
safely transplanted to the land of their 
ancestors. 

I know it was then urged, as it has 
beni nince, that other places might 
hnvf lieen selected with etiunl advan- 
tage. I do not concur in that opin- 
ion. F*ook at ihe expense alone. It 
hit bern staled in your report that 
I 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 23 



It is possible to transport the whole colored population. 



the siun of fifty dollars is sufficient to 
cover the expense of transporting one 
emigrant to Liberia.and of maintaining 
him there for six months after his arri- 
val. To what other position in the 
known world could he be sent at so 
cheap a rate? Not to the Pacific; not to 
Oregon ; not to Mexico. Then con- 
sider the advantages of this position 
in point of navigation : remember the 
shortness of the voyage. When 
these things are duly considered, it 
must be evident that to no other spot 
on the face of the globe could the 
free colored peopl(3 be sent with so 
much propriety as to the coast of Af- 
rica. Besides, in any other place 
that might be selected you would de- 
prive yourselves of accomplishing 
those high moral and religious ob- 
jects which, in Africa, may be so 
confidently hoped for. 

But again : it has been said that 
the object of carrying all the free co- 
lored race from this country to Afri- 
ca is one which the Government it- 
self, with all its means, could not ef- 
fect. Now, on that point let me 
state a fact by way of reply. If I am 
not mistaken, the immigration from 
abroad into the port of New York 
alone, in the course of the last year, 
was fully equal to the annual increase 
of the free colored population of the 
Union,* and yet all that was done 
voluntarily, and in most cases with- 
out any, or with very littleaid. The fact 
rests on the great motive which, to a 
greater or less extent, governs all 
human action. Why is it that the 
Germans and the Irish have thus 
flocked to our shores, in numbers to 
meet the annual increase of our free 
colored people not only, but, as I be- 
lieve, that of the slave population 



also ? They come in obedience to 
one of the great laws of our nature ; 
they have come under that efficient 
motive which propels man to all en- 
terprises — the desire to better their 
condition. A like motive will sway 
the free blacks when enlightened as 
to the real facts of the case. If they 
reach the shores of Africa, whether 
by their own means, or by the aid 
and agency of others, their position 
will be physically, morally, and po- 
litically better than by any possibili- 
ty it ever can be here. It is not our 
office to attempt impracticabilities; to 
amalgamate two races which God 
himself, by a difference of color, be- 
sides other inherent distinctions, has 
declared must be separate and remain 
separate from each other. And if 
such be of necessity, their condition 
here, to send them to Africa, not by 
coercion, but with their own free 
consent, is surely the best practica- 
ble mode of doing them good. And 
here I would say to those in both 
extremes of opinion and of feeling on 
the subject of slavery — I would say 
to all men — why should the free peo- 
ple of color in these United States 
not have the option of removing to 
Africa, or remaining where they are, 
just as they themselves shall choose? 
That is all we attempt. We wish to 
describe to him the country, to faci- 
litate his emigration to it, and then 
leave him to his free choice. And 
if after this he chooses to go, why 
interpose any obstacle in his way? — 
In reply, it is said to be an act of cru- 
elty to send him there. The climate 
is represented as inhospitable : he 
will be exposed to inevitable sick- 
ness, and will probably soon find a 
grave on that distant shore. To 



*Mr. Clay, out of extreme caution, has here greatly understated the fact, as proved 
by the official returns. These show that it exceeded, by four times, the entire annual 
increase both of the bond and free. 

Immigration 200,000 

Increase •f free > -- «„« 

Do. of slaves < ^""'^^^ 



-^ A.xAWxj. xixrixo or the American colowizatioi* societt. 



t>MM iiw|i|-^ artfk JMMriav* tmt fly— mil. Ai grM( mttarfritm I 



kBlBgt. 



■cod a colored ro«o out of ih* Uni- ^ 
led S:ai(>a lo a ruiitilry like tliat is 
held up &■ ■>! Act uf tliu grralesl in- 
humaiiiiy Bui, happily. «»ur rtcord* 
bear itir iiu>t)t gralclul irHtiinuny to 
liir rcti-r»e uf all this. Let us for a 
nuMuriii compare the inortaliiy ofLi- 
bcrii with lliat uf the colonies plan- 
trd on our own shores. Within the 
firsl scveuiecn years from the settle- 
tneni uf Jamestown, in Virginia, nine 
lholl^.ll^! rolunists urrived, and 
i. 1 i-rling were expended in 

Ira.. ,^. ..-.: them from England, yet 
at the end of that period but al)ou( 
two thousand of them remained ahve. 
All llie rest had fallen victims either 
to the climate, or to the tomahawk 
of the sava^jc, or had peri.'^hed from 
oUier causes. Then look at Ply- 
mouth. History recordii that in less 
than six months itfter the arrival of 
the .Man tlower full half of all who 
landed had been destroyed by de- 
aease, want, and sutfering. Now, 
compare with these etforts at British 
colonization the resulln of our selile- 
ment at I-ibcrin. In twenty-five 
year* aince the fust emigrants landed 
from the United States the deaths ' 
amount to but twenty per cent, of the 
CQiire number, l>eing far less than 
died at I'lymouth within six months; 
far less than at Jamestown in seven- 
teen years. Tlie deaths at James- 
town were in seventeen years more 
tlian four times as numerous, in |)ro- 
portion, AS at Liberia in twenty-five 
yearn. There is then nothing in tlie 
climate to disrinirage us, noihing in 
llic alleged dreadful mortality of the 
colony to frighten u»t. 

But It ia »aid we have done Tery 
litUe. All the great enterprises of 
man have had smnll beginning*. — 
The founder* of Home, if we may 
brlieve the tale of tradition, were; 
■ ti'-Klrd by a wolf. JamcHtovrn and' 
I'.v -Miuth both langumlietl lor years 
:!•' <-riod to which I linvc ai- 

red. Yet now, whnl Innd 
I iLrtc ua the broad surface uf the 



habitable globe, what sea spreads out 
its waste of waleri<, that has not been 
penetrateil and traversed by the en- 
terprise, the ^kill, and the courage of 
our New England brethren? And 
on what battle-tield, in what council 
chamber can a single spot in our vast 
country be found where the Virgi- 
nia character has not displayed itself 
in ilsgallanlry or ilsdeliberalivt? wis- 
dom ? I repeat it ; all the greatest 
enterprises of nuin have had sniuU 
beginnings. Our colony is but twen- 
ty-live years old, und it has received 
already between four and live thou- 
sand colored emigrants, besides 
hundreds more of recaptured Afri- 
cans ; all of which have been sent 
there by order of this Government. 
Immense numbers of the natives are 
crowding into the colony to obtain 
the bonefils of education, of civiliza- 
tion, and of clirieiianily. In addi- 
tion to all these there are many thou- 
sands more in the United Slates now 
seeking the advantages of coloniza- 
tion through the means held out by 
this Society. As far then as we have 
gone, oooD is done. 

Is it not better that those four or 
five thousand emigrants should bo 
there, than that they should have re- 
mained here ? Is it not better for 
themselves, is it not better for us ? 
Every year the progress of our col- 
ony becomes more and more cheer- 
ing: and, with every free African 
sent over to it, those prospect* 
brighten, and so much more of good 
IS done. True, we have not done 
all we desire to do. Glad should 
we be should every free colored man 
throughout all the States go there 
ami become free indeed. Hut it rc- 
(juires time to acc«»mpli»h great na- 
tional affairs. The rrealion of a na- 
tion is not the woik of a day or of a 
century. For two or three centuries 
the embryo nation of the Israelites 
remained captives in Egypt. Hut 
when this government, or the Slate 
governments, shall lend the enter- 



AIJNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



25 



The General Government or the States may aid. — Difficulties in the way of colored people remaining in U. S. 



prise their powerful aid, its progress 
will not be so slow. And when the 
colony shall have made further ad- 
vances, it will be self-sustained and 
increased by its own commerce and 
marine. I speak not, of course, of 
any unconstitutional aid. Incidental 
aid, at least, may be given it in strict 
accordance with the constitution. 
On this subject the legislature of 
Maryland has set ns a noble exam- 
ple. She cherishes her infant colony 
"with the utmost solicitude and care. 
When other States of the Union 
shall do the same, the cause of colo- 
nization will experience a vast ac- 
celeration. Perhaps it is not desira- 
ble that it should move too fast at 
the outset. In founding a colonial 
settlement, as in the subduing of 
our own boundless wilderness, there 
should be pioneers to precede the 
great wave of immigration ; to pre- 
pare sustenance for those who shall 
follow, to open roads and erect 
dwellings for their accommodation. 
There might so many emigrants be 
thrown at once upon the colony as 
to occasion material embarrassment, 
if not fatal injury. It is better that 
the work should proceed at first 
somewhat slowly, so that the few 
who go before should understand 
the country, its habits and its re- 
sources, and thus prepare a place 
for the many who shall come after 
them. 

But, beside the fact that the col- 
ored and the white races never can 
become one homogeneous people, 
in what State, I ask, of this entire 
Union (with possibly the exception 
of Massachusetts) does the black 
man, however fair may be his char- 
acter, and from however long a line 
of free colored ancestors he may 
proceed, enjoy an equality with his 
white neighbor in social and politi- 
cal rights ? In none ; nowhere. As 
to social rights, they are out of the 
question. In no city, town, or ham- 
let throughout this entire land is he 



regarded as on an equal footing with 
us. The laws of all the States (and, 
in this respect, some of the free 
Slates are even more rigorous than 
the slave States themselves) render 
it impossible. And so great is the 
rigor of the laws in some of the 
Slates — rendered more rigorous by 
the schemes and cfrorls of the abo- 
litionists — emancipation, under any 
circumstances, and with whatever 
purpose, is absolutely prohibited. 
On this subject a very remarkable 
case occurred lately in connexion 
with myself. A very respectable 
and revered man in Alabama, whose 
face I never liad seen, bequeathed 
to me by his will, in absolute right, 
some twenty-five or thirty slaves. 
No cause was mentioned in the 
terms of the bequest, and I was 
greatly surprised by the announce- 
ment of a fact so entirely unex- 
pected ; but I had some belief that 
the design of the testator in con- 
signing these slaves to my care was 
that they should be sent to Liberia. 
I accordingly took the necessary 
means to accomplish this design ; 
and since my arrival in this city, I 
have received intelligence that twen- 
ty-three of their number have been 
embarked at New Orleans for the 
coast of Africa, and are freely, and 
with their entire assent, going back 
to the home of their ancestors. [Ap- 
plause.] What would have been 
their condition had they remained ? 
In Alabama they could not have been 
free. The laws of the State, stimu- 
lated, as I have said, by the course 
of the abolitionists of the north, 
have prohibited, unconditionally, all 
emancipation of a slave ; and, in fact, 
I had to take these negroes as my 
own slaves to New Orleans, and 
they were so regarded until they 
were placed beyond the jurisdiction 
of the United States. Nor is Ala- 
bama the only State which, from the 
same cause, has been induced to 
make her laws more stringent than 



•>i 



AS jit JU. >:i-i- I t- 



ur rUM, AUUMXX colonization 80CI£TT. 






ui 



lUusiraipd ihc rnlue and 
t ice of ihc sole object of 

It «. ...oiiixauon Society, ll fur- 
iu«hr« Uie opjHjrlumty, wlielher to 
t; ' '-. of frratifying 

I;. iflire ihecmau- 

cij*iUou oj iJ.Lii slaves. 

On the Bul'ject of slavery I shall 
not touch. 'I'he Society never has 
touched that subject, or disturbed it 
anv way. It has conflncd itself ex- 
clusively to the transportation to Af- 
rica of the free, who go willingly and 
cnroiiJiraJucd. 

CJtiitlcinen of the Society: You 
have jtbred me in a position which 
I feel lo be bolli cinbarrassinjj and 
ftainful. I caine liere, as I told you, 
wiiliout note, and almost without 
preparation of any kind. I have 
thrown out tlicse remarks in a loose. 
disjointed manner, mainly tliat I 
might gratify wishes which seemed 
to mc irresistible. I hare pone 
iJirouijh most of the topics — indeed, 
all of them — which 1 designed to 
touch. And I would now implore 
all ^»'«rli''ii ; I would beseech the 
A •-, and 1 would entreat 

ti. ■ :irry the doctrine of wla- 

Tcry lo an extreme ; 1 would suppli- 
cate all men to look calmly and dis- 
p)*iii(M)alely at the preat enterprise 
mv \.i\r in view. I ask them, in the 
t '. (>i>d under whose provi- 

c!i t, as I in my heart believe, 

lliti Society has thus far pro?«pcrcd, 
|o l"<j'<% at It, at itB objects and at its 
rff'fiji, with unprejudiced and candid 
tyc*. Durinf;, now, n pt-riod of 
l»ru(v-ilve years; without power, 
w ' \ . : :iid nnrc 

I) 11 nf the 

r!. , ;- 

S ,,...,. 1 ... - 

t!.kt |>€(tvKi ti Ua» cMriiMl uo a dcku- 



sire war. It has mad^ treaties. It 

has purchased territory, and that to 
extent; owning, now, some 
liundred and twenty miles 
aJoJiii the western coast of Africa, 
' thioufjliout the whole of which ex- 
tent (with one dark exception) the 
slave trade bus been suppressed. — 
And in this connexion I may be per- 
mitted to remark, that if the Govern- 
ments of Europe and of the United 
States, who have united their efforts 
for tlie suppression of the slave trade, 
would consent to lend* but a small 
portion of the navies they now, at so 
great a cost, maintain off the African 
coast in furtherance of that design, 
to the great object of colonization, 
they would prove much more suc- 
cessful than tiiey have hitherto found 
themselves in putting an end to that 
detested traffic. I believe that no 
other means will ever prove so ope- 
rative audelTeclual lo that end as the 
covering the entire coast of that 
quarter of the globe with colonies of 
free colored men. Then would all 
be united by sympatliy for their out- 
raged countrymen, in heartily ad- 
vancing a design which commends 
itself to every feeling of the black 
man's heart. 

1 Then let all men look on our So- 
ciety as it is, and judge of our de- 
sign wiili fairness and impartiality. 

I am aware that a single motive, 
from among the various motives 
which actuated the founders of the 
Society, has been seized U|)on, and 
urged (in some cases with but too 
I much ellect) as an objection to the 
i whole plan. It has been stated that 
I the degradation of the free people of 
color among us is so great that a 
very large portion of those who fill 
our jHils and penitentiaries consist 
of them, and it h.as been truly in- 
ferred iliat the slaves among us would 
be fc'reatly benefited by the with- 
drawal of the free blacks from their 
vicinity and intercourse. And hence 
the aboUtiouuis hare ukcu uccasioB 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



27 



The Society congratulated on the past achicTcments. 



to affirm that colonization is butaj 
scheme of Southern slave-holders to ; 
perpetuate slavery at home and rivet 
the chains of every bondman in the 
land. But I ask is that fair ? Ought 
they not, before coming to so injuri- i 
ous a conclusion, to look at all the 
motives which led to the formation ! 
of the Society, and not lay hold on 
one alone, and tear that away from 
all the rest, to found on it a charge 
against the whole design ? Should , 
they resolutely shut their eyes 
against such motives as a desire to 
benefit the subjects of colonization 
themselves, by conferring on them 
the substance instead of the mere ; 
name of freedom — to the hope of 
benefiting Africa by spreading there I 
a knowledge of the arts and civiliza- 
tion, and ultimately diffusing the 
blessings of Christianity among her 
benighted millions — to the humane 
design of suppressing the slave trade? 
Is it right to overlook all these con- 
siderations, and fasten on only one 
motive which could be perverted in- 
to selfishness, and judge the whole 
purpose of the Society by that? Let 
them deal more justly by their neigh- 
bor. Let them put together all the 
causes and motives which combined 
to give origin to our attempt, and 
judge us from the whole, and not 
condemn us on one solitary ground, 
forcibly and uncharitably torn away 
from the mass of considerations 
which might lead men to such an 
enterprise. 

And now, in conclusion, I should 
fail of expressing the feelings which 
are rising in my bosom, did I not 
congratulate you, gentlemen of the 
Society, on the eminent success 
which has already crowned your be- 
nevolent labors. A new republic has 
sprung into existence nnder your 
auspices. Yes ; a free, representa- 
tive, constitutional republic, formed 
on the model of our own beloved in- 
stitutions. A republic, founded by 
black men, reared by black men, put 



I into operation by the blacks, and 
which holds out to our hope the 
brightest prospects. Whether we 
look at what has already been done, 
or lift our eyes to the future and cast 
them down the long vista of coming 
time — when we may anticipate, as 
we are warranted to do, the dissemi- 
nation over a large part, if not the 
whole, of Africa, of our own free 
principles of government, our love 
of liberty, our knowledge of Chris- 
tianity, our arts, and civilization, 
and domestic happiness — when we 
behold those blessings realized on 
that continent which I trust in God 
we are long, long destined to enjoy 
on this, and think how the hearts of 
posterity will be gladdened by such 
a spectacle — how ought our own to 
exult in hope and to swell with gra- 
titude 1 

Go on, then, gentlemen ; go on in 
your noble cause. For myself, I 
shall soon leave you and this stage 
of human action forever. I may 
never occupy this chair again ; but I 
trust that the spirit which originated 
and which has sustained this Society 
will long survive me, and that you 
may long continue, now that our Af- 
rican republic is at length born, to 
discharge the offices of guardianship, 
and aid and co-operation, and ever 
give to' the interests of African free- 
dom, civilization, and social happi- 
ness your best energies and most 
fervent prayers. From this auspi- 
cious hour, even to the end of tiaie, 
or until the great object of the ami- 
cable separation of the two races 
shall have been fully effected, may 
others spring up to take your places, 
and to tread in your steps. And, 
finally, invoking on this great and 
good cause the blessings of that God 
without whom nothing is strong, 
nothing is holy, and whose smiles. Hi 
believe, have hitherto been extended 
to it, I bid you a cordial farewell. 

The Hon. Thomas Corwin had 



AMhi-Mu .^^;1XG or TU£ AUCUCAX COLOMZATION SOCIETT. 



■ ii i hl iMi mtm f t»L—01 Uf of iIm Soekijr cImU4. 



b«^ V fol. 

rendered ii iiupoutble fur him to do 

.0. j 

''JtfioJced, That the bearingf of 
African colonization on American 
comrnrrro lii-ninnd f«>r it llic fuvora- 
bh .'.ion of the GoviirnniL'ni 

of I I i States. '' 

The resolution was adopted. 

The Kcv. Mr. RnowN, Professor in 
Dartmouth College, oflercd the fol- 
lowing : 

•• Jifsolvfd, That we have entire 
eonfiilenrr in the preat principles of 
ihe G>!<Miizalion Society, and that 
lU past hiHiury and prcf^cnt condition 
g\re satisfactory eviticiice of its per- 
manent and ultimate triumj)h." — 
Adopted. j 

The Rev. Dr. IJitlf.r, of this 
city, offered the followinj,': 

•• Itesolvrd, That the history of 
Christian missions in Africa proves 
that the policy of the Colonization 
Society is the only effectual means 
of carrying tlie (iospel to the inha- 
biLanbt of that beniglited land, and 
should therefore gather around the 
institution Christian benev(»lence,and 
•waken Christian munificence to sup- 
port it with untiring zeal and* enlarg- 
ed liberality." Adopted. ' 

The Hon. Hf.nry Clay was tman- 
imously elected President of the So- 
ciety for this year. i 

The following gentlemen were 
elected Vice Presidents, viz: | 

I Cionrral John II. Cnrkc. of Virginia. 

-. ii.. ,.1 \i ..... . , •>. ^> .. 



Juhl: 
llcv 



"T 



! op of the 

-'i 1 , . . ... (. i.uich. 

William .Maxwell, 01 Virginia. 
Klislia Wiiittlrtey, ofOhiu. 
Wallrr Lowrie, of Hew York. 
Jacub liuriitfl. of Ohio. 
" -• • ' ■ ' *' ■=i»»ippi. 

:.t. 

11. '■'■ istiinf^on. 
Ki'V. U in. \V mans, oi iMiMJii^ippi. 
.1 ■•(•>.» H""ri!«t'n. pf N>w York. 

' ■ N. ■■. ^^.Ik. 



tsey. 

Uuii. Lt'iti litxUv, of I.,ondoD. 
Ill Mioii, ofPhilatlclphia. 
'. irp. 

! \ . of Tennessee. 

u .1. ..Jon. 

)<pv. Cuiirtiarid Van Kensselaer, N. J. 

Dr. If. l^kin, of London. 

Kev. K. J^u^u.•s^ U. D., of Dedham, 
Massacliu!(otts. 

Tlios. K. Ha/.ar I. of Providence. R. 1. 

Dr. Tlioiiids .Massie, of Tye River 
Mills, Virf;inia. 

Mftj. Gen. Winfield Scott, of Washing- 
ton. 

Rev. A. Alexander. D. D.. of N. J. 

Samuel AVilktson, of New York. 

L. Q. C". KliiKT, ol New Jersey. 

James Railcv, of Mississippi. 

Kcv. Geo. \N\ BetlmiK-, D. D.. of Phila. 

Rev. C. C. Ciij ler. D. D., of Pliila. 

Klliolt Cressoii. of Philadelj.hia. 

Ansf ' t" ' -.of New Yoik. 

Rev. I ds, D. D., Andover, 

.M '.ts. 

Jonatiiaii iluie, ot .Maine. 

Rev. Heverlv Wniif^h, Hishop of the 
M. K. Church. Baltimore. 

Rev. Dr. \V. B. Johnson. S. C. 

Moses Sheppard, Baltimore. 

John (Iiay, Frederirksluirg, Va. 

Bishop Mrllvain, of (Jhio. 

Rev. l)r. K\lj;ar, Nashville, Tenn. 

Rev. P. Liiidsley, D. D., of Tenn. 

Hon. J. R. ri)derwo«Ml, of Kentuclcy. 

Hon. ('. Marsh, of Wooilstork. Yt. 

R.V.J. J. Jan. way. D. I).,of N. J, 

II. L. Lnmpkin. V^in]., Athens, Geo. 

.' lints I.rnnt, of NrW Ynrk. 



New Vork. 



I*. R,,.. 



.Meade, ii. D., Bishop 



i.;i. lion. Thoi \V \ I 

«. I. Moll, hiuion (Jr. ■ ' 

After which ilie Society adjourned 

to meet on the third Tuesday of Jar>- 

uary, ISIO, at seven o'clock, P. M. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 29 

Board of Directors— Member* present—Committees appointed. 



extracts from tjje proacbings of tl)f Boiu& of I>ircctora of tl)e ilmencan Colo- 

nijation .Socicti;. 



WASniNGTON, 

January 18, 1848. 
The Board of Directors of the 



EVENING SESSION. 

The Board met, according to ad- 
journment, to attend the annual 



American Colonization Society met | meeting, and adjourned to meet at 10 
at the office of the society at 12 A. M. to-morrow, 
o'clock at noon, and was organized 
by appointing the Rev. John Mac- 
lean, D. D.j Chairman, and Rev. 
Joseph Tracy, Clerk. 

There were present : 

From Massachusetts Colonization 
Society, Rev. Joseph Tracy — from 
N. Y. Colonization Society, Dr. 
D. M. Reese — from N. Y. Society, 
Life Director, A. G. Phelps, Esq. — 
from New Jersey Colonization So- 
ciety, William Rankin, Esq., and 
Rev. John Maclean, D.D. — from 
Pennsylvania Colonization Society, 
Paul T. Jones, Esq., and Archibald 
Mclntyre, Esq. — Life Director, El- 
liott Cresson, Esq. — from District of 
Columbia, Life Director, Rev. Wil- 
liam McLain. 

The minutes of the last meeting 
of the Society, and of the Board of 
Directors were read by the Secretary 
of the Society. 

The annual report of the Execu- 
tive Committee for the past year was 
read by the Secretary of the Society. 

Dr. James Hall, General Agent of 
the Maryland Colonization Society, 
being present, was, on motion, in- 
vited to sit with the Board as a cor- 
responding member. 

Adjourned to meet at this place at 
61 P. M. 



January 19. 

The Board met, according to ad- 
journment, at 10 A. M. 

The annual report of the Execu- 
tive Committee having been referred 
to this Board, wa?, on motion, re- 
ferred to a committee, consisting of 
Messrs. Tracy, Rankin, and Mc- 
lntyre. 

A committee, consisting of Messrs, 
Phelps and Jones, was appointed to 
examine the Treasurer's accounts, 
and report to this Board. 

Rev. J. B. Pinney, Life Director, 
appeared and took his seat. 

The subject of the Society's prop- 
erty in Liberia, and the future rela- 
tions of this Society to that Republic 
having been referred to the Board by 
the Executive Committee, was dis- 
cussed for some time in free conver- 
sation, after which 

The Board adjourned, to meet to- 
morrow at 9 A. M. 

January 20, 10 Jl. M. 

The Board met according to ad- 
journment. 

The Committee on the Treasurer's 
accounts submitted the following re- 
port ; which was adopted : 



rftocBCoiKOf or nu maju) or DimscTOBa or rue ▲. c. s. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 



31 



SecreUry and Treasuwr and Executive Committee elecUd— Resolution!. 



Messrs. Reese and Cresson were 
appointed a committee to nominate 
officers for the ensuing year. 

This committee nominated the 
following officers, who were elected, 
viz: 

Rev. William McLain, Secretary 
and Treasurer — Matthew St. Clair 
Clark, H. Lindsly, Elisha Whittle- 
sey, Joseph Bradley, A. O. Dayton, 
J. S. Bacon, and William Gunton, 
Executive Committee. 

Resolved, That the thanks of this 
Board be tendered to Hon. R. C. 
WiNTHROP for the use of the Speak- 
er's chamber, kindly and courteously 
proffered by him at our late annual 
meeting. 

Resolved^ That the subject of the 
recaptured slaves be referred back to 
the Executive Committee, with power 
to act, and requesting their early ac- 
tion in the case. 

The committee to whom the an- 
nual report was referred, beg leave 
to report, recommending 

That the report be published under 
the direction of the Executive Com- 
mittee. 

Whereas, the Board of Directors 
of the American Colonization So- 
ciety, at their present meeting, have 
received the official documents, an- 
nouncing the formal declaration of the 
independence of the Republic of Li- 
beria, together with the constitution 
and bill of rights ; and 

Whereas we regard this noble 
effort of the people of Liberia as 
highly honorable to the intelligence, 
and strongly indicative of their ca- 
pacity for self-government ; and 



Whereas this Board feels called 
upon to give expression to their sen- 
timents responding to the communi- 
cations before us ; therefore 

Resolved, That we tender to the 
people of Liberia our hearty con- 
gratulations on the auspicious result 
of their recent convention in the es- 
tablishment of their independent 
government, and rejoice in this re- 
newed evidence of the ultimate tri- 
umph of African colonization. 

Resolved^ That on behalf of the 
Society, the Board of Directors sin- 
cerely reciprocate the kindly expres- 
sions of regard with which we have 
been honored by the Convention, 
and assure them of the continued 
and unabated interest of the Ameri- 
can Colonization Society in their 
future success and prosperity. 

Resolved, That these resolutions 
be officially communicated to the 
President and authorities of Liberia, 
after being signed by the proper 
officers. 

The subject of the Society's pro- 
perty in Liberia having been referred 
to the Board by the Executive Com- 
mittee ; after deliberation, it was 

Resolved, That the provisions of 
the 12th and 16th sections of the 5th 
article of the constitution of the Re- 
public of Liberia, meet the entire ap- 
probation of this Board ; and that the 
Executive Committee be authorized 
and requested to make the most lib- 
eral arrangements with the Govern- 
ment of Liberia, consistent with the 
interests of future emigrants ; sub- 
ject to the approval of this Board. 

Resolved, That the grateful thanks 
of this Board are eminently due to 
the Hon. Henry Clay, the venera- 
ted President of our Society, for the 
highly interesting and able address, 
delivered at our recent anniversary, 



•v> rmociXDiNGs or the boako or dihectors or tbe a. c. b. 



Amt. Bw^im af*^ *> imit^' ilt**' •>>(<• uU (•!•'(« Utcir eoatribulioM l« IIm Trmtmry—AijoanrntmL 



and ihai our Scrrclary communirate 
UiK rr»olunon in appropriate terina. 

Whfreiw, In view of the Declara- 
uon of Libcrian Independence, and 
the uecesaity of vijjoroualy sustain- 
ing the happy consummation of Afri- 
can Colonization, 

RtsolreiU That it be earnestly re- 
commended to the several auxiliary 
■ocielies to increase their C(»ntribu- 
lions to the peneral treasury, to ena- 
ble it to meet its present enKaaements 
and to transport to Liberia the IHO 
emigrants ready to depart, and others 
who may apply in the course of the 
year. 

linolved, Thai the thanks of the 



R<»nrd are due to the Rev. Dr. M.vr- 
i.KAN, our presiding officer, for tlie 
highly satisfactory manner in which 
he has performed this service •, and 
to the Hev. Joskimi Tracv, for his 
services as Clerk at the present ses- 
sion. 

Jiesolveil, That the adjournment 
of this Hoard be, to meet at this 
place, on the third Tuesday in Jan- 
uary, ISiy, at 1*J o'clock at noon. 

After the reading and acceptance 
of the minutes, and prayer by the 
Hev. J. B. PiNXKT, the Board ad- 
journed. Atiesi, 

JOHN MACLEAN, C/i'»;ian. 
Jose I'll Tracv, Clerk. 



APPENDIX. 



INFORMATION ABOUT GOING TO LIBERIA, 



For the information of our friends 
we publish ,the following questions 
and answers. We are constantly re- 
ceiving letters in which these ques- 
tions are, in substance, asked. The 
spirit of inquiry about Liberia, 
and the means of getting there, is 
becoming every day more and more 
prevalent and earnest. We have? 
therefore, for the accommodation of 
ourselves, and the convenience of 
friends, condensed the facts into the 
following form : 

QueslioJi 1. At what season of the year 
is it best to embark lor Liberia? 

Answer 1. The spring or fall is 
the time our vessels usually leave 
Norfolk. There is very little, if 
any, choice between these two sea- 
sons of the year, as a time to leave 
this country for Liberia. It is rather 
more convenient to fit out an expe- 
dition at these periods, than at any 
others, and therefore we have select- 
ed them, as the best time for the sail- 
ing of our vessels. Hereafter it is ex- 
pected that the Liberia Packet will 
make two voyages a year, and if busi- 
ness justifies, she will make three. 

Q. 2. How long is the voyage, and is there 
much danger that we shall be lost on the 
way ? 

Ji. 2. The length of the voyage is 
from thirty to fifty days. The ave- 
rage is about forty days. We hope 



the Liberia Packet will make a much 
less average than this. The emi- 
grants ought to be at the port of em- 
barkation two days before the ves- 
sel sails. There is very little danger 
of being lost. 

Q. 3. What ought we to take with us, 
both lor use on the voyage and after we 
get there ? 

.A. 3. Every emigrant ought to be 
well supplied with clothing, both for 
summer and winter, similar to what 
he wears in this country. There is 
no winter in Liberia, but during the 
rainy season, health is greatly pro- 
moted by wearing flannel, or warm 
clothing. He ought also to have a 
goodmattrass and bedclothes. If he 
is a mechanic, he ought to have the 
tools of his trade. If he is a farmer, 
he ought to be well supplied with 
axes, hoes, spades, saws, augers, &,c. 
And as every family is expected to 
keep house and live for themselves, 
they ought to have a good supply of 
table furniture and cooking utensils. 
It is not possible for them to take 
chairs, tables, bedsteads, and other 
large articles of furniture with them, 
as they occupy too much room in 
the ship. But whatever is conve- 
nient and necessary in housekeep- 
ing and of small compass, they ought 
to take. A keg of nails, a bale or 



31 



|5roRMATiu.i AB^ 



.uiu. 



two uf iJ»tuc*iics, anil some monrtf, 
would be uf UBC lu litem, in erecUng 
iheir liuu»rt, and paying for any 
Ubor ihcy inighi ntcd, during thi- 
Unl few iiioDili'* of ilu ir rr»iJrnci- in 
Liberia, 
y. 4. How much laii '. is i;i\en to tacJi 

,f. 4. Hy the laws of Liberia, each 
emigranton hisarrival receives a town 
lolf or Jive acres of land. If he i» 
the head of a family, the (juaniity of 
land is increased according to the 
number of his family. This allow- 
ance may reem small, but it is abun- 
dantly suillcient for all his necessities 
until he* is able to buy more for him- 
*elf, which he can do for $1 an acre. 

V. 5. Can I educate my cliiliircn there, 
aad what will it cust ? 

.7.5. Bya law of thccommonwealth, 

all parents are required to send llieir 

iMren to school. In some of the 

■ .• merits the schools are very good. 
In others, they are more indifferent. 
But a parent who wants to educate 
his children can do it better in Libe- 
ria ihan in any other place. 

Q. C. Will the Coloiii/ation Society ; 
tiij cx|ieiisri in getting there ' 

.'/. G. The Colonization Society wiii 

give a free passage to all who are 

unable to pay for themselves, and 

wdl aid them in supporting them- 

»clves during llic firnt six months 

after they arrive, by furnishing ibem 

t, ami medicines and 

; iiirc when they nrr 

•ick/and providing them a house 

live in. During tin dims monllis tin ) 

can l>crome acclimaicd, rumc a crop 

for liiemM-lvrai, build ilicm a hoxin' 

' ■ ■' ' ir own land, upon utid ; 

('f land, and have cvi i 



in readiness to live comfortably 

thereafter. 

Q. 7. How call we u.ake a living in Li- 
beria .' 

."?. 7. In tlie same way that you 
would make one any where else ; 
that is, by industry and economy. 

Those who are comiH'tent to teach 
fcliool, can get from three to four 
hundred dollars for tea(;Jiing. Good 
accountants can get from four to eight 
hundred dollars as clerks in stores 
and mercantile houses. Tailors, shoe- 
makers, blacksmiths, carpenters, ma- 
sons, brickmakers, cabinet makers, 
shipwrightj, &lc, <tc., cun always 
find employment at good wages.— 
The farmer need fear no want. 

This question has been answered 
by the Editor of the Liberia Her- 
ald, who has lived there many years, 
and we cannot do belter that to give 
his own words, viz : 

" y< r ■ ' • •• •■ ■: f our friemls, who 
arc c> ireclly ajsertiii{j, in 

Aiuer;. is have not auy thing 

eUe to cil bul loois aiiil wild aniuial^.'wc 
have thotie^ht proper fo five a li«t of such 
animals, fiu. .«•- 

ral iij-e uitt > 

/'•'"•■'.■ (.„,■..-. ,„... „.;iije, 

>, ducks, lowls, pigeons, tur- 

li lU. — Deer ofdifl'erent kinds in abun- 
dance: red, black, brown, and grayish; 
I " ' -cows, doves, hedge- 

ummcr ducks, rice 
L. >.'' 

Jhrvtt. — Water melon, inutk melon, man- 
go plums, orange, ro»e ajiples, sour sop, 
;;iiava, taiiiitriiiil. plantain, bananas, grara- 
iiiadilla, limi-s. Irmon.i. 

' ' ■• ' . ' -JMulli't, whiting, 

; acoula, n)arkerel, 

', catlish, grippcrs, 

i', aun. 

I»otntor«, arrow root, 

. cymblain, chiota, 

j Nra, peB.'<. l.-idi»he!<, 

! ' .', •. cucumbers, giccns, 

•• . .imii, corn. , 

.0, then? are many others. 

vn neither time or room to 



IXFORMATION ABOUT GOING TO LIBERIA. 



35 



How to make a liTitag in Liberia — Health. 



A. F. Russell, Esq., of Golah, ^ 

Liberia, another citizen who has been i 

there for years, writes on the some , 

subject in the Liberia Herald, thus, ': 

viz : (He is speaking of what should | 

be said to persons in the U. S., who ; 

think of going to Liberia.) ' 

"It" they be farmers, point (hem to the u 
soil, the fertility of which cannot be exag- <] 
gerated, producing every thing a tropical | 
clime can produce in ample abundance, yet 1 
• by the sweat of the brow.' The arm ! 
answering, though not necessarily in all ; 
cases, the place of the ox ; [oxen can be i 
bought at any time,thankGod, for the mon- I 
ey, and broke and worked too bj- those who ' 
choose it, and it has been done ;] the hoe ; 
answering lor the plough, if we rather, and i 
in our light soil, does almost as well, per- i 
haps. Labor and patience, two-thirds of 
the labor, too, that it would take to sup- i 
port a man irj the United States, will re- 
ward the workmen, thirty, sixty, a hundred 
fold — the profits will sweeten the toil. 1 

A coffee tree once planted and reared 
(which takes four years) will yield its in- 
crease two crops a year, year after year 
bringing its reward with it — a hundred, a 
thousand, and tens of thousands, will do 
the very same, and certainly the scions, or 
tlie seed, are to be bought in sufficient 
quantities in Liberia. Arrow-root, ginger, 
pinders, and pepper, grow with almost hall 
trouble, yielding in lull abundance if plan- 
ted. Indigo, Sec, grow luxuriantly beyond ' 
all possible expectation; and as for Iruits, 
the orange, lime, lemon, soursop, guava, 
mango, £c. , &c., we place Liberia against 
any country in the world, and with what 
a fraction of labor, compared with the be- 
nefits they yield. Vegetables — the yam, 
Potatoes, cassada, plantains, Indian corn, 
eans, peas. Sec, kc, useless to mention, 
time would fail us to tell. Put them in 
the earth, and they are as sure to produce 
as the God of nature is to bring about the 
seasons. Still the idle will not have them, j 
The lazy man has no part in this lot of 
good things. Such truths would do us ] 
good. The word labor frightens the lazy , 
man, and he will not curse us with his 
presence and example. The industrious 
love that word, or the thing it means, will 
come determined to do, and coming will [ 
conquer and be rewarded." 

The Rev. J. B. Pixney, so long j 
and so well known as Governor of 
Liberia, and since as an agent in this; 



country,answers the question thus,viz: 

" No man, by farming, can get a liv- 
ing without labor in any country but in 
Liberia, there being no snow, or frost, or 
cold to provide against, a large portion of 
the labor needed here for keeping warm 
and comfortable, is not needed there, and 
as it is always summer, much less land 
will support a family. 

Another consideration may here be ad- 
ded, viz : that many important plants and 
vegetables continue to grow and bear from 
year to year, with very little cultivation. 
Our garden Lima bean, / have seen cover- 
ing by its vines a good sized tree, where 
it had been growing and constantly bear- 
ing for nine years .' Sweet potato vines 
are often, when pulled, replanted, and go 
on to bear more roots. The African pota- 
to, or cassada, grows for two years ; the 
cotton plant bears for nine or ten years." 

Q. S. Can I be as healthy in Liberia as I 
am in the United States ? 

A. 8. Probably not. Some consti- 
tutions may be more healthy there 
ttian here. For old settlers, Liberia 
is doubtless more healthy than many 
parts of the United States. The 
deaths there, among such, for seve- 
ral years past, have not been more 
than three per cent. 

"We would here make this general 
remark, in connection with the last 
two questions. The great advan- 
tages, which the colored man gets 
by going to Liberia, are not as to his 
eating, or drinking, or making mo- 
ney, but in his social, political, and 
moral condition. He becomes a 
mail. He is no longer despised as 
of another race, but is treated as an 
equal and a brother, and secures im- 
mense privileges for his children. — 
If colored men cannot understand 
and appreciate these and such like 
advantages, it is not worth their 
while to go to Liberia ! Those who 
can and do appreciate them, and go 
to Liberia, will never regret it. Of 



36 



uarouuTi02f about ooinu to libebu. 



TWgfMrf— «lw>H»u» 



|«u>kitiK Upon Libc- 



,u, .IB .Mr. UuMcll, who»e ; happens that persons almost ready 

J,,, r have before t^uuted, wlit'U the vessel eaiU, are compelled 

make* the fuUowiog remarks: tu wail fur six months or a year, for 

• • ■ ■'• - •' •• .11 ti." I i...r i|,(. waai of a few more days in 

wliich to get ready. 

We trust that this suggestion will 

' duly regarded. There are many 

:'-ui)s who are making imjuiries in 

:ird to the advantages of going to 

' rria, Mho would be much bene- 

' d by the suggestions which many 

our friends mi|;ht give Uicm, or 

winch they could obtain by opening 



w ' 

to 

Ml. 
Wj: 

ru ■ 
ito 

P" 

tboueM ol uriline, and. p<Mha|i>, 

mil 

(o 

wju — _. 1 - 

ia Lltjrru, men 'woith Ihnr wcigUl in 
cold.' 'ihcy are iiulustrioti^ wu, who a correspondence, with us, on the 
Took for«u,J. who love : .o ^^^^ .^^ ^ ^j^^^ ^^ 

Such uirfi are not only ^ '• oui J 

pa!: • ' ■: • c-r ! thcin receive and answer with more plea- 

w 'iP. declare , . 

J J. ,. human de- surc than those wluch make mquiries 

claraiiuri. As tlic hope oi Liberia's glor)", ', gjjfjy^ emigration to Liberia. We 

preirr'. a« writ as future plory, rising; be- ° 

iop . it beckons them onwaid.— trust, therefore, that there will be 

Tr 

ol 

ca 

love U: 

Vtrr ■ 



.reedom- in every true sense j^j ^^^^^^^ j^ ,q j^^g 

Ihey luve our laws, be- ' ' 

wholesome, they are ouis the colored people in possession of 

'•"^,°aUi^'.rof.T»el^^he facts relating to their prospects 

•■ression worse, if pos- in Liberia. We are expecting soon 

.to send out a largo number of the 

' ^ more intelligent and educated class. 

• oiiiy lui own, but ... 

r hi<t roi!n!ry.— The present independent position of 

'; Liberia, renders this very desirable. 

I..., ■-, ...» They have assumed the entire re- 

I ^ It U r.LZl "Pon-ibility of their own govern- 

truth, unicM It hiu brcoino 'a new thing ment, and will demand all the talent, 

Ufni^r thf run.' that thrr- i« not a fiee . , , , 

l\ ■ I .. ^o, Wisdom and energy tlicy can sum- 

^' T will nion to their aid. We should think 

ti.i.. ....... ; J- gc from • ,, , 

• Ibt sign* of itto time*."* that the very most intelligent and 

In concluaion, we have one parti- wealthy colored people in this coun-' 
cular request to make, viz : That all try would have some ambition to 
prnottM intending to emigrate to Kharo in the splendid results, poon 
Liberia, tPtU fiive tis early notice lo be achieved through the agency 
of the time tchrn they inll be ready, of the colonisla, for Liberia! Sure- 
It always requires contiiilrrnble lime Iv, to aid in laying the foundation for 
lo arrange necessary preliminaries, a great nation, in maturing insiitu- 
and make indispensable prepara- (ions and lawn for the government of 
tions : ao ilial it not unfre(|uently a great people, and in redeeming an 



THINGS WHICH EVERY EMIGRANT TO LIBERIA OUGHT TO KNOW. 37 

The importance to every emigrant of being correctly iurormed in regard to their prospects. 



immense continent from the worst of 
Pagan darkness and barbarity, is a 
work infinitely more sublime and 
glorious than can possibly be per- 
'formed by any of the colored people 
in this country, however favored 
may be their position, enlarged their 
opportunities, and determined their 
energy and perseverance! When 
the historian comes to write up the 
labors of their race, who will stand 
far above all comparison, if not the 
bold and successful pioneers in the 
only successful effort ever made for 
their social, civil, and religious le- 
demption ? 

Leaving out of view every thing 
touching their own personal interests, 
there are considerations connected 
with their race and the destiny be- 
fore them, which should induce the 
most highly-favored of them in this 
country to seek a field of usefulness 
in Africa. But when we take into 
consideration that in Liberia is the 
only place on the face of the earth 



where they and their children can 
enjoy the luxury of true freedom, 
and infinitely advance their social, 
moral, and intellectual interests, is it 
not marvelous that they still prefer 
their present inferior and unenviable 
position among the whites, and still 
cherish the gross delusions of which 
they have been made the victims, 
willing to believe the most fabulous 
stories about Liberia, and shutting 
their eyes tightly against all the light 
which shines upon them, and shows 
it to be a dictate of wisdom, as well 
as a demand of duty, for them to go 
to their fatherland, and be Men ! 

We are happy to know, and to 
have it in our power to inform our 
friends, that there are some persons 
intending to go to Liberia, who right- 
ly appreciate the circumstances of 
their situation, and who are prepared 
to make themselves useful and rise 
to a desirable fame, should their lives 
be spared. 



THINGS WniCn EVERY EMIGRANT TO LIBERIA OUGHT TO KNOW. 



It is of vast importance, that who- 
ever contemplates going to Liberia, 
should be fully and correctly inform- 
ed in regard to their prospects. 

1. They should understand that 
they are going to a new country. — 
They will not there see houses built 
in the same style that they are here, 
and filled with all the comforts and 
conveniences that time and wealth 
have so lavishly provided here. It 
is little more that twenty years since 



the first colonists landed on that 
coast. They have, during all this 
time, had to struggle through almost 
unparalleled obstacles. Of course, 
we must not expect to find them as 
far advanced in the refinements of ci- 
vilization as we are. It is yet a new 
country, and those who go there 
must carry with them the courage 
and the energy to bear the dangers 
and surmount the obstacles naturally 
belonging to such a state of things. 



3g THI5Ct WHIcn EVEIIT EMIOBAJfT TO UDCRU Ol'OHT TO KWOW. 



.ly. 



2. Thru mu$t trpfct to begin life 
for! Tliey will not hare 

4IJV : ire who will ihink and 

«ci and contriTe and plan for (hem. 
Thfv inusl rely on ihcinsclvM. — 
Thcv receive a tract of land, in its 
wild and uncultivated state, and if it 
is ever cleared and planted, tht'V must 
do iu They must build a house for 
themselves, and begin to keep house. 
And tf thi'V have but few of the ne- 
cessaries, and none of the conveni- 
ences and luxuries of house-keeping, 
still they must not be disrouroped, 
but •* struggle on and struggle ever." 
Brighter days will come. Every 
brilliant noon must be preceded by 
iu morning. They must not despise 
the day of small things, but cheered 
and hustained by the example of 
many around them, who commenced 
life just as they are doing, and arc 
now comfortable and happy, they 
mtist press their way ^onw:ir.!, and 
they will find that industry and per- 
•evenince will secure to tlicm plenty 
and happiness. 

3. They must not depend upon the 
Colonization Societtf. The busincn.H 
of tlie Society is to help them to get 
to that country, where they can 
thenceforward help themBelvcs. Many 
persons have supposed that the So- 
ciety woald do every tiling for them; 
pay ihfir passnge, furnish them eve- 
ry thing to cat and dfiiik after they 
get to Liberia^ tnd let them livt in 
«••«. Hut the uuth i* for other- 
wiae. And hence, when tlicy reach 
liberia« and begin to find provisions 
nnnittf low, and un made to under* 



' stand that the time has arrived when 
they must support themselves, they 
become ofiemled, abuse the colony 

I and the Society, and pretty near- 
ly every body and every thing else, 
and then perhaps they write home 

I to their friends, and advise them not 
to come to so horrible a place. — 
••These ihingrt ought not so to be." 

4. They must erjiccl to work/or 
their lirins;. How else can they 
hope to live ? Liberia is no unearth- 
ly paradise. If men there have not 
money enough to live on, they must 
make a living some other way. By 
the labor of their heads or the labor 
of their hands, they must get bread 
for themselves. And it would be well 
for them to understand that there is 
no business more honorable or more 
important to the welfare of the colo- 
ny, and profitable to the individual, 
than the cultivation of the soil. It 
always yields a liberal reward to the 

, industry of the husbandman. 

5. They ought to be impressed 
I with a sense of the resjHmsibility 
I which will ilrvohc upon them, as 

members of a free and independent 
government. Kvery citizen of Libe- 

|;ria must consider himself as one of 
the builders of a great and cultivated 
iiaiion, a Christian commonwealth, 
on the slioies of a barbarous conti- 
nent. The very circumsinnces in 
which tliey are placed, stimulates 

{ them to action, and fiirnisheH excit- 
ing motives for elevated sentiments 
and noble conduct, 

I'crsonii, therefore, who contem- 
plate going to Liberia, ought to un- 



THINGS WHICH EVERY EMIGRANT TO LIBERIA OUGHT TO KNOW. 



39 



On their arrival in Liberia they are invested with all the rights of citizens. 



derstand beforehand the nature of the 
duties they will be called to perform. 
On their arrival there, they will be 
invested with all the rights of citi- 
zens ; they must vote at elections, 
and consider and decide upon the 
measures most necessary to secure 
the welfare of the citizens and the 
stability of the government. The 
highest offices in the commonwealth 
are within their reach. They may 
aspire to them, and, if sufficiently 
intelligent and virtuous, they may ul- 
timately reach them. 

What a reward is thus held out to 
inspire a pure ambition, and incite a 
determined effort ? Liberia is des- 
tined to enlarge itself for ages, and 
gather within its expanding influence 
multitudes of the present and mil- 
lions of the future generations ! In- 
terest and duty, hope and fear, pa- 
triotism and religion, self-respect and 
stern necessity, all combine and urge 
them to act with manly courage and 
unbending fidelity. 

6. They ought to he sensible that, 
not only for themselves, but for the 
benefit of their race, must they labor. 
The colony is, in one respect, a great 
missionary station, a great centre of 
light and influence, and it is destined 
to make all the surrounding tribes and 
country just what it is, and continues 
to be. The natives liave never be- 
fore beheld such a spectacle as is pre- 
sented to their view in the citizens, 
the houses, the schools, the churches, 
and the government of Liberia. — 
Hence they look on with intense 
anxiety. The superiority of every 



thing colonial impresses them. They 
feel a desire to copy the example set 
before them. The natives and the 
colonists are all mixed together, and 
thus the style and manners of every 
family is seen, and an influence for 
good or for ill, goes forth from every 
individual. How important, there- 
fore, that colonists, before leaving this 
country, should be made to feel the 
immense importance of a correct 
course of conduct, governed and con- 
trolled by thorough religious princi- 
ple ! They ought to be made to feel 
that it is their highest privilege, as 
well as their imperative duty, to cast 
in their lot with the pioneers in the 
I work of Africa's civil, social, and re- 
[ligious redemption, and sacrifice 
themselves, if need be, in the stu- 
pendous work of spreading free go- 
vernment and civil institutions over 
all Africa, and bringing her uncount- 
ed population all under the dominion 
of the kingdom of Heaven ! 

7. They should be instructed to 
regard the advice of the governor 
and physician, in relation to preserv- 
ing their health. Foolish and un- 
necessary exposure to the dew and 
the night air, and the indulgence 6f 
their appetites, have caused the death 
of many emigrants before they had 
become accustomed to the climate, 
whose lives might have been saved 
by simply attending to the advice of 
the physician. 

8. They should be made to feel 
the importance of sending their child- 
ren to school, as soon as they ar- 
rive in Liberia, and until they are 



Tutxoff wuica xmr cmiorant to uuuua ouout to kxow. 



fitU^edutatcd. Thu \» iiuporunt 
t, .) wrlfare and happineBs. 

I. uiil 10 ihcir ri'spirubilily 

•nil inducuce awoog the uUicr colo- 
mtu. Ii i»iiuporUiii for ilu* perfec- 
tion and |KTptluity of the uislilutionH 

: the ecu D try. 

up As tlu'v titcmbchi-s 
m liiiu couiJiry, Uiey are 
too tpt to be indifTcrenl to the educa- 
tion of »hcir children. It ri-quircB 
rvrrv motivo and inllucncc whirh 

•cfMity can urge, or in^nuity can 
originate, to aro' to a jiropcr 

Rinse of their r^ , .ilict*. Itul 

ought to be done ; and, in most in- 
»:ance«, it can be done most ctTectu- 
allv by their friends in this country, 
in whom they repose confidence. 

0. Thty ou^hl to he convinced 
. liii th( friends of colonization are 
thrir fnendt ; that it is a scheme 
contrived and executed soleh/ icith 
reference to the good of their racr 
Wc hare alwayu professed to be i! 
friends of the colored man. We 
hare always advocilcd colonization 
at his friend, and have honesUy be- 
liered thai it presented the fairfftt 
hope and the surest guarantee of hii* 
future happiness. We are satisfled 
that in this country he nerer can en 
loy a permanrnt liome ; can never 
ri»€ above his prmcnt depressed con- 
diiion. He may stay here for yearn 
and years yet to come. Hut the day 
intist come, sooner or latir, when he 
must depart. 'Hie state of things i- 
now in process uf formation, whirii 
will roui[>cl him lo aeek the necessa- , 



riea of life in some other climate, and 
out of some other soil. 

•' \\ hf uevt-r thf avenues of omployment 



. ai It nuwis, a la\<'r to work, 

rft! !'ian will kii.>',v (!:;•{ the 

■•1. 

..V 

■ .ay 

The 

• rns the 

. ~\m be ueull with 

h? <l»in» wrong, 

' a\< no olher 

IJut we 

' ' •' ■' ■' no 



1!. The colored i 

\ OIK ..(> I. 'A drive had - - >■ ;, 

is this? New York is ill ii- 

reason is a plain one. i .. :> la- 

largest city in our country, attracting to it, 
by its very si/e, a btill increasing popula- 
tion. Labor is more abuiiMant there than 
in smaller cities, or in the rural dig- 
tricts. tor t! • ' • ::ents of the poor 

there are m "rs. The white 

man, with p( . r on his side, has 

elbowed out Ihc black man. The an$.ver 
to the <|ii»-«|i<>ti, then, is to be found in tl/c 
pr! A l.:ive stated. We 

II. or a like charac- 

now takes place 

.iiiversal through- 

uut t!.u bii.l,- .\^c-u tl;c colored man, in 

place, whether as hackman, or waiter, or 

pi ' > M > 11 .V \y|,j((. 

Ill > sup- 

|1 _, t (• sup- 

i> : tluiii a colored one, by IIk* 

« 'hr head <>r the latter re- 



l)pyt.nd the 

• winch wc 

have .iiiw'iol, itsyiuiu* tu Mhich the op- 

prr«»«-i! may liec from the wrath that is to 

com*". 

•• \\i" a<k our colored friend* to nonder 
lhr«r tliitigs well. Wr aik them to believe 
ViiX it \» a friend who opraks lo them, who 
fi I. in ir,*crr<! '" iM»lra.| llinn, and who, 
• re upoken, discharges 
to Ik- k duty, which it 
«•■ .1 . i>e <iiiiii:.ai lo neglect." 

And w« ask our friends into whose 



COMMON OBJECTION'S TO GOING TO LIBERIA ANSWERED, 
iDformation — how to be obtained. 



41 



hands these pages may fall, to take 
every opportunity to make these facts 
and truths known to the colored peo- 
ple. Especially do we desire the 
masters and others having persons in 
their charge, who are to be sent to 
Liberia, to be particular in giving 
fully and repeatedly the information 
here presented. It will save us 
much trouble and expense. It will 
save the emigrants many regrets and 
much disappointment, and it will be 



I of lasting benefit to the common- 
' wealth of Liberia. 

Information of the time and place 
of the sailing of the next expedition 
for Liberia, can at any time be ob- 
tained by addressing a letter to the 
Secretary of the American Coloniza- 
tion Society, Colonization Rooms, 
Washington City. Where also can 
be had copies of this pamphlet, 
and other documents for gratuitous 
circulation. 



COMMON OBJECTIONS TO GOING TO LIBERIA ANSWERED. 



We not unfrequently meet with 
objections to going to Liberia, made 
honestly by some ])erson.'3, who have 
the offer of their freedom, if they will 
go, and others who are free, and 
might make good citizens of Liberia, 
We therefore propose to give their 
objections a candid hearing, and see 
if they cannot be removed, viz: , 

Objection 1. I do not want to go where [ 
there are no white people. I do not be- I 
lieve in the control of nejjroes. I have ! 
seen too much of them. They will never 
do for me. I 

.utnswer \. This objection argues a 
very bad state of mind in him who 
makes it. It shows that he has not 
a decent self-respect, or that he has 
very inadequate ideas of the capa- 
bilities of his race. If his ideas of 
negro government have been formed 
from the conduct of some colored 
overseer on a plantation, then he 
ought to know that a government of 
law and order, regularly established 
and administered by colored men, 
for their own mutual benefit, is 



another and a very different thing. 
And if he has the principles and 
character of a man, he may stand a 
fair chance of rising to the head of 
the government, and then surely he 
need not complain of undue rigor. 

O. 2. I do not want to go there to die. 
Every body dies there. It is too sickly 
for me. If I do not die naturally, the wild 
beasts will eat me up. I cannot live 
among snakes and alligators. 

Ji. 2. For acclimated emigrants, Li- 
beria is as healthy as any other 
country. Their bills of mortality 
show this. The census published 
and circulated so widely in all parts 
of this country proves it. 

And farther than this, there is very 
little danger of dying in the process 
of acclimation, if the patient takes 
proper cire of himself. Of the emi- 
grants sent out during the last five 
years, not one in twenty has died 
from the effects of acclimating fever. 

We have never heard of a single 
colonist having been eaten up by the 
wild beasts, and think, therefore. 



LiMMOsr o&iccnofl* to oouta to tnEitu ambwcrco. 



TU JI«rtM» hmmd ky uiw i tatkmAm tanmt •■ fmnidfutMt im ik» «!•«• inki*. 



i.itti tkvre matt be loine rainlake at I 

to ihr (lanrrr from ihal source. 

( ' <h« colorii»U ar« 

rt. ■!*, Ki>(l 1 never [ 

cc 

<dU hardly »pcak grsTfly ' 
in answer to this ohjeciion. We 
lately heard of a f^nileman of some i 
dtfiinction, who had been on board 
of one of our men-of-war on ilie Af- 
rican coast, and tlierefore claimed to 
be well informed as to the actual 
state of things at Liberia, and who 
said that it was generally believed 
lltat the colonists were engaged in 
the slave trade ; and he mentioned 
the name of one person, of \<'hose 
participation in that horrible traflic 
tliere was no doubt. Rut it so hap- 
pened that wc knew the said person, 
and that he had not been in Liberia 
for several years, and that he is now 
residing in the city of Philadelphia. 
By the laws of Liberia, it is a 
capital oflfence to be engaged in the 
slave trade. And not only arc the 
colonisu entirely free from blame, 
and above suspicion in this matter, 
but they have also exerted a rtdecm- 
ing influence upon the native tribi-a 
in their vicinity. One of the first 
articles in all the treaties made with 
t)ie natives, binds them to abandon 
forever all participation in the slave 
trade. It is a fart, which is notorious, 
thai the eslablishmciil of Liberia hn» 
drivrn the slave trade entirely away 
from more than three hundred miles 
along the sea eoast, with the excep- 
>n of one single lactory. 
It ts, tlierefore, entirely too Uto in 
a day to charge this crime on the 
•loOMta. 



O.4. T>'-v >■»»•<»»'>»•»•••'.''■ •!>'"•> Thev 
cannot 

nor aiij ; . . i-;<-. 

^A. Is there anything in the climate 
or soil of Liberia that should make 
roots more unwholesome or unpala- 
table as an article of food there than 
they are in this country ? It is a fact 
that they eat roots there, and so tiicy 
do here, and in the form of sweet po- 
tatoes, Irish potatoes, turnips. Sic. 
They are here generally much ad- 
mired, and wc see no good reason 
why the same thing should not be 
true of them in Liberia. 

There is no danger of starvation 
in Liberia. There is no difTiruliy ia 
gelling plenty to eaU of good whole- 
some food. It is true that some ar- 
ticle.'^ of diet eaten here cannot be 
gotten tliere without much inconve- 
nience. But it is also true that ihere 
are many vegetables and fruits there, 
which are not found here ; and that 
nature has furnished an abundant 
supply of tlie kind of food best cal- 
culated to promote the health and 
comfort of people living on that soil* 
and in that climate. 

O. y II I CO there and lio not like it, 
lliry will not let me come away again. 

.1. 5. It is not true that ihe Society 
does nut allow any body to return, 
when once tlisy have gone to Libe- 
ria. Kvery colonist there is as free 
tt) ntny, or leave and go where he 
pleases, as any individual in this, or 
any oilier country, can po.-^.nibly be. 
We have no control over them. They 
are responsible to themselves. They 
! may go away any d.iy they choose. 

O. G. I have no inoncy to br^in with, if I 
|{o there, and 1 know 1 could not {;et alonp, 
that way. 



CERTAIN CAV/LINQS AGAIJVST COLONIZATION REPLIED TO. 



43 



The soil produces abundantly.— Difficulty of convincing colored people. 



A. 6. It is true, that it would be very 
desirable for every colonist to have 
a little money to begin life with, in 
that new world. But it is not indis- 
pensable. A majority of the present 
colonists commenced there without 
a cent. Many of them have risen to 
considerable wealth, and all who 
have practiced any industry or econo- 
my, now enjoy an abundance. A 
good character and a willingness to 



work, are of more value than a for- 
tune without them. There is, per- 
haps, no place in the world where a 
family can be supported with less 
labor than in Liberia. The earth 
produces abundantly, and almost per- 
petually, and with very little labor in 
the cultivation. There is, therefore, 
no difficulty in living well, even 
without any money to begin with. 



CERTAIN CAVILINGS AGAINST COLONIZATION REPLIED TO. 

With an earnest desire to do all ij Ansvjer 1. It is not true that the 
in our power to place Colonization i friends of colonization are actuated 
in its true light before the colored ji by no higher motive than "to get 
people, we answer below some of | clear of the colored people." They 
the most common cavilings against ji do not propose to send them to Li- 
it. We fully appreciate the dilRcul- j beria contrary to their own wishes, 
ty of making them rightly understand 1 Their will is always consulted in the 



all the bearings and blessings of Co- 
Ionization, and of convincing them 
that it presents to them the very 
highest good that they will ever en- 
joy in this world. In our mind there 
is not a doubt of this. We are as 
fully persuaded that Colonization 
opens to the colored people of this 
country the only bright prospect that 
lies before them in all the broad fu- j 
ture, as we are of our own existence.- 



matter. We have no power to send 
them. They can stay here as long 
as they wish. But our opinion is 
that their stay in this country will 
ever be attended with such depress- 
ing influences as to rendej it any 
thing but desirable. While, on the 
contrary, their departure to Liberia 
will bring them into an entirely new 
set of circumstances, where a vast 
field of advancement will be opened 



But our conviction of the fact, and t to them, and the most powerful mo- 



the ability to convince them, are two 
vastly different things. Could they 
be brought to look at the whole sub- 
ject as we do, they would, without 
doubt, think as we do. 

Question 1. Why do the whites wish to 
get clear of us, and send us away to that 
land? 1 



tives be brought to bear upon them 
to lift them up in the scale of being. 
In this country we see no prospect 
of their ever rising above their pre- 
sent level. There no power can pre- 
vent them from rising. 

Another consideration on this 



44 



CEBTAI.N CAriU.VOS AGAINST COLO.MZATIOJt RtTUZD TO. 



point If W0 wUh to get clear ofj 

them, aud Uiis only, wc crrtaiiily are f 

I ■ u iih bul very liule prospr • 

( :i!» our iri»/j. The niu. 

brr tranaporied to Liberia beam bo \, 

little comparison to ihcir natural in- 

crrasc, that tu continue the prui^rcss 

with no otiier motive than merely to 

' ' T them, would be the lilank- 

.9 in the wide world. This, 

therefore, cannot bo the reason why 

wo gire and labor to support coluni- 

zatiun, and urge its claims and bene- 1 

fits upon them, from time to time, 

witli all the ardor of our minds. 

Q. 2. If we mutt live by our«olvc9, why 
us iome |)lace in the L'ni- 
thcre is room enough ? 

.i. ~. S\ lil ihey please to dcsi;,Miate 
what particular place in the United 
States tliey would like to have as- 
signed to them? ^Vhe^e is there a 
spot not wanted by the while man ? 
How rapidly is our population sprcad- 
i ' '. ' ' country .' Wliat 

". the |>uor Indian? 
Where is his resting place ? Where 
his home, not ever tu be disturbed 
by the march of cirilizaiion ? C'uulil 
the colored people hope for a better 
detiiiiiy than has been his ? 

Will they Ro west of the Hocky 
Mountains r Ask them. And if ilu y 
were there and comfortably fixed, 
what assurance have they, that th( ir 
descendants will be allowed qui< 
to remain there ? 

Wliy do they not p<i to Canada^. 
Many of their brethren have ^one 
t!nre. f»re-it sympathy has been 
expressed fi^r them by the present 
mbabiianta of Canada, and the peo- 



pie of England. Why do they not 

avail ihemselres of this sympathy 

■o tlicre in large masses ? They 

the reason. We need not 

mention it. 

Will they go to z free Stale'/ — 
Some of tliein have tried tliis, and 
have rued the day they ever set foot 
on free soil. The reception the 
" Randolph negroes" (as they are 
now called in Ohio) met with, is 
warning to them on this subject. 

No ! there is no place for them in 
this country. It is not their land, 
and they never can be made at home 
here. There are diniculiica in the 
way which no power of man ran 
remove. 

They feci this and sometimes ac- 
knowledge it, when they would not. 
Some time last year a convention 
was hold by them in the northern 
part of Ohio, at which it was pro- 
posed to adopt n plan of colonization 
to some distant part of tins country, 
but it met with more bitter opposi- 
tion and fierce denunciation, than did 
ever the hated scheme of African 
colonization, and the majority carri- 
ed the day, and resolved that they 
would contend to the death for their 
rights on tlie soil where they were 
born ! 

(i ". Why <\o not wmf of Ihr citizens of 
' c tliem 
>'\vn lips 



.7. 3. Why do not the citizens of 
Lilieria come back and tell tlieir own 
hiory ? Who would believe them, if 
they were to .' Many of them have 
come~4)iTC gone tu their friends 



CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA. 



45 



The OoTernment of Liberia conaidercd as firmly established. 



and their kindred, and have, in the 
simplicity cf tlicir hearts, told how 
,they lived and what their prospects 
were ; and then have been told that 
they were paid by the Colonization 
Society to tell this story, and their 
own kindred refused to believe them! 
And when they have gone among 
strangers and presented a true pic- 
ture of Liberia, they have been 
charged with trying to persuade men 
to go there, simply because it would 
benefit those already there ! In this 
kind of treatment, but little encour- 
agement is found for them to repeat 
their visit to thii^ country. Beside 
this, it costs both time and money 
to come to this country and go "every 
where to tell of the condition of Li- 
beria. Who among the colored peo- 
ple here would be willing to make 
such a sacrifice for their race ? 

If they want to understand the I 
true condition and prospects of Libe- 
ria, why do they not send out an 
agent to see for them, and return and 
report the facts ? This would cer- 
tainly be a more feasible plan for ar- 
riving at some correct understanding 
of the case. 

Q. 4. What evidence is there that, if we 
goto Liberia, and do well Tor a time, we 
shall not some day be oppressed by other 
nations, and subjected to all the cruelties 



which our ancestors have suffered in being 
torn from their native land ? 

Jl. 4. There does not seem to us 
any danger of the citizens of Liberia 
ever being subjected to the disastrous 
end alluded to here. Liberia, though 
very young yet,isfast rising in the dig- 
nity and grandeur of full grown man- 
hood. Its growth and governmenthave 
excited some feeling in some parts of 
the world. Cut there is nothing of 
danger to be apprehended. And as 
to the slave trade ever getting its 
victims from among the citizens of 
Liberia, it cannot be thought of for 
a moment. 

j We consider the government of 
' Liberia firmly established. It pos- 
sesses sufficient stability and intel- 
ligence to warrant its permanent fu- 
1 ture existence. 

! The safeguard against any disas- 
trous result is to be found in the vir- 
tue and education of those who sup- 
port it. It will be just what they 
choose to make it. If, therefore, 
any of the colored people in this 
country are solicitous on this point, 
they ought, without delay, to cast in 
their mite to strengthen the hands of 
their fellow men, and thus do all in 
their power for the salvation of their 
race. 



CONSTITUTION OP THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA 



IN CONVENTION. 

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

We the representatives of the people of I 
the Commonwealth of Liberia, in Conven- 
tion assembled, invested with authority for 
ibrraing a new government, relying upon 
the aid and protection of the Great Aibiter 



of human events, do hereby, in the name 
and on behalf of the people of this Common- 
wealth, publish and dccbre the said Com- 
monwealth a FREE, SOVEREIGN AND IN- 
DEPENDENT STATE, by the name and title 
of the Republic of Liberia. 

While announcing to the nations of the 
world the new position which the people of 



46 



COXSTITOTIOW or TUE RZPUBUC OP LIBEUIA. 



IMrkntio* 9t laAuftwAntr. 



Il^ f> M., \,yvi> Ml tlicinsctvfs called 



npo: 



lent 

U.ci: 

life. ! i ""'. pos- 

«Mt. ;> By •»'«• 

precticc ami coii»ciil ol lutii lu all ages, 
»oo>P ^vtMn or form of t»overninent is pro- 
ven ! • »'"! 
•eci. ■ "'" 

• ri^il.. ; - -l '» 

chwosc ai • system or lorm ofil, 

which, in ' ti. «'ll ™^'t effectu- 

ally accomjtli»l» tl.e.Ho ohjects, ami secure 
their happiness, which does not interfere 
with the just ri ' • •' TS. The richt, 

therefoie, to ii minent, and to 

all t' • ' >v^.^- . ''•> conduct it, is 

an i rjd'cannot be resisted 

Witt. injustice. 

Wc ti.o iMopk- of the R.-pwblic ofLibc- 
ria were ori»inallv the inhabitanta of the 
L'ni'' ' • • t N'orth America. 

I; of that ountrv. we were 

!..>. , ., from all the rights and pri- 

lien— in other parts, public senti- 

tf powerful tlian law, frowned us 

duM'ti. 

We were every where shut out from all 
oivil •'- 

\\ . luded from all participation 

in t) . .t. 

HV w. : ll>e 

.'I .1 rouiiiry Ml. I'll g.ixr us no 

\, . n r, !.. -1 sit.rira'.- .ind distinct 

cla.s. lUo to im- 

prov. 1- iJtran- 

gers fj.'Ui all Uii.lii, ol 4 c..lur .Ulferent from 
ours, w«-ri< preferred l>eforc us. 

\\', - I . . I .,1 ii....- sxerv 

una- : '>»« 

pccul 

All hopr ol a lavorablf clialine »n OUr 

country was tf.us wholly extinKiiisbco in our 
bo«/. ■:■■ lookf'f Willi anxiety abroad 

for • u» from the deep degrada- 

Uob. 

The Western coatl of .\frica waa the 
pbrtc ••I.ri.-l by Aiiif-ri.-aM bfiiPvnience 
aad , "-•— 

•Ufr 

rt«h;.. .... , 



pr.vr those faculties which the God of ot- 
iveu us in common with the rest 

I. 

- ' 't ■ i ;•••■; Co- 

Ives 
II om 
the lords ol the suil. 

In an cri^ifisl compact with this Socie- 
ty. V. " ' ' •■ JtO 
It . - in- 
. . opie 

_- the 

...«ld 

•iejire It, this uisUtuliou would u-.-;n the 

,!,.|r.rst<'l power. |>eaccably willidiaw its 

• the people to the 

Ives. 

j^ ill I [guidance of this 

insti V and in perfect 

faith '" "'e people, 

we have (jiuwii i»!.d j 

From time to time. has been 

iucr. • • . ' ^'"; 

an.l ' ^""^ 

fro...;.... , . i*^''- 

cd it, we have extended our Urdtia by ac- 
ijuisition of land by honorable purchase 
from the natives of the country. 

As our territory has extended, and our 
i.opulalion increaseil, our commerce has 
also increased. The tlogs of most of the 
civilized nations of the earth float m our 
harbors, and their merchants are oponmE 
an honorable and profitable tra<!e. Until 
recently, these visits have been of a uni- 
formly harmonious character, but as they 
\ ... . 1. ,.^(. more frequent, and to more 
l)oints of our extending coast, 
nave arisen, which it is 8up|)osetl 
cull be adjusted only by agreement between 
sovereign powers. . 

For years past, th' ' -"■ ^^oloniza- 

tion Society has vir! iw n from 

all direct and active 1 .ministra- 

tion of the governmrnl. except in the ap- 
iwintment of the Governor, who is also » 
colonist, for the apparent purjwse of test- 
int; the ability of the people to conduct the 

Bllnirsof - -1. and no complaint of 

crtidc le^; of misiiianageraeht, 

nor of r, •raliou has yet been 

heard. 
In view of the«e facts, this institution, 

the American (" " ' '" "•*•) 

that i;..o.lf.iith\\ '1^«^" 

I -. I .i;....j . ,....:. ■ I re- 

in the year of our 
lit hundred and forty- 
H.x. di»»olvo *U lu.htir.il connection with 
It.r ,„Kiple of this llrpuMic. return «l>'" !»"«;- 
er with which it was dele,;ated, and leR 
the people to the governmcut of Uiem- 

' The people of the Kepuldic of Liberia, 
then, arc of rijiht. and m fact, a free, »ovc- 



CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA, 



47 



Appeal to the catioai of the world. — Declaration of Rights. 



reign and independent State, possessed of 
all the rights, powers and functions of gov- 
ernment. 

In assuming the momentous responsibi- 
lities of the position they have taken, the 
people of this Republic feel justified by the 
necessities of the case, and with this con- 
viction they throw themselves with confi- 
dence upon the candid consideration of the 
civilized world. 

Liberia is not the offspring of grasping 
ambition, nor the tool of avaricious specu- 
lation. 

No desire for territorial aggrandizement 
brought us to these shores ; nor do we be- 
lieve so sordid a motive entered into the 
high considerations of those who aided us 
in providing this asylum. 

Liberia is an asylum from the most grind- 
ing oppression. 

In coming to the shores of Africa, we in- 
dulged the pleasing hope that we would be 
permitted to exercise and improve those 
faculties, which impart to man his dignity 
— to nourish in our hearts the flame of hon- 
orable ambition, to cherish and indulge 
those aspirations which a beneficent Crea- 
tor had implanted in every human heart, 
and to evince to all who despise, ridicule 
and oppress our race, that we possess with 
them a common nature, are with them sus- 
ceptible of equal refinement, and capable 
of equal advancement in all that adorns and 
dignifies man. 

We were animated with the hope, that 
here we should be at liberty to train up our 
children in the way they should go — to in- 
spire them with the love of an honorable 
fame, to kindle within (hem the flame of a 
lofty philanthropy, and to form strong with- 
in them the principles of humanity, virtue 
and religion. 

Among the strongest motives to leave 
our native land — to abandon forever the 
scenes of our childhood, and to sever the 
most endeared connections, was the desire 
for a retreat where, free from the agitations 
of fear and molestation, we could, in com- 
posure and security, approach in worship 
the God of our fathers. 

Thus far our highest hopes have been 
realized. 

Libeiia is already the happy home of 
thousands, who were once the doomed vic- 
tims of oppression, and if left unmolested 
to go on with her natural and spontaneous 
growth ; if her movements be left free from 
the paralysing intrigues of jealous ambi- 
tion and unscrupulous avarice, she will 
throw open a wider and yet a wider door 
for thousands, wflo are now looking with 
an anxio'u^eye for some land of rest. 

Our courts of .justice are open equally to 
the stranger and the citizen for tlie redxess 



of grievances, for the remedy of injuries, 

and for the punishment of crime. 

Our numerous and well attended schools 
attest our efforts and our desire for the im- 
provement of our children. , 

Our churches for the worship of ouf Cre- 
ator, every where to be seen, bear testimo- 
ny to our piety, and to our acknowledgment 
of His Providence. 

The native African, bowing down with 
us before the altar of the living God, de- 
clare that from us, feeble as we are, the 
light of Christianity has gone forth, while 
upon that curse of curses, the slave trade, 
a deadly blight has fallen as far as our in- 
fluence extends. 

Therefore, in the name of humanity, and 
virtue, and religion — in the name of the 
Great God, our common Creator, and our 
common judge, we appeal to the nations of 
Christendom, and earnestly and respectful- 
ly ask of them that they will regard us 
with the sympathy and friendly considera- 
tions to which the peculiarities of our con- 
dition entitle us, and to extend to us that 
comity which marks the friendly inter- 
course of civilized and independent com- 
munities. 

CONSTITUTION. 

ARTICLE I. 

Declaralion of Rights. 
The end of the institution, maintenance 
and administration of government, is to se- 
cure the existence of the body politic, to 
protect it, and to furnish the individuals 
who compose it with the power of enjoy- 
ing, in safety and tranquility,' their natural 
rights, and the blessings of life ; and when- 
ever these great objects are not obtained, 
the people have a right to alter the govern- 
ment, and to take measures necessary for 
their safety, prosperity and happiness. 

Therefore we, the people of the Com- 
monwealth of Liberia in Africa, acknowl- 
edgine; with devout gratitude the goodness 
of God, in granting to us the blessings of 
! the Christian religion, and political, reli- 
I gious and civil liberty, do, in order to se- 
I cure these blessings for ourselves and our 
I posterity, and to establish justice, ensure 
domestic peace, and promote the general 
j welfare, hereby solemnly associate, and 
i constitute ourselves a free, sovereign and 
I independent state, by the name of the Re- 
i public of Liberia, and do ordain and estab- 
lish this Constitution, for the government 
\ of the same. 

Section 1. All men are born equally 
free and independent, and have certain 
natural inherent and inalienable rights — 
among which are the rights of enjoying 
and defending life and liberty, of acquiring, 
possessing and protecting property, and of 



46 



CO.ItTITl^TlOJf or THE BKPL'BLiC OF UBERJA. 



prfBtorti-— »•" 



«ot«rmMM^- Liberty oTUm frtm. 



i a.ivl obtaining nf<.:. 
3. All ] "W<r 15 inhrrrnt in • 
I 

Ihr\f..ivi- a ll^M.t t'> iCHT ;iiri rriciiii 

•auie whro their safety and happioe«i> > 

.•.l!l,- It. 

3. All nen have t i 



I.' 

I'. 

tluti ui law III llic lire eXt-Ulae ol (lieir uMii 

rpljffirtn. afifj no ""^t of (-hri'tinii* »h:ill 



h).t . 4. 'riiercfliaU U: iiu »lu\iry vvi'.itiu 
this Kiitiihlie. Nor shall any eitizi-n of 
r' '' ' ' '.y pprson r ' - • 

I c'illier \'. 

\s . .: 1. , :, directly ■ 

rectiy. 

Sec. 5. Thr pfopip have a ripht nt 
times, ill an peaceablr i 

to a.<!temble upon the • 

C ' ' •■ ■ • •ntatr. ■ -, ...•. 

• ■ r any public 

f .•! grievances. 

6. K»cry person iiijure<i shall have 
therefor Vy «lii« rniir«e of law ; 



t.n 



ly, and to 
i, or both. 



Sec. 7, So person «hali be held to 
twer fMr a eapiti! f-r infsfT-'M erifn*-, 



cl. 

Iuriil»li<-il Miiii u • 

cofifnintfd wiMi t' 

t-. ■■ ., 



• , to btf 

.it him. 



'• N'> pUer *H»II \»" *<«RreWed 



■ffinnation. •pecitlly desifrnatiii); 
cr or person, and the object ot the 

' ' ill not bo re- 

Mii|>u$e<i. nor 

' 'all 



;iny act puiii»habie, in aiiy manner 
li it was not punishable when it 

::in)itt<d. 

I i. All elections shall be by ballot, 

., .. 1 'ti/cnof twenty-one year* 

.; ical estate, shall have 

:,'e. 

bt.c. 12. >ilie people have a rif;ht to 
keep an<l to b<-ar nrtn-* for the eoinmon de- 

, armies 
t not to 
I oi the 
r bball 
linn to 
! by it. 
not be 
;i,>i cuuipen- 



the civil u^ll.uir.y, uiji. 
Bug. 13. Private pic 
' iken for public use wiiu<ui 
ition. 

Sec. U. The iKJWcrsof this povernment 

shall be divided into three distinct depart- 

in'Mit--, the I,ei:isli»tive, F.xecutive and Ju- 

ing to one ol 

ise any of the 

,.,,- .>. , .>;., . ^.1 the uthere. — 

J , i-* not to be construcil to in- 

(. . < of the I'eace. 

i>t.c. 1 j. The liberty of the press is es- 

«ential totlio security of freedom in a Slate: 

' , therefore, to be restrained in 



la, 
pf'ni II: 



^).:.ll )m 


' free to cverj- person 
nine the proceed- 




• >r any branch of 


I;. 


J hiw shall ever be 


■!.e 


riiilits thereof. The 




■ •' ' ■ • 1 opin- 




■f man ; 




v, write. 




'. being responsible 

rty. 




" :i of pa- 

• ( 1 orti- 




: where 




public 


And 11 


r given 
■ all ii...u':inents for 


ry •hall 


have .1 riijht to deter- 




. the di- 




' •.. 




-t or 




> <r. 




. . pic, Cl iheir 




*: .,., 




■ti 



CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA. 



49 



Senators and Repreientativcs — qualifications. 



Sec. is. No person can, in any case, be 
subjected to the law martial, or to any pe- 
nalties or pains, by virtue oftliat law, (ex- 
cept those employed in tlie army or navy, 
and except the militia in actual service) 
but by tlic authority of the legislature. 

Sec. ly. In order to prevent those who 
are vested with authority I'rom becoming 
oppressors, the people have a right at such 
periods, and in such manner, as they shall 
establish by their frame of government, to 
cause their public officers to return to pri- 
vate life, and fdl up vacant places, by cer- 
tain and regular elections and appoint- 
ments. 

Sec. 20. That all prisoners shall be bail- 
able by sufficient sureties, unless for capital 
offences, when the proof is evident, or pre- 
sumption groat ; and the privilege and the 
benefit of the writ of habeas corpus shall 
be enjoyed in this Republic, in the most 
free, easy, cheap, expeditious and ample 
manner, and shall not be suspended by the 
legislature, except upon the most urgent 
and pressing occasions, and for a limited 
time, not exceeding twelve months. 

ARTICLE II. 

Legislative Poivers. 
Section 1. The Legislative power shall 
be vested in a Legislature of Liberia, and 
consist of two separate branches — a House 
of Representatives and a Senate, to be 
styled the Legislature of Liberia: each of 
which shall have a negative on the other, 
and the enacting style of their acts and 
laws shall be, " it is enacted by the Senate 
and House of Representatives of the Re- [ 
public of Liberia in Legislature assem- 
bled." I 
Sec. 2. The representatives shall be 
elected by and for the inhabitants of the 
several counties of Liberia, and shall be 
apportioned among the several counties of i 
Liberia, as follows : The county of Mont- 
serado shall have four representatives, the 
county of Grand Bassa shall have three, 
and the county of Since shall have one, 
and all counties hereafter which shall be 
admitted in the Republic shall have one 
representative, and for every ten thousand 
inhabitants one representative shall be add- 
ed. No person shall be a representative 
w'ho has not resided in the county two 
whole years immediately previous to his 
election, and who shall not, when elected, 
be an inhabitant of the county, and does not 
own real estate of not less value than one 
hundred and fifty dollars in the county in 
which he resides, and who shall not have 
attained the age of twenty-three years. — 
The representatives shall be elected bien- 
nially, and shall serve two years from the 
time of their election. 



Sec. 3. When a vacancy occurs in the 
representation of any county by death, re- 
signation, or otherwise, it shall be filled by 
a new election. 

Sec. 4. Tiie House of Representatives 
shall elect their own speaker and other offi- 
cers, they shall also have the sole power of 
impeachment. 

Sec. 5. The Senate shall consist of two 
members from Montserado county, two 
from Bassa county, two from Sinoe county, 
and two from each county which may be 
hereafter incorporated into this Republic. 
No person shall be a senator who shall not 
have resided three whole years immediate- 
ly previous to his election in the Republic 
of Liberia, and who shall not, when elect- 
ed, be an inhabitant of the county which 
he represents, and who docs not own real 
estate of not less value than two hundred 
dollars in the county which he represents, 
and who shall not have attained the age 
of twenty-five years. The senator for each 
county who shall have the highest number 
of votes shall retain his scat for four years, 
and the one who shall have the next high- 
est number of votes two years, and all who 
are afterwards elected to fill their seats 
shall remain in office four years. 

Sec. 6. The Senate shall try all impeach- 
ments; the senators being first sworn, or 
solemnly affirmed, to try the same impar- 
tially, and according to law, and no person 
shall be convicted but by the concurrence 
of two-thirds of the senators present.— 
Judgment in such cases shall not extend 
beyond removal from office, and disqualifi- 
cation to hold an office in the Republic, 
but the party may still be tried at law for 
the same offence. 

When either the President or Vice Pre- 
sident is to be tried, the Chief Justice 
shall preside. 

Sec. 7. It shall be the duty of the Le- 
gislature as soon as conveniently may be 
after the adoption of this constitution, and 
once at least in every ten years afterwards 
to cause a true census to bo taken of each 
town and county of the Republic of Libe- 
ria, and a representative shall be allo\yed 
overy town having a population of ten 
thousand inhabitants, and ior every addi- 
tional ten thousand in the counties after the 
first census one representative shall be add- 
ed to that county until the number of re- 
presentatives shall amount to thirty--after- 
wards one representative shall be added lor 
every thirty thousand. 

Sec. S. "Each branch of the legislature 
shall be judge of the election returns and 
qualifications of its own members. A ma- 
jority of each shall be necessarj' to trans- 
act business, but a less number may adjounf 
from day to day, and compel the attendance 



60 



COMrTITlTJ.D.t OF THE REJ'UBLIC OF UBEBIA. 



!*«• slinll odjourti 
■.*o da\» wtiliDtit the coiifiMit m 
J till both lK>u.se8 shall lit in (h<- 

Kvrr)' bill or r(5olutjon h' 



::i It, tl lit ' 
jtiire witli 



cou»r a low. Jl llic IVfSKii'iilnliall ii<- 
to rrturfi •tirh Mil f>r rr«"!(iiion to lh< 1 
- for five .; 

cii no laid 
rcniaiiiiii^ m 
li tifglccl shall 

bLc. 11. 1 111* bfiiaiuis iiii<l llfpres(*nta< 

tivM shall receive from the Republic a 

: .11 for their serxiccs, to be as- 

\ law; an<i shall bo |>iivili'je(l 

', except for treason, felony, or 

brracii 01 the peace, while attending at, 

^"•nii; to, or returning from tlie session of 

Uic Legislature. 

ARTICLE III. 

I ExecuUrc I'oictr. 

Sscriow I. The Siiprerne Executive 
; ■ .. . i^^j^ ^^1^^ 

»<l shall 



r-in-chicf . 

II. iti the I 

!o call out 
'(, inln nr 



i| llic senators present. 
<•«•, an-l. Hf'h the s'h tec 



••, of the condition of the 

'iintnend anv publie mea- 

'Mnk 

re- 

J , „.. . , lies, 

ami '.^ranl reprieves and pardons lor public 
• >!! •! !r«, except in e-ne-. n( itupeachinent. 

1 advice 

: matters 

ill iii.i) , on ex- 

. convene the Legis- 

urn the two houses, 

M-r llie) cduiiot agree as tu Uie time 

'^urnmcnt. 

fci-c. 2. There shall be a Vice Piesident, 

'.vImi tliall be elected in the same luanner, 

Uiut of the Pre- 

'' '.lOiis ^liiill be 

. . ..ieiit of the Se- 

iiid give the casting vote when the 
is eiiually dividedon any subject. 
Aiul in case of the removal of the Presi- 
dent from otfice, or his death, re!>ignation, 
or inability to >'. ' - "' c powers and 
duties of ihe »;■. :ie same shall 

devolve on the \ : i ■ .it, and the Le- 

gislature may by low provide for tlie case 
of removal, death, resignation or inability, 
both of the Presi<leiit and Vice President, 
declaring what olhcer shall then act as Pre- 
sident, and such otlicer shall act accoixling- 
ly, uiitil the disability be removed, or a 
President shall be electe<l. 

Sec. 3. The Secretary of State shall 

krcp the records of the State, and all the 

! paper:* of the legislative body, 

r public records and documeiils, 

• •' ' ■ .. lit, 

l.e- 

i , . .. -hall 

u|>vn tliem when lequireti, and per- 

-Itch other duties as may be enjoined 

. 4. The Secretarj' of the Treasurj-, 

■- - ■■ ' ■ may by law be charg- 

ttie public monies, 

■ ■ .«uch monies, give 

. . with sutficieiil sureties, 

• • of the Leirislatur*', for 

: ' • ■ i; li.ill 



liuti. Of b) 
rot ..f ihr 



• monies shall be drawn iroin the 
iiry, but by warrant from the Presi- 
> lit, in cobscqucncc of a])propriation made 
'V law. 

■^- ^ '" ' • ' ' •• - v'lb- 

. of 

' Uie 

. tlic Ailnrnrv (ienecol, and Post- 

, (:».n<-r^l. thall h<»ld their offices du- 

"l the President. All 

ice, sherilfs, niarshahi, 

.. <-......, registers, aod notaries 



CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA. 



51 



public, shall hold their office for the term 
of two years, from the date of their re- 
spective commissions ; but may be re- 
moved from oflice within that time by the 
President, at his pleasure; and all other 
officers whose term of office may not be 
otherwise limited by law, shall hold their 
office during the pleasure of the President. 

Sec. 6. Every civil officer may be re- 
moved from office by impeachment, for 
official misconduct. Every such officer 
may also- bo removed by the President, 
upon the address of both branches of the 
Legislature, stating the particular reasons 
lor his removal. 

Sec. 7. JN'o person shall be eligible to 
the office of President, who has not been 
a citizen of this Republic for at least five 
years, and shall not have attained the age 
of thirty-five years; and who shall not be 
possessed of unincumbered real estate, 
of not less value than six hundred dollars. 

Sec. 8. The President shall at stated 
times receive for his services, a compen- 
sation which shall neither be increased nor 
diminished, during the period for which 
he shall have been elected. And before he 
enters on the execution of his office, he 
shall take the following oath or alhrmation: 

I do solemnly swear, (or affirm,) that I 
will faithfully execute the office of Presi- 
dent of the Republic of Liberia, and will to 
the best of my ability preserve, protect, 
and defend the constitution, and enforce 
the laws of the Republic of Liberia. 

article IV. 

Judicial Department. 

Section 1. The Judicial power of this 
Republic shall be vested in one Supreme 
Court, and such subordinate courts as the 
Legislature may from time to time estab- 
lish. The judf^es of the Supreme Courts, 
and all other judges of courts, shall hold 
their office during good behavior; but may 
be removed by the President, on the ad- 
dress of two-thirds of both houses for that 
purpose, or by impeachment and convic- 
tion thereon. The judges shall have sala- 
ries established by law, which may be in- 
creased, but not diminished during their j 
continuance in office. They shall not re- 
ceive any other perquisite or emoluments 
whatever, from parties or others on account 
of any duty required of them. 

Sec 2. The Supreme Court shall have 
original jurisdiction in all cases affecting 
ambassadors or other public ministers and 
consuls, and those to which the Republic 
shall be a party. In all other cases the 
Supreme Court shall have appellate juris- 
diction, both as to law and fact, with such 
exceptions, and under such regulations as 
the legislature shall from time to time 
make. 



ARTICLE V. 

Miscellaneous Provisions . 
Section 1. All laws now in force in 
the Commonwealth of Liberia, and not re- 
pugnant to this constitution, shall be in 
force as the laws of the Republic of Libe- 
ria, until they shall be repealed by the Leg- 
islature. 

Sec. 2. All judges, magistrates, and 
other officers now concerned in the ad- 
ministration of justice in the Common- 
wealth of Liberia, and all other existing 
civil and military officers therein, shall 
continue to hold and discharge their re- 
spective offices in the name and by the 
authority of the Republic, until others 
shall be appointed and commissioned in 
their stead pursuant to this Constitution. 

Sec. 3. All towns and municipal cor- 
porations within this Republic, constituted 
under the laws of the Commonwealth of 
Liberia, shall retain their existing organi- 
zations and privileges, and the respective 
officers thereof shall remain in office, and 
act under the authority of this Republic, 
in the same manner and with the like 
powers as they now possess under the 
laws of said Commonwealth. 

Sec 4. The first election of President, 
Vice President, Senators, and Representa- 
tives shall be held on the first Tuesday in 
October in the year of our Lord eighteen 
hundred and forty-seven, in the same man- 
ner as elections of members of the Coun- 
cil are chosen in the Commonwealth of 
Liberia, and the votes shall be certified 
and returned to the Colonial Secretary, 
and the result of the election shall be as- 
certained, posted, and notified by him as it 
is now by law provided in case of such 
members of Council. 

Sec. 5. All other elections of President, 
Vice President, Senators and Representa- 
tives, shall be held in the respective towns 
on the first Tuesday in May, in every two 
years, to be held and regulated in such 
manner as the Legislature may by law pre- 
I scribe. The returns of votes shall be 
j made to the Secretary of State, who shall 
j open the same, and forthwith issue notice 
j of the election to the persons apparently 
' so elected Senators and Representatives; 
i and all such returns shall be by him laid 
before the Legislature at its next ensuing 
session, together with a list of the names 
of the persons who appear by such returns 
to have been duly elected Senators and 
Representatives ; and the persons appear- 
ing by said returns to be duly elected, 
shall proceed to organise themselves ac- 
cordingly as the Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives. The votes for President 
shall be sorted, counted, and declared by 
the House of Represeirtatives. And if no 
person shall appear to have a majority of 



o\>nTl'TiO.V OK TllL UEPIDMC OV I.inril)* 






(ur tlic e:. 



'v T; 



i caUlc is kjJijiioU to Its Irgiuioate 



II- 



■hull aurtubl' 

;.(. i ■■ . I. I-,,-.- 



Skc. 7. 

•ri"" ■■ ' 

bfi 
oil. 
or 

01 

r: 

Pt 

•I. 
to • 
to 

II- 

itt' . 

pUcc, Htx 
■tort, nil I 
0»! 

Bti. 

or i... 

by law. 

ll... 
ex. 
C 

tu' 



Krcr)- le^iklator and olhcr offic 

> I ■ r II... (■-■■ -•■'■ ' 



■ i l>t.- ouUillUU lu ClUilcUliiiip iu UlU 



lu uli ml 
.1. 1.-. T 



1 

: the native 
'•nt tn the arts of 



ttiso lu llie V ire FrtjiKk-nJ, Seri- 

K.pr.Hi^Mtriiives, in Conveiilion. 

>' ll oalh or airirtn- 

', Chief Justice, 

. , v.vM .,.,.. ii,!iy bi- doirignated 



iiij; Ilic Jt ii.;;oii oi liie juUves lo Uitsc 
\vhol('!«omc blanches ofimliislrv. and ofin- 
^tructinj; thorii " ' ^ . 

laliire siiall, a 
done, make j. ...... ,._.,....-, 

by the appropriation of money. 

Sec. 16. The existing regulations of the 
.\inericaii Colonization t^ocicty, in the 
Ciinnioiuvealth. relative to emigrants, shall 
I leiiiain tlie same in the Itopublic, until 
t by this Consti- r<i;ulate(l by coiujiact between the Socie- 



MI <I. ctic.n<; of public officers 
ty of the votes, 
regulated by the 



ill. 
tu 

m . 
n 
M . 
h. 

all 

0(1 

Coi. 

by 1.. J 

In.. '■ 

ll.r 

III. 

J" 
Wl.ri A 



I which a MTomn 



property thu» intended lo 



• tn Jirr u\^ 
by hrr, |., 



Ktc 12 No penon tl.all he eiitillcd to 
hoU rral rtlate in Ihi. Ilrj ..! |,r unlea. hr 
M«ciUMaorib«aaiM. iNcvcrthdcM this 



» ot li.t i..i(ji*Uluie lu lake lui-a- 
arrango the future relations be- 
■11 ttip American Colonization Socictv 
tliis Kcpublic. 



Ill uiiicli rase the alterations or ;; 
(tii-Di* •h.'-li fir«t hf enn«i<!rrril ntul r- 



clvcliuit wf bvuittura and Kcprescnta- 

' ' Moniovia. in the 

the utiaiiiiiipus 

> '' •.^<•3lth 

■I LitxTia, thu \\\ .liilv, 

III the year of our I ,.|^|,j 

hundre<l and lorty-scvcu.and «l lh« lienub 
lie the Ant. 



FLAG AND SEAL OF THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA. 



53 



The Constitution submitted to the people. — Insignia uf thu llepulilic of Liberia. 



In witness whereof we have hereto set 
our names. 

S. J3t:iVEDlCT, President,^ 
J.N. LEWIS, I 

BEVERLY R. WILSON. ,!^ Montserrado 
ELIJ.\II JOHNSON, ^ouniy. 

J. B. GRIPON, J 

JOHN DAY, 
A. AV. GARDNER, 
AMOS HERRING, 
EPHRAIM TILLER, 
K. E. MURRAY, County of Since. 
J. W. PROUT, Secretary of Cunvenli 



I Grand Bassa 
^County. 



J 



Monrovia, July 29, 1847. 

Fellow Citizens : — Having linislied 
our labors, we now liave the lionor of sub- 
mitting to your consideration, through tlie 
governor, that constitution whicli in our 
opinion will best suit the peculiar circum- 
stances of the people of this infant Repub- 
lic. Tliat our labors will meet the full aj)- 
probation of every indivi<lual citizen, is 
scarcely to be expected ; we trust, however, 
that a large majority of our fellow citizens 
will appiove our doings, and adopt the con- 
stitution herewith submitted. 

In our deliberations, we endeavored to 
keep our minds steadily fixed upon the 
great objects of civil government, and have 
done what we conceived to be best for the 
general interest of this rising Republic. — 
We endeavored carefully to arrange every 
subject that might possibly arise, calcula- 
ted to disturb, in the least the friendly feel- 
ing which now so happily subsists between 
the ditferent counties of this Republic. — 
We felt deeply the importance and magni- 
tude of the work submitted to our hands, 
and have done the very best we could in 
"order to afford genetal satisfaction. 



In view of the peculiarity of our circum- 
stances, the new position we have assumed 
is indeed a gigantic on«, and the govern- 
ment now calls to its support every citizen 
who is at all concerned for the safety and 
future prosjjerity of this our only home. 

Knowing, however, that our cause is 
just, we feel encouiaged, and believe that 
under God, by a speedy perseverance, we 
sIkiH fully succeed. 

In publisliitig to the world our Indepen- 
dence, we have thought proper to accompa- 
ny that document with a declaration of the 
causes which induced us to leave the land 
of our nativity, and to form settlements on 
this coast, and also an appeal to the sym- 
pathies of all civilized nations, soliciting 
their aid and protection, and es[)ecially that 
they would, notwithstanding our peculiar 
circumstances, speedily recognize our In- 
dependence. 

And that the flag of this Republic at no 
distant day may be seen floating upon eve- 
ry breeze, and in every land respected. 

It is our earnest desire that the affairs of 
this Government may be so conducted as to 
merit the approbation of all Christendom, 
and restore to Africa her long lost glory, 
and that Liberia under the guidance of 
Heaven may continue a happy asylum for 
our long oppressed race, an(l a blessing to 
the benighted and degraded natives of this 
vast peninsula. To secure which is our 
ardent wish and prayer. 

With great respect, we have the honor 
of being, your obedient and humble ser- 
vants. 

By the Unanimous order of the Conven- 
tion. 

SAMUEL BENEDICT, 
President. 



FLAG AND SEAL OF THE REPUBLIC OF LIBERIA. 



The following Flag and Seal were adop- 
ted by the convention, as the insignia of 
the Republic of Liberia, and ordered to be 
employed to mark its nationality. 

Flag: six red stripes with five white 
stripes alternately displayed longitudinally. 
In the upper angle of the flag, next to the 
spear, a square blue ground covering in 
depth five stripes. In the centre of the 
blue, one white star. 

Seal : A dove on the wing with an open 
scroll in its claws. A view of the ocean 
with a ship under sail. The sun just 



emerging from the waters. A palm tree, 
and at its base a plough and spade. Be- 
neath the emblems, the words REPasLic 
OF Liberia, and above the emblems, the 
national motto, the love ok liberty 

BROUGHT us here. 

The former seal of the Commonwealth 
is ordered to be used until that for the Re- 
public shall be engraved. . 
By order of the Convention. 

b. BENEDICT, 
President. 



6i 



rictiOEh 



INAUGURAL A^_„i-- 



J. J. 1 ■>■«■'!■■■§ ■">' AMfMk 



(FroM AlrMaS LaMMr)— i^"*-] 

INAUGURAL ADDRESS 



Oj nt* Kjccilrncy, J. J. Rodkrts, Vrfsultnl of the Rrjmhlic of lAheria. 
Dthvired at the first meeting of the Li'^iilalurc of the JitpuUic, Jan- 
uary 3d, 1S4S. 



Si!<ci llic Rrporl and preceding 
pwto of Uu8 appendix winl lo prt'ss, 
vre have received ihe following very 
inicreslin^' document whieli «e slop 
the prcM lo lay before our readers : 

Fellow Citizens: — Hcforcl pro- 
ceed to add tlie solemnity of an oaili 



Wc have just entered upon a new 
and imporuiiii career, 'I'o give ef- 
fect to all ihc measures and powers 
of the povcrnnunt, wc have found it 
necessary to remodel our Tonslitu- 
tion and lo ere«*i ourselves into an in- 
dependent Sutc; wliicli, in ils infan- 
cy is exposed lo numberless hazards 



lo ihc obligations imposed on me, it and perils, and which can never al- 
ls with great pleasure I uvad myself lain lo malurity, or ripen into firm- 
t»f the occasion, now presented, to news, unless it is managed wiili afTec- 
express the profound impressions lionate assiduity, and puardrd l)y 
msdc on me by llie call of my fellow i^rcal aliiliiirs ; I therefore deeply de- 
niiieiis to the station, and Uie duiies, [dore my \s ant of talents, and feci 
lo which 1 am now about to jiledgo my mind fdlod with anxiety and un- 
mysclf. So disiiii^'uidhed a mark ol easiness to find myself so unequal to 
confi'Liir.- i,r,i,r .m., r r,.Mn the dc- the duties of llie imi)ortant station to 
lil> . citizens, which 1 ara called, AVhen 1 reflect 
wui. ......... > ..u, v.M um.-uiiices.hnve upon the woipliland mapnilude now 

commanded my gratitude and dcvo- , bel«)nginp to the station, and ilie raa- 

lion ; as well as filled me with an "X dilficuliies which, in the nature 

awful sense of the irusl to be ossum- •'' ihinps, must necessarily attend it, 



c<l. Hut I ftf I particularly gnitifiei! 

at ihii evidence of the confidence m 

my fellow ciiizrn«, in ax much tis i; 

strengthens t!i< 

Uiat my end' 

fully thr r«. 

m' 



irn;>r<'?!' !0!i on nn 



Kxerutivc olticer o| liie 
ith, during tho last six 
ypars of our political connection with 
the American Colonization Hocielv, 



ire like relrealinp from the 
Me position, than allempling 
rward in Uie discharge of i4io 
I rnv oflire. 

nen of the I^gisla- 
• reliance upon your 
I o-t,|.iniii,,ii, and ihc inilulgence 
and support of a reflecting peo|)|c, 
and fell less deeply a consciousness 
of iheduty I owe my country, and a 



■..«..,, , - _-_ ...J .»„.,..^ , ..,,w u 

ha»c been favorably estimated, I conviction of the guidance of an all 

ncreiihtless meet the responsil)iliiies wise Providence in the management 

of ihis day Willi feelings of the deep- "four |>olitical nllairs, — I should l>e 

ewl solicitude. 1 feel, fellow citizens, <(>iniiel|pd to shrink from ihe task. — 

ihat ihc present is a rnomenlous pa- I. bowjver, enter ujxtn ihe duiies ns- 

riod in the hintory of Likria ; and I sn.'ned me, relying U|><»n your wis- 

aasurr you, under the vtirious circum- •'""" nnd virtue to hupply my defects; 

■Uncea which give peruli.'jr ■olemni- '"d untler the full conviction that my 

ly lo ib<' rrt«i«,l «m •rn.|l.|,. t»,:,t hn'.'i '■ I'""' eili/rn" nl |?r;'e, who, on the 

'' ' . have always 

'• f I'mrioli-m, 



PRESIDENT ROBERTS' INAUGURAL AUDKESS. 



55 



Settlemcnl of the Colony. — Intercourse and diflicultics with British traders. 



perseverance, and fidelity, that would 
reflect credit upon the citizens of any 
country, will support the government 
established by their voluntary con- 
sent, and appointed by their own free 
choice. 

While I congratulate my fellow ci- 
tizens on the dawn of a new and more 
perfect government, I would also re- 
mind them of the increased responsi- 
bility they too have assumed. 

Indeed, if there ever was a period 
in the annals of Liberia, for popular 
jealousy to be awakened, and popu- 
lar virtue to exert itself, it is the pre- 
sent. Other eras, I know, have been 
marked by dangers and difficulties 
which "tried men's souls," but what- 
ever was their measure, disappoint- 
ment and overthrow have generally 
been their fate. That patriotism and 
virtr.c which distinguish men, of eve- 
ry age, clime and color, who are de- 
termined to be free, never forsook 
that litde band of patriots — the pio- 
neers in this noble enterprise — in 
the hour of important trial. At a 
time, when they were almost with- 
out arms, ammunition, discipline, or 
government — a mere handful of iso- 
lated christian pilgrims, in pursuit of 
civil and religious liberty, surround- 
ed by savage and warlike tribes bent 
upon their ruin and total annihilation 
—with " a staff and a sling" only, as 
it were, they determined in the name 
of the " Lord of Hosts" to stand their 
ground and defend themselves to the 
last extremity against their powerful 
adversary. And need I remind you, 
fellow citizens, how signally Almigh- 
ty God delivered them, and how he 
has hitherto prospered and crowned 
all our efforts wiih success. 

These first adventurers, inspired 
by the love of liberty and equal rights, 
supported by industry and protected 
by Heaven, became inured to toil, 
to hardships, and to war. In spite, 
however, of every obstacle, they ob- 
tained a settlement, and happily, un- 



der God, succeeded in laying here 
the foundation of a free government. 
Their attention, of course, was then 
turned to the security of those rights 
for which they had encountered so 
many perils and inconveniencies. — 
For this purpose, a constitution or 
form of Government, anomalous it is 
true, was adopted. 

Under the circumstances, expedien- 
cy required that certain powers of 
the government should be delegated 
to the American Colonization Socie- 
ty, their patrons and benefactors — 
with the understanding that whenev- 
er the colonies should feel themselves 
capable of assuming the whole re- 
sponsibility of the government, that 
institution would resign the delega- 
ted power, and leave the people to 
the government of themselves. 

At that time it was scarcely sup- 
posed, I presume, that the colonies 
would advance so rapidly as to make 
it necessary, or even desirable on the 
part of the colonists, to dissolve that 
connection within the short space of 
twenty -five years ; such, however, is 
the case : necessity has demanded it. 

Under the fostering care of the 
American Colonization Society ,these 
infant settlements soon began to pros- 
per and flourish ; and a profitable 
trade, in a few years, opened an in- 
tercourse between them and the sub- 
jects and citizens of foreign countries. 
This intercourse eventually involved 
us into difiiculties with British tra- 
ders, and of consequence with the 
British government, which could not 
be settled, for the want of certain 
powers in the government here, not 
provided for in the Constitution. — 
Nor indeed would the British govern- 
ment recognize in the people of Li- 
beria the rights of sovereignty — 
" such as imposing cus«om dues and 
levying taxes upon British com- 
merce" — so long as their political 
connection with the Colonization 
Society continued. Under these 



rRC»IOf:.HT ROBCaT«' INAt'OURAL AUDRK8S. 



TW IMli«lM« atf ite Cil— Milt"* Kor.cit lo KioM. uta itt wofC M viguTMMly •« «arru»lbr«. 



rinramvuinm. a ehanfe in «*t.i u - 
Uliona %tiih the Sociriy, niiii llie 
adupiion of a iit*w ron^liltitioii, wrro 
dTinrtl. hv a large* innjoriiy of iIh* 
riiiarnn of ihe C'timinoiiwcallli ahsn- 
liilrlv ncrffinarv. Siirli nl«(> wnn the 
npiniun of ihe ll<»nr«I of Dirrrtorw of 
tUt! Aincrirnn ("olonizaiion S>rn*iy. 
who rcromiiienilfd ih** mraxiiri* »« 
the only mran* of rrlirvinu ilii« gov- 
ernnnMii from iIip"p ••ml>:«rr:i«!*tn«MiiB, 
anil tlic riiizcns from innumcraUle 
inronviMiienren. 

In riew of tlir^e faru, lo liavp 
ulirunk from the rfspon«ihilily, noi- 
wiihuianciini; weiehiy r«'anoni, nil- 
rerne lo \\\p m<»n(«iire,»iicjjo(«tiMl ilirm- 
wlvi'd, wotihi hav«> hetraved a weak- 
ne»» and limidiiy unbiToiniiig frpc- 
men. 

Thpreforp. on full rnnBiderntion of 
all ihe rirciimclanrc^, it appeared thai 
the period had arrived when it he- 
rnme the dulv of ihe people of Lihe- 
ria to a«.«uine a new po!Jiiir)n: — sijcli 
a one that foreign powers woiilri con- 
sider them an independent nnti<tn. 

An yoii are aware, fellow riiizens. 
the independence of Liberia ha» heen 
the mihjept of murh Hpenilalion. and 
•ome animadrer^ion, both at home 
and abroad. 

l«t. \V« are told that the prrn- 
niary amiitanre the governineni here 
ha* hiltirrio rereiveil from the ('«»|o- 
Dizaiion Soriety will now rea^e ; and 
that in a few year* we will find oiir- 
•eUea (jroaninj under enormous 
laxei«, or the affairn of the govern- 
ment Will be exceedingly einbarriSK- 
ed, if not tolullv paralyzed. 

I am perminded, however, that ihi* 
conclumon by no meann follow*. To 
what extent, if at all. th« Societyron- 
lemplalea withdrawing the peruniary 
aid hitherto granted lo the (,'ommon- 
wralih, from the new government, I 
am not adviiied : nor have I any data 
upon which lo form errn an opinion 
in regard to il. We have iIhh nimu- 
nt\cr^ howcrrr, from Uev. Mr. Mc- 



1. .HI, S»erpiarv of the Society, "That 
the iiiiereiit of ihe Uoard of Directors, 
III nil that concern* the people of 
' Lil'eria. wdl not he diii)inii*hed — but 
rather iiicreafed — by the alleraiion 
in the preKcnl relatione Hiib*is(ing be- 
iween ihem and iha .AiiiencHn ('olo- 
iii/ilion Society; and that il in the 
intiniioii of iIm* Socieiy to proneeuie 
iln wuik a!« Vigorously a* hereiofore, 
and on the hume high and liberal 
principle!!." 

We are iriily. fi-llow-ciiizen*, un- 
der ni-inv obligaiinnii lo the (Coloni- 
zation Society ; indeed, it i* impoit. 
"ilde for one people lo have stronger 
lii-K upon the gratitude of ntiuiher, 
than that .Society lia§ upon the peo- 
ple of Liberia. 

To the wisdom, pliilanlliropy. and 
inagiianimiiy of the members of tho 
Coloiiiz-Uion Sorieiy, who, for more 
than a q'tarier of n century, have 
watched with the deepest solicitude 
the progress of these colonies, nnil 
have devoted nnirh of llieir limennd 
»«ub<j|ancp to support llipin, we owe, 
under (»od. the political, civil, and 
religious liberty and independence 
we this <!ay enjoy ; and I have no 
doubt, in my own mind, but that ihev 
will continue lo aid us in every wav 
the circumstances of the Society will 
admit of. 

The necessity of imposing addi- 
tional laxi-s upon the people to meel 
the additional expenses of the gov. 
ernmeiii, consequent upon the new 
order of things, is very evident ; l>ul 
I confess, fell.iw-cilizens, I can sec 
no jiis| grounds M fear that they 
will be enormous or oppressive. 

It is true, ihnt for the first few 
years, in thp absence of any foreign 
assistance, we mav lind our finances 
somewhat limited ; perhaps barely 
siilTicirnl lo defray the ordinary ex- 
penses of the governmeni; bui in a 
ctoiniry like ours, abounding in a 
siilTicienry of natural resources, 
which arc »o easily developed, il i» 



PRESIDENT ROBERTS' INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 
Papulation of Liberia proper. — Capabilities of colored people for self government. 



57 



scarcely probable tbat tlie f^overn- 
ment ai any time will be wreaily em- 
barrassed — certainly not totally para- 
lyzed. 

2dly. It lias been urged tbat tbe 
numerical strength of the govern- 
ment is yet too small : and thai we 
have not suflicient intelligfnre, ex- 
perience, or wealtli, to command 
respect abroad ; and tbat in the event 
foieign powers should refnse to ac- 
knowledge our independence, the 
embarrassments of tbe government, 
?nd its citizens, will be increased ra- 
ther than diminished. 

Now, according to the best com- 
putation I am at present able to 
make — and which I believe is pretty 
nearly correct — the population of 
Liberia proper — inchidinsr, of course, i 
the aboriginal inhabitants who have 
incorporated themselves with us, 
and suliscribed to the constitution 
and laws of the Republic — is now 
upwards of eisrbty thousand; and 
we may reasonalilv suppose tbat the 
inhabitants will increase almost in tbe 
ratio of compound interest. I have 
no dhubt that the natural population 
of the Republic, in thecourse of tvven- 
ty years, will be doubled ; and we 
have great reason to believe that the 
number of imigrant-; arriving from 
America, and perhaps other coun- 
tries, will also be very consideralile. 
The free people of color in the Uni- 
ted Slates, wearied with beating the 
air to advance themselves to eqnal 
immunities with the whites in that 
country, and tired of the oppression 
wiiich weighs them down tlurp, are 
seriously turning their attention to 
Liberia as the only asylum they can 
flee to and be happy. 

While we exceedingly lament the 
want of greater intelligence and 
more experience to fit us for the 
proper, or more perfect, management 
of our public affairs, we flatter our- 
selves tbat the adverse circumstances 
ynder which we so long labored in 



the land of our birth; and the integ- 
rity of our motives will plead our 
exiMise for our want of abilities : and 
that in the candor and charity of an 
impartial world, our well-meant, 
however feeble, effitrts will find an 
apologj'. I am also persuaded that 
no magnanimous nation will seek to 
abridge our rights, or withhold from 
the Republic those civilities, and 
"that comity which marks the 
friendly intercourse between civil- 
ized and independent communities" 
— in consequence of our weakness 
and present poverty. 

And with respect to the indepen- 
dence of Liberia. I know it to be a 
favorable object with many great and 
good men, both in Europe and in the 
United Stales; and I have great rea- 
son to believe with several European 
powers, who entertain commercial 
views. 

3d. We are gravely accused, fel- 
low-citizens, of acting prematurely 
and without due reflection, in this 
whole matter, with regard to the 
probable consequences of taking into 
our own hands the whole work of 
self-government, including the man- 
agement of our foreign relations ; 
and I have also heard it remarked, 
that fears are entertained, by some 
persons abroad, that the citizens of 
Liberia, when thrown upon their own 
resources, will probably not sustain 
tbe government, and that anarchy 
and its attendant ruins will be the re- 
sult of tlieir independence. 

The impression, however, that the 
people have acted prematurely, and 
without regard to consequences, is 
evidently erroneous. And, to judge 
of tbe future from the past, I have 
no hesitancy in asserting that the 
fears entertained respecting the dis- 
position of the people here to insub- 
ordination, are totally groundless. 
No people, perhaps, have exhibited 
greater devotion for their government 
\ and institutions, and have submitted 



48 



mUiOCNT ROBCMTS* llfAUOUIUL ADDRCSS 



TW pMfb af Ukwte kOT* Ml hM iwUf «r «M«*«M4i]r with rMfMl la iMr fai4«|M*4«M. 



more rrailily to tawfal authority thin 
the riiitfiiii o( Liberia; which, in- 
ilrrU. must he obvious to every^ onr 
tl all fainihar wilii the pant tiistorv 
»>f ilir»<' colonifjt. Hut lo return. It 
IS wril known that the ohjeot of in- 
«Jfj)fnilt'nre has hei'n nf^K.-itini; the 
puhhr mind for ni<»re than five vearH, 
ami that erery conHitleration. for an<l 
afpiinst it, has been warmly ilia- 
cutseil. 

I atn sensible, however, it is no 
uncommon thiiitr fur men to he wurni 
io a cause, and yet not know why it 
is they are warm. In surli cases the 
passion of one is lighierl up by the 
passion of anotlier, and the whole 
circle is in a llame ; but the mind in 
the meaniimc is like a dark chamber, 
without a sinj^le ray of liirhl lo per- 
vade it; in this rase it will hapj>en. 
that when ilie hasiy passion shall 
have sj)eni its force, all virtuous and 
patriotic resolutions which it kindled 
up will also die with it. As in the 
preat aflairsof relii,n()n, aslronjj (lahh 
of ideas on the fancy may excite a 
combustion of devotion ; but uidess 
the reason is en^a<Ted to feed and 
supply the burnini,^, it will die away, 
and neither li^hl nor heat will be 
found remaining in it. 

It was the comtnendnlion of a cer- 
tain {KJople of whom we r«"ad in the 
Bible, that when the po!«pel was 
first pn-ached to them, " they se.irrh- 
ed the Scriptures daily, whether i 
thinj^s were ho." Those who, w i 
out examination, had received ii, 
without examination mi;j;ht also (rive 
it up; but this more "honorable" 
people had maturely wcii^hud the 
doctrine, and ernbracins^ it, they gave 
(ground lo belit v.>, that as they were 
rational, so they would be porse- 
Tering Christians. 

The political concerns of Liberia 
have be. :- "v the obji-rts of nl- 

Irniive I ..>n. And it affords 

the moiti ;>! 
proj.lc of i!. 



arW'd irashly or unadvisedly with 
rcjipert lo their independence ; but 
all the measures which have been 
a<l(>|iU(l in regard lo it, are strongly 
inatked wiih great caution and ma- 
tured deliberation, and will bear the 
stririest scrutiny of reason and con- 
science. 

The time has been, I admit, when 
men — without being charj;eahle with 
timidity, or with a disposition lo un- 
dervalue the capacities of the African 
race, might have doubled the success 
of the ('Olonization enterprise, and 
the feasibility of esiablishinef an in- 
dependent ('hristian stale on this 
coast, composed of and conducted 
wholly by colored men, — but. fellow- 
citizens, that time has past. The 
American Colonization Society has 
redeemed its pledge, and I believe in 
my soul, that the permanency of the 
government of the Republic of Libe- 
ria is now fixed upon as ilrm a basis 
as human wisdom is capable of de- 
vising. Nor is there any reason to 
apprehend that the Divine Disposer 
of human events, after having Hcpa- 
rated us from the house of bondage, 
and led us safely through so many 
dangers, towards the land of liberty 
and promise, will leave the work of 
our political redemption, and consc- 
•luont happiness, unfinislied ; and 
either permit us to perish in a wil- 
■ li-rin'ss of diflicultics, or sufler us lo 
carried back in chains to that 

iiitry of prejudices, from whoso 
I'l'jiression ho has mercifully deliv- 
cri tl us with his outstietched arm. 

.\nd, fellow-citizens, it must alTord 
the most heartfelt pleasure and salis- 
fartinii lo every friend ' of Liberia, 
and real lover of liberty in general, 
to observe by what a fortunate train 
of circurastances and incidents the 
iw'opio of these colonies have arrived 
at absolute freedom and independ- 
tiire. When we look abroad and see 
.-.'', A and painful steps, matk- 
! 4ud ills of uverv kind, 



PRESIDENT ROBERTS' INAUGURAL ADDRESS. 



59 



The redemption of Africa. 



Other states of the world have ad- 
vanced to liberty and independence ; 
we cannot but admire and praise that 
all gracious Providence, who, by his 
unerring ways, has, with so few suf- 
ferings on our part, compared with 
other states, led us to this happy 
stage in our progress towards those 
great and important objects. And 
that it is the will of Heaven that man- 
kind should be free, is clearly evi- 
denced by the wealth, vigor, virtue 
and consequent happiness of all free 
states. But the idea that Providence 
will establish such governments as 
he shall deem most fit for his crea- 
tures, and will give them wealth, in- 
fluence, and happiness, without their 
efloris, is palpably absurd. In short, 
God's moral government of the earth 
is always performed by the interven- 
tion of second causes. Therefore, 
fellow-citizens, while with pious gra- 
titude we survey the frequent inter- 
positions of Heaven in our behalf, 
we ought to remember, that as the 
disbelief of an overruling providence 
is atheism, so an absolute confidence 
of having our government relieved 
from every embarrassment, and its 
citizens made respectable and happy 
by the immediate hand of God, with- 
out our own exertions, is the most 
culpable presumption. Nor have we 
any reason to expect that he will 
miraculously make Liberia a para- 
dise, and deliver us, in a moment of 
time, from all the ills and inconve- 
niences, consequent upon the pecu- 
liar circumstances under which we 
are placed, merely to convince us 
that he favors our cause and govern- 
ment. 

Sufficient notifications of his will 
are always given, and those who will 
not then believe, neither would they 
believe though one should rise from 
the dead to inform them. Who can 
trace the progress of these colonies, 
and mark the incidents of the wars 
in which they have been engaged, 
without sseing evident tokens of pro- 



vidential favor. Let us, therefore, 
inflexibly persevere in exerting our 
most strenuous efforts, in an humble 
and ralional dependence on the great 
Governor of all the world, and we 
have the fairest prospects of sur- 
mounting all the diflicullies which 
may be thrown in our way. And 
that we may expect, and that we 
shall have difficulties, sore difficul- 
ties yet to contend against, in our 
progress to maturity, is certain: — 
And, as the political happiness or 
wretchedness of ourselves and our 
children, and of generations yet un- 
born, is in our hands, nay more, the 
redemption of Africa from the deep 
degradation, superstition, and idola- 
try in which she has so long been 
involved, it becomes us to lay our 
shoulders to the wheel, and manfully 
resist every obstacle which may op- 
pose our progress in the great work 
which lies before us. The Gospel, 
fellow citizens, is yet to be preached 
to vast numbers inhabiting this dark 
continent, and I have the highest 
reason to believe, that it was one of 
the great objects of the Almighty in 
establishing these colonies, that they 
might be the means of introducing 
civilization and religion among the 
barbarous nations of this country ; 
and to what work more noble could 
our powers be applied, than that of 
bringing up from darkness, debase- 
ment, and misery, our fellow-men, 
and shedding abroad over them the 
light of science and Christianity. — 
The means of doing so, fellow-citi- 
zens, are in our reach, and if we 
neglect, or do not make use of them, 
what excuse shall we make to our 
Creator and final Judge ? This is a 
question of the deepest concern to 
us all, and which, in my opinion, 
will materially effect our happiness 
in the world to come. And surely, 
if it ever has been incumbent on the 
people of Liberia to know truth and 
to follow it, it is now. Rouse, there- 
fore, fellow-citizen?, and do your 



60 



r«C«lUCNT ftOBEKTS* INAUGURAL A00R£8S. 



AffMl !• U« tliifi of Um fttfitUM of Libam. 



dutv like inrn ; ant) be per^uailed, ' 
thai I>ivii»e Proviilrnre, a» liiTflo- 
forv. will roiiiiiiue lu blt-its all yuur 
viriii>>u<i rfforw. 

lliii if tlirre he any ninon^ us drad 
lo all i«t*ii(ic of lioiitir mid lovi* <i| 
ilirir rouiilry ; if di-nf tu all liiu railit 
o( liherty. virltit*. and ri-liiriitii ; if 
furgf iful of ihc benevolencr and inag- 
nanitniiy «)f iIiomc wlm have procur- 
ed ihid aifvluin for iIumu, and the fu- 
ture hnppinesx of their cluldreti ; if 
neitlicr the examples nor the 8ucce«8 ; 
of other nations, the dictates of rea- 
son and of nature, or the ^reat duties 
they owe to tlu'ir God, themselves, 
and their posterity have no effrct 
upon them ; — if, neither the injuries 
they received in the land whence 
ihev came, the prize they are con- 
tending f«»r, the fiiiure blessings or 
curses of their children, the applause 
or reproach of all nruikind, the ap- 
probation or displeasure of the great 
Judge, or the happiness or misery 
consequent upon tiieir conduct, in 
this and a future state, can move 
them ; then let them be assured, that 
they deserve to be slaves, anil are en- 
titled lo nothini! but anguish and tri- 
bulation. I^-t them banish, forever, 
from their minds, the hojie «»f ever 
obtaining tbat freedom, repiilation, 
and happiness, which, as men, they 
are entitled to. I^«t ihem forget eve- 
ry duty, human and divine, remem- 
ber not that they have childrt-n. and 
beware how they call to mind the 
justice of the Stiprrme Bring: let 
them rciura iaio slavery, aad hug.. 



their chains, and be a reproai-h and 
a l)V-wi>rd among ail nations. 

liut 1 am |>ersuaded, fellow-eiti- 
zeii!), tiiut we have none such amoii(^ 
us ; — tliJt every eiiizfii will do his 
duty, and exert hiinsi-if t(» the utmost 
of his al)ilitie8 to Mustuin the honor 
of his country, promote her interests, 
and the inieresis of his fellow-citi- 
zens, and to hand down unimpaired 
to future geiifraiions the liet-dom 
and independence we this day enjoy. 

As to mysidf, fellow-citizfiis, I 
assure you I never have been indif- 
ferent to what conreriis the interests 
of I^iberia — my adopted country ; — 
and 1 am sensible of no passion 
which ciiuld seduce me knowingly 
from the path of duty, or •)f justice: 
the weakness of human nature, and 
the limits of my own understanding 
may, no doubt will, proiluce errors 
of judgment. I repeat, therefore, that 
I shall .leed all the indulgence I have 
hitherto received at your hands. I 
shall need too the favor of that Ueing, 
in whose hands we are, who has led 
us, as Israel of old, from our native 
land, and planted us in a eounirv 
abounding in all the necessaries and 
comlorts of life ; wfio has covered 
our infancy with his I'rovidenre.und 
to whose goodness I ask you to join 
with me in supplications, that he will 
so enlighten the minds of your ser- 
vants, guide their councils, and pros- 
per their measures, that whatsi>ever 
iliey do, shall result in your good, and 
shall secure lo you the peace, friend- 
ship, aad approbation of all uaiiuns. 



Fkkatum.— Ou i>ag(> 17, lixtb Uae Croat bullum of first columo.read ttUcttd iDftc«>i 
of Ut>crAl««l. 



CONSTITUTION 



THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



" Jlriicle 1. This Society shallbe called 'The American Colonization Society.' 

'• Art. 2. The object to which its attention is to be exclusively directed is, (o promote 
and execute a plan for colonizing, with their own consent, the free people of color resid- 
ing in our country, in Africa, or such other place as Congress shall deem expedient. 
And the Society shall act, to efl'ect this object, in co-operation with the General 
Government and such of tiie States as may adopt regulations on the subject. 

"Jlrt. 3. Every citizen of the United States who shall have paid to the funds of the 
Society the sum of one dollar, shall be a member of the Society for one year from the 
time of such payment. Any citizen who shall have paid the sum of thirty dollars, 
shall be a member for life. And any citizen paying the sum of one thousand dollars, 
shall be a Director for life. Foreigners may be made members by vote of the Society 
or of the Directors. 

"jirt.4. The Society shall meet annually at Washington on the third Tuesday in 
January, and at such other limes and places as they shall direct. At the annual meet- 
ing, a President and Vice Presidents shall be chosen, who shall perform the duties ap- 
propriate to those offices. 

" jlrt. 5. There shall be a Board of Directors, composed of the Directors for life 
and of D'elegates from the several State Societies and societies for the District of Co- 
lumbia and Territories of the United States. Each of such societies shall be entitled to 
one Delegate for every five hundred dollars paid into the treasury of this Society with- 
in the year previous to the annual meeting. 

" Jrt. 6. The Board shall annually appoint a Secretary, a Treasurer, and an Execu- 
tive Committee of seven persons ; all of whom shall, ex officio, be honorary members 
of the Board, having a right to be present at its meetings and to take part in the trans- 
action of its business ; but they shall not vote, except as provided in article 7. 

" Jlrt. 7. The Board of Directors shall meet annually in Washington, immediately 
after the annual meeting of the Society, and at such other times Tind places as it shall 
appoint, or at the request of the Executive Committee. Seven Directors shall form a 
quorum. But if, at any annual meeting, or meeting regularly called, a less number be 
in attendance, then five members of the Executive Committee, with such Directors, 
not less than four, as may be present, shall constitute a Board, and have competent 
authority to transact any business of the Society ; provided, however, that the Board 
thus constituted shall carry no question unless the vote be unanimous. 

" ./^rt. 8. The Executive Committee shall meet according to its own appointment, 
or at the call of the Secretary. This Committee shall have discretionary power to 
transact the business of the Society, subject only to such limitations as are found in its 
charter, in this Constitution, and in the votes that have been passed, or may hereafter 
be passed, by the Board of Directors. The Secretary and Treasurer shall be members 
of the Committee ex o/?(cio, with the right to deliberate, but not to vote. The Com- 
mittee is authorized to fill all vacancies in its own body; to appoint a Secretary or 
Treasurer whenever such offices are vacant ; and to appoint and direct such agents as 
may be necessary for the service of the Society. At every annual meeting, the Com- 
mittee shall report their doings to the Society, and to the Board of Directors. 

" Art. 9. This Constitution may be amended, upon a proposition to that effect by 
any of the Societies represented in the Board of Directois, transmitted to the Secreta- 
ry, and published in the official paper of the Society, three months before the annual 
meeting; provided such amendment receive the sanction of two- thirds of the Board at 
its next annual meeting." 



OF THE LEGISLATURE OF MARYLAM 

PASSED MARCH 2S. 18S: 
act to Incorporate the ^/itnerican Colonization Society. ^"^ 



Jobi. C. 1 : 



M 



THIRTY-SECOND 



ANNUAL REPORT 



HillSa^iiSI (8(DILOT[!aii1H!(DlI 3(0'MBTC, 



WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD Of DIRECTORS, 




AND or THE 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 



JANUARY 16, 1849. 



WASHINGTON: 
C. ALEXANDER. PRINTER. 



r SXnEET, NliAR WiR DErARTMENT. 



1849 



THIRTY-SECOND 



, ANNUAL REPORT 



iiMiiiKBaB ijKDiLMaaii^iiM sfDiaasir, 



■WITH THE 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 






ANT OF THK 



SOCIETY AT ITS AN K UAL MEETIKG, 



JANUARY 1j6-,- ;1;9 4l9l. 





:^F » 



^r 



WASHINGTON: 
C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER. 

■t STREET, NEAR WAR DEPARTMENT. 

1849. 



CONTENTS, 



Thirty-second Annual Report of the American Colonization Society 5 

Death of Hon. Samuel VVilkeson — Tribute to his memory 5 

Death of Mrs. Wilkeson, Mrs. Sherman, ami Dr. Everette 6 

Emigrants sent in 1313 — Applicants for 134i) 7 

Inilucements to go to Liberia 8 

Receipts and Expenditures — Debts 9 

Prospects for 1349, encouraging 10 

Pons Memorial— Liberia Packet — Relationsof Society and Republic of Liberia. 1 1 

Articles of Agreement between Society and Liberia 12 

Legislature Met — Purchase of Territory 13 

Boundary of Liberia l-l 

Recognition of Independence by England and France l.'j 

Presi(lent Roberts' Letter from England 16 

Closing Remarks 17 

Thirty-second Annual Meeting of the American Colonization Society 18 

" " — Resolutions 18 

j^ " — President and Vice Presidents 19 

Extracts from thu' Proceedings of the Boird of Directors of the Am. Col. Soc 20 

Meeting of the Board — Members present 20 

Election of Secretary and Executive Committee — Resolutions 21 

Adjournment — Statement for 1849 22 

Receipts and Expenditures of the American Colonization Society 2.'{ 

Addresses delivereii at the Annual Meeting 24 

Address of Hon. R. W. Thompson ... 24 

Resolutions and Remarks of Hon. R. J. Walker 26 

Address delivered by Hon. J. R. Ingersoll 27 

" « Hon. R. M. McLane 30 

" " Hugh Maxwell, Esq 32 

Appropriations by Congress and the State Governments 3.'? 

Position of the American Colonization Society 33 

The Society's Possessions — Appropriations already made 34 

Constitutional Power of the General and State Governments 3-5 

Memorials and Petitions recommended 36 

Duty of the Friends of Colonization 37 

lV[emorial to the Legislature of the State of Ohio 37 

Emigration to the Western States — Increase in Ohio 38 

Ohio in Afi ica — Emigrants and Delegates 39 

Memorial to the Legislature of Virginia 4(» 

Mr. Jefferson's Plan — Formation of the Colonization Society 40 

Probable Increase of the Colored Population of Virginia 41 

Example of St. Domingo — Result of Eqiiality 42 

The Appropriation of ;jj9(),0l)0 in 1833, could now be made available 4'.', 

Increase in the number of Applicants for Emigration 4 < 

Founding of the Colony — Extent of the Republic of Liberia 4'> 

Products of Liberia — Religion, Schools, the Natives 46 

Influence of Colonization on the Slave Trade — The Ashburton Treaty 47 

The Purchase of Cape Mount 48 

The Colonization Society — Organization — Memorial to Congress 49 

Captain Stockton and Dr. Ayres— Purchase of a Tract of Land for the Colony. 50 
Virginia in Africa , 51 

Life Members of the American Colonization Society 51 



THIRTY-SECOND 



ANNUAL REPORT 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



January 15th, 1849, 



Death of Hon. Samuel Wilkeson— Tribute to his Memory. 



It is our privilege to record that 
a kind Providence has carefully 
watched over the operations of this 
Society during the past year. As 
Christians and Philanthropists, we 
are called upon to praise the great 
Ruler among the nations, for his 
manifold mercies. He has clearly 
«hown us how we can most suc- 
cessfully bless and save a large por- 
tion of his erring children. He has 
prolonged our lives and invigorated 
our faculties, that we may co-operate 
with him in the accomplishment of 
his vast schemes of benevolence, and 
he has signally prospered the feeble 
efforts which we have made. Success, 
beyond what we could reasonably 
have anticipated, has crowned our la- 
bors. "To his name, be all the glory!" 

While it is our privilege thus lo 
acknowledge his goodness, it is our 
duty also to confess his solemn ad- 
monitions. Some, who had long 
sympathised and labored with us, 
have been gathered to the silence 
and inactivity of the grave. 



The Hon. Samuel Wilkeson, 
departed this life on the 7ih of July, 
He had long been the warm friend 
and zealous supporler of this Society^ 
at the time of his death he was one 
of its vice presidents. Formerly, 
and for several years, he was Chair- 
man of the Executive Committee, 
and Presidentof the Board of Direc- 
tors, and devoted his whole time and 
energy to its advancement. The 
Board of Directors, at their called 
meeting in July, adopted the follow- 
ing tribute to his memory : 

"The Board of Directors of the 
American Colonization Society, at 
its sessions in New York,20lh July, 
1848, having received intelligence of 
the death of the Hon. Samuel Wil- 
keson, for many years the able and 
etficient President of this Board, and 
ihe unfailing advocate and generous 
patron of African Colonization, do 
express their heart-felt sorrow at the 
fall of so prominent a standard-bear- 
er in our cause. Mis generous en- 
deavors in its behilf during a season 
of critical financial embarrassment, 
and his successful appeals to the hu- 
mane and benevolent for relief, attest 



A-XXIAL KCrOBT OT TIIE AMEKICAX COLO.TIZATIOH SOCIETT. 



ihr .Hu-ri.ty ol )u« pn)(t»Bion». and ••Slie rests from her labors, and her 
.ugj. .1 0... Ir.Su.e lo h.s „u-mory. ^orks do follow her." 

HftjiVfil, 1 hat the rondolcnre of ,. ., 
ihi* Hoard bt- tendered to the «ur»i- * **• *^ "*»"•»:* fc-vKKKTTE of Albe- 
»ing iiiFiiilH'rri of his family, with"' '"*'''" ^'o- Va., died in October last, 
Iheir due arkiinwlcdtrmr nt ..f his in the 8Ut vear of lijs a^e He was 
worth as a Christian and a Thilan- ^..^ „f U.e most diH,i„/u..hed nhy- 
Uiro|»i«t, and of his fervjrfs as an . . . , ' ^ 

offirer and nuiiibci of this S.)ciely." , *'**'■"" '" "'"' I'^""* """ '''^ country. 
Not h)ng l>efore his death, his ' '" ^''*^ distribution of his large estate 
wife ha<l been railed away. She '"" ^*'^^ '"" "'•"'"• *^'^ '" ''"'»l>t'r. to 
WM a lady of preat energy and cul- ' ^^ ^^*-'^'^ "'"' '^^"'''^ '" ^^^^^^^ a« «l'e 
liration of mind, of enlarged benevo- •"^I'''"^''"" "^ <'»«^ years. It is un- 
lence and of purest and most perfect ''"'''"*'^ '•'»' ''''» «•'"" «•" lime has 
charaetci. Her devotii>n to the inie- ^*^" P'"**'*"*'^*' »o prepare them for 
rests of this Society was not inferior »''*'''■»«* mode of life, by a discipline 
to his : and every person acquaint- *"^ education ^uilcd to make the 
ed with them while residents of <^''«»nge a blessing to tiiem. Ample 
this city, is aware of ilic fact, that '"^^"* ''^^« ^^t-en appropriated by 
nearly her whole lime and strength '''^ testator lo render them comfort- 
were giren to the advancement of ^^'^' '^°°' '"*^*P*'"^'-'"l •"'''<'•'■ new 
it« interests. abode. Dr. Charles D. Everelte, 

The loss of two surli friends and '''* e.\eculor and principal legatee, 
roadjutors we deeply feel. '* *'^ ^""^ assured, diUgenlly engaged 

.Mrs. Fli/arctii SiirRMAN. widow '" '"^'imting judicious measures to 
of the late //on. /io'^er A/. S/ierman, '"'*"'>' ""' ''"^ provisions of the will. 
<!ic<l at FairfieUI, Connecticut, on |t * I^*"'"? l^e past year, we have 

I _f 4 .. -. . sent 113 eujigranls to Liberia. 'i"he 

Nfhcmiah Rich sailed from New 
Orleans on the 7th of January, 1848, 
with I'Jl): the Amazon from Ralti- 
more, lih of IVbruary, wiili 11; the 
Liberia Packet from I5*ltimore, 11 ih 
of April, with 110: the Col. Howard 
from Savannah, (»th of .May, with i>9: 
ind the Uberia Packet from IJalii- 



tlie 3d of August, in the 7.3th year 
of her age. Her inteUectual powers 
and accomplishments were of a su- 
perior order. She was a friend of 
tlie friendlesB, and the firm supporter 
of "whatever was pure and lorely 
and of good report." .She was n 
riinstant and generous patron of thi« 

•Society. Many and liberal were 

her donations to lut funds while she '""'"<*• ^*><'« of September, with .31 
was living, Mid in her •* last will Of these people :{1>1 were liberated 
•nil leslameni" she left substantial ^'^^ ''><' purpose of going lo Liberia ; 
evidence of the high plart- it held in - "■*^'''' recaptured Africans, llie rc- 
brr rrgards, by bccjuralhing it g niaining 1 17 were free, 
•••fa y of f.uir tkoutnnd doUart. '*''"'>* resided in thirteen different 
* '♦'■ ' " '';" mrtDory of Uie jusi." ^^^•i and in the District of Colum- 



ANNUAL BEPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 
Emigrants sent in 1848— Applicants for 1849. 



bia, as follows : 170 were from Vir- 
ginia — GO were from Georgia — 47 ' 
were from South Carolina — 37 were ij 
from Louisiana — 35 were from Mis- 
sissippi — 2S were from Kenlucky-23 j 
were from Alabama — 10 were from ! 
Washington City — 9 were from ! 
Pennsylvania — 7 were from Illinois 
— 5 were from New York — 5 were il 
from North Carolina — 5 were from j 
Georgetown, D. C. — 1 was from j 
Ohio — and 1 from Michigan. 

On their arrival in Liberia, they 
were located in nearly all the differ- 1 
ent settlements, and are now suc- 
cessfully prosecuting the various [ 
branches of business. 

Their health has generally been 
good. Only 4 adults and 8 children 
have died with the acclimating fever. 
There were some deaths from other 
causes, not in any way attributable 
to the climate of Liberia. 

These 12 deaths occurred among 
4]2of the emigrants. The 31 by the Li- 
beria Packet are not included, as they 
had not arrived when our last advices 
left. Twelve deaths out of 412 
emigrants is not an alarming -mor- 
tality. 

To Dr. Lugenbeel and his assist- 
ant, Dr. Roberts, great praise is due, 
for their untiring attendance upon the 
sick and their skilful treatment of the 
acclimating fever. 

In addition to the above emigrants 
already sent to Liberia, we had an- 
ticipated, and made partial prepara- 
tions for, despatching a vessel from 
New Orleans on the first day of this 
year, with upwards of three hundred 



people. But the CAo/era commenced 
its work of death in that City on 
the 16ih of December, and prevailed 
to such an alarming extent that it 
was considered best to postpone the 
sailing of the vessel until the disease 
should disappear or so abate as to 
render it safe for the emigrants U) 
come into the city. This was a 
great disappointment to the people, 
who are eager to embark for their 
new home, and will be attended 
with some extra expense to the So- 
ciety. 

Application has been made to us 
for a passage to Liberia, from 245 in 
Mississippi — 69 in Tennessee — 27 
in Indiana— 24 in Kentucky — 2 in 
Ohio — 64 in Virginia — 60 in South 
Carolina — 6 in New York — 7 in 
Connecticut — 1 in Georgetown — 5 
in Washington City — 16 in North 
Carolina — and 125 in Georgia; ma- 
king a total of 657. 

Those who expected to have sail- 
ed from New Orleans on the 1st 
inst. are included in this number. 

Reasoning from the past year we 
may fairly calculate, that before the 
close of the present year, we shall 
receive applications for a passage for 
at least five hundred more, provided 
we can send out the present appli- 
cants as fast as they are ready to go. 
Should the Society, however, be 
unable to do this, it will produce 
discouragement, and immediately 
check the spirit of emigration. 

Of these who are now ready to 
go, very few are able to pay any 
thing toward defraying their expea^ 



fill-. HIT "V TH aMJkk v\ (III ()\l/*Tli>\ ^tH'IF-TT. 



•e». A lar^f nuiiibt'r arc sUvrs, ' 
whose rnciloiii ilcptuils on ihtir re- 
moval lo Liberia. For some oi 
i' iM-, abuiiilant means have been |)ro- 
M.'.iil by the will of their uiaolers. 
riie great inajoriiy of ihcni dei)ciitl 
emirely upon ihe Society. 

It will al o(ire be tvvn, that if the 
Society were to adopt liie policy of 
•ending out none but those who pay 
iheir own cxpcn«e!», or who are pro- 
Tidcd for by the pcmona liberating 
them, the businef^ of emi*^raiion 
would soon be .^tratly diininished. 
Let any person look around him and 
•ee how few of the frtc colored peo- 
ple make anything more than a bare 
living, and he will soon be convinced 
tliat for the present, and for some 
lime to come, until the .'•pirii of emi- 
gration bccoinci more earnest anti 
determined, the Society must perform 
ihe benevolent office of trans porlinn 
them to Liberia, and supporting them 
during their acclimation. 

From prcucnl appearances, we are 
led to infer, that emigrants anxioUH 
lo goto Liberia, and capable of doinj; 
good there, will multiply faster than 
will the means of defraying their ex- 
penses. DurinjT the last two years 
we were assured by our friends in 
various parts of the country, that we 
need entertain no fears on this sub- 
ject, that the grand difTirulty wonhl 
be to tind people willing to leave 
liiis land of their birih for a new and 
Boinrwhal trying home, in the land 
of Uirir fathers. Un the baxis of 
these asiurancei we tocouragcd Uic 



spirit of emigration ; took vigorous 
iiit-a<uris to circuluic correct iiifor- 
inaiion about Liberia among the free 
people, and to inform masters who 
were anxious to senil their slaves to 
where they could be rtuUy benefited, 
that tlie Society was in ciicumstan- 
crs to accoiumodale a limited number 
of them. In aJiIilion to this, the in- 
ducements luld out by Liberia to 
the colored peoj)!e of this country, 
to make it ihtir home, have been 
greatly augmenied, and are still on 
the increase. Experience has hhown 
to the satisfaction of all who are ac- 
(juaintcd wiili the facts, that the full 
development of their faculties, and 
the hij^hcst rewards for honorable 
exertions ran be obtained only in Li- 
beria. Uoih lor their present good 
ami future advancemer.t, the only 
broad clear field is opened there. 
The more intelligent and tlie more 
educated they become, the more cer- 
tainly will they appreciate the advan- 
tages ol riiizenship in Liberia. The 
organization of the free lUpublic of 
Liberia, and their great prosperity 
Hince, have removed the violent pre- 
judices which many entertained 
against the entcrptise. 

These, with other incentives to 
emigration, will not only continue to 
operate, but will gather strength with 
lime, and assume new aspects and 
exert ficsh influence wiih every 
change in the moral .-ispert of society. 

Is there a probalnlity that funds 
sutTicient can be raised to transport 
to Liberia, and sustain during aecli- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERfCAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Receipts and Expenditures— Debts. 



mation, the increasing numbers who 
have no other hope or dependence 
but the Society ? 

Upon this question the history of 
the Society's financial endeavors du- 
ring the past year does not tiirow as 



has been obliged to put forth every 
eilort in its power to raise funds and 
husband resources, and to use its 
credit as far as could be done with 
propriety. The necessity for send- 
ing out the emigrants who have gone, 



cheerinjr a li^i-lit as we could desire. 1; and at the several limes of their de- 
And yet from what has already been j parture, has been so urgent, that for 



said and done in favor of the Society, 
we are assured that if all its friends 
would contribute as they are able, 
annually, we should have means to 
make a large advance on any thing 
which has been done. 

Tlie total amount of our receipts 
from all sources during the past year 
were ^50,114 37. The expendi- 
tures amounted to ^51,953 46 — 
leaving a balance against the Society 
of $1,839 09, on the supposition 
that the balances now due the So- 
ciety are all good. This however is 
not the case. By reference to the 
balance sheet appended to this Re- 
port, it will be perceived that our 
bills payable and other liabilities 
amount to $8,74G 39. All these 
must inevitably be paid. But we 
cannot say the same of the amount 
due the Society, which is only 
$6,907 30. Some part of this we can- 
not expect to receive. It will be a 
long time before some of the others 
will be settled. So that wc mustcal- 
culate to provide for paying a larger 
portion of the debts we owe, from 
some other source than from the 
debts due us. 

To meet the exigencies of the past 
year, the Society has been compelled 
to exercise the most rigid economy ; 



nearly the whole year the expendi- 
tures have been made in advance of 
the receipts. Tiiis at times has sub- 
jected us to very considerable em- 
barrassment. But the work to be 
done was of such a nature that we 
could not conscientiously postpone 
it. 

This state of things will account 
for the present indebtedness of the 
Society. 

In the history of the Coloniza- 
tion movement in various parts of 
the country, during the past year, 
many things have taken place, which 
encourage us to hope for greatly en- 
larged receipts during the year upon 
which we are now about to enter. 
There has every where been a mani- 
fest advance of public sentiment in 
our favor. A large number of eccle- 
siastical bodies, after full and free 
discussion of the subject, have adopt- 
ed with great unanimity, resolutions 
approving of the principles and ope- 
rations of the Society, and recom- 
mending to pastors of the churches 
to take up collections in aid of its 
funds. Some of these bodies have 
never before thus given the seal of 
their approval; others have not done 
it for many years past. The agents 
of the Society are every where re- 



10 



AsnvAL BtroBT or the amerjcatt colojcization society. 



eeivril wiih great kindiicfs, and in 
many more placcci iluii lormorly, 
adiiiiltej iu the pulpits to plead for 
the cause on the Sabbath, and before 
the rfjfular conerei;nliiM»i«. Often 
ihey hare found persons willing but 
unable to rontribnte at the time, who 
)iave promised them a welcome re- 
ception and liberal donutioni«, when 
they make their next yearly yisil. 

Several new Auxiliary Societirs 
have been formed, which promise 
much efliciency. We hare nurceed-i 
ed in getting agents for Virginia,' 
Tennessee and North Carolina. In 
these Slater, no regular, syslomalic 
efforts have been made for years. 
The New York State Colonization 
Sotiety have secuied the services of 
ihe Her. J. H. I'iuney, so long and i 
favorably known in connection with 
Lil)cria anil the cause in this country. 
The Louisiana State Colonization 
Society has been re-organized and 
have secured an act of Incor])oration 
from the Suite legislature. A tract 
of land on the Sinou river has been 
set apart for the orcupaiiry of emi- 
grants from that State. The officers 
and managers of the Society are 
anxious to commence a settlement 
there as soon as they can send out u 
company of emigrants. A gentle- 
man in Cincinnati, Ohio, <if great 
wealth and distinguished liberality, 
has made a most lil>eral oOer of 
means to purchase Cape Mount, or 
Gallenas, and offer it to the colored 
people of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, 
if they will emigrate and form a new 
scc.lriiipnt utiili r I'li- nuspices of the 



Hepublic of Liberia. A gentleman 
in 'I'enncssee, who owns about three 
hundred slaves who have been ac- 
customed to the manufacture of iron, 
proposes to settle them in Liberia, 
defraying all the expenses hiinselft 
in the neighborhood of some beds of 
iron ore, probably at New Ccsters. 
And a number of gentlemen in that 
State propose to make a contribution 
<»f funds Hulficient to secure a good 
tract of land for the occupancy of 
emigrants from that State. In all 
parts of the country, the condition 
and prospects of Liberia arc mutters 
of thought and discussion. The va- 
rious public prints circulate among 
their readers correct inforination. 
Men are reasonable beings. They 
must be affected by these things. 
They are sympathetic. 'I'liey must 
feel for the needy and depressed. 
They cannot long look at the im- 
mense field »)f usefulness opened be- 
fore them both in this country and 
Africa, without entering heartily into 
the w«>rk. The inlluences pressing 
upon them are becoming tremend- 
ously powerful. The calls for aid 
are growing louder and coming with 
greater rapidity. While Coloniza- 
tion was an rxprrimmt, they could 
hesitate and quiet their conscience*. 
While it was not demonstrated be- 
yond possibility of doubt, they could 
wait for further light and fuller de- 
velopments. Hut these times have 
now g(me by. The scheme can no 
longer be regarded as chimerical. 
None ct.n now predict its failure. 
I TUefceble eiTiif !«« wlui-li havriilready 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



11 



Pone Memorial — Liberia Packet — Relaliuns of Society, and Republic of Liberia. 



been made, have been crowned with 
a success which has few parallels in 
ihe history of the world. Liberia is 
able to receive advantageously thous- 
ands of emigrants annually. They 
have sufficient territory for millions 
of inhabitants. They need more 
citizens in every department of in- 
dustry. Thousands and thousands 
of the native Africans are open to the 
influences of civilization and chris- 
lianity. There are people enough 
in this country who are anxious to 
go to Liberia. Now is the favorable 
opportunity for doing a work of Di- 
vine benevolence on the grandest 
scale, and with the largest reward. 
Who can be made to see and feel 
these things and remain inactive ? 
Ls money needed, it can and must be 
had. The rich and the poor will 
imite together and pour their ofler- 
ings in the treasury ! 

During the last session of Con- 
gress, the memorial praying for 
compensation for the support of the 
Tecaptives of the " Pons" was pre- 
sented to the Senate and referred to 
the appropriate committee, who sub- 
sequently reported a bill in favor of 
the Society. No further action has 
been taken with reference to it. It 
is earnestly to be hoped that the 
Senate will take it up and pass it, 
and that it will speedily receive the 
sanction of the other House. In the 
present emergencies, it would afford 
great relief to the Society. 

The Liberia Packet has continued 
her regular voyages to Liberia, with 
great advantage to this Society. 



The relations which are hereafter 
to subsist between this Society and 
the Republic of Liberia have been 
settled in a satisfactory manner. At 
the meeting in January last, the Leg- 
islature of Liberia appointed Com- 
missioners, duly authorized to act on 
this subject. They arrived in New 
York in July, and on the 12th ef 
A,ugust a deputation from the Execu- 
tive Committee met them there by 
appointment, and continued their de- 
liberations until the ISlh, when the 
Board of Directors met, received the 
report of the Committee, and heard 
the Commissioners in person, and 
after three days deliberation, articles 
of agreement were unanimously 
adopted. 

These articles are yet subject to 
the approval of the Legislature of 
Liberia, before they are finally rati- 
fied and binding. We presume that 
they will receive the full and hearty 
assent of every true Liberian. 

They are as follows : 

" Articles of Agreement between 
the Republic of Liberia and the 
American Colonization Society, en- 
tered into by the Directors of the 
Society and ihe Commissioners of 
the Republic, in the city of New 
York, on the t20th day of Jtily, in the 
year of our Lord 1848 ; and which, 
if ratified by the Government of Li- 
beria, within the space of twelve 
months from this date, shall be bind- 
ing both on the Society and the Re- 
public: 

'■'■Article L The Society hereby 
cedes all its public lands within the 
limits of Liberia to the said Republic 
subject to the following provisions, 
viz : 

*' 1. The Government shall allow 



12 AMRVAL ■KTORT Of THi: AMEUCAN COLOHIZATIOFT SOCIETT. 

A n • 1. » »f A j f ilMW l WUW— totiHf —d LibrriA. 



to rini;;ranta llir quantity of land 
J,.-r, •,.(.. if alluwrd llicm by t-vi'-iiii" 
I f. oul uf any uni> 

*.., .......■; lands; and ulu-nit.^. u... 

rrnnitni •ells nny of ilic public lands, 
rtcry alternate lot, or farm, or eer- 
tion, or square mile or mtli's, shall 
be lei'l un»uld, tu bv assijiued tu iiui- 
grant«. 

•' 2. All falcrt shall be at publir 
aurtinrt to ilit- hi^hcRl bidder. Lnndo 
after hating bci-n offirt'd at auriiun 
and un»ul(l, may bo sold at privuti- 
•ale nut below a price to be fixed bv 
law. 

•• 3. The trarts rosrrrnl for cmi- 
frants may, with the assent of the 
Society* be exchaiitrrd for others of 
equal value ; or sohl, and the pro- 
ceeds ditottd to the purposes of 
education. 

••4. The Gorcrnment of Liberia 
^!,;l!l appropriate at Itast ten per 
(.1 :. of the proceeds of the t^ale ttf 
pu'i'iir lands to sriiuul or educational' 
puipnces. 1 

♦• .3. The Cfovornmcnt r»f Liberia 
sh!! f old the land hireU»ri»r»' appro- 
; ill'- Kenlurky Society for 

iiicy of «inij»ranl8 fri>m Kaiil 
htiite ; and the land heretofore as- 
•ipnrd to the Missi.^sippi SucicMy 
ahati be h> Id for emi(rrant!< from thnl 
State; and the Dluc Hurre territoty 
ahall be assigned to emigrants from 
Uie Slate of LoiiiAiann ; it beinn; ^'n* 
derstood that all these lands are to 
be held by the Hepuldic on the »ai]>€ 
terms and pruvinioi s as the other 
publir lands. 

*• 6. The Society shall retain the 
right of locating emigrants in ajiy of 
the |»re*ent st ttleinenlH. 

'• 7. New petiUfiieniii are to be 
torui rd by thecnnciirn nco and agree- 
nuitt of the Government of Libutia 
and the Society. 

"8. Tlie land* hfid by the Ke- , 
pi,l 1, f,.r it , . ..>,.. ,„ry of emigrants 
III taxaMun. 
1 ■ - M iv •hall retain pos-i 



session of one hundred acres of land 
around tlio Uiined .Slater building for 
I (-raptured Africans, for the use of 
;lie L lilted Stales Ciovernment. 

" 10. The S«)ciety slialt retain the 
public farm, the colonial store and 
IcM and wharf; also the lot in (ireen- 
ville i and if requested the CJovern- 
nii-nt ^llall {\vvi\ to the Society a lot 
in Kah.sa county, and a lot of suitable 
size in each of the new settlements 
formed on the coast; which proper- 
ty and all the iinprovenu-iUs which 
the Society shall make on it, shall 
bo exempt fr«im taxation: but the 
Society shall lake surh care of said 
lots as the citizens are required to 
take of theirs, in order to prevent 
their becoming nuisances; and in 
case of neglect, the town authorities 
shall be authorized to abate such 
nuisances at the expense of the So- 
ciety. 

''Article II. The Society shall 
have the priviU'L'e of introducing and 
selling in the Kepuhlic any uiul all 
the articles included in the monopoly 
of said Republic, the proceeds to 
be appropriated to the support of 
emigrant.'* after their arrival in Liberia 

" .Irticlr 111. The (lovernment 
shall allow the Society to introduce 
all its stores, provisions, and furni- 
ture, f;tr the supixirl and use of emi- 
gianls, free of duly ; and the vessels 
chartered by the Society and carrving 
einigraiiis. shall be free from light 
house and an<*horai;e duties. 

*• .Irlicl'- l\ . Keeuplured Africans 
nliall be admitted as heretofore, the 
I'liited Slates Government making 
provision for their support. 

" ,'hticlr V. The Society shall 
five to the Hepiiblic of Liberia the 
ti'iviriimeiit Iloute, furniture, and 
public ofTices, Fort Johnson, and 
such munitions of war now in Libe- 
ria as were prencnied by the (ior- 
• rnment of tiie L'nitcd Slates to t!io 
Society. 

" Arlide VI. These articles may 



ANNUAL REPORT OF TIIK AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



13 



Lfgidature met — Purchase of Tenitory. 



be altered at any time by the mutual 
agreement of the Directors of the 
American Colonization Society and 
the Government of Liberia. 

"^r/ic/e VII. It is hereby agreed, 
that after the said Republic shall 
have acted upon and duly ratified the 
foregoing articles, as herein provided 
for, and shall have furnished the So- 
ciety with the duly authenticated 
evidence thereof, the Society shall be 
bound, and hereby binds itself to 
execute and transmit to the said Re- 
public such instrument of writing or 
deed as shall be by said Republic 
deemed necessary fully to confirm, 
convey and vest in said Republic the, 
title in fee simple to all the said 
lands, subject only to the conditions 
and reservations herein contained. 

"In testimony whereof, the com- 
missioners of the said Republic, and 
the chairman and secretary of the 
Board of Directors, and secretary of 
the Society, duly authorized to sign 
the foregoing agreement, have re- 
spectively set their hands and seals 
in duplicate." 

BEVERLY R. WILSON, [seal.] 7 f 
JAMES S. PAYNE, [seal.] 3 (J 

JOHN MACLEAN, [seal.] 

Chairman nf Board of Directors. 
JOSEPH TRACY, [seal.] 

Secreiari/ of the Board. 

W. McLAIN, [seal.] 

Sec. Jim. Col. Soc. 

" Signed, sealed and delivered in 
our presence, 

M. St. Clair Clarke, 
Elliott Cresson, 
John N. IVIcLeod, 
Paul T. Jones, 
John B. Pinnev." 
The first Legislature of the " Re- 
public of Liberia'' assembled in 
Monrovia on the 3d day of January 
last. His Excellency, J. J. Roberts, 
President elect of the Republic, de- 
livered an appropriate Inaugural ad- 
dress, before being sworn into ofiice. 



The members of the Legislature 
seem to have been impressed with a 
consciousness of the great responsi- 
bility which rested upon them, and 
of the vast importance of the work 
committed to them as the representa- 
tives of a free, sovereign and inde- 
pendent people. 

Thus far, the Liberians have prov- 
ed themselves capable of self-gov- 
ernment. They have passed the 
critical period of a change of organi- 
zation. They have consolidated 
their strength, and become familiar- 
ized to the privileges of freedom and 
the responsibilities of self-control. 
No people have ever exhibited great- 
er devotion to their government and 
institutions, or submitted more readi- 
ly to lawful authority. We have 
every reason to believe that the 
Government of the " Republic of 
Liberia" is now fixed on as perma- 
nent a basis as human wisdom is ca- 
pable of devising. 

The purchase of territory has been 
prosecuted with vigor, and is nearly 
completed. The line of coast from 
Little Cape Mount to Cape Palmas, 
a distance of 320 miles, is now all 
under the jurisdiction of the Govern- 
ment of Liberia, and held in fee sim- 
ple by it, with the exception of a few 
small tracts, amounting to about 20 
miles. It is gratifying to know that 
they have purchased IVew Ceslers, 
the only remaining slave factory on 
that part of the coast. It cost 
$2,000. The slave traders established 
there, refused to break up and depart 
at the vvarninjr of the authorities of 



14 AWXWAt wtronT or the amuucam colosizat;— . ^ .....ly. 



Li*rna. They armed »fveral hun- 
klrc J o( the iialivf* who were in their 
pay. inlemlin^ to defend their pre- 
nii«e«. There i« no doubt however 
that they will »oon ho routed. When 
Gor. KobrrtA waj in this country an 
effort was made to obtain from our 
Goremment an armed vesnel, to be 
placed for a few daya under the direc- 
tion of the i'renidenl of F,ihcria, to aid 
m breakini; up the ulave fartnrv. Rut 
the Kxerutire entertained some tiouhtu 
aa to their power to do it. While 
in Kurope, President Rttberts repre- 
sented the case to the Kntrtifih and 
French (loTernmenls ; and the for- 
mer ordered the Commodore on the 
African coast, to render to the Re- 
public whatever assistance was ne- 
cessary to emble the Lihcrians to 
break up the slave trade on that part 
of the coast; and the latter, placed at 
ihcir disposal two men of war for the 
•aroe purpose ! 

The following is the bountlary of 
Liberia, ns declared by the last Le- 
gislature thereof, viz : 

" A line commrnrinjj at the mniiih 
of (trand Cape Mount river, on the 
north-went, runnin<; nionjj the centre 
of that river to its source, or to the 
mteriiir frontier of the Cape Mount 
section of the Vey Terril<»ry. thence 
by a line running eastwardlv, sepa- 
rating the territory of the Vey and 
Dey tribes from the territx)ric8 of the 
coniipunus interior tribes, untd it 
• tnkit the northern liourtdnry of the 
MdUburgh purchase; thenr-e along 
the north-esalern boundary of the 
Millsburf;h purchase, and through 
the tract of country lying between 
the •nicl MilUburgh ptirrli.i"e ami 
Junk, until it itrikca the northern 



angle of the purchase of Junk terri- 
tory, thence along the interior boun- 
dary tjf the purcliuHc from Bussa to 
the St. John's river ; thence across 
the St. Johirii and along the interior 
boundary of the territory of the .At- 
lantic tribes from whom the purchuites 
were made, until it reaches the south- 
eastern front of the Grand (.'esters 
territory ; thence in a south-westerly 
direction to the ocean at (irand Ces- 
ters in l'^ and 11' north latitude, and 
h' and b' west longitude, being a 
mean parallel distance from the 
ocean of forty-live miles ; thence 
along the sea coast in a north-west- 
erly dire^'tion to the place of com- 
mencement ; including all rivers, 
harbors, bays, inlands, and such a 
distance out in the ocean as is deter- 
mined by the law of nations to be 
just and proper in such cases, or as 
iiecurity, protection and a wholesome 
jurisdiction may demand. 

" Appuoveu, February 1st, 1^*18." 

General peace and prosperity have 
prevailed tliroughoul the Republic 
fi>r the pa^l year. The inhabitanUi 
arc busy and happy in the prosecu- 
tion of their various avivaliotis. 

Greater atten'ion has been paid to 
the cultivation ol the soil. The value 
of this branch of bu(<incss is becom- 
ing more correcdy estimated. The 
lovely banks of the St. Paul's and 
.St. John's rivers will soon present a 
b( auliful prospect, adorned with rich 
fii Ids «»f rice, sugar cane, and cofl*ce. 
The cultivation of ginger, pepper, 
arrow root and coffee is engrossing 
many minds. They have exported 
ronoiderable quantities of these arti* 
clrs during the past year. Coflee 
wdl undotibtvdly be the most valua- 
ble of all the productions of Liberia. 
It is easy of cultivation. It yields a 



ANNUAL RKrORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



15 



Recognitiou of Independence by England and France. 



large crop in five years after being 
planted ; and its quality has been 
pronounced by competent judges 
equal to any in the world. 

The cause of education has re- 
ceived increased attention. The 
churches have mostly been blessed 
with revivals of religion. The na- 
tive tribes are becoming more sub- 
ject to the laws, and accustomed to 
the manners and habits of civilized 
life. From present prospects there 
is no limit that can be fixed to the 
good influence which Liberia and 
her institutions can exert upon the 
native tribes, but the entire temporal 
and spiritual regeneration of Africa ! 

The American Squadron on the 
coast of Africa has been of great ad- 
vantage to Liberia. The officers 
have all taken the most friendly in- 
terest in the welfare of the Republic. 
The United Slates Government, 
early in the past year, appointed a 
^ Commercial Agent to reside in Libe- 
ria, and have in various ways shown 
their approbation of the stand taken 
by the citizens thereof, in organiz- 
ing an independent government. 

The respective governments of 
England and France have both ac- 
knowledged the independence of the 
Republic of Liberia, and the former 
has entered into a treaty of com- 
merce and amity; thus placing Li- 
beria on an equality with the most 
favored nations. They received 
President Roberts in the most re- 
spectful manner, and treated him and 
his country with all distinguished 
courtesy, as will be seen by the fol- 



lowing letter which he wrote short- 
ly before leaving England, in which 
he gratefully acknowledges his high 
estimation of the things which have 
been said and done for him and his 
country. 

Devonport, Dec. 6, 1848. 

"TJ/y Dear Sir : — Since my return 
from Paris my engagements have 
been so numerous and pressing that 
1 have not been able to send you 
even a line to advise you of my 
doings. Iain happy now, however, 
to inform you that 1 have succeeded 
in Europe (niile to my satisfaction. 
The Engliph and French govern- 
ments especially have been exceed- 
ingly kind. I have concluded with 
the British government a treaty of 
amity and commerce, which places 
the Republic upon the footing of the 
most favored nation. 

Upon an application which I had 
the honor of making to her Majesty's 
government, they have kindly or- 
dered the British commodore on the 
APKcan coast to render to the Repub- 
lic the necessary assistance to enable 
the Liberian authorities to remove 
from their recently acquired territory 
at New Ceslers the slavers establish- 
ed there. The French government 
have also placed at our disposal two 
vessels for the same purpose. 

We have every prospect of ob- 
taining from her Majesty's govern- 
ment the necessary assistance to en- 
able us to secure the territory of 
Gallenas. They have also promised 
to present to the Republic a small 
vessel, to be fitted and sent out soon, 
to be employed against slavers on 
the Liberian coast, which will enable 
us with the pecuniary aid to purchase 
Gallenas, no doubt thoroughly and 
efiectually to abolish the inhuman 
traffic in slaves from the entire coast 
lying between Sierra Leone and 
Cape Palmas. 

At Brussels I found the Govern- 



16 



AirifUAL KeK>RT OF THE AMERICAN COLOMZATIOX SOCIETY. 



CroM Eh^uU. 



mtiil ? i Mit;;i<;<il n« not lo b • able lo 
dcvuu- any tune tu my buMUi-A!*, un- 
\en 1 could remain lliiTe aevt'ral 
di\ti, wliirli 1 could not cunvenifnl* ; 
ly do. I have not bri'n able to Titil . 
any of tlie German Slates. Cheva- 
lier Huni>en, the rrostsian .Minister 
ill London, inrormrd ine that hi» 
Govcrnnienl hud been iioiil'ied of the 
clunge uhieli had been tllVcled in 
the pidtliral relations of Libetia, and 
that he «a« aulhunztd lo nay tlial 
the I*uiH»ian Government would fol- 
low the examplo of England and 
Fiance, and rerogni'ic the indepen- 
dciiri' of the Ki pulilir. I ha\e ad- 
dressed a letter through their einba«iiy 
at London to the i'lunsian court, ask- 
ing a rerogniiioi), and pro|)o^ing a 
coiumerciol treaty. I have every 
assurance that it %vill be fuvnral>ly 
received, but I mu»t leave Enropi- 
wiihonl arranging any thing definitely 
«ilh that court. A reply lo my 
communication will be forwarded lo 
Liberia. 

I embark tn-moirow with my 
family on board her .MaJoiitN '» ^ip 
AiiKi/un, in which veshtl the Gov- 
erniiii'Dl have been kind cnou^li to 
grant me a p3«»3ge to my own niun- 
try. Therefore I leave Kngland 
undf r many, very many obligation)* 
lu her Majesty's Government f<ir the 
kindiiefitand ulleniion I have received 
at their hando. Not only am 1 in- 
debted to all the ufTireri* of the Hrit- 
ikh (iovernment with whom I have 
had lo do; private individuulH altxi 
have rendered inc iniportanl itervice^. 
Dr. Ilodgkin. Samuel (,'uriiey, (J. 
Kili>liin, (ii<>rg(' Thompson, aiid ' 
IN !ty Vauglian, K"»ij., have been un-' 
ui ifii il in their elloru to serve me- 
Iii'M • il, i>ir, to name all from whom 
I h'i\i- received great attention aiul 
kiudnria duiinK my vixit to tliit 
country would be im|>o»iiib|e. 

I have ever\ rea*on lo believe that 
my vinit to Europe will n vull in 
great good lo Africa in general, and 



to Liberia in particular. I found 
much ignorance here with regard to 
Liberia, and the operations of the So- 
ciety, and many sincere good friends 
of the African race totally mi(«iiiforin- 
ed with retyped to the real objects 
of the C'olonizalion Society, and in 
e.niseiiueiire prejudiced against it. 
You. however, are aware of these 
prejudice?*, and of the arguments 
U!<ed lo su!-tain them. During my 
sijourn here I have conversed freely 
with many who hiiheiio have been 
vitdeiit in their opposition to the 
S>ciety, and tliink in many instances 
I have succeeded in correcting Uieif 
erroneous impressions. 

1 cannot fad lo mention thai in 
Paris 1 received great ulleniion and 
as.si^lance from thai unwearied friend 
to liberty, lion. Ge(»rge Washington 
Lafayctle. lie did all in his jnnver, 
backed by all the members of his 
fatnily, lo farilitalc tlie rd-jccts of my 
mission. I am sure thai it was by 
Ins assistance, and the assistance of 
lellers furnished me by his son-in- 
law, Mr. CLauinont. Freiuh Minister 
at London, to his Government, that 
I Bucceedfd in arranging my bu?incs8 
80 (luickly at I'aris. 

I have not lime, dear sir, lo write 
another letter ; I beg, ihereforc, that 
yon will inform the Hev. Messrs. 
McLain, Piimey .ind Traey ami .Mr. 
('ressonofmv doings in Kurope, as 
far us I have been able to deliiil them 
lure. When I reaeh home, the Lord 
willing, I will send you and ih- m a 
fidl arcoiint of my proceeding?*. I 
raniiol omit to mention a mdde and 
generous act of my friend Samuel 
<iurnev, Ksq.nf London, who, when 
I informed him «)f ihe de.-<ire of the 
Lilieiians to seeun- the Gallenas, 
liial ilu'y might t x'.irpate the hiavc 
fariories al that pl;«ce. andeffeclually 
nl>l)|l^h the slavv trade at Ihnl point, 
nml that ihe natives were disp<ised lo 
sell the territory, but thai the consid- 
leraiion demanded was m>ite than the 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



17 



Closing Remarks. 



present ability of the Liberian gov- 
ernment to meet, pledged Inniseirfor 
one thousand pounds to aid them in 
the purchase. 

I beg that you will remember me 
kindly to all your family. Say to 
Messrs. Dodge, Stokes, Altenburg, 
and your son Anson, that I can 
never forget their kindness to me 
during my stay in iNow York. I 
shall entertain a grateful remem- 
brance of them as long as I live. 1 
am also under lasting obligations to 
your dear daughters." 

I am, dear sir, yours, &;c. 

J. J. ROBERTS. 

Anson G. Phelps, Esq. 

In view of all these events, can 
there be a doubt upon any mind 
whether the Liberians have improved 
their condition by leaving the United 
States and planting themselves on 
the shores of that once barbarous 
land? In what bold relief do now 
stand out the practical wisdom of 
the colonization enterprise, the far- 
reaching sagacity and benevolence 
of its founders! Now it is that 
hostility to African Colonization is 
seen to be hostility to the colored 
race ! 

The acknowledged nationality of 
Liberia is a fact not to be gain-sayed 
or resisted. The bare existence of 
such a Republic of colored men on the 
coast of Africa creates a strong pub- 
lic sentiment in their favor, and is the 
most effectual preparation the woild 
has ever seen, for the civil, social, 
and religious elevation of the entire 
colored race ! There may be those 



among the colored people in the 
United States who are incapable of 
fully appreciating the blessings of 
colonization; others there are, who 
may despise the promised land ; but 
their posterity will view things in a 
different light. The political happi- 
ness or misery of themselves and 
their children, and of generations yet 
unborn, is inseparably linked with the 
fortunes and destiny of Liberia ; the 
future prospects, and to a great degree, 
the everlasting interests of their race, 
teeming in millions over the hills and 
valleys of tliat land of the sun, are to 
be in an essential manner controlled 
and determined by the influences 
already operating upon the Western 
coast ! 

Who are the friends of the colored 
race ? Their hearts must respond 
and their hands contribute to the ad- 
vancement of this cause. Liberia has 
spread her banner to the breeze, 
having inscribed upon it " The love 
of liberhj hroiighl us herc!^' Mil- 
lions of their race may find protec- 
tion and enjoy new life under its 
ample folds ! 

Shall they be gathered there .'' 
Without the Colonization Society, 
how can this be done.'' Is tliere any 
cheaper, speedier, or more success- 
ful agency that can be employed ? 
None has ever yet been discovered. 
The value of colonization, then, 
may be estimated by what Liberia 
now is, and may become ! 



18 



«'V<«r4t UESrUIOOr THCAMOUCAS COLO.MXATIO.N euCICTT. 



,^.^.A Am^I M..ll>.>-Kr» 



Cl><i9-f<(«nt Annual IBrcliaf of i^r ^nKriran Colonijali^n JSotitlp. 



Wasiiinctox, Jan. l'>, 1819. 

TiiK American C?ol«»nization So- 
rieiy met in the Hull of the House 
o( Ut'pri-sfnlatives, al 7 o'clock, P. 
M-, according lo the Con!«(iiuiion. 

In the absence of tlie Prcitideni of 
th« Society, linn. II. Clay, the Ilun. 
E. WiiiTTLtsEV, the oKlcBi Vice Pre- 
sident pierenu took tlie Chair. 

The Her, R. K. (jirlcy opened 
t!ie meeting with prayer. 

The Secretary pre»enled a sum- 
mary statement of the contents of 
ilif .\nnunl Ut'port ; and tlien moved 
iliBi the Keport he referred to the 
Hoard of Directors for their consid- 
eration, j 

'I'he Hon. II. AV. Thompson, of' 
Indiana, oll'ered the followinij re»o- 
liiliii;i, which was adopted: 

" Ittxolvdl, That the history of 
the pa»t ye.ir, as developed in the 
report which liaKjunt hetn read, has 
biren|{(hcned our contidenco m the 
great principle* of jhe Colonization 
.S>riciy, and that in their purity and 
i-trni;;!!! ue i»re Mat i!>f;tr lory evidence 
of their ultimate triumph.'' 

The Hon. HoDtRi J. WALkKii, 
Secretary of the TreaMury, with 
nome ap|>rnprittte remarks, intro- 
duced the followii)<r renoliition: 

'• Hetolvril, Th.it iti fcninding a 
nrw repuhlican empire on ilie hhoies 
of Africa, introduciii|/ iht-re civdiza- 
liun and Chriatianity ; in haniftlung 
the Blavr trade from a larfe portion 
of it« uraterncoaNt. an<l nccclcrating 
Ma cx|MiUion from that whole con- 
tinent; in op'-ning comiiH-rrc ond 
ifttcrc'jurte w.ih the aavage tribca of i, 



the interior, 6oon to be followed by 
a rapid advancement in their condi- 
tion, in laying tlie foumlution of a 
!•y^lcln dekiitud to facilitate the ulti- 
mali* heparation of the two races of 
Ham and Jujihet in i\\\s confederacy 
by universal roiisent, for the great 
advantage of both, and the gradual 
and peaceful restoration of the for- 
mer to the land of their forefathers, 
n'^;iMU'r.tted bv the light of Chris- 
lianity, and trained in the principles 
of our free institutions : and especi- 
ally in fixing a l)a.sis upon which the 
friends of religion and luiinanity, of 
, freedom, of the constitution, and of 
I the I'nion, can every where, in every 
' State, north and ftouth.east and west, 
, unite tlieir cllorts for the advance- 
ment of the happiness of both races, 
and at the 8ame time accomplish the 
glorious purpose of preserving the 
harmony, and perpetuating the union 
of the States; the American Coloni- 
zation S«)ciety, embracing the whole 
c<»nrilry and all its parts, has estab- 
lished a claim upon tlte ellicient aid 
and zealous co-operalion of every 
lover of his country and of man- 
kind." 

The Hon. Josi:rii \\. Inohusoll, 
of Pennsylvania, seconded llie reso- 
lution, and addressed the meeting 
thereupon, after which it was adopt- 
ed. 

The lion. UonKRT M. McLank, of 
MHryland, ofl'ered the following prc- 
ainlile and resohilioii". whirh were 
idopted : 

*' Whereas tt r iiiHiiiuiiiMi ol do- 
mestic slavery in the I'niteil Slates 
evists as the creature of local muni- 
cipal law, so recognised and respect- 
ed in tho Federal ('onstituiion : 
Therefore — 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



19 



Thirty-secoud Annual Meeting — President and Vice Presidents. 



*^ Resolved, That in all action af- 
fecling this institution in its social 
or political aspect, the American citi- 
zen and statesman who reveres the 
Federal Union has imposed upon 
him the most solemn obligations to 
respect in spirit and letter the author- 
ity of such local and municipal sove- 
reignties, and to resist all aggressive 
influences which tend to disturb the 
peace and tranquility of the States, 
that may have created or sanctioned 
this insiitution. 

" Resolved, further, Tliat the ef- 
forts of the American Colonization 
Society to facilitate tlie ultimate 
emancipation and restoration of the 
black race to social and national in- 
dependence are highly honorable and 
judicious, and consistent with a 
strict respect for the rights and privi- 
leges of the citizens of the several 
States wherein the institution of 
slavery is sanctioned by municipal 
law." 

Hugh Maxwell, Esq., of New 
York, was called upon, and having 
made an address, offered the follow- 
ing resolution, which was adopted : 
" Resolved, That the influence 
which the scheme of African colo- 
nization exerts to suppress the slave ' 
trade, to spread the English language j 
and the principles of republican gov- 
ernment, and to open new markets j 
for American products, and extend j 
American commerce, should com- 
mend it to the favoraI)le considera- 
tion of the respective State Legisla- 
tures and of the General Govern- 
ment.'' 

After which, on motion, the Socie- 
ty adjourned to meet in the Coloni- 
zation Rooms at 12 o'clock to-mor- 
row. — 

Colonization Rooms, 
January 17, 1848, 12 M. 
The Society met according to ad- 



journment, Mr. Whittlesey in the 
Chair. 

A committee consisting of Messrs. 
Cresson and Reese was appointed 
to nominate officers for the ensuing 
year. They subsequently reported 
the following persons, who were 
duly elected : 

PRESIDENT, 

Hon. Henry Clay. 

VICE presidents, 

1. General John H. CocUe, of Virginia. 

2. Daniel Webster, ol' Massachusetts. 

3. Cliarles F. Mercer, ot Florida. 

4. Rev. Jeremiah Day, U.D., of Conn. 

5. Theodore Frelinghuy.^cn, of N. Y. 

6. Louis McLanc, of Baltimore. 

7. Moses Allen, of New York. 

8. General W Jones, of Washington. 

9. Joseph Gales, of Washington. 

10. Eight Rev. Wm.Meade,'D.D., Bishop 

of Virginia. 

11. John McDonogh, of Louisiana. 

12. Rev. James 0. Andrews, Bishop of the 

Methodist Episcopal Church. 

13. William Maxwell, of Virginia. 

14. Elisha Whittlesey, of Ohio. 

15. Walter Lowrie, of New York. 

16. Jacob Burnet, of Ohio. 

17. Dr. Stephen Duncan, of Mississippi. 

18. William C. Rives, of Virginia. 

19. Rev. J. Laurie, D. D., of Washington. 

20. Rev. W^m. Winans, of Mississippi. 

21. James Boorman, of New York. 

22. Henry A. Foster, of New York. 
2.". Dr. John Ker, of Mississippi. 

24. Robert Campbell, of Georgia. 

25. Peter D. Vroom, ot New Jersey. 
2(i. James Garland, of Virginia. 

27. Right Hon. Lord Bexlev, of London. 

28. William Siiorf, of Philadelphia. 

29. Willard Hall, of Delaware. 

30. Right Rev. Bishop Otey, of Tenn. 

31. Gerard Ralston, ol London. 

32. Rev. Courtland Van Rensselaer, N. J. 

33. Dr. Hodgkin, of London. 

34. Rev. E. Burgess, D. D., of Massachu- 

setts. 

35. Thos, R. Hazard, of R. L 

36. Dr. Thomas Massie, of \ irginia. 

.37. Maj. Gen. Winfield Scott, of Washing- 
ton. 
.38. Rev. A. Alexander, D. D., of N. J. 
.39. L. Q. C. Elmer, of New Jersey. 

40. James Railey, of Mississippi. 

41. Rev. Geo.W. Bethune,D. D.,ofPhila. 

42. Rev. C. C. Cuyler, D. D., of Phila. 

43. Elliott Cresson, of Philadelphia. 



» 



rSOCSUMXo* OF TU£ fiUJlEO Of DUUBCT0&8 OF TUX A. C. S. 



44 • 

44 : 

46 • 

47. 1. 

M 

49. Hrv. 

49. ^? 

6«. 1 

51. > 

63. Kcv. 

63. lion 

61. Hun. 

66. Kev. 

KH II I 



Macu«(, B(Mr4 of DtrwlOT^-MeMWn fttmmU 

. . I N«rw York. 57. Ja«r. •» Lenox, of New York. 

od», U. 1)., Maasa- i»<. Hc<l.o;i SouU-, I). I)., of Tenncts«e. 

. 5i). I'lol. S. C. U|iliaui. ol Maiuc. 

c <iO. Hun. I'liouias Corwin.or Olito. 

Uishop of the bl. Hun. Tliot. W. Williams, ul Codq. 

. 1.. Luun-li, lii.iiujorr. *>■-■ Ilun. Siiuoii Cfrccnleul, ol MahS. 

Dr. \V. U. Jolinton. S. C. "'S. K«v. John Karly, D. U., of VirgiDU. 

' "■" ,ire. til. I<<?v. J, ovick Fierce, olticoii;ia. 

,o. hi. lion. it. J. Walker, ul .Missi!>i>ii)pi. 

' ,, , ■"'■•.J.''''"- Aficr which ihe Society adjourned 

t. l.ihUiloy, U. i>., of lenn. ^ ■' 

J. U. ruirrvwKxl, of Keniticky. to me«'t on the third Tueijday (if Jan- 

C .Manli.ul WoinUiook, Vt. iw.-m .•»„'! i. i> m 

uary, lb«iU, at 7 o clock 1 . .»!. 



J.J. Jane>»dj , D. I).. o| N. J. 
f.umpkin, K9i|., AUjrn», Geo. 



Cilrad* frpm t^r profftbinj* of tbc iJuarb of Cirtftori of He .^mfficnn €olo- 

nt^aiioii jrocidQ. 

W.iBniNGToN, of the Society and of the Board were 

January 10, 1819. reud hy tl»c Secretary of the Society, 

Tite Board met al 12 M. accord- and were approved, 
log to appointment, at the Society's The annual report of the Executive 
office. Comtiiiitee for the year now ending. 

Present: was then read ; when, on motion of 

From the Massachusetts Coloniza- Dr. Ilccse, it was 
tion Society, Kev. Ji)sci)h Tracy, liesolvcd. That the Secretary be 
Delegate — from New York Coloni- requested to reud to the annual meet- 
sation Society, Anson G. Phelps, ing this evening, such abstract of the 
Esq., Life Diicrlor; Hugh .Maxwell, report just read, as can be presented 
E»q., Dch'ijaic ; 1). M. UcLse, .M. D., , in ten minutes. 

Delegate — from the Pennsylvania j Adjourned, to meet at this place 
Colonization Society, Paul 'I'. Jones, at G^ 1*. M. 
Esq., Delegate; Kllioll Cresson, i 
E»q., Life Director— District of Co-! evk.mno. 

1 u i> »v.„ M I » f r ' The Board met according to 
lumbia, Kev. \> m. Mrl.im, Liic » 

Director; lion. .Matthew St. (Ma.r »'lj'i»r»ment. Messrs. Whittlesey, 
Clarke. Dr. II. Lind«ly, of the Exec- »'^""'">'' "ff""' ""^ ^•""'""' "/ '^''] 
Uiive t*<)minitt<'C', 



The lion. Matthew St. Clair Clarke. 
WMi'hosen Chairman. At the request 
of the ('hairinan, the meeting wn* 
opened wall prnvir liv i!ic Hrv. Win 
McLain. 

The Kcv JoM'pii 'i'r.iry was rlio- 
•en Clerk. 

The minutet of the last meeting i 



Executive Committie, appeared and 
took their seat^. 

To give opportunity f<»r attending 
the annual meeting of the Society at 
the Capitol, the Boartl adjourned, to 
iin(i at this place to-morrow at 10 
\. .M. 

January 17. 

The Board met according to ad* 



PROCEEDi:\GS OF THE BOARD OI'" DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 



21 



Election of Secretary and Executive Committee. — Reiolutions. 



journment. The Cliaiiniaii being 
absent, tlie Hon. Elisha Whililesey 
was called to the chair. 

The minutes of the previous ses- 
sions were read and approved. 

The annual report having been 
referred by the Society to this Board, 
it was 

Resolved, That the report be re- 
ferred to a Committee. 

Messrs. Tracy, Pinney and C res- 
son, were appointed as this Com- 
mittee. 

On motion, 

Hesolved, That the Treasurer's 
account be referred to a committee. 
Messrs. Phelps and Jones were ap- 
pointed. 

On motion, 

Resolved, That the price of the 
African Repository be reduced to one 
dollar per annum. 

The hour of 12 M. having arrived 
the Board took a recess till after the 
meeting of the Society. 

After recess, the Hon. Matthew St. 
Clair Clarke took the chair. 

Messrs. Reese and Cresson were 
appointed a committee to nominate 
officers for the ensuing year. 

This committee nominated the fol- 
lowing officers, who were elected, viz: 

Rev. William McLain, Secretary 
and Treasurer — IMatihew St. Clair 
Clarke, H. Lindsly, Elisha Whitde- 
sey, Jos. H. Bradley, A. 0. Dayton, 
J. S. Bacon, and William Gunton, 
E.xecutive Committee. 

Adjourned, to meet this evening 
at 7 P. M. — 

EVENING. 

Met according to adjournment. 
2 



The committee to whom the an- 
nual report was referred, reported, 
recommending that the said report 
be referred to the Executive Com- 
mittee for publication, which was 
adopted. 

The committee on the Treasurer's 
account, reported tiiatthey had care- 
fully examined tiie same, and com- 
pared it with the vouchers, and found 
it correct and satisfactory. The re- 
port was adopted, and is as follows : 
[See page 23.] 

The Board then adjourned to meet 
at 10 A. M. to-morrow. 

Jamcary 18. 

The Board met according to ad- 
journment. The Hon. E. Whittle- 
sey was called to the chair. 

The minutes of yesterday were 
read and approved. 

On motion, it was 

Resolved, That in the opinion of 
this Board, the interests of the Col- 
onization cause, demand that we 
prnceed with confidence and energy 
in our work. 

Resolved, That we recommend 
to the Executive Committee to re- 
ceive all well qualified applicants 
for emigration to Liberia, and give 
them a passage on the usual terms, 
relying upon the liberality of the 
friends of the cause, and the bless- 
ings of a favoring Providence for 
support. 

Resolved, That it is desirable that 
the State Legislatures be prevailed 
upon to appropriate from their Trea- 
suries, funds to aid in colonizing 
such free persons of color as in their 
respective States may desire to emi- 
grate. 

Resolved, That the Board of Di- 



og rtocEcotxas or the boaru ok directobb of tbx a. c. b. 

A<J u«r««MiU-4tmlMM«l for IMS. 



ttcxort frrl ti to bo due lu ilie Secre- 
Ury >uJ ii> lilt' KxeruiiveComiiiiltcc, 
upon whom iht* ariiuuud and success- 
f . I .' ..rM t>f ihe I'nrvnt Society hare 
\ olrt'd during tl>e past year, 
i^. I A,>ii.c>aour high grumicatiuii wiili 
the eniTgy, ellicK'ncy, and eounoniy, 
\vi'.!i whicli llio businri'S oT Coh>ni- 
z i.inn has bern conducted under 
(!u r I ; '.t administration. 

U ..t(/. That III view of the 
very proiuisin-j aspect of ih«* Kepi.b- 
lic of LibtTCi. and especially the 
increasing cpirit of emigration iiinni> 
fcsu-tl in liie numerous apphcations 
for the tran-*poriatiun of persons 
(Mnancipaled for the purpose ; and, 
iiUii, from free peopU- of color who 
desire to remove thither, the Uoard , 



would earnestly tecommend that re- 
nt- ued and more vigorous elVoris be 
made by the several SSiate Societies 
to raihc funds and transmit them to 
the Treasurer of the Parent Society 
at Washington, in aid of the ex|)ense8 
necessarily called for during the pre- 
sent year. 

Adjourned to meet at this place, 
on the thiid Tuesday in January, 
lb.30, at 12 o'clock at noon. 

Concluding prayer was ollered by 

Rev. J. n. I'lN.NKV. 

ELISIIA WllITTI.KSEY, 

Chainnan. 
Joseph Tracy, Ckrk. 



jSt t a 1 1 in f n t for 18:9. 



Bt reference to the finaocial report on 
the next pa^^e it vsill be Been that the pres- 
ent iinleblediicsn of tile Society amounts to 
'- " I'i 3y. Of the debts due the Society 
ly A Very >inali part will be available 
: inng thi» year, toward the payment of 
•khat the Society owes. Therefore we 
lUat look to the pu blic collections for means 
to pay our present drbti. 

To send to Liberia and support them 6ix 
month*, the 657 ; > want to go at 

f-rescfit will req .. >. These two 

: .ake 9ll,.ii«b o». In .i>!di(:on tothin 
. tlic ex|>ensc!t of the home depait- 
I our operaliuni, and the expenses 
— - jrily devolving on the Society in Li- 
beria. There is bardly a week passes that 
we do not receive some new applications 
tot a passage to Liberia. Sup|>osiug the 
whole number who may yrt apply to be 
olily -100, wa want for Ihrui g'.'o.ooo. So 
whiclican be made 
'■> the increased de- 
iuaiiis u( tile bociely tbit year u $73,000. 



Many of the emigrants now wanting to 
go to Liberia must be sent out soon. Prob- 
ably before the 1st of May we shall have 
sent four expeditions. 

From this fact it uill be seen at once 
that there is no time to be lost by our friends 
uhu intend to aid us. We want funds im- 
mediately, and if they are not furnished us 
by our fiiends, we shall be compelled to 
borrow th.-iii. We call upon all to consider 
this fact very fully. 

In tiiis connection we refer to a resolu- 
tion |iassed by the Board of Directors. 
authoriMng the Kxecutivc Comuutlee to 
receive all a]iplications for a passage to 
Liberia, kc, and to rely upon the liberali- 
ty of a benevolent public and the blessing 
of Heaven for the means to par their ex- 
penses. This is our only leliancc. De- 
pending therefore on our friends and our 
auxiliary socielies to send us the means, we 
nball go forwanl and send olT as fa<>t as wc 
can those who want to go. Wo trust that 
the means will be furnished. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS OF THE A. C. S. 23 

Receipts and Expenditures of the American Colonization Society. 



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ADOR£MM OU.iVi:REO AT Tilt A.NM.VL MLi.Tl.\0. 
A44i«M of Uoa. R. W. TImmi|imm. 



!\^ii t $ $ 1 1 Dcliptrtt at ttc iXnnual JlUcliiig 



TiiK Uvs. K. W.TiioMrsoN »aiil: — 

Tlirre is one fact cuniiecleii Willi 
thp inlrtHiurliun ol the ruloretl peo- 
|>!f iiitoihio CKUiitry.whicli deserve* a 
iiioinein'a (-<>ii»u!t-tuuuii at ilicuutset. 

Wiio brought llie Alricniis lir«l 
iiitit Aiiierica .' Hy what pioctiis 
Wffe lliey introdureil an elaves .' 
Not liy •/*. N«»t by our coiiM-nt. 
Tlie riiizeiis ol Vhlmiuu prott-Mt-il 
rlouily agaii)»t the mother country 
lor lorring llieni ii|i<>n their new 
colony, contraiy to the wishes and 
the intt'iesltt ol the colonibls theni- 
^e|vel•. Kngland brought them here! 
Kn^land pocketed their price, and 
l«ir a series of years cariied on the 
iraflic as a ^ource of gain. 

Let this fact be borne in mind, in 
all our plans to inifirove t/iiir condi- 
tion and ottrs. — 'I'he Africans were 
I'urcid upon us at a time in iheir his- 
lory when they were at the lowest 
poinl of humanity. They were 
heathens and barbarians. Their 
civil, social and religious condition 
was forlorn, almost beyond possi- 
bility of a<;gravalion. 

Their situation among us, though 
bad in ilaelf, has had a redeeming in- 
lluenre upon them. They have 
been instructed in the arts of civil- 
ized life; many of them have been 
taught the rudiincnis of a common 
education, and upon hundreds of 
ihem Christi.iiiity has exerted ii.-< 
healing, saving ptiwer. 

But Blill ibcy have been in an un- 
natural condiiion among us, not cal- 
culated l<» seriire iilher their or our 
highe*l welfare This was early fell 
in Virginia, and the idea of Coloni- 
zation was entertained — and Mr. 
JefTi'is'in incor])orat( (I it in the first 
draft which he made of a Constilulinn 
for the StaU-, shortly after the Docla- 
raUon of Independence. 

Bui no scheme of Colonizilion 
WM perfected uniil ihe forraaiion of 



this Society, in which was engaged 
the best intellect of the nation, h 
is a^lonishing willi what wisdom, 
prudence and fore^ight ihey acted. 
The Mibject was environed with 
diiricultii-s. There was no record on 
any paue «»f the world's history from 
which they could read lessons of in- 
siruction to guide them. In all the 
pa^l there was no model which they 
could copy. Anil yel they were 
guided, lleuven guided doubtless, ia 
the formation of a scheme which 
with scarcely a single alteration has 
been carried out with the most tri- 
umphant success. The policy of 
this Society is at once simple and 
safe. It exercises all needed safe- 
guards to the rijihts and interests of 
all concerned, it does noi interfere 
with the relation of master and slave. 
It does not ollVr any oppression or 
injustice to the free. It proposes to 
colonize with their own consent 
those who are free, and it 3|)peals to 
the humane and philanthropic, it 
summons the highest motives of pa- 
triotism, and in the name of all that 
is noble and great, it calls for aid to 
carry out its designs of mercy ! 

Willi whai success, the present 
prosperous condition t>f the indepen- 
dent Hrpul)lic of Liberia can tell. 

1 1 has made the Bible the basis of 
all its operations. It has sent out 
the farmer end the mechanic, the 
nurcliant and the leacher, ihe ("hris- 
tian minislei and the miscionary, to 
a lami shrouded in more than Kjivp- 
lian darkness, Wnh the Declaration 
of Independence in «)ne h<ind, and 
' divine benevolence in the other, it 
hat gone ftirth lo concjuer, and the 
inlluenre of these great truths has 
already been infused into ihat im- 
mense continent 1 There now stan«l« 
ihat infant Hepublic, vigorous and 
healthful, like a young giani, shaking 
the dew from his mane! 



ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



25 



Address of Hod. R. W. Thompson. 



Had it proposed to the master to 
break asunder and at once the bonds 
of his slave, and cast him lielpless 
abroad upon the world, it \V(Hild 
have failed in The accomplishment of 
any good. It is not even pretended 
that those who have urged this poli- 
cy, have benefitted the slave or his 
master, or the country. But adopt- 
ing the policy which it did, we stood 
ready, wiien an etdarged philanthro- 
py should give freedom to a slave, to 
take him up, and place him in cir- 
cumstances where that freedom 
would be a leal blessing to liim. 
Who is there that has seen the con- 
dition of the nominally free in the 
free States, but has felt that some- 
thing more was necessary to his 
welfare than could possibly be gath- 
ered around him there ? Every feel- 
ing of humanity is aroused in their 
behalf. But ingenuity and benevo- 
lence are both outwitted by the stern 
reality of the cise. We may sym- 
pathise with them, we may extend 
a helping hand — but after all has 
been done that can be done in their 
behalf, tliey wither before the over- 
powering shadow of the Saxon, and 
the truth compels the acknowledg- 
inent that the white and the colored 
race cannot subsist together on terms 
of perfect equality. Hence the mo- 
tives necessary to produce the full 
development of their powers cannot 
be brought to bear upon them here. 
If you propose to make them feel 
and think and act like men, you 
snust open to them an unobstructed 
field. You must furnish them with 
the means of removal to a place 
where their natures will not be bound 
—where their aspirations will not be 
crushed — where they shall hold in 
their own grasp all that make men 
and freemen in the most favored 
country. Such a place is Liberia! 
There they have already displayed 
a mental energy which has astonished 
the world. And there too, when 



civilization and Christian institutions 
shall have spread their influence far 
and wide, blessing and saving the 
millions now accessible to their in- 
fluence, the question may be asked, 
as the past history of the race is re- 
viewed, has no good influence sprung 
from tiie existence of slavery t It 
will then doubtless be seen that a 
wise Providence suff"ered their race 
to pass througii a long season of de- 
pression, in order that ultimately 
they might be elevated. They were 
under a curse for sin. The trial was 
a very sore one. But the seeds were 
sown in their hearts as American 
bondsmen, which, when transplant- 
ed, sprang up in great glory and 
fruitfulness. Surely we may set this 
down as a signal instance of that 
wonderful Divine wisdom which 
" causes the wrath of man to praise 
Him, and restrains the remainder of 
His wrath." 

This fact cannot too frequently be 
impressed upon the American mind : 
tlow shall we get clear of the influ- 
ences which almost daily agitate //lis 
Hall, and cause excitement and agi- 
tation which almost threaten the 
dissolution of this glorious Union .^ 

Could there arise some one man, 
who by the greatness of his wisdom, 
the acuteness of his reasonings, and 
the variety and power of his council 
and his influence, could exorcise the 
spirit of fury and madness from all 
sections of the land, and breathe into 
this Hall that quietness and peace, 
that sublime union and fidelity which 
dignifies legislators and honors free- 
men, we should be almost tempted 
to pronounce him a second Wash- 
ington ! We should think of him at 
the same time that we think of the 
Father of his Country, who stood up 
in such sublime grandeur in a " time 
that tried men's souls," and consoli- 
dated the original union of these 
Stales, and gave the world its grand- 
est illustration of freedom ! 



•J« 



ADDnE.»«C» D»XI\ tJifcU AT TliE A\M .. .i^i-iiSQ. 



R«mI«Um wa BMWIn of Hm. K. J. W^lkr 



'1 — I i«(>cnk, I am sure, 

r i>f tvcrv In an here — 

\ - I . .. :i must noi bi- difholved. 
"1 . r u.'i lo»> many ile^'linieu ile- 
p(t:>tiii^ un ii« pcrpeiuaiiun ! ll 
■ !:ull nut be iltMolved ! 

Is there tlica no ruminon ground 
oit which ue can meet, and where 
we cau haruioni<iu»ly stand ? There 
is I Thi« Sui-iciy is Umt bb i<»ed 
spot. In its orgaiii/.ation, in lU punt 
I • ;y, in iliJ present advoeacy, I 
' .'11 oiled n lun;; li.it uf wurihiiit 
lri:.i ila* North and tJ»e S:?»)ulh. llu- 
I!,-' r;nd ihf W»':<t ! All Berlionf, 
-fnt«-d here. And 
1 .id with Buccesjt, 

t . and niini;le, all religious 

I 'lunH, all patriots and phi- 

lanlhropistj), all judges and legiiila- 
tor!>, and pour in this vide channel 
ihc swelling stream of their patriot- 
ism and bentvolence ! Is not this 
common ground ? On it let us 
gather ! ond ti.e world bltall acknow- 
ledge the deed ! 

In conclusion, I cannot reproHs 
one thought. What a glorious Ke- 
publii* this American Union is! Can 
we c'tinpare it to any thing better 
than its Father, "fir.oi in war. first in 
j)cacc, ami first in the destinies of the 
world I'' NVli:it a ({lorious chart of 
frcetlum our fathers left us. They 
■ealed it with their blood! We 
hare sworn to maintain ila purity, 
and hand it down to posterity uiuin- 
paircd ! This can be done. Let us 
maintain the integrity, not uf the 
States, but of the I'nion of the 
Slatei I and to the latest generation 
our posterity shall be blessed in i' 
dee«1. 

'i U*Ai,Ki;«. 

l: .-'.-rplv 

ed in •' 

g(»CH III ^ 

on ' 1 h'lvc cart'lidlY 

Ul' , . i '1 W ! I'll T,il)i ri.i 

. Witli 



which has been accomplished. Hut 
hi^'hly as i prize this Society, deeply 
inieri-i«ted as 1 uin in tiie prosperity 
of Lil>eria, it is not in my power this 
evening to exti-nd my remarks 
farther. I have prepareil, and pro- 
pose to offer, the following resolu- 
tion. [Mr. Walker evidently spoke 
with much ditliculty, owing to his 
feeble state of liealih ; but he was 
listincd to with the most profound 
attention.] 

*» Rtsolvnl, That in founding a 
new republican empire on the shotes 
of Africa, introducing there civiliza- 
tion and Chrititianiiy ; in banishing 
the slave trade from a large portion 
of its western coast, and accelerating 
its expulsion from that whole con- 
tinent; in opening commerce and 
intercourse with the savage tribes of 
the interior, soon to be followed by 
u rapid advancement in their condi- 
tion; in laying the foundation of a 
sysU'in destined to facilitate the ulti- 
mate separation of tiie two races of 
1 1 am and Japhel in this confederacy 
by universal consent, for the greal 
advantage of both, and the gradual 
and pe.ueful restoration of Uie for- 
mer to the land of their forefathers, 
regenerated by the light of Chris- 
tianity, and (mined in the principles 
of our free institutions : and especi- 
ally in fixing a basis upon which the 
friends of religion and humanity, of 
freedom, of the constitution, and of 
the I'nion, can evciy where, in every 
Stale, n(»rth and south, ea.st and west, 
unite their elfiiris for the advance^ 
unlit of llie liaj)pine8S c»f both nices, 
.t till" same time acci^iiijilish the 
■ u-* p'!r;»Mt(« of preserving the 
uialing the union 
\iiierican Coloni- 
. itioi) .Society, embracing the whole 
riMiiiiry and all its parts, has estab- 
hshed a rlaiin upon the efiicient aid 
mid zealous co-operation of every 
lover of his country and of man* 
Kind." 



ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



27 



Address delivered by Hon. J. R. IngersoU. 



The Hon. J. R. Ingersoll sec- 
onded this resolution, and said: — 

Mr. President : 1 consider the re- 
soliilion which the linn. Secretary 
has odered, an admirable epitome of 
the past history, present condition, 
and urgent claims of the Coloniza- 
tion Scheme. 

It is strange that such a subject as 
this should excite any emotions but 
the most generous and noble. And 
yet it is a fact, that there is scarcely 
a point in that resolutioh which has 
not awakened jealousy, excited sus- 
picion, or given rise to some sinister 
designs. 

But I am happy to believe that in 
this assembly we are all agreed as to 
the purity of the great principles of 
the colonization scheme, and their 
adaptation to benefit the two races 
now on this continent. And I am 
persuaded, that throughout the coun- 
try a better public sentiment is be- 
ginning to prevail ; that all harsh 
and angr) feelings are becoming tran- 
quilized ; that animosity is greatly 
mitigated, if not distroyed. Indeed 
I do not understand how any one 
can look at the facts as they now 
stand forth to the world, and not be 
convinced of the great wisdom, and 
high claims of this enterprise. 

This is a happy day for Liberia — • 
once your Colony^ but now an inde- 
pendent Republic ! Who has not 
watched its rise and progress with 
deepest interest? With what anxi- 
ous hearts the early pioneers have 
struggled on through toil and hard- 
ship, until now they stand up in a 
noble nationality and recognized in- 
dependence! They have been ad- 
mitted to an honorable standing 
among the nations of the earth ! 

I regret that other governments 
have gone ahead of our own, in that 
which was our peculiar work, and 
ought to have been our distinguished 
privilege ! Humanity and justice de- 
manded that we should extend to 



that infant Republic the hand of en- 
couragement, and award to them that 
acknowledgment of their indepen- 
dence which they undoubtedly de- 
serve! They were once dwellers 
among us. They went forth from 
this land. Here they learned the 
first principles of government. They 
have adopted in the formation of 
their constitution the model of our 
own. They are the only republican 
government on that great continent. 
We ought to be proud of them, and 
acknowledge them as an additional 
evidence of the goodness of our own 
institutions! There is something 
very pleasantly significant in the flag 
of that Republic. The stripes are 
copies of those on our flag, thus in- 
dicating the country whence they 
sprung, and the single star tells us 
that amid our stars there was no 
home for them, that there is but one 
LiDEUiA, but one single spot on the 
face of the whole earth where they 
can be men, and stand up in all the 
dignity of a renovated nature ! 

Under these circumstances 1 regret 
that our own country was not the 
first to recognize the Independence 
of the Republic of Liberia. 

It is pleasant, however, to see that 
the moment President Roberts set 
his foot on the shores of Europe — 
those shores on which "if a slave 
sets foot his chains fall off" — he is 
recognized as the chief executive of- 
ficer of an independent nation should 
be. 

As you have heard from the Sec- 
retary, England and France have both 
acknowledged the independence of 
Liberia. And, if I mistake not, atliird 
government either has, or is about to 
do the same ! 

And when President Roberts had 
completed the business which took 
him to F.urope, he was furnished by 
the Government of England with a 
passage for himself and family to 
Liberia in a government vessel, A 



88 



ADDRCSiiEli OELIVEHED AT THE ANNUAL MKeTUIO. 



AJdno .MKtrrd l>) Hu«. J. U. lac«r«uU. 



f 1 'fil iiir lhi8 evfiiini; a Lon- 

I. .. wliu-li 1 i)(i\v liolil 111 my 

lui.^M luulaiiiiit^ a |>riiii of tlie t)c> 
panurc fruiu Liverpool of liis F.xctl- 
Ifiiry. 'I'lif liiif bIiioji "Amazon" 
IS liiuwn out, with the Prtituliiii on 
boan), ollit-r vi-nnelii are Jiriiifj a AaliiU; 
to lliat cliarining liiile Itriitnli (} i< t n. 
as in her yaicli she glides : 

hail the ile|mrliire of ilie Vu 

and wish iutu C!ud epcvd on hi« voy- 
age! 

I trust, Mr. President, we shall 
not be long behind (hcce nioht po-.vei- 
ful govcrnmenls of the old u'orld in 
imiutiiig the ghtrious ixample w hii-h 
ihey have set us; that we ^lldll »lu»rl- 
ly acknowle»!j:e in every way ihut 
Mtc can, a roui.lry that owes its cx- 
isteiire to the divine benevolence of 
citizens of our own. 

Our (•'overnment is not generally 
found behind in any ^uod work. It 
is well known that we were the fir.st 
to lake a derided stand against the 
slave trade, to declare it a misdemea- 
nor of the highest grade, and to pun- 
ish it accordingly. We have ever re- 
sisted it as a gruj*!" outrage on human- 
ity, nut for a monienl to he loli rated I 
Consistency therefoie re(|uires that 
we slioultl extend our bympalhy and 
our comity to that people who have 
(lone more, a hundred ftdd, to put 
down the blave trade than we ever 
)ia\e done, or with our present poli- 
cy can d»). They have done n noble 
M-ork ! And they are yet extending 
their influence farther and aboliithing 
that horrid tralfic to the utmost limit 
of their power. Wc can aid them 
and we must do it. 

It may not be unprofitable in this 
connertinn to allude to an institution 
in France, the existence of which 
throws some addiiinnal lit^ht on ihe 
wi^dom of the scheiin- of coloniza- 
tion which wc have liei-n pursuing. 
Tlier«- was furmrd in Pans in IS jS 
the "African InslituMoii," for the 
purpose of colonizing Africa, for the 



redemption of the niiiive tribes, and 
the extinction ol the olnve trade, ll 
originated in the belief that iho only 
way tu uecomplibh theae desirable 
n ^ults WHS to transplant the institu- 
tions of civilization, education, agri- 
culture, commerce, manulactuies, 
the aris, social and political economy, 
iterature and the line art*:, all these 
were to be carried to Africa by Afri- 
cans themselves, and planted and 
nurtured by them, until they should 
lncrea^e and sjiiead from one extremi- 
ty of the land to the other, and having 
circled the whole country, hhould 
pi-neitate the interior, until every 
valley and mountain, every hill and 
plain, should become vocal with the 
songs of civilized men ! 

'I'his was a private enterprise in 
the beginning, but the then (Jovern- 
nieiit made some appropriations to 
aid it, and the present Governmenl 
may do the same, and it may yet 
accomplish great good. 

It may be worth while tt turn 
our attention to the slave trade — to 
its early hi^t^)ry — to that Dutch 
vessel which brought the first hun- 
dred Africans into Virginia and sold 
them for sl<»\e8. 'I'bere grew up a 
singular state of things in Fngland 
after this. I'he iiiitish Cioverniiient 
ol>laiiied a sort of inonoply of the 
slave trade, antl carried it on as a 
great money making schemo ! the 
British Ciovernment was put in {ins- 
session of the power to extend the 
sla\e trade, and to farm it out, as it 
were. Their immense wealth and 
power were enlisted in the tralUc. 
'I'hey brought them, as we heard this 
night, to this country. It was in 
vain that laws were passed prohibit- 
ing their indodurtion. The South 
protested. 'J'he I'llgrim came and 
poured Ilia ofl** ring at the siirinc of 
liberty. The (Quaker came and stood 
heside the Smithern IManters and the 
I'llgrim, and tliey all united in de- 
precating a IralFic m odious! 



ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



29 



Address delivered by Hon. J. R. Ingeisoll. 



Wliy (lid not the British Govern- 
menl lu;ai- ihein, and obey tlie dictates 
of huuianily and ubaiidon tlie tiallic ? 
Jt was not merely that they loved 
the gain of it! they had a motive 
above and beyond that. They want- 
ed to break down the liberty of this 
country — they wanted to destroy the 
independence of the slates ! and they 
believed that the most eireclual way 
was to fasten slavery upon us. But 
they have not succeeded in Ihia cjfort, 
any better than they did in that other 
attempt to crush our rising greatness, 
when it became so vigorous as to 
be no longer held under their yoke! 
They however have entailed a curse 
upon us. They have done a deep 
and lasting injury to the Africans 
and to our own country. 

It is to alleviate, to remove these 
evils, that this Society was formed. 
It is in this noble work that it has so 
perseveringly labored, and been so 
astonishingly successful. 

The great eflbrt of the Coloniza- 
tion Society is, with gradual and 
useful efforts, to bring about a sepa- 
lation of the two races, a result alike 
beneficial to them both: to restore to 
Africa her children, taken from her 
by avarice and cupidity, restored to 
her by benevolence and liberality; 
and by means of them to spread her 
benign inlluence of Chiistianity, and 
the useful institutions of civilization 
among her native tribes. The pa- 
trons of Colonization and the citizens 
of Lilieria desire that the most friend- 
ly relations should subsist between 
the two countries ; that commerce 
should bring to both enriching trea- 
sures ! They want to send to ns 
their camwood, their palm oil, their 
ivory, their gums, and their coffee — 
and they want from us in return our 
tobacco, and our powder, and the 
thousand articles which teem from 
our manufactories. 

We say not too much when wo 
speak of Colonization as the great 



safety valve of this Union! It fur- 
nislies to liie colored race an o[)por- 
lunity to escape from a country 
where their condition is the most 
unhappy. It affords to us an oppor- 
tunity to repair in some small degree 
the breaches which we have made 
upon their race for centuries past; 
and to offer some slight atonement for 
the wrongs which we have done them. 
The only reasonable objection 
which can be made to the Society is 
the smallness of its means. This 
only shows that the Government 
ought to take it up; that government 
vessels ought to be employed in 
transporting all who are anxious to 
go! Tliat the state governments 
ought to make annual appropriations 
for this purpose. 

If we consult tlie statistics of the 
northern parts of the country in 
Philadelphia or New York, or any 
place where they are treated as well 
as they are any where, show that, 
while in the south they increase 
I vvith great rapidity, at the north they 
j are not more numerous than they 
were 20 years ago. 
j What is the influence from this 
1 state of things? Why that even in 
the free states they are under dis- 
abilities which they cannot surmount 
] — that the only mode of permanently 
benefitting them, and redeeming our 
country, is to remove them from 
their present disadvantageous posi- 
tion, and place them on the bold, 
broad phitform of freedom, where un- 
fettered and free as the air they 
breathe, they may exercise and en- 
joy all the rights and privileges of 
freeman, unawed and unimpressed 
by the presence of a dissimilar race. 
Tliese are some of the considera- 
tions which give to the Colonization 
scheme its grandeur and importance, 
and should gather around it the 
warmest sympathy and most liberal 
aid of the wise and the good in all 
parts of our land. 



30 



Ai^uni^Bi^ 0£UVeR£0 AT THE a.^.MaL JU££TIlfa. 



A44(Mi 4«li<cr»4 by Uoa. H. M. MeL«M. 



ilun. Iv. M. MtLank Kaid : i 

Ii t» ilidii'uh lor uny ifciiileiiiaii re- 
fuli!!'.' at tlif «cal (»r ihe Itilcral CJor- 
iiiiiikdu and luukitii; ai ilie trreal 
ijutBiion winch unilalt-i* llie ^lorlh 
and the Suuih, not lo Iccl j^reat con- 
ci rii and iiuTt'a*ms» anxifiy an lo liie 
riMili. Kvfry other qut-Hiion tti'ems 
unavoidably Kuhmdiary to this. 

A« one of the fricndi* of iht? A. C. 
S., I desire to have it ditlinnly un- 
dcr»l«tod at the oulBel, that I deuirc 
loiatfrfere with iio vested ri^hlM; and 
you that I look to and denire the ele- 
vation of ilie wli >'e rolored race and 
i ion til nil the privilcj^'iH of 

<■ ■ ■ »cial ii.Je;ipndince on the 

tfl.urt > i.j Africa. 1 could not stand 
liert' and advivalc the interest and 
claims of this Society jf I had in view 
any ohjecl subordinate to this. i 

Thai we may speak right and be 
understood ri^hl, that we may labor 
right and staud right in the public ' 
cfltimntion, it is imp«irtant that wc 
should start riiiht. 1 have written 
the resolution which I have tlie honor 
lo olTer for this very j)ur|)ose. We 
ri iraril slavery as a civil institution, 
rtt'i-'ated by the laws of the Slates in 
w !.. Ill M-if. li is no part of our 
luMiit »« I I iiiiiifere with these laws, 
or Willi the right/i and interests of anv 
body. The Society has never inler- 
fereil with slavery in any way. It 
liaji rigully adhered to the line of 
nperationa laid down in iti* Constitu- 
tion. It Rtands aloof Irom all agita- 
tion — it leaves the lawa and iiisijlu- 
tions as it liiids them. 

In view of all ihe agitation which 
< xistJi in llic IJ. 8. on the subject of 
slavery, Uie Society has gone and still 
■lily onward in iu gentle, 
ual work ; l:t'>oriiig, h(»w- 
eVLT, uiuler gf rrassments, 

having been »-, 'ih by the 

North and South, ciiatnnl as it were 
at every alep, by the inllmnces of 
fanaticiitin on the one ban !, mid by 
Uir ultra alavery notions, that the , 
Dcgro cannot, under any circuinsUn- | 



res whatever, be eleraied on the 

»)tlier. 

Here then, we eland bound by the 
very Constitution of the Society, not 
to interfere with the relation of mas- 
ter and slave, in any way whatever. 
Leaving all civil (juesiions to the 
persons and |)owers to which of right 
they belong. 

With ihiK resen-ation. this defini- 
tion of our policy and purposes, 1 am 
ready to go with the best and the 
foremost in all wise and prudent ef- 
forts looking to the welfare of the 
.African nee ! And there has never 
been any srheine proposed which 
promises as much as this Society 
does. 1 go foi it with all my heart 
and all my innucncc. 

If we look at the missionary char- 
acter J)f the Society, we are persuaded 
it is doing a work for Africa which 
cannot be done in any other way. 
If we look at its social inlUience, we 
."ee it doing for the colored pco|)le in 
this country and in Africa, what can 
never be done otherwise, if we look 
at it as a civil institution, or rather as 
aiding the colored people from a po- 
litical slate, we belioh! through its 
agency a new Republic, prosperous 
and happy ! There is a irrand ex- 
hibition of what this Society has 
done, and can vel do ! I would that 
the U. S. (loveinment had been the 
first to step forward and acknowledge 
Liberia as an independent political 
empire in the world ! 

When the American citizen looks 
al)roa<l over Kurope ond Asia, he 
funis people standing as high as 
the highest in the list of lhi.'« world's 
worthies, who can know the African 
as a ntan. as a man made in the im- 
ari- of his Maker; finds (Jovern- 
im Ills that rnn acknowledge the Re- 
piiMic of Liberia .\n a fellow among 
the nations rntitled to the favor of 
the list ; ami shall we, because we 
have inherited a social evil connected 
with this rare, shall wo, a people who 
hare spread oui, from settlements 



ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



31 



Address delivered by Hod. R. M. McLane. 



on the Atlantic, to the shores of the 
Pacific, sliall we be intimidated by 
this social evil at home, and there- 
fore shut out the light which shines 
from that lone star on the African 
Coast. 

Whatever the political excitements 
of the day may be, and however ; 
fiercely the contest may be waged, 
looking upon the dark and gloomy 
picture, every one who sympathises 
with the A. C. S. may know and feel 
that he can respect the rights of every 
American citizen, and yet each man 
in his own home can labor for the 
improvement of the colored race, for 
their restoration to freedom, their 
social elevation and civil indepen- 
dence ! 

What northern man can see the 
degraded condition of the free people 
there, and not feel that their degrada- 
tion is partly his own responsibility? 
And seeing this, who will shrink 
from doing all in liis power for bet- 
tering their condition .'' 

Whatever others may do, I am de- 
termined to labor on for this cause. 
Those who have gone before me, 
have set me a noble example. Mary- 
land stands pledged to this work. — 
Maryland in Liberia is a flourishing 
colony, planted by an appropriation 
by the Legislature of Maryland, with 
Maryland people, and to the honor 
and glory of the State ! I am proud 
to stand here and tell of what my 
State has done, to mention her an- 
nual appropriation of !}ji 10.000 to the 
Colonization Society of Maryland — 
and 1 wish every State in the Union 
would do the same ! Where is the 
difliculty ? The States have no doubt- 
ful powers. At home they are sove- 
reign, they can do what they please 
— if the free people are a tax, they 
can help them to a place where they 
will be MEN. If these 30 States were 
to vie with each other in this noble 
work, they would give a practical 
illustration of this question — a prac- 



tical demonstration of the success 
which may be enjoyed! 

If we pass now to consider the 
condition of the African race even in 
the free States and to enquire what 
can be done for them, we shall make 
the discovery that they are going 
downlower and lower; even in New 
York, where so many spires point to 
Heaven, and such beautiful evidences 
of civilization smile upon us, who 
can deny that the race has gone down 
year after year, politically, socially 
and in numbers. On them rests a 
moral misfortune ; there is no power 
at work to remove it. There is not 
a citizen of that Slate that can look at 
home and not feel and see that the very 
nature of things is driving the Afri- 
can race down into material misery 
— hope is gone, and fate rests upon 
them. And yet in this race, when 
they are cared for, and placed in 
different circumstances, hope springs 
up and life assumes new worth. We 
tlien can help them. The free race 
are in our power. 

May I not ask this assembly, may 
I not ask all here, and every where, 
who are in the habit of giving, if the 
charity that is the most pressing, is 
not that which is presented by this 
state of things .'' 

I wonder when I see the American 
people nursing and caring for the 
Indians in our midst, and the Ameri- 
can Legislature making immense ap- 
propriations of money to transport 
them beyond our borders, carrying 
them away to the beautiful prairies 
of the west, removing them from 
contact with our own people, fur- 
nishing them with provisions, schools, 
printing presses, books, bibles, teach- 
ers, the plow and the anvil ; when I 
see our government for these pur- 
poses appropriating hundreds of 
thousands annually to elevate this 
race, I wonder why they should do 
less for the African race. We have 
federal power in the one case, why 



30 



AOORKSSes Uta.ivc^i.U AT TU£ ANNUAL MUTINO. 



AMrw* 4cHi«r«4 ky H««ti Muw«U, Btq. 



r. •. •> ihf oilifrr Drtcs not philan- 
; • v in llio one ca*e call as loudly 
as 111 (he otiu-r f Wity tl\fn shoulJ 
>»«■ noi carry ihcin ami ilu'irs lo ihe 
Iniid of iheir forefjiliers ? This is a 
wotk of the nation in which nil may 
unite. 

One word more ami I have done. 
lJef»>re our revolution there were 
lucn who wurkid out that problem. 
Thry caw that this continent wcnild 
:»ll be needed for the Caucasian race. 
'I'hey prayed t!»at the »lave trade 
mi^'hi be mopped then. 

May we not feel in looking back 
and day. would that it h;id then been 
stopped? Shall we not now do all 
ihrtt we can to repair the wrong? 
Shull we not labor on to relieve our- 
selves and our children from the 
evils which have followed ! 

A hu^jestion has been made, 
which it becofnes us all lo heed, 
which sljould be remembered by all 
those who manufacture public senti- 
ment; — wouKl the condition of the 
colored race be less wretched if the 
AniTican Union did not exist.' 
\V> ilil they be beni'lliled by the 
di--.!ulion of this I'nion? They 
now feel a •cn'«e of security where- 
evcr the star spanjjled banner floats I 
I)oe< anv ln> ly believe that were we 
scattered asunder they could be better 
situated .' 

'J'hesc reflections no man oujjht 
to lose sight of! Every man, of 
whatever color, owes to this Union 
a responsibility great beyond what 
ever he has conct.'ived of! By up- 
holding and aiding this Siciety in 
its great and benevolent work, he 
may exert an influence for the per- 
j>ctuitv of the Union not possible in 
any other way. 

I*et then the rich here pour in 
tlieir abundance, and thr poor give of 
iheir poverty! Wt? perceive bv the 
U'-port that R great work nei-ds to be 
Ion" this year. It cannot be done 
without meant. The resources of 
the Society ought to bo greatly en- 



l.trced. The whole country ought 
It rise and pour into the treasury 
until the hand of kiiidnetis and aid 
cc)uld be given to every person who 
wantji to ^o to Liberia! 

High Maxwell, E«o , of New 
York, commenced his address by 
some allusion to icmurks which had 
been made by the other genilemen, 
and then said, 

I Kuppose, Mr. President, we are 
met here to encourage pucli other in 
this great work of colonization. For 
one, I feel great confidence in this 
Society, and in the Republic of Li- 
beria. I regret that the United States 
Government has not acknowledged 
the independence of that infant na- 
tion. It is worthy of such recogni- 
tion: and it is a political duty, and a 
religious duty on the part of the 
United States to grant it. 

The South are grestly interested 
in Colonization. The lar^e free pop- 
ulation there, are in circumstances 
demanding attention. .Mr. JelTerson, 
and all the wise statesmen of Virginia, 
repudiated the idea that the cglored 
race cou!d And n permanent <]uiet 
hom-i on tliis continent, and they all 
sought a means of rrlief in the estab- 
lishment of arefuije elsewhere for the 
free and those who might be set free. 

The Society ha< had to encounter 
many olista^les. Do you remember 
the death of Milts and ^lihinnn, and 
the pioneer colonists ? How have 
the ditliculiies been overcome .' By 
a firm trust in God. Under his 
gracious Providence colonization has 
gone on, till now we behold the re- 
snll, a nation on the western coast of 
.\rrica, ndmilled to an honorable 
staniling among the nations of the 
earth. Industry marks their various 
Mettleinents. Wisdom guides the 
councils of their leirislators. Social 
civilities govern their intercourse 
with each other. They feel none of 
that sickly sentimental delicacy which 
is felt here. 
.1 



APPROrniATIONS BY CONGRESS AND THE STATE GOVERNMENTS. 
Remarks by Mr. Maxwell — Position of the Am. Col. Soc. 



33 



These are some of the benefits of 
the scheme. Others are found in the 
extinction of the slave trade, and the 
civilization of the natives. 

I am glad to see England take the 
stand that she has now taken. I can- 
not however forget some circumstan- 
ces connected with the past. It is wor- 
thy of note, just at this time, that llie 
British Government now so anxious 
to make a display of their philanthro- 
py and willingness to acknowledge 
Liberia, during all the discussions of 
Peel and Palinerslon touching the 
slave trade, and the measures most 
effectual for its suppression, no allu- 
sion was ever made to Liberia and 
her influence! Until Roberts went 
to England, and was acknowledged 
as the head of the Republic, it had 
never been mentioned that Liberia 
existed with such power, for the 
suppression of the slave trade. 

May we not hope that now they 
will pay Mr. Benson of Bassa for the 
vessel and goods which a British of- 
ficer took from him without the least 
shadow of excuse? 

I do not intend to go into the sub- 
ject — but let me just inquire what are 



the apparent motives of England in 
the policy which she has now adopt- 
ed ? The English Government knows 
very well that Liberia will grow up 
and*become one of the most power- 
ful and prosperous governments on 
the African continent; that there is 
every probability that Sierra Leone 
will ultimately fall in and become a 
part of that great free Kepublic of Li- 
beria, and that this Kepublic, the only 
one on the face of the earth where the 
colored people have a fair chance, 
will still spread and extend its pos- 
sessions for thousands of miles along 
the coast and back into the interior 
and become possessors of that vast 
country, and control the trade and the 
capital and the commerce thereof! 
And she wants to come in for her full 
share of that commerce. She now 
has nearly the whole of it. The 
vessels of other countries amount to 
comparatively nothing. She intends 
it shall so continue. 

Mr. Maxwell closed his speech 
with an earnest appeal to all to come 
and help forward the cause by every 
means in their power. 



-31 p p r p r i a t i n 3 I; p (C o n o r c s s o n Ii t Ij c 5- 1 a t c C3 o u c r ii tn f n t a . 



The American Colonization So- 
ciety was organized for the purpose 
of making an experiment of what 
could be done for the elevation of the 
colored race. It has succeeded to 
an extent beyond any original ex- 
pectation. With small means, with 
inexperience, against numerous ob- 
stacles, and surrounded by difficulties, 
it has colonized in Africa, with their 
own consent, a population who have 
formed and are capable of maintain- 
ing a prosperous and independent 
government. 



The work is now comparatively 
easy. All the preliminaries are set- 
tled. All the plans are laid. All 
the means are understood. The 
business is reduced to a perfect sys- 
tem. The settlements in Liberia are 
capable of receiving new emigrants 
to any extent, and rendering them 
comfortable. There are many more 
persons anxious to emigrate than the 
Society has means to accommodate. 

The Society has therefore, by 
this fact, shown what could be done 
if the adequate means were at com- 



34 



▲rrftormuTioxt it conobbm a5d the state ooveritments. 



Ttw*««iMjr>» 

■I»D(). Il liaa demonstrated Uie pos- 
sibility of removing tlie wliolo tree 
pupulailun from tlie United Stales in 
such a luaiinor as would greatly im- 
prove their condition, and in many 
important revpectji anieliorate the 
state of society among ourselves. 

The Society has expended on the 
work already done, nearly a million 
of dollars. It has to show for this, a 
capital stork, as it were, of very large 
Talue. It has s territory of more 
Uian I'J.OOU square miles under its 
control. It has a well organized 
government, with laws and institu- 
tions, and schools and churches, and 
farms, and workshops, and commerce, 
and houses ami physicians, and a 
knowledge of the difieascf of the coun- 
try, and an intluence over tiie natives, 
and a thousand other means and ap- 
pliances of civilization, whose value 
is not to be measured by dollars and 
ccm.-*. It has taken not merely the 
above sura of money to purchase the 
present possessions of the Society. 
There have also been expended many 
years of hard labor, and deep thought 
of officers and agents of the Society, 
but poorly paid for by their salaries; 
the tune and labor and zeal of all the 
early colonmts, and the lives too of 
the many agents and colonists who 
have fallen victims to their zeal in 
the cause, and the unavoidable 
• asualties incident to any new en- 
terprise of the kind. 

The Society has also a mostvalua- 

'le and available interest in the hearts 

''• American jMroplc. It pomesses 

Ui-.r confidence. They consideriJie 



-AppofwteiioM •li«*l)r Mill* 

scheme of colonization both desira- 
ble and practical. This is the pro- 
duct of more than thirty years culii- 
vatiim ! 

In estimating therefore the present 
position of the enterprise, all these 
facilities for fultire enlarged opera- 
tions must be taken into considera- 
tion. 

It was never imagined that the 
Colonization Society would be able 
to accomplish all the good contem- 
plated, by private resources alone. 
The completion of the work, the 
ultimate success, must depend on the 
patronage of the general and slate 
governments. Tlii.s was contempla- 
ted in the original formation of the 
Society. Hence we find in the 2d 
article of the constitution of the So- 
ciety this clause, " the Society shall 
act, to effect this object, in co-opera- 
tion with the general government and 
such of the States as may adopt 
regulations on the subject." The 
Society has ever fondly hoped to ob- 
tain this patronage, and not entirely 
withoutsuccess. The State of .Mary- 
land several years since made a lib- 
eral appropriation ** to aid in coloni- 
zing such free persons from that 
Slate as wish to go, and such slaves 
as may hereafter become free.'' Ten- 
lu-s.tee also made an appropriation of 
$10 a head for each one whom the 
.Society removed from that Stale, for 
•several years. Virginia also made a 
very large appropriation, which how- 
ever was renderrd unavailable to the 
Society by certain limiuitions and re- 
strictions upon its application. 



APPROPRIATIONS BY CONGRESS AND THE STATE GOVERNMENTS. 



35 



Constitutional power of the General and State Governments. 



The time has now come when the 
resources of the Society must be very 
greatly enlarged, or it cannot accom- 
plish one half of the work which it 
is earnestly called upon to undertake. 
Something therefore must now be 
done, compared with which, all the 
past is as nothing. 

This whole nation is now sum- 
moned by the highest considerations 
of duty, interest and charity, to come 
forward and aid in the work. A 
spirit should go abroad through all 
the land, kindling the hearts of the 
people, and calling upon every lover 
of man and of God, to bring forward 
his contributions to aid in accom- 
plishing a work on which depends 
our nation's highest glory and Africa's 
redemption ! Ten thousand hearts 
should respond to every appeal of the 
Society, and ten thousand hands 
should be stretched out with the 
necessary relief. 

But this is not all. The time has 
now fully come, when the State 
Legislatures and the General Govern- 
ment should take the subject in hand 
and make liberal appropriations to 
help it forward. 

There can scarcely be a doubt in 
any unprejudiced mind that the gen- 
eral and State governments have the 
constitutional power to appropriate 
money in furtherance of the objects 
contemplated by the Society. Every 
reason and argument which com- 
mends the scheme to the support of 
the individual citizens of this nation, 
commends it to the patronage of the 
nation itself. Every motive which 
induces the citizen of a State to con- 



tribute to the removal of the free 
people from that Slate, should operate 
upon the State itself or the govern- 
ment thereof. If the presence of the 
various tribes of Indians in our midst 
was a great evil, which the govern- 
ment was called upon to mitigate, 
and if a great national good was done 
by removing them beyond our bor- 
ders: then surely is the existence of 
the colored race in the United States 
a great political evil, and their re- 
moval would be an immense national 
blessing. And if the government 
had power to act in the one case, has 
it not power to act in the other? 
On the other hand, if their presence 
in the United States has been a po- 
litical good, a social blessing to us, 
but not to them, then are we bound 
as a nation, in view of the injury we 
have done them, and their degrada- 
tion to which we have largely con- 
tributed, to bestow on them the rich- 
est gifts and the costliest blessings 
which we are able. There is a 
moral fitness in this which commends 
itself to every mind. The work to 
be done is a great one, and is worthy 
of a nation like this ! 

In the succeeding pages we pre- 
sent two arguments in favor of State 
appropriations, from two different 
sources, presented to two different 
legislatures. One of them has been 
prepared by our agent in Ohio, and 
presents the considerations which 
should induce the Legislature of that 
State to make an appropriation for 
the removal of any of their free co- 
lored people who want to go to Li- 
beria. The other was prepared by 



3$ Afr«OWUAT»ON» BT CO.XGBEBB AND TlIK STATE OOVtRNMBXTf. 

MtBMMl* ••4 PviiiiMM fwtammndii. 



our agent in Virginia, and laid before 
Uie \'>rginia Lcgiataturr. Il ahows 
conAiJt-ralions ulncli »hould induce 
Uu'iii to rt-ndiT aid immediatfly. We 
prt-sfnt iJicBc together, as ilu-y repre- 
sent in a certain aeniie, the two great 
•ection* of the I'nion. 

We beg to conuiiend them to ti.c 
earnrsl conaideraliun of every person 
into whose hands they n'ay come. 
The appeal!* are forcible ; the occa- 
sion great, and the good to be accom- 
plished unbounded ! 

1 1 IS probably not going loo far to 
say, that could the citizens of iliu.xr 
two Stales give a direct vole, llurt- 
would be an overwhelming majority 
in each in favor of making an imme- 
diate and liberal appropriation. Had 
we space here to go into ihe argu- 
ment, we could prove conclusively 
lliat the American people are sensi- 
ble of the merits of ('oloiiizalioii, 
and that an appropriation by ihe 
gi lural government would mei-l the 
hciifiv concurrence of the great liody 
of them. Ix't any person call to 
mind the fart that the Legislatures of 
more than half the States havepahced 
resolutions approving of the oijcct 
and operations of the Society, und 
rrcuminending its general fupport ; 
thai the most distinguished men in 
every part of the Dnion, and in every 
political party, have been the advo- 
cates of the Society ; that the leading 
I ri I)f iaitiical btnlies of every denomi- 
iiuiioii of C'hriatiaiis have expressed ' 
ilieir approval of llio Society, aiitl 
ijr;'«(l the propriety of the general 
aji<l .Siato goTcrnments making ap- 
propruiiooj ; and ilial wherever you 



meet with any company of individuals 
and converse with them five minutes 
on the subject, you will find a ma- 
jority n| ihem in favor of the general 
and Slate governmenUi aiding in 
Cotonization-^and he will soon be 
convinced that there is no enterprise 
on earth, which has enlisted in ill 
favor so much of the sympathy and 
intiTcst of the whole Ameiican peo- 
ple as the scheme of Colonization. 
There is no other enterprise lo the 
advancement of which the general 
and Stale governments could devote 
their means, and meet with as hearty 
approval from as many of our citi- 
zens. And could our various legis- 
lators know the public sentiment of 
their constituents, there is not a 
doubl that ihey would, without de- 
lay, take action on this subject. 

Ope thing ihcreforc becomes mani- 
festly and urgently the duty of the 
friends of Colonization in every 
Slate anil part of the country during 
the present year, viz: to prepare and 
send up memorials and petitions in 
every form and in the siroiigfst lan- 
guage, to their Senators and lUpre- 
(•entatives in Congress, and in all the 
Slate Legi.slalures. This ought to 
he begun at once, and carrieil on 
faithfully throughout nil the year. 
Kvery village and hnnilei oiifjlit to 
!*eiid up its memorial, hvcry rhurrh 
and society ought to present ili 
prayer. Every j)atrii't and philan- 
thropisl ought lo urge his |)etilion. 
1.(1 the public sentiment in favor of 
the Society be orgar.ized and con- 
solidated, and rolled in upon our 
legislators with such respectful ur-? 



MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF OHIO. 



37 



^uty of the friends of Colonization. — Memorial of David Christy, Esq. 



gency and power that they can no 
longer hesitate as to the path of both 
duty and interest. 

In conclusion, we beg leave to 
suggest that the destinies of the free 
people, now in tiiis country, are in a 
very important sense, soon to be set- 
tled. Their number is increasing. 
In many quarters they and their 
friends, so called, are making violent 
efTorts to bring them up to a social 
and political equality with the whites 
in this country. Several States have 
already acted on the subject, and ad- 
versely to their feelings and wishes. 
Other States must soon follow. The 
subject is pressed upon their atten- 
tion in a manner they cannot resist. 
In most instances we can now tell 
what will be done, when the time for 
definitive action comes. 

In these circumstances the friends 
of Colonization cannot mistake their 
duty. Every possible means should 
be used to diffuse throughout the 
whole community correct informa- 
tion, so that whatever is done, may 
be done undcrstandingly and accord- 
ing to truth. It must not be forgot- 
ten by our legislators while they 
are providing for their own security, 
and the welfare and peace of their 
offspring, that as a Christian nation, 
we owe an immense debt to those 



who have been the victims of avarice 
and oppression ; and that we are 
bound to offer them a comfortable 
and secure home in the land of their 
ancestors, and to make provision for 
their removal there. We hold it 
therefore to be a sacred duty of the 
general and the State governments 
to take this work in hand and carry 
it forward with all the vigor possible. 
As a nation we are bound to restore 
to Africa all her children who are 
willing to return. We are bound to 
pay her the debt, which centuries of 
patient suffering have given her the 
irresistible right to demand of us. 
Every State is bound to make provi- 
sion for the welfare and happiness of 
the free people resident in it. If, 
for this purpose, wisdom and pru- 
dence point to their removal to Libe- 
ria, the State is bound to make the 
appropriations indispensable to ac- 
complish it. 

Here then we leave the subject, 
trusting that our friends will not let 
the present year pass, without having 
exerted every influence both to in- 
crease the voluntary contributions to 
the Society, and to memorialize their 
respective legislators on the subject. 

W. McLAIN, Sec. A. C. S. 
Colonization Rooms, 

Washington City, Jan. 1849. 



i% « m r t a I , 



To the Hon. the Senate ami House 

of Re[rresentatives 0/ the State of Ohio. 

The undersigned, acting as agent of the 
American Colonization Society, would re- 
spectfully ask leave to call your attention to 



the following facts connected with the posi- 
tion which the State of Ohio occupies in re- 
ference to the free colored population of the 
United States. 
A careful examination of the census tables, 



MKMOMAl. TO TUS LEOifLATURS Or THE STATK OT OHia 



trtiiam to Um Wwtora Suim.— larr 



te Oki«. 



• l*r{« |>ru|>unutn oi 



^ tix New Kn;-! 

...,. . r ii... ...... 



.avc bic-n 






tulu tiiu ra)iiU ( t 

:-r-t«*rrn ■■•■iN « \-. 



.1 ihccur- 

- :••, thi-M- stales also ■ 

. tlicir fri-c colored |>i.[ 

t jli J of iiicrca^ was irductd lo 

|H:r annum, being coUsiJcrably 

aiui Virginia, N 
■■'1 and t.c<irpia, 
lof their iiatur.i. 

1 is 10, proMnj: 



Ji alinust r4Ual rapiUi- 

l^^jk ill ilic larit. Ohio, Indiana uml 
Illinois, ill IhiJI), had only MW free |Kr»..n'. 



! ibu |>lvt ><>«i* |>rll<><l, 
!i (frralcr, these ihrrr 
ix-rit, have K rohirrd 

I < )f thu number th< 

I - 1 

'lu iii^td a iu.>it. kiiikiiij; contrast of thr 
position in %thicb wr iitAiid. as ruiniiarr.l 



•uasbc* tn ttgHt ytart, while tint oi ths lui 



Id retjuire, to double their 
, a period ot txco huiulied 

■ uf a want ufcuulor 
. >d, aitd that the nust 
>e, let us embrace a 
J \\c have still uiure 

1 jK-rioJ of forty years, from 

' 111 tJ:i' t!;f «i\ New Eng- 

■-. >rts have 

.>d man, 

■j'litt 

lOlK 

,.iia! 
1. l.'ur n.v;fi..U!t, IhciLluit, wUui com- 
\< itli theirs, Jor a period of forty ye*r», 

jj to J. 

Kn>m all thciiu facts, it appears that causes, 

'-.nviTT^' a i;r.ir nn rir!i,.n an.l |.r.«lti. injr uni- 

r.llu- 

ihe 

<^rly 

Mull, thus 

:.io Talley . 

. U:e LVc:iU \^liich have trans- 

ny 111' the »la\e States', since the 

... V ....-u>, teach us that tlicsc repelling 

'.ausus arc augiueiitiii^ instead of diniinish- 

iiip their fiirei-. Tlic-e iiiflilfnccs have also 

been extended to many of the States not above 

named, and the conclusion is therefore forcetl 

■■ ■■- ''■ ' "•- "' - - ■"- . ,v nov the 

it ire. fret 

14 conctn- 

tratiiig. 

Nor can %vc check this movement by any 

- '•• ::iry precautions, were we disposed to 

the cll'Tt, l>ccausv we cannot, by any 

;i u .f.'ir-. ri.ich the causes which 

<}\e other SUles. Wc 

ite of the liorlh-cast, 

• ■ - -'int it 

J lid 
man 
4 spiiil ol >.iici|;y ai>d acU\ily la business 
>v Inch shall enable him to compete with the 
New F.njilatider. We arc still less able to 
roll Uick the mighty wave uf foreign emi- 
(;ratioii, \%bii'h, annually , supplies to the east 
a kurplua of cheap labor, and drives the man 
of color from his employ mcnls ainl cotii|K-ls 
liim to wander t<j the we«t in search of bread. 
\iid It IS still uiorc inipracUcabIc for us to 
iiidu.-r the slave States to repeal the laws 
uiul give up the prejudices which drive out 
the free Colored man Ironi amongst Uicm. 

In view, iImii, : " ■' ' ' it appears 
evident that wc i«latlon of 

ours, reach the e.i ilie color- 

ed man into the \ti»t, ititd thai the Oltio 
\allev U therefore l<> become the asvlum fot 
' : n, and has been 
. as the theatre 
I ir the ac-hievc- 
iiM-iil III tu* ii|itit> i> (m Ui loucht. 
It it alau a fact, c<|ually wiOl knowD, that 



MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE OF THE STATE OF OHIO. 



39 



Ohio in Africa. — Emigrants and Delegates. 



there is a fixedness of purpose in tlic great 
majority of our white citizens, never to errant 
the colored race ecjual social and political 
privileges within the limits of the State. 

What course should he adopted by j-our 
honorable bpdy, under (hese circumstances, 
to guard against the diiiiculties and colli- 
sions to be apprehended from a greater in- 
crease of colored men amongst us, your pe- 
titioner will not venture to advise ; but will 
proceed to the presentation of the object in 
view in ofiering this memorial. 

The framers of the constitution under 
whicli you act, never designed to Africanize 
the State ; and its white citizens, judging 
from past and present indications, will yet 
oppose, to the utmost, any change of that 
instrument which will give to colored men 
equal social and political privileges. This 
decision is not the result of hostility to the 
colored man, but is based upon the conviction 
that the true interests of both classes will be 
best promoted by a separate political organi- 
zation. It is unwise, therefore, for any one 
to urge them to a prolonged and fiuitless 
■warfare for citizenship in Ohio. And such 
a course seems, at the present moment, to be 
particularly unwise, when all the advanta- 
ges of social, civil, and religious liberty, 
everything for which they are here pleading 
for in vain, is now freely offered to tliem in 
the new Republic of Liberia, by the united 
voices of 80,000 freemen. 

But besides the advantages offered by Li- 
beria to the colored men of Ohio, there is a 
much more munificent gift awaiting their 
acceptance. 

It has been believed, for a few years past, 
that there is sufficient talent and intelligence 
amongst the colored men of the west, if call- 
ed into action under favorable circumstances, 
to achieve the great object the)' have in view 
— their intellectual and moral elevation. Ful- 
ly convinced of this fact, an appeal was made 
to the public last A^pril, for funds to purcliase 
additional territory on the coast of Africa, to 
form a new State for colored emigrants from 
the Ohio valley, w^here they may be able to 
give an example of their capacity for self 
government. 

The first response to that appeal has been 
an ofi'er, by a gentleman of ample means, to 
purchase two hundred miles of coast, outside 
of the present limits of Liberia, as soon as it 
can be had on reasonable conditions. This 
territory he will offer to tlie colored people 
of the west upon which to organize a new 
State, in connection with Liberia, to be called 
Ohio in Africa. 

The work now to be commenced, and in 
the accomplishment of which your co-opera- 
tion is solicited, is the prosecution of the 
enterprise here proposed. There are in Ohio, 
a large number of colored men who express 
a willingness to emigrate to Liberia, as soon 
as they can be convinced of the truthfulness 
of the reports in relation to the present pros- 
perity of the Republic of Liberia. The re- 



cognition of its independence b)' England and 
France, and the neglect of our government 
to extend to it the same courtesy, is begin- 
ning to dispel tlie illusion that .\frican coloni- 
zation is a scheme of the slaveholder. The 
prejudices of colored men a gainst colonization 
are now beginning to yield. But they still 
distrust white men, and wish to send out 
colored delegates to investigate the claims of 
Liberia to the colored man's attention, and to 
judge whether Africa is a suitable theatre 
for the future struggle of the colored race for 
national existence and national independence. 
They should not be asked to bear the expense 
of thesb delegates. The colonization society 
is willing to all'ord to such a deputation every 
facility in their passage out to Africa, but 
the funds placed at its disposal must be appro- 
priated to defray the expenses of emigrants 
and not o£ delegates. 

Under these circumstances we arc con- 
strained to appeal to your honorable body for 
aid in this important crisis in the affairs of 
African colonization. And there is much to 
encourage us in adopting decisive measures 
to divert the current of emigration towards 
Liberia. All the delegates who have gone 
out, recently, bring back favorable reports. 
The colored people of Illinois sent out one 
last year, who has returned, and a large num- 
I ber have resolved to emigrate, nine of whom 
I will leave in the next expedition. Indiana 
[presents a list of fifty emigrants who are en- 
rolled for Liberia, twenty-seven of whom are 
also to sail with those of Illinois. The 
leader of this band, the Rev. Mr. Finpley, 
a colored man, has pledged himself to settle 
in our Ohio in Africa as soon as tlie scheme 
is perfected. The Rev. Moses Walker, a 
colored man, of Portland, Jefierson county, 
Oliio, who also visited Africa last year, has 
returned and reports favorably. He will re- 
move to Liberia with his family, but is 
anxious to traverse the State and make his 
report personally to the colored people before 
hf. leaves. The Colonization Society arc 
desirous of thus employing him, but are 
unable on account of their having pledged 
themselves, the last year, to send out 1010 
emigrants. The Society are also desirous of 
engaging some of the present citizens of Li- 
beria, who have long resided in the Colony, 
to visit the West, and present the facts, in 
relation to the new Republic, before the 
colored people. 

In this emergency, and in view of the great 
importance of disabusing the minds of colored 
men on the question of colonization, and of 
encouraging their emigration to Liberia, or 
to Ohio in Africa, it is respectfully requested 
that you make a suitable appropriation to aid 
the American Colonization Society for a 
few years to come, in carrying out its designs 
in relation to the colored people of Ohio, and 
in promoting the spirit of emigration to Li- 
beria. Very respectfully, yours, 
DAVID CHRISTY, 
Agent of Am, Col. Socfor the State of Ohio. 



40 



MEMORIAL TO THE LEOIBLATCRE OF VIRGIXU. 
Mr. J<ftrMe** fUm.—Verwmtiom ctfthc Coloaiiatioii Bocirlj. 



iBrmoriol to tt)t frgislalurr of Virginia. 



The Report of ilie Special Com- 
Kiittte, to wlioin was rrfcrreil lliat 
pnrt of tlie (i(>vernt>r*ii Mes»agc 
which recoinineiuls tlie remuval of 
ihe frt'C pcojilf of color from ihe 
Coiniiioiiwealih, will soon call you 
to ilflibernti' on n puhji-ct of grave 
iniporL You will give it, I «loubt 
not. your well-studied and uiulured 
coiisideniiiou, holding it neither too 
delicate a suhject to be aj)proaclied, 
nor loo ditfirult for legi»latioJi. — 
The time Ikib fully come when, if 
we do Rot boldly grapi)le the dilii- 
culties and control them, they will 
contnd us. 

Slavery was not of voluntary 
adoption by those who constructed 
the elements of society in this Com- 
monwealth, introduced by the au- 
thority of Great Hriiain, it was 
found at the period of our indepen- 
dence a constituent of the body po- 
litic ; was subsetjuently recognized 
by the Federal and Slate constitu- 
tions, and became a part of our in- 
lieritance. It is, therefore, politically 
and socially, count itutional. Yet 
like all other things human and 
earthlVf it has dillirullies and evils. 
Tlicse were so distinctly perceived 
by the fore^iglil of our ancestors, 
Uiat ihey resisted the introduction of 
the ayslem itself and sought to avert 
it. When introduced ihey labored 
U) mitijrate it« evils to both race.«, 
and make the institution, if possible, 
a blessing to each. How far thi"< 
christian effort has been faithfully 
anil Bucceshfully pursued, wo are 
willing' our rnrmies themselvi? 
aliould tell to the world in the facli* 
ihry are compelled to record, and 
out of whicii ages tn rome will form 
iheir estiiiiale of our rhiirarter. Let 
us leave all fcverivh anxieties on that 
■ubjrrt.and go boldly forward in the 
high duly impoaed by I'rovidencc on 
tta now. 



Among the evils that are contin- 
gent to slavery, may be reckoned a 
large c/uw of free colored people^ the 
descendants of blaves, constituting a 
lower caste in society, and yet ele- 
vated above the slaves whciicu they 
oiiginated. This evil was early 
contemplated by fur reaching and 
patrioiic minds, deiined and bought 
to be modified or averted. 

.Mr. Jellerson, as early as 1777, 
pro|)osed t«» the hegislaiure of Vir- 
ginia, to be iiicorpornted in the re- 
vised code of the Slate, a plan for 
colonizing the free colored popula- 
tion. This is the earliest conception 
distinctly announced of a plan for 
African (Colonization. The magni- 
tude of the enterprise and the slate 
of the country, then at war, prevent- 
ed at that time, the prosecution of 
ihe plan. Dr. Thornton, a native of 
Virginia, and resident at AVa^hiiig- 
ton, allempted ten years afterwards, 
to form a company of free blacks to 
emigrate and establish a colony on 
the coast o( .\frica. This also proved 
abortive for want of means. The 
legislature of Virginia took action on 
the subject in the year l&UU, and 
again in IblG; and Mr. Jeflerson 
continued to agitate it until the for- 
mation of the Colonization Society, 
in December, 181('>, at the city of 
Washington. 

Although. eminent and good men 
from other States were concerned in 
the constriicliiut of this noble Si^ciety, 
and to the honored name of Kinley 
is correctly attributed the principal 
insirumciUality in its actual oigani- 
zalion — yet the mighty conception 
mny be found in our Virginia, the 
".Mother of Slnlcs ;" and lheeml)ryo 
of this great polilicul struciiirc may 
be traced to tin- brain of the author 
of ihe I)ec|.Trrilion of In<le|>cntlence, 
who is now Keen li> be the real Jupiter 
of that political Minerva, the young 



MEMOKIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE OF VIRGINIA. 



41 



Probable increase of the Colored Population of Virginia. 



"Republic of Liberia." Liberia is 
indeed our twin sister; iinds iier 
rights asserted in the samedeclaration; 
and though of longer gestation is now 
triumphantly born, and destined like 
us to regulate and govern a continent, 
with our liberal constitution adopted 
as hers, and the Bible as her great 
moral code. 

Standing by the birth of the Co- 
lonization Society or aiding in its 
incipiency, we find Bushrod Wash- 
ington its first President, and Henry 
Clay its second — John Randolph, 
Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, .Tudge 
Marshall, Bishop Meade, John Tay- 
lor of Caroline, Andrew Jackson, C. 
F. Mercer, F. S. Key, E. B. Cald- 
well, and others, Virginians by birth 
and in feeling, though citizens' of the 
world by their works. We will 
seek in the labors of that Society a 
co-operation suited to the part we 
took in its formation and to the in- 
heritance we claim in its fame. But 
for the present I return. 

The free people of color, now 
numbering not less than 60,000 in 
Virginia and increasing more than 
four hundred per cent, in fifty years, 
will, without some action to prevent 
it, form a population of 240,000 in 
the year 1900, a period that will ar- ; 
rive during the natural life of our 
children. In 1950 our grand chil- 
dren will encounter this population 
increased to a numeiical force of 
about one million — thirty per cent, 
greater than our present while popu- j 
lation — and our great grand children j 
will see a free black population of 
4,000,000 in Virginia. In order to 
realize how near in time this result 
is to our own day, we have only to 
reflect that the active men of the pre- 
sent time — many whom I address as 
legislators — are descendants of the j 
fathers of our independence of only j 
the second and third generations, i 
Some, who now live, may, before ' 
they die, see the free black popula- i 



lion of Virginia, greater in number 
than the present white population. 

It is readily admitted that various 
causes may occur to modify these 
calculations. But it is enough that 
they are seen to be the natural results 
of an uninterrupted progress of ex- 
isting causes, and therefore possible 
— even probable. For, while the 
wide west and south-west are invi- 
ting with still stronger motives the 
emigration of our sons, the barriers 
to the emigration of our free blacks 
to other States are multiplied and 
strengthened, both by legislation and 
popular expression. While, there- 
fore, our white population may be 
stationary, or decreased by emigra- 
tion, the free blacks will be steadily 
advancing in an increasing ratio. But 
I have no time to multiply these and 
similar aspects of the subject. Every 
reflectirg mind will develope them^ 

Connected with this series of 
numerical calculations, however, I 
ask the consideration of the fact, 
that history furnishes no instance of 
one people residing in the midst of 
another people as a lower caste, 
and excluded from an equality of 
civil rights, that have stopped short 
of violence and rebellion so soon as 
their strength gave reasonable hope of 
a successful struggle. 

Mr. Jefferson perceived distinctly 
this evil when the cloud was not yet 
larger than a man's hand, and he en- 
deavored to brush it away. It has, 
however, been suffered to increase 
till it lowers now on the horizon, 
and before our children's children 
shall occupy our places, it will ob- 
scure the sun and settle upon our 
fair land a darkness that may be felt. 
Those degenerate sons of illustrious 
sires who say, "let posterity take 
care of that," should he rebuked. 
Those who periled their lives for 
our liberties, said not so — else we 
now had been riveted to a hopeless 
despotism. 



MEMORIAL TO THE LECIgLATrRE OF VIROIWIA. 



7*he quMiion which now requires 

V - •• ■ ■ -.ion 18 **//<)jr ' " — 

r free colored 
•'» ■'. .' 1 /If ajidwcr, wliu !i 111- 
•irui'ttf the h-gislator, in given in all 
m.-'iory, am! i» umi;uiv(>«\vl ; Tliey 
musi liiher be aintt'ga.riafeil witli \hv 
whites ami ihcrtiby antiiliilaled a^ 
infrrior raste ; — or raiffit tear:, 
and «opial iH]Uulily — or rnnovrd. It 
will be my ol'jfci at a future time t^. 
■how that ihe last is the only rcnu i! 
— tliai it may be done by consent . . 
boi!i parties — that it oii-jlit lobe done, 
and that now ii (he time to do it. 

I hare said iltal the rapid in- 
crease of the free I'olored j>opii- 
lation of Virginia will soon brinij ' 
us to the ronvirtion that ihcy must 
either be annihilated as an inferior 
caste by amulgamaiinn wiili tlie 
whites, or raised by law and rom- 
inon consent to a civil and social 
equality, or be removed from the 
State. 

The first cannot be. Even aboli- 
tionisijt revolt at it when practically 
urged, and plainly show that their 
sympathies are factitious nnd unnat- 
ural, and therefore not only impracti- 
cable in the experiment, l)ut null nnd 
Toid as amoral obligation. This in- 
ferior cadle can never be lost by am- 
algamation. 

It is etjually certain that they can 
never be rai«<d to aneijiiality in civil 
and social rights and privileges. 
This may be atlimpted— but it will 
be u failtire. It lias been attempted ; 
but wh«'n has the experiment ( vcr 
Bucrecdf-d ? Let St. Domingo givr ihr 
answer, full of Holemn instrnciin;) 
Wid full of warning. Soon after t' 
early intrcMhictiou of nlavery i: 
that Inland, the spirit of rmancipai: 
began to create ihei • as it has d" 
here, a free colored population, an 
inferior degratled cuttr. — When in 
17'.K) iheir nun' 
rontc to that < : 
tilioncd to bo aJiiniud lu iho nglit- 



of suffrage and other privileges of free 
•iiizins. The National Asjiembly 
f France decreed — what the Co- 
lonial authorities rejected — the civil 
and sudial eqxtatily of the free ne- 
i'rc'r5. In the progre.'s of events 
i!i, ur ao.»M made common cause with 
. civil war ensued, and the 
•< diltigid in blood till the 
whiii-.i were exterminated. 

\x far as the experiment has 
.lied the results have been 

i:gly ."iirailar. 'J'hcir number, 

increasing at a latio much greater 
than the whites, will bring their 
tread upon our heels befire the 
generation now cradled and in their 
nurnes' arms shall have acted their 
part on the stage of life nnd died. 
They will naturally be clamorous 
for privileges. They will be urirent 
in petition, then in nrffument, then 
in demand. They will be lir«t per- 
.lua-ivp, ihrn accusatory, and finally 
insolent. They are men, and even 
if we had no record of history, in 
which to read the future by the past, 
we may know what they will do! 
And will they find ro sympathy, no 
cn-operatinn, no aid from the whites? 
He must be n dull srholar indeed, 
who, even wiiliont the teachings of 
history, cannot infer the ftiture from 
the present. You have made a law 
that the slave emancipated, shall 
leave the State. Hut y<'U need not 
he told how often this law is violated, 
and how many may be found in 
cverv country. rct:!ined contrary to 
th«' law by a common sympathy in 
tli'ir behalf. It is a gen«'rous im- 
;>tilsp which vitjlntcs the law ; — but 
■ M ' -iMiiM Intr wliich demands a 
II of ihosr sympathies. 
.;ii' the Uvv blaeks increasing 
ly by the double process of 
• mil and rmnnripation. 

Fxiension of priviligr is the order 

. ry commiiuity nnd wider room 

. I'led at every tlemand. I eomc 

n«>i to "repress this genial current 



MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE O* VIRGINIA. 



43 



The appropriation of $90,000 in 1833, could now be made available. 



of the soul." I am not prepared to 
say the free people of color yet 
have the point of elevation assigned 
to them which they deserve — and 
some of them are very meritorious. 
But we look beyond the present. 
Where do these paths lead to .'' What 
is the point to which these finger 
boards we now read direct us .' What 
are the tendencies, consequences of 
what we are now doing ? As certain 
as there is no assignable limit to 
human progress, we shall in process 
of time find this class of our popula- 
tion requiring more room and de- 
manding more privileges, 'till they 
will come to the doors of your legis- 
lative halls and ask : "Are we not 
men — men of property, of intelli- 
gence, and of numbers sufficient to 
be known, recognized, heard among 
you .^" I will not assume to write 
this history in detail. What it must 
be in efi'ect all, not politically blind, 
can see. When it comes to this or 
anything like it, the answer must be 
like that of the Colonial Assembly 
of St. Domingo. The rest is known. 
They can never be admitted to an 
equality in civil and social privi- 
leges, it only remains, then, that 
they be removed from the State. 
It will be my next object to show 
that this may be done, that it ought 
to be done, and done nov;. 

If we have calculated and rea- 
soned rightly, the removal of the free 
colored population from the State is 
now desirable, and will soon become 
absolutely necessary. 

The question then arises. Can it 
be done — ought it to be done, and 
done now ? We answer affirmatively 
— It can^ ought and must be done. 

They can be removed and settled 
in Liberia. Remaining here, we 
hold them unchangeably disfran- 
chised and degraded. Can it be 
doubted, then, that we do our duty 
if when our safety and interests re- 
quire their removal, we place them 



in a community of free men, them- 
selves free and equal, the proprietors 
in fee simple of the soil they culti- 
vate, and under the protection of 
good laws like our own in their 
fatherland. This we may do by 
providing for their emigration and 
settlement in Liberia. 

By an act of the Legislature of 
Virginia in 1833, an appropriation 
was made of $90,000 to be paid in 
five annual instalments for the de- 
portation of the free colored people 
to Liberia — thirty dollars to each 
emigrant. No part of this appro- 
priation was ever drawn from the 
Treasury, because no voluntary emi- 
grants were to be found. 

Now if the Legislature, instead of 
a forcible removal of this people, 
should revive the act of 1S33, ma- 
king an appropriation of $90,000, or 
what would be still better, twice that 
sum, what would be the effect? 
Would the free negroes avail them- 
selves of the provision ? And if they 
should, would its disbursements 
make any sensible impression on 
their numbers, either to extinguish 
or greatly reduce them ? Are they 
willing to go? Can they be in- 
duced to go ? 

That the appropriation could now 
be easily applied to its object, there 
can be no reasonable doubt. It may 
readily be shown that Liberia is the 
proper home of the free colored man. 
He can be made to see that. It was 
very different in 1833, when the 
former invitation was extended to 
him and rejected. Liberia was then 
a colony, struggling with difficulties 
incident to its unsetded state, its 
climate not well defined, its virgin 
soil hardly turned by the plough- 
share, its resources not developed, 
not even counted in their number 
and value, the savage border tribes 
still resUess and of doubtful friend- 
ship, and all the early calamities of 
the colony in its infant state still 



11 



MEMORIAL TO THE LEGI8LATU1E OF VreOINIA. 



l»en«M ia lite ■■■>' 



fretfj i(t recolleciion. Now the Re- 
>> ' I.- uf Liberia sianils ainung ihe 
.!< of llie earih, recognized by 
w. ... i nauons, ittviiing the eiuitjrani 
to a free government ofcunaiituiional 
la\v«; lu a 8oil not surpansed in fer- 
iiiity : to social, inlellirtual and re- 
li:.'i(uis privileges by no nieana in- 
h nor t(» lho^e he leaves. We say, 
lilt 11, he may beconie a vuhmfari/ 
iiii;_'ranl, because it is for his inle- 
re.st lo go. It is not expattialiiiii, l)ui 
ralher the return of the exile home. 
So ho sees it, when he looks be- 
yond his prejudices lo the fact* in 
the I ase. 

Hut we are not left lo probabiliiies 
ill this matter. We are luld by thosse 
who have addressed them on the 
subject, that they are easily made to 
desire a removal to Liberia. He- 
ceivin^ the facts in the case well 
authpiiticaled, they say — " let us {to 
lo our father land.''' The Coloni- 
zation Society has now more appli- 
. :ints than means nf tran.^porlation. 
'I'liirj is the natural llow of the ctir- 
rent when unobstructed. When Paul 
Ci.i'C, a noble netjro of IJedftird, 
Ml"'-., carried the first einijrrants to 
Africa in 181.3, a cninpany of -S in 
his own 8hi|), a*. Itis own expin^tc, 
it was believed every man of color in 
New Kiigland was tlien anxious to 
1,'a. Would we know why this cur- 
rent has been checked and turned 
back? — wc must ask the aboliiionislK 
of the North — not \'ir(rinia, whose 
lefiilature repi-ated in l^K) her tes- 
timony of 1^00, and has uniformly 
adhered lo the opinions of her jjreni 
slatenmen, early and uniformly ex- 
pressed. 

llaviiiK then, arrived at the con- 
clusion that the emi(rralion of our 
free cohired people can be secured*^ 
I', only remains that we ennsider ihe 
ways, the means, and oMi^^ntion. — 
// rr ran it be <lonc ? (hfrht it be 

1 ne only qucatiun now ia, Can 



ire make an appropriation avail- 
ahle to the great object of univer- 
sal desire — the entire removal of 
the free colored population / We 
suppose now they are willing. — 
The ('oloniztttion Society for $50 
take out un emigrant in their Packet 
and settle him on live acres of land, 
which is made his own in fee 
simi)le, and provide lor him sus- 
lenaiiee and medicul attendance for 
six months. This they are con- 
stantly doing. They Jiave by the 
voluntary contributions of the friends 
of the cause, sent out nearly one 
thousand within the last year, and 
G,()UU in all. Let there be an appro- 
priation of i»'.iO,(MJ(J a year for five 
years, and let the amount appropria- 
ted lo each emigrant be limited to 
«L»o. This will deport 1,-J0l». Wc 
may suppose that number will be 
found, who with suitable direction 
and encf)urairemcnt will reailily exert 
themselves to earn a sum e(]ual to 
the Slate appropriation, to secure 
their passage and settlement. We 
may tlien suppose this movement 
will awaken an ctjual number of en- 
terpribing men among them to earn 
the entire amount necessary to give 
them passage with their brethren. 
Then still anolher duodecimal emi- 
gration may be found among those 
already able to transport themselvea ; 
for not a few have some properly. 
Then taking an ecpial number of 
children, who can go wilh their pa- 
rents with litllo or no expense, and 
we have nearly o,(HX) einii:rantH a 
year from Virginia, sudicienl to reach, 
in twelve years, the lull ninnber now 
III the Slate. If the means |)ro|)osed 
Ncem inadeijuale to the results now 
•tialed, let it be considered also, that 
the Cohmizaiion Society is constant- 
ly collecting funds from the benevo- 
lent for the same great object— at- 
tainable, we belnvc, by a great, uni- 
ted and iJcr^evering efTorl, on Uu 
plan here proposed. 



MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE OF VIRGINIA. 



45 



Founding of the Colony — Extent of tbe Republic of Liberia. 



Are not these results probable from 
the causes we propose to create? and 
will not tlie awakening inlhience of 
personal effort belter prepare the em- 
igrant, who has labored to some ex- 
tent to provide for himself. The 
moral ell'ect of first awakening de- 
sire and tlien making labor the means 
of gratifying that desire, will do 
much to qualify him for his new and 
elevated position in his new (Mtizen- 
ship. The agencies now in the field 
under the organization of the Amer- 
ican Colonization Society are ade- 
quate to promote and produce these 
results; and when our State Coloni- 
zation Society is revived, as we trust 
it will soon be, these agencies be- 
come a part of its organization, the 
best possible machinery, and ready 
to your hand to execute your plans 
with economy and despatch. 

We say, then, this is a work which 
ought to be done and done noio. 
Every pecuniary, moral and social 
interest requires it. With some hon- 
orable exceptions, the free negroes 
are, as a class, indolent, vicious and 
dishonest. They underwork the poor 
white man, when they work at all, de- 
press and discourage him — they cor- 
rupt the slave and aid him in every 
evil course — lie as an incubus on so- 
ciety without profit to themselves or 
any definable benefit to society. 
They form an excresence on the 
body politic, which requires amputa- 
tion. 

With such considerations before 
us, can we too urgently ask for im- 
mediate action? While we delay, 
the evil is in progress. While we 
sleep, it gathers strength. While we 
stand still, time passes, children are 
born, grow to manhood, our free co- 
lored population multiplies. While 
we ask time to consider, the demands 
upon us are increased. When in 1777 
Mr. Jefferson first proposed the re- 
medy we now propose, a few hun- 
dred free blacks, composing the 



whole evil in Virginia, could have 
been easily removed. Ten years af- 
terwards. Dr. Thornton's proposition 
had to grapple with thousands. Our 
Legislature of 1800, with deep con- 
cern, sought the removal of 15,000 
free negroes. In 1816 they again 
bring the subject into consideration, 
and find that number doubled. In 
1833 they look at it again — the 
number is trebled, and they hasten 
to appropriate $90,000 for their re- 
moval. — 'FoM look again in eighteen 
hundred and forty-nine and they are 
quadrupled. Do nothing still, and 
that quadrupled quadrupled will be 
the inheritance of your children. 
Speak quick or the evil may be be- 
yond control. If we are afraid to 
look it in the face and meet it now ; 
it will tread with iron heel on the 
necks of our children. 

Liberia, as a place of emigration 
for our free colored people, demands 
special notice in connection with the 
subject in hand. 

The first purchase of land from 
the native chiefs for the Colony of 
Liberia was made in 1822, by Dr. 
Ayres on the part of the Coloniza- 
tion Society, and Capt. Stockton of 
the U. S. Navy, on the part of his 
government. Soon after, in the same 
year, Cape Mesurado, comprising 
the present site of Monrovia, was 
occupied by our emigrants. This 
was the practical commencement of 
the project, first recommended by 
Mr. Jefferson to the Legislature of 
Virginia, and afterwards approved by 
the Legislature in their recorded acts 
of 1800, and again in 1816, and again 
in 1833 — to which enactments you 
are respectfully referred. 

The Republic of Liberia, as now 
defined, extends from Cape Mount 
on the western coast of Africa to 
Cape Palmas, a sea coast distance of 
more than 300 miles; it embraces, 
also, in form, if not in fact, Mary- 
land colony on the South of 35 miles 



46 



MEMORIAL TO THE LCtilSLATl'RK OP VUUMHU. 



l*io4ac«t ofUbwte.— iUlifio*, tJrhoolt, Ibt KalitM. 



•^a-roa«i, anil nlfo 100 milea lately 
ct-tliil l»y ilie Native C'lmlu — and tin 
thf Morih it will diton prnlmhly he 
fXlcmJed by piirrhase 2(KJ niiies 
Ifoin Ca[)<' Mount to Sirrra Lenne, 
»trclchiii? N. W. and S. E. lliruui;h 
r to h^ N. Latitude. It extendi in- 
terior on an uvera^je of -lo inilen. 
It cumpritfcs tho whole extent of 
coast formerly inns' t visited hy idaverH, 
with excellent harbors, a soil of un- 
surpassed lertilliiy, and a rliinatc of 
well prtived healtlifuliie.-s. The 
present luimbrr of emiL'rani.s and re- 
rapiured Alncans is uj. wards of lOOO. 
its commercial, auriciiluiral and me- 
rhanirnl ''nfrrpsf imlirates an active 
:»■ ilion, — and the 

^i . "I Colfce, Siijjar- 

canc, Indian, Rice, Cotton, Arrow 
Hoot, itc, all imlivennus, demons- 
trate, by the experiments alreaily 
made, that in no part of the world. 
i« aericihural labor more liberally 
rewarded. Its exports for the last 
few years have averaeed nearly $;{() 
to the head of its entire population, 
while those of the United States 
have not exceeded "J7. 

Monrovia, the principal sea-port 
and capital of the country, luis now 
1,0<K) inhabitants, who enjoy in their 
houfcs. furniture, and tables, all the 
comlorts, elegancies, and even lux- 
urieH of life, common to a setdeinent 
of the same size in this or anv other 
country. Its national existence, a" 
the "|{epi»lic ok LinKRiA." rom- 
menced on the 2ltli Auij. 1817. by a 
formal declaration of Independence 
and the adoption of a eonstitution 
modelled after our own. The oper- 
ations of the ifovernment have since 
proceeded with the utmost regular- 
ity. <;oyi.mnr Hfilurls, who held 
'"" intinenl of the 

* . has been elect- 

ed I'remdi-nt ol ihe Ucpubjir. It* 
ini!<i>iii(!(iire has been acknowledged 
' ' I and France and very 

■'»•■ us treaticH formed with 



both those nations. Its trade has 
for many years been valuable, and 
will be <»f increasing impurtauce lo 
the commercial world. 

As a religious community, Li- 
beria ia unsurpassed, liy reliable 
:4ialistic8, we learn that about one- 
third of its entire emigrant population 
are inembeis of the (.'hrisiiun Church, 
honoring their profession by their 
lives. Tweiity-fivc church edilices, 
all convenient, and some cosdy, of 
Mone, brirk, and wood, enipl«)y the 
services of ft)riy |)rea( hers, several 
of them pastors well HU|)puried and 
wholly devoted to their work, all 
regularly inducted into the sacred 
odice and some of them not only in- 
lelliijent but learned and eloquent. 

Their Scliotd system is, to say the 
least, much better than ours. Pro* 
vision is made by law for free schools 
dironghout the Commonwealth. A 
liberal appropriation of the public 
lands is luade, and a capitation lax 
imposed for tiiis purpose. And more 
than this, every man is re«)uired un- 
der a penalty, lo send his cliildrtii lo 
school and educate them. They 
have two hii:h schools, a Lyceum, 
two newspapers, and are providing 
lor a L'niversity. 

The native tribes are cultivating a 
friendly inteicourse and doing hom- 
age to this new nation in Africa, 
disputes, formerly conducted by 
Idoody wars, and thus by sale of 
(•a|)iives tifken on both sides, furnish- 
ing victims to the slave trade, arc 
now settled by reference to the go- 
vernment of Liberia. Missionaries 
ami school icachers are e«i.'erlv nought 
by the barbarous interior tribes, who 
seek by those means, to become 
" tiirrictt fiirn.'* li is now proli.nble 
that Liltcria — as fast as her eini:;rant 
population will enable her to take 
posHcstion ami enforce her laws — 
may reclaim from barbarism, the en- 
tire wrslern coast Irom Sierra Leone 
to the Cape colony, closing all ac- 



MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE OF VIRGINIA. 



47 



Influence of Colonization on the Slave Trade.— Tbe Ashburlon Treaty. 



cess to the piratical slaver, and dif- 
fusing civilization and the christian 
religion through this whole border 
country. From this rim of light 
central Africa will be illuminated, 
its darkness, intellectual and moral, 
expelled, its fertile lands reclaimed 
from sterility, its physical resources 
regenerated, and Africa — whence 
civilization and the arts passed into 
Greece more than three thousand 
years ago, through Rome to England 
and thence to America — Africa the 
land once fruitful of heroes and 
scholars and christians, of Hannibal, 
Hanno, Jugurtha, Terence, Origen, 
TertuUian, Augustine, and Cyprian 
— of a race that wrought the pyra- 
mids, chiselled the proudest monu- 
ments of marble, and left in her tombs 
the evidence that she has done all 
for the material body but to give it 
eternal life — this Africa will be 
again raised to her place among civ- 
ilized nations, received to the circle 
of the human family, and for the civ- 
ilization she has, centuries ago, im- 
parted to others — repaid by civiliza- 
tion and CHRISTIANITY, TOO. 

There on the coast of Jlfrica, you 
now see the beau ideal of your great 
statesmen — a colony for our free 
colored people. There you see pre- 
cisely that which your predecessors 
in Assembly proposed in the first 
year of the present century, and sub- 
sequent legislatives repeated and 
urged bv reiterated decimosextal 
action in 1816 and 1832-3. The 
periodic time has again arrived, and 
in 1849 you are called on to con- 
sider these precedents, and to do what 
remains to be done — to use the colo- 
ny successfully founded, and now 
ripened into a nation — as a place of 
deportation for your free colored 
population who are awaiting your 
action, and in their comparitive de- 
pendence, reaching to take your 
counsel and your helping hand. 

The object of the American Co- 



lonization Society is to provide 
for the removal to Liberia of the 
free colored population of the Uni- 
ted States. All, except the aboli- 
tionists, agree in opinion that the 
object is gdid — good in relation to 
those who go, and to us whom 
they leave — to the black man and 
the white man — to both continents 
— to Africa and to America. In no 
subject perhaps is there a greater 
unanimity of opinion. Yet the work 
goes on slowly. With a nation's 
approval, it fails to secure a nation's 
energies. Much is done; but not 
enough. On no subject probably is 
your constituency more united, and 
the apathy that has so long prevailed 
is rapidly giving place to deep feel- 
ing, conviction, action. You can 
hardly now go before public senti- 
ment in bringing legislative action to 
bear on the great and benevolent ob- 
jects of Colonization Society. Every 
view of it is awakening. Take it, if 
you please, as a national measure, 
and as such, consider it in one aspect 
only — in its influence on the slave 
trade. By the Ashburton treaty our 
government is pledged to keep a 
naval force of 80 guns on the Afri- 
can coast to suppress this inhuman 
traffic. It cannot be doubted that, if 
the United States would settle their 
500,000 free negroes on the African 
coast, lining its exposed ocean border 
from Liberia to the Cape Colony, 
through SOOoflatitude, it might etTect 
on the whole coast, what Liberia, with 
her live or six thousand people have 
done through all her territory — the 
entire extinction of the slave trade. 
But the transportation and setdement 
on purchased land, of this half mil- 
lion at the maximum, would cost 
only $30,000,000, a capitation tax 
of not more than a dollar and a half 
on our entire population. Can we 
hope to make a better speculation in 
the next half century than that would 
be.^ Might not our mountains of 



48 



M£MOAUL TO THJL UUiiSLATUEE OF VIROINU. 



Tk* FwttiVM ofC%f* MoiMi. 



' well exclian^pt] 

i ic ia esiiinaled to have 

' \ ' iliau iwice iliat duin 

aiiuiisi irtmli'ss atlempt tu Mip< 
, - lilt? slave irailf. and tor many 
yearii. Francv ami ilie L'liileil Slalea 
havi? co-o|)iTalett wiih Kn>;land in 
mainiaining a large naval furce on 
tije African coaKt. How easily, llien, 
couUI theHe combined powers accom- 
plifli tliri>ii>!h I'oloiiizadon what llicy 
have iVuitU-ssly alit-inpled hv oilier 
means ? The work belongs prop- 
erly to the world. Shall nations 
combine t«) preserve a " balance u( 
jHJwer'' to prevent oppression, and 
shall they not co-operate to pive 
political birth to a nation, to redeem 
a continent ? 

The whole amount heretofore ex- 
pended by the American Coloniza- 
tion Society in the purchase of land, 
seniiing out emi<:runt8 and maintain- 
ing the {jovernment of Liberia; in 
prosecuting this experiment, now 
triuiii|)hantly comj)leled, falls short 
of a million of dollars. 'I'ake then 
an amount e<iual to that expcntled by 
the three ereat maritime powers, Eng- 
land. France and the United Slates, 
and fxptnd it in a judicious and i-x- 
I' I ii'l plan of ('Olonization in a co- 
t>;>i r.ilion with this Society; and all 
that has been done for I^iberia and 
her neighboring tribes, mijrht be done 
for Africa, with ita hundred millions 
of people. Kngland begins to see 
this, and Lord i'almerslon has spoken 
of placing at the dis|>o8al of President 
Roberts, s,l().0(H»— a sum which 
would hardly maintain one of her 
armed ships <>f the smalleM class for 
one year; and the President on the 
part of liiberia, has riii;ai;ed, for lliat 
sum. to purchase and drfend forever 
n.'nitint the slave trridr, the whole 
<if cdHst from Capr .Mdunt to 
■■'■'{ Ix'one, a dini.-tiico of 'J(XJ 
lailei. 

I^i the rjirisiiau world, then, come 



to this work and it will be done — 
done wiih u great saving of expense 
now uselessly employed — and it will 
be done at once. 'I'hu world can 
supply the means and the Coloniza- 
tion Society can furnish the plan and 
execute it. 

I^t t)n<;1and alone a|)ply her ex- 
penditures in tliis way and the work 
IS done. The simple interest for 
one year on the whole sum she has 
already expended would bring a 
revenue greater than all which Li- 
beria and her incalculable benelils to 
Africa have yet cost. 

Let the giivernmenl of the United 
Stales apply its expenditures through 
this channel and they will be made 
available to their objectjj twenty fold. 

Let Virginia consult her true in- 
terest in the expenditures for her 
free colored people, and see how 
much richer she may be. In the 
first place, she will be doing much 
in the great work of benevolence. 
She will add to the free coast popu- 
lation of Africa, (iO.OOU people. 
Worthless, and more tlian worthless 
here, we may yet suppose that, 
under the new motives of their new 
position, they would rise to what 
oiliers of their race liave done in 
similar circumslanrcs, to the charac- 
ter of industrious and useful citizens. 
They will constitute a strong and 
elUcient guard to defend the coast 
where they are colonized, against 
the approach of the slaver?, and 
exert an influence to civilize and 
christianize the interior tribes. Si- 
multaneously with the benefits ex- 
tended, \'irginia will receive four- 
fold into her own bosom. She will 
bo rill of her entire free cctlored 
population and all its present and 
apprehcndcil daiit'crs, with a pro- 
vision that the evil shall not apain 
accrue. She will lie rid of two-fifths 
of the crime ii«>w punished under 
her sinluies, with all the expense 
attending the loss of property to 



MEMORIAL TO THE LEGISLATURE OF VIRGINIA. 



49 



The Colonization Society — organization — Memorial to Congress. 



individuals in the acts of crime itself, 
and in the prosecution of the oflen- 
ders, in their maintenance in the 
Penitentiary, and in their bad in- 
fluence on others, especially on the 
slave population. | 

Is not this, then, a work that can 
be done — that ought to be done — 
and DONE NOW ? 

The public sentiiment of Vir- 
ginia on the subject of African Co- 
lonization has long been unequivo- 
cal and well defined. Her Legis- 
lature in December, 1800, adopted 
a resolution in secret session, re- 
questing the Governor, James Mon- 
roe, to correspond with the Pre- 
sident of the United Slates, Thomas 
Jefferson, to procure lands in Africa 
or some other foreign country, for 
this purpose. The first resolution 
on record is dated December 31, 
1800. A second, more definite and 
full, of the same import was passed 
on January 16, 1S02. Another, still, 
February 3, 1804 — followed up by 
still another, January 22, 180-5; in 
which last the Senators and Repre- 
sentatives of Virginia, in Congress, 
are instructed to use their efforts to 
obtain from the general government 
" a competent portion of Territory 
in the country of Louisiana,'' for 
colonizing our free people of color. 
In December, 1816, again the 
Legislature of Virginia passed the 
following resolution, with but nine 
dissenting voices in the House of 
Delegates and one in the Senate: — 
Besolved, That the Executive be 
requested to correspond with the 
President of the United States, for 
the purpose of obtaining a territory 
on the coast of Africa, or at some 
other place, not within any of the 
States or territorial government of 
the United States, to serve for an 
asylum of such persons of color as 
are now free, and may desire the 
same; and for those who may be 
emancipated within this Common- 



wealth, and that the Senators and 
Representatives of this Stale in the 
Congress of the United States, be 
requested to exert their best efforts 
to aid the President of tlie United 
States in the attainment of the above 
objects. 

Contemporaneously with these 
measures in the V^irginia Legislature, 
but a few weeks after the foregoing 
resolution, the American Coloniza- 
tion Society was formed in the city 
of Washington, through the agency 
of Gen. Chas. F. Mercer (who was 
the mover of the Virginia resolution.) 
and other noble Virginians before 
mentioned. Through the personal 
exertions of the same gentleman, 
aided by F. S. Key of Georgetown, 
Robert Purviance of Baltimore, and 
Bishop Meade of Virginia, a sub- 
scription of $5000 was obtained to 
defray the expenses of Messrs. Mdls 
and Burgess, who were employed to 
explore the coast of Africa in order 
to select a suitable place for the pro- 
posed colony. 

The Colonization Society was 
formed in the city of Washington 
December 21, 1816, and Bushrod 
Washingtort was appointed President 
with thirteen Vice Presidents — eight 
of whom were slaveholders, inclu- 
ding H. Clay of Kentucky, Wm. H. 
Crawford of Georgia, John Taylor 
of Virginia, Andrew Jackson of 
Tennessee, and General Mason of 
Georgetown, D. C, and a board of 
twelve managers, all of the District 
of Columbia. 

At the meeting which effected this 
organization, the Speakers were H. 
Clay, John Randolph, E. B. Cald- 
well, and Robert Wright of Mary- 
land. The Board of Managers were 
instructed "to present a memorial to 
Congress on the subject of coloni- 
zing, with their own consent, the 
free people of color of the United 
States, in Africa, or elsewhere." — 
This duty was ably and faithfully 



A 



MCAioHiAL TO THE LeouiaTua£ or viaoiflu. 

> 44 Dr. A|w»-Piw«baM otm tntH 9t taad Cor Ui* Cokw v 



execuieit L>y liiu Uaani, and the me* 
nonal WMi pre»i-iiu-ci by .Mr. Hmi- 
doljili, rt'lt-rri'ii lu a coiuiiiiitee who 
reportoil lavorably, coiu'ludiiig wiih 
a juial rt-suliiiiuii lur iiuuiediaie 
acuun. While perfecl unanimity 
aeenu-d to pie vail, ullier pressing 
busine!«s preventi-d lliu reMolulion 
fmin btfin^ called U]) at tiiat sesoion. 
On the loili or December, iMll.Copt. 
Richard 1". Siocklou and Dr. .Vyres, 
under auihoriiy ul (lie United Slates 
government and the Society, ellecled 
a purcliAse of a tract t>i' land lor the 
colony un which .Monrovia now 
Blandi<, and thus coinincnced thi: 
Afkua.v Colo.ny in fact, which wa.** 
conieiiiplaled in all the foregoing 
resuluiions of the Virginia Legisla- 
ture, and which was ihe germ of 
what, in its flower and fruit, is the 
Jiepuf/lic of Liberia, and which 
now invites to all the privileges and 
protection of a free and well consli- 
luied gijve.-nment, the free colored 
people of Virginia and her nisier 
States of this Inioii. 

Again in l832-;i, the Legislature 
of Virginia had the subject of Afri- 
can Culnni/alion before them, and 
appropriated ^y(J,(MJ(J to aid in peo- 
pling Ijberia with our own free 
colored populaiion. 'I'he law making 
this appropriation has never been 
rejwaled, and may, therefore, be re- 
garded, perhaps, as wanting nothing 
but another action of the Legislature 
providing the ways and means to 
make it available, and in equily with 
an addition of iiiterost, now e(|ualliiig 
the princi|ial. .All ihcse several rest)- 
lutioiiB and enaclinents have uniform- 
ly met the hearly approbation of the 
people at large. 

In view o| lliesc farts — call it be 
doubted that the mind of Virginih is 
made up' JJo you auk for public 
•rntimeiiir i'cad the history of the 
Omimonwcatth for the last half 
ccniury. Trace the rrrords of her 
legulation on this aubject by the 



references liere made. Abk. counsel 
t)f your coiidiiiuents in detail, ui 
yuur fireside sympathies, your ex- 
perience, your hopes, your just fears, 
your judgment, your pockets, your 
love of your country's glory and 
her fame. They all alike — with 
one voice, strong, harmonious, ad- 
monitory, — all say, ourjrce colored 
population ca.n be removed — orciii 
to he removed — and removed now. 
jS'ow, at the present session, let a 
bcgifiniuji be made. The comple- 
tion will require a course of years, 
be<.'in when you may. 

We have now arrived at the fol- 
lowing conclusions where 1 rL•^pecl- 
fully leave the hubject wilh you. 

\. It is desirable and necessary to 
both races that our free coloieJ peo- 
ple should be removed without delay 
from the State. 

2. Liberia, in Africa, is tlit ir prop- 
er home, and it is for their inierest 
to emigrate to that land of liberty and 
law. 

3. We extend to them their due 
share of justice and mercy when we 
provide for their removal there. 

•L The Colonization Society is a 
proper, convenient, and economical 
ugencv to elVect this removal. 

0. In makinj; a lil)eral appropria- 
tion for ibis olject, the present Lc- 
gidature is carrying out the opinions 
distinctly entertained and repeatedly 
expressed by former Legislatures of 
Virginia for half a century, and meet 
the public sentiment of their en- 
lightened constituency at the present 
lime. 

I). Notwithstanding the unvaried 
o|)inion of Virginia on tins sul>ject, 
expressed and approved, through u 
peri<id during whu-ii lur free negroes 
have quadrupled — nolwitliKlnnding 
kIic was early, it not fust, in a-tkiog 
for an .African Colony, and a liberal 
appropriation wan once made by her 
on its behalf, y«'t no contribution from 
our Treasury has ever been employ- 



LIFE MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



51 



Yirgiaia in Africa. — List of Life membera of tlie A. C. 8. 



ed in this object, althongh the thing 
desired has been done, and Liberia 
now stands out tlie wonder of the 
woHd, and the inquiry is already one 
of deep historical interest — who has 
done this? 

7. Finally, it belongs to the Le- 
gislature of 1849 — while we are as- 
serting our claim to a large inheri- 
tance in the fame of its founders — to 
link our name to that of Liberia, by 
an appropriation of an annuity amply 
sufficient to transfer within a reasona- 
ble time, our 60,000 free colored 
people to their father-land — and pre- 
serve all of local affection they may 
feel for the good old State of their 
nativity by giving them true freedom 



and dignity as free citizens of a sepa- 
rate State there, which we will call 
I VIRGINIA IN AFRICA. 

i To 

I Sm— 

The facts and reasonings contain- 
ed in the foregoing — addressed to the 
Legislature of Virginia through the 
Enquirer, the Republican and otiier 
papers, seem to be so correct and im- 
portant, that 1 take the liberty ear- 
nestly to ask your personal and 
studied consideration of them. 
Respectfully, 

R. W. BAILEY, Ag'loflhe 
Am. Col. Soc. for Va. 



ifc ill ember 3 cf X\}t American en U 1113 at inn ^actetp, 



"\Vf, publish below, a list of the names of 
all peisons who have been constituted Life 
Members of this Society, as perfect as we 
are at present able to make it. The first 
part of the list, which is arranged according 
to States, was published in 1834. The re- 
mainder of the names are arranged accord- 
ing to the order of time, and are put down 
at the place of their residence, when they 
became Life Members. 

It is our wish as soon as we can, to make 
out di perfect ZJsiof the living Life Members , 
with their j)rcscnl residence. 

We will be thankful to our friends to en- 
able us to supply any names not found in 
the following list, and to erase the names of 
such persons as have deceased, and to 
change the location of any who may have 
changed, and to make out in every respect, 
a perfect list. 

LIFE MEMBERS OF THE A. C. S. 

by the conlnbution of $'30 or upvjards at 
one time, to the funds of the Institution. 

MAINE. 
Rev. Seneca White, Bath. 
liev. S. L. Pomeroy, Bangor. 

Brunswick. 
John Dunlap, 
David Uunlap, 
Rev. T. C. Upham. 



Hallowell. 
Rev. S. Everett, 
Rev. E. Gillett, D. J). 

Kennebunk Port. 
Charles A. Lord, 
Daniel \V. Lord, 
Rev. J. P. Fessenden, 
Rev. C. H. Kent. 

Kennebtmk. 
C. W. Williams, 
Rev. N. H. Fletcher, 
Rev. D. Thurston, Winihrop. 

Portland. 
Rev. S. Tenbrook, 
Rev. ]\Ir. Ripley, 
Rev. Asa Cummings, 
Rev. Cyril Pearl, 
Rev. B. Tyler, 
Rev. G. S. Beckwith, 
Rev. Wm. T. Dwiglit, 
Rev. Mr. Douglass, Jlfred. 
Sarah Cleves, Saco. 
Rev. B. Tappan, Augusta. 
Gorham. 
Rev. Thaddeus Pomroy. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE 
Dover. 
Rev. J. N. Maffit, 
Joseph W. Clarv, 
Rev. J. Ward, Plymouth. 

Portsmouth. 
Samuel A. Elliot, 
Rev. Nathan Parker, D. D. 
Rev. J. B. Walerhouse, 
Rev. J. H. Towne, 

VERMONT. 
Charles Marsh, [Voodstock. 
Ethan Andrus, Middlebury. 



Lint MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN COLOlVlZATIOlf SOCIKTT. 



TbomA* Ciaerton. Wimdtar. 

R*v. J. K. Coovi 

Rev. DaniH D. 1 ...,..,. 

MASSACHLSErrs. 
Rer. O. Hrrnek. 

D. I.. Kaiwrll. t 

ColoDrl Uaviii >: 'field. 

.\<uj..rl. 

Rev. Orvillc iJewcy, 

Rev. William Palton. D. D. 

lira/toK, 
Rev. Mr. Seirlc. 
Rev. S. lloluic!), -Wir Htdford. 

Sitntuckft. 
Rev. S. F. Swia. 
Rev. Stephen liatley. 

l'li,muuih. 
Rev 1 

Kcv. ...11. 

Rev /, \\ ii..-, Ki> i^iton. 
Rev. John Allyn, Ihubury. 

Mendon. 
Rev. L. Bavlcy, 
Rev. Mr. G'.iille, 
Rev. K. HurKiss, lifdham. 
Friend Crane, Canton. 
Caleb Utile*. l)aiivtrs. 
Giort;c W. C'jiii|>l). ||, MilUbnt^. 
Honorable W. lU-.-.l. MarbUhead. 

IVilliamsloicn. 
F. M. Hubbard. 

Worcetter. 
Hon. Daniel Waldo. 

Salem. 
Rev. Mr. Babcork. 

Morthamptan. 
Tbomaa Napier. 

• Brighton. 
Rev. .Mr. Adams. 

Botlon. 

Mr. 15r.i ir..r.l 

Rev k». 

R'-v 

I 

:i.ftl. 



A. C lyuiiittanl, 
Fr«nri> VVmM« 

J- ■■ •• 

I. . : ..... i rancif, 
Jotrph I*. Ifradlpe, 

Mr I'lir.f. 



RHODE ISLAND. 
Rt. Ker. Bi»lio]i GiibMold, Briitol. 
Kiv. J. Briitol. 



Providence. 
♦ ^".no, 



Kev. «-• 
Kev. 

!u \ . \V. li. Ciucker, 
1 ! ::.a* F. Ives, 
.Nicholas Brown. 

CONNECTICUT. 
ti, . (> ., r..Mlei, I'lainjUld. 
I :-, .Vri* liar en. 

i ' , .Vrir liar en. 

Mtddtelown. 
Kev. Juliii K. Crane, 
Kev. Smilli P.iviie, 
Rev. .Mi. Htiiclie, 
V. B. llorton, 
Kev. K. Tylei, 
Kev. Mr. Cook»on, 
Rev. L:i\ius Hyde, Ellington. 
Elihu Cufie, Stmtbury. 
Kev. Abel McEvvcn, -Yeir London. 
Kev. Bethel J udd, 
Bcnoni B. Baiber, Hartford. 
Hon. Jonathan Brace, 
Jaincs M. Buncr. 

NEW YOKK. 
Rev. John Johii»un, Seubun:. 
Hon. Mr. Babcock, Pcnn Van. 

Mbany. 
John T. Norton, 
Hon. S. Van Kenitsclaer, 

C. Van Kensselaer, 
H. W. Ueldvan, 

E. C. Delavan, 

D. Wooil, 
Cami)l)ell, 
r. r„hl.ill. 



Jo»iaU Bi»el,* Hochetter. 

liloomjield. 
Rev. Cyrus Gildcr&icc. 

Cambridge. 
Kev. N. S. Prime, 
K(-\ . Dr. Bulloin:!, 
Charles J. Aldis. Brooklyn. 

yew I'ork City. 
Hfnri- Sheldon, 

I l-i'CllU», 

iii< 1 Prime, 
' 'en, 

■.If. 




t. VV 



i|>»on, 
blrinurenucr. 



John IMton, 



Hrnrj i.irnow, 

R'v Vrancit Parkmao. 
RoUtX O. Hhaw. 
R«v. J. N. Danfurth. 



lead, 

.M<( urdy, 
Haines, 



LIFE MEMBERS OF THE AMEilICAN COLOMZATIO.V SOCIETV, 



53 



Life Mcmbera. 



John Ha^s^erty. 
'I'm man iiob<Tts, 
James Bajri;«, 

C. H. Kussc-ll, 
J'eter Crarv, 

D. C. Pon'.r, 
-N'athaniel WpciI, 
Thomas H. Faile, 
Robert Dyson, 
Charles Graebp, 
Col. Henry Riitger?,* 
Rev. Nathan iidn^s. 

Rev. Gardner 8[)rin^, D. D. 

Matthew L. Claikson, 

Jlev. Dr. Miliior," 

Rev. James M. Matthews, D. D. 

Rev. (rilbert H. Livingston, 

Rev. Mr. Snocigrass, 

Rev. S. H. Cone, 

George Gallagher, 

Anson G. Phelps, 

Arthur Tappan, 

Rev. S. II. Cox, 

Rev. H. Anthon, 

John M"Comb, 

JMoses Alien, 

Samuel Ward, 

<ieorge Griswold, 

James J}oorman, 

Lemuel Brewster, 

P. Perit, 

John W. Leavitt, 

Joseph Brewster, 

G. M. Wilkins, 

Gideon Lee, 

Isaac S. Howe,' 

Peter G. Stuyvesant,. 

Rufus L. Lord, 

Benjamin L. Swann, 

Cornelius W. Lawrence, 

John Johnston, 

E. Wainwright. 

Geneva. 
C. Butler, 
S. M. Hopkins, 
Rev. Ezra D. Kenney, Champlain. 

Fishkill. 
Rev. W. S. Heyer. 

West Point 
Lieut. Z. J. D. Kinsley. 
Uiica.. 
Thomas H. Hubbard. 

Salem^ 
Rev. Dr. Proudfit. 

Troy. 
Jacob Merritt, 
Joseph Russell, 
Jedediah Tracy, 
Robert D. Silliman, 
John T. McCoun, 
Stephen Warren, 
John P. Cushman. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 
Hon. David Pots, Jr. 
Rev. E. F. Cumming, Reading. 
4 



Peter Baldy, Danvillr. 

Rev. J. Nolf, Delaware county. 

^Philadelphia. 
Rev. Thomas G. Alien, 
Robert Ralston, 
Gerard Ralston, 
Mathew Care}', 
Elliott Cresson, 
Samuel Archer, 
Richard Dale, 

Rev. William A. Muliienburg, 
Rev. J. Janeway, 
Rev. Bishop White, 
Alexander Henry, 
Mr. Dandridge, 
Solomon Allen, 
Rev. Ezra S. Ely, D. D. 
Rev. Albert Barnes, 
Solomon Allen, 
Rev. William M. Engles, 
Rev. Samuel G. Winchester, 
Rev. William L. McCalla. 

Danville. 
P. Baldy. 

Reading. 
Rev. F. H. Cummin. 

Abington. 
Rev. Robert Steel. 

Pittsburg. 
Charles Brewer. 

NEW JERSEY. 
Thomas L. Janeway, Rahway, 
P. A. Johnson, Morristown. 

Newark, 
Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, 
C. H. Shipman, 
Rev. Dr. Beasley, Trenton. 

Elizabethtown. 
Rev. Eli Mechlin. 

Princeton. 
Capt. R. H. Stockton. 

MARYLAND. 
James R. Williams, 
Rev. William H. Campbell, 
J. C. Herbert, 
Hon. G. Duval, 

Miss F. A. Cheston, West River. 
H. H. Chapman, Annapolis. 
Fredericldown, 
J. L. Smith, 
Richard Potts. 

Williamsport. 
Jacob Tovvson, 
Rev. Isaac Kellar. 

Hagerstown. 
Rev. Mr. FuUerton. 

Baltimore. 
Charles Carroll of Carrolton,* 
J. N. D. Arey and H. Didier, 
A. Fridge and William Morris, 
James W. M'Culloch, 
Nathaniel F. Williams, 
J. Campbell and J. Ritchie, 
Wilson Millikens and Co. 
Amos A. Williams, 



64 



LIFE MEMBF.RS OF THE AMEBirvN COLONIZATIOX •OCIETT. 
1 >ic Maabcrt. 



Itaac M'Kiui. 

John K H -A-irJ. 

K 

T. 

Al HotuM, 

T! •.!. 

p. 

Jl'' ■ 

j.uui.c;a. 

Mr. Von Capf, 
J. 1. Cohen, 
Luke Tieiiiiii. 
John Purviance, 
Richard Caton, 
William Ty»on, 
N. Ty»on, 
Andrew Kllicolt, 
Ja- F"- -t. 

li "on, 

J.: ■■■ ■■■ -y. 

PbiJip K. i'tiucnu, 

Evan Thomasi, 

J. B. Morris, 

Robert G. Harper.* 

Robert Oliver. 

Roswell L. Colt, 

K.J. Coalc,' 

John Barr, 

William E. George. 

I,. P. Barrows, 

John Small, 

K. H. Douglass,* 

r. Edmonoston. 

VIRGINIA. 

James Madison. Montpelier. 

Needham Wasbinijlon. 

General John H. Cocke. F'------ • 

Rev. John Cooke. Han 

Mn. L. G. Wyche, Br 

R*v. James Boyd. I^vin^^lun. 

Edward Colston, UrrkUy conntg. 

Hon. C. K. Mercer, Ltttbur^. 

Hev. Overton Bernard. .Su4»cx county. 



James H. Marsha!! h 
Rev. Z. Meade. . 
Fa,' 
William H. Kitzhujjii. 
ThomM Fairfax, 



coitn/y. 

.nty. 



.1 I'emon 



J. il. Coke, Arir Canton. 

SJupturdtlotcn. 
James L. Lane, 
Rev. John Matthews. 

Louden county. 
Georgr Carter, 
John Rose. 

Halifax county . 
Rev. Cbtrie* Vn^m-r. 
General E < 
Walter C. < 

: ..... .^Jxtbuig 

Hon. lliiKh Merc«r, 



Mrs. Louua Mercer, 
John Gray, 
Mrs. M. h. Blackford. 
' Thomas Uulhngton. IJiMfondol. 
i Abr/W/.-. 

John M'Phiil. 
Wilbam Maxwell. 

Romney. 
Rev. John M'Donald, 
John M'Uowell. 

Rev. G. Lenimon, Fauquir county. 
Joteph Cowan, Juguita county. 

Louita county. 
Colonel D. Bullock. 

Richmond. 
Hon. J. .Marshall, 
Rev. J. H. Turner, 
David I. Burr, 
Rev. S. Taylor, 
William Crane, 
Fleming James. 

Charleston, Jejferion county. 
Mr.'. Elizabeth Whiting. 
J. T. A. Washington, 
Rev. A. Jones. 

Mount Laurel. 
John T. Clark. 

[Frederick county. 
Philip Burwell. 
I Rev. William .Meade, 
i Richard K. Meade, 
I David Meade, 
j! John MiltoD, 
i William Gainegy, 
r Hiit;li Holmes, 
!] Oliver Tunston, 
James Ship. 
N.ithani«'l Burwell, 

.san Mi-.id.-.* 
Miss Mary Meade, 
Lucy Meade. 
Rev. A. Bclmain, 
Daniel Lee, 
Mp*. Ann R. Page, 
Vir*. N orris, 
William Hay, Senior, 
I.. . H M. Hite. 
I Ki-rfoot, 
J.i;:.i " Somers, 
U illiam Mitchell, 
Hol..rt Berkley, 
j James Davis, 
I Strphen Davis, 
I Mils Judith Blackburn. 
I Rev. Dr. Hill. 
Hon. Robert White. 
< I' ; h.ih Waite. 
I • . B:\ker. 
I I .ilh, 

j I :,tleniy, 

I luoti, 

I 1 

j M ! i. !>uni, 
' Grurg* Uurwrll. 



LIFE MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



65 



Life Members. 



Powhatan county. 
William Pope, 
S, Jones. 

' Petersburg. 
Charles Bruce, 
Charles Brewer, 
Kev. William M. Atkinson. 

NORTH t AROLINA. 
Rev. J. Caldwell, Chapel Hill. 
J. B. Skinner, Edenton. 

Hillsboro\ 
Rev. John Witlierspoon. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 
Charleston. 
Rev. B. L, Palmer, 
Rev. C. Gadsden, 
Jasper Corning, 
Thomas S. Grirakej 
William Smith, 
I\Ir. Poins-tt, 
Mr. Gibbs, 
Rev. Mr. Payson, 
Robert Smith, 
Major Vamierhest, 
John Anson, 
Isaac Ball, 
William Claikson, 
Charles C. Pinkney, 
Mrs. Russel, 
Rev. J. J. Roberts, Edgefield. 

GEORGIA. 
Hon. Wro. H. Ciavvford, 
William Walker, 
Wm. Rabun, Milledgeville. 
Savannah. 
Mrs. Lydia Anciaux, 
Rev. D. Baker. 

Augusta. 
Robert Campbell, 
James Harper, 
Rev. S. K. Talmadge, 
George Hargraves. 

ALABAMA. 
Rev. J. Allyn, Huntsvitle. 

MISSISSIPPI, 
Hon. Edward McGehee. 
Natchez. 
Dr. John Ker. 

LOUISIANA. 
Rev. Dr. J. P. Thomas. 

New Orleans. 
W. W. Caldwell, 
Alfred Hennen, 
Judge Porter, 
Judge Workman,* 
John McDonogh, 
John Linton, 
John S. Walton. 

TENNESSEE. 
Na hville. 
Hon. J. T. Sandford, 
Mrs. Hetty Mc Erven. 

KENTUCKY. 
Rev. R. Rihh, Russclville. 



Calvin Duncan, Fayette county. 
J. H. M'Clure, Newport. 

Maysvitle. 
Rev. Wm. S. Breckenridge, 
Rev. Edward Stephenson. 
JJanville. 
Rev. J. C. Young. 

OHIO. 
Cinciiviali. 
Hon. Mr. Burnett, 
Stephen Burrows, 
Henry Emerson, 
George Graham, Jr. 

Cadiz. 
Robert Hanna. 

ILLINOIS. 
Governor E. Coles, Edwardsville. 
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

IVashirrgton. 
Judge Cranch, 
William Thornton,* 
Henry Clay, 
R. R. Gurley, 
Richard Harrison, 
Elias B. Caldwell,* 
Rev. Luther Rice, 
James C. Dunn, 
John Coyle, 
Phineas Bradley, 
Rev. Reuben Post, 
Walter Lowrie, 
Peter Force. 

Georgetown 
Mrs. Harriet B. Macomb, 
John Laird,* 
Francis S. Key, 
John Mason, 
J. T. Shaff,* 
Henry Foxall,* 
Richard Potts, 

Rev. Dr. Wilmer,* .Alexandria. 
Monsieur Hyde de Neuville, France. 
Rev. Jonas King, Greece. 

ENGLAND. 
Sir Arthur Brook, 
S. R. Wiley. 

London, 
Mr. Canning, 
B. Smith, 
W. Allen Ilankey, 
Samuel Mitchell, 
Baron Gurney, 
Benj. Hawes, M. P. 
J. J. Briscoe, M. P. 
W, Evans, M. P. 
Russell Scott, 
Robert Barclay, Bury HilL 
James Meek, Vorlc. 
Hannah Murray, 
Nathan Dunn, 
Wm. Smith, Doncaster. 
Luke Howard, 
Sarah Fox, Wellington. 

Saffron IValdcn 
George Wyett Gibson, 



Lire MUIBUU OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCICTr. 



Life Mcaiter*. 



Jtb<»t Gitxori. 
I ■•<ii.*i« C>ibM>:i, 
*|4'¥ LitbaOU. 

•i (Jnrnpv, 

J .III! I'.nl 



■'!. 



SortcicA. 



■ t Urrsn. 
iMiri. HuiLitri/uU. 



. A. :>. 

-. t'olchetttr. 

. C. 
■ >■ ii'i J<>it*o>i, Ipswich. 
I " I'rjiicf, 
.1 Stoll, 

• l).>ii»l.i»s, Cicrrt. 
1. Smth. Ohiry. 
' Dun .•last, Cirrri. 
Uicli«r>l'Miii, StuH/urd Hill. 
'la.Cid riicli ir<l>toii. 
— Lrtn'", t'rankt^rlii. 

i iti l*L-He, I.rrlt. 

\. • II Pdrkt-r. Stttifitld. 
\ . ■■ Dale, Tulltnhant. 
It-vrrifux durtlry, Cirencttler. 



.ri.|,.v, lAvfrp<MU. 
.1 :. I'fieltriOiOm. 

i.^i , itaif it. LJm/nds. 
- .iillj. 
.1 n lUrland. Z)tti'Au.it. 

1 •liAlck. 

UK \^ ilker, SUKktuii. 
Aim Kvrr.ir«l. 
!(••»•. K. Hut;iti<ion. /M/. 
\V':!l::jt;i Nlaiwy, SfiauUtilg. 
I . mtll. tinttol. 

■ f. Urwt lirotn. 
. . '-.- intra. 
> . .' !i, ■■ ,rv, l.inrolnthin. 

\N J..UI I. I) 1 '. iiitui), Hcui Ovrvugh. 

Krv (i B. KkM. 

):. , i!. , > ,, . r. ■■ s 



1m I 

Mifv I. l^rky. h 
>.iU4b-Ul I'lkr. ' 

K«». K. \S 



\ \l) 



CornMrall, I'a 

V. V. 

.u. I. II,. 



Kww«ii 1 . C«.tiictU, Smm v><i««ia, L*. 



Dorothy GodJio, Soinerville, Ala. 
Hev. J. W. Uu<i:^ii«», Kayeltrville, N, C. 
Kraiicii Sluuti, W. HuckUiiil, \ t. 
Kil>*>l. CliMiieiit, Cdrriii^toii, Va. 
VV. C. l'i.-»i.ni. .lo. «io. 

I Hrv. Mr. Curkraii. Svw Providftice, N.J. 

, Krv. J.xl Parker. L>. U„ Nck* Orl«ait», L«. 

Jn«r|ili(>. VN'allon, il'i. do. 

, .Mr». Hurrii-t Parker, do. do. 

J4IUC* K. VValtod, d.j. do. 

' K«-v. A. n. I.awr«'iic<?, do. do. 

Ucv. J. I.. L'Urkp, Sliirbrid^f, MdM. 

/••bnliiii il'iilpf. Port Gii>«oii, .\lis»i»»ip|ii. 

VVi.i. Wn<'it. N»i.riiiy Co.. Oliio. 
I K.-V. J. r. i:.li.«r. I). 1)., .\«iljville, Ten. 

ij. WVir. l.iMdii^ixM. Kv. 
Nor. nan Poi er. L<'Xili;:(or», Kv. 
(». R. L»-vvi», Nr-vv London, Conn. 

.Mary C (NhMrn, do, do. 

KoluTt Cdiit-r Pa<e, lilinoit. 

W. Il'ittun. If. S. >irtvy. 

}{>•;. JiHiti. r. .Sii-jriiH, .Wwbnryport, .M^« 

K. KradituM, Lfxin^ton. \ >t. 
! J. P. H. \|.i<vvell. Uellville. \. J. 

Jiilin Ho|>pv\cll. .MiKifpiiidd, Va. 

Moti. J. \V. .Ml."!. Kenliic^v, Ky. 

Uavid Karri!<, Triddiflidnii, \ a. 

\tr-<. \\.\t\ Mrrnvn, <li>. di>. 

Mr«. borothy H«Tvy, V*'ellsuur<. Vj. 

lit'v. Ilu;;li McMiiUn, Xt-nia, Ubio. 
i Walter Menon. iNorlolk, Va. 

Edwil. S. Ppfjraai, do. d<«. 
, W. L). Johnson, do. do. 

Rev. \V. VViiinani, Cefitrcvilli', Mns. 

Rev. VVui. Laii.;iii, Clinlon. La. 

Rev. W. M. Watkino, New Orleans, L*. 

Rev. Klljab Sleeie, VVo<Mlville, .Miss. 
I Krv. iienj. .\L Drake, .\.itchrz, Mi:^. 
I Key. J. J. e. Uynl, KranUin. .Mi-it. 

.Mi«<* Sarah Lane, .Mainhall, .\Li>s. 

.MitH Kti4<-nia Lane, do. do. 

Rfv. W Kinnt-y, Wheeling, \ a. 

Kev. JohnSMan, .Massilon, Ohio. 

Kev. O. N. Sajje, do. do. 

Rev. J. C Suiiih, Washiiiicton Cily, D. C. 

Rev. Charif!) Ciininiui!!, Florida, N. Y. 

Uev. RobtTl I*. Lee, .MonlKonuM) , \. Y. 

Rev. Jainc« K Johnston. Goohen, .\. Y. 
, Riv. Uaac Hurd. K».ler, N. M. 
! Rev. Lvuiau li. AlM.ilfr, Fairlicid, Coon. 
I Hon. Hotter .M. Sliennan, do. do. 

Rev. Robi. M. Wall.ire. Liiile Hniaiii, N.Y. 

K.-V. K. Pfire, W a,.|..;i.: r.. \. V. 

Krv. Fiancia Kip Fi^iikill. .N. Y. 

Rev. C. Van Clcel, .New ilackiuaack. N. Y; 

H iij. Kverelt. do do. 

R-v, Ab.ii. Polhemus Fi»hkill. N. Y. 

Rirbd C. Van VV\ck, do. . do. 

^' ^ n do. do. 

'. Newport, K. L 

I I, do. d'v 

' W. li. Mui(i.iii, Oo. bo. 

Dead 



LIKE MEMBKUS OK THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 
Life Members. 



57 



Rev. H, A. Diiment, Newport, R. I. 

Rev. Jacob Green, liedlorii, N. Y. 

Rev. R. B. C. Mcl.eod, Dovvnst)uriih, N. Y. 

Rev. R. Frame, S. Salem, N. Y. 

John McClure, Wheeling, Va. 

Reddick McKee, do. do. 

Z. Jacobs, do. do. 

D. Aijnew, do. do. 

Andrew Woods, do. do. 

John List, ilo. do. 

Rev. J. Hiirlbut, New London, Conn. 

J. D. Bradley, Br.iitleboion^h, Vt. 

Daniel Baldwin, AIoiit[)elier, Vt. 

Rt. Rev. Bishop Hopkins, JVlonlpelier, Vt. 

Rev. Charles Fav, tlii;h Gale, Vt. 

J. M. D. Mclntyre, Albany, N. Y. 

C. \). Townsend, no. do. 

Justin Ely, West S|)rinijtield, Mass. 

Hon. Mills Olcott, Hanover, N. H. 

J. N. Gordon, Richmond, Va. 

Win. V. Smith, Faiis, Kv . 

Dr. J. L. Cabell, CdarloUesvilie. Va. 

Mrs. Marttia ArmisteHii, Buckingham, Va. 

Rev. Jos. F. B irtei, Everetlsville, Va. 

Miss Frances Giklersleeve, Elizabeililown, 

New Jersey. 
Rev. F. VV. Smith, Essex, JV. J. 
Rev. J. MattocKs, do. do. 
Mrs. Atv>ater, Fairfield, Conn. 
Rev. N. Wilson, Winchester, Va. 
Rev. E. P. Humphrey. D.l).. Louisville, Ky. 
Col. C. Cairiiigion, Millwood, Va. 
Rev. James Morrison, t-{rowrisburi;h, Va. 
Rev. Silas Billmtrs, Woodstock, Va, 
Rev. George Addie, Leesbur^h, Va. 
Rev. Win. \ewall, CaiHbrid^e, Mass. 
Rev.Theodrick Pryor, Blacks & Whiles, Va. 
Francis A. Evans, Piuckneyville, Miss. 
Mrs. Lucy A. Evans, do. do. 

Mrs. Sarah B. Evans, do. do. 

Mrs. Ann L. Clinton, Centreville, Miss. 
Rev. Isaac Cohran, Pr. Edward C. H., Va. 
Dr. Corbin Braxton, King Wm. C. H., Va. 
Robert Wm. Hughes, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Thomas Biuce, Halifax Co., Va. 
Rev. Charles H. Page, Louisville, Ky. 
C. W. Short, M. D , do. do. 

Mrs. Weed, Wheeling, Va. 
Mrs. Jno.McClure, do. do. 
Mrs. John List, do. do. 
J. C. Lambdin, do. do. 
Rev. Win. Armstrong, do. 
Mrs. Z. Jacobs, do. do. 
H. Hart;Tave, Columbus, Georgia, 
Wm. Miller, Louisville, Ky. 
Rev. N. Chevalier, Chrisiiansburgh, Va. 
Rev. Stephen F. Cocke, Fincastle, Va. 
Rev. Henry H. Paine, Clifton Forge, Va. 
Rev. Ml'. Ross, Kingsport, Tenn. 
Rev. John Whltoii, Enrteld, Mass. 
Rev. Allred Ely, D. D., Monson, Mass. 
Deacon A. W. Porter, do. do. 

Prof. J<ihn Kendrirk, Marietta, Ohio. 
Rev. EJvuu Holt, I'ortsmoulli, N. H. 



Rpv. J. T. Mitchell, Chicago, Illinois. 

Mrs. Mitchell, do. do. 

Waller Irving, Washington, Miss. 

Wn,. B. Banister, Newport, Miss. 

Prof. J . L. Cauott, Chailottesville, Va. 

Mrs. Martha Armistead, Buckingham C. 
H , Virginia. 

Rev. E. 1 eiiney, Hanover, N. H. 

Kev. Henry Wood, College Plains, N. H. 

Kev. A. B. McCorkle, Augusta Co., Va. 

R. Sterling, Fiedeiicksburgh, Va. 

Rev. VV. S. Plumer, D. D., Richmond, Va. 

Rev. A. D. Pollock, do. do. 

Rev. John Leyburn, Petersburgh, Va. 

Rev. iV. II. Cobbs, do. do. 

Rev. W. Brown, Augusta, Va. 

Rev. B. F. Stanton, Farmville, Va. 

Rev. Andrew Hart, Charlotte, Va. 

Rev. J. K. Converse, Builington, Vt. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Leveretl, Plymouth, N. H. 

Rev. R. C. Blodget, Pawtucket, R. I. 

Rev. Thomas Shepherd, Bristol, R. L 

Rev. W. G. Cain[)belt, Lewisburgh, Va. 

Rev. John McUhaiiy, do. do. 

Rcv. Stephen Taylor, Abingdon, Va. 

Rev. U. Powers, Salem, Va. 

Rev. Francis V^inton, Newport, R. I. 

Rev. I.,evi Smith, East Windsor, Conn. 

Charles Rockwell, Norwich City, Conn. 

Rev. Win. H. Tollard, Laurel Hill, Va. 

Rev. N. Harding, Milton, N. C. 

Rev. T. G. Doak, CJarksville, Va. 

Rev. B. T. Northrop, Alanchester, Conn. 

Rev. Alvan Bond, Norwich City, Conn. 

Rev. Setli B. Paddock, do. do. 

Hon. Elias Perkins, New London, Conn. 

Rev. V^m. White, Virginia, Va. 

Wm. Sherrnon Hunter, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Prof. Hadduck, Dartmouth College, N. H. 

John M. C. Irving, Lexington, Ky. 

Rev. T. Thayer, Newport, R. L 

Rev. Wm. Hamersley, Campbell Co., Va. 

Mrs. Paulina LeGrand, Charlotte C.H., Va. 

Rev. J. P. Anderson, Danville, Va. 

Jas. C Halsell. Charlottesville, Va. 

Wm. Jenkins, Providence, R. I. 

Rev. J. Leavitt, do. do. 

Rev. Mark Tucker, do. do. 

Rev. Thomas P. Field, Danvers, Mass. 

Rev. Francis L. Robins, Enfield, Conn. 
; Thomas Paul, Esij., Wheeling, Va. 

Rev. A. C. Dickerson, Bowling Green, Va. 
j Lewis Thompson, Woodville, N. C. 
: Rev. John Richards, Hanover, N. H. 
' Sylvanus Sterling, Bridgeport, Conn, 

Ira Sherman, do. do. 

Rev. Nathl. R. Hewitt, do. ao, 

Wm. R. Peters, Bloomfield, N. J. 

John J.Jackson, Parkersburgh, Va. 

Rev. John L. Taylor, Andover, Mass. 

Win. Bisland, Natchez, Miss. 

Jos. Archer, do. do. 

Rev. Beiij. Jones, Woodville, Miss. 

John Wh'itaker, Whitesville, Miss. 



M Urt UIMBKM* or THK A>I&R4CA> COLOMZATIO.V SOCIKTT. 

~ "^ Life M»Bib»r. 



fh*fli'« i;«r liner. New Urleuu, U» 

Kc». I'r VV'iralon, do. «lu 

J,. Ill, do. (to. 

J . r. WooJvillf, MlM. } 

.M Vrfhcr. Jo. ilo. 

1) I'aniliiie, N. Y. ! 

M < '. Kv I 

A.o. .McJ. »•■..<•. r ^ ' 

Kr» IVi-i Parker 

J..; •• : 

Jo 

R. . , . ^ 

Lyman >4iilor«l Alwairr, Kairnelii.Conii. 
lAfvi (;«r'.<.\. \. ,v YtV. 
Kotvvrn N. V. 

Krv. K 

W," , .-.i^ riji....|. .\. Y. 

\S do. do. 

hi _ - , , «1". do. 

Lewit Hnwrll. i!ii. do. 

t'h«ri<^ r. Draring, d<>. do. 

Mr». Cojii". t\o. ilo. 

Hr\ . Kli'h \ I'limrr.dr^at Barriti^ton.Mass. 
Hrt LhicjIii Hi[.1pV, Watrrlord. .M*ilie. 
K^v. K G. Bibcock. Th^tlor I. Vi. 
Krv. ^V. K. Halicock. (Jjr.lincr. Main'. 
Krv. lri.,;:in Coit, New Uochell.N. V. 
(".•()! H--iiiy ('arsons, <lo. do. 

SaiiiU'-l «>. Moorr, Albiiii.irlf, Va. 
K«'V. F. I). (»'»i.,|enati, Slaiiiiton, Va. 
KfV. Jidm .""kitiiKT. LL-xin::ton, Va. 
Oliver SjiiOi. H^trflJ, Mas«. 
Hev. Hnirv Wjl, do. do. 
Jonatlun >{vd«. Hdth, Mdiio*. 
Hun Jo^.K.Kaul )lr.h,NVvv Hriin«wick,NJ. 

Kev. ( ■ ; V.N. Y. 

M.C.I ' 'iin. 

Kev. W ; , II City. O.C. 

Capt. Wiiiiainion. C'liarlcBton, S. C 

Johr; !<»'V!r-/<-, NV'.vljiir;;h, N. Y. 

M -. (irt. Harrint^lon, MiM. 

1 (arbor. N. Y. 

\S .,u. do. 

)(■ ock, f;«nlinrr, Main^ . 

\l. net, |{«vcrhill, .Ma»!i. 

Tljrtj. Krr|iii|;hiiya«n, Emi., Newark, N. J. 



1 ljr<j. r rrliiiKhiiyaen, t.Mi., IN 
l)f. KflnttT, Jpr>o^ <*itv, N.J 



M 
1 

«.. 

.Mr.. .N 
Mr. > 

K I. \. 
It-v I 
.Mlv Ni 
IC-s J 

K-v J 
!»■ (i 



wbiirv|>oit, Mw*. 

,.1, Va. 

a!l, Ohio. 

•, du. do. 
!i-f,irk. Va. 



ili'ii iliu", * 'iiio. 

II, lihiiana. 
do. 

111. 
.h.,r-h.M.V. 

V > 



1 \. I" H. Kiltri-.ijj.-, We»lboro(i»h. .Mas.. 

».. k. A. A. \V»d. W. Springfield, Mass. 

Kcv. .\. tjajj'. Ware Village, Mass. 

Rrv Calvin Hitchcock, U. D., Randolph. 
Ma*«arliu««tt!t. 

Mr«.Kllen .M. Cruwrunt, North .\dains, Mas*. 
Rev. Jaiiic* Untes. GrKiiby, Mast. 

Dea. John T. Farwell, Kitchburj, Mass. 

Rev. i;. W. .Mcl'hail. Fiedericksbur^h, Va. 

Rev. H. Frost. Concord, Ma«s. 

Rev..M. i'. Hmnian, Suuth Dauvers. Matt. 

.Mrs. Maiy i'. liiainan. do. do. 

K. A. Pearson. K<>i)., Harvarii, Mass. 

.Mrs. .Mart^arct hi. Hlanchard, liarvard,.Mu. 

Rev. Mr. Fill. I|>"»wich, Mass. 

Rev. .M. «;. Wliiiler. Williamsburg. Mast. 

Rev. J. ' ' ' • ■ t ■ N J. 

Mrs. jN Conn. 

Rev.F.t. .:,Ma»s. 

, Rev. John WM>iltiriilt;e.l>.l>..H>iuic\ ..MaKt. 

Rev. Samuel C. Hartlett, .Monson, Mass. 

Rev. .Sauiiiel Hunt, .N'atick. Ma««. 

Rev. I). C. Uodk. Clarksville. Va. 

James HavNvaril, K»(j.. Bonton. Mass. 

Jared Sparks. Ks(j , C.«fnl>rid;;e. .>la»a. 

.Miss Rebecca Kiiiredce. I'nrlsnioiith. N. H. 

.\hnihain Vanmetcr, fclsq., Lexini;ton, Ky. 

Col. R. (jnarlt, do. do. 

Cassius M. Clay, Kiq., do. do. 

M. r. Scfdl. Ksij., do. do. 

David A. Sayre. Ksq., do. do, 

B. W. Dudley, M. D., do. do. 

Rev. .Morris K. While, Southampton. Mass. 
■ Kev. John H. Bri»bep, Worlhin};ton, Masi. 

Jonathan .\. Hydo, t'licslerville, Maine. 

F.ilward C. Hyd.-. Bangor. Maine. 

.Mr*. Jane Kfll, I'micelon. |iid. 

William Rodi-s, I.exiii^too, Ky. 
I Gen. James i^helby, do. do. 

F. Uewes. do. do. 

R. C. Bo^cs, Athens, Ky. 
' James Kinbry, do. do. 
I Hector I'. Lewis, Lexingtnn, Kv- 
i Rev. Timolliv .\.Ta)lor.Slaier»ville, R. L 

.Valhaniel Winn, Danville. Ky. 

Dea. Charles Bennett, Fairlield, Conn. 

Owin D. Willi., Athens, Kentucky. 

Richard Spurr, do. do. 

Itolx-rt .Marshdll, do. do. 

John (iess. lio. do. 

i Jas. Valandini;liam, do. do. 

; Thoin.-i* H. Shrlbv. Lexinpton, Ky. 

Her.ctuI Fo I dliio. 

W. Wri-ht. \'. Vt 

Kev. John Willi. » ... ,». iiiij:. Portland, Me. 

D. Hender..on, JeriM v CiH. .N. J. 
.\bel Conner, Henmler, .N. H. 
Major John Alexander, l.exiiifilon, Va. 
Kev. K. Kdwin ILdl. (Miilfoid, Conn. 
Mrs. Jane .Mc.\I»»tei». I'uncelon, Ind. 
Ir^. .\nn FleminiMi;, do. do. 

K.v D. M lUmil'on. Ttumansbur^.N. Y. 
< iistirs .N. 1 aMmiI, Ksi|., New York. N. Y. 
Mis. K. M .Muiiiue, do. du. 



LIFE MEMBERS OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



59 



Life Members. 



Mrs.Har't.Doiislas Criiger,N'ew York.N.Y. 
Geort^e Uoiiglas, Esq., do. do. 

William Douglas. Esq., do. do. 

Rev. Abiel Abbot, Peterhorougli, N. H. 
William H. Hubbard, Esq., Richmond, Va. 
Hon. P. White, Putney, Vt. 
Zina Hyde, E.<q., Bath, Maine. 
T. W. GiUis, Esq., Nashua, N. H. 
Miss Harriet btcbbins, Boston, Mass. 
Rev. John M. C. Bartley, Hainjistead, N. H. 
Mrs. Emeline Rockwell, Norwich, Conn. 
Thos. McMullen, Esq., Albany, N. Y. 
Israel Searle, Es(j., Southamfiton, Mass. 
Dr. J. C. Richardson, Fayette, Kj'. 
Daniel Fry, Esq., Albany, N. Y. 
Dea. T. Walker, Rockville, Mass. 
Harvey Baldwin, Esq., Hudson, Ohio. 
Mrs. Perses Bell, Chester, N. If. 
Mrs. R. W. Franci.s, Burlington, Vt. 
Prof. Geo. \V. Benedict, do. do. 
Rev. G. L. Brownell, Sharon, Conn. 
Joseph S. Fay, Esq., Savannah, Georgia. 
Noble A. Hardee, Esq., do. do. 

A. Knapp, Esq., Mobile, Ala. 
A. Gascoigne, do. do. 
Miss Eli/,abelh Bertram, Jamaica, N. Y. 
Dean Walker, East Medvvay, Mass. 
Mrs. C. P. Hall, Dayton, Ohio. 
J. Early, Esq., l..a Porte, Ind. 
Samuel Organ, E.sq., do. do. 
Jacob Fuller, Sr , Esq,, Lexington, Va. 
Moses Kittridge, St. Johnsbury, Vt. 
Rev. Benjamin R. Allen, South Berwick, Me. 
Erastus C. Scranton, Esq., Madison, Conn. 
J. H. Scranton, Esq., Augusta, Ga. 
P.Smith Hollovvay,Esq. Henderson Co.,Ky. 
Rev. B. H. Williams, Natchez, Miss. 
Mrs. Eliza Smith, Carlisle, Mass. 
Rev. John Gretter, Greensboro', N. C. 
Mrs. Martha Boggs, Walnut Hill, Ind. 
Rev. Wm. Wilson, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
R, W. Keys, Esq., do. do. 

Alex. Guy, Esq., do. do. 

Mrs. Hannah, Pittsburg, Penn. 
Rev. H. McMillan, Xenia, Ohio, 
William Bixby, Esq., Francistown, N. H. 
Isaac Shelby, Esq., Lexington, Ky. 
Rev. R. F. Caldwell, Sharpsburg, Ky. 
Rev. Wm. Cox, Lancaster, Ohio. 
Bezar Latham, Esq., Lyme, N. H. 
Archibald W. Hyde, Esq., Burlington, Vt. 
John Latemore, Esq., Wilmington, Del. 
George W. Bush, Esq., do. do. 

Charles J. Du Pont, Esq., do. do. 

Moses Bradford, Esq., do. do. 

Rev. John M. P. Atkinson, Warrenton, Va. 
Rev. James Bird, do. do. 

Rev. Robert B. Thompson, Heathsville, Va. 
Norman Hubbard, Esq., Glastonbury, Con. 
Rev. Rich. H. Wilmer, Perryville, Va. 
Edward Padelford, Esq., Savannah, Ga. 
Joseph Rowe, Esq., Milton, Mass. 
Rev. Wm. Riddell, South Deerfield, Mass 
Samuel Cornelius, Jr., Esq., Mt.HoUy, N.J 
Rev. Wm. Gordon, Sharpsburgh, Ky. 
Ths. L.Cunningham,Esq.,Clintonville,Ky 



Rev. John Wood."", Newport, N. H. 
Mosesj Webster, Esq., Milton, Mass. 
Rev. Peter Monlbrt, Picjua, Oliio. 
Miss Eunice Lyon, Fairfield, Conn. 
James R. Wright, Esq., Paris, Ky. 
William Irby,Es(i., Lunenburg Co., Va. 
George A. Cralle, Esq., Nottoway Co., Va. 
Chas. H. Robertson, Esq., Wylliesburgh,Va. 
George W. Pickering, Esq., Bangor, Me. 
Andrew McClure, Esq., Nicholasville, Ky. 
Capt. Harrison H. Cocke, City Point, Va. 
Jaines S. Hopkins, Esq.. Danville, Ky. 
Rev. E. Carpenter, Southbridge, Mass. 
Darcy Paul, Esq., Petersburgh, Va. 
Miss Mary C. Rogers, Poitsmoiith, N. H. 
H. Tupper, Esq., Hallowell, Maine. 
Daniel P. Rogers, Portsmouth, N. H. 
Rev. W. W. Ellis, Newbury port, Mass. 
Jno. Jordan Halloway, Esq., Henderson, K}'. 
William Garnett, Esq., Norfolk, Va. 
Mrs. Martha B. Olmsted, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Dr. Daniel W^asburn, Slowe, \'t. 
Andrew H. Wright, Esq., Paris, Ky. 
Mrs. Catherine Laird, Lexington, Ky. 
John Stoddard, Esq., Savannah, Georgia. 
Geo. B. Gumming, Esq., do. do. 

Wm. B. Hodgson, Esq , do. do. 

George Jones, Esq., do. do. 

Maj. A. Porter, do. do. 

Dr. A. M. Walker, Sharpsburgh, Ky. 
Miss Charlotte M. Johnson, Branford, Ct. 
Moses P. Ives, Esq., Providence, R. I. 
Robt. H. Ives, Esq., do. do. 

Isaac Wetherell, A. M., Bangor, Me. 
Mrs. Ann Atkinson, Langsbury. Ga. 
A. Devereaux, Esq., Preston Hollow, N.Y. 
Rufus Kittredge, M.D., Portsmouth, N. H. 
Ichabod Goodwin, Esq., do. do. 

Rev. A. P. Peabody, do. do. 

Rev. Alvan Tobey, Durham, N. H. 
Hon. James H. Duncan, Haverhill, Mass. 
David Marsh, Esq., do do. 

Dr. John Shackeltbrd, Maysville, Ky. 
Gurdon Trumbull, Stonington, Conn. 
Onslow Stearns, Concord, N. H. 
Hon. Nathan Appleton, Boston, Mass. 
Prof. S. Collins Brace, Pittsfield, Mass. 
Rev. John Todd, do. do. 

Rev. S. S. Buckingham. Springfield, Mass. 
Rev. J. N. Danforth, Alexandria, Va. 
Rev. J. Spottswood, New Castle, Del. 
Miss Lydia White, Haverhill, Mass. 
Rev. Joel Rockwell, Wilmington, Del. 
Rev. Geo. F. Simmons, Springfield, Mass. 
Mrs. Z. P. Banister, Newburyport, Mass, 
Rev. Jno. Edwards Emerson, do. do. 
Rev. Dr. Dwight, Portland, Maine. 
Levi Keese, Esq., Louisville, Miss. 
Rev. Caleb Hobart, North Yarmouth Cen- 
tre, Massachusetts. 
Abner Wesson, Esq., Gillespievillc, Ohio. 
Rev. John M. Jones, Alexandria, Va. 
Rev. Joel H. Linsley, D. D., Greenwich, Ct. 
Rev. Charles Dickinson, Birmingham, Ct. 
Rev. Isaac Jennings, Stamford, Ct. 
William Albert Ferris, Greenwich, Ct. 



\\ THIRTY-THIRD Vi 

\\ ANNUAL REPORT 11 



,1/ ' \\ 



w 



WITH THE 



AND op THE 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING, 



WASHINGTON: 

C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER, 

F STREET, NEAR WAR DEPARTMENT. 
1850. 



\ 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, .^ 






f 



n H 



<\ JANUARY 15, 1850. <i 

Vi \\ 

y 1 



w 



w 



THIRTY-THIRD 



ANNUAL REPORT 



aisMtfiiisi (fifDiOTMiiiiKDii uum 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS, 



AND OF THE 



SOCIETY AT ITS ANNUAL MEETING. 



/J, 



^.,;^jH ,..CAKT 15, 1850. ^<^^i^ 



WASHINGTON: 

C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER, 

r STREET, NEAR WAR CEPARTMEKT. 
1850. 



>: CONTENTS. 
p 

p 

Thirty-third Annual Report of the American Colonization Society 5 

Progress of the Cause. — Condition of the Republic of Liberia 5 

Receipts last year. — Emigrants sent to Liberia — Laura, Liberia Packet, C.Wright, 6 

Barque Huma — Packet — Expenses increased by the Cholera 7 

Three Expeditions to be sent — State Societies 8 

Prosperity of Liberia — The great want of Liberia 9 

Concluding Remarks 10 

Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the American Colonization Society 11 

Officers elected 11 

Minutes of the Board of Directors of the American Colonization Society 12 

Annual meeting — Delegates appointed 12 

Secretary and Treasurer and Executive Committee elected. — College in Liberia, 13 

A new Paper contemplated — Committee appointed thereon 14 

Balance Sheet — Receipts and Expenditures 15 

Addresses delivered at the Annual Meeting 16 

Mr. Clay's address 16 

Mr. Scott's address 17 

Rev. G. W. Bethune, D. D.— address 20 

Rev. Mr. Gurley 's address 25 

Appendix — 

A Proclamation , by the President of the RepubUc of Liberia 30 

Abolition of the Slave Trade of Gallinas 33 

An Address to tlie Legislators and People of Virguiia 37 

Letter from President Roberts 6 45 



THIRTY-THIRD 



ANNUAL REPORT 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY 



JANUARY 15th, 1850. 



Progress of the Ciiuse. — Condition of the Republic of Liberia. 



Through tlie merciful kindness of 
our heavenly Fallier, we are per- 
mitted to celebrate the Tliirty-third 
Anniversary of the American Colo- 
nization Society. Another year of 
distinguished prosperity has drifted 
by. We contemplate the past, with 
feelings of gratitude and exultation. 
Progress has been made. Principles 
have received new strength and en- 
largement. The fountains of be- 
nevolence have poured fcrth their 
fertilizing streams. The tokens of 
divine favor, and the manifestations 
of Almighty Power have been liberal- 
ly granted in every emergency. The 
spirit of emigration has been gradu- 
ally increasing. Favoring gales have 
safely wafted the Society's vessels, 
freighted with expectant freeman, 
to their new homes on the shores of 
Africa. From their newly erected 
houses and their humble abodes, 
they have sent back such a voice of 
contentinent, and such good news of 
the land, that many of their kindred , 
1 



and acquaintances, are preparing to 
follow them. The Republic of Li- 
beria, though young as to years and 
small as to numbers, has displayed 
much of the wisdom of riper age, 
and the strength of vigorous man- 
hood. Peace and prosperity have 
been in all her borders. The mon- 
ster vices peculiar to that coast liavc 
felt, and withered under, the increas- 
ing influence of civilization and 
Christianity. The native tribes 
have more tenderly felt the wretch- 
edness of their br.rbanus condition, 
and been inspired with new zeal to 
imitate their more highly favored 
neicrhbors. Amon<T the nations of 
the earih the fame of what Liberia 
has already done, has spread far and 
wide, and confidence in the stabili- 
ty of her institutions has been great- 
ly augmented. 

In illustration of these general 
?;tatemeiits, we present the following 
details of operations of the past year. 



svT-\T. RrpoHT nr mr .wrHirw coi.oxizatiov t^otimv 



1 III III >:ni- toiii ti iii:iii<iii<., ur ui< in to l.uxi i:i . \\ im Old i \ ( r\ liiili" 

the i'ol(iiiiaryuiri.-riiigs uriiiiliudiiaU, in lii> |tii\vcr I'tir ilitir lirnlih niid 

ha« been greater during ihc |la^l, than ccuiirurt rm ihi* nxaj^e. Bm not- 

in pr. .ir:<. Ii ha^ nniounl- h i(h»(un(lin^ ail hi.-^ cxiiiiuiN, 13 

III II' : ;?.33,0U0, whilr the of lh< ni dud befure the \f«»'lrfacli- 

w.. ■'<■ r< >-i>i|it:i ha\f been $50,332 fd LiU-ria. The expenses «)fhcnd- 

-^1. The r.\penditiirc5 have been ing oni thl^ ex|ieiiili()n, o\t ing to the 
;>J3.7-J3 05. If peculiar circiinistanceii, were much 

Very little tnoney haii been re- ' larger thun is iiMial fnun that pott. 

ccited from legacies ill the paxiyenr. The Liberia Pack» t f-niUd from 

Several legacies were due the Socic- nalliiiiore on the 24lh Feb., wiih 

1), but for boine reasons were not paid. C>j eini<.'rnni!<, of whom, 4G were 

William Short, Esq., of Philadel- from Va. — 2 from North Cnrolinn — 3 

phia, for SIM oral yearn a Vice Pre!»i- from Prnii. — 3 from Ni w York, 
di'iit «»f this .'^o^i^•ly, departed this' aiuj 1 from (ieorjietowii, D. C. 

life in Nov. last, leaving a legacy to Tlie Clintoiiia Wricht saile'l from 
this cause of <,lU,()u(>. . \«w Orleans the 20ih A|)ril, with 

B. C. Staunton, U^q., laic of Madi- 21 emigrants, all from Keuiucky. 

• n Co., Illinois, also departed this This vessel was chartered to ac- 

life in Nov. having left the bulk of commodate the emigrants from Tcn- 

his property for purposes «»f educa- ncssee and Kentucky, who had 

lion in Liberia. It is .supposed that gone to New Orlrans for the January 

will amount to siiineGor $M,000. expedition, and finding the cholera 

We would pay our heartfelt tribiii' .ling llu-re, reluriii-d home im- 

of respect to tlic memory of tin -■ ,ii>ly. In March the cholera h:.d 

departed friends. so much abated, that it was thought 

During the past year, we have i\|Kdient to send another vessel 

sent four hundred "»'/ lir.-nf,./,r,. u nJi tho.sc who had bien wailing so 

emigranta to Liberia. iig, and were so anxious to dc- 

The barque Laura, sailed from N. part. Arrangements were accord- 

()rlean!« Jan. 22, with 1.51 emigrant'-, iiigly made for them to sail in April, 

of whom 111 wrre from Miss., thi Hiii just n» tho^c from Teiinessc were 

la.st of the lloss family, and 9 wrn- .il» >ut to slarl from Na^htille, they 

fr<im Alabama. The cholira pn- In aril .such repoiis of thr choN-ra 

«ail«d lU .New Orlrniio, while tlie^r again at New OiUans, and on the 

p«oph- wiTc III ihit cHy, and fifleen ruer, that ihey declined going. Hut 

ol tiii-m died of ihe diMMso. We llini it was too Ute to po^lpone the 

fiiij»lo)i J !i i,li\ M( i;in Id .11 . ..1,1'. .(.< < \i>c'dition. T'"- <fvv,.| \,^,\ )>i-) ii 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETV', 



Huina — Packet— Expanses increased by tlie Cliolera. 



chartered, the purchases made, and 
the emigrants from Kentucky were 
on their way : so that instead of up- 
wards of 100 emigrants, only '21 
were sent in this vessel. 

It will thus appear, that both the 
expeditions from New Orleans have 
been greatly interfered with by the 
prevalence of the cholera there, and 
rendered much more expensive to 
the Society. 

The emigrants in Tenn. who wont 
to New Orleans more than a year 
ago, and returned on account of the 
cholera, are yet in Tenn., awaiting 
another opj)ortunity. 

Tiie barque Huma sailed from Sa- 
vannah, Geo., Hlh May, 1849, with 
181 emigrants, of uhoni 116 were 
from Georgia, and 65 from S. Caro- 
lina. Few companies of better peo- 
ple than these have ever gone to Li- 
beria. They were generally well sup- 
plied with the comforts and conveni- 
ences of life. One hundred and 
three of them could read, and thirty 
could write. Twenty-four of them 
h:id purchased themselves and paid 
an aggregate of $15,750, the product 
of their own industry. Several of 
them were manumitted by their mas- 
ters, that they might accompany 
their kindred and friends who were 
croing to Liberia. As most of these 
were valuable slaves, their masters 
deserve much credit for their great 
liberality. Few individuals in any 
part of the country, have contributed 



as largely during the year to coloni- 
zation purposes as they. 

Four of the company were preach- 
ers, and 69 were profesi^ors of reli- 
gion ; and five of them were native- 
born Africans, who though at <:n 
advanced age, seemed thrilled with 
joy at the idea of again seeing the 
land of their birth ! 

The only other expedition which 
we have sent out during the yer.r, 
was by the Liberia Packet, which 
sailed from Baltimore, August 1, 
1849, with 14 emigrants, of whom 
11 were from South Carolina, 2 from 
Virginia, and 1 from this city ! 

There were others who wanted to 
(TO in this expedition, but the So- 
ciety was so much in debt, for those 
already sent, that it was deemed pru- 
dent to postpone their departure to 
I some future time. 

I By reference to the account cur- 
! rent appentied to this report, it vtill 
I be seen that the whole outlay for the 
transportation and support of emi- 
grants during the year has been 
$33,650 12. This is considerably 
above the average of $50 for each 
emigrant, and is accounted for by 
the fact already stated of the preva- 
lence of the'cholera at New Orleans, 
by which the expenses of two expe- 
ditions were required, to do the work 
of one ; and also by the fact that the 
charter of vessels has been unusu- 
ally high during the year, owing 
doubtless to the great number 
employed in the California trade. 



AXXtlAU BETOtT OF TDC AMEBHAv i oI om/atiox sOCIETT. 



f Ipe^UOM ID «>r ^ l.i-.-ia 

\Vi- lia»f m-iili- arraii,*<iiH"iiis fur Slroiii,' Iiu|h-s have hcvu i-mi-r- 
tbe iJc|>arlurt> i>r tlirfc i-\|tctji(i(>ii!i Iniiu-d (lianlic Ntates would lake llie 
wilhin the nrxt furly dn)s. The malUT in hand and inuke appropria- 
Lib(>riA Packel \nll ^ad from Nor- tiun;! lo uid in ihc colonizaiion «jf 
folk. Va., on ihc '23l\i in^^. We il,fir <i\vn free colored population. 
ha»e '22\ applicants for a passage in ]„ I„d,ano, Ohio and Virginia, the 
ht-r, but hhall send only about IGO. people have iHtilioued their respec- 
A vchsel will .sad fmnt Savaiiiiali, ^^^^, le^.islatures on the subject, and 
Geo., on the Utii February, with „, ,-,, ^^ „^. ^^e informed they are 
about tJOO emigrants, and a ve.sel ^,.^^ favorably disposed. Should 

they make liberal appropriations for 
the purpu>e, it would mark ;in era 
ill the history of Colonization. 

The several State auxiliary Socie- 
ties still muiiitain their or<rnni/a- 



froin New Orb ans, tin- 2Gih Feb- 
ruary, with about 100. 

It is very enibarra.»>iii;^, uiih our 
present empty treasury, and large 
debt, to be compelled to send out 

80 many enii:'rants, so early in the , , • i • 

. tious, and have prosecuted the work 

year. But circumstances over which ^ ,, ^ , • , , 

,, ,, of collecting lundd with energy and 

wc could exert no control have ren- 
dered it important, if not indispen- 
sable, tiiat these people should all go 
at (he times appointed. Not to 
send them, would be ruinous to 
their pr«»specls, a:id disastrous to 
our hopes of future usefulness. In 
obedience, therefore, to the resolu 



zeal. From some of them we have 
received fewer remittances than we 
had anticipated ; but they all speak 
of an riicoura;,'iiig interest in the 
cause among the mass of their citi- 
zens. The great slate of New Yotk, 
under the culture of the < neruelic 



tion of the Board of Directors at »'"' '"dcratigable secretary of that 



their last annual meeting, we have 
agreed to send them, relying upon 
our auxiliary Societies, and a hbe- 



society, has done nobly, and taken 
the lead far ahead of any other. We 
nieiilioii the fact with a proud satis- 



ral and sympathising public for the <"^'''i«>ii, that we have received from 



means of defraying the expeiix 

.•\mong the encouraging events 
of the past year, we number the con- 
tinued increase of applicantji for 



■ ir treasury during the past year 
:i:M.ut <. 10.000, with the prospect of 
ail iiirrease for the jear lo c«»me ! 

Aiimu!; ilic individual friends and 



emigration to Liberia. We think |i.iirons of the cause, many have 

the fact is fully established that there ^Ikavii distinguished liberality. Of- 

will always be more persons desir- <<>>, in our times of trial and emer- 

oun of, and needing, the aid of the giiiry, have our heart-s been made 

Society, than it will be able to assist, to thrill with gratitude at the re- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THB AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



Prosperity of Liberia — The groat want of Liberia. 



ception of their nmnificcnt dona- 
tions ! 

DurinfT the summer, we made an 
appeal for $3,000 to send a hirge 
family of about GO, from near IMur- 
frcesboro', N. C, left by will of the 
late T. Capehart with the privi- 
lege of going, if the Society could 
defray the expenses. A gentleman 
in Alabama offered to be one of 
thirty who would give $100 each for 
(his purpose. We have the satisfac- 
tion of announcing that the amount 
has all been made up, and that the 
family will leave in the Liberia Packet 
on the 26th inst. Thanks, large and 
sincere we give the gentleman who 
proposed, and those who completed, 
this scheme. 

In the history of the Republic of 
Liberia, the past year, there is much 
to awaken gratitude, and give en- 
couragement for future and enlarged 
operations. Several new tracts of 
territory have been purchased, and 
treaties of peace and friendship 
made with the surrounding tribes. 
The slave trade at New Costers has 
been entirely broken up, and at Gal- 
linas it has been for the present 
stopped, with every prospect of its 
final extinction. To accomplish 
this object, President Roberts as- 
sures us in his last despatch, nothing 
is wanting but the means of pur- 
chasing the coast lying between the 
northern boundary of Liberia and 
the southern boundary of Sierra 



Leone. The legacy of the late John 
HofT, of Philadelphia, if we can re- 
ceive it, together with the distin- 
guished liberality of a gentleman in 
Cincinnati, and one in England, will 
very nearly, if not quite, make up 
the amount required. 

The man-of-war, presented to the 
Republic by Great Britain, has 
proved a valuable acquisition, and 
rendered essential service to the 
commerce and welfare of Liberia, 
The income from duties and other 
sources, has been on the increase, 
and promises to be sufficient for all 
the expenses of the government. 
Considerable embarrassment, how- 
ever, has been felt in consequence 
of the heavy debt, about $6,000, in- 
curred in fitting out the military ex- 
pedition against the slave factory at 
New Cesters. Great credit is due 
to the men who planned and exe- 
cuted that undertaking. 

The chief want of Liberia at pre- 
sent is an increased population of 
intelligent and industrious citizens, 
and enlarged resources for the sup- 
port of schools, and the execution 
of internal improvements. On this 
point, it is pleasant to know that 
much interest is felt both in this 
country and in Liberia ; and that 
measures are in progress to render 
them important assistance. 

We have been much indebted to 
the Rev. John Miller, formerly of 
Frederick, Md., who while on a 



JO A>xr.\i. BEro»T or the AMnRUAA coi.c»M7.ATiox eocrtTV. 

visa to llurope laiti iho cause before I iho coast, has founded schools, 
in:iny di^iiii^'uished individiinltt, niid ('Inirclics, niul |>riiitini: pp's^os, has 
ulitJiitcJ .ooiiie liaiidstoiiie dniiulions I clcun-d f:iriii5 and ^|)^iukl<•(i ubroud 
to the fundi of the Society. He the greon tints of ngricuhure, has 
'• ircd before a conimitlec of Par- i establi.shed the loni|>les of justice, 
cut and uudi'ru't lit a ri^id ox- i irnnsplantcd our l><-:iuiiful arii» to a 
amiuation respecting the hi.stury, disttant continent, and larncd our 
plans, princip|(?s and op«*rinntns <<f ■ motluT ton;fuo to win-re it will be- 
tiib Society, and imparled to tlicni come the lan:,Mm£rc of millions fur 
un unmen^ie amount of information a:;*'!^ to come; und above all. and by 
which thcT embodied in their report i means of all, established the insli- 
and published to the uorid. In this ! tuiions of our holy rt-li^'ion in u land 
re»|>ect, he rendered a iiim>1 iinpor- liitln rto shrouded in the deepest 
lant service to the can lieatlieni>h darkness! Liberia is a 

In <'onrlu»ioii, we eariii .->tly, allei:- Republic reared by private benevo- 
tionai«ly, an 1 importunately invoke lence. It demon.sirales what may 
the philanthropic every where to I be done with aderpiate means at 
continue, and increase their gene- comiuand. The work is now com- 
rosiiy to our cau.-el ^Ve are able paratively «-asy. The experiment 
to show diligence on our part, in has been made. The true policy 
|iroscculin^ the enterpri>e, and fru- ha.s been discovered, and all the 
j,'ality in the use td'all the peciiniarv preliminaries settled. The means 
meant pluced at our disposal. The and appliances are well under.otood. 
expenditure of the fuinls coniri- The business is reduced to 8uch a 
'1 l»v private betievulence has perfect s\slem, that e\ery nute now 
linsed, on a lM-ui^)iled coast, n contribuled can be made to achieve 
tcrritor)' of inon* than four hundred ' direct resull» to ils utmost pos^lible 
miles ill extent, has charutred pliips. capacity. We therefore call upon 
trauftported to the home and conii- all to .'itrcn;:then our hands and en- 
nent of their fathers, <j,(J53 of our free I courage our hearts, for the work of 
l»raplo of color, who have ftirmed, a century yet remains to be done, 
and are rapable of niainlainiii;^ a Liberia needs more of our people, 
proitpcrous and iii<lepeiideiit gov- (hat she may t>end her inllucnce 
eminent; has brou];li( under the < eventually into the heart of Africa. 
'f Lilterian law monr than Tiu-y are anxious to <^'o, and shall 
I iillierto wild nnd iititiitorrd we forbid (hem to cherish the hope 
nvagea, lias abolished the Mlave thai they may one day plant (heir 
tra4e (oi several huudrcd miles on , feci on Uin soil which once their 



MINUTES OP THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE AM. COL. SCO. 



11 



Aniiunl Meeting of Society — Officers elected. 

fathers trod ! The claims of ha- j tlic work to its consummation. A 
maiiity and the commands of the spirit should go abroad every where, 
MoslHicrh summon us to redoubled , kindling the hearts of the people to 
zeal and activity ! The time has the completion of an enterprise on 
come when the resources of the i which depends our nation's liiMi- 
Society must be greatly enlarged, or i est glory, and the redemption of Af- 
it must falter in the work wiiicli is rica. Ten thousand hearts should rc- 
demanded of it. This whole nation spend to every appeal of the Society, 
is now called upon by the highest and ten thousand hands should 
considerations of duty, interest and i be stretched forth with necessary 
religion, to come forward and press j relief! 



iHinutrs of tijc JTlanunl flKEctinfl of t!)e Slmcilraii (Colonsnti'on Socictn 
Coi.OMZATioN Rooms. 



Waahinglon City, 15 Jan. 1850. 

The American Colonization So- 
ciety met at 7 o'clock in the 1st 
Presbyterian Church. 

Tiie Hon. Henry Clay, president 
of the Society, took the chair. 

The Rev. John Maclean, D. D., 
of Princeton, N. J., opened the 
meeting with prayer. 

The Hon. Henry Clay then de- 
livered an address appropriate to the 
occasion. 

The Secretary, Rev. W. McLain, 
presented the annual Report, and 
read extracts therefrom. Alter which 
it was referred to the Board of Di- 
rectors. 

Addresses were then delivered by 
Robert G. Scott, Esq., of Richmond, 
Va., Rev. Geo. W. Bcthune, D. D., 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., and by the Rev. 
R. R. Gurley, of this city. 

After which it was resolved that 



the Society adjourn to meet in 
the Colonization Rooms to-morrow 
morning at 9^ o'clock for the election 
of officers. 
Adjourned. 

January 16. 

The American Colonization So- 
ciety met at 9| o'clock, pursuant to 
adjournment. 

The Hon. Daniel Breck, of Ken- 
tucky, was called to the chair in the 
absence of the President. 

The minutes of the last meeting 
were read. 

The Hon. Henry Clay was 
elected President of )he Society. 

The followinir persons were elec- 
ted Vice Presidents : 

1. General John H. Corkc, of Virginia. 

2. Daniel Webster, of MassacIuisetls. 

3. Charles F. Mercer, of Florida. 

4. Rev. Jeremiah Day, D. D., of Conn. 
:y. Theodore Freiinghiiysen, of N. Y. 

6. Louis McLane, of Baliimore. 

7. Moses Allen, of Xew York. 

8. General W. Jones, of Washington. 

9. Joseph Gales, of Washington. 



i: 



MIMtrm OP TBS BOAtO OP OltBCTOBS. 



\ nnmi MMfiac at Bom4 of Di w eio w ■ Ortfl^* B|ipiHnlM. 



10. 
II 

la. 

13 
14 
1j 
IG 
17 
1- 
I'J 

iw. 
•-'1 

'J3. 
'-M 
•v; 

ai") 
37 

os. 

29 

3». 

31. 

32. 

33. 

34. 

3J. 

3C. 

37. 
3->. 
3U. 
4U. 



11. .i!, A. 



Mrade, D. D., Biahop 41. Her. C. C. Cuvler. D. D.. of PhJd, 

4J. K)li..i ("ir«» '..r IMiilncU-lj.liia. 

- ! • ' '• • -.of N.W Voik. 

> i>(j(la, D. D., of Mai- 



Vork. 



■rk. 



;' Lnndon. 



. , i>f Tenn. 
>iid)>ii. 



•act, X.J. 
: Mans. 



Dr. I ' 

K«-». L- !: ., . 1'. 1' 

Tho^. H. Hucird. oi it. I. 

Dr. Tli<»inrtii MnKMif, iif Vir^ini.i. 

M ij<ir tji'ii. Wiiififld Sjoti, of Wojili- 

Rpv. A. .\t.\tutdtr, D. I)., of N. J. 
L. U,. ('■ ICIiiHT, "f .New Jerticy. 
Jniiir* Rtii'>-v. "f .Miwi'lHijiiu. 
JXev. Uco. W. Btliiuiif, U. D., of Phila. 



4.'>. Joiiatlinii llidf, of Maine. 

•IG. Ucv. lU'VPrlv W..ir'!i. IVhhop of ihe 



.M. K. < 
Rev. Dr. \ 



c. 



....... , Toun. 

Uiv. 1*. Liiut»'«'v, it. I)., of Ttiiij. 
. HiMi. J. U. t'liiicrwoiKl, of Krtiiucky. 
.>;i. R.». J. J. Ja.i.wov, U. I)., of N. J. 
TiJ. II. L. Liiiiinkiii, KNq., AilKnm, Geo. 
' ' f Ntw Vcrk. 

' I)., of Tiiiiiessee. 
..... . . -lui, of Mniiif, 

.V"^. Hon. 'i'liiiiiiAt Corwin, of Ohio. 
.VJ. Htiii. Thou. W. Wdliiimn, of Conn. 
O). Hon. .S iiton Gnt-nlwtf, of NfhKit. 
CI. Rev. John Ki.ily, D. D.. of Virginia. 
t'i'i. Ri-v. I.o\ick Pn-rre, of (Jt"on;i«. 
("..'<. Ron. R.J. Walker, of .Muki>iKKi|>pi, 
t>^. Siniiitl Gurni'V, EiiKl'i'id. 
>. Clmricii McMicken, Esq., Cincinnali, 
Ohio. 
CO. John Roll, M. D., Phihidelphin, Pn. 

Alter wliicli till- Si>cifly adjourned 
ti) iiK i:l on ilie tliird Tuesday of Jan- 
uary, 1S.01, at 7 o'clock. 



XU:nutr* o( tbr 233aro o( D rrrtors o( tbr iSmrrlran CTolonitatioit .Sorirtn. 



Coi.O.M7..\TH).\ KoO.MS, 

M'asUin^tun, lo Jan. 1S51. 



Hon. J. Whii'-omh, \ Indmnn S. 

Hon. E. W M <I a)!;hcy, j Col. Society. 

... , <• . ^ I I 1 11 RohcTt (; , ) Vir:;ini(> S. 

1 lie hour of 12 o clock, lo w hicli \\^y PI ;^ } (-j Soaciy. 

llic Buard of Directors of llie Aiueri- 

can Colonization Society t»taiid!« ad- j^, j ,^, \y j., 

journed, liaini'' arrived, and tliere Fn«iK.« H.il. I ;.. (New York 

* ' "> R.v. (;. .s,.r,nf:. I). D., Col. Socieiy. 

not bcin(; a quorum present, it wan 

rc»oUcd that we adjourn to 9} 

o'clock lo-iiiorrow morning. 



•I-. 

. I), n.. 



Januurij IG. 



!»r. I). .M. R.t.sc, 

K<v. J. Knox. 

i:< \. J. B. Pinncy, 

II .0. I,. U. C. Ulmer. ) .. . 

i:. X.John MnrUnn,!). D.. S' ^'"^Y- 



.Mr. I'n.l. ,.x 1. 



Kentucky. 



I lio Hoard nirl ac.rordin;' lo ad- """• H. Mi* 

lion. Diinifl I 

J <iirniiiirnt. ,. .„ p, ^, ., 

* li. \. W. D. hhuninir. .Mmaoun. 

C.-rmicatcH of the appoinimriit ol |{, ^. J. Tracy. Moi.«;.rhniiou«. 

tlie folloMinj; delc^jatea to tlic Board \U\. \V. McLnin, Lift Dirtelor. 
orDucciun Mvic luudcd III : — Titv Hun. Da.nul Bulck, wus 



MINUTES OF THE BOAKD OF DIRECTORS. 



13 



Secretary and Treasurer and Executive Committee elected— A Coflcge in Liberia. 



called to the chair, and the Rev. 
Joseph Tracv, was chosen Secre- , 
tary of the Board. 

The minutes of the last annual 
meeting of the Board were read by 
the Secretary of the Society. I 

The report of the executive com- 
mittee to the Board was read by the | 
Secretary of the Society, and or- 1 
dered to be referred to a special 
committee. Messrs. Pinney and , 
Tracy were appointed. 

The Annual Report was referred 
to the same committee. j 

Messrs. Phelps and Maclean were 
appointed a committee to examine 
the Treasurer's accounts. 

The ofiicers for the last year wei'e 
re-elected, and were as follows : 

Rev. William McLain, Secretary 
and Treasurer — Matthew St. Clair 
Clarke, H. Lindsly, Elisha Whittle- 
sey, Jos, H. Bradley, A. O. Dayton, 
J. S. Bacon, and William Gunton, 
Executive Committee. 

On motion of Rev. J. B. Pinney, 

Resolved, That the sulyect of a periodi- 
cal, or the eslahH.'5hment of a newspaper by 
this society, be referred to a committee of 
two. 

Messrs. Bethune and Slaughter 
were appointed. 

The following paper was submit- 
ted, and referred to a committee con- 
sisting of Messrs. Maclean, Phelps, 
and Tracy. 

The Board of JVIanngers of the Massa- 
chusetts Colonization Society, in obedience 
to a vote of the Society, passed at its last 
annual meeting:, have appointed a commit- 
tee to report on the formation of a Boaid 
of Trustees for a fund for collegiate educa- 
tiou in Lilieria. The committee oiill have ] 



the .subject in charge ; and the prospect is, 
that tliey will be able to select a small Board 
of gentlemen wlio will consent to serve, and 
who will entirely command puiilic confi- 
dence, and that some amount of funds will 
be i;iven. 

The Board and its Committee are per- 
lectly aware that it is iinpo.ssiljle,in)mediately 
to establish in Liberia an iii.stitution which 
would deserve the name of a college in this 
country; but they are fully persuaded that 
the work ought to be done as soon as prac- 
ticable, and that the ne(e.ss:;ry )ireparalory 
measures ought not to be deferred. 

In this stage of the busine.ss, the Board 
requests such notice from the parent So- 
ciety as may best promote this important 
object. 

By order of the Executive Committee, 
JOSEPH TRACY, 

Secretanj. 

Adjourned to meet at 5 P. M. 



Wednesday, 5 P. M. — met accord- 
ing to adjournment. 

The committee on the Treasurer's 
account reported, that they had ex- 
amined the same and found it correct 
and satisfactory. The report was 
accepted. 

A letter having been received from 
the Rev. R. R. Gurlny, who has late- 
ly been in Liberia in the employ- 
ment of the U. S. Government, of- 
fering to communicate any informa- 
tion in his power concerning the 
condition of that Republic, — it was 
voted, that he be invited to meet 
us for that purpose to morrow at 
half past nine o'clock, A. M. 

The committee on the Report of 
the Executive Committee to the 
Board, reported in part. Their re- 
port was recommitted for comple- 
tion. 

The committee on the publication 



14 



XI I M TIM OP THE BOAki> "i luia.iniKS. 



\ i.rw faper ooM>ia|JWWl rtKumilUic aiiputaleil Uiciron. 

of 1 pcfiMlirnl prt-si'nti'H their \l< tl»c Rev. Dr. UcUiuiie was 

ji.ifi, Mhii-li I* nn 1«i||ii\vh; — i lo llie chair. 

Thi' coiiinultrf ti» which was rr- Tiic bnme coinmitteo ro|)nrtrt!, 
ItTfcd llio tiubjcct of u uewspupcr ihai iho aiiimul Rf|)url Ix? rofcrroij lo 
b<-:j iMto rcjipecUully lo report ; tlif l^xcfcuiivf Ci»iuiiiiiuf fur publi- 

n" ' ' • 'Mlioii ; winch was oidcrcd. 

Tlie C;>ininiHi'C' lo whom was rc- 

! rrcil ihu coiniiiiiiiicaliuii Iroin the 

' i;\»?cutive CiMiiuiiilee of the Mas- 

ichiisi-ttsColdiii/atinii .Sdciety, res- 
^ ii-L-lfiilly Miltiiiil the followiii-j reso- 

itioiis fur the coiisiileratiitii of tho 
lliard — and recuiiiiiieiid lis udup- 
ii'MI. 

n -uhft. Tint t'v^ R-.iH hnvr Icnmcd 
! unci' tt ii)uji::i, •■:*• 

J 



I in, exclusive ut° Ute k.. 



Its. wlin : 



J 



r, may have the paper 



!}' vubmitted. }j 

(..K-» w. lurrinNr,. 
FiiiLip .sLAi cjii ri:u. 

Adjournrd \o lialf past nine o'clock ! 
to- in or row. 



ri Liiieriu, DC iiivc-.ttt'dus h >ou umre- 

, nnJ thut this h-rnry l»e nicredly 

a jiail of M i for the 

ii.'iit of II t ' . piMvid- 

• 1 - ill i;i<- V. 1,1, will ad- 

VCLEAN, Chairmm. 

The r«p'jrt was accepted, and the 
res ilutinns wore adopted. 

The report on IVriodicals was ta- 
k<'n nj> — ilKT <I I. it wis 

l{'s.lre.{. Th V nf I'lro- he 



Jiinuonj, 17. 

The Board met accordin;;,' <" 
jonriMiieiit. 

The Kev. 11. U. Gurlev w.., j... 

'Ill, accordiii;; to inviiniion (;ivni 

v<->tiTday, and CMinniiinicatt-d iiifor- 

III iti'Hi concerning Lil>eria, alhr 

u hirh, il WBH 

Kfrhrt!, Tlin» thr (hnnkn <^f thr R/inn! 



The chainnao being obli;^'cU to 



l\' \ I (is, 

I'help*, wire 



inuics were read and nc- 



.i. 



Voted, that when this Hoard ad- 
journs, il be to meet on the linril 
I'lioday of Jaiiuary, ISjI, at I'J 
o'clock, M. 

Voted that thi^ Hoard now ndjourn. 
I'iie ineeliiiu wan riox'd wiili prayer 
\ llie l\« V. Dr. li. llmiie. 

nwir.i. luu'.cK, nnir'n. 

JOSCIM! TKACV. CUrk. 



RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OF AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 15 



Biilance Sheetr-Jleceipta and Expenditures 



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16 



.1V£R£0 AT I Ml %\\L'AL >.. 



Mi <"1 i>'» Addrr-.- !(■ [►iii 



^bbirsscH DclitorrtD at tt)( SInnual iiltrtina- 



N! ■ ' 

I •eii liy ^fiiilcmrn of 

t}ie> -, wlioaie in .auiid- 

niK-r, li> rX(>rrM i]ic v»<ah of (lie 
li.di, l«v ulii>«r |( 111)1 {icttii HI* nr«* ' 



a Weil iM 



I 
l.w , 



With lUcir own rnniwni, T(» ' 

lifiii 1 
. (111(1 



taltl. 



riciv wc li ; Uil- 

fi.-ulty iinti w . n in 

the nltJlude <>l' a |Kioi>ii bi.iiiiliii;{ i>t(ween 
iwn firf-u, ihe iiltntisin nf the Ni>rih, nnd 
' ■ "- ' T' Tcal 

■ ly, 

..•■.' 1 .. , iiii- 

pnrtial. The eii!i;.'hieiied mnnwcs have been 
widi ufl, nnd we meet upon thiii «icriu<ion, 
under circuinH(:inceit of peruliar eucounige- 
nieiit, whfihi-r we look to Afriai, or at 
hoMi- ' ly. 

In «<• hehold there 



It (.'•(niiiiitiiu fdlih — 
nnd ihni of n nice 
• tnily in- 



I under- 
,hile !■ ■•■ 



loll of (lir 

.,11 lt,.;r 



Iiidird. 



'Hid 

llrh 



'11(1 the iiicnnB lit 
lo ihllt (iod, wli> 
t.lcMM d till lit ititti (in, III (tie iiolile en(er|>riKc 
in whtrh we hnve l>e««ii ••ii<'ni»rd. If wr 

■ • ■ ... ^11^,, 



III ire »>mid every dny in r<' ■••-■! ■■• •'■'' sa- 

lulion of (he ^re.it prolilc;. .S.>- 

• ■ :%■ 1. I'- |iti -• iiled, of the ; ly of 

• if Africa fixiiii iMuuMfiiy, 

I »ii"n from our own coun- 

" ' is iin|>us- 

r |iurUon 

It in no 

iher rolo- 

1 u|>on the 

AiVk-ii. li iM iiw Itta^er a debate- 

'11 whether it in jtr-ii-tiraLile, with 

1 Btifficient 

time, free 

••- r'lojc 

liiuy 

. who 

lit'ii-Ttiur lltiiik |iro|K-r lo t-iiiiiiii:i|M(te 

Thenc arerauae.i, fellow wilizens, of 

.] With our piiJtt evertioii.t, and of 

■ our future cirtrlw. I li.ive, how- 

..-,,. .^ .1 ujHtii iliiN I"- '.kc a 

8[>eo-h. 1 luiveni idcil. : t\a 

inirodtidory toihe |ii" ^ .cie- 

ty. The Secretary will |«ic/.«.iiLiy piofeed to 
read the report of the traiiKaciionit of the So- 
ciety durin:; the past ye.ir, mid the prenenl 
(•oiuliiionofihcre|nil)iiriif Liheria — tlieinJ*- 
ftrndrul rejtuhlic <>f Liberia — the arknow- 
led-red republic of Liliena — acknowledi;cd 
(and lliat nt aayiii^ n great deal,) by twu or 
lltree of the greatest (xiwern on ciirth. 
From that report yon will learn what has 
' hetn done duri): You will 

learn, amoiii; <'■ 'liere have 

I •■•■- !■- - '■•..•C.Io- 

ired ; 

iiibcr 
—u iiuiiii' ui iiicitit.N — iiiid if the 

fund* of ■ liad bet-n more ade- 

quate there w iii.ci II ive l>e<'ii B lartrer iiuin- 
ber. We learn that, during the current 
« ■■ T, a larjje nuni'ier of applirantu, amount- 
•■I Hix or Heven hundrwl, are already 
•-lered, dcMring to be tran«|»orted to 
Africa; and when that public (ipinion, to 
which I have adverted, Khali ripen into a 
hcttled conviction of the beiu-fiin that will 
Ihiw to both (|uarterii of the world. Africa 

..„" An.r. ., will ll,, l..,,-. . llljoli %»|lh 

I cau«ie of 
1 '"W UN that 

lb) i' . >i4 III of lileral 

e«|u 

iiiiit. 
n..l 

wi-1. 



iiid thua iilti- 
i.iv l>e rar- 
with their 

::.c cause in 



pro^rnn aiid aucceM, boji wh 



TuUiM wpuiiun u bccomiitj; toon oiid 



T'.' -iligrntJenien, to 

read Ui }«^u Utc upuiUuf Uie inuiwctioiM 



ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



17 



Mr. Scott's Address at Annual Meeting. 



of the Society durins; the past year, and 
aft^r that other gentlemen wi'l follow, in 
projiosing various ways and means, making; 
tlieir propositions worthy of your notice, I 
am sure, bj^ the eloquence which will I e 
employed iii recommending them for your 
adofition. 

Tlie annual report was read hy the Rev. 
Mr. McLean, secretary of the Society. 

Robt: G. Scott, Esq., of Va., said: — 
Mr. President, — In seconding the motion 
to accept the report and refer it to the Man- 
agers to be printed, I beg leave to submit to 
you. sir, one of the fathers of this noble 
and most f)liilanthropic imdertaking, who 
for thirty odd years has stood hy, through 
good and evil report, (and we find you here 
to-night arain ti counsel and aid us in this 
great work,) and give some considerations 
in favor of this most admirable undertaking. 
Fifty years ago, from this city went up the 
voii-e of one of the best and greatest men 
our Union has ever produced, in favor of 
this, now, I will venture to say, proved ad- 
mirable undertaking — blessing the white 
man and the black. From the pen of the 
President of the United Slates, Thomas 
Jefferson, first was traced the suggestion, 
that Africa should become the home of the 
civilized black man. The State from wlience 
I came, sir, and by whose authority I am 
here to-night, in the year 180U, through her 
legislature, directed their then governor of 
the State (Mr. Monroe,) to apjily to Mr. 
Jefferson, who was then the President of 
these United States, to take action, to carry 
out that which tiiis Society, like the grain 
of musUu'd seed, sown but yesterday, and 
now grown to be a mighty tree, has accom- 
plished by its own unaided public — com- 
paratively public — unaided assistance. 

The subject came uji, and from time to 
time was one of great and constant consider- 
ation for the legislature of Virginia, and in 
1804, the mind of the President still being 
fixed upon accomplishing this great end, 
he addressed a communication to Governor 
Page of Virginia, in which he brought the 
subject up again and pressed it upon him for 
action; and it was there had. No final step 
was taken from that jieriod until 1816. The 
public mind had not been prepared for ac- 
tion. It w^as a great undertaking, for not 
only those living then, but which was to 
go down to our children, and our children's 
children to the remotest genejation who 
shall come after us. You are to direct the 
public mind. The subject requires consid- 
eration and deep deliiieration ; that was had 
in some degree in 1816, and then for the 
first time was this society organized. Thkiy- 



three years have passed by since we were 
first Ijrought together in this great work. 
What do we mean to acconiplish by the 
imdertaking? By what means, I pray you 
Mr. President, do we mean to act? We 
come together to restrain no one, we come 
together not by the authority of the law, 
biu by the impidses and dictates of our own 
hearts, actuated bv our best judgments. We 
go to the hut of the black man, we lell him 
this is no place for you or yours, we ofier 
him another home from whence his fathers 
came ; we appeal to every passion that can 
operate upon the human mind and human 
judgment of a proper character; we present 
to hmi a bright and beautiful future, and 
olTcr him a home for all time to come ; we 
ask not the iron hand of the law to drive 
him from the land of his nativity, and sepa- 
rate him from the ties that bind him to his 
kindred. No, sir, no, we rise above that ; 
we go and teach him — appeal to his judg- 
ment, his heart and his interest, and say, i(' 
we can get him with us we are content. We 
touch not the rigiits of property, Mr. Pre- 
sident ; we leave that to the fanatics of the 
North ; we have enemies North and South. 
No, no, Mr. President, I did not wish to 
utter tiie term enemy ; I cannot i;elieve that 
it is in the hearts of men, just, honest and 
fair men — men of stable judgment, who 
have a single particle of principle, to har- 
bor in their breasts the feeling of enmity to 
this Society. No, sir, I cannot belieVe it. 
I can understand how he may be an op- 
ponent of it. I have used too harsh an ex- 
pression ; there can never l)e a man an ene- 
my to such a noble undertaking as this; he 
may be the opponent, but he can never be 
the enemy — in the sense of the temi enemy. 
I say we touch not the rights of property ; 
we interfere with the rights of no one ; that 
is not the means by which we operate; but, 
I ]iray you, Mr. President, upon whom are 
we acting? The black man — the free black 
man ; the man upon whom He that has 
made us all, placed the mark of separation 
from us ; who socially and politically can 
never mingle with the white man as his 
equal in the same land. There must be su- 
periority to the one caste or the o'.her, 
among us. If we release him from the con- 
dition of servitude, he is yet a slave ; he 
must carry with him the titles to his free- 
dom ; he passes from village to village, from 
county to county, and possibly from State 
to State. But he must always carry the 
evidences of his right to his freedom in his 
possession, subject at any moment, with us 
at least, Mr. President, with us at the South, 
to be taken up and put in prison ; he must 
pi'oduce the evidence, and also tlie seal of 



IS 



A! PKf <»«(:« U£UVIK* '• '' '•" 'WUAL flKGTlKti. 
Mr i^tim's Ati<ii<w ui Annual McvliBf. 



Ill 

I ',00 J 

at- of 

t ilie 



lie III out 



'tlli Mil) , 1 
•■ Im> i»i»« I- 



future, 
nil'; 



virnnm* notion, every 
■ km aw<tv. 

' IIIMtll liu 



1 I Uic 
..;.il you iit.w ^oi Mcujly a 

.u>U uriVci* lihtriiM. 



our 
ht - 



it U> ihe .' 



■'II 

'. 'U 


Hi lite 

; if ue 

1 Die 

I ilia 







ar«l 



•u. 1 1. 
n« in wl- 



i Miy II 



1 , iiwii la 

> . 1( will 

:.«. of y«»ur 

ir. n coiu- 

' nun, 

K (<> 

M ho 

I t fiK-iii u 

l.l(RI,U()(l 

kicc or to 

M<1 ll.UOO 

■ :n«le 



yd, 

!i niiy »iTy fciral iiiidcrtA- 
•f^•, wli«*i' I'lf fiVi'*""! *<*■ 

. bul 

' M-n 

i Wlii 



•'•r " 



*-i'r' 



ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



19 



Mr. SroU'ii Address at Annual Meeting. 



lake the state of Ohio, nnd I will take the 
Btate of Virginia. Ft>r twenty yeiirs has 
she come up,and{^ivt'ii ten thousand dollar.s 
a year, until she has contrilHitcd one fourth 
of the stun expended i)y tlie Colonization 
Society in thi.-s threat cause ; she has not 
given It grud^injcly. In twenty yeans, she 
has given i,'00,0(}0 dollar.s ; now, .sir, take 
one tenih part of this atnounl and divide 
it between these two states, making them 
give one fifth of the wiiole amount. You 
have provision to .send away one fifth of the 
natural increase of the free blacks. Mr. 
President, if it has been found, that this 
thing is practicable, why should it not be 
done ; Virginia ha.s heretofore made an ap- 
propriation upon the euliject ; a lar^-e and 
very liberal one. Mr. President, the ques- 
tion may lie asked, what will Vn-ginia 
do; I an.swer, that during this winter, an 
appropriation will be made, and in a 
form, in which it will go with efficiency, 
throughout the borders of the conmion- 
wealth. 1 speak with some confidence up- 
on the suljject ; men who have been bitter 
opponents of it, said, we have only hesitat- 
ed and doubted, because we did not believe 
the thin2; to be practicable, and if you could 
get the free black men, to co-operate with 
us, the resources could not be had to re- 
move them ; they admit their error, and ad- 
mitting, say they are prepared to vote the 
money. Well now, Mr. President, under 
such circumstances, there being 55,000 free 
negroes in Virginia, there can be removed 
15,000 of them yearly, and soon we may be 
rid of this incubus. 

How has it been proved to be practica- 
ble? by the establishment of a colony upon 
the coast of Africa, you have taken hence 
8,000 emigrants. You have located them up- 
on the western coast of Africa. We were told 
this was one of the most Cluixotic under- 
takings in which men have ever embarked. 
Nj, sir, men have gone ain-oad, men have 
gone aljroad to my personal knowledge. I 
Sjieak now upon my personal knowledge ; 
men have gone to the black man, and said 
we were attempting to take his home away ; 
they have said to him, when they have ta- 
ken you away or placed you upon the coast 
of Africa, you are to be a slave, you are a 
freeman here, you are to be made a slave 
there. We have received opposition of that 
s')rt ; in their opinion it may be a conscien- 
tious, but it was a mistaken course, on 
the purl of those, who have thus persuaded, 
the free iilack man ; but you have proved 
the practicability of this scheme by the es- 
tablishment of yom- colony ; and you have 
added thereto 700 miles of coast. But my 
estimate is a rousrh one. When I have 



mide 150 miles of slave coast ; coast upon 
which the slave trade is still carried on ; this 
is the osiimute 1 lia\e made ; it is a rough 
one. But trenllenicn, better informed than 
myself, well know they have a coast of 700 
miles settled by tlie emigrants from the U. 
Slates, through the instrumentality of this 
unaided Society, You have got, Mr. Pre- 
sident, you have got more .siill ; you Jinve 
penetrated the country, and l.rou;5lii under 
the government of this RepMblii;, ei^^hiy odd 
thousand of the natives of the country, who 
submit to its authority ; you luivc suppress- 
ed the slave trade tor 700 mih s upon this 
coast ; you have built up U)wns, V"u have 
erected clnu-ches, you have jaU tlie school 
j master among them ; farms liave been open- 
j ed, and you have got .all the marks of dis- 
! tinction of a well settled, civilized and in- 
! telligcnt people. I say you have done it; be- 
i cause here began the work ; the lilack men 
( have been the agents ot the society. Sir, you 
have done more than all this ; this is but 
I the portico to the temple you have erected. 
j Through the instrumenlality of the Society, 
j and by its agency, the National Letjislatu're 
I have passed a law, upon its aiiplication and 
j by its petition, denouncing the slave trade 
j lo be piracy, and hang the creature, who 
: should be en<j:aged in it. This has been 
I done by the .Society ; it was the instrument, 
I the moving iiisrument, to work outthateud, 
aad yet, Mr. President, old England, 
mighty England, with all her enterprise, 
age and exjierience, with all her .-li.iisnien, 
slie has spent )!,150,000,000 in atu-mpting to 
colonize the black man, but she Ims failed ; 
she has failed in tlie West Indies ; she has 
failed in her attempts at Sierra Leone, 
whicli she abandons ; and tell me, sir. why 
it is, that you with a handful of men, in this 
younu: Repuijlic, havetJius risen above her. 
But the other day, Mr. President, she has 
acknowledged upon this subject, your supe- 
riority by acknowledging the independence 
of the young, lovely, and beautiful Repub- 
lic of Liberia. Why is it? She worked in 
her colonization schemes and continues so 
far as I kn(nv, in her scheme in the West In- 
dies by the soldier and the bayonet. Hers 
is to be accomplished by the bayonet, she 
uses the white man as one of the instru- 
ments of carrying out her system of coloni- 
zation. We have learned wisdom from 
her failure and experience. — You work 
not by the troops, not by the armed vessels, 
not by the bayonet or the soldier ; you 
work by the moral appeal, by reason, by 
acts of justice, recognized by our forefathers, 
by an appeal to the intelligence of those up- 
on wliom you act : but Air. President, you 
act always through the main in strum en tali- 



20 



AOOEEMES DELIXXEEO AT TBE AXXLAL MSETING. 



Brv. a W. BeliHUM%, O.D^ AtfdKM. 



YtWI 



man. 
y«Mir 



You 



work by 



haH 
aiitJ : 

of LllKTiU. V 






.a, 



rank. liut Lite 
Mr. l'r«MdfrH, 
I. Willi iiiori 
I- i-nrv iij'n kind 

■ ' Mil, llll- 111- 

A hitii <in, 
>, (iiitii li' 
ii>H t-r itrii 



to lak*' .-nrp i>r 



>«.-llllllt-lll, 
1 ••V«T Uo 







. |..ol ui foil III Ult 






hiivc uikiMi can? to 






• if linn wild c'liii- 






'- white iimii niid the 






- ' <I'>WI1 IIK <-<]ll!ll.H. 






vMirld, niid pni- 






lld III Hi HI-lM. 1 


Wi>ul(l 


imolinli lilt.- 


• liii.li HI the ear uf (a- 


nail •«- 


-ii will iii>t « 


lit til ki-i'p tile u hitr innn 


..id ' 






liat< 




• I, mirli IN the uiirk, 

Mil III %vl,i. )i \vf f;ii(l 


11— 




1 


l-t 







and ui»>J«r(it;aiiU :i.t*t. inuittik lx.;:4.r. .Mi. 
l*ri«idciil, n vrrv tiMid mid a «rrv wine 



not 

Woe 

llP 



lor- 

.( fu- 

..:-r. ..lid ...!... 

.iiid rpiiui, w I. ' 



III H III lIlC 

(llf lii'ilM ' 



We tuny ' 

■- :.'HiWlli{: • 

■ of .-ViVicat «fX«at*»iiig 
liieiire ii|Min our own 



us. I |tjiiu( over the ^nld diiKt which m 

l'" 1 1 III tiiere, Ijut whit-li we are ii;iid to gel, 

>l>uiid(iiire, 111 California ; ao fur 1 have 

very litile, inynelf; I fkniu nil Ui«se 

\ . I look i<> ' <I« in 

I , niid |>iii I >>, if 

< Illlike ihio .. .,..v llttr« 

. what iiitiiiiie beiiefii* we inuy 
'I III the future. 
'1 iiiB iiiiM one other feature in it ; the 
l>nifl>''«ii 'u<d jMumililv the imurt heiuitiful of 

; ' ■ ■ III! of 

. who 

id to 

'. if lint uliiiiiiiiely (lesimys, 
. Uy the lawN of ihw niiunii 
dtfclured to l<<: piracy III thi'tte indulging in 
it. Cover tliis roii«i witli such n popula- 
tion aii Uial, fill it u ith |>eup!e huiIi as you 
have Mtiit there, nnd you lu-ed jikk no ire.iiy 
Willi Eii:^land, France, <ir any other nnuon, 
to put down the slave irude. Now you 
need not Mjireaii ii yard of cniivimH of any 
one of the uruied iiIii|>h of thewe United 
Statex, filled no with mirh u pooiilnlioii nw 
thai, and <• . 

Ill wliii-li 

in^in ; yon . . 

have put an end i<> tl' inte 

LTi n: Ml -ti iL's — III II ;.t «>f 

11. Wliy ^ilali iiiii ue (TO 

,11 are here will hehi ua in 

i . hut 

I we 

.^ - -"K" 

on. We will CO on with you, and help 
you III Uiiii great work ua Lest we can. 



The Report was accepted, and or- 
(icri-il lu be printed. 

The Rev. Gcunci: \\\ Di:Tiii;NE, 
I). P., tlini ofTered the followiiijj' rc- 
MjliitKMi: 



/.'.M/r/./. Tli.l 



w.'' t^c Uxiiual (iiiiiiiif ii, i^Jmu, Mmi, fiC4', I U'Ult tolooiilcd .xol 



iiitmlr i* due lo Ai- 

■•iiijj u|vin our 

. ' and j^o forward 



ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



21 



Rev. G. W. Betliune, D. D.— Address. 



The Rev. Dr. Bethuve said ; 

I am not in the habit, sir, of makino; 
apologies when I rise to speak, because I 
think when one sees reason for not speak- 
ing, he should hold his tongue. But it is 
due to myself, sir, to say, that but for the 
public announcement whic-h had been made 
of my name to speak upon this evening, I 
would most heartily desire to leave the dis- 
cussion in the hands of the gentlemen who 
are to follow me, not for want of zeal in the 
cause, or any unwillingness to lift up my 
feeble voice in it.s behalf in any place or un- 
der any circumstances, but compelled, sir, 
to travel the whole of last night, I find my- 
self with a nervous headache, that almost 
blinds me, and de])rives me to a certain ex- 
tent of the command of my thoughts and 
my utterance. 

It is true, sir, I have endeavored to sup- 
ply the want of sleep of the last night, with 
sleep this morning, but whoever has tried to 
take a morning: nap in a Washington liotel 
will know with what success, and especially 
a hotel where the servants are Irish. The 
chatter of a negro quarter, may be some- 
times annoying to the listener, but, sir, 
it is like the liquid Tuscan in a Roman 
mouth, compared with the vehement Tip- 
perary. 

There is another reason, sir, why I .should 
have hesitation in speaking now. 1 should 
be lacking both in common sense and com- 
mon modesty, did I not feel the difficulty of 
speaking upon a question hke this, at a 
time when every thing relating to the black 
race, coming otherwise than from a South- 
ern man, is looked upon with suspicion and 
jealousy, not, sir, that I would hesitate to 
avow my own sentiments; I would never live 
where I may not speak my conscientious 
opinions, but, sir, we are upon, as you have 
very justly said, a common ground here to- 
night, where no advocate of this cause has a 
right to compromise the Society by the ex- 
pression of any individual opinion which 
might clash or hi any way seem to be an- 
tagonistic to the opinions of others. I had 
however this consolation, sir, in commg 
here. I knew, sir, if you will permit 
me to say, I knew that you would open 
this meeting with some remarks. I antici- 
pated that they would be short, but falling 
from a mouth that never uttered a word 
without meaning, and whose one sentence 
is worth in expression and force more than 
a hundred of such as mine. 

I was very sure that principles would be 
advanced and established behind which I 
might venture to speak. I have no more 
fear of the collision of conflicting opinions 
than I should fear the spray of the ocean 



I after it had dashed against the adamantine 
rock. It has been well said, sir, by your- 
self and by the gentleman who has preceded 
me, that this Society has suffered the most 
virulent opposition. It has been most truly 
oppf>sed by the fanatics at the North, and 
the fanatics at the South. I call that man 
a fanatic, sir, who under the influence of a 
perverted conscience, allows nudignity to 
take the place of benevolence ; wlio lets 
himself to abuse without measure his hon- 
est and logical opponent ; and is not willing 
to listen to reasons upon the question in 
which all are concerned. I care not where 
that man lives, whether at the North or 
in the South ; East or the West — he is a fa- 
natic, and he is dangerous just in proportion 
as he seems to himself to be conscientious, 
because his false conscience assumes the as- 
pect, and to a certiiin extent, the force of 
right and of duty. There is an ojiposite fa- 
naticism, and the imitation of the fanatic by 
those who have not the excuse, which vents 
itself in loud words and earnest denuncia- 
tions; that I fear not. The blusterer always 
has been a coward, and is not to be dreaded 
by the wise man. Like the bubble, he 
bursts with his own wind. 

When we began this cause, sir, or at 
least some time after we began it, after it 
gained sufficient strength to provoke the op- 
position of him who moves the hearts of the 
children of evil, we find that the Society was 
charged with doing absolutely wrong, wrong 
it was said to the cause of the black man, be- 
cause it took away from the South the free 
black, instead of premitting him to remain 
like a thorn and a fester in the sides of those 
who were his brethren in bondage. This 
was charged against it. Another was that 
we took away the black man who had been 
born upon our soil, and who, by the ar- 
rangements of Providence, who gave him a 
birth-place here, had as much right to 
rest himself here as you. We were told 
again it was preposterous to talk of Chris- 
tianizing the continent of Africa, where 
such instruments were to be used, the re- 
fuse, as was .said, of the black race of the 
United States. Now, sir, what has been 
the consequence. What have we seen but 
this very remarkable fact, that the same 
people who have opposed the Society have 
adopted the very measures for which they 
impeach the Society, as to the taking away 
the black man of the South ; it is notorious 
that they are doing it in various ways ; it is 
notorious also, sir, that they have endea- 
vored to establish colonies not exactly with- 
in the limits of the United Slates, but through 
their assistance, and to a certain extent libe- 
ral assistance, witlun the limits of the Brit-: 



AUUKUMU liELlVXIUU) AS TUK ANXL'Ai. MCfTINU. 



I«T. G. W. B«dunie, D. D — AMnm. 



,^ .-..•.■•i.^i.i «•..( ••• il,.-ir 1 ..r.^..,,i . ..•tdiiion of ihe Republic of Libc- 

'•'. • Una bf«-n the hixtory of tli«* 

KviTy whtre it Im* brt-ii iJiitt 

ill itMuy i'iuiit I i'i k'„i\vr\, of dt-!;ntdn(iuii, of i|^n<iraiice 

• I innvin^ hiiii cvfii in Africa, in liut uwii ntiijvr Innd, i« 

■■a ii> (ill wild kiiDW (Uiv 

•rl. He IK III Uu' colldi- 

'. Iiu liiildit liu lift* luid all 

ilcnr I't htm, nl llic will of 

I iiiiitiicr ; bill, iiir, ^^u bnrk 

iiitixji Ui.ll 1 1 U>»i. wliK-li rro\idriiei- alU-r llio 

I honor him : "f (hutiKuiidii of yenni hiui oiifned for 

W'f intiy rrnd ihc rnc<jrd» of hm piuU 

liiHiory. 

(;,i t.i il.,- iwiiiniincniH of Elpypt nnd you 

' blitrk llinii II iiluvt>^-4:ni- 

1 believe vou cnn 

:<'C« III wliicii he &!>• 

iiiiK-ntji, ill which he 

' liis 

the 

1 to 

I no 

ilint 

;ilJ lur cliilca- 11 ol' u :>u]i]iuMUt'ii, It 1.% ^.l}lJHl^( d, lujAtVlT, 

' of till- United !, thnt over llint viiiil coniincnt (here rail be 

' • ' ' ' ' ' ■ r(\y 



r niiui to pmiNe him, 

T'- hr h-\(\ rrmniu- 



mid tiii-HO \ ■ 

. Afnr;,. ( 



III the hni 



- -., ... jahs 

\vc siii\ll liiid tln-in to be one (jiitirliT more, 
to judi;e of the nren, nnd by wluit we know 
of rertttiii portioiui of it very recently ex- 
florod. 

\\" • ' *'■ ' -I ' lof 

: liy 

nice 

.tiid iiM people : ila 

. ruid i'.» sniniit. I 

•WH, they 

..f Africa 

■•'y- 

\rr 
I he 

' X- 

,.iid 
111' .Hu r.ii Uuk that 
r Kile, nnd ihnt pen- 
ned from 
AS Kibe- 
' ihat 
MO where < -no 

•.vhrr<- i:i !• . or 



at which 

;' the nn- 

ilic Afri- 

! ; nlwnya 

:i III l;^M»mnre. 

• one who hnd 

never riw, but 

■•m we rend in 

•III iltiin Wim put. 



ADDRESSES DKLIVKRKD AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



23 



Rev. C. W. Betliune, D. D.— Address. 



that his breast is so bruised, his limbs so 
paralysed by the long: pressure of the super- 
incumbent weight, that he cannot erect him- 
self as a man, and take any place in the 
way of advancement and civilization : but, 
sir, there is a light brighter than that of rea- j 
son ; there is a happy spring from a nobler 
source than that of passion ; there is the 
light of religion and the light of promise 
shedding their rays far in the future. — 
What does that religion teach him ? 1 know 
no one who has common sense will contend 
for the absolute equality of ail men in physi- 
cal strength, in intellectual, in ability to ad- 
vance in the career of civilization. No one 
contends fir this ; I am speaking of those 
fundamental rights every man has or should 
be acknowledged to have. God made the 
black man as well as you or me, and unless 
we give up the Bible, which is the charter 
of our hopes, and the ground of our faith, 
we must believe he came from the same ori- 
ghial pair, and we are brethren — brethren 
by the Jiat of the Creator. We cannot di- 
vorce ourselves from this fraternity, except 
we fling ofl'tlie devotion of our Father who 
is m Heaven, and when He who spake as 
never man spoke, and who justified his 
sympathy with the poor and the rich, and 
gave himself to the poor when He repeated 
from his divine lips the law of the ancient 
Israelites, and tells us we must love our 
neighbor as ourselves. He told you, sir. 
He told me. He tells all of us, that wherever 
a human heart beats, wherever a human 
mind glows, wherever a man .stands in the 
image of God, there is our neighbor, whom 
we are bound to love as ourselves. I care 
not where he is ; whether in China, whether 
in Africa, or whether it be in America. I 
care not who claims rule over him ; he is 
my brother — he is my neighbor ; I am 
bound to love him, anil God will hold me 
accursed if I do not this. Nay, sir, through 
the teaching of God's Holy Spirit, I am 
taught my sins, and that there is but one 
fountain open for sin and uncleanness. 
When I follov/ the guiding of that Holy 
Spirit, and it leads me to the foot of that 
cross whence springs that living fountain of 
divine blood shed for the lost, the unworthy 
and the guilty, I find kneeling at the foot 
of that ci'oss, washing himself in that same 
sacred stream, as welcome to my master as 
myself — as readily admitted into the family 
of God as the highest among the children 
of men ; I find the black man washed in the 
same blood with me — sanctified by the same 
spirit; adopted by the same God, and made 
heir of the same happy immortality. How 
dare I refuse — how dare I refuse him all the 
strength of Christian sympathy and Chris- 



j tian benevolence ; I know not how, sir. 
I While that Bible lasts I must follow it ; and 
I sir, it is upon this principle that the Society 
: is acting. We are, ns you very justly ob- 
j served, united by tliat sinnile article of our 
constitution which covers him, and doubtless 
does cover persona of difTercnt notions as a 
] derail of its working, and gives us a right to 
I dirt'er ; makes us sovereigns in our own 
j spheres; while we are united in the great ob- 
] ject; but, sir, I do not go too far, I am sure 
you will not refuse me permission to say, 
doubtless you assent to the proposition, that 
the Colonization Society is the combination 
of the true friends of the colored race in the 
United States. I mean the friends of the 
black man who desire to see him elevated. 
Now, sir, what do we see in the year '93 
and 4? I am not good at dates, sir, but 
somewhere about there the negroes of St. 
Domineo, the whole of the population of 
[ that island, or the greater part of it, rose in 
] revolt, and have endeavored to establish one 
j ever since ; endeavored to form themselves 
; into some sort of a government. What 
I do we see? Take that monkey empire, 
(laughter,) that has been the world 's laugh- 
ing stock ; look at the result of their plans ; 
Faustian the 1st, with his cordon of duke.3 
and nobles around him, so that there can 
scarcely be a private man left in his domin- 
ions, (laughter.) There is tlie result in one 
part. Compare it, sir, with the Liberian 
Republic. Compare it with the enlightened, 
free and intellectual exercise of every prin- 
ciple and right that man can claim, mode- 
rated and held from excess by the wisest re- 
straints and the most salutary arrangement. 
Sir, I do not believe there exists upon the 
face of the earth a government whose con- 
stitution is more liberal — more enlightened, 
or more judicious — having in it, we believe, 
the elements of greater permanence, than the 
Republic of Liberia. It is, sir, the black 
man — it is not the white man ruling over 
hnn as in Sierra Leone. It is not the white 
man forcing him on as in the British West 
Indies. Nor is it the black man where the 
mixed race is flogging him and cliaining 
him as was done in the beginning of free- 
dom in the West Indies. It is the black 
man governing himself — governing himself 
according to written statutes ; governing 
himself with an enlightened view of his 
own worth, his own dignity, his relations 
to his fellow man, and his confidence in the 
power and justice of God, who loves his 
children — it were impossible to doubt it — 
who loves his children all alike, and alike 
vindicates his mercy by the history of that 
race, as well as our own. Now, sir, there 
is the reply that we maize to the fanaticism 



Mu.ni -r>;s iiKi.iv»:ui:u at the annual meeting. 



IM. «. W. B«p«i«a«, D. D.—A*tnm. 



1 al lla |iur( ill 

'•unlrVi "f rnih- 

^•..!i' to rx.i. 
iliukga, aitil 

I 1. >'(«)', Ktr, It lin* 

I III liy the rlo(|Ui'ti( 

i.iii \»lio lilt* |ir<*v'f(l(-«l iiic — CJrfA( 

lis* B.-ki»'>v* lrdi;«l ilir itu|K-riuriiy 

. oUll. 

. (tiid by iinplicntion 

\\ .. t,. .1. ,| -'Mllliil UH. 

'I into II, 

! <\|.iriii- 

Vmm, ul ii-ual i'litiMiMiii 111 hiii iWtjIeitciui, to 
rrcor«l i» ccntimiiii iii ojijxitiiiioM i<> «Mir 

ii4H-u'ty. A\' ' ' I ; 

Itnlnlil IM ' 

> iiiuMt )•<.' ulMiidoiifd ; — tli.r. 

I . iitid \vil)i (lie Kanir voice lip . 

tiatr |><>ititt-«l Ul tiif U<-|iublicof Liberia Hiitl 
lit-rlan-J it lo be kucc»-k«1"uI. Niiy, after nil 
ll.e money that iioN been Hnent u|>on iliat 
very couj«i by Cin-ai Briluiii ; liy this coimiry 
niiif otliem — money, 8ir, i* but tlie Kini{iifHi 
ixirtioii of liie tribute we have given. We 
litive iteni uur K^ullanl otlirers lo die U[>oii 
lliat |ila^uCHiinit(en etiant — ninny — many n 
fiuiiilv ill (liix Innd — more in Hn';innd, liave 
I ' i in the xai'krjoih of bilterneNS 

I s ot" life wiiKteil in ciKid iii- 

• ininemble f.iilureN, to KU|>|ire.'<N 
t'-: but now, Nir, for 7IKJ mili-x of 

' of ilial nection of Africii, in a 

lori iiiiic- from the further ]>urt of Liberia 

. Sirrm I,">ni', ihm S<«-ieiv will hnve de- 

Wnat fi<iri«i i-ould 

K-8 x^itJi inillioiiN of 

1 I men, oiii 

1- ;iiy and itit 111; 

roiiij-iuiiicd II. It IM |>rul>al>U if lii< J^iuU 

iiiqii hnd dour It, »K my fnend mnnrkcd, wr 

• exulted o»er it, it «■" ' ' 
I nj<ntniim|ih of the w i 

I'Mi. It hiui not. \\ . 

.•■ wnjta rhild — but now the 
I, lull and lui Mtroii^ an a 
(•Kill, iui n tiiUd ni iiilellcci, in linbil, and 
III Uir<ui;\\l. 

We had ' ' iiii ; but he in now n 

man. I r< '■, "ir, — yoii reim m 

i.. /■ ii M. I !! I UH here, u iiii u l. ii 

\i-iiiun-«l 

lid wme mi J, 
i.iy U> the rorerr of tii.it 
Ml iitNrlvr to UiMt ratUM-, 

. : ni.(l ill art lift J ft iiir< iigth fnjcly 



..,r.i..ii.^i . I ,, BtirA«naii,thr last whilP 

..I. The )ieo|jle \k lio litmr 

Millie nl It na an ejcngper- 

'. Ut/ii. lie vkiuiune of the grenttiii men llial 

• i'mI ever made, Ul lltilld, III heart, or in BJ>- 

.'I'-e, al^er hia career whom Ciod sent— it 

lo mi- — I mil Kiirtr of ii, (Jod iK-nt 

iiinki- •' • ^■ ••• f'orn blnrk mnii to nit- 

mime the r<-. imieiit. lledied, nir: 

and nl Iimi a ■ i ^o\eniii tlie colon v, 

and he goveriiit liie colony better than it woii 
ever {{ovenied before, nut ulto^eiiier in fav- 
or of hw own credit — but niao to llic credit 
of ilie |»eo|i|<-, who lia\e been nursed into 
•elf-f^overiimenl. What in a Uepublic without 
»e!l'-;;oveniment. There in thiit colony— 
and that llejiublic — aye, nir, Hqniblici are 
nlwnVH tongrr lirtd tliaii monarchitt. It is 
tlif (i!i«i<»ry of the World, imlettM |terha|Mi 
I <-« of whoKo liinttiry 
\eryliliJe. Uul,)ur, 

, ; I V "' out live every 

• III of Kur- V not live very 

..ihertodo! .^e.) Now, air, 

1 vMil not diMcutui iJiin |K>iiii only for u mo- 
ment ; here iH the demoiiKiniiion piven that 
lliebliick iiiiuican {roveni liiniKelf. We have 
made llie dciiionKlratioii sir, and it hiut been 
nckiiowlitlL'ed mr.lhat he can govern hiniwlf, 
IJy whom, Mir, have you stau-d thnttlie Re- 
public had been ackiiowle<l:;ed — by whom, 
nir — would to (jod you liad not been obliged 
to falter ON your heart compeU you to do-^ 
iirknowled*;ed by Great Britain and not by 
uk: and why, sir? I am willms to pive 
(ireat Hrilnin the credit of philanthropv. — 
1 do not fortr*"! that wlie ban other ()iiaiitirtt 
bi-Hldi-H jihilaiithropy ; trade, xir, nlie li>ve« 
trade. What witi it that pive to it ita pre- 
dominance. I cnn trnce no chnmcierislica 
ill the Aiii;lo-iiaxon that ^nw them more 
force lliaii their chaiacteni, and that la llitir 
love of trade. Yoii can trnce it, nir, in all 
tlir hititory of l)ie An<;hi-Siixon nice; but it 
linn beiMi fn>m the republic of Netherlanda, 
we have learned the Krent IcKtMin of tmde, 
and from wlioac aliorea Went the An^to- 
i.s who have driven to Kii:;land her 
iMitioiinl cllllracl<•rl^llc — Iradt, tmadk, 
1 ;;.'vl)K. Thin \H what the Ant:lo-Saxoii 
coiii|ueni by and conquem for. Kind me n 
ii|Mii, Kir, U|Min Uie fnci' of tlie earth when* 
they have not Hniut:t;led o pii«ce of their 
(.'oixU and merchandiite. Vou cannot find 
a itnimh |Mirl but ilirre you will find the 
linuiil of the iiinin.".'l<r, who nre protecliil 
l.y ihoHe very l'orlj<. The far-fnmed C»ib- 
iiilinr, with ita bntilementa and ^mnon, it 
liiile lielier than a iimiin;lin? p<'rt in lake 
iidvanlnijeof the w raker [x-ople of the Medi- 
'. lerrniienii and iix iiii^-hborhiMMi. Hut, air, 
J what Ul the cnne now' — there i» a little 



ADDRESSES DELIVKUED AT TirK ANNUAL MEETING. 



2o 



Rev. Mr. Gurley's Address. 



chance of trade open upon a certain coast of 
our own continent. It looks small as a 
musquito; luU, sir, the hum of that nnis- 
quito has not been unheard across the broad 
Atlantic, and the qucpuly Victoria shakes 
hand by proxy with the breechle.ss younj 
vagabond who is called the kina:. Por what, 
sir? for trade, to make money. I do not 
blame them; it is right to make money — if 
you can do it honesily; and I am sure we 
are the last people in this country, if we al- 
low the Eastern StiUes to belong to us — to 
say it is not right to make money. Sir, 
you have the motive for the acknowledg- 
ment of (he independence of Liberia — 1 do 
not say that it is the only motive; I know 
of no greater mistake in morals tlian to sup- 
pose a man's actions spring from one mo- 
tive, but the concurrence and concentration 
of different motives bearing upon the man; 
some are less easier deducted than others, 
but still always a combination. 

God forbid I should question her (Great 
Britain) benevolence in the acknowledgment, 
but I fear it was done upon the chance of 
penetrating Africa through those rivers — 
I fear that her excellent Governor, Rolierts, 
would have gone home without his acknow- 
ledgment. Now, sir, I believe that we are 
a philanthropic [)eople, and I believe that 
■we love to make money: but I say, sir, that 
the statesman who refuses to acknowledge 
the Republic of Lilieria misses greatly his 
duty to the United States and to his country, 
misses greatly, I say, his duty to the Uni- 
ted States and his country, as a commercial 
people. But* sir, I am trespassing upon a 
point which M'ill be handled far more ably 
by my friend who has just returned from 
the coast of Africa. Therefore, sir, I leave 
the subject, congratulating ourselves again 
upon the great success, and congratulating 
no one more than yourself, to whose pre- 
siding skill and energy, and to whose high 
example we owe so much of our success in 
our scheme. You contributed the noblest 
donation of all, when you gave yom- name. 
But, sir, we may all hi our little spheres re- 
joice. The smallest star in the firmament 
rejoices in the light that God has given it. 
But, sir, there are those of us here, if we 
look back to hours of conflict, we cannot 
say we are scarred with a hundred fights, 
because fortunately our armor was so 
proved, that the weapons struck upon us 
shivered in the grasp of the liand that struck 
it with all the vehemence that malignity 
could give it; but, sir, we can remember 
our hours of darkness: they were many: 
but how bright is the future ! how happy to 
believe we have not simply planted a litde 
shrub but a mighty tree, tnat Ixas been sown ^ 



like a grain of mustard seed, which yet shall 
wave its branches laden with Celestial bless*- 
ings over the continent of Africa; and to the 
millions of the colored race, in this connec- 
tion, we cannot but rejoice that the colored 
man was brought lure. Could he have 
been educated for this jjurpo.se — where, I 
ask you, sir, where could he have been 
educated for that (;areer which he is now 
entering upon in Liberia — but in this land 
where constitutional rights are thoroughly 
understood, where the right of self-govern- 
ment is so clearly propiigated, where the 
success of our blessed institutions have 
shown by an irresistible demonstration, that 
freedom is the best heritjige of man.' 

Rev. Mr. Grni.Ev : — 

1 ho]ie, Mr. President, that it may not be 
thought an aflected display of devotion, 
if I venture to jiresent my acknowledg- 
ment to Almighty God, that He has per- 
mitted me to stiind here in the midst of 
you this evening after a recent visit to 
the Republic of Lil>eria. It was a place 
visited by nie in the days of my youth, 
and I thank God that I am permitted 
to stand in the presence of this Society, 
after having trod a second time, after a 
quarter of a century, the heights of Monro- 
via. In the year 1824, during the struggles 
of this Govermnent, I stood by the side of* 
the ever to be lamented and illustrious Ash- 
mun, the first Governor of that colony. I 
know, sir, that after the impressive speeches 
to which this audience have listened, and at 
this late hour — I appear before this assem- 
bly under some peculiar disadvantiiges, but 
I should be unfaithful to the dictates of my 
own conscience, if I did not venture to oc^ 
cupy a few moments in some statements in 
regard to what I have observed in this in- 
teresting Republic of Liberia. 

Mr. President, there has been great pro- 
gress made by the settlers upon the African 
coast since the day when I first observed 
them, at that time, not exceeding 200 in 
number, having just pitched their tents on 
the borders of that great wilderness — having 
assembled for the first time, they erected 
a hut with a thatched roof which was dedi- 
cated to the service of God, and adopted 
their sunple and imperfect form of civil gov- 
ernment: under that government, during 
the period of the last twenty-five years, the 
town of Monrovia has come into existence, 
containing some 400 well constructed houses, 
many of them were built of durable and 
sub.stantial building stone, and many of the 
warehouses were built of tlie enduring rocks 
dug out from the foundations of that cape: 
all of tiiese were well constructed and com- 



ibKEMSa DEI.IVCEED AT THB ANKL'AL MEKTIKG. 



■;clpr 
!0 vrry j , uul, mr, Uiey Jinvc 

*^n, n(^<\ ■ ' iimM thill?** more— 

: to 
rgy 
sted 
•jii- 

I UlC IllUltjt ui' UlUt 

'• ili'VH. I p«<w one 

\U4i> V. (IS war 

1 Ijy Mr. ii«l 

■ ' • • ■ ■ tirs 

! it- 

iths, 

I'ul III lilt: iiiiiny tiiiinc wnm tiaii Liifii trans- 

!'«rr<>(l fr<>mih«TJi!»f, ni!<l froniilicknoM-Ntlec 

" •' (Ima 

I hiN 

.. _..iii«l, 

1 luuirtrnt 

I rould 

Mill turn I: iiiMnriis niiy individ- 

ril who"! cpiiu.-d liiiii »»> nior*' 



nro 

inks 

Joliirn ntcr. Adiltriittir villn^c 

i »!'«w n mun of color fr»»«ii 



l)>K. 

1 my 

:.ll(l (llllllP 

I unid lo 



■U." 

• jrUlt Ut« IjiUin* 1 tolti llllll Uliti 1 Vi < m . nia. 

I I h«v<» r^T'cnii-*! i!ii I th^ 



«'(tt«llml liy Uui( of may poruon of ih» ]' ntmu •mi bMti^ 



ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



Rev. Mr. Gurlcy's Address. 



1 said, sir, I had enjoyed tlie opportunity 
of standing in the midst of the conirrej^ations 
— speaiving to them upon tlie Sabbath, and 
meeting them in tlieir week-day assembbes, 
I was pai'ticularly struck at tlieir healthy 
appearance, -which chtu'acterized the great 
mass and body of the community. I saw 
no signs of decay, no indications of weak- 
ness. They were a people full of life, full 
of activity, and full of hope. 

I would remark, Mr. President, that in 
regard to the interests of that colony, what 
my friend, who has just taken his seat, has 
said — and said mucli better than I could 
have said it. — In regard to the constitution 
of that republic, to those sentiments I res- 
pond entu-ely. There was one clause point- 
ed out to me by the President of that re- 
public (Mr. Roberts) as marking it peculiar, 
and as embodying one of the great princi- 
ples which gave existence to this Society, 
and which I trust this Society will ever 
cherish — it is a clause by which that re- 
public binds itself to apply its resources, 
when they shall become sufficient, to exert 
its agency in the instruction and civilization 
of the native people of Africa. The legis- 
lature have directed, or whoever framed that 
constitution have directed, the chief magis- 
ti-ate of that republic, that whenever there- 
sources shall become sutHcient to send forth 
teachers and employ them in the native 
schools and villages, to instruct the people 
in the arts and morality of civilization; in 
law and government; and to prepare tliem 
for their introduction into the blessings of a 
free and christitm state. I know of nothing 
upon the records of any country equal to 
this provision, evidently inserted under the 
influence of the spirit of the Christian Re- 
ligion. When I stood upon the heights of 
Monrovia, my memory reverted back to 
that blessed man of God, Mr. Ashmun, 
whom I never saw after my first visit until 
I saw him upon his death-bed — when he 
was about takuig his departure, and they 
were taking his articles to the canoe to 
leave that country for the last time, struck 
down by disease — as they accompanied him 
in tears to the beach, he said, " If I thought 
I should not return here again, 1 would or- 
der my things taken from the canoe, and 
remain with you and die." 

I went next to Christorihelts, or the city of 
Christ. I have felt, I confess, that some 
might regard that name, although somewhat 
apostolic in an age lilve this, yet perhaps 
savoring a little of affectation. It showed the 
spirit of the man and the object of liis ex- 
ertions — it showed the end for which he lived 
and for which he died. Sir, that Repubhc I 
trust will ever so legislate, that the spirit of 



Christ will approve its legislation, that i.'^, 
it will lie as 1 said in some of the last re- 
marks I made upon a public occasion iii 
that colony — that it will be the morning star 
of Africa's redemption — 1 doubt not, sir, it 
is that at present. 

Mr. President, there is another idea to 
which 1 beg leave to ask for a moment the 
ear of tliis audience. 

There has been in this country some idea, 
I believe it pervades partially the state of 
Maryland; it may exist in the state of 
Virguiia; it may exist in Kentucky; the 
idea was that this colonization scheme was 
to be conducted through the agency of the 
separate states, and states were to rise upon 
the African coast corresponding to those of 
our own confederacy .' Sir, there is no pro- 
vision for this in the constitution of tlie 
Liberian Republic. 

The experience we have had in regard to 
this separate kind of action upon that shoro 
has thus far been very unfavorable, but I 
would by no means regret to see a State 
like Virginia, that noble mother of so many 
states, making appropriations by whirh 
might be realized the growth of a mighty 
state like herself upon the African coast. 1 
am far from being convinced that this is the 
best mode of carrying forward the scheme 
of African colonization. Let that republic 
be one state; for it is perhaps a matter to be 
questioned, whether if our own States had 
not grown up from the colonial condition 
under the peculiar circumstiuices whiih 
were attendant in our own colonial affair.-?, 
it would not have been better for tliem to 
have remained one state. 

Whether that would have been better or 
not, I see no reason why we should trans- 
fer to the African coast our dangerous and 
sectional jealousies and interests which arise 
from the union of so many conflicting and 
separate states. I am under an impression 
that the opinions of the people of Liberia 
are entirely opposed to it. I shall greatly 
rejoice when the state that is rising under 
the auspices of the State of Maryland, shall 
be merged in the Repubhc of Liberia ; it 
will be greatly to the mutual benefit of t!ie 
colony and also to the republic. We 
have begun the renovation of Africa upon 
the borders and skirts of the forests, which 
are inhabited by the natives who are in 
darkness and victims of the most ciiiel su- 
]ierslition ; we have not only begun to rear 
the temple of civil liberty, but also the temple 
of pure Christianity. I know not how it 
may strike others, but it struck me deeply 
when I was there, that possibly after the 
ages of trial, and the degradation, darkness 
and ignorance, to which they have been 



•J6 



AliUKllaSlls UELIVEBED AT THE AWLAL MEKTINC. 



I**. Mf . Owtejr** AMfwiB. 



ihait ai<V t'Xlatiii;; ii|>Mn liic- Inrr ui' (Jic rartii. 

It wiui my dwly jimyrr hihI my r..ii«(ii!! 
«■■ ' ".ill" I »lmd U|»in i)int >' 

> I tlic iniiids of ilic I' 

• •'— '• - -"t'llH-B .•! .w. .1 

J : lUv work lo 

*' 11. . . Ml. Sir, 1 iwy 

t't ).iu liidi ilifif IB tiiii n i-<iiiiiiiuiii(y ill tiif 

\»<>rlil who hn* mich rlniina iii»«n im nx ihr 

|»p«»|ilc t.f ihni Kcpulilir ; I <! 

ihtii tJip iwinr niiiiilicrot'luiiii t 

\Ur (aer of iJic rnrtJi nr- 

iimch for ihp rausv i>( 

Uoii, ntid ihe cauw of ti 

rniinul cxiimn whnt I jVt- 1 u{miii ilna iiui»- 

{PCI ; in the rnihiutiniini of my cnrlirMl dnyit 
»iili»ti-<l in ihf raime of (hm Sociriy, ami 
V lirn It wnji lu-ariy ovi-n-omc liy diffiriilucn 

• ' ■ '':'• wnmii:; ••IcineniM of o|iiiiioii, 

ndxTsc rin'umsUiiirt'H, I Knw 
fi -himiiEj throti:;li nil thcv rloiidN 

of aiinfMiy. Sir, I »j-c ihnt liglil »ull, luid 
l>flirve tJint now it ia piidin? Afnrn to n 
omiplcte rfdem[>tioii ; mid, Hir, when we 
roiiaider llic condition of liie native Afrirnn 
|M>pulntion in re^i.rd to which I have ob- 
tAJiii-d mnny very interfMiins, luid to my 
mind rurioiui niiiJ iimtructive fiicin ; when 
wc coiiHider the cruel nnd iKirbaroiiB bu- 
i>er*ti(ion exiKtin*; nmon? the nntive« iii- 
n.iliitin? the for«iili» of mHMiwood lying 
nionj; t)ie wpulrrn roii.tt of Afncn ; mid 
wh«-ii we roiundtr ihnl l>rfore tlie eAlaliliiili- 
iiuiit of ihijf colony iliouKmida and ieiii< of 
ihoiiiuiiidji of |>iTMonM iHrixhcd under ilie 
ini|ireitiiion« and efTi-cmof miperHtition; when 
wr know, ni ihm **tv dnv, at thin verv 
I ■ :n«pi, of evi : . 

" ' of the O' 

II ., ...• ■...>._. -.; .1, iirlirrnft — .n- 

ronipelled, I Kay, to drink linrrotlc |Mi|H<i!), 
and even put to a cniel death; when we 
couNider thu, and if tlie Keiiuhlic of Lil>t-nn 
did iiothiiit; more Oinii dnve fr«iiii iheiii-c 
ihw irh'Mit of iiiiiJi:;nity and evil, it would l>e 
riililird to tlie tliankH of the whole Woriil. 
I ho|>e and lni>-t, .Mr. i'n-Mideiil, that rhiN 
SiH-iety Will eiilnn;e il« operaluiiiM. Am'-iii,' 
the l>n(;hi pafC"* ^" yoiir own illiiHtrioua lil'i-, 
I am well jientundeil, there will \tr iiom- 
l>riphter, nnd ihere « ill Iw none upon whi-h 
f • 



!ly ndvocary 

' .tiid Ixild nnd 

:■ ace ul U«e uiuitau uf ihu So- 



iitd, wir, has not the time come when 

• ty ^»'lll lake n wider iiccipe, when 

I , .. 1 . .||j g,-|,p,nr-ij of civiliMttion 

whore, when it Nhoiild 

: merely to tnuiK|>ort free 

|H-<ipif of color to tlint country, but to ex- 

I'iore that country, improve it* hnri>or*, de- 

•e m-hemeit of eduiaiion, and make the 

';.|iiililic of Lilienn what it deairett to be — 

.111 iiiKiniiiient of deliverance to tliat (jtiurter 

of (lie World. 

Sir, I wtnild rewpectfuily mig^etit ihia mat- 
ter to your conniderntioii, and lo iheconaid- 
ernlioii of ihe S<iciety. 

I have aa anient a dejiire na any of you, to 
'iiitribute aa Cfod may trive time and op|M>r- 
uiity, to ndvdiice the intereniM of that Afri- 
■II republic. Sir, I have retunu-d to ihia 
•uiitry, Willi the imprctfxinn im-reaaed ten- 
fold of the nvi^-nitiide, di;:m(y nnd plory of 
that achi-nie to which the S<»ciety in ple<l;r<'d. 
Yjti, air, you may look to that rouiitr)', when 
in the dni|K*ry of mourmn;; it ih covered with 
sackcloth, and darkened with HU}>er(*UHon, 
into which the Republic of Lilierin iiiint- 
duced (;ood lawM, a juat ndininiainiiion, 
educnlion and Uie aria, and the Chriatian 
religion. They have introduced it under 
the prexent adminilile consiituiitm, which ia 
to be the guide of iia government, and is 
deaiined, in the wiadoin and providence of 
Gml, to be tlie deliverer of that whole land 
fniiii the jaw« of dealli. Mr. I'remdent, 

I there are many pariiculam to which 1 iniglit 
refer, and which I have doubtlcHa omitted 

I in thia addreaM, which might have b«*en of 
very great mtereni to those who give me 
tln-ir attention. I i '■■ -• '-tk of the fami- 
lies of Monmvia- • who inhabit 
that beautifiil ami ' i^wn: I might 
apeak <if tlie Welcome 1 r«vei>Ml when I 
vihii.mI that country in IK'J4, and of the kind- 
■iiiimfejtted towania me U|miii every oc- 
I might apeak of the admirable 
... i-iUiient in all clanaea of iJie peoiile. I 
might nay — na I did in rejily to an iiu|uiry 
from a clergyman of the .\fed)odia( cluirch, 
if I had aejii any pnifligacy or intemjM-- 
nuice, or heanl any profanity — I nnawered 
that I had aeen none. They hold religion 
In be the guide of whatever la conrenie<l in 
the buaineiiH of human life. I might apeak 
■ il' their mcreaamg allention to education, I 
io<k you lo look in u|miii a aingle achool in 
ilo- town of MonroMn, when- there are nUiul 
Kixiy children; nnd I ahoiild like lo ahow 
', ••u tlie |ire»enin niodr lo me na n rrprraeii- 
•iivr of the rni'iiiln of the cauae — for I beg 
,1 .ivr li>"- •■' ■•' '•■ , ilint I now dinnvonr any 
\ain Hi ' lliiiik the thing wna in- 
tendril !■ MH'ilmlly. Itwaallilended 

I an an ckpriMuun of their good feduig lo Uie 



ADDRESSES DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING. 



29 



Rev. Mr. Gurley's Address. 



friends of this Society tlirou^hout the land. 
I niiglit briii^ hpfore this congregation pre- 
served plants, presented to nie by the chil- 
dren of that intelligent school. But, sir, I 
must come to a close: the memories of the 
dead gather around me. I might ask this 
congregation to go with me to the graves of 
the missionaries and the martyrs to this 
thrice-blessed cause. I wandered one day 
under a burning sun, to the graveyard of 
Monrovia, and 1 gathered some leaves and 
sticks from the graves of those who had 
fallen in that land of shadow. Here is a 
memorial from the grave of Randall, well 
known in this city for his virtues and energy, 
and interest in this cause, who fell a martyr 
on that shore. Here is a memorial from 
the grave of Buchanan, the friend of my 
friend. The grave of Buchanan is under a 
magnificent tree. I found there a piece of 
an old slave schooner, from which I cut a 
piece and brought it with me, but I have 
mislaid it and I have it not here. 1 also cut 
a piece from the only stick that marks the 
grave of Buchanan. I venerate that name 
not less than that of my friend. I planted 
an orange tree — one of the dearest trees in 
Africa — by tlie grave of Randall. I have 
also memorials from the graves of the Swiss 
missionaries. I wish I could have found 
the graves of those twelve men of England, 
who, in the war, when Ashmun stood alone 
and heard the firing of cannon, came and 
offered their services: Midshipman Gordon 
and others were shot. I would have given 
fifty dollars to have found their graves. I 
told the colonists that they should not let 
their memory perish from the earth. I told 
them that they must rear a monument to 
those brave strangers who threw thems^ves 
away for the salvation of the then nearly 
perishing colony. 

There are many more of these memo- 
rials — one from the blessed grave of Cox, 
a Missionary well known to my brethren 
of the Methodist Church. I must be per- 
mitted to say a word in favor of this colony, 
as it is the home of the Missionary, but I 
did not mean to occupy so much of the time 
of this meeting. I will but say a word in 
relation to the interesting objects to which 
my attention has been directed. Nothing 



has .surpassed what I saw in the variou.s 
Missionary Stations, most of which I was 
permitted to visit. I entered the schools of 
the native Africans at Bexley, there I found 
a native teacher, who was educated in the 
Colony, and was now laboring to instruct 
his brethren, of Bexley. I visited many of 
these stations, and it was gratifying to see 
respectable lil)rarie.s for the use of the col- 
ored man, among which were the works of 
Doddrich, of Edwards, of S(;ott and many 
other valuable books upon the shelves in 
many of the houses; in the hamlet.s and 
every shade of the African forest have 
I seen the works of some of the most illus- 
trious Divines, such ;us Edwards, and 
Bishops of the Episco))al Church. 1 have 
a letter which I received just as I left the 
coast, from an individual whom I had 
known. I will read it to show the feeling 
of some of the intelligent people of that 
Republic. It is dated Bexley, NovemberSth. 

[Here the Rev. Gentleman read extracts 
from the letter.] 

I prefer that we shall make that country so 
attractive that they would not stay here with 
their own consent. I know, sir, that if the 
people of the United Slates would lend that 
republic a helping hand, and if the general 
government and the states would afford that 
assistance which they so justly merit, and 
reach forth to them the aid they so truly 
deserve, I have no doubt, sir, that the num- 
ber of emigrants would far exceed all our 
present hopes, and equal all that is desired 
for the benefit of our own population with 
the people of Africa. I hold here, sir, books 
published by the mission press, in the lan- 
guage of Africa. Here are some in the 
language of the Bassas: and here are some 
translations into two of the languages of the 
people of Cape Pahnas — the Grebo, num- 
bering about 30,000, and the Bassas, 50,000. 

These are printed in the language of Af- 
rica, but it is far more desirable to make 
our own tongue the language of Africa, and 
it is destined to be so. I trust the Society 
will enlarge its influence and u-ill increase 
its resources vastly, and the government of 
this country will stretch out its strong ami, 
and give an impulse to that Republic which 
it so justly merits at our hands. 



APPENDIX. 



;»! 4Jf3f'''"i''''tion, bij I'ot iixtn^ocni ot tiir i»rpubi;r of SLibrr.a. 



WiiEncAS, a trf'aiy of iVifiMlship 
and coimiuTre lM'l\ve<'ii llu* Ki-pub- 
lic of Lilu-rin aiui llcr Hritaiiiiic 
Majfsiy lh«' (^Hrfii of llu' I'liilfd 
Kiii:;(loin of Groat l^rilain aiul Iro- 
laiul, wan <.-(mi(:I(I(I<-i1 and ^i;:ll(■d by 
(heir pkMiipotenliaries at London on 
tho *ilHt day of SitvcmhvT, in tlio 
v«.'ar of our Lord one thousand fisjlit 
liiiudrcdand foriyMMirlii, which treaty 

'■in<; wor«l for word as follows: 
Her Majesty the Queen of the 
I'nited Kin;,'<lom of (Jreat Britain I 
ami Irehind, and the Republic of Li- : 
bcria, beiuij desirous to conclude a j 
treaty of |)eaco and friendship, an<l 
to re;julate thereby the conwnercial '. 
int«-rruurse betwe«Mi the dominions 
and sul'jf-ets of Her Majesty, and 
till? territories and citizens of the 
Republic ; Her Majesty has fi)r this ! 
pur|)ose named as Her ricnipoteii- i 
tjaries, that is to say: — | 

The Ri:'ht honoralde Henry John ' 
Viscount i'almerstoii, Haron Tem- 
ple, a I'eer of Ireland, a member of 
Her Hritannic Majesty's Most Hon- 
oralili' Privy Council, a Member of 
rarliament. Kni;jht Grand Cronn of 
till- Mo'.t Hoiiorabli* Order of tin- 
'". th, and Her Hritnnnic Mnjestv's 

rineipal Secretary of State for Ko- 
I Mfairit, and the Ri^dit Hotior- 
!l<-iirv Lal»on(lnr<\ a Mendxr 
of Hi-T Majesty's Mo-t Honorable 
Privy Council, a Member of I'nrlia- 
tiienl, and President of the Coni- 
mt«»»w «,f Prn V Council for Af- 



fairs of Trade and Foreitjn Planta- 
tions. 

And the Republic of Liberia, 
bavin;.', by resolutions of the Legis- 
lature, bearin;^ date the 4th of Feb- 
ruary, 181S, authorized and em- 
powered Joseph Jenkins Roberts, 
the President of tin- Republic, t«» 
conclude such 'I'reaiv on behalf of 
the Republic. 

The Plenipotentiaries of Her Ma- 
jesty, an^ the said President of the 
Republic, after havin;r communica- 
ted to each other their respective 
powers, liave ajjreed upon and con- 
cluded the followin;; articles: 
AKTICI.K I. 

There shall be perpetual peace 
iiui fiieiid>hip betw«en Her Majesty 
the (^iieen of the I'nited KinL:dom 
of Great Britain and Ireland, Her 
liJ'irs and successors, and the Re- 
public of Liberia, nnd between their 
respective subjects and citizL'n:«. 

AI^TICLE It. 

There sliall be reciprocal fn-edom 
of commeTce between the Hritish 
dominions nnd the Republic of Li- 
beria, The subjects of Her Hritan- 
nic Majesty may reside in. and trade 
to, nny part of the territories of the 
Republic to which any other foreign- 
ers are or shall be admitted. They 
>iiall eiijov full prot«'Ction for their 
persons nnd properties; they shall 
be allowed t<» buy from ami to sell 
lo whom they like, without beiii;; re- 
-trained or prepuliced l»y any mo- 



APPENDIX. 



31 



A Proclamation, by the President of the Republic of Liiberia. 



nopol}', contract, or exclusive privi- 
lege of sale or purchase whatever ; 
aii«i they shall moreover enjoy all 
other rights and privileges which are 
or may be granted to any other fo- 
reigners, subjects or citizens, of the 
most favored nation. The citizens 
of the Republic of Liberia shall, in 
return, enjoy similar protection and 
privileges in the dominions of Her 
Britannic Majesty. 

ARTICLE III. 

No tonnage, import, or other du- 
ties or charges, shall be levied in the 
Republic of Liberia on British ves- 
sels, or on goods imported or ex- 
ported in British vessels, beyond 
what are or may be levied on nation- 
al vessels, or on the like goods im- 
ported or exported in national ves- 
sels ; and in like manner, no tonnage, 
import, or other duties or charges, 
shall be levied in the British domin- 
ions on vessels of the Republic, or 
on goods imported or exported in 
those vessels, beyond what are or 
may be levied on national vessels, 
or on the like goods imported or 
exported in national vessels. 

ARTICLE IV. 

Merchandise or goods coming 
from the British dominions in any 
vessel, or imported in British vessels 
from any country, shall not be pro- 
hibited by the Republic of Liberia, 
nor be subject to higher duties than 
are levied on the same kinds of mer- 
chandise or goods coming from any 
other foreign country, or imported 
in any other vessels. 

All articles the produce of the 
Republic may be exported therefrom 
by British subjects and British vessels, 
on as favorable terms as by the sub- 
jects and vessels of any other foreign 
country. 

ARTICLE V. 

It being the intention of the Gov- 
ernment of the Republic of Liberia 
to trade in certain articles of import, 



with a view to raising a revenue by 
selling them at a lixed advance upon 
the cost price, it is hereby agreed 
that in no case shall private mer- 
chants be absolutely prohibited from 
importing any of such articles, or 
any article in which the Government 
of the Republic may at any time see 
fit to trade ; nor shall such articles, 
or any article in which the Govern- 
ment of the Republic may at any 
time see fit to trade, be subject to a 
duty of a greater amount than the 
amount of the advance upon the 
cost price at which the Government 
may from time to time be bound to 
sell the same. 

In case the Government of the 
Republic shall at any time fix the 
price of any article of native produce, 
with a view to such article being 
taken in payment for any articles in 
which the Government may trade, 
such article of native produce shall 
he received into the treasury at the 
same fixed price, in payment of 
taxes, from all persons trading with 
the Republic. 

ARTICLE VI. 

The protection of the Government 
of the Republic shall be afforded to 
all British vessels, their officers and 
crews. If any such vessels should 
be wrecked on the coast of the Re- 
public, the local authorities shall 
succour them, and shall secure thent 
from plunder, and shall cause all 
articles saved from the wreck to be 
restored to their lawful owners. 
The amount of salvage dues in such 
cases shall be regulated, in the event 
of dispute, by arbitrators chosen by 
both parties. 

•ARTICLE VII. 

It being the intention of the two 
Contracting Parties to bind them- 
selves by the present Treaty to treat 
each other on the footing of the 
most favored nation, it is hereby 
agreed between them, that any fa-? 



3*2 



.MTKMJIX. 



A frarlamaooa, by Ike PiMMcai of (be BpiMiblic oTMberia. 



vor, j»riviU'i;«', or iinriiunity what- 
fvtT, ill iiiaUtTS of CDiiuiitrrc and 
ii:i\i;;aiioii, wliicli filliiT Contracting 
Tarty has actually |rranlc(l, or may 
hrrfafter i;rant, to the Nulij«'ct» or 
citizrns of any otiu-r Slate, shall be 
(*\tt>MiJ(*(l to ilu- subjects or citizens 
of" the other Contrnclinjir Parly, <jTa- 
luitously, it" the collcc•^^io|| in favor 
of that other State shall have been 
gratuitous, or in return ftir a coni- 
|)Oiisati<)n as nearly as possible of 
|ir<i|>ortii>nate value and elFect, to be 
adju>led by mutual a^'reenu-nt, if the 
concession shall have been cundi- 
tional. 

AKTKI.i: VIII. 

Kach Coiitraciiii:,' Party may ap- 
point Consuls f«ir the protection of 
trade, to reside in the dominions of 
the other; but no such Consul shall 
enter upon the exercise of his func- 
tions until he shall have been ap- 
proved and admitted, in the usual 
form, by the (iovcrnment of the 
country to which he is sent. 

AKTKI.E IX. 

Slavery anil the .Slave Trade being 
perpetually abolished in the Republic 
of LilMTia, the Kepublic en;fai;es that 
a law shall be passed, <lerlarintf it 
to Ik* piracy for any Liberian citizen 
or vesM'l to Im* enuayed or c<incern- 
ed in the Slave Trade. 

The Republic enjja^jes tf) permit 
any Hntisli ves.sel of war which may 
be furnished with special instructions 
under the treaties between (Jreat 
Hritain and Foreign Powers for the 
prevention <if the Slave Trade, t<t 
\iMt any vessels Haihiii: under the 
Lilwria lint;, which iiiav, on reasrui- 
able (rrouiids, be suspected of |m'||i;j 
einjat'ed in the Slave Trade ; and if, 
by thir result of tin* visit, it nhould 
appear to the officer in cdinmnnd of 
fur\\ Mnlish vessel of vvnr that the 
suspicions which led thereto are well , 
^.'rounded the vessel shall be sent 
Without delay to a Libcrian |>ori, and ^ 



shall be delivered up to the Liberian 
authorities to be proceeded a<r:iinst 
according to the laws of the Republic. 

ARTICLE X. 

The Republic of Liberia further 
enga;,'e» to permit any liritish ves- 
sel of war which may be furiiihh«*d 
with special instructiuns as aforesaid, 
to visit, on the coast within the ju- 
risdiction of the Republic, or in the 
ports ol'tlu' same, aiiv vessel which 
may be suspecte<l of beiii>; eii^aijed 
in the Slave Trade, and which shall 
be found sailiii;.' under aiiv Ha;; what- 
ever, or without any tla;; ; and if the 
susjMcions which led to the visit 
should appear to the oflicer in com- 
mand of such Hriiish vessel of war 
to be well ^"-rounded, to <letain such 
vessel, in order to seiul it as soon as 
possible before the competent court 
for adjudication. 

Duly constituted ports of entry in 
the Republic of Liberia shall be ex- 
cepted from the operation of the 
stipulations of the present article; 
and no vessel shall be visited bv a 
British cruiser within the limits of 
such ports, except on permission 
specially ;,franted by the local autho- 
rities. 

AUTICI.i: XI. 

The present treaty shall be rali- 
fK-d, and the ratifications shall be 
exchan^'ed at London within the 
space of twelve months from the 
<late hereof. 

In witness whereof the Plenipo- 
tentiaries of Her Hritaniiic .Majesty, 
and the Pr<*sident «if the Republic 
of Liberia, have si^^ned thi* same, 
and have affixed ihrreto their re- 
speitive seals. 

Done at Loinlon, the twenly-first 
day of November, in the year of our 
Lord oiH* thousand eight hundred 
and fortv-eij(hl. 

I.. «.] PALMKRSTON. 
i„s.* H. L.\l?()l("IIKRi:. 

L. 8.' .1. .1. ROHKRTS. 



APPENDIX. 



33 



Abolition of the Slave Trade ofGaUinas. 



And whereas the said treaty has 
been duly ratified on both parts and 
the respective ratilications of the 
same were exchanged at London on 
tlie 1st day of August, 1849, by 
*Thos. Hodgkin, agent for this Re- 
public, and the Right Honorable 
Viscount Palnierston, Sec. &c. &c. 

Now therefore be it known, that 
I. Joseph J. Roberts, President of 
the Republic of Liberia, have caused 
the said treaty to be made j)ublic, to 
the end that the same and every 
clause and article thereof, may be 



observed and fulfilled with good 
faith by the Republic and the citi- 
zens thereof. 

In witness whereof, I hereunto 
set my hand and caused the seal of 
the Republic to be affixed. Done 
at the Town of Monrovia, tiiis 25th 
day of September, A. D. 1849, and 
of the Independence of the Repub- 
lic the Tiiird. 

13y the President, 

J. J. ROBERTS. 
J. N. Lewis, 

Secretary of State, ad interim. 



21 li I i t i u of 1 1) e S I a b c <r v a a c o f «G a 1 1 i u a s ; 

BY JAMES HALL, M. D. 



The advices from Africa, publish- 
ed in our last number, contain the 
gratifying and important intelligence, 
that, the long blockade of Gallinas 
by the British cruisers, has induced 
the slavers at that place to break up 
their barracoons, deliver up their 
slaves to the commodore and to take 
passage for themselves and effects 
on board Her Majesty's vessels for 
Sierra Leone. This is the initiative 
step to the entire abolition of that 
traffic on the windward coast ; the 
next, and not less important, is, the 
purchase of the territory by the Go- 
vernment of Liberia. That the slaves 
are given up, the barracoons destroy- 
ed, the slavers themselves removed 
and every vestige of this accursed 
traffic obliterated, avails nothing, 
unless proper and sure measures 
are taken to prevent a re-establish- 
ment of the business, the moment 
the coast guard is abandoned ; and 
we doubt not, from the tenor of the 
advices above referred to, that ere 
this, either by purchase or conquest, 
Gallinas and its dependencies are a 
part and parcel of the common- 
wealth of Liberia — this measure, 
only, will ensure it against a re-en- 



actment of the scenes of distress 
and horror which have heretofore 
rendered that place so infamous. 

To enable those, not familiar with 
the slave marts on the West coast 
of Africa, to estimate the importance 
of the annexation of Gallinas to Li- 
beria, it is necessary to give a brief 
sketch of their location and extent 
and of the late history of Gallinas. 
Previous to the founding of the colo- 
nies of Liberia, the slave trade was 
rife throughout the whole of what is 
termed the Grain Coast; in fact, 
from the Gambia to Cape Palmas, an 
extent of over 1,.500 miles of coast 
line, excepting only, Sierra Leone 
and its immediate dependencies. 
The very heart of this extensive 
slave mart was Gallinas, to which 
only, Cape Messurado was second 
in importance. That the small band 
of colonists, which boldly located 
themselves on this beautiful head- 
land in 1821, should have been able 
to maintain their position amidst the 
powerful combined influence and 
action of slavers' gold and savage 
natives will ever remain a marvel in 
the history of that Colony. But 
they did maintain, not only their 



34 



APPEMIUX. 



AbobiMMi ot dM 8te*« Tnda of 0«Uun«. 



•xbtr>nce but their inlecrrity and fair 
famo. and although it requiri'd many 
Yrar> in H» nrcoin|>li.'>linient and nil 
of blood and tn-asuro wliicli tliey 
had to yivr, iht- Lii)«rians snrc«>odr«i 
flTectually in rradirnliinj tins i: 
Troin llie liniiis ol' thfir Ifrr 
AfnT th«? firm fstabiishmeiit ol tlif 
colony, llu* jilavi- ir:u!i> on tin- wimi- 
ward coa.'>l, or to the North and 
NVfsl of CajH' I'almas, was iiiuiiily 
contint'd in some Portn^'in-x* s« t- 
llcmi'iits at Hl.-^ao><, ilu- Uio Grandf, 
the Nuez and Fon<ros, (lallinaH and 
its vicinity. Grand and Little Ijassa, 
New CfstcTs and Traile Town. Tin* 
Bissaoa and the river factnrictt to the 
windward of Sierra Loone wire 
never very prosperoii-j, the slavers 
findinuilexlremelydifiiciilt to escape 
from them without heing intercepted 
by the Brili^<h cruisers. Tiie Miiall 
fact«)ries at the Hassns were much 
interrupted by the colonies and tiiial- 
ly extirpated by the purchase of 
Grand Ha^sa in lb'3'2; while those 
at New ('esters and Trade Town 
were more or less connected with 
and dependent upon those at Gal- 
linas. 

The G.nllinn<« river enters the At- 
lantic in latitude about 1V\ between 
Grand Cape Mount nml Cape St. 
Ann, near one hundred miles north- 
west of Cape Me(<sura<lo or Mon- 
rovia. The name of the river is 
jjiven to the cluster of slave factories 
near its mouth. This place possessj's 
no peculiar (i«lvanla;»es for any 
»p<'cieH of commerce, and (b-rivo 
ilM importance, exclusively, from the 
establishment of the slave factories 
there. The lan<l in the vicinity is 
very low and marshy, the river winds 
i*biZ(.'i^'*ly thron;,di un alluvion of 
Mangrove marsh, forminif innu- 
merable small inlnn<ls. The bar 
■t iiA nioiiih in one of the most 
dan;;eronM on the coast, iM-iiijj im- 
pasuble at times in the rainy scat on. 



It is located in what is termed the 
Vey C'ountry, the people of which, 
are distinmiished for their cleanli- 
iH so, intellij;ence, and enterpri/.o in 
trade. How lon;^ (iullinas has main- 
iiied its importance as a slave 
rt, wc are unabh- to say, but at th«; 
i::jie of our first visit to Liberia in 
IMJl, its reputation was very ex- 
tended and Its inlliieiices most deep- 
ly t'elt in tliec(.|ony. It was estimated 
that near 10,000 slaves were, about 
that period, annually shipped from 
this place alone. The business was 
done, mainly, throujjh the aj^ency of 
several merchants or factors estab- 
lished there, the principal of which, 
was Pedro HIanco, a Spaniard. This 
man's intluence was unbounded 
amoiitT the native tribes on that 
section of the coast, and we fear, at 
one lime, exten(l«d to members of 
the colony of considerable respecta- 
bility. He was a iiinn of education, 
InviiiL' the beariii;; and address of a 
Spanish Grandee or Don, which was 
his u^suul appellation. He lived in 
a semi-narbarous niaiiner, at once, 
as a private gentleman and an Afri- 
can prince. He had at om? time a 
sister residin;L' with him. He inain- 
tnined several establishments, one, 
on an island near the river's mouth, 
which was his place of busines.s or 
of trade with forei<:n vessels, thai 
came to Gallinas to dispose of mer- 
chandise ; on another island, more 
remol«' was his dwelling-house, where 
he kept his private oliice, his books, 
• lined, took his siesta, slept, ice.; • 
here, we believe, his sister also re- 
sided. On a third, was his sera^jlio of 
native wives, each in their se*eral 
dwellings, aHer the manner of native 
ehiels. Independ<*nl of all these 
were his barracoons of slaves, of 
;.'reat«'r or less extent, as circum- 
stances requireil. It may readily be 
'' supposed that with the wealth ac- 
il crtiing from a Ion;; and successful 



APPENDIX. 



35 



Abolition of the Slave Trade of Gallinas. 



prosecution of the slave trade, his i 
power among the natives was equal j 
to that of any despot ; and the fol- 1 
lowing incident related to us by one I 
of his partners proves that he oc- ' 
casionally exercised it. Having oc- j 
casion one day to travel on the sea 
beach some distance from GaUinas, 
near the island of Siierbro, where he 
was unknown, he approached the 
hut of a native with a view of taking 
rest and refreshment. He asked 
the owner of the house, who was 
squatted in the door, to hand him 
fire to light his cigar. The man 
bkintly refused, upon which, Blanco 
drew back, took a carbine from one 
of his attendants and shot him dead 
upon the spot. The narrator of the 
story apologised for Blanco by say- 
ing, that, to deny a Spaniard fire, 
for lighting his cigar or pipe is the 
grossest insult that can be offered him. 

We have ever understood, that 
Blanco was one of the kindest 
masters to his slaves, taking every 
care of their health and comfort, 
never suffering any improper inti- 
macy between his numerous agents 
and the females, and permitting no 
flogging or harsh treatment. 

VVe first visited Gallinas in 1837, 
at a time when the trade at this place 
was on the decline and Blanco was 
about leaving the coast. The first 
peculiarity we noticed in entering 
the river, was, the arrangements of 
watch-boxes, or look-outs, consist- 
ing of seats protected from the sun 
and rain, erected some fifty or one 
hundred feet from the ground, either 
on poles fixed in the earth, or on 
some insolated, high tree, from one 
of which the horizon was constantly 
swept by a good telescope, to give 
prompt notice of the approach of 
any vessel, and long experience 
rendered these men very expert in 
determining the character of any 
visitor, whether neutral, friend or foe. 

About a mile from the river's mouth n 



we found ourselves among a cluster 
of islands, on each of which was lo- 
cated the factory of some particular 
slave merchant. The buildings, gene- 
rally, consisted of a business room, 
with warehouse attached, filled with 
merchandize and provisions, and a 
barracoon lor the slaves; the whole 
built by setting rough stakes or small 
trees into the ground, these being 
wattled together witii withes and 
covered with thatch. That, contain- 
ing the slaves, being much the strong- 
est and generally surrounded by, or 
connected with, a yard, in which the 
slaves were permitted to exercise 
daily. We think there were some 
ten or twelve of these establishments 
at that time, each containing from 
100 to 500 slaves. We believe one 
contained near 1,000, which, it was 
expected, would be shipped daily. 
Each barracoon was in charge of 
from two to four white men, Span- 
ish or Portuguese, and a more pitiable 
looking set of men we never met 
with. They had all sufiered more 
or less from the fever, were very 
weak, much emaciated or swollen 
by dropsy or diseased spleens, and 
none of them particularly clean. The 
slaves were as well taken care of as 
could be expected, w-hen provisions 
were plenty in the country; but, in 
case of scarcity, they suffered severe- 
ly. Many instances have occurred 
wherein whole barracoons of slaves 
have been let loose for want of food ; 
and it may well be supposed their 
owners would allow them to suffer 
severely before giving them up. For 
this reason, and because they can 
be stowed more closely in a vessel, 
children are generally preferred to 
adults. We recollect going into one 
yard where there were some 300 
boys, all apparently between ten and 
fifteen years of age, linked together 
in squads of twenty or thirty. We 
never saw a more painfully interest- 
ing sight than the long rows of these 



3{i 



API'E.\DIX. 



AboUUiMi of iba lUave Trade of Ualluuw. 



bri?ht-4-v(sJ little fellows, doomed to 
ilu- h(irri>rs of a iiiKitiic latitude pas- 
"^'m*'- proltably iii n ihrtT and a half 
It«t bti« fell dfcks. AnotlitT pecu- 
liar feature of the place was, the col- 
lection of long cunoeM and boalH, all 
kept readv for the dispatch of Hlu^es 
tlie nioiiieiii an opportunity &hould 
occur. l*r<djHl»ly 1,0U0 hiaves could 
he ithipped in four hour:*, all thing8 
favorable. In case the coast is clear 
of armed vessels, and a slaver a|)|tears 
in the otliii;:, her siijnal is at once 
reco;;nized. She is siirnalised in re- 
turn, to come in, and if bhe is water- 
••d and pro\isione»l for the \oyare, 
and deck laid, which is usually the 
case, >|ie does not evi-n come to 
anchtir, but stands close in to the 
bar, where she is met by the whole 
fleet of canoes and boats, the coii- 
t<'nl.s of which are ^peedily put on 
board ; t^he then stands oif or up the 
<oast again, the canoes return to the 
barracoon for more slaves, aijain to 
meet outside the bar as before. Some- 
times, however, they are not so for- 
tunate, even when not molested by 
a man-of-war. The bar at the river 
mouth is not iinfreipiently danger- 
ous, even in the dry season, and in 
the anxiety to ship the slaves they 
run ;.'reat ha/ards, and many a boat 
load of po<»r wretches becomes f«iod 
for sharks, who always follow such 
boats and canoes in ^.'reat numbers. 
We have heard from Kroomeii, who 
perform the boat-Work a( (talliiias, 
iiianv harrowing tales of shippiiiir 
slaves from that place, too painful 
to report, or even to recall to mem- 
ory. In fact, all connected with j 
this trade is pninfiil an<l distressin;; i 
to hiimaiittv, and this (laltinas, of all 
ollu-r pla«es on the coast of Africa, 
with which we have been aci|uaiiit- 
ed, hos Iwen the sceiir of its ^reat- 
ent horrors. What imn^ination ran 
conceite the thouNaiidtli part of the 
mifterv that ha** bet-n etidnrrd by hu- 
man buinffs on thin little cluster of I 



bufihy islands .' Of the five or ten 

thousand, who are annually brought 
t(» this place, each and every one has 
to mourn a home made des<date, a 
family dismembered, the blood of 
kindred flowing'. Of this number, 
how many sink in these wretched 
barracoons from distress of mind ut 
their wretched condition, from dis- 
ease and famine ; how many are sa- 
crificed in their hurried shipment by 
the ravenous sharks; how many sink 
under the most protracted agonies 
ill that coiifuiemeiit between decks, 
the air of which is putridity itself; 
and, of tin; miserable survivors, the 
atttMiuated, excoriated wretches, 
who are still destincil for the sham- 
bles, how few but would exclaim, 
"Thrice and lour times happy are 
those who sink under the knife of 
the midnight assassin, or were con- 
sumed in the contlagration of tiicir 
palm-covered cottages?" 

But Gallinas is destroyed; as a 
slave mart it has ceased to exist ; 
from its marshy islets the fiat shall 
no more go lorlli to spread fire and 
sword throui,'liout a peaceful land ; 
the marauding chief has bound his 
last victim; the haggard, Lazarone 
slaver has riveted his last fetter: the 
shark at the bar mouth has fed on 
his last slave gang : and this land, 
heretofore detested and detestable, 
is heiicefi)rtli to form a |»art of thu 
fri'e and indepemleiit Republic of 
Liberia. In the fall of Ctallinas and 
the annexation of its territ«)ry to the 
Lilxrrian Republic, we see the abso- 
lute extinction of the slave trade from 
Sierra Leone to the Cape I'atmas. 
That the Liberinn (lovernment is 
competent to prevent its re-estal>- 
lisliiiM'iil, now, in the day uf her 
slreiiglh and iinle|)endence, fosirred 
by powerful nations, we have a suf- 
ficient giiarantv, by what she has 
done at MesMiirado, Rassa and Trade 
Town in tiin<- of her infancy and 
weakness. — Mii, Col. Journal. 



APPENDIX. 



37 



An Address to the Legislators and People of Virginia. 



SI respectful SlDDccss to ti)e Hrflislators nnO ^jcople of l/iijjinia; 

BY REV. P. SLAUGHTER, ACE.VT VA. COL. SOC. 



The Governor of the Common- 
wealth having iu liis late message 
recommended the American Colo- 
nization Society to the particular at- 
tention of the Legislature, and the 
subject having been referred to a 
select committee, Whose report is 
daily anticipated, it seems a fitting 
time to remind the Legislators and 
citizens of Virginia of some facts 
touching the origin and history of 
an institution which is attracting the 
regards and challenging the admi- 



gislature after the Declaration of In- 
dependence, to revise the laws of 
this State. This committee proposed 
a comprehensive plan of coloniza- 
tion, according to which all colored 
persons born after a certain time 
were to be emancipated and instruct- 
ed in tillage and other arts, until the 
males were twenty-one, and the fe- 
males eighteen years of age, and 
then colonized in such place as the 
circumstances of the time should 
render proper ; furnishing them with 



ration of the civilized world. It [ arms, implements of household arts, 
must endear this institution to Vir- seeds, and pairs of the useful do- 
ginians and strengthen their confi- j "^estic animals, &c.~declaring them 
dence in its wisdom, to be reminded a free and independent people, and 
that it comes commended to the extending to them our alliance and 
present generation by the authority protection. The report of the re- 
of our own most patriotic and saga- visors was not acted upon until 1785, 
cious statesmen, and the deliberate ] when Mr. Jefferson was in France, 



successive acts of our own Legisla- 
ture. 

"It claims for its authors, Thos. 
Jefferson, author of the Declaration 
of Independence, Edmund Pendle- 
ton and George Wythe — high in the 
first rank of their country's orators 
and jurists — the Mansfield and the 
Hale of Virginia — George Mason, 
perhaps the wisest statesman to 
whom Virginia has given birth — and 
Thomas Ludwell Lee, who was 
deemed by the Legislature of 1776 
their fit associate." These wcntle- 



and Pendleton and Wythe upon the 
bench. The emancipation feature 
in this plan was probably tlie reason 
of its failure. The seed of the Co- 
lonization Society had nevertheless 
been sown, which springing up after 
the lapse of a few years, and pruned 
of its excrescences, began to grow 
and bear fruit. Its first fruit was the 
plan of Dr. Thornton, (a Virginian,) 
in 1787, to colonize ihe free colored 
people upon ihe coast of Africa. — 
This being the suggestion of a pri- 
vate individual had no visible results. 



men were appointed by the first Le- J A few vears afterward, the Colony 
3 '' 



88 



Ar rc.^ A/iJk.. 



Jkm AUnm » ifc* I, igi Umn aa* fMfkt a( VUgtola. 



of Sif rra Lronc, coiibislini; «:f slaves 
Mrlio had taken refuge in the British 
tinxy during the Revolutionary Hor, 
xras established. 

On the 31st Dec. ISOO, the house 
of Delegates of Virginia, passed al- 
most unanimously the following re- 
solution : 

'• R faired, Uint the Governor •>• recjiiPfci- 



unin lo ihe tawi or dnii- 
i<-c of lociMy may be re- 



In compliance with this resolution 
Mr. Monroe addressed a letter to 
Mr. Jelferson, dated Richmond 15th 
June, 1801, in which he informs the 
President that this resolution was 
produced by the conspiracy of the 
slaves which took place in and near 
the city of Richmond the prtcfdini^f 
year, and was intentlcd to provide 
an alternate mode of punishment for 
lh«>se d«-scribed by the resolution. 
It being deemed more humane and 
not less expedient to traiispcirt surh 
olTcnders beyond the limits of the 
slate." Mr. Monroe proceeds to 
remark that llie latter part of the re- 
solution which proposes the remov- 
al of such persons as are dangerous 
to the peace of society, may be con- 
sidered as comprising' many to whom 
the preceding member does not ap- 
ply. "If the more enlarged construc- 
tion of iho resolution be deemed 
the true one, he odds, it furnishes in 
my opinion,! reason why the Legisla- 
ture in disposing of this ;;rcat question 
should cuuiuiaod an alternative of 



places. As soon as the mind emer- 
ges in contemplating the subject be- 
yond the contracted scale of provid- 
m<^ a place of punishment forofien- 
ders, new and interesting objects 
present themselves to view. It is 
impossible not to involve in it the 
condition of these people, the em- 
barrassment they have already occa- 
sioned us, and arc still likely to sub- 
ject us to. We perceive an existing 
; evil which commenced under our 
colonial system with which we are 
not properly chargeable, and we ac- 
knuwled;fe the exlrcnic ditiiculty of 
remedying it. At this point the 
mind rests with suspense, and sur- 
veys with anxiety obstacles which 
become more serious as wc approach 
them. To lead to a sound decision 
and make the result a happy one, it 
is necessary that the field of practi- 
cable expedients be opened on the 
widest possible scale ; under this 
view of the subject I shall beg leave 
to be advi^ed wlu-tluT n tract of 
, land in the western territory of the 
I United States can be procured for 
this purpose, in what quarter and on 
what tortus? You perceive that I 
invite your attention to a subject of 
great importance, one which in a 
peculiar degree involves the future 
peace, tranquility and happiness of 
the good people of this comniou- 
wealth." 

On the eighth of November, 1801, 
Mr. JefTcrson replied in a long 
letter, in the course of which he soys, 
coiniuun malefactors, I prcsuinci 



APPENDIX. 



39 



An Address to the Legislators and People of Virginia. 



make no part of the object of that 
resolution. Neither their numbers 
nor the nature of their offences seem 
to require any provision beyond 
those heretofore found adequate to 
the repression of ordinary crimes. 
Conspiracy, insurgency, &^c. among 
that description of persons who 
brought on us the alarm, and on 
themselves the tragedy of 18C0, 
were doubtless in the view of every 
one, but many perhaps contemplat- 
ed a much larger scope. Respect 
to both opinions make it my duty to 
understand the resolution in all the 
extents of which it is susceptible. 
He then goes on to discuss the prac- 
ticability and expediency of procur- 
ing territory on our western or 
southern frontier, and concludes 
with asking would we be willing to I 
have such a colony in contact with 
us ? It is impossible he adds not to 
look forward to distant times when 
our rapid multiplication will expand 
beyond those limits, and cover the 
whole northern if not the southern 
continent with a people speaking 
the same language and governed 
with the same laws. Nor can we 
contemplate with satisfaction either 
blot or mixture on that surface. 

He then gives the preference to 
the West Indies, and among these 
Islands to St. Domingo in considera- 
tion of their being already inhabited 
by a people of their own race and 
color, and having a climate congeni- 
al with their constitution, and being 
insulated from other descriptions of 



men. Africa he concludes would 
offer a last and undoubted resort if all 
others more desirable should fail us. 

On the 21st Dec. 1801, Mr. I\Ion- 
roe comnnunicated this letter of Mr. 
Jefferson with a message asking for a 
more full description of persons who 
are to be transported, and the place 
to which it is disposed to give the 
preference. On the 16th June 1802, 
the House of Delegates of Va. res- 
ponded in the following resolutions, 
which were agreed to by the Senate 
on the 23d. 

"The Legislature of the Common- 
wealth by their resolution of Dec. 
last having authorized the Governor 
to correspond with the President of 
the United States relative to the pur- 
chase of lands without the limits of 
this State, to which persons obnox- 
ious to the laws and dangerous to 
the peace of society might be re- 
moved, from which general expres- 
sions a diff'erence of construction 
has prevailed, to reconcile which re- 
course must be had to the actual 
state of things whiph produced the 
resolution." 

Therefore Resolved, That as the resolu- 
tion was not intended to embrace offenders 
for ordinary crimes to which tlie laws have 
been found equal, but only those for con- 
spiracy, insuri,'ency, &c., among^ that class 
of people who produced the alarm in this 
State in the fall of ]800, the Governor be 
requested in carrying the resolution into ef- 
fect, upon the construction here 2:iven,to re- 
quest the President of the United Suites in 
procuring the lands to prefer the continent 
of Africa, or any of the Spanish or Portu- 
guese settlements in South America. 

Resolved, That the Governor be request- 
ed to correspond with the President of the 
United States for the purpose of obtaining 
a place without the limits of the same, to 



40 



AffEXDlX 



Aa A Mil II lo the LefuUian and People of Viifiiaa. 



^^ liKh fVt« i>«ig ro «i or muUltoM and such t 
ncjgroffi or inuUiiuca am may b*- ciitntici|ia- 
ifsT, IU4V I" *(*iti or chfuu* lo rt-inovir n» n 
pi. uii), niul ihal II i« itui ilir wiah 

o! !ure tu ubuui (he novrrrigiity 

III Dec. 1804, Mr. JpflVrson ad- 1 
dressed a Icllcr to Governor Page of 
Virginia, in uhich liesay^t, the inland 
of St. D(»mingo, our n«'arest and 
most convenient regource, i» too un- 
settled to be looked to for any per- 
manent arrangements. He then 
euggosts whether the inhabitant.s of 
our late purchase, beyond the Mis- 
Bis»i|)pi, and the naliunnl Lfgisla- , 
ture would consent that a portion of 
that couiitrv should he set opart for 
ilie persons contemplated. And 
not yet seeming to despair of Af- . 
nca, he adds, my last information as 
to Sierra Leonf is that the company 
w.is proposing to deliver up their , 
colony to the (xovernnient. Should 
this take place it might furnish an 
opportunity for an incorporation of 
ours inio it. Tliis led to th«' follow- 
ing rrsolntion of the House of Dele- ; 
gitctf on the 3d of Dec. Ih04. 



n •■ '1110(1 ol t' 

li . y •m, to llP 

bcMi or mav i|p<l in Vir^iiin, <>r 



■ '. tiintonwettlili 

U:. >■. 

Thia resolution wan »eiit by Gov- 
rrnor Pa','f to tlir Heprescntativrs 
of Virjj'iiiia. 

Our diflirulliei with France and I 



England now supervened and arrest- 
ed at this point these iiitereciing 
proceedings. But there was at least 
one eminent politician whose mind 
was not diverted from the contem- 
plation of this subject by the ap- 
proaching war with England. In 
Jan. 1811, Mr. Jefferson said, "I 
have long ago made up my mind 
upon this subject, and have no hesi- 
tation in saying I have ever thought 
it the most desirable measure for 
gradually drawing off this part ofour 
population. Going from a country 
possessing all the useful arts they 
might be the means of transporting 
them among the iiihabilaius of Af- 
rica, ami wouhl thus carry back to 
the country of their origin the seed 
of civilization which mi<,'ht render 
their sojourning here a blessing in 
the end to that ctmntrv. Nothing 
is more to be wished than the Lnited 
States would themselves undertake 
to make such an estal)Ii>hmeiit on 
the coast of Africa. Exclusive of 
motives of humanity, the commcr- 
1 il advantages to be derived from 
t migiit defray all its expenses. It 
nay be doubted whether many of 
hose peoplo would be willing to go, 
• lilt that should not discouratre the 
rrperimfiit." A treaty of peace 
having been concluded with Great 
Ikiiain in IHl.*). the ])ublic mind 
reverted with incrt-nsed interest to 
the scheme of colonization. 

In December, 1H16, with only 
?<even dis!»entiiig voices in the House 
of Delegates, and mie in the Senate, 



APPENDIX. 



41 



An Address to the Legislators and People of Virginia. 



the following resolutions moved by I 
Mr. Mercer, pas.«ed the Legislature 
of Virginia. 

Whereas, the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia, liave repeatedly soujrht to obtain an 
Asylum beyond the limits of the United 
Slates, for sach persons of color as have 
been, or may be emancipated under the laws 
of this commonwealth, but have iiitiierto 
found all their ertbrts fiustrated, either liy 
the disturbed state of other nations, or do- 
mestic causes equally unpropitious to its 
success. They now avail themselves of a 
period when peace has healed the wounds 
of humanity, and the prmcipal nations of 
Europe have agreed with the iijovernment of 
the United States, in at)olishinij the African 
slave trade, (a traffic which this Common- i 
wealth both before and^after tlie Revolution, 
zealously sou2;lit to extirpate,) to renew 
ttis eflort : therefore. 

Resolved, That the Executive be request- 
ed to correspond with the President of the 
United States, for the purpose of obtaining 
a territory on the coast of Africa, or at 
some other place not within any of the 
States or territorial governments of the Uni- 
ted States, to serve for an asylum of such 
persons of color as are now free, and desire 
the same, and for those who may be here- 
after emancipated within this Common- 
wealth, and that the Senate and Represen- 
tatives of this state and the Congress of the 
United States, be requested to exert their 
best efforts to aid in the attainment of the 
above object. 

In the meantime Dr. Finley, Bish- 
op Meade, Frank Key, &c., had 
been anxiously pondering the sub- 
ject of African Colonization. These 
with other persons of like minds, 
assembled in the city of Washing- 
ton on the 21st of December of the 
same year, and recommended the 
formation of the American Coloni- 
zation Society. 

Mr. Clay was chairman of the 
meeting, and stirring addresses were 
made by him, and by Messrs Cald- 
well, and Randolph of Roanoke. 
A committee was appointed to pres- 
ent a memorial to Congress asking 



their co-operation ; John Randolph 
was on that committee. Tlie Soci- 
ety held its first meeting on the 17th 
of January, 1S17, and elected its 
officers. Hon. Bushrod Washington, 
was made President, and among the 
13 Vice Presidents were Clay, Craw- 
ford, Jackson, and John Taylor, of 
Virginia. The committee of the So- 
ciety prepared a memorial to Con- 
gress, which was referred to a com- 
mittee of the House of Representa- 
tives, who made an able report con- 
cluding with resolutions recommen- 
ding negotiations with the great 
states of Europe, for the abolition 
of the slave trade, and an a])plica- 
tion to Great Britain to receive into 
the colony of Sierra Leone such of 
the free people of color of the Uni- 
ted States, as should be carried thith- 
er. And should this propostion not 
be accepted, then to obtain from 
Great Britain a stipulation, guaran- 
teeing a permanent neutrality to 
any colony established under the 
auspices of the United States upon 
the coast of Africa. 

On the 3d of March, IS 19, Con- 
gress passed an act authorising the 
President of the United States to 
make such arrangements as he might 
deem expedient for the safe keeping 
and removal out of the United States 
of such persons of color as might 
be brought into any of the States 
under the act abolishing the slave 
trade, and to appoint agents upon 
the coast of Africa, for receiving 
such persons. Agents were accord- 



42 



AFFBWDIX. 



A* A4inm w ik* UgtelHan uti Faopto of Viislnu. 



iiigly appointed by the government, 
uiio aciiag in cooopcratiun with the 
agents of the society, purchased i 
it-rritorT and established tlie colony. 
This purcha«e was made in I8'2'2, 
by an agent of the Society, and 
Cipt. Stockton of the navy, on the 
part of the tjovcrnnuMil of tlie Uni- 
ted States. From tliat momcit, the 
course of tlie colony has been steadi- 
ly onward, "tliroujjii evil and through 
good report," until it has takon its 
place anion;; the iiidrpciulnit na- 
tions of the earth, under the d«»nonii- 
nation of the " Republic of Liberia." 
To return from this digression, to 
Virginia. An auxiliary society was 
formed in Richmond in November, | 
IS'23, at the head of wich was placed ' 
the Hon. John Marshall, (clarum 
ct vcncrabilc nomcn) who continu- 
cd to preside over its deliberations, 
and to guide it by his wise counsels, 
to the day of his lamented death. 
He was succeeded by the Hon. John 
Tyler, late President of the United 
States. The Richmond Society by 
its able reports, its energetic agon- | 
cies, and its stirrin;; appeals, was 
instrumental in difTuxing information 
and procuring contributions, which 
rendered verv valuable aid in a time of 
need, to the Parent Society at Wa.-^h- 
Mi^^ton. It also obtained from the 
I.< M-laiure in IS^."} and 16'2^, 
d Miiutions in clothing and imple- | 
ments of agriculture, which supplied ; 
\ery opportunely pressing wants of 
•!i.> itifTfii r..lM!)v in Africa. T'"- 



i'rr«i drill of the AmencAD- 



Colonization Society at this period, 
had a task of gnat delicacy to per- 
ftirm. The questions growing out of 
the admission of Missouri into the 
Union, had fearfully agitated the 
whole country, and threatened to 
overivhrim this benevolent enter- 
prise in ruin, but by fidlowing the 
chart of her original principles with 
the strictest fidelity, and steering 
between the rock of indifTereiitism 
on the one hand, and the whirlpool 
of nbolitionisni on the other, she 
was enabled with the blessing of 
heaven to weather the storm. At this 
critical juncture were heard above 
the roaring of the tempest of fanati- 
cism, the voices of her gallant com- 
manders, Madison and Marshall,* 
cheering her onward in her noble 
mission. 

Mr. Madison in a letter dated 
Jan. 16, 1832, said, "the Society 
had always my best wishes, although 
with hopes of success less sanguine 
than those entertained by others 
found to be better judges, and I feel 
the greatest pleasure at the progress 
already made by the Society, and 
the encouragement to encounter re- 
maining difficulties, aflforded by the 
rfreater and earlier difficulties al- 
ready overcome. I cherish the 
hope that the time will come when 
the dreadful cnhmity which has so 
long afflicted our country, and filled 
so many with despair, will he grad- 
ually removed, and by means con- 
-■-'•••' »vith justice, peace, and the 

I int of the Virgiuui Society. 



APPENDIX. 



43 



An Address to the Legitilators and People of Virginia. 



general satisfaction ; thus giving to I 

our country the full enjoyment of 1 

the blessings of liberty, and to the , 

world the full benefit of its great ! 

example." 

Judge Marshall in the same year, 

said, " the removal of our colored i 

I 
population is a common object by { 

no means conferred to the slave 1 
states, although they are more im- 
mediately interested in it. The i 
whole Union, he adds, would be 
strengthened by it, and relieved from 
a danger whose extent can be scarcely 
estimated." Here we have the 
authority of the " father of the con- 
stitution" and its greatest expounder, 
both of whom thought the object 
contemplated by the Colonization 
Society, so important that it de- 
manded the interposition of the 
general government, and both re- 
garded the public lands as a proper 
resource for effecting it. 

In the mean time the tragedy of 
Southampton had occurred, and rung 
an alarum through the Common- 
wealth, which convinced the Legis- 
lature, that in the language of Gen. 
Brodnax " something mustbe done." 
Accordingly that gentleman in the 
session of 1832 and 33, reported a 
bill devising ways and means for 
deporting free negroes and such as 
may become free in Virginia to Li- 
beria. The bill proposed an appro- 
priation of $35,000 for the present 
year and $90,000 for the next, to be 
applied to this purpose. It passed 
the House of Delegates, but was lost 



in the Senate. Notwithstanding 
this discouragement, the subject was 
again moved, and on the 4th of 
March, 1833, an act passed the 
Legislature appropriating $18,000, 
and constituting the Governor, Lieut. 
Governor, and 1st and '2<1 Auditors, 
a board of commissioners, for carry- 
ing its provisions into effect. The 

act was as follows ; 

"Whenever satisfactory proof shall be 
produced to said commissioners that any 
number of free persons of color shall have 
been actually transported to Liberia, or 
other place on the western coast of Africa, 
or that they shall have been embarked 
for transportation thither from within the 
limits of this Commonwealth by tlie Ame- 
rican Colonization Society, it shall be 
lawful and the said board of commissioners 
are liereby required to issCTE their warrant 
upon the treasury of this connnon wealth, 
for such sum or sums of money as may 
be necessary to defray the costs of trans- 
porting and subsisting such free persons 
of color for a limited time, on the said coast 
of Africa, payable to the authorized and 
accredited agent of the American Coloni- 
zation Society. Provided, that the sum or 
sums thus expended shall in no one year 
exceed the amount hereby appropriated 
for such year, and that the free persons 
of color who may be removed under the 
provisions of this act, shall be selected from 
the dilTerent counties and corporations of 
this Commonwealth, in proportion to the 
amount of revenue paid into the public treas- 
ury by such county or corporation, if such 
persons can be found in such county willing 
to emigrate ; but if the whole sum of money 
hereby appropr ntjJ to each couuty or cor- 
poration, shall not annually be applied to the 
removal of such free persons of color therein 
because of their unwillingness to emigrate 
therefrom, then the balance thereof may 
be equitably applied to the removal of free 
persons from other counties and corpora- 
tions. And provided that no more than the 
sum of $30 shall be allowed for the trans- 
portation and subsistence of any free per- 
sons of color over ten years of age, and not 
more than $20 for any under that age. Pro- 
vided, that no payment shall be made by 
the same Board under the provision of this 
act, for the transportation of any other than 
persons now free, and born and residing 
within this Commonwealth or their descen- 
dants." 



44 



APPENDIX. 



A> A*dnm la Ibe Lii^iitauta nA People of VirttoU. 

Tlii« act M waji predicted at [" uas agreed to by the House of 
the tunc was reudcred utlerly in- Dele;jate««, and a bill ordered. 
clTicienl by the rcMrictiuiisi with Kur waul of time or some other 
which it was encumbered. The ^ cnu^c not known, this bill did not 
appropriations having been distri- j become a law. And now in 1S50, 
bulL-d into as many parts as there ,. Mr. Donnuii has reported a bill to 
were cuunliesinihe Commonwealth, the same end founded upon the rc- 
and having been limited to iho.st- commendation in the message of Go- 
persons freed before a certain time, vernor Floyd. Such is believed to 
and the commis>ioners appointed to be a just account of the history of 
carry the provisions of tlie act into the idea of colonizing our people of 
elfect, fet'liii;; tliemselies bound by color from its first conception, until 
it to require the Society to prove the its full development in the Aineri- 
identity, age and residence of each can Colonization Society. It is not 
aj)|>licant, as well as the time at within the scope of this address to 
which they were emancipated, by , write the history of that society— its 
the certificates of the clerks of the unparalclled success is not now 
counties in which such persons re- questioned by any unprejudiced 
sided, and also to prove their trans- ,„an. Mr. Gurlcy who was com- 
portation or cmbarkaiioii by divers missioned by the general govern- 
formalities, it was thought better to .n^nt to visit Liberia and investigate 



surrender the benefit of the act than 
to incur the expense of time and 
money necessary to comply with its 



its condition, is just returned and is 
now preparing an elaborate report 
illustrating the commercial and other 



hard conditions. Accordingly, the I i,„ero8ts of that young Republic, his 
Society actually colonized in the t^.,,„„o„y ,„ ,,« present prosperity 
year 183(j, at their own expense. ;,i..l the greatness of its future pros- 
emigrants who came within the pro- , ,„.c,s is most decisive and encour- 
visions of the act. .^^,1,,^, x,.ither is it a part of my 
In 1837, the Board of Managers plan to cite tin- authority or acts of 
of the Virginia Society, seconded by the several state Legislatures, four- 
petitions from several auxiliary so- teen of which have given the socie- 
cicticB, presented a memorial to the ly their approbation, and one, Mary- 
Legislature asking for an art of land, has made it a part of her per- 
incorporation, and an amendment maneiit policy by establishing and 
of the act of 1833, so as to make its cherishing with annual appropria- 
provisions available, and on the 13th tions the colony of Maryland in Li- 
of February of the pame year, the beria. Nor will I now insist upon 
r<port of the select committee de- the benefits, social, political and 
daring ihetw pcliuons roasooablc moral liiat ar« conferred by this to- 



APPENDIX. 

Letter from President Roberts. 



45 



ciety upon the white race in Ameri- 
ca, and upon the black race upon 
both continents. Let it suffice to 
say that we have in our midst in the 
persons of our free colored people 
an evil of enormous mngnitude. That 
this evil has increased, is increasing 
and ought to be diminished every 
body admits. Benevolent indivi- 
duals and societies are laboring 
with all their might to eradi- 
cate it. They have done much. 
When therewere ojily 2000 co/onists, 
in Liberia, 1100 of them were from 
Virginia, and complaints were made 
that the Virginians monopolized the 
public offices. During the present 
month, sixty colored people from 
Virginia will sail from Norfolk. Un- 
der these circumstances cari there be 
a question whether the subject is 
worthy the interposition of the Le- 
gislature. If this is clear, is not de- 
lay dangerous? When Mr. Jeffer- 
son proposed his plan of coloniza- 
tion, there were only about 10,000 
free negroes in Virginia — now the 
number is estimated at 60.000, and 
is increasing, not only in the natural 
way but by operation of the law con- 
ferring upon the County Courts the 

Setter from 13 re 
Government House, | 

Monrovia, Oct. 31.s/, 1849. 
Dear Sir : — Your two favors of the 
31st July, by the '• Liberia Packet," 
are received, and their contents re- 
spectively noted. I forwarded to 
your address, a icw weeks ago, a ' 
copy of our commercial treaty with 
England. I have the satisfiiction to 
inform you that the ratifications \ 

4 



power of allowing emancipated 
slaves to remain in the State during 
the good pleasure of the Court. A 
majority of the magistrates being re- 
quired to constitute a court under 
this law, as a matter of fact, the 
Court seldom meets, and the appli- 
cant is advised by his counsel that 
nothing will be done with him while 
his ap})lication is pending, and thus 
great numbers of these people re- 
main in the Commonwealth con- 
trary to the obvious intent of the law. 
A great change is coming every 
day over the dreams of the colored 
people upon this subject. The es- 
tablishment of the Republic of Li- 
beria, and its recognition by the 
great powers of Europe, has attract- 
ed their attention, and excited a 
spirit of inquiry which will undoubt- 
edly lead to a large emigration. The 
time for giving the cause a vigorous 
impulse is propitious. Will the 
generous and sagacious Legislators 
of the Old Dominion, turn a deaf ear 
to thousands of their fellow citizens 
of all religious creeds, and political 
parties, who having put their own 
shoulders to the wheel, with on(! 
voice call upon Hercules for hel[). 

s f a c n t Iv 1) r r t s . 
were exchanged at London on the 
first of August last, and the British 
ratified copy was received here o!i 
the 15th ultimo — which you will 
find published in the September 
number of the Liberia Herald. 

I regret to have to inform you that 
we have not yet succeeded in secur^' 
ing the territory of Gallinas. Our ne- 
gotiations, at present, are at a stand 



APPBXUIX 



Leitor fVooi PrMid«iil Rob«ni. 



mill for the want of funds. Mr. |' 
'IVa;.'!*'* liiilurc to raise money iu 
liu* ruiieil Staleri, in a t>utl disap- 
puiiitiiii'iit to ii.<<, unti hntt not a little 
t inbarra.-*!***!! our oporatioiis. So 
sure wns I that our Irioniis in Ame- 
ricu would aid us in this important 
olijiTt. that iiiiinrdialily alU-r Mr. 
Tfa:,'i'"s dcjcirtiiri' for the United 
St:iif>i I iipcncd negotiations with 
the ehiffs lor the purchase of tJte 
various tracts o|' country between 
this place and Sierra Leone, and, «s 
\ou are aware, succeeded in secur- , 
iiij; three important tracts. And 
lor these I am sorry to »ay but n 
small portion of the purchase money 
has been paid, in consetptencc of 
lieincj compel!. -d to apply nearly nil | 
the mcMM-v we could possibly raise ! 
here to the discliari^e of the tlebl in- 
• iirred for the New Cess expedition. 

TIjo chiefs of Gallinas demand 
fine half of the ])urchasc money 
down on concludinij the sale of 
their territory, which at present, we 
are not prepared to do: nor have 
I any i«lea when we i»hall be able to 
meet this demand, certainly not for 
several years unless you will come 
to our aid. 

In the hope, however, of obtain- 
ing timely as<*isiance from the I'niied 
States I »ha\\ keep the ncjfoliations 
pending until I can hear from you 
aj:ain, at which tnne I hope to l>e 
niithori/.ed by you to draw for the 
$.VO00. r< fered to in your lett«-r ol 
31st Julv last. The amount pledged 
by Mr. (Mirney (JL 1,000) is not r. - 
i:til we hlinll have nctiiully 
I,' . the purchase of the whole 

territ'ifv Uini; between our northern 

1 ti<larv and Sierra Leone, which 

t l»r efferlid \Mthout at len.-t 
M) in hand. 

I am e\i-eedui'^Iy nnxiou<t to v' 
I- lire tint territory — indeed. It ia nu 
portant that uc do so as soon an 
possible — particularly in view of the 
probability that the British blockad- 'l 



in^ squadron will be withdrawn from 
this part of the African coast: in 
the event of which elVorls will no 
doubt be made to re\ive the slave 
trade at those old haunts of the 
slavers: but if they are embraced 
within the jurisdiction of Liberia it 
will be impossible. 

I am <,rratifie^ to find that the 
l*resident, and the Secretary of 
State of the I'liited States, arc favor- 
ably disposed towards Liberia; and 
that there is a prospect of our ob- 
taiiiintr a speedy recojrnition of our 
indf'pendence from the United States 
Government. The appointment of 
Key. Mr. (iurley to vi.sil Liberia to 
collect statistics and facts respecting 
the commerce, ttc., of this Hepublic 
preparatory to introducing; the subject 
of our independence before the 
United States Senate, is an indica- 
tion that somethini,' is likr ly to be 
done. Mr. Gnrley is assiduously 
dischar^iiiir the duties of his mission, 
and is collectin^r nuich valuable in- 
formation. He will be able, I have 
no <|onbt, to present such a report 
as will not only convince the Go- 
vernment and |»e<tple of the United 
States of the |)r«)priety of ucknow- 
lediTJnir the independence of Li- 
beria, but also of the necessity of 
e.\teiidin;r to the infant government 
a helping hand. 

1 am )rlad to find that the inter- 
pretation which our lejjislature put 
upon the articles of our aijreemcnl 
Willi the Sticiety agrees with the uii- 
(i< r-tanding of the Kxeeutive Com- 
mittee, and will doubtless meet the 
appn)val of the lioard of Directors 
at their annual meeting in January 
next. 

With high regards I have the 
honor to be, <lear sir, 

Vour obdi. humble servant, 

.1. J. UOHERTS. 

To Rkv. W.m. McLain, 
Waxhingion City. 



t WX'V-W^/WVV^- 



b. 'V^^^.'WX'X/WX'X/V'VX/X. VW\/VX'VVX'VW'WX\ 



THIRTY-FOURTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 






I iiilSiaBiia i]!DlL(DlII!2ii'iIIDa S'DllO^Is 






WITH THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND OF THE SOCIETY; 



AND THE ADDRESSES 



DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL MEETING, 



January 21, 1851. 



TO WHICH IS ADDED 



AN APPENDIX 



CONTAINING SKNTIMENTS OF THE PRESS ; MEMORIALS TO CONGRESS IN FAVOR 
OF STIiAMSHIPS TO AFRICA; COMMERCE OF AFRICA; A TABLE EX- 
HIBITING THE COST OF COLONIZATION, AND A 
TABLE OF EMIGRANTS. 



J 

V. 

11 



H 



n 

11 



H 






WASHING r N : 
C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER, 

F STREET, NEAR NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

1 85 1 . 



n 



THIRTY-FOURTH 



ANNUAL REPORT 



WITH THE PROCEEBINGS OF THE 
I 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS AND OF THE SOCIETY; 

AND THE ADDRESSES 
DELIVERED AT THE ANNUAL. MEETING, 

January 21, 1851. 

' Xv TO WHICH IS ADDED 



AN APPENDIX, 



CONTAINING SENTIMENTS OF THE PRESS; MEMORIALS TO CONGRESS IN FAVOR 
OF STEAMSHIPS TO AFRICA; COMMERCE OF AFRICA; A TABLE EX- 
HIBITING THE COST OF COLONIZATION; AND A 
TABLE OF EMIGRANTS. 



•i':: ■■,.'. y 



WASHINGTON: 

C. ALEXANDER, PRINTER, 

P STREET, NEAR NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

1851. 



CONTENTS. 

~ ~" ~ Pa«e. 

Thirty -fourth Annual Report of the American Colonization Society 5 

Death of Vice Presidents of this Society 5 

Increase of Emigration 7 

Indebtedness of the Society — Increase of Receipts H 

Agencies — Auxiliary Societies — State of Virginia 9 

The appropriation by Virginia — Action in Ohio If* 

Purchase of Territory in Liberia, for the colored people of Ohio 11 

Condition of the colored people in Ohio 12 

Action of the State of Indiana 13 

Iowa and Kentucky 16 

iVIissouri, Illinois, and New York 17 

Maryland Colony of Cape Palmas 18 

Proposed action of the General Government U' 

Line of Steamships to Africa ' 20 

Mr. Gurley 's Report — Education 21 

Purchase of Gallinas — ^The Contrast 22 

Publications of the history of Liberia 23 

Extracts — Position of the Republic 24 

The inducements to Emigration 25 

Concluding remarks 26 

Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting of the American Colonization Society 26 

Resolutions adopted 27 

Election of officers 28 

Extracts from the minutes of the Board of Directors of the Am. Col. Society 28 

Delegates from State Societies — Monument to Gov. Buchanan 29 

Resolutions — town of Buchanan — Committee on publication of a Newspaper 30 

Tribute of respect to the memory of John McDonogh — Officers 31 

Resolutions relative to collections 32 

Receipts and Expenditures 33 

Address by the Hon. H. Clay 34 

Rev. Dr. Fuller 43 

J. H. B. Latrobe, Esq 55 

Hon. F. P. Stanton 61 

Remarks of the Hon. R. R. Reed 67 

Letters from gentlemen who had been invited to attend and address the An. Meeting. . 6S 

Appendix — Acknowledgment of the Independence of Liberia 69 

Sentiments of the Press 71 

Memorials in favor of Steamships to Africa 74 

From the Ohio State Convention 74 

Maryland Reform Convention 74 

Legislature of Virginia 7;i 

Virginia Reform Convention 7C • 

New York Colonization Society 77 

Legislature of Pennsylvania 78 

Commerce of Africa 78 

Cost of Colonization 82 

Table of Emigrants 83 



THIRTY-FOURTH 

ANNUAL REPORT 



AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY 

January 21st, 1851. 

Death of Vice Presidents of this Society. 



Since our last Annual Meeting, 
four of the Vice Presidents of this 
Society have departed this life. 

We never had a warmer friend or 
more devoted supporter than the 
late John Ker, M. D., of Natchez, 
Miss. He died in January last. On 
receiving intelligence of his death, 
the Executive Committee adopted 
the following tribute to his memory: 

" It is with sentiments of heartfelt 
sorrow that we have heard of the 
death t)f our valued friend and fellow 
laborer for Africa's welfare. By this 
bereavement, society has lost an ac- 
complished gentleman, the cause of 
benevolence a bright and able advo- 
cate, and the church an exemplary 
and noble Christian. His devotion 
to the interests of this Society was 
worthy of all commendation. One 
of its earliest friends and contribu- 
tors, there was no sacrifice which he 
was not ready to make for it; no 
labor demanding zeal, talent and 
efficiency, which he was not ready 
to perform. Long should the "Ross 
slaves," now freemen in Liberia, 
cultivate sentiments of the liveliest 
gratitude to him, as the chief instru- 
ment of their redemption; and long 
may we cherish an affectionate re- 
membrance of his eminent private 



and public virtues, and his distin- 
guished exertions in the cause of 
humanity! 

"We tender to his family our 
warmest sympathy in their deep 
affliction." 

Jonathan Hyde, Esq., of Bath, 
Maine, died the 18th of Octo- 
ber, 1850. He was one of the ear- 
liest and most steadfast friends of 
this Society. He was a man of 
liberal and enlarged spirit, and an 
exemplary supporter of all religious 
and benevolent institutions. But 
" a thorough investigation of the 
subject, (he said,) had long settled 
his mind in a sober and conscienti- 
ous judgment that the Colonization 
enterprise presented to the Christian 
philanthropist the most urgent claims 
of any of the numerous charities of 
the day." He had, therefore, with 
the increase of years, even under the 
infirmities of age, exhibited an in- 
crease of zeal and exertions in its 
behalf as Secretary and Treasurer of 
the Colonization Society of Bath 
and vicinity. 



ANNl'Ai. tKrOET Of THE AHVUVAfl COLONIZATION l»OCIETr. 



riiu of llila |(oclely. 



The R«-v. C'uR.>Eut's C. Ci'ylkr, 
D. D., of PhilaiK-l|ihia, IViiiisylvania, 
an i-iiiiiieiit cK'r^yinnn and pa.»tor of 
ihe Sfcond Pre>l)yt»Tiau Churrli in 
that city, died the 3 IM of September, 
1V50, leaf in;; behind him the faire.st 
reputalion for |mrity of character and 
uprightneitd of life. II«- was ever the 
warm friend of thi> Society and the 
zealous and ellicient hilturer lor it.s 
advancement. .Man) are the friends 
whom hi.'H abb' advocacy wou for it, 
and lon;^ will re>|M'ct and alTection 
(rather around bi.s name, in remem- 
brance of tin" yentli'ne.'«s of his man- 
ner and the unan.swerabiene.s.-^ uf hiti 
arguments in itji behalf. 

JoH.N McDo.NOGH, of \ew Orleann, 
died on the 'itith of October, in the 
7 1st year of his age. He be(|ueathcd 
lo this Society the most tnagiiificeut 
legacy uhich it has ever had the 
good fortune to receive. The fol- 
bjwing extract from his will, indi- 
cates the character of this be(Ju<r^t: 

" Firstly, I give and betpieath to 
the /Viiiericaii Coloni/atimi .Societ\, 
for coloiii/.iii<.' the free people of 
color of iIh- United States, estab- 
lished at the city «»f Washington, in 
the District of Co!uini)ia, for tin pur- 
pose of its noble and philaiitlir<ijiic 
institution, an annuity for th*; term 
of forty years, ci>untiiig from and 
aAer the day of my decease, of the 
one-eighth part, or twelve and a 
half per cent, of the net yearly re- 
venue of runts of the uhole of tin- 
estate, an hereinlx-fore willed and 
becpieathed unto the Mayor, Aid" r- 
men and inhnbitnnix o| tli<> cities ,.\ 
New Orleans and Ualtiuiore, but 



' which one-eighth part of the net 
yearly revenue of rents of sai«l estate, 
as aforesaid, shall not entitle the said 
American Colonization Society, for 
colonizin:,' the free people of color 
of the I'nited States, tt) receive or 
demand, in any one year, a larger 
Slim than twentv-five thousand d<d- 
lars, should the one-eighth part 
thereof amount to a larger sum ; 
trusting in full confidence that the 
iiihaliilants of this free ami happy 
land, throii;;liout all its lM>iders, from 
Maine to Louisiana, will sustain this 
institution — one of the greatest 
glori«'s of our country — and iMiable 
it to accomplish its human** and holy 
object in its full exteul." 

As the validity of this will is to be 

vigorously contested, we fear it may 

. be sometime before we shall rewive 
the first payment to which it entitles 

I us. We, however, have no doubt 

; the bequest will ultimately be paiil. 
The will is certainly an ably written 

' document, alike creditable to the 
head and heart of the benevolent 
individual who 1< ft it as his 1.1st and 
only t«-siam<-nt. 

Mr. McDonogh has always been 
a devoted friend of coh>nization, and 
a liberal contributor to our funds. 
It Will be remembered that several 
years ago^ he liberatetl and sent to 
Liberia eighty-five of his slaves, 
whom he had been long training for 
the full enjoyment of freedom. In Ins 
will he also uiade provision for ilie 
coloni/.ation of the slaves whom he 
owned at his death. 

lir was always mited as a man of 

, great activity and energy of char- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



acter, and of rather peculiar habits. 
The following graphic description 
of him we extract from the New 
Orleans Picayune : 

" The announcement yesterday 
evening of the death of John Mc- 
Donogh took our city by surprise, 
and formed the sole subject of con- 
versation wherever it was known. 
His long residence among us, his 
iniiucnse wealth, his peculiar habits, 
and appearance, had made his name 
familar, not only here but every- 
where in the State, as a household 
word. He seemed to many a being 
apart from his fellow-men. While 
youth, and strength, and health and 
beauty were year after year struck 
down beside him, he moved on, tall, 
spare, erect, with sprightly step and 
look. Every school urchin recog- 
nized at a first glance the thin, sharp, 
intelligent face, the small sparkling 
brown eye, the long white hair, the 
neat, prim white cravat and high 
shirt collar, the well-preserved old 
hat and blue umbrella, and the never- 
to-be-worn-out old fashioned, tight- 
fitting blue cloth dress coat and pan- 
taloons, and well polished shoes. 
We had gradually become impressed 
with the idea that John McDonogh 
would never die. He appeared as 
much an indestructable relic of our 
city's ancient history as the old State 
House or the old Cathedral. — One 
of those antique monuments has 
been razed to the ground ; the other 
lias thrown off its old vesture for a 
new one, and the third, John Mc- 
Donogh, now lies ready for his last 
journey and his last resting place — 
the tomb." 

In view of the death of so many 
eminent friends of the cause within 
a single year, we cannot forget how 
brief and uncertain is the period of 



human life, nor fail to be excited 
thereby to new diligence and energy 
in the prosecution of the great enter- 
prise before us ! 

Our gratitude is due to the great 
Disposerof all events, for the gracious 
care with which he has watched over 
our affairs during the past year, and 
for the general prosperity with which 
he has blessed us. 

We have the pleasure of report- 
ing that a larger number of emi- 
grants have been sent to Lil)eria than 
during any preceding year, since the 
organization of the Society, with the 
exception of the year 1832. Six 
expeditions have departed from our 
shores, with 507 emigrants. 

The Liberia Packet sailed from 
Norfolk, Virginia, on the 26th of 
January, with 136 emigrants ; of 
these 19 were born free and the 
remainder were slaves manumitted 
for the purpose of Colonization. 

The barque Chieftain sailed from 
Savannah, Georgia, on the 14th of 
February, with 167 emigrants ; 154 
of these were manumitted by the 
will of the late Maj. Jacob Wood of 
Perry county — the others were free 
persons from Charleston, S. C. 

The D. C. Foster sailed from New 
Orleans, on the 15th of March, with 
78 emigrants, of whom 40 were 
emancipated by will, and the re- 
mainder were free. We are indebted 
to the active agency of the Louisi- 
ana State Colonization Society, for 



AN'Nt'AL RejtiRT OP THE AMCaiCAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 
lM4»b<r4»«M 9t Ik* Sorteir— iMcraaM of Brceipu. 



important itenricett in (he fitiiu!; outh of the country has been one ofex- 
r this expedition. I citenient and alarm itn hubji-cl.s, 

Thf Librria Piuktt Nuilud iVoni wilh w Inch our inlereslh have been 
Bahinion-, un thr 4th uf July, wilh by many ronfouudcd. It is ;/r.iti- 
5t> enii),;rant.H, of whom 35. were fyinjj therefore tu know thut ihe 
iMirn free, 13 h««l purcliasi-d their ^trentnH whieh flow iiit<» our Treas- 
fn-edoni, and the remainder wer»- nrv have been enlar;,'ed. 

iitancipaie«i by diflerent persons, At the last Annual Meeting the 
lor the purpose fify^oinjr t(i Liberia. Society was in ilobl upwards of 
The bar«|ue Edenr sailcti from $12,000. Since then the current ex- 
New York on the '2d of Octol>er, ' ponses of the Treasury have been 
with 3*2 emi<rrants, 1*2 of these were in,-t ami tlic indebtedness reduced 
from Newbern, N. C, the family of to $7,lb0.t>8. 

Daniel Williams "the enifineer." The total amount ..f our receipt, 
who was purchased with fu.i.ls raised ^,,^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^.j„ ^^^^^^^ ^^^,^^ „,^ 
\>\ the Journal <»f Commerce, in 



account current apfiended to this re- 
port, IS $04,973.91. 

It is a very encourajfinif and mi- 



New York. The others were all 

free and from various parts of the 

countrv. Tiiis expedition was sent 

"... ir , o /-» I portant fact, that a larffe part of these 
out by the New York State Colo- ., 

^ receipts have been the spontaneous 
nization bocietv. ' ' 

„,. r 1 • ' n ; J 111- olTerinifs of the friends of the cause. 
The Liberia Packit saiUd Irom ■ 

Haltunore, on the 21st of December, 'i A very limited number of uirrnls 

with 3S emigrants, all of these were I have been eniploT«d in collecting 

Iree^excepling 3 who had purchased funds. This has been partly owing 

themselves, and one who had been to the <lifficulty of obtaining men of 

emancipated.* the riyht <{uulificatioiis for tliisardii- 

Our funds have inrrea.sed duriii;' oiis and responsible work : but chief- 

the past year and we have assurances ly to the fact, that most of the State 

that they will continue iitill to in- Societies employ their own agents, 

creaM!, and yet there have existed and manage the business «if rais- 

|>eculiar obstacles in the way of our ing money within their bounds ihem- 

<-(i||er(iii-j funds. The general stale ; selves. This is the ca»c in Ma.isa- 

• Kxi-I-DITIOKI TO LiBCRIA •■ '-'" 

Jnii. 'JC,. I i:i6 pini^mnu. 

K.li. 11, I . ' , 1G7 

Mnr. 15. .s. ii.M.i.rr l>. <.•. Fouler, 7H 
July 4, I,it.-nn IVrkrt, f>li 

oi. a. I'. r, :w 

Drc. 'J\, kcl. 3H 

Toirtl niiinlMfr, 507 

Of ihr«r 165 were l»oni (rrr, 305 wrrt Mitnix iimiiHl, 32 |>iirrhnjicd thcmwIvMi, mid It 
w»f» purrhaard by fVlrrolt in Nrw Y<«rV 



ANNUAL, KKl'OKT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



chusetts, — New York, — New Jer- 
sey, — Pennsylvania, — Virginia, — 
Kentucky, — Illinois, — and Missouri. 
The Louisiana and Mississippi So- 



tors of Churches, officers of local 
Auxiliary Societies, and other pri- 
vate individuals, who have volun- 
tarily rendered substantial servicfs 



cieties have not been able to secure !i in collectincf funds and renuttino- 
any regular agency, nor have we li them immediately to our Treasury. 



been able to find the rijjht man for 
that important and fruitful field. 

The only agents who have been 
operating for us during the whole 
year, are Captain G. Barker in Rhode 
Island, Maine, and New Hamp- 
shire, — David Christy in Ohio, and 
Rev. R. W. Bailey in Virginia. 
The former, has been successful in 
collecting funds, while the two 
latter have devoted very little of 
their time to that business. Mr. 
Christy has been chiefly employed 
in diffusing information, securing 
local organizations and operating on 
the minds of the legislature and other 
public bodies. Mr. Bailey has de- 
voted himself almost exclusively to 
the free colored people, endeavoring 
to enlighten them on the subject 
and induce them to go to Liberia. 

We have lately secured the ser- 
vices of the Rev. John Orcutt in 
Connecticut, — the Rev. Jesse Ran- 
kin in North Carolina, — and the Rev. 
J. Morris Pease, who is now in 
Mississippi. — We anticipate large 
receipts from their efforts, as they 
have been remarkably successful 
thus far. 

In this connection we desire to 
make honorable mention of the effi- 
cient agency of many Ladies, Pas- 



From the various State Auxiliary 
Colonizaiion Societies we have re- 
ceived fewer remittances than we 
had anticipated. 

The New York Society chartered 
a vessel and sent an expedition to 
Liberia, and the Kentucky Society 
paid the expenses of their emigrants 
in the D. C. Foster. The funds 
thus used, have not been reckoned 
any part of our receipts. 

There have many things transpir- 
ed during the past year, which indi- 
cate the approach of the " good 
time" when we shall not be com- 
pelled to rely solely on voluntary 
contributions to carry forward the 
work of colonization. The Legis- 
lature of Virginia has made a noble 
beginning in the work, by passing 
an act for the removal of free per- 
sons of color to Liberia. This act, 
passed the 11th of March last, in the 
first place, appropriates $30,000 
annually for five years, to aid this 
Society in removing those who were 
free and residents of Virginia when 
the act was passed ; and it allows 
only $25 for each adult, and $15 
for each child under 10 years of 
age. This will not defray one-half 
the actual expenses of their pass- 
age and support six months in Libe- 



10 ANWVAL BKTOrr OF TBB AMBRJCAN COLONIZATION 80CIBT T. 

Tka AppraprtoliiNi by Vlrfliils— Aclioa ia Ohio. 



ria. By ihe most rigid i-conomy, I we hare nent lOfH cnugrnnls from 
i)ir ariiial cusi cannot bo ri'ducod | Virginia during tlit- year. It will, 
Im-Iow an avrrage of $50 each, old J therefore, be 8een that but a small 
.tiitl yimng. This n|i]iropri:i(ion, part of them wore inoluded in tin- 
tlu-refon", leaves a deficirncy of $25 provisions of the act. 
on every adult, and $35 ou every ; -p,,^ attention ..f the I^rgislature 
child, whom we send to LilH-na.- | ^^^ ^^^.^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^.^j ^^^ ^,^^. ^^^_ 

At prest-nt this df-ficiency can only . . , , • • , 

' ^ . • tt-rprisc. A prcaiiiMf and joint re- 

be supplied by voluntary contribu- , . • ■ i^ • 

'^" solutions were pa.-sed l.•|^t r»'brua- 

" ry, of which the following is a copy: 

in the second place, tins act lavs 1 , -, ,, i r .. n i j- 

I ■ , X i'r ramble ana Joint Resolutions, 

a tax of one tiollar annually on eve- ; instructimr our Senators and Re- 
ry fre«' male "of the age of 21 I presentativts in Conffress in rrla- 

1 .. I , KK " Ti... ..r-. ' ''f" 'o the independence of Liberia, 
v«'ars. ami iimier 00. I In* pro- i ,/• ^i ^ -^ 

; and Jar other purposes. 
cecds of this lax an' to be added to : 

,„-rt-rt 1 11 • •. i Whereas the colored emigrants 

the $30,000, and will .ncrease it I ^^^,,,, ,1„. United States, who l.ave 

upwards of $15,000. Uen settled on llu' coast of Alrna 

~, II- . , \. .1 . ' by the aLrency of the American Co- 

1 hough this act IS not aliogetlier , - . *" „•' . 

^ "^ , Ionization Society, are now oriMii- 

a-s liberal in its provisions as we could ii-ed into an independent republic, 
wish, still it is a great moral demon- \ and have been acknowledged as 

p , . , I such by the Governnieiil^ of Kng- 

Btration of the propriety and n<ces- ' , , -^ , r i i 

' ' ■ land and I* ranee: ami, whereas, 

sity of State actio.n ! It will be ,)„. i„nueiice exerted by the Colony 
productive of great good, and uiti- ; in promoting civilization in Africa 

, , 1 . .1 _ 1^ .1^.. ^r...i.,.. has been very beneficial, and pro- 

iiiately lead lo the adoption of what- ; . / ,, • » , 

' ' inises extensive usenilness ; and, 

ever measures are necessary to meet whereas, innlligent colored men in 
the demands of the enterprise as the I'nited States, who might be 

c \'- '.-_:..><.„«. >»...! rv.i.v- eminintlv useful in Africa, are uii- 

far as \ irginia isconcernc'd. Uoii>- t , , 

" « iliiiig to eiiiiijrate to Lil)eria iinlil 

nization is now the policy of the |,^ in.b.pmdence shall be acknow- 

State. The time has arrived when hdged by the government of the 

something effectual must Im- done. I' n»ed States ; Uicrefore. 

We have learned that several Resolved by the (jeneral Jhsrmbly 

I. . .. I ^r ,„ ti.«, (\... "f fhe State of Ohio, Thai our Se- 

nchemcs are imw liebjre the Lon- J • /. • . i 

iiatnrs III ( ongress are hereby in- 
vention of the State. An intelli- s,r,„ied, and <.ur Kepr. >. ntatnes m 
gent rorre^pondeiit thinks they will Congress are requested to use tlwir 
not act ha.stily, nor rashly— but with "illuence to nnlur.- the (JenernI (Jo- 

,. , I e \rriiiiient to nckiiowledi'e the inde- 

i»rudencx' combined with firmness. , ,. ., , , ,• , , 

' pi'iideiiceol tlie rejxiblic ol Lilnria, 

Wc have receded r.nly $(i05 ,„„| that they also be re<|ues|.<| to 
from thm State nppropri;iiiiiii though use .ill liom.ralile inean<> lo induce 



ANNUAL REPORT OE THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



11 



Purcbase of Territory in Liberia, for tbe colored People of Ohio. 



the free blacks of the United States 
to emigrate to that country. 

BENJAMIN F. LEITER, 
Speaker of the House of Reps. 
CHAKLES C. CONNER, 

Speaker of the Senate. 
February 5, 1850. 

Secretary of State's Office, 
Columbus, Feb. 6, 1850. 
I hereby certify tlie foregoing to 
be a correct copy of the original 
roll now on file in this office. 

SAM'L GALLOWAY, 

Secretary of State." 

At the same meeting of the Le- 
gislature an effort was made to pass 
an act making an annual appropria- 
tion to aid in colonizing any of the 
free colored people residing in the 
State. The bill, however, was 
crowded into the last hours of the 
session, and failed, as our agent has 
assured us, only for want of time. — 
We may, therefore, anticipate some- 
thing important at their present ses- 
sion. Numerous memorials have 
been sent into them praying an ap- 
propriation. The Committee of 
Correspondence for Ohio, which is 
composed of some of the most in- 
fluential gentlemen in the State, 
have had the matter under conside- 
ration, and impressed fully with its 
importance have adopted a strong 
memorial in its favor, and will do all 
in their power towards its accom- 
plishment. 

There are said to be about 30,000 
colored people in the State. They 
have made an effort to get the con- 
vention for revisinof the Constitution 



of the State to grant them the right 
of citizens/lip. Rut they have failed, 
and there is no probability that they 
will ever succeed. It is thought, 
that some stringent measures will 
bo adopted to prevent any more 
from coming into the State. Under 
all these circumstances, therefore, 
it is considered the imperative duty 
of the legislature to make provision 
for their removal from the State, and 
their comfortable settlement in Li- 
beria, where they can enter upon 
the full enjoyment of all the privi- 
leges of a free and independent 
government. 

By the noble liberality of a citi- 
zen of Cincinnati, a large tract^ of 
territory has been purchased north 
of Monrovia, and placed at the dis- 
posal of the colored people of Ohio, 
for the purpose of forming a new 
settlement in Liberia. Colored men 
in various parts of the State have 
the subject under consideration, and 
are seeking information, with a view 
to emigration. Our agent in that 
State after a careful examination 
says, "there are causes now operat- 
\n(r,pnnc'ipn\\y moral and commercial, 
that must soon lead to a rapid emi- 
gration of the colored people to 
Africa. The reasons upon which 
this opinion is founded, will soon 
be laid before the public, when, it is 
believed, there will no longer exist 
any serious objections in Ohio to 
colonization." 



12 AXXLAL ltE^•«T Of THK AMCUCAU COLOKIZATION SOCIBTV. 

LoadUkMi of dM eoiarad paopto la Ohio. 

Threr excellent young men from ' shall they go? Wcmaycafely point 

Ciiiciiiiiali Mere to »ail in (lur v«(u>el tlu-iii (o Liberia, and without heei- 

from Xfw Orlvatis yostenlay, with • tatiuu reconiinoiid ciuigralion, not 

lh<* full expeclaliuii that «>lher^ of only for what they may attain there, 

their friend!* will foUow in the next but aUd fur what they iiiuy ehcapc 

expedition. ' III ill Ohio! In Liberia the cou* 

The re<toluii<>ti-< t<. uiu. ii \\> ii,.k< uiikjii of the euiii(nint i» iiourly iin- 

alluded, were adopted by u vote of proving their government is be- 

51 to 14, in the House of Repre- coiniiitr more firm, the comforth of 

^entative!«. living are becoming more abundant, 

They were agreed to, by the Sen- <ducation i» ndvaming, the xympa- 

ate, without a division. As they «•>««?» "f the whole civili/ed world 

cover the broad cpiestion of an ap- ■"' «»»•» •''»■•»«. n"d tiny are daily 

proval of the wh<de sclnnie of co- f'^-'ing more and more of the ele- 

lonizalion, the very large inajorilie!. mating and refilling inlluences which 

by which they an- adopted may be a'wny* g:>«her around a people en- 

considered inclusive evidence of J">'"i»' a" individuality of existence, 

the public sentiment of the State on ! «'""»« ^''^' g'^^^ 'a'n''y "'' ua«io»«- 

the subject. In comparison with this picture. 

Taking things, therefore, a.s they what is their condition in highly 

really are, and in all probability will favored and free Ohio? What have 

continue to be, in the great State of they there to encourage them? Let 

Ohio, the scheme of coloni/.ation is tluMii look buck five or ten years, 

nut one merely of humanity, and mark all itieir elfurts to obtain what 

sound policy, but of great and over- they call " l/irir rij^/ils," and then 

powering necessity, it is a cpies- mark their signal failures ; and what 

tion, not of dollars and cents, but ix there on which they can build a 

of high and exalted «»bligatioii, en- bope for Utter things to coiin'. 

forced by all the duties of self-pre- There may be instances of imlividu- 

servation to b«.tli races. Daily ac- ; al prosperity among llicm. but take 

cumulating circumstances, make it them a» a whole, what advancement 

more and more apparent, that the have they made ? Daily is there 

condition of the colored people is rushing into the Slate a crowd of 

not improving, and cannot be ex- r<»rei;;mrs eager for occupation, and 

p<Tted to improve! What then is somi destined to crowd out thr col- 

to l»e done? Can they remain long ored people. What then shall they 

where they are and as they are? do? There is no place for tin in 

We think not. The voice of the excrpi LilK>ria. 



Slate calls them to depart. Where 



It is this vie\« of the case which 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



13 



Action of the State of Indiana. 



lias brought every man wlio values 
the periuaiient prosperity and happi- 
ness of" the colored people, to ad- 
vocate their removal to Liberia as a 
matter of State policy, as well as of 
great good to them personally. 

In the State of Indiana the senti- 
ment is spreading rapidly, that it is 
the duty of both the State and na- 
tional governments, to adopt some 
general system of colonization. 

The Governor, in his late mes- 
sage to the Legislature, earnestly 
recommends the measure. His re- 
marks on the subject, are so emi- 
nently just and patriotic, tliat we 
here quote them entire : 

" The subject of the colonization 
of the free blacks is now beginning 
to receive that attention which its 
importance demands. The circum- 
stances which surround us, are 
pressing our people to look into this 
subject in the right light, and in a 
proper spirit. 

Our Southern brethren are mak- 
ing rapid movements towards abridg- 
ing the privileges of this class, even 
to banishment. We in the North 
are adopting extraordinary means 
for removing them, by prohibiting 
them from holding property, exclu- 
ding them from the protection of 
the laws, and denying them any 
rights whatever. 

While all this is going on, our 
belter nature, the common sympa- 
thies of all men, are beginning to 
ask these important questions : what 
is to be the end of all this ? Is there 
no remeclij? Is there no cure for 
this evil? 

In the midst of all this excite- 
ment and confusion, the light breaks 
in upon us, which points conclu- 



sively to colonization as the only 
remedy. The infant colony of Li- 
beria, recognized as one among the 
nations of the earth, begins now to 
attract the attention of all men who 
desire to see an entire separation of 
the two races. In this great strug- 
gle for the separation of the black 
man from the white, let Indiana 
take her stand ; put her agent into 
the field. Her citizens are ready — 
yea, they are willing to contribute 
of their surplus, something for the 
removal of this people from among 
us, and to locate them in the native 
land of their forefathers. Other 
states in this Union have their own 
settlements in Liberia. Let Indiana 
have hers. Let us sustain the move- 
ment made by Mr. Bryan, of Ala- 
bama, for the employment of Gov- 
ernment vessels, to found an empire 
in Africa. Let the national, as well 
as the State Governments, strike at 
this hour for a permanent and effec- 
tual remedy for the agitations and 
excitement of the day on this diffi- 
cult question." 

The Legislature of the State have 
repeatedly had the subject under 
consideration. About a year ago 
they adopted a resolution requesting 
their members of Congress, " in the 
name of the State of Indiana, to call 
for a change of national policy on 
the subject of the African slave trade, 
and that they require a settlement of 
the coast of Africa with colored men 
from the United States." 

They also entertained the proposi- 
tion to make an appropriation to aid 
in colonizing any from that State 
who desire to emigrate to Liberia. 
It is thought by those well acquainted 



14 AVTfr.U. »EPOtT or the AMBMCAN COLONrZATlOW BocreTT. 

A«iioa of ib« Suie at iMliuit. 

throughout ihe Slate, that a very i be taken to prevoiii free colored 
lar^'f majority of the cilizeiin are peoplt- of other Statts from coiiiin^r 
warmly III favor of soiiii' Statr action into theirs. So that all llie con- 
in the premises. They have felt, and siderations which urge colonization 
rontinue Mill to foil very keenly, in Ohio, as a matter of State interest 
the e\il.s arising from tin; existence for Legislative action, may be found 
of two diKtiiict races on the same in Indiana, acting with equal force 
xoil. It will, doubtless, not be long and teniling to the same result.* 
uutil some ctl'cctual measures will ,[ Already, the Constitutional 

* W« find in the Cincinnati Gazette the following account of the vote upon these 
tncaiiurcMi, in t)ir ConvciiUon: 

" '1"' ''- ' • ' thni no ncfro or mulntlo Mhnll come into the Stale aAtr 

(he ' . }xuitd, U4 to 4U. 

Tl. I roiiinirtji u ah them void, and fining nil peruoHB eni- 

ploviiii; (hem not \vna limn trn nor more than five hundred dnllarM, jKuatd, 78 to 59. 

The tiiird »e<-iion, apf)ropriatin!j iJie fines collected under iIiLh (uticle to the colonira- 
tion of the ne'^roeti now in the Siute, passtd, lUG to 33. 

The fifth ae<-ti3n, providing tlinl the Le^itiinture uhall pajis laws necessary to carry 
GUI thiit nt'i^ro article, passed, without the aycM and noeH. 

The itixiii section, rt-tjuiriMf; the 8ep<irale submisxion of this article to the people — 
' Excluttion and coloniauiUon of nesrroes and muluttoes — aye or no,' pasted, 82 to 54." 

On this Rclion the Cincinnati Daily Commercial makes the followin;; oliservations: 

" The above action on the negro question has been urged by prominent citizens of 
(his State, or something very near it, and on tlial account a paji)]ihlel hiw been pub- 
lished, and is now in circulation here, headed as folloWH: " Addres.s to the Coiistitu- 
(ioiial Convention of Dhio from the Stale Convention of colored men held in Columbus, 
January IT), 16, 17 and 18, 1851." This addrisH modestly requests that the word 
' white* in the fourth article, first section of the constitution of Ohio, be stricken out, so 
as to permit colored men to exercise tlie elective fnmchise, Ac. It is this spirit, this 
keen desire of llie colored race in Ohio, aided by a few white men, that keeps up a 
rontinuni excitement on the negro question, and, to avoid this in future, doubtless, 
Indiana Nlittesmeii have laken meiinures in keeji negroes out of liu- .State altngctJier. It 
IS, then, the duty of the slnleMmeii of our own CommonweiUlh to examine the subject 
thoroughly, and decide if it be not llieir duty to pass similar laws here. 

■ •••»•■• 

Pennsylvania is taking steps to prevent negroes from harboring wiihiii her limits! 
Virginia is taking slejis in drive llie free negroes from her borders; at least the subject 

15 agitated, and the f ■ • nf that CoiiimimwenltJi number about fifhi Ihoxistmd ! 
Kentucky will also : '. and if Ohio puts no obstruction in the way of iliis 

■ ,i-,,«i.. . 11 . . ,,,i..r,.i,,.;. .,: ^'roes, tlu- State will soon be in a deploraltle condition ! 

Wli .ive to give place lo a pestiferous class of ignorant blacks^-even 

(lie tl ..lives, who are lo tlie * manor bom,' will be foisted from their 

place*, ojtU • mill, iiiisery, and want be increaseil to a fearful extent within our Ixuin- 
dariMi. (Considering the growing impudence of the negro p<ipulation of Ohio, founded 

' ■ ■! yearly by the actum of demagoguica! : who seek 

-we are lint mire but the convention li. > J here lo 

1 uturly fail of etU-cting anything, unli i acuon lo 

thai i>e hail." 

'I .N. Y.) Cuinmercial Advertiser inakea the fidhiwing remarks on the 

mmr auliwct: 

•• While we cannot synipathiia with llie spirit which pminpts the intmducUon nf 

' ' . ,.;■•'. • • ' ■' • '■'•ate, against any 

iiiieiit not only 

, . . . : ■ ■ 1,1,. ^ ■ .11 to establish 

r«|^iar and cheap connection tieiwecn the United States and Africa. Tlie action of the 



ANNUAL REPORT OP THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



15 



Action of the State of Indiana. 



Convention sitting in that State, 
has, by a deci.sive vote, excluded 
" negroes and mulattoes" from here- 
after settling within their limits ; 
'they have also decided that all con- 
tracts with such persons shall be 
void ; that any one employing them 
or encouraging them to remain in 
the State shall be liable to a fine of 
from $10 to $500; and that such 
fines shall be applied towards the 
gradual colonization of the free 
colored people now in that State ! 



This article is to be submitted to 
a separate vote of the people. There 
is scarcely a doubt that it will be 
adopted ; and yet it i.s taking ground 
ahead of any other State. It was 
thought very cruel in Illinois a short 
time ago, to adopt a policy to pre- 
vent any more free colored people 
from coming into the State. But 
this action of Indiana goes far 
ahead of that, and looks to their 
ultimate and entire removal from 
the State.* 



Indiana Convention is but the visible evidence of a deep-seated prejudice of caste, 
arising from a difference of color, which exists throughout the whole Northern States. 
It is deeply seated in the public mind; and however wrong it may be abstractly, there 
is no getting around the fact of its existence or of its manifestations. It does not, in 
every community, show itself in so marked a manner; but it is nevertheless existent, 
and the colored man is made to feel it with a crushing force. Nowhere can a colored 
man hold up his head in the full significancy of manhood — nowhere is he admitted to 
the social or pohtical privileges of those of fairer complexion around him. Disabilities 
meet him wherever he goes, upon the right hand and upon the left. Nominal protec- 
tion, and the right to be a hewer of wood and a drawer of water unto others, is about 
all that is vouchsafed to him. No places of honor are open to him — no preferment 
awaits him; his position is fixed by the immutable laws of caste, and there is no can- 
celling the bond. But on the shores of Africa — in the native climate of his fathers — 
the colored man takes his place on terms of equality with his fellows — no degrading 
distinctions exist — he is a free man, in a land where he may indulge the aspirations of 
Boul to which he is compelled to be a stranger, even in this land of freedom. 

" Although the plan of colonizing the colored population of the United States on the 
far off shores of Africa may by many be deemed chimerical, yet we are sanguine that 
with proper Government aid it could be accomplished. It would require time, and the 
minds of the free blacks would have to be recovered from the malign influence of their 
worst enemies — the ultra Abolitionists — before much could be accomplished. But let 
a regular line of adequate steamers be established — let it be understood that certain, 
speedy, and cheap passage could be made, and those who are slaves in all but in name, 
would soon begin to leave a country where they have met with nothing but oppression, 
for another which holds out the promise and assurance of real freedom and true inde- 
pendence." 

*We understand the subject was thoroughly discussed in the Convention. We sub- 
join an extract from an able speech by Mr. Morrison, of Washington County, in which 
he o-ave the " reasons why he should vote to exclude the negroes from further iiiinii- 
gration into this State, and also to divest them of the right of acquiring real property 
hereafter. 

«« We all profess to be the friends of humanity; yet we differ, honestly, I presume, as 
to the plan by which we would secure our title to this distinguished appellation. 
Those who favor the immigration of free persons of color to thia^ State, and contend for 
their rioht to hold real estate, seem to forget that the negro's home is the land of his 
fathers, where he may enjoy all the rights and immunities of a freeman, whicli he can 
never hope to attain in this country, unless the two races are permitted to amalgamate. 

" Sympathy is diverse. There is a sympathy of the head as well as a sympathy of the 
heart. The former is the dictate of reason and judgment; the latter, of feeling and 



16 



AMMVAL uaroBrr or the a-mckicak culonizatiun kocibty. 



I'lwa, and Keniuckt 



Noi Ur behind (he CoiiVLMition of 
Iniiiaiin, comes on l\ut Li-^aslaturc 
of luWA — ihal )oun;,' hiil vi>furou.s 
Slate. A bill hait been intruduced 
into ihe IIuu.ic t«i provide fur the re- 
mo* al of all iVfr ptTtiunH of color 
emancipated in other Slates and ^ 
hereafter setllin^' in Uiat ; but pro- 
viding' that tli«iM> ulrendy tlierc may 
remain, .subject to the present law 
on the 8ubjf*ct, and disi/utt/if'i/injr 
ihem fn>m anptinni^ nny miilifiunnl 
reaJ est:' 

In thi- Mali- ol Ktiitmky the s«-n- 
iiiiuni i.H rapidly j/ainini,' ijnjund thai 
the lime for State action has arrived, 
and their Lt'i^n.slaliirp havin*; been 
called upon to lend the enterpri.M' 
its powerful aid, have now before 1 
thctn a proposition to appropriate \ 



$5,00U each year, for ^ve years, to 
be employed under the direction «d* 
(he Kt'litucky ('oloiii/HliiMi Socielv, 
in removing (he free colored people 
from that Sltte and citlonizin^ ihem 
111 Liiieria. 

On tliiii proposition the " Frankfort 
(\>inm(>n\v<'Hllh," a leading paper in 
the Slate, remark!*, '• the xuiii a>ked 
for, if laid a.s an additional tax upon 
the people of the Slate, would not 
re«]uire the a>ses}tmenl of (nie-fifih 
o| a cent Ujtoii every <tlUO worth of 
taxable properly. This is merelv 
the pecuniary, or, so U» speak, the 
selfish view of the subject. Its be- 
nevoient aspect has often been pre- 
sented. It seems to us that, even if 
there were no present advantafres in 
it, it would still be worthy of a great 



paasion. In nil ^rove qiienliona like llie preaeni, it behoovea every mnn tn deiermine 
for himself how far hin judgment nnJ Iuh vnieii mny be influenced by the one or by tlic 
other. 

• ••••■•• 

" He ha* l>e«n <<^;;e<l to tiini n deaf ear to tiie invKntioiitt tn reinnve to tlie land 
from whriir*- h<* \l>» turn. H<» hiv \\ofn nind<> to believe tlm< riTtnin <l«*n»h nwnited 
him , ■ ,. He Im^ ' ■ had 

a n. iiu — and ! \- he 

ini,- .... ■'•''^•' '■"■! .. :..>iiinn. 

it I' I who lake ' ' Hide nl'thia quenUon, that 

the I .iry, to a ^' ty with ilie whites, though 

he may Im' mttAuU mhIi tcriiun |M>ii(iral righta, lutd yt-i (here ia no goiHl rcAaon why 
you ahould withhold from him tlie fornx-r if you confi-r u|>on him the latter. Then, 
air, if yiu do not intend to admit thriii tn full riii/ciiatii|), why do you iiidiiro them to 
rrniaiii III your iiiidMt, whfii y<iu \\n\v (l< UTinmrd tlini tliry i«hnll iicv<r he nnylhing 
iM,.r.- I). IT, I,. M.r» !■(■ u.>..<l Mi.il .IrMwrm 111" wnC«T ' Why dcrnve them hy Mkv pro- 

1 ' Why not tell (hem the plain and naked truth, 
. •r !•«• extended t<i them here, and it' they ronrhide 
to ((-auua, Ic: liitiit undrniuitU ilcarly the full extent of their diaalulitieM; and when 
they incline to remove, he ready with the mrana to aaaiat them in umiin;,' with their 
hmhren in the Krpuhh<- of Lil>eria. I)e|Miid uwm it, the people of ihia Stale, when- 
ever railed U|M>n, will rontribute cheerfully and liberaily to re«torr tlirm to tJirir own 
naUve land. ^ 

" Wt. I'reaident, I nhnll fator that pr<>|M.fiiiion wliirJi teoda to inrreaae their dianbilitiea, 
with th'- r..i;fidrn! h. I" thnt the remilu will be moat advanta;:roua to theinNelvrt. 
WIm . vrr ran br rlr\nle<l to llir riiilk of rui/cnw amollc<t ua, 

thn y frri lluit iJirir own welfnrr, aw wi II nn ihr re<l<-|uplion 

of iiiru iri.j . nrr iiii"i\<<i III (vri-rpljug tlie i^foirrrrd luiuiiiy nf (lu'ir frienda." 



ANNUAL RKPORT OF TIIR AMERICAN (XJLONIZATrON SOCIETY. 



17 



Missouri, Illinois, and New York. 



State, to contribute something to I 
aid a scheme which we believe is 
destined ultimately to civilize and i 
Christianize one-fourth of the world, 
and elevate a whole race." 

The Legislature of Missouri has 
also been appealed to. Memorials, 
numerously signed, have been sent 
to them, holding language like the 
following : 

"Your petitioners, feeling a pro- 
found interest in the cause of African 
Colonization, would respectfully re- 
present to your honorable body, that, 
in tiie opinion of the petitioners, the 
time has arrived when the State of 
Missouri, in its sovereign capacity, 
should take some decided and effi- 
cient step in aid of the noble enter- 
prise. The citizens of this State are 
becoming daily more sensible that it 
holds out substantial and enduring 
br-nefits to our white population, and 
incalculable blessings to the free 
colored people. It needs the aid of 
the State and National Governments 
to insure its success. Your peti- 
tioners therefore pray your honora- 
ble body to appropriate a sum of 
money to be used by the Coloniza- 
tion Society, under such restrictions 
as you may impose, for the removal 
of the free blacks from this State to 
the Western Coast of Africa." 

In Illinois, we learn from the 
Springfield Journal, a large company 
of the free colored people propose 
to emigrate to Liberia and will seek 
an appropriation from the State 
Legislature to aid them in their re- 
moval. 

At a late special meeting of the 
New Jersey Colonization Society, 
with Chief Justice Hornblower, the 



President, in the Chair, a resolution 
was adopted earnestly requesting 
the Governor of that State, in his 
next annual message, to recommend 
that an appropriation be made fo 
promote the object of the Coloniza- 
tion Society, in aiding the free j)f(»ple 
of color, in their voluntary emigra- 
tion from that State to the Republic 
of Liberia. 

The Board of Managers of the New 
York Colonization Society have also 
resolved to memoralize the Legisla- 
tun; of that State ior an ap])ropria- 
tion for the same purpose. On this 
subject the editor of one of their 
papers remarks: 

" Why shall not New York, — not 
behind any State in liberal and am- 
ple provisions for the various philan- 
thropic institutions of the age, and 
in provisions for the elevation of 
her population by education, — re- 
cognizing the hopelessness of ulti- 
mately rendering tliat class, who are, 
by her fundamental law, degradingly 
distinguished from others, the actual 
possession of a full, social and poli- 
tical elevation, — oflTer to them the 
means of escape, by providing for 
them a fund to defray the expenses 
of their removal to a more ecjual and 
inviting theatre, to which they are 
summoned by the highest motives 
that can be addressed to men.^ If 
they decline to avail themselves of 
the privileges, there is no loss of 
money to the State, and we shall 
have the satisfaction at least of hav- 
ing offered to return to Africa the 
population torn from her. If, on 
the contrary, many improve the pri- 
vilege, as we doubt not they will, 
the expense will not be great. The 
State will have done for them the 



IH 



ANNUAL B£l>4iRT OP THE AMBUCAN COLONIZATION HOCIRTY. 



MaoU*!^ Coioajr of Cape F«lmM. 



highftt act uf justice in her power, 

Im |iI:iciii:,' iht-iii uiui<-r politic-al in- 
Blitiiiiuii!< when- iioi).iii<( iiiipi-(lc!) 
their liupcs of elevation, and on a 
theatre ol nobler (j^raiiiii-ur, ral('ulati*i] 
to j»i\«" exrrcise aiiil <l»'\eloj>fiiu-nl 
to all the capacities of inlellecl and 
heart they poiiseiuf." 

The Stale of Maryland, thou^'h we 
mention her "last," ranks hy no 
inean» *' least," in her endeavors to 
adtance this enterprise. In 1832 
she passed a law appropriating 
$•200,000. to Ik? expended by the 
Maryland Coloiii/ation Society in 
plantiiiii^ a colony of her free colored 
|M>ople at Cape Palnias. She there- 
fore enjoys the honor of having first 
adopted Colonization an a matter of 
State policy. 

It is well known that she has es- 
tablished a colony, which has from 
year to year gradually ac()uired 
strenijth, and which is at this time 
a well ordered community of emi- 
f^rants from this country, and mainly 
from her own bounds. This colony 
has been established as a place l«) 
which her own free colored people 
may emi;;ralf, whein-ver they arc so 
inclined. She has thus far d<-frayi-d 
the whole expemtes of their removal 
and settlement at Cape Palmas. 

The amount originally appro- 
priated iii now nearly exhausted. 
Hut we cannot but hope that she 
will, in view of the yreat succt-- 
which han attendetl her efTortB ihus 
far, renew her as!«iHlaiice and on a 
larger ncalc. 

Thene ncveraJ movemniiH of Slate 



Legislatures, are but iiiHtances by 
which the treiierul Hentiments of the 
people at larye are arrayed in favor 
of some energetic system of Stale 
action for carrying on the work of 
Colonization. In addition to them, 
there are other things in abundance 
which prove conclusively that tin; 
American people are sensible of the 
merits of Colonization, and that 
there is no other enterprise to the 
advancement of which the several 
I State Governments could devote 
I their means and meet with so hearty 
a concurrence of all their ciii- 
I zens! 

' The conviction is not without 
., foundation that Colonization is not 
I only a legitimate object of State ap- 
propriations, but also that money 
thus spent would, in the end, be an 
: actual saving to the State. It cannot 
have escape*! the ntteiition of any 
j obsening person, that a great deal 
' of the time of every State Legislature 
I has been consumed in legislation 
, growing out (jf the existence and 
'! condition of the free colored people 
within their bounds. Take for cx- 
ainjile the State of Ohio. A large 
part of the time of her Lt>gislature, 
for several years past, has been con- 
sumed in efforts to secur«' to the 
l! colored people ecpial social and 
jxditical privileges! The time thus 
f-peiit has cost the State larg«' sums 
of money ! Is it <-onstitulioiial and 
legitimate for the Legislature to 
spend the public money in this way? 
I If it ii*, and w*- lia\e iie\er lieaid il 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY. 



19 



Proposed Action of the General Government. 



doubted, then surely it would be 
proper and right to spend the same 
money in Colonizintr the same peo- 
ple in Liberia ! For the moment 
they land there, they enjoy, unmo- 
lested, all the rights and privileges 
claimed for them by their most 
zealous friends in Ohio! 

From the very nature of the embar- 
rassments under which the colored 
people live, many of them are unable 
to provide for their own wants, and 
thus become a tax on the community 
in which they live. Unfortunately, 
too, many of them hemmed in and 
pressed down as they are, often 
commit crimes, for which they must 
be punished. Who can calculate 
the amount of expense incurred in 
this way.' We should be perfectly 
satisfied with an appropriation made 
by any State equal in amount to the 
cost of the poverty and crimes of 
her colored population ! 

Who can doubt, therefore, that a 
judicious policy of Colonization, 
adopted and carried on with vigor, 
for a few years, would in the end be 
an actual saving to the State ? The 
other advantages which would be 
enjoyed by the people of the United 
States, as the result of the Coloniza- 
tion of the free colored people would 
be immense. The blessings poured 
upon them in Liberia, would also be 
incalculable. 

We therefore, view with pleasure, 
these indications that the State Le- 
gislatures will soon render assist- 



ance commensurate with the great- 
ness of the work ! 

Wc also anticipate the action of 
the General Government in favor of 
Colonization. From all parts of the 
country the desire has been express- 
ed that Congress should foster and 
encourage the work. On the 7th 
of March last, the Hon. D. Wibster, 
in the United States Senate said: 

"If any gentleman from the South 
shall propose a scheme of Coloniza- 
iion to be carried on by this Govern- 
ment upon a large scale, for the 
transportation of free colored peo- 
ple to any Colony or any i)lacc in 
the world, I should be quite disposed 
to incur almost any deg^ree of ex- 
/)e;ise to accomplish that object. Nay, 
sir, following an example set here 
more tlian twenty years ago by a 
great man, then a Senator from New 
York, I would return to Virginia, 
and through her for the benefit of 
the whole South, the money receiv- 
ed from lands and territories ceded 
by her to this Government for any 
such purpose as to relieve, in whole 
or in part, or in any way to diminish 
or deal beneficially with, the free 
colored population of the Southern 
States. I have said that I honor 
Virginia for her cession of this ter- 
ritory. There have been received 
into the treasury of the United States 
eighty millions of dollars, the pro- 
ceeds of the sa