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DIVISION OF FISF!?:S 
UJS- KATIOiiAL MUSiiUM 



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t 



BUREAU OF FISHERIES 



REPORT 



^yition of FUk^ 
U. S u ,, "*»' 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 
COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1915 



WITH 



APPENDIXES 



HUGH M. SMITH 



Commissioner 





WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1917 



CONTENTS. 



Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries for the fiscal year ended June 30, 
1915. (Document 827, 83 p. Issued December 24, 1915.) 

The distribution of fish and fish eggs during the fiscal year 1915. Ap- 
pendix I, 138 p. (Documeot 828. Issued March 4, 1916.) 

Fish ponds on farms. By Robert S. Johnson and M. F. Stapleton. Appendix 
11,-28 p., 19 pi. (Document 826. Issued December 15, 1915.) 

Alaska fisheries and fur industries in 1915. Appendix III, 140 p., 5 text fig. 
(Document 834. Issued January 6, 1917.) 

Pacific cod fisheries. By John N. Cobb. Appendix IV, 111 p., 9 pi., 1 map, 
(Document 830. Issued October 23, 1916.) 

Explorations of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey steamer 
"Bache" in the Western Atlantic, January-March, 1914, under the 
direction of the United States Bureau of Fisheries. — Oceanography. 
By Henry B. Bigelow. Appendix V, 62 p., 53 text fig., 1 chart. (Document 
833. Issued May 9, 1917.) 

Survey op the fishing grounds on the coasts of Washington and Oregon in 
1915. By. Edward C. Johnston. Appendix VI, 20 p., 4 charts. (Document 
835. Issued November 9, 1916.) 

lu 



REPORT OF THE 

UNITED STATES COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES 

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED 

JUNE 30, I9I5 



Bureau of Fisheries Document 827 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Propagation and distribution of food fishes 5 

Re\dew of the operations 5 

Hatcheries operated 7 

Fish-cultural relations with the States and with foreign countries 11 

Propagation of the Pacific salmons 13 

Fish propagation on the Great Lakes 17 

Propagation of migratory fishes of the Atlantic streams 21 

Propagation of the trouts and basses 2.3 

Propagation of marine fishes 24 

Rescue of fishes from overflowed lands 26 

Acclimatization 27 

Biological investigations, surveys, etc 27 

Problems of the oyster industry 27 

The home fish pond 28 

Life histories and habits of fishes 29 

Survey of fishing grounds 31 

The diseases of fishes 32 

Fresh-water mussels 32 

The fisheries laboratories 33 

Fairport, Iowa. 33 

Woods Hole, Mass 34 

Beaufort, N. C 34 

Gulf of Mexico 35 

Other investigations 35 

Cultivation of the diamond-back terrapin 35 

Study of frogs 36 

Investigation of salmon • 36 

Investigation of tuna 36 

Oceanographic studies 36 

Investigations of lakes 37 

Service in promotion of fishery legislation 37 

Commercial fisheries 37 

The lobster fishery 37 

New England vessel fisheries 43 

The ground-fish fisheries 59 

Cod 59 

Haddock 60 

Pollock 60 

Halibut 60 

The otter-trawl fishery 60 

The mackerel fishery 62 

The swordfish fishery 62 

The New England n-inter gill-net fishery 63 

Newfoundland seal and herring fisheries 63 

Fresh-water mussel fi.shery 63 

Fisheries of Chesapeake Bay and tributaries 70 

Sturgeon fishery in Florida 70 

A laska fi.sheries service 70 

Fur-seal service 72 

M inor fur-bearing animals 74 

Misc«'Uaneous matters 75 

Movements of vessels 75 

Vessel for Alaska servdce 76 

New vessel for Maine coast 76 

New establishments and construction 77 

Fishery matters in Consjress 78 

Publications and libraries 79 

Appropriations 81 

Some needs of the service 81 

3 



REPORT 



COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



Department of Commerce, 

Bureau of Fisheries, 
Washington, October 11, 1915. 
Sir : There is submitted herewith a report giving an outline re- 
view of the operations of the Bureau of Fisheries during tlie fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1915. 

PROPAGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD FISHES. 

REVIEW OF THE OPERATIONS. 

The scope and magnitude of the Bureau's operations in relation 
to the propagation and distribution of food and game fishes, and the 
bearing of this work on the maintenance of the fishery resources of 
the nation, are indicated by the following table, which shows an out- 
put of 4,288,757,800 fish and ova, an increase of 241,000,000 over the 
preceding year. 

The increased output was accompanied by a diminished unit cost 
of production and a very noteworthy increase in the number of fish 
reared to the fingerling and yearling stages. As improved facilities 
are gradually provided at the various stations, in accordance with 
the established policy of the Bureau, the rearing of certain kinds of 
fishes will be further and further extended, and the effectiveness of 
the fish-cultural work will thus be annually augmented. In 1915 the 
fish distributed as fingerlings, yearlings, and adults numbered over 
58,000,000, an increase of more than 150 per cent over 1914, made up 
largely of salmons, trouts, and basses. 

Summary, by Species, of the Distribution of Fish and Ova During the 

Fiscal Year 1915. 



Species. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Total. 


Catflshes 






1,665.793 

644,411 

200 

114,849 

65 


1,6C5 793 


Carp 






644 411 


Yellow sucker 






200 


Buflalofish 






114 849 


Fresh-water drum 






05 


Shad 




46,009,595 

4,851,000 

405,400,000 

92,350,000 


46 009 595 


Alewife 






4,851,000 


Whitefish 


98,900,000 




504 300 000 


Lake herring 





92,350,000 



6 EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

Summary, by Species, of the Distribution of Fish anp Ova, etc. — Continued. 



Species. 



Silver salmon 

Cliinook salmon 

Blueback salmon 

Humpback salmon 

Dog salmon 

Steelhead trout 

Rainbow trout 

Atlantic salmon 

Landlocked salmon 

Scotch sea trout 

Blackspotted trout 

Loch Leven trout 

Lake trout 

Brook trout 

Smelt 

Grayling 

Crappies 

Rock bass 

Smallmoulh black bass. 
Largemouth black bass. 

Suniishes 

Pike and pickerel 

Pike perch 

Yellow perch 

Striped bass 

White perch 

White bass 

Yellow bass 

Cod 

Pollock 

Haddock 

Flounder 

Mackerel 

Tautog 

Lobster 



Total 536, 260, 143 



Eggs. 



1,948,280 

34,466,723 

3,155,000 



634,000 
2,022,990 



291,000 
'3,'435,'6o6' 



12,850,000 
507, 150 

14,500,000 
350,000 



320,350,000 
19,000,000 



17,850,000 



Fry. 



21,204,230 

44,554,892 

43,776,741 

11,758,500 

35,504,707 

2,259,113 

568,930 

1,804,313 

310,042 

58,430 

1,939,250 



35,294,723 
5,700,263 
6,900,000 
1,873,000 



653, 170 
758,300 
135,000 



282,820,000 

195,267,000 

8,594,500 

161,980,000 



260,133,000 

500,730,000 

26,814.000 

1,294,156,000 

4,847,000 

606,000 

194,670,000 



3,694,281,699 



Fingerlings, 

yearlings, 

and adults. 



2,756,062 
16,741,450 

8,666,255 
479,0.37 


25 
95 
55 
12 
35 


3,244,660 
2,144,875 


6 
4 
1 


140,015 




4,784,067 

48,000 

3,093,745 

6,965,167 


10 

51 
13 
21 




2 


1,800,900 

414,078 

81,177 

1,4,31,850 

2,799,766 

87,846 

383 

104,287 


1 

9 

2 

609 
214 

8 




179 


2,825 
420 


260 




500 




26 




1,294 




4 



3,779 



58,215,962 



Total. 



194 



,908,572 
,763,065 
,597,996 
,237,537 
,504,707 
,137,773 
,736,795 
,804,313 

741,057 
58,430 
,158,317 
48,000 
,238,468 
,172,580 
,400,000 
,223,000 
,800,900 

414,078 

734,347 
,190,150 
,934,760 
87,846 
,170,383 
,371,287 
,594,500 
,830,000 
2,825 
420 
,133,000 
,730,000 
,814,000 
,156,000 
,847,000 

606,000 
,673,779 



4,288,757,804 



No material changes were made in the methods heretofore em- 
ployed; but through the acquisition of additional knowledge of the 
conditions governing practical fish culture and the attainment of 
greater proficiency, the Bureau w^as enabled to further develop the 
resources at its command, extending its activities into new fields con- 
tiguous to those already covered, and materially increasing its out- 
put OA'er that of any previous year in its history. In attaining these 
results the funds available were not greater than those of 1914. 

While there were slight decreases in the output of some of the 
fishes propagated, there were substantial gains in some of the more 
important species. A partial list of the latter class includes catfishes, 
whitefish, lake herring, silver salmon, chinook salmon, dog salmon, 
steelhead trout, rainbow^ trout, blackspotted trout, brook trout, crap- 
pies, black basses, sunfishes, pike perch, and yellow perch. 

The output of the hatcheries devoted to the marine species of the 
North Atlantic coast, the commercial fishes of the Great Lakes, and 
the migratory food fishes of the Atlantic coast streams, which is al- 
Avays far in excess of the rearing capacity of these stations, was de- 
posited on the natural spawning grounds within a few days after 
the hatching of the eggs. On the other hand, a considerable per- 
centage of the salmons, trouts", black basses, crappies, sunfishes, and 
catfishes w-as reared to the fingerling or yearling stage before being 
distributed. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 7 

The comprehensive scope of the fish-cultural work is shown by the 
fact that egg collections and hatching operations were conducted in 
32 States and Alaska, while the distributions reached every State and 
Territory. The larger part of the output is planted in public waters 
on the initiative of the Bureau or on the recommendation of the State 
authorities, but the fishes adapted for ponds, smaller lakes, and the 
minor interior waters are mostly consigned on individual applica- 
tions. The distribution of this latter class of fishes involved railroad 
travel aggregating 637,716 miles, of which 146,544 miles were cov- 
ered by the special cars of the Bureau and 491,172 miles by detached 
messengers. About 80 per cent of the railroad transportation was 
paid for at varying rates, but 116,665 miles of free transportation 
Avere afforded by certain companies which appreciated the advantage 
accruing from the stocking of waters along their lines. 

Eecognition of the value of the Bureau's efforts in maintaining 
and increasing the fish supply of public and private waters is evi- 
denced by the widespread interest manifested in its work by people 
in all sections of the country. The feasibility of cultivating fish in 
ponds on farms is attracting general interest, and of the many thou- 
sand applications for food and game fishes received during the year 
fully 80 per cent called for species suitable for stocking artificially 
constructed ponds and natural inland Avaters of small area. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the Bureau is annually increasing 
its facilities, it experiences difficulty in meeting the constantly grow- 
ing demand for fish to stock the public and private waters of the 
interior. This applies with special force to the black basses, crappies, 
sunfishes, catfishes, and other fishes adapted to culture in ponds, most 
of which are not susceptible of propagation by the artificial means 
employed with the salmons and trouts, but must be produced through 
the natural reproduction of brood fish carried in ponds. 

The expansion of the Bureau's fish-cultural operations is neces- 
sarily limited by the funds provided and the number of experienced 
men available for the work. Large unproductive and potentially 
valuable fields for the enlargement of the salmon operations exist 
in Alaska and the Pacific States; more extensive fish-cultural work 
is demanded for the maintenance of the commercial fisheries of the 
Great Lakes, while there are practically unlimited areas in the Rocky 
Mountains, Aliddle, Western, and Southern States which would prove 
of inestimable value for fish culture were funds available for 
developing them. 

HATCHERIES OPERATED. 

During the fiscal year 1915 fish-cultural operations were conducted 
at 50 permanent hatcheries and at 76 subhatcheries, auxiliaries, and 
egg-collecting stations. The stations which have been undergoing 
construction at Louisville, Ky., and Orangeburg, S. C, are noAv nearly 
completed, and some fish-cultural work was accomplished at each 
during the year. One new station has been added to the service by 
the partial completion of the hatchery at Saratoga, Wyo., wiiich will 
soon be in condition for the ])ropagation of fish on a small scale. A site 
has been selected for a fish-cultui-al station at Springville, Utah, and 
an appropriation of $50,000 has been provided by Congress to cover 



8 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



the purchase of the necessary land and water rights, construction of 
buildings, and equipment. A topographical survey of the land will 
be made, and the construction of the station will begin as soon as 
the validity of the title to the property can be passed upon by the 
Department of Justice. A new field station for the prosecution of 
the Pacific salmon work was located during the year on Quiniault 
Lake, in the State of Washington, and judging from the results of 
the initial year's operations the site will be desirable for the establish- 
ment of a permanent hatchery. 

The major hatcheries operated in 1915 may be conveniently classi- 
fied as follows. Included in this statement are some leased and other 
complete hatcheries which are operated as auxiliaries to other 
stations. 



Location and character of operations. 



Number. 



Atlantic rivers, for salmons, shad, striped bass, yellow perch, and white perch 

Pacific rivers, for salmons and steelhead trout 

Great Lakes, for whitefish, Cisco, lake trout^ and pike perch 

Interior waters, for basses, sunfishes, crappies, trouts, etc 

Atlantic coast, for cod, haddock, pollock, flounder, and lobster 

Total 



50 



Following is a list of the stations, with the subsidiary stations 
thereunder, the period of operation, and the species handled. The 
main stations, arranged alphabetically, are those for which a per- 
manent personnel is provided by law, or which are operated more or 
less independently. In some cases, however, the subsidiary or aux- 
iliary stations are completely equipped, semi-independent, and quite 
as important as the head station to which, for administrative pur- 
poses, they are attached. 

FiSH-CULTXJRAL STATIONS OPERATED DUEING THE FISCAL YeAB 1915. 



Designation. 



Period of operation. 



Species handled. 



Afognak, Alaska 

Uganik Bay, Alaska. 

Seal Harbor, Alaska. 
Baird, Cal 

Battle Creek, Gal 

Hornbrook, Cal 



Mill Creek, Cal.... 

Baker Lake, Wash 

Birdsview, Wash. 



Quiniault, Wash. 



Brirmon, Wash 

Darrington, Wash 

Day Creek, Wash 

Duckabush, Wash. . . 
niabott Creek, Wash. 



Quilcene, Wash. 
Sultan, Wash... 



Battery, Md 

Boothbay Harbor, Me. 
Portland, Me , 



Entire year 

June 

June-October 

Entire year 

December-April . 
December-May. . 



November-March . 

Entire year 

.....do 



.do. 



December-March . 

Entire year 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 



March-May 

Entire year 

July-October; May-June. 



Blueback and humpback salmons. 
Blueback salmon. 

Do. 
Chinook and sUver salmons. 

Do. 
Chinook and sDver salmons and rainbow 

trout. 
Chinook salmon. 

Blueback, Chinook, and silver salmons. 
Blueback, Chinook, dog, humpback, 

and silver salmons and steelhead 

trout. 
Blueback, Chinook, and silver salmons 

and steelhead trout. 
Dog and silver salmons. 

Do. 
Chinook, dog, and silver salmons. 
Dog, humpback, and silver salmons. 
Chinook, dog, and silver salmons and 

steelhead trout. 
Dog, humpback, and silver salmons and 

steelhead trout. 
Chinook and silver salmons and steel- 
head trout. 
Shad , alewife, white and yellow perches. 
Cod, flounder, haddock, and lobster. 
Lobster. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 9 

FiSH-CiiLTTJRAL STATIONS OPERATED DURING THE FISCAL Yeak 1915 — Continued. 



Designation. 



Period of operation. 



Species handled. 



Bozeman, Mont. 



O'Dell Creek, Mont 

Meadow Creek, Mont 

Yellowstone Park, Wyo 

Clear Creek, Wyo". 

Cx)lumbine Creek, Wyo 

Cub Creek, Wyo 

Lake Camp, Wyo 

Pelican Creek, Wyo 

Bryans Point, Md 

Cape Vincent, N. Y 



Three Mile Bay, N. Y 

Central Station, Washington, 

D. C. 
Clackamas, Oreg 



Applegate, Oreg 

Big White Salmon, Wash . . 

Illinois River, Oreg 

Little White Salmon, Wash 
Rogue River, Oreg 



Willamette, Oreg. 
Cold Springs, Ga 

Harris Pond, Ga . . 
Craig Brook, Me 



Upper Penobscot, Me . 
Duluth, Minn 



Grand Marais, Minn 

Isle Royal, Mich 

Keweenaw Point, Mich. 

Marquette , Mich 

Munising, Mich 

Ontonagon, Mich 

Edenton, N. C 



Weldon, N. C. 
Erwin, Tenn 



Gloucester, Mass . 
Green Lake, Me . 



Grand Lake Stream, Me. 
Homer, Minn 



La Crosse, Wis. 



LeadvUle, Colo . 



Antero Reservoir, Colo 

Cheesman Lake, Colo 

Edith Lake, Colo 

Engelbrechts Lake, Colo... 

Musgrove Lakes, Colo 

Smiths Ponds, Colo 

Northfleld Lakes, Colo 

Stonewall Lake, Colo 

Turquoise Lake, Colo 

Wellington Lake, Colo 

Woodland Park Lakes, Colo 

Louisville, Ky 

Mammoth Spring, Ark 



Friars Point, Miss. 



Entire year. 



Mar. 22-May 4 

Mar. 22-May 1 

July-September; May-June. 

July 1-21; June 

July 1-16; June 14-30 

July 1-21; June 4-30 

July 1-Sept. 10; May 12-June 30 
July 1-16; May 21-June 30.. 

March-May 

E nt ire year 



November . . 
Entire year. 



.do. 



.do. 



do 

March 

Entire year . 
do 



July-June . . 
Entire year . 

do 

do 



January and June . 
Entire year 



Oct. l-Dec.3 

Sept. 23-Nov. 21 . 
Oct. 4-Nov. 21 . . 
Oct. 14-Dec. 2 . . . 
Oct. 14-Nov. 10. 
Oct.l7-Nov. 9.. 
Entire year 



April-May . 
Entire year . 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 
.do. 



.do. 



.do. 



Apr. 11-May 22. 
Apr. 7-May 15 . . 
Oct. 1&-N0V. 9.. 
Oct. 9-Nov. 21.. 
Oct. 23-Nov. 20. 
Oct. 28-Nov. 25. 
Oct. 18-Nov. 16. 
Apr. 15-May 15.. 
Oct. 27-Nov. 17. 
Oct. 15-Nov. 10. 
Oct. 18-Nov. 16. 
Entire year 

do.: 



July-December. 



Blackspotted, brook, lake, rainbow, 
and steelhead trouts; grayling; and 
landlocked salmon. 
Grayling. 

Grayling and rainbow trout. 
Blackspotted trout. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Shad and yellow perch. 
Brook ana lake trouts, lake herring, 

pike perch, and whitefish. 
Lake herring. 
Shad, pike perch, and yellow perch. 

Blackspotted, brook, lake, rainbow, 
and steelhead trouts; Chinook and sil- 
ver salmons. 

Chinook and silver salmons and steel- 
head trout. 

Chinook salmon. 

Chinook and silver salmons. 

Chinook salmon. 

Blackspotted and steelhead trouts and 
Chinook salmon. 

Shad. 

Black bass, catfish, and sunfish. 

Catfish and sunfish. 

Atlantic and humpback salmons, brook 
and Scotch sea trouts . 

Atlantic salmon. 

Brook, lake, and steelhead trouts; lake 
herring: landlocked salmon; pike 
perch; and whitefish. 

Lake herring and lake trout. 

Lake trout and whitefish. 

Lake trout. 

Lake trout and lake herring. 

Lake trout. 
Do. 

Black bass, shad, sunfish, and white 
perch. 

Striped bass. 

Brook and rainbow trouts, large and 
smallmouth black basse,';, rock bass, 
carp, sunfish, and sucker. 

Cod, flatfish, haddock, lobster, mack- 
erel, and pollock. 

Brook and lake trouts, humpback sal- 
mon, landlocked salmon, and smelt. 

Landlocked salmon. 

Black bass, buffaloflsh, carp, catfish, 
crappie, pike, pike perch, small- 
mouth black bass, and sunfish, white 
bass, and yellow perch. 

Black bass, buflalofish, carp, catfish, 
crappie, pike, pike perch, sunfish, 
yellow perch, brook and rainbow 
trouts. 

Blackspotted. brook, and rainbow 
trouts and grayling. 

Rainbow trout. 
Do. 

Brook trout. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Rainbow trout. 

Brook trout. 
Do. 
Do. 

Black bass and sunfish. 

Large and smallmouth black basses, 
crappie, rock bass, and .sunfish. 

Black Dass, catfish, crappie, rock bass, 
and sunfish. 



10 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

FisH-CuLTUKAL STATIONS OPERATED DURING THE FISCAL YEAR 1915 — Continued. 



Designation. 



Period of operation. 



Species handled. 







Brook, lake, and rainbow trouts, pike 






perch, rock bass, large and .small- 
mouth black bavsses, and sunfl.sh. 

Black ba.ss, buflalofish, carp, catfish, 
crappic, drum, pike, sunfish, white 
bass, yellow bass, and yellow perch. 

Black loass, buffalofi.sh, "carp, catfish, 




....do 




Entire year 


crappie, pike, sunfish, white bass, 
and yellow perch. 
Brook and rainbow trouts, landlocked 




do 


salmon, and smallmouth black bass. 
Brook and rainbow trouts, black V)a;-"s, 


Northville, Mich . . 


do 


crappie, rock bass, smallmouth 
black bass, and sunfish. 
Brook, lake, and rainbow trouts; gray- 




April-May 


ling; landlocked salmon; smallmouth 
black bass. 
Lake trout and whitefish. 


Bay Citv, Mich 


Apr. 17-28 


Pike perch. 
\Miitefish. 


Bay Port Mich 


Nov. 9-21 


Belle Isle, Mich .. . 


Oct. 25-Dec. 8 


Do. 


Charity Island, Mich 


Oct 14-Dec. 2 


Do. 


March-April 


Lake trout and whitefish. 




Oct. IS-I-'ov. 19 


Lake trout. 




April-Mav 


Pike perch and whitefish. 
Lake trout. 




Oct. 29-1'ov. 16 




Nov. 3-14 


Do. 




Oct. 29-Xov. 25 


Do. 




Nov. 16-Dec. 12 


Whitefish. 




Oct. 29-Dec. IS 


Lake trout and whitefish. 


Sanlt Ste Marie, Mich 


April-May 


Do. 






Black bass. 




do 


Lake herring, lake trout, pike perch, 




Nov. 29-Dec. 6 


and whitefish. 
I ake herring. 




Nov. 14-Dec. 8 


"Whitefish. 


Middle Bass, Ohio 


Nov. 14-Dec. 6 


Do. 




Nov. 5-Dec. 10 


Do. 


North Bass, Ohio 


Apr. 15-27 


Pike perch and whitefish. 
Do. 




Nov. 10-Dec. 8 


Port Clinton Ohio 


Apr 9-30 


Do. 




Nov. 14-Dec. 9 


Do. 


Toledo, Ohio 


Apr.8-2S 


Do. 




Nov. 14-Dec. 9 


Do. 


Quincv, 111 .... 


Entire year 


Black bass^ buflalofish, carp, crappie, 




do.... 


catfish, pike perch, rock bass, slra'v- 
berry bass, sunfish, yellow bass, and 
yellow perch. 
Brook, lake, rainbow, and steelhead 




July 21-Dec. 29 


trouts, landlocked salmon, small- 
mouth black bass, and j-ellow perch. 
Brook trout. 


Holden, Vt 




Brook, lake, and steelhead trouts, and 


Lake Mitchell, Vt 


July 1-Dec. 18 


landlocked salmon. 
Brook trout. 


Lake Tarlton, N. il 


June 15-30 


Smallmouth black bass. 


Orleans Vt 


Apr. 15-June 30 


Steelhead trout. 




Oct. 21-Nov. 3 


Brook trout. 






Pike perch and vellow perch. 




Entire year 


Black bass, catfish, craopie, rock bass, 


Spearfi'h S Dak 


... do 


and sunfish. 
Blackspotted, brook, lake. Loch Leven, 


La Plant Lake, S Dak . . 


Oct. 15-Jan. 15 


and rainbow trouts. 
Brook and Loch Leven trouts. 




Oct. 20-Dec. 25 


Brook trout. 




Entire year 


Black bass and sunfish. 


"White Sulphur Springs, W. Va. . 


do 


Large and smallmouth black basses, 


do 


brook and rainbow trouts. 
Cod, flatfish, and mackerel. 




Nov. 23-Jan. 11 


Cod. 






Flatfish. 


Wickford R I 


Feb. 26-Apr. 5 


Do. 


AVytheville, Va 




Brook and rainbow trouts; large and 




do 


smallmouth black basses, pike perch; 
rock bass; and sunfish. 
Blueback salmon. 






Humpback salmon. 









REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



11 



riSH-CUl,TURAL. RELATIONS AVITH THE STATES AND WITH FOREIGN 

COUNTRIES. 

The Bureau has continued and extended its cooperative relations 
with the State fishery authorities, and in 1^15 allotted large numbers 
of eggs to be hatched under State auspices and considerable numbers 
of young fish for planting in local waters. The States which requested 
this kind of aid from the Bureau number 27 and include nearly all 
that are engaged in practical fish culture. A list of the States, with 
the allotments to each, is shown in the following table : 

Allotment of Fish and Eggs to State Fish Commissions in the Fiscal 

Year 1915. 



State and species. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 

yearlings, 

and adults. 



California: 

Brook trout 

Chinook salmon 

Rainbow trout 

Silver salmon 

Colorado: 

Blackspotted trout 

Brook trout , 

Delaware: 

Crappie 

Sunflsh , 

Idaho: Blackspotted trout. 
Illinois: 

Black bass 

Brook trout 

Catfish 

Crappie 

Pike perch 

Sunfish 

Yellow perch 

Indiana: Pike perch 

Iowa: 

Black bass 

Crappie 

Pike perch 

Sunflsh 

Maine: 

Brook trout 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon 

Smelt 

Massachusetts: 

Landlocked salmon 

Pike perch 

Rainbow trout 

White perch 

Yellow perch 

Michigan: 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon 

Pike perch 

Minnesota: 

Lake trout 

Steelhead trout 

Montana: 

BlacksiKJtted trout 

Lake trout 

Whitefish 

Nebraska: 

Pike perch 

Rainbow trout 

Nevada: 

Brook trout 

Rainbow trout 

New Hampshire: 

Brook trout 

Landlocked salmon 



100,000 

34,301,073 

497,240 

1,913,280 

200,000 



250,000 



15,000,000 



3,000,000 



8,000,000 



100,000 
50,000 
100,000 



15,000 

15,000,000 

216,000 

13,000,000 

10,000,000 

3,000,000 

15, 000 

26,400,000 



100,000 
400,000 



1,000,000 
2,000,000 



50,000 
100,000 

30,000 
30,000 



5,000,000 



100,000 



200,000 
50,000 



600 
400 



4,450 

525 

11,000 

7,400 



13,500 
3,300 



3,240 
5,000 



5,000 



5,000 



20,000 



12 REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

Allotment of Fish and Eggs to Statk Fish Commissions, etc. — Continued. 



State and species. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



FingerlLngs, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



New Jersey: 

Black bass 

Grapple 

Landlocked salmon 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead trout 

Sunfish 

White perch. 

Yellow perch 

New Mexico: Blackspotted trout . 
New York: 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon 

North Dakota: 

Black bass 

Grapple 

Pike perch 

Rainbow trout 

Ohio: 

Pike perch 

Whiteflsh 

Oregon: 

Blackspotted trout 

Blueback salmon 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead trout 

Pennsylvania: 

Lake trout 

Whiteflsh 

Utah: 

Blackspotted trout 

Rainbow trout 

Vermont: 

Chinook salmon 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon 

Smelt 

Steelhead trout 

Washington: 

Blackspotted trout 

Blueback salmon 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead trout 

Wisconsin: 

Lake trout 

Whiteflsh 

WyomiQg: 

Blackspotted trout 

Brook trout 

Grayling 

Lake trout 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead trout 



Total. 



25,000 
100,000 
100,000 



4,850,000 

8,000,000 

100,000 

100,000 
20,000 



5,000,000 
40,000 

247,450,000 
66,840,000 

500,000 

3,100,000 

200,000 



100,000 
24,560,000 

100,000 
100,000 

12,000 
200, 000 

30,000 

5,000,000 

200,000 

400,000 
50,000 
75,000 

100,000 

9,200,000 
6,000,000 

700,000 
75,000 
50,000 
50,000 
75,000 

100,000 



5,125 
1,050 



2,000 



900 
600 



51,100 
'27,'379 



518,469,593 



5,100,000 



In pursuance of the policy adopted in 1914, the Bureau is referring 
to the proper State officials all applications for fish not native to a 
given State. Moreover, it refuses to entertain applications for such 
fishes as the black basses, crappies, sunfishes, perches, and pikes for 
deposit in any of the Pacific coast lakes or streams which are inhab- 
ited by salmon or trout, or are connected directly or indirectly with 
trout or salmon waters. This policy, which commends itself to all 
who have the welfare of the fisheries at heart, has received the in- 
dorsement of the fishery authorities, the congressional delegations, 
and the commercial interests of the States concerned. 

In compliance wnth official requests received from Porto Rico, Cuba, 
India, and Japan, consignments of rainbow-trout eggs and of various 
species of pond fishes were made as follows : 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



13 



Shipments of Fisu and Eggs to Insular Possessions and Foreign Countries, 

Fiscal Year 1915. 



Country and species. 


Eggs. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Porto Rico: 

Black bass 




600 


Catfish 




600 


Rock bass 




1,200 


Svmfish 




600 


Cuba: Black bass 




1,000 


India: Rainbow trout j 


40,000 
400,000 




Japan: Rainbow trout 








Total 


440,000 


4, COO 





rROPAGATION OF THE PACIFIC SALMONS. 



The propagation of the Pacific salmons is the most extensive and 
important branch of the fish-cultural work, and the expense incurred 
consumes about one-third of the total appropriation available for 
fish culture. 

Increased facilities are annually being provided at all the Pacific 
coast stations for the rearing of salmon to the fingerling stage before 
liberating them, and it is the policy of the Bureau to reduce the out- 
put of fry and increase the distribution of fingerling fish. 

The salted flesh of the salmon captured for propagating purposes 
having been found to be a wholesome and economical food for young 
salmon, tons of this material were last year preserved and stored 
for use in connection Avith the rearing operations at the various 
Pacific coast stations. Sun-dried and mild-cured salmon have also 
been experimented with but are found to be inferior to the salted ar- 
ticle. The salted salmon is soaked for a few days before using and is 
then placed in a hand press, which removes salt and moisture, and 
leaves the meat soft and flaky. Finally the material is run through a 
moat chopper, which reduces it to a pulp. As the young salmon take 
this food readily and thrive upon it, its use will go far toward solving 
one of the main obstacles in the way of extensive rearing operations, 
namely, the great cost of food. 

The genuine progress that is being made in this vitally important 
matter is shown by the fact that in 1914 the number of reared salmon 
liberated was 5,764,000, while in 1915 the number was 28,642,000, 
of which nearly 90 per cent were chinook and blueback salmons. 

Although three years have elapsed since the eruption of Mount 
Katmai in June, 1912, the lakes and streams on xVfognak Island, 
Alaska, still contain large deposits of volcanic ash and sand, which 
greatly interfered with fish-cultural operations during the summer 
and fall of 1914. These deposits, constantly drifting with the cur- 
i-ents, formed shifting bars at the mouths of the rivers, preventing 
the ascent of salmon to the spawning grounds or diverting their 
movements to other waters where conditions were more favorable. 
During the summer months, when the salmon runs were on and high 
water prevailed, the tributary streams became so badly affected with 
volcanic ash that days and sometimes weeks were required for the 
water to clear to any appreciable extent after the floods subsided. 

86497°— 17 2 



14 KEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHEKIES. 

The first blueback salmon made their appearance in the bay early 
in June in fairly large numbers, but severe storms occurring during 
the middle of the month caused the water to become thick with vol- 
canic ash; this drove the fish to sea and delayed their movements 
until the following month, when they appeared in Litnik and tribu- 
tary streams in greatly reduced numbers. Despite obstacles of this 
character encountered during the operating season, the work at the 
Afognak station was satisfactory, the output for the year 1915 
amounting to 942,250 fry and 5,M4,830 fingerling blueback salmon, 
and 224,000 fry and 119,480 fingerling humpback salmon. Of the 
14,074,000 humpback salmon eggs collected 12,500,000 were trans- 
ferred to the Washington stations for final development. 

The field station established at Eagle Harbor, Kodiak Island, in 
1914 proved a failure and was abandoned, but on account of improved 
conditions affecting the run of salmon in contiguous waters the 
Uganik field station was operated during the year and produced 
2,500,000 eggs. Late in June, 1914, after careful investigations had 
been made, a field station was established at Seal Bay, on the north- 
east coast of Afognak Island, where there is a prospect of making 
large egg collections. 

Improvements at the Afognak station during the year consisted 
in the extension of the tramway to a point on Litnik Lake, where a 
small wharf was constructed to facilitate the landing of launches and 
small boats, and the construction of a batterj?^ of 12 rearing ponds 
supplied with water from iVhuyon Creek. 

Owing to a decline in the run of blueback salmon in the waters 
tributary to Yes Bay, xilaska, there was a material decrease in the 
egg collections and a corresponding reduction in the output of fish 
from the Yes Bay hatchery, which was smaller than in any year 
since its establishment. While unfavorable weather conditions and 
low water occurring during the spawning season influenced the move- 
ment of the fish to some extent, it is believed that the failure of the 
usual large schools of fish to reach their accustomed spawning 
grounds during the summer and fall of 1914 was due primarily to 
the operation of more traps, in which a large percentage of the 
salmon entering the bay are captured before the fish can reach the 
headwaters. The spawning season of the blueback salmon extended 
from September 3 to September 30. Fishing operations were con- 
ducted every day by the station crew during this i:>eriod, and while 
no fish escaped through the racks and few spawned in the river, the 
total yield of eggs numbered only 41,300,000, as compared with 
49.050,000 in 1914, 66,125,000 in 1913, and 72,000,000 in 1912. 

The same conditions prevailed in Ketchikan Creek, where a field 
station had been fitted up at considerable expense for conducting 
humpback salmon operations. After adequate provisions had been 
made to intercept the spawning fish the usual large run of humpback 
salmon failed to appear, and consequently no eggs were secured. 

On September 1 a temporary field station was established at 
Quadra Bay, and 2,600,000 eggs were obtained and transferred to the 
Ketchikan station for development. Large numbers of salmon were 
seen in Quadra Bay, but storms and high water occurring durinii: the 
operating season, and lack of proper equipment to cope with the 
situation, necessitated the abandonment of the work before all of 
the fish could be overhauled. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 15 

As a result of the year's work 32,020,000 fry and 3,175,000 fin.^er- 
ling bhieback salmon were distributed in local waters, and 3.000,000 
eyed eggs of that species were donated to tlie Oregon Fish Commis- 
sion. All of the humpbaciv salmon eggs after being eyed were trans- 
ferred to the Washington stations. 

The completion of the electric power house and the reconstruction 
of the bunk house, which was destroyed by fire in 1914, were the 
features of improvement at this station. 

Substantial gains were made in the output of all of the more impor- 
tant species handled at the stations in the Pacific States, and the work 
as a Avhole was attended with gratifying results. 

At the Washington stations the operations for the year were very 
successful, the output far exceeding that of any previous year. The 
total egg collections of all species numbered 73,145,800, which pro- 
duced 05,408,680 fry and fingerling fish, exceeding the total distribu- 
tions of the previous year by 16.500,000. Of the total egg collections, 
19,565,000, or nearly 27 per cent, were secured at the field station 
located on the Dusewallips Eiver, a tributary of Hood Canal, 44 
miles from the Duckabush station, which was operated for the first 
time in 1912. The work of the station is addressed to the propaga- 
tion of the silver and dog salmons and the steelhead trout. 

While there was a slight falling off in the output of steelhead trout, 
the distribution of blueback salmon at the Baker Lake station, owing 
to the effectiveness of the new trap installed at the outlet of Baker 
Lake, was in excess of 7,200.000. There was also a large gain made 
Avith the silver salmon, while the output of dog salmon from the 
Duckabush, Quilcene, and Brinnon stations, on Hood Canal, was 
30,705,500 or three times greater than in 1914. 

The work of reconstructing the hatchery building and barn at the 
Baker Lake station, which were destroyed by fire in May, 1914, was 
undertaken during the spring of 1915, and the buildings are now 
nearing completion. Practically all of the fish-cultural operations 
at this station during the year were conducted in an improvised 
hatchery hastily constructed by the station employees with the 
material available. 

At the Duckabush station the shore line of the river opposite the 
rearing pond system was protected by crib work and rack, to prevent 
the washing of the banks and inundation of the ponds during flood 
periods. 

At the Birdsview station the old hatchery building was moved to 
a location across Grandy Creek, a two-room addition was made to the 
mess house, and a two-room cottage was constructed on the property 
recently acquired opposite the superintendent's residence. Extensive 
repairs were made to the intake dam on Grandy Creek, from Avhich 
the water supply is obtained. 

The results of the operations conducted at the field station located 
during the fall of 1914 in the Quiniault Indian Reservation were very 
gratifying, and from the experience thus far gained it is believed this 
Avill prove a very valuable field for the establishment of a permanent 
station, blueback, chinook, and silver salmons and steelhead trout 
being found in the Quiniault Lake and River in plentiful numbers. 
"While the operations were conducted in an experimental way. with 
crude apparatus and limited facilities, the output of the station 



16 REPORT OF TI-IE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

amounted to 3,558,591 blneback salmon, 19,913 chinook salmon, 198,- 
966 silver salmon, and 10,598 steelhead trout. An outside battery 
of troughs with a capacity for 20,000,000 eggs was constructed and 
supplied with water through a flume from a spring- fed stream in the 
Aicinity. A small three-room cottage wdth unfinished interior was 
provided for the foreman in charge, and at the close of the year 
preparations were being made for the extension of the hatching 
facilities. 

Increased efforts and generally favorable climatic conditions pre- 
vailing in Oregon resulted in substantial gains in the output from 
the nine stations operated in that State. The total egg collections 
of all species numbered 70,392,674, while the distributions of chinook 
salmon, silver salmon, and steelhead trout exceeded that of last 
year. An enormous run of chinook salmon in Columbia River, which 
characterized the season of 1913, again made its appearance in the 
river in the summer and fall of 1914 at the stations on the Big White 
Salmon and Little White Salmon Rivers, and 47,695,000 eggs were 
obtained, or 3,466,000 in excess of last year's take at the same points. 
The handling of this large number of eggs necessitated the installa- 
tion of additional hatching equipment and the shipment of large 
consignments of eggs to other stations for development. Eggs of 
the spring run chinook salmon to the number of 3,718,000, 
Avhich w^ere donated by the Oregon State Fish Commission, were 
hatched at the Clackamas station, and the fry, reared to the finger- 
ling stage, were planted in Clackamas River, with a view of im- 
proving the spring run of salmon in that basin. To facilitate the 
rearing of salmon, a battery of seven cement ponds were constructed 
at the Clackamas station. 

Floods occcurring during the operating season destroyed the 
racks at the Upper Clackamas and Rogue River stations, curtailing 
the output of chinook salmon and steelhead trout in those fields. 
Gains were made in the distribution of silver salmon where this 
species was propagated. 

While low water and unfavorable weather conditions somewhat 
interfered with the movements of the fish, there was a large increase 
in the egg collections at all of the California stations, amounting 
to 38 per cent in the chinook salmon, 29 per cent in silver salmon, 
and 400 per cent in rainboAV trout. The total collections of all species 
were 57,807,200, more than double those of the previous year, while 
the distributions of eyed eggs, fry and fingerling fish were corre- 
spondingly large. In addition to 5,000,000 chinook salmon fry, 
9,053,635 fingerling fish of this species were liberated in local waters, 
or more than double the number produced last year. 

The largest gains were made at the Battle Creek and Mill Creek 
stations, where the aggregate egg collections numbered considerably 
over 25,000,000. The summer and fall run of salmon in the McCloud 
River was light, although the output of the Baird station slightly 
exceeded that of last year. At the Ilornbrook station the take of 
rainbow trout eggs exceeded expectations, being more than 2,600,000. 
As in former years, the egg collections exceeded the hatching capac- 
ity of the Bureau's stations and the surplus was turned over to the 
State hatcheries for development. 

In order to facilitate the handling of spawning salmon and im- 
prove the water supply, the Ilornbrook hatchery was moved to the 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 17 

north side of Klamath River, and an undershot water Avheel 28 feet 
in diameter, with 24 buckets, was installed on the river bank 5,350 
feet above the hatchery, the water being conveyed thereto through 
open flumes and ditches. 

FISH PROPAGATION ON THE GREAT LAKES. 

At the Great Lakes hatcheries the results of the work with the 
commercial fishes were in general satisfactory. While storms and 
sudden ice formation hampered fishing operations during the spawn- 
ing season, the losses in some fields were in most instances compen- 
sated for by unusual success in others, and the final outcome of the 
collecting season was an aggregate of 1,843,493,540 eggs of all species 
handled as compared Avith 1,634,591,880 during the corresponding 
season of 1914. Of this total 132,000,000 represented eggs of the 
cisco, or lake herring, the bulk of which were secured in Lakes On- 
tario and Superior, where the propagation of this desirable fish was 
undertaken by the Bureau for the first time in the fall of 1914. The 
egg collections of only one species — the common whitefish — fell be- 
hind those of the previous year, the total shortage in this instance 
amounting to about 42,000,000. The take of lake-trout eggs, on the 
other hand, was over 8,000,000 in excess of that in 1914, and there was 
a small gain in the collection of pike-perch eggs over last year. 

The lake-trout work in Lake Superior opened on September 24, 
and during the spawning season, which lasted 59 days, 16,247,000 
eggs of good quality were secured and transferred to the Duluth 
hatchery. This stock Avas supplemented later by the receipt of 
6,932,000 eggs from Lake Michigan fields, but for some reason the 
latter consignment was of exceptionally ]5oor quality. On reaching 
the eyed stage, 500,000 eggs were shipped on assignment. The re 
mainder produced 14,715,000 young fish, which were distributed dur- 
ing the spring on the spawning grounds where the brood fish were 
secured. 

The initial attempt to propagate lake herring at the Duluth sta- 
tion met Avith a fair measure of success so far as egs^ collections were 
concerned, but the quality of the eggs was impaired by unfavorable 
weather conditions during the spaAvning season and by the rough 
handling to which the fish were subjected on the fishing tugs prior 
to their delivery to the Bureau's spawn takers. From the 32,000,000 
eggs laid down in the hatchery, there Avere produced only 9,750,000 
fry, Avhich were returned in April to the spawning grounds in Lake 
Superior. 

During the season there were planted in sheltered waters of Lake 
Superior 16.400,000 whitefish fry, which originated from a consign- 
ment of 25,000,000 eggs transferred to Duluth from Lake Erie fields 
and from a collection of 810.000 eggs made near Isle Royal, Mich., in 
the course of the lake-trout operations. 

During April two lots of pike-perch eggs — one of 12,000,000 fur- 
nished by the Minnesota Fish Commission, and one of 20.000.000 
green eggs transferred from the Bureau's Detroit station — Avere re- 
ceiA'ed and hatched at Duluth. The former consignment yielded 
4,000.000 healthy fry, but the remaining eggs were of such poor qual- 
ity that only 3,450,000 fry resulted from them. All of the pike-perch 



18 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

fry, as well as 426,000 young brook trout derived from eggs pur- 
chased from commercial fisli-culturists, 48,500 steelhead trout fry, 
and 23,500 landlocked salmon fry, were distributed to applicants in 
Minnesota and surrounding States. The eggs of the two last-named 
species were transferred to Duluth from other stations of the Bureau. 

Lake-trout eggs for stocking the Michigan hatcheries were ob- 
tained as usual from Lakes Michigan and Huron, the spawn-taking 
season extending from October 18 to November 25. Field stations 
established at the customary points were manned so far as practicable 
by permanent employees, and experienced men were temporarily em- 
ployed to assist in gathering spawn on the large fishing tugs, while 
arrangements were made with fishermen operating gasoline boats to 
take the eggs themselves. The weather throughout the season was 
stormy and at times the wind was of such velocity that for periods of 
two to five days it was not possible to attend the nets. Notwithstand- 
ing this handicap the season was one of the most successful ever ex- 
perienced, the aggregate egg collections being 06,424,000, nearly 
14,000,000 in excess of the previous year. Of this stock 28,864,000 
green and eyed eggs were used to fill applications; the remainder 
were incubated at the Charlevoix, Alpena, and Sault Ste. Marie 
hatcheries, and the fry were liberated in the immediate vicinity of 
these stations soon after hatching. 

The gathering of whitefish spav» n for the Michigan stations covered 
a period of two months, beginning October 14. Field stations for 
the pui'pose were located, as heretofore, in Detroit River, Saginaw 
Bay, and the upper part of Lake Michigan. Owing to unfavorable 
natural conditions, the work was only partially successful. Spawn- 
ing fish were notably scarce everywhere, and especially was this true 
in the Saginaw Bay district, ordinarily accounted one of the most 
prolific sources for whitefish eggs. The work in this field was also 
hampered by violent winds and ice formation, which made it im- 
possible for some of the fishermen to attend their nets during as long 
a period as nine days near the height of the season. The whole Sagi- 
naw Bay field is so much exposed that successful whitefish work is 
dependent almost entirely on weather conditions. 

The former prolific fishing ground at Grassy Island, in Detroit 
Eiver, which has been available for the Bureau's operations since 
1899, has now been destroyed by the dredging operations of the 
Government for the opening of a deep waterway. At Belle Isle, 
the only remaining whitefish field in this river, fishing was conducted 
under the supervision of the State warden, who sold the stripped fish 
to defray the expense of his work. 

The following table shows the field stations operated in Michigan 
waters, the period of operations, and the number of whitefish eggs 
secured at each: 



Locality. 



Season. 



Number. 



Belle Isle, Detroit River 

Charity Island, Saginaw Bay 

Bay Port, Saginaw Bay 

Naubinway, Lake Michigan 

St. James and Charlevoix, Lake Michigan. 

Total 



Oct.25-Dee. 8.. 
Oct. 14-Dec.2.. 
Nov.9-Nov.21. 
Nov. 16-Dec. 2. 
Dec. 1-Dec. 18. . 



27,340,000 
26,280,000 
180,000 
10, 680, 000 
35,000,000 

99,480,000 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 19 

As the egg collections were not equal to the available hatching 
facilities, the shortage was made up by the transfer of 117,800,000 
eggs to the Detroit hatchery from the collecting field in Lake Erie, 
near Monroe, Mich. An assignment of 6,000,000 was deducted from 
the stock on hand for shipment to the Wisconsin Fish Commission 
and 49,280,000 eggs failed to develop. On reaching the eyed stage 
the 102,000,000 constituting the remainder were subdivided, tO,000,000 
being retained at Detroit, and the remainder forwarded to the auxil- 
iary hatcheries in northern Michigan, to be hatched in connection 
with the lake-trout eggs elsewhere referred to. 

Pike-perch egg collections in Michigan waters were confined to the 
field off Bay City, in Saginaw Bay, the work extending over the 
last half of April and yielding lO'i.OOO.OOO eggs. Of these 20,000,000 
were shipped green to the Duluth hatchery and 12,500,000 fry were 
hatched and planted in various waters in the State. 

The whitefish propagation in Lake Erie was satisfactory. A 
scarcity of fish occurred in the Put-in Bay field, and there was a 
shortage in the catch at Monroe Piers, owing to the destruction of 
some of the fishermen's nets by floating fields of ice at the height of 
the spawning season. The take of eggs in all other fields in this 
lake w as greater than ever before, and the yield from some of them 
was twice that of the preceding year. While the aggregate egg col- 
lections, amounting to 479,290,000, were nearly 10,000,000 less than 
in 1914, their quality was so good that there was a decided increase 
in the whitefish output of the Put-in Bay station. The superior 
quality of the eggs is attributed partly to the supervision of the 
operations of the commercial fishermen by the Michigan fish wardens, 
who Avere constantly on the grounds during the spawning season, and 
partly to a change in the method of handling unripe fish. Hereto- 
fore it has been customary to hold large numbers of immature white- 
fish in pens on the spaAvning grounds for the ripening of their eggs, 
and it has been noted that a considerable per cent of the fish so held 
became affected by a condition known as " plugging," whereby no 
eggs were secured from them. This year it Avas determined to place 
no fish in the pens until they were nearly ready to spaAvn, and the 
results of this change in method Avere clearly apparent, the eggs not 
only being of a finer grade but the average yield per fish being larger 
than under the old system. The output from the Put-in Bay station 
included shipments of green and eyed eggs to the number of 285,- 
700,000 and the liberation of 209,000,000 vigorous fry in the Avaters of 
Lake Erie. 

. Incidental to the Avhitefish operations 6,930,000 lake herring egg& 
AA'ere taken and hatched, the output of fry numbering 3,400,000. 

NotAvithstanding the fairly good results obtained Avith the pike 
perch in Lake Erie, as regards both quality of eggs and number 
secured, the collecting period Avas the shortest every knoAvn in Lake 
Erie. Weather conditions in the early spring Avere all that could be 
desired, thus permitting of the installation of fishing and spawn- 
taking apparatus in advance of the season; and Avhile brood fish 
appeared in plentiful numbers near the beginning of April, none in 
spaAvning condition Avere taken until the middle of the month. Be- 
tAveen that time and the end of the season. Avhich lasted 15 days, eggs 
to the number of 511,715,000 Avere taken, the majority being obtained 



20 REPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

in the Port Clinton and Toledo fields. Of these collections 305,450,000 
green and eyed eggs were furnished for stocking various State and 
national hatcheries, and the remainder produced 56,400,000 fry for 
local distribution. 

Under different management fish-cultural operations were con- 
ducted on a more extensive scale than formerly at the Cape Vincent, 
N. Y., station, resulting in a material increase in the output of the 
commercial fishes of Lake Ontario. A cooperative arrangement was 
effected with the New York Conservation Commission for the col- 
lection of eggs of the whitefish, lake herring, and lake trout, and 
new fields were located and operated during the season. The Bureau 
was accorded the use, without cost, of the traps and nets owned by 
the State, and in a number of instances spawn takers who had been 
in the service of the State for a number of years were temporarily 
employed by the Bureau to take eggs for the Cape Vincent station 
after the l^tate hatcheries had been filled. After a thorough in- 
A'estigation of the various fields, it was decided that eggs of the 
whitefish, lake herring, and lake trout could be procured on a more 
economical basis by purchasing from commercial fishermen on the 
same basis that was paid by the State, namely, 50 cents per quart. 

The collection of whitefish eggs was undertaken at Three Mile Bay, 
N. Y., at fisheries operated in the vicinity of the Cape Vincent sta- 
tion, and at the Fulton Chain Lakes, at Old Forge, N. Y. The 
work was conducted in cooperation with the State employees. The 
egg collections at these points numbered 18,354,000, the largest part 
of them being from Fulton Chain Lakes, where 16,254,000 were 
obtained. The number of fry hatched was 18,000,000, which were 
planted in Lake Ontario in the vicinity of Cape Vincent. 

Lake herring eggs to the number of 32,650,000 were secured in the 
vicinity of Three Mile Bay, N. Y., and 51,350,000 from Great Sodus 
Bay, at Sodus Point, N. Y. These eggs yielded 79,200,000 fry. 

Lake-trout operations were conducted at Charity Shoals and Stony 
Island, N. Y., and at Horse Shoe Island, Amhurst Island, and Pigeon 
Island, Canada. Severe winds prevailed during the entire spawning 
season, but the results of the work were good. 

Early in the spring new fields for the collection of pike-perch eggs 
were located at Black Lake, near Pope Mills, N. Y., and on the 
Oswegatchie River, at Ogdensburg, N. Y. ; and while the work was 
conducted on an experimental basis the outcome was satisfactory, a 
total of 17,150,000 eggs being secured. 

There were transferred from other stations to Cape Vincent for 
development 4,500,000 eyed lake-trout eggs and 50,000,000 green pike- 
perch eggs. The fry produced from all the species propagated 
during the year numljered 141,530,000. 

A peculiarly favorable combination of natural conditions existed 
during the spring in the vicinity of the Bureau's Swanton station on 
Lake Champlain, and the work accomplished there in the propaga- 
tion of pike perch was the most successful in its history. The water 
in the lake prior to and during the spawning season was so low that 
it was impossible to utilize the inclosure prepared last year for the 
holding of immature pike perch to ripen, but under the circumstances 
there was no necessity for its use. 

Brood fish in very large numbers congregated early in spring at the 
mouth of the Missisquoi River, on which the station is located, and 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 21 

as the surrounding marshes where they usually spread out were dry, 
they ascended the main river, where seining conditions were all that 
could be desired. As a result of five days' fishing — from April 14 
to 18, inclusive — enough ripe fish were seined from the river to more 
than fill the Swanton hatchery to its capacity, and it became neces- 
sary to discontinue the work at a time when the run of fish was 
apparently at its height. Eggs to the number of 382,800,000 w^ere 
taken, of which 75,400,000 were forwarded direct from the spawning 
field to other stations — 15,000,000 to the Massachusetts Fish Com- 
mission and the remainder to the Cape Vincent hatchery of the 
Bureau. The percentage of fertility of the eggs hatched, namely, 
48.7, was not quite equal to that of the preceding year, but it 
was remarkably high when one considers the crowded condition 
of the hatchery and the short space of time in which the eggs had to 
be handled. In returning the fry to the lake special efforts were 
made to spread them over as wide a territory as possible, and in 
order to more effectively accomplish this one of the Bureau's cars 
was utilized for the distribution, consignments being delivered to 
interested parties at various places along an extended portion of the 
lake front. 

PROPAGATION OF MIGRATORY FISHES OF THE ATLANTIC STREAMS. 

A general falling off occurred in the output of the stations han- 
dling the anadromous species of the Atlantic seaboard — the shad, 
striped bass, white perch, and yellow perch. The decline in the run 
of shad in the Chesapeake Bay and tributary streams during the 
spring of 1915 was more marked than in the preceding year, when 
the run of fish was the smallest in the history of the Bureau's opera- 
tions with the species. 

On Potomac River experienced spawn takers attended every gill 
net and seine operated in the vicinity of the Bryan's Point hatchery, 
and a barge equipped with a battery of hatching jars, which were 
supplied with w ater by means of a gasoline pump, was stationed at 
Occoquan Creek, Va., with a crew of four men, to attend the seine 
fishery at Stony Point and the gill netters operating in that section 
of the river. Strong northwest w inds and low atmospheric and water 
temperatures prevailed throughout the season. The first eggs were 
obtained April 21, and during the spawning season, W'hich continued 
until May 13, the collections amounted to 16,012,000, from which 
13,899,000 fry, or less than one-hdlf the output of the previous year, 
Avere produced. 

Good results attended the operations with the yellow perch, the 
19,7G9 brood fish secured from the local fishermen in February pro- 
ducing 1(34,775,000 eggs, from which 151,592,000 fry w^ere hatched, 
and 1,500,000 ej'^ed eggs transferred to Central Station, Washington, 
D. C, for development. A feature of the yellow-perch work this 
year at the Bryan's Point station was the hatching of all the eggs in 
wire baskets swung from poles located in sheltered waters, thus 
obviating the expense involved in operating pumps, which is necessary 
when the eggs are developed in the hatchery, as has been the method 
heretofore pursued. 

There was no improvement of conditions as regards the run of 
shad in Susquehanna River, and the shad operations at the Battery 



22 BEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

Island, Md., station, which is equiped for the handling of 200,000,000 
eggs, and where as many as 210,000,000 eggs were formerly secured, 
were a failure, only 2,866,000 being produced. The expense involved 
in the operation of steam boilers and pumps was reduced by the in- 
stallation of a 5-horsepower gasoline pump, which was used exclu- 
sively at times when hatching operations required only a limited 
supply of water. 

From the brood yellow perch secured on the Susquehanna River 
in March and April 64,933,000 eggs were obtained, which yielded 
41 ,825,000 fry. White-perch eggs to the number of 357,250,000 were 
collected at the mouth of Elk Creek, near Henderson Point, Md., but 
large losses due to imperfect fertilization reduced the output to 
175,330,000 fry. Consignments of yellow-perch and white-perch 
eggs, aggregating 36,850,000, were donated for development at the 
State hatcheries in New Jersey and Massachusetts. 

The propagation of the alewife, which was undertaken in an ex- 
perimental way last year, was prosecuted on a more extensive scale 
during the spring of 1915, with a resulting output of 4,851,000 fry. 

On Albemarle Sound the climatic and other physical conditions 
during the spring of 1915 were identical to those of last season, which 
proved unfavorable to the shad operations at the Edenton, N. C. 
station. Although every field where there was a possibility of secur- 
ing spawn was covered by experienced spawn takers, and the scope 
of the work was extended to fields in the lower end of the sound here- 
tofore unoccupied, the result of the season's work shows a decrease 
of 6,333,000 in the output of shad fry as compared with the previous 
year. The 39,040,000 eggs received at the hatchery from all sources 
yielded 22,990,000 fry, most of which were distributed in North Caro- 
lina, although liberal plants were made in suitable waters in adja- 
cent Southei-n States. 

The usual preparations for propagating striped bass on the 
Eoanoke River at Weldon, N. C., were completed early in April. 
Suitable traps in which to capture the brood fish and pens for hold- 
ing them were located at advantageous places in the river, seven col- 
lecting points being established adjacent to grounds operated by the 
commercial fishermen. The prospects in April for a large run of fish 
wereveryencouraging,butearly in May the river fell to a very low stage, 
and clear water prevailed throughout the spawning season. Abnor- 
mally high temperatures hastened the spawning of the fish, and many 
of them de]5osited their eggs in the river. Owing to excessively low 
water and the faulty construction of the retaining boxes, the penning 
operations were a failure, as many of the fish held injured themselves 
so badly that they died before their eggs ripened. 

The first eggs were secured April 25, and from that time on collec- 
tions in limited numbers were made until the end of the spawning 
season, on May 17, 2,500,000 constituting the largest take of a single 
day. The difficulty experienced last year in obtaining ripe male fish 
at the time eggs were available was again encountered, and large 
losses of eggs occurred through lack of a fertilizing medium. In one 
instance two females weighing 40 and 35 pounds, respectively, and 
carrying approximately 5,000,000 eggs, were taken in traps, but as 
no males Avere at hand, all of the eggs were lost. 

The total egg collections amounted to 11,295,000, from which 
6,640,000 were hatched. The discrepancy between the collections and 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 23 

the output was due to abnormally high temperatures, which caused 
a heavy loss of eggs in the hatchery. 

The usual extensive Atlantic salmon operations were conducted 
at the Craig Brook, Me., station during the year. The brood fish 
collected in the summer and fall of 1914 numbered 693, of which 112 
died in the pound, leaving 581 available for fish-cultural work. The 
289 females stripped produced 1,954,479 eggs, of which number 
1,848,000 were transferred in the eyed stage to the upper Penobscot 
auxiliary station during the winter for final development, and the 
1,804,313 fry resulting from them were liberated in May and eTune 
in the east branch of the Penobscot River. The collection of brood 
fish for propagation in the succeeding fiscal year began May 21 and 
ended June 19, the number of brood fish sectired within that period 
amounting to 725. 

It is the opinion of the superintendent of the Craig Brook station, 
and also of the Penobscot River fishermen, that Atlantic salmon are 
as numerous this year as they have been in the past three years. The 
total catch in the spring of 1915 was a trifle greater than that of the 
preceding year, which would indicate that this species is holding its 
own under very adverse conditions. 

PROPAGATION OF THE TROUTS AND BASSES. 

Generally speaking, very successful work was accomplished during 
the year at the stations addressed to the propagation of the trouts 
and basses. 

Large gains were made with the brook trout at the Manchester 
station, the total output being 1,080,000, as eouipared with 319,800 
in 1914. While the average collections of brook and rainbow trout 
eggs were made at the Wytheville and White Sulphur Springs sta- 
tions, very heavy losses of fry occurred, the mortality at the foi'mer 
station being due to contamination of the food supply, and at the 
latter to a decreased w\ater supply, which has been falling off for a 
number of years. 

At Leadville, Colo., where a large percentage of the eggs are col- 
lected from open waters, there was a material increase in the output 
of rainbow trout. The brook-trout egg collections at this station in 
the fall of 1914 were smaller than in the preceding year, but their 
(}uality was better and a larger number of fry were produced. 

The total output of the Bozeman and auxiliary stations for the 
year, amounting to 17,359,436 fish and eggs, was practically 100 per 
cent above that of the previous year, which aggregated 8,745,538. . 

It is impossible to present any analysis or comparison of the Yel- 
lowstone Park work by fiscal years, owdng to the fact that the spawn- 
ing season of the blackspotted trout occurs in June and July, the 
last month of one fiscal year and the first month of the succeeding 
year. The take of eggs of this species in the park for the calendar 
year 1914 was 12,561,935. Of these eggs 11,463,000 were shipped to 
various other stations of the Bureau, and 560,000 fry were hatched 
on the grounds for deposit in suitable waters in the park, making a 
total distribution of 12.023.000 fish and eggs. 

Owing to favorable wat-er conditions and close application to the 
work, substantial gains were made in the collection of rainbow-trout 
and grayling eggs at the field stations located in the Madison Valley, 



24 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

the total output of the former species being 384,000, while 2,130,000 
grayling were distributed in local waters, as compared with an out- 
put of 400,000 in 1914. 

A large run of rainbow trout occurred in Cottonwood Creek, a 
tributary of the Klamath River, in California, much earlier in the 
season than usual, and while the egg collections did not come up to 
the anticipations based on the numbers of fish in the creek, 2,674,900 
were secured, constituting the largest take ever made at this point. 

The work of the 26 stations where pond fishes are propagated was 
conducted along the same general lines as in the past, but on account 
of the generally favorable climatic conditions prevailing during the 
spawning season of the various species, the results were unusually 
gratifying, material increases being made in the output of large- 
mouth and smallmouth black basses, crappies, sunfishes, and cat- 
fishes. The distributions of the largemouth and smallmouth black 
basses were especially satisfactory, that of the former species amount- 
ing to 2,190,000, as compared with 822,000 in 1914, while the distri- 
butions of smallmouth black bass in public and private waters 
aggregated 734,000, as opposed to an output of 187,000 the previous 
year. 

The output of the following stations is deemed especially note- 
worthy : 

Black basses. Other species. 

Mammoth Spring, Ark 1,226,738 512,820 

San Marcos, Tex 451, 657 43, 765 

Tupelo, Miss 330, 965 84, 700 

Bullocliville, Ga 118,145 53,370 

The success of the operations was due largely to a more compre- 
hensive knowledge of the requirements governing pond-fish culture, 
the adoption of more modern methods, and the promptness in making 
distributions. 

PROPAGATION OF MARINE FISHES. 

Notwithstanding the incessant storms that hampered the cod opera- 
tions off the Massachusetts coast and the shortage in the take of brood 
fish of several of the species propagated, the work of the New England 
stations devoted to the cultivation of the marine fishes was in general 
satisfactory. 

At the Boothbay Harbor, Me., station 16,482 brood lobsters were 
placed in the Pemaquid pound in the fall of 1914 and closely cared for 
throughout the winter, quantities of small pollock and herring being 
given them as food. When they were taken from the inclosui-e in 
April for the stripping of their eggs, it was ascertained that a larger 
percentage had survived confinement than in any preceding year in 
the history of the station, the number removed being 13,917. The 
lobsters were not particularly well seeded, however, as the yield of 
eggs averaged less than 12,000, but the total number — 164,450,000 — 
was in excess of any former year's production from impounded stock. 
After their eggs w^ere removed the lobsters were turned over at the 
prevailing market price of 14 cents a pound to the Maine fisheries 
authorities, who returned them to the open waters of the ocean oflf 
the Maine coast, and later delivered to the Bureau in exchange egg- 
bearing lobsters of an equal value. 



EEPOKT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 25 

The collecting of seed lobsters was carried on as usual during the 
summer of 1914 and the spring of 1915, and from the 1,588 thus handled 
34,643,000 eggs were obtained, an average of 21,815 per lobster. From 
the total number of lobster eggs secured during the year, 193,800,000 
fry were produced and planted alon^ the Maine coast. 

The cod-fishing fleet operating oft Casco Bay in March and April 
was small and fish were far from plentiful, and only 34,511,000 eggs 
were collected; these produced 21,841,000 healthy fry. 

Early in April the station launches w^ere equipped with a force 
of spawn takers and sent into the fields off Boothbay and Portland 
to collect haddock eggs from the fleet of netters operating there. 
While fish of miscellaneous sizes were fairly abundant, only a few 
large mature fish were in evidence, and only 3,584,000 eggs of poor 
quality were taken during the entire fishing season, which extended 
well into the month of May. 

Beginning March 1 and extending through the month of April, 
men Avere employed to attend fyke nets set in the vicinity of Booth- 
bay Harbor for the capture of flounders. The work with this species 
was only moderately successful, a smaller number of brood fish than 
last year being taken, while the losses of eggs during incubation were 
greater. The 487,250,000 eggs taken produced 394,499,000 fry. 

The major fish-cultural work of the Gloucester station was ad- 
dressed to the cod, pollock, haddock, flounder, and lobster, and oper- 
ations with one or more species were in progress almost continuously 
for eight months beginning November 1, when the first collection of 
pollock eggs was made. During the first six Aveeks of the pollock 
spawning season, which extended to February 9, there were indi- 
cations that the take of eggs would exceed that of 1914, but a series 
of heavy storms in December scattered the schools of fish and drove 
them off the fishing grounds and completely destroyed the fisher- 
men's nets. Although 855,020,000 eggs were taken, this number was 
considerably less than in the previous year. Owing to a scarcity of 
spawning cod throughout the winter and spring on the inshore fish- 
ing grounds, the take of eggs at Gloucester was comparatively light, 
aggregating 82,460,000, w^hich produced 52,250,000 fry; these were 
deposited in local waters wdth 18,030,000 fry hatched from eggs sent 
to the Gloucester station from Woods Hole. 

The hatching of the winter flounder, which was taken up Feb- 
ruary 24, was greatly handicapped by the scarcity of brood fish, 
resulting from excessive fishing operations during the previous sum- 
mer and fall. From the 276 spawning fish secured from the fisher- 
men, 134,180,000 eggs were taken and 121,090,000 fry hatched and 
distributed. 

Small collections of haddock eggs were made between March 13 
and April 28, the season's collections amounting to 38,410,000, from 
which 25,840,000 fry were hatched and returned to the spawning 
grounds, the last of them being liberated on May 10. 

Active fish-cultural Avork at the Woods Hole station began on 
November 27, 1914, with the delivery of 1,500 brood cod obtained 
from commercial fishermen. Later acquisitions brought the total 
brood stock of the station up to 3.068, of which 1,310 Avere placed in 
the cistern and the remainder in live cars. The steamer PhaJarope 
was stationed at the beginning of the spawning season on the fishing 



26 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

grounds near Pljmioutli to collect eggs from any ripe cod which 
might be taken by commercial fishermen, but severe weather and 
fogs so hampered their operations that most of the fishermen left 
the grounds at an early date; consequently the total receipts of eggs 
from that field amounted to 7,663,000, These, added to the eggs 
secured from brood fish held at the station, gaA^e a total of 270,504,000. 
of which a consignment of 24,630,000 was transferred at the height 
of the collecting season to the Gloucester station. From the remain- 
ing 245,874,000 eggs, fry to the number of 168,012,000 were hatched 
and liberated in the coastal waters of Massachusetts. 

The first brood flounders were received at the station on January 
16, having been taken in fyke nets set in the immediate vicinity. A 
few daj^s later captures of ripe fish were made at the field station at 
Waquoit Bay, and on February 26 collections were undertaken at 
Wickford, R. I. The fairly favorable weather conditions for the 
work during the late winter permitted the collection of 1,053,285,000 
eggs, or about 15 per cent more than that of the previous year. The 
average fertility of the stock was somewhat below the average, but 
this handicap was offset to a considerable extent by the uniformly 
suitable water temperatures prevailing during the hatching season, 
and the final outcome of the work with this species was the distribu- 
tion of 778,567,000 fry on the spawning grounds along the Massa- 
chusetts coast. 

At the close of the flounder work the station was fitted up for the 
propagation of such summer-spawning fishes as might be secured 
from surrounding waters, and small quantities of mackerel and tautog 
eggs were taken and hatched. 

RESCUE or FISHES FROM OVERFLOWED LANDS. 

One of the most important branches of the Bureau's operations is 
the rescue of young food fishes from the lakes and bayous formed by 
the overflow of the Mississippi and Illinois rivers and their tribu- 
taries. In the fiscal year 1915 operations of this character were con- 
ducted at the stations located on the upper Mississippi River at La 
Crosse, Wis., Belle vue and North McGregor, Iowa, and Homer, 
Minn.; on the Illinois River, at Meredosia, 111., and on the lower 
Mississippi River at Friars Point, Miss. 

Favorable water stages made it possible to operate these stations 
from the receding of the floods in July until the latter part of Decem- 
ber. The total collections of all species of river fishes numbered 
approximately 8,357,000. Of this number 551,000 were delivered to 
applicants and deposited in public waters, the distributions involving 
34 carloads of fish, in addition to the deliveries made by detached 
messengers. Fishes of all species to the number of 7,806,000 were 
rescued from landlocked waters in the vicinity of the fields of oper- 
ation and returned to the main rivers. The output for the season 
is regarded as satisfactory, the distribution being three times as large 
as last year. 

As has been explained in previous reports, the many hundreds of 
thousands of young fishes resulting from the Bureau's seining oper- 
ations along these rivers are taken from landlocked bayous and lakes 



REPORT. OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 27 

where they would perish from di"()ii<2;lit, or fi'oni cohl later in the 
year, if allowed to remain. Of the total number of fish collected, 
fully 90 per cent are returned to the rivers where they originated. 

ACCLIMATIZATION. 

In continuance of the efforts to establish the Atlantic lobster on 
the Pacific coast, a shipment consisting of 6,000 adult lobsters — 
3.100 females and 2,900 males — was forwarded in a refrigerator car 
on November 16 from Boothbay Harbor, Me., to Anacortes, Wash. 
The lobsters were packed in crates, as heretofore, between layers of 
rockweed, and while en route were daily sprinkled with salt water, 
an even temperature of 40° F. being maintained during the entire 
trip. Through an error of the express company in routing the car, 
the trip was made 250 miles longer than necessary and a delay of 24 
hours in delivery resulted. On the arrival of the car at Anacortes 
the loss en route was ascertained to have been 1,051 female and 1,345 
male lobsters. Owing to the weak condition of a portion of the sur- 
vivors 865 females and 739 males were planted in suitable places in 
the harbor off Anacortes, and the remainder of the consignment was 
transferred to live cars anchored in Pugefc Sound and allowed 24 
hours in which to recuperate. The following day, after delivering 
100 at Anacortes, for shipment to Japan, the lobsters Avere towed to 
Deer Harbor, in the San Juan Islands, Puget Sound, and liberated 
in good condition. 

In November, 1914, a third consignment of 7,000,000 eyed hump- 
back salmon eggs was forwarded from Puget Sound to New England 
and divided equally Ijetween the Craig Brook and Green Lake hatch- 
eries. The fry resulting from them, 4,964,757 in all, were distrib- 
uted in various tributaries of the Penobscot River and other selected 
streams. 

BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS, SURVEYS, ETC. 

PROBLEMS OF THE OYSTER INDUSTRY. 

Of all American food products derived from the water, the oyster 
merits first consideration. In nutritive qualities it is surpassed by 
none; in the total value of the product marketed and consumed the 
oyster ranks first; no fishery resource is more widely distributed on 
the seacoast; and none lends itself to artificial cultivation so readily 
as the oyster. In certain regions oyster growing has reached a vej-y 
high degree of development, and it may be cited as the only fish- 
cultural industry which has been largely developed through private 
enterprise. Nevertheless, the industry is yet quite too restricted in 
comparison with the wide distribution of the oyster, and with the 
extent of the barren bottoms that con Id be made productive through 
himian efforts. 

The natural development of commercial oyster culture is seriously 
hampered both by peculiar conditions of an economic nature, and by 
the failure to apply scientific methods in an adequate way to many 
of the elementary problems involved. The Bureau has endeavored 
at all times render all practicable aid to this important industr}^ 
and to awaken a merited interest in the subject on the part of the 
public, of State officials, and of all persons engaged in the industry. 



28 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

In continuation of its practice of cooperation Avith State authori- 
ties, and in accordance with the authorization and direction of Con- 
gress, the Bureau has during the past fiscal year conducted a survey 
of the Apalachicola Bay, Fla. The steamer Fish Hawk and qualified 
assistants from the central office were engaged in the investigation, 
the purpose of which was to determine the extent of the natural 
oyster beds and of the bottoms suitable for the production of addi- 
tional quantities of oysters through methods of culture. 

In addition to utilizing the services of its permanent assistants iu 
such efforts, the Bureau has engaged the temporary services of quali- 
fied investigators at one of its laboratories in attacking problems of 
vital importance to the welfare of the oyster industries. Among 
these problems there may be mentioned that presented by the condi- 
tion known as " greening," which, to a more and more serious degree, 
is manifesting itself in certain important oyster regions with the 
eflPect of rendering the oysters unmarketable. Other investigations 
relate to unsolved problems of propagation and of fattening of oys- 
ters. 

The possibilities of a higher development of oyster culture on the 
Pacific coast are receiving attention, and the Bureau has engaged the 
temporary services of an investigator whose studies are now directed 
to acquiring the necessary knowledge of the life history and condi- 
tions of development of both the native and the introduced Eastern 
oysters. 

Although these investigations have not yet reached a stage justify- 
ing a published report, the progress is so encouraging as to demand 
the continued application of available means to these investigations. 
It has been urgently recommended that special and adequate provi- 
sion should be made, so that the success of the efforts of the Bureau 
may not be contingent upon the use of temporary agents who can 
devote but a few weeks of the year to studies that are of vital im- 
portance to a national industry. 

THE HOME FISH POND. 

In certain phases the fisheries have already passed from the condi- 
tion of exploitation of natural resources to one of at least partial de- 
pendence upon methods of artificial propagation, and yet, in this coun- 
try at least, the principle of communism largely controls. A striking 
exception is elsewhere alluded to in connection with the important 
industry of oyster culture, or commercial oyster farming. There are 
many evidences of increasing interest in the rearing of fish in small 
ponds on the farm. Whatever may be said of the commercial possi- 
bilities of such a practice, there is no question but that a desirable and 
convenient addition to the food supply of the home may thus be pro- 
vided with inconsiderable expenditure of money or labor, and with 
collateral advantages that are not insignificant. In every way pos- 
sible the Bureau places its accumulated experience at the disposal of 
the persons interested. It desires to do more than this, however, and, 
through the only one of its biological stations that is suited to the 
purpose, it is attempting to conduct experiments and iuAestigations 
that Avill bear directly upon the practical problems confronting the 



REPORT OF, THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 29 

owner of a home fish pond. Such experiments can be imp<xsc(l upon 
the biological station at Fairport, Iowa, not only without hampering 
jts primary functions in the propagation of fresh-water mussels, but 
in a way to materially further that object. In connection with the 
experimental fish culture there is accumulated a store of experience, 
but there is also made available a surplus stock of young fishes which 
may be used in the propagation of mussels. 

Some of these experiments ai-e being conducted with such favorite 
fishes as the bass and bream. An important one undertaken dur- 
ing the past fiscal year is the rearing of young buffalofishes from 
eggs artificially fertilized and hutched. While the larger number 
of the buffalo fry were liberated in the Mississippi River soon after 
hatching, a pond of about an acre in extent was stocked with 180,000 
of these fish as the beginning of an experiment to determine the 
feasibility of rearing them in artificial ponds. This is not known to 
have been attempted before, but the Bureau is gratified to i-ecord 
that at the close of the fiscal year the results are quite encouraging. 
These experiments in the artificial propagation and rearing of the 
buffidofish are to be regarded as of particular importance, since this 
species is a valuable commercial fish that is regularly diminishing in 
nimibers in the public waters. As a pond fish it has the advantage 
of attaining a large size, of being Avithout cannibalistic tendencies, 
and seemingly adapted for practicable methods of artificial feeding. 

The results of such experiments will be of value not only in point- 
ing the way for more effective conservation of the fish in public 
waters, but also by giving due encouragement and assistance to those 
who would utilize privately owned waters for the production of fish 
food. The fish-cultural work at this station will be extended as 
additional ponds may be constructed. 

LIFE HISTORIES AND HABITS OF FISHES. 

It is manifest that in order to arrive at intelligent conclusions 
regarding the necessities and the proper modes of protection of 
marine fishes, and to determine the possibilities of promoting an 
increase through artificial propagation, it is essential to have a reason- 
ably complete knowledge of their life histories and habits. The prob- 
lem is easily stated, but the solution offers peculiar difficulties. One 
can not casually walk along the shores and observe the activities and 
the propagation of fishes. Systematic plans of study must be evolved 
so that the fishes are collected and observed at various places and 
during the different seasons. In the end a variety of methods of 
collecting and of study must be followed. The eggs and the larval 
fishes and the adults are not all obtained at the same time or by the 
same forms of apparatus. Chance, indeed, plays an important part 
in the investigations. The eggs or the larvae may be obtained free 
in the water before the adult fishes are found in the condition of 
breeding. It is necessary to be able to identify the small forms 
Avhenever they are found, but familiarity with the adult fishes does 
not enable one to do this. The young are generally so dissimilar to 
the adults that eggs or larvae of a common fish may be discovered, 
studied, and figured without determining the species of its parentage. 
This explains why it is necessaiy to undertake systematic studies of 

86497°— 17 3 



30 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

all larval forms obtainable, and to follow, as opportunity offers, the 
life history of every available fish. When once a study has been 
carried out in a sufficient way, it will become possible to recognize 
any species of fish in any form in Avhich it is encountered, and then 
the data gathered from systematic collecting can be intelligentl}' col- 
lated and used as a basis for correct inferences regarding the migi'a- 
tions and life histories of important fishes. 

The Bureau has been attacking this general problem in a serious 
way, and will continue to do so with the assurance that after a term 
of years sufficient knowledge will have been gained to remove some 
of the most palpable obstacles to its more effective service for the 
conservation and propagation of valuable food-fishes. During the 
early part of the fiscal year one of the regular assistants and a tem- 
porary investigator were engaged in such an investigation of the 
larval development of fishes at the Beaufort laboratory. In order 
to extend the territory of observation the investigation was resumed 
at Woods Hole in June, 1915, but the opportunities for collecting 
were found to be inferior to those at Beaufort. The director of the 
Beaufort laboratory was enabled to make observations during the 
winter season which throw light upon the breeding habits of such 
important fishes as the "gi'ay trout" and the mullet. Additional 
material for study is obtained in connection with the oceanographic 
observations of the schooner Grampus and the steamer Fish Haiok. 

The same problem is being attacked from a different angle through 
a study of the markings of the scales of fishes, since recent scientific 
investigations have shown the possibility of ascertaining the age and 
of making certain inferences regarding life histories from the form 
and arrangement of the minute marldngs on the scales. 

Such studies have not been confined exclusively to the marine 
species. A series of studies of the fresh- water fishes of the Missis- 
sippi River was in progress in Lake Pepin, but it has suffered tem- 
porarj^ interruption through the transfer of the scientific assistant 
in charge to become director of the biological station at Fairport, 
Iowa. In connection with the same station, one of the permanent 
assistants has been detailed to Keokuk, Iowa, during a considerable 
portion of the year. The presence of the dam across the Mississippi 
at this point creates a favorable condition for certain sorts of studies 
of the movements and habits of fishes. It is the desire of the Bureau 
to continue systematic observations in this region, not only for the 
purpose of gaining additional knowledge of the habits of fishes, but 
also with the object of learning from actual experience what is the 
effect of water-power developments upon the general condition of 
fish life in the larger rivers. 

An important field of study relates to the food of fishes. It is 
evident that the abundance of fishes in any body of water must be 
limited by the amount of available food. All fishes do not take the 
same sorts of food, nor does any given species of fish subsist upon 
the same kind of food at all stages of its existence. Furthermore, 
since fish do not lay by stores of food in time of plenty, excess at a 
particular season will not tide the fish over too extended a period 
of scarcity. It may then be said that the abundance of any fish is 
limited by the minimum quantity of its food present at the time 
when it is required. The Bureau finds itself unable to undertake 



EEPOKT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 31 

extended series of investigations of the food of fishes, but, as an 
effort in the right direction, it has secured the temporary services 
of a competent investigator at Madison. Wis., for the study of the 
food of a selected species throughout the entire year. 

In this connection, reference should be made to the continuation 
of the practice of giving encouragement and financial aid to special- 
ists in the prosecution of sytematic studies of certain groups of 
aquatic animals and plants. Studies of this nature now in progress 
at the Beaufort laboratory relate to the protozoa and to the diatoms, 
verj^ low forms of animals and plants, respectively, but forms that 
play a very significant part in the economy of aquatic life, and whicii 
in various direct and indirect ways bear upon the fortunes of life 
of the larger animals. 

SURVEY OF FISHING GROUNDS, 

It was expected that the examination of the fishing banks off the 
coasts of Washington and Oregon, which was begun in the preceding 
fiscal year, would be reinstituted early in July, but the Albatross^ 
which had been used for the purpose, was unexpectedly detained in 
Alaska and could not commence the work until August 27, and the 
onset of stormy weather caused it to be discontinued on September 10. 
The interval between July 1 and the beginning of the Albatross 
operations was occupied in conducting the investigations by means 
of chartered boats operating from the shore. The results of the 
survey were very satisfactory, several new small halibut grounds 
being discovered and a previously little knoAvn bank off Newport, 
Oreg., being thoroughly examined. It was found that halibut were 
present in this region in paying quantities through at least part of 
the year, and, in consequence of the investigation, the attention of 
the fishermen was attracted to this fact, and a small but profitable 
fishery was inaugurated. The activities of the fishermen thereby 
induced in this region have resulted in the discovery of other grounds, 
particularly one lying off the mouth of the Columbia River in an 
area between the zones covered by the Albafross survey. It is not 
expected that the banks already discovered, and probably not those 
which may be found in the future, will in any way equal in extent 
and productiveness those in Alaska, but there appears to be no doubt 
that they can furnish a considerable supply of fish readily accessible 
to the primary markets. In June, 1915, about 40 per cent of the 
halibut landed at Seattle came from these grounds. The deficiency 
of funds made it impossible to undertake this survey when the 
weather was favorable in the spring of 1915, but at the close of 
the fiscal year the Albatross was under orders to proceed with the 
work as soon as possible after the first of July. 

During the preceding fiscal year the Bureau published an economic 
circular calling attention to the opportunities for a large blackfish 
fishery offshore from North and South Carolina. While the black- 
fish grounds are very productive they are very restricted in area. 
During the past fiscal j^ear the Bureau has detailed the steamer Fish 
Haivk to continue the survey with the object of determining the full 
extent of the grounds. The survey was in progress at the close of 
the fiscal year. Through the assistance of the Bureau of Lighthouses 



32 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

a permanent buoy was placed upon the principal grounds known and 
described as the Beaufort offshore fishing grounds, in the hope that 
such a mark would aid and stimulate the local fishermen who might 
be without the equipment or the experience to enable them to locate 
such a circumscribed area by methods of navigation. 

THE DISEASES OF FISHES. 

It is not generally realized to what extent fishes are subject to 
parasitism and to what degree their existence is contingent upon the 
less obvious factors of environment. Without presenting the con- 
spicuous features of an epidemic, certain of the ever-present parasites 
may so reduce the vitality of individual fishes as to cause them to fall 
an easier prey to voracious enemies. Deleterious chemicals may be 
introduced into the water, not only through evident sources of pollu- 
tion, but through very indirect, unintentional, and ordinarily unob- 
servable means. Furthermore, the effect of the introduction of 
chemicals or of commercial waste products, or of natural debris, 
Avhen it is without direct poisonous effect, may give rise to such 
chemical reactions in the water as to render the environment unsuit- 
able for the support of fish life. 

AVith the services of temporary investigators at its various labora- 
tories the Bureau has made special efforts to investigate the effects of 
various sorts of pollution, to study the forms and the life histories 
of the different kinds of parasites, and to determine the modes of 
transmission of infection. The general object has been to lay such 
a foundation of familiarity with the facts as to be able to determine 
the means of control. The Bureau receives a large number of re- 
ports and inquiries from the public relating to the occurrence of 
unusual conditions of mortality among the fishes both in private an.d 
in public waters. Such matters are of proper concern to the Govern- 
ment, and every possible effort has been made to render appropriate 
service. 

In the lack of any permanent assistant qualified in the study of 
such matters, and familiar with the practical conditions involved, 
the Bureau has been seriously hampered in its effort to do justice to 
the demands made upon it. This deficiency will not be felt in the 
future as in the past, since Congress has made provision for the em- 
ployment of a competent assistant to serve as fish pathologist. 

FRESH-WATER MUSSELS. 

The propagation of fresh-water mussels shows continued develop- 
ment. The number of larval mussels planted was 344,655,260, an in- 
crease of 50 per cent over the output of the preceding year. In con- 
nection with the mussel propagation, 32,650 adult and 15,083 finger- 
ling fishes were rescued from overflow ponds. As the result, partly 
of greater efficiency and partly of somewhat more favorable weather 
conditions, the unit cost was still further reduced, being 2.7 cents 
per thousand glochidia planted, as compared with 4.3 cents per thou- 
sand in 1914 and about 7 cents in 1913. Experiments are also being 
conducted to determine the feasibility of rearing certain valuable 
species of fresh-water mussels in crates or in ponds, and an encour- 
aging degree of success marks the progress of the experiments during 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 33 

this year. Thus, a few fishes were infected with glochidia of a spe- 
cies of miicket from Lake Pepin, and placed temporarily in a flontino; 
basket in the river at Fairport. Over 200 young mussels devel()])ed 
in this basket, where they were retained during the entire fis(;al 
year. Other mussels were reared in an open pond and some in small 
aquaria. In the two experiments in the river and in a pond a very 
rapid growth occurred, some individuals attaining a length of more 
than 1 inch in the course of about five and one-half months' growth. 

The Bureau is utilizing the excellent facilities at the Fairport 
station in the prosecution of several problems that are of direct im- 
portance to the mussel industries. Experiments have been conducted 
to determine the eft'ect upon the mussel beds of some of the common 
instruments of capture; the possibility of the utilization of mussel 
meats is under investigation; the study of the nature and cause of 
pearl formation has been continued; and especial attention is given 
to the important problem of the relation of the fresh-water mussels 
to the various species of fish that serve as hosts during the period 
of parasitism. 

An investigation of the mussel resources of the Ohio Eiver was 
begun before the close of the preceding fiscal year, and continued until 
the fall of 1914. The results of the field observations are now being- 
compiled to be uuide public as soon as possible. A brief examina- 
tion of the mussel beds of the Tensas River, La., made in November, 
1914, revealed the presence of considerable quantities of mussels of- 
medium quality, and a circular was promptly issued embodying a 
report of the observations. A similar examination was made of 
mussel beds in a portion of the Apalachicola River of Florida. The 
shells w^ere of excellent appearance, but will require to be carefully 
tested for commercial qualities ; the tests could not be executed before 
the end of the fiscal year. 

THE FISHERIES LABORATORIES. 

Fairport^ Iowa. — The biological station at Fairport, Iowa, M'as 
complete in its essential features and the main laboratory building 
was opened for permanent occupancy in June, just preceding the 
beginning of this fiscal year. At all stages in the construction and 
organization of this station the Bureau has had reason to feel grati- 
fied at the sympathetic public interest which has been manifested 
in its intended service. The establishment of the station was author- 
ized by Congress in 1908, and its construction was begun in the fol- 
low^ing autumn. Within a few months a temporary equipment was 
ready, and the experiments in mussel propagation began in June, 
1910. The propagation of mussels on a practical scale was entered 
upon in 191-2. During the folloAving year the laboratory building 
was completed. At the time of the actual opening of the building 
in June, 1914, there were urgent local requests for a formal celebra- 
tion of the opening with exercises of dedication, and such an occa- 
sion was authorized to be held on August 4, 1914. The attendance of 
some 5,000 persons coming from various distances, the sympathetic 
addresses by men of prominence in public life and by scientific men 
of established repute, and the presentation of a memorial tablet, 
were regarded as exceptional manifestations of public interest, and 



34 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

as a gratifying indorsement of the purposes of the Bureau as ex- 
pressed by this new endeavor. 

This station will not only render valuable service in the propaga- 
tion of fresh-water mussels and the conduct of investigations relating 
to these resources, but it will be the means of keeping the Bureau in 
closer touch with the fishery problems of the Mississippi Basin, for 
which it may serve as a center. The possibilities and the duty of 
linking fish-cultural experiment work with mussel propagation has 
already been discussed, and the Bureau thus finds itself with some 
equipment which had not otherwise been provided for a phase of 
service to fish culture and fisheries that is of the broadest general sig- 
nificance. 

The various activities of the Fairport station are discussed under 
the several headings of " Fresh-water mussels," " Home fish pond." 
" Life histories of fishes," and '' Parasites of fishes." 

Woods Hole, Mass. — The fisheries laboratory at Woods Hole has 
been open as usual during the summer season. Its relatively extensive 
equipment makes it an especially favorable place for the prosecu- 
tion of the more technical investigations, while its intermediate loca- 
tion between the great oyster grounds of Long Islarid Sound and the 
fishery ports of the eastern coast makes it a convenient center for 
investigations in the interest of the fisheries of that territory. Some 
of the studies pursued at the Woods Hole laboratory during this year 
were concerned with the oyster, with the life history and food of 
fishes, and with the parasites of fishes, subjects that are referred to 
elsewhere in this report. Other inquiries relate to the utilization of 
waste fishes and of other aquatic forms that do not now enter into 
commerce, with the oxygen requirements and the metabolism of fishes, 
and with the effect of various mineral salts which are introduced into 
the waters either through direct and indirect means of pollution. 

The Woods Hole laboratory is the oldest station of the Bureau. Its 
history and its public service are closely linked with that of the 
Bureau and the earlier Fish Commission for which it once served 
as temporary headquarters. After more than 30 years of usefulness 
the laboratory building and equipment are not in a commendable 
state of repair. It is desirable that suitable provision be made for its 
renovation. 

Beaufort, N. ('. — The buildings and grounds of the Beaufort labor- 
atory have been improved during the fiscal .year, the additional work 
being rendered possible by special appropriation. The formerly 
uneven and sandy surface of the island has been graded to an ap- 
proximate level and given a thin covering of rich soil. Several kinds 
of grass have been planted with a view to protection from the annoy- 
ance and possible losses due to wind driven sand. A slight extension 
of the area of the island occurred through the dumping of materials 
obtained from the dredging operations carried on in Beaufort Har- 
bor under the War Department. 

Space for storage of coal was provided in connection with the 
pump house, so that the coal shed could be converted into a boat 
house and thus provide much needed facilities for the repair and 
repainting of the station boats. Additional concrete inclosures were 
provided for experimental work. A large salt-water pump was pur- 
chased, making it possible to maintain an adequate supply of sea 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP FISHERIES. 35 

water, while reducing the hours of pumping to a fraction of the time 
formerly required. 

A good deal of work was done on the laboratory building. A new 
roof of slate was applied, the wood piles supporting the building 
were replaced by brick piers; the salt-water plumbing was renewed; 
48 defective window frames were replaced by new frames ; two addi- 
tional rooms were formed by partitions which cut off- portions of the 
large museum space on the first floor; the walls and interior wood 
work were renovated with calcium and varnish; and the appearance 
of the building was much improved by the addition of upper porches 
on the front similar to the porches originally provided on the rear 
of the building. 

The several activities of this laboratory have previously been de- 
tailed in connection with the studies of the terrapin, the habits and 
life histories of fishes, the survey of fishing gi^ounds, and the study of 
parasites of fishes. Another important investigation which has been 
in progress during the past two 3'ears has to do with the protection of 
wood against marine borers. 

The serviceability of this station would be greatly enhanced were 
it provided with an adequate scientific staff so that investigations of 
important economic bearing might be continued throughout the year. 
Under present conditions, when the station must depend for its staff' 
largely upon the temporary employment of scientists from the uni- 
versities, the period of activity must be confined largely to the 
summer months. 

Gulf of Mexico. — A previous Congress provided for the construc- 
tion of a marine biological laboratory on the Gulf of Mexico, to be 
located upon the coast of Florida and on lands to be donated to the 
Government. A site has been selected at Key AVest and the present 
owners are putting the grounds into a shape suitable for acceptance 
by the Department. It is supposed that the transfer of title will be 
effected in the early part of the next fiscal year. An additional 
appropriation is needed before the station can be constructed. 

OTHER INVESTIGATIONS. 

Cultivation of the diamond-hach terrapin. — Previous reports have 
referred to the successful progress of the experiments in terrapin 
propagation. The main fact having been previously demonstrated, 
that the terrapin can be successfully reared in confinement, the 
experiments have been continued to gain additional knowledge and 
thus assure the greater measure of success in propagation. It is 
interesting to record that the terrapin of the brood of 1909 have now 
completed the life cj^cle, so that eggs were obtained this past spring 
from terrapin which were hatched from eggs laid in the experimental 
pounds in 1909. The breeding terrapin were thus 6 years of age. 
Since 1909, however, the practice of winter feeding for the young 
terrapin has been initiated, so that the rate of growth during the first 
year has been practically doubled. During the past winter a change 
of food was adopted with the result of still further accelerating 
growth. The longer the investigation has been continued the more 
encouraging have been the results. Further experiments are now in 
progress to determine the proper proportions of the sexes in breed- 
ing, the best conditions for hatching, the possibilities of cross and 



36 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

selective breeding, and the prevention of mortality. Since the .yearly 
hatch in the experimental pounds is now much larger than is required 
foi" the continuation of the work, the Bureau liberated in the marshes 
of Beaufort Harbor in September, 1914, 876 yearling terrapin. 

Study of frogs. — The correspondence of the Bureau reveals a very 
widespread interest in the subject of frog culture. Many ventures 
in the rearing of frogs for commercial profit have been made, but it 
does not appear that the results generally obtained have represented 
a distinct improvement over the natural conditions. Since the edible 
frogs are prolific breeders by nature and since the young will develop 
under a variety of conditions in pools and marshes, it appears evident 
that the problem of frog culture is not one of manipulation of the 
eggs, but rather one of providing such an abundance of food that 
a large proportion of the young may come to maturity and a desirable 
rate of growth be secured. During this fiscal year the Bureau has 
secured the services of a skilled investigator who will conduct a care- 
ful inquiry into the feeding habits, rate of growth, and conditions of 
existence of the commercial species of frogs. 

Investigation of the salmon. — The study of the life history of the 
salmon of the Sacramento and Columbia rivers has been continued 
throughout the fiscal year. Just before the close of the year arrange- 
ments were made for further investigations of the breeding habits 
of the salmons in the hope of gaining knoAvledge of practical utility 
in the conservation and propagation of these fishes. 

Investigation of the tuna. — Within the past few years there has 
developed a very important industry in the canning of tuna on the 
Pacific coast. The product has already won a place of high esteem 
and a new fishery resource is thus discovered. Unfortunately for 
the highest development of the industry, the tuna can not be counted 
upon to appear in abundance with any regularity, and the conditions 
which induce the appearance or disappearance of the fishes are not 
understood. It ha sbeen the desire of the Bureau to investigate the 
habits of this fish in a thorough way and to follow their movements 
upon the open sea. Through the services of a temporary assistant 
a preliminary inquiry was conducted, and a number of fish were 
marked in the hope that some of them may be recovered at a later 
time and light thrown upon their migrations and rate of growth. 
An adequate investigation could be conducted only with the use of 
a seaworthy vessel, such as the Albatross. The limited funds avail- 
able for the operation of this vessel and the fact of other and prior 
demands for its services made it impracticable to make a suitable 
disposition for continuance of the inquiry. 

OCEANOGRAPHIC STUDIES. 

The important oceanographic work carried on by the Bureau 
partly upon its own resources and partly in cooperation with the 
Coast Guard Service, was detailed in the last annual report. During 
the present fiscal year an assistant from the Bureau has been regu- 
larly detailed for oceanographical observations upon the revenue 
cutter Seneca engaged in ice patrol and observation on the trans- 
Atlantic steamship lanes. From May 4 to the close of the fiscal 
year the schooner Grampus has been regularly employed in oceano- 
graphic observations off the coast of New England. The observa- 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 37 

tions are of value in determining the conditions of temperature, 
densities, ocean currents, and other physical factors that affect the 
distribution, migration, and successful propagation of fishes; par- 
ticular attention has also been given to the collection of material 
which Avould contribute to a knowledge of the life histories and 
habits of important food fishes. 

IXVESTIGATIOX OF LAKES. 

The Bureau has continued to cooperate with the State Geological 
and Natural History Survey of Wisconsin in an investigation of the 
fundamental biological and physical conditions of life in inclosed 
waters. The examination of Lake Champlain, which was com- 
menced in the preceding year, was brought nearly to completion, and 
a report is expected to be ready in the course of the next fiscal j^ear. 

SERVICE IX PROMOTION OF FISHERY LEGISLATIOX. 

While the Bureau is charged Avith the duties of propagating fishes 
and of conducting investigations in relation to the fishes and the 
fishery industries, it has a natural obligation and desire to give en- 
couragement and advice in the matter of legislation whenever its aid 
is solicited. Within the year a number of occasions have arisen in 
which the Bureau could cooperate with State authorities in the con- 
sideration of measures of protection or conservation. The Bureau 
has been represented in such conferences with the authorities of the 
States of Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina, and has also partici- 
pated in a joint conference of the State officials of Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, and Illinois with respect to mussel legislation. In many 
directions our fishery resources are being wasted through the inade- 
quacy of the efforts for protection or conservation, and every judi- 
cious step toward the desired ends is deserving of the most cordial 
indorsement. 

THE COMMERCIAL FISHERIES. 

With the small field force available, the Bureau has made canvasses 
of certain branches of the fishing industry, and through local agents 
has continued and extended the collection of data for important off- 
shore vessel fisheries of both the Atlantic and the Pacific coasts. 

THE LOBSTER FISHERY. 

A canvass of the lobster fishery of the entire Atlantic coast was 
completed during the year, and a one-sheet bulletin giving the results 
of the canvass was issued and widely distributed. The lobster fishery 
has been attracting much attention because of its critical condition in 
some States, and in the next few years will undoubtedly receive un- 
usual consideration at the hands of persons having concern for the 
welfare of this valuable industry. 

Lobsters are caught along the entire coast, from the most eastern 
point in Maine to the Breakwater at Lewes, Del. The number of 
persons engaged in the fisherv in 101,3 was 4,r)08, and the total invest- 
ment was $2,160,898. The "catch amounted to 8,832,017 lobsters, 
weighing 12.067.017 pounds and valued at $2,394,822. The details 
of the fisherv in each State are shown in the following table: 



38 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 













REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



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42 



REPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



For years the lobster fishery as a whole has presented the anomaly 
of a yearly declining output and a yearly increasing income to the 
fishermen. Going back 24 years, to 1889, when the Bureau gathered 
complete statistics of the fishery, it appears that the catch in 1913 
showed a decrease of 18,504,556 pounds, or 60 per cent, while the re- 
ceipts of the fishermen increased $1,533,525, or 178 per cent. What 
this has meant to the consumer is readily appreciated by everyone 
Avho has had occasion to buy lobsters either regularly or occasionally. 
The variations in the average price per pound receiAed by the fish- 
ermen for a series of years beginning with 1880 are shoAvn in the 
following table, which explains in part Avhy fishermen as a class have 
been much less solicitous regarding the welfare of the lobster than 
have other persons. For instance, the lobster fishermen of Maine in 
1913 received eleven times as much per pound for their catch as they 
did in 1880 and nearly two and one-half times as much as in 1900. 

Average Peice of Lobsters per Pound for Maine, Massachusetts, and the 
Entire Atlantic Coast in Various Years from 1B80 to 1913. 



Year. 


Maine. 


Massa- 
chusetts. 


Atlantic 
coast. 


1880 


SO. 018 
.022 
.023 
.022 
.031 
.066 


80. 036 
.044 
.046 
.044 
.064 
.075 


SO 024 


1887 


.027 


1888 


029 


1889 


.027 


1892 


.044 


18970 


068 


1897 


.083 


1898 


.088 
.086 
.087 


.087 
.095 
.103 


087 


1900 .... 


.088 


1902 


.089 


1904 


. 122 


1905 


.109 
.127 
.198 


.137 
.125 
.189 


.113 


1908 


.126 


1913 


.191 







o Fiscal year. 

Such comparative statistics as are available, representing canvas.ses 
made by this Bureau through its field agents, show^ the tremendous 
loss which the State of Maine in particular has sustained through 
failure to place the permanent welfare of all the people of the State 
above the temporary gain of the fishermen. From the maximum yield 
obtained in the years 1887, 1888, and 1889, there was a meteoric fall 
to less than 30 per cent of the average for those three yeai's, while in 
the last 11 years the decline was nearly 40 per cent. The decrease of 
the lobster in Massachusetts has been nearly as great as in Maine, 
but the effect on the general supply has been much less important. Of 
the two remaining major lobster-producing States, Connecticut ap- 
pears to have been experiencing a healthy improvement during the 
past 10 years, although 1913, the best year in that period, produced 
less than 40 per cent of the yield of 20 years before, w^hile Rhode 
Island has in recent years had a lobster catch that has been 40 to 50 
per cent larger than in any of the earlier years. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



43 



Comparative Statistics of the Lobster Product of the Atlantic Coast 
States for Various Years from 1880 to 1913.® 





Maine. 


New Hampshire. 


Massachusetts. 


Rhode Island. 




Pounds. 


Value. 


Poimds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1880 


14,234,182 
22, 916, 642 
21,694,731 
25,001,351 

(b) 

(b) 
17, 642, 677 
10,300,880 

(b) 
11,183,294 
12,346,4.50 
12,163,389 

(b) 
9,018,759 
9,929,000 
7,670,667 


$268, 739 
512, 044 
515, 880 
574, 165 
(b) 
(6) 

663,043 
683,082 
(b) 

992,855 
1,062,206 
1,066,407 
(b) 

989, 799 
1,269,000 
1,525,776 


250,000 
142,824 
136,350 
137, 175 

(^) 
(b) 
196, 350 
90,300 

■(") 
108,515 
205, 122 
128, 463 

(b) 
256,052 
264,000 
301, 710 


$7, 500 
6,268 
6,256 
6,415 
(b) 
(b) 

11,700 
6,493 
(b) 
9, 372 
19, 078 
14,863 
(b) 

32,. 575 
43, 000 
108,560 


4,315,416 
3,511,075 
3, 743, 475 
3, 353, 787 

(b) 

(b) 
3.182,270 
2,089,502 

(b) 
1,693,741 
1,805,042 
1,695,688 

(b) 
1,283,071 
2,455,000 
1,524,389 


$158,229 
1.56,204 
172, 936 
148, 492 

(b) 

(b) 
205,638 
157,330 

(b) 
147,702 
171,825 
175,095 

(b) 
176,234 
307, 000 
290, 423 


423,250 
570, 039 
588,500 
456,000 

C) 

(b) 
774, 100 

(b) 

578, 066 
660,017 
397,305 
(b) 

529,827 
1,425,000 
1,283,056 


$15, 871 


1887 


27, 128 


1888 


28,047 


1889 


21, 565 


1890 


(b) 


1891 


\b) 


1892 . .. 


63, 762 


1897c 


(b) 


1897 


(*) 


1898 . .. 


43,290 


1900 

1902 


58,026 
39,488 


1904 


(b) 


1905 


64,358 


1908 


152,000 


1913 


197,960 









Connecticut. 


New York. 


New Jersey. 


Delaware. 


Years. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1880 


613,385 

1,487,020 
1,477,226 
1,501,290 

(.b) 

(b) 
1,614,530 

(b) 
1,098,192 
650, 460 
371,650 

(b) 

436, 790 
661,000 
724, 435 


$23,002 
82,694 
86, 723 
83,099 
(b) 
(b) 

101,358 
(b) 
(b) 

83, 748 
51, 484 
40, 719 
(b) 

56,141 
84,000 

131, 767 


135,000 
114,000 
248, 000 
124,023 
150,400 
166, 093 

(b) 
130, 610 
381,020 
332, 378 
156,260 

(b) 
229,697 

(b) 
423,000 
435,811 


$5,062 

6,850 
13,900 
12, 780 
14,754 
15, 655 

(b) 

10,913 
31,458 
30,235 
21,224 

(b) 
27,059 

(b) 

57,000 
81, 7S3 


156,800 
101,. 580 
181,688 
188,347 
185,321 
165, 664 
143, 906 

79, 230 

99,230 
123, 876 

40,800 

(b) 
141,340 

(b) 

115,000 
301,349 


$5,488 
7,719 
12,966 
14,301 
13, 683 
12,463 
10,801 
6,197 
8,573 
11,097 
6,400 
(b) 

18,269 
(b) 

16,000 
54, 155 


150 

39,000 

39,000 

9,600 

7,200 

8,200 

5,600 

(b) 

5,095 

(*) 

3,600 
(b) 

2,600 

5,500 
25,600 


86 


1887 


910 


1888 


910 


1889 


480 


1890 


360 


1891 


410 


1892 


285 


1897^ . . .. 


(b) 


1897 


459 


1898 


(b) 


1900 


336 


1902 


(b) 


1904 


286 


1905 


C) 


1908 


800 


1913 


4,398 







« The statistics for 1908 in the above table are from data published by the Bmeau of the Census, 
b Statistics not available, 
c Fiscal year. 

Further evidence of the trend of the lobster fishery is afforded by 
a consideration of the amount of apparatus required now and form- 
erly to produce a given catch. In all the States more pots are set 
now than in the earlier years, and the average yield per pot is much 
less. Going back only as far as 1892, it is seen that the Maine lobster- 
men then took an average of 115 pounds of lobsters in their 153,000 
pots, while in 1913 they obtained only an average of 46 pounds of 
lobsters in their 167,900 pots. Similar striking comparisons are 
possible for other States, while, in pleasing contrast, a large increase 
in the number of traps used by the Rhode Island fishermen has been 
accompanied by an increased average yield per trap in the preceding 
10 3'ears, although one-half the average of 1892 has not been attained. 



NEW ENGLAND VESSEL FISHERIES. 



The great offshore vessel fisheries centering at the Massachusetts 
ports of Boston and Gloucester have been covered by the usual 



44 KEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

inquiries of the local agents, and the data collected have been pub- 
lished in monthly and annual bulletins showing by species and' fish- 
ing grounds the quantities and values of the products landed. This 
series of bulletins affords an invaluable basis for determining the 
condition and trend of the New England high-sea fisheries. 

In 1914 the fleet landing fish at these two ports numbered 393 
sail, steam, and gasoline-screw vessels. The number of trips landed 
at Boston Avas 3,389, aggregating 92,344,192 pounds of fish, valued 
at $2,613,987, and at Gloucester 4,209 trips, aggregating 70,245,028 
pounds, valued at $1,781,043; a total for both ports of 7,598 trips 
and 162,589,220 pounds of fish, valued at $4,395,030. Compared with 
1913, there was a decrease of 1,231 trips, an increase of 372,434 
pounds, and a decrease of $587,987. There was an increase in the 
yield of cod and haddock, with a decrease in value, and a decrease 
in both the quantity and value of both hake and pollock. The catch 
of cusk was not quite so large as in the previous year, but there was 
a slight increase in the value. The halibut product fell off 1,908,569 
pounds in quantity and $183,454 in value. The mackerel catch in- 
creased 1,012,848 pounds in quantity and $7,657 in value. Both 
herring and sworclfish showed a decrease. The Newfoundland her- 
ring fishery fell off 2,393,979 pounds in quantity and $4,101 in value ; 
the frozen-herring catch was nearly double that of the year previous, 
but there was a large decrease in salted herring. 

The following tables show in detail (1) by fishing grounds and (2) 
by months the yield of the vessel fisheries out of Boston and Glouces- 
ter during the calendar year 1914. The weights of fresh and salted 
fish given in the tables represent the fish as landed from the vessels, 
and the values are those received by the fishermen. The grades or 
sizes given for certain species are those recognized in the trade. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



45 






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48 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



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REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



49 











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53 



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REPOBT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



55 



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KEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



59 



Nearly three- fourths of the fish landed by American fishing ves- 
sels at Boston and Gloucester, Mass., in 1914, or 72.81 per cent of the 
quantity and 68.92 per cent of the value, were from fishing grounds 
lying directly off the coast of the United States ; 9.03 per cent of the 
quantity and 9.94 per cent of the value from fishing banks off the 
coast of Newfoundland ; 17.70 per cent of the quantity and 20.37 
Ijer cent of the value from gi'ounds off the Canadian Provinces ; and 
less than 1 per cent of both quantity and value from the coast of 
Labrador. Newfoundland herring constituted 5.57 per cent of the 
quantity and 4.68 per cent of the value of the products landed by the 
fishing fleet at these ports during the year. The herring were taken 
on the treaty coast of Newfoundland, but cod and other species from 
that region were obtained chiefly from fishing banks on the high seas. 
All the fish caught by American fishing vessels off the Canadian 
Provinces were from offshore fishing grounds. The catch from each 
of these fishing regions is given in detail in the following table : 

Qltantity and Value of Fish Landed by American Fishing Vessels at Bos- 
ton and Gloucester, Mass., in 1914, from Grounds off the Coast of the 
United States, Newfoundland, and Canadian Provinces. 



Species. 


United States. 


Newfoundland." 


Canadian Provinces. 


Total. 


Cod: 

Fresh 

Salted.... 
Haddock: 

Fresh.... 

Salted.... 
Hake: 

Fresh.... 

Salted.... 
PoUock: 

Fresh 


Pownds. 

28,393,489 
1,904,018 

52,031,478 
76,534 

8,420,818 
17,378 

12,016,993 
152,383 

3,252,118 
31,325 

641,699 
1,330 

3,531,471 
1,755,255 

1,474,700 
3,200 

868,264 

3,811,568 


Value. 

$745, 180 
81,066 

1,239,554 
1,523 

175,726 
340 

192,336 
3,022 

56,-534 
902 

70,703 

127 

160,561 
104, 152 

16,643 
80 

109,300 

71,307 


Pounds. 

61,230 
5,127,241 

565 
14,530 

159,825 
69,440 


Value. 
$1,327 
187, 631 

9 
291 

2,140 
1,337 


Pounds. 

7,625,154 

4,418,493 

5,566,563 
64, 458 

3,950,295 
135,215 

226, 553 
49, 569 

2,490,135 
76,710 

1,738,512 

83,824 

448,924 
953,200 


Value. 

$171,401 
172,811 

138,506 
1,273 

60,419 
2,541 

3,186 
1,009 

42,932 
2,217 

126,901 
7,133 

35,740 
54,272 


Pounds. 

36, 079, 873 
11,449,752 

57,598,606 
155,522 

12,530,938 
222,033 

12,243,546 
211,177 

5,747,053 
111,937 

3,063,000 
316,585 

3,980,395 
2, 708, 455 

4,910,083 
5,838,764 

1,499,844 

3,921,657 


Value. 
$917,908 
441,508 

1,378,069 
3,087 

238,285 
4,218 

195,522 


Salted.... 
Cusk: 

Fresh.... 

Salted.... 
HaUbut: 

Fresh .... 

Salted.... 
Mackerel: 

Fresh 


9,225 

4,800 
3,902 

682,789 
231,431 


183 

81 
113 

48,673 
22,813 


4,214 

99,547 
3,232 

246,277 
30,073 

196,301 


Salted.. 






158,424 


Herring: 
Fresh 


3,435,383 
5,624,764 


101,942 
103,805 


118,585 


Salted.... 
Swordfish: 
Fresh . 


210,800 
631,580 
110,089 


4,743 
68,369 
2,176 


108,628 
177,669 


Miscellaneous 
Fresh .. 






73,483 










Total.... 


118,384,021 


3,029,056 


15,425,125 


470,345 


28,780,074 


895,629 


162,589,220 


4,395,030 



a Includes 741,197 pounds of salted cod, valued at $33,470, from the Labrador coast. 



THE GROUND-FISH FISHERIES. 

Cod. — In 1914 there were landed at Boston and Gloucester 47,- 
529,625 pounds of cod, of which 36,079,873 pounds were fresh and 
11,449,752 pounds salted, valued at $1,329,416 ; an increase of 6.902,642 
pounds of fresh over the amount landed in 1913, but a decrease of 
4,237.830 pounds in the quantity of the salted product, and a decrease 
of $245,459 in the total value. 

Vessels using hand lines baited with cockles, fishing on Nantucket 
Shoals and South Channel, in 1914 had the best year for cod, it is 



60 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

reported in the history of the fishery. In May and June, 1915. the 
drift hand-line fisherman landed good fares from the same grounds. 
but as in 1914 there was a scarcity of fish on Georges Bank, and only 
a few fish were taken there by vessels fitted with trawl lines and hand 
lines. 

Haddock. — The haddock fishery in 1914 was carried on with suc- 
cess, the product being 57,754,128 pounds, valued at $1,381,156, 
against 53,672,665 pounds, valued at $1,488,356, in 1913, an increase of 
over 4,000,000 pounds, but a decrease of $107,200. The principal 
banks resorted to were Browns, Georges, South Channel, and the 
grounds off Chatham, although considerable fishing was done on 
Middle Bank and other shore grounds. The amount of haddock 
caught on Georges Bank and in South Channel was over 8,000,000 
pounds less than in 1913, but the catch on Browns was nearly 3,200,000 
pounds greater, and there was an increase of 10,800,000 pounds from 
the shore grounds off Chatham. Vessels visiting the Chatham 
grounds in summer fish night and day, weather permitting, and the 
pleasant weather prevailing the greater part of this period in 1914 
no doubt accounted for the remarkable increase in the catch. 

Pollock. — The pollock fishery, owing to the introduction of purse 
seines, has in recent years been conducted on a much larger scale than 
formerly. Although a considerable quantity of pollock is caught by 
trawlers and hand-line fishermen on the offshore banks, a large por- 
tion of the fresh product landed is caught in purse seines operated 
from small steamers and gasoline boats on the inshore grounds. In 
1914 the quantity of pollock landed at Boston and Gloucester was 
12,454,723 pounds, valued at $199,736. Compared with 1913 the 
catch fell short 2,812,678 pounds in quantity and $61,821 in value. 
The pollock-seining fleet in May and June, 1915, brought in many 
large fares. These vessels catch also other fish in their season, among 
which are alewives or bluebacks, which are used chiefly for bait in 
the line-trawl market fishery. In 1914 the blueback catch amounted 
to 1,652,350 pounds, 8,250 pounds less than in 1913 and over 600,000 
pounds less than in 1912. 

Halibut. — There was a decrease in the catch of halibut on the At- 
lantic coast in 1914 of nearly 2,000,000 pounds as compared with the 
previous year. In the spring of 1915 several large fares of halibut 
were taken on various banks, which led to an increase in the fleet, and 
in April there were 33 vessels engaged in this fishery. The fletched 
halibut-fleet fishing in northern regions, namely, Greenland and 
Davis Strait, has greatly decreased in the last few years, only two 
vessels having sailed for those grounds last season. 

During a part of the year the Coast Guard steamer Androscoggin^ 
recently converted into a hospital ship, has rendered excellent service 
in caring for the sick fishermen on the fishing banks. Medical aid has 
been given to Canadian as well as to American fishermen. 

THE OTTER-TRAWL FISHERY. 

The investigation of the otter-trawl fishery, which had been in 
progress since June, 1912, was brought to a close by the submittal of 
•a final report thereon in January, 1915. This report, the work of a 
special committee of Bureau officials, was forwarded to Congress on 
January 22, referred to the House Committee on the Merchant Marine 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 61 

and Fisheries on January 25, and ordered to be printed (H. Doc. no. 
1510, G3d Cone:., 3d sess.). The committee examined a very large 
amount of material for American and European fisheries, and 
reached unanimous conchisions which Avere accepted as the official 
A^ews of the Bureau. The findings of the committee with reference 
to the major questions to which the fishery has given rise in Ameri- 
can waters are as follows : 

1. There is, no evidence that the banks resorted to b}^ American 
otter trawlers are being depleted of their fishes. 

2. Otter trawling does not destroy the spawn of the important 
commercial fishes, all of Avhich have floating eggs. 

3. Otter trawling does not injuriously affect the bottom and does 
not denude it of organisms which directly or indirectly serve as food 
for the commercial fishes. 

4. From the very nature of the two fisheries, otter trawling and 
line fishing can not be extensively prosecuted on the same grounds 
without accidental damage to lines and interference with line fishing, 
but in the period covered by the investigation only slight interference 
or damage occurred. 

5. Otter trawls as compared with lines take a much larger per- 
centage of commercial fishes too small to market, and such fishes are 
practically all destroyed. 

6. Otter-trawl vessels as compared with trawl-line vessels market 
a much larger proportion of small fish. 

The findings of the committee as to the effects of otter trawling 
are necessarily inconclusive because of the short time that has elapsed 
since the establishment of the fishery and because of the small num- 
ber of vessels engaged. The vital consideration being the safeguard- 
ing of the food-fish supply of coming generations rather than the 
immediate and demonstrable effects on that supply of particular 
kinds of apparatus or methods, the committee believe that the otter- 
trawl fishery should be kept under careful observation and should be 
so regulated as to obviate in American waters the conditions that have 
arisen in the North Sea from an excessive use of otter trawls. 

The measure which is regarded as the most just, reasonable, and 
feasible to prevent an undue development of the New England otter- 
trawl fishery is to restrict it to the regions to which it has up to 
this time practically been confined and on which its effects will be 
most immediately and most unmistakably manifested, namely, George 
Bank, South Channel, and part of Nantucket Shoals. This course 
will retain to the otter trawlers sufficiently extensive grounds, it will 
not exclude line fishermen therefrom, and will reserve to the latter's 
exclusive use the grounds from which they take over two-thirds of 
their trips. 

This fishery was conducted on the same grounds as in 1913, namely, 
Georges, South Channel, and Western Bank, and nine vessels were 
regularly engaged. The fishery was carried on chiefl}'^ from Boston 
as heretofore, although during a portion of the year two vessels be- 
longing to New York operated out of that port, and several vessels 
have begim to discharge their fares regularly at Portland. 

The amount of fish landed at Boston by otter trawlers in 1914 
was 16,921,295 pounds, an increase of 1,747.985 pounds over the 
previous year. The total number of trips brought in was 376, an 

86497°— 17 5 



62 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

increase of 50, of which there were landed from Georges 64 trips, 
from South Channel 272, and from Western Bank 40. This fleet 
also marketed at Portland 5,830,603 pounds of fish, a large portion 
of which was taken on Western Bank during the spring months. 

■The principal species taken by otter trawlers is haddock, although 
cod, cusk, and hake are sometimes caught in considerable quan- 
tities, especially cod. In 1914 the amount of haddock landed at 
Boston by otter trawlers was 14,832,950 pounds, exceeding that of 
the preceding year by 2,254,518 pounds. Of the total catch of this 
species in 1913 the quantity of scrod amounted to 2.144,062 pounds, 
and in 1914 to 4,176,950 pounds. 

On June 16, 1915, the otter trawler Long Islwrul landed at Port- 
land 280,000 pounds of fish, and on July 1 the same A^essel brought 
in a fare of 300,000 pounds. These are the largest fares ever taken 
by an American otter trawler. 

THE MACKEREL FISHERY. 

The catch of fresh and salted mackerel in 1914 exceeded that of 
the previous year by 27,139 barrels, made up of 19,427 barrels fresh 
and 7,712 salted. The yield on the Cape Shore and in the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence was 4,961 barrels, an increase of 3,017 barrels over 
1913. The southern mackerel fishery in the spring of 1915 showed 
an improvement over 1914, the highest stock made by a single vessel 
up to the end of May was $8,885, Avhich is said to be the largest made 
in the southern fishery since 1907, The southern fleet consisted of 
42 vessels, 25 seiners and 17 netters, sailing from Boston, Gloucester, 
and Rockport, Mass. The first trip of mackerel was captured about 
100 miles east by south from Cape Henlopen and landed at Lewes, 
Del., on April 9, and the first mackerel landed at Boston and Glou- 
cester from the Cape Shore was on June 7, immediately followed by 
the arrival of 10 other vessels from that region. They reported many 
schools of fish off the coast of Nova Scotia, between Liverpool and 
Halifax. By the end of the month several of the Cape Shore fleet 
had landed two trips from that ground, and one vessel reported to be 
on her third trip. It isi seldom that a second trip of mackerel is 
secured on the Cape Shore in the early part of the season. At this 
time there was also a considerable body of mackerel off Block 
Island and in the vicinity of Nantucket Shoals, frequent fares being 
landed at Newport and Boston from those grounds. As was the 
case in the early part of the mackerel season of 1914, a large quantity 
of small fish was taken along the coast from Cape Cod to the Gulf 
of Maine. 

THE SWORDFISII FISHERY. 

Sword fish were less plentiful in 1914 than for several years. The 
quantity landed at Boston and Gloucester by American fishing vessels 
was 1,499,844 pounds fresh, valued at $177,669, being 881,076 pounds 
and $18,208 less than in 1913. In the last few years a considerable 
fleet of Canadian vessels has been engaged in catching swordfish 
out of Nova Scotia ports, and much of this catch is shipped to the 
United States. The foreign receipts of swordfish at Boston in 1914 
amounted to 4,555 fish, or 144 fish less than were received in 1913. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 63 

The first swordfish landed at Boston in 1915 was on June 21 by two 
vessels, one having 26 and the other 33 fish, for which the fishermen 
received 15 and 20 cents a pound. From June 23 to the end of the 
month 344 fish were brought in, the catch of seven vessels. The first 
swordfish landed last season was on June 15. 

THE NEAV ENGLAND W^INTER GILL-NET FISHERY. 

Thirty-eight vessels were employed in the winter gill-net fishery 
at Gloucester, and there was also a small fleet that fished out of 
Portland, Me. In the early part of the season the catch was mainly 
cod and pollock, chiefly the latter species, and few haddock were 
taken until the latter part of March. Owing to the general scarcity 
of fish on the inshore grounds only a few vessels were successful, 
and early in May many vessels of the fleet had transferred to the 
mackerel fisherA\ 

NEWFOUNDLAND SEAL AND HERRING FISHERIES. 

During March and April the schooner John R. Bradley of Glouces- 
ter was engaged in taking seals off the coast of Newfoundland, 
which is believed to be the first American vessel to take part in this 
fishery. Her catch amounted to only 235 skins. The Newfoundland 
fleet, consisting of about 20 steamers and a few sailing vessels, also 
met with poor success. 

The Newfoundland herring landed at Boston, Gloucester, and 
other New England ports during the season of 1914-15 amounted 
to approximately 2,570,352 pounds fresh frozen, and 49,166 barrels, 
or 11,071,584 pounds, salted. The fleet bringing in these fish in- 
cluded about 27 American and 15 Canadian vessels. 

FRESH-WATER MUSSEL FISHERY. 

In the course of the general canvass of the fresh-water mussel 
fishery which has been in progress for several years, the streams 
covered in 1914 were those tributary to the Great Lakes and the Ohio 
and Mississippi Eivers north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi, 
except tributaries of the Ohio River in Ohio, w^hich were included 
in the work of the previous year. The data collected were for the 
calendar year 1913, and the details of the industry are shown by 
streams in the accompanying table. The number of persons en- 
gaged in taking mussels in the streams under consideration and in 
preparing them for market was 3,592, and the investment in boats, 
fishing apparatus, and shore and accessory property amounted to 
$166,855. The output included 23,317 tons of shells, valued at 
$382,210, and pearls worth $164,261 found in the mussels, a total of 
$546,471. The shells are used in the manufacture of pearl buttons. 
The principal fishing apparatus employed in this fishery is the crow- 
foot bar. The most important stream in the region canA'assed is 
Rock River, the output of which in shells and pearls was worth 
$150,696. The Illinois River ranks next in importance, with a yield 
of shells and pearls valued at $128,692. These two rivers furnished 
over 51 per cent of the total product. 



64 



KEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 





s ; 
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REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



65 





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66 



REPOET OF THE COMMISSIOlSrER OF FISHERIES. 



St. Croix 
River and 
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and Wis. 






























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and minor 

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River, Wis. 

and 111. 


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River and 
tributaries, 

Ohio and 
Ind. 


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minor tribu- 
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REPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



67 



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III? 


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REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



1 

Eh 










1 
























CMOC 

r^coS 




cs 

s 

OC 




24,395 

1,441 

2,796 

119 

658 

63 

9 




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a- 

CM 




CM 

C^ 

« 




i 


1 


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c<f 


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CM rHlO i^ Oi 
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CO 


CR.-110 
CMrH 


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CO 


2S2S8^ 

CM.-110 i-H 
















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CM 


|°> 


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S3 


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^.55 




s 


eot^ 


CM 






t^ 


CJ 
CM 


CM 




CM 


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1 
































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2 




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crs irt in 

cr. oo CM 
■^ »-< CM 

8" 


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CD 
co" 


CD Oi 05 
(NtPCO 










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i 


CO 


i'--- 


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-a- 


2^1 










1 


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e 
































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g^s 










§^ 


§ 


g 




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CO 


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52 

CO 


CO 


CO CM 




CO 


^?3S 






















Wabash River 
and minor trib- 
utary, Ind. and 

m. 


1 
































cooocm" 


g 


■^ CO i-H 




t- 


CM 

CO 


1 

cm" 


CO 




S8 

CO 


TP->}<ge<o 




Tf 


CD 


COI^CM 

lO rH 


CO 


-a-iot-co 

CO lO o 
•OtC CM 






















1 
































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m 












in 


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2 


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St. Joseph 
River and 
minor tribu- 
tary, Ind. and 
Mich. 


1 
































J2SS 


in 


C<lr-I 
?5 








CM 


in 

§5 


i 




i--^ 


CM 


CD T-l 

CM 








(N CO 


^ 


t^»Oi-H 


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n-' 
























1 

1— 1 


-a 

^ 

si 
il 


1 




c 




1 

s 

O 

a 

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4> 
c 




1 


c 

c 
1 

b 
5 




1 
e 
1 
1 
1 
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c 




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p 

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c 

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o 


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i 

1 




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p 

1 
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g 

> 

O 





REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OP FISHERIES. 



69 



245,477 

55,757 

13,559 

2,856 

28,200 

4,500 

453 

31,408 


o 


to 




15,258 

3,292 

790 

161 

1,733 

225 

34 

1,824 












is 






:g 


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ga 


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sg 










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00 




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oo" 


g 

o 


0<N t~ 

o co»o 










1 








qqS 








to 

«5 




CO 




comeq 








S 


1 








23,801 

12,530 

6,073 

120 




§2 


CO 


C-1 


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VO REPOKT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

FISHERIES OF CHESAPEAKE BAY AND TRIBUTARIES. 

The condition of the shad and alewife fisheries of Chesapeake Bay 
and its tributary streams has become more precarious, and the season 
of 1915 was the poorest of which there is any record. There is no 
evidence that the States vitally interested in the perpetuation of these 
valuable fisheries have taken any means to alleviate the flagrant over- 
fishing to which the salt, brackish, and fresh waters have been sub- 
jected, and the only practical measure of protection which has been 
afforded the schools of spawning shad and alewives has come through 
the action of the War Department in requiring the stationary fishing 
apparatus to be set so that open channels in the bay and rivers may 
be left for navigation. 

In April, 1915, as soon as the expected failure became evident, the 
Bureau instituted a very comprehensive canvass of the shad and 
alewife fisheries of the Chesapeake basin. In addition to furnishing 
detailed statistics, this canvass will show the location of fixed and 
floating apparatus and will enable the Bureau to make an authentic 
and forceful presentation of the situation. 

STURGEON FISHERY IN FLORIDA. 

After completing the field work of the survey of oyster beds in 
Apalachicola Bay, Fla., an assistant of the Bureau made inquiries 
in regard to the sturgeon fishery of the Apalachicola River. Prin- 
cipally because of inadequate transportation facilities the sturgeon 
fishei*y was not pursued actively prior to 1895. For a number 
of years the industry grew rapidly until the effects of depletion 
became manifest, and in quite recent years the decline of the fishery 
has been very marked. The period of fishery embraces about two 
and one-half months, from the middle of April to the end of June. 
The locality of the fishery is principally in the immediate vicinity 
of Apalachicola at the mouth of the river .and extending upstream a 
distance of 30 miles. The sturgeon are laiown to ascend the river 
for a distance of 200 miles or more. 

The sturgeon are usually captured by means of drift nets of 6-inch 
mesh. The body of the fish is cut into sections and packed in ice for 
shipment to northern markets. The preservation and sale of the 
caviar forms an important phase of the fishery. The catch varies 
from year to year; and. while no accurate statistics were taken, it 
was estimated that 20,000 to 60,000 pounds are marketed each season 
with a value of from $2,000 to $6,000. A single specimen has yielded 
a return of $90 from caviar alone. The average size of fish taken 
is becoming much smaller, while the value of the catch as a whole 
is declining. 

The preservation of this important fish, now so nearly extermi- 
nated, should command the thoughtful attention of the State au- 
thorities. 

ALASKA FISHERIES SERVICE. 

A full report on the fishing industry of Alaska during the calendar 
year 1914 and on the activities of the Bureau in connection therewith 
has been published as an appendix of the annual report of the Com- 
missioner for 1914. A special report on Alaska fishery investigations 



REPORT OP THE COMTMISSIONER OP PISHERIES. 71 

in 1914 was prepared by the Deputy Commissioner and issued in 
January, 1915. In view of the fact that the fishing season of 1915 has 
not yet ended, no report thereon is possible, and reference will be 
made to some of the more important developments of the last calen- 
dar year. 

During the season of 1914 the Alaska fishing industry attained its 
highest value. The employment of 21,200 persons and the investment 
of $37,000,000 therein resulted in a yield of products valued at $21,- 
243,000, an increase of $5,500,000 over the previous year. This great 
advance was due largely to the abundance of red salmon and the rela- 
ti\ely high prices commanded by canned salmon. 

In the patrol work along the Alaskan coast, the agents of the 
Bureau have found that the fishing interests in general are in sym- 
pathy with the protective laws and observe them fully. There have 
been, howexer, a number of more or less serious violations, usually by 
irresponsible employees. The fishery agents have successfully prose- 
cuted a number of cases in the local courts, and have had the helpful 
cooperation of the United States attorneys and marshals. 

The private salmon hatcheries in Alaska have been inspected, and 
during the season of 1914 all were found to be well conducted, 
although at some plants better facilities of feeding and rearing are 
desirable. During the fiscal year 1914 the five private hatcheries lib- 
erated over 04,000,000 red salmon fry, and were credited with rebates 
of taxes aggregating $25,741, the allowance being at the rate of 40 
cents per thousand for red or king salmon fry planted. 

Under date of April 27, 1915, the Bureau issued an announcement 
that a hearing would be had at Seattle on October 1 to determine the 
advisability of setting aside as preserves for spawning grounds and 
limiting or prohibiting commercial fishing therein certain waters 
in Alaska as follows : Barnes Lake, near Lake Bay, including all its 
tributar}^ waters and its outlet; Hetta Eiver and Lagoon^ including 
all tributary waters; and Sockeye Creek, the outlet of Boca de 
Quadra hatchery waters, together with its tributaries; and an area 
or zone within 500 yards of the mouth of each of the above 
streams. 

Under the authority conferred by the Presidential proclamation 
setting apart Afognak Island and adjacent islands as a fish-culture 
reserve, 73 licenses were issued to native inhabitants in 1914 to 
conduct fishing operations for salmon with seines and gill nets in 
the waters of the reservation. Their catch was 330,930 salmon, 
chiefly sockeyes and humpbacks, and were mostly disposed of at 
Kodiak. 

A limited number of permits was granted during the year author- 
izing the carrying on of certain fisheries operations in the Aleutian 
Islands Reservation. It is the plan of the Department to make the 
fisheries within this ^-eservation subservient to the welfare of the 
native inhabitants and to allow no fishing that would be disadvan- 
tageous to them or to the perpetuation of the fisheries. It having 
l>een found that fish for use as fox food on the Pribilof Islands 
could be secured to advantage from the reservation, arrangements 
were made early in 1915 whereby the natives would be given the 
opportunity of furnishing the required supply. 

In the winter of 1914-15 the Bureau held protracted conferences 
with the representatives of fishing interests in Alaska regarding the 



'?2 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 



amendment of the existing laws governing fishing in that territory. 
A comprehensive revision of the laws to meet new conditions was 
considered, and a bill was drafted and tentatively agreed on. It is 
hoped that this or a similar measure may be taken up at the next 
session of Congress. 

FUR-SEAL SERVICE. 

At the end of the last fiscal year reports of demoralization among 
Government employees and natives on the Pribilof Islands reached 
the Department, and immediately on their receipt the Deputy Com- 
missioner, who was at the time on the Pacific coast, was dispatched 
in the Albatross. Following his investigation of the reports, which 
were for the most part sustained, the agent and caretaker and the 
storekeeper on St. Paul Island were removed, a general reorganiza- 
tion of the force was effected, and the natives were placed under 
much-needed restraint, especially in the matter of making and using 
intoxicating liquors. It is a pleasure to note a decided improvement 
in the moral and physical condition of the natives. 

In March, 1915, the Department adopted regulations governing 
the delivery and use of intoxicating liquors on the seal islands, and 
embodied these regulations in a Departmental circular. 

The special investigators who were sent to the islands in the sum- 
mer of 1914 conducted their work in a very thorough manner, cov- 
ering the seal and other animal life, the affairs of the natives, and 
the relations of the Government thereto. On their return in the 
fall they began the preparation of their report, which was completed 
and submitted on January 23, 1915. On February 17 the report was 
transmitted to Congress with a request for publication, and it was 
subsequently issued as a Senate document and also as a part of the 
Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries for 1914. 

The census of the seal herd, taken by the special investigators with 
the assistance of the local Government representatives, showed the 
number of animals at the close of the breeding season to be approxi- 
mately 294,687, as follows. These figures indicate an increase of 
26,382 animals over 1913, although the number of pups born was 
only about a thousand more than in the previous year. 



Classes. 



Number. 



Breeding cows 93, 250 

Breeding bulls ' 1, 559 

Idle bulls 172 

Young bulls (chiefly 5-year olds) ' 1 , 658 

Bachelors of 2, 3, and 4 years | 41,241 

Cows 2 years old 17,422 



Classes. 



Yearling bachelors 

Yearling cows 

Pups 

Total 



Number. 



23,068 
23,067 
93,250 

294,687 



On the recommendation of the special investigators on the ground, 
the number of young bachelor seals that might be killed for the uses 
of the natives during the calendar year 1914 was fixed at 4,500, sub- 
ject to increase if the circumstances demanded it. This quota, how- 
ever, was apparently not needed, and only 2,735 seals were taken 
during the year. The annual shipment of pelts from the islands was 
made in October, consisting of 2,884 sealskins, 256 blue fox skins, and 
25 white fox skins. These were taken to Seattle on the Coast Guard 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIE~S. 73 

cutter Manning and thence forwarded to St. Louis. Owing to the 
depressed condition of the fur trade, the sale of the sealskins was 
deferred, under special authority given by Congress. 

In 1915 arrangements were made for a complete census of the seal 
herd, to be taken by the Bureau's agents already on the seal islands, 
and figures submitted indicate an increase of about 60,000 animals 
over the estimate for 1914. The quota of bachelor seals that could be 
killed to meet the requirements of the natives was fixed at 5,500. 

It is apparent from the report of the special investigators of 1914 
and from the results of the census of 1915 that there exists a great 
surplus of male seals and that commercial killing on a limited scale 
could properly be resumed. A noteworthy economic contingency will 
arise when the taking of large numbers of seals begins. The com- 
paratively limited needs of the natives will consume but a small part 
of the seal meat and other products, and steps have already been taken 
looking to the profitable utilization of what has heretofore been 
wasted. 

The past year has witnessed an important change in the relations 
of the Government to the natives in the matter of compensation for 
services rendered. The old practice has been to pay cash for services, 
and a comparatively large part of the appropriation has thus been 
consumed. The natives used the cash thus obtained in purchasing 
supplies at the Government stores, and the sums thus received were 
turned into the United States Treasury. There was consequently a 
double drain on the appropriation which, in recent years at least, 
was none too large for the legitimate administration of the islands 
and the support of the natives. Under the new system, able-bodied 
natives are required to perform some kind of labor, and payment is 
made in supplies. This arrangement at first was resented by the 
natives, but in general is now working well. The agent on St. 
George Island reports that the natives " have both privately and as a 
body expressed their preference for the present method of issuing all 
necessary supplies as against receiving pay in cash for all labor and 
buying with their earnings their food and all other necessary arti- 
cles." It is realized that on the resumption of commercial killing 
when, under the law, the natives will be entitled to cash compensa- 
tion for services performed in various capacities, other arrangements 
will have to be made. It is believed that the expense which may be 
connected with the commercial operations should be deducted from 
the selling price of the sealskins and not from the appropriation for 
the maintenance of the fur-seal service. 

Owing to a change in the personnel on the islands, the savings of 
the seal-island natives, heretofore kept in a San Francisco bank in 
the name of a trustee, have been transferred to Washington and 
deposited in a local bank, and the United States Commissioner of 
Fisheries has been designated as trustee. The amounts thus trans- 
ferred and held to the credit of the natives are $5,143.12. 

An entirely new method of procedure in obtaining supplies for the 
Pribilof Islands was adopted for the 1915 season. In the past the 
general supplies have been bought either without competition or on 
more or less formal proposals. This year formal schedules were pre- 
pared and printed copies were distributed to prospective bidders at 
Seattle, San Francisco, St. Louis, Chicago, New York, Boston, and 



74 EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHEEIES. 

other points. While the form of proposal used permitted bidders to 
designate the point where they proposed to deliver the material bid 
upon, the majority of proposals designated Seattle as the point of 
deliA^ery. Of the proposals accepted all but two were for delivery in 
Seattle. The business of making contracts in connection with the 
accepted proposals and the ordering and assembling of supplies were 
in progress at the end of the fiscal year. 

A shortage of certain supplies on the Pribilof Islands made it 
necessary to arrange for a small consignment during the winter 
season of 1914-15. Space was accordingly secured on the schooner 
Bender Bros., which left Seattle on February 27, 1915, for Alaskan 
points. The vessel arrived at St. Paul Island April 1 and at St. 
George Island the next day. The sending of a ship annually to the 
Pribilofs during the winter season should be done if practicable. A 
procedure of this kind would {a) permit supplying the islands with 
fresh provisions, {h) obviate any deficiency which might arise in the 
stock of staple supplies, {c) effect the transfer of mail, and {d) afford 
a welcome relief to the Government employees from the enforced 
monotony of the long winter season. 

In accordance with the law, arrangements were made by the Coast 
Guard Service for the patrol of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering 
Sea during the season of 1915 by vessels of that service. The Unalga 
was designated to patrol the w aters between Kodiak Island and the 
western end of the iVleutian Chain from the beginning of the season 
until July 15. The Manning was designated to relieve the Unalga 
July 15 and patrol the Bering Sea until the end of September. The 
vessels were to visit the Pribilofs from time to time for the purpose 
of conveying mail from Unalaska to those islands. In June, 1915, 
the agent on St. Paul Island reported to the TJnalga that there were 
evidences of poachers in the vicinity of that island (reports were also 
made by him directly to the Bureau) and a careful search was under- 
taken by that vessel, but with only negative results. 

MINOR FUR-BEARING ANIMALS. 

With the limited force and funds available, the Bureau has admin- 
istered as thoroughly as practicable the laws and regulations per- 
taining to the minor fur-bearing animals of Alaska, whose aggregate 
value and importance exceed the fur seal at present. The number of 
wardens for this service was increased from 5 to 7 in the fiscal year 
1915, and in addition thereto one special fur warden previously em- 
ployed was continued at a nominal salary. 

In Maj^ 1915, the Department approved a revision of the regula- 
tions for the protection of fur-bearing animals in Alaska as recom- 
mended by the Bureau; and under date of May 24, 191.5, these 
regulations were issued (Department Circular no. 246, third edi- 
tion). The principal features of the new regulations are as follows: 

No change of seasons for the killing of fur-bearing animals was 
made ; prohibition w^as placed upon the use of " klips " and the steel 
bear trap or any other trap with jaws having a spread exceeding 8 
inches ; no attempt was made to place restrictions upon the taking of 
fur-bearing animals alive, so long as no killing was involved; the 
shipping of live fur-bearing animals from Alaska was not inter- 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 75 

dieted; and the requirement that persons engaged in fur farming 
should secure a license from the Department was discontinued. 

At the end of the fiscal year four of the Alaska Ishmds which the 
Department may lease for fur-farming purposes w^ere so leased. 
The plan of supplying blue foxes for breeding purposes from the 
Pribilof Islands has not been continued since the summer of 1914. 
In addition to the difficulty experienced in making deliveries of live 
animals from this remote region, it was felt that the conditions of 
the herds did not warrant depleting them of the best potential breed- 
ing elements, which animals the prospective breeders would natu- 
rally require. A portion of the animals sold in 1911: were taken to 
a ranch in Michigan; they have not yet bred in their new environ- 
ment, and the results of the venture are awaited with interest. 

The total value of the minor furs sent out of Alaska in the year 
ending November 15, 1914, was approximately $650,000. The two 
most conspicuous furs as regards aggregate value are red fox and 
mink, although white fox, lynx, muskrat, and marten are also im- 
portant. It is a pleasure to be able to report a rapid increase in 
beavers in southeastern Alaska and in various parts of the interior; 
and a further marked increase may confidently be expected as a 
result of the prohibition of the killing of beavers until November 1, 
1918. 

In view of the incongruity of including strictly terrestrial animals 
in a bureau devoted to aquatic animals and the fisheries, it is believed 
that Congress should make early provision for a change in the admin- 
istration of the laws pertaining to the minor fur-bearing animals of 
Alaska, in accordance with recommendations that have been made 
in former reports. Aside from the question of administration, there 
are anomalies and inconsistencies in the existing laws that call for 
immediate attention ; and, furthermore, the general act protecting the 
fur bearers is iiundamentally defective. 

This matter has been taken up by the Departments of Commerce 
and Agriculture through a committee of four persons representing 
the Bureau of Fisheries and the Bureau of Biological Survey?, and 
an agreement has been reached under which an appeal will be made 
to Congress for a proper allocation of duties in the two departments. 
The recommendations of the committee, submitted April 10, 1915, 
and approved by the respective Secretaries, provide (1) that Con- 
gress be requested to order the transfer to the Department of Agri- 
culture of jurisdiction over the terrestrial fur-bearing animals of 
Alaska now exercised hj the Department of Commerce; and (2) that 
at the same time the Department of Commerce should be given exclu- 
sive jurisdiction over all aquatic or amphibious animals whose pur- 
suit constitutes a fishery, such as walrus, whales, porpoises, and sea 
lions, in addition to fur seals and sea otters. 

MISCELLANEOUS MATTERS. 

MOVEMENTS OF VESSELS. 

In June, 1914, the Albatross was dispatched to the Pribilof Islands 
with the Deput}'' Commissioner, who subsequently used the vessel for 
an inspection of the fipheries in parts of central and western Alaska. 
On August 15 the Deputy Commissioner disembarked at Juneau, and 



76 EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHEEIES. 

the vessel immediately returned to Seattle and, after some refitting, 
resumed the investigation of the halibut banks off Washington and 
Oregon which had been in progress during the preceding year. This 
work was completed for the season on September 9, when the ship 
was sent to Sausalito and there laid up for the balance of the year, 
as lack of funds prevented any further activities. From the incep- 
tion of the halibut investigation in April, 1914, till the arrival at 
Sausalito, September 16, the vessel steamed 11,005 miles. 

The auxiliary schooner Grampus continued during the summer of 
1914 the oceanographic investigations in the Gulf of Maine and as 
far south as Nantucket. During the fall and winter the schooner was 
laid up, and the crew were employed to assist in the fish-cultural 
work of the Gloucester station. On May 4, 1915, the offshore work of 
the preceding year was resumed and was in progress on June 30. 

The Fish Hawk was employed in surveying offshore fishing 
grounds in connection with the Beaufort laboratory in the summer of 
1914, and in December was sent to the west coast of Florida for use 
in the oyster-grounds survey authorized by Congress. This work was 
duly completed, and on May 13 the vessel arrived at Norfolk, Va., 
where, after overhauling and refitting, preparations for further serv- 
ice on the North Carolina coast were made. During the year the 
vessel steamed about 5,000 miles. 

The Osprey was engaged in the usual patrol work in southwestern 
Alaska, and was utilized by the Deputy Commissioner during his 
inspection trip to that region in the summer of 1914. 

The Phalarope was attached to the Woods Hole station during 
most of the year, and was utilized in connection with both the fish- 
cultural and biological work. In the spring of 1915 the vessel was 
detailed, as heretofore, to assist in the shad hatching on the Potomac 
River. 

The Curlew was engaged in the rescuing of fishes from the over- 
flow waters of the Mississippi Eiver and in the propagation of pearl 
mussels. 

VESSEL FOR ALASKA SERVICE. 

The well-known arctic-exploration steamer Roosevelt has been pur- 
chased in New York for the Alaska service, and has undergone a 
general overhauling, including the substitution of oil-burning for 
coal-burning machinery. The vessel started for the Pacific coast on 
July 19, after a trial trip ; but on the run from New York to Norfolk, 
where a cargo of coal for the Pribilof Islands was to be taken aboard, 
certain unforeseen defects in machinery developed, and it was neces- 
sary to send the vessel to the Norfolk Navy Yard for a thorough 
inspection and special repairs, which have delayed the departure for 
the Pacific coast. 

NEW VESSEL FOR THE MAINE COAST. 

A special appropriation of $45,000, for a vessel for the Boothbay 
Harbor station, was made immediately available in the sundry civil 
appropriation act approved March 4, 1915. It was thought at first 
that it would be possible to purchase a suitable craft in first-class 



EEPOET OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 77 

condition at a less price than one could be built for, and with the 
added advantage that she would be available for immediate use. 
Exhaustive inquiries at all practicable shipping ports were accord- 
ingly made, and many offerings were considered, but without finding 
a satisfactory vessel. The experience of this and other bureaus has 
shown that in general the policy of purchasing second-hand vessels 
is unwise. Such vessels are never primarily suited for the Bureau's 
purposes, and to rebuild them is an expensive matter, with final 
unsatisfactory results. Ordinarily, too, if they are in first-class con- 
dition, they are not cheap. It was, therefore, finally decided to build 
a new vessel designed not only for the local activities of the Boothbay 
station but also for offshore research, surveys, and exploitation of 
the fisheries. Plans are now being prepared in the Bureau of Light- 
houses, and as soon as completed bids for the construction will be 
called for. 

NEW ESTABLISHMENTS AND CONSTRUCTION. 

The sites for the new hatchery in Utah and the new biological 
laboratory in Florida had not yet been acquired at the end of the 
fiscal year owing to delays on the part of the owners in furnishing 
titles satisfactory to the Department of Justice. No title has yet 
been obtained for the additional land which is to be acquired for the 
Cold Spring station in Georgia. 

The work of reconstructing the wharves and building a retaining 
bulkhead at the Woods Hole station has been placed under the super- 
vision of Army engineers. The new wharves, while less extensive 
than the older ones, will be of ample capacity for the Bureau's needs 
and will be much less expensive to maintain. The demolition of the 
coal shed has been made necessary by its location on the old wharf. 

At Saratoga, Wyo., a hatchery, a superintendent's dwelling, and a 
cottage for the fish culturist have been nearly completed; work is also 
well advanced on the pond and drainage systems; and a railroad 
siding is being built. 

The biological station at Beaufort, N. C, has been extensively 
repaired and put in first-class order with a small appropriation 
granted by the last Congress. The wooden underpinning of the 
laboratory has been replaced with brick; a veranda has been added 
on the south front; new salt-water plumbing has been installed; the 
buildings have been repainted ; general repairs have been made ; the 
protecting sea wall has been extended; and the grounds have been 
graded, planted, and put in thorough order. A terrapin pond and 
large fish pool have been added to the plant. 

At Edenton, N. C, a mess house, 25 feet square, suitably arranged 
for the necessary quarters, is under construction with the special 
appropriation made at the last session of Congress. 

In an effort to relieve the crowded condition of the offices in the 
Bureau's building in Washington, part of the space on the ground 
floor, heretofore occupied by Central Station for fish-hatching and 
other purposes, has been converted into six new office rooms sepa- 
rated by a double row of aquarium tanks leading into the grotto. 
A new ceiling and new floor have been laid, the seal pool has been 
reconstructed and enlarged, and a small space has been reserved for 
86497°— 17 6 



78 REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

fish-hatching operations and an exhibit of some of the activities of 
the Bureau. 

FISHERY MATTERS IN CONGRESS. 

By a joint resohition approved P^ebruary 24, 1915, the Secretary of 
Commerce was authorized to postpone the sale of all skins in posses- 
sion of the Government taken from seals killed on the Pribilof 
Islands for food purposes until such time as, in his discretion, he shall 
deem advisable. 

A bill was passed on February 18, 1915, authorizing the Secretary 
of Commerce, through the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Bureau 
of Fisheries, to make a survey of oyster beds in the State of Texas. 
OAving to a defect which imposed an unintended financial burden on 
the Bureau, the bill was withdrawn by the Senate after it had been 
sent to the President for approval, and was not reenacted. 

Defects in the law of June 20, 1906, for the protection of sponges 
were corrected in a bill which passed both Houses and was approved 
August 15, 1914. This law, which was advocated by the Bureau, 
regulates the taking of sponges in extraterritorial waters of the coast 
of Florida. The principal provision of the act is the limiting of the 
size of sponges that may be taken, or landed, cured, offered for sale, 
or had in possession to 5 inches in maximum diameter. 

A bill to prohibit interstate and foreign commerce in lobster meat 
and in undersized or egg-bearing lobsters was introduced in the 
House on July 2, 1914, and referred to the Committee on Interstate 
and Foreign Commerce. 

A bill approved by this Bureau authorizing the Commissioner of 
Fisheries to conduct investigations and experiments for ameliorating 
the damage wrought to the fisheries by predaceous fishes and other 
aquatic animals was introduced in the House and recommended by 
the Committee on the Merchant Marine and Fisheries. This bill was 
so amended on the floor of the House before it passed that body as to 
leave the Bureau with fewer powers than it already possessed, and it 
failed of passage in the Senate. 

The Sixty-third Congress expired without making effective the 
treaty of April 13, 1908, providing for joint international regulations 
for the fisheries in the contiguous waters of the United States and 
Canada. The matter had been pending in Congress since 1910. The 
present international commissioner on behalf of the United States 
labored assiduously to meet the objections that had been urged against 
various features of the regulations and cooperated in the drafting of 
a bill which fully safeguarded all the interests of the United States 
fishermen. This failure to respect our treaty obligations leaves the 
international fisheries in a chaotic c(mdition and leads to the fear 
that further depletion of international waters will result because of 
inharmonious laws and incompatible jurisdictions. 

In March, 1915, a bill to amend the laws for the protection and 
regulation of the fisheries of Alaska was introduced in the House, 
but owing to the imminent adjournment of Congress no action was 
taken thereon. 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 79 

PUBLICATIONS AND LIBRARIES. 

During the fiscal year the following publications were issued and 
distributed through the Superintendent of Documents on special 
mailing lists: 

KKI'ORT OF THE COMMISSIONER AND APPENDIXES THERETO. 

Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries to the Secretary of Commerce for the 
fiscal year onded .June r.O. 1914. SI p. 

The (listrihiitinn of fish anrl fish eggs during the fiscal year 1913. Appendix i 
to Report of Commissioner for 191.S. 122 p. 

Ahislia fisheries and fur industries in 191.''.. Appendix ii to Report of Com- 
missioner for 1918. 172 p. 

Experimental study of the growth and migration of fresh-water mussels. By 
Frederick P.. Isely. Appendix iii to Rejinrt of f'omniissioner for 191.8. 24 p., 3 pi. 

Exi)erimen1s in propagation of fresh-water mussels of the Quadrula group. 
Bv .\rthur Day Howard. Appendix iv to Report of Commissioner for 1913. 
52 p.. 6 pi. 

The nmssel fauna of central and northern Minnesota. By Charles B. Wilson 
and ICrnest Danghide. Appendix v to Report of Commissioner for 1913. 
26 p., 1 map. 

The nmssel resources of the Illinois River, hy Ernest Danglade. The mussel 
fishery of the Fox River, hy John A. Eldridge. Api)endixes vi and vii to Report 
of Commissioner for 1913. 48 p., 5 pi., 2 text fig., chart, 8 p. 

Water-power development in relation to fishes and mussels of the Mississippi. 
By Robert E. Coker. Appendix viii to Report of Commissioner for 1913. 
28 p., 6 pi. 

The distribution of fish and fish eggs during the fiscal year 1914. Appendix i 
to Report of Commissioner for 1914. 114 p. 

Condition and extent of the natural oyster beds and barren bottoms of 
Lavaca Bay, Tex. By H. F. Moore and P]rnest Danglade. Appendix ii to Report 
of Commissioner for 1914. 4.5 p., 5 pi., 1 chart. 

Menhaden industry of the Atlantic coast. By Rob Leon Greer. Appendix 
ni to Report of (Commissioner for 1914. 27 p., 7 pi. 

Mussel resources in tributaries of the upper Missouri River. By Robert E. 
Coker and .lohn B. Southall. Appendix iv to Report of Connnissioner for 1914. 
17 p.. 1 pi., 1 map. 

Identification of the glochidia of fresh-water mussels. By Thaddeus Surber. 
Appendix v to Report of Commissioner for 1914. 9 p., 1 pi. 

Otter-trawl fishery. By A. B. Alexander. H. F. Moore, and W. C. Kendall. 
Appendix vi to Report of Commissioner for 1914. 97 p., 9 text fig.. 1 chart, 
1 diag. 

Survey of the fishing grounds on the coasts of Washington and Oregon in 
1914. By Waldo L. Schmitt, E. C. .Tohnston, E. P. Rankin, and Edward Driscoll. 
Appendix vii to Report of Connnissioner for 1914. 30 p., Ipl.. 2 charts, 1 paster. 

The Fishes of the Yellowstone Xational Park. By W. C Kendall. Appendix 
VIII to Report of Commissioner for 1914. 28 p., 17 text figs. 

BUI.I.KTIN OF THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES. 

A limnological study of the Finger Lakes of New York. By Edward A. Birge 
.ind Chancey .luday. Bulletin, vol. xxxii, 1912, p. 525-610, 23 text fig., pi. 
cxi-cx\t: (ma lis). 

The embryology and larval development of Bairdiella chrysura and Anchovia 
mitcliilli. By Albert Kuntz. Bulletin, vol. xxxiii, 191.3, p. 1-20, 40 text fig. 

The skeletal musculature of the king salmon. By Charles Wilson Greene and 
Carl Hartley Greene. Bulletin, vol. xxxiii, 1913, p. 21-^)0, pi. i-ii, 14 text fig. 

The direclive influence of the sense of smell in the dogfish. By G. H. Parker. 
Bulletin, vol. xxxiii, 191,3. p. 61-68. 

The storage of fat in the muscular tissue of the king salmon and its resorp- 
tion during the fast of the spawning migration. By Charles W. Greene. Bulle- 
tin, vol. XXXIII, 1913, p. 69-1.38, pi. iii-xi. 



80 EEPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

Correlations of weight, length, and other body measurements in the weakfish. 
Cynosion regalis. By William J. Crozier and Selig Hecht. Bulletin, vol. xxxiii, 

1913, p. 139-148, 4 text fig. 

The fat-absorbing function of the alimentary tract of the king salmon. By 
Charles W. Greene. Bulletin, vol. xxxiii, 1913, p. 149-176, pi. xii-xv. 

Notes on the habits, morphology of the reproductive organs, and embryology 
of the viviparous fish Gambusia affinis. By Albert Kuntz. Bulletin, vol. 
XXXIII, 1913, p. 177-190, pi. xvi-xix. 

Sporozoon parisites of certain fishes in the vicinity of Woods Hole, Mass. 
By 0. W. Hahn. Bulletin, vol. xxxiii, 1913, p. 191-214, pi. xx-xxi. 

Fur seals and other life in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, in 1914. By Wilfred 
H. Osgood, Edward A. Preble, and George H. Parker. Bulletin, vol. xxxiv, 

1914, p. 1-172, pi. i-xviii, 24 maps. 

SPECIAL PUBLICATION. 

Report of Alaska investigations in 1914. By E. Lester Jones, 155 p., illus. 

ECONOMIC CIRCULARS. 

Commercial possibilities of the goosefish, a neglected food; with 10 recipes. 
5 p. Dec. 15, 1914. 

Mussel resources of the Tensas River of I^ouisiana. 7 p. April 9, 1915. 

The common and scientific names of fresh-water mussels. 4 p. April 8, 1915. 

Concerning the mortality of the soft clams at Essex, Mass. 4 p., illus. April 
18, 1915. 

STATISTICAL BULLETINS. 

Monthly statements showing by species and fishing grounds the quantity and 
values of certain fishery products landed at Boston and Gloucester, Mass., by 
American fishing vessels. 1-sheet bulletin. 

Statement, by months, of the quantities and values of certain fishery products 
landed at Boston and Gloucester, Mass., by American fishing vessels during the 
year 1914. 1-sheet bulletin. 

Statement, by fishing grounds, of the quantities and values of certain fishery 
products landed at Boston and Gloucester, Mass., by American fishing vessels 
during the calendar year 1914. 1-sheet bulletin. 

Fresh-water pearl button industry of the United States in 1912. 1-sheet 
bulletin. 

Fresh-water mussel fishery of streams tributary to the Great Lakes and the 
Ohio and Mississippi Rivers north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi River 
in 1913. 1-slieet bulletin. 

Lobster fishery of the Atlantic Coast States in 1913. 1-sheet bulletin. 

Beginning with June, 1915, a monthly publication, entitled Fish- 
eries Service I5ulletin, was started and seems destined to serve a use- 
ful purpose. The objects, as stated in the first issue, are to bring 
into closer touch the headquarters and the field service and to estab- 
lish a means of official communication between the administrative 
offices and all employees. The publication is supplied to each em- 
ployee of the Bureau, to State fishery authorities, to the press, and 
to private individuals interested or identified with the fisheries in 
their broad aspects. 

The Bureau has at its headquarters in Washington a library re- 
puted to be the most complete in the world in publications on the 
fisheries and related subjects. Auxiliary libraries are maintained at 
the laboratories at Woods Hole, Mass., Beaufort, N. C, and Fairport, 
Iowa, and there is a small but well-selected collection of books on 
the Fisheries steamer Albatross on the Pacific coast. The main 
library contains over 29,000 volumes, that at Woods Hole about 2,000, 
and those at Beaufort and Fairport about 1,000 each. All are being 
rapidly augmented by purchase and exchange. These publications 
are intended primarily for workers in the Bureau's service, but the 



REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 81 

public is encouraged to use them. Many works available nowhere 
else in the United States may be consulted in these libraries, which 
are well catalogued, and the librarian in Washington and the direc- 
tors of the several laboratories will render all possible assistance to 
inquirers. 

APPROPRIATIONS. 

The appropriations for the conduct of the Bureau for the fiscal 
year 1915 aggregated $1,118,471.66, as follows: 

Salaries $387, 971. 66 

Miscellaneous expenses : 

Administration 10, 000. 00 

Propagation of food fishes i 350,000.00 

Inquiry respecting food fishes 45, 000. 00 

Statistical inquiry 7, 500. 00 

Maintenance of vessels 60,000.00 

Protecting the sponge fisheries 3, 500. 00 

Protecting seal and salmon fisheries of Alaska 110, 000. 00 

Construction or purchase of vessels, Alaska service 50,000.00 

Completion of, extension of, and improvements at fish-cultural and 
biological stations : 

Utah 25, 000. 00 

Cold Spring, Ga 6,000.00 

Woods Hole, Mass 40,000.00 

Clackamas, Oreg 15, 000. 00 

Beaufort, N. C 5, 000. 00 

Edenton, N. C ^^u^-^ 3,500.00 

SOME NEEDS OF THE SERVICE. 

In the estimates of appropriations for 1917 which have been sub- 
mitted for the approval of the Secretary, provision is made for a re- 
adjustment of the salaries of a nmnber of underpaid positions, includ- 
ing the superintendent of the car and messenger service, directors 
of biological stations, and superintendents of hatcheries. The in- 
creases which are recommended in these cases are demanded by the 
nature and responsibility of the services required and by the fact 
that similar positions in other Government bureaits and in private 
establishments command much higher salaries. The compensation 
now fixed by law for the superintendents of most of the stations is 
less than was paid 20 years ago, notwithstanding a very marked 
increase in the work required of and performed by them. The Bureau 
is often unable to secure or retain the .services of technically qualified 
assistants of great value to the work because the salaries carried by 
the positions are less attractive than those offered by other Govern- 
ment depaitments, by the various States, by foreign governments, and 
by private establishments. The constant loss of trained men is a 
serious impairment of efficiency, and demands a proper adjustment 
of the salaries of various statutory positions other than those already 
referred to. 

Recommendation is made for a reorganization of the administra- 
tive personnel on the Pribilof Islands. Alaska, involving the creation 
of new positions and an increase in the compensation of the chief 
officer on each island. This recommendation, which is embodied in 
the estimates of appropriations for 1917, is based on the experience 
of the Bureau. The v«ry large Government property interests at 



82 REPORT OP THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES. 

stake, the international rights in the seal herd, and the welfare of 
the native community, justify more liberal expenditures than have 
ever been made for the fur-seal service. 

The Bureau of Fisheries occupies the anomalous position of hav- 
ing its two most important vessels officered and manned by another 
department of the Government. The circumstances are as follows: 
Since the construction of the steamer Fish Hawk in 1879 and the 
steamer Albatross in 1882, these vessels have had naval crews under 
authority conveyed by law (21 Stats., 151). The naval personnel 
of the Fish Hawk at this time consists of 44 officers and men, the 
commanding officer being a chief boatswain. The naval personnel 
of the Albatross numbers 81 officers and men, the commanding officer 
being a lieutenant-commander. Tile annual salaries of the naval 
personnel of these two vessels, including the allowance for sub- 
sistence, are approximately $102,000. 

A careful consideration of the requirements of the Bureau indi- 
cates that a material reduction in the personnel of these vessels may 
be effected if civilian officers and crews are substituted for naval 
officers and crews. In the case of the Albatross it is found that 35 
men as against 81 men will be ample, and in the case of the Fish 
Haivk that 26 men as against 44 men will suffice. The annual cost 
of the proposed civilian officers and crews would be $56,292.50, ex- 
clusive of any allowance for subsistence, for which there is no au- 
thority of law in this service. 

The Navy Department from the outset has been most liberal in 
providing efficient officers and crews for these two vessels, and this 
Bureau is under the most profound obligations for this invaluable 
cooperation. However, in view of the foregoing statements, and be- 
cause of the intimation that has from time to time come from the 
Navy Department that its officers and men are needed for service on 
naval vessels, it is believed that Congress should be asked to authorize 
civilian crews. To this end an item has been inserted in the estimates 
of appropriations for the next fiscal year. 

The placing of the Albatross and Fish Hawk under civilian man- 
agement will be an opportune time for the reorganization of the per- 
sonnel of the entire vessel service, so as to put the Bureau of Fish- 
eries on a par with the Bureau of Lighthouses and the Coast and 
Geodetic Survey. This is demanded in the interests of efficiency and 
economy. It appears that a reorganization that will afford suffi- 
cient nien for the vessels, and allow them compensation which will 
be an inducement for efficient men to remain in the service, can be 
accomplished at an annual saving of $25,000 to $30,000. With this 
in view, there has been included in the estimates of appropriations 
for 1917 an item for a lump-sum appropriation to cover the com- 
pensation of all vessel employees instead of specific provision for the 
personnel of each vessel, as at present. The Bureau of Fisheries 
appears to be the only bureau in the Department of Commerce whose 
vessel employees are not given an allowance for subsistence. Con- 
gress should therefore be requested to authorize the vessel personnel 
of the Bureau of Fisheries to enjoy the same status accorded in 
other bureaus. 

Comparatively small increases are required in the appropriations 
for propagation of food fishes, inquiry respecting food fishes and 
fishing grounds, and statistical inquiry, m order that existing 



REPORT OF THE COMMISSIONER 01* FISHERIES. 83 

agencies may be fully utilized and opportunity be afforded for ex- 
tending the scope and increasing the usefulness of the various activ- 
ities of the Bureau, A very substantial increase in the appropriation 
for the maintenance of vessels is imperative, so that costly vessel 
property may not be forced to remain idle when much important 
work should be done. The case of the Albatross in the year 1914^15 
may be cited, but the conditions then were not peculiar, only exag- 
gerated. This vessel, with a crew of 85 officers and men, was laid up 
during about three- fourths of the year, when less than $10,000 would 
have enabled the Department to keep her in service and make needed 
investigations during the time when the pay of the naval crew and 
other permanent charges against the vessel exceeded $30,000. 

The welfare of the lobster industry demands at the hands of the 
Federal Government the immediate rendering of the most effective 
form of assistance that can be extended to the States. Experience 
and investigation have amply demonstrated that the mere hatching 
and planting of the lobster fry is inadequate to maintain the supply 
in the face of an increasing demand, inharmonious laws not con- 
sistently enforced or generally respected by the fishermen, and the 
strong inducement to violation of law occasioned by the high prices. 
There are a genuine need and a legitimate public demand for lob- 
ster rearing as a supplement to or substitute for the present opera- 
tions of the lobster hatcheries, and an item for a rearing plant has 
been included in the Bureau's estimates of appropriations for the 
next fiscal year. 

Representations made in former years regarding the need for a 
new building with ample laboratory and aquarium facilities are 
strongly renewed. 

Respectfully, H. M. Smith, 

ConiTniss loner. 

To Hon. William C. Redfield, 

Secretary of Commerce. 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS DURING 
THE FISCAL YEAR I9I5 



Robert S. Johnson 

Assistant iti Charge of Fish Culture 



Appendix I to the Report of the U. S. Commissioner 
of Fisheries for 1 915 



1 



CONTENTS, 



Character of the work 

Method of distribution 

Size of fish when distributed 

Size of allotments 

Species cultivated 

Summarized statement of distribution 

Summary by species * 

Allotments to State fish commissions 

Shipments to insular possessions and foreign countries. 
Details of output for 1915 

Stations operated and the output of each 

List of egg-collecting stations 

Details of distribution of fish and fish eggs 

Fresh-water mussel propagation 



10 
10 
11 
13 
13 
13 
19 
20 
138 



INDEX TO SPECIES DISTRIBUTED. 



Alewife 

Atlantic salmon 

Black bass, largemouth. 
Black bass, smallmouth . 

Blackspotted trout 

BluebacR salmon 

Brook trout 

Buffalofish 

Carp 

Catfish 

Chinook salmon 

Cod 

Crappie 

Dog salmon 

Flatfish 

Fresh- water drum 

Grayling 

Haddock 

Humpback salmon 

Lake herring (cisco) 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon 

Largemouth black bass. 
Lobster 



23 
41 
99 
96 
42 
26 
51 
23 
22 
20 
25 

136 
88 
26 

137 
23 
88 

136 
26 
24 
50 
41 
99 

137 



Loch Leven trout 

Mackerel 

Mussels 

Pike and pickerel 

Pike perch 

'Pollock 

Rainbow trout 

Rock bass 

Scotch sea trout 

Shad 

Silver salmon 

Smallmouth black bass. 

Smelt 

Steelhead trout 

Strawberry bass 

Striped bass 

Sunfish (bream) 

Tan tog 

Whitefish 

\Miite bass 

White perch 

Yellow bass 

Yellow perch 

Yellow sucker 



49 

136 

138 

129 

129 

136 

28 

94 

42 

23 

25 

96 

88 

27 

94 

134 

122 

137 

24 

135 

135 

136 

133 

22 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS DURING THE 
nSCAL YEAR I9I5. 



CHARACTER OF THE WORK. 

The fish-cultural work of the Bureau of Fisheries may be said to 
have two general objects — the restoration and maintenance of the 
commercial fisheries of the country and the stocking of its interior 
waters with the more important food and game fishes to which they 
are adapted. In the prosecution of the former of these objects, which 
is concerned with the salmons, whitefish, lake trout, pike perch, shad, 
white perch, yellow perch, cod, lobster, pollock, and other commercial 
species, the Bureau acts on its own initiative, carefully planning its 
distribution of young fish with the view of conserving and increas- 
ing the importance of existing fisheries and of establishing a basis 
for their extension through the systematic annual planting of fish of 
suitable species in fertile but unproductive fields. 

In that part of its work which relates to the stocking of interior 
lakes and streams the Bureau solicits the participation of the public. 
It cooperates with individuals or associations who may be interested 
in deciding as to the waters to be stocked, considers their suggestions 
as to the species of fish best suited therefor, and relies upon them to 
see that the fish furnished are properly planted in the waters for which 
they are assigned. 

While this branch of the work is relatively small, constituting only 
about 5 per cent of the annual output, the benefits accruing there- 
from are considered invaluable, not only in the economic sense of 
increasing the food supply by the utilization of many waters hereto- 
fore unproductive, but also because of their educational effect in 
developing and fostering a sentiment favorable to the protection and 
growth of the fisheries. The fishes principally produced for such 
waters are several of the native trouts, the grayling, the black basses, 
crappies, sunfishes, and catfishes. 

Owing to the practicability of hatching the eggs of the trouts by 
artificial means, the demands for such species can readily be supplied. 
On the other hand, the resources for the production of the warm-water 
species, commonly known as ''pond fishes," are extremely limited, 
and it is with the greatest difficulty that the insistent and growing 
demands for them can be met. These fishes must of necessity be 
cultivated naturally in open ponds, where the eggs and yomig are sub- 
jected to many hazards, chief among them being sudden temperature 

5 



6 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

changes, turbidity of the water after heavy rains, ravages of snakes 
and other enemies, and depletion of the stock through cannabahsm, 
all of which conditions can be mitigated or controlled only in part. 
The harvest is therefore uncertain, and the output of one year can not 
be used as a standard on which to base estimates of succeeding 
seasons. 

For many years the Bureau has been doing a valuable work of con- 
servation by rescuing vast numbers of black bass and other native 
fishes from the temporary pools and bayous formed by the annual 
flooding of certain navigable interstate rivers, and at the same time 
has been able to secure considerable numbers of young pond fishes 
for general distribution. In the conduct of this work it has been the 
Bureau's policy to remove fish only from such places as will dry up 
or freeze sohdly before a recurring high-water stage, returning to the 
main rivers the bulk of the collections and utilizing any surplus to 
supplement its supplies for shipment to applicants. As in the pond 
fish-cultural work at its stations, the degree of success attending the 
seining operations depends largely upon climatic conditions, and 
occasionally the work proves a total failure because of the inaccessi- 
bility of the spawning grounds, owing to the extremely high or low 
water stages prevailing. 

METHOD OF DISTRIBUTION. 

Almost the entire output of yoimg fish of the commercial species 
handled by the Bureau is returned to the original sources of supply or 
hberated in other public waters where conditions are favorable to the 
establislmient of new fisheries. Where eggs or fish for stock pur- 
poses are derived from interior waters especial care is taken to return 
to such waters a sufficient number of young fish of like species to 
msure the maintenance of the supply. The remainder of the stock 
available is then allotted on individual applications, bearing the 
indorsement of a United States Senator or Representative, such 
apphcations being submitted on a blank form furnished by the 
Bureau, which among other things calls for a detailed description of 
the waters for which fish are desired. In passing upon applications 
the preference of the apphcants as to species assigned is taken into 
account, but the Bureau reserves the right of final decision of this 
question, taking into consideration not only the character of the 
waters, but the welfare of existing local fisheries, and selectmg such 
species of fish as will not be likely to prove injurious to or be injured 
by those already established. 

In general the assignment of nonindigenous fishes is made only 
with the approval of the fisheries authorities of the States concerned. 
In this connection it may be stated that the Bureau has recently 
decided to refuse all requests for predaceous fishes for stocking waters 



DISTEIBUTION" OF FISH AND FISH EGGS^ 1915. 7 

in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, and the western 
portions of Montana and Wyoming, which proscribed section em- 
braces the most valuable salmon and trout fisheries of the United 
States. 

The fish are carried to their destinations in railroad cars equipped 
for the piu*pose or by messengers who accompany the shipments in 
baggage cars, and are dehvered to the applicant free of charge at 
the railroad station nearest the point of deposit. The applicant is 
advised by telegraph v/hen the shipment will arrive and is expected 
to make due provision for the care of the fish until planted. Definite 
instructions in this respect are furnished at the time of shipment. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915, the Bureau received 
10,622 applications from individuals and associations, for fish to 
stock both public and private waters. Requests for blanks upon 
which to submit appUcations for fish should be addressed to the 
Commissioner of Fisheries, Washmgton, D. C. 

It is the practice of the Bureau to fill aU appUcations in the order 
in which they are received and to arrange for the delivery of the 
fish as soon as practicable thereafter. 

SIZE OF FISH WHEN DISTRIBUTED. 

Fish are distributed at various stages of development, depending 
upon the species, the numbers available, and the facilities for rearing. 
Shad, whitefish, lake trout, pike perch, cod, and other species which 
are hatched in lots of many millions are necessarily planted shortly 
after hatcliing. The various trouts, the Atlantic sahnon, and the 
landlocked salmon are reared in such numbers as facihties permit to 
fingerlings from 1 to 6 inches in length; the remainder are distributed 
as fry." 

The black basses, crappies, and other sunfishes are distributed at 
various ages — some within three weeks after they are hatched and 
some when several months old. Near the end of the distribution 
season the basses have usually attained a length of from 4 to 6 inches 
and the sunfishes are from 2 to 4 inches long. The bass, catfish, and 
other species collected from overflowed lands vary from 2 to 6 inches 
in length when taken and distributed. 

Eggs are supplied mainly to State hatcheries, but are occasionally 
furnished to private apphcants having hatching facihties with the 

" The varying usage in the classification of young fish as to size has caused such confusion and diffi- 
culty that the Bureau has adopted uniform definitions, as follows: 

Fry= Cish up to the time the yolk sac is absorbed and feeding begins. 

Advanced fry =hsh from the end of the fry period until they have reached a length of 1 inch. 

Fin^eTlings=&sh between the length of 1 inch and the yearling stage, the various sizes to be designated 
as follows: No. 1, a fish 1 inch in length and up to 2 inches; no. 2, a fish 2 inches in length and up to 3 inches; 
no. 3, a fish 3 inches in length and up to 4 inches, etc. 

Y(arUngs=f\sh that are 1 year old, hut less than 2 years old from the date of hatching; these may be 
designated no. 1, no. 2, no. 3, etc., after the plan prescribed for fingerlings. 



8 DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

understanding that the young fish resulting therefrom are to be dis- 
tributed in pubUc waters. The Bureau does not furnish eggs for 
stocking hatcheries whose output is regularly offered for sale. 

SIZE OF ALLOTMENTS. 

It is customary to assign but one species of fish on an application, 
and only one application for the stocking of a body of water at a 
given point is considered. The number of fish assigned on an appli- 
cation is based upon the water area described, only a sufficient number 
being allowed to serve as a brood stock, with the understanding that 
the waters in which they are to be placed will be properly protected 
until the fish have had time to mature and establish themselves 
through natural reproduction. The actual number assigned is also 
dependent upon the species, the size of the fish, and the number 
available for distribution. In the case of the various trouts 250 
fish 2 inches in length, or 50 fish 6 inches in length, are fully equal 
to 2,500 fry for stocking purposes. Pike perch, which, owing to 
their excessive cannibalism, can not be reared beyond the fry stage, 
may be supplied in lots of half a million, where the same water area 
would receive only 200 or 300 young bass from 2 to 5 inches long. 
The larger fish have a much better chance of reaching maturity than 
have the fry, and therefore their value for stocking purposes is many 
times greater. 

Owing to the Bureau's inability to produce the black basses, 

crappies, catfishes, and sunfishes in sufficient numbers to meet the 

demands, the allotments of such species are of necessity limited to 

the smallest number required to form a brood stock for the water 

area in question. 

SPECIES CULTIVATED. 

During the fiscal year 1915 the Bureau handled some 50 species 
of fish, the fresh-water mussel, and the lobster. Of these the following 
were produced at its regular propagating stations: 

The catfishes (Silurid^): 

Horned pout, bullhead, yellow cat {Ameiurus nebulosus). 
Marbled cat (Ameiurus nebulosus marmoratus) . 

The suckers and BUFPALOFISHES (CATOSTOMIDiE): 

Smallmouth buffalofish (Ictiobus buhalus). 

Common buffalofish {Ictiobus cyprinella). 

Black buffalofish {Ictiobus urv^). 

Yellow sucker {Catostomus commersonii) . 
The shads and herrings (Clupeid^): 

Shad {Alosa sapidissima). 

Glut herring, blueback (Pomolobus aestivalis). 
The salmons, trouts, whitefishes, etc. (Salmonid^): 

Common whitefish (Coregonus albus and C. clupea/ormis) . 

Lake herring, cisco (Leucichthys artsdi). 

Chinook salmon, king salmon, quinaat salmon {Oncorhynchus tschawytscha). 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 9 

The salmons, trouts, whitefishes, etc. — Continued 

Silver salmon, coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 

Blueback salmon, redfish, sockeye {Oncorhynchus nerka). 

Humpback salmon (Oncorhynchus gorhuscha). 

Dog salmon {Oncorhynchus keta). 

Steelhead trout, hardhead (Salmo gairdneri). 

Rainbow trout {Salmo irideus) . 

Atlantic salmon {Salmo salar). 

Landlocked salmon (Salmo sehago). 

Blackspotted trouts: Yellowstone Lake trout or cut-throat trout (Salmo leivisi). 
Tahoe trout (Salmo henshawi). 

Scotch sea trout (Salmo trutta). Introduced species. 

Loch Leven trout (Salmo trutta levenensis). Introduced species, propagated in 
limited numbers for observation. 

Lake trout, Mackinaw trout, longe, togue (Cristivomer namaycu^h). 

Brook trout, speckled trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) . 
The graylings (Thymallid.^) : 

Montana grayling (Thymallu^ montanus). 
The mackerels (Scombrid^): 

Common mackerel (Scomber scombrus). 
The smelts (Argentinid^): 

American smelt (Osmerus mordax). 
The basses, sunpishes, and crappies (Centrarchid^) : 

Crappie (Pomoxis annularis). 

Strawberry bass, calico bass {(Pomoxis sparoides). 

Rock bass, red-eye, goggle-eye (Ambloplites rupestris). 

Warmouth, goggle-eye (Chsenobryttus gulosus). 

Smallmouth black bass (Micropterus dolomieu). 

Largemouth black bass ( Micropterus sabnoides). 

Bluegill bream, bluegill sunfish (Lepomis incisor). 

Other sunfishes, chiefly Eupomotis gibhosus. 
The perches (Percid^): 

Pike perch, wall-eyed pike, yellow pike, blue pike (Stizostedion vitreum). 

Yellow perch, ring perch (Perca flavescens) . 
The sea basses (Serranid^): 

Striped bass, rockfish (Roccus lineatus). 

White perch (Morone amcricana). 
The cods (Gadid.e): 

Cod (Gadus callarias). 

Haddock (Melanogrammus seglifinus). 

Pollock (Pollachius virens). 
The flounders (Pleuronectid^): 

Winter flounder, American flatfish {Pseudopleuronectes americanus). 
The labrids (Labrid^): 

Tautog, blackfish (Tautoga onitis). 
Crustaceans: 

American lobster (Homarus americanus). 

The fishes rescued from overflowed lands in the Mississippi Basin 
and returned to the original streams were as follows: 

The catfishes (Silurid.«): 

Spotted cat, blue cat, channel cat (Ictalurus punctaius). Only limited numbera 

obtainable. 
Horned pout, bullhead, yellow cat (Ameiurus nebulosus). 

86497°— 17 7 



10 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



The suckers and bupfalofishes (Catostomid^): 

Smallmouth buffalofish (Ictiobus bubalus). 

Common buffalofish (Ictiobus cyprinella). 

Black buffalofish (Ictiobus urus). 
The minnows and carps (Cyprinid^): 

Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Distributeri in rare instances on special request and for 
waters unsuited to other species. 
The pikes and pickerels (Esocid^): 

Pike (Esox lucius). Restored to the streams; not distributed. 

Pickerel (Esox reticulatv^) . Restored to the streams; not distributed. 
The basses, sunfishes, and crappies (Centrarchid^): 

Crappie (Pomoxis annularis). 

Rock bass, red-eye, goggle-eye (Ambloplites rupestris). 

Warmouth, goggle-eye (Chsenohryttus gulosus). 

Largemouth black bass (Micropterus salmoides). 

Smallmouth black bass (Micropterus dolomieu). 

Bluegill bream, bluegill sunfish (Lepomis incisor). 

Other sunfishes, chiefly Eupomotis gibbosus. 
The perches (Percid^): 

Yellow perch, ring perch (Perca fiavescens). 
The sea basses (Serranid^): 

White bass (Roccus chrysops). 

Yellow bass (Morone interrupta). 

Certain introduced species are propagated to a limited extent, as 
follows : 

The minnows and carps (Cyprinid^): 

Goldfish (Carassius auratus). Propagated for ornamental purposes; not dis- 
tributed. 

SUMMARIZED STATEMENT OF DISTRIBUTION. 

The following table shows the number of fish and eggs actually- 
distributed during the fiscal year 1915, or, in other words, the output 
of the hatcheries, with all losses in transportation deducted: 

Summary, by Species, of the Distribution op Fish and Fish Eggs During the 

Fiscal Year 1915. 



Species. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 

yearlings, and 

adults. 



Total. 



Catfish 

Carp , 

YeUow sucker , 

Buffalofish 

Fresh-water drum. . 

Shad 

Alewife 

Whitefish 

Lake herring 

Silver salmon 

Chinook salmon 

Blueback salmon 

Humpback salmon. . 

Dog salmon 

Steelhead trout 

Rainbow trout 

Atlantic salmon 

Landlocked salmon. 

Scotch sea trout 

Blackspotted trout.. 
Loch Leven trout. . . 
Lake trout 



98,900,000 



1,948,280 

34,466,723 

3,155,000 



634,000 
2,022,990 



291,000 
"3,435,660 
'i2,' 856,' 666 



46,009,595 

4,851,000 

405,400,000 

92,350,000 

21,204,230 

44,554.892 

43,776,741 

11,758,500 

35,504,707 

2,259,113 

568, 930 

1,804,313 

310,042 

58, 430 

1,939,250 



1,665,793 

644,411 

200 

114,849 

65 



2, 756, 062 

16,741,450 

8,666,255 

479,037 



3,244,660 
2,144,875 



140,015 



35,294,723 



4,784,067 

48, 000 

3, 093, 745 



1,665,793 

644,411 

200 

114,849 

65 

46,009,595 

4,851.000 

504,300,000 

92,350,000 

25, 908, 572 

95.763,065 

55,597,996 

12,237,537 

35,504,707 

6,137,773 

4,736,795 

1,804,313 

741,057 

58,430 

10,158,317 

48,000 

51,238,468 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 191'). 



11 



Summary, by Species, of the Distribution of Fisn and Eggs During the 
Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 



Species. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 

yearlings, and 

adults. 



Total. 



Brook trout 

Smelt 

Grayling 

Crappie 

Strawberry bass 

Eock bas^s 

Smallniouth blac.c bass. 
Largemouth black bass. 

Sunfish 

Pike and pickerel 

Pike perch 

Yellow perch 

Striped bass 

White perch 

White bass 

Yellow bass 

Cod. 



507,150 

It, 500, 000 

350,000 



5, 700, 203 
6,900,000 
1,873,000 



653. 170 

758, 300 
135,000 



,320,, 3,50, 000 
19, 000, 000 



17,850.000 



282,820.000 

195,267,000 

8,594,-500 

161,980,000 



Pollock.. 
Mackerel. 
Haddock. 
Flatfish.. 
Tautog... 
Lobster. . 



260,133,000 
500,730,000 

4,847.000 

26,814.000 

1,294,1.56,000 

606,000 

194,670,000 



6,965,167 



1, 800, 430 

470 

414,078 

81.177 

1,431,850 

2, 799, 766 

87,8)6 

383 

104,287 



2,825 
420 



Total. 



536, 260, 143 



3,694,281,699 



58, 215, 962 



609 
214 

8, 
179 



260 

.500, 

4, 

26 

1,294, 

194, 



172, 580 
400,000 
223,000 
800,430 

470 
414,078 
734,347 
190, 150 
934,766 
87, 816 
170, 383 
371,287 
594,500 
830, 000 
2,825 

420 
133,000 
730,000 
847,000 
814,000 
156,000 
606,000 
673,779 



4,288,757,804 



Allotment of Fish and Eggs to State Fish Commissions for Fiscal Year 1915. 



State and species. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


California: 

Brook trout 


100, 000 

34.301.073 

497,240 

1,913,280 

200,000 


















Silver salmon 






Colorado: 

Blackspotted trout . . . . . 




200,000 


Brook trout 




50,000 


Delaware: 






600 


Sunfish - - 




400 


Idaho: 


250,000 






Illinois: 




4,450 
525 








Catfish 






11,000 


Crappie 






7,400 




15,000,000 






Sunfish 




13,500 








3,300 


Indiana: 

Pike perch 


3,000,000 






Iowa: 




3,240 


Crappie 






5,000 




8,000,000 






Sunfish 




5,000 


Kentucky: 

Pike perch 




7,700.000 




Maine: 

Brook trout 


100,000 
50,000 
100,000 
















Smelt 


5,000,000 




Massachusetts: 


15,000 

15,000,000 

216,000 

13,000,000 

10,000,000 




Pike perch 










White perch . . 






Yellow percli 







12 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Allotment of Fish and Eggs to State Fish Commissions for Fiscal Year 

1915 — Continued. 



State and species. 



Michigan: 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon. 

Pike perch 

Minnesota: 

Lake trout 

Steelhead trout 

Montana: 

Blackspotted trout. 

Lake trout 

Whitefish 

Nebraska: 

Pike perch 

Rainbow trout 

Nevada: 

Brook trout 

Rainbow trout 

New Hampshire: 

Brook trout 

Landlocked salmon. 
New Jersey: 

Black bass 

Crappie 

Landlocked salmon. 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead trout 

Sunfish 

White perch 

Yellow perch 

New Mexico: 

Blackspotted trout . 
New York: 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon. 
North Dakota: 

Black bass 

Crappie 

Pike perch 

Rainbow trout 

Ohio: 

Pike perch 

Whiteflsh 

Oregon: 

Blackspotted trout . 

Blueback salmon. . . 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead trout 

Pennsylvania: 

Lake trout 

Whitefish 

Utah: 

Blackspotted trout . 

Rainbow trout 

Vermont: 

Chinook salmon 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon. 

Smelt 

Steelhead trout 

Washington: 

Blackspotted trout . 

Blueback salmon . . . 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead trout 

Wisconsin: 

Lake trout 

Whitefish 

Wyoming: 

Blackspotted trout . 

Brook trout 

Grayling 

Lake trout 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead trout 



Total. 



Eggs. 



000,000 

15,000 

400,000 



100,000 
400,000 



000, 000 
000,000 



50, 000 
100,000 

30, 000 
30,000 



25,000 
100,000 
100, 000 



, S50, 000 
,000,000 

100, 000 

100, 000 
20, 000 



,000,000 
40,000 

, 450, 000 
, 840, 000 

500,000 
, 100, 000 
200,000 



100,000 
, 560, 000 

100,000 
100, 000 

12, 000 
200,000 

30,000 
,000,000 
200,000 

400,000 
50,000 
75, 000 

100,000 



50, 
50, 
75, 
100, 



518, 469, 593 



Fry. 



100,000 



12,800,000 



DISTRIBUTTOX OF FTSH AND FISH EGOS. 1915. 



13 



Shipme.nts of Fish and Eggs to Insular Possessions and Foreign Countries 
During the Fiscal Year 1915. 



Country and species. 


Eggs. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Cuba: 




1,000 


India: 

Rainhnw trout , , 


40,000 
400,000 




Japan: 

Rainbow trout 






100 


Porto Rico: 

Black bass 




600 


Catfish 




600 


Roclc bass 




1,200 


Sunflsh 




600 








Total 


440,000 


4 100 







DETAILS OF OUTPUT FOR 1915. 

The following table shows the work of the diflPerent stations in 1915, 
the periods of operations, and the eggs and fish furnished by each 
station for distribution. It will be noted that transfers of fish and 
eggs from station to station are frequent. Such transfers are made 
in the interest of economy and convenience where the shipments 
consist of eggs, and give advantageous distribution centers in the 
case of young fish. 

Stations Operated and the Output op each for the Fiscal Year 1915. 



station and period of 
operation. 


Species. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Total. 


Afognak, Alaska: a 

Entire year 


Blueback salmon 




942, 250 
224,000 


5,444,830 
119,480 

2,875,544 
226 162 


6,387,080 
343,480 

2,875,544 
226, 162 




Humpback salmon . 
Chinook salmon 




Baird,Cal.: 

Entire year 






Silver salmon 






BattleCreek,Cal.:a 
Dec-Apr 


Chinook salmon 


14,968,398 




5,001,345 


19,969,743 
209,250 

2,831,925 




209,250 


Hombrook, Cal.:a 
Dec-May 


Chinook salmon 

Rainbow trout 

Silver salmon 

Chinook salmon 

Blueback salmon 

Chinook salmon 


2,831,925 
1,097,240 
1,913,280 

16,654,400 






351,480 
462,490 

5.015.400 




1,44S,720 






2,375,770 

21,669,800 

7,310,900 

116,000 

2,514,000 


MillCreek, Cal.: 




Baker Lake, Wash.: a 

Entire year 


55,000 7.2.55.900 








116,000 
2,514,000 






Silver salmon 






Birdsview, Wash.: " 
Entire year 


Blueback salmon. . . 
Chinook salmon 


100,000 


46,425 
209,694 


146,425 






209, 694 




Dog salmon 




4,000 
4,750,000 
8,165,000 
1,510,700 


4,000 
4, 750, 000 












Silver salmon 

Steelhead trout 


35,000 


357,300 
137,665 


8,557,300 
1,848,365 



a For convenience in handling, transfers were made as follows: 

.\fognak to Green Lake, 3,500,000; to Craig Brook, 3,500,000; to Birdsview, 3,000,000; to Duckabush, 
2,000,000; to Quilcene, 500,000 humpback salmon eggs. 
Battle Creek to Baird, 781,632 Chinook salmon eggs. 
Hornbrook to Baird, l.-)0,()00; to Battle Creek, 2.')0,000 silver salmon eggs. 
Baker Lake to Birdsview, 180,000 blueback salmon eggs. 
Birdsview to St. Johnsburj^, 50,000; to Spearflsh, 25,000; to Duluth, 50,000 steelhead trout eggs. 



14 DTSTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

Stations Operated and the Output op each for the Fiscal Year 1915 — Gontd. 



station and period of 
operation. 



Baker Lake, Wash. — Contd. 
Brinnon, Wash.: a 
Dec-Mar 



Darrington, Wash.: 
Entire year 



Day Creek, Wash. : " 
Entiieyear 



Duckabush, Wash.: 
Entire year 



Illabott Creek, Wash.: « 
Entire year 



QuiIcene,Wash.: 
Entire year 



Sultan, Wash.: a 
Entire year 



Batteiy, Md.: 
Mar.-May . 



Boothbay Harbor, Me. 
Entire year 



Bozeman, Mont.: « 
Entire year 



Yellowstone, Wyo.: 

July-Aug 

Bryans Point, Md.: "■ 
Mar.-May 



Cape Vincent, N. Y.: 
Entire year 



Central Station, Washington, 
D.C.: 
Entire year 



Clackamas, Oreg.; 
Entire year.. 



Species. 



Dog salmon... 
Silver salmon. 

Dog salmon... 
Silver salmon . 



Cflinook salmon. 

Dog salmon 

Silver salmon . . . 



Dog salmon 

Humpback salmon. 
Silver salmon 



Chinook salmon. 

Dog salmon 

Silver salmon. .. 
Steelhead trout . 



Dog salmon 

Humpback salmon. 

Silver salmon 

Steelhead trout 



Chinook salmon. 

Silver salmon, 

Steelhead trout . , 



Alewife 

Shad , 

White perch.. 
Yellow perch . 



Cod 

Flatfsh.. 
Haddock. 
Lobstei . . 



Blackspotted trout. 

Brook trout 

Grayling 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon 

Rainbow trout 

Steelhead trout 



Blackspotted trout. . 



Shad 

Yellow perch . 



Brook trout.. 
Lake herring. 
Lake trout . . . 
Pikepeich... 
Whiteflsh.... 



Pike perch 

Shad 

Yellow perch. 



Blackspotted trout. 

Brook trout 

Chinook salmon 

Lake trout 

Rainbow trout 

Silver salmon 

Steelhead trout 



Eggs. 



17,850,000 
19,000,000 



350,000 



75,000 



3,435,000 



12,000 



Fry. 



4,680,500 
280,700 

2,545,000 
2,303,000 

40,918 

48,097 

2,130,095 

14,465,000 
1,820,000 



110,8S5 

2,152,110 

1,300,870 

60,000 

11,610,000 
359,500 
390,000 
101,400 

40,290 

3,012,500 

292,425 

4,851,000 

2,241,000 

157,480,000 

41,825,000 

21,841,000 

394,499,000 

974,000 

193.800,000 

1,339,250 

370,000 

1, /SO, 000 



110,000 
6,000 

560,000 

13,899,000 
151,592,000 

805,000 

79,200,000 

5,125,000 

38,400,000 

18,000,000 



2,600,000 
500,000 
100,000 



4,209,170 
""26,666' 



Fingerliags, 
yearlings, 
and adults, 



37,000 



20,600 



6,200 

268,750 
350,925 



9,500 

7,000 

199,000 

16, 500 



187, 100 
99, 829 
2,681.255 
24,871 
23,000 



98, 579 



Total. 



4,680,600 
280,700 



2,545, 
2,303 

40 

48 

2,130 

14,465 

1,820 

37 

110 

2, 1.52 

1,306 

60 

11,610 
359: 
410 
101 

40 

3,012 

292 

4,851 

2,241 

175,330 

60,825 

21,841 

394,499 

974 

193,806, 

1, 

920 

2, 130 

9 

7 

384 

22; 

3,995 

13,899 
151,592 

805 
79, 200: 
5,125 
38,400 
18,000 



2,600 
500 
100 

187, 
99 
6,902 
24 
23 
20 



000 
000 

918 
097 
095 

000 
000 
000 

885 
110 
870 
000 

000 
500 
600 
400 

290 
500 
425 

000 
000 
000 
000 

000 
000 
000 
200 

000 
925 
000 
500 
000 
000 
500 



000 
000 

000 
000 
000 
000 
000 



000 
000 
000 

100 
829 
425 
871 
000 
000 
579 



o For convenience in handling, transfers were made as follows: 

Brinnon to Qiiilcene, 4,000,000; to Duckabush, 4,550,000 dog salmon eggs; to Duckabush, 151,000; to 
Quilcene, 35,000 steelhead trout eggs. 

Day Creek to Birdsview, 47, .500 steelhead trout eggs. 

Illabott Creek to Birdsview, 100.000 silver salmon eggs. 

Sultan to Birdsview, .50,(X)0 Chinook salmon eggs. 

Bozeman to Northville, .50,000; to Leadville, 50,000 gravling eggs. 

Yellowstone to Lea Iville, 4,039,000; to Bozeman, 1,866,000; to Clackamas, 200,000; to Spearfish, 1,944,000 
blackspotted trout eggs. 

Bryans Point to Central Station, 1,560,000 yellow perch eggs; 688,000 shad eggs. 



DISTRIBUTION" OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 15 

Stations Operated and the Output of each for the Fiscal Year 1915 — Contd. 



Station and period of 
operation. 


Species. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Total. 


Clackamas, Oreg.— Contd. 
Applegate, Oreg.: 


Chinook salmon 






330,000 
2,115,000 
2,495,770 

566, 727 


330,000 




Silver salmon 






2,115,000 


Big White Salmon, Wash.: 


Steelhead trout 

Chinook salmon 


634,000 


3,000 

14,817,140 

505, 676 
211,359 

1,8,260,000 

40,000 

1,419,500 

259, 990 

6,379,595 

7,000 


3,132,770 
15,383,867 


Illinois River, Oreg.: 


Chinook salmon 




505, 676 










211,359 


Little White Salmon, 
Wash.: 
Entire year 


Chinook salmon 




3,911,983 

467 

1,164,902 

369,036 


22,171,983 


Rogue River, Oreg.: 


Blackspotted trout. . 




40, 467 








2,584,403 








629,026 


Willamette River, Oreg.: 


Shad 




6,379,595 


Cold Springs, Ga.: 


Black bass 




111,145 

4,335 

49,035 


118, 145 




Catflsh 




4,335 




Snnfi.'sh 






49, 035 


Craig Brook, Me.: 


Atlantic salmon 




1,804,313 

173, 408 

2, 676, 000 

58, 430 


1,804,313 




Brook trout 






173, 408 




Humpback salmon 




336, 600 


3, 012, 600 








58, 430 


Duluth, Minn.: a 


Brook trout 




423,000 


423,000 








9, 750, 000 
11,725,000 


9, 750, 000 




Lake trout 


350, 000 


2, 990, 000 
23,500 


15,065,000 






23,500 




Pike perch 




7,450,000 


7, 450, 000 




Steelhead trout 




48, 500 


48,500 




Whiteflsh 




16, 400, 000 

21,000 
22, 990, 000 


16,400,000 


Edenton, N. C: 

Entire year 


Black bass 




95,950 


116,950 




Shad 




22,990,000 




Sunflsh 




23,750 


23,750 








4,500,000 

8,594,500 

1,300 


4,500,000 


Weldon, N. C: 


Striped bass 






8,594,500 


Enviu, Temi.: a 
Entii"e year 


Black bass 




1,200 

245, 250 

297 

680, 000 

14.153 

3,150 

21,400 
200 


2,500 




Brook trout 




245, 250 




Cai"p 






297 










680,000 










14, 153 




Smallmouth black 

bass. 
Sunflsh 




400 


3,550 






21, 400 




Yellow sucker 






200 


Gloucester, Mass.: 


Cod 




70, 280, 000 

121,090,000 

25, 840, 000 

870, 000 

170,000 

500, 730, 000 

1,338,155 

1,929,000 

95,223 

180, 000 

6, 900, 000 

117,042 


70, 280, 000 




Flatfish 






121,090,000 










25, 840, 000 










870,000 




Mackerel 






170,000 




Pollock.. 






500,730,000 


Green Lake, Me.: 


Brook trout 






1,338,155 




Humpback salmon 




23,157 


1,952,157 








95, 223 








20,282 


200,282 




Smelt 


14,500,000 
291,000 


21,400,000 


Grand Lake Stream, Me.: a 
Entire year 


Landlocked salmon. 


73,358 

9,321 

15 

6,501 

77, 692 
349,094 


481,400 


Homer, Miim.: 
Entire year 


9,321 




Buffaloflsh 






15 




Carp 






6,501 




Catfish 






77, 692 




Crappie 






349, 094 



o For convenience in handling, transfers were made as follows: 
Duluth to Holden, 50,000; to Green Lake, 100,000 lake trout eggs; 

Erwin to Cold Springs, 195 carp; to Wvtheville, 4,000 rock bass; 1,300 sunflsh, all fingerlings. 
Grand Lake Stream to Northville, 10,000; to St. Johnsbury, 15,000; to Nashua, 15,000; to Duluth, 25,000; 
to Green Lake, 44,350 landlocked salmon eggs. 



16 DISTRIBUTION OP PISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

Stations Operated and the Output op each for the Fiscal Year 1915 — Contd. 



station and period of 
operation. 


Species. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerliags, 

yearlings, 
and adults. 


Total. 


Homer, Minn.— Continued. 
Entire year 


Pike 






5,376 
383 
590 

576, 465 

1,500 

35,512 

14, 290 

73, 000 

21,500 

565, 000 

731,000 

664, 050 

79,500 


5 376 




Pike perch 




2,700,000 


2,700,383 
590 




Smallmouth black 

bass. 
Sunflsh 










576,465 
1 500 




White bass 








Yellow perch 




250, 000 


285,512 
14, 290 


La Crosse, Wis.: 

Entire year 


Black bass 






Brook trout 






73,000 
21,500 




Buffaloflsh 








Carp 






565,000 
731,000 




Catfish 








Crappie 






664 050 




Pike and pickerel. . . 






79,500 
2, 500, 000 




Pike perch 




2,500,000 




Rainbow trout 




89, 000 

798, 600 

1,000 

3,484,000 
2,367,500 


89 000 




Sunflsh 






798 600 




Yellow perch 






1 000 


Leadville, Colo.: a 

Entire year 


Blackspotted trout. . 






3, 484, 000 
3,761,500 




Brook trout 


350,000 


1,044,000 

48, 000 




Grayling 


48 000 




Rainbow trout 




367, 700 

3,040 
1,550 

94,650 

22,000 

355, 820 

43,088 


367, 700 
3 040 


Louisville, Ky.: 

Entire year 


Black bass ... . 








Snnfish . . . 






1 550 


Mammoth Spring, Ark.: a 
Entire year 


Black bass. .. 




695, 000 


789,650 
22 000 




Crappie 






Rock bass 






355, 820 
442 088 




Smallmouth black 

bass. 
Sunflsh 




399, 000 
135, 000 






135 000 


Friars Point, Miss.: a 
July-Dec 


Black bass 




10,636 

4,221 

1,108 

130 

11,530 

1,080,295 
23 


10,636 
4 221 




Catfish 








Crappie 






1 108 




Rock bass 






130 




Sunflsh 






11 530 


Manchester, Iowa: <» 

Entire year 


Brook trout. 






1,080,295 
23 




Lake trout 








Pike perch 




3,520,000 


3,520,000 
733, 950 




Rainbow trout 

Rock bass 


37G, 750 


357,200 
3,715 
3,795 

5,234 

49,930 

44,500 

59, 200 

184,620 

590,365 

65 

1,870 

833,850 

1,285 

25 

20,980 

55,525 

46,800 

8,300 

600,800 

123, 4c0 

1,100 

328,940 

40 

17,100 






3 715 




Smallmouth black 

bass. 
Sunflsh 




3,500 


7,295 






5 234 


Bellevue, Iowa: " 
Aug.-Dec 


Black bass 






49,930 
44 500 




Buffaloflsh 








Carp 






69 200 




Catfish 






184, 620 

590,365 

65 




Crappie 








Fresii-water drum... 








Pike 






1,870 




Sunflsh 






833, 850 




White bass 






1,285 




Yellow bass 






25 




Yellow perch 






20,980 

55 525 


North McGregor, Iowa: « 
Aug.-Dec 


Black bass 








Buffaloflsh 






46, 800 




Carp 






8 300 




Catfish 






600,800 
123, 4.'0 




Crappie 








Pike 






1,100 




Sunfish 






328, 940 
40 




White bass. . 








Yellow perch 






17,100 



a For convenience in handling, transfers were made as follows: 

Leadville to Wytheville, 200,000; to Clackamas, 100,000; to J\Tanchester, 500,000 brook trout eggs. 

Mammoth Springs to Quincy, 8,000; to Tupelo, 8,500; to Cold Springs, 5,500; to Friars Point, 500 rock 
bass flngerlings: to Tupelo, 100; to Quincv, 4,955 smallmouth bass. 

Friars Point to Tupelo, 4,150 catfish; 106 black bass. 

Manchester to Quiucy, 4,440 sunflsh; to Leadville, 454.000; to La Crosse, 100,500; to Clackamas, 120,000; 
to Northville, 105,000 rainbow trout eggs. 

Bellevue to Cold Springs, 2,950 crappie. 

North McGregor to Cold Springs, 4.375 black bass; Gtl) sunfish. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 17 

Stations Operated and the Output of each for the Fiscal Year 1915 — Contd. 



Station and period of 
operation. 



Nashua, N. H.: 
Entire year. 



Neosho, Mo.:<» 
Entire year. 



Northville, Mich. 
Entire year.. 



Alpena, Mich.: 
Apr.-May 



Charlevoix, Mich.: 
Mar.-Apr 



Detroit, Mich. 
Apr.-May . . 



Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.: 
Apr.-May 



Put-in Bay, Ohio: a 
Entire year 



Quinault, Wash. 
Entire year.. 



Species. 



Brook trout 

Landlocked salmon. 

Rainliow trout 

Smallmouth black 
bass. 



Black bass 

Brook trout 

("rappie 

Rainbow trout 

Rock bass 

Smallmouth black 

bass. 
Simfish 



Brook trout 

Grayling 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon , 

Rainbow trout 

Smallmouth black 
bass. 



Ivake trout . 
WhitefLsh.. 



Lake trout . 
Whiteflsh.. 



Pike perch . 
Whitefish.. 



Lake trout . 
Whiteflsh . . 



Lake herring. 
Lake trout . . . 
Pike perch . . . 
Whiteflsh.... 



Eggs. 



1,750 



12,500,000 



26,400,000 
6,000,000 



284,450,000 
92,900,000 



Quincy, 111.:" 
Entire year. 



St. Johnsbury, Vt.:" 
Entire year 



Blueback salmon. 
Chinook.salmon. . 

Silver salmon 

Steelhead trout... 



Black bass , 

Butfalofish , 

Carp , 

Catfish 

Crappie 

Pike perch 

Rock bass 

Strawberry bass. 

Sunflsh 

Yellow bass 

Yellow perch 



Brook trout 

Lake trout 

Landlocked salmon 

Rainbow trout 

Smallmouth black 
bass. 

Steelhead trout 

Yellow perch 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



440,000 
12,000 
10,000 
47, 120 



755,000 
45,000 



4,000 
85,450 
11,900 



155, 400 



3,500,000 
32,000,000 

11,000,000 
30,000,000 

12,550,000 
70,000,000 

3,500,000 
30,000,000 

3,400,000 

350,000 

56,400,000 

200,000,000 

3,558,591 

19,913 

198,960 

10,598 



7,600 

2,430 

19,000 

80 



18,180 

892 

3,820 

102,398 

27,625 

780 

22,707 



12,400 
25, 710 



3,100,000 



12,000 
30,000 



149,665 

2,034 

5,113 

64, 400 

29, 660 



25 

470 

22,250 

395 

7,905 

010,046 

31,500 

2,040 

9,500 

1,898 

36,360 
22,500 



Total. 



449,350 
14, 430 
29,000 
47,200 



18,180 

892 

3,820 

102,398 

27, 625 

780 

22, 707 

831,000 

45,000 

12,500,000 

4,000 

97, 850 

37,610 



3,500,000 
32,000,000 

11,000,000 
30,000,000 

38,950,000 
76,000,000 

3,500,000 
30,000,000 

3,400,000 

350,000 

340,850,000 

301,900,000 

3,558,591 
19,913 
198,966 
10, 598 

149,665 

2,034 

5,113 

64,400 

29,660 

3,100,000 

25 

470 

22,250 

395 

7,905 

1,138,946 

31,500 

2,040 

21,500 

31,898 

36,360 
22, 500 

o For convenience in handling, transfers were made as follows: 

Neosho to Quincy, 12,350 sunfisli; 24,300 rock bass; 1,350 smallmouth liass; to Erwin, 249.350 rambow 

trout 622S 

Northviile to Duluth, 6,932,000; to Cape Vincent. 7,512,000; to Put-in Bay, 1,920,000; to Sault Ste. Marie, 
3,500,000; to Alpena, 3,500,000; to Charlevoix, 11.000,000 lake trout eggs. 

Detroit to Sault Ste. Marie, 30,000,000; to Alpena, 32,000,000; to Charlevoix, 30,000,000 whitefish eggs; 
to Duluth, 20,000,000 pike perch eggs. , „ „„ ^ 

Put-in Bay to Duluth, 25,000,000; to Detroit, 117,800,000 whitefish eggs; to Manchester, 3,000.000; to 
WvtbAville, 3,000,000; to Quincy, 5,000,000; to Homer, 5,000,000; to La Cros.se, 5,000,000 pike perch eggs. 

Qumcy to Tupelo, 3,000 yellow perch; to Neosho, 1,200 catfish; to Leadville, 210; to Bozeman, 240 black 
bass; to White Sulphur, 150 black bass; 660 crappie, 18 carp, 150 yellow perch fingerlings. 

St. Johnsbury to La Crosse, 100,000 brook trout eggs; to Holden, 32,000 steelhead trout eggs. 



18 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

Stations Operated and the Output of each for the Fiscal Year 1915— Contd. 



Station and period of 
operation. 


Species. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings. 

yearlings, 

and adults. 


Total. 


St. Joknsbury, Vt.— Contd. 
Holden, Vt.: 
Entire year 


Brook trout 




408,000 


2,265- 

201,796 

11,940 

44, 750 


410,265 
201, 796 




Lake trout 






Landlocked salmon . 
Steelhead trout 






11,940 






15,000 

151,200,000 
1,500,000 

5,000 


59 750 


Swan ton, Vt.: 
Apr.- May 


Pike perch 


15,500,000 


166,700,000 
1 500 000 




Yellow perch 




San Marcos, Tex.: 

Entire year 


Black bass 




446,657 

25 

20,425 

3,635 

19,680 

853,650 

983,000 

18, 680 

48,000 

16,350 

330,965 
84, 700 

12,000 

441,900 

90,600 

1,100 


451,657 




Ca»fish 




25 




Crappie 






20,425 
3,635 




Rock bass 








Sunflsh 






19, 680 


Spearftsh, S. Dak.: 

Entire year 


Blackspotted trout. 






853, 650 




Brook trout 






983, 000 




Lake trout 






18, 680 




Loch Leven trout . . . 






48,000 




Rainbow trout 






16,350 


Tupelo, Miss.: 

Entire year 








330,965 
84,700 




Sunflsh 






White Sulphur Springs, W. 
Va.: 
Entire year 


Black bass 






12,000 




Brook trout 






441,900 




Rainbow trout 






90,600 




Smallmouth black 
bass. 

Cod 




162,000 

168,012,000 

778,567,000 

4,677,000 

606.000 

29,000 


163, 100 


Woods Hole, Mass.: o 

Entire year 




168,012,000 
778, 567, 000 




Flatfish 








Mackerel 






4, 677, 000 




Tautog 






606,000 


AVytheville, Va.:a 

Entire year 






41,950 

24,715 


70, 950 




Brook trout 




24,715 




Pike perch 




2,700,000 


2, 700, 000 




Rainbow trout 

Rock bass 


474,000 


196,915 
15,200 
3,110 

2,250 

3,175,000 


670,915 






15,200 




Smallmouth black 

bass. 
Sunflsh 




27,500 


30,610 






2,250 


Yes Bay, Alaska: " 


Blueback salmon 


3,000,000 


32,029,000 


38,195,000 






Total 


536,260,143 


3,694,621,249 
339,550 


58,300,501 
84,539 


4,289,181,893 
424, 089 


Loss in transit 












Net 


536,260,143 


3.694.281,699 


58,215,962 


4,288,757,804 









"■ For convenience in handling, transfers were made as follows: 

Woods Hole to Gloucester, 21,630,000 cod eggs. 

WvthevUle to White Sulphur, 6,000 rainbow trout fingerlings; to St. Jolmsbury, 50,000; to Nashua, 
150,0l00; to El-win, 400,000; to White Sulphur, 214,000 rainbow trout eggs; to Cold Springs, 3,600 rock bass 
fingerlings. 

Yes Bay to Birdsview, 2.000.000 humpback salmon eggs. 

The eggs hatched at the main stations listed in the foregoing table 
are in many cases obtained from auxiliary sources, usually temporary 
stations occupied during the season only, or, in some instances, mere 
camps which are shifted from year to year. In the Great Lakes and 
off the New England coast collections are made by the Bureau's vessels 
or boats in favorable localities. The following temporary stations 
and collecting points furnished eggs of the given species for the main 
hatcheries durins: 1915: 



DISTRIBUTION- OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 19 

List of Egg-Collecting Stations, Fiscal Year 1915. 



station. 



Period of operation. 



Species handled. 



Alaska: 

Eagle Lake 

Ketchikan Creek 

Seal Harbor 

Colorado: 

Antero Reservoir 

(^heesman Lake 

Edith Lake 

* Englebrecht Lake 

Musgroves Lake 

Smiths Ponds 

Northfield Lakes 

Stonewall Lake 

Turquoise Lake 

■Wellington Lake 

Woodland Park Lake. 
Maine: 

Portland 

Massachusetts: 

Plymouth 

AVaquoit 

Michigan: 

Bay City 

Bay Port 

Belle Isle 

Charity Island 

Detour 

Fairport 

Frankfort 

Isle Royale 

ICeweenaw Point 

Manistique 

Marquette 

Monroe 

Munising 

Naubinway 

Ontonagon 

St. James 

Minnesota: 

Grand Marais 

Montana: 

O'Dell Creek 

South Meadow Creek . 
New York: 

Amherst Island 

Charity Shoals 

Horseshoe Island 

Ogdensburg 

Old Forge 

Pigeon Island 

Hone Mills 

Sodus Point 

Stony Island , 

Three Mile Bay 

Ohio: 

Cleveland 

Kellvs Island 

Middle Bass 

North Bass 



Port Clinton... 



Toledo. 



Rhode Island: 

Wickford 

South Dakota: 

La Plant Lake... 

Schmidts Lakes. . 
Vermont: 

Darling Pond 

Lake Mitchell 

Orleans 

Speedwell Pond . 
Wyoming: 

Clear Creek 



Columbine Creek. 

Cub Creek 

Lake Camp 

Pelican Creek 



June 

September. October 

June and October 

Apr.ll-May 22 

Apr. 17-May 15 

Oct. 16-Nov. 9 

Oct.9-Nov.21 

Oct. 23-Nov. 21 

Oct. 28-Nov. 25 

Oct. IS-Nov. 16 

Apr. 15-May 15 

Oct. 27-Nov. 17 

Oct. 15-Nov. 10 

Oct. IS-Nov. 16 

July, October, May, June. 

Nov. 23-Jan. 11 

Jan. 1-Apr. 15 

Apr. 17-Apr. 28 

Nov. 9-Nov. 21 

Oct. 25-Dec. 8 

Oct. 14-Dec. 2 

Oct. 18-Nov. 19 

Oct. 29-Nov. 16 

N0V.3-N0V. 14 

Sept. 23-Nov. 21 

Oct.4-Nov. 1 

Oct. 29-Nov. 25 

Oct. 14-Dec. 2 

Nov. 5-Dec. 10 

Oct. 14-Nov. 10 

Nov. 16-Dec. 2 

Oct. 17-Nov. 9 

Oct. 29- Dec. 18 

Oct. l-Dec.3 

Mar. 22-May 4 

Mar. 22-May 1 

Oct. 25-Nov. 1 

Oct. 22-Nov. 7 

Oct.20-Nov. 1 

Apr. 15-May 3 

Nov. 12-Nov. 25 

Oct. 25-Nov. 1 

Apr. 10-Apr. 12 

Nov.28-Dec. 12 

Nov.6-Nov.10 

Nov. 9-Dec. 4.. 

Nov. 29-Dec. 6 

Nov. 14-Dec. 8 

Nov. 14-Dec. 6 

Apr. 15-Apr. 27, Nov. 10- 
Dec. 8. 

Apr. 9-Apr. 30, Nov. 14- 
Dec. 9. 

Apr. 8-Apr. 28, Nov. 14- 
Dee. 9. 



Feb. 26- Apr. 5. 

Oct. 15-Jan. 15. 
Oct. 20-Dec. 25. 



July 21-Dec. 29.. 
July 1-Dec. 18... 
Apr. 15-Jime 30. 
Oct. 21-Nov. 3.. 



July 1-July 21, June 1- 

June 30. 
July 1-July 16, June 14- 

June 30. 
Julv 1-July 21, June 4- 

Jime 30. 
July 1-Sept. 10, May 21- 

June 30. 
Julv 1-July 25, May 21- 

June 30. 



Blueback salmon. 
Humpback salmon. 
Blueback salmon. 

Rainbow trout. 

Do. 
Brook trout. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Rainbow trout. 
Brook trout. 

Do. 

Do. 

Lobster. 

Cod. 
Flatfish. 

Pike perch. 
Whiteflsh. 

Do. 

Do. 
Lake trout. 

Do. 

Do. 
Lake trout and whiteflsh. 
Lake trout. 

Do. 
Lake trout and lake herring. 
Whitfeflsh. 
Lake trout. 
Whiteflsh. 
Lake t rout. 
Lake trout and whiteflsh. 

Lake trout and lake herring. 

Grayling. 

Grayling and rainliow trout. 

Lake trout. 

Do. 

Do. 
Pike perch. 
Whiteflsh. 
Lake trout. 
Pike perch. 
Lake heiTing. 
Lake trout. 
Lake herring and \rhitefish. 

Lake herring. 
Whiteflsh. 

Do. 
Whiteflsh and pike perch. 

Do. 



Flatfish. 

Brook and Loch Leven treat. 
Brook trout. 

Do. 

Do. 
Steelhead trout. 
Brook trout. 

Blackspotted trout. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



20 



DISTRIBUTION OF PISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



DETAILS OF DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND EGGS DURING THE FISCAL 

YEAR 1915. 

CATFISH. 



Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Alabama: 


60 
175 
65 
65 
65 
100 
125 
125 
125 
125 
100 
200 
100 

200 
200 
400 
200 
400 
200 
125 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
1,200 

100 

250 

300 

50 

100 

60 

150 

200 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

150 

100 

50 

100 

100 

500 

125 

250 

150 

150 

50 

200 

100 

150 

50 

100 

50 

50 

50 

100 

100 


Georgia— Continued. 
Thomaston (irist Mill Pond 


125 






125 


Fort Deposit, Barganier's pond 


Thomson, Sweetwater Pond 


50 


Illinois: 






600 






1,000 




Coal Valley, Bolman'spond 


125 


Marion Junction, Donald's pond 




300 


Dow Brick Yard Pond 


300 




Freeport, Yellow Creek 


9 000 






'300 






1,000 


Tunilin Cold Spring Pond 


Nokomis, Walters's pond 


300 




Quincy , Illinois River 


20 000 






2 000 


Clifton Rattlesnake Pond 


West Point, Gordon's pond 


300 


Courtland, Elliott's pond 


Indiana: 
Borden Crystal Spring Pond 






150 


Schweichler's pond 


Koeter's pond 


150 






150 






300 


Pearce Five D Reservoir 


Sunman, Fritsch Pond 


200 




Union Center, Ilildebrand Creek 

Iowa: 


125 








174 475 






125 






3 000 


Willow Pond 


Manchester, Maquoketa River 

Monteith, Couch's pond 

North McGregor, Mississippi River 

Kansas: 


' 20 


Yerba Buena Pond 


200 




593,000 


Grant Creek Pond 






250 


Smith Pond 




250 


RimTjjf' Slope Pond 


Scott Sickle's pond 


250 




Kentucky: 






150 




Early Times, Strawberry Pond 


150 




125 


Florence, Sanders's lake 


Franklin, Baird's pond 


200 


Georgia: 
Austell, Sweetwater Creek 




200 




200 






200 




Sulphur Spring Creek 

Woodland Pond 


200 


Bulloehville, Allen's pond 


200 






450 


Carrolton, Little "Tallapoosa River 




125 


Clarksville, Nichols's pond 




300 






250 


Comer, Porterfield's pond 




125 


Cornelia, Carter's pond 


Morehead, Gayheart's pond 


300 


Walker's pond 




100 


Covington, Yellow River 


Paintsville, Big Sandy River, Levissa 
Fork 




Crawfortlville, Chapman Creek 


300 


Culverton, Waller's pond 




100 


Cusseta, Big Spring Pond 




150 


Good Hope, East Lake 




150 


Harlem, Blanchard's ponds 


Stanford, Dix River 


200 


Lovejoy, Pritchett's pond 


Walton, Glinn's pond 


150 


Meansville, Franldin's pond 


Louisiana: 
Cecil, Mineral Pond 




Moreland, Flower Lake 


50 


' Shady Lake 




300 


Newman , McClendon 's pond 




200 


Ravmond, Maple Lake.^ 


Lake Charles, Nice's pond 


105 


Red Oak, Kite's pond 




100 


Rupert, Cooper's pond 


Maryland: 
Buena Vista Lake Royer 






600 


Senoia, White Oak Pond 


Taneytown, Goulden's pond 


600 


Sharpsburg, North's pond 


Michigan: 
Wetmore, Mud Lake 




Pittman's pond 


500 


Shiloh, Ingram's pond 


Minnesota:' 
Brainerd, Mississippi River 




Temple, B"aker's pond 


500 


Wester Club Pond 


Homer, Mississipai River 


74,817 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



21 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

CATFISH— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Mississippi: 
Blue Mountain, Lake ot the Pines 


150 
51 
KX) 
100 
250 
50 
200 
100 
75 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
2,400 
250 
100 

500 

300 
300 

200 
400 
200 
125 
125 
250 
250 
200 
200 
200 
375 
375 
125 
12.5 
125 
125 
200 
200 
375 
375 
125 
200 
200 
200 
200 
400 

300 
100 
200 
200 
200 

150 

100 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
375 

12.5 
2.50 


Oklahoma — Continued. 
Camargo, Butler Lake 


250 


Friars Point, Mississippi River 


Cashton, Opal Lake 


100 




125 


Parker's pond 


Brewster's pond 


125 






100 




Custer, Havs's pond 


125 


Meridian, Thomas's pond 


Devol, Devol Pond 


500 






125 


Saltillo, Shady Lake 


Loch Lomond Pond 

Elcin, Leach's pond 


125 


Tumbul), Stockett's pond 


100 




Fletcher. Shad v Lake 


100 


Lloyd's pond 


FrederiCK, Whatley Pond 


250 


Westbrook's pond 

Whitaker, Wall's pond 


Granite, Mountain Pond 


250 




100 


Winona, Cameron's pond. . . . . 


Hastings, Whitcornb's pond 


100 






200 


Woodville, Sessions's pond 


Lebreclit's pond 


100 


Missouri: 


Twin Springs Pond 


100 


Birch Tree, Meredith's pond 


Lone Wolf, Sunnybrook Pond 

Manitou, Moose Head Lake 


250 


Carthage Week's pond 


250 






300 


Marceluie, Club Lake 


May, Crystal Lake 


250 


Milo, Roberts's pond 


West Otter Creek 


250 


Montana : 


Medford, Evans's pond 


250 


Glendive, Yellowstone River 




250 


New Jersey: 


Mill Creek, Brewer's pond 


200 


Clementon, Bedford Mission Pond. ... 


Mooreland, Barrick's pond 


250 


South Plainfleld, Willow Lake 


Okarche, Thelens Pond 


250 


New Mexico: 
Albuquerque, Ames's pond 


Oklahoma City Teal Duck Lake 

Perrv, Harkins s pond 


200 
200 




Prague, Zatloukars pond 


100 


Ancho, Cooper's pond 


Purcell, Gault's pond 


100 




Quinlan, Moseley's pond 


250 


Buchanan, De Graftenreid's pond 

Clovis, Pleasant 11 ill Pond 


Sentinel, Patton's pond 


500 




100 


Westfall's pond 


Texhoma, Beaver Pond 


200 


Deming, Chandler's pond 


Vici, South Persimmon Creek 


250 


Crvstal Lake 




250 


Lindauer's pond 


Wellston, Pleasant Pond 


100 


Elida, Crver's pond 


Pennsylvania: 

Hazleton, Keller Pond 

Honesdale, Beach Lake 




Spillman's pond 


300 


Hagerman, McCormick's pond 


200 




400 


Melrose, Huntzinger's pond 


Cajon Lake 


200 


Toole's pond 


Jonestown, Swatara Creek 


600 


Montova, Dismuke's pond 


Lake Carev, Lake Carev 


200 


Nara ^ isa, \g\'acabaria Creek 


Lebanon, Big Swatara Creek 


600 






200 


Toliver's pond 


Reading, Bieber Creek 


600 


Pvote, Jal Pond 


Spring City, Elliott Pond 


200 


Rodeo, McCant's pond 


French Creek 


400 


Sante re, Avers's pond 


Mill Creek 


200 




Schuvlkill River 


200 


Tucumcari, Goldenberg's pond 

Sisney's laie 


Telford, Branch Creek 


200 


Woodbine, Grove's pond 


600 


New York: 
Addison, Canisteo River 


York, Caddoms Creek, West Branch. . 
Porto Rico: 
San Juan , Comerio Lake 


600 


Deansboro, Brook's pond 


600 


Pine Bush, Dwaarkill River 


South Carolina: 

Belton, Kav's pond 

Wilson's pond 

Seivem, Brogden's pond 

Wagener, Buzbee's pond 




Schenevus, Schenevus Creek 


100 


Walden, Wallkill River 


100 


North Carolina: 
Spring Hope, Perry's pond 


100 
100 


North Dakota: 
Dawson, Dawson Ice Pond 


South Dakota: 
Capa, Big Prairie Dog Creek 


100 


Sentinel Butte, ,\ndrews Creek 




150 


Kitchen's pond 

Ohio: 


Draper, Inglenook Pond 


100 


Edgemont, Lake Calvert 


425 


Adair Station, Scott Pond 


Fairfax, Thielfoldt's pond 


150 


Barberton, Camp's pond 




150 


Berea, Lake Abram 




100 


Columbus, Olentangv River 


Ipswich, Linden Lake 


100 


Mansfield, Gatten's lake 


Mcintosh, Stink Creek 


100 


Woodstock, Darby Creek 


200 


Oklahoma: 
Bessie, Beasch's pond 


Oacoma, Broken Diamond Lake 


100 
100 


Brinkman, Lake George 


Horsehead Creek 


300 



22 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

CATFISH— Continued. 



Disposition. 



South Dakota — Continued. 

Parkston , Mogck Lake 

Pierre, Currie'spond 

Dean 's pond 

Patrick's pond 

Rapid City, Mallow's pond 

Tennessee: 

Adams, Willow Pond 

Belvidere, Long Pond 

Woods Pond 

Brush Creek, Lawrence's pond 

Cowan, Moore's pond 

Estill Springs , Lye Pond 

Fayetteville, Stone's pond 

Franklin, Hill Valley Pond 

Friendsville, Anderson's pond 

Greenback, Baker Creek 

Petty 's pond 

Kiser, Brient 'spond 

Morrison, Bonner Pond 

Parker Spring Lake 

Newbem, Wild Rose Pond 

Oneida, Williams Creek, East Fork 

Portland, Perdue's pond 

Sparta, Calfkiller River 

Cherry Creek 

Officer's pond 

Snodgras's pond 

Swindell's pond 

Texas: 

Coupland, Nelson's pond 

Vermont: 

West Danville, Cole Pond 

Mollys Pond 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



100 
200 
200 
100 
100 

140 
100 
200 
140 
140 
140 
100 
100 
100 
300 
200 
100 
200 
100 
60 
200 
140 
200 
100 
100 
100 
100 



400 
400 



Disposition. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



Virginia: 

Balcony Falls, Engleman's pond 

Charlottesville, Browning's pond 

Harrisonburg, Muddy Creek 

Shenandoah River . . . 

Tye River, Big Piney River 

West Virginia: 

Clay Run, Crouch's pond 

Colcord, Orchard Pond 

Inwood, Shipper's pond 

Weston, Monongahela River, West 

Fork 

Wisconsin: 

Birchwood, Birch Lake 

Lake Chetac 

Fall Creek, Fall Creek 

Greenwood , Black River 

Hawkins, Goose Neck Lake 

Shamrock Lake 

Ingram, Lake Shamrock 

Mud Lake 

Skinner Creek, South Fork 

La Crosse, Mississippi River 

Lynxville, Mississippi River 

Monticello, Little Sugar River, North 

Branch 

Monticello, Little Sugar River, West 

Branch 

Rice Lake , Hemlock Lake 

Wyoming: 

Gillette, Burlington Pond 

Lusk, Hat Creek 

Verona, Green's pond 

Totalo 



100 
200 
200 
500 
300 

200 
100 
100 

400 

600 
800 
400 
375 
200 
300 
300 
300 
300 
210,000 
510,000 

600 

600 
800 

450 
425 
150 



1,665,793 



I Lost in transit, 800. 
CARP. 



Alabama: 


36 
44 
36 

100 
100 

36 

45 

10 
5,000 

59,000 
8,200 


Kentucky: 
Midway, Elmwood Lake 


10 


Roanoke, Boaten Pond 


Minnesota: 
Homer, Mississippi River 






6,501 


Connecticut: 


New Jersey: 

Red Bank, Ramenessin Farm Pond... 
South Carolina: 

Laurens, Saxton Ponds 


100 








100 




Virginia: 
Chatham, Carter's pond 




Georgia: 


18 


Granite, Pond "B" 


75 


Illinois: 


Wisconsin: 
La Crosse, Mississippi River 


65,000 




Ljmxville, Mississippi River 


500,000 


Iowa: 
Bellevue, Mississippi River 

North McGregor, Mississippi River 


Total 




644, 411 







YELLOW SUCKER. 



Disposition. 



Adults. 



Virginia: 
Mount Crawford, North River. 



200 



DISTKIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS^ 1915. 



23 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Contimief^. 

BUFFALOnSH. 



Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 

adults. 


Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. 


Georgia: 
GriiTin, Lucia Pond 


100 

24 

10 

2,000 

44,500 
46, 700 


Minnesota: 
Homer, Mississippi River 


15 


Illinois: 
North Henderson, Lily Pond 


Wisconsin: 
La Crosse, Mississippi River 


16,500 
5,000 






Total 






114,849 








North McGregor, Mississippi River 





FRESH-WATER DRUM. 



Disposition. 



Finger- 
lings. 



Iowa: 
Belle\aie, Mississippi Kiver. 



SHAD. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Georgia: 


720,000 
750,000 

1,266,000 

1,258,000 
170,000 
365,000 
160,000 

2,500,000 
280,000 

1,826,000 
755, 000 
929,000 

2,112,000 
10,567,000 
2,878,000 
1,000,000 


North Carolina— Continued. 


1,000,000 






1,163,000 


Maryland: 
Battery, Chesapeake Bay 


Wilmington, Black River 


300,000 


Cape Fear River 


1,200,000 




North East River 

Oregon: 
Willamette, Willamette River 


300,000 


Havre de Grace, Furnace Creek 


6,379,595 


Swan Creek 


South Carolina: 


1,000,000 


Locust Point, Chesapeake Bay 

Piscataway Creek, Potomac River. . . . 

Pomonkey Creek, Potomac River 

Swan Creek, Potomac River 


Virginia: 
Dogue Creek, Potomac River 


2,487,000 


Little Hunting Creek. Potomac River. 

Mount Vernon, Potomac River 

Occoquan Bay, Potomac River 

Total 


1,255,000 
592,000 


North Carolina: 


2,797,000 


Edenton, AH lemarle Sound 


46,009,595 


Edenton Bay 






Greenville, Tar River 









ALEWIFE. 



Maryland: 
Battery, Chesapeake Bay. 



Disposition. 



Fry. 



4,851,000 



24 DISTEIBUTTOlSr OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

WHITEFISH. 



Disposition. 



Ei^gs. 



Fry. 



Michigan: 

Antrim City, Lake Michfean 

Belle Isle Park, Detroit River 

Caseville, Saginaw Bay 

Detour, Lake Huron 

Escanaba, Lake Michigan 

Fort Wayne, Detroit River 

Grace Harbor, Lake Superior 

Iron River, Sunset Lake 

Manistee, Lake Michigan 

Manistique, Lake Michigan 

Marquette, Lake Superior 

Monroe, Lake Erie 

Naubinway, Lake Michigan 

New Richmond, Lake Michigan 

North Point, Lake Huron 

Norway Reef, Lake Michigan 

Sand Bay Island, Lake Michigan. . 

Scare Crow Island, Lake Huron 

Whitefish Bay, I,ake Superior 

WTiitefish Point, Whitefish Bay . . . 
Minnesota: 

DuUith, Lake Superior 

Grand Marais, Lake Superior 

Susie Island, Lake Superior 

Montana: 

Somers, State fish commission 

New York: 

Fox Island, Lake Ontario.' 

Grenadier Island, Lake Ontario 

Hayes Point, Lake Ontario 

Long Lake West, Granpas Lake. . . 

New York City, Aquarium 

Pleasant Lake, Pleasant Lake 

Point Peninsula, Lake Ontario 

Youngstown, Lake Ontario 

Wilson Bay, Lake Ontario 

Ohio: 

Catawba Island, Lake Erie 

Isle St. George, Lake Erie 

Kellys Island, Lake Erie 

Marblehead, Lake Erie 

Middle Bass, I>ake Erie 

Port Clinton, Lake Erie 

Put-in Bay, Lake Erie 

State fish commission. 

Toledo, Lake Erie 

Pennsylvania: 

Erie, State fish commission 

Philadelphia, Aquarium 

Wisconsin: 

Cornucopia, Lake Superior 

Madison, State fish commission 



1,000,000 



200,000 
100,000 



66,840,000 



24,560,000 
200,000 



6,000,000 



14,000,000 
53,500,000 

3,000,000 
12,000,000 

2,000,000 
10,000,000 

4,800,000 
200,000 

3,000,000 

6,000,000 

3,7.50,000 
14,000,000 

3,000,000 

500,000 

19,000,000 

5,000,000 
11,000,000 
13,000,000 

2,000,000 

5,000,000 

100,000 
1,850,000 
2,100,000 



3,750,000 
4,000,000 
3,500,000 



500,000 
3,500,000 
1,000,000 
1,750,000 

20,000,000 
40,000,000 
20,000,000 
20,000,000 
30,000,000 
20,000,000 
30,000,000 



15,000,000 



3,600,000 



Total. 



98,900,000 



405,400,000 



LAKE HERRING (CISCO). 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Michigan: 


450,000 

4,050,000 
450,000 

1,000,000 
18,500,000 
18,500,000 
13,500,000 
13,500,000 


New York — Continued 
Stony Point, Lake Ontario 


6, 700, 000 






1,000,000 




Whitefish Bay, Chaumont Bay 


3,000,000 




3, 500, 000 


New York: 


Ohio: 
Port Clinton, Lake Erie 


3, 400, 000 




Wisconsin: 
Superior Entry, Lake Superior 

Total 




Grenadier Island, Lake Ontario 


4,800,000 




92,350,000 









DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



25 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

SILVER SALMON. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings. 



California: 

Baird, McCloud River 

Battle Creek, Battle Creelj 

Klamathon, Klamath River 

Sisson, State fisti commission 

Michigan: 

Detroit, Detroit Aquarium 

Neiv York: 

New York City, New York Aquarium. 
Oregon: 

Applegate, Applegate Creek 

Clackamas, Clackamas River 

Selma, Rancherie Creek 

Washington: 

Baker Lake, Baker Lake 

Birdsview, Grandy Creek 

Skagit River 

Brinnon, Hoods Canal 

Darrington, Sauk River 

Day Creek, Skagit River 

Duckabush, Duckabush River 

Quilcene, Big Quilcene River 

Little Quilcene River 

Quinault, Quinault Lake 

Rockport, Illabott Creek 

Skagit R iver 

Sultan, Elwell Creek 



1,913,280 

33,000 

2,000 



209,250 
462,490 



20,000 
211,359 

2,514,000 
371,000 

7,794,000 
2S0, 700 

2,303,000 

2,130,095 



344,000 

46,000 

198,966 

1,278,950 

27,920 

3,012,500 



Total. 



226, 162 



2,115,000 



41,400 
315,900 



37,000 
20,600 



1,9:8,280 21,204,230 2,756,062 



CHINOOK SALMON. 



California: 

Baird, McCloud River 

Battle Creek, Battle Creek 

Honibrook, Klamath River 

Mill Creek, MUl Creek 

Sisson, State fish commission 

Tehama, Sacramento River 

Oregon: 

Applegate, Applegate Creek 

Clackamas, Clackamas River 

Rogue River, Elk Creek 

Rogue River 

Selma, Rancherie Creek 

Vermont: 

lyyndonvUle, Chrystal Lake 

Washington: 

Baker Lake, Baker Lake 

Big White Salmon, Big AVhite Salmon River 

Spring Creek 

Birdsview, Grandy Creek 

Skagit River 

Day Creek, Skagit River 

Tingley Creek 

Illabott Creek , Illaiiott Creek 

Little White Salmon, Little White Salmon River. 

Quiniault, Quiuiault Lake 

Rockport, Illabott Creek 

Skagit River 

Sultan, ElweU Creek 



Total. 



153, 650 



34,301,073 



12,000 



3, 740, 400 



1,275,000 



4,209,170 

1,118,500 

301,000 

505, 676 



116,000 
2,812,140 
12,005,000 



5,100 

35,818 

80, 960 

18,260,000 

19,913 

3,905 
28, 020 
40,290 



34,466,723 44,554,892 



2,875,544 
5, 001, 345 



330, 000 
2,681,255 

115,000 
1,049,902 



460, 000 
106, 727 
95,000 
114,694 



3,911,983 



16, 741, 450 



86497°—!/ 



26 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BLUEBACK SALMON. 



DisiKJsition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Alaska: 

Afognak, Ahuyon Creek 

Letnjk Lake , 

Yes Bay, McDonald Lake 

Yes River 

Oregon: 

Bonneville, State fish commission. 

Portland, Klamath Lake 

Washington: 

Baker Lake, Baker Lake 

Birdsview, Grandy Creek 

Quiniaiilt, Quiaiault Lake 

Seattle, Applicant 

Startup, State fish commission — 



16,000 

926,250 

19,360,000 

12,660,000 



3,000,000 
100,000 



7,255,000 



5,000 
50,000 



3, 558, 591 



Total 3,155,000 43,776,741 8,666,255 



HUMPBACK SALMON. 



Alaska: 

Afognak, Ahuyon Creek 

LetEuk Lake 

Maine: 

Bucksport, Harrimans Brook 

Calais, St. Croix River 

Cherryfield, Narraguagus River — 
Columbus Falls, Pleasant River. . . 

Dennysville, Dennys River 

East Machias, East Machias River. 
East Orland, Alamoosook Lake — 

EUsworth, Branch Pond 

Patton Pond 

Union River. 



Harrington, Small Stream. 
Orland, Orland River. 



Pembroke, Penmaquan River. . . 

Penobscot, Pierce Brook 

Perry , Little R iver Perry 

South Penobscot, Wights Brook. 
Washington: 

Birdsview, Grandy Creek 

Skagit River 

Duckabush, Duckabush River. . 

Quilcene, Big Quilcene River 

Little Quilcene River.. 



Total a 1 11, 758, 500 



141,000 
83,000 

400,000 
300,000 
100,000 
450,000 
450, 000 
100,000 
100,000 

45, 000 

45, 000 
210,000 
100,000 
,376,000 

63,000 
400,000 

66, 000 
400,000 

, 625, 000 
,125,000 
, 820, 000 
309, 800 
49, 700 



DOG SALMON. 



Disposition. 



Washington: 

Birdsview, Skagit River 

Brinnon, Hoods Canal 

Walcots Slough 

Darrington, Hatchery Creek 

Sauk River 

Day Creek, Skagit River 

Duckabush, Duckabush River. 

Quilcene, Big Quilcene River.. . 

Little Quilcene River 

Rockport, lllabott Creek 

Skagit River 

Total 



a Lost in transit, 200 fingerlings. 



DJBTRIBUTIOlSr OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



27 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 

STEELHEAD TROUT. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



100, 000 



100,000 



4,000 
30,000 



Minnesota: 

Caledonia, Badger Creek 

Crooked Creek 

Crooked Creek, South Fork 

Crystal Valley Creek 

Dexter Creek 

East Beaver Creek 

Irish Creek 

Riceford Creek 

Thompson Creek 

West Beaver Creek 

Wildcat Creek 

Winnebago Creek 

Glenwood, State fish commission 

Montana: 

Bovd, Frank's pond 

Red Lodge, Rainbow Lake 

West Fork Lake 

NewHarnpshire: 

Lake Tarlton, Lake Tarlton 

New Jersey: 

Hackettstovra, State flsh commission 

New York: 

Au Sable Forks, Taylor Pond 

Cambridge, Owl Kill Creek 

Ithaca, Cayuga Lake 

Raquette Lake, Uncas Lake 

Willsborough, Little Sky Pond 

Warm Pond 

Oregon: 

Applegate, Applegate Creek 

Jackson Creek 

Clackamas, BearCreek 

Clackamas River 

ClearCreek 

Clemens Creek 

Eagle Creek 

Fall Creek 

MilkCreek 

North Fork Creek 

South Fork Creek 

State flsh commission -. 

Trail, Crater Lake 

Elk Creek 

Rogue R iver 

U ulon Creek 

Vermont: 

Barton, Willoughby River 

Bethel, Silver Lake 

Chittenden, Chittenden Dam 

Greensboro, Caspian Lake 

Ilardwick, East Long Pond 

Joes Pond, Joes Pond - 

Middlebury, Lake Dimmore 

I/picester River 

Middlebury River 

New Haven River 

Ripton River 

Sucker Brook 

Orleans, Willoughby Lake 

Willoughby River 

Roxbury, State fish commission 

St. Joiinsbury, Sleepers River 

Washinjjton: 

Bellingham, T,ake Ivouise 

Silver Lake 

Birdsview, Grandv Creek [ 

Skagit River ! 

Qiiilcene, Big Quilcene River 

Little Quilcene River 

Quinault, Quinaiilt l^ake 

Rockport, lUaboit Creek iAA'nm' 

Spokane, State fish commission I iw, uoo 

Sultan, Elwell Creek i 

Wisconsin: 

State Line, Black Oak Lake ] 

Anderson Lake ; 

Stone Lake, Stone Lake ■ 

Wyoming: I „ -^ 

Sheridan, State flsh commission iuo,uuu 

Total a I 634, 000 



fi,000 



12,000 
3,000 



,000 



200,000 



259, 990 



8,000 
10,000 



1,492,700 
80,400 
21,000 
10, 598 
60,000 



292,425 



2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,500 



10,500 
6,000 

8,500 



4,500 



1,500 
3,000 

2,494,270 

1,500 

6,000 

24,000 

10, 400 

4,000 

9,000 

1,500 

8,800 

4,500 

3,000 

27,379 

30, 000 

245,036 

89, 000 

5,000 

8,000 
2,250 
5,500 
5,750 
4,500 
3,860 
5,000 
2,000 
2,000 
5,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,250 
8,000 



5,000 



137, fi65 



9,500 
4,500 
10,000 



2,259,113 3,244,660 



oLost in transit, 2, 500 fingerlings. 



28 



DISTRIBUTION OF FtSH AlSfD FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 

RAINBOW TROUT. 



Pisposition. 



Alabama: 

Birmingham, Moimtatii Tvake 

Hockwood Springs Pond 

Arizona: 

Clarksdale, Bearer Creek 

Clear Creek 

Oak Creek 

Spring Creek 

Sycamore Creek 

Clifton, Casper's pond 

LittloCield, Ilanoock Spring Creek 

SatTonl, 1 >(>;idinan Creek 

Simon, .lensen's pond 

Arkansas : 

Gravette, White's pond 

Hot Sprmgs, Bayou Creek, East Fork 

Gulpha Creek 

Gulpha Oeek, Middle Fork 

Gulpha Creek, South Fork 

Gulpha Creek, AVest Fork 

Walnut Grove Pond 

O'Neal, Martin Creek 

Mill Creek 

Siloam Springs, Flint Creek 

Springdale, Mountain Home Pond 

Sulphur Springs, Butler Creek 

California: 

Colfax, Blair-Winchell Pond 

Bolster's pond 

Hombrook, Cottonwood Creek 

Sisson, State fish commission 

Colorado: 

Antero, Antero Reservoir 

Banard's ponds 

Aroya, Wild Hose Pond 

Aspen, Snow Mass Lake, Lower 

Basalt, Fryin^Pan River 

Biglow Spiir, Frying Pan River 

Buffalo, Rolling Creek 

Wigwam Creek 

Carbondale, Beaver Lake 

Cassells, South I'latte River, North Fork 

Cebolla, Cebolla Creek 

Gunnison River 

T,ower Giumison River 

Red Creek 

T^pjier Coholla Creek 

Cliff, Sout h I'latte River 

Clyd.e, Middle Beaver Creek 

Coalmont, Karherine Lake 

Colona, Beaton Creek I^ake 

Collins Lake 

Cotopaxi, Hayden Creek 

De Beque, Leon Creek 

Libbey's pond 

Mesa Lake 

Dillon, Cooinera Lake 

Edwards, Lake Creek 

Empire, Clear Creek 

Estabrook. Craigs Creek 

Foxton, Platte River, North Fork 

Platte River, South Fork 

Eraser, Keyser Creek . , 

Granby, Beaver Creek 

Little Muddy Creek 

Willow Creek 

Granite, Twin Lakes 

Grant, Geneva Creek 

Gunnison, Gunnison River 

Hopkins, Frying Pan River 

Roaring Fork River 

Idaho Springs, City Storage Lake 

Loveland, Big Thompson River 

Big Thompson River, Millers Fork. 
Big Thompson River, North Fork.. 

Big Thompson River, Upper 

Buckhorn River 

Mack, Bitt«r Creek 



F.ggs. 



Fry. 



351, 480 



Fingerlings. 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



29 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

RAINBOW TROUT-€ontinued. 



Disposition. 



Colorado— Continued. 

Marshall, South Boulder Creek 

Minturn, Echo Lakes 

Moffat, Saguache Creek 

Nast, Chapman Creek 

Frying Fan Uiver 

Ivanlioe Creek 

Pine Grove, South Platte River 

Pitkin, Lime Kiln Pond 

Pueblo, Oak Lodge Trout Ponds 

Rockwood, Lime Creek 

Salida, Arkansas River 

South Arkansas River 

Sapinero, Currecanti Creek 

Sha^vnee, South Platte River, North Fork 

Singleton, South Platte River 

Sloss, Frying I'an River 

South Platte, South Platte River, South Fork. 

Trout Creek 

Wigwam Creek 

Steamboat Springs, Mary Lake 

Med en Lake 

Strontia Springs, Bear Gulch Creek 

Westdiffe, Macey Lake 

Nortli Colony Creek 

Woodland Park, Northfield Lake 

West Creek 

Connecticut: 

Newington, Abbott's pond 

New London, Brandegee Aquarium 

Ridgefleld, Bonnie Loch Pond 

Delaware: 

Newport, Justanna Pond 

Georgia: 

Baldwin, Mountain Creek 

Blue Ridge, Coopers Creek 

Vestel Pond 

Carrolton, Centralhatchie Creek 

Chatsworth, Holly Creek 

Clayton, Stecoa Creek 

Coriult a, Williams Lake 

Cornelia, Mountain Creek 

Helen, Mitchell's lake 

Rabun Gap, Betys Creek 

Patterson Creek 

Ramhurst, Amett Creek 

Tiger, Bee Branch Creek 

Tiger Creek 

Timson Creek 

Idaho: 

Bliss, Buckeye Lake .■ 

Cambridge, Pine Creek 

Dearv, Drury's pond 

Tetorua, Fall Creek 

Spring Creek 

Illinois: 

Galena, Burtons Branch 

Indiana: 

Wellsboro, Markham Creek 

Iowa: 

Calmar, Otor Creek 

Cedar Rapids (applicant) 

Decorah, Canoe Creek 

Cold Water Creek 

Trout River 

Karlville, Elk Creek 

Lansing, Riverside Trout Pond 

Village Creek 

Manchester, Maquoketa River 

North McGregor, Bloody Run 

Postville, Livingoog Spring Brook 

Smiths Spring Brook 

Stone House Brook 

Yellow River 

Yellow River, North Branch 

Waucoma, Goddards Creek 

Kentuckv: 

Leitclilield, McClure's pond 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



2,000 



3,000 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



10,000 

6,000 

1,0(JO 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

10,000 

1,000 

1,000 

2,000 

5,000 

8,000 

1,000 

10,000 

22,300 

1,000 

13,750 

18,000 

400 

1,200 

2,(X)0 

5,000 

1,000 

2,000 

8,000 

2,000 

250 

15 

1,000 

300 

4,000 
8,000 
2,000 
5,000 
0,000 
0,000 
2,000 
4,000 
8,000 
4,000 
4,000 
5,000 
4,(X)0 
5,000 
5,000 

2,000 
3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
4,000 

2,000 



3,000 



3,000 

1,.500 

2,000 

3,000 

2,400 

1,000 

350 

6,000 

250 

500 

250 

500 

500 

1,500 

600 



30 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISTT AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



D^ri'AjLs OF DisTiuBHTioN OF FisTi AND Eggs, Fiscal Yeak 1915 — Contimied. 
RAINBOW TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Maine: 

Bar Harbor, Jordan Pond 

Benson Sidiii);, T.il I lo Bonson Lake 

Boston Umicli, Si>ocial I'ond ,. 

Mills Hill, l'ii>S(Hio Islo Creek 

Megnutic, Arnold I'ond 

Port land , Duck Pond Brook 

Sanford, Squaw Pond 

Maryland : 

iJaUimore, Beaver Dam Run 

Brown, Turkey Branch 

Emiiiro, FollyKiin 

Ficrys SidiiiK, Marsli Run 

Frost bing, I'iouoy River 

Savage Kiver 

fllyndon, Old Mill Run 

Ihigerstown, Beaver Creek, Foltz Fork 

Conococheagtie Creek, Manor Branch. 

Dowiisville Klin 

Marsliulls Run 

Troup Crook 

Keedysville, Willow llraiich Run 

Lonaconing, Big Savage River 

Oakland, Browning Pond 

Ruxton, Callendar llouse Pond 

Clear I'ond 

Sparks, Piney Run 

Massachusetts: 

Athol, Lake Ellis 

Dalton, Wacouah Falls Creek 

Windsor Creek 

Forge Village, Forge Pond 

Gardner, Ward Pond 

Gloucester, reen's pond 

Great Barrington, Green River 

Konkapot River 

Hinsdale, Stevens Brook 

Ivanoaster, Cumberry Pond 

Little Pond 

Spectacle Pond 

Turner Pond 

Lee, Crosby Brook 

Green Water Brook 

Ward Pond 

Lowell, Long Pond 

Mansfield, Lake Neponset 

Nort harapton. Long Plain Brook 

Palmer, State fish commission 

Pittsfield, Pontoosuc Lake 

Shelburno Falls, Bliss I'oud 

Brancli Creek 

Clessons liiver , 

Hout on Brook 

Waltham, Lake Walden : 

West ford, I^ong Sought For Pond 

tfichigan: 

An Sable. Bhie Joe Pond 

Bailey, Crockery Creek , 

Birniingliam, Clizbe's pond 

Bucluuiau, McCoys Creek 

Sampson Creek 

Charlevoix, Twin Lakes 

Clyde, Milford Lake 

Farwell, Tobacco River, Middle Foi k 

Grayling, Tilliila Lake , 

Greenville, IMxon Creek 

Hilliiiau, Indian Creek 

Holly, Phread River 

Midland, (^Inppewa River 

I'ine Uiver 

Montrose, G leuu Lake 

Muskegon, Big Black Creek 

New Butt'alo, Gabon River 

Owasso, Willow Brook 

Petersburg, Cryst al Pond 

Ravenna, Crockery Creek 

G reen Creek 

Rose Center, West Buckhom Creek 

SLx Lakes, Flat River 

Traverse City, Boardman River, Lower 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



25,(X)0 



210,000 



5,000 



25,000 



2,950 



4,000 
5,000 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults 



3,000 
4,000 



5,000 
5,000 
5,000 



3,000 
4,000 



1,500 

's'ooo' 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



31 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 
RAINBOW TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Minnesota: 

Chatfield, Jorden Creek 

Randall Creelc 

Duliith, Evans Lake 

Harmony, Big Spring Brook. . 
(iregerson Creek... 

Jenkins, Pine Kiver 

Knife River, Manitou Creek . . 
Nine Mile(;reek. 
Little Falls, Platte River. 



Minneapolis, Nine Mile Creek 

Nino Mile Creek, Left Braneli , 



Eggs. 



Purgatory Spring Brook. 

Plainview, Funcks Pond 

Rochester, Spring Creek 

Stockton, (Jinlhers Creok 

Stockton Valley Creek 

Stockton Valley Creek, South Branch . 
Missouri: 

Berwick, Clear Creek 

Bourbon, Blue Spring Creek 

Bunker, Black liiver. West Branch 

Crane, Crane Creek 

Exeter, Roaring River 

Marshfield, James River 

Neosho, Hickory Creek 

Pultsight Spring Pond 

Shoal Creek 

Spring Lake 

Newburg, Little Piney Creek 

Mill Creek 

Niagua, Davis Pond 

Noel, Elk Uiver 

Rolla, Little Piney River 

Springfield, Spring Lake 

Stark City, Shannon Lake 

Webb City, Center Creek 

Montana: , , ^ . 

Bigtiinber, Boulder River 

Bozeman, Bridger Creek 

Carlin Creek 

Cockrell Creek 

Fish Creek 

Lansing Creek 

Mystic Lake 

Die Olson Lake 

(Uinton , Lily Pond 

Columbus, Rosebud River, East and West 

Stillwater River 

West Rosebud River 

Conrad , Lake View 

Dell, Sage Creek 

Dillon, Blacklail Doer Creek 

Hedges, (Careless Creek 

Helena, Diamond Pond 

Hobson, Judith Kiver 

Judith Iliver, Middle Fork 

Judith Uiver, North Fork 

Kalispoll, Doll's lake 

Lenia, Mount ain I5rook 

Livingston, Bellman Creek 

Meredith's pond 

Missoula, Belmont Creek 

Big Blackfoot River 

Camas Creek 

Gold Creek 

Montour Creek 

Ponv, South Willow Creek 

Red" Lodge, Black Canyon Lake 

Black Fork Lake 

Fro7.en Lake 

Lower Hell Roaring Lake 

Roberts, Rock Ford Kiver 

Townsend, Crow Creek 

Deep Creek 

Greyson Creek 

Missouri River 

AVibaux, Box Elder Creek 

Wilsall, Lower Flathead Creek 

Upper Flathead Creek 



Fry. 



Fingcrlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



200 

2)0 
1,000 

2;o 

4'0 

:3,0()o 

2, 000 

2,000 

2,(X)0 

000 

400 

600 

200 

2,000 

5,000 

5,400 

400 

2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,850 
0, 775 
1,000 

455 
1,000 
2,400 

200 
2,000 
5, 947 

300 
2, 500 
15,000 

250 

100 
1,500 



5,000 
3,000 
3,000 
4,000 
5,000 
8,000 
8,000 



10,000 
19,000 
9,000 



8,000 
6,000 
8,000 
6,000 



2,500 



500 



0, (XK) 



3,000 
8,000 
3,000 
3,000 
2,(X)0 
10, .500 
2,000 
7, .500 
2,000 

500 
2,500 

.500 
2,000 
3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
3,000 
7,500 



4,500 
9,000 
9,000 
6,000 
10,000 
2,000 
2,500 
2,500 



32 



DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 
RAINBOW TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Nebraska: 

Gretna, Long Pine Creek 

Nevada: 

Steptoe, Lussetti's pond 

Verdi, State fish commission 

New Hampshire: 

Belmont, Clough Pond 

Canaan, Andrews Brook - 

Franklin, Chance Brook ■ 

Punch Brook 

Lake Sunapee, Baptist Brook 

New Jersey: 

Butler, Pequannock River 

Chatsworth, Board Pond 

Hackettstown, State fish commission. . 

Morristown, Badgley Pond 

Lee Meadow Brook 

Princeton, applicant 

Ridgewood, Belmar Springs Lake 

Whipany, Spring Brook 

New Mexico: 

Aztec, Animas River 

Las Vegas, Blue Cannon Creek 

Falls Cannon Creek 

Grindstone Cabin Creek 

Montoya, Blanco Pond 

Crystal Springs Pond 

ServiHe^a, Valdez Pond 

Tularosa, Rio Bonito 

Ruidioso River 

Ute Park, Bitter Creek 

Red River 

New York: 

Benson Mines, Star Lake 

Binghamton, Choconut Creek 

Pages Brook 

Thomas Brook 

Chittenango, Chittenango Creek 

Great Bend, Black Creek 

Hornell, Bishopville Creek 

Canacadea Creek 

Lime Kiln Creek 

Lyons, Glenmart Creek 

New York City, New York Aquarium. 

Oneonta, Anderson Brook 

Charlotte Creek 

Gay Brook 

Houck Brook 

Knapp Brook 

Ouleout Creek 

St. Johnsville, Garoga Creek 

Suffern, Tallman Brook 

SjTacuse, Butternut Creek 

Limestone Creek 

Onondaga Creek 

Pecks Brook 

Watertown, Jacobs Creek 

North Carolina: 

Brevard, Allison's pond 

Bryson, Lands Creek 

Collettsville , Upper Mulberry Creek . . . 

Cranberry, Blevms Creek 

Cranberry Creek 

Crestmont, Baxter Creek 

Bear Creek 

Big Cataloochee Creek 

Big Creek, Laiu-el Fork 

Big Creek, Swallow Fork. . 

Chestnut Creek 

IndianCreek 

Little Cataloochee Creek. . . 

Low Branch Gap Creek 

Poplar Creek 

Upper Big Creek 

Yellow Creek 

Dillsboro, Billy Creek 

Doughton, Little River 

Elk Park, Watauga River, branch of. . 



Eggs. 



100,000 



4,000 



Fry. 



3,000 
3,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



33 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

RAINBOW TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings. 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


North Carolina— Continued. 

Farner, Cherokee Lake 






10,000 








5,000 


Henderson ville, Rainbow Lake 






4,000 


Hiintdale, Sams Branch 






10,000 








20,000 


Lake Toxaway 






5,000 


Linville Falls, Lin ville River 






30 000 


Marion, Buck Creek 






15,000 






10,000 


Burgin Creek 




10,000 


Catawba River, Rock Fork 






1,000 








1,000 
1,000 


Dysart Mill Creek 






English Creek 






1,000 








5,000 
1,000 
1,000 


McCall Creek 












Montford Cove Creek 






1,000 
1 000 


Nicks Creek 






Reedy Branch 






5,000 
1,000 


Shadricks Creek 












6,000 
500 


Marshal, Willow Pond 












3,000 


Grandmother Creek 






3,000 
4,000 


Kawana Lake 






Linville River 






9,000 
2,000 


Linville River, West Fork 






Mount Sterling, Hopkins Creek 






6,000 








6,000 


Moimt Sterling Creek 






5,000 
3,000 


Murphy, Hiawatha River 






Peach Tree Creek 






2 000 


North Wilkesboro Buffalo Creek, Joes Fork 






5,000 


Buffalo Creek, Upper 






10,000 


Dugger Creek 






7,000 


Elk Creek, Upper 






5,000 


Rock House Creek 






5,000 


Ronda, Lake Neuchalet 






2,000 








3,000 


North Dakota: 

St. .John, Stfttft fish commission 


40.000 




Ohio: 

Bellefontaine, Spring Branch 


3,000 
3,000 




Stony Creek 






Bellville, Bells Run 




2,000 
400 


Gatton's lake 






Kocheiser Rim 






1,200 


Lockheart Run 




1,000 








1,500 


Lexington, Grofl Run 






800 








800 


Cullers Creek 




0,000 




East Branch 




1,100 


Fackler Run 






1,600 


Gribbings Run 






2,000 


John ville Creek 






2,000 






3,000 
5,000 




Koogles Run 










2,000 


Lucas Run 






1,000 


Medina Pond 




1,000 




Pleasant Valley Creek 




1,600 






4,000 
5,000 
3,000 




Simmons Run 






Styerts Creek 






Wise Lake 




600 


Wood Hoase Creek 






1,600 


Middlefield, Bvlers Pond 




1,000 




PIvmouth, Huron River, East Branch 




1,500 


Oklahoma: 

Carrier, Jungle Lake 






800 


Crescent, Lake Haney 






150 


Hickory, Crystal Pond 






500 


Horse Shoe Lake 






1,000 


Hugo, Roebuck Lake 






200 


Roff, Byrds Mill Creek 






1,000 



34 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
RAINBOW TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Oregon: 

Bonneville, State fish commission 

Brownsville, Callapooia River 

La Graiade, Heidenrieli's pond 

Milton, Birch Lake 

Portland, Crystal Lake 

Poppleton's pond 

Union Junction, Catherine Creek 

Pennsylvania: 

Ackermanville, Ackermanville Creek 

Martins Creek - . . 

Old Delabole Creek 

Altoona, Jimiata River, branch oi 

Little Juniata River 

Ambler, Pike Creek 

Birdsboro, Molasses Creek 

Boiling Spring, Old Town Run 

Chambersburg, Conococheague Creek 

Falling Spring, East and West Branches. 

Spring Run 

Christiana, Brookside Rmi 

Johnson Run 

Craigheads, Yellow Breeches Creek 

Denver, Bull Rush Run 

Easton, Bushkill Creek 

Ebensburg, East Chest Creek 

Ephrata, Slumps Run 

Trout Run 

Fairchance, Du Pont Pond 

Friedens, Breast Works Creek 

Coxes Creek 

Dark Shade Creek 

Piney Run 

Glen Mawr, Muncy Creek 

Gouldsboro, Lehigh River 

Trout Creek 

Hoadleys, Beecher Run 

Jersey Shore, Larrys Creek 

McLarens Run 

White Creek 

Johnstown, Bens Creek 

Bens Creek, North Fork 

Bens Creek, South Fork 

Blue Hole Run 

Brush Creek 

Cranberry Glae Run 

Crystal Spring Run 

Drakes Run 

Elk Lick Run 

Fishing Rim 

Flaugherty Creek 

Grays Run 

Hills Creek 

Laurel Run 

Millstone Run 

Mineral Point Pond 

Pine Run 

Runnells Mill Run 

Solomons Run 

Stuart Rim 

Town Line Run 

Upper Dark Shade Run 

West Branch 

Whites Creek 

Lancaster, Baumgardner Run , 

Cromer Run 

Meadow Brook 

Mill Creek, headwaters 

Myers Run 

Weidners Run 

Zorks Rim 

Latrobe, Armel Hollow Run 

Lynn Run 

Wolf Spring Run 

Lemont, Big Spring Run 

McBndes Gap Run 

Ligonier, Linns Run 

Lloydell, Beaver Run 

South Fork Creek 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



DISTRIBUTION" OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 35 

Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 



RAINBOW TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Meyersdale Brush Creek . . 






540 


' Elk Lick Creek 






360 








270 








270 


Wills Creek 






360 


Mill Hall Heards Big Spring Ponds.. 






1,000 








3,000 
900 














900 


Ice Lake . . 






900 








1,200 








2,100 








1,000 








1,000 








1 000 








1,000 


Licking Creek ... 






1 000 








2,000 
1,000 














1,000 


Strodes M ill Creek 






3,000 
1,600 














1,600 


Hemlock Creek 






800 








1,600 








800 








800 


Little Wapwallopen Creek 






800 








800 








3,000 








2,400 








2,400 








1,500 








500 








500 








500 








1,000 








500 


Biglow Run , 






500 








500 


Black Bear Run 






500 








500 


Buttell Run 






500 








500 


Coal Creek 






500 








500 








500 








500 


Dayton Run 






500 


Deep Rock Run 






500 


Echo Run 






500 


Flat Rock Run 






500 








500 


Four Mile Run 






500 


Hazzards Run 






500 








500 








500 








500 


McCords Run 






500 


Moravian Run 






500 








500 


One Mile Run. . 






500 


Patten Run 






500 


Pine Run 






500 


Sensers Run 






500 








500 


Shields Rim.. 1 




500 


Six Mile Run 






500 


Slate Run 






500 








500 


Smayes Run 






500 








500 


Stash Run 






500 








500 


Tomahawk Run 






500 


Tom Tit Run 






500 


Trout Rim 






500 








500 


Twiggs Run 






500 



36 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distkibution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Coctinued. 
RAINBOW TROUT-Continued. 



Disposition. 



Pennsylvania— Continued. 

Phillipsburg, Vails Run 

Winburne Run 

WolfRun 

Quarry ville, Conowingo Creek 

Reading, Beaver Run 

Big Northkill Creek 

Big Six Penny Creek 

Cedar Creek 

Hopewell Creek 

Little Six Penny Creek 

Mount Perm Creek 

Roaring Branch, Elk Run 

Frenchmen Lick Run 

MUl Creek 

Roaring Branch Creek ..... 

Salt Spring Creek 

Sugar Works Run 

Slate Run, Big Run 

Cider Rvm 

Little Pine Creek 

Pine Creek 

Slate Run 

Tamaqua, Beaver Run 

Kistler Run 

Kramers Run 

North Creek 

Tower City, Clarks Creek 

Valley Forge, Knox's pond 

Virginville, Moselm Creek 

Waynesboro, Antietam Creek, West Branch. 

Caufmans Run 

Falls Creek 

Nunnery Run 

Spring Lake 

Windber, Beaver Creek 

Big Shade Creek 

Bobbs Creek 

Clear Shade Creek 

Coal Run 

Conemaugh River, South Fork — 

Cut Run 

Dark Shade Creek 

Laurel Run 

Miller Run 

Otter Run 

Shingle Run 

Sienna Run 

Wentze Run 

South Carolina: 

Mayesville. Tiller's pond 

Pickens, Eastake Creek 

Whitewater Creek 

River Falls, Gap Creek 

South Dakota: 

Alpena, Albert Pond 

Astoria, Fish Lake 

Oak Lake 

Fort Pierre, Marten's jwnd 

Mystic, Rapid Creek Pond 

Parkston, Winter's pond 

Pollock, Morphodite Creek 

Rapid City, Indian School Lake 

Tennessee: 

Arthur, Davis Creek 

Ducktown, Rough Creek 

Dyer, Hudson's pond 

Greenville, Reaves's pond 

Hampton, Simerly Creek 

Johnson City, Cedar Creek 

Glen Ridge Creek 

Knoxville, Jakes Creek 

Little River 

Little Pigeon River, East Fork . . 

McFarland, Smith Creek 

Mountain City, Cress Lake 

Gentrys Creek 

Okolona, Buffalo Creek 

Prospect, White's pond 

Sparta, Running Town Creek 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



DISTKIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



37 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
RAINBOW TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings. 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



Tennessee — Ck)ntinued. 

Summertown, Buffalo River 

Telford, Moore's pond 

Townsend, Little River, West Prong 

Turtle town. Wolf Creek 

Utah: 

Btiena Vista, Holmberg's pond 

Ephraim, Shumway Springs Pond 

Hyrum, Rose's pond 

Milford, Meadow Springs Pond 

Millville, Meadow Spring Run 

Murray, Jameson's pond 

Ogden, Stephens's pond 

Provo, Provo River 

Richfield, Center Lake 

Richmond, Gregory's pond 

Springville, State fiish commission 

Vermont: 

Marshfield, Winooski River 

Plainfield, Bancroft River 

Kingsbury Branch 

Large Brook 

North MontpeUer Pond 

Pekin Branch 

■yVTiite Brook 

Winooski River 

St. Johnsbury, Sleepers River 

Virginia: 

Abingdon, Green Cove Creek 

White Top Creek 

Covington, Castle Run 

Hazes Gap Branch 

Mill Branch 

Elma, Dutch Creek 

Emporia, Coimtry Club Pond 

Fagg, Big Trap Run 

Hamilton, Silver Run 

Interior, Big Stony Creek 

Keysville, May 's pond 

Lennig, Armstead's pond 

Longdale, Simpson Creek 

Low Moor, Karnes Creek 

Manteo, Johnson's pond 

Marion, Dickeys Creek 

Fox Creek 

Staleys Creek 

Natural Bridge, Elk Creek 

Prospect, Forest Green Pond 

Garden's pond 

Pulaski, Sproul Branch 

Spring Hill. Bullneck Branch 

Starkey, Bottom Creek 

Staunton, Jackson River 

Trout Dale, Fox Creek 

Wytheville, Tates Run 

Washington: 

Aberdeen, Chehallis River 

East Hoquiam River 

North River 

Satsop River 

Bellingham, Lake Louise 

Lake Wild wood 

Coleville, Black Lake 

State fish commission 

Elberton, Palouse River 

Ellensburg, Applicant 

Ewan, Rock Lake 

Neppel, Moses Lake 

North Yakima, Wenas Storage Reservoir. 

Omak, Smith Lake 

Republic, Crawfish Lake 

Curlew Lake 

San Pail Lak« 

Robe, Echo Lake 

Rockport, Sunny Brook 

Seattle, Norum Creek 

Spring Brook Pond 

Valley, Bond Lake 

Wilbur, Wilbur Creek 

Woodland, Surveyor Lake 



100,000 



3,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
3,000 



75,000 



50,000 



15,000 
2,000 
15,000 
15,000 

200 

200 
100 
200 
200 
100 
200 
600 
200 
200 



9,500 

3,000 

3,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

500 

1,200 

300 

800 

2,500 

200 

500 

5,000 

4,000 

200 

10,000 

10,000 

10,000 

1,000 

100 

400 

250 

4,000 

300 

1,500 

2,000 

300 

5,000 
2,000 
5,000 
4,500 
2,000 
2,500 
3,000 



3,000 



3,000 
3,000 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
3,000 
4,000 
500 
500 
1,000 
l,.50O 
1,000 



38 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details OF Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

RAINBOW TROUT-Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



West Virginia: 

Berkeley Springs, Cold Run 

Indian Run 

Rock Gap Run 

Carpenter, Blue Creek 

Grafton, Lost Run 

Hendricks, Elk Lick Creek 

Mabie, Roaring Creek 

Marlinton, Elk River 

Raleigh, Little Beaver Creek 

Piney River 

Spangler, Elkwater River 

Stewarts Run 

Spring Creek, Myles Pond 

Terra Alta, Rhyme Creek 

Thomas, Blackwater River, North Fork. 

Whyte, Stalnaker Run 

Wisconsin: 

Alma, Waumandee Creek 

Alma Center, Olson Creek 

Amery, Moimds Creek 

Amherst, TomoiTow River 

Antigo, Red River 

Athelstane, Peshtigo River 

Bameveld, Shannon Branch 

Smith Branch 

Bartow, Rock River 

Bessemer, I>ittle Presque Isle River 

Bloomer, Duncan Creek 

Blue Mounds, Avangs Run 

Bohris Creek 

Boleys Creek 

Brunners Run 

Dimples Creek 

Dohertvs Run 

McKinleys Creek 

Royjiks Run 

Toppers Creek 

Cable, Big Brook 

Cash ton, Aarnes Creek 

Almelien Run 

Colfax, Eighteen Mile Creek 

Mirror Lake 

Crystal Falls, Paint River 

Deer Park, Willow River 

Eagle River, Finger Creek 

Eleva, Adams Creek 

Bennett Valley Creek 

Big Creek 

Englesby Creek 

Hoven Creek 

Lindsay Creek 

Rosman Creek 

Tollefson Creek 

Trout Creek 

Ellsworth , Lost Creek 

Elroy , Ritland's pond 

rairchild, Black Creek 

Flick Creek 

Harsons Creek 

Hay Creek 

Searls Creek 

Snake Creek 

Thompson Creek 

Glen Flora, Bear Creek 

Big Jump River 

Deer Tail Creek 

Devils Creek 

Flambeau River 

Hickey Creek 

Little ,Tnmp River 

Main Creek, Middle Fork. . . 

Main Creek, North Fork 

Main Creek, South Fork 

Main Creek, West Fork 

Pine Creek 

Skinner Creek 

SkJJiner Creek, South Fork. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



39 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

RAINBOW TROUT-Continued. 



Disposition. 



Wisconsin — Continued. 

Glen Flora, Skunk Creek 

Stickey Creek 

Glen Haven, Grant River, Blakes Fork. . . 

Hawkins, Burgess Creek 

Elm Creek 

lyittle Jump Creek 

Main Creek 

Moss Creek 

Otter Creek 

Pine Creek 

Trout Brook 

Hayward, Namakagon River 

Spring Creek 

Independence, Bennett Creek 

Bjerkland Creek 

Bruce Valley Creek 

Chimney Rock Creek 

Davis Creek 

Elk Creek, North Branch . 

Elk Valley Creek 

Farrs Creek 

Filler Creek 

Hawkenson Creek 

Holman Creek 

Hulberg Creek 

Ignatz Lygas Creek 

Johnson Creek 

Kurths Creek 

Linden Creek 

Maloney Creek 

North Branch Creek 

Olson Creek 

Papes Creek 

Plum Creek 

Schaffners Creek 

Solfest Creek 

Traverse Creek 

Utes Creek 

Van Tassell Creek 

Warner Creek 

Wickersham Valley Creek. 

Kendall, Lumsden Creek 

Tunnell Creek 

La Crosse, Borchert Creek 

Halfway Creek 

Spring Branch 

Ladysmith, Little Thornapple River 

Mad Creek 

MaiQ Creek, South Fork 

Lansing, Village Creek 

Maiden Rock, Rush River 

Manitowoc, Black Creek 

Devil River 

Francis Creek 

Manitowoc River 

Mishicott River 

Pierces Creek 

Upper East Twin River 

Upper Manitowoc River 

Menomonie, Hay River, North Fork 

Hay River, South Fork 

Lambs Creek 

Mud Creek 

Tiflany Creek 

Minocqua, Three Mile Creek 

Tomahawk River 

Nashville, T^ost Lake Creek 

Spring Creek 

Newry, Freming Run 

Jersey Creek 

Homstad Run 

Sveen Run 

Nye, Horse Creek 

Johnson Lake 

Oakfield, Park Creek 

Oconomowoc, Cedar Creek 

Owen, Mohr Creek 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



2,100 
1,000 
800 
2,000 
3,000 
1,000 
3, 500 
1,900 
1,000 
4,100 
2,000 
5,000 
1,000 
4,000 
2,000 
2,000 
3,000 
2,000 
2,0(X) 
4,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
400 
2,600 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,200 
600 
2,000 
1,200 
2,600 
2,000 
3,000 
2,400 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
600 
400 
5,000 
5,000 
6,000 
2,100 
2,100 
2,100 
6,000 
4,000 
2,400 
3,300 
1,600 
4,600 
900 
800 
2,400 
2,100 
4,000 
4,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,600 
4,000 
1,500 
1,300 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,200 
2,100 
300 
900 
2,000 



40 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
RAINBOW TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Wisconsin— Continued. 

Randalia, Cooley Pond 

Rhinelander, Hansen Creek 

Rice Lake, Angler Creek 

Big Bear Creek 

Bonry Creek 

Brice Creek 

Cobb Creek 

Devils Creek 

Fisher Creek 

German Creek 

Hickey Creek 

Long Lake Creek 

Meadow Creek 

Miller Creek 

Moosier Creek 

Pine Creek 

Red Cedar River 

Rice Creek 

Rock Creek 

Spring Creek 

Spur Nine Creek 

Thirty Three Creek 

Weirgor Creek 

Yellow River 

Richland Center, Mill Creek, West Branch.. 

Pine Creek 

Willow Creek 

Solon Springs, Yoimg Lake 

Spring Green, Honey Creek 

Spring Valley, Cady Creek 

Eau Galle River 

Gilbert Creek 

Rush River 

Stanley, Eau Claire River, North Fork 

Leavil Creek 

Wolf River 

State Line, Portage Creek 

Spring Creek 

■ Tomahawk, Big Pine Creek 

Big Pine Creek, South Branch. 

Trempealeau, Fox Creek 

Waldo, Oastere Spring Creek 

Waukesha, Harlands Creek 

Loves Creek 

White River and tributaries — 

Westby, Baglien Run 

Bloomingdale Creek 

Danue Rim 

Dickson Creek 

Hailien Run 

Holte Run 

Biiopp Creek 

Larson Run 

Moller Run 

NorboRun 

Oium Rim 

Olson Branch 

O verhagen Run 

Pederson Creek 

Sanbakken Riui 

Sending Creek 

Skoersmen Creek 

Smeby Run 

Spring Valley Creek 

Steenson Run 

Sveum Run 

Tomten Run 

Wyoming: 

Basin, Spring Lake 

Beulah, Elmore Pond 

Cody, Muddy Creek Lake 

Gillette, Wright's pond 

Laramie, North American Lalte 

State fish commission 

Lysite, Bridger Creek 

WTanderson, Medicine Lodge Lake 

Paint Rock Lake 



75,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



41 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
RAINBOW TROUT-€ontinue(i. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Flngerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


"VVyominf;— Continued. 

" Ranciester, Decker Reservoir 






500 


Wolf Creek 






1,500 


Rock Springs, East Fork River 






500 


Green River 






500 


Pine Creek 






1 500 


Pole Creek 






500 


Sheridan, Big Coose Creek, East Fork 






1,500 


' Big Horn River! 


68,750 

40,000 

200,000 
200,000 






India: 

Punjab, British Government 






Japan: 

Kobe, Department of Agriculture 






Tokyo, Department of Agriculture 













Total a 


2,022,990 


568,930 


2 144 875 







ATLANTIC SALMON. 



Maine: 

East Orland, Penobscot River, East Branch 




LANDLOCKED SALMON. 



Idaho: 

Hay Spur, Applicant 

Redflsh Lake 

Maine: 

Abbot Village, Sebec Lake 

Augusta, Lake Cobbosseecontee 

Blanehard, Bimker Pond 

Bodfish, Midday Pond 

Bryants Pond, Lake Twitchell 

Dedham, Maiuis Brook 

East Maehias, Gardner Lake 

Ellis Siding, Cathance Lake 

Enfield, Cold Stream Lake 

Farmington, Clear Wal er Lake 

Sweets Pond 

Varnum Pond 

Franklin, Donnell Pond 

Fryeburg, Lake Key ar 

Grand Lake Strearri, Dobsis Lake. . 
Grand Lake... 

Green Lake, Green Lake 

Jackman, Arnold Pond 

Little Big Wood Lake 

Kineo, Moosehead Lake 

Scotean Creek 

Lambert Lake, Lambert Lake 

Monson Junction, Piper Pond 

Norway, Allen Pond 

Lake Kewayden 

Virginia Lake 

Otis, Great lirook 

Perry, Boyden Lake 

Princeton, Farrar Lake 

Raymond, State fish commission. .. 

Riccars, Lower Range Lake 

Rockland, Chickawaukee Lake 

Springdale, Mousam Lake 

Union, Crawford Pond 

Walker Siding, Squa Pan Lake 

Waterville, Britton Lake 

West Paris, Concord Pond 

Shagg Pond 

Wilsons Mills, Parmacheenee Lake. 

Winn, Number Three Lake 

Massachusetts: 

Amesbury, Lake Attilash 

Fitchburg, Lawrence's pond 



10,000 
15,000 



100,000 



o Lost in transit, 18,188 fingerlings. 



5,000 
26,000 



8,000 
3,000 
5,000 
6,000 



8,000 
24,000 
93, 042 



8,000 

5,000 

10,000 

4,000 .. 



4,000 
6,000 
10, 000 
28,000 



5,000 



,000 



8,000 
5,000 

2,000 
1,000 



750 
900 
300 
450 



600 
600 



24,000 

49,358 

1,000 



450 
3,500 



2,400 

1,800 

632 

750 

450 



300 
300 
600 
300 
750 



300 
300 



86497°— 17- 



42 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

LANDLOCKED SALMON— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Massachusetts— Continued. 

Lenox, Stockbridge Lake 

Palmer, State fish commission 

Still River, Barre Hill Pond 

Worcester, Lake Quinsigamond 

Michigan: 

Doster, Pine Lake 

Oscoda, Cook Lake 

Sault Ste. Marie, State fish commission . 
Minnesota: 

Knife River, Nepissiquit Lake 

Tettegouche Lake 

Montana: 

Bozeman, Bridger Creek 

Whiteflsh, Whiteflsh Lake 

New Hampshire: 

Ashland, Squam Lake 

Bartlett, Sawyer Lake 

Bristol, Newfound I^ake 

Canaan, Tewksbury Pond 

Colebrook, State fish commission 

Enfield, Bicknell Brook 

Crystal Lake 

Littleton, Forest Lake 

Partridge Lake 

New Jersey: 

Hackettstown, State fish commission. . . 
New York: 

Carmel, Lake Mahopac 

Long Lake West, Little Tupper Lake . . 

New York City, New York Aquarium. 

Old Forge, State fish commission 

Raquette Lake, Lake Kora 

Tuxedo, Applicant 

Willsborough, Warm Pond 

Vermont: 

Averill, Little Averill Lake 

Beebe Junction, Derby Pond 

Salem Pond 

Island Pond, Sey more Lake 

Norton Mills, Big Averill Lake 

Orleans, Long Pond 

WOloughby Lake 

Roxbury , State fish' commission 

Salisbury, Lake- Dunmore 

Wisconsin: 

Amherst Junction, Lake EmUy 

Coloma, Pleasant Lake 

Wood Lake 

Three Lakes, Thunder Lake 



Total o. 



Eggs. 



15,000 



15,000 



30,000 



25,000 



10,000 
1,000 
20, 000 
10,000 
10,000 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



2,000 
'2,066' 



4,000 
4,000 



3,000 



3,000 



30,000 



291,000 



310,042 



SCOTCH SEA TROUT. 



Maine: 

East Orland, Alamoosook River. 
Toddy Pond 



Total. 



38,968 
19,462 



58, 430 



BLACKSPOTTED TROUT. 



Colorado: 

Alma, Buckskin Creek 

Mosquito Creek 

Sacramento Creek 

South Platte River, North Fork 

Antero, Antero Reservoir 

Antonito, Lower Conejos Creek 

Upper Conejos Creek 

oLost in transit, 3,000 fry, 535 fingerlings. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915, 



43 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BLACKSPOTTKD TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Colorado— Continued. 

Aspen, Castle Creek 






14,000 
14 oon 


Hunter Creek 






Hunter Creek, South Fork 






S, 000 

16, onn 


Independence Lake 






Lincoln Creek 






14 000 


Lost Man Lake 






1(5, 000 


Maroon Creek 






14 000 


Owl Creek 






8,000 
16,000 
16 000 


Roaring Fork River 






Willow Creek ^ 






Willow Lake 






20,000 


Baldwin, Pass Creek 






10 000 


Basalt, Black Moimtain Lake 






12, ono 


Beaver, Lake McNeill 






20, 000 


Blackhawk, Upper North Clear Creek 






8,000 
16 000 


Boulder, Middle Boulder Creek 






North Boulder Creek 






8 (X)0 


South Boulder Creek 






16,000 
10,000 
12,000 
10 000 


Breckenridee, Spruce Creek 






Buena Vista, South Cottonwood Creek 






Carbondale Avalanche Creek 












6 000 


Develen Lake 






6 000 


Middle Boulder Creek 






21 000 


North Boulder Creek 






12 000 


Cascade, Cascade Creek 






6 000 


Trout Creek 






10,000 
20,000 
50 000 


CeboUa, Cebolla Creek 






Giuinison River 






Cimarron, Big Cimarron River 






20, 000 
10,000 
12,000 
10,000 
8,000 
8,000 
14 000 


Crater Lake 






Little Cimarron River 






Little Cimarron River, West Branch 












Clyde, Middle Beaver Creek 






Coke Ovens, East Dolores River 






West Dolores River 






14 000 


Cotopaxi, Arkansas R iver 






10,000 
76,000 
10 000 


Creede, Rio Grande R iver 












Curtis, Uneva Lake 


50,000 






De Beque, Big Creek 




12 000 


Big Creek Lake 






12,000 
12,000 
12 000 


Bi;ll Creek 






Buzzard Creek 






Coon Creek 






12 000 


Grove Creek 






12 000 


Hawkshurst Creek 






12 000 


Lennox Creek 






6 000 


Mesa Creek 






12,000 
12,000 
12,000 
18 000 


Park Creek 






Plateau Creek 






Roan Creek and tributaries 






Delta, applicant 


100,000 






Cottonwood Creek 




10,000 
10,000 
10 000 


Potter Creek 






Youngs Creek 






Denver, State fish commission 


200,000 






Dillon, Brush Creek 




9,000 
9,000 
B,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10 000 


Cataract Creek 






Christison Lake 






North Snake Creek 






North Ten Mile Creek 






Slate Creek 






Straight Creek 












6,000 
14 000 


Dyke, Devil Creek 






Eagle, East Brush Creek 






9 000 


West Brush Creek 






12,000 
15 000 


Fairplav, Four Mile Creek 






Florence, Beaver Creek 






21 000 


Middle St. Charles Creek 






12 000 


South Hardscrabble Creek 






12,000 
6,000 
10 000 








Fort CoUins, Big South Ponds River 












6,000 
10,000 
6,000 


Laramie River 













44 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details op Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued . 
BLACKSPOTTED TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Colorado — Continued. 

Fraser, Ranch Creek 

Glaciers, Cement Creek 

Ferris Creek 

Taylor River, Lower 

Granby, Columbine Creek 

Grand Lake 

Grand Lake, North Inlet 

Grand River, North Fork 

Strawberry Creek 

Grand Junction, Kannah Creek 

Granite, Mount Elbert Willow Creek 

Tie Gulch Creek 

Twin Lakes Creek 

Grant, South Platte River, North Fork 

Gypsum, Sweetwater Lake 

Turret Creek 

Hayden, Fish Creek 

Williams River, South Fork 

Hermosa, Hermosa Creek, lower 

Hermosa Creek, upper 

Hierro, Sun Creek 

Hotchkiss, Crystal Creek 

Giinnison River, Smith Fork 

Leroux Creek 

Idaho Springs, Bear Creek, upper tributaries . . 

Truesdell Creek 

Vance Creek 

Ivanhoe, Ivanhoe Creek 

Ivanhoe Lake 

Janeway, Avalanche Creek 

Jefferson, Geneva Creek 

Lake City, Gvmnison River, Lake Fork 

Henson Creek, North Fork 

LeadviUe, Moimt Massi\ e Willow Creek 

State fish commission 

Los Pinos, Los Finos Creek, South Fork 

Loveland, Big Thompson Creek, Millers Fork. 
Big Thompson Creek, North Fork. . 
Big Thompson Creek, West Fork. . . 

Breistodt Lake 

Fox Creek 

Green Lake 

Ypsilon Lake 

Lyons, St. Vrain River 

St. Vrain River, Middle Fork 

St. Vrain River, North Fork 

St. Vrain River, South Fork 

Mack. Evacuation Creek 

Marble, Carbonated Creek 

Middle Thompson Creek 

North Thompson Creek 

Marshall, South Boulder Creek 

Mears Junction, Poncho Creek 

Meredith, Jakman Creek 

Moflatt, Wild Cherry Creek Lake 

Monte Vista, South Rock Creek 

Upper Conejos Creek 

Montrose, Clear Creek 

Cottonwood Creek 

Tabeguache Creek 

Nast, Frying Pan River 

Frying Pan River, South Fork 

Nathrop, Browns Creek 

New Castle, Beaver Creek 

Canyon Creek 

East Divide Creek 

East Marvine Creek 

Mauim Creek 

West Divide Creek 

West Marvine Creek 

Norrie, Deeds Creek 

Frying Pan River 

North Cheyenne, Cheyenne Creek, North Fork . 

Pagosa Springs, Big Blanco River 

Big Navajo River 

Four Mile Creek 

Little Blanco River 

Little Navajo River 

San Juan River, East Fork 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



45 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — •Continued. 
BLACK8P0TTED TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



Colorado — Continued 

Pagosa Springs, San Juan River, West Fork. . 

Turkey Creek 

Pando, Eaple River , 

East Eagle River 

Paonia, Coal Creek 

Parlin, Alder Creek 

Beaver Creek, North Fork 

Cochetopa Creek, East Fork 

Cochetopa Creek, Lake Fork 

Cochetopa Creek, West Fork 

Pitkin, Snype Creek 

Placerville, Beaver Creek 

Quin Spur, Frying Pan River, North Fork 

Red Clifl, Homestake Creek 

South Homestake Lake 

Redstone, Coal Creek 

Rex, Cross Creek 

Gore Creek 

Pmey Creek and tributaries 

Treasure Vault Lake 

Ridgway, Lou Creek 

Owl Creek 

Riverdale, Harvard Creek 

RoUinsville, North Boulder Creek 

South Boulder Creek 

Rosemont, Beaver Creek, East Fork 

Ruedi, Rocky Fork Creek 

Saderlind, Gould Creek 

St. Elmo, Taylor River, upper 

Salida, Arkansas River 

Cochetopa Creek 

Poncho Creek 

South Arkansas River 

South Arkansas River, North Fork. . . 

Silverton, Ice Lake Creek 

Mineral Creek 

Minnie Creek 

Molas Lake 

Snow Mass, Capital Creek Lake 

Sopris Lake 

Steamboat Springs, Beaver Creek 

Elk Head Creek 

Mad Creek 

Ranger Lakes 

Snake River, headwaters. 

South Fork Lakes 

Stoner Creek, Stoner Creek 

Tabernash. Eraser River 

Thomasville, Engelbreeht Lakes 

Yasquez, Eraser River T. 

Vasquez Creek 

Villa Grove, Cotton Creek Lake 

Walcott, Piney River 

Walden, Kelly Lake 

Yokiim Creek 

Walsenburg, Huerfano River 

Lily Lake 

Ward, Brainard Lake 

Wheeler, Ten Mile Creek 

West Ten Mile Creek 

Windsor I^ake, Windsor Lake 

Woody, Woody Creek 

Woody Cre«k, North Fork 

Yampa, Morrison Creek 

South Hunt Creek 

Watson Creek, South Branch 

Youman, Elk Creek 

FaU Creek 

Little Cimarron Creek 

Idaho: 

Boise, State fish commission 

Idaho Falls, WiUow Creek 

Michigan: 

Detroit, Detroit Aquarium 

Montaim: 

Al'ler, Ruby River 

Anaconda, Cable Creek 

Deep Creek 

Dempsey Creek 



250,000 



20,000 



10,000 
10,000 
30,000 
12,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 

6,000 
10,000 

4,000 
10,000 
25,000 
12,000 

9,000 
10,000 
12,000 
12,000 
12,000 
12,000 

8,000 

6,000 
12,000 
10,000 
25,000 
20,000 
12,000 
15,000 
20,000 
40,000 

9,000 
12,000 
24,000 
12,000 

4,000 

8,000 

8,000 
10,000 
10,000 
14,000 

5,000 
10,000 
10,000 

8,000 
10,000 
10,000 
14,000 

5,000 
150,000 

8,000 
10,000 
10,000 
12,000 
10,000 

5,000 
16,000 

8,000 
15,000 
10,000 
10,000 
15,000 
10,000 

8,000 
10,000 
10,000 

8,000 

6,000 

6,000 
10,000 



25,000 
5,000 
7,500 
5,000 



46 



DISTRIBUTION OF PISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915^ — Continued. 
BLACKSPOTTED TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Montana— Continued. 




7,500 
5,000 
5,000 
7,500 
10,000 
5,000 
5,000 
7,500 






















Mill Creek 












Rock Creek East Fork . . . 














400,000 




Trout Creek 


7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
7,500 
20,000 




Twin Lakes Creek 




























6,000 






12,500 
12, 500 

7,500 

7,500 
10,000 

7,500 
10,000 

7,500 
15,000 
20,000 
15,000 
17,500 




Reese Creek 


















Lake McDonald . 












McDermott Lake 


















Shonkin Creek 






Big Timber, Big Timber Creek 




3,000 






4,500 


Duck Creek . 




3,000 






17, 500 
5,000 

10,000 
5,000 

10,000 
5,000 
5,000 




Bozeman, Asbestos Creek 






Bozeman Creek . . 












Bracket Creek 




4,500 


Buck Creek 






Cache Creek 






Cherry Creek 




6,750 


Daly Creek 






4,500 


Dry Creek, South Fork 






4,500 


Hell Roaring Creek 






4,500 


Hub Creek 






4,500 


Jackel Creek 






4,500 


Logger Creek 






4,500 


Mystic Lake . . ... 




10, 000 
5,000 




North Cottonwood Creek 






North Twin Lake 




4,500 


Sales Lake 






4,500 


South Twin Lake 






4,500 


Swan Creek . 




5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
10,000 
10,000 
5,000 










Trail Creek 






West Bear Creek . 






West Fork Creek 






Wild Horse Creek 






Wilson Creek 






Butte, applicant 


400,000 




Clancy, T,it,t,le Prickly Pear Creek , . 




5,000 


Warm Springs Creek 






5,000 


Clyde Park, Bracket Creek . 




10,000 
10,000 
12,500 
12,500 
10,000 
20,000 
7,500 
5,000 




Canyon Creek 






Cottonwood Creek 






Horse Creek 






Rock Creek 






Shields River . . 






Spring Creek 






Trowbridge Creek 






Columbus, Stillwater River 




6,000 


Dell, Redrock Creek 






18,000 






2,500 
15,000 
4,500 
7,500 
7,500 
10,000 
20,000 
6,750 
6,750 
6,750 
6,750 
















Glacier Park, Altyn Lake 






G unsight Lake 
























Deep Creek ... 






Dry Creek 






Fish Creek 







DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



47 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BLACKSPOTTED TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Montana — Continued. 

Iron Mountain, Flat Creek 

Fourteen Mile Creek 

Johnston Creek 

Lost Guleh Creek 

Oregon Gulch Creek 

Quartz Creek 

Thompson Creek 

Trout Creek 

Josephine, Middle Creek 

Lewistown, Armells Creek 

Casino Creek 

Cottonwood Creek 

Flatwillow River, North Fork. 
Flatwillow River, South Fork. 

Little Rock Creek 

McCortney Creek 

McDonald Creek, North Fork . . 

McMillan's pond 

Shipman Creek 

Spring Creek 

Tyler Creek 

Wolverine Creek , 

Libby, Quartz Creek , 

Livingston, Lower Shields River 

Yellowstone River 

Manhattan, Ayles Creek 

Miner, Miner Creek , 

Rock Creek 

Missoula, Spring Creek 

Three Mile Creek , 

Moore, Judith River, Ross Fork 

Muir, Upper Billman Creek 

Pray, Mills Creek 

Strawberry Creek 

Ridge, Thompson Creek 

Rock Hill, Harrison Lake , 

Shawmut, Fish Creek, South Fork 

Somers, Flathead Lake 

Springdale, Duck Creek 

Summit, Castle Lake 

Warm Springs Creek , 

Thompson Falls, Clear Creek 

Prospect Creek 

Thompson River 

Two Dot, Cottonwood Creek 

White Sulphur Springs, Newlan Creek 

Smith River 

Wilsall, Flathead Creek 

Shields River 

Spring Creek 

Nebraska: 

Chadron, Dead Horse Creek 

Colclesser, Pine Creek 

New Mexico: 

Carlsbad, Lake Bujac 

Cimarron, Ponil Creek 

Dexter, Lake Durand 

Espanola, Santa Clara River 

Glorietta, Cow Creek 

Pecos River 

Lamy, Santa Fe River 

Las Vegas, Gallinas River 

Raton, Sugarite Creek 

Santa Fe, Tesuque River 

State flsh commission 

Silver City, Black Canyon Creek 

Dry Creek 

Gila River, Middle Fork 

Gila River, West Fork 

Mimbres River 

Mineral Creek 

Mogollon (reek 

Turkey Creek 

Whitewater Creek 

Tularosa, Rio Ruidioso 

New York: 

New York City, New York Aquarium 



Eggs. 



100,000 



25,000 



Fry. 



4,500 
6,750 
4,500 
0, 750 
6,750 
6,750 
6,750 
6,750 



11,250 
6,750 
4,500 



4,500 



2,250 
2,250 
15,750 
9,000 
4,500 



20,000 
20,000 
10,000 
25,000 
12,500 
4,500 
15, 750 
13, 500 
10,000 
10,000 
15,000 



10,000 
12, 500 



15,000 
2,250 
6,750 
6,750 
6,750 
11,250 
13,500 
11,250 
11,250 
45,000 
20,000 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



12,000 
4,500 
3,000 



3,000 
4,' 500 



3,000 
10,500 



2,000 
'22' 500 



10,000 
10,000 

2,700 
2,700 

4,000 
5,000 
2,000 
28,000 
10,000 
30,000 
20,000 
25,000 
15,000 
20,000 



10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 



48 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BLACKSPOTTED TROUT— Cantinued. 



Disposition. 



Oregon: 

Bonneville, State flsii commission 

Clackamas, State fish commission 

Hubbard, Rock Creek 

Nekoma, Indian Creek 

Trail, Elk Creek 

South. Dakota: 

Berne, Pettit's pond 

Cleghorn Springs, Cleghorn Pond 

Cleghorn Spring Creek 

Dark Canyon, Bogus Jim Creek 

Sicklers Pond 

Hermosa, Battle Creek 

Iron Creek, Iron Creek 

McGee, Ilalleys Ivake 

Price Pond 

Mystic, Cottonwood Lake 

Dakota Power Lake 

Lime Creek 

Lime Kiln Pond 

Nugget Creek 

Prairie Creek 

Rapid Creek 

Scot tsPond 

Slate Creek 

Victoria Creek 

West Nugget Creek 

Rapid City, City Springs Run 

Barters Pond 

Jim Creek 

Murphys Pond 

Rounds Pond 

Schleunings Pond 

Spades Lake 

Rochford, Gold Run 

Silver Creek 

Sheridan, Spring Creek 

Speai"fish, Crow Creek 

Spearfish Creek 

Whitewood, Christenson's pond 

Utah: 

Murray, State fish commission 

Washington: 

Collins, Hadley Lake 

Hayes Pond 

Easton, Silver Creek 

Elleusburg, Applicant 

English, Lake Goodwin 

Northport, Big Sheep Creek 

Deep Creek 

Deep Creek Lake 

Pepons Lake 

North Yakima, Bumphig River 

Rattlesnake Creek 

Orient, Boulder Creek 

Port Angeles, Salt Creek 

Republic, Granite Creek 

Long Lake 

O'Brien Creek ,- 

Swan Lake * 

Trout Creek 

Snoqualmie, applicant 

Tacoma, Tanwax Creek 

Wall, State fish commission 

Wyoming: 

Beulah, Sand Creek 

Big Sandy, Big Sandy River 

Centennial, Gap Lake 

Sand Lake 

Sheep Lake 

Clearmont, Cloud Peak Lake 

Crazywoman Creek, North Fork . 

Long Lake 

Ringbone Lake 

Romeo Lake 

Seven Brothers Lake 

Sherd Lake 

Cody, Chain of Lakes 

Crazy Creek 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



100,000 



50,000 



100,000 



400,000 



15,000 
15,000 
15,000 
15,000 



7,500 



7,500 

17, 500 

10, 000 

7,500 

7,500 



4,500 
6,750 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISII AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



49 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BLACKSPOTTED TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


"Wyominc:— Continued. 

Cody Little Rocky Creek 




11,250 
13, 500 
13,500 
11,250 
6,750 
















Wood River North Fork 
















6,000 








6,000 








12,000 








12,000 








5,900 


Miner Creek, South Forlc 






9,500 






6,750 
6,750 
13,500 
6,750 










Shell Creek 






Willett Creek 










12,000 








30,000 


Clear Creek 






10,000 








11,900 


Trout Creek 






8,000 








10,000 




700,000 








4,500 
11,250 
6,750 
6,750 










Paint Rock Creek South Forlc 






Upper Shell Creek 










18,000 


Burnt Lake 






18,000 


Ranchester Little Horn Creek ' 




14,000 


Porcvipine Creek 






12,000 


Saw Mill Creek 






4,000 


Tongue River South Fork 






12,000 


Walker Creek 






4,000 








4,000 


Wolf Creek 






16,000 


Riverton, Bear Creek 






6,500 








10,000 








6,500 


Six Mile Creek 






8,000 








9,600 






13,500 




Wind River Little Wind River, North Fork 




6,000 








6,000 


Meadow Creek 






6,000 








6,000 


Yellowstone, Boat House Creek 




40,000 
75,000 
50,000 
75,000 
50,000 
50,000 
75,000 
30,000 
25,000 
90,000 














































Tower Creek 


















Total" 


3,435,000 


1,939,250 


4,784,067 







LOCH LEVEN TROUT. 



Disposition. 



Fingerlings. 



South Dakota: 

Rapid City, Barker Pond 

Roubaix, Elk Creek 

Savoy, Little Spearfish Creek 

Spearfish, Crow (reek 

Wyoming: 

Saratoga, North Platte River, 

Total 



5,000 
15,000 
10,000 
10,000 

8,000 



48,000 



a Lost in transit, 9,900 fingerlings. 



50 



DISTKIBUTION" OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

LAKE TROUT. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Iowa: 

Manchester, Maquoketa River 

Maine: 

Abbot Village, Buttermilk Pond 

Enfield, State fish commission 

Farmington, Clear Water Lake 

Harrington, Schoodic Pond 

Locke Mills, Round Lake 

South Pond 

Nicolin, Branch Pond 

Norway, Lake Kewayden 

Otis, Great Brook 

Pembroke, Pennamaquan Lake 

Michigan: 

Baraga, Lake Superior 

Beaver Island Harbor, Lake Michigan. 

Big Rock Reef, Lake Michigan 

Charlevoix Reef, Lake Michigan 

Detour, Lake Huron 

Escanaba, Lake Michigan 

Fishermens Home, Lake Superior 

Fisherraens Island, Lake Michigan 

Fish Island, Lake Superior 

Greenville, Ziegenfuss Lake 

Light House, St. Marys River 

Long Point, Lake Superior 

McCargoes Cove, Lake Superior 

Manistique, Lake Michigan 

Marquette, Lake Superior 

Munising, Lake Superior 

Nine Mile Point, Lake Michigan 

North Point, Lake Huron 

Ontanagon, Lake Superior 

Paris, State fish commission 

Rock Harbor, Lake Superior 

Scarecrow Island, Lake Huron 

Skilligallee Reef, Lake Michigan 

Tobens Harbor, Lake Superior 

Todds Harbor, Lake Superior 

Washington Harbor, Lake Superior. . . 

Whitefish Bay, Lake Superior 

Wrights Island, Lake Superior 

Minnesota: 

Beaver Bay, Lake Superior 

Clearbrook, Deep Lake 

Duluth, Lake Superior 

State fish commission 

French River, Lake Superior 

Grand Marais, Lake Superior 

Grand Portage, Lake Superior 

Knife River, Lake Superior 

Sartell, Neargarten Lake 

Standard Rock, I^ake Superior 

Sucker River, Lake Superior 

Two Harbors, Lake Superior 

Montana: 

Bozeman, State fish commission 

New Hampshue: 

Bristol, Newfound Lake 

Enfield, Maseoma Lake 

Lebanon, Crystal Lake 

West Swanzey, Swanzey Lake 

New Jersey: 

Branchville, Owassa Lake 

New York: 

Bath , State fish commission 

Charity Shoals, Lake Ontario 

Fox Island, Lake Ontario 

Fuller Bay, Lake Ontario 

Galloo Island, Lake Ontario 

Grenadier Island, Lake Ontario 

Hayes Point, Lake Ontario 

Long Lake West, Loon Pond 

North Creek, Clear Pond 

Thirteenth Lake 

Northville, Sacandaga Lake 

Point Penmsula, Lake Ontario 

Port Henry, Lincoln Pond 



60,000 



3,000,000 



Fry. 



100,000 



25,000 



5,000 



9,500 
10,000 
5,000 
5,000 
15,000 
10,000 
18, 723 
12,000 

625,000 

900,000 

2,370,000 

3, 400, 000 

1,000,000 

150,000 



2,600,000 



30,000 
200,000 

1,250,000 
600,000 
150,000 
500,000 
600,000 
800,000 

1,750,000 
625,000 

"'900,' 566 
1,750,000 
900,000 
900,000 
600,000 
775, 000 
2,000,000 



250,000 



100,000 
500, 000 
500,000 
250,000 
500,000 



250, 000 
500,000 
500,000 



1,500 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 

20,000 



350,000 
849,000 
350,000 
300,000 
1,220, OCX) 
350,000 



12,000 
12,000 



600, 000 
20,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



51 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LAKE TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Finger lings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


New York— Continued. 

Port Jervis, Bauers Lake 




12,000 




Raquette Lake, Sagamore Lake 


25,000 




Stony Island, Lake Ontario 


280,000 
750,000 

350,000 




Stony Point, Lake Ontario 






Ohio: 

Kellys Island, Lake Erie 






Oregon: 

Clackamas, Crystal Lake 




871 


Pennsylvania: 

Pleasant Mount, State fish commission 


100,000 






South Dakota: 

Fruitdale, U. S. Reclamation Reservoir 




17 280 


Webster, Pickerel Lake 






400 


Vermont: 

Barnet, Harvey Lake 






1 000 


Barton, Clarke Pond 






2 000 


May Pond 






3 000 


Bethel, Silver Lake 






2 000 


Canaan, Big A verill Lake 






7,500 
900 


Greensboro, Caspian Lake 






Middleburv, Lake Dunmore 1 




9,246 
3 375 


Norton Mills, Big Averill Lake 1 




Orleans, Long Pond 






15 200 


Willoughby Lake 






3 000 


Roxbury, State fish commission 


200,000 






Washington: 

Loon Lake, Deer Lake 




6 000 


Loon Lake 






6,000 
4 500 


Renton, Svran Lake 






Tacoma, American Lake 






12 000 


Wisconsin: 

Brule River, Lake Superior 




500,000 




Madison, State fish commission 


9,200,000 




Port Wing, Lake Superior 


500,000 




State Line, Anderson Lake 




20,000 
30 000 








Wyoming: 

Lander, Bonneville Lake 






300 


Frye Lake 






200 


Granite Lake 






200 


Moss Lake 






300 


Sheridan, Big Horn River 


i66,666 

50,000 






State fish commission 












Total a 


12,850,000 


35,294,723 


3 093 745 







BROOK TROUT. 



Arizona: 

Holbrook, Little Colorado River 

Arkansas: 

Hot Springs, Gulpha Creek 

California: 

Sisson, State fish commission 

Truck ee. Carpenter Creek 

Fuer Creek 

Hot Sprmgs Creek 

Juniper Creek 

Union Mills Creek 

Colorado: 

Antero, Antero Reservoir 

Sotuh Platte River 

Aspen, Stillwater Run 

Taylor Lake 

Basalt , Lucksinger's pond 

Beaver Juni-lion, Lake McNeil 

Biglow, Frying Pan River, North Fork. 

Boulder, Duck Lake 

Jim Creek 

Left Hand Creek 

Middle Boulder Creek 

Nederland Lake 

North Boulder Creek 



100,000 



15,000 
25,000 
10,000 
40,000 



25,000 
25,000 



15,000 



2,500 
892 



3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
5,000 
5,000 

25,000 
30,000 



21,000 
24,000 
25,000 



o Lost in transit, 500 fry and 1,625 fingerlings. 



52 



DISTRIBUTION OF PISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT-Oontinued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



Colorado — Continued . 

Boulder, Smith's pond 

South Boulder Creek 

South St. Vrain Creek 

Buffalo, Buffalo Creek 

Platte River 

Wellington Lake 

Buffers Spur, Fremont Lake 

Cardinal, Devlin Creek 

Cascade, Heizer Lake 

Cathers Springs, Little Fountain River 

Cliff, Platte River 

Colorado Springs, Bide-A-Wee Trout Pond. 

Pring Pond 

State fish commission 

Creede, Miners Creek 

Rio Grande River 

Shallow Creek 

De Beque, Carr Creek 

Delta, Gunnison River 

Roubedeaux River 

Trickel Lake 

Denver, Bear Creek 

Durango, Junction Creek 

Eldora, Eldora Lake 

Estabrook, Craig Creek 

Platte River 

Foxton, South Platte River 

Granby, Fern Lake 

Fish Creek 

Grand Lake 

Soda Creek 

Spirit Lake 

Supply Creek 

Granite, Lower Twin Lake 

Twin Lakes 

Grant, Geneva Lake 

Platte River 

Platte River, South Fork 

South Platte River 

Green Mountain, Falls Catamount Creek . . . 

Idaho Spriitgs, Chicago Creek 

Chinns Lake 

Fall River 

Lake Edith 

Sherwms Lake 

Ivanhoe, Morman Lake 

Leadville, Arkansas River, Lower 

Arkansas River, Upper 

Big Union Creek 

Crystal Lake 

Dwyer's pond 

Half Moon Creek 

Lake Creek, Lower 

Lake Creek, Upper 

Musgrove Lakes 

Smith Ponds 

State fish commission 

Tennessee River 

Turquoise Lake 

Loveland, Cub Lake 

Lyons, Copeland Lake 

St. Vrain River, Middle Fork 

Thunder Lake 

Malta, Arkansas River 

Half Moon Creek 

Lake Creek 

Lake Creek , North Fork 

Tennessee Creek 

Nast, Frying Pan River 

Norrie Koch Lake 

Mill Creek 

Platte Canon, South Platte River 

Ranch Creek , Ranch Creek 

Rockwood , Cascade Creek 

Rollinsville, Barker Lake 

Salida, Arkansas River 

Sellar, SeUar Lake 



25,000 
15,000 



10,000 
15,000 



20,000 
'36,066' 



25,000 
27,000 
21,000 



15,000 



12,000 

400,000 

54,000 



175,000 



30,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



53 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Pisposition. 



Colorado— Continued. 

Sha\vnee, Soutli Platte River 

Singleton, South Platte River 

South Fork, Rio Grande, South Fork 

Steamboat Springs, Bivens I^ake 

Mad Creek 

Tabernash , Fraser River 

Thomasville, Engelbrecht Lakes 

Lake Howard 

Lime Creek 

Vasquez, Vasquez Creek 

Victor, Bison Park Lake 

Virginia Dale, Fish Creek 

Webster, South Platte River 

Wok-ott, Eagle River 

Woodland Park, Beaver Lake (A) 

Beaver Lake (B) 

Beaver Lake (C) 

Hay Creek, Branch of 

Hay Creek, Lower 

Noi thfi eld Lake 

Trout Creek 

Upper Beaver Creek and tributaries. 

Woodland Park Lakes 

Yampa, Lost Lake 

Connecticut: 

Bloomfleld, Griffin Brook 

Silver Brook 

Westside Brook 

Bristol, Stafford Creek 

Clarks Comer, Trout Pond 

CoUinsville, Cherry Brook 

Hartford, Broad Brook 

Salmon Brook 

Meriden, De Biehopp Brook 

Pipesdale Brook and tributaries 

New London, Brandegee Aquariam 

Rockville, Meachams Brook 

Simsbury, McLean's pond 

Nod Brook 

South Norwalk, Barnum Brook 

Barrett Brook 

Calvin Brook 

Comstock Brook 

South Norwalk, Saugatuck River, West Bran'h 

Silver Lake 

West Norwalk Brook 

Weston River 

Tariffville, Cullman Brook 

Salmon Brook, West Branch 

Unionville, Aardmaer Brook 

Spring Pond 

Waterbury, Hop Brook 

Mad River 

Georgia: 

Mountain City, Sleoook Creek 

Nacoochee, Cantrell Creek 

Elder Creek 

Kane Creek 

Long Branch Creek 

Pigeon Creek 

Tumerville, Roland Creek 

Idaho: 

Albany Falls, Thompson's pond 

Black Lake, Black Lake Creek 

Enaville, Babbendorf Creek 

Leonia, East Boulder Creek 

Mullan, Cottage Ranch Creek 

Pebble, Pebble Creek 

Port Neuf River 

Tekoa, Benewah Creek 

Victor, Cherry Lake 

Fall Creek 

Illinois: 

Spring Grove, Hatchery Brook 

Indiana: 



Bloomfield, Bridge Creek. 
Clifty Creek.. 



Kggs- 



Fry. 



R,000 
4,000 
4,000 
4,9,50 
.■^,000 
9,S00 
3,000 
4,000 
4,000 
6,000 



.3,500 



8,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
4,000 
1,000 
4,000 

10, 000 
2,000 
4,950 
2,000 
2,000 
8,000 

10,000 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



7,500 
4,500 
24,800 
16,500 
7,000 
6,000 
411,000 



10,000 

4,, 500 

.30,000 

20, (WO 

10,000 

20,000 

6,400 

6,400 

4,000 

10,000 

3,200 

48,000 

6,400 

5,600 



18,000 



2,000 



4,000 
4,000 
3,000 
4,000 
4,000 
5,000 
3,000 

125 

2.50 

300 

900 

300 

1,400 

2,975 

750 

900 

1,375 

525 

800 
800 



54 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Iowa: 

Earlville, Penn Creek 

Hancock, Nishne Batua River 

Iowa Falls, Elk Run Creek , 

Lansing, Village Creek 

North McGregor, Bass Creek 

Bloody Run 

Mill Pond Creek 

Sny Magill Creek 

Peosta, Melleray Park Pond 

Postville, Heckers Branch 

Kentucky: 

Viper, Masons Creek 

Maine: 

Attean, Attean Lake 

Barrett Pond 

Beaver Pond 

Bog Brook 

Clear Water Pond 

Deer Pond 

Fish Pond 

Grace Pond , 

Holeb Lake 

Indian Pond 

Lowell Pond 

Moose Pond , 

Thompson Brook 

Three Streams 

Belfast, Dead Brook 

Goose River , 

Hurds Brook , 

Kimball Brook 

McKinley Brook 

Biddeford, Batson River , 

Cascade Brook , 

Deep Brook 

Goose Fair Brook 

Ricker Brook , 

Sandy Brook 

Towles Brook 

Wyman Brook 

Blgelow, Horns Pond 

Mount Bigelow Pond 

Mud Pond , 

Upper Dam Pond , 

Bingham, Bean Pond 

Nicolls Bog 

Rowe Pond 

Bryant Pond, Lake Christopher 

Carrabassett, West Carry Pond 

Dedham, Manns Brook 

Dennysville, Cathance Lake 

Dexter, Wassookeag Lake 

East Orland, Craig Pond , 

Heart Pond , 

Patten Pond , 

Toddy Pond 

Upper Patten Pond 

Ellsworth, Branc'h Pond , 

Enfield, Trout Pond , 

Franklin, Molasses Pond 

Holden, Hatcase Pond 

Holeb, Beaver Pond 

Round Pond 

Jackman, Benjamin Pond 

Gander Brook 

Lake Wood , 

Little Wood Pond 

Mud Pond 

Spy Pond , 

Wood Creek 

Kineo, Spencer Brook 

Machias, Bog Lake 

Mapleton, Presque Isle River, North Branch. 

Masardis, Millnockett Lake 

Moiunouth, Purgatory Pond 

Sand Pond , 

State fish commission , 



60, 
30, 
25, 
15, 
31, 
15, 
20, 
15, 
100, 
25, 
30, 
30, 
15, 
12, 
10, 

5, 
10, 
10, 
10, 
10, 

5, 
12, 
30, 

6, 
15, 
15, 
15, 



100,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



55 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



Maine — Continued. 

Norway, Allen Pond 

Goodwin Brook 

Hannah Brook 

Hoobs Brook 

Virginia Lake 

Otis, Green Lake 

Patten, Davis Pond 

Phillips, Bigelow Pond 

Carlton Pond 

Spring Lake 

Tuft Pond 

Phillips Lake, Phillips Lake 

Portland, Beaver Brook 

Duck Pond Brook 

Harvey Brook 

Little River, headwaters 

Nonesuch River, headwaters 

Red Brook, headwaters 

Princeton, Grand Lake , 

Rumford, Howard Lake 

Schoodic, Schoodic Lake , 

Skowhegan, Lake Weserunsett 

South Newcastle, Spring Hill Farm Brook 

South Paris, Abbott Pond 

Concord River 

Twenty Mile River 

Washburn Pond 

Springvale, Littlefield Pond 

Strong, Mount Blue Pond 

Toothaker Pond 

"Walkers Siding Squa Pan Creek 

Waterville, Britton Lake 

West Ellsworth, Patten Pond 

Maryland: 

Baltimore, Dippengpound Brook 

North Run 

Bladensburg, Mattapom Creek 

Empire, Elk Lick Run 

Frederick, Piney Brook 

Schafler's pond 

Glyndon, Old Mill Run 

Kitzmiller, Laurel Run, North and South Forks 

Lost Land Run, North and South Forks. 

Short Run 

Three Fork Rvm 

Wolf Den Run 

Loch Haven, Butchers Run 

Monkton, Verdant Valley Run 

Oakland, Lake Beulah 

Riderwood, Roland Run and tributaries 

Selbysport, Cove Run 

Mill Run 

Swanton, Cassellman Run 

Crooked Run 

Green Creek 

Rocky Run 

Wiley's pond 

Thurmont, Big Hunting Creek 

Tuscarora, Tuscarora Creek 

Massachusetts: 

Andover, Great Brook 

Athol, Rutland Brook 

Baldwinsville, Norcross Pond 

Cambridge, applicant 

Gloucester , Alewife Brook 

Graniteville, Carkins Brook 

Leominster, Bartletts Brook 

Steam Mill Brook 

Wekepeke Brook 

Milton, Bailey Pond 

North Dana, Silver Brook Pond 

North Grafton, Kitwell Brook 

Quinsigammond River 

Palmer, Twelve Mile Brook 

Saundersville. Coldspring Brook 

Springfield , Powder Mil 1 Brook 

Still River, Cumberry Pond 

West Brimfleld, Quaboag River 



1,950 



28, 000 

12,000 

12, 000 

20, 000 

28, 000 

32,155 

20, 000 

21,000 

9,000 

24,000 

21,000 

30,000 

3,000 

5,000 

3,000 

5,000 

6,000 

4,000 

30, 000 

24, 000 

30, 000 

27, 000 

12,000 

16, 000 

16,000 

16, 000 

12,000 

16, 000 



8,000 
15,000 
75,000 



6,000 
2,000 
4,000 



5,000 
2,000 
1,000 
3,000 
4,000 
1,000 
5,000 
2,000 
2,000 



5,000 



2,000 



1,000 
1,000 



900 

900 

1,250 

3,000 

300 

300 

300 

6,000 

6,000 

5,000 

5,000 

5,000 

300 

300 

2,000 

600 

3,000 

4,000 

4,000 

2,000 

3,000 

2,000 

1,000 

1,200 

900 



600 
400 



1,200 



56 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS^ 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerllngs, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Massachusetts— Continued. 




8,000 
5,000 
4,000 
8,000 


























1 000 






6,000 
5,000 
5,000 
4,000 
8,000 
4,000 
5,000 
5,000 










Old South Brook 






Poor Farm Brook 
























Tide Brook 






Michip;an: 

AUvn, Platte River 




5,000 


Alto, Wliitnevville Creek 




10, 000 

40,000 

5,000 




Baldwin, Baldwin Creek 






Battle Creek, Ellis Brook 










3,000 


Bessemer, Jackson Creek ...... 






5 000 


Meyers Creek 






4,000 


Black River, Black River 




20,000 
25,000 














3,000 


Charlevoix, Hortons Creek 




15,000 
2.5,000 
5,000 
10,000 
20,000 
30,000 
30,000 
20,000 
50, 000 
50, 000 
10,000 
10,000 
20,000 




Monroe Creek 












Copemish, Betsey River 






East Tawas, Cold Creek 






Guiley Creek 






Silver Creek 












Gaylord, Au Sable River 






Sturgeon River 






Greenville, Turk Lake Creek 






West Branch 






Harrietta, SIa<;el River 






Henrv, Bear River 




5,000 


Indian River, Little Pigeon Creek 




10,000 
10,000 




Stoney Creek 






Ishpeming, Blue Lake 




8,000 


Escanaba River and tributaries 






10,000 


Escanal )a River, West Branch 






5,000 


Green Creek 






5,000 


Long Lake 






8,000 


Jackson, Wolf Creek 




5,000 
10,000 
10,000 




Luca.s. Clam River 






McBain, Clam River 










3,000 


Bear Creek 






3,000 


Beaver Creek 






3,000 


Clover Creek 






3,000 


Fox Creek 






3,000 


Honeymoon Creek 






3,000 


Kimble Creek 






3,000 


Little Presqne Isle River 






8,000 








4,000 


Nelsons Creek 






4,000 


Nine Mile Creek 






3,000 


Pigeon Creek 






3,000 


Ryans Brook 






2,000 


Marion, Clam River 




10,000 

50,000 

10, 000 

10,000 

10, 000 

15, 000 

20,000 

5,000 

5,000 

10,000 

10, 000 

5,000 

10,000 








5,666 


Muskegon, Cedar Creek .. . . 






Duck Creek 






Green Creek 






Newaygo, Pennover Creek 












Orion, Hummers Creek . ... 






Shadbolt Creek 






Oxford Cold Spring Creek.. 












Hummers Creek 












Thurston Creek 




3,000 


Peacock, Big Sable River 




is, 666 





DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



57 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Yuar 1915 — Coulinuef'. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Michigan— Continued. 




10,000 
15,000 
5,000 
10,000 
10, 000 
10,000 
20,000 












































10,fW0 






50,000 






4,000 
10 000 














6 000 








4 000 


Siskiwit Kiver 






4' 000 


Minnesota: 

Caledonia Badger Creek.. 






165 








165 


Crystal Valley Creek 






165 


Dexter Creek . . . 






165 


East Beaver Creek . 






165 








165 


Irish Creek. 






165 








165 


South Fork Creek 






165 


Thompson Creek 






165 


West Beaver Creek... 






165 








165 


Winni'bago Creek 1 




165 






8,000 
165 


Chatficld, Bear Creek i . 








' 165 


Keeler Creek 




165 






165 


Mill Cr^-ek 




165 






165 


Trout Run 




165 


■W^illiams Creek 




165 


Clifton, Talmage Creek ! 




0, (m 


Gushing, Little Elk Creek 1 




8,000 


Duluth, Amity Creek, West Branch ' 




4,000 


Beaverdam Creek 1 




2 000 


I-estcr River 






6,000 


Etna, Etna Creek 






400 


•Ilarmonv, Camp Creek ^ 






165 


Hopkins, Purgatory Creek 






1,600 


Hovland, Linnell Creek ' 




6,000 


Knife River, Baptism Creek ! 




4,000 


Beaver Creek | 




4,000 


(i oosoberry Creek ' 




4,000 
4,000 


Knife River I 




Split Rock Creek 1 : 




4,000 


Tempcrauce River [ . . 




4 000 


Lamoille, Big Trout Creek ' 




165 


Homer Valley Creek 


t 


165 


Little Trout Creek 






165 


PickAvick Valley Creek 






165 








165 


Lewiston, Enterprise Creek 






200 


Fergerson {'reek 




200 


Hemingwav Creek 




2,200 






3,400 
200 


Pine Creek, Fremont Branch 












2,000 


W'hitewntiT Kiver, ICast Branch 






2,000 


"Whilewiiler Kiver, Middle Branch 






200 


Whitewater River, North Branch.. . . .' _ 




2,400 








2,200 


Little Falls, Clough Creek 






5,000 


Rice Creek. .. 






5,000 


Skunk Creek 


;;::::::;:;::::::;:;;;:: 


8,000 


Minnesota City, Browrts Valley Creek 






200 


Deeriug Valley Creek 






200 


Rollinysl one Valley Creek 






200 


Speltz Valley Creek 






200 


Whitman Valley Creek 






200 


Motley, Swan River 






8,000 


Pillager, Villager Creek 





3,000 



86497°— 17- 



-10 



58 



DISTBIBUTION OP FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Minnesota — Continued. 

Plainview, Beaver Creek 

East India Creek 

Logan Branch 

Long Creek 

Middle Creek 

West India Creek 

Whitewater River, Middle Branch. . 
"WTiitewater River, North Branch.. . 
Whitewater River, South Branch... 

Preston, Big Spring Creek 

Camp Creek 

Duschee Creek 

Partridge Creek 

Sugar Creek 

Trout Run 

Watson Creek 

Willow Creek 

Wisel Creek 

Red Wing, Belle Creek 

Hay Creek 

Rushford, Daley Creek 

Enterprise Creek , 

Ferguson Creek 

Hemingway Creek 

Mead Creek 

Overland Creek 

St. Charles, Campbells Branch 

Carters Creek 

Crows Creek 

Demuths Creek 

Halls Run 

Hemingway Creek 

Nicols Creek 

O'Mearas Creek 

Pettis Creek ' 

Pine Creek 

Rush Creek 

Trout Run 

Troy Creek 

Whitewater River, Middle Branch. 
Whitewater River, North Branch.. 
Whitewater River, South Branch.. 

Spring Grove, Riceford Creek 

Waterloo Creek 

West Beaver Creek 

Swan River, Hawkins Creek 

Tamarack, Vanduse Creek 

Utica, Johns Valley Creek 

Rush Creek 

Winona, Beach Valley Creek 

Bear Creek 

Beaver Creek 

Cedar Creek 

Chimney Rock Creek 

Corey Valley Creek 

Dakota Valley Creek 

Doblesteim Valley Creek 

East Burns Valley Creek 

Espelding Valley Cresk 

Gilmore Valley Creek 

Ginthers Valley Creek 

Harvey Valley Creek 

Hicks Valley Creek 

Laufenberger Valley Creek 

Money Creek 

Morrison Valley Creek 

Murray Valley Creek 

Pine Creek 

Pleasant Valley Creek 

Rose Creek 

Rupprecht Valley Creek 

Straight Valley Creek 

Trout Valley Creek 

Vondraeck Valley Creek , 

West Burns Valley Creek 

Wiscoy Valley Creek 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



59 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — -Coatiuued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



Montana: 

Alharabra, Warm Springs Creek 

Anaconda, Rock Creek 

Avon, I)og Creek 

Belgrade, Baker Creek 

Benhardt Creek 

Cowan Creek 

Dry Creek 

Foster Creek 

Kennedy Creek. 

Middle Creek 

Pass Creek 

Reese Creek 

Ross Creek 

Smith Creek 

Spring Creek 

Springhill Creek 

Story Creek 

Thompson Creek 

Trout Creek 

Bigtimber, Bigtimber Creek, South Fork. 

Boulder Creek 

Boulder Creek, East Branch. . 

Duck Creek 

Medicine Bow Creek 

Otter Creek, North Fork 

Swamp Creek 

Yellowstone River 

Bozeman, Angel Creek 

Baker Creek 

Bostwick Creek 

Camp Cr,eek 

Carlin Creek 

Cockerel Creek 

Curtiss Creek 

Fish Creek 

Greek Creek 

Heeb Creek 

Jackel Creek 

Keimedy Creek 

Lansing Creek 

Martin Creek 

Middle Creek 

Middle Spanish Creek 

Nixon Creek 

North Spanish Creek 

Ole Olson Creek 

Pasha Creek 

Smith Creek 

South Cottonwood Creek 

South Spanish Creek 

Specimen Creek 

Squaw Creek : 

Story Creek 

Stuckey Creek 

Thompson Creek 

Tice Creek 

Twin Lake 

Brisbin, Spring Creek 

Broadus, Plumb Pond 

Broadview, Spring Lake 

Butte, Basin Creek 

ISerniese Creek 

Canyon Creek 

Fish Creek 

Lost Creek 

Moose Creek 

Race Track Creek 

R ock Creek 

Wise River 

Cardwell, Davidson's pond 

Chadbourn, Bang Tail, Creek 

Guild River 

Clancy, Little Prickly PearCreek 

Clyde Park, Cottonwood Creek 

Rock Creek 

Columbus, Rosebud Creek 



5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
7,500 
5,000 
5,(K)0 

10, 000 
5,000 

10, 000 
7,500 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 



5, OOP 
5,000 



5,000 
5, 000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 



5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 



5,000 



5,000 



5,000 
5,000 



12,500 
'27,' 566' 



4,000 
1,200 
5,000 



1,000 



1,000 



1,750 
1,050 

24,000 

175 

1,750 

1,750 

9,000 

15,000 



5,000 



1,000 



3,000 
450 
500 
5,500 
1,000 
1,000 
3,000 



1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 



3,000 



4.50 
3,000 
3,000 
1,500 
5,400 
5,400 
9,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
9,000 
9,000 
9,000 

600 



16,000 
450 



20,000 
450 



60 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — -Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Flngerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



Montana — Continued. 

Corwin Springs, Cutler Lake 

Crow Agency, Corral Creek 

De Borgia, Big Creek 

Deer Creek 

East Twin Creek 

St. Regis River 

Savanac Creek 

Tiraber Creek 

Twelve Mile Creek 

West Twin Creek 

Deer Lodge, Race Track Creek 

Dell, Basin Creek 

Coyote Creek 

Little Sheep Creek 

Red Rock River 

Dillon, Van Camp Creek 

Dodson, Lodge Pole Creek 

Drummond, Boulder River 

Glacier Park, Oke Lake 

Two Medicine Lake , 

Two Medicine Lake, Upper. 

Grass Range, Beaver Ball Creek , 

Hamilton, Bitter Root River 

Bitter Root River, Eiast Fork.. . 
Bitter Root River, West Fork. . 

Blodgett Creek 

Girds Creek 

Lost Horse Creek 

Roaring Lion Creek 

Rock Creek 

Saw Tooth Creek 

Skalkaho Creek 

Sleeping Child Creek 

Tin Cup Creek 

Harlowton, Meagher Coimty Streams 

Helena, Big Blackfoot River 

Hobson, Judith River, headwaters 

Homestake, Railway Pond 

Huson, Marion Creek 

Jefferson City, Sinnott's pond 

Josephine, Sixteen MUe Creek 

Kalispell, Blaine Creels: 

Doll's lake 

Lost Creek 

Mill Creek 

Spring Creek 

Truman Creek 

Upper Ashley Creek 

Lewistown, Armels Creek, East Fork 

Box Elder Creek, East Fork. . 

Brush Creek 

Casino Creek 

Kelly's pond 

McDonald Creek, North Fork. 

Wolverine Creek 

Wolverine Pond 

Libby, Bobtail Creek 

Cedar I/ake 

Fisher River 

Leigh Lake 

Rainy Creek 

Livingston, Brisbin Creek 

Fleshman Creek 

Ford Creek 

Holliday Spring Creek 

Larsin Creek 

Meredith Creek Pond 

Mortimer Creek 

Spring Creek 

Summerland Creek 

Yellowstone River 

Mandlow, Sixteen Mile Creek 

Manhattan, Baker Creek 

Ellingsen's pond 

Gibson Creek 

McAUand Creek 

Stony Creek 



5,000 
10, 000 
12, 500 



17,500 
7,500 
7,500 



5,000 



5,000 



7,500 
2,500 



15,000 
2,500 
15,000 
10,000 
15,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



61 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — ^Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Montana— Continued. 

Martinsdale, Loco Creek 






1 000 


Lyon Creek 






13 500 


Musselshell River 






2 000 


Spring Creek 






13, 500 


Missoula, Bitter Root River 






2 450 


Clarks Fork Creek 






2 100 


Moore, Roek Creek, tributary of 






900 


Nimrod, Allison's pond 






2,000 

53,000 

1,200 


Norris, M efldow Creek 






Rimini, Ten Mile Creek 






Spire Ropk, Pipestone Reservoir 






6,000 


Springdale, Cold Spring Creek 






4 500 


Kelly Creek 




17,600 




Stevensville, Bitter Root River 




14 000 


MOl Creek 






2*275 


Stryker, Alpine Lake 


25,000 






Dowdies Pond 




300 


Spring Creek 






300 


Superior, Cliff Lake 






750 


Dyomond Lake 






700 


Toston, Crow Creek.. .. ..- 






7,000 


Tregloan, Spring Creek 




5,000 


Two Dotj Big Elk Lake 




900 


WilsaU, Horse Creek, Upper 






16,000 
10 000 


Nebraska: 

Chadron, Little Bordeaux Creek 






Trunk Butte Creek 






10, 000 
10,000 


Gordon, Laraby Creek 






White Clay Creek 






10 000 


Nevada: 

Verdi, State fish commission 


50,000 






New Hampshire: 

Alstead Colwell Pond 


6,000 
15, 000 




Bartlett, Saco River 










5 000 


Bristol, Blake Brook 




3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
5,000 
3,000 
3,000 
4,000 
8,000 
4,000 
3,000 
3,000 
5,000 
4,000 
7,000 




Danforth Brook 


















George Brook 






Hemlock B rook 












Smith River 






Taylor Brook 






Canaan, Blake Brook 






Fairweather Brook 






Indian River 












Orange Pond 










6,000 


Conwav State fish commission 


30,000 






Derr V , Beaver Lake 


12,000 
2,000 
2,000 
4,000 
3,000 










Franklin, Call Brook 






Mountain Brook 












Groveton Keene Bog Pond 




5 000 


Whitoonib Moiuitaia Pond 






5,000 


Hill, Main Brook 




5,000 
3,,000 
9,000 




Lebanon, Bicknell I'rook 












Tiittleton, Glover Pond 




1,500 


Manchester, Bog Brook 




4,000 




Bowman Brook. . 




300 


Cochran Brook 




4,000 
3,000 




Cohas Brook 






Colby Brook 




300 


Cold Spring Brook 






200 


Cold Stream Brook 




6,000 




Dalton Brook 




400 


Darrah Brook 






400 


Dumpling Brook 






* 200 


Kider Brook 






200 


Leaches Brook 




2,000 




Mead Brook 




400 


Menter Brook . . 






400 


Millstone Brook 




3,000 
3.000 




Mountain Brook 




200 



62 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution or Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Contluued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



New Hampshire — Continued. 

Manchester, Nigger Brook 

Patten Brook 

Peters Brook 

Pierce Brook 

Prescott Brook 

Ray Brook 

Reed Brook 

Steep Pitch Pond 

Watts Brook 

Whitin Brook 

Wiggin Brook 

Milford, Baldwin Brook 

Cold Brook 

Scabbard Brook 

Trow Brook 

Nashua, Cider Mill Brook 

Duneklee Brook 

Hassell Brook 

Hill Brook 

John Howe Brook 

Lydia Reed Brook 

Muddy Brook 

Peacock Brook 

Silver Spring Brook 

Tandy Brook 

Witch Brook 

Norwich, Hughes Brook 

Mmk Brook 

Oliverian, Oliverian Brook and tributaries. 

Percy , Christine Lake 

Petersborough, Wilder Brook 

Pike, Lake Katherine 

Plymouth, Elbow Pond 

Ponemah, Peacock Brook 

Portsmouth, Peverley Brook 

Potter Place, Cole Pond 

Raymond, Dudley Brook 

Ford way Brook 

South Brookltne, Roekwoods Pond 

Scabbard Mill Brook 

Wallace Brook 

Warner, French Brook 

Lake Ninnepocket 

Meadow Brook 

Osgood Brook 

Silver Brook 

Stevens Brook 

Wilton, Hickory Brook 

New Jersey: 

Bloomfleld, Lindermeyer Pond 

Spring Brook... 

Thompson Pond 

Butler, Pequannock River 

Chatsworth, White Horse Pond 

Morristown, Ravenswood Brook 

Ridgewood, Wykofl Brook 

Whippany , Badgley Brook 

New Mexico: 

Chama, Brazos River 

Canionis River 

Chama River 

Cimarron, Rayado River 

CostUlaj Costilla River 

Des Momes, Spring Hill Pond 

Dexter, Lake Vati 

Folsom, Trinchenla Creek 

Glorietta, Jacks Creek 

Pecos River 

Hagerman, Railway Reservoir 

Onava, Sapello River 

Raton, Sugarite River 

San Antonio, Torreon Spring Pond 

San Marcial, Nogal Creek 

Santa Fe, Nambe River 

Santa Fe River 

Servilleta, Des Montes Pond 

Fernandez de Taos River 

Little Rio Grande River 

Pueblo River 



3,000 



2,000 



2,000 



3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
2,000 



2,000 



2,000 
2,000 



3,000 
2,000 



3,000 
6,000 
9,000 
4,000 
10,000 



4,000 
10,000 
6,000 
1,000 
2,000 



3,000 
3,000 
2.000 



5,000 
3,000 
10,000 
3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
6,000 
1.000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



63 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fiagerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



New Mexico — Continued. 

Silver Citv, Mineral Creek 

tlte Park," Red River 

Wagon Mound, Tyson Spring Creek 

New York: 

Afton, Bump Creek 

Kelsey Creek 

Ardsley, Saw Mill Creek 

Arena, Forest Lake 

Benson Mines, Black Creek 

Ellis Cieek 

Little R iver 

Marshalls Creek 

Tamarack Creek 

Twin Lakes 

Big Indian, Big Indian Creek 

Bushnellville Creek 

Neversink Creek, East Branch 

Neversink Creek, West Branch 

Booneville, MillCreek 

Calcium, West Creek 

Cold Brook, Ketchura Hollow Creek 

Maltby Hollow Creek 

Croghan, Desert Creek 

Fish Creek 

Trout Brook 

East Worcester, Charlotte River 

Ellenville, Chestnut Creek 

Rondout Creek 

Vemooy Ki] 1 Creek 

Evans Mills, Lawion Creek 

Loadwick Creek 

Pleasant Creek 

West Creek 

Wilson Creek 

Felts Mills, Felts Millt Creek 

Frenches Creek 

Johnson Branch 

King Branch 

Greene, Crandall Brook 

Geneganslete Creek 

^\^leeler Brook 

Groton, Owasco Lake, inlets of 

Homell, Canisteo River 

Car Valley Creek 

Crittenden Creek 

Grays Brook 

Gris'wold Brook 

McHenry Valley Creek 

Rockwell Brook 

Seeley Creek 

Seeley Creek, North Branch 

Stevens Brook 

Whitney Valley Creek 

Himter, Batavia Kil 1 Creek 

Kasoag, Indian Camp Brook 

McConnell Brook 

Pine Bog Brook 

Kerhonksnii, Rochester Creek 

Kingston, Coxing Kill Creek 

Shawangunk KillCreek 

Stony Creek 

Veerkcerder Kill Creek 

I^ake Mahopac, B lount Brook 

Village Brook 

Lacona, Mad River 

Livingston Manor, Willowemoc- River 

Lyons, Ackernian Brook 

Drajier Brook 

Second Creek 

Trout Run 

Malone, Salmon River and tributaries 

Mount Pleasant, Mink Hollow Creek 

New Scotlan 1, Vlanman Kill Creek 

New York City, New York Aquarium 

Oneonta, Otego Cieek 

Otsdawa Creek 

Otsdawa Creek, East and West Branches. 
Third Brook 



5,000 



10,000 
10,000 
10,000 



6,000 
5,000 
10,000 
5,000 
10, 000 
20,000 
10,000 
5,000 
6,000 
5,000 
5,000 
10,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
15,000 
10,000 
10,000 
6,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
15,000 
4,000 
5,000 
4,000 
5,000 
15,000 
5,000 
6,000 
20,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
10,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
15,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
10,000 
8,000 
8,000 
8,000 
5,000 
10,000 
10,000 
20,000 
25,000 
6,000 
10,000 
6,000 
10,000 



5,000 
15,000 



10,000 

30,000 

3,000 



4,000 
""99 



10,000 
10,000 
9,000 
4,000 



64 



DISTUIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Pingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



New York — Continued. 

Otisville, Shawangunk Mountain Lake 

Phoanicia, Snyder Hollow Creek 

Stony Clove Creek , 

WarnerskillCieek 

Pine Hill, Birch Creek 

Pleasant Lake, Buck Pond 

Longfellow Late 

Port Henry, Sherman Brook 

Port Jervis, Black Brook 

Mongaup Brook 

Poughquag, Pleasant Ridge Run 

Preble, Tioughnioga River, headwaters 

St. Regis Falls, Ploof Brook 

Saugerties, Winston Pond , 

Schenectady, Hungerkill Brook , 

Schnevus, Schnevus Creek 

Seneca Falls, Canoga Creek 

Sherburne, Handsome Brook 

Standish, Upper Chateaugay Lake 

Suffern, Tallmans Brook 

Syracuse, Conklin Brook 

Elmwood Brook 

Geddes Brook 

Pools Brook 

South Hollow Brook 

Swamp Brook 

"Walden, Kline Kill Creek 

Shawangunk Kil 1 Creek 

Watertown^acobs Creek 

Wellsville, Honeove Creek 

Whitehall; Cold Brook 

White Plams, Ridgelugh Pond 

Willsborough, Little Sky Pond 

Woodstock, Sawkill Creek 

North Carolina: 

Andrews, Jarrett Creek 

Brevard, East Fork Creek, headwaters , 

Cherryfield, Weaver Creek 

Crestmont, Baxters Creek , 

Edgemont, Gregg Creek 

Lost Cove Creek 

Rock House Creek 

Elk Park, Dutch Creek 

Hendersonville, Falling Brook 

Horse Shoe_, Queens Creek 

Hudson, Gibson's pond 

Lake Toxaway, Horse Pasture River 

Minneapolis, Birchfleld Creek 

Montezuma, Boones Fork Creek 

Kawana Lake 

Mount Tabor, Spivey Mill Pond 

North Wilkesboro, Cub Creek, Spring Branch . . . 

Dugger Creek 

Laurel Creek 

Laurel Creek, North Branch . 

Little Dugger Creek 

Masters Branch 

Pegs Branch 

Reddies River, North Fork. . 

Pem'ose, Laurel Creek, E ast Branch 

Laurel Creek, Middle Branch 

Laurel Creek, West Branch 

Thomas Creek 

Pensacola, Cat Tail Creek 

Ptneola, Upper Creek 

Pisgah Forest, Sutton Creek 

PittSj Camp Creek 

Roarmg River, Mountain Rim 

Ronda, Bimgalow Creek 

Rosman, French Broad River, North Fork 

Rural Hall ,Snider's pond 

Ohio: 

Garrettsville, Spring Brook 

Stuart Creek 

Lexington, Beverstock Run 

Mansfield, Hales Rim 

Springville Brook 



10,000 
5,000 
8,000 
5,000 
5,000 
15, 000 
20, 000 
20,000 



3,000 
10,000 

5,000 

3,000 
15,000 
15,000 

5,000 
10, 000 
10,000 



20,000 
20,000 



10,000 
3,000 
5,000 
5,000 
8,000 



DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



65 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



Ohio— Continued. 

Mount Vernon, Delano Run 

Schenks Creek 

Plymouth, Huron River, South Branch 

Ravenna, Cuyahoga River, tributary of 

Urbana, Clear Creek 

Oklahoma: 

Carrier, Jungle Lake 

Oregon: 

Clackamas, Abemathy Creek 

Canyon Creek 

Crystal Lake 

Salmon River 

Oregon City, Bush's pond 

Pennsylvania: 

,\imville, Killingers Creek 

Ansonia, Asaph Run 

Bellefonte, Spring Creek 

BelLnap, Martins Rim 

Birch, Biich Island Run 

Bodine, Battle Run 

Condon Hollow Run 

Murray Run 

Salt Run 

Slack Rim 

Carlisle, Gongs Creek 

Chambersburg, Birch Rim 

Cai-baugh Run 

Pine Run 

Christiana, Evans Run 

Claarfield, Big Trout Run 

Cold Creek 

Little Anderson Creek 

Little Ston V Run 

Little Trout Rim 

Montgomery Creek 

Moose Creek, Left Branch 

Cogan Station, Big Sandy Creek 

Hoagland Run 

Wolf Run 

Corbett, Susquehanna River, West Branch. 

Cross Fork, Kettle Creek, Cross Fork 

Dunlo, Barefoot Run 

Bohs Creek 

Ebensburg, Cold Spring Run 

Gettys Run 

Illigs Run 

James Run 

Jones Run 

McGarrs Run 

Morris Jones Creek 

Roberts Run 

Rapid Rim 

Roaring Run 

Williams Run 

Eltonburg, Laurel Run 

Essick, Black Stump Run 

Horlis Run 

Kansas Run 

Lake Run 

Fleetwood, Willow Creek 

Frugality, Laurel Run 

Sandy Run 

Galeton, Germania Creek 

Kettle Creek 

Kettle Creek, East Branch 

Lyman Run 

Glen Mawr, Rock Run 

Hastings, Driscoll Run 

Kuntzman Run 

Moss Run 

Piatt Run 

Rock Run 

Rogue Harbor Run 

Hazleton, Beck Pond 

Kellers Run 

Long Run 



800 
2,000 
2,000 

600 
12,000 

1,000 

300 
6,500 

429 
10,000 
1,600 

250 

1,000 

2,300 

500 

1,000 

500 

300 

300 

500 

500 

375 

1,500 

2,000 

1,500 

300 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

1,000 

1,000 

1,500 

1,500 

1,000 

1,000 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

500 

1,000 

500 

1,000 

500 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,500 

1,000 

1,500 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

500 

1,000 

500 

1,000 

1,000 

375 

375 

375 



66 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Pennsylvania — Continued. 






375 








400 








1,000 








1,000 








1,000 








1,000 








1,000 








1,500 






1 000 






500 






1,000 


McElhatten Run 1 




1,000 








800 








300 


Herrs Brook . . . 






300 








300 








300 


Lock Haven, Rands Run 






500 


Lykens, Clarks Creek 






3,400 


Rattling Creek 






1,500 


Mann, Graves's nond. 






300 


Marietta, Clarice Rim 






600 








3,000 


Little Pine Run 






2,000 


Meadow Rmi 






2,000 


Tub Mill Run 


::: 




2,000 


Milford, Deep Biook 






1 000 


Dwarf Kill Creek . . . . . 






1 000 








1 000 


Steward Creek 






'400 


Vandermark Brook 






500 


Mill Hall, Baker Run 






1 000 


Beech Creek 






1 000 


Benjamin Branch 






500 


Browns Run 






500 


Bull Run 







500 


Cedar Rim 






1,000 


Chatham Run 






1 000 


Cherrv Run 






500 


Duck'Rim 






500 


Fishing Creek 






2 000 


Hayes Run .. . 






500 


Lamar Run 






500 


Little Fishing Creek 






1,000 


McElhatten Run 






1 000 


Plum Run 






1 000 


Queens Rim 






500 


Scootac Run 






1 000 


Shoemaker Branch 






500 


Minersville, Black Creek 






750 


Buck Horn Creeic 






750 


Buck Run 






450 


Dyers Rim 






750 


Indian Run 






750 


Middle Creek 






750 


Sammvs Run 






750 


Taylors Creek 






750 


Mount Union, Blaclc Log Creek 






250 


Cai'ters Run 






250 


Licking Creeic 






250 


Lyons Gap Run 






250 


Old Womans Run 






2,250 


Scrub Gap Run 






250 


Singers Gap Run 






250 


Sugar Run 






250 


New Florence, Powder Mill Run 






500 


Tub Mill Run 






500 


New Philadelphia, Cold Rim 






250 


Kunkles Pond 






125 


Merkles Pond 






125 


Rucks Pond 






125 


Sehooks Pond 






125 


Silver Creek 






125 


Wildcat Run 






250 


Yosts Pond 






125 


North Bend, Bull Run 






1,000 


Laurelly Run 






1,000 



DISTRIBUTION OP FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



67 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Oil City, Horse Creek 

Panther Run 

Reese Run 

Slate Run 

Patton, Beaverdam Creek 

Rock Run 

Phillipsburg, Bushkill Creek 

Picture Rocks, Bear Creek 

Quarryville, Stewarts Run 

Ralston, Abbotts Run 

Acid Branch 

Bear Trap Run 

Buck Run 

Frozen Run 

Frozen Run, Left Fork 

Frozen Run, Right Fork 

Hat Run 

Heylmun Run 

Hounds Run 

Long Run 

Meadow Spring Run 

Mill Creek 

Miners Run 

Mover Gut Run 

Pleasant Creek 

Potash Run 

Red Run 

Red Run, Left Fork 

Roaring Branch Creek 

Rock Rim 

Rock Run, Right Fork 

Short Run 

Winslow Bolton Gut Run 

Yellow Dog Run 

Reading, Redcay Spring Creek 

Spring Creek 

Willow Creek 

Reese. Cave Pond 

Roaring Branch, Abbotts Run 

Blacks Creek 

Block House Creek 

Deep Hollow River 

Deep Hollow River, Left Fork. 

Doney Run 

Frys Run 

Hebe Run 

Hughes Creek 

. Kinsley Run 

Long Run 

Lycoming Creek 

M^ssner Creek 

Miller Run 

Mountain Run 

Ogden Branch 

Pack Horse Creek 

Roaring Branch Creek 

Roupp Creek 

Salt Spring Run 

Tim Grays Run 

Winslow" Bottoms Run 

Rockwood, McClintocks Run 

Royersford, Pigeon Creek 

Rock Run 

Royal Springs Creek 

Seward, Baker iRun 

Big Spring Run 

Little Sugar Run 

Sheridan, Millback Creek 

Sizer\'ille, Cowley Run, Branches of 

Snow Shoe, Beech Creek 

Benners Run 

Black Moshannon Creek 

Clarks Run 

Fields Run 

Horse Head Run 

Little Sandy Creek 

Michels Spring Run 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



1,000 
3,000 
3,000 
1,500 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,500 
1,000 
1,000 
2,000 
1,500 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,500 
2,000 
4,000 
2,000 
3,000 
2,000 



1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
2,000 
500 
1,000 
500 
300 
300 
500 
1,300 
300 
500 
500 
400 
300 
300 
300 
500 
300 
500 
400 
300 
500 
500 
500 
300 
500 
500 
500 
200 
200 
200 
625 
375 
750 
500 



4,000 
900 
600 
300 
500 
500 
.500 
1,000 
1,000 
500 
500 
500 
500 
500 
500 
500 
SCO 



68 



DISTEIBUTION OP FISH AND PISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Snow Shoe, Pine Rim 

Ranking Run 

Rock Run 

Sterling Run 

Stink Town Run 

Wallace Run 

Yosts Run 

Spring Grove, Trone's pond 

Stroudsburg, Broadheads Creek 

Bushkill Creek 

McMichaels Creek 

Marshalls Creek 

Pocono Creek 

Saw Creek 

Sunbury, Little Shamokin Creek, tributary. 

Tamaqua, Locust Creek 

Taylor, Gardner Creek 

Trout Run, Blacks Creek 

Block House Creek 

Bunnell Run 

Deep Hollow Rim 

English Run 

Flooks Rim 

Four Mile Run 

Little Pine Creek 

Otter Run 

Rock Run 

Six Mile Run 

Smiths Run 

Steam Valley Rim 

Texas Creek 

Trout Run 

Trout Rim, Left Fork 

WolfRun 

Troy, Bullard Creek 

Cleveland Run 

Cross Roads Creek 

Fall Brook 

Glen Creek 

Holmes Creek 

KnifEor Creek 

Morgan Creek 

Palmers Rim 

Phelps Creek 

Smith Run 

Tamarack Swamp Creek 

Tiogo River, headwaters 

Webbers Creek 

Woods Rim 

Waterville, English River 

Watts, Donegal Run 

Hoflmans Run 

West Nanticoke, Fades Creek 

Pikes Creek 

Sandy Run 

Shingle Rim 

Westport, Trout Run, Kettle Creek Branch. 

Williamsburg, Clover Creek 

Piney Creek 

Williamsport, Bear Creek 

Mill Creek 

Mill Run 

Ogdonia Creek 

Windber, AllLson Run 

Beaverdam Run 

Berkebyle Rim 

Big Paint Creek 

Biscuit Spring Run 

Five Mile Run 

Glass Run 

Layton Run 

Little Dark Shade Creek 

Little Paint Creek 

Manges Run 

Moores Rim 

Paint Creek 

Piney Rim 

Ripple Run 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



5,000 
4,000 
1,000 
2,000 
1,000 
4,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
4,000 
1,000 
1,000 
3,000 
LOGO 
1,000 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS^ 1915. 



69 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — <jontinue(l. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Pennsylvania — Continued. 

Windber, Sandy Run 

Shade Creek, Roaring Forlc 

Susie Run 

Wliitaiier Run 

South Carolina: 

Pickens, Cove Creek 

Little Cane Brake Creek 

Little Mountain Creek 

Mill Creek 

Rocky Bottom Creek 

Taylors, Chick Springs Creek 

South Dakota: 

Brownsville, Bear Butte Creek 

Custer, Squaw Creek 

WUlow Creek 

Elmore, Spearfish Creek 

Upper Spearfish Creek 

Hill City, Middle Spring Creek 

Newtons T'ork Creek 

Palmer Gulch Creek 

Sheridan Lake 

Slate Creek 

Spring Creek 

Sunday Gulch Creek .\ 

Tenderfoot Creek 

Hisega, Rapid Creek 

Hot Springs, Palmer Lake 

Interior, No Flesh Cre«k 

Iron Creek, Iron Creek 

McLaughlin, Oak Creek 

Maurice, Lost Cabin Creek 

Mystic, Canyon Lake 

Castle Creek 

C leghorn Rim 

Indian School Lake 

Lime Kiln Run 

Little Rapid Creek 

Rapid Creek 

Slate Creek 

Spring Creek 

Tunnell Creek 

Upper Rapid Creek 

Nemo, Box Elder Creek 

Elk Creek 

Pactola, Keenan's pond 

Pluma, Upper Bear Butte Creek 

Rapid City, Deer Creek 

Schamber Pond 

Sicklers Pond 

Rockford, Little Rapid Creek, West Fork. 

Silver Creek 

Savoy, Little Spearfish Creek 

Silver City, Rapid Creek 

Spearfish, Crow Creek 

Iligguis Creek 

McGoffius Branch 

Nichols Branch 

Pettigrew Branch 

Rushlon Creek 

Spearfish Creek 

Spring Creek 

Summers's pond 

Upper Chicken Creek 

Water Cress Creek 

Sturgis, Deadman Creek Pond 

A'icioria, Spearfish Creek 

Temiessee: 

Bristol. Cedar Creek 

Hampton, Simerly Creek 

Vermmit: 

Arlington, Beaver Meadow Brook 

Benedict Brook 

Butternut Gutter Brook 

Canfield Brook 

Deming Brook 

Fayville Brook 

Lathrop Brook 

Parson Brook 

Whitman Brook 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



4,000 
3,000 
2,000 
2,0(X) 
2,000 
S.OOO 
3,000 
2,000 
3,000 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



500 

1,000 

500 

500 

3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 

5,000 

20,000 

20,000 

60, 000 

35,000 

5,000 

10,000 

5,000 

4,800 

10,000 

44,000 

5,000 

5,000 

25,000 

5,000 

10,000 

10,000 

25,000 

1,200 

5,000 

10,000 

3,000 

8.000 

3,000 

10,000 

58, 200 

20,000 

5, 000 

6,000 

10,000 

15,000 

10,000 

5,000 

20,000 

8,000 

5,000 

5,000 

10,000 

5,000 

15,000 

20,000 

8,000 

15,000 

8,000 

3,000 

3,000 

8,000 

120,000 

10,000 

3,000 

2,000 

5, 000 

3,000 

4,800 

5,000 
8,000 



70 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



Vermont — Continued. 

Barnet, Aiken Brook 

East Peacham Brook 

Harbey Brook 

Roy Brook 

Sucker Brook and branches 

Barre, Downing Brook 

Flanders Brook 

Jimerson Brook 

Labrador Brook 

Barton, Donald Brook 

Roaring Brook 

Bowell Brook 

Williams Brook 

Bennington, Big Hell HoUow Brook 

Dun ville Brook 

Little Hell Hollow Brook 

South Brook 

Walloomsac River 

Woodford City Brook 

Bristol, Norton Brook 

Burlington, applicant '. — 

Canaan, A verill Brook 

Big A verill Lake 

Black Branch 

Forest Brook 

Forest Lake 

Lewis Lake 

Little A verill Lake 

Norton Lake 

NuUiegan Brook 

Roaring Brook 

Second Black Branch 

Yellow Branch 

Danville, Bro^\^l Brook 

Crane Brook , 

Harris Brook 

HavUand Brook 

Heath Brook 

Langmaid Brook , 

Mineral Spring Brook 

Palmer Brook , 

Pool Brook 

Spaulding Brook , 

Sucker Brook , 

Thompson Brook 

Tice Brook , 

Wells Brook 

Whyman Brook 

William Brook , 

Derby Line, Tomophobia River 

East Berkshire, Trout Brook 

East Dorset, Mad Tom Brook 

Edgewater, Bill Young Brook , 

Lanesl )oro Brook , 

Enosburg Falls, Cold Hollow Brook 

Ladd Trout Brook 

Mineral Spring Brook 

Pat Brady Brook 

Tyler Brook, Bakersfield Branch. 

Greensboro, Caspian Lake 

Groton, Darling Pond 

Hardwick, Bean Brook 

Bickford Brook 

Bunker Brook 

Bm-nham Brook 

Cedar Swamp Brook 

Cooper Brook 

Corkscrew Brook 

Currier Brook 

Porter Brook 

Tucker Brook 

Whitney Brook 

Holden, Barnard Brook 

Clover Vale Brook 

Coburn Brook 

Elliott Brook 

Furnace Brook, branch of 

Furnace Brook, West Branch , 

Randall Brook 



200 



5,000 



4,000 
5,000 
5,000 



5,000 
4,000 
2,000 
4,000 
2,000 
3,000 
2,000 



DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 71 

DETi»iLs OF Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Yeae 1915 — Continued. 



BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Vermont— Continued. 

Hyde Park, Hyde Pond 




5,000 
3,000 




Mud Pond Broolc 






Inwood, Newman Broolc 




750 
1,500 

750 
2,500 
2,500 
2, .500 
2, ,500 
4,000 
2, ,500 
2,250 
4,000 


Sutton Brook 






Warden Brook 






Island Pond, Bear Hill Brook 






' Clay Brook 






Clay Hill Brook ; 






Lightening Brook 






Lost Brook 






McCabe Brook 






Paye Brook 






Smith Brook 






Willey Brook 






.Jamaica, Clayton Brook 






4,000 
4,000 
4,000 


Cobb Brook 






Cressev Brook 






Forrester Brook 




3,000 


Gorham Brook 




4,000 
4,000 
3,000 
5,000 


Kidder Brook 












Speedwell Pond 






Manchester, Battenkill River 




20,000 
11,000 
5,000 
10,000 
8,000 
4,000 
8,000 
4,000 
10,000 
10,000 
25,000 
5,000 
5,000 
4,000 
5,000 


Battenkill River, West Branch 






Bourne Brook, North Branch 






Marshfield, Brookside Pond 












Mears Brook 












Niggerhead Brook 






Middlebury, Button Brook 






Tngles Brook 






Poor Farm Brook 






Middlesex, Chase Brook 






Keene Brook 






Pierce Brook 






Slide Brook 






Montpelier, Ryan Brook 




2,500 
5,000 
1,500 








Bughee Brook 






Darling Brook 




5,000 


Green River Brook 




5,000 


Lamoille River 




5,000 
5,000 
5,000 


McFall Brook 






McNoll Brook 






Potash Brook 




2,300 
5,000 


Ryder Brook 






Newbury, Long Pond 




10,000 
20,000 








Newport, Mil] Brook 




4,000 
8,000 


Miller Brook 






North Bennington, Broad Brook 




5,000 
2,000 
2,000 
3,000 
5,000 
2,000 
5,000 
3,000 
2,000 
4,000 
2,000 


Bushnoll Brook 






Chase Brook ( A ) 






Chase Brook fB) 






Deerfield River, West Branch 












Hoosic River, North Branch 






Little Hell Hollow Brook 






Rider Branch 






Roaring Brook 






Stratton Brook 






JCorth Concord, Cold Brook 




1,500 
4,000 
2,000 
2,500 
28,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5 000 


Rainey Brook 






Story Brook 






North Stratford, Dennis Pond 






Norwich, Lake Mitchell 






Orleans, Dewey Brook 






Button Brook 






GallupBrook 






Long Pond 






8,000 
10,000 


^^ illoughby River, Upper 






Plainfleld, Kingslmry Brook 




3,000 
10.000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 


Pieeon Pond 






Quechee.Bovd Brook 






Gulf Brook 






Strack Brook 







■72 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — -Continued. 



BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Vermont — Continued. 

Quechee, Thomas Brook 

Udall Brook 

Randolph, Adams Brook 

Annis Brook 

Bass Brook 

Bear Hill Brook 

Beedle Pond 

Blanchard Brook 

Bowman Brook 

Chandler Brook 

Clough Brook 

Fishers Brook 

Guild Brook 

Gulf B rook 

Halfway Brook 

Holman Brook 

Howard Hill Brook 

Lower Ayers Brook 

Mann Brook 

Meadow Brook 

Morse Brook 

Mud Pond 

Peth Brook 

Poverty Lane Brook 

Roods Brook 

Roxbury Brook 

Soper Brook 

Spears Brook 

Thayer Brook 

Upper Ayers Brook 

White River, branch ol 

Rutland, Billings Brook 

Curtis Brook 

Dunklee Brook 

East Creek 

Hewitt Brook 

Ira Creek 

Little Brook 

Osgood Brook 

Ottaqueechee River and branches . 

Picnic Brook 

Ripley Brook 

St. Johnsbury, Adams Brook 

Bacon Brook 

Bennett Brook 

Blodgett Brook 

Bonett Brook 

Bundy Brook 

Carpenter Brook 

Cary Brook 

ClifTord Brook 

Cold Brook 

Crane Brook 

East Branch Brook 

Fairbanks Brook 

Frog Pond 

Gage Brook (A) 

Gage Brook (B) 

Harris Brook 

Hawkins Brook 

Heath Brook 

Hemingway Brook 

Houghton Brook 

Ladd Brook 

Langmaid Brook 

Lime Brook 

Lurchin Brook 

Meadow Brook 

Meecham Brook 

Mineral Springs Brook.. ^ 

Morrill Brook 

Niles Brook 

North Brook 

• North Church Brook 

Oram Stevens Brook 

Palmer Brook 

Pierce Brook 



5,000 
10,000 
5,000 
5,000 



2,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 



5,000 
5,000 



5,000 



5,000 
5,000 



5,000 



5,000 
5,000 



5.000 



15,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 

10,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 
5,000 

25,000 
5,000 
5,000 



2,000 

"i'ooo' 



1,000 



3,500 

'i,'666' 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 73 

Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


FmgerlingS; 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Vermont— Continued. 






1,000 








2, 500 








3,000 
500 








Rickaby Brook .. 






1,000 


Roberts Brook (-A) 






500 


Roberts Brook (B) 






500 


Shattuck Brook 






1,500 








1,000 






9,000 


3,000 


Spauldiiig BrooK (A) . 




2,000 


Spauldiiig Brook (B) 






500 






2,000 




Taf t Brook 




1,000 


Tice Brook 






500 








4,000 


Wards Brook 




2,000 
2,000 










Wells Brook(A) 




1,000 


Wells Brook (B) 






1,000 


\^'heaton Brook . 






1,500 








500 


Wright B rook 




2,000 
2,000 
10,000 
10,000 




Shelburne, Fletcher's pond 












South Wallingford South Wallingford Brook 










3,000 


Garretts Brook 






3,000 


Joe Boss Brook 






3,000 








3,000 








3,000 


Sutton Bailey Brook . . 






1,.500 








1,500 








7.50 


Butterfield Brook . . 






750 


Clark Brook... 






3.. 500 








1,.W0 


Sanborn Brook . ... 






1,500 








1,500 


Willard Brook 






750 


Taftsville, Babcock Brook 




6,000 
5,000 










Sl-nank Hollow Brook 




600 






8,666 

10,000 










Simpson ville Brook 




3,000 


Ware Brook 






3,000 






8,000 
6,000 
15,000 
















West Burke, Bald Hill Pond.. 




10,000 








2,000 


Eaden B rook 






3,500 


West Hartford Rockland Brook 






400 






3,000 
3,000 
4,000 
8,000 
4,000 
12,000 
5.000 
















English Mills Brook 












Gulf Brook .... 












Virginia: 




2,000 


Town Creek 






8,000 


Atkins, Nicks Creek 






750 


Big Island, Battery Creek ... 






1,000 








5,000 








1,000 


Buchanan Buchanan Creek 






4,000 








4,000 








1,000 


Damascus Beaver (reek 






10,000 








600 








600 








500 








5,000 








2,000 


Longdale, Simpson Creek, North Fork 






4,000 



86497°— 17- 



-11 



74 



DlSTRUBUTIOlir OF PISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915^Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Virginia— Continued . 

Monterey, James River headwaters 






4,000 


Soutli Branch 






8,000 


Rural Retreat, Brown Brook 






250 


South Richmond , Gravel Hill Pond 






200 


Spring HilL Gordon Branch 






4,000 


Staunton, Ramsey Creek 






5,000 


Woodstock, Little Fork Creek 






1,000 


Little Stony Creek 






1,000 


Washington: 

Aberdeen, Little Hoquiam River 






900 


Berlin, Lake Dorothy 






3,000 


Snoqualmie Lake 






3,000 


Curlew, Kettle River 






4,000 


English, Lake Ki 






5,000 


Everett, Silver Lake 






5,000 


Fishers, Simmons Creek Pond 




2,000 
3,000 
3,000 
3,000 
2,000 
3,000 




Four I/Rkes, Boy Lake 






Ice House Lake 






Salmon House Lake 






Tahomish Lake 






Waucoma Lake 






Neppel, Moses Lake 




4,000 
2,000 


Republic, Bonaparte Lake 






Ferry Lake 






2,000 
3,000 


Seattle, Stubbs Creek 






Snoqualmie, applicant 


100,000 






Stevenson, Cascade Lakes 


18,000 




Vancouver, Big Washugal Creek 




15,000 


Yacolt, Cedar Creek 






4,000 


We<t Virginia: 

Clover Lick, Elk River, Big Spring Fork. .. 






1,200 


Laurel Spring Pond 






400 


Oowen , Williams River 






5,000 


Hambleton, Roaring Run and bi'anches 






1,275 


King^vood, Buffalo Creek 






3,000 


Marlinton, Elk River 






3,200 


Sharp Spring Pond 






1,000 


Meadows, Little Blackfdrk Run 






4,800 


Rattlesnake Run 






5,800 


Pickens, Buchanon River, Middle Fork 






4,000 


Sewell, Glade Creek 






2,000 


Manns Creek 






2,000 


Terra Alta, Bro\iTiings Run 






2,000 
2,000 


Salt Lick Creek, East Branch 






Salt Lick Creek, West Branch 






3,000 


Snowv Creek, North Branch 






3,000 
2,000 








Thomas, Blackwater River 






1,020 


Blackwater River, North Branch 






765 


Sand Run 






765 


White Sulphur Springs, Howard Creek 






48, 000 


Spring Creek 






49,500 


Winterburn, Greenbrier River, and tributaries 






8,000 
3 000 


Wisconsin: 

Alma, Big Waumandee Creek 






Braems Valley Creek 






3 000 


Johns Creek 






2 400 


Johns Valley Creek 






3,000 
5 400 


Little Waumandee Creek 






Norwegian Valley Creek 






3 000 


Trout Valley Creek 






3 000 


Wolfs Creek 






1 600 


Alma Center, Amo Creek 






'500 


Andrews Creek 






500 


Cisna Creek 






1,000 
1 600 


Halls Creek 






Jack Creek 






'500 


Judkins Creek 






500 


North Branch Creek 






1,600 
500 


Pugh Creek 






Schinsing Creek 






500 


Stockwell Creek 






1,600 
1 600 


Trempealeau River, South Fork 






Wheatons Creek 






'500 


Amherst, Jim Een Creek 






1 600 


Tomorrow Creek 






2,400 
2.400 




1 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS^ 1915. 



75 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — ^Continued. 
BROOK TROUT-Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adiilts. 


Wisconsin— Continued. 






400 




^ 




400 








400 


Crv^tal Spring Brook . . . 






400 








400 


Elk Creek 






400 


English Creek 






2,400 








200 








200 


French Creek, East Branch ... 






200 


French Creek, West Branch 






200 


Glencoe Creek 






400 








200 


Ilolcomb Coolev Creek 






400 


Lewis Vallej' Creek 






400 


Newcomb Valley Creek 






400 


North Creek 






400 


Norway Coolev Creek 






200 


Reck Valley Creek 






200 


Riley Creek 






400 


Schaffner Branch 






400 


Scoficld Creek 






400 


Tamarack Creek 






400 


Thompson Valley Creek 






200 


Traverse Valley Creek 






400 


Trout Rim 






400 


Trout Valley Creek. ., 






400 


Wolf Valley Creek 






400 


Zellar Valley Creek 






200 


Athelstane, hagle Creeks, Big and Little 






5,000 


Bancrott, Rockacre Creek 






3,200 


Bangor, Adams Vallev Creek 






1,500 


Big Creek...! 






2,500 


Burns Creek 






3,100 


County Line Creek 






1,000 


Dutch Creek 






2,000 


Fish Creek 






500 


Holberg Creek 






2,000 


Sand Creek 






500 


Whites Creek 






500 


Barron, Barker Creek 






2,000 


Dority Creek 






2,000 


Englert Creek 






2,000 








3,000 


Hickey Creek 






2,000 


Jolinson Creek 






2,000 


Jones Creek 






2,000 


Miller Creek 






3,200 


Polegama Creek 






3,000 


Quaderer Creek 






2,000 


Red Creek 






1,000 


Rocky Creek 






3,000 


Silver Creek 






2,000 








2,000 


Upper Pine Creek 






2,000 


Blair, Bear Creek 






500 


Beaver Creek, North Branch 






500 


Durham Creek 






500 


Edwins Creek 






500 








500 


Fly Creek 






500 


French Creek 






500 


Halvorson Creek 






500 








500 


Herrieds Creek 






500 


Joe Coulie Creek 






500 


Johnsons Creek 






500 


Kittelson Creek 






600 


Lakes Creek 






1,500 


Mattison Creek 






500 


Nordhus Creek 






500 








500 


Peterson Creek 






500 


Qiiarnev Creek 






500 


Rat Coiilie Creek 






500 


Reynolds Creek 






1,000 


Sampson Creek 






500 


Shephards Creek 






500 



76 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BKOOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Wisconsin— Continued . 

Blair, Skutley Coulie Creek 






500 


Sletto Creek 






1,000 








1,000 


Teppen Creek 






500 








1,500 


Vosse Coulie Creek 






1,500 


Welch Creek 






500 








2,000 








2,000 


Little Hay Creek 






2,000 


Oneil Creek, West Branch 






3,000 


Pine Creek 






3,000 


Sandy Creek 






2,000 


Trout Creek 






2,000 


Blue Mounds, Avang Creek 






125 








800 


Camp Creek 






900 








900 


Garfords Creek 






900 


Rusks Creek 






100 








900 


Walnut Hollow Run 






900 








800 








1,600 








1,600 








1,600 








3,200 








2, 000 








900 


Brush Creek . " 






900 








900 


Coles Valley Creek 






100 








800 








900 


Halls Valley Creek 






900 


Halls Valley Creek, South Branch... 






100 


Hay Valley Creek 




. ... 


900 








900 








900 








900 








900 








100 








800 








100 








900 








100 


Russell Valley Creek . 






900 








8O0 








800 








800 








9O0 








900 








900 








2,000 


Wolf Creek 






2,000 








3,000 








2,000 








1,000 








300 








2,000 








2,000 








3,000 








1,000 








1,000 








3,000 








1,000 


Orr Creek 






1,00C 








2,000 








1,000 








4,001 








500 








100 








2O0 








100 








20C 








200 








IOC 








200 


Weiskercher Run 






IOC 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



77 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Yfar 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Finger! in gs, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Wisconsin— Continued . 






2,000 








2,000 








2,000 








1,000 








2,000 


North Fork Creek 






2,000 








1,000 








2,000 








2,000 








1,200 








1,200 


Falls Creek 






1,200 


Fox Creek 






1,200 








1,000 








2,000 


Little Bear Creek 






1,200 


Plum Creek 






1,200 








1,200 








1,600 


Ward Creek . 






1,200 


Eagle River Dadetz Creek 






2,000 








3,000 


Big River 






3,000 








1,.500 








3,000 








1,500 


Goose Creek 






1,500 








1,500 


Little Trimbelle Creek 






3,000 








3,000 


Plum Creek 






3,000 








3,000 


Spring Brook 






1,500 


Trimbelle Creek 






3,000 








1,000 


Bariiie Creek 






800 


Bee Creek 






800 








800 


Bessie Run 






800 








1,000 


Big Tree Creek 






1,000 


Blueberry Creek ; 






1,000 


Boulder Creek 






1,000 








1,000 


Chub Creek 






1,000 








800 


Daisy Creek 






800 








800 








800 


Ella Creek 






800 


Ernest Creek 






1,000 


Evans Creek 






1,000 


Fish Creek 






1,000 








1,000 


Gold Creek 






1,000 


Jacobson Creek 






1,000 


Kaiser Creek 






1,000 








1,000 


Lily Creek 






1,000 








1,000 


Rose Creek 






1,000 


Savaria Creek 






1,000 


Scotch Creek 






1,000 


Small Creek 






1.000 


Spring Creek 






1,000 


Taylor Rim 






1,000 


Thompson C^reek 






1,000 


Violet Creek 






1,000 


Went Creek 






800 


Wolf Creek 






1,000 


Edgerton, Caledonia Swings Run 






1,600 


Moe Spring Brook 






1,600 


Eland, Comet Creek 






4,000 


Embarrass River, West Branch 






4,000 


Norrie Creek 






4,000 


Eleva, Big Creek . . 






800 


Bollinger Creek 






2,800 


Hayes Creek 






800 



78 



DISTKIBUTION OP FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details OF Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Yeae 1915 — Continued. 

\ BEOOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlines, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Wisconsin— Continued. 

Kleva Tollefson Creek 






800 


' Trout Creek 






800 








1,600 








1,600 








2,000 








6,000 








3,000 








4,500 








1,500 


Gilbert Creek', North Branch 






1,500 


Gilbert Creek South Branch 






1,500 








3,000 








3,000 








3,000 








1,500 


Elroy Hills Creek 






3,000 


Mile Creek 






2,000 








2,000 








1,000 








400 


Fairchild Black Creek 






800 


Coon Creek 






800 


Flick Creek 






800 








800 


Hay Creek 






4,000 








800 








1,600 








4,000 








1,600 








800 








800 


Pea Creek . . 






4,800 








1,600 


Scott Creek 






800 


Stockwell Creek 






800 


Tolles Creek 






2,400 








1,600 


Yahns Creek 






800 


Fifield, Spring Creek 






800 








200 








2,000 








2,000 


Eagle Valley Creek 






2,000 








2,000 








2,000 


Seliaffner Valley Creek 






4,500 








4,500 








300 








2,400 


Big Tamarack Creek 






3,500 


Duck Creek . . 






200 








200 








200 








1,800 








200 








TOO 








500 


Glen Flora, Bear Creek 






1,600 








1,600 


Main Creek, North Fork 






6,000 


Main Creek, South Fork.. . . .. .. 






1,000 








8,200 


(Jlenwood City, Baleau Creek 






2,000 


Bests Creek 






2,000 


Big Beaver Creek 






2,000 


Bleans Creek 






1,000 


Bolan Creek 






2,000 


Bolan Creek, North Fork 






1,000 


Canfleld Creek. . 






2,000 


Clarks Creek 






1,000 


Coan Creek 






1,000 








1,000 


Engs Creek 






1,000 


Glennvs Creek 






2,000 


Grays Creek 






1.000 








1,000 


Hay River, North Fork 






2,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



79 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


FingerliJigs, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Wisconsin— Continued. 






2,000 








1,000 








2,000 








1,000 








1 000 








2,000 








1,000 








1,000 


Sand Creek 






2,000 






1,000 








1,000 








1,000 








1,000 








1,000 


Tiffany Creek ' 






2,000 








2,000 








2,000 








1,000 








2,000 








1,000 








3,000 








3,000 








2,400 








2,400 








3,000 








6,000 








4,000 








800 








1,600 








2,400 


Elm Creek 






500 








300 








300 








200 


Little Jump Creek South Fork 






200 








1,900 








300 


Otter Creek 






200 


St Clair Creek 






1,600 


Taylor Creek 






1,600 








1,000 








1,500 








1,500 








6,000 








4,000 








800 








480 


Rorst Valley Creek 






1,200 








400 


Burt Valley Creek 






1,000 








400 








1,000 








400 


Dubiel Creek 






1,000 


Elk Creek 






400 








1,000 








1,000 








1,000 








800 








800 








1,000 








1,000 








400 








800 








1,000 








800 








800 








1,000 








200 








800 








1,000 








200 


Plumb Creek . .... 






800 








800 








800 








1,000 


Ruste Creek.". 


1 




1,000 



80 DISTUIBUTION OP FISH AND PISH EGGS, 1915. 

Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 

BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Wise onsin — Continue d . 

Independence, Simonson Valley Creek 

Skogstad Creek 

Slanton Valley Creek 

Solfest Creek 

Taars Creek 

Traverse Creek 

Ulberg Creek 

Veum Crtek 

Wares Creek 

Wickliam Valley Creek 

Zimmers Creek 

Kendall, Brainard Creek 

Davis Creek 

Foxes Creek 

Wildse Creek 

Kewaunee, Casco Creek 

Kewaunee River 

Kilbourn, Gilmores Creek 

Lacona, Peshtigo River and tributaries 

Starks Creek 

La Crosse, Bohemian Creek 

Davis Creek 

Halfway Creek 

Halfway Creek, North Branch , 

Mormon Coulee Creek, branch of 

Mormon Coulee Creek, Weekers Branch. 

Sand Lake Coolee Creek 

Smith Coulee Creek 

Ladysmith, Devil Creek 

Little Weirgor Creek 

Main Creek,' East Fork 

Main Creek, West Fork 

La Farge, Bear Creek 

S pring Creek 

LaVTe Beulah, Beardley Run 

Lehigh, Moose Ear Creek 

Pekegama Creek 

Stony Creek 

Ljradhitrst, Aarons Lake 

Beecher Pond 

Bud Pond 

Gardner Creek 

Koon?. T^ake 

Mill Pond 

Parker Pond 

Red River 

Richard Creek 

Weed Pond. 



Eggs. 



Maiden Rock, Branaaan Creek. 
Pine Creek 



Manitowoc, Calvin Creek. 

Cootway Creek 

Francis Creek 

Kappelman Creek 

Krumforst Creek 

Kruvanek Creek 

Martins Creek '. . . 

Mattoon, Embarrass River 

Embarrass River, Middle Branch. 
Embarrass River, West Branch... 

Hayes Creek 

Mattoon, Red River 

Red River, Middle Branch 

Red River, West Branch 

Silver Creek 

Mauston, Big Creek 

Brewers Creek 

Mile Creek 

Seven Mile Creek 

Smith Creek 

Spring Creek 

Mazomanie, Marsh Creek 

Mellen, Devils Creek 

Montreal Creek 

Offegard Creek 

Tyler Fork Creek 



Frv. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



81 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Wisconsin— Continued. 






600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 


Clacks Creek 






600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 


Fall Creek 






600 








600 








600 








600 


Gilbert Creek, Soutli Fork 






600 


Grutt Creek 






600 


Halls Creek 






600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








COO 


LaFarfje Creek 






600 








600 








600 


Lewis Run 






600 








600 








600 


Little Missouri Creek 






600 


Little Otter Creek . . 






600 


Little Rock Creek 






600 


Little Sand Creek 






600 








600 


Lower Pine Creek 






600 


Lynch Creek 






600 


McCarthy Creek 






600 


Mud Creek 






600 


Otter Creek .. 






600 


Palmers Run 






600 


Paradise Creek 






600 


Parkers Run 






600 


Pine Creek 






600 


Popple Creek 






600 


Pusky Creek .... . ... 






600 


Roach Creek 






600 








600 


Ruch Creek 






600 








600 


Shaffer Creek 






600 








600 








600 


Sly Creek . 






600 








600 


Snyder Creek 


1 




600 



82 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details op Distribution op Fish and Egg«, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Wisconsin— Continued. 

Menomonie, Spring Creek 






600 


Stoner Creek 






1,200 
600 


Thum Creek 






Tiffany Creek 






600 


Torgerson Creek 






600 


Trout Creek 






600 


Vamey Creek 




"* 


600 


Webber Creek 






600 


White Creek 






600 


Wilcox Creek 






600 


Wilson Creek 






600 


Wilson Hreelr, Nnrth Branch 






600 


Wolfs Creek 


1 


600 


Mercer, Presque Isle River 






5,000 


Merrill, Averill Creek 






1,600 


Barnes Creek 






1,600 


Hansons Creek ... 






1,600 


Johnson Creek 






1,600 


Little Hay Meadow Creek 






2,400 


Newwood River 






1,600 


Ox Bow Creek 






1,600 


Pat Smith Creek 






2,400 


Prairie Creek 






1,600 


Silver Creek 






1,600 


Smith Creek 






1,600 


Spring Creek 






1,600 


Ten Mile Creek 






1,600 


Weege Creek 






1,600 


Merrillian, Cisna Creek 






800 


Gearing Creek 






800 


Halls Creek 






800 


Hammond Creek 






800 


Hayden Creek 






800 


Hensel Creek 






800 


Mound Creek . . 






800 


Reichenbach Creek 






800 


Snow Creek 






800 


Stockwell Creek 






800 


Van Herset Creek 






800 


Visneau Creek 






800 


Millston, Clear Creek 






800 


Kirby Creek 






800 


Madison Creek 






800 


Pigeon Creek . 






800 


Robinson Creek 






4,000 


Stony Creek 






800 


Trout Run . . . 






1, 600 


Upper Robinson Creek . .... 






800 


Wyman Creek 






2,000 


Mondovi, Amidon Creek. . . 






2,000 


Beimet Valley Creek 






800 


Big Creek 






2,000 


Brown Creek 






3,000 


Carrol Creek... 






1,000 


Cooks Creek 






800 


Coon Creek 






2,000 


Cranberry Creek 






2,000 


Davis Creek 






1,000 


Day Creek 






1,000 


Dillon Creek 






2,000 


Dutch Creek. . . . 






2,000 


East Creek 






800 


Elk Creek 






800 


Englesby Creek 






2,000 


Farrs Creek 






800 








800 


Hadlev Creek" 






800 








2,000 


Jackson Creek 






3,000 








800 


Merritt Creek 






1,000 








1,000 


Myer Creek .... 






1,000 


Peeso Creek 






2,000 


Pratt Creek 






800 


Rider Creek 






1,000 


Rossman Creek 






1,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



83 



Details op Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



TV isconsin — Continued. 

Mondovi, Spring Creek 

Tliree Mile Creek 

Turner Valley Creek 

Van Pelt Creek 

Whelan Creek 

White Creek 

Wilson Creek 

Mount Horeli, Beetvvith Creek 

Black Earth Creek 

Blue Valley Creek 

Bolms Creek 

Gallagher Creek 

German N'alley Creek 

Gesler Creek 

Golbins Creek 

HofEs Creek 

Holsten Creek 

Kahl Creek 

Kelihers Creek 

Kittleson Creek 

Lindstrom Creek 

Lohfis Creek 

Moens Creek 

Mount Vernon Creek 

Ness Creek 

Noons Creek 

Oddens Creek 

Saga Bottom Creek 

Sand Rock Creek 

Spaandrus Creek 

Tasehers Creek 

Murry , Weirgor Creek 

Nashville, Rogers Creek 

New Auburn, Sand Creek, North Branch. 
Sand Creek, South Branch. 

New Richmond, Cedar Creek 

Ten Mile Creek 

Newry, Homstad Creek 

Jersey Spring Creek 

Norwalk, Cook Creek 

Moors Creek 

Oconomowoc, Burke Creek 

Oconoraowoc Creek 

Owen, Mjorland Creek 

Pine Creek 

Rock Creek 

Schultz Creek 

Ser\'aty Creek 

Spring Creek 

Trappers Creek 

Parrish, Prairie River 

Pepin, Big Plum Creek 

Bogus Creek 

Bogus Creek, North Branch 

Ell Creek 

Ell Creek, West Branch 

Little Plum Creek 

Little Plum Creek, East Branch. . , 
Little Plum Creek, North Branch. 

Lost Creek 

Lost Creek, East Branch 

Lost Creek, West Branch 

Porcupine Creek 

Roaring Run 

Roaring Run, East Branch 

Roaring Rim, South Branch 

SLxteeni h Creek 

Phelps, Black Jack Creek 

MiLskrat Creek 

Plainfield, Rochaoree Creek 

Ten Mile Creek 

Prentice, Mondo Creek 

Readstown, Elk Creek 

Flanagan Creek 

John Anderson Creek 

Norwegian Hollow Creek 



2,000 

800 

800 

2r000 

2,000 

2,000 

2,000 

100 

125 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

125 

125 

100 

125 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

125 

125 

125 

125 

125 

3,000 

2,000 

2,000 

2,000 

1,000 

3,000 

100 

100 

1,600 

1,600 

200 

200 

800 

4,000 

2,800 

800 

800 

1,000 

3,000 

4,000 

2,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

2,000 

2,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

2,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

3,000 

2,000 

200 

300 

3,000 

800 

800 

800 

800 



84 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BROOK TROUT-Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Wisconsin — Continued . 

Rhinelander, Bear Skin Creek 

Four Mile Creek 

Stella Creek 

Rice Lake, Barker Creek 

Bear Creek 

Big Springs Creek 

Brown Creek 

Carters Creek 

Cranberry Creek 

Deitz Creek 

Hay Creek 

Hemlock Creek 

Holmes Creek 

Kenyon Creek 

Kettle Creek 

Knudson Creek 

Lawler Creek 

Little Tuscobia Creek 

Log Creek 

Lost Creek 

Martin Creek 

Mud Creek 

Overby Creek 

Pekegama Creek 

Pepper Cre«k 

Peterson Creek 

Savage Creek 

Silver Creek 

Smith Creek 

Spoon Creek 

Sucker Creek 

Summers Creek 

Tuscobia Creek 

Richland Center, Ash Creek 

Bear Creek 

Brush Creek 

Clarsons Creek 

Fancy Creek 

Hawkins Creek 

Little Willow Creek 

Mill Creek, East Branch 

Mothers Creek 

Rocky Branch 

Wanless Creek 

Ridgeway, Beimetts Creek 

Stephens Creek 

River Falls, East Fork River 

Kinnickinnick Creek , Lower 

Kinnickinnick Creek, Upper 

Nye Creek 

Rocky Branch 

South Fork River 

Tedd Creek 

Trirabelle Creek 

Roberts, Kinnickinnick River 

Rush River 

Sauk City, Dunlaps Creek 

Koepples Creek 

Sugar Grove Creek 

Sheboygan Falls, Milwaulcee River, North Branch . 

Rhine Creek 

Soldiers Grove, Trout Creek 

Soperton, Knowles Creek 

Sparta, Beamer Creek 

Big Creek 

Bullen Creek 

Cataract MUl Pond 

Clear Creek 

Dustin Creek 

Printz Creek 

Richards Creek 

Schmelling Creek 

Soaper Greek 

Tarr Creek 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



85 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Wisconsin — Continued. 

Spooner, Rocky Ridge Creek 

Spring Green, Jones Creek 

Spring Valley. Bahrs CreeJ< 

Burghardt Creek 

Cave Creek 

Eagle Spring Creek 

French Creek 

Gilbert Creek, North Fork 

Gilbert Creek, South Fork 

Lousy Creek 

Mines Creek 

Stanley, Babbett Creek 

Hay Creek 

Loper Creek 

Muskrat Creek 

Muskral Creek, North Fork 

Shoulder Creek 

Swims Creek 

State Line, Pickerel Creek 

Spring Brook 

Tamarack Creek 

Stone Lake, Elm Oeek 

Hay Creek 

Mackay Creek 

Tigerton, Beedle Creek 

Comet Creek 

Deleglise Creek 

Embarrass River, Middle Branch. 
Embarrass River, South Branch... 

Jolin Creek 

Pony Creek 

Simpson Creek 

Steinke Creek 

Tiger Creek 

Willow Creek 

Tioga, Black Creek 

Britt Creek 

Cameron Creek 

Dickerson Creek 

Dinner Horn Creek 

Gorman Creek 

Hay Creek 

Horse Creek 

Iron Creek 

Little Black Creek 

Pony Creek 

Rocky Creek 

Ryan Creek 

Scott Creek 

Series Creek 

Surveyor Creek 

Thompson Creek 

Wedges Creek 

Wedges Creek, East Fork... , 

Tomahawk, Berry Creek 

Gut Creek 

Kuehkings Creek 

Little Pine Creek 

Rocky Creek 

Squaw Creek 

Trempealeau, Beaver Creek 

Carrigans Creek 

Crystal Valley Creek 

Dutch Creek 

Fox Cooley Creek 

French Creek 

French Creek, North Branch. 
French Creek, West Branch.. 

Holcomb Cooley Creek 

Norway Cooley Creek 

Pine Creek 

Tamarack Creek 

Turtle Lake, Beaver Creek 

Schmids Creek 

Turtle Creek 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



3,000 
200 
1,500 
1,500 
1,.500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,500 
1,-500 
1..500 
1,000 
3,000 
2,000 
3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
3,000 
1,600 
2,000 
2, 400 
2,000 
4,000 
3,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,000 
1.000 
1,000 
1,000 
5,000 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 
1,800 
1,800 
800 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,800 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 
100 
2,000 
2,100 
2,100 
2,200 
100 
100 
2,200 
2,100 
100 
3,100 
400 
200 
ipn 



86 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details op Distribution or Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Wisconsin — Continued. 






300 


Bad Ax River North Fork 






600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 


Cook Branch 






600 








600 


Elk Run 






600 


Getter Creek 






600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 








600 


Sidie Branch . . . 






600 








600 








500 








900 








1,600 








1,600 








2,800 








1,800 








2,000 








800 








800 


First Creek 






800 


Fish Creek 






4,600 








800 








2,000 


Mill Creek 






800 








2,000 


Pofl Creek. 






800 


Rudd Creek . 






1,000 


Sand Creek . 






800 








800 








2,800 








800 








200 


Bidwell Creek.. 






200 








200 


Salesville Creek.. . 






100 


Wolf Creek 






200 


Wrights Creek 






200 








300 


Little Wolf River, South Branch 






3,500 


Radley Creek 






2,700 








400 








2,800 








100 








100 








100 


Esofea Creek.. . 






100 








100 








100 








100 








100 








100 


North Timber Coolee Creek, branch of. . . 






200 








100 








100 








100 








600 








100 








100 








100 








100 


Skarsmoen Run 






100 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



87 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

BROOK TROUT— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Wisconsin— Continued. 

Westby, Spring Cooley Creek 






200 


Spring Valley Creek 






100 


Sveen Spring Run 






100 


Sveum Creek 






100 


Timber Coulee Creek, Northeast Branch 






500 


Von Ruden Creek 






600 


Yoimgs Run 






160 


Whitehall, Bruce VaOey Creek 






1 600 


Elk Creek 






I'eoo 


Erwin Creek 






800 


Fly Creek 






1 600 


Pigeon Creek 






1 600 


Pikes Creek 






800 


Plum Creek 






800 


Russell Creek 






800 


Sleepy Creek 






800 


Van Sickel Creek 






800 


Welch Creek 






1,600 
2 400 


Whitewater, Bluff Creek 






Bluff Brook 






'200 


Brad way Creek 






2,500 
1 700 


Gould Creek 






Steele Brook 






2,500 
200 


Territorial Brook 






Whitewater Creek 






1,800 
4,000 
2,000 

15,000 

5,000 

1,000 

600 


Winter, Casey Creek 












Wyoming: 

Beulah, South Redwater Creek 






Upper Sand Creek .■ 






Woods Pond 


















2,100 
3,500 


Medicine Bow River 












20,000 
25,000 
15,000 


' Little Popo Agie River i 












15,000 


Laramie, Deep Lake ! 




2,800 
2,100 


Fox Creek i 










2,800 
2,100 


Little Laramie River, Middle Fork 












2,100 








2,100 
2,100 


Silver Run Lake 






State fish commission 


75,000 








1,400 
900 


Manderson, Paint Rock Creek, Middle Fork 












900 


Newcastle, Cold Springs Creek 






2,100 
700 


Ranchester, Graves Creek 






Owen Creek 






2,100 
700 


Rock Springs, Fall Creek 




Lake Creek . ... . 






700 








2,100 
700 


Silver Creek 












700 








700 


Saratoga, North Platte River 






25,000 
2,100 


Sheridan, Cross Creek 












15,000 


Little Goose Creek 






3,500 


Sundance, South Miller Creek 






10,000 


Thermopolis, Buffalo Creek 






900 








900 


Ditch Creek 






600 








600 


Red Creek . 






600 
15,000 
15,000 


Yellowstone, Blacktail Deer Creek 






Obsidian Creek 












Total o 


507,150 


5,700,263 6,965,167 





a Lost in transit, 6,800 fry and 21,050 fingerlings. 



88 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 

SMELT. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Maine: 

Cherryfleld, Tunk Pond 

Dedhara, Toddy Pond 

Otis, Great Brook 

Michigan: 

Williamsburg, Weesh Ko Wong Pond. 
New Hampshire: 

Derry , Beaver Lake 

New York: 

Raquette Lake, Raquette Lake 

Vermont: 

Lyndonville, State fish commission . . . 



4,-500,000 



5,000,000 
5,000,000 



Total. 



14,500,000 



2,000,000 

3,000,000 

900,000 



1,000,000 



6,900,000 



GRAYLING. 



Colorado: 

Loveland, Buckhorn River 

Michigan: 

Mayfleld, Boardman River 

Montana: 

Belgrade, East Gallatin River 

West Gallatin River 

Bigtimber, Bigtimber Creek, North Fork. 
Lake Walvord 

Butte, Applicant 

Ennis, Power Company Lake 

Wyoming: 

Sheridan, Little Piney Creek 



Total. 



250,000 



100,000 



350,000 



48, 000 

45, 000 

36,000 
84, 000 
30, 000 
30,000 



1,600,000 



1,873,000 



CRAPPIE. 



Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
j^earUugs, 

and 
adults. 


Alabama: 


60 
180 
60 

1,200 
300 
900 
900 
600 
900 

1, 200 

1,200 
600 
900 
900 
600 
900 
900 

1,200 
300 
900 
600 
900 
900 
300 
600 
900 
900 
300 
300 
300 


Colorado: 


275 




Connecticut: 




Opelika Cotton Mills Pond 


400 


Arkansas: _ 


Delaware: 


600 




Florida; 






100 






135 






200 






135 




Ladv Lake 


135 






135 






200 




Georgia: 
Atlanta Spring Tyake 




Big Maumelle Creek 


100 




200 






150 






200 






200 






125 


Hills Lake 




125 






125 




Jack Sealv Pond 


125 






125 






125 




Dallas, Paulding Power Pond 


200 






150 


Trammel 1 Lake 




400 






100 






175 


Water's pond 


Newman, Gallaway Ponds 


100 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



89 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

CRAP PIE— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Finger- 

lin§s, 

yearlings, 

and 

adults. 


Georgia— Tontinued. 


400 
200 
100 
100 
200 
100 
100 

50 

75 

25 

50 

2,000 

75 

75 

75 

50 

3,000 

2,400 

75 

75 

75 

50 

50 

600 

210 

570 

40 

100 

100 
22.5 
300 
300 
50 
25 

553,200 

5,000 

400 

400 

143 

9,000 

123,450 

200 

200 
100 
50 

25 

320 

360 

100 

100 

200 

180 

200 

200 

200 

50 

« 100 

100 

100 

100 

400 

25 

90 

90 

180 

180 

200 

100 

100 


Kentucky— Continued. 
Harrod'sburg, Kvle's pond 


100 




Hempridge, McConnack's pond 

Hvattsville. Lake Rav 


100 




50 




Indian Fields, llisle's pond 


180 


Stoue Mountain. Venable Lake 


Jackson, Kentucky River...* 


50 

180 




Sauer's pond 


90 


Illinois: 
Belleville Fern Glen Lake 


Lawreneeburg, Lake Mary Elizabeth. . 

Rice's pond 

Lebanon, Rollins Fork River 


100 
100 




160 




Lexington, Brand 's pond 


90 






90 




Lake Blanch 


100 




Lake Hazzard 


360 




JMiirrv's pond 


90 




Reservoir No. 4 


720 




Serpen 's pond 


180 




London, Hackney's pond 


25 




Stock Pond 


25 


Hia:hland Oak Hill Lake 


Louisville, Park \'iew Pond 


180 




Madisonville, Howard's pond 


200 


Irving, Funk's lake 


Madison ville Lake 

Moore's pond 


300 




100 


Wilson's pond 


Midway, South Elkhorn Creek 

MoberlV, Muddv Creek 


180 




25 






160 


Mount Olive, Mount Olive Reservoir.. 




25 


Nunnellv's pond 


25 


"\Mutehall AMiiteball Pond 


Morganfield, Tavlor's pond 


100 


Indiana: 


Mount Sterling, "Williams's pond 

Nebo, Hobgood's pond 


180 
100 




Nicholasville, Hooverhurst Ponds 

Paris, Flat Run 


90 




50 


Wolfe Lake 


Lockwood Pond 


50 




Wyatt's pond 

Paynes Depot, Payne's pond 

Pisgah, Jesse Pond 

Shenault Pond 


100 


Sunraan, Sch wears Pond 


100 


Iowa: 

Bellevue Mis-^issippi River 


9t 
90 




Slant Pond 


90 




Princeton, Martin Pond 


100 






100 


Fork...' * 


Providence, Mining Company Lakes. . 
Richmond. Silver Creek 


200 




25 


Iowa Falls. Iowa River 


Shelbyv-ille, Bonnie Brook Pond 

Lake Jonorachqua 

Lake Offutt 


100 


North MoGre^ror, Mississippi River 


100 
200 


KaD*^i«" 


Moxlev Branch . ... 


100 


Channte. Allen's lake 


Old Masons Home Pond. . 
Simpson ville, Walters's pond 


200 




100 




Vanarsdell, Wilham's pond 


50 


Kentucky: 
Austerlitz, Hill Top Pond 


Vanceburg. Salt Lick Creek 

Veechdale, '.Jreat Lake 


400 
160 




Versailles, Xeet's pond 


90 




Waddv. Benson Creek 


100 






90 


Citv Lake 


Calmes's pond 


90 


Rowling Green, Jennings Creek 

Buclcner, Longest Pond. . 




90 


Club House Lake 

Crethmere Pond 


360 


Campbellsburg, Garriot t *<? pond 

Hedire Pond 


90 


Farm Pond 


90 




Fox's pond (A) 


90 




Fox's pond (B) 


90 




Gardner's pond 


90 




Gilbert 's pond 


90 




Goff'slake 


180 




Harris's pond 


90 




Johnson's pond 


90 


Elizabethto\\Ti, PercefuPs pond 




90 




90 




Miller's pond 

Nelson Pond 


90 


• Frarkfort Blvthe'spond 


90 




Pendleton's pond 

Piersall's pond 


90 




90 




Red Cross Dairy Pond . . . 
Scott Pond " 


90 




90 


86497°— 17 12 







90 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND PISH EGGS, 1915. 

Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 

CRAPPIE— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Kentucky— Continued. 

Winchester, Spahr's pond (A) 

Spahr's pond (B) 


180 
180 
90 
90 
180 
180 
180 

30 
20 
20 
50 
60 
20 
50 
60 
20 
40 
25 
20 
20 
20 
20 

600 

200 

1,000 
300 
500 
500 
500 
300 
500 
300 

300 
500 
650 
125 
400 
400 
450 
329, 077 
500 
300 
300 
300 
300 
250 

33 

400 
300 
200 
300 
200 
100 
200 
300 
200 
270 
200 
200 
600 
(00 
100 
290 

300 

1,050 


North Carolina: 
Franklin toUj Morris's pond 


25 


Hendersonville, Lake Wajaw 


50 


High I'oint, Fairmere Lake 


75 


Stephenson Pond 




50 


Scotland Neck, Hall's pond 


75 






100 


W ood Lake 


North Dakota: 
Bottineau, Lake Metegoshe 




Louisiana: 


100 


Buttzville,Webster's pond 


125 




Devils Lake, Devils Lake 


675 


' Willow Pond 


Freshwater Lake 

Wood Lake 


300 




400 




Petrel, Lemmon Public Reservoir 

Waterworks Pond 


300 




300 




Richardson, Mitchell's pond 


200 


Lindsay, McKowen's pond (A) 

McKowen's pond (B) 


Ruso, Strawberry Lake 


250 


St. John , Crows Lake 


200 


Gordon Lake 


100 




Hooker Lake 


200 




Jarvis Lake 


100 




Lake View 


100 


Trenton, Bull Bayou, Head Spring. . . 


Little Carpenter Lake 

Ohio: 
Batavia, Little Miami River, East Fork 
Stone Lick Creek 


200 


Maryland: 
Hyattsville, Bellevue Pond 


50 
200 




Oakley, Madison Park Lake 


25 


Island Creek, Island Creek Pond 


Loveland, Little Miami River 




Michigan: 




600 


Oklahoma: 
Ardmore, Hemdon's pond 




Wetmore, Cookson Lake 


50 








Grass Lake. 


Lake Scott 


150 






150 


Harris Lakes 


Taylor's pond (A) 


50 


Steward Lake 


Taylor's pond (B) 


100 


Wiley Lake 


Bliss, Hill's pond 


50 


Minnesota: 


Chattanooga, Midway Lake 


100 


Bagley, Lake Lomond 




100 


Browns Valley, Lake Traverse 

Fairmont, Silver Lake 


' Shanoan Springs Pond 


125 
100 


Fergus Falls, Stalker Lake 


Elgin Southside Lake 


75 


Fosston, Cross Lake 


Enid Willow Spring Lake 


150 


Hackensack, Stony Lake 




250 


Hokah, Pettibone Park Lake 




50 


Homer, Mississippi River 


Gage, Twenty Five Mile Creek 

Guthrie Clear Water Lake 


100 


Mentor, Maple Lake 


150 


Minneapolis, Glenwood Lake 




200 


' Lake Calhoun 


Oak Grove Lake 


150 


Lake Harriet 


Kiowa Buck Creek 


150 


Lake of Isles 




150 


Walker, Long Lake 




150 


Mississippi: 
Corinth, Hinton's lake 


Marietta' Eddleman & Graham's pond 


IOC 

IOC 


Missouri: 




5C 


Cuba, Clute's pond 




.5C 


Dodson, Progress Club Pond 




251 


Ferguson, Wabash Club Lake 


Oklahoma City, Jewelryman Lake 

Northeast Lake 


20C 


Grandview, King's lake 


20C 


Lake Clare 


20C 


Holden, Nawgel's pond 


' Clear Creek 


20C 


Irwin, Reed Boles Lake 




20C 


Kansas Citv, Armour Lake 


Prague, Eret's lake ..■--■ 

Skedeej Walters's pond 

Tangier, B ig Spring Lake i _ ; 

Horseshoe Lake - ' ' , 

Stone Lake •.-.'. 


IOC 


Louisiana, Salt River 


5C 


Nevada, Nipp's lake 


5C 

\ 10( 

10( 


Osceola, Spring Lake 


Ritchev, Shoai Creek 


Rolla, Blue Spring Creek 


5C 


Little Drv Fork Creek 




1,5( 


Strasburg, Curl's pond 




IOC 


Versailles, Ilineman Branch 




.'.( 


Nebraska: 
Dickens, Braugh Lake 


Indian Creek Lake 


m 

5C 


New Jersev: 




5C 


Lake Hopatcong, Lake Hopatcong. . . 


U McPherson Lake 


10( 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



91 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

CRAPPIE— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Finger- 

linfs, 

yearlmgs, 

and 

adults. 



Oklahoma — Continued. 

Woodward, Roundup Creek 

Santa Fe Lake 

Snow Lake 

Spring Creek Lake 

Spring Lake (A) 

Spring Lake (B) 

Spring I/ake (C) 

Stengelmeier's lake 

Turnbull's lake 

Williams's pond 

Woodward Creek 

Pennsylvania: 
Cambridge Springs, Edinboro Lake 

Lebanon, Mount Gretna Lake 

Water House Lake 

Pequea, Susquehanna River 

South Carolina: 

Columbia, Hillcrest Lake 

Greenville, Bushby Creek 

Piney Mountain Lake.. 

Pomaria, Cannon Creek Lake 

Wellford, Tucapau Pond 

South Dakota: 

Amherst, Impecoven's pond 

Arlington, Poinsett I>ake 

Brookings, Oakwood Lake 

Clear Lake, Clear Lake 

Langford, Cottonwood Lake 

Long Lake 

Nine Mile Lake 

Miller, Pearl Creek 

Mitchell, James River 

Parkston, Isaak's pond 

Pierre, Lake Medoka 

Tennessee: 

Adams, Sanford's pond 

CampbellJunction, Campbell Junction 

Pond 

Chattanooga, Dollar Pond 

Lookout Ponds 

Queen and Crescent Lake 

Columbia, Duck River 

Estill Sprmgs, Elk River 

Franklin, Dalton Pond 

Hendersonville, Adams's pond 

Hickory Valley, Pabst's pond 

Michigan City, Bonnie Oaks Pond 

Monterey, Pettit Pond 

Mount Pleasant, Emerald Lake 

Shelbyville, Bearden's pond 

Springfield, Red River, North Fork. 
Trenton, Powell and Holmes's pond. 

Westmoreland, Story's pond 

Texas: 

Abilene, Dead Man Pond 

Acampo, Davis's pond 

Albany Sedwick Lake 

Aledo, Sweet Marie Pond 

Alpine, I>ake Logan 

Alto, Terrell Lake 

Amarillo, Lake Arcadia 

Annona, Boswell and Pittman's pond. 

Comal Lake 

Crystal Lake 

English Lake 

Hicker Denison Lake 

North English Lake 

Arlie, McKniL'ht's pond (A) 

McKnight's pond (B) 

Arlington, Mill (reek 

Aspermont, Couch Lake 

Owsley's pond 

South Ranch Pond ... 
"Tonkawav Lake 



50 
WO 
50 
50 
75 
200 
50 
50 
100 
100 
50 

200 
150 
150 
150 

50 
50 
50 



100 
300 
300 
450 
100 
167 
100 
100 
1,500 
100 
300 

125 

250 
25 
50 
75 
125 
375 
125 
125 
150 
50 
250 
125 
125 
375 
100 
125 

50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
25 
50 
25 
25 
50 
25 
25 
25 
50 
50 
50 
65 
50 
50 
65 



Disposition. 



Texas — C ont inue d . 

Athens, Broom's lake 

Coker's pond 

Donnell's pond 

Jarrell's pond '' 

Mills's pond 

Stone's lake 

Austin, Lake Austin 

Mayfleld's lake 

Wheless Creek 

Avery, Posey's pond 

Baird, Holmes's pond 

Sniders Pond 

Birome, Lake Barton 

Bivins, Potter's lake 

AValker's pond 

Bloomiug Grove, Bryant's mill pond. 

George's pond 

Langston's pond . . . 

Bluffdale, Baldridge's pond 

Bogata, Webb Pond 

Bonham, Bonham Club Lake 

Boyd Club Lake 

Carter's pond 

Oak Lake 

Wise Lake 

Brady, Brady Creek 

Wilbank's pond 

Brandon , Lakenon Lake 

Brooksmith, Nunn's pond 

Brownwood, Lawson's pond 

Sanders's pond 

Caldwell, Birch Lake 

Gum Lake 

Calvert, Davis's pond (A) 

Davis's pond (B) 

Cameron, Martin's pond 

Canadian, Lake Hood 

Lake Hoover 

Carthage, Adams's pond 

Celeste, Green's pond 

Center, Lane's pond 

Childress, Feilds's pond 

Lake Scott 

North City Lake 

Clarksville, Clear Lake 

Long Lake 

Morris's lake 

Red River Club Lake.... 

Trent Lake 

Turner Lake 

Ward Lake 

Cline, Turkey Creek 

Clyde, Coyote Pond 

Mountain Pasture Pond 

Pecan Baj'ou . 



Coleman, Home & Beck's pond . 

Ranch Creek Lake 

Cooper, Lain's pond 

Corsicana, Burk Lake 

Navarro Club Pond. . 

Crockett, Wilson Lake 

Crowell, City Lake 

Dallas, Highland Park Lake 

Silver Lake 

Del Rio , Devils River 

Detroit, Fairview Lake 

Futrell'spond 

Goat Lake 

(Jray Lake 

Mathis Pond 

Mill Pond 

Persimmon Pond 

Semple Pond 

Sharp's pond 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearfings, 
and 
adults. 



92 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS^ 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — ^Coiitiuued. 

CRAPPIE— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Texas— Continued. 

Detriot, Spring Lake 

Sunnyside Pond 

Dodd City, Johnson's pond 

Smith's lake 

Dundee , Haley's pond 

Edgewood, Ellis's lake 

Elkhart, Camp's pond 

Ennis, Boren'spond 

Rumbo's pond 

Todd Lake 

Willow Pond 

Everman, Hanger's pond 

Farmersville, Park Lake 

Forney, Criswell's pond 

Fort Worth, Alta Vista Lake 

Duringer's pond 

Hush Lake 

Intenirban Lake 

Roe Lake 

Trinity River, Clear Fork 

Walnut Creek 

White Lake 

Foukes Spur, West's lake 

Frankston, Myrtle Hedge Lake 

Thompson's lake 

Fulshear, Mayes Lake 

Gainesville, Gravel Lake 

Gun and Rod Club Lake.. 

Whaley Lake 

Garrison, Earl Lake 

Gilmer, Lake Glenwood 

Myrtle Pond 

Girvin, Baker Lake 

Gladewater, Phillips's lake 

Goodnight, McCiiUum Pond 

Grand Saline, Bryant's pond 

Grandview, Nelson's pond 

Watts's lake 

Grapeland, Brimberry Lake 

Darsey Lake 

Elcaney Pond 

Lively Lake 

Myrtle Lake 

Spring Pond 

Tyer's lake 

Walling's pond 

Greenville, Looney Lake 

McComes's lake 

Hallville, Richardson's pond 

Henderson, Benner Lake 

Brown Lake 

Graham Lake 

Kelley's pond 

Lake Ctim 

Lake Hallwood 

Lake Moss Inn-out 

MeCord Laker 

Seliks Sound Lake 

Valley Lake 

Willow Lake 

Henrietta, Lake Henrietta 

Honey Grove, Spence's pond 

Hubbard, Buffalo Pond 

Cotton Belt 

Doner Branch Pond 

McGuffey 's pond 

Matson Pond 

North Pin Oak Pond 

Pin Oak Pond 

Hutchins, Dalhis Club Lake 

Jacksonville, 1 )ouglas Lake 

Justiceburg, Kiklngaro Pond 

Kaufman, Bois d'Arc Lake 

Cane Brake Lake 



Finger- 

linfs, 

yearhngs, 

and 

adults. 



25 

25 

25 

25 

50 

50 

50 
100 

30 
100 

90 

30 
100 

25 
100 

50 

50 

75 

25 
175 
150 

25 
100 

75 

50 

50 

50 

50 

50 iW 

50 
100 
100 

25 

50 

50 

25 

25 

25 

50 

50 

50 

35 
100 

50 

50 

40 

75 

50 

50 

75 
100 

75 

50 

25 

50 

50 

75 

50 

50 

75 

50 

50 

50 

50 
100 

50 
100 

50 

50 
200 

50 

50 

50 
100 



Disposition. 



Texas — Continued . 

Kaufman, Carter Lake 

Cartwright Lake 

Churchill Lake 

Club Lake 

Ellis Lake 

Fox's pond 

Gilmore Pond 

Hatch Lake 

Hicks's pond 

Miller's pond ;. 

West Pond 

Kemp, Berry Lake 

Blaze Lake 

Kemp Berry Lake 

Kerrville, Bear Creek 

Burnett Lake 

Crider Lake 

Dowdy Pond 

Gregory Pond 

Guadalupe River 

Lackey Pond 

Louis Lake „. . 

Palmer Lake 

Tegner Creek Pond . . . 

Kildare, Moore Lake 

Kilgore, Elder's pond 

Rowland 's pond 

Ladonia, Bishop's pond 

Laredo, Ross's pond 

Willow Pond 

Wormser Pond 

Lillian, Thompson Lake 

Livingston, Magnolia Lake 

Lockhart, Chew's pond 

Longview, McQueen's pond 

Lovelady, Smith's pond 

Lufkin, Lake Kathryn 

O'Quinn'spond 

McConnell, Mathews's pond 

McKiimey, Sloan Creek 

Mabank, Adam's pond 

Dellis'spond. 

Gray's pond 

Osbbm's pond 

Marfa, Blue Mountain Pond 

Marshall, Anchorage Farm Pond 

Cook's pond 

Henrietta Lake 

Round Lake 

Memphis, Sparks Lake 

Menard, Las Moras Creek 

Matthews Lake 

Mission Lake 

Rocky Creek 

San Saba River 

Meridian, Bosque River 

Mertzon, Callison Lake 

Ohoshe Lake 

Stage Stand Lake 

Mesquite, Duff Lake 

Midland, Railey's pond 

Millet, Fisher's pond 

Mineola, Cage's pond 

Charter Club Lake 

Pause's pond 

Glade Lake 

Sabine Lake 

Wells Lake 

Mineral Wells, Corn's lake 

Elm Creek 

Elmhurst Lake.. 

Oaks's pond 

Mount Selma, Dublin's lake 

White Perch Lake.. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



93 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Coutiuued. 

CRAPPIE— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Texas— Continued . 

Nacogdoches, Bloimts Lake 

Fair Lake 

Hardeman's pond 

Lake Alazon 

Loco Lake 

Rose Lake 

New Boston, Burrows Lake 

New Braunfels, Guadalupe River. 

Newsome, Clear Lake 

Lain's pond 

Nelson Lake 

O valo, O valo Lake 

Paige, South End Pond 

Palestine, Bear Lake 

Bowen Pond 

Broughton's pond 

Colley Lake 

Reece's pond 

Sand Lake 

Smoots Lake 

Spring Park Lake 

Panhandle, Antelope Creek 

Paris, Broad's lake 

Gordon Club Lake 

Hodges's pond 

Johnson Lake 

Long Pond 

OnetaLake 

Pride Pond 

Tanglewood Pond 

Turner's pond 

Williams's pond 

Petty, Henderson Lake 

Pinehill, Camp's pond 

Osborne's pond 

Smith's pond 

Willow Pond 

Pittsburg, Lily Pond 

Moors Lake 

Rope's pond 

Plain view, Allen's pond 

Woodson's pond 

Queen City, Hanes's pond 

Queen City pond 

Ranger, Hagaman Lake 

Redwater, Clear Lake 

Rochelle, Sellman Lakes 

Rockdale, Lee's pond 

Rotan, Kennedy's pond 

San Angelo, Concho River 

South Concho River.. 
San Augustine, McDaniel's pond.. 

San Marcos, Jackman Lake 

San Saba, San Saba River 

Santa Anna, Grady's lake , 

Kelley Lake 

Newman Lake 

Scurry, Dees Lake, 

Hicks's pond 

Nash's lake 

Sherman, Seven Mile Lake , 

Snyder, Big Pond 

Daniel's pond , 

Spofford, Slater's pond , 

Stamford, Rock Rib Lake , 

West Lake 

Strawn, loni Creek 

Swenson, Ward's pond , 

Terrell, Atcheson's pond 

Charlton Pond 

Grilhth Pond 

Martin Pond 

Rose Hill Pond 

Texarkana, Bittle's pond 




50 
50 
25 
50 
50 
50 
50 
150 
50 
25 
25 
50 
50 
50 
50 
25 
25 
25 
25 
50 
100 
100 
50 
100 
50 
50 
25 
50 
25 
25 
25 
25 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
25 
50 
25 
25 
25 
50 
25 
100 
150 
50 
50 
50 
100 
100 
50 
100 
150 
25 
25 
25 
50 
50 
50 
50 
25 
25 
50 
150 
140 
100 
50 
25 
25 
50 
25 
25 
100 



Disposition. 



Texas — Continued . 

Thomdale, Felton Lake 

Tinpson, Garrison Lake 

Greens Lake 

Smith's lake 

Weaver's pond 

Troup, Kee's pond 

Martin's pond 

Truscott , Pebble Pond 

Tyler, Brumby Lake 

Burleson Lake 

Chinq uapin Lake 

Hamilton Mill Pond 

Hills Lake 

Hitts Mill Pond..., 

Saline Creek 

Silver Spring Lake 

Uvalde, Gibben's pond 

Turkev Creek 

Valera, Home Creek 

Vernon, Lake Vernon 

Old Trail Pond 

Waco, Standefer's ponds 

Weatherford, McFarlan's pond 

Winona Lake 

Whitewright, Pilot Grove Creek 

Wichita Falls, Floral Lake 

Horseshoe Lake 

Lake Staniforth 

Willis, Forest Lake 

Pine Park Lake 

Wills Point, Thompson Lake 

Willow Lake 

Winnsboro, Kyle's pond 

Lake Erie Club Pond 

Winters, Water Works Lake 

Yoakum, Kelley s Creek 

Virginia: 

Blackstone, Maben's pond 

Carson, Indian Swamp Pond 

Danville, Dan R iver 

Sandv River 

Wolf "Island Creek 

Granite, Pond C 

Petersburg, Harrison Pond 

Hosee Pond 

Roper's pond 

Plains, Goose Creek 

Providence Forge, Providence Forge 

Pond 

Richmond, Dearhardt Pond 

Sweet Hall, Cooks Mill Pond 

Stony Creek, Sappony Creek Pond. . . 

Suffolk, Pruden's pond 

Waterlick, Passage Creek 

West Virginia: 

Surveyor, Clay's pond 

Wisconsin: 

Amery, Clare Lake 

Roimd Lake 

Baldwin, Balsam Lake 

Birchwood, Bennett Lake 

Little Sissibagama Lake. 

Spring Lake 

Bimamwood, Lake Go To It 

Long Lake 

Butternut, Pelican Lake 

Cable, Cable Lake 

Rosa Lake 

Centuria, Deer Lake 

Long Lake 

Sand Lake 

Comstock, Crystal Lake 

Harshaw, Bass Lake 

Champion Lake 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



94 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Coutinued. 

CRAPPIE— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adnlts. 


Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Wisconsin— Co nt inue d . 


200 
200 
200 
200 
300 
300 
250 
250 
400 
400 
3,000 

347,500 
1,000 
1,000 

300,000 
400 
400 
250 
250 
2.50 
300 
300 
300 
600 
600 


Wisconsin— Continued. 

State Line, Little Pickerel Lake 

Loon Lake 


400 




500 




Stone Lake, Flat Lake 


250 




Little Sissibagama Lake.. 

Little Stone Lake 

Pickwick Lake 


250 




250 




250 




Sand Lake .-. . 


250 


New City Pond 


Slim Lake 


250 


Stone Lake 


250 




Three Lakes, Thunder Lake 


400 




Tomahawk, Half Moon Lake 


200 




Somo R iver 


200 




Spirit River 


200 


Round Lake 


Tomahawk River 

Twin Lakes 


200 
200 


Milwaukee, Big Muskego Lake 


1 Wisconsin River 


200 


Turtle Lake, Hillman Lake 


250 




Horseshoe Lake 


250 


Squaw Lake 

Sweede Lake 


Skinnaway Lake 

Upper Turtle Lake 

Wyoming; 
rbeyenne, Lake Mirmehaha 


250 
250 




300 




' Sloans Lake 


600 




Total a 






1, SOO, 430 









STRAWBERRY BASS. 




ROCK BASS. 



Alabama: 


200 
100 
100 
500 
250 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
150 
400 
150 
300 

200 

200 

3,000 

1,000 

200 

16,000 

100 

S,000 

20,000 

20,000 

20,000 

20,000 

30,000 

105,000 

13.400 

13, 500 

20,000 

1,000 


Arkansas— Continued. 
Ozan, Goodlett's pond 


16,000 




Pocahontas, Chastain's pond 


4,000 




Schaal , Crystal Pond 


16,000 
400 


Hanceville Mulberry Creek 


Star CitVjGramMes's pond 




Waldo, Reason's pond 


12,000 




Connecticut: 
Newington, Goodwin's pond 


Rendalia, Riser's oond 


78 




Delaware: 

Wilmington, Carpenter's pond 

Florida: 

St. Cloud, Lake East Tohopekaliga 

Georgia: 

Bulloch ville, Davidson's pond 




Eu rgess Lake 


200 






Cobb Lake 


400 






Talladega, Jones's pond 


100 


Talladega Creek 


200 


Arizona: 


Tyrone, Landrura's pond 


200 


Hereford, Martin's pond 


White Plains, Humphrey's pond 

Tappan's pond 


200 


Arkansas: 


200 


Clarksville, Herring's pond 




200 


Fayetteville, White River 


Zirkle Little SatiUa River 


800 


Fort Smith, Morris's pond 


Illinois: 




Guernsey, Mclver's pond 


25 


Gurdon, Marion Lake 

Harrison, Hudson's pond 


Indiana: 


400 


Imboflen, Rider's lake 


Iowa: 




Jacksonville, Stanley's nond 


100 


Magnolia. Hutchesoh's pond 




50 


Mammotn Spring, Big (reek 


Kansas: 
Columbus, Lagoon No. 2 




"' Janes Creek 


200 


Myatt River 

Spring River 

Tracy Creek 

Warm Fork River.. 


Kansas City, Poor Farm Lake 

Wich ita, Little Arkansas River 

Kentucky: 
Augusta, Bracken Creek 


600 
300 

100 


Waters Fork 

Many Islands, Myatt River 


Campbellsburg, Taylor's pond 

Dover, Minerva Pond , . . - , 


100 
100 



a Lost in transit, 3,542. 



DISTRIBUTION OP FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



95 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

ROCK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearhngs, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearhngs, 
and 
adults. 


Kentucky— Continued. 


250 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
500 
300 
400 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
GOO 
GOO 
100 
200 
100 
500 
300 
300 
300 
250 
200 
500 
3.50 
200 

25 

2,000 

200 

75 

500 
500 
200 
100 
500 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
400 
400 
100 
100 
150 
200 
150 
200 

1,000 
1,000 
500 
200 
200 
800 
800 
400 
300 
300 
100 

200 
tiOO 
200 
200 
200 


New Mexico— Continued. 


200 






200 






200 






300 






150 






200 




Mount Dora, Jacobs's pond 


150 






300 






150 






400 


Madison ville, Patterson's pond 




400 




800 






400 






800 


Olmstead, WTiippoorwill Creek 


Santa Rosa, Agua Negra Creek 


500 
150 






200 






200 






300 




New York: 

La Grangeville, Beechmont Pond 

Whitestone Landing, Ice Pond 

North Carolina: 






65 




1,050 








400 


White Villa Lake White Villa . . . 




300 




Ohio: 
Middlefield, Brookside Pond 




Howards Upper Creek — 
McCormick's pond 


100 




200 


Upper Sandusky, Sandusky River 

Washington Court House, Compton 


100 


Louisiana: 
Gibbslaud Wall's pond 


300 




Oklahoma: 






210 


Maryland: 




210 




110 




Elk Citv Ballard's pond 


334 






1C7 


Mississippi: 




107 




210 






200 




Mill Creek, Blue River 


600 


Black Pond 




132 






210 




Stonewall, Holcombe's pond 


200 






400 






100 




Pennsylvania: 






400 






200 






200 






200 


Roxie, Hill Pond 


Stracks Pond 


200 






400 






325 


Hairston's pond 




2,800 


Williamspoit, Susquehanna River, 






1,325 


Missouri: 


Porto Rico: 

Guyayama, Pattillas Reservoir 

South Carolina: 


1,200 


Little Piney Creek 




Koshkonong, Shady Nook Lake 


1,000 




200 


Richland, Meadow Brook Pond 

Rolla Big Drv Fork River " 


Houea Path, Caiinadays Branch 

Reeds Branch 


300 
500 






300 






1,000 




Waterloo , Harror Pond 


200 


Springfield, Clear Lake 


South Dakota: 
Eagle Butte! Green Grass Creek, 










300 


Albuquerque, Beckham's pond 




275 


Tennessee: 
Erwin North Indian Creek 




Buchanan, De Graftenreid's pond 

Carlsbad, Gaither's pond 

Knowles's pond 


3,000 




175 


Hickory Valley, Pabst's pond 


70 



96 



DISTRIBUTION OP PISH AND PISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 

ROCK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Tennessee — Continued. 


200 
5,000 
600 
80 
400 
300 
600 

50 
75 
100 
150 
100 
100 
75 
75 
75 
150 
150 
150 
150 
150 
50 
50 
50 
50 
40 
50 
50 
100 
50 
50 
50 
50 
50 
65 
65 
130 
130 


Texas— Continued. 
Kerrville, Raaz Pond 


05 




Starkey l>ake 


05 


Madison, Madison Branch Pond 




50 


Lampasas, Abnev's pond 


50 




Mertzon, Callison'spond 


50 




Paris, Oneta Lake 


50 




Sabinal, Mathews's pond 


100 


Texas: 




50 


Fullilove's pond 


100 




Harliss's pond 


175 




Standart, Hudson Lake 


100 


Brenham, Brenham Club Lake 




100 


Tyler, Willow Lake 


50 




Waco, Ozbum's pond 


75 




Virginia: 
Beaver Dam, Bartlett's pond 






200 




Chase City, Terry's pond 


200 




Christiansbui'g, Orchard Lake 


200 




Louisa, Glen Mary Pond 


400 




Maiden, Lewis's pond 


200 




Pamplin, Horse Pen Mill Pond 

Red Hill, Wingfleld's ice pond 

Vienna, Cooley's pond 


500 




400 




300 




Waverly , Niblett Mill Pond 


600 




Wirtz, Gills Creek 


1,000 


Fort Stockton, Jotinson's pond 


Wytheville, Reed Creek, South Fork.. 
Tates Run. .'. 


400 
400 




West Virginia: 
Bluefield, Bailey Lake 






100 




Martinsburg, Opequon Creek 


1,000 




Potomac River 


1,700 




Sturgisson, Quarry Lake 


200 




Walkersville, Monongahela River', 
West Branch 






600 




Wisconsin: 
Leslie, Pecatonica River, branch of. . . 

Total o 




Kerrville, Browne's pond 


.350 








414,078 




1 









SMALLMOUTH BLACK BASS. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 
and _ 
adults. 


Arkansas: 
Brentwood, Wliite River, 
West Fork 




600 
600 

500 

16, 000 

600 


Colorado: 
Denver, Alchemist Springs 




200 


Crossett, Creamery Lake 








200 


FavettPville, White River, 
Middle Fork 




Delaware: 
Folton Killens Pond 




400 


Hardy, Spring River 


6,000 


Illinois: 


2,500 




Hope, Pleasure Lake 




Hot Springs, Bulls C r e e k, 
North Fork... 


6,000 
6,000 

6,000 
6,000 
6, 000 


Iowa: 


500 


Burton Branch . . 








500 


Little Mazarn 
Creek 




Kentucky: 
Bowling Green, Gasper River . 


9.000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
9,000 
6,000 
9,000 




Mm Creek 






Teger Creek 








Johnson, Taylor I>ake 


200 






River Front, St. Francis River 


12, 000 
30, 000 


Donaldson Creek 




St. Francis, St. Francis River. 






St. Francis Bridge, St. Fran- 


800 


Little R iver. Upper 

Muddy Fork Creek 




cis River 





» Lost in transit, 0,225. 



DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



97 



Details of Distribution of Fish .and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
SMALLMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 
and 
adults. 


Kentucky— Continued. 


6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
9,000 
9,000 

6,000 
9,000 
6,000 

15,000 
9,000 
12, 000 

3,000 
9,000 
9,000 

9,000 

6,000 
3,000 
6,000 

9,000 

3,000 
3,000 

1,000 
3,200 




Michigan— Continued. 
Muskegon , Wolf I>ake 




800 


Sinking Fork Creek 

Clermont, Eiho Sprins; Lake. . 




Niles, Smiths Lake 




1,800 




Northville, Walled Lake 

Oscoda, Lake Van Etta 


1,000 






1,000 






Owosso, Shawassee River 




1,000 


Dix River, Hanging 
Fork . . 








400 


Long Lake 




400 


Mocks Run 




Lower Lake 




300 






Middle Lake 




400 


Salt River, Rolling 
Fork 




Mixer Lake 




300 


Myers Lake 




300 


Eliz.abethtown, Mill Creek... 




Newton Lake 




300 






Tanner Lake 




300 


Wo olperts 
Pond 




Tilson Lake 




300 


Twin Lake 




300 


Frankfort, Cedar Creek 




Reading, Carpenter Lake 




300 


Glasgow, Fallen Timber Creek 
Hopkinsvllle, Little River, 




Long Lake 




450 




Round Lake 




450 


Reed City, Todd Lake 




600 


Little River 




St. James, Barney Lake 




420 


West Fork 


Egg Lake 




420 


Lawrenceburg, Big Pond 

Macco, Kingfisher Lake 




Font Lake 




630 




Fox Lake 




420 




Lake Gallier 




630 


Fork 


Turtle, Bear Lake 




90 


Princeton, Rollings worth 

Creek . ... 




Clearwater Lake 




90 


Hawk Lake 




90 


Shelbyville, Guthrie's pond. . 




Honeymoon Lake 




90 




Independence Lake 




ISO 


Bowdoinham, Adams's pond. 
Oakland, Belgrade Lake 


Little African Lake 




90 




Lons; Lake 




180 


200 
200 


Ormes Lake 




90 


Alberton, Wheelwright's pond 


Rowe Lake 




9tf 


Twin Lake , Twin Lake 




800 




9,000 
12,000 

1,500 
1,100 
2,000 
1,000 
1,000 
3,000 
6,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 
2,000 
1,000 
4,000 
1,000 
1,500 

1,000 
3,000 


Walhalla, St. Anthony Lake. . 




400 


Potomac River . 




Mirmesota: 
Hokah, Broken Arrow Run.. 










375 


Gloucester, Niles Pond 


Mississippi: 
Aberdeen, Jones's pond 






Great Barriugton, Lake Buel. 




100 






Avon, Lake Shepherd 

Missouri: 
Horse Hollow, Alley Spring 
Run 


12,000 

3,000 

2,000 
550 
3.000 
2,000 
3,000 

1,000 
1,000 

1,000 










Lower Goose Pond 












Stoekbridge Lake 




Marceline, Santa Fe Club Lake 
New Hampshire: 


180 


Upper G oose Pond 












Crystal Lake 




Canobie Lake, Canobie Lake. . 

Claremont, Cold Pond 

Concord, Contoocook River. . . 

Keene , Spofford Lake 

New York: 

Cambridge, Hedges lake 

Lake Lauderdale. 

School House 

Pond 




Flushing Pond 






Knopps Pond 

Massacnpis Lake 

Nahnassett Pond 














Lvnn, Lower Pond 






Williamsville, Hemingway 
Pond 








Worcester, Coes Pond 






Michigan: 


840 
900 

mo 

420 
600 
400 
180 
600 

1,000 
800 
400 

1, 100 
400 

1,000 




75 


Alden, Clam Lake 


East Stinli Lake. 
Green Lake 




50 


Buchanan, Clear Lake 






75 


Charlevoix, Adams Lake 




Helen Gould 
Lake 






Pine Lake 




75 


Clyde, Fish Lake 




Henrietta Creek. 
Mavfleld Creek.. 




75 


Highfield's pond 




75 


Punliam, Lake Chanev 




Stink Lake 




50 


East Tawas, Bass Lake 








75 


Edwardslnirg, Eagle Lake... 




West Canada 






Evart, Hicks Lake 




75 


Ypsilanti, FrainsLake 








150 


Grayling, Portage Lake 




Mount Calm Landing, Eagle 






Holiv, Simonson Lake 




50 


Jackson, Big Portage Lake 




Port Henry, Dead water Lake. 
Lake Wawonais- 


1,000 

2,000 
1,000 




Leonard, Echo Lake 


1,000 






800 
800 




Love I Is, Shoe Pack Lake 




Ledge Lake 





98 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — -Coutiuued. 
SMALLMOUTH BLACK BASS.— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 

liiigs, 

yearlmgs, 

and 

adults. 


New YorK— Continued. 
Salem, Cossayjna Lake 


1,000 




50 
75 
75 

150 

150 
300 
200 

600 
750 
400 

300 

200 


Brandywine 
Pond 




Featherston- 




North Carolina: 
Connelly Springs, Cannon 
Creek 




Cold Wa- 
ter Creek. 




High Point Holts Creek 




Lake Toxaway, Lake Toxa- 




Lenoir, Wilson Creek 








North Dakota: 








Ohio: 
Akron, East and West Reser- 
voirs 


2,000 
2,000 
500 
1,000 
1,200 
1,200 
2,000 


Springfield Lake 

Holmesville, Martins Creek. . . 






Mansfield, Clear Fork River. . 








Lake Statl'ord 




Sycamore, Sycamore Creek.. 




West Alexandria, Twin Creek 


1,600 

150 
200 
45 
150 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
300 

300 

450 

1.50 
150 
150 
1.50 
1.50 
150 

300 

300 


Pennsylvania: 
Atglen, Glenville Pond 




Birdell, Birdell Pond 




Great Bend, Quaker Lake 




Hatboro, Neshaminv Creek. . . 




Lebanon, Alberts Mill Pond . . 




Klines Pond 




Lights Pond 




Mishs Pond 




Sarges Mill Pond . . 




Vallov Glen Pond.. 




Woidmans Pond . . . 




Weimers Pond 




Norristown, Perkiomen Creek 

Peach Bottom, Susquehanna 

River 




Phillipsburg, Delaware River 
Ship Road, Brandywine 
Creek 




Ship Road Pond. 




Spring City, French Creek . . 








Rapps Pond 




Tf Iford, Branch Creek 




South Carolina: 
Welford, South Tiger River. . 




Tennessee: 
Blevins, Doe River 




Clarksville, Big West Fork 
Creek 


12,000 
6,000 

12.000 
6.000 

6,000 

6,000 

6,000 
12,000 

"'466' 


Flat Lick Crook... 




Little West Fork 
Creek 




Trahern's lake... 




Cleveland, Wildwood Lake 
(A) 




Wildwood Lake 
(B) 




Wildwood Lake 
(C) 




Estill Springs, Elk River 




Hickory Vallev, Pab.st's pond . 
Johnson City, Watauga River. 


800 



Disposition. 



Tennessee — Continued. 
MeMinnville, Rocky River. . . 
Mitchellville.GossettsPond... 
Sequatchie, Little Sequatchie 

River 

Springfield, Red River, Sonth 

Fork 

Tellico Plains, Tellico River. . . 
Utah: 

Logan, Clear Creek 

Vermont: 
Cambridge Junction, Half 
Moon 
Pond 
Medcalf 
Pond. 
Enosburg Falls, Lake Carmi.. 

Fair Haven, Black Pond 

Hydeville, Lake Bomoseon. . . 

Middlebury, Fern Lake 

Otter Creek 

Morrjsville , Lake Lamoille 

Mount Hollv, Jackson Pond . . 
North Bennington, Lake 

Paran 

Rupprt, Lake St. Catherine 

Springfield, Lower Mucktow 

Pond 

Wolcott, Wolcott Pond 

Virginia: 
Abingdon, Holston River, 

South Fork 

Alton, Rockfisli River 

Ameha, Southland Pond 

Boyce, Millwood Run 

Chester, Red Water Lake 

Covington, Potts Creek 

East Radford, Back Creek 

Little River. . . 

Ellerson, Fox's pond 

Rutland Club Lake. 

Front Royal, Gooney Run 

fronton, Roanoke River 

Lightfoot, Jolly Mill Pond. . . . 

Manassas, Occbquan Run 

Norfolk, City Lake 

Pocahontas," Carrs Spring 

Branch 

Shenandoah, Shenandoah 

River 

Stanley, Shenandoah River, 

South Branch 

Tunstalls, Cosbys Pond 

Ilampstead Pond. . 

Warren, Marbrook f>ake 

Woodstock, Shenan d o a h 

River, North Branch 

Witheville, Cove Creek 

Reed Creek 

Reed Creek, North 

Branch 

West \irginia: 
Berkeley Springs, Sleepy 

Creek ". . 

Charles Town, Shenandoah 

River 

Fairmont, Tygarta Valley 

River ". . 

Great Cacapon, Great Cacapon 

River 

Keyser, Pattersons Creek 

Paw Paw, Great Cacapon 

River 

Putney, Coal Company Lake.. 



Fry. 



3,000 
9,000 



9,000 
9,000 



1,000 
270 



1,500 
9,660 



4,500 
8,000 



6,000 



12,000 



7,500 

12,000 

9,000 

9,000 
6,750 

12, 000 
12,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915, 



99 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
SMALLMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



West Virginia — Continued. 
Romney, Potomac River, 

South Branch 

Shelton, Kile River 

Springfield, Potomac River, 

South Branch 

Wellsburg, Buffalo Creek 

Cross Creek 

Wisconsin: 

Amery, Blake Lake 

Round Lake 

Ashland, Basswood Lake 

Buck Hill Lake 

Duck Lake 

Everett Lake 

Finger Lake 

Island Lake 

Pike Lake 

Twin Lake 

Wliite River Pond.. 

Athelstane, Lily Lake 

Baldwin, Sucker Lake 

Birnamwood, Circle Lake 

Lake Go To It. 
Sclimidt Lake.. 
Spring Lake. . . 

Toad Lake 

Butternut, Butternut Lake... 

Turtle Lake 

Cable, Cable Lake 

Perry Lake 

Drummond, Lake Owen 

Pigeon Lake. . .. 
Robinson Lake.. 

Elcho, Bass Lake 

Enterprise Lake 

Otter Lake 

Pine Lake 

Glidden, Augustine Lake 

Summit Lake 



Fry. 



12,000 
12,000 

9,000 
9,000 
9,000 



1,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 
and 
adults. 



600 
300 



180 
180 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 



Disposition. 



Wisconsin — Continued. 

Hayward, Bass Lake 

Big Moose River... 
Big Spider Lake... 
Blueberry Lake. . . 

Clear Lake 

LakeCourt O 'Reille 
liittle Moose River. 
Little Spider Lake. 

RcundLake 

Lake Nebagamon, Lake Neba- 

gamon 

Mellen, Lake Gallilee 

Long Lake 

Mineral Lake 

Nashville, Little Ice Lake 

Mole Lake 

Norrie, Ma\-flower Lake 

Nye , Big Lake 

Pelican, Buteau Lake 

Long Lake 

Pelican Lake 

Phelps, I/ittle Twin Lakes. . . 
Presque Isle . Presque Isle Lake 

State Line, Beaver Lake 

Big Portage Lake 

Black Lake 

Diimer Lake 

Fawn Lake 

Lost Lake 

Marshall Lake 

Silver Lake 

Spoon Lake 

Tamarack Lake.. 

Sweden, Bass Lake 

Black Lake 

Mac-a-nin-ny Lake. . 
Starr Lake 



Total a 653, 170 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. 



90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
180 
90 
90 
90 

215 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 
180 
90 
180 
180 
90 
180 
90 
90 
180 
180 
180 
90 
90 
90 
ISO 
90 
90 
90 
90 
90 



81,177 



LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS. 



Alabama: 

Anderson, Batson's pond 

Birmingham, Clark's pond . . . 
Edwards's pond 

Giles Pond 

Lake Aleathea.. 
Mountain Lake. 
Number Seven 

Lake 

Oliver's lake. . . 
Phillips's pond. 
Riddle's pond.. 
Ritter's pond... 
Scotts Branch 

Pond 

Village Creek 

Reservoir .... 

Warren Lake... 

Brent, Affonee Creek 

Ellard's pond 

Ilaysop Creek 

Highland Lake 

Brewton, Burnt Corn Creek.. 

Brierfield, Mahan Creek 

Centerville, Avery Lake 

Cooper's pond 

Lightsoy Pond... 



7.50 
1,500 
1,500 
1,200 
1,775 

300 

1,200 
1,500 
100 
1,000 
2,000 

1,200 

275 

1,500 

50 

25 

200 

200 

2,000 

1,000 

8,000 

8,000 

8,000 



Alabama — Continued. 
Coleanor, Fancher's mill pond 

Mahan Creek 

Cordova, Black Warrior River 
Courtland, Big Nance Creek. . 

Spring Creek 

Crews, Goode Spring Pond. . . 

Decatur, Beaver Lake 

Dixon Mills, Dixon Mill Pond 

Epes, Godfrey's pond „ 

Erin, Three Mile Creek 

Eutaw, Dollarhide Pond 

Evergreen, Muder Creek 

Smith's pond 

Fayette, Sipsey Lake 

Sipsey River 

Florence. Smith's lake 

Striplin's lake 

Geiger, Gallespier Lake 

Geiger Lake 

Gillespie Pond 

Hirshfield Lake 

Porter's pond 

Table Lake 

Grassmere , Clear Creek 

Green, Cunningham Creek.... 
Guin, Pearce's pond 



7,500 
7,500 
2,500 
2,500 
5,000 
2, ,500 
5,000 
2,500 
5,000 



2,500 



200 

200 

1,200 

300 

100 

200 

200 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

2,000 

1,750 

225 



500 
1,500 



oLost in transit, 28,250 fry and 2,124 fingerlings. 



100 



DISTRIBUTION OP FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

LAKGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Alabama — Continued. 
Hanceville, Mulberry Creek. . 

Harvest, Limestone Creek 

Hodges, Fleming's pond 

Hull, Big Sandy Pond 

Huntsville, Indian Creek 

Ida, Campbell Lake 

Coosa Lake 

Lock Twelve Lake 

Mud Creek Lake 

Jasper, Bankhead's pond 

Blackwater Creek 

Cane Creek 

Kellyton Hatchet Creek 

Letohatcnee, Dean's pond 

Holmes Lake.. 
Lineville, LakeSallieWoodie. 

Smith's lake 

Loachapoka, Sougahatchee 

Pond 

Luveme, Beall's lake 

Kendrick's pond . . . 

Reynold's lake 

Run's pond 

Sikes'spond 

McElderry , Cheaha Creek 

Marion, Dunaway 's pond 

Melbome, Hays's pond 

Mobile, Dog River 

Montgomery, Big Whitewater 

Lake 

Cobbs Ford 

Lake 

Crescent Lake.. 
Whetstone 

Lake 

Hosteller, Beeswax Creek 

Coosa River Lake.. 
New Market, Mountain Fork 

Creek 

Oneonta, Sand Lake 

Paint Rock, Paint Rock River 

Pelham, Johnson Creek 

Phil Campbell, Lambert's 

pond 

Pme Hill, Bradford's pond. . . 

Sheffield's pond 

Prattville, Bell's pond 

Dunn's pond 

Northington's 
pond 



Smith's pond, 
ond. 



P3Titon, Pace's pon^ 
Quentori, Bankhead Pond, 

Ramer, Beasley's ponds 

Roanoke, Kitchen's pond 

Russellville, Burgess's pond. . 
Lake Gayley. . . . 

Lake Henry 

Selma, Jones's pond , 

Shady Grove, Hicks Pond 

Sheffield, Shoal Creek 

Sweetwater Creek . . 

Sulligent, Bogue Pond , 

Priddy's pond 

Talladega, Autreys Pond 

Bartleson Pond.... 
Chehawhaw (^reek. 
Eastaboga Creek. . , 

Kellys Creek 

Kershaw Branch. , 
Pond Springs 

Branch , 

Silver Lake 

Talladega Springs, C e d a r 
Creek . . , 



Fry. 



75, 000 



2,500 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearhngs, 
and 
adults. 



400 

30 

100 

120 

200 

200 

200 

400 

200 

1,500 

1,800 

300 

300 

750 

1,000 

500 

500 

1,000 
200 
100 
100 
100 
100 
250 

1,000 



2,000 

3,000 

200 
2,000 

1,500 
300 
300 

100 

200 

300 

1,200 

150 

1,000 

1,000 

200 

200 

100 

200 

1,000 

2,000 

200 

500 

100 

300 

250 

1,000 

100 

1,000 

1,000 

3,000 

150 

500 

1,000 

1,500 

500 

500 

500 

1,000 
1,500 

400 



Disposition. 



Alabama — Continued . 
Talladega Springe, H e a s 1 e t 
Creek . . . 
Kirkland 

Lake 

Pecker- 
wood 
Creek . . . 
Pope Creek 
Rock Lake 
Varderaan 

Lake 

V arn er 
Mill 
Pond.... 

Troy, Henderson's pond 

Ten Acre Lake 

Tuscaloosa, Quarles Lake 

Tuscumbia, Spring Creek 

Union town, Cromer's lake 

Meadow Lake... 
Wagar, McClures Mill Pond. . 
Walker Springs. Whites Pond. 

Winfield, Mill Race Lake 

Yolande, Turner's pond 

Arizona: 
Grand Canyon, Reed's lake. . . 
Wickenburg, Hassayampa 

River Pond 

Yuma, Colorado River 

Arkansas: 

Alma, Big Clear Creek 

Douglas Lake 

Frog Bayou 

Arkadelphia, Ouachita River. 
Austin, Crab tree Spring Pond. 

Batesville, Blue Creek 

Spring Creek 

Spring Lake 

Beaver, AVhite River 

Biggers, Current River 

Booneville, Sanatorium Lake. 
Buena Vista, Tvson's pond. . . 
Cotter, White River, North 

Fork 

El Dorado, Rock Island Lake. 

England, Clear Lake 

Fairfield, Alk ins Lake 

Farrell, Farrell Pond 

Fayetteville, Clear Creek 

Haraestring 

Creek 

Richland Creek . 
White River, 

Main Fork 

White River, 

Middle Fork.. 

White River, 

West Fork.... 

Galloway, Hills Lake 

Valentine's lake. .. 

Hardy, Spring River 

Spring River, South 

Fork 

Harrison, Crooked Creek 

Hermitage, Ferguson's pond.. 
Homan, Six Hundred Yard 

Lake 

Hope, Crystal Lake 

Pleasure Lake 

Spring Lake 

Hot Sprmgs, Clear Creek 

Mazam Creek . . . 

Saline River, 

South Fork . . . 

Johnson, North Clear Creek... 



Fry. 



12,000 
9,000 
12, 000 
12,000 



,000 
,000 



9,000 

6,000 

9,000 
6,000 
6,000 



9,000 



6,000 
6,000 



6,000 
9,000 



9,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adiUts. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



101 



Details of Distkibution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. 


Arkansas— Continued. 
Lake Village. Lake Chicot. . . . 


15,«10 




Cuba: 
( )riente, Las Indios Lake 




1,000 


300 

8,000 

400 


Delaware: 
Broadkill, Angola Pond 










200 






Cheswold, Leipsic River 




400 




12,000 


Claymont, Naaman Creek 




400 




100 


Delaware City, Chesapeake 
and Delaware Canal 






Mena, Jansen Park Lake 


9,000 


200 


200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 


Felton, Coursey Mill Pond 




200 






Killens Pond 




400 






McCollev Mill Pond... 




200 


Mink Lake 




Murderkill River, 
headwaters 










40C 






Nanticoke River, 
Northwest Fork .... 










40C 


Monticello, AVllson Pond 


3,000 
6,000 
3,000 
12,000 


Harrington, McCauley's mill 
pond 








20C 






Wilson Mill Pond 
Kirkwood, Canal Lake 




20C 






20C 




4,000 


Middletown, Silver Lake 




400 




3,000 
12,000 
6,000 


Milford, Chestnut Hill Pond. . 




20C 






Griers Pond 

Marshall's mill pond . 




30C 


Paris, Short Mountain Creek.. 




30( 


200 

95 

4,000 

400 

200 

3,000 


AVilmington, Lumms Pond. . . 




40C 


Pine Bluff, Dorfis Lake 

Pocahontas, Black River 


15,000 






20C 


Florida: 






Prairie Grove, IllinWs River, 




20( 


Century, Palmore Pond 




1,000 






Compass Lake, Blue Pond 




20C 






Davenport, Buckeye Lake — 




10( 




15,000 
3,000 

12, 000 

12,000 
9,000 
6,000 
6,000 
6,000 
9,000 

12,000 


De Funiak Springs, Godwin 
Pond . 










20( 






K i n g's 
lake. . . 










20( 






Lake De 

Funiak 

East Lake, Lake Weir 






Fish Creek 




3O0 


Pennington Bayou 

Wolf Bayou 

Russellville, Illinois River 

Scott, Bear Skin Lake 




50( 




Florence Villa, Lake Cannon . 




10( 




LakeDrane... 




20( 




Lake Eloise... 




20( 


300 

2,000 

100 


Lake Fannv . . 




loo 


Silver Maple Pond.. . 




Lake Hamil- 
ton 










20( 




6,000 

9,000 
9,000 
6,000 


Lake Lucerne. 




IOC 


Country Club 
Lake. 




Lake Mirror.. . 




IOC 


Lake Rochella 
Spring Lake.. 




IOC 


Hosan Lake 




IOC 




Graceville, Snell's pond 




IOC 


Thornton, Thornton Pond 


8,000 
100 


Jasper, Jumping Gulley Creek 
Orlando, Hu>; table's pond 




50C 






50< 


Waldo, Reasons 's pond 

Waldron, Freestone River 


9,000 
9,000 
3,000 


Pensacola, Olive Springs Pond 




IOC 




m 


Quitman, Session Pond 




20C 


Womble, Edwards's pond 


200 
2,000 


St. Cloud, Lake East Tohope- 






Wrightsville, Foiirche Bayou . 

Grassy Lake 

Horse Shoe 
Lake 


IS, 000 

9,0(X) 

6,000 

6,000 
9,000 


50( 


Porrento, Lake Lucie 




20C 




Tallahassee, Silver Trout Lake 
Georgia: 




20( 


Kuykendall 




1,00( 


Lanier's pond 




1,00( 






Adel, Saddle Bag Pond 




25( 


Colorado: 


15 
30 
30 
30 
30 
250 

175 
30 

32 

40 
200 






20( 


Alapaha, Fletcher's pond 




1,00{ 






Albany, Flint River 




2,00< 






Kinchafoonee Creek. . 




3,50 






Muckafoonee Creek . . 




1,00 






Muckalee Creek 




1,50 






Ashbum, McKenzie's jwnd. . . 




1,00 


Colorado Springs, Prospect 








451 


Atlanta, Brookhaven Lake... 




1,50( 






Brown's pond 




20 


Grand Junction, Gunnison 








1,80 


Jester Mill Pond 




20( 


Connecticut: 
Greenwich, TJhompson'spond 
Niantic, Dodge Lake 








10 






27. 


' Town Creek Pond. . 




m 



102 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LAROEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. 


Georgia— Continued. 




375 
1,000 

100 

1,000 

1,800 

300 

100 

1,000 

150 

200 

1,500 

200 

200 
1,000 
400 
500 
300 
300 

100 
1,000 

310 
1,000 

300 

1,650 
175 
100 

1,000 
200 


Georgia — Continued. 
Md'nroe, Roberts's pond 




405 






Mont07,uma, Beaver Creek 




200 


Blue Ridge, Snake Nation 
Like 




Newington, Meldrim Mill 
Pond 




1,000 






Norwood, Jones Pond 




500 






Ocilla. Paulk'spond 




200 






Ogeechee, Ogeechee River 

Pideock , Fre ierick Pond 


2,000 








500 






Quitman, Bowen Mill Pond. . 




200 






Foster Pond 




500 






Withlacoochee 
Creek 






'Hollywood 
Pond 




200 


Reynolds, Horse Creek 




3,000 


Knowlton Mill 
Pond 




Potterville Pond 




750 


Richland, Clear Creek 




200 






Rinion, Rincon Branch 




750 


Pond 


Senoia, Adamson Pond 




200 






White Oak Creek 




150 


Canon, Rocky Fork Pond 




Smyrna, Nickajack Creek 

Social Circle, Alcovv River. . . 




200 






2,000 






Lake Martha 




500 






Sparta, Mill Pond 




175 


Cedartown, Pumpkin Pile 
Creek 




Woodside Pond 




1,000 


Stephens, Saver's pond 




100 


Coffee, Black Rim 




Stone Moimtain, Yellow River 
Sycamore, Fountain's pond... 




1,500 






750 


Comer, Crystal Lake 




Thomasville, La Cubana Pond 
Lake Katheriae. 




1,000 


Covena, Spring Water Pond. . 




100 


Crawfordsville, Ogeechee 
R i ver 




Watson's pond.. 
Toccoa, Scott's pond 




1,000 
100 






Washington, Anderson Mill 
Pond 






Dalton, Tibb's pond . . 




100 


Decatur, Snapflnger Creek 




Upatoie, Pine Knot ("reck 




1,5C0 


Denton, RoddenlDerry 's pond. 




Valdosta, Bonny Mill Pond... 




1,000 


Douglas, Barber's pond 


1,500 
1,000 


Vidalia, Haskins Mill Pond. . . 




1,000 


Peterson's pond 




Warrenton, Beall's pond 




200 


Smith's pond 


1,000 


Mathews Mill 
Pond 






Vickers Mill Pond... 


1,000 


175 


Fairburn, McCurry's pond 


500 

300 

750 

1,500 

140 

150 

750 

1,000 
100 

750 
1,250 
750 
200 
200 
300 

1,500 
425 

300 

200 
200 
500 
750 
500 
1,500 
100 
200 


Waycross, Satilla River 




4,000 


Fayetteville, Whitewater 
Pond 




Winona Park Lake 
White Plains, Grime's pond.. 




1,000 
2,150 


Fort Valley, Houser's mill 
pond 




Whilestone, Talona Creek 
Pond 




100 


Greensboro, Richland Creek. 




Winder, Apalachee River 




200 


Griffin, Mary Villa Pond 




Woodland, Flint River 




200 


Moores Branch . . . 




Zirkle, Little Satilla River. . 




2,000 


Hagan, Cedar Creek, branch 
of 




Idaho: 




150 


Hardys Crossing, Jackson's 
mUl pond 




Illinois: 
Aledo, Tovmslev's pond 




120 


Harris, Bonner's pond 




Ambov, Maple Grove Pond. . . 




150 


Higgston, Morris's pond 




Antioch, Lake Catherine .. .. 




600 


Hilltonia, Beaverdam Creek.. 








1,000 


Kibbee, Palmer's pond . . . 








600 


Lake Park, Corbet Lake 








400 


Dyke Pond 








375 


Whitewater Lake. 




Troy Lake 




125 


Lithonia, Arabia Mountain 




Ward Lake 




125 


Lake 






300 


Reagin's pond 








1,400 


Louisville, Rocky Comfort 




Chap in, Maple Park Pond. .. 




600 


Creek 


Clay City, Broken Hook Pond 
Crystal Lake, Crystal Lake 

(A) 




200 


Lumpkin, Patterson's mill 
pond 




600 


Mableton, Eason's pond... 




Crystal Lake 
(B) 






McBean, Knit,'ht's pond 




450 


Macon, Nelson Mill Pond 








150 


Stevens Lake 








300 


Willow Lake 




Edwardsville Wolf Pond 




600 


Mad ison , A t k inson Lake. . . . 








500 


Mavsville, Grove River Lake. 




Farrington, Grassy Cove Lake 
Flora, Lone Thron Lake 




300 


Milledgeville, White Lake. . . 




750 
1,500 

100 
1,000 


200 


Millhaven , Briar Creek 








200 


Milner, Buck Creek 




Fraiiklin, Burlington Lake 




600 


Little Potato Pond... 




Freeburg, Freeburg Lake 




50 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS_, 1915. 



103 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Illinois — Continued. 

Freeport, Pecatonia River 

Granite City, .\tlasta Pond... 

Hiirhland, Matter's lake 

Highland Park, Foley's pond. 
Hillsboro, Chautauqua Lake. . 

Edward's pond 

Hinsdale, Salt Creek 

Irving, Lyerla's pond 

LakeBlufl, Brae Burn Pond. . 

Lake Villa, Cedar Lake 

Crooked Lake 

Deep Lake 

Liberty ville, Insull's pond 

Litchfield, Litchfield Reser- 
voir 

Long Lake, Long Lake 

Loon Lake^ Loon Lake 

Markham, McKinney's pond . 

Mere-iosia, Meredosia Bay 

Monmouth, Country Club 

Lake , 

Moimt Pulaski, Salt Creek 

Orleans, Spring Lake 

Rigston, Rawlin!;'s pond 

Roodhouse, C. and A. Pond . . 

Roimd Lake, Round Lake 

Salem, City Reservoir 

Coimty Home Pond. . . 

Savaima, Torhlinson Rim 

Sparta, Borders Lake 

McKelvey's pond 

Walsh Lake 

Sterling, Lake Sinnissippi. . . . 

Stronghurst, Lake Fort 

Warren, Apple River 

Indiana: 

Albion , Kuhns Lake 

Bremen, Lake of the Woods. . 
Donallson, Gilbraith Lake. . . 

Elkhart, Elkhart River 

Heaton Lake 

Fremont, Lake George 

Goshen, Wolf Lake 

Ray, Clear Lake 

Gravej-ard Lake 

Kellogg Lake 

Long Lake 

Mud Lake 

South Bend, Fish Lake 

Topeka, Atwood Lake 

Hackenburgh Lake. . 

Long Lake 

Pickerel Lake 

Second Lake 

Whitmer Lake 

Iowa: 

Allerton, Allerton Pond 

Rook Island Reser- 
voir 

Anamosa, Wapsipinicon Riv- 



Fry. 



Belle\-ue, Mississippi River. . . 
State fish commis- 
sion 

Chester, Upper Iowa River 

Clinton, Goose Lake 

Coimcil BlulTs, Lake Manawa. 

Cresco, Upper Iowa River 

Dyersville, Maquoketa River, 

North Fork 

Fairbanks, Little Wapsie 

River 

Independence, Wapsipinicon 

River , 

Iowa Falls, Iowa River 



Finger- 

lin^s, 

yearlmgs, 

and 

adults. 



250 
400 
450 
150 
600 
200 
600 
150 
150 
800 
800 
600 
600 

1,000 

800 

600 

200 

55 

180 
450 
200 
150 
400 
800 

1,600 
400 
100 
350 
175 
350 
750 
150 

3,200 

100 
200 
100 
100 
100 
150 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
50 
100 
100 

200 

80 

360 
17,250 

200 
240 
120 
120 
120 

120 

120 

300 
1,500 



Disposition. 



Iowa — Continued. 

Keokuk , Cooper Lake 

North McGregor, Mississippi 

River 

State fish 
commis- 
sion 

Ruthven, Lost Island Lake. . . 

Seymour, Seymour Pond 

AVebster City, Boone River. . . 
Kansas: 

Belleville. Belleville Lake 

Chanute, Allen's lake 

Cherry\-a!o, City Lake 

Fredonia, Brick company 

pond 

Clear Creek 

Fraters Lake 

Gumbo Ponds 

Raini 'ow Pond 

Galena, Shqal Creek 

Spring River 

Havs, Kraus's pond 

Kingman, Sutton's pond 

Wrenchey's pond. . 
Logan, Orchard Park Lake. . . 

Moran, Moran Pond 

Neutral, Ransom's pond 

Norton, Bittersweet Pond 

Paola, Bull Creek 

Parsons, Moran Pond 

Pittsburg, Klaner Pond 

Soldiers Home, Lake Jeanette 

AVelda, Welda Lake 

West Mineral, Waj-side Lake. 
Wichita, Little Arkansas 

River 

Yates Center, Railway Pond. 

Kentucky: 

Adairsville, Herrings Pond . . . 

Holland Creek.... 

Jenk in s and Ryan 

Pond 

Pleasant Grove 

Creek 

Red River, North 
and South 

Prongs 

Scraggs's pond... 

Sinking Creek 

Allenville, AVillow "f^ond 

Barlow, Frey 'slake 

Beaver Creek, Big Sandy 

River 

Bowling Green, Barren River 
Clear Fork 

Creek 

Curds Pond.. 
Drakes Creek 
E m e r s on's 

pond 

Ford's pond.. 
Green River.. 
Kelly's lake. . 
Murphy's 

pond 

Trammel! 

Creek 

Trout Pond. . 

Brandenburg, Allgood's pond 

Bewley's pond. 

Brandenburg 

Lake 

Bruner's pond . 

Horse Shoe 

Pond 



Fry. 



104 



DISTKIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Fry. 



Kentucky— Continufid . 
Brandenburg, Tennie Neafus 

I'ond 

Long Pond 

Miller's pond 

(A) 

Miller's pond 

(B) 

Cadiz, Donaldson Creek 

Hammond's pond 

Campbellsburg, Cox's pond.. . 

Green River.. 

Campton, Red River, Middle 

Fork 

Cave City, Highland Pond. . , 
Centertown, Kimblev's pond. 

Clay City .Red River 

Corinth, Eagle Creek, Littles 

Fork 

Covington, Graham's pond. . 

Lake Elbry 

Retschulte Lake. 

Crider, Matchen Pond 

Pyrtle Pond 

Willow Pond 

Crittenden, Collins's pond . . . 

Crofton, L. & N. Lake 

Cimiberland Falls, Cumber- 
land River 

Cynthiana, South Licking 

River 

Danville, Adams Pond 

Caldwell's lake 

Caldwell's pond... 

Cecil Pond 

Dix River 

Dix River, Hanging 

Fork 

Eastland Pond 

Pope's pond 

Rolling Fork Creek 

Dexter, Clarks River 

Dulaney, Scott's pond 

Dimdee, Rough River 

Elizabethtown, BilliesCreek. 
Cates'spond. 
Cedar Creek . 
Cofers Pond . 
Rhudes Creek 
Valley Creek. 
Williams 

Pond 

Wintersmith 

Pond 

Elkton, Edwards's pond 

Petrie Pond 

Eminence, Karr's pond 

Moody's irond 

Railroad Pond 

Erlanger, McClurg's pond 

Tanner's pond 

Utz Pond 

Eubank, Buck Creek 

Fishing Creek 

Pattons Lake 

Ewing, Brushy Fork Creek. . . 

-Collins Pond 

Park Lake 

Wildcat Lake 

Falmouth, Sout h Licking 

River 

Franklin, Aspley's pond 

Baird's pond 

Bunch's pond 

Drakes Creek 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



250 
100 

150 

100 
100 
275 
125 
100 

36 
100 
100 

36 

250 
125 
125 
125 
100 
100 
100 
125 
275 

40 

250 
100 
200 
100 
100 
400 

500 
100 
100 
200 
1,000 
100 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 

200 

200 
200 
200 
60 
60 
60 
125 
125 
125 
40 
40 
40 
100 
100 
200 
100 

250 
100 
100 
200 
360 



Disposition. 



Kentucky — Continued. 
Franklin, Drakas Creek, Mid- 
dle Fork 

Drakes Creek, Sul- 
phur Fork 

Duncan's pond 

Gilbert's pond 

Gunther'spond 

Hobdy's pond 

Holcomb's pond. . . 

Horn's pond 

Lee's pond 

Louis Pond 

McClanahan's pond 

Red Pond 

Terrapin Creek 

^^' right's pond 

Fredonla, Adams I'ond 

Beaver's pond 

Brasher's pond 

Gravoe Pond 

Hillyard Pond 

Hooks's pond 

Oliver's pond {\). . 
Oliver's pond (B). . 

Balston's pond 

Slick Rank Pond... 

Stephenson's pond . 

Fulton, Fair Ground Pond. . . 

Glasgow, Beaver Creek 

BeaverCreek, South 

Fork 

Skaggs Creek 

Wade's pond 

Glen Dean, Hart's pond 

Grayson, Little Sandy River. 
Greensburg, tJraham "s pond. . 

Green River 

Guthrie, Eagle Pond 

Shady I'ond 

HaiTodsburg, Chaplin River. . 

Salt River 

Hartford, Rough River 

Herndon, Davidson Pond 

Word's pond 

Hodgenville, Isaac Essex 

Pond 

Miller's pond 

Munf ord Lake . . 

Riggs Pond 

South Pond 

Hopkinsville, Johnson's pond 
Lake Davis . . . . 
Little River, 

East Fork 

Locus Grove 

Pond 

Indian Fields, Gofl's pond 

Jackson, Kentucky River, 

North Fork 

Junction City, Dix River, 
Hanging 

Fork 

Factory Pond 
Knob Lick 

Creek 

La Grange, Highland Lake.. 

Pony Pond 

Lav^Tenceburg, Bond's pond. 

Salt River 

Lebanon, Bottom Pond 

Clear Creek 

Cloyds Creek 

Indian Creek 

North Fork Creek . . 



Fry. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



105 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — •Continued. 

LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Kentucky — Continued. 
Lebanon, Salt River, Rolling 

Fork 

Smith Fork Creek. . 

Smith's pond 

St«wart Creek 

Lexington, Lake Ellei-slie 

Reservoir No. 4.. . 

Louisville, Harrods Creek 

Lake Lonsdown.. . 
Parkview Ponds. . 

Rawlin 'spend 

Salt River, Floyds 

Fork 

Shadyside Lake... 
South Park Lake. . 
Standard Club 

Lake 

Young's pond 

Loretto, Blanford's pond 

I/Udlow, Lagoon Pond 

Lynn, Licking River 

Ifadisonville, City Lake 

Spring Lake 

Storys Pond 

WUlow Pond. . . 
Morehead, Triplet Creek, East 

Fork 

Morgan, South Licking River. 

Morganfleld, Geigers Lake 

Stake Lake 

Mount Sterling, McCormick 

Pond 

Muldraugh, Crystal Lake 

Nebo, Nebo Pond 

Newstead, Hutcherson'spond 
Nicholasville, Cat Tail Pond . . 
O. & K. Junction, Frozen 

Creek 

Oil Citv , Beaver Creek 

Olive Hill, Tygart River 

01mst«ad, Bm-chett's pond. . . 
Whippoorwill 

Creek 

Owensboro, Panther Cre«k. . . 

Rhodes Creek 

Round Lake 

Whitely Lake.... 

Paris, Allen's pond 

Bell's pond 

Brannon's pond 

Curtis's pond 

Davis's pond 

Dickey's pond , 

Heller Pond 

Higsins's pond (A) 

Higgins's pond (B) 

Hill's pond 

Huston Creek 

Mitchell 's pond 

^lurphy's pond 

O'Brieh's pond 

Overby's pond 

Porter's pond ; . . 

Reeves's pond 

Snapp's pond 

Spencer's pond 

Stoner Creek 

Vardon's pond 

Watson Pond 

Wilson Pond 

Pewee Valley, Bhie Lake 

Pikesville, Big Sandy River. 

Pine Knot, Paunch Creek . . . 

Prestonsburg, Big Sandy 

River 



Fry. 



Finger- 

lin^s, 

yearhngs, 

and 

adults. 



son 
200 
200 
200 
124 
12.5 
240 
100 
100 
100 

ISO 

100 

2,480 

750 
500 
200 
50 
2.50 
150 
400 
100 
100 

200 
250 
100 
100 

100 
100 
100 
100 
60 

80 
200 
200 

75 

355 
150 
150 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
200 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 

m 

150 
40 

100 



Disposition. 



Kentucky — Continued. 

Princeton, Conway Lake 

Smith Lake 

Providence, Mining Company 

lyake 

Quicksand, Quicksand Creek, 
Quicksand Creek, 

South Fork 

Red River, Flowers's pond . . . 
Rice Station, Masters's pond. . 

Richmond, I'helps's pond 

Silver Creek 

Rockfield.McElwain 'slake.. . 
Rock Haven, Oroveland Pond 

Rossi yn , Red River 

Russellville, Anderson's 

pond 

Edwards Pond . . 

Mason's pond 

PuUiams Pond . . 
Railroad Pond . . 

Walls Pond 

Sadieville, Big Eagle Creek. . . 

Scottville, Hurt's pond 

Long Creek 

Silver Creek, Broaddus's pond 

Slaughters, Railroad Lake 

Smiths Grove, Shobe's pond.. 

Somerset, Fishing Creek 

Stanford, Buffalo Spring Lake 

Talmadge, Deane's pond 

Toler, Big Sandy River, Tug 

Fork 

Trenton, Waller's pond 

Valley view, Bennet'spond. . 

Vanceburg, Kinniconick Creek 

Salt Lick Creek... 

Webster, Sinking Creek 

Willard, Waddell's pond 

Williamstown, Railway Res- 
ervoir 

Winchester, Big Stoner Creek. 

Hughes Pond 

Lulbegrud River 

Rice's pond 

Woodburn, Merriman's pond. 
Louisiana: 

Alexandria, Kent Pond 

Red River 

Arcadia, Birds's pond 

Pecan Lake 

Athens, Atkins's pond 

Candy's pond 

Marsalis's pond 

Baton Rouge, Lake Charles. . . 

Belcher, Dooley Bayou 

Blume, Howell's pond 

Breaux Bridge, St. Clair Creek 
Broussard, Duchamp Pond... 

Bunkie, Lake Bon Garcon 

Calhoun, Mills's pond 

Cotton Valley, Hodges's pond. 

Derry , Acorn Lake 

Des AUemands, Bayou Des 

AUemands, Tributary 

Edgerly, Wilson's pond 

Elton, Canal Pond 

Franklin, Columbia Lake 

Frierson, Frierson Pond 

Fryburg, Lawhon Lake 

Grand Cane, Cook Lake 

Crystal Creek . . . 

Greenwood, Lake Hayes 

Homer, Edmonds's pond 

Spring Lake 

Iota, Andrepoht Pond 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearhngs, 

and 
adults. 



5,000 



3,000 



9,000 



6,000 



1,000 
'3,066 



9,000 



86497°— 17- 



-]3 



106 



DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Oontinued. 
LAEGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Lon isiana — Continu ed. 

Keithville, Hall Lake 

Lake Clingman . . . 
Lake Charles, Brick Company 

Pond 

Lake Providence, Lake Provi- 
dence 

Laurel Hill, Belleview Pond.. 
Hamilton's pond 
Magnolia Pond . . 
Spillman's pond. 

Leesville, Williams's pond 

Logansport, Caraway Lake. . . 
Loreauville, Fairview Ponds. . 

Martliaville, Huff's pond 

Spring Branch 

Pond 

Natchitoches, Kilgore Lake. . . 
Opelousas, Cnachere's pond. . 

Durio Lake 

Pickering, Lake Louise 

Plain Dealing, Antrim Pond . . 
Shamrock, Shamrock Pond . . . 

Shreveport, Round Lake 

State Line Lake . . 

Urania, Mill Pond 

Urania Lake 

Vidalia, Cozy Corner Lake 

"Washburn, Lake Lena 

Weeks, Weeks Lakes 

Wisner, Hicks Pond 

Maryland: 
Annapolis Junction, Little 

Patuxent River 

Antietam, Antietam Creek 

Potomac River 

Buena Vista, Lake Royer. . . . 
Brandy^vine, Rock Creek 

Pond 

Cambridge, Blackwater River 
Nanticoke River. 
Transq u a k i n g 

River 

Chestertown, Ratclifl Pond . . . 

Cumberland, Evitts Creek 

Potomac River. 

Potomac River, 

North Branch 

Town Creek 

Wills Creek 

Gwynbrook, Gwynn Falls 

Creek 

Hagerstown, Antietam Creek . 
Conococheag u e 

Creek 

Potomac River. . 

Lansdowne, Lake Rosalie 

McPherson Station, McPher- 

son's pond 

Mondel , Potomac River 

Oakland , Deep Creek 

Patuxent, Waldman's pond . . 
Selbysport, Youghiogheny 

River 

Smithsburg, Raven Rock 

Lake 

Tuscarora,Monocacy River.. . 
Woodmont, Potomac River. . . 
Massachusetts: 
Ashburnham, Naukeag Lake 

Falmouth, Jenkins Pond 

Pittsfield, Onata Lake 

Pontoosuc Lake 



Fry. 



5,000 



3,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



200 
200 

300 

6,500 
150 
250 
100 
100 



150 
150 
100 

100 
150 
100 
50 
465 



100 
300 
500 
150 
225 
6,000 
150 
150 
150 



400 
200 
200 
400 

200 
200 
200 

600 
200 
400 
400 

400 
400 
400 

400 
1,400 

200 
400 
200 

200 
200 
120 
200 



400 

400 

1,000 



80 



120 
120 



Disposition. 



Massachusetts — Continued. 
Shelburne Falls, A s h fi e 1 d 

Pond 

Deerfield 

River 

Fr a n k 1 n 

Pond 

Gardner 
Falls Res- 
ervoir 

G r i s w o 1 d 

Pond 

Res e r V o i r 

No. 2 

Res e r V o i r 

No. 3 

Reservoir 

No. 4 

Shattuck 

Pond 

Michigan: 

Wetmore, Lost Lake 

Wiley Lake 

Minnesota: 

Alexandria, Lake Carlos 

Lake Cowdry 

Lake Darling 

Lake Geneva 

Lake Henry . 

Lake Latoka 

Lake Victoria 

L'Homme Dieu 

Lake , 

Little Lake Dar- 
ling , 

Bagley,Miimie Lake 

Carlton, Chub Lake 

Central Lakes, Horse Shoe 

Lake 

Crosby, Serpent Lake 

Dalton, Bock Lake 

Duluth, Caribou Lake 

Ellsmere, Lake Dinham 

Erskine, Union Lake 

Fergus Falls, Swan Lake 

Hackensack, Stony Lake 

Harmony, Upper Iowa River. 

Hibbing, Perch Lake 

Highland, Long Lake 

Homer, Mississippi River 

Knife River, Ball Club Lake. . 
Mic Mac Lake... 
Nigadoo Lake. . . 
Round Lake. ... 

Lanesboro, Root River 

MahtOAva, Park Lake 

Mankato, Lake Washington. . 
Minneapolis, Lake Calhoun. . . 

Lake Harriet 

Osakis, Osakis Lake 

Park Rapids, Straight Creek. . 
Straight River.. 

Preston, Iowa River 

Root River 

Root River, North 

Branch 

Root River, South 

Branch 

Racine, Sleepers Pond 

Ranier, Ranier Lake , . . . 

Rapidan, Blue Earth River. . . 

Robbinsdale, Lower Twin 

Lake 



Fry. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



107 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Contmued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Fry. 



Minnpsota— Continued. 

Robbiusdale, Upper Twin 
Lake 

Tamarack, Turtle Lake { 

Two Harl )ors, Stonv Lake 1 

White Bear Lake, Ox Lake. 

Zumbrota, Zumbro River 

Mississippi: 

Aberdeen, Aulruf Creek i 1 , 500 

Athens Creek | 

Bartohatchie River, , 

Bell Lake 

Berry Creek j 1,500 

Ben-V 1 'ond 

Blair Creek i 1,500 

Butler Creek ; 

-CipsyCreek i 1,500 

ClearCreek 1,500 

Deadedie Pond 

George Lake | 1,500 

Half Moon Lake. . . 1 

Halfwav Creek I 

Hatch Canal : 

Honey Tend 

James Creek Lake 

Jandon's pond 

Janes I'ond 

Jones Creek 

Jones Lake ' 

Jones's pond I 

Kings Lake ' 1,500 

McKinney Creek . . i 1 . 500 

Murff'spond ' 1.500 

Nichols Creek 

Silver Pond 



1,500 
1,500 



Smith Creek 

Smith Lake 

Smith Pond 

South Pond 

Star Lake 

Stone Creek 

Walnut T,ike 

Wilson Creek 

Aekerman, Hood's pond 

Yeaspr's pond 

Amory, Grecory'spond 

Lake Hattie 

Mai one Lake 

Bay Springs, Fairview Pond. . 
Blue Mountain, Johnson's 

pond 

Booneville, CJin Branch Pond 
Brookhaven, Beranek's pond. 
Hartman's pond 
OakGrovePond 
Piprrp"s lake. . .. 
WoodlandLake. 

Byhalia, Lake Leonora 

Neely Pond 

Canton, Big I>ake 

Covington's lake 

Iyat7.'s ponrl 

Russell Spalding 

Pond 

Centerville, P.aworlh's pond. . 
Chatawa, Tangipahoa River . 
Chunkv, AVells's mill pond . . . 

Clinton, Harsh Pond 

Primrose Pond 

Columbia, Barnes Creek 

Ford's lake 

Hammond Mill 

Pond 

Lampton's pond... 



1,500 



1,500 



1,.500 
1,500 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings 

and 
adults. 



195 
195 
75 
1.30 
550 



300 
300 
1.50 



1.50 
"366 



150 



150 
300 

1,000 
150 

2,000 



300 
100 
100 



200 
150 



150 
100 



150 
100 
150 
150 
100 
1, 1.^0 
100 

1,000 

100 

1,000 

150 

100 

200 

150 

150 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

100 

1,000 

300 

100 

100 

75 

75 

75 
75 



Disposition. 



Mississippi— Continued . 

Columbia, Webb's lake 

White's mill pond . 

Columbus, Alligator Lake 

Arnold's pond. . . . 
T,ake Katherine.. 
Ltixapalila River. 
Luxapalila River, 

Lower 

MiddleTorabigbee 

River 

UpperTombigbee 

River 

Corinth, Crystal Lake 

Dyer Lake 

Meeks Lake 

Surratt's pond 

Crystal Springs, Ellis I-ake 

Elwood Pond 

Dubard, Du bard 's pond 

Durant, Outlaw's pond 

Edn'ards, Newman's pond. . . 

Egypt, Nelson's pond 

Fayette, Cooper's pond 

Fairly 's lake 

Flora, Farrs Pond 

McCray's pond 

Lake Wiles 

Friars Point, Moon Lake 

Gladys, Burn's pond 

Gulfport, Bayou Bernard 

Guntown, Norton's pond 

Ilarriston, McNair Pond 

Hattiesburg, Clark's pond 

Fast Pine I>ake. 
T.ake Dreyfus... 

Hazlehurst, Barlow Lake 

I/ake Hazel 

Lucky Lake 

Mount Hope 

Lake 

Heidelberg, Horse Branch 

Pond 

Hernando, Fairfield Lake 

Holcomb, Staten's pond 

luka, Brinkley Lake 

Jackson, Catohincr Lake 

Gale Pond 

Green's pond 

McCleland's pond... 

Marson's pond 

Spring Lake 

Kosciusko, Bailey Lake 

Coffey's pond 

Fern Lake 

Laurel, Log Pond 

Valley Pond 

Learned, Ferguson's pond 

Noble's pond 

Lexington, Hardscrabble 

Pond 

Tvorman, Shadyside Pond.. . . 

Louin, Railroad Pond 

Louisville, Fishin? Club Lake 
McQuien's pond... 

Suttle Pond 

Willow Lake 

I/yman, Railroad Pond 

McComb, Sauls's pond 

McDonald, Dearine's pond . . . 

McTIrnry, Breland's pond 

Macon, Howard Lake 

Martin's pond 

Th oraas's pond 



Fry. 



2, 500 
2, 500 
2,500 

2,500 

5,000 

2,500 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearhngs, 

and 
adults. 



7.5 
2o"n 
366 



200 
150 
500 
500 

2o0 

100 

100 

1,000 

150 

1,.500 

1,000 

1,000 

100 

1,000 

100 

560 

100 

5,000 

100 

100 

ino 

2,000 
100 
100 
150 
100 

1,000 

2,000 
500 
150 
100 
200 
100 

1,000 
500 
100 

4,000 

5, too 
150 

1,000 
200 
100 

1,000 
100 

1.000 
1,000 
1,000 

300 
1,000 

100 
1,000 
3,000 

500 

100 
2,000 
2, 000 

ino 
2,000 



108 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS. 



Disposition. 



Fry. 



Mississippi— Continued . 

Macon, Thompson's pond (A 
Til ompson's pond (B) 

Madison, Lot Pond 

Mill Pond 

Magnolia, Crystal Lake 

Tangipahoa River. 
Mantee,Blankenship's pond . . 

Coiisins's pond 

Dcxtcr'spond 

Lanham's pond 

Marshy Pond 

Pate's pond 

Reid'spond 

Mathiston, Punlap Lake 

Norris Pond 

Ray's pond 

Mayhew, Garth's pond 

Turner's pond 

Meridian, Queen City Club 

Lake 

WanitaLake 

Waterworks I'onds 
Williams's pond... 

Mize, Ashley's pond 

Moselle, Tusconola Pond. . . . 

Natchez, Concord Pond 

Lake Duncan 

Oakland Pond 

Saragosa Pond 

Sunnyside Lake... 

New Albany, Bias Pond 

Gaulding's pond 

Knox Lake 

Little Cuffy 

Gray Lake 

Newton, McMullan's pond 

Osvka, Heights Brook 

Oxford, Coffee Mill J'ond 

Tarvers Lake 

Pachuta, Phalti Lake 

Parcliman, Grinnell Lake 

Pelahatchee, Pelahatchee 

Creek 

Perkinston, Hickman's pond. 

Pheba, Live Oak Pond 

Lone Oak Pond 

Perkins's pond 

Shady Nook Pond 

Stillwater Pond 

Philadelphia, King Pond 

Peoples's pond . 
Richardson's 

pond 

Plantation, Cottrell Lake 

Pocahontas, Pocahontas Pond 

Pontotoc, Highland Pond 

Orchard Lake 

Tunnell's pond 

Potts Camp, Reid's pond 

Prairie, Carlisle Pond 

Prentiss, Burrow's pond 

Ruleville, Cane Lake 

Sardis, Orr Creek 

Saucier, 151ackledge's pond. . . 

Scooba, Bryan's pond 

E^t Pond 

Trammel's pond 

Watts Pond 

Shubuta, Silver Lake 

ShuciuaJak, Aust Pond 

Bell's lake 

Clear Water Pond 
Hairston Pond 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



2,000 

2,000 

100 

100 

1,000 

300 

150 

l.-O 

1,000 

1,000 

1, 000 

100 

1.000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

150 

125 

1,500 

3,000 

3,000 

1,500 

1,000 

100 

500 

2,000 

500 

2,000 

2,000 

1,000 

100 

150 

150 
2,000 
100 
200 
1,000 
150 
150 

1,000 
150 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
1,000 
1,000 

1,000 

100 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 
100 
150 

1,000 
100 
200 
200 
100 
100 
100 

1, 500 
100 
100 

2,000 

2,000 

200 

i 100 



Disposition. 



Fry. 



Mississippi — Continued. 

Shuqualak, Jordan Lake 

Land's pond 

Maxey Pond 

Willow Pond 

Wm Lake 

Woodlawn Lake.. 

Stallo, Rodger's pond 

Starkville, Am^es Pond 

Cannon Pond 

Clardy Pond 

Club Pond 

Cox Pond 

Gay Pond 

Harmon Lake 

Kennard's pond. . 

Mahon Lake 

Maxwell Lake 

Smith's pond C\) 
Smith's pond (B) 

Steens, Jamison's pond 

Luxapalila Creek, Up- 
per 

Yellow Creek 

Stewart, Vernon's pond 

Terry, Jones Lake 

Tibbee, Walker's pond 

Tomnolon, Woods Pond 

Tupelo, Ballardsville Pond. . 
Bouglifalah Park 

Lake 

Center Ridge Lake. . 

Duncan Pond 

Green's lake 

Thompson's pond. . . 

Union, Blue Pond 

Gardner's pond 

Hester's pond 

Ross Pond 

■Vicksburg, Beech Pond 

Lanier Lake 

Powers Lake 

Wahalak, Edmonds's pondC A) 
Edmonds's pond(B ) 

Lake McKee 

Persons's pond 

Wards Lake 

Water Valley, Copeland Lake 

OtuclofaLake. 

Waynesboro, Baygents Pond 

West Point, Howard's pond. 

Springside Pond 

Wheelers, Cox's pond 

Wiggins, Breland's pond 

Woodville, Casey's lake 

Hart's pond 

Lake Clement — 
rlissouri: 

Aurora, Crane Creek 

Dillard's pond 

Flat Creek 

Honey Creek 

Spring River 

Ava, Hunter Creek 

I^ake Crvstal 

Cedar Gap, Cedar Gap Lake. 

Clinton, Fish Lake 

Deepwater, Dickey Lake 

Everton, Poindexter's pond. 

Exeter, Shoal Creek 

Ferguson, Club Lake 

Granby, Shoal Creek 

Grandview, Cottingham Lake 

Shady Slope 

Pond 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



2, 500 
2,500 



DISTRIBUTION" OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



109 



Details of Distribution op Fish and EcxGS, Fiscal Year 1915 — Coutinued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS. 



Disposition. 



Missouri — Coutiiiued. 

Harrisonville, Lake Luna 

Indepeudence, Christophei's 

pond 

C o m () ton's 

pond 

Uiokinsou's 

lake 

Joplin, Sloan's lake 

Walnut Ridge Pond.. 

Lamar, Muddy Creek 

Spring River, North 

Fork 

Lebanon, Malone's pond 

Liberty, Interurban Lake. . . . 

Marceline, Prairie Lake 

Mokane, Railroad Lake 

Montier, Current River, Jacks 

Fork 

Mount Vernon, Cherry 

Springs 

Creek . . 

.-itahls 

Creek.. 

Neosho, Montgomery Lake. . . 

Noel, I'^lk River 

Oasis, Fish Lake 

Osceola, Spring Lake 

Pleasant Hill, Lake Leonard. 
Richland, Gasconade River... 

Ritchy , Shoal Creek 

RoUa," Big Beaver Creek 

Little Piney River 

North Spring Creek 

Upper Bourbois River 

Salem, Spring Creek 

Seneca, Big Lost Creek 

Sycamore Creek 

Sprinefiel'd, I^ake Rellection. 

Versailles, Big Gravo is Creek 

Cold Bank Creek., 

Flat Creek 

Indian Creek 

LitUe G r a v 1 s 

Creek 

Little Haw Creek. 

Locust Creek 

Moreau Creek 

Warsaw, Hogles Creek 

Webb City, Centor Creek 

Wesco, Meramac River 

Windsor, Rock Island Lake. . 
Wilkerson Park 

Pond 

Montana: 

Kureka, Eureka River 

Nebraska: 

Belvidere, Lahners's pond 

Genoa, Dower Canal Pond 

Madison, Lake Henry 

New Hampshire: 

Keene, Chesterfield Lake 

New Jersey. 

Beaver Lake, Beaver Lake. . 
Boonlon, Split Rock I>ake... 

Branch ville, Culver Lake 

Bridgeton, Crystal Lake 

Tumbling Dam 

Lake 

Bridgovillp, Mountain Lake 

Clayton, Fries Mill Pond 

Coliingswuod, Newton Lake. 
Gil)bsio\vn, White Sluice 

Pond 

Gloucester, Malaga Lake 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



100 

200 
300 
200 
400 

400 
100 

r^oo 

100 
400 

300 



100 

200 
300 
300 
500 
200 
600 
200 
200 
200 
300 
200 
300 
200 
200 
200 
200 
CO 
60 
60 
60 

60 
60 
60 
60 
90 
400 
400 
600 

500 



300 
500 
300 
300 

500 
300 
200 
200 

•400 
200 



Disposition. 



New Jersey — Continued. 
Gloucester, Portstown Lake . . 
Hackensack, Hackensack 

River 

State fish com- 
mission 

Hewitt, Greenwood Lake 

Hopatcong, Lake Ilopatcong. . 
Mays Landing, Leneape Lake. 
Morris Plains^ Hensler'spond. 
Jaqui'spond... 
Mountainview, P o m p t o n 

River 

Newark, Weequahic Lake 

Newfoundlanl, Cedar Pond... 

Orange, Cable Road Lake 

Pat arson. Greenwood Lake.... 

Pedriektown, Fermiy Run 

Willow Grove 

Lake 

Pompton Lake, Pompton 

Lakes 

Princeton Junction, Carnegie 

Lake 

Ramsey, Freemans Lake 

South Amboy, Kuhns Pond.. 
South Dennis, Beaver Pond. . 
South PlainfieM, Seidler's 

pond 

Sterling Forest, Greenwood 

Lake 

Summit , Felt viUe Lake 

Passaic River, 

Upper 

Swartswood, Swartswood 

Lake 

Vineland, Willow Grove Pond 

Westmont, Crystal Lake 

Woodclili Lake, Hackensack 

River 

New Mexico: 
Alamogordo, Morgan's pond. . 
Albuquerque, Gutierrez Lake. 
Hubbell Lake.. 

Artesia, Lake Elena 

Aztec, San JuanRiver 

Carlsbad, Pecos River 

R ocky Arr oya Creek 

Cimarron, W. S. Lake 

Clayton, El Rito Lake 

Corona, Corona Pond 

Coyote, Coyote Pond 

Deming, Landauer's pond — 

Didce, Dulce Lake 

Gallup, Mariono Lake 

Hagerman, Felix Creek 

Las Vegas, Deep Lake 

South Pond 

Lima , Luna Pond 

Roswell,Club Lake 

Dimmitt Lake 

Haymaker's pond. . 

Lea Lake 

North Lake 

North Spring River 

Rainbow Lake 

South Spring River. 
Sutherland Lake... 

Santa Fe, Rio Grande 

Santa Rosa, Agua Negra Lake 

Black Lake 

Escondido Lake 

Goose Lake 

West Baca Lake 



Fry. 



110 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



New Mexico— Continued. 
Silver City, Peter Megan Lake 

Taiban , Willow Pond 

Tucumcari, Pajorita Cana- 
dian Pond 

New York: 

Albany, Appledale Lake 

Altamont, Norman Kill River 
Bingliampton, Chenango 

River 

Cutlers Lake.. 
Susquehanna 

River 

Corning, Cohocton River 

Davenport Center, Sexsmith 

Lake 

Falls;burgh, Kiamesha Lake. . 
Feura Bush, Lawson Lake. . . 
Fishkill, BrinckerhoiT Pond... 

Gay Head Pond 

Hamburg, Luck's pond 

Mendon, Mendon Ponds 

Newburg, Orange Lake 

Owego, Susquehaima River. . 
Paul Smiths, Osgood Lake . . . 

Port Jervis, Bauer Lake 

Red Creek, Red Lake 

Riverside, Brant Lake 

Scliroon Lake 

Slingerlands, Tower Farm 

Pond 

Troy, Hudson River 

Tully.Tully Lake 

Walden, Wallkill River 

West Rush, Honeoye Creek. . 
North Carolina: 

Advance, Pack's pond 

Ashboro, Beattie McGee Creek 

Asheville, Gatlin Lake 

Battleboro, Davis Pond 

Black Mountain, Swannanoa 

River 

BladenborO; Bridger's pond.. 

Cameron, Kelly's pond 

Charlotte, Catawba River 

Clinton, Canady's pond 

Coats, McCuUer Pond 

Corinth, Cape Fear River 

Cumnock, Egypt Pond 

Dunn, Barnes's pond 

Honeycut Pond 

Rhodes Pond 

Starling Pond 

Edgemont, Wilson Creek 

Elizabethtown, White Lake. . 

Elkins, Spieer's pond 

Elk Park , Watauga River 

Enfield, Mo.ss's pond 

Woodlawn Pond 

Faison, Aman's pond 

Panther Creek Park 

Pond 

Six Runs 

Fayetteville, McNeill's pond. . 

Four Oaks, Brown's pond 

Lassiter's pond... 
Fuquay Springs, Nills Creek 

Pond 

Greensboro, Bowman Pond.. 
Burton's pond.. 

Cobb's pond 

Euliss Creek 

Pond 

Jennie Creek. 

Nix Pond 



Fry. 



1,000 



Finger- 

lin§s, 

yearlings, 

and 
adults. 



1,000 
1,000 



2,000 



100 
100 



120 
100 



100 
90 

120 

150 

60 

50 

50 

50 

100 

300 

90 

250 

60 

250 

90 

90 



120 

200 

250 

50 

4 

750 

75 



1,000 

1,800 

4 

.500 
1,000 
3,02U 
1,000 

125 

2,000 

8 

400 



1,000 

1,500 

750 

500 

1,500 

750 

250 

750 
500 
200 



Disposition. 



North Carolina — Continued. 
Greensboro, Philadelphia Lake.. 
Print Works Lake- 
Henderson, Sutherland's pond. . 

Hickory, Catawba River 

High Point, Marsh Lake 

Yadkin River 

HiUsboro, Eno River 

Seven Mile Creek 

Kannapolis, Cannon Lake 

Kernersville, Abbotts Creek 

Keyser, Campbell's mill pond.. . 
Kings Mountain, Anna Pond.. . 

La Grange, Mill Pond 

Lake Junaluska, Lake Juna- 

luska 

Lake Toxaway, Lake Tox- 

away 

Madison, Hogans Creek 

Magnolia, Rackley's pond 

Maxton, Lumber'River 

Shoe Heel Creek 

Mayesworth, Duharts Creek 

Mebane, Murray Hill Lake 

Vincent Mill Pond 

Mocksville, Dutchman Creek 

Pond 

Monroe, Braswell's pond 

Cedar Lake 

Funderburk's pond 

Krauswood Waves 

Pond 

Lee Park Bake 

Maness Pond , 

Purser view Pond 

Sams Pond 

Shutes Pond 

Morrisville, Sorrell's pond 

Mount Airy, Leveling Creek 

Mount Ohve, Williams's mill 

pond 

Moimt Tabor, Iron Hill Pond. . 

New Bern, I^rice Creek 

Haywood Creek 

Trent River 

Wilson Creek 

N.Wilkesboro, Beaver Creek 

Cub Creek 

Elk Creek 

Mill Creek 

Reddies River.. 

Overhills, Overhills Lake 

PoUoksville, Trent River 

Poston, Johnson's pond 

Raeford, McFadgen's pond 

McLauehlin's pond.. . 

Maplehurst Lake 

Moore's pond 

Rockfish Creek 

Raleigh, Beaver Dam Club 

Pond 

Country Club Lake. . . 

Lakewood Pond 

Milbiun Club Pond 

Panther Branch Pond . 
ParkerTliompson Pond 

Spring Lake 

Yates I^ond 

Red Spring, Antioch Pond 

Rockford, Haw Creek Pond 

Rockingham, Marks Creek 

Pond 

Spring Pond 

Wall's pond 

Roseboro, Little Coliane Creek. . 



Fry. 



1,500 



1,000 
2,000 
5,000 
2,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. 



DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Ill 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



North Carolina— Continued. 

Roseboro, Wildcat Pond 

Gregory's pond 

St. Paul, Great Marsh Pond... 

Sanford, Balfalo Pond 

Seymour's pond 

Wicker Rock Pond. . 

Scotland Neck, Hall Pond 

Webb Pond... 

Siloam, Skin Cabin Creek 

Skyland, Doe's pond 

Statesville, Brushy Creek 

Foiuth Creek 

Hunting Creek 

Jennings Pond 

T^ittle E ocky Creek 

Rocky Creek 

Steele Pond..> 

Swans Station, Morris Lake. . 

Teacheys, Badger Pond 

Wilmington, Greenfield Lake. 
Youngsville, Moores Mill Pond 
North Dakota: 

Addison, Maple River 

Bottineau, Lake Metegoshe. . 

Caj-uga, Lake Tewauken 

Crary, Wood Lake 

Crystal Springs, Crystal 

Springs Lake 

Dawson, Lake Isabel 

Devils Lake, Devils Lake. . . 

Freshwater Lake 
Dogden, Cottonwood Lake. 
Dimseith, Lake Horse Shoe 
Fullerton, Artesian Pond.. 

Hankinson, Lake Elsie 

Lidgerwood, Edd Lake 

Lisbon, Cottonwood Lake. 
Mott, Cannon Ball River. . 

New Salem, Egli'spond 

Petrel, Lemmon Public Reser- 
voir 

Powers Lake, Powers Lake. . . 

Ray, Beaver Creek 

Ruso, Strawberry Lake 

Rutland, Buffalo Lake 

PrinterviU's pond... 

St. John, Aliens Lake 

Bluebill Lake 

Bonwin Lake 

Brush Lake 

Cameron Lake 

Edgewood Lake 

Fish Lake 

Garber Lake , 

Horse Shoe Lake 

Kane Lake 

Lake Upsilon 

Long Lake 

Lynch Lake 

Mill Lake 

Valley City, Sheyenne River . 

Walcott, Sheyeiine River 

Warwick, North Washington 

Lake 

Washburn, Painted Woods 

Lake 

Ohio: 
Alexandria, Raccoon Creek . . 
Watkins Pond . . 
Alliance, West Park Lake. .. 

Antwerj), Maumee River 

Aurora, Centreville Pond 

Batavia, Little Miami River, 
East Fork 



Fry. 



2,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



12 

1,000 

2,000 

500 

500 

500 

12 

16 

8 

50 

500 

1,200 

1,200 

200 

750 

2,450 

500 

8 

4 

12 



200 
400 
200 
100 

200 
200 
550 
300 
100 
100 
100 
200 
200 
200 
100 
100 

500 
100 
200 
300 
200 
100 
200 
100 
100 
100 
1.50 
100 
150 
1,50 
100 
150 
100 
100 
150 
150 
200 
200 

200 

200 

120 
40 
100 
150 
200 



Disposition. 



Ohio— Continued. 

Bellaire, Captina Creek 

Berea, Steam's pond 

Bridgeport, Wheeling Creek. . 
BucyTUS, Little Scioto River. . 
Cadiz, Stillwater River, forks of 
Cambridge, Mining Company 
Pond 

Near Cut Lake.. . 

Canfield, Mahoning Lake 

Cincinnati, Lake Seewald 

Oakhurst Pond . . . 
Cleveland, Brookside Lake. . . 

Evergreen Lake 

Rockefeller Lake. . 
Columbus, Big Walnut Creek. 

Esswein Lake 

Little Darby Creek 

Little Walnut 

Creek 

Congress Lake, Congiess Lake. 
Coshocton, Canal Basin Lake.. 

Killbuck Creek. . . . 

Muskingum River. 

Tuscarawas River. 

Walhonding River 

Wills Creek 

Covington, Greenville Creek. . 

Stillwater River. . . 

Delhi, Mill Pond 

Murphy's pond 

Derwent, Beach Pond 

Fernwood, Cross Creek 

Fremont, Sandusky River 

Geauga Lake, Geauga Lake. . . 
Greendale, Greendale Lake.. . 

Greenfield, Paint Creek 

Hamilton, Lakeview Pond. . . 

Harpster, Harpster Lake 

Hanison, Whitewater Creek. . 

Hebron, Buckeye Lake 

Lake View, Indian Lake 

Leetonia, Cherry Valley Pond. 

Lima, Griffith Pond 

McCullough Lake 

Mirror Lake 

Lockville, Sycamore Creek . . . 

London, Deer Creek 

Loveland, Little Miami River. 

Malvern, Sandy Creek 

Mansfield, Clear Fork River. . . 

Clear Fork River, 
North Branch . . . 

Clear Fork River, 
South Branch... 

Dickson Creek 

Mohican River, 

Rocky Fork 

Minster, Loramie River 

Montezuma, Lake Mercer 

Moran, Round Pond 

Mount Blanchard, Blanchard 

River 

Mount Sterling, Deer Creek. . . 
Moimt Vernon, Kokosing 

River 

Napoleon, Maumee River 

Nevada, Broken Sword Creek. 

Oakrvvood, .Vuglaize River 

Oneida, Big Sand Creek 

Pleasant Hill, Stillwater 

River 

Portsmouth, Brush Creek 

Little Scioto 
River 



Fry. 



112 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Ohio — Continued. 

Portsmouth, Pme Creek 

Sunfish Creek... 

Prospect, Scioto Kiver 

Ravenna, Brady Lake 

Riplev, Eagle Creek 

St. Marys, Lake St. Marys.... 
Sardina, Weisbrodt's pond. . . 

Scio, Alder Lick Creek 

Connotton Creek 

McGuire Creek 

Stillwater Creek 

Sherwood, Maumee River 

Sycamore, Sandusky River. . . 

Tiffin, Lake Mohawk 

Little Sandusky River. 

Troy, Miami River 

Uniopolis, Maple Lake 

Upper Sandusky, Broken 
Sword 

Pond 

Sandus k y 

River 

Tymocktee 

"Creek 

Washington C. H., B r i d g e 

Run 

Compton 

Creek... 
Gault's 

pond 

Indian 
Camp 

Run 

Paint 
Creek . . . 
Rattle- 
snake 
Creek... 
Sugar 
Creek . . . 
West Milton, Stillwater River. 

Woodstock, Brush Lake 

Zanesville, Muskingum River. 
Oklahoma: 

Ada, City Reservoir 

Clear Boggy Creek 

Antlers, Harkey's pond 

Ardmore, Ardmore Club Lake 

Caddo Lake 

Chickasaw Lake 

City Lake 

Kinkade's lake 

Lake Meda 

Lake Sheridan 

Loyd's pond 

Maxwell's pond 

Rickey Lake 

Stuart's lake 

Atoka, Patapa Creek 

Smiser's pond 

Bessie, Jelenick's pond 

^ Binger, Spring Lake 

Bokoshe, Deer Lake 

Brinkman, Quality Square 

Lake 

Broken Arrow, H a n n i f i n's 

pond 

Haskell State 
School Lake 

Calvin, Flinchum's pond 

Cherokee, Brewster's pond.... 

Chilocco, Chilocco I^ako 

Clarita, E Im Creek 

Lake Noonan 

Coalgate, Wood Lake 



Frv. 



Finger- 
lings, 

yearlings, 

and 
adults. 



12 

24 
40 
400 
120 
200 
12 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
200 
200 
150 
100 



40 
80 
80 
12 
12 
12 

12 
24 

24 

24 

250 
100 
200 

300 
300 
100 
200 
200 
200 
200 
100 
100 
100 
125 
100 
200 
100 
200 
100 
100 
100 
200 



50 
100 
100 
l,->0 
1.50 
150 
100 



Disposition. 



Oklahoma— Continued. 
Comanche, Florence's pond... 

Cordell, Boggy Creek 

Boggy Creek, branch 

of 

Elk Creek 

Custer City, Lung's pond 

Dawson, Berryman's pond . . . 

Duncan, Jorgenson's pond 

Wagon Road Pond.. 

Durant, McDonald's pond 

Powell Lake 

Utterback's pond — 

Williams Lake 

Wood Lake 

Eldorado, Carmel Lake 

Elk City, Beck's pond 

King's pond 

Read's pond 

El Reno, Blue Lake 

Ellison Lake 

El Reno Club Lake 

Wood Lake 

Enid, Helberg Lake 

Kendall's lake 

Erick, Deer Creek 

Flanagan's pond 

Haddock 's pond 

Fargo, Eight Mile Creek 

Fletcher, Henkel Lake 

Frederick, Prairie Spring 

Lake 

Wearmouth's pond 

Gore, Illinois River 

Grandfield, Harris's pond.. 

Hetzel Lake. . . 

Lake Willow.. 

Granite, Armstrong's pond 

Grove, Cow Skin River 

Guthrie, Deep Water Lake 

Oak Grove Lake. 

Willow Springs Lake 

Heavener, Black Fork River . 

Poteau River 

Hobart, Gearhart's pond 

Holdeuville, Hardwick's pond 

HoUis, Motley's lake 

Sandy Creek 

Spring Lake 

Weatherby 's pond 

Jett, Big Horn Pond 

Jones, Jones Lake 

Kelly ville. Half Section Pond 

Kenefie, Johnson Lake 

Kiowa, Cates's pond 

Hall's pond 

Katy Lake 

Kountry Klub Lake. . 

Lankford's pond 

North Boggy Creek.. . 

Yarbrough 's pond 

Konawa, Bates's pond 

Krebs, Mountain Gap Lake... 

Lawrence, Kice Lake 

Lawton, Chandler Creek 

Lake Gondola 

Lake Law-ton-ka 

Lebrecht's pond 

Little Medicine Creek 

Rose Hill Lake 

Leedey, Kent's lake 

Lenapah, Etchen Lake 

Loveland, Pearson's lake 

McAloster, Talawanda Lakes 

Modi)], City Lake 

Mungum, Cheek's pond 



Fry. 



DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915 

Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915- 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 


113 

—Continued. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. 


O klahoma — Continued . 




100 
130 

200 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
200 
100 
300 
100 
100 
100 
200 
30 
120 
100 
100 
25 
25 

25 
100 

tiO 
100 

00 

200 

200 
100 

200 
CO 

100 

200 

200 
200 

00 
100 
250 

200 
100 
200 
150 
100 
100 
100 
50 

1.50 
100 
50 
.50 
50 

300 

50 
100 
100 
100 

300 


Oklahoma— Continued. 
Pawhuska, Bird Creek 




200 






Clear Creek 




150 


Manitou, Thacker Springs 
Pond 




Clear Creek Res- 
ervoir 




100 






Perry, Perry Reservoir 




100 






Rice's pond 




50 




Ponca City, Bodoc Creek 




100 




Bois d' Arc Creek. 




100 




Coon Creek 




100 


Culwell Lake ' 


Swaley Pond 




50 






Turkey Creek 




100 






Wild 11 orse (reek. 




120 
25 
50 
100 
400 
200 
100 
200 
100 






Quinlau, Cedar Lane Pond . . . 








Ralston, Chase's pond 








Ravia, Brown Lake 




Oil Creek 




Sallisaw, Sallisaw River 








Sapulpa, Euchre Lake 




Rock Creek 




Pretty Water Creek. 








Sapulpa Pond 








Savanna, Crosby Lake 




WakitaLake. . . . 




Schnlter, Holleyman's pond.. 




200 




Seminole, Roscoe Lake 




100 




Sharon, Dunston's pond 




100 






Lake Clyde 




100 






Persimmon Creek 




100 


Willow Springs 








100 


Sand Creek 




100 






Sand Creek Pond 




100 


Mountain Viesv, Beaver Creek 




South Persimmon 
Creek 




100 










50 


Creek 


Shattuck, Ivanhoe Creek 




100 


East Buffalo 




Pony Creek 




100 




Rock Creek 




100 


F e 1 k n e r 




Rock Springs Pond 
Star Valley Pond. . 




100 
200 






Snyder, Huston's pond 




100 


Leonard 




Mountain Slope Pond 
Willow Pond 




200 
100 










100 






Sparks, Olympia Lake 




50 




Spiro, Water Works Lake. . . . 




300 






Stonewall, Canyon Creek. . . . 




100 




Lake Philips 




100 


Stinking 
Creek... . 




Sheep Creek 




100 


Southside Lake 




100 


Sugar Creek . 




Strong City, Ratliff Lake 




100 






100 




Talihina, Wilson's pond 




300 


Muskogee, Club Lake 




Tangier, Horse Shoe Lake. 




200 






Texola, Blair's pond 




100 










200 








100 






Tulsa, Park Lake 




200 


Wagon Creek 


Sigler's pond 




100 




Tuttle, Waldon Lake 




200 






Vici, Irmis Lake 




100 






Pearl Lake 




100 






Vinita, Elm Branch 




100 










100 


Oklahoma City, Belle Isle 




Sweet Water Pond . . . 




100 








10(1 










50 


Earp's lake 




Thompson Lake. . . 




150 






W^ainwTight, City Lake 




200 


Kelly's pond 




Wami, M. K. & T. Pond 




150 










100 


Lake 


Watauga, McHride's pond. . . . 




100 










50 


T.Jlkfl. ... 


Waukomis, Baker's pond 




30 










200 






Lake Stewart 




100 








100 


Thompson 1 






100 


Lake 


1 


Little River 




200 



114 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 

LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Oklahoma— Continued . 
Weewoka, North Canadian 




200 
100 

25 

25 

60 

25 

100 
25 
25 
60 

25 
120 
50 

60 

100 
100 
100 

25 
100 
200 

60 
100 
100 

60 
ICO 

100 
300 

200 
250 
300 
225 
300 
600 
300 
125 
200 
500 
300 
200 

400 
250 

60 

60 
200 
400 
400 

200 

200 
125 

200 
200 
200 
125 
200 
125 
300 
125 

200 


Pennsylvania— Continued. 
Emigsville, Little Conewago 
Creek 




200 










200 










200 


Bowlbv Lake 




Middle Creek.. 




200 


Bu.l Creek Lake.. 








200 


Crystal Springs 
Lake ' 




Essick Station, Highland 
Lake 




300 


Double Loop 




Fairfield, Widewater Pond . . . 




60 


Lake 






50 


Greer Lake 








300 


Hastings Lake. . . 








400 


Healy Lake 








250 


Indian Springs 
Lake 




Goldsboro, Susquehanna 




400 


Morrow Lake 








100 






Greason, Conodoguinett Creek 
Great Bend, Quaker Lake 




200 


Pine Branch 




150 


Pond 






IOC 


Pleasant Valley 




Greensburg, Bush's pond. . . . 




150 


Lake 






200 






Conewago Creek, 






Sand Creek 




200 


Sand Creek, 




Honesdale, Kellows Pond 




120 


Headwaters 






25C 


Sand Ponds 








250 


Santa Fe Lake... 








300 






Juniata River, 
Raystown 






Swarts Lake. . . . 






Trego Lake 




300 


Walnut Lake. . . . 




Standing Stobe 
Creek 






Woodward Creek 




200 


Wyatt and Fer- 


Stone Creek 




20( 


guson Lake 






20( 






Jenkintown, Pennypack Pond 
Jersey Shore, PineCreek 




125 


Pennsylvania: 




500 


Akron, Cocalico Creek 


Jonestown, Little Swatara 
Creek 






AUentown, Saucer Creek Pond 




300 


Altoona, Lake Altoona 






225 


Annville, Swatara Creek 








150 


Aughwick, Aughwick Creek . . 








250 


Beech Creek, Bald Eagle Creek 




Conestoga River. . . 




1,500 


Beech Creek 






25( 


Bethayres, Mohawk Pond 








150 


Birdell, Birdell Creek 








150 


Blandon, Maiden Creek 








250 


Blue Stone, Pine Creek 








25 


Boiling Springs, Ahl's pond... 








50 


Yellow 
Breeches 




Chillisquaque 
Creek 




50 


Creek 






25 


Bryn Mawr, Lake Tharon 








25 


Cainbridge Springs, Conneau- 




Lititz, Cocalico Creek 




250 




Middle Creek 














Manheim, Chicques Salunga 
Creek 




















15( 


Carlisle, Conodogwinet Creek. 
Mount Holly Lake 






20C 








Cedar Knoll, Cedar Knoll 
Pond. . . . 






Mercersburg, Conococheague 
Creek 






H ib ernia 
Pond 






Licking Creek. 
Minersville, Crystal Pond 




40( 










50 


Chambersbuig, Conocochea- 








6( 


Silverton Ponds.. 




15C 






Morganza, Morganza Pcnd 




15C 


Garretts Dam 




Mount Wclf, Big Conewago 
Creek 










80C 






Muncy, Muucy Creek 




5C 






Susquehanna River. . 




50 


Eagles Mere, Eagles Mere Lake 




New Oxford, Little Conewago 
Creek 




40C 


Emigsville, Big Conewago 1 
Creek 


New Ringgold, Rauschs Pond 
Oil City, Sugar Lake 




5C 
30C 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



115 



Details of Distkibution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Coutiuued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Pennsylvania— Continued. 




50 
50 
300 
250 
500 

250 
250 
500 
250 

250 
150 
150 
250 

900 
50 
50 

150 

300 

50 

250 
250 
250 
250 
250 
50 

200 
150 
300 
50 
250 
125 
250 

300 

300 

ISO 

50 

150 

550 

25 

250 

300 

300 

240 

24 
400 
200 

200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 

200 
125 

tiOO 

300 
200 
200 


South Carolina— Continued. 
Belton, Neals Creek, head- 
waters 










12 






Camden, Denkins Mill Pond.. 




50 






Holly Hedge Pond.. 




300 






Little rine Lake... . 




24 


Peach Bottom, Susquehanna 




Chesterfield, Spring Creek ' 1 


12 


Columbia, Cobb's pond 




400 






Lyles Pond 




50 


Susquehanna River.. 




Messers Mill Pond . 
Conway, Johnson's pond 




50 






100 


Perkiomen 
Creek 








48 


Easley, Black Pond 




200 






Blue Water Pond 




200 






Clear Water I'ond 




200 






Mountain Pond 




200 


Schuylkill River 




Piedmont Pond 




200 


Saluda Pond (A) 




200 






Saluda Pond (B) 




200 






Upland Pond 




200 


WyoniissLng Creek, 




Edgemoor, Fishing Creek 




25 


Ehrhardt, Clear Water Lake.. 




50 






Engleside, Engleside Lake 




200 






Florence, Black Creek 




1,000 


Rohrerstown, Little Cones- 




Fort Lawai, Fishing Creek. . . . 




50 


Great Falls, Catawba River 
Pond 










100 






Greenville, Garlington's pond. 




200 


Schuylkill River. 




Piney Mountain, 










Lake : 


48 






Greer, Beaver Dam Pond 


2(H) 


Scotland, Conocoeheague 
Creek 






800 


Hampton, Clifton Mill Pond. . ! 


500 






Hartsville, Black Creek Pond. 


30C 






Hartsville Lake... 


500 






Ox Pen Pond ' 


400 






Holly Hill, Alligator Lake. . . . ! 


50 


Kimberton Pond 
Mill Pond 




IJttle Pedee Lake. 
Pedee Creek 




50 




100 


Stoyestawn, Quemahoning 




Honea Path, Arnold Creek 




12 


Estes's pond 




12 






Gaupp Creek 




12 






Line Creek 




12 






Mc(^uen Creek. . 




12 


AVagontown, Wagontown 




Williams's pond. 
Leesville, Hare's pond 




100 
50 






Lexington, George's pond 




5C 






Lowrvs, Turkey Creek 




24 






Mayesville, Scapeoer Pond 




250 


"VVilliamsport, Little Bear 




Middendorl .lohnson's pond. . 




600 


Mullins, Lake Swamp Creek. . 




500 
700 
700 
600 


Loyalsock 




Little Pedee River.. . 




Lumber River 




Susquehanna 
River,AVest 












500 


Pelzer, Hindruan's pond 




12 


AVind Ridge, ooutn Wheelmg 
Creek 




Pomaria, Camion Creek Lake. 

Rock Hill, Power Company 

Pond 




4J 










74 






Ruby, Little Black Creek 




12 


Bermudian 




St. Matthews, Wannamaker's 
pond 




100 


Cabin Creek 




Spartanburg, Arcadia Mill 
Pond 










1,C0( 






Summen'ille, Schultz Lake. .. 




100 






Sumter, Cherry Vale Pond 




5C 






Hoyts Pond 




5C 


Susquehanna 








20( 


Taylors, Chick Springs L;ike. . 




12 


Yardlev, Lake Afton. . . 




Wagener, Giddy Swamp Pond 




25 


Porto Rico: 




5t 


Wellford, Middle T vger R iver. 

South Tyger River . 

Westminster, Canels Fork 

Creek 




500 


South Carolina; 
Abbeville, Mttle River 






52-J 










24 


Bayboro, Mishoe's pond 




Chauga Creek... 




24 



116 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



South Carolina — Continued. 
Westminster, Cheestoee Creek 
Kamsey Creek.. 
Toxaway Creek. 

Weston, Clarkson's pond 

AVilliamston, Saluda River. . . 
South Dakota: 
Big Stone City, Big Stone 

Lake 

Blunt, Farmers Lake 

Bowdle, Odessa Lake 

Brookings, Oakwood Lake 

Bruce, Tetonkaha Lake 

Burke, Murphy Creek 

Ponco Creek 

Canning, Peterson's pond 

Chamberlain, Cecelian Lake. . 

Clark, Barley Lake 

Clear Lake, Clear Lake 

Colome, Willow Creek Pond. . 

Dallas, Ponco Creek 

Faith, Bnishv Creek 

Red Scaffold Creek 

Sweet's pond 

Gregory, Gibson's pond 

Humboldt, Beaver Lake 

Langtord, Clear Lake 

Roy Lake 

Six Mile Lake 

Lantry, Big Bear Creek 

Lemmon, toe's pond 

Madison, Lake Madison 

Midland, Cottonwood Pond. . . 

Murdo, Township Pond 

Oelrichs. Strouse's lake 

Pierre, BrowTi's pond 

Lake Medoka 

Rockham, Grabinski's pond . . 
St. Charles, Burnt Rock Creek 

Thoene's pond 

Sisseton, Aspen Lake 

East Clear Lake 

Pickerel Lake 

South Dry Wood 

Lake 

Traverse Lake 

White Stone Lake. . . 

Wolph Lake 

Tatanka, Lake Tatanka 

Timber Lake, Spring Lake 

Toronta, Fish Lake 

Valentin", Roubideaux Pond. 
Watauga, Pleasantdale Lake. . 
Watertown,Lake Kampeska. 

Webster, Pickerel l^ake 

Willow Lake, Willow Lake... 

Winner, Gesing's pond 

Government Dam 

Witten Lake 

Tennessee: 

Adams, Sory's pond 

AshlandCity, Big Marrowbone 

Creek 

Jenkins pond. . 
Sycamore Creek 

Brighton, Sunnyside Lake 

Bristol, City Lake 

Brownsville, Kinney'slake. . 

Butler, Elk River 

Carter, Stony Creek 

Cedar Hill,Bally's pond 

Long's lake 

Red River, Sulphur 

Fork 

Chapel Hill, Spring Creek 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



2,500 
2,500 
7,500 



24 
24 
24 
50 
550 



200 
400 
100 
400 
300 
30 
90 
100 
200 
200 

eoo 

30 
30 
400 
200 
200 
30 
279 
200 
200 
200 
300 
100 
279 
100 
200 
200 
100 
155 
200 
30 
30 
100 
100 
100 

150 

150 

100 

100 

200 

100 

300 

30 

100 

400 

150 

300 

60 

60 

30 



1,000 

1,000 

100 

500 

200 

200 

15 

30 

30 
1,000 



Disposition. 



Fry. 



Tennessee — Continued. 
Chattanooga, Bonny Oaks 

Pond 

Hixon Pond 

Lookout Creek. . 
McCallie Lake. . 
Mountain Creek. 
Norris'spond. . . 

Reads Lake 

Clarksville, Anderson's pond. . 
Big West Fork 

Pond 

Hansbough Mill 

Pond 

Harper Pond 

Liggon Pond. 

Red River, Little 

West Fork 

Red River, South 

Fork 

Spring Creek 

Warfleld Lake. .. 
West Fork Creek. 

Cleveland, Baker Creek 

Candies Creek 

I/ake Wildwood.. 
Rainbow Lake... 
Spring Water Lake 

Clutesville, Duck River 

Coal Creek, Coal Creek 

Lovly 'slake 

Columbia, Smith's pond 

Donelson, Whitworth's pond. 
Elizabethton, Watauga River. 
Estill Springs, Modona Lake.. 
Fayetteville, Cunningham's 

pond 

Franklin, Jordan's lake 

Gallatin, Tiurner's lake 

Gray Station, Ford Creek 

Greenwood, Spring Creek 

Guthrie, Sunny Lake 

Harriman, Emery River 

Heiskell, Smith's mill pond.. 
High Cliff, Clear Fork River.. 

Holton, Hickory Creek 

Huntland, Beans Creek 

Indian Springs, Hays Pond... 

Iron Hill, Iron Hill Pond 

Jack.son, Highland Park Lake, 

Jellico, Elk Fork Creek 

Johnson City, Watauga River, 
Kingston Springs, Harpeth 

River 

La Vergne, Goodwin's pond. 

Lebanon, Louise Pond 

McDonald Pond... 

Lewisburg, Duck River 

Limestone, Big Limestone 

Creek 

Jockey Creek... 

Lynville, Rippey's pond 

McKenzie, Clear Creek Lake. 

Maxwell, Silver Lake 

Milligan College, Buffalo 

Creek 

Monterey, Hemlock Lake 

Morrison, Ramsey's pond 

Mountain City, Big Spring 

Pond.... 

Laurel Creek 

Murfreesboro, Brother's pond 

Caney Fork 

Creek, West 

Fork 



5,000 

5,000 

2,500 
2,o00 
2,500 

5,000 



5,000 
2,500 
5,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



5,000 



1,000 



3,000 



1,000 
2,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS^ 1915. 



117 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Contiuued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Tennessee — Continued. 
Murfreesboro, Downing's 

pond 

Nashville, Lake Davidson 

Richland Creek 

Newport, Boyer's pond 

Two Spring Pond . . 

Oakdale, Emory River 

Oneida, Lower Pine Creek 

Orlinda, Berry's pond 

Parrottsville, Meyers's pond. . 
Pegram Station, Hutton 

Pond 

Peytona, Peytona Farm Pond 
Pierce Station, Winston Pond. 

PikevUle, Caine Creek 

Sequachie River 

Portland, Mink's pond 

Roan Mountain, Doe River... 
Shell Creek.. 
Wilson Creek 

Rockwood, Whites Creek 

Roddy, Whites Creek 

St. Bethlehem, Bourne's pond. 

Dudley Pond.. 

Red River, 

Little West 

Fork 

Spring Creek . . 
^VarfieIdLake. 
Wood stock 

Pond 

Sebowisha, Caney Fork River. 
Smith Fork Creek. 

Selmer, Expansion Lake 

Sequatchie, Alum Cove Lake. 

Lake No. 1 

Sevierville,Cresswell's mill 

pond 

Little Pigeon 
River, East 

Prong 

Little Pigeon 
River, West 

Prong 

Pigeon River 

Shelbyville, Duck River 

Shirleyton, Shirley's lake 

Sparta, Caney Fork River 

Spring City, Piney Creek 

Snringfield, Tha.x'ton's pond.. 

True Pond 

Tate Spring, German Creek... 

Tellico Plains, Lake Tellico... 

Tellico River. . 

Thompson, Ridley's pond 

Toone, Anderson's pond 

Townsend, Little River 

Tallehoma, Cumberland 

Springs Lake... 

Lake Calanthe. . . 

Tyner, Bonny Oaks Lake 

Walling, Moneyham's pond. . 

Sanders's pond 

Waverly, Hurricane Creek 

Whiteville, Hailey 's pond 

Whitlock, Mandle Lake 

Texas: 

Abilene, Bass Lake 

Lytle Lake 

Albany, Home Pond 

Alto, Four Mile Lake 

Amarillo, Long Hole Lake 

Palo Duro Creek. . . 

Armona, Brazos Lake 

Clear Lake., 



Fry. 



2,500 



300 
150 
150 



.2,f,00 
2,500 



5, 000 
5,000 
2,500 

2,500 
4,000 
4,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. 



15 
1,000 
150 
100 
100 
300 
150 
130 
100 

1,000 



500 
1.50 
270 
130 



500 
150 
150 



550 

100 

750 

150 

45 

40 

200 

165 

200 

175 

175 

15 

500 

400 

15 

45 

20 

200 

15 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

75 
2,400 
2,000 
1,000 
932 
2,900 
2,000 
2,000 



Disposition. 



Texas— Continued . 

Annona, Crystal Lake (A) 

Crystal Lake (B).... 

Archer City, Carver Lake 

Athens, Chalmers's Lake 

Koon Kreek Lake 

Richardson Lake. . .. 

Atlanta, Baucum's pond 

Chamlilee's pond 

Austin, Asylum Lake 

Lake Austin 

Axtell, Cox Farm Lake 

Everman Club Pond.. 

Lumbley's pond 

Baird, Railroad Lake 

Bastrop, Burleson's pond 

Country Club Pond. 

Davis's pond 

Young's lake 

Bedias, Willow Pond 

Wilson's pond 

Benbrook, Bear Creek 

Big Springs, Parramoro's 

ponds 

Bivins, Woodworth Pond 

Blooming Grove, D o r s e y 's 

pond 

Lower Lake. 

Blossom, Cole's pond 

Bonham, Lake St. Clare 

Brandenburg, Brandenburg 

Pond 

Brandon, Cottonwood Creek.. 

Giles Pond 

Bremond, Causey's pond 

Forson's pond 

Brenham, Brenham Club 

Lake 

Parker's lake 

Bro-vynwood, Brick Yard Lake 
Brownwood 

Lake 

Camp'.s pond... 
Simmons's pond 
Stock Pen Lake 

Bruni, San Pedro Pond 

Bryan, Adelles Lake 

Floyd's lake 

Steep Hollow Lake . . . 

Woodland Lake 

BuUard, Spring Lake 

Campbell, Cannon^s pond 

Center, Bailey's pond 

Black's lake 

Samford's pond 

Childress, Hawkins Pond 

Robbins Pond 

Cibolo, Mueller's pond 

Cleburne, Comitry Club Lake. 

Cline, Turkey Creek 

Coleman, Coleman Lake 

Wells Lake 

Columbus, Miller House Lake. 
Wolf Pen Lake.... 

Comfort, Cypress Creek 

Corpus Christi, Poenisch Lake 

Crockett, Nunn Lake 

Parish Lake 

Crystal City, Nueces River. . . 
Daingertreld, Donald Dell 

Pond 

Dalhart, James's pond 

Dallas, Harris Lake 

Piairie Creek 

State Hatchery Pond. 
Del Rio, Cienegaa Creek 



Fry. 



118 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGSj 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS-Continued. 



Disposition. 



Texas — Continued. 

DentoDjTaylor's lake 

Derby, Harkness's pond 

Detroit, Cherry 's pond 

Inzer's pond 

Matliis"s pond 

Douohette, Bostick Branch. . . 

Eastland, Lake Tullia 

Edna, Alligator Lake 

Horse Shoe Lake 

Laughter Lake 

Sayles Lake 

Westhoff 's lake 

Willow Bud Lake 

El Paso, Smelting Works 

Pond 

Falfurrias, Arcadia Lake 

Fletcher, Village Creek 

Fort Worth, Lake Worth 

Franklin, Fulton's pond 

Fredericksburg, Bear Creek 

Lake 

Lipan Lake . 
P e demales 

River 

Frost, Halbert Farm Pond . . . 

Jones Ranch Pond 

Fulshear, Mayes Lake 

Gainesville, Elm Creek 

Lame Duck Pond 

Priddy's pond. . . 

Garrison, Greenwood Lake. . . 

Gause , Thomas's lake 

Giddings, Dunks Lake 

Steglich Lake 

Goldthwaite, Wood Lake 

Gordon, Dairy Farm Lake 

Granbury, Cogden's pond 

Grandview, Country Club 

Lake 

Pecan Lake 

Grigsby, Harma Lake 

Gunter, Gunter Lake 

Gustine, Nigs Branch 

Hallettsville, Lavaca River. . . 

Happy, Lake View 

Harleton^Harleton Lake 

Haskell, Hemphill Lake 

Heame , Vaughan's pond 

Heidenheimer, King's pond. . 

Hempstead, Royal Lake 

Henderson, Brown Lake 

Stafford Lake 

Henrietta, Callaway's pond. . . 
Highbank, Sutherland's pond. 

Howland, Shelton Lake 

Hubbard, City Lake 

Club Lakes 

East Pond 

Jones's pond 

McDaniel's pond... 
Waterworks Lake. . 

Iredell , Bosq uo River 

Itasca, Martin Lake 

Jay ton. Lake Luzon 

Justiceourg, Herd Pasture 

Pond 

Railway Lake.. 

Katy , Hammon Pond 

Kemp, Bamett's pond 

Berry Lake 

BuUFrog Lake 

Button Willow Lake. . 
Cedar Lake 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearhngs, 
and 
adults. 



1,600 

800 

75 

75 

75 

2,000 

2,000 

1,600 

1,600 

1,600 

1,600 

1.600 

800 

150 

1,000 

2,875 

3,650 

75 

700 
1,200 



2,400 

1,900 

120 

2,400 

1,600 

50 

2,000 

75 

700 

2,S5 

50 

300 

1,138 

100 
1,000 

500 
1,800 
1,500 
2,000 

500 
1,600 

700 

125 

50 

1,000 

3,400 

2.500 

466 
1,800 

520 
1,000 

925 
1,250 

125 
2,000 

425 
7.150 
1,000 

700 

1,000 
1,600 
1,000 
1,000 
2,000 
1,000 
1,000 
1,000 



Disposition. 



Texas — Continued. 

Kerens, Twin Ponds 

KerrvDle, Cren.';haw Pond . . . 

DietertPond 

Floyd's pond 

Goat Creek 

Guadalupe River. . 
Guadalupe River, 

South Fork 

Harris Lake 

James Pond 

Lake Cawthrono . . 

Lake Mae 

Lowr>''s pond 

Moore Pond 

Ragland's pond... 

Rees Pond 

Sauer Pond 

Schreiner Lake 

Kingsbury, Upham Lake 

Kosse , Oil Mill Pond 

Laredo, St. Thomas Lake 

La Rue, Flag Lake 

Las Vegas, Jantz's pond 

Lawrence, Wallace's pond. . . 

Leesburg, Femdale Lake 

Woodland Pond . . 

Lewisville, San Lake 

Lincoln, Dube's pond 

Llano, Hickory Creek 

Llano River 

Six Mile Creek 

Spice Wood Springs 

Run 

Wrights Creek 

Long B ranch , GrubenmanLake 

Longview, Fuller's lake 

Lake Devonia 

Lake Moberly 

Renf roe 'slake.... 
Texas & Pacific 

Lake 

Lovelady, Smith's pond 

Standley's pond.. 
McKinney, Andrew's pond. . 

Sloan Lake 

Mabank, Andrews Lake 

Barnett's pond 

Cook's pond 

Craft's pond 

Flag Lake 

Manchaca, Onion Creek 

Marathon, Maravillas Creek . 
Pena Colorado 

Creek 

Marfa, Brite's pond 

Marion, Cibolo River 

Grobe's pond 

Loefler's pond 

Radtke's pond 

Wieters & Luens- 

mann'spond 

Winkleman's pond.. 

Menard, Clear Creek 

Mercury, Bull Branch 

Meridian, Carlson's pond 

Sunnvside Lake... 

Merkel, Live Oak Lake 

Mertens, Buie's pond 

Mexia, Stubenranch's pond.. 

Milano, Butts's pond 

Mineola, Conger's pond 

Denton's pond 

Mineola Club Lake. 



Fry. 



2,500 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 119 

Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



J)isposition. 



Texas — Continued. 

Mincola, Smart's pond 

Mineral Wells, Dark Valley 

Creek 

Navasota, Steele Lake 

Neuville, Hatton's pond 

McSwean's pond 

MountPleasantPond 
Teneha Bay, South. 

Head 

Newark, Williams's pond 

New Boston, DeS hong's pond 
New Braunfels, Comal River. 
Comal River, 
North 

Branch 

Guadalupe 

River 

Norvotney's 

lake "... 

Old Comal 

Creek 

RebeecaCreek 
SpringBranch 

Newsome, Elmwood Pond 

Orth, Leberman's pond 

Otto, Gin Company Pond 

Paige, Fox Pond. ." 

Panhandle, Russ's pond 

Paris, Clear Lake 

Gin Pond 

Paxton, Fair View Pond 

Peacock, Forty One Tank 

Pond 

Pearsall, Artesian Farm Pond 

Petrolia, Lake Gage 

Pine, Lawton Lake 

Pittsburg, Jersey Dale Pond.. 
Reaves Club Lake. 

Plainview, Reaves Lake 

Tulia Creek 

Point , Simmons's pond 

Ponder, Clifl Lake 

Prosper, Rhea Mill Pond 

Quinlan, San Creek 

Sycamore Pond 

Ranger, Houston Lake 

Palo Pinto Lake 

Reagan, Harlan's pond 

Rice, Rutherford's pond 

Rockwall, Lofland's pond 

Watch Lake 

Rosebud, Atkins's pond 

Estes Pond 

Souther's pond 

Rotan, Dennis's pond 

San Angelo, Johnson's pond. . 

San Antonio, Lake Fsperanza 

Lamm's lake.. . 

Ray bould Lake. 

San Antonio 

River 

San Pedro 
Springs Lake. 
Southton Lake. 
Terrell's pond. . 
West End Lake. 
White's pond... 

San Marcos, Bagley Lake 

Blanco River 

Horse Shoe Lake. 
Howard Pond . . . 
Jackman Lake.. . 
San Marcos River 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 
and 
adults. 



375 

550 
1,300 
600 
550 
600 

600 

900 

2,000 

5,100 



3,000 

150 

250 

4,000 

1,600 

150 

800 

900 

900 

50 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1,000 

1.200 

800 

1,800 

8,000 

450 

1,600 

500 

1,850 

650 

50 

2,700 

2,400 

700 

1,000 

2,400 

170 

800 

75 

650 

2,000 

1,000 

900 

700 

360 

150 

420 

420 

2,025 

150 

420 

75 

4,000 

150 
2,235 
7,202 
4,300 

321 
1,075 
1,000 



Disposition. 



Texas — Continued. 

San Saba, Miller Lake 

Schertz, Cibolo Nursery Pond 

Seguin, Church Hill Lake 

Guadalupe River 

Mill Creek 

Smithville, Lidiak Pond 

Snyder, Moores Creek 

Spbfford, Gablen Pond 

Vincent's pond 

Spur, Wilson Creek Pond 

Stamford, Hosey Lake 

Standart , Mud Creek 

Sulphur Springs, Butler's pond 
P onder 's 

pond 

Temple ton 

Pond 

Willow Lake 
Young's 

pond 

Sweetwater, Santa Fe Lake... 

Taylor, Flag Springs Lake 

Temple, Lake Polk 

Terrell, Hunters Pond 

Whites Lake 

Texarkana, Dripping Spring 

Lake 

Spring Lake 

Thomdale, City Pond 

Elliott Lake 

Elm Grove Pond. 
Gregory 'spend... 

Melde's pond 

Michalk Lake 

Newton Pond 

Phillips's pond . . . 

Ryan's pond 

Thomdale Pond . . 

Water & Light 

.Company Lake. 

Timpson, Lake View 

Smith's pond 

Tulia, Butcher Great Lake. . . 

Lake Saratoga 

Tyler, Crystal Lake 

Uvalde, Evans Lake 

Frio River 

Frio River, West 

Prong 

Leona River 

Nueces River 

Turkey Creek 

Upper Dry Frio River 
Upper Leona River. 
Upper Nueces River 

Vernon, Hiatt's pond 

Shapley Pond 

Waco, Elk Lake 

Goodman Valley Lake 

McCowans Lake 

Sand Lake 

Watt's lake 

Weathered Lake 

Waelder, Taylor's pond 

Waller, Wilson's pond 

Walnut Springs, Lake Wis- 
taria 

Waxahachie, Robinson Pond 
Weatherford, Prairie View 

Lake 

Westover, Lake Westover. . . 

Stevens Lake 

Wharton, Caney Creek 



Fry. 



120 DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

Details op Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Texas— Continued. 
Wichita Falls, Coleman Lake. 

Flag Creek 

Marcus Lake... 
Scotland Lake. 
Wichita Club 

Lake 

Wilson Lake. . 

Wills Point, Bird Lake 

Bourland Lake.. 

Brushy Lake 

City Lake 

Constant Lake... 
Dawson's pond . . 

Elm Lake 

Goodwin Lake... 
Hamilton Lake.. 
Jameson's pond.. 

Kirby Lake 

Lake Breucher. . 
Lake Champion. 
Lake Gilchrist... 

Lake Grooms 

Lake Hubbard . . 

Lake Human 

Lake Jarvis 

Lake Manning... 
Lake Mc Knight. 

Lake Thelma 

Lake Thome 

McLean Lake... 
Meredith Lake.. 

Owens Lake 

Thorn Lake 

Wyrme's lake... 
Winnsboro, Pit tman's pond.. 
Spring Dale Pond 
Utah: 

Collingston, Bear River 

Murray, Froiseth's pond 

Price, Jeffs's pond 

Virginia. 
Abingdon, Sunny Brook Pond 
Amelia, Rowlett Mid Pond... 

Southall's pond 

Backbone, Dunlap Creek 

Berryville, Shenandoah River 

Blackstone, Bellmont Pond. . 

Hammock's pond 

Bowlers Wharf, Melbourne 

Pond 

Bremo, Lower Bremo Pond . . 

Moss Pond 

Broadway, Shenandoah Riv- 
er, North Branch 

Burkeville, Miller's mill pond. 

Byllesby, Crooked Creek 

New River 

Carysbrook, Rivanna River. . 

Cave Station, North River 

Centralis, Court House Pond. 
Charlottesville, Rivanna 

River 

Chester, Ware Mill Pond 

Chilhowie, Holston River, 

South Fork 

Clifton Forge, Cowpasture 

River 

Covington, Dunlap Creek 

Potts Creek 

Dooms, Shenandoah River, 

SouthFork 

DufBeld, Duff's pond 

Robinette's pond 

Edinburg, Shenandoah River, 
North Branch 



Fry. 



1,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 
and 
adults. 



1,800 
466 
900 

1,800 

1,800 
1,800 
800 
800 
800 
800 
700 
350 
700 
800 
350 
350 
800 
700 
800 
800 
800 
700 
700 



800 
800 
700 
350 
800 
800 
350 
700 
450 
800 

55 
15 
15 



200 
150 

SO 

i.-o 

200 
100 

200 
500 
100 

2,000 
200 
2.100 
2,100 
225 
200 
200 

200 
100 

300 

2,400 

800 

1,600 

400 
50 
100 

1,600 



Disposition. 



Virginia — Continued. 
Elk ton, Shenandoah River. . 

Emporia, PaL-'s pond 

Evington, Brookdale Pond . . 
Fall Creek, Campbell's pond.. 

Harper's pond 

Fall Mills, Mud Fork Creek... 

Farmville, Burger's pond 

Forest Depot, Yancey's pond 
Fort Mitchell, Watson's pond 

Gale City, Corns'spond 

Gladys, Seneca Creek 

Glen Allen, Cussons Pond 

Granite, Quarry Pond 

Green Spring Depot, Melltng- 

ton Lake 

Gretna, Stinking River 

Griflith, Cowpasture River. . 

Harrisonburg, North River. . 

Sh enandoah 

River 

Honaker, Smith's pond 

Hot Springs, Cowpasture 

River 

Jackson River . . 
Island Ford, Shenandoah 

River 

Ivanhoe, Cripple Creek 

New River 

Poplar Camp Creek 

Jasper, North Fork Creek 

Lee, Woodbury Pond 

Lovetsville, Dutchman Creek. 

Maidens, Carlisle Pond 

Markham, Rappahannock 

River 

Middletown, Shenandoah 

River, North Fork 

Millboro, Lick Run 

Mount Crawford, North River 
Mount Jackson, Stony Creek.. 
Mundy Point, Northern's 

mill pond 

Myrtle, Simmons's pond 

Narrows, Wolfe Creek 

Newcastle, Craig Creek 

Johns Creek 

Newsomo, Barham & Pope's 

pond 

Norge, Seminole Pond 

Orange, Mathews Mill Pond. . 

Oriskany, Craig Creek 

Paeoniah Springs, Kittocton 

Creek 

Palmyra, Montvale Mill Pond. 

Pemberton, Smith's pond 

Pembroke, Mountain Lake. . . 
Pendleton, Purdell & Wood- 
son Pond 

Petersburg, Iveys Mill Pond.. 

Linkin Creek 

Swift Creek 

West End Park 

Lake 

Plains, Goose Creek 

Providence Forge, Allen Pond 
Dead Creek 
Dearhardt's 

pond 

D r e wry's 

pond 

Forge Pond 
Garrett 

Pond 

Lak e s i d e 
Lake 



Fry. 



3,000 



3,000 
2,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings. 

and 
adults. 



DISTRIBUTIOISr OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



121 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
LARGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 



V irginia — Continued. 

Providence Forgo, Long Reach 

Pond. 

Mirror Lake 

Townsend 

Pond. .. 

Westhamp- 

tan Lake 

Randolph Depot, Pond de 

Lake Charlotte 

Rapldan, Taliaferro's pond. . 

Remington, Kelly Pond 

Richmond, Brandy Mill Pond 
Browns Pond .... 
Chickahominy 

Club Pond 

Club Pond 

Cotton Pond 

Falling Creek 

Hickory Hill 

Pond 

Licking Creek 

Pond 

Skidmore Pond... 
Riverton Junction, Shenan- 
doah River 

Roxbury, Captain Joes Pond . 
Charles City Pond. 

Palmer's pond 

Roxbury Pond .... 

Spottsville, Chester Pond 

Skelton, Meherin Creek 

Spenrer, North Mayo Creek. . 
Staunton, Churchville Branch 

Middle River 

Stony Creek, Hunting Quar- 
ter Pond 

Nottawav River 
Sutherlin, Atlas ii ills Pond. . . 

Toano, Goddin'spond 

Toshes, Frying Pan Creek 

Tye River, Cabell's pond 

Walkers, Mattahunk I^ake 

Walker Ford, James River. . . 

Warrenton, Carters Run 

Waynesboro, South River 

Wostham, Bryans Pond 

Dancing Creek 

Pond 

West View, Vaughan's pond. 

Whittles, Mills's pond 

Williamsburg, Highland Pond 

Wirtz, Blackwaler River 

Woodslane, Polli^s Pond 

Woodstock , Shenandoah 

River, North Fork 

Wytheville, Reed Creek 

Reed (^reek, 
South Fork.... 

Vale, Graves's pond 

West Virginia: 
Albright, Big Sandy Creek. . . 
AMerson, Greenbrier River. . . 

Bluefield, Bailey Lake 

Cameron, Fish Creek 

Chapmanville, Guvandotte 

River ■. 

Charleston, Big Buffalo Creek. 

Blue Creek 

Elk River 

Cowen , Gauley R i ver 

Fairmont, Pricket t's pond 

GreatCacapon, GreatCacapon 

River 

Haywood, Ten Mile Creek 

Juiiior, Tygarts Valley River. 
Logan, Giiyandotte River 



Fry. 



3,000 



2,000 
3,000 
2,000 



2,000 
2,000 



3,000 
3,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



200 
500 



100 

70 

200 

200 



100 



100 



400 

1,400 

1,400 

100 

1,400 

700 

300 

300 

150 

300 

200 
500 
100 
200 
100 
100 
500 
2,100 
200 
125 
700 

300 
100 
200 
600 
300 
200 

400 



75 
80 
100 
36 

120 
150 
150 
150 
75 
50 

400 
24 
24 

120 



Disposition. 



West Virginia — Continued. 
Long Run, Middle Island 

Creek, Meat House Fork 

Morgantown, Tibbs Run Lake 
Mullens, Guyandotte River... 

Oral, Oral Pond 

Paw Paw, Cacapon River 

Romney, Potomac River, 

South Branch 

Ronceverte, Greenbrier River. 

Talcott, Indian Creek 

Terra Alta, Lake Terra Alta. . 
Weston, Monongahela River, 

West Fork 

Wheeling, Speidel's pond 

Wisconsin: 

Birchwood, Spring Lake 

Bloomer, Bloomer Mill Pond. 

Cable, Bass Lake 

Cable Lake 

Rosa Lake 

Cumberland, Beaver Dam 

Lake 

Buck Lake 

Duck Lake 

Granite Lake. .. 
Horse Shoe Lake 
Kidney Lake... 

Kirbec Lake 

Little Bass Lake 
Little Sand 

Lake 

Pipe Lake 

Sand Lake 

Silver Lake 

Spirit Lake 

WickertsLake.. 
Wild Cat Lake.. 

Delaven, Round Lake 

Fall Creek, Fall Creek Pond. . 

Frederic, Diamond Lake 

Gordon, Bass Lake 

Clear Lake 

Ox Lake 

Hawkins, Shamrock Lake 

Hayward, Bass Lake 

Buck Lake 

Clear Lake 

Devils Lake 

Flat Lake 

LakeCourtO'Reille 
Smith Lake 



Spring Lake 

Whiteftsh Lake. 



Iron River, Swanson Lake 

La Crosse, Black River 

Broken Gun Run.. 

French Lake 

Lyths Bay 

Nichols Bay 

Rice Lake 

Running Creek 

Ladysmith, Flambeau Pond.. 

Lake Stephenson 

Lake Nebagamon, Deer Lake . 

Deer Print 

Lake 

Gander 

Lake 

Island Lake 
Loon Lake. 
Minneseng 

Lake 

Sand Bar 

Lake 

Steele Lake 
Lampson, Ferguson Lake 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 

and 
adults. 



24 
50 
500 
120 

800 

1,000 

5,000 

100 

400 

100 
12 

60 
300 
60 
60 
50 

50 
50 
60 
60 
60 
50 
60 
50 

60 

50 

60 

60 

50 

60 

60 

70 

100 

60 

50 

50 

50 

300 

60 

50 

60 

60 

60 

150 

50 

60 

60 

150 

•200 

100 

150 

150 

200 

200 

150 

400 

200 

60 

....60 



50 
50 
50 

50 

50 
50 
150 



86497°— 17- 



-14 



122 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Yeak 1915 — Continued. 

LAKGEMOUTH BLACK BASS— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Wisconsin — Continued. 




70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

70 

75 

100 

150 

100 

150 

150 

150 

100 

100 

300 

50 

50 

150 

300 

50 

50 

200 

600 

50 

50 

50 

50 

100 

75 

60 

115 

50 

75 

150 


Wisconsin— Continued. 
Spooner, Big McKenzie Lake. 
SpringGreen, Wisconsin River 
Stanberrv, Trinace Lake 




50 








150 






50 


Hampton Lake . . 




Stone Lake, Big Sissabagama 
Lake 










50 






Fish Lake 




50 






Flat Lake 




50 






Ham Lake 




50 


Mellen, Billett Lake 




Hungry Lake. 




50 






Little Sand Lake. 




50 


English Lake 




Little Sissaba- 
gama Lake 










50 


Long Lake 




Sand Lake . 




50 


Loon Lake 




Sugar Bush Lake- 




50 






Three Lakes, Green Bass Lake 
Pickerel Lake . . 




150 


Mineral Lake 




150 






Range Line Lake 
Virgin Lake . . 




150 


Merrillan, Mill Pond 




150 


Trows Pond 




Whiteflsh Lake. 




150 


Minong, Lake Hensen 




Tomah, Kenyon Pond . . . 




50 


New Auburn, Chain Lake . . 




Tomah Lake 




75 






Wascott, Miles Lake 




150 


Willow River 




Wausau, Bass Lake 




100 


Phelps, Little Bass Lake 


Big Rib River 




100 


North Twin Lake 




Lake Go To It 




100 


Rice Lake, Ginder Lake 




Little Rib River 




100 


Heinrich Lake 




Mayflower Lake 




100 


Moon Lake 




Pike Lake 




100 


Tuscobia Lake 




Wyoming: 
Cheyenne, Lake Minnehaha.. . 






Roberts, Twin Lakes . 




180 


Sparta, Angelo Pond 




Sloans Lake 




270 


Bacon Pond 




Glenrock, Dry Creek 




180 


La Crosse River 




Moorcroft, Gammon Lake . . . 




120 


McCoy Pond 




Sheridan, Tracy's pond 




60 






Total" 






Spider, Spider Lake 




758,300 


1,431,850 











SUNFISH. 



Alabama: 

AUenton, Bonner's pond 

Altoona, Peeple's pond 

Andalusia, Clark's pond 

Arlington, Dumas's pond 

Birmingham, Eubanks's pond 
NumberTwelve 

Pond 

Blocton, Morse's pond 

Brent, Bailey's pond 

Calera, Dry Creek 

Clayton, Blakey's pond 

^ Bradley's pond 

^ Helms Pond 

Ventre^s Pond 

Coatopa, Spidlo's pond 

•aleville. Cow Pen Creek 

Eoline, Ilobson's pond 

Evergreen, Cane Creek 

Dey'spond 

Sandy Creek 

Utopian Club 

I^ake 

Goshen, Heath's pond 

Guin, Motes & Markham's 

pond 

Guntersville, Railroad Pond.. 

Ida, Lock Twelve Lake 

Jasper, Black Water River. . . 

Evans's pond 

Foster's pond 



200 
175 
150 
200 
200 

400 
200 
200 
IGO 
110 
220 
165 
215 
200 
400 
1,000 
:?20 
240 
400 

240 

75 

500 
200 
1,000 
500 
200 
200 



Alabama — Continued. 

Jasper, Kilgore's pond 

Long's pond 

Sims'spond 

Lineville, Gaines's pond 

Wolf's pond 

Lockesburg, Coulter's pond. . 
Louisville, Cunningham's 

pond 

McWilliams, Philpot'spond., 

Megargel , Smith's pond. 

Midway, Morton's pond 

Montgomery, Hill's pond 

Holt's pond 

Little White- 

, water Lake. . . 

Montg o m e r y 

Pond 

Opp, Kelsoe's pond 

Mills's pond 

Perdue's pond 

Orrville. Moseloy's pond 

Ozark, Anglin's pond 

Pell City, Lake St. Clair 

Phoeni.x, Magnolia Pond 

Morgan's pond 

Pine Hill, Shellield's pand. . . . 

Prattville, Smith's pond 

PjTiton, Brown's pond 

Rowland's pond 

Red Bay, Jordan's pond 



500 
500 
500 
90 
90 
160 

100 
200 
200 

no 

100 
240 

600 

750 
160 

80 
160 
200 

55 
270 

75 
140 
200 

60 

90 
450 
200 



a Lost in transit, 13,254 flngerlings. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



123 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

SUNFISn— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Alabama — Continued. 

Repton, Dees's pond 

Eussellville, Burgess's lake. . . 
Cobb Springs 

Pond 

Elliott's pond. . . 

Ivake Charles 

Lake Gayley. ... 

Seale, Holland Pond 

Old Pearce Pond 

Pearce Pond 

Sterrett, Bear Croek 

Kellys Creek 

Sulligent, Woods's pond 

Three Notch , Johnston's pond . 

Troy, Henderson's pond (A). . 

Henderson's pond ( B) . . 

Henderson's pond (C). . 

Tuscaloosa, Pine Terrace 

Pond 

Tuskegee, East View Pond. . . 

Tyler, Minter's pond 

Union Springs, Eley's pond. . 
Gholston's 

pond 

Wetumpka,Cray Springs Pond 
Arizona: 
McNeal, Whitewater Pond . . . 

Simon, Barton's pond 

Darsey's pond 

Oasis Ranch Pond 

Thompson's pond 

Triangle Ranch Pond. 
Arkansas: 

Chichester, Clark's pond 

Conway, Halter's pond 

El Dorado, Business mens' 

Club Lake 

Emerson, Stevens's pond 

-Hermitage, Ferguson's pond. . 

Magnolia, Ben venue Pond 

Elmore's pond 

Lewis's pond 

Souter's pond 

Nashville, Clark's pond 

Warmack'spond. . 

Patmos, HoUis's pond 

Prescott, Blakeley's pond. . . . 

Brandon 's pond 

Hallaway's pond 

Wortham's pond 

Paragould, Hill Crest Pond. . . 

Ravana, Dodd's pond 

Vandervoort, Bog Springs 

Pond 

Wilmot, Lake Enterprise 

Womble, Edwards's pond 

Woodson, Lake Ferguson 

Delaware: 

l>aurel, State Farm Pond 

District of Columbia: 

A\'ashington, McLean's pond 
Florida: 

East Lake, Lake Weir 

Jacksonville, Cedar Spring 

Pond 

Lloyd, Virginia Lake 

Olympia, Hawkins Pond 

Ochlavilla Lake 

St. Cloud, Lake East To- 

hopekaliga 

Georgia: 

Adel, Juhan's pond 

No Mans Friend Pond. 

I'ope's pond , 

Alap;iha, .\lapaha River , 

Alma, Stewart's pond 



Fry. 



15,000 



15,000 



24,000 
9,000 



15,000 



15,000 



6,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. 



200 
200 

200 
200 
200 
400 
210 
375 
300 
275 
275 
500 
110 
75 
150 
140 

200 

60 

200 

140 

75 
60 

200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 



100 
200 

'497 



75 
75 
110 



50 
100 
50 
50 
50 
135 



160 
150 



800 

100 
4")0 
.300 
450 

1,000 

300 
100 
200 
600 
200 



Disposition. 



Georgia — Continued. 
Americus, Brown's mill pond. 
Councils Mill Pond 

Seals Mill Pond 

Andersonville, Hodges's pond 

Atlanta, Boulevard Pond 

Brodnax's pond 

Durand's pond 

East I^ake 

Augusta, Clark's pond 

Enquert Pond 

Horse Pen Pond 

Bainbridge, Chason Springs 

Run 

Barney, Ryall'spond 

Baxley , HoUis's pond 

Beach, Sweat's pond 

Bellville, Bazemore's pond . . . 

Black Pond 

Berryton, Garvin's pond 

Bethlehem. Harris's pond 

BowdoUj Ballard's pond 

Box Spnngs, Lake Samokee. . 
Broxton, Lumber Company 

Pond 

McGovern's pond. . . 
Ricketson's pond . . . 

Bullochville, Butts's pond 

Cold Brook 

Pond 

CarroUton, Lowell Pond 

Mote's pond 

Pitlman'spond.. . 
Reagan & Ste- 
vens's pond 

Cedar BluS, Newberry's 

pond 

Clarkston, Seay's pond 

Columbus, Garrard's pond 

Massey Pond 

Mossy Lake 

Pou Brothers 

Pond 

Conyers, Yellow River 

Cordele, Cato's pond 

Cusseta, If ollis's pond 

Dakota, Gin Pond 

Davisboro, Tarver Mill Pond. 

Douglas, Vickers's pond 

Douglasville, Eason's pond. . . 

Elberton, Gum Pond 

Ellijay, Geneva I/ake 

Folkston, St. Marys River 

Forsyth, Persons's pond 

Gibson, Griffen's pond 

Grantville, Cotton's pond 

Greenville, Terrell's pond 

Greenwood, Greenwood Pond. 

Griffin, Lake Rushton 

Harlem, Blanchard'spond 

Hartwell, Furgerson's pond . . 

McCurry's pond 

Higgston, Morris's pond 

Iliram, Hays's pond 

James, Golden Ilargreet Pond 

Jimps, Kennedy's pond 

Mill Pond 

Junction City, Brown'^pond. 
La Crosse, Holloway'spond . . 

Lake Park, Long Pond 

LawTenceville, King'spond. . . 
Luthersville, Cliandler's pond 
McDonoagh, Greene's pond.. . 

Mclntyre, Deason's pond 

Parker's pond 

Macon, Green Briar Pond. . . . 
Huhn's pond 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearhngs, 
and 
adults. 



450 

450 
800 
200 
100 
300 
200 
400 
150 
300 
375 

300 
450 
300 
450 
4.30 
300 
150 
200 
100 
,640 

300 

200 

600 

45 

200 
100 
100 
l.">0 

100 

300 
JOO 
200 
200 
300 

200 
500 
450 
200 
150 
300 
300 
150 
200 
300 
800 
200 
l.iO 
200 
,300 
100 
300 
loO 
200 
200 
300 
100 
200 
4.50 
4.50 
300 
300 
450 
300 
200 
1.50 
100 
400 
l')0 
150 



124 



DTSTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

SUNFISH— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


• 
Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Georgia— Continued. 




300 
150 
100 
300 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
300 
1,050 
150 
450 
300 
200 
150 
600 
400 
150 
200 

200 
400 
200 
200 
150 
200 
200 
500 
200 
600 
200 
500 
400 
600 
450 
200 
330 
200 
300 
200 
100 
100 
300 
300 
250 
300 
200 

300 

300 
200 
2,000 
300 
200 
300 
200 

100 
200 
500 
125 
300 
100 
200 
750 
100 
100 

300 
100 
650 
200 
400 
300 


Georgia— Continued. 
Wrens, Anderson's pond 




100 






Prescott's pond 




300 






Zirkle, Little Saiilla River... 




400 






Illinois: 
Dorchester, IJauschild's pond. 










200 






Freeport, Pecatonica River. . . 




5,500 






Yellow Creek 




5,000 






Lake Zurich, Lake Zurich 




600 






Liberty ville, Insull's pond 




SOO 






Meredosia, Mereuosia Bay 




300 






Quincy, Illinois River 




1,000 






Savanna, Tomlinson Run 




3,000 






Trivoli, Lake of Dreams 




200 






Indiana: 
Goshen, Elkhart River Pond . 










400 






Plvmouth, Forge Lake 




300 






Lowerys Lake 




300 






Myers Lake 




300 






Pretty Lake 




300 






Topeka, Dallas Lake 




400 


Poplar Vine 
Pond 




Meesic Lake 




400 


Iowa: 
Bellevue, Mississippi River. . . 










809. 490 


Ocilla, Griffin Pond 




State fish commis- 
sion 










5,000 






Harlan, Willow Shade Pond. . 




200 






Iowa Falls, Iowa River 




6,000 






Manchester, Maquoketa River 

North McGregor, Mississippi 

River 




500 












326,940 






St. Marvs, Minch's pond 




150 


Powell's pond 




Kansas: 
Colbv, Middle Sappa Pond. . . 










400 






Cohimbas, l^Uis's pond 




200 






Iliattville, Lake Alice 




300 


Roberts, nartman'smillpond 




Morrow, Rock Wall Pond 




100 


Paola, Wea Bull Creek 




700 


Foucbe Mill Pond 




Pittsbur", Scholl Pond 




440 






Richmond, -Richmond Pond. . 




1,000 






Welda, Welda Lake 




1,000 


Wright Mill Pond 




Kentucky: 
Clay ( ity. Red River 










600 






Cynthiaiia, King's pond 




200 






Danville, Caldwell's pond 




75 






Dunn's pond 




150 






Elizabeth town, Perceful's 










200 






Eminence, Moss's pond 




100 


Summerville, Montgomery's 
lake 








100 


Logan's pond 




100 






Rav's pond (A) 




100 


Pond 


Ray's pond (B).... 




100 






Ray's pond (C). . .. 




100 






Glencoe, Eagleston's pond 




200 






Guthrie, Duflv's pond 




100 


Sylvania, Blue Spring Pond. . 




Hardinsburg, "Hendriek's 










100 










100 


Thomasboro, Th o m a s b ore 
Pond 




Spring Garden 
Pond 




100 


Thomasville, Magnolia Pond . 








50 






400 










1,000 


Tifton, Hu(«hinsonspond... 








200 


intoruational Pond 






100 


Mill Creek 






200 


Webb's pond ..... 






100 


Tyrone, Head's Dond 




'Mulberry Pond. 
Marion, Cravne View Pond. 




100 


Unadiila, Bulo Lime Pond.. 






200 


Waynesboro, Chandler Mill 




Mount Sterling, Folly Branch 
Hamilton's 




425 


Godbee'spond.. 




75 


Sapp's i>ond 




Mill Pond.... 




200 






Perry's 






White Plains, Orinics's ponds. 




200 


Willacoochoe, Fresh Pond 




Olive Hill, Tabor's pond 1 


200 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGOS, 1915, 



125 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 

SUNFISH— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Fry. 



Kentucky— Continued. 

Pewee Valley, Blue Lake 

Pleasureville, Bush's pond. . . 
H a m m o n d's 

pond 

S h i p m a n ' s 

pond 

Richmond, Deatherage's pond 

Trenton, Orr's pond 

Winchester, Bowyer's pond. . 

Garner's pond . . . 

Hackett's pond.. 

Tucker's pond.. - 

Louisiana: 

Breaux Bridge, Olivier Pond. 

Chatham, Wilhite Lake 

Geismar, Sugar House Pond. . 

Homer, Dance's pond 

Ida, Adams's pond 

Lake Charles, Brick Company 

Pond 

Lake Providence, Lake Prov- 
idence 

Leesville, Magnolia Pond 

Minden, Miller's pond 

Rayne, Bradford's pond 

Robeline, Page's pond 

Shreveport, Clear Lake 

Vidalia, White Hall Lake. . . . 
Maryland: 
Brandy wine, Posewiro's 

pond 

Cumberland, Potomac River. 
Hyattsville, Bellevue Pond... 
Glen Echo, Potomac River . . . 
Michigan: 

Wetmore, Bass Lake 

Bissell Lake 

Island Lake 

Minnesota: 

Caledonia, Gengler Lake 

Scheck Lake 

Harmony, I'pper Iowa River. 
Hokah, Pettibone Park I>ake. 

Homer, Mississippi River 

Mississippi: 

Aberdeen, Butler Creek 

Cypress Lake 

Greer Lake , 

Jaudon's pond 

Jones's pond 

MurfE's pond (A). . 
Murff'spond(B).. 
Murff'spond(CK . 
Murff'spond(Dj. 
Stonewall Creek... 

Store Lake 

Ackerman, Leonard's pond.. 

Amory, Cedar Lake 

Bay Springs, Smith & Ras- 

berry's pond 

Blue Mountain, Mountain 

View Lake 

Bnoneville, Lauderdale Lake 

Brandon, Weillo's pond 

Brookhaven, Berger's pond.. 

Byhalia, Roper's pond 

Columbia, Ilenoger Lake 

Little River 

Columbus, Cox's pond 

Lindamood's pond 
Pucketl's pond 

Corinth, Hinton's pond 

Potts'slake 

Crawford, Irby Pond 

Decatur, Decatur Pond 

EUisville, Sumrall's pond.. 



6,000 
15,000 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 
and 
adults. 



COO 
100 



200 
200 
200 
150 
200 
200 
100 

400 
300 
100 
200 
100 

200 

600 
225 
100 



400 
1,200 

300 
1,000 

125 
125 
125 

100 

100 

2, 100 

l,-)00 

570, 640 

300 
fiOO 
400 
100 
100 
100 
300 
300 
300 
300 
400 
200 
300 



400 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
500 
400 
300 
400 
600 
200 
200 
200 



Disposition. 



Mississippi— Continued. 
Highlandale, Nebo Fish Pond 

Hoiilka, Burgess Lake 

luka, Brinkley Lake 

Jackson, Hinds "Pond 

Lee's pond (A) 

Lee's pond (B) 

Simpson Lake 

Wilson's pond 

Kilmichael, Herring's pond... 

Kosciusko, Bailey Lake 

Howell's pond 

Spain's pond 

Lake, Stringfellow's pond 

Laurel, Pine Dale Pond 

Lexington, Spell's pond 

Louin, Kennedy's pond 

Louin Pond 

Louisville, Moody's pond 

McCalls, Muliins's pond 

Macon, Bush Brothers Lake. . 

Daves Pond 

Herman's pond 

Prairie Pond 

Mantee, Blue Pond 

Brick Pond 

Moselev's pond 

Old Field Pond 

Red Pond 

Meridian, Queen City Pond. . 

South Lake 

Wagner's pond 

Miller, Funderburk's pond. . . 

Natchez, Rose Hill Pond (A). 

Rose Hill Pond(B). 

Rose Hill Pond (C). 

Trout Lnke 

Newton, Kennedy's pond. . .. 

Round Pond 

Pheba, Cool Pond 

Double Cabin Pond... 

Mound Lake 

Philadelphia, Ocobla Creek. . . 
Pocahontas, Robinson's pond. 
Port Gibson, School Campus 

Pond 

Raymond, Epperson's pond. . 
Hubbard's pond. . 
Raymond Pond... 

Spann's pond 

Red Lick, Brown's pond 

Contentment Pond 

Vause's pond 

Ripley, Spight's pond 

Roxie, Rose Hill Poml 

Sardis, Buckhalter Lake 

Hudson Pond 

Mill Lake 

Round Lake 

Shuqualak, Breckenri dge's 

pond (A) 

Breckenr idge's 

pond(B) 

Mav's pond 

Mill Pond 

Stallo, Hall's pond 

Starkville, Hogan's pond 

Page's pond 

T hom pson ' s pond 

Steens, John Mark Pond 

Stonewall, Culiley's pond 

Stringer, Stringer's pond 

Summit, Lee Lake 

Tupelo, Big Lake 

Jenkins's pond 

Kings Creek 

Park Lake 



Fry. 



126 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915^ — Continued. 

SUNFISH— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Mississippi — Continued. 

Tupelo, Town Creek 

Union, Individual Pond 

Williams Pond 

Winstead Pond 

Vaughan, Willow Pond 

AVahalak, Persons's pond 

Water Valley, Payne's pond.. 

- West, Spring Dell Pond 

West Point, Black Lake 

Crump's pond... 
Deane Brothers 

Lake 

Dukeminier's 

pond 

Ivy's lake 

Ivy's pond (A).. 
Ivy's pond (B).. 
Ivy's pond (O... 

Mealer's pond 

Hunger's pond... 

Sandy l^ond 

Winona, Suggett's pond 

Woody ille, Escher's pond 

Morris's pond 

Ogden's pond 

Pnares's pond 

Whetstone's pond 

Missouri: 

Ferguson, Wabash Club Lake. 

Joplin, Taylor Spring Branch. 

Kansas City, Blue Meadow 

Pond 

Falrmount 

Lake 

Kearney, Ludwig's lake 

Lebanon, South End Pond.. . 

Marshall, Stedem's pond 

Mexico, Burlington Lake 

Neosho, Hill's pond 

Noel, Perry's ponds 

Oasis, Fish Lake 

Rolla, Ehrlacher's ponds 

Lake Frisco 

Mill Creek 

South Spring Creek 

Springfield, Whalen's pond. . . 

Tebbetts, Elley's pond 

Windsor, Lake Sutherland. . , 
Montana: 

Glendive, Yellowstone River, 
New Jersey: 
Lake Hopatcong, Lake Ho- 

patcong 

New Mexico: 

Artesia, Clark's lake 

Porter's pond 

Columbus, Brooks's pond 

Corona, O'Neill's pond 

Doming, Foulks's pond 

Harmony Ranch 

Pond 

Gallup, Mariano Lake 

Las Vegas, Chupainas Pond. 

Rodeo, Buckelow's pond 

Eplev's pond 

Smith's pond 

Roswell, Clark's pond 

Haynes Park Laie. 

Lea Lake 

Spring River Lake. 

Taylors Lake 

Tucumcari, Cedar Grove Pond 
Cedar Hill Pond . 
New York: 
Binghamton, Chenango River 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 



and 
adults. 



.5,000 
200 
200 
200 
200 
600 
200 
200 
200 
400 

500 

200 
200 
200 
200 
200 
400 
400 
400 
300 
200 
200 
200 
200 
200 

200 
500 

200 

800 
400 
200 
200 
600 
500 
FOO 
1,000 
200 
400 
500 
400 
100 
100 
400 

500 



2,000 

300 
300 
200 
200 
200 

200 
300 
200 
200 
200 
200 
50 
50 
150 
100 
50 
400 
400 



Disposition. 



North Carolina: 

Apex, Franks Pond 

Gunters Pond 

Mills's pond 

Benson Cow Mire Pond 

Brevard, Lake Brevard 

Carthage, McNeill's pond 

Clayton, Ashley's pond 

Gower's pond 

Coats, Parrish's pond 

Conway, Britt'spond 

Elizabeth town. White Lake. . 
Faison, Panther Creek Park 

Pond 

Franklinton, Joyner's pond... 
Mitchell's pond. 
Timberlake's 

pond 

Fremont, Aycock Pond 

Gibson, Lake View 

Greensboro, Little Alamance 

Creek 

Troxler Pond 

White Oak Lake. 
Haw River, Josephine Lake. . 

Lake Lily 

Henderson, Henderson Pond 
Southerland's 

pond 

Hendersonville, N y m p h e a 

Pond 

Hickory, Mountain Pond 

Knightdale, Lake Verna 

Lake Toxaway, Lake Toxa- 

way 

Langley, Augusta-Aiken Pond 

Lenoir, Glen Serene Pond 

Lineolnton, McLoud's pond. 
Louisburg, Jackson's pond... 
Lumber Bridge, Little Marsh 

Pond 

Lumberton, McWilliams 

Pond 

Mebane, Lake Latham 

Newton, Bridges's pond 

Overhills, Overhills Lake 

Princeton, Moccasin Pond... 

Proximity, Boone's pond 

Raeford, Beaver Dam Pond. 

Kaleigh, Crystal Lake 

Lakewood Park Lake 
Steep Hill Pond.... 
Roanoke, Chocoyotte Creek.. 

Ronda, Brook's pond 

Redding's pond 

Smith's pond 

Sanford, Drane'spond 

Smithfield, Stevens's pond. . 
Spout Springs, Deep Water 

Pond 

Tryon, Lockhart's pond 

Wake Forest, Jackson's pond 
Jones's pond . . 
Lowry's pond. 

Wendell, Lee Mill Pond 

North Dakota: 

Addison, Maple River 

New Salem, Egli's pond 

Ohio: 

Akron, Turkey foot Lake 

Blacklick. Cedar Creek 

Canton, Foster's pond 

Hoover's pond 

Covington, Stillwater River. 

Findlay, White Lake 

Girard, Willow Pond 



Fry. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EOOS, 1915. 



127 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

SUNFISH— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Ohio — Continued. 
Hamilloiij Lake View Pond. . 

Hebron, liuckeye Lake 

Loekville, Sycamore Creek 

Pittsburg, Flat Lake 

Ravenna , Crystal I^ake 

St. Marys, I-ake St. Marys. . . . 
Suinmerfield, Moore's pond... 
Oklahoma: 

Duncan, Albright's pond 

DuckPond 

Hastings, Waterworks Pond.. 

Kiowa, Rose's pond 

Scrimgeone's pond 

Mangum, Alta Vista Pond 

Marietta, Peak Pond 

Norman , Hospital Lake 

Oklahoma City , Cut Off Lake. 

Quinlnn , Balli'n's pond 

Sapulpa, Cream Ridge Pond . . 

Supply, Irwin I>ake 

Tangier, Horse Shoe Lake 

Sand Creek 

Texola, Blair's pond 

Howard's pond „ 

Whorton Lake 

Welch, Harlin's pond 

Pennsylyania: 
Altoona, Fred Jackel Pond. . . 

Bellnap, Bellnap I'ond 

Brand ymore, Brandvmore 

Pond ■. 

Eagles Mere, Eagles Mere 

Lake 

Harmony, Tracey's pond 

Johnstown, Quemahoning 

Lake 

Sugai' Run Pond . 
Tub Mill Run.... 
Wilmore Pond . . . 

Jonestown, Swatara Creek 

Lancaster, Conestoga River. . . 
Lebanon, -Mberts Mill Pond. . 

Big Dam Creek 

Cold Brook Pond. . 

Conewago Lake 

Furnace Creek 

Lights Pond 

Tattle Swatara 

Creek 

Oak Grove Creek. . . 

Orwigsburg, Fausts Pond. . . . 

Phoenixviile, Valley Creek. . . 

Reading, Manatawny Creek. . 

Sctnivlkill River 

and Irilmtaries 

YeLiijleys Lake 

Rockmere, Allegheny River.. 
South l^anville, Echman's 

pjnd 

Spring City , Stony Creek 

Stroudsburg. Pickerel Lake... 
Tionestu, Allegheny River ... 

Windber, Young's pond 

Porto Rico: 

San Juan, Comerio I>ake 

South Carolina: 

Beldoc, Fowke's pond 

Doe I'ond 

Belton, Hank's pond (A) 

Hank's pond (B) 

Blaney, Heath's jwnd 

Cassett, Funderbunk's mill 

pond 

Chesterfield , Jacks Branch 

Clinton, Yoiuig's pond 



Fry. 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 



400 
400 
200 
200 
500 
500 
100 

125 
125 
625 
100 
110 
220 
100 
125 
375 
50 
125 
220 
50 
50 
73 
74 
73 
100 

100 
150 

1,200 

975 
150 

400 
200 
200 
400 
540 
200 
100 
100 
100 
100 
540 
100 

200 
100 
ISO 
200 
2,100 

4,540 

2.000 

400 

f.0 
200 
400 
500 
100 



200 
200 
100 
100 
300 

300 
200 
400 



Disposition. 



South Carolina — Continued. 
Columbia, (loodwin Mill 

Pond 

Messers Mill Pond . 

Mill Pond 

• Moore's pond 

Poore's pond 

Easley, Smith's pond 

Engleside, Smith's pond 

Enoree, Enoree River 

Greenville, Mountain View 

Pond 

Hartsville, Segar's pond 

Honea Path, Williams's pond 

Lanford, Harmon's pond 

Leesville, Abie's pond 

McBee, McBeo Lake 

Newberry, Hutchinson's pond 
Pomaria, Cannon Creek T-ake . 
Spartanburg, Lawsons Fork 

Pond 

Little Chinqua- 
pin Pond 

Springfield, Ooodland Swamp 

Pond 

Summerville, Winningham 

Pond 

Timmonsville, Highland Park 

Lake 

Waterloo, Cato's pond 

Winnsboro, Owens Pond 

South Dakota: 

Canning, Elmhurst Lake 

Claremont, Willow Lake 

Conde, Ondell's pond 

Mansfield, Pastor's pond 

Person's lake 

Menno, Biorseth's pond 

Onida, Walnut Grove Pond. 

Pierre, Lake Medoka 

Rockham, Volkman'spond. . 

Summit, Rose Lake 

Winner, Axland's pond 

Tennessee: 
Butler, Holly Spring Pond. . 

Centerville, Baird'spond 

Clarksville, Red River, South 

Fork 

Halls, Chamber's pond 

Hickory Valley, Pabst's pond 
Jolmson City, Watauga River 
Lewisburg, Brown's pond. . . 

Memphis, Arnold's pond 

Nashville, Alley's pond 

Texas: 

Alpine, Austin's pond 

Tippit's pond 

Alvord, Swaim's pond 

Annona, English Lake 

Athens, Cliristopher's pond.. 

Axtell, Cox Farm Lake 

Bangs, Snead's pond 

Bastrop, Prairie Lake 

Beeville, Brauer's pond 

Chambliss's pond . . 
Blooming Grove, Houston 

Pond 

Blossom, Mills's pond 

Brenham, Brenham Club 

Lake 

Tieman's pond 

Bronson, Polygoohe Creek, 

tributary of 

Brown wood, Club Lake 

Laguna del 
Campo 



Fry. 



128 



DISTRIBUTION OP FISH AND TISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details of Distkibution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

SUN FISH— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Fry. 



Texas— Continued. 

Brownwood, Smith Lake 

Caldwell, Alford's pond 

Klizabeth Lake 

Calvert, Davis's pond 

Carthage, Hull's lake 

Koonce's lake.. .... 

Center, Lane's pond 

Cheetham, Woodward's pond. 

Clarksville, Lake Grant 

Stout Lake 

Como, Gamblin's pond 

Cooledge, Adam's pond 

Coupland, Muery Lake 

Crockett, Frannon Lake 

Kennedy's pond 

Dallas, Luck's pond 

McCoy's pond 

Denison, Randell Pond 

Del Rio, Willow Pond 

Dodd City, Alexander Pond.. 

Falfurrias, Arcadia Pond 

Bonita Vista Pond 
Del Monta Lake... 

El Sal to Lake 

Esperanza Pond . . 
La Esperanza Pond 

La Mota Pond 

Fort Worth, Crest Lake 

Fruitdale, Randall's lake 

Gainesville, Grade Lake 

Girvin, Perry & Baker's pond 
Granger, Smiths Gin Pond . . . 

Grapeland, Darsey 's lake 

Gum Lake 

Greenville, Rutherford's pond 

Hedley, Clark's pond 

Heidenheimer, Bickly'spond. 
Edds'spond. . 
Pleasant Pond 

Henderson, Baxter Lake 

Bay Revilo Pond. 

Beaver Lake 

Griffith's pond 

Lake Cover 

Lake Crim 

Warren's pond 

Hubbard, Aston Pond 

Findley Pond 

Hammer 's pond 

Hood Branch Pond 
Norris Branch Pond 

Huntsville, Fielder's pond 

Jordy'spond 

Jefferson, McDonald's pond.. . 

Katy , Joe Eagle Pond 

Kaufman, Allen Pond 

Clear Lake 

Corn Bell Lake 

Lawson's pond 

Pyle's pond 

Snow Pond 

Kerrville, Duderstad's pond. . 

Kilgore, Laird's pond 

Lampasas, Smith's pond 

LeesDurg, Russell's pond 

Willow Lake 

Lockhart, Thoene's pond 

Longview, Renfroe's lake 

Lott, Greener's pond 

Storey's pond 

Mabank, Cockerel 1 Gin Pond. 

Hearn's pond 

Marfa, Colquitt's pond 

Cottonwood I'ond 

Marshall, Loiighnioine Lake.. 
Mart, East Lake 



Finger- 
lings, 
yearlmgs, 
and 
adults. 



375 

100 

100 

75 

200 

200 

400 

100 

200 

150 

150 

150 

40 

150 

150 

100 

50 

150 

75 

75 

50 

50 

50 

50 

50 

50 

100 

150 

250 

50 

150 

100 

150 

150 

200 

25 

100 

100 

100 

100 

100 

200 

100 

100 

100 

100 

200 

100 

200 

200 

200 

100 

100 

75 

50 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

200 

50 

150 

75 

100 

150 

40 

150 

100 

100 

100 

100 

75 

100 

75 

275 



Disposition. 



Texas— Continued. 

Mexia, Hughes's pond 

Jones's pond 

Midlothian, Belew's pond 

Milano, Butts's pond 

Mineola, Brawner Lake 

Butler Lake 

Ferndale Lake 

Fouse Lake 

Rock Falls Lake 

Vance's pond ( A ) . . . 

Vance's pond (B) . . . 

Mineral Wells, Kearby'spond 

Mount Calm, Rush Lake 

New Boston, Club Lake 

Missildine's pond . 

Ruff's pond 

A^ bite's pond 

New Braunfels, Guadalupe 

River 

Newsome, Elwood Club Lake 

O'Brien, Carney Lake 

Home Lake 

Overton, Lake Marie 

Pasche, North Pond 

Pinehill, Duran & Wylie's 

pond 

Pittsburg, Clement's pond 

Darby's lake 

Ferndale Club 

Lake 

Ravenna, Willow Pond 

Rosebud, Wiegrefie's pond. . . 

Saginaw, Wandry Lake 

Sanderson, Carter's pond 

Savoy, Brushy Pond 

Shiner, Miller's pond 

Snyder, Clemen ts's pond 

Daniels's pond 

Sulphur Springs, Thornton's 

pond 

Taylor, Hargis's pond 

Teague, Bermuda Pond 

Temple, Lake Polk 

Terrell, Edwards's pond 

Howell's pond 

Raley 's pond 

Waters Pond 

Thomdale, Melde Reserve 

Pond 

Timpson, Bryan's pond 

Willow Lake 

Trinity, Pope's pond 

Tyler, Fullers Lake 

Uvalde, Flowers 's pond 

Waco, McCowans Lake 

Willis, Smith's ponds 

Wills Point, Gibl)ard'spond.. 

Wilson Lake 

Winnsboro, Spring Lake 

Virginia: 
Beaver Dam, Haw Buck Pond 
Bedford City, Thomas's pond 
Blackstone, Adams's pond... 

Brodnax, Moseley's pond 

Farmville, Miller's pond 

Keysville, Mekeren Creek 

Tuggle'spond 

Watkins's pond.. . 
Meadow, Rosecrest Farm 

Pond 

Richmond, Cottrell'spond... 
Soldiers Home 

Pond 

Stoney Creek, Nottaway 

River 

Suffolk, Norfleet Mill Pond.. 



Fry. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 191"). 



-129 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Couliuued. 

SUNFISH— Continued. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 
and 
adults. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Finger- 
lings, 
yearlings, 

and 
adults. . 


Virginia — Continued. 




150 

800 
500 

2,100 

1,100 

300 

100 

100 

100 
1,200 
1,800 
200 
200 
100 


Wisconsin: 
Butternut, Butternut Creek . . 




950 


Wy theville Reed Creek South 






450 


' Fork 




Slimms Lake 




500 


Tates Run ... . 




Snores Lake 




500 


West Virginia: 
Berkeley Springs, Sleepy 
Creek 








400 






800 


La Crosse, Colman Pond 




400 






French Lake 




3,000 


Grafton Three Fork Run 




Mississippi River.. 




372,500 






Rice Lake 




3,000 






Swift Creek 




1,000 


Long Run, Middle Island 




Zeislers Lake . 




1,000 


Lvnxville. Mississippi River.. 




400,000 






Ohalaska, Black River 




4,000 












Oral, Oral Pond 




Total" 


135.000 


2,799,766 


Spencer, Brannon's pond 























PIKE AND PICKEREL. 



Iowa: 
Bellevue, Mississippi River. . . 
North McGregor, Mississippi 
River 

Minnesota: 
Homer, Mississippi River 



1,870 
1,100 
5,376 



Wisconsin: 
La Crosse, Mississippi River. 

Total 



79,500 
87,846 



PIKE PERCH. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Connecticut: 

Hop River, Columbia Lake 

Terry ville. Long Marsh Pond 

Illinois: 

Chicago, State fish commission 

Havana, State fish corrmiission 

Meredosia, Meredosia Bay 

Napierville, South Ciuarfy Pond 

Indiana: 

Columbia City, State fish commission 

Columbus. "V\ hite River and tributaries 

Connersvule, Village Creek 

Whitewater River 

Whitewater River, Nolans Fork. 
Williams Creek 

Elkhart, Indiana Lake 

Hamilton, Fish Lake 

Indianapolis, White River 

Leesburg, Tippecanoe Lake 

Middlebury, East Lake 

Iowa: 

Adelphi, Adelphi Lake 

Clear hake, Clear Lake 

Cresco, Upper Iowa River 

Iowa Falls, Iowa River 

Mason City, Lime Creek 

Rockford "Spring Pond 

Spirit Lake, State fish commission 

Kentucky: 

Ashland, Cumberland River 

Cornettsville, Big Leatherwood Creek 

Farmers, Cumberland River 

Lexington, Cumberland Ri\er 

Olive Hill, Cumberland River 

Williamsburg, Cumberland River 



7,000,000 
8,000,000 



3,000,000 
2,000,000 



8,000,000 



500,000 
500,000 



100,000 
200,000 



200,000 
1,000,000 
400,000 
200,000 
500,000 
500,000 
1,000,000 
800,000 
500,000 

300,000 
550,000 
300,000 
200,000 
550,000 
300,000 



4,500,000 
300,000 
600,000 

2,000,000 
600,000 
400,000 



<» Lost in transit, 2,175 flngerlings. 



130 



DISTRIBUTION" OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details op Distribution of Fish and Egqs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

PIKE PERCH— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Maryland : 

Hancock, Potomac River 

Rock Hall, Farley Pond 

Massachusetts: 

Greenfield, Cormecticut River 

Pecheal Pond 

Power Station Pond 

Palmer, State flsh commission 

Waltham, Charles River 

Michigan: 

Alpena, Long Lake 

Belle Isle Park, Detroit River 

Caseville, Saginaw Bay 

Charlevoix, Harwoods Lakes 

Nolands Lake 

Clyde, Snyder's lake 

Detroit. State fish commission 

Farwell, Miimow Lake 

Otter Lake 

Fremont, Fremont Lake 

Martins Lake 

Third Lake 

Jackson, Finton's lake 

Kawkawlin, Kawkawlin River 

Oscoda, Van Etten River 

Rose Center, Bennett Lake 

Green Lake 

Sanford, Tittabawassee River 

Traverse City, Twin Lake 

Turtle, Clover Leaf Lake 

Walled Lake, Walled Lake 

Yorkville, Gull Lake 

Minnesota: 

Bemidji, Lake Bemidji 

Chisolm, Dewey Lake 

Island Lake 

Long Lake 

MeCormick Lake 

Shannon Lake 

Shoepack Lake 

Duluth, Cook Lake 

Horse Shoe Lake 

Harmony, Upper Iowa River 

Hokah, Minnesota Lake 

Homer, Mississippi River 

Jenkins, Whitefish Lake 

Lakefield, Heron Lake 

Lengby, Spring Lake 

Tamarack, Sandy Lake 

Turtle Lake 

Nebraska: 

Gretna, State fish commission 

New Hampshire: 

Concord, Contoocook River 

New York: 

Amsterdam, Galway Lake 

Binghamton, Chenango River 

Susquehanna River 

Cambridge, Hedges Lake 

I^ake Lauderdale 

Carleton Island, St. Lawrence River. . , 

Colliers, Goodyear Lake 

Fox Island, Lake Ontario 

Gansevoort, Pine Lake 

Grass Bay, St. La\vTence River 

Hudson, Lake Charlotte 

Mud Creek, I^ake Ontario 

New Paltz, Bonticoe Lake 

New York City, New York Aquarium. 

Parish St. Marys Lake 

Port Henry, Lake Chomplain 

Port Jervis. Little Pond 

Portlandville. Susquehanna Lake 

Riverside, Scnroon I>ake 

Schenectady, Mohawk River 

Wayland, Loon Lake 

Yoiingsto\vn, Niagara River 



15,000,000 



26,400,000 



2,000,000 



500,000 



1,000,000 
100,000 

500,000 
200,000 
200,000 



300,000 

800,000 
1,250,000 
3,000,000 
400,000 
400,000 
400,000 



400,000 
400,000 
500,000 
400,000 
400,000 
200,000 
500, 000 
200,000 
200,000 
400, 000 
500,000 
400,000 
200,000 
500, 000 
500,000 

300,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
200,000 
300,000 

180 

200,000 

o2t3 

400,000 

o60 
150,000 
100,000 
150,000 



300,000 

500,000 

400,000 

600,000 

300,000 

300,000 

7,000,000 

1,000,000 

7,000,000 

400,000 

7,000,000 

500,000 

10,400,000 

400,000 



500,000 
800,000 
500,000 
500,000 

1,000,000 
600,000 

1,000,000 
800,000 



o Adults. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



131 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 
PIKE PERCH— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



North Dakota: 

Devils Lake, Devils Lake , 

Sweetwater Lake 

Glen Ulltn, Curlew Creek 

St. John, State fish commission 

Turtle l^ake, Crooked Lake 

Valley City, Sheyenne River 

White Earth, Smeshak Lake 

Ohio: 

Catawba Island , I>ake Erie 

CecU, Maumee River 

Isle St. (ieor^e, Lake Erie 

Kelly s Island, Lake Erie 

Portsmouth, Brush Creek 

Little Scioto River 

Put-ill Bay, Lake Erie 

State fish commission. . 

Russells Point, Indian Lake 

Zoar, Tuscarawas River 

Pennsylvania: 

Cherry Tree, Cash Cushion Creek. . . 

Jersey Shore, Pine Creek 

Millerstown, Jim lata River 

Mill Hall. Axe Factory Pond 

Muncy, Susquehanna River 

New Milford, Middle Lake 

Oaks, Skipback Creek 

Stoyestown, Quemahoning Lake 

Tennessee: 

Clarksville, Red River, West Fork. 
Vermont: 

Bennington, Barber Pond 

Lake Hancock 

Woodford City Pond. . 

Boltonville, Tiekleneck Pond 

Brandon, Hiekum Pond 

High Pond 

Lake Hortonia 

Burlington, Lake Champlain 

East Highgate, Lake Carmi 

Enosburg Falls, Lake Carmi 

Essex Junction, Winooski River 

Fairlee, Lake Mercy 

Ferrisburg, Little Water Creek 

Hardwick, Lake Greenwood 

Johnson, South Pond 

Ludlow, Woodward Pond 

Lyndonville, Bean Pond 

Milton, Lamoille River 

Montpelier, Berlin Pond 

Nelson Pond 

Morrisville, Lake Lamoille 

Newport , Pensioners Pond 

North Bennington, Lake Paran 

North Ferrisburg, Cedar Lake 

Rutland , Meadow Lake 

St. Albans, St. Albans Bay 

Swanton, Lake Champlain 

Missisquoi River 

Thompson Point, Louis Creek 

Vergennes, Otter Creek 

Wallingford, Elfin Lake 

West Swanton, Lake Champlain 

Wolcott, Wolcott Pond 

Virginia: 

Bylesby, New River 

Clifton Forge, Pike Pond 

Wytheville, Reed Creek 

Wisconsin: 

Bloomer, Cornell Lake 

Centuria, Balsam Lake 

Bass Lake 

Big Lake 

Deer Lake 

Loveless Lake 

Poplar Lake 

Sand Lake 

Gordon, Ox Lake 



2,000,000 



5,000,000 



247,450,000 



400,000 
100, (K)0 
100,000 



200,000 
400,000 
300,000 

10,000,000 
500, (K!0 

10,000,000 

13,000,000 
300,000 
300,000 

10,000,000 



500,000 
300,000 

300,000 
1,000,000 
500,000 
500,000 
500,000 
500,000 
300,000 
400,000 

500,000 

200,000 

300,000 

300, 000 

500, 000 

300,000 

400, 000 

500,000 

64,800,000 

500,000 

600,000 

600,000 

500,000 

700, 000 

600,000 

300, 000 

300,000 

500, 000 

1,800,000 

400, 000 

300, 000 

500,000 

300,000 

300, 000 

500,000 

500,000 

4, 800, 000 

31,500,000 

9, 200, OIK) 

1,90(1,000 

1,700,000 

300,000 

17,500,000 

500,000 

2,000,000 
400, 000 
300,000 

500,000 
50, 000 
50,000 
50,000 
50,000 
50,000 
50,000 
50, 000 

200,000 



132 DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS^ 1915. 

Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — ContLnued. 

PIKE PERCH— Continued. 



Disposition. 



Wisconsin — Continued . 

Hayward, Bass Lake 

Berger Lake 

Cliief Lake 

Crane Lake 

Fish Trap Lake 

Gordon Lake 

Grafton Lake 

Grindstone Lake 

Gurno Lake 

Hanson Lake 

Hockenbrock Lake 

Island Lake 

Lake Ole 

Little Lac Court O'Reilles. 

McCormick Lake 

McElliott Lake 

Moose Lake 

Pliag hang hau Lake 

Rogers Lake 

Smith Lake 

Tyner Lake 

Whiteflsh Lake 

Williams Lake 

Hillsboro, Mill Pond 

La Crosse, Black River 

Menomonie, Asylum Lake 

Cedar Lake , 

Cut Off Lake 

Lake Menomonie 

Manleys Pond , 

Moore Farm Lake 

Red Cedar River 

Stump Pond 

New Auburn, Long Lake 

Rice Lake, Bear Lake , 

Birch Lake 

Cedar Lake , 

Deitz Lake 

Ginder Lake 

Hemlock Lake 

Heurich Lake 

Knudson Lake 

Montanis Lake 

Moon Lake 

Mud Lake 

Pepper Lake 

Prairie Lake 

Sparta, Bacon Pond 

Leon Mills Pond 

Newton Pond 

McCo^ Pond 

Stone Lake, Sissabagama Lake 

Tomahawk, Bass Lake 

Crystal Lake 

Lake Clara 

Muskalonge Lake 

Mystic Lake 

Rice River 

Rood Lake 

Somo Lake 

Somo River 

Spirit Lake 

Spirit River 

Tomahawk River 

Wisconsin River 

Wausau, Lake Wausau 

Winchester, Turtle Lake 

Winter, Island Lake 



Fry. 



Total a. 



326,350,000 282,820,383 



100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100, 000 
100,000 
100, 000 
100,000 
100,000 
100, 000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
200,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
1,800,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100, 000 
100, 000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
150,000 
100,000 
50,000 
100,000 
60,000 
120,000 
120,000 
60,000 
60,000 
120,000 
120,000 
60,000 
60,000 
120,000 
60,000 
60,000 
60,000 
240,000 
300,000 
200,000 



a Lost in transit, 300,000 fry. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



133 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

YELLOW PERCH. 



Disposition. 


Eggs. 


Fry. 


Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 


Arizona: 

Yuma, Colorado River 






50 


Colorado: 

Boulder, Dodd Lake 






150 


Weisnhorn Lake 






150 


Connecticut: 

Bethel, Chestnut Ridge Pond 






600 


Bristol, Old Pond 






600 


Pine Lake 






600 


Georgia: 

Cold Springs, Cold Springs Brook 






75 


Illinois: 

Freeport, Yellow Creek 






800 


Nokomis, Taylor's pond 






1.50 


Savanna, Sand Slough 






2 500 


Iowa: 

Bellevue, Mississippi River 






19 500 


Mason City, Lime Creek 






' 80 


North McGregor, Mississippi River 






13 400 


Indiana: 

Bremen, Lake of the Woods 






300 


Elkhart, Boot Lake 






200 


Simonton Lake 






200 


Lexington, Bowyer's pond 






75 


Lake Ellerslie 






150 


Louisville, Lake Lansdown 






75 


Morehead, Garten Lake 






350 


Mount Sterling, Baird Pond 






100 


Lake Bode 






280 


McCormick Pond 






100 


Scobee's pond 






100 


Spratt's pond 






100 


Stale Creek 






200 


Versailles, Lewis's pond 






75 


Accokeek Creek, Potomac River 




26,072,000 

7,534,000 

52, 983, 000 

6,638,000 

300,000 

300,000 

200,000 

300,000 

4,100,000 

6, 400, 000 

725,000 

1,500,000 

5,000,000 

11,000,000 

200,000 

600,000 

100,000 

400,000 

6,000,000 










Potomac River 






Swan Creek 






Cumberland, Fifteen Mile Creek 






Flintstone Creek 






Rocky Gap Creek 






Wills Creek 






Elk River, Chesapeake Bay 






Green Bank, Susquehanna River 






Ha%Te de Grace, Chesapeake Bay ; 






Spesutie Narrows 






Susquehanna River . 












McDaniel, Lovers Cove Creek 






Perrymans, Roniney Creek 






Riverdale, Porton's pond 






Tolchester, Herring Lake i 






Town Point, Bohemia River 






Massachusetts: 

Falmouth, Spectacle Pond 




600 


Foxboro, Sunset Lake 






600 


Palmer, State fish commission 


10,000,000 




Minnesota: 

Homer, Mississippi River 


250,000 


35,512 

300 
650 


Mississippi: 

Aberdeen, Trinity Creek 




McComb, Tangipahoa Creek 






Oxford, Hodges's pond 






100 


West Point, Miller Lake 






200 


Titus's pond 






150 

150 


Missouri: 

Ferguson, Club Lake 






Marceline, Santa Fe Club Lake 






150 


Montana: 

Glendive, Yellowstone River 






500 


New Jersey: 

Haekettstown, State fish commission 


8,000,000 






Mountain Lake, Mountain Lake 


500,000 
500,000 
500.000 




\V ild wood Lake 






Sussex, Lake Pochunk 







134 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 



Details op Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915— Continued. 
YELLOW PERCH— Continued. 



Disposition. 



New Mexico: 

Artesia, Clark's lake 

Carlsbad, Pecos River 

Las Vegas, Asylum Lake 

Santa Rosa, Hidden Lake 

Lake de Agua Negra 

Swan Lake 

New York: 

Addison, Canisteo River 

New York City, New York Aquarium 

North Carolina: 

Overhills, Overhills Lake 

Taylorsville, Adams's pond 

Ohio: 

Lima, McBeth Lake 

Ravenna, Muzzie Lake 

Pennsylvania: 

Altoona, Ant Hill Pond 

Beech Creek, Bald Eagle Creek 

Beech Creek 

Denver, Heff's pond 

Muddy Creek 

Frankstown, Juniata River, Frankstown Branch. 

Johnstown, Quemahoning Lake 

Kinport, Stiflies Run 

Lansdale, Spring Lakes 

Rockmere, Alleghany River 

Rowland, Lake Teedyuscung 

Wescolang Lake 

Susquehanna, Quaker Lake 

Silver Lake 

Telford, Perkiomen Creek, branches of 

South Carolina: 

Columbia, Hillcrest Lake 

Greenville, Piney Moimtain Lake 

South Dakota: 

Murdo, Murdo Dam 

Teimessee: 

Cedar Hill, Red River, Sulphur Fork 

St. Bethlehem, Red River, West Fork 

Vermont: 

Boltonville, Tickleneck Pond 

Hydeville, Lake Bomoseen 

Middlebury , Otter River 

North Ferrisburg, Cedar Lake 

Richford, Missisquoi River 

St. Johnsbury, Chandler Pond 

Joes Pond 

Wells River, Wells River •. . . 

Virginia: 

Alberta, Wayqua Creek Pond 

Bryans Point, Dogue Creek 

Little Himting Creek, Little Hunting Creek 

Mount Vernon, Potomac River 

Pohick Creek, Pohick Creek 

West Virginia: 

Clarksburg, West Fork River 

Shinnston, Bingamon Creek 

Wisconsin: 

La Crosse, Rice Lake 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Fingerlings, 
yearlings, 
and adults. 



Total. 



200,000 
400,000 
500,000 
400, 000 



100,000 



600,t)00 
600, 000 
500,000 



19,000,000 



500,000 
1,000,000 



6, 997, 000 
26, 252, 000 
12,199,000 
12, 917, 000 



STRIPED BASS. 



Disposition. 



North Carolina: 

Weldon, Roanoke River. 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 135 

Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Yeak 1915 — Continued. 

WHITE PERCH. 



Disposition. 



Eggs. 



Fry. 



Connecticut: 

Bethel, Chestnut Ridge Pond 

New Canaan, Lake Sisrovit 

Maine: 

Brooks, Passagassawaukeag Lake 

Randall Lake 

Norway, Lake Kewayden 

Virginia Lake 

Wescott, Little Ossipee Lake 

Maryland: 

Battery, Chesapeake Bay 

Havre de Grace, North East River 

Queenstown, Queenstown Creek 

Roroney Creek, Roniney Creek 

Swan Creek, Swan Creek 

Massachusetts: 

Clinton, Wanshacum Lake 

West Pond 

Danvers Junction, Cleary's pond 

Gloucester, Mill Pond 

Groton, Knopps Pond , 

New Bedford, Noquoxhoke Lake. . . . 

Newtonville, Bullough's pond 

North Grafton, Goddard Pond 

Palmer, Forest Lake 

State fish commission 

South Chelmsford, Baptist Pond 

Still River, Barre Hill Pond 

New Hampshire: 

Bristol, Newfound Lake 

Canobie Lake, Corbett Pond 

Concord, Contoocook River 

Meredith, Lake Wiimepesaukee 

Weirs, Lake Winnepesaukee 

New Jersey: 

Andover Junction, Coliffs Lake 

Hackettstown, State fish commission. 

Middletown, Hosford's pond 

Mount Tabor, Mount Tabor Lake 

New York: 

Altamont, Thompson Lake 

Banksville, Lake Waccabuc 

Trinity Lake 

Newburgh, Orange Lake 

North Carolina: 

Eden ton, Albemarle Sound 

Lake Toxaway, Lake Toxaway 

Rhode Island: 

Woonsocket, Sneechconnett Pond 

Vermont: 

Lakeside, Groton Pond 



Total. 



13, 000, 000 



4, 850, 000 



200.000 
200,000 

400,000 
800,000 
300,000 
900,000 
600, 000 

128,980,000 

10, 000, 000 

400, 000 

600,000 

3,000,000 

400,000 
400,000 
200,000 
400,000 
600,000 
400,000 
200,000 
200,000 
200,000 



600,000 
400, 000 

1,600,000 
400, 000 
200, 000 
500, 000 
500, 000 

400,000 



200,000 
400,000 

300, 000 
400, 000 
400,000 
400, 000 

4,500,000 
800, 000 

200,000 

400,000 



17,850,000 



161,980,000 



WHITE BASS. 



Disposition. 



Finger- 
lings. 



Iowa: 

Belle\'iie, Mississippi River 
Minnesota: 

Homer, Mississippi River. . 

Total 



1,325 
1,500 



2,825 



136 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS^ 1915. 



Details of Distribution of Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

YELLOW BASS. 



Disposition. 



Iowa: 

Manchester, Maquoketa River 
Illinois: 

Meredosia, Meredosia Bay 

Kentucky: 

Winchester, Wheeler Lake. . . 

Total 



Finger- 
lings and 
adults. 



25 

15 

380 



COD. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Maine: 
Boothbay Harbor, Boothbay Harbor 
Linekins Bay 


13,992,000 
1,190,000 
1,860,000 
1,528,000 
3,271,000 

3,553,000 
3,270,000 

13,408,000 
3,282,000 
9,495,000 

27,093,000 


Massachuse tts — Cont in ued . 


23,080,000 
3,530,000 
17,569,000 








Vineyard Sound 


86, 579, 000 




Marblehead, >iassachusetts Bay 


5,870,000 




14,700,000 
19,830,000 
4,340,000 






Beverly, Massachusetts Bay 

Cottage City, Nantucket Sound 

Edgartown, Nantucket Sound 


Tisburv, Nantucket Sound 


WoodsHole, Eel Pond 


2,693,000 


Total 




260,133,000 


Vineyard Sound 









POLLOCK. 



JIassachusetts: 

Beverly, Massachusetts Bay 

Gloucester, Atlantic Ocean 

Ipswich Bay 

Massachusetts Bay. 
Manchester, Massachusetts Bay 



67,710,000 

160,850,000 

16,100,000 

7, 740, 000 

20,110,000 



Massachusetts — Continued. 
Marblehead, Massachusetts 
Rockport, Atlantic Ocean.. 
Ipswich Bay 

Total 



67,350,000 
113,480,000 
47,390,000 



500,730,000 



MACKEREL. 



Massachusetts: 

Falmouth, Vineyard Sound 

Gosnold, Vineyard Sound 

Manchester, Massachusetts Bay 




Massachusetts — Continued. 
Woods Hole, Great Harbor. 



Total 



1,658,000 



4,847,000 



HADDOCK. 



Maine: 

Boothbay Harbor, Boothbay Harbor 
Massachusetts: 

Beverly, Massachusetts Bay 

Gloucester, .\tlantic Ocean 

Ipswich Bay 



974,000 

970,000 
13,080,000 
3,260,000 



Massachusetts— Continued. 
Marblehead, Massachusetts Bay 
Rockport, Ipswich Bay 

Total 



4,580,000 
3,950,000 



26,814,000 



DISTRIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS_, 1915. 



137 



Details of Distribution op Fish and Eggs, Fiscal Year 1915 — Continued. 

FLATFISH. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Maine: 
Boothbav Sheepseot River 


41,552,000 

210,954,000 
14,968,000 
75,464,000 
6,188,000 
45,373,000 

5,000,000 
38,751,000 
28,859,000 
15,154,000 
176,235,000 
9,890,000 
5,000,000 
89,080,000 
12,110,000 


Massachusetts— Continued. 
Gosnold, Buzzards Bay 


20,378,000 
29,002,000 
67,750,000 
9,900,000 

28,000,000 
34,743,000 
23,826,000 
33 619 000 


Boothbay Harbor, Boolhbay Har- 
bor 


Hadlev Harbor 


Vineyard Sound 


Townsend Cut... 

East Boothbay, Linekins Bay 

Southport, Ebencook Harbor 

TowTisend Gut 


Manchester, Massachusetts Bay 

Provincetown, Provincetown Har- 
bor 


Quissett, Quissett Harbor 




Tisbury , Nantucket Sound 






Cottage City, Naniuokct Sound 

EdgartowTi", Nanluckot Sound 

Falmouth, Deacons Pond Harbor... 




13,000,000 
152, 464, 000 
36,896,000 

70,000,000 


Great Harbor 


Little Harbor 


Nantucket Soiuid 


Rhode Island: 
Wickford, Wickford Harbor 


Gloucester, Annisquam River 

Gloucester Harbor 


Total 


1,294,156,000 


Ipswich Bay 







TAUTOG. 



Disposition. 



Fry. 



Massachusetts: 

Woods Hole, Great Harbor. . . 
Vineyard Sound 

Total 



285,000 
321,000 



606,000 



LOBSTER. 



Disposition. 


Fry. 


Disposition. 


Fry. 


Maine: 
Bass Harbor, Blue Hill Bav 


3,000,000 
2,000,000 

10,800,000 
2,000,000 
5,000,000 

2,500,000 

3,000,000 
3,000,000 
6,000,000 
5,000,000 
4,000,000 
6,000,000 
2,000,000 
7,000,000 
3,000,000 
2,500,000 

3,000,000 
5,000,000 

2,000,000 

1,000,000 

2,000,000 

4,000,000 

3,000,000 

4,000,000 

500,000 

14,000,000 

10,000,000 


Maine— Continued. 
Rogue BlulT, Pond Cove 


5,000,000 
3,000,000 
3,000,000 
14,000,000 
3,000,000 
3 000 000 


Biddeford, Wood Island Harbor 

Boothbay Harbor, Boothbay Har- 
bor . . . 


St. Chebeague, Chandlers Bay 


South Hancock, Eastern Bay 

Southport, Cape Ne wagon Harbor... 

Ebencook Harbor 

Pig Cove 


Linekins Bay 


Bucks Harbor, Starboard Creek Har- 
bor 


1,000,000 
500,000 

3,000,000 


South Thomaston, Owls Head Bay . 

Stockton Springs, Stockton Springs 

Bay 


Cape Porpoise, Cape Porpoise Har- 


Cranberry Isle, Frenchmans Bay — 

Gushing, Pleasant Point Gut 

Eastport , Eastport Harbor 


Stonington, Deer Island Harbor 

Swan Island, Penobscot Bay 

Thomaston, Seal Harbor 


2,000,000 
5,500,000 
4 ono 000 




Vinehaven, Vinehaven Harbor 


20, 000, 000 




4,000,000 


Georgetown, Fire Island Harbor. . . . 
Gouldsborough, Dvers Bay 


Massachusetts: 
Gloucester, Atlantic Ocean 


300,000 


Prospect Harbor . . . 

Jonesport, Cape Split Harbor 

Kennebunk. Point, Keimebunk 
Harbor 




270, 000 


Manchester, Massachusetts Bay 

New Hampshire: 

Little Harbor, Little Harbor 

Portsmouth, Portsmouth Harbor 

New Jersey: 

Cape May, Atlantic Ocean 


300,000 
4,000,000 


Kitterv, Pepperell Cove 


3,500,000 


North Haven, North Haven Thor- 
oughfare 

Penobscot Bay 

Ogunquet, Perkins Cove 


175 


Washington: 

Anacortes, Anacortes Harbor 

Deer Harbor 


a 1,604 


Phippsburg, Casco Bay 


1,900 


Portland, Peaks Island Roads 

Portland Harbor 


Japan: 
Applicant 


olOO 


Robbinston, St. Croix River 

Rockland, Rockland Bav 


Total f> 




194,673,779 


Rockport , Rockport Harbor 





86497°— 17- 



a Adults. 
-15 



t> Lost in transit, i2,421 adults. 



138 DISTEIBUTION OF FISH AND FISH EGGS, 1915. 

FRESH-WATER MUSSEL PROPAGATION. 

The propagation of fresh-water pearl mussels is pursued in con- 
nection with the Fairport, Iowa, Biological Station, with field parties 
working in several places in the Mississippi Basin. 

A steady increase in the number of mussels distributed has marked 
the progress of the work since the beginning of the practical opera- 
tions five years ago. Durmg the fiscal year 1915, 344,655,260 glo- 
chidia, or larval mussels, were planted in the public waters, repre- 
senting an increase of about 50 per cent over the output of the pre- 
ceding year. 

Incidental to these operations 207,919 fish were used, of which 
47,733 fishes were rescued from landlocked ponds in the overflowed 
lands and returned to the rivers. More than two-thirds of the 
fishes rescued in these operations were adult food fishes. 

The following table gives the number of each species of mussel 
planted, and the locality in which the fish infected with them were 
planted : 

Mussel Propagation, Fiscal Year Ending June 30, 1915. 
Points of deposit and species of glochidia used for infection. 



Species. 


Mississippi 
River, Fair- 
port, Iowa. 


Lake 
Pepin, 

Minn, 


Wabash 

River, 

Vincennes, 

Ind. 


Black 

River, 

Black 

Rock, Ark., 

and south. 


White 

River, 

Newport, 

Ark., and 

vicinity. 


Total. 


Pocketbook {Lampsilis ventri- 


6,206,300 

111,643,100* 

1,062,000 

17,255,900 

3,763,360 
2,436,600 

71,500 


2,701,700 








8,908,000 


Mucket (^Lampsilis ligamen- 


9,475,000 


26,175,500 


25,333,300 


172, 626, 900 


Lake Pepin mucket (Lamp- 


137,194,400 


138,256,400 
17,255,900 


Black sand-shell (LampsilU 








Yellow sand-shell {Lampsilis 
anodontoides) 






592,800 


743,800 


5,099,960 


Butterfly (Plagiola securis) 

Pimple-back (QwadrwZa pustu- 
losa) 






2,436,600 










71,500 














Total 


142, 438, 760 


139,896,100 


9,475,000 


26,768,300 


26,077,100 


344, 655, 260 







U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate I. 




FISH PONDS ON FARMS 



By Robert S. Johnson and 
H. F. Stapleton 



Appendix II to the Report of the U. S. G>mmissioner 
of Fisheries for 1 91 5 

1 



CONTENTS. 



P»ge. 

Introduction 5 

Value of fish as food 5 

Utilization of waste lands 6 

Water supply — volume, quality, and temperature 7 

Soiu-ces of water supply for ponds 8 

Desirable sites for the location of ponds 11 

Pond construction 12 

Aquatic plants and their value in pond-fish culture 15 

Species of fishes suitable for pond culture: 

Sraallmouth black bass 16 

Largemouth black bass 17 

Crappie 17 

Calico baas 17 

Rock bass 18 

Warmouth bass 18 

Sunfish 18 

Catfish 18 

Natiu-al and artificial fish foods 19 

Diseases 20 

Stocking ponds with brood fish 20 

Spawning season 22 

Spawning habits 23 

Characteristics of the yoiing fish — their food and growth 24 

Capacity of a pond for the production of fish 25 

Enemies 26 

Methods employed by the Bureau of Fisheries in the distribution of fish 26 

Removing fish from a pond 58 

3 



FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 



By Robert S. Johnson and M. F. Stapletow, 



INTRODUCTION. 

The propagation of fish on farms in artificially constructed ponds 
or in natural ponds of limited area is perfectly feasible; and with 
proper management such ponds will afford a convenient and economi- 
cal food supi)]y that will justify the expense of their construction or 
preparation and maintenance. 

It is the purpose of this report to point out briefly the essential 
features to be considered in the location of a site, the construction of 
the pond and its operation, and the care of the fish contained therein. 

This information has reference exclusively to the rearing of the 
spiny-rayed or warm-water fishes, which are especially adapted to 
culture in ponds, and which can only be propagated through natural 
reproduction. 

Data regarding the trouts and other species of the Salmonidae 
which can be propagated artifically are contained in another publica- 
tion of the Bureau of Fisheries, which will be furnished on request." 

Federal and State Government have in the past decade done much 
to improve the conditions of rural life by the development of public 
resources, the advancement of social intercourse, the dissemination of 
agricultural knowledge, and demonstrations of a better domestic 
practice. Up to the present time, however, but little attention has 
been given to fish culture as an adjunct to farming. 

VALUE OF FISH AS FOOD. 

Mental and physical efficiency, in the last analysis, are dependent 
upon the character of the food supply, and fish may well constitute 
a needed ingredient which is usually missing from the farm dietary. 

The requirement of variety in food is unquestioned, if indeter- 
minate, and the palatability of fish to the average person, in con- 
junction with its value in protein content, makes it a pleasing and 
beneficial addition to the daily regimen. 

• Artificial Propagation of the Atlantic Salmon, Rainbow Trout, and Brook Trout. 
Bureau of Fislieries, Document No. 346. 

6 



6 FISH PONDS ON FAEMS. 

The chemically complex substance known as protein is an essen- 
tial constituent of food, the most important tissues of the body, other 
than the skeleton, being principally composed of it. Most human 
beings derive their needed protein from the flesh of animals, and in 
practically all civilized communities the greater part of it is supplied 
by meat and poultry. In the United States the main dependence in 
the past has been on meat — beef, mutton, and pork — which, owing to 
the large areas available for grazing and the low price of corn, could 
be raised in quantities great in proportion to the population. 

These conditions no longer prevail, and shortage of the meat 
supply, with resulting high prices, is now a general condition. As 
a substitute for meat fish offer many advantages. Pound for pound 
it contains as much protein as meat, and in some cases more. It there- 
fore affords the same class and grade of food material as beef, mut- 
ton, and pork. 

Unfortunately, those actively engaged in farm work rarely have 
the opportunity to fish in neighboring lakes and streams, and more 
distant excursions, involving several days' absence from home, are 
usually beyond consideration. The need is apparent, therefore, for a 
readily accessible supply of fresh fish that may be drawn upon when 
desired — a source as dependable as the smokehouse or the poultry 
yard. 

UTILIZATION OF WASTE LANDS. 

The Bureau aims especially to influence the utilization of the 
natural and favorable water areas existing on countless farms which 
at the present time are being put to no use, many of them consti- 
tuting unsightly waste spaces that detract from the value of the 
land. The presence of springs, lakes, flowing wells, or adjacent 
streams are all leading incentives to a fishery project, and suitable 
sites for the construction of ponds, especially if at present unre- 
munerative, should make their use to such a purpose desirable to the 
thrifty husbandman after a full comprehension of their possibilities 
in a fish-cultural way. 

Ponds intended primarily for the cultivation of fish may be con- 
veniently located for the watering of stock, or the overflow there- 
from may be utilized for the irrigation of land. In many sections 
of the United States artificial ponds on farms are an absolute neces- 
sity to serve one or both these latter purposes, and by a merely 
nominal expenditure such water areas may be advantageously utilized 
for the growing of fish without interfering in any way with the 
original uses for which they were intended. 

At the outset the main object of the amateur farmer fish-culturist 
should be the production of a food supply for home consumption 



U. S. B. F.-Doc. 826. 



Plate II. 




PISH PONDS ON FARMS. 7 

There are no authentic published records as to the financial returns 
that may be expected from the pursuit of pond fish culture on a 
commercial basis. Many theories have been advanced on this point, 
but, as in other undertakings of importance, the efficiency necessary 
in order to profitably conduct such a business can only be gained by 
repeated efforts and actual experience. Furthermore, in order to 
arrive at an estimate of any value one would have to take into con- 
sideration such important factors as the topographical features of 
the site, the character and quantity of the water supply available, the 
extent of the enterprise, and the location of the plant with reference 
to market and transportation facilities. 

Taking all these facts into consideration, one can readily see the 
futility of attempting to forecast in a general treatise the financial 
returns that may be expected from any given pond area devoted to 
commercial fish culture. 

All this, however, detracts in no way from the argument favoring 
the construction of ponds with the view to providing a food supply 
for private use. The feasibility of pond fish culture on this basis 
has been fully demonstrated, and ample quantities of fish for home 
use are to-day being propagated in established ponds on farms, 
proving the value of such an undertaking for that purpose alone. 

After gaining the required experience and knowledge of the sub- 
ject as a result of conducting work for several years on a limited 
scale, the farmer will be well qualified to judge as to the practicabil- 
ity of extending his operations, and can then, if he so chooses, in- 
crease his facilities with the view of raising fish for the market. 

Frequent inquiries are received by the Bureau of Fisheries re- 
garding the use of natural ponds, lakes, and streams, for the raising 
of fish. With respect to such water areas it may be stated that if 
drainage is provided for, the pond bed cleared of debris, the site 
protected against the inflow of surface water— if, in short, complete 
control is effected, natural water areas will possess many advan- 
tages over artificial constructions. There is objection, however, to 
any body of water not under complete control. 

WATER SUPPLY-VOLUME, QUALITY, AND TEMPERATURE. 

In a brood pond, a constant water level should be maintained at 
all times, especially during the breeding season. The required flow, 
which will vary with the character of the soil, must be sufficient to 
replace loss by evaporation and seepage. An amount just short of 
overfloAving the pond is the ideal to be attained, as it is desirable to 
avoid a current. A surplus of water is preferable to a shortage, as 
any excess may be easily diverted through waste channels or held as 
an emergency reserve. 



g FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 

For a 1-acre pond, where the sides and bottom are of clay or rich 
loam, a flow of from 30 to 50 gallons per minute should be sufl&cient 
to maintain a proper water level at all times, while sandy or gravel 
soil untreated may require double that amount. A practical method 
of measuring the flow of water from any source is as follows : 

Select a stretch on the stream or ditch affording as straight and 
uniform a course as possible. If the water at any point is carried 
in a flume, it will be better to measure at that point. Lay off a dis- 
tance of, say from 10 to 50 feet; measure the width of flowing watar 
at about six different places in this distance, and obtain its average 
width. Likewise at these same points measure the depth of water at 
three or four places across the stream and obtain its average depth. 
Then drop a float in the water and note the number of seconds it 
takes to traverse the given distance. The product obtained by multi- 
plying the average width in feet by the average depth in feet by the 
velocity (expressed in number of feet per second) will give the flow 
of the stream in cubic feet per second. From the figures so obtained 
it is advisable to deduct about 20 per cent, as the surface velocity of 
water is in excess of the actual average velocity. 

High temperatures in season are necessary in brood and rearing 
ponds. If the water is cold at the source, the fault must be corrected 
by reducing the inflow to the lowest quantity that will maintain a 
uniform level, thus allowing the maximum absorption of warmth 
from the sun and air. Water that does not fall below 60° F. in the 
brood pond during the spawning season is desirable. 

SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY FOR PONDS. 

Springs are the most dependable of all the sources of water sup- 
ply, requiring the minimum expenditure in preparation and being 
the least subject to outside influence. The presence of injurious min- 
eral substances can usually be detected without expert analysis, but 
the amateur fish-culturist may be surprised to learn that so-called 
pure water often carries abnormal proportions of oxygen or nitro- 
gen gases in quantities inimical to fish life. This may be due either 
to subaeration or superaeration, and the results following the use of 
such water will be as disastrous in the one case as in the other. 

This contingency and the requisite of high temperature make pre- 
carious the embodiment of springs and wells within the pond bed. 
In the absence of thoroughly demonstrated fitness, the more prudent 
course will be to provide an independent water supply reservoir, ap- 
portioning its area to the volume of the spring. While being held 
in this reservoir the gaseous contents of the water will be corrected 
and its temperature seasonably modified. 

The flow from many springs is so obstructed through the trampling 
of stock or from other causes that they emit only a small portion of 
the water available near the surface. In such cases the supply may 



PISH PONDS ON FAEMS. 9 

usually be materially increased by sinking 2-foot lengtTis of terra- 
cotta pipe over the bubble and removing the incased earth. Several 
such pipes in a promising area will often result in an astonishing in- 
crease in flow. Where the cost is not prohibitive, however, the better 
course will be to excavate the site and wall it in with rock and 
concrete. 

In profusely watered sections — ^notably, in the States bordering the 
Great Lakes — there are many tracts of marshy characteristics, some 
of them hundreds of acres in extent, promiscuously interlaced with 
tiny rivulets which combine to form streams of considerable size. 
Seemingly inexhaustible quantities of water lie close to the surface in 
many such places, and by driving pipes only a few feet into the 
ground flowing wells are obtained. 

Where the volume of water is a matter of concern the overflow 
level of spring reservoirs, sunken tiling or driven pipes should be 
kept as low as possible, consistent with the object in view, as the flow 
will naturally decrease with the elevation of the head against which 
it works. 

A brood pond contiguous to a spring reservoir may be fed through 
a spillway directly into the stock pond. Where a reservoir is im- 
practicable, at least partial correction of any abnormal condition of 
the water may be brought about by conducting it to the pond through 
open ditches or raceways of wood or concrete, the choice of material 
being determined by adaptability of the soil and the comparative 
expenditure involved. 

The chief objection to creek or river water as a supply for fish 
ponds is the great quantity of mud and debris carried during fresh- 
ets, and the excessive cost of effective measures to prevent its intro- 
duction into the ponds. Streams subject to extremely high-water 
periods are totally impracticable as a source of supply, while those of 
lesser floods can be utilized only after a considerable initial expendi- 
ture, and much vigilance will be entailed in their use, as large and 
continuous deposits of mud in breeding ponds will ruin any eggs 
present, and invariably kill recently hatched fry. Furthermore, pro- 
tracted roily water will retard and sometimes prevent growth of 
the aquatic vegetation so essential to pond fish-cultural operations. 
It is also imperative that undesirable and predaceous fishes be rigor- 
ously excluded from the ponds, and it will be impossible to accom- 
plish this if the water supply is beyond control during certain 
periods. 

From the foregoing it can readily be seen that if a stream is sub- 
ject to appreciable changes, as a result of storms or drainage from 
local watersheds, it will be unwise to establish a pond therein by the 
construction of dams, as is often contemplated. It will be entirely 
feasible, however, to conduct water from such a stream to ponds ad- 



10 PISH PONDS ON FARMS. 

jacently located, provided the intake is adequately screened, the 
supply arranged so that it can be cut off during times of excessive 
turbidity, and measures are taken to prevent the inundation of the 
pond site in high-water periods. 

It may be necessary to erect a dam in the channel of the stream, to 
provide the required head of water for a gravity flow to the pond, in 
which case it may be of a simple type, designed merely to accomplish 
the end in view. The intake from the stream should be wide and 
deep, thus presenting a large screen surface to obviate the complete 
stoppage of the water supply in the absence of the caretaker. It 
should be covered by a series of screens graduated in size, the first 
to consist of coarse hog wire, or wooden racks with like openings, to 
catch the largest objects. The intermediate screen (of 2-inch mesh) 
will intercept vegetation, while the inner one must be fine enough to 
exclude smaller debris and the fry of undesirable fishes. Immedi- 
ately below the screens, gates should be provided so that the water 
may be shut off at will and diverted into a storm channel when it 
becomes too roily for use. 

Where the source of supply is a lake the difficulties referred to 
above are not encountered, lake water seldom being roily and de- 
manding less attention to screens owing to absence of currents. 

Uncontaminated open waters have many advantages. Their tem- 
peratures are seasonal; usually there are no abnormal gaseous con- 
stituents to be corrected; the plankton or pelagic animal and plant 
life contained therein forms a valuable addition to the natural food 
supply in the pond, and were it not for the difficulty of control and 
occasional roilyness, such waters would be preferable to springs and 
wells as a source of supply to fish ponds. 

Wells, both flowing and power lifted, are successfully used in some 
sections for the cultivation of fish. Before incurring the expense of 
constructing ponds to be supplied from such a source, however, it 
will be advisable to thoroughly test the water in order to demonstrate 
its fitness for fish culture. This can best be done by fitting up a 
running- water supply in a retaining reservoir, and holding therein, 
for an extended period, a number of specimens of the species of fish 
it is desired to propagate. If they thrive, it may be assumed that 
the water is free from injurious gases or mineral substances and is 
adapted to the work it is proposed to undertake. 

Rain water (surface drainage). — Another class of ponds avail- 
able for the propagation of fish, known as "sky ponds," embraces 
those wholly or partly dependent upon local precipitation for their 
supply of water. Such ponds are invariably profuse in the produc- 
tion of fish food, and for this reason would be ideal were there an 
auxiliary water supply adequate to maintain constant surface levels 
during the critical nesting season, and a fair depth throughout the 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate III. 



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U. S. B. F.-Doc. 826. 



Plate IV. 



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Cross Sec//o/T. 




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//a//a/T</si/po//ei//r/M spr//Tff rro/e'r <7/7^ /-<?• 



FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 11 

remainder of the year. In the absence of this reserve many such 
ponds become practically dry during periods of drought or freeze to 
the bottom in the winter months. Where ponds are subjected to 
such conditions fish cultural operations are impracticable. 

Ponds dependent entirely upon precipitation and surface drainage 
for their water supply must necessarily be located at a low elevation, 
in order that the surface drainage from surrounding lands may be 
taken advantage of. Land depressions, ravines protected from 
floods, or swamp lands, are desirable sites for such ponds. 

Catfishes only can be recommended for the best of " sky ponds," 
strictly speaking, and the results even with them will be very 
uncertain. 

DESIRABLE SITES FOR THE LOCATION OF PONDS. 

If a gravity flow of water is contemplated, the fish pond must, of 
course, be located below the level of the source of supply. Porous 
soils are to be avoided, if possible, not only because of the largo 
volume of water required to replace loss from seepage but because 
they are usually sterile. Swamp lands, old water courses, and 
catch basins of ye«rs' standing are the best and most productive soils, 
as they possess the required fertility and contain seeds and spores 
for the early development of profuse vegetation and animalcula. 
Ponds located in such soil will maintain their water levels with a 
minimum inflow. 

Satisfaction may be had from ponds less favorably located, how- 
ever, if good sense is employed in their preparation and maintenance. 
Aside from the ideal lands of alluvial deposits, clay loams are a first 
choice, being most nearly impervious to water and quickly responsive 
to efforts made to establish their fertility. Sandy loam, being the 
most prevalent, is probably the most general soil in use for pond 
construction. While some difficulty may at first be experienced in 
making it retain water, this is overcome in time by the accumulation 
of decayed vegetation. Its fertility is good and, in general, it pro- 
duces a sufficient supply of natural food. Even clear sand and gravel 
mixtures may be made to hold water and brought to fair productivity 
by increased expenditures in construction, and by the application of 
fertilizers in a manner to be explained later. 

It is very desirable, and also essential for a marked degree of suc- 
cess, that ponds be so located and constructed that they may be en- 
tirely emptied of water at certain seasons. To this end there should 
be accessible a natural dry run or water course lower than the bottom 
of the proposed pond, to which drain pipes may be conducted. 

Ponds are drained for the purpose of assorting fish, removing ob- 
jectionable species, reducing the stock, killing out excessive vegeta- 
tion, etc. Complete drainage can not be effected, of course, unless 



12 FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 

there are adjacent waters to which the fish can be removed during 
this process. A number of small auxiliary ponds will always be 
found advantageous in fish-cultural work. 

Where the primary purpose is other than fish culture the selection 
of the site must depend upon the more important object in view. 
Fish culture will yield very satisfactory returns as a secondary en- 
terprise, but the site selected for the work should by all means be 
the best available consistent with the general scheme of farming 
operations. 

POND CONSTRUCTION. 

The exact mode of construction must depend largely upon local 
conditions, such as the presence or absence of favorable land contour, 
the nature of the soil, proximity to storm channels, and the area of 
the ground to be worked. Even with these features specified lesser 
local characteristics and the exigencies of individual circumstances 
will vary the application of any approved general method. Where 
practicable ponds should be not less than 1 acre in surface area. 
Those of smaller extent will produce fish and add an interesting 
feature to farm life, but they will not yield adult food fishes of the 
larger species in quantities sufficient for the requirement of the aver- 
age farmer's table. 

Natural draws or ravines involve the least expenditure in their 
adaptation to fish ponds, as two and frequently three sides are 
already formed, so that an earthen embankment connecting them 
will complete the inclosure. Such locations must be surrounded by 
ditches to divert surface water where that is likely to roil the pond, 
and effective waste channels should be provided if the site covers 
tlte natural course of flood waters. 

If flat land of r.n elevation only slightly lower than that of the 
source of water supply is selected, it will be necessary to excavate 
the ponds in whole or in part to the required depth to insure a water 
level lower than the supply. Thus the excavations will form solid 
banks which, if impervious to water and properly sloped, will require 
no further attention except to bring them to uniform widths and 
elevation, which can be done with the material excavated in forming 
the pond proper. The bottom of the pond should be shaped to drain 
to a central point. 

On swamp lands and depressions which are susceptible to drain- 
age and are at the same time low enough to insure a gravity flow of 
water from the source of supply, one or more fish ponds can be con- 
structed by the erection of longitudinal and cross-section dikes high 
enough to provide the required depth of water. The construction of 
such ponds involves only sufficient excavating to give the bottom the 
proper slope. In other words, the pond should be built up rather than 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate V. 




U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate VI. 




FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 13 

excavated, and the water level therein will be higher than the sur- 
rounding land. 

The method of constructing pond embankments is governed by 
the topography of the land, the character of the soil, and the volume 
and pressure of the water to be confined. All made embankments 
should be at least 6 feet wide at the top, and the sides sloped not less 
than 2 feet to each foot in height. For instance, a 6-foot fill should 
be 30 feet wide at the base and 6 feet at the top. 

Prepare the foundation by plowing the site of the embankment, 
after first removing all trees, underbrush, rock and sod, and, as an 
extra precaution against seepage, dig a trench 12 inches deep along 
the median line. This will form a break, or set-off, between the 
original ground and the made construction, which is a point of natu- 
ral weakness. The filling should progress by layers over the full 
width and length of the levee as a continuous operation rather than 
by sections; otherwise the completed work will later develop checks 
by reason of variations in material and compactness. Rocks are of 
use as a protecting riprap on the slopes after completion. 

In case the water supply to a pond is taken from a creek, the latter 
must be dammed and an intake built above the construction provided 
with screen and dam boards, from which a water conduit must be laid 
to the pond. The dam should be provided with an ample spillway, 
which may best be constructed of concrete. 

The shape or outline of the pond is immaterial. Currents of 
water are undesirable in the propagation of the spin5'^-rayed fishes. 
In fact, the best brood and rearing ponds are those which are sup- 
plied by backwater from other bodies, and if there is reasonable 
depth and a fair growth of vegetation no stagnation will result. 

Success in pond fish culture is being attained with widely varying 
forms of construction. To a considerable extent fish will adapt 
themselves to existing physical conditions. In nature they seek 
comparatively shoal waters in which to spawn, by reason of the 
prevailing higher temperatures, and during certain stages of their 
growth the young choose similar depths, where food is plentiful and 
beyond the bounds of the customary range of large fish. Relatively 
deep waters must be accessible to the stock fish during winter months, 
and what this depth shall be will depend largely upon the latitude 
of the location; cold climates where great thickness of ice forms re- 
quire the deepest pools. 

Experience teaches that breeding ponds should be excavated to 
hold not less than 12 inches of water at or near the margins; that 
one-fourth of the pond area should range from 12 to 30 inches in 
depth; and that one-half its total area should be not over 3 feet 
deep, the bottom of the remainder to slope from this depth to 6 feet 
or more at the outlet. Avoid abrupt slopes. Provide complete drrtin- 



14 PISH PONDS ON FARMS. 

age to the deepest point, where a waste pipe controlled by gates or 
slash boards should lead to outside natural channels. 

It will be found a great convenience when draining ponds to 
have shallow channels 6 inches deep and 15 inches wide, at the head 
of the drainpipe, radiating to all parts of the pond bottom from a 
Icettle or pit, which may be of wood or concrete. A large percentage 
of the fish will follow such channels as the water recedes, and may 
be removed from the kettle with less danger of injury than if picked 
up promiscuously about the pond. 

Remove all projections from the pond bottom which might inter- 
fere with the operations of seines, plow the entire bed and level it 
with harrows before turning in the water or treating further for 
water-tightness. 

As stated above, ponds located on swamp bottoms or in clay soils 
are practically impervious to seepage, and there should be no diffi- 
culty in maintaining their surface levels. Sandy loams are more 
uncertain; they recjuire time to become thoroughly saturated, but 
will improve in this respect from year to year, through the accumu- 
lating deposits of decaying vegetation. It is an excellent practice 
when first filling newly-constructed ponds with water, whatever the 
nature of the soil, to follow the advancing water line with a drag or 
harrow, driving the team knee-deep into the water. The constant 
roiling and puddling of the ground in this manner is very effective 
in cementing open cracks and crevices. Very porous soils may require 
the addition of a layer of clay before they will hold water. From 2 to 
6 inches of stiff brick clay over the entire bottom and up the sides, 
well above the water line, the bottom harrowed down as explained 
above, will hold water over the most open ground likely to be used. 
The only objection to the presence of clay is its general sterility, but 
this may be corrected by another layer of rich loam, after the clay 
has been worked down and proved efficacious. Where this process is 
to be employed, allow^ance must be made at the time of excavation 
for the refill of 12 or more inches. Coarse stable manure, and even 
clean straw, well trampled into the pond bottom, has been reported 
as a successful remedy for seepage. 

A good set of native sod or sedge grass around the entire pond at 
the water line is the best preventive of wave washing and encroach- 
ments upon new fills. If the location is such that strong currents or 
eddies are present, piling, rock riprap, or other reinforcement, will 
be necessary at the points of greatest exposure. 

Landowners desiring to undertake fish propagation may feel that 
the expenditure necessary to secure completed ponds, as described 
above, is prohibitive; or they may have waters available for fish 
culture which it would not be expedient to remodel along the lines 
indicated. The plans outlined are in accordance with the present- 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate VII. 





Fig. 1. — Spiked water mi]So\\ (Mtin'opln/lliim 
spicatum). Found in deep water. New- 
foundland to Manitoba and the Northwest 
Territory, south to Florida, Iowa, Utah, 
and California. Commonly known a.s fox- 
tail. Suited to southern ponds of high 
temperature, and unlike most species will 
thrive in comparatively soft waters. 
"Parrot-feather," and introduced species 
of Mi/rioii/ii/llinii will make better growth in 
sterile ground than the loxtiiil; otherwise 
the two have similar characteristics. 




Fig. 2.— Hornwort (Ccratopln/Uam drmersmn). 
Found in ponds and slow streams through- 
out North America, except extreme north. 
This plant is shallow-rooted, deriving most 
of its sustenance from the water. Will 
thrive in cold spring water. 



Fig. 3. — Fan wort {Cabomba carolinimia). 
Found in ponds and slow streams, southern 
Illinois to North Carolina, south to Florida 
and Texas. Characteristics similar to Cera- 
tophyllum. 




Fig. A.—Cliara fragilUs. A common form of 
chara. There are many varieties of this 
species and all are classed very high as 
food producers and oxygenators. Grows 
profusely in all limestone waters through- 
out the United States, 



U. S. B. F— Doc. 826. 



Plate VIII. 




PISH PONDS ON FARMS. 15 

day standards. Fish may and are being successfully propagated in 
i'ar less ideal environments, but more native ingenuity in such cases 
is required. This, however, is a common attribute of the American 
farmer, and any one who can mix balanced feeds, practice scientific 
grain breeding, or master the intricacies of modern farm machinery, 
need not hesitate for fear of failure to add fish culture to his daily 
routine. 

Summarizing the construction, these features should be provided 
for: 

.1. Water-tightness, so that a small inflow will be sufficient. This 
will result in high temperatures during the summer months. 

2. A shallow area, from 18 to 30 inches deep, where the fish may 
nest. 

3. A deeper area, of 6 feet or more, for winter quarters. This 
will also be occupied by the adults in the summer, after nesting is 
completed. 

4. A fertile bottom for the growth of aquatic plants, upon which 
fish food depends. 

If these requisites, together with a suitable water supply, are pro- 
vided the fish will thrive. 

The accompanying drawings explain the types of intake and drain- 
age devices which have proved effective. These may be varied to 
meet the conditions encountered, and be constructed of either wood or 
concrete. The latter material is shown in the illustrations, and is the 
most durable, but wood will be equally as satisfactory while it lasts. 

AQUATIC PLANTS AND THEIR VALUE IN POND-FISH CULTURE. 

Frequent reference has been made to the necessity of vegetation in 
fish ponds. Its advantages are many. It serves as food and a harbor 
for the lowest forms of minute animal life. Each advance in the 
scale of life constitutes a food for higher forms, and in the guise of 
fish the fertility of the ground contributes to the food of the human 
race. 

Plants play an important part in the purification of water, taking 
up the carbonic acid gas liberated by decomposition and exhaling the 
oxygen essential to living creatures. They thus prevent the asphyxia- 
tion of fish life, and act as a corrective of many abnormal character- 
istics of individual waters. 

Losses of fish through the depredations of enemies will be greatly 
lessened where there is an abundant aquatic growth in which they 
may hide. It furnishes a grateful shade on bright warm days, and 
the interlacing roots so bind the bottom soil as to prevent turbidity 
from casual disturoances. 

The aquatic flora of a locality varies greatly with its latitude 
and is also governed by the chemical ingredients of specific waters. 
The mcKst desirable species usually thrive best in waters of limestone 
86497°— 17— 16 



16 FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 

origin. Plants of filamentous cluuacter are preferable to the large 
regular-leaved kinds, as they present greater surface expanse for 
the exchange of gases, and, on account of their shallow rootage, are 
more readily controlled by the fish-culturist. Pond lilies, cat's-tail, 
and coarse water grasses or weeds in moderation are beneficial, as 
they afford shade and shelter. However, they are lower forms of 
oxygenators than the plants of finer growth, and they make seining 
operations more difficult ; and it is practically impossible to eradicate 
them after they have obtained a foothold. 

All species herein described which are indigenous to the waters 
of the locality in question may be advantageously utilized in pond- 
fish culture. Undoubtedly one or two of the inti oduced species will 
eventually drive out the others, but those remaining will be the ones 
best adapted to the environment. All of these will grow from cut- 
tings, making it unnecessary to transplant the roots. The plants 
may simply be raked or pulled out of the open waters and pressed 
by handfuls into the soft earth in the shallow sections of the new 
pond, in spaces about 5 feet apart. The bottom must be covered with 
6 to 12 inches of water during the operation, otherwise the sun and 
air will soon ruin the sets. In deep water the plants may be started 
by attaching a weight and sinking them to the bottom of the pond. 

Much time and trouble are often required to bring about a profuse 
growth of aquatic vegetation," but after a pond is thoroughly stocked 
even more labor is required to keep it within bounds. Ponds may 
become literally choked with water mosses, resulting in inconvenience 
to the owner and a detriment to the fish. They will roll the seines, 
snag the lines, and smother the fish when an attempt is made to 
draw down the water. It will usually be necessary to thin the moss 
out once or twice in the course of a summer, and all growth should be 
removed when draining the pond. An efficient method of removal 
is by raking, the worker standing on the embankment and throwing 
the moss out on land, or wading into the shallow water of the pond 
drawing it from a circle about him and building cocks of it. The 
deeper waters will have to be worked from a boat or raft. 

SPECIES OF FISHES SUITABLE FOR POND CULTURE. 

Smallmouth black bass {Micropterus dolomieu). — Indigenous to 
lakes, rivers, and smaller streams from Lake Champlain to Mani- 
toba and south to North Carolina and Arkansas. It seeks by prefer- 
ence the clear cool waters of its range, and in the Southern States is 
confined to the more rapid streams. The maximum weight is about 
5 pounds, and the average weight from 1 to 2 pounds. This species 
should be selected for cultivation only in ponds of 2 or more acres 

• All but one of the cuts published herewith are copied from Britton & Brown's 
" Illustrated Flora of North America." The figure of Ghara is taken from the *' Text 
Book of Botany," by Strasburger, Noll, Schenk, and Schimper. 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826 



Plate IX. 




U. S, B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate X. 




PISH PONDS ON FAEMS. 17 

in area, where the temperatures and other physical characteristics 
conform to those of its natural habitat. Rock bass and sunfish will 
live congenially with the smallmouth black bass, and can be success- 
fully propagated in the same ponds with them. 

Ijargemouth black bass (Micropterus salmoides). — Known lo- 
cally as straw bass, green bass, bayou bass, Oswego bass, trout, and 
chub. Its range is from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico and from the 
Atlantic coast to the Rocky Mountains. The species is prolific in 
congenial waters, but reaches its greatest size in the warmer lakes 
and more sluggish streams of the South. Its maximum weight is 
authentically stated to be from 20 to 25 pounds, though in most lo- 
calities it does not exceed a weight of 6 pounds, and the average is 
probably less than 3 pounds. 

Because of their size and cannibalistic tendencies the two species 
of black bass should be selected only for ponds not less than 2 acres 
in area. The largemouth species is equally well adapted to cultiva- 
tion in northern or southern climates, but its cultivation in the former 
should be restricted to waters attaining maximum temperatures. 
Crappie, sunfish, and warmouth bass are suitable species to introduce 
in w^aters with the largemouth bass. 

The two black basses are frequently confounded, but they have con- 
trasting marks of distinction, which vary somewhat with their en- 
vironment. They may be reliably classified by the number of rows of 
scales on the check, the largemouth possessing 10 and the small- 
mouth 17 rows. The mouth of the former species extends back of the 
eye, and that of the smallmouth even with the anterior margin of 
the eye. 

Crappie {Pomoxis annularis). — Commonly called bachelor, camp- 
bellite, new light, sac-a-lait, tinmouth, era pet, and chinquapin. Its 
range is from New York and Vermont westward through the Great 
Lakes region and the Mississippi Valley to the Dakotas, and south 
to Texas. It inhabits sluggish muddy water and reaches a length of 
1 foot in its most southerly range. The crappie is an excellent pan 
fish and should be generally cultivated where conditions are favor- 
able. It is an extremely delicate fish to handle, its protruding eyes 
being easily injured and frequently blinded when constantly exposed 
to direct sunlight in clear water. In ponds devoted primarily to the 
propagation of crappie many fish-culturists introduce carp, suckers, 
or other bottom feeders, as the resulting turbid water seems to be a 
favorable condition for them. The natural habitat of the crappie 
suggests its suitability for ponds containing largemouth black bass 
or catfish, where the water supply is drawn from turbid streams or 
furnished by surface drainage. 

Calico bass [Pomoxis sparoides) . — Also known as strawberry bass, 
grass bass, and bar fish. Is abundant in the Great Lakes region and 



18 FISH PONDS ON FABMS. 

the upper Mississippi Valley, with extreme range east to New Jersey 
and south to Texas. It very much resembles the crappie, but is 
hardier in every respect and better adapted to pond culture. It may 
be distinguished from the crappie by the presence of 7 or 8 spines in 
the dorsal fin, where the crappie has but 5 or 6. It will thrive in com- 
pany with any of the pond species that are suited to relatively high 
temperatures. 

Rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). — Colloquially termed red-eye 
and goggle-eye. This species is found in lakes and streams from 
New England to Manitoba and south to Louisiana and Texas, being 
particularly abundant in the cooler lakes and streams of the upper 
Mississippi Valley. It inhabits by choice only clear, cool waters, and 
is therefore less thrifty in its southern range. The rock bass has 
been known to attain a weight of 1^ pounds and a length of 12 inches, 
but the average specimen probably does not exceed a weight of one- 
half pound or a length of 7 inches. Fish of this species are well 
suited for introduction into spring-fed ponds with the smallmouth 
black bass. 

Warmouth bass {Chcenohryttus gulosus). — Is often confused with 
the rock bass. It has very much the same range and similar general 
characteristics, but is better adapted to waters of a high temperature, 
and is therefore most abundant in the South. The two species may 
be distinguished by the three oblique dark stripes radiating backward 
from the eye in the warmouth bass and by the rather indistinct ver- 
tical stripes on the body of the rock bass. The warmouth bass may 
be propagated in conjunction with the largemouth black bass or in 
small ponds with the crappie and sunfish. 

SuNrisH {Lepomis incisor). — Locally termed bluegill, blue sun- 
fish, copper-nosed bream, dollardee, and blue bream. Of the many 
species of sunfishes distributed throughout the United States east of 
the Rocky Mountains, this is the only one that can be recommended 
by the Bureau of Fisheries as worthy of artificial propagation, and 
it is believed to be the finest pond fish available for private culture. 
It is adapted to practically all conditions, is prolific, and of unsur- 
passed table qualities. The largest specimens will measure from 12 
to 14 inches in length and attain a weight of nearly a pound. The 
bluegill may be propagated in connection with any of the other 
species listed above. 

Catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus). — ^Locally known as bullhead, 
horned pout, Schuylkill cat, small yellow cat, and the sub- 
species Ameiurus nebulosus marmoratus, known in the South 
as marble Cat. This is the only member of the catfish family 
that has so far been propagated in ponds. It is distinct from 
the genus Ictalurus, which embraces the larger catfishes — blue cat, 
channel cat, forked-tail cat, and spotted cat. Many attempts have 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate XI. 




U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826 



Plate XII. 



rf3 



» 



imi 



\ 
■\vv 

V, 






I. 




K8H PONDS ON FABMS. 19 

been made to propagate these latter species, but without success. 
They seem to require some element not found in still waters. The 
bullhead is abundant in all ponds, lakes, and sluggish streams of the 
eastern United States and the Mississippi Valley region. It adapts 
itself to widely varying conditions and demands less expensive prep- 
aration for its cultivation than any of the other fishes considered. 
The bullhead is the most easily domesticated of any of the pond 
fishes. Its appearance is formidable and repugnant to some, but 
when propagated in comparatively puie water it is very palatable, 
It may be cultivated in connection with any of the warm-water spe- 
cies referred to, and is particularly suited to the changing conditions 
of drainage- fed ponds. 

NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL FISH FOODS. 

4-S with all forms of live stock, it is essential that brood fish be 
kept in a thrifty condition. Good food, proper shelter, ventilation, 
and exercise — familiar requirenients to the farmer — have their equiv- 
alents in the food, physical characteristics of the pond, composition 
and aeration of the water, and the amount of space allotted to a 
given number of fish. Common sense, based upon observation of 
natural laws, will carry the fish-culturist a long way toward success. 

All the fishes recommended for pond culture are naturally car- 
nivorous, choosing live food through preference. Their predatory 
ijistinct in this respect can not be catered to exclusively where 
their culture is undertaken on an extensive scale, but the closer 
it is adhered to the better will be the results. It would be detri- 
mental to the ultimate object in view to feed them live predaceous 
species of minnows, for those that were not devoured would prey 
upon the young of the species being propagated, and eventually, the 
minnow offspring would monopolize the vital resources of the water. 
The smaller minnows, with sucker-like mouths, may be advan- 
tageously liberated in the pond as food ; fcr this purpose many fish- 
culturists utilize goldfish, which are herbivorous feeders and scaven- 
gers, and which, in limited numbers, do not materially lessen the 
supply of natural food available for the game fishes. Large num- 
bers of goldfish would work injury through the destruction of 
aquatic plants, but if held in subjection the young goldfish con- 
stitute a superior food, and any that escape this destiny have a com- 
mercial value in their ornamental colorings. 

Frogs, worms, and flying insects all contribute to the food supply 
of the brood fish, likewise the larger aquatic insects inhabiting the 
water. If not overstocked, therefore, the average pond may be 
managed so that it will furnish all the live food necessary for the 
adult fish. Where this is insuflScient to properly maintain the stock, 



20 FISH PONDS ON FABMS. 

Iiowever, it may be supplemented by meat or, preferaTily, coarse 
fish, which should be cut in pieces small enough to be readily swal- 
lowed. Wild stock will refuse to accept this food until near the 
starvation point. Some will never do it, but the majority show such 
greediness for the substitute food, after having once tasted it, that 
they will follow the attendant about the pond whenever he appears. 

Fresh livers and hearts are the materials most commonly used 
where a meat diet is employed, being the cheapest good materials 
obtainable; fresh fish is a more natural food, however. If the 
farmer is located within a reasonable distance of a fish market, ar- 
rangements can usually be made for regular deliveries of species 
having little or no commercial value, such as are incidentally taken 
by the fishermen in seining. If the magnitude of the operations will 
warrant, it is advisable to devote one pond to the propagation of carp 
for the sole purpose of producing food for the game fishes. Carp 
feed on vegetation and large numbers of them may be reared on a 
farm at little expense. 

The amount of food required must be governed by the appetite 
of the fish. They should be given all they show eagerness for once 
a day. During the nesting season and the cold months practically 
no food is required, but especial care should be taken to feed them 
well both before and after the spawning period. 

Crappie can rarely be taught to take artificial food, but fortu- 
nately it is seldom necessary to feed them or the breeders of other 
small species adapted to pond culture — the sunfishes and the rock 
bass. Catfish quickly learn the lesson and will consume with avidity 
raw or cooked meats, vegetables, and even hard grains. 

DISEASES. 

There are no diseases of pond fishes that can be successfully com- 
bated by artificial means. A well-fed fish is usually a healthy fish, 
whereas thin specimens are wanting in resistance to their habitual 
parasites and can not readily recover from external injuries. If they 
are fed well on as nearly appropriate foods as can be secured and 
are carried in ponds of natural characteristics, sickness will be of 
rare occurrence. 

STOCKING PONDS WITH BROOD FISH. 

The most successful and the speediest results in pond culture are 
attainable by the use of adult fish for the original brood stock. These 
can in most cases be secured from the public waters of the immediate 
locality during the open season prescribed by the State laws. 

It is such a common failing to want something new and strange 
that many prospective fish-culturists endeavor to procure some species 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



'!ll«. 



Plate XIII. 




U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate XIV. 




FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 21 

of fish that is foreign to their community with which to begin their 
operations. To illustrate some of the impractical ideas entertained, 
the Bureau of Fisheries is often asked to furnish the species of trout 
indigenous to the Great Lakes for stocking southern waters, or the 
flounder (a salt-water fish) for introduction into the ponds in the 
interior. 

In general it may be assumed that the species which is the most 
prolific in the public waters of the region in question will be the 
likeliest to produce material results, and by procuring adult fish 
for breeders the pond in which they are placed should become 
stocked to its maximum capacity within a year. On the other hand, 
if State or Federal aid is relied upon only a limited number of 
fingerling or, at best, yearling fish will be available for beginning 
operations, and it will require from two to three years for them to 
mature and stock the ponds through natural reproduction. 

The wisest course, then, will be to choose some native species and 
to make a persistent effort to secure adult specimens. This can best 
be done in the fall months, when the fish will more quickly recover 
from slight injuries which, during a period of high temperature, 
might develop into ugly sores and possibly kill them. 

Fish hooked only in the mouth are in no way harmed for breeders, 
but the greatest precaution must be taken in holding them and in 
transporting them to the pond. Loosening or rubbing off of scales 
induces a fungus growth which will eventually spread over the body 
and result fatally. As the fish are captured they may be placed in 
buckets or tubs, which may be darkened by throwing an old blanket or 
carpet over the top. In changing the water, which should be done as 
often as the fish seem to require it, care should be taken not to excite 
them. When the fish are to be held for several days before they can 
be transferred to the pond, it 'S advisable to excavate a shallow 
basin at the margin of the lake or river where the collection is 
being made and arrange for a moderate flow of water from the main 
body through its entire length. A pool of running water 6 feet 
long, 3 feet wide, and from 12 to 18 inches deep will hold two or 
three dozen large fish with safety. Live boxes should not be used, 
as fish held in them will bruise themselves beyond recovery. 

In conveying fish a considerable distance by rail or wagon, recep- 
tacles of such diameter that each specimen may lie at full length on 
the bottom should be provided. The depth of the water is a matter 
of less importance, but it should be kept at the proper temperature 
and well aerated. If necessary, ice may be used to maintain an even 
temperature corresponding to that from which the fish were taken; 
but if that be high and the distance to the pond great, it will be 
found easier to reduce the temperature to 65°, and gradually raise it 



22 FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 

when nearing the destination to conform to that of the water in 
which the fish are to be liberated. During conveyance the water in 
the receptacles will be kept in motion and adequately aerated; but 
when standing still it must be artificially aerated by dipping out 
some water and pouring it back into the receptacle from a height. 

The ordinary 10-gallon can is employed by the Bureau of Fisheries 
for the transportation of small fish, but if the fish are too long for its 
diameter nothing is better than wash boilers. Any clean receptacle 
may be used, but those mentioned are the most convenient to handle. 

If the use of artificial food is not contemplated, the number of 
brood fish allotted to a pond must be apportioned to the natural food 
available for both the adults and the expected fry and fiijgerlings. 
Fifty of either species of black bass or 100 specimen's of any of the 
smaller species are maximum numbers for an acre of water, where the 
offspring is to remain in the brood pond. These numbers should 
produce a much larger number of fry than the waters can sustain 
until mature, but allowance will have to be made for losses through 
cannibalism and the ordinary vicissitudes of their environment. 
Promiscuous collections of fish will invariably run about equally as 
to sex, and the numbers recommended will therefore give 25 and 50 
pairs, respectively. 

There are no external markings by which the sex of pond fishes 
can be positively determined, but the female black bass usually pre- 
sents a more mottled appearance than the male and her colors are 
brighter. 

SPAWNING SEASON. 

Black bass will nest in the spring when the water temperature 
rises above 60° F. Ordinarily 63° F. will bring about deposits of 
eggs, but if the season is a backward one, the fish may spawn at 58° 
F. On the other hand, an unusually advanced season may not bring 
results until the temperature exceeds 65° or 68° F. 

Suitable temperatures for spawning prevail in the more southerly 
States as early as February ; in the latitude of Tennessee, in March ; 
in southern Illinois, during April; in Iowa, during May; and in 
northern Minnesota, in June. The spawning season extends over 
two or more weeks, and is usually marked by two periods of intense 
activity, following a rise in temperature after several days of ab- 
normally cool weather. In the Southern States the nesting season 
is not so sharply defined, owing to the almost continuously favorable 
temperatures throughout the year, which cause rapid development 
of the ova. At the Texas station of the Bureau of Fisheries there 
regularly occurs a hatching period in February, one in April, and 
scattering hatches throughout the summer. The crappies, sunfishes, 
rock bass, and catfishes will spawn from one to two months later than 



U. S, B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate XV, 




U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate XVI. 




FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 23 

the black bass in the same waters, and the sunfishes and rock bass will 
continue nesting to some extent until the approach of cool weather 
in the fall. 

SPAWNING HABITS. 

Ordinarily ponds will require no special preparation for the 
spawning season. Some of the species choose the roots of water 
plants on which to spawn, while others seek out gravel spots and 
find them, however much they may be hidden by deposits of mud. 
Catfish burrow into embankments and under rocks and logs, and it 
is well to provide substitutes for such shelters where this species is 
being propagated, for which purpose heavy planks weighted to the 
bottom of the pond will be suitable and will offer the least impedi- 
ment to seining operations later on. 

With the right material at hand the male will prepare the nest to 
his precise taste and after its completion will seek a partner. There 
are many ups and downs in the domestic life of fishes, especially in 
the case of such pugnacious species as the black basses. The battles 
of the males for favorite females are liable to cause injuries result- 
ing in death ; or after being won, a consort may prove not sufficiently 
advanced in maturity, in which case the fish separate and the male 
continues his search for a more congenial mate. 

Actual spawning will extend over several hours, the eggs being 
emitted and fertilized at varying intervals. 

All the eggs carried by a female may not be ripe at one time, and 
the male will repeatedly seek new mates until the nest has been 
stocked to his satisfaction, driving each companion away when she 
ceases to perform the function for which she was obtained. The eggs 
are adhesive, and attach themselves to gravel, roots, or other material 
on the beds. The male remains on the nest during the entire period 
of incubation, fanning the eggs clean of sediment with a gentle 
motion of his fins and watchfully guarding against the encroach- 
ment of other fishes on his domain. He is the personification of 
valor at this time, and all other creatures in the pond apparently 
have the greatest respect for him. Nothing but the loss or death 
of the eggs from low temperatures, heavy deposits of sediment, or 
other adverse conditions will cause him to abandon his nest. Not- 
withstanding their ferocity, black bass will nest in close proximity 
to one another and attend to their respective parental duties in entire 
amity, whereas the approach of a strange fish will be resented. 

Sunfish are decidedly gregarious during the spawning season and 
will locate their nests very closely together. With them all is har- 
mony, the sole thought of each appearing to be centered upon his 
own particular business. 



24 FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 

The crappies spawn in comparatively deep water on isolated nests. 
Owing to their color, the depth of the water, and its usual turbidity, 
but few observations have been made of their peculiar character- 
istics at this period. 

Rock bass and warmouth bass deposit their eggs on gravel beds of 
greatly varying diameters, and their spawning instincts are some- 
what similar to those of the black bass, though in a less marked 
degree. 

By reason of their intrepidity at the time, all of the species referred 
to appear to be very tame while guarding their nests, but this instinct 
should not be presumed upon by permitting unnecessary disturb- 
ances about the beds. 

The incubation period of eggs of the various pond fishes ranges 
from a few days to two weeks or more, depending upon the mean 
water temperature. A drop below 55° F. is invariably fatal, while 
the percentage of hatch below 58° F. is greatly reduced. 

Under uniformly favorable conditions healthy eggs will hatch 
without any loss to speak of, but the average hatch of domesticated 
stock is not over 50 per cent. This, however, is a sufficiently large 
percentage to make pond-fish culture profitable. 

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YOUNG FISH— THEIR FOOD AND 

GROWTH. 

When first hatched the fry of most of these species are colorless, 
and because of their tendency to collect among the roots and in the 
crevices of the spawning beds are difficult to find. They become 
darker in a few days, however, and are easily distinguished. In a 
short time they rise a few inches off the bed during the day and re- 
turn to the bottom at night, increasing the distance each day until 
they eventually reach the surface. During all this time the parent 
fish has given them the same sedulous attention as when they were 
in the egg stage. Gradually the school enlarges in circumference to 
such an extent that he has difficulty in keeping his brood together. 
He crowds them into shoal water — their natural feeding ground — and 
patrols the shore in an effort to ward off enemies, but they finally 
separate into small bands, escape the vigilance of their guardian, and 
become free lances in the strife for survival. 

The largemouth black bass and catfish fry school much longer 
than the other species mentioned; in fact, catfish fry retain this 
gregarious tendency throughout the first year, while young black 
bass remain together until 2 inches or more in length. 

Young sunfish and catfish are easily taught to take artificial food, 
when the natural food of the pond is insufficient for their nourish- 
ment. As with the adult fish, animal tissue is the most readily ac- 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate XVII. 




FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 25 

cepted, and will produce the strongest growth, though cooked cereals 
or vegetables will answer, and are even relished by young catfish 
when given in the raw state. 

The food should be scattered along the natural feeding grounds, 
starting with a small amount and increasing the quantity to what the 
fish will daily consume. Care should be taken to prevent the pollu- 
tion of the pond through the decomposition of excess food. 

The young basses and crappies can not be successfully fed, and 
must depend entirely upon the insect life in the pond for their 
sustenance. For this reason no more young fish of these species 
should be carried in a pond than the natural food supply contained 
therein will support. 

When such food is inadequate for the number of fish in a pond the 
only alternative will be the provision of additional ponds, to which 
a portion of the fry may be transferred for rearing. A public- 
spirited course would be to plant the surplus stock in neighboring 
public waters, taking care not to introduce them into streams and 
lakes which should be reserved to trout or salmon, as their presence 
would be detrimental to the latter species. Such a policy pursued 
by several fish-culturists in a given vicinity would maintain good 
public fishing, without diminishing to any appreciable extent the 
quantity of edible fish in the waters under private control. Ordi- 
narily well-constructed ponds are capable of producing from two to 
ten times the number of fry that can be reared therein. The surplus 
is of some value as food for the stronger specimens, but would be of 
much greater value if liberated in adjacent lakes or streams. 

CAPACITY OF A POND FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FISH. 

It is diflficult to estimate the capacity of ponds for the various 
stages in the growth of fish. It depends for the most part upon the 
amount of appropriate food available. A 2-acre pond producing 
10,000 one-year-old black bass from 4 to 6 inches long would be a 
remarkably successful enterprise, and 20,000 one and one-half to two 
inch yearling crappie or sunfish to an acre of water would be like- 
wise notable. These numbers have been realized and in some in- 
stances exceeded, but the average results are doubtless much smaller. 

The stock will be decreased through cannibalism at least 50 per 
cent by the end of the second year, and the yearlings held over will 
consume a large percentage of the fry hatched during the second 
and succeeding years of operations. Enough should survive, how- 
ever, to maintain the adult stock at the maximum number that the 
pond will support. 

In waters of high temperature those species adapted to culture in 
ponds will attain maturity and reproduce at the age of 2 years. In 



26 FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 

cool waters reproduction may be delayed until the fourth year, or 
in case the species is very poorly adapted to the temperature condi- 
tions the fish may remain small, stunted specimens throughout life 
and never reproduce. 

ENEMIES. 

There are many enemies of fish, especially of fry and fingerlings, 
against which the fish culturist must wage continual warfare. The 
heaviest losses will be from cannibalism, and these will be gauged 
by the balance of the food and fish in the pond. Some species are 
more predaceous than others. For this reason black basses, the scourge 
of restricted waters, are recommended only for large areas of the 
highest fertility. Such species as pike and pickerel should never be 
selected for culture in ponds, as they are the most piratical and 
devastating fishes inhabiting fresh waters. 

It is necessary to guard closely against the inadvertent establish- 
ment in a pond of any undesirable species of fish or animal. Turtles 
and snakes will consume large numbers of fry and fingerlings in the 
course of a season and should be barred from the waters as strictly 
ts possible. Kingfishers, herons, ducks, mudhens, fish hawks, etc., 
soon locate a pond and prove most persistent poachers. Powder and 
shot is their most effective deterrent. If inroads on the stock are 
made by mink, they should be trapped in season — at a time when they 
will, at least in part, make reimbursement for their board. Musk- 
rats, while not fish destroyers, work havoc with pond embankments 
and should be exterminated. 

METHODS EMPLOYED BY THE BUREAU OF FISHERIES IN THE 
DISTRIBUTION OF FISH. 

The Bureau of Fisheries will undertake to furnish fish to indi- 
viduals for stocking public and private waters. Blanks upon which 
to submit formal application will be supplied on request. Assign- 
ments of fish are made large enough to form the nucleus for a brood 
stock for a given area of water, and are delivered at the applicant's 
railroad station free of charge. From the information given in these 
applications the Bureau decides as to the suitability of the waters 
for the fish asked for and reserves the right to substitute other species 
if in its judgment the applicant's selection is ill chosen or it is im- 
possible, with its limited facilities, to supply the species specified 
within a reasonable length of time. 

None of the pond fishes recommended in the foregoing pages will 
be furnished by the Bureau for stocking lakes or streams in Washing- 
ton, Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, or the western portions of 
Wyoming or Montana, as it is believed their introduction into sucih 



PISH PONDS ON FARMS. 27 

waters might prove detrimental to the important salmon and trout 
fisheries of the Pacific coast. 

Basses, crappie, and sunfishes are propagated at 13 of the Bureau's 
stations, ranging in location from Vermont to South Carolina and 
from Texas to Iowa. However, the facilities at these stations are 
entirely inadequate to fill the rapidly growing demands, and the 
Bureau has for some years supplemented its supplies by collecting 
young fish of the species named from the overflow waters of certain 
rivers in the Mississippi Valley, where they are indigenous. 

No source of supply can be relied upon. A sudden change in tem- 
perature during the spawning season may cause a year's failure at an 
important pond-culture station, and, unfortunately, this critical 
period occurs at a time when sudden climatic changes are natural. 
The success attained in collecting young fish from overflow waters 
depends upon favorable water stages, not only at spawning time but 
throughout the collecting season ; as widely varying water stages are 
encountered from week to week and from year to year, the results 
of a season's work can not be foretold with any degree of certainty. 

It is the policy of the Bureau to fill applications, so far as practi- 
cable, in the order of their receipt, and the allotments are as liberal 
as circumstances Avill permit. Aside from the uncertainty as to the 
stock of fish available for distribution, there are other factors govern- 
ing the size of allotments and the time of delivery that are not gen- 
erally understood. 

On account of the greater value of fingerlings than fry for stock- 
ing purposes and the proportionate difficulty and expense of produc- 
ing the larger fish, it is of course impossible to supply them except in 
comparatively limited numbers. It has been estimated that 350 fish 
1 inch long are of more value than 1,000 fry, and that 25 fish 6 inches 
long are the equivalent of 100 only half as long. This is approxi- 
mately the ratio of decrease experienced in rearing fingerling fish at 
the Bureau's stations, and allotments to applicants are governed 
accordingly. 

The distribution operations of the Bureau of Fisheries close with 
the fiscal year ending June 30, At the opening of the new fiscal year 
all applications on hand are listed and arrangements are made to 
supply the fish assigned thereon before the following winter so far as 
the stock available will permit. Applications received after the 
opening of the fiscal year can not be filled in the same calendar year, 
unless there happens to be a surplus stock after deliveries have been 
made on all listed applications. 

There are two distinct periods of distribution — one of fry m 
the late spring months, the shipments being forwarded in charge of 
messengers direct from the stations where the fish are propagated. 
and the other by the Bureau's cars, which extends from early in July 



28 FISH PONDS ON FAEMS. 

until late in the fall. The later distribution is of fingerling fish, 
their size increasing as the work j)rogresses. 

The distributions are arranged to cover the country by States or 
groups of States, and individual trips are routed in such a way as to 
most effectively and economically supply all applicants of a particu- 
lar section of a State. The Bureau does not carry at all times a 
supply of fish that can be delivered on demand. Fish reproduce 
only once a year, and when the supply for any one year is exhausted 
it is necessary to wait another year, or until the next breeding season, 
before another supply can be obtained. Rarely is a second trip made 
over a route in the course of a year, and if for any reason an appli- 
cant fails to meet the Bureau's messenger and receive his consign- 
ment, the application is held for another attempt the following year. 
Only in extraordinarily good seasons can the entire area of the 
United States be covered. Each section is supplied in turn, so far 
as practicable, priority being given to the older applications on file. 

Applicants are notified from 30 to 60 days in advance of the con- 
templated shipments of their fish, and a second notice, specifying the 
exact time of arrival, is sent by the messenger while en route. Every 
precaution is taken by the Bureau to avoid misunderstandings, and 
it is essential that applicants follow all the instructions they may 

receive. 

REMOVING FISH FROM PONDS. 

In removing fish from a pond at any time the same care should be 
exercised as in handling stock, due precaution being taken to reserve 
the best specimens for breeders, and to retain a sufficient number for 
future reproduction. Their number and size must be left to the 
judgment of the proprietor of the pond, as it will vary greatly with 
the character of the water, size of the pond, climatic conditions, and 
geographical location. 

In southern latitudes pond fishes commence nest building in March, 
while farther north, in Iowa and Illinois, reproduction does not occur 
until May or June. Young fish recently hatched are very tender and 
should not be molested for at least 30 days. 

Care should be taken in removing adult fish from a pond, espe- 
cially during the spring and summer months. In making the selec- 
tion the larger fish should be preferred to the medium-sized ones, as 
the larger specimens are very destructive to the smaller fish. They 
are not as prolific as those of average weight, and have usually at- 
tained their size through cannibalism. 

If a few fish for table use are desired, and one has the time, they 
can probably best be taken with hook and line. A fyke net might 
be used under certain conditions, or a few may be taken in a tray 
constructed of light wooden framing, covered with netting or galvan- 
ized wire cloth of about 1-inch-square mesh. The trap should have 
f\ cone-shaped entrance for the fish, and the interior should contain a 
few minnows in a wire cage which are used as bait. 



U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate XVIIl 




U. S. B. F.— Doc. 826. 



Plate XIX. 




FISH PONDS ON FARMS. 29 

Where many fish are to be removed from a pond a seine should be 
employed. To use it to the greatest advantage about one-third of 
the water should be drawn off; this will cause the adult fish to 
congregate in the deeper waters, where they may be more readily 
secured. The water should be drawn off slowly in order to give the 
small fish a chance to follow it down. 

Before drawing the pond the vegetation should be removed from 
the lower portion of the pond where the seine is to be hauled. It 
may either be cut or raked out with a long-handled garden rake from 
the bank. Wading in the pond is to be avoided, as it makes the 
water roily and leaves deep holes in the bottom, in which the young 
fish are apt to be caught. 

In lowering the water, vegetation of a rank and dense growth is 
very apt to settle dowm and smother the young fish. It should be 
moved as soon as observed, but cat's-tail and other plants having 
stems of sufficient strength to support them in an upright position 
need not be removed, unless this is necessary" in order to haul the 
seine. 

In many instances it might not be necessary to draw off the water 
if the vegetation were removed from a portion of the pond and the 
fish fed regidarly in the cleared space, for, with care, a seine could 
be passed around them and a large number secured. 

It is inadvisable to draw a pond during the warm summer months 
imless one has the suppl}^ of water available to refill it at once. 
Better results are attained by drawing off the water in the cool fall 
months, but even then one should be sure of being able to refill the 
pond before freezing weather. For this reason it is believed that 
seining with a large net in the clearing where the fish have been 
accustomed to feed would give the best results. 

When the proper amount of water has been drawn off the seine 
should be laid out from a boat and hauled toward the bank at the 
deeper end of the pond. In case the deepest place is near the middle 
of the pond, it will be necessary to work the seine around the fish 
and haul it toward the nearest bank. 

Should more fish be removed from the pond than is desired for 
immediate use, the surplus can be placed in a floating live box 
anchored near the outlet or where the water is deep. This box may 
be made of wooden slats placed far enough apart to permit a free 
circulation of water and yet retain the fish. The slats should be 
nailed to a small frame of 2 by 2 inch material, forming a box 16 
feet long, -1 feet wide, and 3 feet deep, and provided with a hinged 
cover. 

If preferred, a small inclosure in the pond fenced with galvanized 
wire might be provided for holding surplus fish, removing them when 
required with a large hand dip net or a small seine. The advantage 
of the inclosure over the live box is that it will not crowd the fish, 
?nd they are thus held under more natural conditions. 



ALASKA nSHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915 



By Ward T. Bower, Affent and Henry D, Aller, Assistant 



Appendix III to the Report of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries for 1 91 5 



86497°— 17 17 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Introduction 7 

FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 

Waters closed to commercial fishing 9 

Patrol boats 10 

Violation of laws and regulations 11 

Alaska legislative notes 13 

Wood River census 15 

Aleutian Islands Reservation 16 

Afognak Reservation 17 

Complaints by natives 19 

Copper River 19 

English Bay 20 

Salmon hatcheries 21 

Extent of operations 21 

Hatchery rebates 21 

Hatchery inspection 22 

Yes Bay 22 

Afognak 23 

Uganik 24 

Seal Bay 24 

Fortmann 24 

Karluk 26 

Quadra 26 

Hetta 27 

Klawak 27 

General statistics of the fisheries in 1915 28 

Salmon industry 30 

Salmon canning 30 

Changes in canneries 30 

New canneries 31 

Canneries operated in 1915 32 

Canneries not operated in 1915 33 

Salmon catch and forms of gear 33 

Statistics 35 

Disasters and losses in the salmon industry 38 

Mild curing of salmon 39 

Salmon pickling 41 

Salmon freezing 43 

Fresh-salmon trade 44 

Dry salting, drying, and smoking oi salmott 44 

Salmon by-products 45 

Statistical summary 46 

Salmon in the Yukon 46 

Injury to salmon by birds 47 

Destructiveness of hair seals in the salmon fishery 47 

3 



4 V CONTENTS. 

Page, 

Halibut fishery 51 

Statistical summary 54 

Cod fishery 54 

Vessel fishery 54 

Shore stations 56 

Statistical summary 56 

Herring fishery 57 

Statistical summary 58 

Inquiry regarding waste of herring 59 

Whale fishery 63 

Shore stations 63 

Offshore whaling fleet 64 

Statistical summary 65 

Minor fisheries 66 

Trout 66 

Black cod 66 

Atka mackerel 67 

Mussels 68 

Crabs 68 

Clams 68 

FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 

Pribilof Islands 69 

General administrative duties 69 

Purchase and transportation of supplies 69 

Supplies 69 

Personnel 70 

New regulations 71 

Natives of the Pribilof Islands 72 

Support 72 

Health 72 

Water supply 74 

Schools 75 

Savings accounts 80 

Census 81 

Fur-seal herd 82 

Killing of seals 82 

Census of the fur-seal herd 83 

Branded seals 97 

Foxes 103 

Reindeer 104 

Radio service ^ - 104 

Patrol of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea 105 

Sealing privileges accorded aborigines 105 

Disposition of skins shipped from Pribilof Islands in 1915 106 

Postponement of sale of sealskins 106 

Dressing and dyeing of fur-seal skins 107 

MINOR FUR-BEARING ANIMALS. 

Field work - - 108 

Regulations 108 

Seizures and prosecutions 110 



CONTENTS. 



Fox farming Ill 

Kodiak-Afognak region 112 

Kodiak fox farm 112 

Other fox farms in Kodiak-Afognak region 130 

Early fox farming in this region 133 

Fox farms in the Copper River district 135 

Fox farms on the Tanana River 136 

Fox farms on the Yukon River 136 

Miscellaneous fur farming 137 

Conditions in the Bristol Bay region 138 

Shipment of furs from Alaska 138 

Aliscellaneous notes 139 

Leasing of islands 140 



ALASKA nSHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN I9J5. 



By Ward T. Bower, Agent, and Henry D. Aller, Assistant. 



INTRODUCTION. 

The activities of the Bureau of Fisheries in Alaska fall into three 
general classes, as follows: (a) The enforcement of the law and regu- 
lations having to do with the protection and conservation of the fish- 
eries and the operation of hatcheries, (h) administrative work in 
connection with the American fur-seal herd of the North Pacific 
Ocean, and (c) the enforcement of the law for the protection of the 
fur-bearing animals in Alaska generally. 

Under the first head the work is directed not only to the enforce 
ment of the law and regulations in respect to the fisheries, but con- 
templates such investigations and inquiry along scientific and eco- 
nomic lines as facilities permit. Another important feature is the 
statistical review of the fisheries and discussion of the methods, which 
is prepared each year. Still another phase of this part of the work 
is inspection of the private hatcheries. 

The activities of the Federal Government in respect to the North 
American fur-seal herd are concerned in large measure with enforcing 
the provisions of the North Pacific Sealing Convention of July 7, 
1911, and the act of Congi^ess giving effect to that convention, ap- 
proved August 24, 1912. The taking of these seals at sea is prohib- 
ited and the killing of them at the Pribilof Islands, the only place at 
which the seals come to land, is limited to the number necessary to 
supply food for the native inhabitants. Under restricted conditions 
descendants of aboriginal inhabitants dwelling on the North Ameri- 
can coast may take seals at sea. 

The three important positive duties having to do at the present 
time with the fur-seal herd are (1) the administration of the Pribilof 
Islands Reservation, (2) the marketing of the skins belonging to the 
Government taken at the Pribilof Islands, and (3) the patrol of the 
North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea for the prevention of pelagic 
sealing. The administration of the PribOof Islands Reservation and 
the marketing of skins is performed under the direction of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce; the work of patrolling the North Pacific Ocean 
and Boring Sea is performed by vessels of the Coast Guard detailed 
for that purpose. 



8 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1&15. 

The general law for the protection of fur-bearing animals, ap- 
proved April 21, 1910, places the duty of the enforcement of its pro- 
visions upon the Department of Commerce. The law itself forbids 
the killing of any fur-bearing animal in Alaska but authorizes the 
Secretary of Conamerce to establish by regulation open seasons for 
the various animals. Fur seals and sea otters, while included within 
the scope of this general law, are also made the subjects of special 
legislation. The enforcement of the law and the regulations for the 
protection of the fur-bearing animals in Alaska by the department, 
aside from the Pribilof Islands, rests largely upon the wardens em- 
ployed under the imimediate direction of the Bureau of Fisheries. In 
addition to their other duties the wardens collect information in 
regard to the abundance, distribution, and natural history of the 
various fur-bearing animals. Attention is also given to the opera- 
tions of fur farms, and information in regard to this industry is col- 
lected whenever possible. Statistics in regard to the shipment of 
furs from Alaska are secured by a system of reports made direct to 
the Bureau of Fisheries, which are as far as practicable checked with 
the records of the collector of customs at Juneau. 



nSHERY INDUSTRIES. 

As in similar reports for previous years, the Territory of Alaska 
is here considered in the four coastal geographic sections generally 
recognized as follows: Southeast Alaska, embraciag all that narrow 
strip of mainland and the numerous adjacent islands from Portland 
Canal northwestward to and includuig Yakutat Bay; central Alaska, 
the region on the Pacific from Yakutat Bay westward, including 
Prince WilHam Sound, Cook Inlet, and Chignik; western Alaska, the 
shores of Bering Sea, tributary waters, and the islands in Bering Sea ; 
and arctic Alaska, aU that portion of Alaska facing on or tributary 
to the Arctic Ocean. 

Detailed reports and statistical tables dealing with the various 
fishery industries are presented herewith, and there are also given the 
important features of certain subjects which were the object of special 
investigation or inquiry. 

WATERS CLOSED TO COMMERCIAL FISHING. 

It being deemed desirable by the department to designate certain 
waters as sahnon-breedmg reserves in southeast Alaska in addition 
to those previously selected for that purpose, a hearing was held at 
Seattle, Wash., October 1, 1915, in order to give persons interested 
an opportunity to present then- views. 

The hearing further confirmed the department's opinion as to the 
desirabihty of estabhshing these reserves, and under date of Octo- 
ber 25, 1915, an order was issued, to be effective January 1, 1916, for- 
bidding all fishing for salmon or other fishing in the prosecution of 
which salmon are taken or injured in the waters described as follows: 

1. All watei-s tributary to Barnes Lake, Prince of Wales Island. 

2. Hetta Creek, its tributary waters, and the region within 500 
yards of the mouth of said creek, 

3. Sockeye Creek, its tributary Boca de Quadra hatchery waters, 
and the region within 500 yards of the mouth of said creek. 

In addition to the waters affected by the order of October 25, 1915, 
there are, as a result of previous orders of the Secretary of Commerce, 
special limitations upon commercial fishing within the following 
described waters: Wood and Nushagak Rivers in western Alaska; in 
central Alaska aU streams flowing into Cook Inlet, Eyak Lake, and a 
limitation on fishing in Eyak River; and in southeast Alaska, Anan 

9 



10 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

Creek and Naha Stream. In addition, fishing limitations by authority 
of Executive order and proclamation apply to waters of the following: 
Afognak Reservation, Aleutian Islands Reservation, and Yes Bay 
and Stream. 

In the smnmer of 1914 it was brought to the attention of the Bureau 
that there was a lack of definite agreement as to the mouth of the 
Kenai River, a tributary of Cook Inlet, in reference to the require- 
ments of the department's order of November 18, 1912, limiting fish- 
ing in streams flowing into Cook Inlet. The matter was taken up 
with the Coast and Geodetic Survey, and m the spring of 1915 instruc- 
tions were issued to a field agent to establish markers to designate 
the mouth of the river. When the work was done it was fomid that 
five fish traps had been located within the prohibited area. 

PATROL BOATS. 

During the active fishing season as adequate a patrol of the fish- 
ing grounds was maintained as the funds of the Bureau permitted. 
Most of this work was m southeast Alaska, where the applicability of 
the weekly close season, the extensive fishing grounds, the use of 
practically all kinds of fishing gear, the network of channels, streams, 
and open waters, and the keen competition for fish, all combine toward 
the need of special activity by the Government. To meet require- 
ments along this line, the Bureau's steamer Osprey (23 tons) was 
used throughout the season, and the power boats Standard (15 tons) 
and Iowa (8 tons) were chartered for use in July and August. Other 
vessels were hired for short periods as circumstances required. In 
central Alaska a number of vessels were hired for brief periods, one 
being employed for most of July. 

Approximately the sum of $5,000 was spent for patrol work in the 
several sections of Alaska, and it is estimated that more than 10,000 
miles were covered by boats engaged in this service in the year 1915. 
Of this the steamer Osprey logged 4,934 nautical miles. The heaviest 
periods of steaming occurred in the months of July, August, and 
September, during the time of active fishing for salmon. 

This opportmiity is taken to reiterate the thought expressed in 
previous reports m regard to the pressmg need for additional vessels 
for patrol work. At least six seaworthy boats are required — three for 
southeast Alaska, two for central Alaska, and one for the western dis- 
trict. This would meet only minimum requirements. Under present 
conditions it is occasionally absolutely necessary for some of the 
Bureau's wardens to accept transportation upon boats owned by 
fishing companies whose operations are bemg inspected at the time. 
This is entirely wrong in principle, and can be remedied only when 
additional funds are provided for an adequate vessel service. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 11 

VIOLATIONS OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS. 

The enforcement of the laws and regulations for the protection of 
the fisheries constitutes no inconsiderable part of the Bureau's duties 
in Alaska. The importance of this work, as in the case of similar 
activities elsewhere, is obvious; for it is only as there is observance of 
the law that beneficial results in the proper conservation and develop- 
ment of the great natural wealth of the fisheries may be realized. The 
law is not intended to stifle legitimate enterprise nor to cause oppres- 
sive hardship, as might be inferred from the attitude of some of those 
who, because of their acts, either willful or otherwise, feel its force. 
On the contrary, it is intended to benefit directly and indiscriminately 
all who are concerned with it, which in this case is first in respect 
to those who are engaged in the business of taking fish and preparing 
them for market. Comparing the present-day situation with that 
which existed only a few years ago, it is undoubtedly true that there is 
now a more earnest purpose to comply with both the spirit and the let- 
ter of the fishery laws in Alaska. But, as the result chiefly of keen 
competition and confirmed cupidity, manifested in certain directions, 
more often by irresponsible employees, the necessity of never-endmg 
vigil in enforcing the law rests as a constant duty upon the Govern- 
ment. It may be said, happily, that either as a result of closer super- 
vision and improved efficiency in enforcing the law or because of a 
better disposition to obsei*ve the law, there have been but compara- 
tively few violations of the fishery laws reported in Alaska this year. 
This is indicated by the outlme which follows of the cases that have 
received attention. 

On Sunday, August 8, 1915, William Strand, of Haines, was found 
operating a gill net at one of the Chilkat Islands. The case was tried 
in the United States commissioner's court at Juneau on August 26. 
The defendant pleaded hunger as the reason for fishing on Sunday 
and the jury returned a verdict of not guilty. 

The charge against the Irving Packing Co. for having had a fish 
trap in operation on Sunday, June 28, 1914, was presented to the grand 
jury at Juneau in January, 1915, and a true bill was returned. On 
February 15, 1915, a representative of the company appeared in 
answer to the summons. It was then found that the indictment 
was in error in charging the offenders to be a corporation, whereas 
they were only a copartnership. To settle the matter promptly, 
the United States attorney filed a complaint in the United States 
commissioner's court, and the representative of the firm pleading 
guilty, a fine of $50 was imposed. 

A complaint was made by Frank Dandey, charging an Indian crew 
with laying a net illegally across Sarkar Cove, west coast of Prince 
of Wales Island. The case was tried in the United States commis- 



12 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

sioner's court at Craig on August 4, 1915. The defendants denied 
the charge, and, evidence in their favor being adduced, they were 
discharged. 

The Thlinket Packing Co. appealed the case decided against it 
at Juneau in the fall of 1914 for not closing certain fish traps in ac- 
cordance with the weekly close period requirement of law. The 
appeal is still pending. 

The cases against Libby, McNeill & Libby, based upon the indict- 
ments charging them with the wanton waste of salmon at a trap 
operated at Tyonek in connection with their cannery at Kenai on 
July 15 to 20, 1914, were brought to trial at Valdez in September, 
1915. It was established at the trial that the company had furnished 
the wire and cotton webbing for a trap to two fishermen who alleged 
that they knew of a good trap site. These men furnished the piling. 
Through part of the season the company took the fish caught by the 
trap, but later on did not need any fish from it. Thereafter the 
alleged waste of salmon took place. One of the most important 
questions of the case was the ownership of the trap. The defendants 
represented that the material had been furnished to the fishermen 
without cost and none of it was returned save a few tools used in its 
construction. They disclaimed wholly any interest in the ownership 
or management of the trap and claimed they had agreed to take 
only the king salmon, and that they had faithfully performed their 
part of the contract. The jury deliberated 16 hours and returned a 
verdict of not guilty. 

An indictment against the Northwestern Fisheries Co. charged it 
with the wanton waste of salmon at its Salamatof Point trap. The 
case was brought to trial at Valdez on September 18, 1915. The 
evidence was purely circumstantial and no witnesses were introduced 
by the defendant. The jury returned a verdict of not guilty. An- 
other indictment against this company charged it with having wan- 
tonly wasted halibut, skates, cod, and other fishes. The case was 
brought to trial at Valdez, September 20, 1915. While there was no 
denial that such fishes in small quantities had been lost, the Govern- 
ment failed to show that there had been wanton waste and for that 
reason the jury was instructed to find the defendant not guilty, on 
the ground that wanton waste had not resulted if the company in 
fishing for salmon had taken other fishes that were not wanted and 
could not be separated from the sahnon without rendering- the busi- 
ness unprofitable. A third indictment against the company charged 
it with the wanton waste of some 60,000 herring. The United States 
attorney moved a dismissal of the case and the motion was granted. 

The ca,ses arising from the indictments filed in the United States 
district court at Valdez in 1914 charging the Alaska Packers Asso- 
ciation with wanton waste of sahnon on Cook Inlet are set for trial 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 13 

in the fall of 1916. A motion for a continuance of theoe cases was 
granted when the matter came up in the fall of 1915. 

The Fidalgo Island Packing Co. pleaded guilty to the charge against 
it of having wantonly wasted food fishes in connection with the 
operation of its cannery at Port Graham. A fine of $500 was paid by 
this company. 

Indictments were returned by the grand jury at Valdez in Septem- 
ber, 1915, charging Libby, McNeill & Libby with having wantonly 
wasted fish at their Point Possession trap no. 8 and the Deep Sea 
Salmon Co. with having wantonly wasted fish at its Moose Point 
trap no. 4, at some independent traps, and by gill-nets fishing for 
the company. 

In the main the fisheries laws and regulations were well observed in 
the Bristol Bay region. The cannerymen expected that there would 
be a very poor run and were undoubtedly anxious to pack all the 
fish possible. There were indications of some waste of chum salmon, 
but evidence could not be obtained as to who were responsible. 
Two nets were seized by a warden patrolling the closed waters of Wood 
and Nushagak Rivers, but as the owners of the nets could not be 
found no complaints were filed. The nets were tied across the 
mouths of two small streams tributary to the Nushagak River. 

A complaint was made by residents of Olness in regard to a fish 
trap in the Chatanika River. An investigation by Warden C. F. 
Townsend disclosed that a fish trap had been placed in the river for 
the purpose of taking whitefish. At the time the trap was con- 
structed the water was high and the trap extended only about one- 
third of the way across the stream. After the water became low, 
however, the trap extended entirely across the stream. When Mr. 
Townsend arrived on the ground ice had destroyed the main body of 
the trap. The owners having been notified in regard to the require- 
ments of the law, the matter was dropped in accordance with the 
advice of the United States attorney. 

A complaint was made by Warden W. P. Hemenway against Alec 
Simpson, Ben Cutler, and Fred Douse for having wantonly wasted 
fish at Birch Lake on August 8, 1915. The defendants appeared in 
the United States commissioner's court at Fairbanks, September 1, 
1915, without service of a warrant, and entered a plea of guilty. The 
court imposed a fine of $1 each and costs. It was estimated that the 
waste involved about 600 pounds of pickerel. 

ALASKA LEGISLATIVE NOTES. 

In the act of August 24, 1912, creating a Territorial form of govern- 
ment for Alaska, it was provided that the legislature should not have 
the power to alter, amend, modify, or repeal existing laws in respect 
to the fisheries of the Territory. A proviso was incorporated, how- 



14 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

ever, which stated that nothing should prevent the Territory from 
imposing other and additional license fees or taxes. Pursuant to 
the authority which was supposed to exist by virtue of this proviso, 
the Territorial Legislature, at its first session, which occurred in 1913, 
imposed certain license fees on the fisheries. This act was reenacted 
by the legislature at its second session, in 1915, the following being 
that part referring particularly to the fisheries: 

Section 1. That any firm, person or corporation prosecuting or attempting to 

prosecute any of the following lines of business in the Territory of Alaska shall apply 

for and obtain a license and pay for said license for the respective lines of business 

as follows: 

******* 

6th. Fisheries: Salmon canneries, four cents per case on king and reds or sockeye; 
two cents per case on medium reds; one cent per case on all others. 

7th. Salteries: Two and one-half cents per one hundred pounds on all fish salted or 
mild cured, except herring. 

8th. Fish traps: Fixed or floating, one hundred dollars per annum. So-called 
dimimy traps included. 

9th. Gill nets: One dollar per hundred fathoms or fraction thereof. 

10th. Cold-storage fish plants: Doing a business of one hundred thousand dollars 
per annimi or more, five hundred dollars per annum; doing a business of seventy-five 
thousand dollars per annum, and less than one hundred thousand dollars, three hun- 
dred and seventy-five dollars per annum; doing a business of fifty thousand and less 
than seventy-five thousand dollars per annum, two hundred and fifty dollars per 
annum; doing a business of twenty-five thousand and less than fifty thousand dollars 
per annum, one hundred and twenty-five dollars per annum; doing a business of ten 
thousand dollars and less than twenty-five thousand dollars per annum, fifty dollars 
per annum; doing a business of four thousand, and less than ten thousand dollars per 
annum, twenty-five dollars per annum; doing a business of under four thousand 
dollars per annum, ten dollars per annum. The "Annual Business" under this 
section shall be considered the amount paid per annum for the product. 

It has been felt by the commercial fishery interests of Alaska that 
the enabhng act did not confer sufiicient authority upon the Terri- 
torial Legislature to impose any hcense fees or taxes upon the fisheries. 
As a result, there has been much controversy, and the Hcense fees or 
taxes collected by the Territory have been paid under protest by the 
companies concerned. It was finally agreed upon by representatives 
of the fishery interests and the Territory that a test case would be 
instituted with a view to having the matter definitely decided by the 
courts. Accordingly, a case was brought to trial in the district 
court at Juneau, the Alaska Salmon Co., operating a cannery in west- 
ern Alaska and with headquarters at San Francisco, being named as 
defendant. In December, 1915, the district court rendered a decision 
in favor of the Territory of Alaska, and the case was accordingly 
appealed to the circuit court of appeals of the ninth judicial district. 
No decision has been handed down as yet by that court. It is under- 
stood that the representatives of the fishery interests and the Territory 
bound themselves to abide by the decision of the circuit court without 
attempt at further appeal. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 



15 



WOOD RIVER CENSUS. 

A census of red salmon entering Wood River (Lake Aleknagik) to 
spawn was again taken in 1915. This work was begun in 1908 and 
has been continued each year since with the exception of 1914. 
' The winter of 1914-15 was unusually mild in the Nushagak region, 
and it was reported that the ice left the rivers in March and April. 
The spring was also exceptionally mild, there was practically no rain, 
and the days were extremely warm throughout the season. An early 
run of salmon was, therefore, expected and arrangements were 
accordingly made to have the Wood River rack put in place as early as 
possible. This was accomplished the early part of June. The count- 
ing of salmon extended from June 14 to August 2, both dates in- 
clusive. The run reached its maximum on July 7, when 26,901 fish 
were counted. The next largest count, 25,554 fish, was made on 
July 12. 

The following statement shows the tally of salmon at the Wood 
River (Lake Aleknagik) rack in 1915: 



June 14 


Number. 
161 


June 15 


475 


June 16 


706 


June 17 


727 



June 18 2,277 

June 19 1,090 

June 20 606 

June 21 481 

June 22 1,016 

June 23 2,375 

June 24 2,810 

June 25 1,732 

June 26 1,418 

June 27 604 

June 28 738 

June 29 1,144 

June 30 6,014 

Julyl 11,061 



Number. 

July 2 14,241 

Julys 6,799 

July 4 5,701 

Julys 1,977 

July 6 8,524 

July 7 26,901 

Julys 21,297 

July 9 15,335 

July 10 8,295 

Julyll 19,832 

July 12 25,554 

July 13 14,185 

July 14 7,014 

July 15 5,839 

July 16 9,951 

July 17 12,101 

July 18 5,223 

July 19 2,460 



Number 

July 20 1,,834 

July 21 1,.449 

July 22 778 

July 23 1,006 

July 24 1,-785 

July 25 1,957 

July 26 1,374 



July 27. 
July 28. 
July 29. 
July 30. 
July 31. 
Aug. 1. 
Aug. 2. 



762 
635 
518 
209 
180 
120 
70 



Total 259,341 



A few salmon of other species enter the river with the red salmon, 
but the number is too small to affect materially the results of the 
count. It was estimated that 18 per cent of the fish passing through 
the rack had been injured by gill nets and that at least 90 per cent 
of the injured fish died before spawning. Fish injured by gill nets 
were present throughout the entire run. Counts made at different 
times to determine the relative proportion of such fish gave widely 
varying results. Ordinarily the number of gill-netted fish ranged 
between 12 and 26 to the hundred. Several coimts were made 
in which there were from 30 to 42 in a hundred. On the other hand, 
one count was made in which there were only 2 injured fish in a total 
of 1,103. 



16 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

Valuable assistance was rendered the Bureau by the Alaska Packers 
Association and the Alaska-Portland Packers* Association in connec- 
tion with the census work. 

ALEUTIAN ISLANDS RESERVATION. 

The Aleutian Islands Reservation was created by an Executive 
order of March 3, 1913. It embraces aU islands of the Aleutian chain, 
including Unimak and Sannak Islands on the east, and extending to 
and including Attn Island on the west. By the terms of the Execu- 
tive order the islands within the reservation are reserved and set apart 
as a preserve and breeding ground for native birds, for the propaga- 
tion of reindeer and fur-bearing animals, and for the encouragement 
and development of the fisheries. Provision is made that the estab- 
Ushment of the reservation shall not interfere with the use of the 
islands for hghthouse, mihtary, or naval purposes, or with the exten- 
sion of the work of the Bureau of Education on Unalaska and Atka 
Islands. Jurisdiction in respect to the reservation was placed with 
the Departments of Agriculture and Commerce. The joint regula- 
tions, effective March 15, 1914, promulgated by the two departments, 
are still operative. They are as follows: 

1. In compliance with existing laws and to carry out the objects of the Executive 
order establishing the reservation, all matters relating to wild birds and game and 
the propagation of reindeer and fur-bearing animals wall be under the immediate 
jiuisdiction of the Department of Agriculture; all matters pertaining specifically to 
the fisheries and all aquatic life, and to the killing of fur-bearing animals, will be 
under the immediate jm-isdiction of the Department of Commerce; and all matters 
other than those specifically mentioned above will be under the joint jiuisdiction of 
the Departments of Agricultiu"e and Commerce. 

2. Persons residing within the limits of the reservation on March 3, 1913, will be 
permitted to continue to so reside, and to carry on any lawful business not interfering 
with the purposes of the reservation. 

3. Residents of the reservation desiring to engage in commercial fishing, or the 
himting, trapping, or propagation of fur-bearing animals or game animals, must first 
seciu-e a permit to do so. 

4. Anyone desiring to enter the reservation for the purpose of fishing, hunting, 
trapping or propagating fur-bearing animals or game animals, or engaging in com- 
mercial fishing, salmon canning, salmon salting, or otherwise curing or utilizing fish or 
other aquatic products, or for the purpose of engaging in any lawful business, must 
first obtain a permit to do so. 

5. Whenever, in the propagation of fur-bearing animals, it shall be found to be 
necessary to kill such of these animals as interfere with the work of the Department of 
Agricultm-e in this behalf, they may be killed under the supervision of said depart- 
ment, and no permit will be required therefor. 

6. Fishery -permits. — Application for permission to engage in fishing or fishery 
operations should give full information on tha following points: Name and permanent 
address of the person or company desiring the permit; character of business proposed, 
whether fishing, canning, salting, or otherwise curing fish or other aquatic products; 
character and extent of proposed plant and its location; method and extent of the 
fishing proposed, place or places where fishing is to be carried on, and when active 
operations are to begin. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 17 

7. Trapping and hunting permits. — Applications for permission to engage in trap- 
ping, hunting, or propagating fur-bearing animals or game animals should give the 
name of the person desiring the permit and the island or islands on which it is pro- 
posed to operate. At present no permits will be issued for trapping or hunting fur- 
bearing animals except to natives of the reservation. 

8. Permits to ship live foxes from the reservation. — For the present no permits will be 
issued for capture and shipment of li^'e foxes from the reservation, except domestic 
stock from established fox farms. 

9. Permits to enter the reservation for the purpose of engaging in any business will 
be gi'anted only when the department concerned is conv-inced that, by so doing, the 
objects for which the reservation was established w ill not be endangered thereby. 

10. Collecting permits. — Permits to enter the reservation for the purpose of collecting 
birds, mammals, or other natural-history specimens for scientific purposes will be 
granted only to properly accredited representatives of the United States Government 
or agents of public museums. 

11. Reindeer and caribou. — The killing of reindeer and caribou on any of the islands 
of the reservation is hereby prohibited except under special permit. 

It will be noted that section 3 of the regulations provides that resi- 
dents of the reservation desiring to engage in commercial fishing 
must first secure a permit to do so. Natives of the reservation catch 
salmon, cod, herring, and other fishes for their own use, and it has 
been their custom to sell a few fish to the white residents and to vessels 
stopping within the reservation. This affords the natives an oppor- 
tunity to improve their condition, and it is not the intention of the 
Bureau at present to require that permits be secured to cover the 
operations of natives, residents of the reservation, who, in addition to 
taking fish for their own domestic purposes, take fish for sale locally, 
that is, within the reservation, and in limited quantities. 

In December, 1914, a permit, expiring December 31, 1915, was 
issued to A. C. Goss, of Unalaska, authorizing him to take Atka 
mackerel in the vicinity of Attn Island and red salmon in the vicinities 
of Umnak and Unalaska Islands. It was stipulated that all work in 
connection with the taking of the fish and their subsequent prepara- 
tion for market should be perfomied by Aleuts or Indians who were 
residents of the reservation. 

A ])rief account of the work which Mr. Goss did in connection with 
Atka mackerel is given on page 67. 

In March, 1915, a permit was issued authoriznig A. B. Somerville, 
of Unalaska, to take red salmon in the vicinity of Attn Island. The 
same requirement was made in regard to the employment of native 
labor as was made in Mr. Goss's permit. The permit was subse- 
quently extended to include mackerel. 

AFOGNAK RESERVATION. 

Fishing operations within the Afognak Reservation during the sea- 
son of 1915 were under the general supervision of Assistant Agent 
E. M. Ball. The details of the work were attended to in large measure 
by his assistant, Warden James H. Lyman. 
86497°— 17 18 



18 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



Supplementing the general regulations of the Department of Com- 
merce in respect to fishery operations within the reservation a num- 
ber of additional rules were put in force. Fishing at Malina was 
closed from 6 p. m. Saturday, June 26, to 6 a. m. Thursday, July 1; 
at Paramanof from 6 p. m. Saturday, July 10, to 6 a. m. Thursday, 
July 15. Litnik Bay and all that portion of Seal Bay locally known 
as Pauls Bay were closed throughout the season. Fishing gear was 
limited to seines and gill nets not exceeding 200 fathoms in length. 
Fishermen were required to keep the mouths of streams clear of all 
dories, skiffs, and other gear which would in. any way tend to prevent 
the ascent of salmon to the spawning groimds, and they were directed 
to pew fish through the head only. 

For the season 79 licenses were issued authorizing commercial 
fishing. The Kadiak Fisheries Co., of Kodiak, was the only com- 
pany to secure fish taken, through arrangements with the licensees. 
Late in May this company selected crews from such men as were 
entitled to fish, fitted them out with gear, and transported them to 
the various field stations. In July and August when the fishmg was 
at its height there were 14 crews engaged in the work. In the 
course of the season 6 localities were fished. 

The largest runs of sockeyes occurred at Malina in June and July. 
Seal Bay ranked second, with times of runs the same. Many red 
salmon, particularly at MaHna, were prevented from entering their 
spawning grounds because of low water due to drought which threat- 
ened to dry up the streams. The fish returned to the ocean after 
making futile attempts to reach their spawning grounds, and when 
rain came in August swelling the streams they did not make a second 
appearance. Humpback salmon were taken quite generally in the 
waters of the reservation, Izhut and Paramanof Bays being most 
prolific. In August and September there was an unusual run of cohos. 
It was said that they were more nmnerous than at any other time 
since the eruption of Mount Katmai in 1912, which inflicted severe 
damage on the fish life in this reservation. 

The catch of salmon in the commercial fisheries of Afognak waters 
for 1915 is shown, by localities and species, in the following table: 

Catch op Salmon in the Afognak Reservation, Season of 1915. « 



Localities. 



Sock- 
eyes. 



Hump- 
backs. 



Cohos. 



Total. 



Malina 

Paramanof 

Seal Bay 

Little Afognak . 

Izhut Bay 

Danger Bay — 



Total. 



38,298 
15,028 
26,002 
10, 702 
1,216 
14 



1,431 
9,102 
8,363 
5,393 
9,130 
4,075 



59 
5,876 



91,260 



37, 494 



5,938 



39, 729 
24, 130 
34, 424 
21,971 
10,346 
4,092 



134, 692 



a Through inadvertence there were included fn the corresponding table in the report for 1914 (Bureau 
of Fisheries document no. 819), 5 localities, viz, Eagle Harbor, English Bay, Kaluda, Kizhuyak, and 
Shuyak Island, which are not in the Afognak Reservation. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 



19 



A detailed statement of the methods of capture of each species and 
the approximate beginning and ending of the fishing season in each 
localitj'^ is shown in the table following : 

Fishing Season, Approximate, and Apparatus, Afognak Reservation, 1915. « 



Localities. 



Sockeyes. 



Gilied. Seined 



Hutnp- 

backs, 
seined. 



Cohos, 
seined. 



Fishing season. 



Began. Ended 



Malina 

Paramanof 

Seal Bay 

Little Afognak. 

Izhut Bay 

Danger Bay... 



4,417 
8,040 



38,298 
10,611 
17,962 
10, 702 
1,216 
14 



1,431 

9,102 
8,363 
5,393 
9,130 
4,075 



59 
5,876 



May 29 

June 2 

June 1 

June 16 

July 15 

July 20 



Aug. 21 
Aug. 5 
July 21 
July 12 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 25 



Total. 



12, 457 



78,803 



37,494 



5,938 



a Through inadvertence there were included in the corresponding table in the report for 1914 (Bureau 
of Fisheries document no. S19), 5 localit ies, viz, Eagle Harbor, English Bay, Kaluda, Kizhuyak, and Shuyak 
Island, which are not in the Afognak ReservBtion. 

At the prevailing rates paid for salmon the catch was worth about 

$4,223. 

COMPLAINTS BY NATIVES. 



COPPER RIVER. 

A report was made in 1915 by the United States commissioner at 
Chitina that the Copper River Indians were unable to obtain a supply 
of salmon for their winter needs, and it was requested that the matter 
be given early consideration. An investigation of the situation cov- 
ering the region from Chitina northward was made by Assistant Agent 
Ball in the fall of 1915 and continued by Warden Lyman in the win- 
ter of 1915-16. It was thought that by continuing the investigation 
into the winter season the condition of the natives, so far as it was 
affected by their supply of fish, could be ascertained from actual 
observation at that time. 

The Copper River Valley from Chitina northward has a native 
population of about 300 persons, located principally at Copper Center, 
Chitina, Upper Tonsina, Lower Tonsma, Gulkana, Gakona, and 
Mentasta. There are a few scattered groups elsewhere. Informa- 
tion in regard to the situation was obtained not only from the natives 
themselves but from proprietors of road houses, trappers, fox ranch- 
ers, and settlers, Arthur H. Miller, agent of the Bureau of Education 
at Copper Center, rendered assistance in the collecting of informa- 
tion from the natives. 

No actual suffering on the part of the natives on account of the 
lack of a supply of fish was observed. Evidence as to the mainte- 
nance of the usual supply of fish in the waters of this region in the 
season of 1915 was conflicting. It is beheved, however, that the 



20 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

present supply is somewhat less than it was years ago, but it further 
appears that the natives are concerned not so much with the present 
supply as with the prospects of what the future has in store for them. 
Moreover, at present, caribou, moose, and mountain sheep are plentiful 
in locahties and a supply of food secured from these animals may 
be substituted in part. 

In general it may be said that the same conditions are found here 
that obtain in some other regions in Alaska. The natives will not be 
able to compete with modern methods if they continue to adhere to 
their primitive methods of fishing and to their original customs and atti- 
tude of indifference toward continued and persistent effort and indus- 
try. To Umit modern fishing operations to an extent that a supply 
of fish may be available in such places as individuals may desire, and 
in such quantities as will enable natives to take their year's supply 
within such hmited periods as natural incUnation would dictate, would 
mean a loss of food to the world at large that would not be justified. 

ENGLISH BAY. 

In June, 1915, the Department of Commerce received a communi- 
cation from the Department of the Interior advising of the receipt 
by that department of a communication from natives of English 
Bay, Alaska, statmg that the placing of a fish trap by the Seldovia 
Salmon Co. in front of the native village of English Bay had made it 
impossible for them to get fish enough for their support during the win- 
ter, and setting forth their circumstances and needs. Orders were im- 
mediately issued to an agent of the Bureau to determine whether the 
trap in question was legally placed and to ascertain other pertinent 
facts. 

The investigation made accordingly developed that the trap was not 
unlawfully placed. The trap site had been located a number of years 
previously and in the meantime the propriety of operating the trap 
in that place had not been disputed. It was found, however, that the 
natives were daily violating the law by seining and setting gill nets 
within 100 yards outside the mouth of the red-salmon stream flow- 
ing into Enghsh Bay. 

Considering in a general way the dependence of the natives of 
Alaska upon the fisheries, something should be said in their favor. 
Where modern methods of fishing prevail, the natives are sometimes 
unable to compete successfully for their supply of fish or to adapt 
themselves to the changed conditions. Possibly the establishment 
of a nimiber of fishery reserves for their exclusive use would be the 
best solution of the problem. A general policy of this character 
should not be undertaken except in accordance with well-formulated 
plans equitable to all interests involved and with false sentiment for 
the natives ehminated. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 



21 



SALMON HATCHERIES. 



EXTENT OF OPERATIONS. 



In 1915 seven salmon hatcheries were operated in Alaska, two of 
which were Government stations and five were private hatcheries. 
In addition three small field or collecting stations were operated for 
short periods by the Government, one of these being in conjunction 
with the Yes Bay hatchery, and the other two subsidiary to the 
Afognak hatchery. The aggregate annual capacity of the seven 
hatcheries is approximately 350,000,000 red-salmon eggs, of which 
the two Government stations are capable of handling nearly 150- 
000,000. 

In 1914 the total take of red, or sockeye, salmon eggs in Alaska 
was 133,984,500, from which a total of 121,784,330 young salmon 
were liberated, chiefly during the spring of 1915. In addition there 
was a shipment of 3,000,000 eggs to Oregon. This represents an in- 
crease over the previous season, when 1 19,668,680 red salmon were lib- 
erated in Alaska waters. The take of red-salmon eggs in 1915 totaled 
173,499,100, or an increase of about 40,000,000 over the take in the 
fall of 1914. This gain was chiefly at the Bureau's station at Yes 
Bay. In 1915 the collection of humpback eggs aggregated 16,976,000 
as compared with 19,108,000 in 1914, or nearly 2,000,000 less. 

Operations op Alaska Hatcheries in 1915. 



stations. 



Red or sock- 
eye salmon 
eggs taken 
in 1914. 



Red or sock- 
eye salmon 
liberated in 
1914-15. 



Red or sock- 
eye salmon 
eggs taken 
in 1915. 



Yes Bay 

Afognak 

Uganik 

Seal Bay 

Fortmann (Naha) . 

Karluk 

Quadra 

Hetta 

Klawak 



41,300,000 
7,390,000 



36,720,000 
5,444,830 



22,500,000 
30, 240, 000 
21,300,000 
7, 438, 500 
3,816,000 



20,820,000 
27, 704, 000 
20.300.000 
7,142,500 
3, 653, 000 



"72,000,000 

6 8,183,000 

c 2, 685, 000 

d 3, 232, 100 

< 26, 520, 000 

41,135,000 

7,500,000 

8,114.000 

4,130,000 



Total. 



133, 984, 500 



121, 784, 330 



173,499,100 



« Also 325.000 humpback eggs collected at Ketchikan and planted before hatching. 
b A colleciion of 12,355,000 humpback eggs also made. 

All eyed eggs, both red and humpback, trans- 



All eyed eggs, both red and humpback, trans- 



c A collection of 2,461,000 humpback eggs also made, 
lerred to Afognak. 

<t A collection of 1,235,000 humpback eggs also made, 
ferred to Afognak. 

< A collection of 600,000 humpback eggs also made. 

Note.— Of the Yes Bay collections of sockeye eggs, shipments of 3.000,000 were made in the fall of 1914, 
and the same number again in October, 1915, to the Oregon Fish Commission. Also in the fall of 1915 a 
shipment ot 100,000 was made to the Bureau's station at Quinault Lake, Wash., and 15,000,000 were trans- 
ferred to Afognak. 



HATCHERY REBATES. 



Under the terms of existing law those who operate private hatch- 
eries in Alaska are allowed a rebate of 40 cents for every thousand red 
or king salmon fry released. This sum is the equivalent of the tax on 



22 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



10 cases of canned salmon. The plan of operating private hatcheries 
is not looked upon with favor at the present time, and it is hoped that 
in the near future legislation will be enacted to the end that they may 
be taken over by the Government, 

Pursuant to law, affidavit is made by the operators of private 
salmon hatcheries showing the number of fry released during each year 
ending June 30. The following table shows the rebate certificates 
due for the year ended June 30, 1915: 

Output of Salmon Fry From Private Hatchkries During Fiscal Year Ended 

June 30, 1915.a 



0\vners. 


Location. 


Red-salm- 
on fry 
liberated. 


Rebate 
due. 


Alaska Packers Association 


Naha Stream 

Karluk River 

Quadra Lake 

Hetta Lake 

Klawak Lake 


20,820,000 
27,704,000 
20,300,000 
7, 142, 600 
3,653,000 


?8,328.00 
11 081 60 


Do.... 


North westeiu Fisheries Co 


8, 120. 00 
2,857.00 
1,461.20 


Do 


North Pacific Trading & Paclfing Co 




Total 


79,6X9,500 


31,847.80 







Q In the case of the hatcheries where the seasonal distribution of fry is not completed before July 1, the 
renjaining fry are shown in the subsequent fiscal year's repiort. 

HATCHERY INSPECTION, 

At various times during the year 1915 the several private salmon 
hatcheries in Alaska were inspected by representatives of the Bureau 
of Fisheries. The purpose of these inspections is to determine the 
nimaber of eggs taken and the number of young salmon liberated. 
Due note is made as to the methods of operation. Care is taken to 
check up the records of the hatchery in order to determine the cor- 
rectness of returns covering the output. 



From the 41,300,000 red-salmon eggs taken in 1914 at the Bureau's 
station at Yes Bay, 36,720,000 young fish were liberated in the period 
from January to July, 1915. Of this collection there was also a ship- 
ment of 3,000,000 eyed eggs to the Oregon Fish Commission in October, 
1914. Thus the losses were 1,580,000, or 3.8 per cent. 

In 1915 the taking of red-salmon eggs at Yes Bay began September 
2 and ended September 29, when the hatchery was filled to its capac- 
ity of 72,000,000 eggs. In October 3,000,000 of these eggs were 
transferred to the Oregon Fish Commission and 100,000 were shipped 
to the Bureau's station at Quinault Lake, Wash., while in November 
15,000,000 eggs were transferred to the Afognak station. 

Arrangements were made to operate a substation in rented quar- 
ters at Ketchikan for the collection of humpback-salmon eggs from 
fish ascending Ketchikan Creek. A take of 325,000 eggs had been 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 23 

made in the period from September 8 to 16, 1915, when operations 
were discontinued at the request of citizens of Ketchikan, and the 
eggs were planted upon the natural spawning grounds. In 1913 a 
substation was operated §,t Ketchikan, but in 1914 no eggs were 
obtained, as there was no run of sahnon in the creek. 

Realizing the advantages of phmting fingerlings rather than fry, 
the Bureau has -increased its efforts to feed as many of the young 
salmon at Yes Bay as possible before liberating them. Three rear- 
ing ponds, each 12 by 60 feet in size and 2+ feet in depth, constructed 
in 1914, were utilized for this purpose in 1915. Eighty troughs in 
the hatchery were also used for feeding young salmon. The food 
consisted of steelhead trout that were obtained near the hatchery 
and adult salmon which had been salted down after their eggs were 
taken the previous fall. These salmon were thoroughly freshened by 
being placed in runnmg water for 24 hours or more. The food was 
cooked, ground, pressed dry, and after gratmg and screening was ready 
to be fed. It appeared to give satisfactory results. Some difficulty 
was experienced with the salmon held in the ponds when the water 
warmed up to an unusual degree in the month of June. Most of the 
fingerhngs then remaining on hand were accordingly planted in the 
lake. 

A watchman was stationed on Yes Bay, beginning July 13, 1915, 
and continuing through the run of the red salmon, to see that the 
order closmg the bay to commercial fishing was fuUy observed, 

ABOGNAK. 

The collection of red-salmon eggs at the Afognak station from 
August 1 to September 29, 1914, aggregated 7,390,000. From these 
eggs there was planted in the period from December, 1914, to May, 
1915, a total of 5,444,830 young salmon, most of which were of the fin- 
gerling size. The take of red-salmon eggs at this station in 1915 con- 
tinued from August 7 to September 30, during which time 8,183,000 
eggs were obtained. 

A shipment of 15,000,000 red-salmon eggs in 65 cases from the Yes 
Bay station arrived at Afognak village December 9 and was placed 
in the Bm-eau's warehouse at Litnik Bay. On account of unfavora- 
ble weather and great difficulties in transporting the egg cases over 
the ice, it was not until December 22 that the last of the eggs reached 
the hatchery. Although made ready for shipment at Yes Bay on 
November 23, these eggs were in good condition with the exception 
of one case in which there had been some premature hatching. 

From August 4 to September 14, 1914, there were taken at Afognak 
6,5f4,600 lumipback-salmon eggs. From these eggs 119,480 young 
salmon were planted in the winter and spring of 1914-15. Most of 
the eggs from this collection went with the 2,534,000 collected from 



24 ALASKA FISHERIES AND PUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

August 26 to September 5 at Uganik and the 5,000,000 purchased 
from the Karluk hatchery of the Alaska Packers Association, to make 
up the total of 12,500,000 humpback-salmon eggs shipped in Novem- 
ber, 1914, of which 7,000,000 were consigned to Government hatch- 
eries in Maine and the balance to stations of the Bureau in Wash- 
ington. 

The taking of humpback eggs at Afognak in 1915 extended from 
August 2 to September 21, the total collection beir.g 12,355,000. 

Nearly all the young salmon handled at the Afognak station were 
fed for some time before being planted. Several tons of Dolly Varden 
trout and spawned salmon had been salted down the previous season 
to be used for this purpose. In preparing the food the fish were 
freshened, cooked, pressed into a cake and left under pressure until 
cold; then the food was cut into strips, which were run through a fine 
meat grinder several times and finally through a fine screen. The 
young salmon did very well on this diet. The construction of a series 
of 12 rearing ponds, each 20 feet long, 6 feet wide, and 3 feet deep, is 
under way. When these ponds are completed it is anticipated that 
they will be of great assistance in holding and feeding young salmon. 
The ponds are being so built that additional ones can be constructed 
just below them, if necessary. 

Fish-cultural operations in this region are still greatly handicapped 
on account of the volcanic ash resulting from the eruption of Mount 
Katmai in 1912. 

UGANIK. 

The total collections at this point in 1915 were 2,685,000 red and 
2,461,000 humpback salmon eggs. The loss was 85,000 red and 
61,000 humpbacks; the balance, 2,600,000 red and 2,400,000 eyed 
humpback eggs, was transferred to the Afognak hatchery. The 
Uganik field station was closed October 9. 

SEAL BAY. 

A new collecting and field station was established at Seal Bay on the 
northeast coast of Afognak Island. Some of the equipment used 
here was transferred from the field station operated in 1913 at Eagle 
Lake. Preparations for work at Seal Bay were begun in June and 
operations were brought to a close on October 13, 1915. Collec- 
tions totaled 3,232,100 red and 1,235,000 himipback salmon eggs. 
The loss was 59,100 red and 111,200 humpbacks, thus leaving 3,173,- 
000 red and 1,123,800 humpback eggs, all eyed, which were trans- 
ferred to the Afognak hatchery. 

FORTMANN. 

The Fortmann hatchery is the largest salmon propagating station in 
the world, its capacity being approximately 110,000,000 red-sahnon 
eggs. It is operated by the Alaska Packers Association and is located 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 25 

on Heckman Lake about 8 miles from Loring, Alaska. The egg- 
taking season in 1914 extended from August 22 to November 30, 
during which period 22,500,000 red-salmon eggs were secured. Tlio 
number of young fish hberated therefrom in 1915 was 20,820,000, the 
loss thus being 1,680,000, or 7.4 per cent. The fry from the hatchery 
were transferred to nursery ponds where they were fed, folio whig 
which they were liberated in the Naha Stream system, of which Heck- 
man Lake forms a part. A few fry were planted in some of the 
small streams tributary to the lake; it was thought that they would 
acquire sufficient growth in such protected waters to enable them to 
care for themselves better before becoming subject to the attacks of 
birds and larger fishes in the more open waters of the lake. This 
would be a good plan to follow at other salmon hatcheries m Alaska 
where there are not ample facilities for rearing to the fingerling size 
before planting. 

In 1915 the egg-collecting season continued from August 21 to No- 
vember 20, during which time the take of red-salmon eggs was 
26,520,000. The average number of eggs per female spawned is 
reported as 2,605. The earUest take of eggs began to hatch on 
November 9. From the records of the hatchery it has been deter- 
mmed that the period of eyeing in an average water temperature of 
49° F. is 31 days, and with an average temperature of 46° F. is 41 
days. With an average temperature of 46° F. the period of hatching 
is 82 days. 

From August 22 to November 22, 1915, 600,000 humpback-salmon 
eggs were taken experimentally. In connection with the taking of 
hmnpback eggs at this hatchery the followmg is extracted from a 
commimication of December 10, 1915, from the Alaska Packers 
Association : 

It may be of interest to know that at our Fortmann hatchery, located on Heckman 
Lake, there are practically no humpbacks. In 1913 about 5,000 humpback eggs were 
taken from fish collected on Jordan Lake (next below Heckman Lake) and the fry 
resulting therefrom liberated from the hatchery. This year 119 salmon of this species 
were caught off the hatchery fishing gi-ounds. It would appear that these results add 
to the theory derived from the study of the ages of salmon by scale markings, that 
humpback salmon are 2 years old at the time of spawning. 

The foregoing opinion of the Alaska Packers Association is cor- 
roborative of mvestigations elsewhere, which seem to establish quite 
conclusively that the humpback salmon is a 2-year-old fish when it 
returns from the sea. 

The eggs are not taken at this station by the method of incision, 
nor are the fish killed before they are stripped. This results in a loss 
of some eggs, for by the more modern practice of mcision it is pos- 
sible to obtain practically all ri])e eggs. An examination of some of 
the salmon at Fortmann hatcherv in 1915 showed that in various 



26 ALASKA FISHEKIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

portions of the body cavity as many as 100 eggs were found. At 
least, part of these eggs would have been saved if they had been taken 
by the method of incision. 

KARLUK. 

The Karluk hatchery is operated by the Alaska Packers Associa- 
tion. It is located about 2 miles up the Karluk River on Kodiak 
Island, in central Alaska, and has a capacity of upward of 50,000,000 
red-salmon eggs. The egg-collecting season of 1914 extended from 
Jmie 27 to September 30, and resulted in a take of 30,240,000 red- 
salmon eggs, from which it was reported that there w«re liberated 
ill 1914, 27,704,000 young iish. Tlie loss of 2,536,000 was 8.3 per 
cent of the total. The fry were liberated in nursery ponds, where 
they were held a short time and fed, after which they were planted 
in the Karluk Rivor. 

The egg-collecting season of 1915 extended from June 26 to Sep- 
tember 29, during which time 41,135,000 eggs were obtained. It is 
reported that the average number of eggs per female spawned was 
2,620. Of the 8,050,000 humpback eggs taken from August 24 to 
September 8, 1914, 5,000,000 eyed eggs were sold to the Bureau of 
Fisheries, and from the remaining eggs 1,049,610 fry were liberated. 

The eyed eggs purchased by the Bureau were transferred to the 
Afognak hatchery where they were included in a shipment of eggs 
the greater part of which was sent to Maine, where an effort is being 
made to establish a run of Pacific salmon in Atlantic waters. 

QUADRA. 

The Quadra hatchery is owned by the Northwestern Fisheries Co., 
and is located at Quadra in southeastern Alaska. It has a capacity 
of about 21,000,000 red-salmon eggs. The season of 1915 at this 
hatchery was not as successful in respect to the number of eggs 
taken as was the previous season. In 1914 egg-takmg began on 
August 5, ending October 11, during which period 21,300,000 red- 
salmon eggs were taken, while in the period from August 9 to Novem- 
ber 13, 1915, the total take of red-salmon eggs was 7,500,000. Until 
three years ago this would have been regarded as a very fair take, 
but since that time collections have been much larger, with the ex- 
ception of that of 1915. Of the eggs taken in 1914 the total number 
of fry planted in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915, was 20,300,000. 
This makes a loss of 1 ,000,000 eggs and fry, or 4.6 per cent. The eggs 
at this station are taken by the improved method of incision, in which 
the females are killed by a blow on the head and an incision is made 
from the pectoral fins to the vent. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 27 

A series of small ponds near the hatchery, into which the fry are 
placed after coming from the hatchery troughs are ideally situated in 
some respects as they represent very closely natural conditions. 
These ponds are protected from the depredations of birds and other 
natural enemies by means of webbing which is spread across them. 
After the fry have remained in these ponds for some time and have 
attained considerable growth they are allowed to work down into 
the lake where they remain for a year before leaving for salt water. 



The Hetta hatchery, which is operated by the Northwestern Fish- 
eries Co., is located on Hetta Lake near the southern end of Prince of 
Wales Island, in southeastern Alaska. This hatchery was rebuilt in 
1912 and now has a capacity of about 12,000,000 red-salmon eggs. 
In the egg-coUecting season extending from August 8 to December 
18, 1914, 7,438,500 red-salmon eggs were taken. The loss of eggs 
was 319,000, which was 4.2 per cent. The sworn statement returned 
by the Northwestern Fisheries Co., shows that 7,142,500 young red 
salmon were released in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1915. This 
might indicate a slight discrepancy from the above figures, but it is 
accounted for by the fact that at the Hetta station it is customary to 
carry over a few of the previous season's fry into the succeeding fiscal 
year for which returns of fry released are made. The law provides 
that such returns shall show the number of fry liberated during the 
12 months immediately preceding June 30. 

The egg-collecting season of 1915 began August 19, when 216,000 
red-salmon eggs were secured. At the conclusion of egg-coUecting 
operations on December 31, 1915, a total take of 8,114,000 red-salmon 
eggs had been made. Totals of 2,044 females and 1,962 males were 
handled. All eggs were taken by the modern method of incision. 

Some trouble has been experienced at this station on account of 
the unusual amount of fine sediment which is carried into the troughs 
from the supply pond a few hundred yards above the hatchery. This 
has been improved somewhat by a change in the method of drawing 
water from the supply pond, but further screening will be necessary 
in order to entirely overcome this difiiculty. 



The Klawak hatchery is located on the lake a few miles above the 
village of that name on the west coast of Prince of Wales Island in 
southeastern Alaska. This hatchery was reported last year as bemg 
operated jointly by the North Pacifi,c Trading & Packing Co. and the 
North Alaska Salmon Co. This year, however, it is fisted under the 
name of the North Pacific Tradmg & Packing Co. The capacity of 
the hatchery is approximately 10,000,000 red-sahnon eggs. In the 



28 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

egg-collecting season, extending from August 6 to October 2, 1914, a 
total of 3,816,000 were obtained and placed in baskets in the hatchery. 
During the continuance of operations, wliich extended to April 15, 
1915, the loss of eggs was 163,000, or 4.2 per cent. In the period from 
December 14, 1914, to April 15, 1915, the number of young red salmon 
liberated was 3,653,000. It is reported that all of these were in good 
condition. The hatchery is provided with a small rearing pond, but 
at times it has not been serviceable because it freezes to the bottom. 
This difficulty can be overcome by deepening the pond. Operations 
would be facilitated further by the construction of another pond at 
least 20 by 30 feet in size. Through the egg-coUecting season of 1915, 
4,130,000 red-salmon eggs were taken. 

When the station was visited in September, 1915, by Inspector 
Walker, special attention was devoted to the conditions under which 
fry are liberated and the matter was discussed with the hatchery em- 
ployees at some length. They were made to realize that hatchery 
efficiency does not consist merely in liberating a stated number of 
young fish, but rather that the percentage of those surviving until 
they are fully able to take care of themselves is the real basis for deter- 
mining the efficiency of aU fish-cultural work. Unusual mterest was 
shown by the hatchery employees in the selection of suitable locations 
for the planting of the young salmon and the exercise of judgment as 
to the time of planting, so that the greatest possible number of fish 
might survive. 

In December, 1915, the North Pacific Trading & Packing Co. 
advised that they had in contemplation the blasting away of a num- 
ber of rocks which partly obstructed the outlet of the lake. The 
removal of these rocks would give the adult salmon a better chance to 
get into the lake, and at the same time the lake could not rise during 
storms to such a height as to allow the fish to get around the racks at 
the different streams tributary to the lake where they are taken for 
spawning purposes. The Bureau expressed its hearty concurrence in 
the development of any plan along this line that might have a bene- 
ficial effect on the supply of sahnon or might in any way improve the 
operation of the hatchery. This work is in line with similar under- 
takings contemplated by the Bureau elsewhere in Alaska. 

GENERAL STATISTICS OF THE FISHERIES IN 1915. 

In 1915 the total investment in the Alaska fisheries amounted to 
$37,316,560, an increase of $277,928 over 1914. Approximately 86 
per cent of this investment was in the salmon industry. The number 
of persons engaged in 1915 was 22,462, or an increase of 1,262 over 
1914. The total value of the products in 1915 was $20,999,343, or a 
decrease of $243,632 from 1914. Although the actual quantity of 
fishery products produced in 1915 was greater than in the previous 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 



29 



year the total value of the 1915 output was less, chiefly by reason of 
the lower price obtained for several of the grades of salmon packed 
and further by reason of the decreased pack of the more valuable red 
salmon. The total value of the products this year is second only to 
that of 1914, which was the largest in the history of Alaska. 

Summary of Investments in the Fisheries of Alaska in 1915. 



Industries. 



Southeast 
Alaska. 



Central 
Alaska. 



Western 
Alaska. 



Total. 



Salmon canning 

Salmon pickling 

Salmon mild curing. 

Herring fishery 

Halibut fishery 

Cod fishery..." 

Whale fishery 

Atka mackerel 

By-products 



$11,768,284 



477, 259 

211,640 

2,842,800 



$5, 774, 379 

89,925 

4,000 



$13, 739, 662 
246, 687 
6,100 



889, 450 
127,879' 



570,990 



564, 400 
3,105 



Total. 



16,317,312 



6, 439, 294 



14,559,954 



$31,282,325 

336, 612 

487, 359 

211,640 

2,842,800 

570, 990 

1,453,850 

3,105 

127, 879 



37,316,560 



Summary of Persons Engaged in the Fisheries of Alaska in 1915. 



Races. 


Southeast 
Alaska. 


Central 
Alaska. 


Western 
Alaska. 


Total. 


Whites » . . 


5,011 

3,525 

807 

953 

467 


2,133 
728 
334 
396 
281 


4,145 
747 
490 
841 

1,604 


11,289 
5,000 
1,631 
2,190 
2,352 




Japanese 


Cmnese 


Miscellaneous <* 




Total 


10,763 


3,872 


7,827 


22, 462 





o Filipinos, Mexicans, Negroes, Porto Ricans, etc. 
Summary of Products op the Alaska Fisheries in 1915. 



Products. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Salmon: 

Canned 

Mild cured 

Pickled 

Fresh (including local) 

Frozen 

Dry salt, dried, and smoked backs. 
Halibut: 

Fresh (including local) 

Frozen 

Fletched 

Cod 



— cases 
.pounds 
. .barrels 
.pounds 
....do.. 
....do.. 



Herring 

Herring oil 

Herring fertiUzer 

Whale oil 

Sperm oil 

Whale fertilizer 

Trout 

B lack cod 

Atka mackerel 

Crabs 

Miscellaneous fresh fish, local. . . 

By-products oil 

By-products fertilizer and meal. 

Total 



....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do.. 
....do., 
-gallons 
.pounds 
-gallons 
...-do-- 
-pounds 

do-. 

....do-- 
. -barrels 
-pounds 
--..do-, 
-gallons 
.pounds 



4, 500, 293 

2, 224, 800 

13,293 

2, 416, 603 

720, 791 

45,625 

10,047,634 

5, 589, 864 

80,291 

14, 195, 775 

7, 194, 610 

130, 028 

1, 238, 000 

876,500 

101, 800 

2, 990, 000 

41,975 

142, 550 

30 

14, 395 

100,000 

47,976 

1,562,000 



$18,653,015 

191, 523 

148, 640 

192, 268 

27,276 

1,423 

554, 898 

244, 423 

2,690 

390,199 

114,099 

26,005 

15, 475 

295,000 

as, 000 

48,750 

3,420 

3,971 

300 

713 

7,000 

14, 227 

26,028 

20,999,343 



30 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

THE SALMON INDUSTRY. 

The outstanding feature of the Alaska sahnon mdustry in 1915 was 
the enormous increase in the pack of humpbacks in southeast Alaska, 
where 1,820,191 cases of this species were produced as against the pre- 
vious record for humpbacks in this section of 1,289,737 cases packed 
in 1913. There was also a good increase in the pack of pinks both in 
central and western Alaska. Another feature of this season's opera- 
tions was the lighter run of red salmon in western Alaska. For the 
three previous years the catch of reds in the Bristol Bay district was 
unusually good, the approximate catch in 1912 being 19,900,000, in 
1913 it was 21,500,000, and in 1914 it was 20,900,000, but in 1915 it 
declined to about 16,800,000. This, however, is larger than the catch 
of red salmon in those waters in 1910, when the take numbered only 
11,600,000. It is worthy of mention that there is an increasing use 
of purse seines in the Bristol Bay region. In 1915 more than a mil- 
lion red salmon were taken by this form of apparatus whereas three 
years ago the catch was confined exclusively to traps and giU nets, 
chiefly the latter. It is regarded as quite likely that within a few 
years the Bristol Bay district will be the scene of an extensive purse- 
seine fishery. Although western and southeast Alaska showed a 
decrease in the pack of reds in 1915, central Alaska yielded a gratify- 
ing increase in this valuable species. 

The pack of chums in Alaska was lighter this year than in 1914, but 
it was apparently due more to the fact that some of the canneries 
filled all available cans during the extraordinarily heavy run of pinks 
rather than to any pronounced shortage of chums. A number of 
plants thus ceased packing without waiting to take advantage of the 
later run of chums in southeast Alaska. This rather early closing 
showed its effect also in a somewhat smaller pack of cohos than was 
put up in 1914. The pack of kings in all three districts of Alaska was 
better than in the previous year. This is explained in part by the 
fact that the lessened demand for mild-cured salmon on account of 
the European war resulted in the canning of larger numbers of king 
salmon which otherwise would probably have been mild cured. The 
production of pickled salmon was only about half that of 1914, the 
reason being due chiefly to the lessened run of reds in western Alaska. 
The fresh and frozen salmon industries, which are prosecuted in south- 
east Alaska, showed good increases in 1915. 

SALMON CANNING. 

CHANGES IN CANNERIES. 

The plant of the Canoe Pass Packing Co., at Canoe Pass, in south- 
east Alaska, was dismantled and the machinery moved to a new loca- 
tion at Cordova. The plant at Canoe Pass was built and operated in 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 31 

1912, but has not been used since. The small cannery of the Revilla 
Fish Products Co., at Ketchikan has not been operated since 
1912, and unless work is resumed it will no longer be listed. The 
Hoonah Packing Co. acquired the cannery of the Admiralty Trading 
Co., operated at Gambier Bay in 1912 and 1913, but closed in 1914 and 
1915. The canneries operated in 1914 by Gorman & Co. at Shakan 
and Kasaan were operated m 1915 by the Anacortes Fisheries Co. 
The plant formerly operated by the Pacific Coast & Norway Packing 
Co. at Petersburg was taken over by the Petersburg Packing Co. The 
Straits Packing Co. acquired the cannery last operated in 1913 by the 
Skowl Arm Packing Co., at Skowl Arm. It is reported that this new 
company was formed chiefly by those formerly interested in the can- 
nery of the Kuiu Island Packing Co., which plant was destroyed by 
fire in the fall of 1914. The cannery at Hawk Inlet, operated for 
several years by the Hawk Fish Co., was operated in 1915 under the 
firm name of P. E. Harris & Co. Another change in firm name this 
year is that of the Karheen Packing Co., which was formerly known 
as the Irving Packing Co. The North Alaska Salmon Co. closed its 
Hallerville cannery and operated for the first time its new plant on 
the eastern side of Kvichak Bay above Pedersens Point. Libby, 
McNeiU & Libby acquired from Gorman & Co. the cannery at Dry 
Bay formerly operated by the St. Elias Packing Co. It is probable 
that it will be used in conjunction with the cannery of the Yakutat & 
Southern Railway Co., which is also owned by Libby, McNeill & 
Libby. 

NEW CANNERIES. 

Six new canneries were operated in Alaska in 1915 by the follow- 
ing companies: Doyhof Fish Products Co., at Scow Bay, near Peters- 
burg, in southeast Alaska; Canoe Pass Packing Co., at Cordova; Cop- 
per River Packing Co., at Abercrombie, near Mile 55 on the Copper 
River; the Deep Sea Salmon Co., at Goose Bay, on Knik Arm, in 
central Alaska; the Nelson Lagoon Packing Co., at Nelson Lagoon; 
and the North Alaska Salmon Co., on the eastern side of the Kvichak 
River above Pedersens Point, in western Alaska. 

The foregoing, together with the cannery of the newly organized 
Straits Packing Co., not operated in 1914, makes an apparent gain of 
seven canneries for 1915, but deduction must be made from the 1914 
total of the two canneries destroyed by fire, namely, those of the 
Kuiu Island Packing Co. at Beauclaire and of the Alaska Fishermen's 
Packing Co. on Kvichak Bay; also there must be deducted the can- 
nery of the North Alaska Salmon Co. at HaUerviUe, not operated in 
1915, thus making a net increase of four canneries in operation in 
1915 over 1914. 



32 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUE INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



Of the preparatory arrangements for the operation of additional 
canneries in 1916, there may be mentioned the following: The Alaska 
Salmon Co. erected buildings at Graveyard Point, Koggimig, which 
possibly may be used for a cannery in 1916. The plant was oper- 
ated as a saltery in 1915. The Bristol Bay Packing Co. erected new 
buildings for a large cannery in close proximity to their present plant 
on Kvichak Bay. The Naknek Packing Co. erected buildings for a 
new plant about 2 miles above their present plant on Naknek River 
and planned to operate it in 1916. The Red Salmon Canning Co. 
also erected buildings on the Naknek River to be used as a cannery 



in 1916. 



CANNERIES OPERATED IN 1915. 



During the year 1915 there were 45 canneries in operation in 
southeast Alaska, 17 in central Alaska, and 23 in western Alaska, a 
total of 85 canneries for the Territory. 

Companies Canning Salmon in Alaska, Number and Location of Canneries 
Operated and Number of Traps Owned by Each. 



Names. 



Can- 
neries. 



Location. 



Traps. 



Southeast Alaska: 
Alaska Fish Co . 



Alaska Pacific Fisheries. 



Alaska Packers Association. . 
Alaska Sanitary Packing Co . 
Anacortes Fisheries Co 



Astoria & Paget Sound Canning Co... 

Barnes, F. C, Co 

Deep Sea Salmon Co 

Doyhof Fish Products Co 

Fidalgo Island Packing Co 

George Inlet Packing Co 

Harris, P. E., & Co 

Hidden Inlet Canning Co 

Hoonah Packing Co 

Hume, G. W.,Co 

Karheen Packing Co 

Lindenberger Packing Co 

Myers, Geo. T., & Co 

North Pacific Trading & Packing Co. 



Northwestern Fisheries Co. 



Pacific American Fisheries 

Petersburg Packing Co 

Pillar Bay Packing Co 

Point AVarde Packing Co 

Pure Food Fish Co 

Sanborn-Cram Co 

Sanbom-Cutting Co 

Starr-Collinson Packing Co 

Straits Packing Co 

Sunny Point Packing Co 

Swift-Arthur-Crosby Co 

Taku Canning & Cold Storage Co. 

Tee Harbor Packing Co 

Thiinket Packing Co 

Ward Cove Packing Co 

Wiese Packing Co 

Yakutat & Southern Railway Co . 

a 3 floating. 
b 5 floating. 



Waterfall 

(Chilkoot 

{Chomly 

(Yes Bay 

JLoring 

\Wrangell 

Wrangell , 

rivasaan 

\Shakan 

Excursion Inlet. 

Lake Bay 

Ford Arm 

Scow Bay 

Ketchikan 

George Inlet 

Hawk Inlet 

Hidden Inlet 

Hoonah 

Nakat Harbor... 

Karheen 

(Craig 

\Roe Point 

Chatham 

Klawak 

IDundas Bay 
Hunter Bay 
Quadra 
Santa Ana 

Excursion Inlet. 

Petersburg 

Pillar Bay 

Point Warde 

Ketchikan 

Burnett Inlet.... 

Kake 

Moira Sound 

Skowl Arm 

Sunny Point 

Heceta Island... 

Taku Harbor 

Tee Harbor 

Funter Bay 

Ward Cove 

Rose Inlet 

Yakutat 



1 

a7 
67 

!>7 
d5 



i 

2 
5 

<5 
d5 



1 
el 

IS 

3 

2 

04 

1 

^5 

c3 

c3 



/lO 
6 
17 



c All floating. 
d 4 floating. 



< 1 floating. 
/ 2 floating. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 



33 



Companies Canning Salmon in Alaska, Number and Location of Canneries 
Operated and Number of Traps Owned by Each — Continued. 



Can- 
neries. 



Location. 



Traps. 



Central .\laska: 

.\laska Packers Association 

Canoe Pass Packing Co 

Columbia River Packers' Association. 

Copper River Packing Co 

Deep Sea Salmon Co 

Fidalgo Island Packing Co 

Kadiak Fisheries Co 

Libby, McNeill & Libby 

Northwestern Fisheries Co 

Pacific American Fisheries 

Seldovia Salmon Co 

Western Alaska: 

Alaska Fishermen's Packing Co 

Alaska Packers Association 

Alaska-Portland Packers' Association 

Alaska Salmon Co 

Bristol Bay Packing Co 

Columbia River Packers' A.ssociation. 

Midnight Sun Packing Co 

Naknek Packing Co , — 

Nelson Lagoon Packing Co 

. North Alaska Salmon Co 

Northwestern Fisheries Co 

Pacific .\merican Fisheries 

Red Salmon Canning Co 



Alitak 

Chignik 

Larsen Bay . . 

Kasilof. 

Cordova 

Chignik 

Abercroml)io. 

Knik Arm 

Port Graham. 

Kodiak 

Kenai 

Chignik 

Kenai 

Orca 

Uyak 

King Cove . . . 
Seldovia 



Nushagak 

iKvichak River (2). 
Naknek River (3) . . 
Nushagak Bay (2). 
Ugaguk River 

Nushagak Bay 

Wood River 

Kvichak Bay 

Nushagak Bay 

Kotzebue Sound . . . 

Naknek River 

Nelson Lagoon 

(Kvichak River (2). 

< Nushagak Bay 

lUgaguk River 

Nushagak 

Port Moller 

Ugashik River 



■ canneries not operated in 1915. 

Three canneries in southeast Alaska were not operated in 1915, 
as follows: 

Location of plant. 

Hoonah Packing Co Gambier Bay. 

Metlakatla Industrial Co Metlakatla. 

St. Elias Packing Co Dry Bay. 

SALMON CATCH AND FORMS OF GEAR. 

There were in operation in southeast Alaska in the salmon canning 
industry 137 driven and 48 floating traps, or a total of 185 traps; 
while in central Alaska there were 84 driven traps and in western 
Alaska 15 driven traps; this makes a total of 236 driven and 48 
floating traps, or a grand total of 284 traps operated in the commer- 
cial fishery of Alaska in 1915. In 1914 the total number of traps 
in operation was 252, of which 211 were driven and 41 floating; 
thus 1915 shows a gain of 25 driven and 7 floating traps, or a total 
increase of 32 traps over 1914. By geographical sections the gains 
in 1915 were 7 floating traps in southeast Alaska, 24 driven traps in 
central Alaska, and 2 driven traps in western Alaska, while there 
was a decrease of 1 driven trap in southeast Alaska. 

86497°— 17 19 



34 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



In 1915 the total number of purse and haul seines operated in the 
salmon industry of Alaska was 361 as against 336 the previous year. 
This gain of 25 seines for 1915 occurred almost wholly in southeast 
Alaska. 

Of the total catch of salmon in Alaska in 1915, the proportion taken 
in traps was 42 per cent, by seines 29 per cent, by gill nets 27 per cent, 
and less than 1 per cent by lines and dip nets. By way of comparison 
it may be noted that in the previous year the trap catch was 31 per 
cent, the seine catch was 27 per cent, the giU-net catch was 41 per 
cent, and the proportion by lines and dip nets practically the same as 
in 1915. The most notable feature of this is a decrease in 1915 of 
14 per cent in the proportionate gill-net catch, which must be accounted 
for by reason of the lessened run of salmon in western Alaska where 
the catch is chiefly by gUl nets. This proportionate decrease was 
offset by a proportionate increase of over 11 per cent caught by 
traps and more than 2 per cent in seines. The following table 
shows the proportionate catches by districts by the three principal 
forms of apparatus: 

Percentage of Salmon Caught in Each District by Principal Forms of Gear. 





Apparatus. 


Southeast Alaska. 


Central Alaska. 


Western Alaska. 




1914 


1915 


1914 


1915 


1914 


1915 


Seines 


Per cent. 

47 
48 
3 


Per cent. 
39 
57 
3 


Per cent. 
36 
56 

8 


Per cent. 
32 
52 
15 


Per cent. 

4 

4 

92 


Per cent. 
6 


Traps 


7 


Gilfnets 


86 







The. total catch of salmon of all species in the commercial fishery 
of Alaska in 1915 numbered 63,537,244 as against 54,651,915 in 
1914, a gain of 8,885,329. In southeast Alaska there was an increase 
of about 15,000,000 salmon, but this was offset by decreases of more 
than 1,000,000 in central and about 5,000,000 in western Alaska 
as compared with 1914. In 1915 there were gains of approximately 
14,200,000 humpback, 110,000 king, and 13,000 coho salmon, while 
the number of reds decreased 3,950,000 and chums fell off 1,450,000. 

Salmon Taken in 1915, by Species and Apparatus, for Each Geographic Sec- 
tion OP Alaska. 



Apparatus and species. 



Southeast 
Alaska. 



Central 
Alaska. 



Western 
Alaska. 



Total. 



Seines: 

Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink 

King, or spring , 

Red, or sockeye 

Total , 



Number. 

234,038 

2,159,904 

11,542,551 

11,436 

930, 434 



14,878,363 



Number. 

58, 249 

191,777 

719, 943 

939 

1,551,093 



Number. 



5,343 
1, 225, 832 



2,522,001 



1,231,361 



Number. 

292, 287 

2,351,867 

12, 262, 494 

17, 718 

3, 707, 359 



18, 631, 725 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 



35 



Salmon Taken in 1915, by Species and Apparatus, for Each Geographic Sec- 
tion OF ALASKA^Continued. 



Apparatus and species. 



liill nets: 

Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink. 

King, or spring 

Red, or sockeye 



Total. 



Traps: 

Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink. 

King, or spring 

Red, or sockeye 



Total. 



Lines: 

Coho, or silver. . 
King, or spring . 

Total 



Dip nets: 

King, or spring. 
Red, or sockeye. 

Total 



Total: 

Coho, or silver 

Chum, or keta 

Humpback, or pink. 

King, or spring 

Red, or sockeye 



Grand total.. 



Southeast 
Alaska. 



Number. 

214,310 

48,618 

97,800 

77,631 

483, 682 



922, 041 



392, 632 

1,416,989 

18,308,532 

22, 903 

1, 419, 807 



Central 
Alaska. 



Number. 

71,719 

102 

1,134 

37, 827 

1,077,705 



1.188,487 



159, 362 
256, 451 
189, 434 
57, 027 
3,44.3,112 



21,560,863 



77,999 
226, 853 



304,852 



918,979 
3,625,511 

29, 948, 883 

338, 823 

2,833,923 



37,666,119 



4,105,386 



Western 
Alaska. 



Number. 
99,225 
539, 591 
37,000 
140, 974 
14,561,820 



15, 378, 610 



24,050 
2a5,890 



27,960 
994,016 



1,251,916 



2,054 
191,310 



193,364 



289, 330 
448, 330 
910,511 
97,847 
, 263, 220 



8,009,238 



123, 275 
745,667 
37,000 
174,277 
16,781,668 



17,861,887 



Total. 



Number. 
38.5, 254 
588,311 
135, 934 
2.56, 432 

16, 123, 207 



17, 489, 138 



576,044 

1,879,330 

18, 497, 966 

107, 890 

5,856,935 



26,918,165 



77,999 
226,853 



304, 852 



2,054 
191,310 



193,364 



1,331,584 

4, 819, 508 

30, 896, 394 

610,947 

2.5,878,811 



63,537,244 



STATISTICS. 

The number of canneries in operation in Alaska in 1915 was 85, as 
compared with 81 in 1914. The total investment increased from 
$30,830,435 in 1914 to $31,282,325 in 1915. This increase was 
chiefly in central and western Alaska. 

The number of persons employed in canning operations in 1914 
was 16,307 and in 1915 the number was 17,741, an increase of 1,434 
persons. Gains were shown in all three districts. The most notable 
feature was the increase of 598 Indians over 1914. The total num- 
ber of Indians emploj^ed in 1915 in the salmon canning industry was 
4,325. There were smaller gains in 1915 in the number of whites, 
Chinese, and Japanese engaged in this industry. 

In 1914 the pack of canned salmon was 4,056,653 cases, valued at 
$18,920,589, while in 1915 it was 4,500,293, valued at $18,653,015, 
an increase of 443,640 cases, but a decrease of $267,574 in value. This 
seeming anomaly is accounted for by reason of the much larger pack 
of lower-priced fish in 1915. By sections the case-pack comparison 
is as follows: Southeast Alaska advanced from 1,776,075 to 2,549,212 
cases, an increase of 773,137 cases; central Alaska declined from 



36 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



658,791 to 632,848 cases, a decrease of 25,943 cases; while in western 
Alaska there was a decline from 1,621,787 to 1,318,233 cases, a de- 
crease of 303,554 cases from the 1914 pack in that region. Com- 
parisons by species show the following: The pack of cohos declined 
from 157,063 to 124,268 cases, a decrease of 32,795 cases; chums 
declined from 663,859 to 479,946 cases, a decrease of 183,913 cases; 
and reds declined from 2,201,643 to 1,932,312 cases, a decrease of 
269,331 casesinl915. Humpbacks went up from 986,049 to 1,875,516 
cases, an advance of 889,467 cases; and kings increased from 48,039 
to 88,251, a gain of 40,212 cases in 1915. The net increase for all 
species in 1915 was 443,640 cases. 

The pack of salmon in 1915 is the largest in the history of Alaska, 
exceeding the previous record of 1914 by 443,640 cases, but as above 
mentioned the 1915 pack was $267,574 less in value because of the 
smaller production of the higher priced red salmon and the greatly 
increased pack of the less valuable humpbacks. 

Investment in Salmon-Canning Industry in 1915. 



Items. 



Canneries operated 

Working capital 

Wages paid 

Vessels: 

Power vessels over 5 

tons 

Net tonnage 

Launches under 5 tons. 

Sailing 

Net tonnage 

Boats, sail and row 

Lighters, scows, house 

boats 

Pile drivers 

Apparatus: 

Haul seines 

Fathoms 

Purse seines 

Fathoms 

Gill nets 

Fathoms 

Traps, driven 

Traps, floating 



Total. 



Southeast Alaska. 



No. 
45 



122 

2,456 

41 

7 

9,081 

772 

271 

38 

18 

1,413 

270 

54, 948 

123 

16, 750 

137 



Value. 
S3, 699, 069 
4,221,500 
2, 095, 221 



42,636 
174, 700 



53,832 

127, 270 
113,126 

2,118 



100,333 
13,' 406 



377,318 
96,545 

11, 768, 284 



Central Alaska. Western Alaska. 



No. Value. 

17 SI, 612, 984 
1, 953, 046 
927,368 



38 

1,315 

25 

11 

19,242 

478 

171 
31 

37 

8,181 

11 

3,666 

444 

19,111 

84 



410,711 



31,396 
401, 272 



44, 646 



103, 713 

84,298 



12,655 



5,500 
' i6,'535' 
'ire,' 255 



5,774,379 



No. 
23 



52 

4,110 

28 

36 

49, 164 

1,077 

158 
20 

7 
1,750 



1,825 
252,875 
15 



Value. 
$3,158,048 
5, 981, 997 
2,321,412 



688, 604 



85,553 
816,035 



250, 010 

168,348 
41,300 

16, 226 



179, 868 



22,261 



13,739,662 



Total. 



No. Value. 
85 88,470,101 
12,156,543 
5,354,001 



212 

7,881 

94 

54 

77, 487 

2,327 

600 
89 

62 
11,344 

281 

58,614 

2, 392 

588,736 

236 



1,750,525 

" 159,' 585 
1,392,007 



348,488 

399,331 
238, 724 

30,999 



105,833 
'269,'869 



569, 834 
96,545 

31,282,325 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 



37 



Persons Engaged in the Salmon-Canning Industry in 1915. 



Occupations and races. 


Southeast 
Alaska. 


Central 

Alaska. 


Western 
Alaska. 


Total. 


Fishermen; 

Whites 


777 
1,310 


798 
292 


2,388 
166 


3,963 




1,768 








1 
15 






1 








15 










Total 


2,103 


1,090 


2,554 


5,747 






Shoresmen: 

Wliites 


1,063 

1,657 

953 

765 

452 


465 
356 
396 
332 
281 


1,257 
529 
841 
456 

1,604 


2,785 




2,542 




2,190 




1,553 




2,337 






Total 


4,890 


1,830 


4,687 


11,407 








271 
6 


108 
9 


192 


571 




15 












1 




1 




















Total 


277 


118 


192 


587" 






Wliites 


2,111 

2,973 

953 

766 

467 


1,371 
657 
396 
333 
281 


3,837 
695 
841 
456 

1,604 


7,319 




4,325 




2,190 




1,555 




2,352 






Total 


7,270 


3,038 


7,433 


17,741 







a Filipinos, Mexicans, Negroes, Porto Ricans, etc. 
Output of Canned Salmon in 1915.« 



Product. 


Southeast Alaska. 


Central Alaska. 


Western Alaska. 


Total. 


Coho, or silver: 

i-pound flat 

1-pound flat 

1-pound tall 


Cases. 
2,050 
613 
87,636 


Value. 

$11,639 

3,188 

371,539 


Cases. 


Value. 


Cases. 


Value. 


Cases. 
2,050 
2,338 

119,880 


Value. 
$11,639 


1,725 
21,839 


$7, 795 
96,252 






10,983 


'10,405 


$45,711 


513,502 


Total 


90,299 


386, 366 


23, 564 


104,047 


10, 405 


45,711 


124,268 


536, 124 






Chum, or keta: 

1-pound flat 

1-pound tall 


229 
373, 100 


733 
966,581 


88 
39,318 


264 

102,086 






317 

479,629 


997 


67,211 


173,657 


1,242,324 


Total 


373,329 


967,314 


39,406 


102,350 


67,211 


173,657 


479,946 


1,243,321 






Humpback, or pink: 

^-pound flat 

1-pound flat 

1-pound tall 


4,325 

3,508 

1,812,358 


19,451 

11,927 

5,043,238 










4,325 

3,508 

1,867,683 


19,451 










11,927 


46, 479 


119,649 


8,846 


22,938 


5,185,825 


Total 


1,820,191 


5,074,616 


46,479 


119,649 


8,816 


22,938 


1,875,516 


5,217,203 






King, or spring: 

i-pound flat 

1-pound flat 

1-pound tall 


100 

40 

27,303 


600 

208 

123,217 






2,304 

2,729 

32,610 


12,902 

16,854 

152,406 


2,404 
3,755 
82,092 


13,502 


986 
22,179 


4,902 
97, 177 


21, %4 
372,800 


Total 


27, 443 


124,025 


23, 165 


102,079 


37, 643 


182, 162 


88,251 


408,266 






Red, or sockeye: 

i-pound flat 

1-pound flat 

1-pound tall 

IJ-pound nomi- 


25,302 
38,054 
174,594 


222,457 
248,017 
971,012 


11,183 
35,946 
453,105 


96,849 

247,560 

2,614,800 


15,548 

38,847 

1,137,440 

2,293 


122,976 

265,012 

6,452,950 

6,438 


52,033 

112,847 

1,765,139 

2,293 


442, 282 

760,589 

10,038,792 

6,438 














Total 


237,950 


1,441,516 


500,234 


2,959,209 


1, 194, 128 


6, 847, 376 


1,932,312 


11, 248, 101 






Grand total 


2,549,212 


7,993,837 


632,848 


3,387,334 


1,318,233 


7,271,844 


4,500,293 


18,653,015 



» Cases containing J.-pound cans have been redncei one-half in number and those containing li-pound 
cans have been increased one-half in numl >er. Thus, for the purpose of affording fair comparison, all are put 
upon the basis of foriy-oight 1-pouiid cans per case. 



38 ALASKA PISHEEIES AND FUR INDUSTEIES IN 1915. 

Output of Canned Salmon, 1909 to 1915.o 



Products. 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 


Total. 


Coho, or silver: 


Cases. 


Cases. 
163 
2,249 
111,614 


Cases. 
1,574 
1,075 

131,259 


Cases. 
2,719 
17 
163, 462 


Cases. 
3,587 
266 
71, 926 


Cases. 
4,579 
285 
152, 199 


Cases. 
2,050 
2,338 

119, 880 


Cases. 
14, 672 


1-pound flat 

1-pound tall 


1,206 
55, 350 


7,436 
805, 690 


Total 


56, 556 


114, 026 


133,908 


166, 198 


75, 779 


157, 063 


124,268 


827, 798 






Chum,or keta: 








2,795 


985 
2,619 

287, 314 


373 

5,568 

657, 918 




4,153 








7,245 
316, 550 


317 
479, 629 


15, 749 


l-pound tall 


120, 712 


254, 218 


661,838 


2, 778, 179 


Total 


120.712 


254, 218 


323, 795 


664, 633 


290, 918 


663,859 


479, 946 


2, 798, 081 




Humpback, or pink: 




3.188 

7,900 

543. 233 


4,836 

9,437 

991, (m 


13, 712 


20, 822 

3,258 

1,348,801 


2,103 

9,286 

974, 660 


4,325 

3,508 

1,867,683 


48,986 






33,389 
7, 456, 681 


l-pound tall 


464, 873 


1, 266, 426 


Total 


464, 873 


554,321 


1,005,278 


1,280,138 


1,372,881 


986, 049 


1,875,516 


7, 539, 056 






King, or spring: 

J-pound flat 




54 


67 


5,151 


1,585 


3,143 

4,804 

40,092 


2,404 
3,755 
82,092 


12,404 






8,559 


l-pound tall 


48, 034 


40, 167 


45, 451 


38, 166 


32,785 


326, 787 


Toial 


48, 034 


40, 221 


45.518 


4,3,317 


34, 370 


48,039 


88,251 


347,750 






Red, or sockeye: 

|-pound flat 

1-pouna flat 

l-pound tall 

li-pound nomi- 


8,193 

85, 103 

1,611,916 


22, 320 

39,941 

1,388,006 


13,601 

4,967 

1,296,750 


28,024 

16,242 

1,856,089 


29,041 

11, 735 

1,924,461 


53, 825 

64, 671 

2,083,147 


52, 033 

112, 847 

1, 765, 139 

2,293 


207,037 

335, 596 

11,925,508 

2,293 
















Total 


1,705,302 


1, 450, 267 


1, 315, 318 


1,900,355 


1,965,237 


2, 201, 643 


1,932,312 


12, 470, 434 




Grand total 


2,395,477 


2, 413, 053 


2,823,817 


4,054,641 


3, 739, 185 


4,056,653 


4,500,293 


23,983,119 



o The number of cases shown has been put upon the common basis of forty-eight l-pound cans to the 
case. 

Average Annual Price per Case of Forty-Eight 1-Pound Cans of Salmon, 

1905 to 1915. 



Products. 


1905 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


1913 


1914 


1915 




$3.20 
2.69 
2.95 
3.28 
3.38 


S3. 63 
2.87 
3.00 
3.78 
3.77 


$3.91 
2.97 
3.16 
4.18 
4.59 


$3.98 
2.53 
2.69 
4.20 
4.52 


$4.07 
2.28 
2.40 
4.32 
4.53 


$4.89 
3.04 
3.15 
5.34 
6.30 


$5.67 
3.72 
3.94 
6.48 
6.33 


$4.44 
2.37 
2.55 
5.37 
5.45 


$3.45 
2.21 
2.58 
4.04 
4.54 


$4.39 
3.37 
3.50 
5.01 
5.58 


$4.31 




2.59 


Humpback, or pink . . . 

King, or spring 

Red, or sockeye 


2.78 
4.63 
5.82 



DISASTERS AND LOSSES IN THE SALMON INDUSTRY. 

The most serious loss in the sahnon industry in the year 1915 was 
the destruction by fire on June 10 of the cannery of the Alaska Fisher- 
men's Packing Co., on the Kvichak River. The cause of the fire was 
unknown. It occurred just after the work of making cans for the 
season had been completed. After the fire part of the cannery crew 
was returned to Seattle, while a number of the fishermen were retained 
to carry on salting operations and to fish for the Nushagak cannery of 
the same company. The steamer NortJi Star made a number of trips 
to Nushagak with fish caught in the Kvichak region. Early in July 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 39 

the freight steamer Bertfm was dispatched from Seattle with a cargo 
of lumber and other materials to rebuild the camiery. On July 18 
the vessel went ashore on Harvester Island, at Uyak Bay. The 
following day she took fire and became a total loss. A small part of 
the cargo was salvaged. 

Tlie ship Sintram (1,495 tons), of the Naknek Packing Co., while 
northbound in the spring, went ashore May 2 off Ugaguk and became 
a total loss. Tlie book value of the vessel was approximately $8,000, 
but imder existing conditions several times that amoxmt would be 
required to replace her. Most of the cargo was saved, so that the 
cannery was able to conduct operations through the season. 

In addition to the foregoing there were various smaller losses. In 
this connection mention is made of the destruction of the bunkhouse 
of the Anacortes Fisheries Co., at Shakan, the property loss being 
$1,000, and in addition two of the Chinese employees lost their lives. 
The Tee Harbor Packing Co. reported the loss of a trap valued at 
$2,500. The Doyhof Fish Products Co. reported the loss by drowning 
of one shoresman and one fisherman. The Canoe Pass Packing Co. 
lost 208 cases of salmon. In western Alaska seven fishermen and two 
transporters were drowned, and gear to the value of $5,600 was 
reported as lost. In addition there were minor losses of fishing gear, 
small boats, and miscellaneous items of equipment in various parts 
of Alaska. 

MILD CURING OF SALMON. 

Tlie continuance of the war in Europe resulted in a further marked 
decline in the industry of mild curing salmon in 1915. Heretofore, it 
has been chiefly to the markets in Germany that the mild-cured 
product has been shipped, hence the discontinuance of possibilities of 
trade with that country has made itself felt to a marked degree in the 
mild-cure industry. This state of affairs has made it necessary for the 
American markets to absorb this product. Fortunately, there 
is a growing demand for mild-cured salmon in this countiy, although 
the high price which it commands has had a tendency toward con- 
servativeness in the development of this line of trade. Mild-cured 
salmon form a particularly attractive food article, especially when 
prepared in a lightly smoked condition. 

The lessened activity in the mild-cure industry in Alaska in 1915 
resulted in the preparation of a product excellent in quality. In 
some seasons past many of the smaller king salmon have been mild- 
cured, but this year the product was made up almost wholly of 
select, large-sized fish. Tlie smaller salmon were as a rule dis- 
posed of to canneries, which is evidenced by the increased produc- 
tion of canned king salmon this year. There was also an increase in 
the number of frozen salmon, some of which imdoubtedly would have 
been marketed as a mild-cured product if conditions had warranted. 



40 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

One of the important trolling grounds for king salmon in the mild- 
cure fishery is about Forrester Island, which is a Federal bird reserve 
under the administration of the Department of Agriculture. As in 
the previous year, operations on that island were under the imme- 
diate direction of Game Warden Willett of that department, who was 
stationed there to see that the birds resorting to the island were not 
disturbed. The fo-st fishermen arrived at the island on May 8, and 
by May 25 the maximum number was present. Operations con- 
tinued until along in August, when the camp on the island was practi- 
cally deserted. A number of fishermen left about the firet of July 
to work in the canneries. A total of ISO permits were issued tliis 
year as compared with 457 in 1914. This gives an idea of the dechne 
which the mild-cure industry felt in 1915. Of the ISO permits granted 
this year, 111 were issued to natives. Quite a number of the remain- 
ing permits were issued to foreigners who had taken out their first 
papers declaring their intentions of citizenship. Fishing was very 
good, some of the hand-boat trollers receiving as much as $200 to $500 
for approximately three months' work. Some of the power boats 
cleared as high as $1,000. Early in the season the price paid by 
buyers was 50 cents for red-meated Idng salmon, 20 cents for wliite- 
meated kings, and 5 cents each for coho salmon. Some of the fish- 
ermen were dissatisfied with these prices and sent part of their catch 
to Prince Rupert. As the season advanced competition between the 
buyers became keen, and they met the Prince Rupert prices, paying 
60 cents for red-meated salmon and 10 cents for cohos. 

The principal mild-cure operators in southeast Alaska were Engelbr. 
Wiese (Inc.), with four plants, one each at Waterfall, Port Conclusion, 
Hoonah, and Cape Fanshaw; Columbia & Northern Fishing & Pack- 
ing Co., at Wrangell; Diamond T Packing Co., at Dall Island; and 
Vendsyssel Packing Co., at Tyee. Some of the other more important 
concerns which engaged in this business were Swift-Arthur-Crosby 
Co., at Ileceta Island; Taku Canning & Cold Storage Co., at Taku; 
Lmdenberger Packing Co., at Craig; and the Petersburg Packing Co., 
at Petersburg. In central Alaska but little was done in mild-curing 
salmon, a small quantity only being put up on Cook Inlet. In 
western Alaska a few tierces of mild-cured salmon were put up on the 
Kuskokwim River. 

The investment in mild-cure work this year was $487,359, as com- 
pared with $777,564 in 1914. The number of fixed plants decreased 
from 17 in 1914 to 15 m 1915, this dechne being in southeast Alaska. 
There was also a proportionate decrease in the number of persons 
engaged from 2,161 m 1914 to 1,725 in 1915. The total product 
decUned from 4,091 tierces « in 1914, valued at $300,052, to 2,781 
tierces in 1915, valued at $191,523, a decrease of 1,310 tierces and 
$108,529 in value. 

a Each tierce contains 800 pounds of salmon. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 
Investment in the Salmon Mild-Curing Industry in 1915. 



41 



Items. 


Southeast Alaska. 


Central Alaska. 


Western Alaska. 


Total. 


Fixed plants 


No. 
13 


Value. 
$58, 394 
119,700 

37,385 


No. 

1 


Value. 
11,500 
2,000 


No. 
1 


Value. 

$2,000 

3,000 


No. 
15 

11 
169 
371 
910 

1 

125 

182 

16,600 

4,420 


Value. 
$61,894 
124 700 


Operating capital 


Vessels: 

Power vessels over 5 tons. . . 


11 
169 
370 
906 

1 

125 

160 

15, 500 

4,420 


37,385 


Net tonnage 










Laiuiches under 5 tons 


205,000 
35,580 

300 






1 
4 


500 
200 


205 500 


Boats, sail and row 






35,780 
300 


Gear: 

Purse seines 






Fathoms 












Gill nets 


11,750 


2 
500 


500 


20 
600 


400 


12 650 


Fathoms 




Troll lines 


9,150 






9 150 














Total 




477,259 




4,000 


6,100 




487,359 







Persons Engaged in the Salmon Mild-Curing Industry in 1915. 



Occupations and rafts. 


Southeast 
Alaska. 


Central 

Alaska. 


Western 
Alaska. 


Total. 


Fishermen: 

Whites 


1,101 
500 

73 
6 
19 




2 


1 103 


Indians 




500 


Shoresmen: 

Whites 


5 

7 


2 
10 


* 80 


Indians . . . 


23 


Transporters: Whites 


19 










Total 


1,699 


12 


14 


1,726 





Products op the Salmon Mild-Curing Industry in 1915. 



Species. 


Tierces. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Southeast Alaska: 

King salmon 


2,625 
68 


2,100,000 
54,400 


$182,280 
4,393 






Total 


2,693 


2,154,400 


186,673 




Central Alaslca: King salmon 


18 
70 


14,400 
56,000 


1 350 




3,500 




Total 


88 


70,400 


4,850 




Grand total 


2,781 


2,224,800 


191,523 





SALMON PICKLING. 

The pickling of salmon in Alaska in 1915 was on a much smaller 
scale than it has been for years. Tliis is explained chiefly by virtue 
of th3 lighter run of reds in the Bristol Bay district where most of 
the pickling of Alaska salmon is done. In southeast Alaska a few 
years ago there were a nmnber of salteries in operation, hut in 1915 the 
business of pickling salmon had become reduced to limited propor- 
tions, the small production being incidental to other lines of enter- 
pnse. It may be noted tlvat there were more cohos pickled in south- 
east Alaska than in tlie previous year, as the early closing of part of 



42 



ALASKA PISHEEIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



the canneries resulted in some of the catches of fall cohos being pre- 
pared for market in this way. In the last months of the year, after 
it was apparent that the product of pickled salmon was much below 
normal, the price ascended to unusually high levels. The price of 
pickled salmon belhes was also strong, but the production was small, 
as will be noted from the table of pickled salmon shown on page 43. 

A new concern of importance in the Bristol Bay district this year 
was the Golden Gate Salmon Co. which conducted its pickling opera- 
tions on the schooner Hugh Hogan (355 tons), the vessel being located 
during the fishing season about 15 miles up the Kvichak River. 
Among other operators of importance engaged in pickling operations 
on waters tributary to Bristol Bay were the Alaska Fishermen's 
Packing Co., Alaska Salmon Co., Olson Bros., and Peter M. Nelson, 
who had two salteries. 

In 1915 there were 17 salteries in operation as compared with 15 
in 1914, and the investment increased from $286,356 to $336,612. 
The number of persons engaged increased from 248 in 1914 to 329 in 
1915. The output, however, shows a reduction, for this year it was but 
13,293 barrels, valued at $148,640, as against 26,362 barrels, valued at 
$252,662, in 1914. Approximately 83 per cent of this year's produc- 
tion of pickled salmon in Alaska came from the Bering Sea region, as 
compared with 89 per cent from that part of Alaska last year. 

Investment in the Salmon-Pickling Industry in 1915. 



Items. 


Central Alaska. 


Western Alaska. 


Total. 


Salteries 


No. 
8 


Value. 
$26,390 
37,600 

9,950 


No. 
9 

2 
115 

4 

5 

2,220 

67 

7 

1 

75 

129 

13,010 


Value. 
$63,517 
83,340 

20,000 


No. 
17 

4 

165 

19 

6 

2,229 

107 

8 

18 

1,862 

174 

14, 823 


Value. 
$89,907 
120, 940 




Vessels: 


2 
50 
15 

1 

9 

40 

1 

17 

1,787 

45 

1,813 


29,950 


Net tonnage . 


Launches under 5 tons 


8,600 
600 


6,450 
48,000 


15,050 




48,500 


Net tonnage 




2,068 
100 

2,545 


12,070 
5,500 

100 


14, 138 


Lighters and scows 


5,600 


Gear: 

Haul seines 


2,645 






Gill nets 


2,172 


7,710 


9,882 












Total 




89,925 




246,687 




336,612 







FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 
Persons Engaged in the Salmon-Pickling Industry in 1915. 



43 



Occupations and races. 


Central 
Alaska. 


Western 
Alaska. 


Total. 


Fishermen: 

Whites 


22 

37 

1 


115 
6 


137 


Natives 


43 


Japanese 


1 








Total 


60 


121 


181 






Shoresmen: 

Whites 


2 
3 


109 

1 


111 


Natives 


4 






Total 


5 


110 


115 






Transporters: 

Whites 


5 
5 


23 


28 


Natives 


5 








Total 


10 


23 


33 








75 


254 


329 







Barrels « op Salmon Pickled in 1915, by Species. 



Product. 


Southeast Alaska. 


Central Alaska. 


Western Alaska. 


Total. 


Coho, or silver 


No. 
440 


Value. 
$4,901 


No. 
275 
25 


Value. 

$3,391 

400 


No. 


Value. 


No. 

715 

25 

591 

239 

91 

854 

5 

10,670 

103 


Value. 
$8,292 
400 


Coho bellies 






Chum, or keta 


8 
79 


96 
535 


583 


$12,374 


12 470 


Humpback, or pink 


160 
91 
22 
1 
870 
103 


1,419 
1,273 
436 
20 
9,417 
2,040 


1,954 


H umpback bellies 






1,273 


King, or spring 


138 
4 


1,552 

72 


694 


8,151 


10, 139 


King bellies 


92 


Red, or sockeye 


9,800 


102, 563 


111,980 
2,040 


Red bellies 


















Total 


669 


7,156 


1,547 


18,396 


11,077 


123, 088 


13,293 


148,640 





a Barrels holding 200 pounds of fish. 
SALMON FREEZING. 

In 1915 there was a considerable increase in the freezing of salmon 
over the previous year. This line of business is incidental to the 
freezmg of halibut. The companies engaged were the New England 
Fish Co., the Ketchikan Cold Storage Co., and the San Juan Fishing 
& Packing Co., at Ketchikan; the Booth Fisheries Co., at Sitka; the 
Taku Canning & Cold Storage Co., at Taku Inlet; and the Glacier 
Fish Co. operating the floating cold-storage plant on the barge Glory 
of the Seas. 

During 1915 the total quantity of salmon frozen in Alaska was 
720,791 pounds, valued at $27,276. This is a big increase over 1914, 
when the product was 228,528 pounds, valued at $8,551. 
Salmon Frozen in Alaska in 1915. 



Species. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Coho salmon 


402,830 
281,015 
36,946 


$16, 873 
8,491 


Chum salmon 


King salmon 


1 912 






Total . 


720, 791 


27 276 







44 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

FBESH-SALMON TRADE. 

An extensive industry has been built up in southeast Alaska in the 
shipment of fresh salmon to Puget Sound. The chief centers are 
Ketchikan, Wrangell, Petersburg, and Jimeau, and the industry is at 
its best in the spring. The fish are boxed in crushed ice and are 
handled by the regular steamship lines. The business was prose- 
cuted with unusual vigor in 1915 when, according to figures obtained 
through the customs records, 2,216,603 pounds of salmon valued at 
$172,268 were shipped in a fresh condition from Alaska. This repre- 
sents a pronounced gain over 1914 when 1,759,733 pounds, valued at 
$60,375, were shipped. 

Present facilities do not admit of obtaining full detailed figures in 
respect to the amount of salmon sold in Alaska for local consumption, 
but a careful estimate made upon the basis of inquiries at Juneau and 
other cities leads to the belief that the local markets supplied approxi- 
mately 600,000 pounds of fresh fish, valued at $48,000. It is esti- 
mated that about one-half was halibut, one-third salmon, and the 
balance misceUaneous fishes such as black cod, herring, bass, and other 
species. 

DRY SALTING, DRYING, AND SMOKING OF SALMON. 

The dry salting of salmon in Alaska has been almost wholly dis- 
continued, as their preparation in other ways is much more profitable. 
The only report of dry-salt salmon in Alaska in 1915 was that of John- 
son & Howitzer, of Cold Bay, indicating the preparation of 12,000 
pounds of red-salmon backs, valued at $250. The bellies of these 
fish are included in the figures herein given for pickled bellies. In 
addition, James J. Bettles, of Eshamy, dried 10,125 pounds of red- 
salmon backs, valued at $303, resulting from pickling operations. 
At Seldovia I. D. Nordyke dried approximately 1,500 pounds of chum 
backs and 300 pounds of pink-salmon backs, the total value of which 
was $105. In conjunction with their saltery operated in the Prince 
William Sound region, Lee & McKnight pickled 5,000 pounds of coho 
backs, valued at $150, and 11,000 pounds of pink-salmon backs, 
valued at $330. On Cook Inlet 5,700 pounds of coho backs, valued 
at $285, were smoked. 

One of the cannerymen in the Bristol Bay region prepared for his 
own use a smaU quantity of smoked salmon in olive oil. The salmon 
was first smoked slightly, then sliced into thin pieces and put into 
cans, after which pure olive oil was poured over the product. Tops 
were then put on the cans without exhausting. A very delicious 
product was thus obtained. The damp weather in this region will not 
permit of salmon being smoked and transported to the States un- 
canned, as it soon molds. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 45 

SALMON BY-PRODUCTS. 

The utilization of waste fishery products in the salmon-cannino- 
industry is a subject which merits thoughtful consideration. Little 
or no attention was given this matter in Alaska until 1913, when the 
North Pacific Trading & Packing Co. installed a small plant for the 
manufactiu-e of fertihzer and oil from the waste products of its can- 
nery at Klawak. This was the fuvst and has been the only plant of its 
land operated as a cannery adjunct in Alaska. It appears from re- 
ports that its operation has been successful. In 1914 a company 
designated as the Fish Canners By-Products (Ltd.) built a plant at 
Ward Cove, a few miles from Ketchikan, and installed the necessary 
equipment for the manufacture of oil, fertilizer, edible meal, and other 
products resulting from salmon-canning waste. On account of a 
late start, because of construction work, this company did compara- 
tively little in 1914, but in 1915 operations were conducted along 
extensive lines. The plant was enlarged in 1915, and it is understood 
that it is now capable of handling approximately 200 tons of raw 
material each day. AJl of the products manufactured by this com- 
pany in 1915 were from sahnon-cannery offal exclusively. This 
plant is centrally located in a district where within a radius of 50 
miles there are about 20 salmon caimeries. Contracts have been 
entered into with a number of these caimeries, and the refuse 
or gurry is saved and transported by the by-products company to 
its plant at Ward Cove. The advantage of this to the cannery- 
man seems obvious, as there is not only a financial return but at the 
same time sanitary conditions around the canner}^ are improved; 
ordinarily the practice is to allow the waste parts of the fish from the 
camiing process to pass tlu-ough the floor into the water under the 
cannery, for most of the canneries are built on piles at the water's 
edge or just within the shore line. It will be seen from the foregoing 
that there are two types of plants which may be developed in the 
utilization of waste salmon products : (1) The individual plant located 
at a caimery and operated incidentally to the chief business of can- 
ning sahnon, and (2) a central plant to which refuse material from a 
number of caimeries is taken, such plant being given over exclusively 
to the manufacture of by-products. 

From information at present available it would seem that both of 
these projects in Alaska have been successful. In some cases can- 
nerymen would no doubt prefer to install their own plants, whereas 
in other instances they would not care to be bothered with a side 
line of this character, preferring to dispose of the offal to a company 
organized specially for the handling of such material. Again, in some 
places the canneries are too widely separated to justify the erection 
of a central plant, as the expense of collecting the raw material is an 



46 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



important item. In such cases, if use is made of the cannery waste, 
it will be necessary for the canneries to install the required machinery 
for reduction purposes. 

Extensive investigations along this line have been made by Dr. 
J. W. Turrentine, of the Department of Agiiculture. That depart- 
ment's interest in the matter lies in the fact that it has been studying 
the problem of developing new sources of fertiUzers; also, it has given 
consideration to the manufacture of food for chickens and cattle 
from fish scrap. A document setting forth these matters in detail 
has been issued by the Department of Agriculture. 



STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 



Consideration under this head is given only to the manufacture of 
oil and other products from salmon-canning waste. The production 
of oil and fertihzer from herring will be foimd elsewhere in this report 
under the heading of the herring fishery, while the yield of oil and 
fertilizer in the whale fishery is shown under the discussion of that 
subject. 

Two plants were operated in the by-products industry in Alaska 
in 1915. The investment totaled $127,879 as against $116,607 in 
1914. The number of persons employed in 1915 was 85, all whites, 
of whom 77 were shoresmen and 8 were transporters. The number of 
persons engaged in 1914 was 32. There was a distinct gain in the 
output of this industry in 1915, its value in that year amoimting to 

),255, whereas in 1914 it was worth only $6,114. 

Output in By-Products Industry in Alaska in 1915. 



Items. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



OU 

Fertilizer 

Edible fish meal . 



.gallons. 

tons. 

...do... 



Total. 



47,976 
43 

738 



814,227 

1,305 

24,723 



40,255 



SALMON IN THE YUKON. 

Salmon fishing in the Yukon River is confined to operations of 
limited extent, the object of which is to supply certain demands for 
local consumption, including the use of sahnon for dog feed. The 
species taken are chinook, coho, and chum salmon. The chief method 
of capture is by means of small wheels, of which it is estimated that 
there are 200 in use throughout the entire extent of the Yukon in 
Alaska. In the lower reaches of the stream the natives use a form 
of set net instead of the small wheels which are used farther up- 
stream. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 47 

INJURY TO SALMON BY BIRDS. 

Appreciation of the injury done to salmon and their eggs by water 
birds leads to the conclusion that a reduction in their numbers in 
some localities, particularly about the spawning grounds of salmon, 
is desirable. It is understood that the birds most destructive to 
salmon and their eggs are gulls and terns. 

The law protecting birds in Alaska is covered in the act of June 2, 
1902 (32 Stat., 327), as amended by the act of May 11, 1908 (35 Stat., 
102), which reads in part as follows: 

From and after the passage of this act the wanton destruction of wild game animals 
or wild birds, except eagles, ravens, and cormorants, the destruction of nests and 
eggs of such birds, or the killing of any wild birds, other than game birds, except 
eagles, for the purposes of selling the same or the skins or any part thereof, except as 
hereinafter provided, is hereby prohibited. 

The desirabiUty of securing some relief from the depredations of 
the birds injurious to fish life led the Department of Commerce to 
take up the matter with the Department of Agriculture, under whose 
jurisdiction the act referred to is administered. That department 
advised that consideration of the several sections of the act led to the 
conclusion that the kilUng of gulls and terns by the ofiicials of the 
Bureau of Fisheries charged with the protection of spawning gromids 
of salmon in Alaska does not constitute ''wanton destruction" of the 
birds as prohibited under the law, and that the officials or agents of 
the Bureau of Fisheries may, therefore, take such action as is nec- 
essary to protect the salmon and their eggs on spawning grounds. 
It was noted, however, that the killing of gulls and terns away from 
the spawning grounds or when not committing destructive acts would 
be unlawful, and that all possible care should be taken by the agents 
of the Bureau of Fisheries to safeguard the birds from unnecessary 
destruction. Furthermore, the killing should be done only under the 
regulation and direct supervision of officers of the Bureau of Fisheries. 

A number of birds have ali-eady been destroyed and it is expected 
that there will be an expansion of effort along this Une in 1916. 

DESTRUCTIVENESS OF HAIR SEALS IN THE SALMON FISHERY. 

The injury done to salmon by hair seals in southeast Alaska was 
made the subject of a preliminary investigation by Inspector Walker. 
The work was taken up largely in connection with other work and 
could not, under the circumstances, be carried on in an exhaustive 
way. The following extract from his report is made: 

In southeastern Alaska the damage done by hair seals to salmon is observed mainly 
at the three principal gill-netting grounds, namely the Stikine, Taku, and the Chilkat 
Rivers and vicinities. There are at least three reasons for this: First, the seals are in 



48 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

greater abundance at the large glacial streams, probably because of the greater num- 
bers of fish; second, the water is suited to the use of gill nets for a large portion of the 
time and this method of fishing furnishes better opportunities to observe the actions of 
the seals; and third, the gill nets render the fish helpless and easy prey for the seals 
which soon learn this and frequent the nets. 

The distribution of the seals is not, however, confined to these restricted localities 
but on the contrary they frequent all salt water of the region and at times ascend the 
streams and rivers in greater or lesser numbers, sometimes becoming quite abundant 
far up the larger streams, and also occasionally entering fresh water lakes near tide- 
water. They are to be found in practically every bay into which streams flow and 
are there in varying numbers from one or two to dozens, depending on the supply of 
fish. 

The study was first taken up at the Stikine River and efforts were made to ascertain 
in definite figures and percentages the fish damaged by the seals. To best accomplish 
this it was necessary to visit daily as many as possible of the fishermen and obtain 
from them the figures as to the total number of fish caught in their nets during the 
preceding 24 hours, or since last visited, and the numbers positively known to ha^'e 
been damaged by the seals as shown by remnants in the nets. The figures therefore 
take no account of the numbers of fish entirely removed from the nets, leading no trace 
whatever, or none other than a torn net, blood stains, or a few scales. The fish thus lost 
by the fishermen is not a small percentage, but as no definite figures could be obtained 
they are entirely ignored other thali for this brief mention. The figures are for only 
a portion of the fishermen operating at the Stikine and for only a few days, and take into 
account only the damaged fish remaining in the nets. The number of fish consumed 
by the seals other than those taken from the nets can not at present even be esti- 
mated. Some persons have expressed it as their opinion that at least in the vicinity 
of the larger rivers the seals destroy more fish than are taken by the fishermen. From 
these limited observations it seems probable that such statements are entirely correct. 

The figures given are for king salmon only. From meager information at hand 
it seems that the other species of salmon are not taken from the nets in such large 
percentages. Possibly this is because the fish are more abimdant, and also by the time 
the other salmon run the seals have moved up into the rivers away from the fisher- 
men's nets. It is likely though that their diet is coroposed mainly of salmon wheneA-er 
those fish are to be obtained. 

Through the courtesy of the Columbia & Northern Fishing & Packing Co. , of Wrangell, 
it was possible for the officers of the Bureau to go on the boat that daily visited the fish- 
ermen to collect fish, and it was on these trips that much of the statistical information 
was obtained. 

Of a total of 1,184 red-meated king salmon taken in nets visited, 324 were damaged 
and remained in the nets, a percentage of 27.39-}- ; and of 278 white-meated king salmon 
caught, 24 were mutilated and remained in the nets, a percentage of 8.63-|-.« These 
figures fully bear out the assertions of the fishermen that the hair seals prefer the red- 
meated salmon to the white ones. 

According to information received from the fishermen, seals were not as abundant 
nor as destructive during the time that the above data were collected as they com- 
monly are, so the figiu'es are probably much under the average of the damage by the 
seals. 

There are no such figures as the above to show the seals' work at the Taku and Chilkat 
Rivers, but by conversing with fishermen and others, and in a few cases by personal 
observation, it is believed that the damage is much the same as in the Stikine region. 

At the Stikine the damage is worst when the nets are placed near the flats or the river 
mouth and least when far out, and at the other streams the same is true. To keep the 

a The observations were made in the period from May 12, 1915, to May 29, 1915, dates inclusive. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 49 

losses from seals at a minimum the fishermen work back and forth along their nets 
almost ceaselessly, day and night, taking out fish as soon as they are seen to strike 
the net, but even then the seals often beat the fisherman in the race and snatch 
the struggling fish from in front of him. It is not an infrequent occurrence for the 
fisherman to be taking out a salmon and have a seal attack the other end of the same 
fish. In one or two instances fishermen have narrowly escaped being bitten by the 
savage attacks of the seals on fish that were being taken from the nets. Were it not 
for the continued efforts of the fishermen to remove the fish from the nets they would 
have none remaining when it came time to take up tlie nets. 

Besides the fish mutilated, the seals occasionally damage the nets by becoming 
entangled in them. Sometimes the animal is thus drowned, but more often it escapees, 
leaving a rent in the net from a few meshes to a fathom or two. 

Seals frequently enter fish traps and there feed upon the fish, but as a rule tlioy find 
their way out, although occasionally one is captured. 

As to what other fish are taken in considerable numbers by seals remains to be 
worked out. Seals are at times reported as abundant about the herring schools, and 
when the eulachon go up the rivers they are there in abundance. 

Following the finding of the damage the seals do, there naturally comes the (juestion 
of how to reduce their numbers most effectively and with the minimum expense. To 
find some commercial use for the animals and thus cause the prosecution of their 
destruction to a profitable end would be far preferable to any bounty system or Govern- 
ment hunter. In consideration of this, the writerhas several times been in conference 
with a person who for a time considered undertaking the extensive capture of these 
mammals provided a reasonable market could be assured, but after some little cor- 
respondence, the matter was dropped, as he was unable to find a suflicient market to 
warrant his undertaking the enterprise extensively. At present the prices for skins 
and the oil are not sufficient to cause the animals to be hunted determinedly and the 
few skins that are shipped out are mainly obtained by the natives, some of whom like 
seal meat for food, and who save the skins when the animals are killed. They make no 
attempt to save the oil for sale. There are probably more sealskins worked up into 
moccasins by the natives and sold to tourists or sent to the States than are shipped out 
as whole skins. 

If a bounty system is to be effective, the bounty must be of sufBcient size to cause 
decided efforts to be made to kill the animals, and in order for the bounty to be paid 
there must be some essential portion of the animal produced as evidence of its having 
been killed. To accomplish this the animal must be recovered, and in the case of 
hair seals therein lies the difficulty, for by the methods so far used to kill them in this 
region only a very small percentage can be recovered. For it to be sufficiently profit- 
able to warrant persons engaging in the work of hunting them for a bounty, it at present 
seems that the bounty would have to be a very large -one unless better methods 
are found for killing and recovering the animals. By some it is thought that even a 
small bounty would cause efforts to be made to kill and recover the few possible, coimt- 
ing whatever was made in that way pure gain. If such should prove to be the case, 
this system would certainly be the proper one to adopt, but in the Avriter's opinion a 
system allowing but a small bounty would be ineffective. A desultory hunt for seals 
might be made if there were a bounty of So per head on the animals, but unless the 
natives and others in this region feel that they can make good wages they prefer to 
remain idle rather than try to earn what little they can by any legitimate means. 

The writer has improved all opportunities to shoot seals with a high-power rifle and, 
with the assistance of others, a considerable number of the animals were killed, but 
not one floated or struggled on the surface long enough to permit of its recovery. 
86497°— 17 20 



50 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

Seals breed in Le Gonte Bay, near Wrangell, where each year a few natives repair 
to take females just before the pups are born, as the skins of the unborn pups are prized 
as well as their flesh. The writer attempted to visit the bay at this time, but the trip 
was not successful, as the entrance of the bay was entirely blockaded by ice so that the 
head of the bay could not be reached. At a later date another trip was made with 
slightly better success. Near the head of the bay, within about half a mile of the face 
of Le Conte Glacier, seals were found on the ice in considerable numbers. Several were 
killed in a short time, but not one could be recovered. The young were fau-ly well 
grown and were no more easy to kill than the adults. They all soon became wary 
and kept out of range. An estimate of the numbers in the bay at the time could not 
be made, as the head of the bay could not be reached because of the ice, and there were 
doubtless many which were not seen at all. It seems probable that by a further study 
of the situation in this bay locations on land might be chosen from which considerable 
numbers might be killed, particularly about the time the young are born. It is not 
possible to kill them on the ice with clubs in such a place as this, as the ice is broken 
from the face of the glacier and is extremely irregular in shape and there is nothing in 
the way of floes or flat pieces of any size on which it is safe to land or even approach 
closely. It is probable that Le Conte Bay is the principal breeding ground that sup- 
plies the Stikine region, and by the adoption of suitable measures to destroy the seals 
in this bay then- numbers on the flats and at the rivers should be greatly reduced and 
a considerable saving be effected in the salmon fishery. 

The supply of seals for the Taku region is probably from breeding grounds near 
Taku Glacier, and those at the Chilkat and Chilkoot Rivers probably come from 
Davidson Glacier or one of those in that vicinity, and it is likely that in Glacier Bay 
are one or more rookeries that in a degree supply the Icy Strait region. 

Seals have been reported to breed at a few points in southeastern Alaska away from 
glaciers, and it maybe that at these places they leave the water far enough to render it 
possible to kill them with clubs or at least make some form of shooting more success- 
ful than has so far been experienced. To the present time it has not been possible to 
visit these places or verify the reports. 

At the Stikine the seals are very abundant at times on the flats and at other times they 
ascend the river to eddies where they congregate in considerable numbers. They are 
common in the river far aboA^e the boundary between the United States and Canada. 
Possibly a successful way of netting or trapping them in these eddies or in the rivers 
might be devised. Also suitable points for shooting them when in the eddies might 
be located. 

In the experiments so far conducted in killing the seals high-power rifles with soft- 
point bullets have -been used, but if any considerable percentage of the bodies is to be 
recovered some other method must be adopted, as these bullets kill instantly and 
usually tear such a hole that apparently there is not sufficient air remaining in the body 
to buoy it for the few seconds necessary to pick it up. In addition to the sugges- 
tions noted above for further study of the matter, it is desirable to experiment with 
long-range shotguns shooting heavy shot and also with small-caliber, low-power riflea, 
neither of which would tear such holes and probably not kill so quickly. Also experi- 
ments with hard-point high-power rifle bullets might prove valuable. Other work 
that should be tried and which it is thought would prove fruitful of results is the locat- 
ing of all the breeding grounds and ascertaining what methods are best adapted to 
each, the carrying on of the above-mentioned experiments with various guns and 
ammunitions, the selecting of points on land for shooting the animals in the water 
and on the ice in the rivers in the spring, the ascertaining of the percentages of bodies 
recoverable by the native method of shooting the seals at high tide when over the 
flats and picking them up at low tide, studying the possibilities of netting and trapping, 
and some minor ideas that have been suggested or have occiured to the writer. 



FISHERY INDUSTMES. 51 

As a result of another year's work carried on as suggested above it diouW be possible 
to determine quite accurately the damage done by seals in southeastern Alaska, the 
best methods of destroying them, and with some degree of accuracy the probable cost 
of such work. Further and more accurate determination of the extent of their damage 
would show the importance of destroying them and the maximum amount which it 
would be profitable to expend to accomplish this end. 

THE HALIBUT FISHERY. 

The kalibut fishery in Alaskan waiters is next in importance to the 
salmon industry. Although some may regard the salmon industry as 
having reached that mark beyond whkh further progress under pres- 
ent conditions may not be particulsirly great, it is certain that the 
halibut fishery has by no means approached the maximum of its 
productivity. Sonie of the banks in British Columbia waters which 
for years have yielded a rich return of halibut are beginning to show 
signs of depletion. It is therefore to waters contiguous to th« Alaskan 
coast that efforts must be directed chiefly in further expansions of 
the industry. The total production of halibut from Pacific waters 
northward from Oregon to Alaska in 1915 was approximately 65,000,- 
000 pounds, whereas the banks of the Atlantic produced less than 
5,000,000 pounds. On account of the reluctance of fishermen to 
state definitely the locality from which halibut are taken, because the 
spreading of such information would invite competition, it is difficult 
to obtain exact statistics regarding the proportions of the catch 
from the several regions concerned on the Pacific coast. It is be- 
Ueved, however, that a conservative estimate would place the catch 
of halibut along the Alaskan coast both in extraterritorial and intra- 
territorial waters at approximately 40 per cent of the total, or, ex- 
pressed fn figures, a total of more than 25,000,000 pounds in the year 
1915. The customs records, however, show only about 15,000,000 
pounds of halibut passing through Alaskan ports. This is substan- 
tially the amount which is credited to Alaska in the statistical tables 
appearing elsewhere in this report. 

The halibut industry in Alaska is centered chiefly at Ketchikan, 
where there are two large fish-freezing plants, namely, those of the 
New England Fish Co. and the Ketchikan Cold Storage Co. The 
first mentioned is the largest in Alaska. The latter concern was new 
to Alaska in 1915. Other companies having cold-storage facihties 
and engaging in the hahbut industry in an important way were 
the Booth Fisheries Co., at Sitka; Jmieau Cold Storage Co., at Juneau; 
Taku Canning & Cold Storage Co., at Taku Harbor; and the Glacier 
Fish Co., which operated a floating cold-storage plant on the barge 
Glory of the Seas. This concern has heretofore been designated as 
the Glacier Fisheries Co. It did not, however, send the Glory of 
the Seas into Alaskan waters in 1914, although the vessel was operated 
at Idaho Inlet in 1913. In addition to the freezing of hahbut, 



52 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

this concern, as well as other companies, made shipments of fresh 
halibut on the regular lines of steamers plying between ports of 
Alaska and Puget Sound. Many of the halibut schooners taking fish 
on the banks off the coast of Alaska proceeded directly to Puget 
Soimd or to ports in British Columbia to land their catch. 

The opinion expressed by the Bureau several years ago that the 
opening of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway to Prince Rupert, British 
Columbia, would probably divert a considerable portion of the halibut 
trade from American ports was fully confirmed by developments in 
1915. Prince Rupert is located only 90 miles from Ketchikan and 
unless means are adopted to hold the trade it is undoubtedly true 
that Prince Rupert will draw a large proportion of the halibut trade 
now enjoyed by American communities. From an American point 
of view the importance of the situation may be seen from the fact 
that during the year 1914 no halibut were landed by American fishing 
vessels at Prince Rupert, but beginning in March, 1915, and con- 
tinuing through to the end of the year American vessels landed more 
than 7,000,000 pounds of halibut at that port, while Canadian vessels 
landed about 8,000,000 pounds there. It is reported that approxi- 
mately 80 per cent of the fish caught by Canadian vessels were shipped 
to American markets. All the American-caught fish landed at Prince 
Rupert were shipped in bond to American markets, chiefly to the 
important distributing centers for halibut at Boston and other eastern 
cities. 

The Dominion Government has taken active steps to develop the 
halibut industry of British Columbia, and chiefly that of Prince 
Rupert, by an order in council which was issued on March 9, 1915, as 
follows : * 

During the present calendar year foreigners or foreign corporations bringing fresh 
fish in vessels registered in the United States of America to any port in British Co- 
lumbia shall be permitted to land such fresh fish at such port without payment of duties 
and transship the same in bond to any port in the United States, or to sell such fish in 
bond to such local dealers or dealer as may be properly and duly licensed therefor, 
under the regulations and conditions in compliance with the bonding requirements 
(without the right, however, in either instance, to sell in Canada for consumption 
therein, or otherwise except in bond, any of such fresh fish so landed); and such 
foreigners and foreign corporations bringing fresh fish in vessels registered in the United 
States of America to any port in British Columbia, shall be permitted to purchase 
supplies, and ship crews for such vessels, at any port in the said province of British 
Columbia, the whole under such regulations and conditions as the minister of customs 
may determine. 

By the terms of this order Canada is enabled to receive the benefits 
of the American fishing industry, but the market for American caught 
halibut landed at Prince Rupert or other Canadian ports has not 
been enlarged, as the use of such fish so landed by American vessels is 
prohibited in Canada. Various inducements have been held out by the 
authorities at Prince Rupert to cause American vessels to land their 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 53 

cargoes at that port and to outfit for fishing operations and buy all 
supplies there. The object thus sought has in considerable measure 
been accomplished in 1915, as various American companies have been 
forced to invest money at Prince Rupert in order to obtain their pro- 
portion of the halibut trade. A number of American companies have 
made extensive investments at Prince Rupert and others contem- 
plate doing likewise unless measures are taken very soon to retain 
the halibut industry in American ports as it existed before the open- 
ing of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway to Prince Rupert. 

There is apparently nothing in the present laws or regulations of the 
United States extending sufficient authority to cope adequately with 
the situation. Plans are therefore being formulated for the enact- 
ment of legislation by Congress to give the necessary protection to the 
American halibut fishery and particularly to retain for American 
ports the trade which they formerly enjoyed, and which is now se- 
riously threatened and will undoubtedly be lost, very largely, and go 
to Prince Rupert and other Canadian towns. It is not only the loss 
of trade that American towns will suffer, which of itself is of sufficient 
importance to cause real concern, but it is the more important loss of 
Alaska citizens who will make their homes m Prince Rupert rather 
than in towns of southeastern Alaska, notably Ketchikan. This is a 
loss which Alaska should not be forced to sustain, and unless some- 
thing is done soon to remedy the situation it will be a distmct setback 
to the development of that Territory. 

The situation is peculiar in that undoubtedly means can be devised 
whereby not only will the trade be retained to southeast Alaska, but at 
the same time Prince Rupert may continue to enjoy in considerable 
measure the benefits of the industry and particularly the Grand 
Trunk Railway can have the benefit of as much freight traffic as 
though the fish were landed exclusively in Canada. A simple means 
of accomplishing this seems to lie m merely requiring that before hali- 
but taken from the waters of the Pacific may be shipped m bond to 
the United States through Canada they must first be landed at an 
American port. The adoption of this plan would likely result in the 
establishment of what might be termed a ferry service between 
Prince Rupert and Ketchikan. The cost of this probably would 
be home largely by the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, but it does 
not seem to be a matter of great expense. In fact, it is probable that 
the establishment of such a service would prove profitable to the 
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway. Emphasis is laid upon the fact that 
under the remedy just suggested shipments of halibut to the eastern 
markets over this railway would continue to be as heavy as under 
present conditions. 

Another subject to which some attention was given in the last 
months of 1915 is the estabhshment of a close season for the taking 



54 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUB INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



of halibut ia Pacific waters. This matter has b«en advocated by 
fishing interests awd it is anticipated that in the near future steps will 
be taken to accomplish something definite along this line. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 

The investment in the halibut fishery in Alaska in 1915 amounted 
to $2,842,800, which is a slight increase over the investment of 
$2,744,055 m 1914. The number of persons engaged in 1915 was 1,455 
while in 1914 it was 1,406. There has also been an increase in the 
product, which in 1915 totaled 15,417,789 pounds, valued at $781,011, 
as against 14,807,797 pounds, valued at $762,757, in 1914. These 
figures are based in considerable measure upon the returns made 
tlirough the customs service. The table of products shown below 
does not include catches made in extraterritorial waters of Alaska 
which were taken by the fishing vessels directly to Puget Sound or to 
Canadian ports. 

Investment in the Alaska Halibut Fisheries in 1915. 



Items. 



Fishing vessels, steamer and 
power 

Tonnage 

Outfit 

Doriies 



Num- 
ber. 



140 
4,070 



480 



VaJue. 



«1, 682, 000^ 



610, 800 

28,800 



Items. 



Fishing apparatus 

Shore and fixed property . 

Total 



Num- 
ber. 



Value. 



$80,000 
442,000 



2, 842, 800 



Persons Engaged in the Alaska Halibut Fisheries in 1915. 



Races. 


Number. 




1,420 




35 








Total 


1,455 







Pboducts op Alaska Halibut Fisheries in 1915. 



Prodacts. 


Pounds. 


Valoe. 


Halibut: 

Fresh 


9,747,634 

5,589,864 
80,291 


$533,898 




244,423 


Fletched - 


2,690 








Total 


15,417,7«e 


781,011 


_ 





THE COD FISHERY. 
VESSEL FISHERY. 



Unsettled market conditions early in 1915 did not augur weU for 
the cod industry. Preparations, however, were made to carry on the 
business in Alaskan waters along the same lines followed in the pre- 
vious year. The vessels engaged in offshore fishing were outfitted 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 



55 



and dispatched in March and April from home ports at San Francisco 
and on Puget Sound. The run vessels made several trips to the Alas- 
kan shore stations to take north supplies and return with the catch. 
The fishing vessels operating both in the vicinity of the Shumagin 
Islands and in Bering Sea had a successful season although weather 
conditions were unfavorable part of the time. The shore stations 
did not do as well as in some seasons past. Along toward the end of 
the year market conditions improved somewhat. 

The concern heretofore listed as the Matheson Fisheries Co. is now 
designated under the name of J. A. Matheson. Early in the year the 
Alaska Codfish Co. added the schooner Maweema (392 tons) to its 
fleet of fishing vessels. On March 12, 1915, this company suffered 
the loss of the power schooner Nonpareil (31 tons) which went ashore 
on Unga Island, Alaska. No lives were lost. This vessel was used 
in connection with the company's shore stations in Alaska. It is 
reported as having been the first power schooner engaged in the Alas- 
kan cod fishery. It was sent north from San Francisco about five 
years ago. 

At its cannery at King Cove the Pacific American Fisheries put up 
experimentally a few cases of canned cod. The fish were packed in 
1-pound flat cans and were treated in a manner quite similar to the 
ordinary method of canning salmon. Cans opened several months 
later showed the product to be firm and white and in every way 
justifying the conclusion that the experiment was a success. It is 
believed that this field is worthy of further development and ex- 
ploitation. 

The following vessels were operated in connection with the cod 

fishery in 1915: 

Alaska Cod Fleet, 1915. 



Names. 


Class. 


Net 
tonnage. 


Operators. 


Azalea 


Schooner 


327 
252 
413 

220 
235 
328 
171 
138 
281 
266 
370 
392 
31 
247 

230 

324 

233 

328 

223 

30 

9 

7 

14 


J. A. Matheson, Anacortes, Wash. 


Fanny Dutard.. 


.do 


Do. 


Wawona 


do 


Robinson Fisheries Co., Anacortes, Wash. 


Alice 


do 


Do. 


John A.. .. 


..do 


Pacific Coast Codfish Co., Seattle, Wash. 


Charles R. Wilson. . . .. 


...do 


Do. 


Maid of Orleans 


do 


Do. 


Fortuna . 


do 


Northern Codfish Co., Seattle, Wash-. 


Glendale 


.do 


Alaska Codfish Co., San Francisco, Cal. 


Allen A. a 


do .. 


Do. 


City of Papeete 


do 


Do. 


Maweema 


.do 


Do. 


Nonpareil b 


Power schooner . . . 
Schooner 


Do. 


Ottilie Fjord 


Pacific States Trading Co., San Francisco, 


Bertha Dolbeer " 


do 


Cal. 
Do. 


Sequoia 


.do 


Union Fish Co., San Francisco, CaL 


Vega 


do 


Do. 


Galilee 


do 


Do. 


Golden State a 


Power schooner... 
do 


Do. 


Pirate 


Do. 


Union 


. ..do 


Do. 


Union Flag 


.do 


Do. 


Martha 




Do. 








<• Transpor 


ting vessel. 




b Wrecked Mar. 12, 1915. 



56 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



SHORE STATIONS. 

Shore stations were situated as follows : Alaska Codfish Co. — Unga, 
Squaw Harbor, and Kelleys Rock, on Unga Island; Companys Har- 
bor and Murphys Cove, on Sannak Island; and Dora Harbor, on 
Unimak Island. Pacific States Trading Co. — Northwest Harbor, 
Herendeen Island. Union Fish Co. — Pirate Cove, Popof Island; 
Northwest Harbor, Herendeen Island; Pavlof Harbor and Johnson 
Harbor, on Sannak Island; Unga, on Unga Island; and Dora Har- 
bor, on Unimak Island. Also, there were several smaller inde- 
pendent shore-station operators in the Shumagin Islands region, 
including John H. Nelson, at Squaw Harbor, Nick H. Johnson, and 
A. Komedal. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 

The investment in the Alaska cod fishery in 1915, including both 
offshore and shore operations was $570,990, as compared with 
$623,921 in 1914. There was, however, an increase in the number of 
persons engaged, there being 747 employed in 1915 as against 677 in 
1914. This is a gain of 70 persons for 1915. Figures for the shore 
stations in the States are not included. 

The products of the Alaska cod fishery in 1915 aggregated 14,195,- 
775 pounds, valued at $390,199. The figures for 1914 were 15,045,- 
378 pounds, valued at $438,208, thus showing a decrease in quantity 
for 1915 of 849,603 pounds and in value of $48,009. 

Investment in the Cod Fishery in Alaska in 1915. 



Items. 


Number. 


Value. 


Items. 


Number. 


Value. 


Vessels: 


4 

269 

11 

18 

4,769 

453 

2 


$38,000 


Apparatus: 

Gill nets 


1 
3,613 


840 




Hand lines 


1,948 


Launches under 5 tons — 


4,634 

181,288 




212, 827 


Value shore stations 




116,203 




Total 








15,800 
250 




570,990 


Pile drivers 













Persons Engaged in the Alaska Cod Fishery in 1915. 



Occupations and races. 


Number. 


Occupations and races. 


Number. 




648 


Transporters: 






33 




47 
19 


Grand total 




Shoresmen: 


747 












Total 


66 









FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 
Products of Alaska Cod Fishery in 1915. 



57 



Products. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Products. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Vessel catch: 

Salted cod 


10,553,175 
18,800 


$291,479 
1,380 


Shore-station catch— Contd. 


12,400 


$620 




Total 






3,623,800 


97,340 




10,571,975 


292,859 


Total: 

Salted cod 




14,156,175 

8,400 

31,200 




Shore-statioa catch: 


3,603,000 
8,400 


96,300 
420 


387 779 


Salted cod . . . 


Stockfish • . 


'420 


Stockfish 


Tongues 


2 000 










14, 195, 775 


390, 199 



THE HERRING FISHERY. 

There is no phase of the fisheries of Alaska which seems to have 
had less attention commercially in proportion to its potential worth 
than the herring fishery. The waters of Alaska abomid with a high 
grade of herring of a species differing so slightly from that of the 
Atlantic coast that to the casual observer there is no real difference. 
Notwithstanding this abundance there has been no development of 
the commercial fishery in Alaska in any way approaching the possibili- 
ties along this line. Herring have been utilized chiefly in three ways : 
(1) As bait in the halibut fishery, (2) pickled for food, and (3) in the 
manufacture of oil and fertihzer. There have also been some ship- 
ments of dry-salted herring in bulk to the Orient, but proliibitive 
freight rates have made such ventures unprofitable. The develop- 
ment of the pickled-herring trade of Alaska has not been as successful 
as might have been the case if greater care had been exercised by the 
fishermen in handling the pack. There has been a disposition not to 
sort the herring with sufficient care, and the result has been unfavor- 
able to the trade. Most of the herring have been caught by means 
of purse seines, which has resulted in the taking of all sizes of the fish, 
but if gill nets of suitable size mesh were used, as is largely the case 
in the herring fishery in European waters, only the larger sized 
herring would be caught. This would do away with much of the labor 
in sorting the fish when preparing them for pickhng. It is realized 
that when herring are taken for halibut bait, either to be sold in a 
fresh condition or to be frozen for future use, it is more profitable to 
use purse seines. 

On account of the unprecedented demand for herring in Europe, 
resulting from war conditions, the importations of Norwegian and 
Holland herring into the United States fell off in 1915, in consequence 
of which the market has been strong for American herring. As a 
result, shipments of pickled herring from Alaska in 1915 were greater 
than in the previous year, and it is reported that the quality and size 
of the fish were much improved over that of former years. Under 
present conditions it is beheved that a good grade of iUaska herring 



58 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



running about 600 fish to the barrel should be worth at least $12 a 
barrel. Smaller fish, gradmg down in size to about 1,000 per barrel, 
are worth approximately $9. The advent of the Pacific Mild-Cure 
Co., a new concern in the Alaska field, had much to do with improving 
the pickled-herring industry in 1915. Tliis company's operations 
were conducted chiefly in the vicinity of Petersburg. 

As for many years past, the Alaska Oil & Guano Co. operated its 
plant at KiUisnoo, where herring were utilized in the manufacture of 
oil and fertilizer. This company has expanded its operations some- 
what to include the sale of herring for bait to halibut vessels, and has 
also pickled some herring for food. The season's catch of herring was 
upward of 28,000 barrels. It is hkely that before long legislation 
win be enacted prohibiting the use of herring or other food fish in the 
manufacture of oil or fertilizer. Should such action be taken a rea- 
sonable amount of time ought to be given the company in which to 
adjust its affairs. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 

According to the statistics, the herring fishery in Alaska in 1915 
shows an increase over the previous year. The total investment in 
1915 was $211,640, as compared with $203,045 for 1914. The num- 
ber of persons engaged in 1915 was 158 as against 144 in 1914. The 
value of the products in 1915 was $155,579, as compared with $12S,217 
in 1914. The most notable feature of the gain in 1M5 was the in- 
creased pack of pickled herring for food. There was also a consid- 
erable increase in the amount of herring frozen for bait. The pro- 
duction of both oil and fertilizer manufactured from herring declined 
m 1915. 

Investment in the Herring Fishery of Alaska in 1915. 



Items. 


No. 


Value. 


Items. 


No. 


Value. 




4 

103 

1 

22 

6 


$22,000 

'""i.'soo 

2,040 
6,100 




2- 
12 


$1,000 
15,000 




Purse seines 




Cash capital 


90,000 




Shore and accessory property 




74,000 




Total ^ 










211,640 











Persons Engaged in the Alaska Herring Fishery in 1915. 



Occupations and races. 


Number. 


Occupations and races. 


Number. 


FiishBiiraea: 

WTiites 


99 

4: 


Shores nien>— Continued. 

Japanese 


7 




Total 






50 




103 








5 


Shoresmen: 

Whites 


32 
11 


Grand total 




158 













FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 
Probucts op Alaska Herring Fishery in 1915. 



59 



Products. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Herring: 

Fresh for bait 






2,757,030 

2,646,390 

8,956 

619 

130,028 


Sl'6,561 
19,300 
78,238 
15, 475 






do 


Pickled for food " 




barrels.. 


Oil 




gallons. . 


26 005 










Total . . 




155,579 









a Includes 308 barrels, valued at $2,457, pickled in central Alaska. 
INQUIRY REGARDING WASTE OF HERRING. 

The natives of southeast Alaska are accustomed to collecting con- 
siderable quantities of herring eggs for food purposes. The eggs being 
of an adhesive character become attached to algae and other vegeta- 
tion and to rocks, and since they are deposited in shallow water close 
to shore th^ir collection is a simple matter. To facilitate gathering 
the eggs the natives supplement the supply of algae or other natural 
collecting agencies by placing boughs of trees ia the water. To ascer- 
tain something as to the extent that the use of herring eggs might be 
considered as having an adverse effect upon the maintenance of the 
supply of herring an investigation was begun by Inspector Walker in 
1 &1 4 and continued in 1 9 1 5 . After the work was undertaken it became 
apparent that other factors were of greater importance in their bear- 
ing on the destruction of herring, and the investigation was accord- 
ingly expanded to cover the various important enemies of the 
herring in southeast Alaska. The matter of suggesting remedies for 
the evils was also given attention. 

The two more important spawning regions for herring in southeast 
Alaska are in the vicinity of (1) Fish Egg Island, an island lying 
across the mouth of Klawak Inlet, west coast of Prince of Wales 
Island and near the village of Craig, and (2) Sitka. The investiga- 
tion was carried on in both of these regions. 

The following extract from Mr. Walker's report is made: 

At Craig the herring spawned from March 27 to April 1, inclufiive, in 1914, a*ad in 
1915 from March 10 to 20, inclusive. The west and north shores of Fish Egg Island 
with Klawak Reef on the north form about 96 per cent of the spawning ground. 
These slope quite gradually from high tide level to some distance below low tide 
level so that a large beach is exposed at low tide. About 50 per cent of the total 
spawning grounds are thus exposed at every low tide to the depredations of those 
enemies operating above the surface of the water. In no place were the eggs found 
to have been deposited in water more than 10 feet in depth at low tide, and from 
that level to about 2 feet of high tide level. Much of this area from about low 
tide line to a considerable depth is covered with a luxuriant growth of a large-frond 
species of seaweed. It is upon this and the smaller algae and grasses as well as upon 
some of the rocks that the eggs naturally adhere. The large fronds, together with 



60 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUE INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

the stipes, are frequently many feet in length and float upon the surface of the water 
or at a comparatively slight depth. Thus their relative position to the surface remains 
the same at all stages of the tide. But few of these are entirely stranded at low 
tide so that eggs deposited on them are subject for the most part to disturbance only 
from those enemies operating in the water. Frequently these large fronds are covered 
on the upper side to a thickness of one-half inch with the eggs, and it is such as these 
that the natives select for drying. 

When the herring eggs are first deposited they are surrounded by a sticky, gelatinous 
coating that causes them to adhere to any object they touch, and the natives 
have found that by placing the green branches of hemlock on the beach at low tide, 
where they will be on the spawning grounds when the tide comes in, the eggs will 
become attached to them, thus making it more easy to collect and dry the eggs, as they 
dry more readily on hemlock than on the seaweed. 

The only preparation the eggs undergo for preservation is drying, which is accom- 
plished by hanging the limbs and twigs in trees or on ropes or wires in the sun and 
wind, and the fronds either by hanging over wires or strings or by laying them on 
canvas on the ground. A small quantity of eggs on the small mosslike algae is some- 
times collected, but owing to the matting down of the mass it dries but slowly and 
much difficulty is experienced in preserving the eggs. They quickly spoil unless 
dried rapidly. Also, when on this algae they are not so desirable for food. 

Practically the entire native population of Klawak— about 300^collected eggs at 
Craig in 1914, and in addition there were natives from Shakan, Hydaburg, Kake, 
Killisnoo, and many other places. A total of over 500 natives participated in the work 
at Fish Egg Island and \dcinity. Many of the natives who came in their own power 
boats lived aboard them, but the entire west shore of the island was lined with the 
camps of those who had come in canoes or by other means. At the north end of the 
island proper is a small village that is occupied only for a short time each year, during 
the period for taking and drying eggs. Most of the natives who had come in canoes 
were laden down with their spoils when ready to depart, and large quantities of both 
fresh and dried eggs were shipped on the three weekly trips of the mail boat Uncle Dan, 
plying between Wrangell and the west coast region of Prince of Wales Island. The 
shipments were consigned to Shakan, Hydaburg, Sulzer, Waterfall, Wrangell, and 
other points. Many of those who lived at Klawak carried fresh eggs direct to their 
homes, where they dried them. Those who had come from a distance in power boats 
filled every conceivable bit of space with the fresh and dried eggs, and frequently towed 
canoes, also loaded with the food. 

A box filled with fresh eggs on seaweed or hemlock, weighing about 50 pounds, sells 
for about $2. About half the weight is of the vegetation. All the eggs from a single 
herring would be but a handful, and when dried but a tablespoon ful. The natives who 
are fortunate enough to be able to take eggs exert every effort to obtain all they can 
possibly handle, so that they may have plenty to sell and trade to other natives not so 
fortunate. Thus it is at once apparent that an incredible number of eggs are sacrificed. 
At Sitka the conditions were studied in the same manner and found to be quite 
similar to those at Craig, except that the spawning grounds are in small isolated coves 
in the many islands, rocks, and reefs of the region; and as the beaches are very steep, a 
smaller percentage of the eggs was exposed than at Craig and there was no large area 
covered by spawn, as at Craig. The period of spawning in 1914 in the vicinity of 
Sitka lasted almost three weeks. A large portion of the native population of Hoonah, 
Killisnoo, Kake, and other villages, was busily engaged there in collecting the eggs and 
shipping or drying them. 

The eggs are shipped in boxes of the size indicated above, or in burlap sacks which 
hold about the same quantity. On three weekly trips of the steamer Georgia, leaving 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 

Sitka on the dates given, the following numbers of packages of 
the places indicated: 



61 
were shipped to 



Date. 


Packages. 


Destination. 


Date. 


Packages. 


Destination. 


1914. 
Apr. 1.... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do.... 

Do... 

Do... 
Apr. 6.... 


i 

2 
12 

2 

7 
20 

2 


Chatham. 

Killisnoo. 

Tenakee. 

Hoonah. 

Funter. 

Douglas. 

Juneau. 

Hoonah. 


1914. 
Apr. 6... 
Apr. 12... 

Do... 

Do... 

Do... 

Total. 


14 
1 

19 
3 

19 


Douglas. 

Chatham. 

Hoonah. 

Haines and Klukwan. 

Juneau. 


114 





This makes a total of 1 14 boxes and sacks shipped on the three trips of the one steamer. 
The above figures show an incalculable number of eggs destroyed, but far greater num- 
bers were carried away in the boats of the natives who had come from other i-illages to 
secure them. Of these there are no figures available, nor is there any way of estimat- 
ing the amounts kept in the Aallage and \dcinity for future use or the amounts con- 
sumed fresh, but on every hand were to be seen both old and young natives devouring 
the eggs, fresh and cooked. By the natives they are considered a great delicacy, but 
to the average white person they are wholly insipid. At the Sheldon Jackson school for 
natives at Sitka the demands for these eggs became so insistent that the management 
was finally prevailed upon to serve one or more meals of them to satisfy the children. 

The fresh eggs are eaten either without cooking of any kind or after having been 
placed for a few minutes in slightly salted boiling water. If the eggs have been dried, 
the entire frond or branch is boiled for a few minutes in slightly salted water. In this 
case the eggs come off and sink to the bottom of the vessel, after which the vegetation 
is removed by picking out the larger pieces and skimming away the floating trash. 

Although the operations of the natives destroy great quantities of herring eggs, 
their destruction is insignificant in comparison with the natural enemies and the 
seiners, the destructiveness of both of which is shown in the following portion of this 
report. 

The most destructive of the enemies of the herring are the myriads of water fowl of 
the region. As the time of spawning approaches and the herring school up in the 
vicinity of their grounds, these winged hordes congregate in the vicinity in vast flocks, 
best described as clouds of birds, and remain there the entire time that the herring 
are about. 

The greatest numbers of birds observed or reported were at Craig, which is not far 
from their breeding grounds. From the time the fish first appear in the region, usually 
early in the winter, the birds begin to collect. During this time they feed on the adult 
herring, and by the time the herring are ready to spawn many of the migratory birds 
have arrived to augment the flocks. They prey on these fish from daylight until 
dark for the entire time and practically without cessation, often becoming so gorged 
as to be unable to fly; but as soon as the food becomes somewhat digested they are 
filling themselves again. ^Vhen they are thus gorging themselves, it is a common 
sight to see a gull take half a dozen adult herring in as many minutes, if the fish are 
crowded or confined so as to be unable to escape. 

During the spawning season these vast voracious flocks feed almost exclusively on 
the eggs of the herring. At Craig 19 birds were collected and their stomachs examined 
to ascertain the contents. Of this number there were only three not gorged to their 
utmost capacity with the eggs, from the crop to the pylorus, and usually even the mouth 
was full to overflowing. In only one or two cases were there fish in the stomach, and 
these had probably been picked up dead on the beach when the birds were after eggs. 
Some of the stomachs contained small quantities of miscellaneous marine matter, but 
this was probably picked up by accident in the search for eggs. 



m 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



Of the total number of birds in the vicinity of Craig observed to be feeding on the 
herring or eggs, the following are the estimated percentages of the various species: 

Species op Birds Preying on Herring. 



Species. 


Percentage 
of each 
species. 


Species. 


Percentage 

of each 
species. 


Ducks: 


15 
15 
5 
5 


Gulls— Continued. 


10 


White-winged scooter 


Miscellaneous 


15 




Shore birds and others 




Miscellaneous 


55 




40 


5 




Total 




Gulls: 


30 


100 


Glaucous-winged gull 











At Sitka the bird life was much the same except that the relative numbers were 
somewhat different, the gulls being in still greater majority. Such large flocks wer6 
not to be seen here owing to their being scattered over a much greater area, cover- 
ing many miles of coastline and intervening waters. Stcanachs of seven birds taken 
here were in practically the same state of engorgement as those taken at Craig and 
contained about the same class of food material in much the same proportion. 

An actual count of the herring eggs contained in the stomach of one unidentified 
species of gull, probably a glaucous winged, gave the surprising number of 5,378 egga 
remaining in such a state of preservation as to be easily distinguishable. This stomach 
was not a fair sample as it was not filled nearly as full as were most of those taken. The 
average stomach contained at least twice this number of eggs and many held fully 
three to four times as many. There is no doubt but that a single gull, or other bird of 
similar size, when feeding on herring spawn will consume at least 10,000 eggs at a single 
meal. Birds digest their food so rapidly and the herring eggs are so readily digested 
that the quantities consumed are almost incredible. It is probable that in some cases 
not less than 50,000 eggs are consumed in a single day by individual birds, as they eat 
almost continuously during the daylight hours. 

At Fish Egg Island and vicinity about 50 per cent of the eggs are above water at low 
tide, and of those exposed I have good reason to beUeve from my observations that not 
more than 5 per cent escape destruction by the birds. Of those below water a consid- 
erable number are taken by the ducks, grebes, loons, cormorants^ and others not con- 
fined to operations on the surface. 

From the time the fish approach the surface at the outer coasts, all during their 
stay in the inland waters, and until they return to the open ocean they are at no time 
free from the attacks of these voracious enemies. 

It seems desirable to reduce losses from the natural enemies, that man may profit 
by what is saved from them. To best accomplish this, the most effective and practi- 
cal remedy that occm's to the writer is to remove completely all protection from the 
birds that do the damage, save that their nesting sanctuaries might be retained; and 
at the time of spawning place one or two men well supplied with guns and ammunition 
to shoot and frighten away the birds from these areas. At such a spawning ground 
as at Craig it would not be difficult or expensive to protect the eggs quite fully by this 
means from the ravages of the birds for the few days they are exposed to their depreda- 
tions before hatching. In such a region as Sitka and vicinity it would be slightly 
more diflBcult and expensive, but not prohibitively so, for the herring in that region 
do not spawn simultaneously at widely scattered points. 

The white man's most direct and needless destruction of the herring is the seining 
of them on their spawning grounds and vicinity when spawning or about to spawn. 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 63 

This, however, is much easier to control than any of the preceding. During their 
epa%vning period and for some time previous, they are valueless as food for human con- 
sumption and are used only for bait or in the manufacture of oil, fertilizer, chicken 
feed, or similar preparations. At this time they are much less wary than usual and are 
readily seined in large quantities. In any of these operations not only the individual 
fish are sacrificed, but the eggs that are to produce the supply of fish for future years are 
lost as well. Such destruction can not do otherwise than decimate the numbers of 
herring when taken in conjunction with the other destructive agencies at work. 
Frequently when seining is done on the spawning grounds the seine and boat become 
a mass of spawn. Thus not only the herring and the eggs remaining in them are 
destroyed, but many of the eggs that have already been deposited are ruined. 

The freezing and preserving in cold storage of herring for bait is not an expensive or 
difficult operation, as is shown by the fact that it is at present done to a considerable 
extent. The taking of hening or the disturbing of their spawn should be prohibited 
in southeastern Alaska each year from March first to May first. It is during this period 
that all spawning occurs in southeastern Alaska, so far as the writer has been able to 
ascertain. At the same time the retention of herring in pots or inclosxu-es for more than 
five days after the commencement of this suggested close season of each year should also 
be prohibited . Under present conditions it is not infrequent that during their spawning 
season thousands of barrels of herring are retained in pots where they deposit their 
spawn, practically all of which is lost. 

The Craig and Sitka regions are the two more important spawning grounds, and 
represent the two types of grounds, i. e., the single large areas and the many small 
isolated coves and bights, the former exposing a large percentage of the eggs at low 
tide and the latter comparatively few. Besides these grounds, there are about 20 
other points in southeast Alaska at which it is known that herring have at times 
spawned. Of these a few are regular resorts, but the majority are not used annually, 
and a few only rarely. At all of these grounds the conditions are essentially the 
same as those of either the Craig or Sitka regions, particularly as regards the natural 
enemies and the operations of the natives. It is qiute probable that more detailed 
work would develop other spawning grounds. 

Under the discussion of the natm-al enemies and the operations of the seiners, 
methods have been proposed for remedjing the existing conditions, but no comment 
has been made on the advisability of proliibiting the natives from taking eggs, as the 
other two factors are of so much greater importance in the destruction of the hening 
that it seems ad\isable to recommend first the correction of those e^ils. As was shown 
vmder the discussion of the natives' operations, they destroy considerable quanti- 
ties of spawn, but, as compared \vith the natural enemies and the seiners, the natives' 
work is not of great importance. In the writer's opinion the natives should be pro- 
hibited only after proAisions are made for checking the ravages of the birds and the 
prohibition of seining during March and April of each year. 

The Bureau is now giving careful consideration to the formulation 
of measures having in view the abatement as far as practicable of 
those agencies which are destructive to the herring fishery.. 

THE WHALE FISHERY. 

SHORE STATIONS. 

The whale fishery in Alaska in 1915 was confined to the operation 
of two shore stations. One of these plants was that of the United 
States Whaling Co., at Port Armstrong, in southeast Alaska, while 
the other was operated by the North Pacific Sea Products Co., at 



64 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUE INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

Akutan, in western Alaska. The latter concern was listed in 1914 
under the name of the Pacific Sea Products Co. A number of addi- 
tions and improvements have been made at this plant. Both of 
these stations had a successful season, the total catch of whales num- 
bering 470, as compared with a total of 482 in 1914. Although the 
European market for some of the whale products was demoralized on 
account of the war the domestic demand has been such that a much 
better fuiancial return was obtained than in 1914. 

The method of killing whales is by means of small steamers equipped 
with a muzzle-loading gmi which shoots an explosive bomb into the 
animal, from which a line leads to powerful winches on the forward 
deck of the vessel by which the animal is finall}^ drawn alongside. 
It is then pumped up with air to keep it from sinking and is towed 
to the shore station, where it is hauled out on a platform by means 
of winches and cut up. Every part of the animal is used, different 
grades of oil being obtained from the blubber, from the meat, and 
from the bones, while two grades of fertilizer or meal are secured, one 
from the meat and the other from the bones. 

Five steamers were used in killing whales in Alaska in 1915, the 
Star I (133 tons). Star II, and Star III (97 tons each) being operated 
by the United States Whaling Co., and the Unimalc and Kodiak (99 
tons each) being operated by the North Pacific Sea Products Co. 
Heavy weather retarded the operations of both plants in the earlier 
part of the season. It becomes a matter of great difficulty or even an 
impossibiUty to hit a whale when there is much of a sea rmining. 

The United States Whaling Co. experienced two disasters. Early 
in the season some of the buildings were destroyed by fire, at a loss of 
about $4,000, and in December a severe gale damaged a number of 
the buildings to the extent of approximately $6,000. 

In connection with its operations the North Pacific Sea Products 
Co. gave employment to 17 natives, which number included all avail- 
able natives on Akutan Island as well as some from other settle- 
ments. While there is considerable work that the natives are not 
able to perform, at least until they have received instruction for some 
time, the company has found them very satisfactory in certain lines 
of work for which they are well quafified. This is a gratifying situa- 
tion and anything that can be done in the way of givmg natives em- 
ployment wiU be of great benefit to them as their lot is ordinarily a 
hard one and their means of making a Hving are generally quite 
meager in the more isolated sections of western Alaska. 

OFFSHORE WHALING FLEET. 

The operations of the offshore whaling fleet, which a few decades 
ago were of great importance in Alaskan waters,, have practically 
ceased. The only offshore whaling vessel of this fleet which is re- 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 



65 



ported as having made a cruise in 1915 is the steamer Belvedere (339 
tons), which left Seattle in the spring on a voyage to Siberian waters 
to obtain whale and walrus products. The vessel returned in the 
fall. Last year three vessels of the fleet made whaling voyages, but 
with indifferent success, and four of the vessels were laid up in Oakland 
Creek, where they had been for several years. All of these ships were 
either continued in idleness in 1915 or were diverted to uses other than 
in the whale fishery. 

STATISTICAL SUMMARY. 

The total investment in the shore whaling industry in Alaska this 
year was $1,453,850, as compared with $1,456,649 in 1914, and the 
number of persons employed in 1915 was 204, as against 225 in 1914. 
The value of the products in 1915, however, shows a notable gain, 
being $381,750, as compared with $291,099 in 1914. The total num- 
ber of whales taken by the shore stations in 1915 was 470, while in 
1914 the catch was 482. Although the foregoing shows a decrease 
both in investment and number of whales taken, the increased value 
of the product may be explained by the great advance in prices ob- 
tained as a result of conditions incident to the war in Europe. 

Whales Taken in Shore Operations in 1915. 



Species. 



Finback 

Humpback 

Sulphur-bottom 
Sperm 

Total..... 



Number. 



2.39 
153 
53 
25 



470 



Investment in Shore Whale Fishery in Alaska in 1915. 



Items. 



Vessels: 

Steamers 

Tonnage 

Barges 

Tonnage 

Laimches under 5 tons 
Lighters and scows 



Number. 



5 
525 
1 
1,149 
1 
2 



Value. 



.1240,000 

"i6,'666 



400 
200 



Items. 



Pile drivers 

Value of plants . 

Cash capital 

Wages paid 



Total. 



Nimiber. 



Value. 



StJOO 
708,000 
430,000 
64,650 



1,453,850 



Persons Engaged in Shore Whale Fishery in Alaska in 1915. 





Races. 


Number. 


Whites 




123 


Natives 




17 


Japanese 




64 








Total.. 


1 su 





86497 



-17 21 



66 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

Products of Alaska Shore Whaling Operations in 1915. 



Products. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Whale oil 






876,500 

101, 800 

1,385 

110 


' .¥295,000 
38,000 
46 000 


Sperm oil 




do 


Fertilizer, meat 




tons. . 


Fertilizer, bone 




do.... 


2,750 










Total 




381,750 









MINOR FISHERIES. 



TROUT. 



Several of the trouts are widely distributed in Alaska, including 
the Dolly Varden, rainbow, cutthroat, and steelhead, all of which 
go to make Alaska very attractive from the angler's point of view. 
The Dolly Vardens are particularly abujidant, and together with 
steelheads are utilized in a small way commercially. So numerous 
are the Dolly Vardens that a much greater expansion of this industry 
is not only possible, but would be a decided benefit in the way of 
helping the salmon industry, as the Dolly Vardens destroy large num- 
bers of the eggs and young of salmon. 

The total value of trout products in Alaska in 1915 was $3,420. 
This shows a decline from the previous year when trout to the value 
of $5,758 were utilized. 

Products of the Alaska Trout Fishery in 1915. 



Section and species. 


Fresh. 


Frozen. 


Canned. 


Southeast Alaska: 


Pounds. 
22,670 


Value. 

$2,297 


Pounds. Value. 

990 S41 

9,051 340 


Cases.a 
17 


Value. 

$38 
















Total .1- 


22,670 


2,297 


10,041 381 


17 
176 


38 

704 














22, 670 


2,297 


10,041 


381 


193 


742 









o Each case contains forty-eight 1-pound tall cans. 



BLACK COD. 



The black cod {Anoplopoma Jimbria) , a fish almost unknown to 
the Pacific coast markets until a few years ago, continues to grow in 
favor, as is evidenced by the increase over the previous year in the 
quantity shipped from Alaska in 1915, which amounted to 142,550 
pounds as compared with 87,573 pounds in 1914. Except for its 
darker color the black cod resembles the true cod which has long 
been marketed, but it belongs to an entirely different family. Its 
most striking characteristic is the unusual amount of oil in the flesh, 
in consequence of which a rich article of food results. A favorite 



FISHERY INDUSTRIES. 67 

metliod of preparing black cod is to smoke certain parts lightly, par- 
ticularly the backs. This is done chiefly after the fish are landed at 
Puget Sound ports, for the product as it comes from Alaska is either 
in a fresh, frozen, or pickled state. 

The fish are taken incidentally in the halibut fishery, and as a rule 
are caught on those trawls which are set at greater depths, as the 
black cod apparently confines its habitat more exclusively to deeper 
water than does the halibut. Until four or five years ago most of 
the halibut fishennen when lifting their trawls threw away all black 
cod immediately after they were taken from the hooks. At the 
present time, however, the price obtained makes it desirable to bring 
in these fish along with the halibut. 

Shipment op Black Cod from Alaska Waters in 1915. 



Products. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Fresh ... ... 


57,394 
46, 17() 
38,980 


$1 688 


Frozen 


l'l94 


Pickled - 


1 089 








Total 


142,550 


3 971 







ATKA MACKEREL. 

In January, 1915, the department issued a permit authorizing 
A. C. Goss to fish for Atka mackerel in the vicinity of Attn Island, 
Aleutian Islands Reservation, and to market the product. It was 
stipulated in the permit that all work in connection with the taking 
of the fish and their subsequent preparation for market should be 
done by Aleuts or Indians who were residents of the reservation. 
Fishing for Atka mackerel was carried on by Mr. Goss at Attn Island 
on June 19, July 1, and July 10, and 10 barrels of 200 pounds each 
were taken each day. Native labor was used and the fish were taken 
by means of jigs. The gear employed consisted of 1 schooner, 
valued at $3,000; 3 boats, at $100; jigs, $5. Eighteen natives were 
employed and the number of fish taken was 7,035. The total product 
was 30 barrels, valued at $300. 

A few barrels of the fish after having been pickled were shipped to 
San Francisco, as a sample, in an endeavor to introduce the product 
and if possible secure financial aid. The fish were repacked at Una- 
laska and an examination showed them to be fat and in excellent 
condition. 

It is stated that the fish congregate in large schools off Attn Island 
and remain there the entire summer. The natives say that they are 
also found there in the winter season. 

It has been suggested that experimentation might develop a way 
of making excellent caviar from the eggs of these fish. 



68 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUE INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

MUSSELS. 

For a number of years the Bureau has been du'ecting attention to 
the food value and wholesomeness of sea mussels, a product found in 
abundance along our coasts, but one which has not been in much 
favor, notwithstanding that mussels are held in as high esteem in 
Europe as are oysters in the United States. At many places along 
the coast of Alaska mussels in every way suitable for human food are 
to be obtained in quantities with but little effort. Opportunity is 
hereby taken to suggest the possibilities of this field. 

CRABS. 

A few crabs are obtained from time to time in southeast Alaska, 
chiefly in the Petersburg district, and are shipped to Puget Sound. 
Crabs are also consumed locally to a certain extent. Although not 
particularly numerous so far as present information goes, it is beheved 
that crabs are to be obtained in sufiicient quantities to justify the 
development of a modest fishery. According to customs records, 
14,395 pounds of crabs valued at $713 were shipped from southeast 
Alaska in 1915. 

CLAMS. 

At various places in Alaska clams of excellent quality are to be 
found. In some sections, notably in the Prince William Sound region, 
they are to be had in sufficient abundance to warrant the operation 
of a cannery. Such a plant, the first of its kind in Alaska to be listed 
as a clam cannery, will be operated at Cordova in 1916. Clams have 
also been obtained in considerable quantities in the vicinity of 
Klawak, in southeast Alaska. Some canning of clam products has 
occurred in past years at the salmon caimery of the North Pacific 
Trading & Packing Co., at Klawak. No shipments of clams from 
Alaska were reported to the Bureau in 1915. There was, however, 
some local use made of clams, particularly by the natives. 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 

PRIBILOF ISLANDS.o 
GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES. 

The Pribilof Islands, in Bering Sea, are the breeding grounds of the 
North American fur-seal herd, and these islands are the only places 
where the seals come to land at any time. So long as pelagic sealing 
is prohibited these islands naturally become the base of any opera- 
tions having to do with the taking of skins. And whether skins are 
taken for commercial purposes or not, the need of affording protec- 
tion to the seals while on the islands from raiders, the maintenance of 
the Government property, and the obligation on the part of the Gov- 
ernment to support the native inhabitants, who in times of non- 
commercial kilhiig of seals are deprived of then- prmcipal means of 
obtaining a livelihood (that of taking sealskins), make it necessary 
for the Department of Commerce to carry on active operations there 
at all times. 

PURCHASE AND TRANSPORTATION OF SUPPLIES. 

Some of the necessities of life for the approximately 300 native 
inhabitants of the Pribilof Islands are secured there or from the 
surrounding waters. There is an abundance of seal meat, and a 
limited quantity of fish may be secured. In addition wild birds may 
be taken at certain times of the year and their eggs are utihzed 
occasionally in the summer. Some driftwood is available for fuel. 
But with these exceptions, practically all the items of food, fuel, 
clothmg, and materials for shelter have to be provided for the maui- 
tenance of these people. 

SUPPLIES. 

Early in the year a limited quantity of supplies was purchased at 
Seattle and forwarded to the Pribilofs on the schooner Bender Bros. 
Delivery at the islands was effected April 1, 1915. 

As has been the custom m previous years, it was plamied to ship 
the bulk of the aim.ual supphes in the summer. From requisitions 
submitted by the agents at the islands, schedules, 31 in number, 
were prepared of the various classes of supphes desired. These 
schedules were printed and distributed among various merchants 

» The manuscript reports of H. C. Fassett, A. H. Proctor, and others have been drawn on freely in the 
preparation of this section. 

69 



70 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

and supply houses in New York, Boston, Chicago, San Francisco, 
Seattle, and other places for the purpose of securing comi^etitive 
bids. It was provided that proposals would be received for one or 
more schedules complete, that each schedule would be considered 
separately, and that no proposal would be considered for separate 
items in a schedule. It was also provided that bidders should select 
the points at which they chose to make deliveries. With two or 
three exceptions the most favorable bids received proposed to make 
dehveries at Seattle, and that point was accordingly made the base 
for assembling the supplies. 

For transporting the supplies to the Pribilofs the Navy coUier 
Saturn was secured. The vessel left Seattle on August 24 and arrived 
at San Francisco on the return trip September 28. 

Natives at Unalaska having expressed their desire to be permitted 
to furnish the salted and dried fish which would be needed at the 
Pribilofs both for human consumption and for fox food, and investi- 
gation having disclosed that terms advantageous to the department 
could bo made with them, it was decided to secure the required sup- 
plies of this character from them. The natives performed their 
agreement in a highly satisfactory manner and the Bureau is pleased 
to have been able to contribute in a practical way to their means of 
securing a hveliliood. It is hoped that similar arrangements may be 
made for the year 1916. 

The total cost of supplies of every nature purchased for tlie Pribilof 
Islands during the calendar year 1915 was $45,315.82. 

PERSONNEL. 

The statutory officers and employees on the Pribilof Islands during 
the calendar year 1915 were as foUows: 

St. Paul Island: Agent and caretaker, Harry C. Fassett; store- 
keeper, E. M. Ball, succeeded by Robert H. Bishop; school-teachers, 
Mr. and Mrs. G. Dallas Hanna, succeeded by Mr. and Mrs. George 
Haley; physician, William B. Hunter. 

St. George Island: Agent and caretaker, A. H. Proctor; school- 
teacher, George Haley, succeeded by Arnold C. Reynolds; physician, 
William M. Murphy, succeeded by Henry P. Adams. 

Mr. Bishop reached St. Paul Island April 1, relieving Mr. Ball, 
who returned to field work in central Alaska. Mr. and Mrs. 
Haley were transferred from St. George Island to St. Paul Island in 
September. Dr. Adams and Mr. Reynolds reached St. George Island 
to take up their respective duties in September, and in the same month 
Mr. Fassett, Dr. Murphy, and Mr. and Mrs. Hanna returned to the 
States. Mrs. Haley rendered assistance as a temporary employee, 
in teaching on St. George Island prior to her going to St. Paul Island ; 
after her departure from St. George her work there was continued by 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 71 

Mrs. A. H. Proctor. In September Harry J. Christoffers, an assistant 
agent in the Alaska service, reported at St. Paul Island to relieve 
Agent Fassett during the latter's leave of absence. 

NEW REGULATIONS. 

Definite regulations in regard to the landing and use of intoxicating 
liquors on the Pribilof Islands were promulgated by Department of 
Commerce Circular No. 257, dated March 1, 1915. The regulations 
are as f oUows : 

The Department of Commerce is charged by law with the administration of the Prib- 
ilof Islands. In order to promote the moral, mental, and physical welfare of the native 
inhabitants, who are the wards of the Government, the Department has adopted the 
following regulations regarding the delivery and use of intoxicating liquors, which 
regulations supersede any that may heretofore have been issued by the Department or 
the Bureau of Fisheries: 

1. The agent on each island shall be the sole custodian of all Government supplies of 
alcohol or alcoholic liquors thereon, and shall be responsible for the proper use thereof. 
He shall at Ms discretion give out the same as requisitioned by the responsible employ- 
ees, and shall keep a permanent record of the issuance of each lot, stating the person to 
whom issued, the kind and quantity, and the purpose for which intended. 

2. The giving of intoxicating Liquors to the natives of the Pribilof Islands, except as 
medicine and in religious ceremoneis, is positively prohibited under all circmnstances. 
In view of the example which the Department considers highly desirable for its repre- 
sentatives to set for the native inhabitants of the islands, the prescribing of alcohol as a 
medicine is regarded with disfavor and as being rarely if ever indispensable. When 
in the opinion of the official physician on either island it is necessary to administer an 
alcoholic liquor as a medicine, he shall in each case make a permanent public record 
thereof, stating the kind and amount required, the name of the patient, and the nature 
of the disease or condition requiring such treatment. 

3. The making of "quass" or other alcoholic drink by the natives is prohibited, and 
the agents and other officials of the Department will take all necessary steps to dis- 
courage and prevent this practice. Natives who, after due warning, continue to make 
or use such liquors will be properly disciplined. The agents are authorized to with- 
hold from such natives all supplies from which quass or other intoxicating beverages 
can be made, and, when necessary, to send offenders away from the islands at the first 
opportunity. 

4. Under no circumstances are any alcoholic liquors supplied by the Government to 
be used for the personal purposes of employees. 

5. All requisitions for alcohol or alcoholic liquors intended for public medicinal or 
scientific purposes shall be submitted by the agents and approved by the Commissioner 
of Fisheries. 

6. All alcoholic liquors requisitioned for the purpose of the Russian churches on the 
Islands shall be paid for by the church authorities and shall, before shipment, receive 
the written sanction of the proper church ofiicials, transmitted through the Depart- 
ment of Commerce. The agents wilt deal with any abuses which may result from the 
improper use by natives of alcohoUc liquors consigned for the purposes of the Russian 
churches. 

7. No alcohol or alcoholic liquor of any kind shall be landed on the Pribilof Islands 
except by authority of the Secretary of Commerce or the Commissioner of Fisheries and 
with the knowledge of the respective agents. Officers commanding Coast Guard, 
naval, fishery, or other Government vessels which may visit the islands are requested 
to make no delivery of alcohol or alcoholic liquor except official consignments, accom- 



72 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

panied by bills of lading, which have been placed on board by responsible officials of 
the Department of Commerce or specifically ordered by proper authority. Command- 
ing officers are expected to assure themselves of the contents of all pa^ckages for the 
seal islands received on board or taken ashore from their vessels, and will permit no 
packages containing unauthorized articles to leave the ship. They will also forbid 
the giving of alcoholic liquor to natives who may visit their ships. The agents will 
take proper precaution against the unauthorized landing of liquor from merchant or 
other privately owned vessels wliich may visit the islands and against the obtainment 
of liquor thereon by the natives. 

William C. Redfield, 

Secretary. 

NATIVES OF THE PRIBILOF ISLANDS. 

The native inhabitants of the Pribilof Islands consist of the inter- 
mixture of Aleuts, taken there in the days of Russian control, with 
peoples of Russian and other nationalities. Few, if any, to-day are 
of pure Aleut blood. Socially, these people have but little inter- 
course with the outside world. A few leave the islands from time to 
time to take up their abode elsewhere and occasionally a bride is in- 
troduced from some other Alaskan community. Some make occa- 
sional visits to Unalaska. A number of the older children go from 
time to time to the Salem Indian Training School at Chemawa, Oreg. 



Opportunities presented to the people for making a living are ex- 
tremely limited. Formerly their chief occupation was the taking of 
fur-seal skins, and after the islands were leased in 1870 tliis work 
secured to them a comfortable living. With the falling off in the 
take of skins it became necessary for the Government to make appro- 
priations for their support. The present appropriations for the 
Alaska service of the Bureau of Fisheries provide funds for the fur- 
nishing of food, fuel, clothing, and other necessities of life for the 
natives; provision is made also for a number of employees whose 
services are very largely taken up with their care, namely, two phy- 
sicians, three school-teachers, and one storekeeper. In addition the 
agent and caretaker on both St. Paul and St. George Islands gives 
considerable attention to matters of a supervisory character. 

In exchange for the supplies furnished the natives by the Govern- 
ment they are expected to perform such services as may be required. 
The work consists principally in taking and preserving seal and fox 
skins and caring for and maintaining the Government property on 
the islands. 

HEALTH. 

The isolation. of St. Paul and St. George Islands makes it necessary 
for the Government to employ a physician for each island and to 
provide medicine and equipment suitable for the resident communi- 
ties. A special effort was made to meet more fuUy the needs of the 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 73 

physician on St. Paul Island in respect to supplies in 1915, and it is 
expected that a similar plan will be followed for St. George Island in 
1916. 

St. Paul Island. — ^A report of the physician for the period from 
January 1, 1915, to September 1, 1915, shows that durmg this period 
683 cases were treated. Of these, 649 recovered, 30 showed improve- 
ment, and 4 died. One death was from chronic puhnonary tuber- 
culosis, 1 from menmgeal tuberculosis, and 2 (infants) from accidents. 

It was felt that improved conditions involving regular hours, out- 
of-doors work the year round, and the employment of mind and body 
in useful activities were being reflected in the general health of the 
natives. 

As evidence of improving health conditions on the island the physi- 
cian records the following interesting observation: 

Twenty-five per cent of the people on St. Paul have scrofulous scars, indicative of 
tubercular adenitis. The average age of this nxunber is 25 years, while 85 per cent 
are above 10 years of age. I have had only one case since my arrival in July, 1914. 
This shows that living conditions are gradually getting better and tuberculosis — 
especially this form which, I think, is usually primary to the pulmonary form — is 
gradually disappearing. 

The island hospital was opened on January 1, 1915, and down to 
September 1 five operations had been performed there. AU were 
successful but one, the unsuccessful case being that of a man from 
the U. S. S. Prometheus, who was in a practically hopeless condition 
when brought ashore. 

Twice a week during February, March, and April instruction was 
given native girls in nursing. They were shown the organisms which 
caused various diseases and taught the use of antiseptics and other 
means of prevention and cure of disease. They were instructed in 
the care of the sick; in the value of cleanliness, proper diet, bathmg, 
fresh air, and sunshine; how to prepare various surgical dressings; 
how to use the clinical thermometer and to keep the clinical chart. 
They were also given an elementary course in physiology, anatomy, 
materia medica, and hygiene. They were present and assisted at 
operations and showed a natural ability for nursmg not far exceeded 
by trained nurses in the States. It is believed that much may be 
expected of them when given suitable opportunities. 

Subsequent to the landing on the island of a party of workmen 
from the U. S. S. Prometheus for makuig repairs and improvements 
to the Navy radio station, certain observations were made that are of 
considerable mterest, and the following extract in regard thereto is 
taken from the physician's report: 

An interesting fact, and one that proves its contagiousness, is that the ordinaiy 
"cold " dies out dming the winter to return on the first ship reaching the island. On 
July 4, 1915, the U. S. S. Proinelheus anived, * * * On July 12 an epidemic of 



74 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

influenza broke out, first among the native workmen, reached its height July 19, when 
38 people were on the sick list, and began to clear up about July 26. Very few escaped 
the disease. There were no deaths caused directly by this disease and only one — a 
case of chronic pulmonary tuberculosis — caused indirectly by it. However, it brought 
out quite a bit of latent tuberculosis. * * * What was considered as only a " bad 
cold " among the robust men of the Navy proved to be an epidemic of influenza in all 
its forms, with the usual complications and sequelae, among the native inhabitants of 
the island. 

I would suggest that all future working parties not only have a thorough physica 
examination by the resident physician, but be quartered in their own tents, a good 
distance from the village, and be guarded in such a way that they will be kept entirely 
away from the natives at all times. 

The physician called attention to the need of a better water supply 
for the village, of larger and better houses, and of many desirable 
changes and improvements which would be conducive to better 
health conditions. 

St. George Island. — The report of the physician for the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1915, showed that the general health of the com- 
munity had been good. Most of the cases treated had been of gastro- 
intestinal and pulmonary character. Monthly inspections were made 
of the natives' houses and the surroundings, and the sources of water 
supply were also inspected from time to time as deemed necessary. 
Sanitary conditions, with the exception of overcrowdmg in the houses, 
were satisfactory. During this period there were five births. One 
death occurred, that of an infant, from inanition. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

Almost every person who has visited the Pribilof Islands has spoken 
of the inadequate water supply. The situation on St. Paul is much 
less satisfactory than on St. George and will be discussed first. 

St. Paul Island. — The present water supply on St. Paul Island is 
derived cliiefly from two small wells, one about three-eighths and the 
other about five-eighths of a mile from the village near the eastern shore 
of the salt lagoon. Although it is possible to get along after a fashion 
with these arrangements, other means ought to be taken to provide a 
good supply of fresh water. The present necessity for husbanding 
the supply of water makes it almost impossible at times for the natives 
to keep themselves or their homes in proper condition. At one of the 
wells the Navy Department has installed a small gasoline engine and 
pump, which lifts water to two 20,000-gallon tanks on the hill above 
the village. These tanks were built two or three years ago, but last 
winter was the first time that the service was satisfactory. From 
the tanks water is piped to the village and to the radio station. The 
tanks and pipe line belong to the Bureau, but the Navy Depart- 
ment attends to the matter of pumping, in return for which it has 
the privilege of usmg water needfid at the radio station. 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 75 

Apparently tlie best and most economical way of improving the 
water supply at St. Paul Island is to install a concrete reservoir of 
approximately 500,000 gallons capacity on Telegraph Hill about a 
mile from the village. A reservoir 100 feet in diameter and 8 feet 
deep would be about of this capacity. Telegraph Hill is approxi- 
mately 200 feet high, and water could be pumped from the ice-house 
pond, about 300 yards distant, into the reservoir and thence be dis- 
tributed to the village through a wooden-pipe line. This pipe-line 
should be at least 5 inches, preferably 6, in diameter and would afford 
a good pressure of water in every part of the village. Hydrants 
could be placed at several important centers and adequate fire pro- 
tection would thus be assm-ed. For lifting water to the proposed 
reservoir on Telegraph Hill, it is believed that a small gasoline-engine 
piunping plant would be most satisfactory. 

St. George Island. — Much less trouble with the water supply has 
been experienced on St. George than on St. Paul, though it is by no 
means what it ought to be. The main supply is from two wells 
located about an eighth of a mile from the village. There is also a 
line of If -inch iron pipe extending to a small fresh-water lake about a 
quarter of a mile from the village. The lake appears to be about 3 
acres in extent and is said to be 4 feet deep. This pipe-line is in the 
form of a siphon. It is owned by the natives, having been installed 
about 10 years ago and paid for by them. There is no complaint as to 
the quantity of water that may thus be obtained, except during the 
winter, when the line freezes up, but the quality is such that it is not 
suitable for drinking. This objection can undoubtedly be overcome 
readily by the installation of a suitable filter at the intake at the 
lake. The cost of such a filter would probably be only a few hun- 
dred dollars. The pipe-line should be extended to other parts of 
the village. It might be well also for the Government to acquire 
ownersliip of the present pipe-line, thus removing any possible claims 
to which the natives might feel justly entitled in future manage- 
ment of the water-supply system. Certain changes could be made 
without great expense so that the line would not freeze in the winter. 

Improvements to the pipe-line system as herein suggested appear 
to constitute the chief step necessary to put the water supply of St. 
George on a proper basis. It might also be advisable to dig one or 
two additional wells. 

SCHOOLS. 

The Bureau has during the year made special efforts to improve 
educational methods upon the islands and to Instruct the children and 
also the older people along lines which will be of practical use to them 
and thereby enable them to bring themselves into the enjoyment 
of such comforts, necessarily hmited at the best, as conditions and 
circumstances permit. Efforts have been made to introduce phases 



76 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

of manual training. While facilities are limited as compared with 
those available in the States, it is hoped that the efforts put forth may 
in time bring results well worth while. 

St. Paul Island. — The 1914-15 session on this island was continued 
through May and limited work was continued by the junior teacher 
into July. The 1915-16 session was begun in September. 

The extended use of Enghsh by the adults, particularly the men, 
who have found its use increasingly necessary in the performance 
of their daily tasks, has had a gratifying eifect upon the children, stim- 
ulating them to greater efforts. The pohcy of requiring every child 
old enough and strong enough to play about the village streets to 
attend school has been adhered to strictly. It has not been possible, 
however, to instruct the younger children for more than half a day 
at a time, owing to limited classroom facihties. With the parents 
using English to a greater extent than ever before, and with the 
encouragement for its extension in the playing of games among the 
people generally, as at croquet and baseball, a desu*e to learn the 
language has been rapidly developed by the children. 

Formerly the natives were inclined to be ashamed to speak English, 
though proud of such Russian as they might know. Not many of 
them really knew very much of the latter tongue, but a parish school 
kept by the local priest, at wliich the Russian language was the prin- 
cipal topic of study, was attended by every child in the village. The 
result was that such mental effort as was expended in language study 
was much more likely to be devoted to Russian than to English. 
This school was abolished in the summer of 1914, and it has not since 
been reopened. 

The women of the village, who usually represent their families in 
the purchase of supplies at the store, have been encouraged to write 
then* weekly orders in English. 

The boy-scout movement was inaugurated among the schoolboys 
in the spring of 1915. It was enthusiastically taken up and will be 
extended and developed as rapidly as circumstances permit. The 
written reports submitted by the older boys in regard to their obser- 
vations on the seals, sea lions, foxes, birds, and other life of the island 
were corrected in the classroom by the teacher, then rewritten and 
submitted to the agent to form part of the island records. The fact 
that the agent received these reports stimulated the boys to their 
utmost efforts both in the matter of closer and keener observations 
and in their composition and preparation. 

The abolition of the Use of interpreters by the officers of the station 
in their relations with the natives, both individually and collectively, 
has been of great benefit. Each person now exerts every effort to 
understand as many English words as possible, and the extension of 
the vocabularies of many of the adult natives has been remarkable. 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 77 

Tho hillside near the junior school was terraced off in the fall of 
1915 so as to make a spacious yard wherein the children of that 
school are allowed to play, but while so engaged they are allowed to 
use none but English words. A playground in the lower street of 
the village, where children may play during the dscy and the men 
secure recreation after working hours, was prepared with the idea of 
extending the use of English along similar lines. 

The preparation of leather made from the throats or gullets of seals 
formed part of the instruction of the older boys, some of whom be- 
came fjuite proficient in this work. This leather is used in the manu- 
facture of card cases, reticules, and other fancy articles which make 
attractive souvenirs of the island, and are rapidly disposed of to the 
occasional curio hunter who visits the islands. 

Basket making from grasses found on the island was continued by 
the children of both sexes in the senior school, but the enthusiasm 
with which this work was followed in 1914 was not as pronounced in 
1915. There was, hoAvever, sufficient progress made b}^ a number of 
the chikhen to warrant further endeavors in this direction. 

Manual training in several lines, particidarl}^ carpentry, black- 
smithing, tinkering, masonry, etc., are highly desirable in the educa- 
tion of the boys, while sewing, nursing, domestic science, etc., should 
be special studies to be followed by the girls. It should be borne in 
mind, however, that manual training to be of any real value demands 
competent instructors, and provision should be made not only for 
the employment of such persons but for their housing and comfort. 
Buildings and equipment for the training school will also need to be 
provided. 

It was noted with much satisfaction that the boys who returned to 
St. Paul from the Salem Indian Training School at Chemawa, Oreg., 
in the summer were very proud of their ability to converse fluently in 
English and to read the current magazines and papers. It was also 
noticed that the younger men and older boys seemed considerably 
impressed by the very evident superiority of the Chemawa boys, and 
it is believed that the best interests of the islands will be served by 
encouraging ever}- boy to go to the training school as soon as he shall 
have become eligible. The sending out each year of the boys and 
girls of proper age, should result in a steady return of a more highly 
trained class of natives than is ever likely to be produced on the 
islands. It is noticeable, too, that the drills and probably also the 
more varied diet enjoyed at the Chemawa school result in a superior 
physical development. 

Referring to the yoimgest pupils, satisfactory results are not to be 
expected at present. Limited classroom facilities and lack of equip- 
ment are the principal drawbacks. As they grow older the children 
seem to take more interest in the school work and their advance- 



78 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

ment is then more rapid. A feature of instruction inaugurated in 
the spring of 1915 was a sort of civil catechism. The children were 
asked to tell their names and ages, the names of their parents, the 
names of the various officials, what they studied at school, and, 
according to their capacity for imderstanding, facts concerning the 
islands and the more common physical surroundings and phenomena. 

Possibly the school term shoidd be extended to the end of June, 
and during the vacation of two months one teacher should be 
required to call aU school children in the village into the classroom 
once each week. The idea of this is to keep them under discipline 
and to prevent as far as possible their forgetting many things which 
usually escape their minds during the four months' vacation. 

St. George Island. — The 1914-15 school year opened Septem- 
ber 26. As a residt of the school building having been enlarged, 
the interior remodeled, and other improvements made, a comfortable 
and attractive room was available for the school work. Regular 
visits were made to the school by the physician, and matters of sanita- 
tion were given attention. The personal cleanliness of the children 
and the care given to their teeth were carefully watched. While the 
usual courses of primary and common school studies were not lost 
sight of, special effort was made to so ground the children in the use 
of the English language that they will use it in their everyday life 
outside the schoolroom, a condition which does not now obtain. 

Some of the difficulties encountered in the matter of giving instruc- 
tion to the children are indicated by the following extracts from a 
report submitted by Mr. and Mrs. George Haley for the school term 
ended May 29, 1915: 

One of the greatest obstacles in the progress of the pupils here is the fact that they do 
not speak English. With one or two exceptions, English is spoken in none of the 
homes, so when the child comes to school at the age of six years his vocabulary is 
usually limited to the words, "good-by," "yes," and "no." It is not difficult for a 
child to acquire a working knowledge of a foreign tongue under the proper conditions. 
Many of the children of the foreign-born citizens of the United States hear only their 
native tongue in their homes; but when they enter the public schools not only the lan- 
guage of the school but the language of the playground is English, and the playground 
is where the child gets the greater part of his practice in speaking. It is in free con- 
versation that one learns to think in a foreign tongue. Such children usually are 
desirous of speaking English — it may be with no liigher motive than because "the 
others do"— and the parents encourage progress in English, feeling that whatever line 
of work the children follow after leaving school it will be an aid in theii' advancement. 
Here the conditions are very different— the medium of communication of the play- 
ground is Aleut, so as soon as the threshold of the school building is passed there is no 
attempt to speak English. Then apparently the parents feel no interest in their child- 
ren speaking English. It may be that they see no advantage in it. 

The textbooks in use are standard books, but they do not always meet the needs of 
this school. The primary reading book often lacks interest because it relates to that 
which has never come into the child's experience; for example, the child whom the 
author had in mind is enthusiastic over " the robin that builds its nest in the elm tree,'' 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 79 

but for the Pribilof Islands child this presents too many new concepts. The same 
obstacle has to be met when the pupil comes to the textbook in arithmetic. The prob- 
lems do not apply to the practical situations in the pupil's daily life. Then in an 
arithmetical problem every word is significant, but the pupil's knowledge of English 
is insufficient to enable him to comprehend the conditions of the problem, so he is 
doubly handicapped. 

From the same report the following extract is quoted, as being 
illustrative of the particular methods of instruction employed and 
suggestive of additional lines of instruction which might be followed 
to advantage: 

Although the usual line of primary and common school studies has not been lost 
sight of, a special effort has been made in the way of English conversation and compo- 
sition. Certain set English sentences that are in daily use in the pupil's concrete 
experience have been used as a drill and care has been taken as much as possible to 
actually see the nouns and act the verbs before the sentence has been constructed; for 
example, "Open the box and put the pencil in it." The box and the pencil are shown 
the pupil, the names pronounced and repeated, the words "open" and "put" are 
acted by the teacher, then by the pupil. Finally the whole sentence is acted, spoken, 
written, and read. Objects familiar to the children and animal and plant life of the 
island have been made subjects of the language lessons both for oral and wiitten work. 

Some games have been taught the children in the hope that the English words used 
would become common in their undirected plays. When the weather permitted, a 
short walk was a part of the daily program for the little ones, during which time an 
endeavor was always made that the conversation should be in English, thus names 
of out-of-door objects and actions have been acquired without a conscious effort. 
Singing has been taken up twice a week, and since the words have been memorized 
the children's English vocabularies have been increased considerably. "WTien one 
sings in a foreign tongue, he unconsciously acquires the correct pronunciation. Dm- 
ing the last of the spring months nature lessons have been given, not only that the chil- 
dren might have some knowledge of animals and plants of the island but also as a means 
of cultivating the power of observation. 

Obser\'ing the defects of the older pupils has helped in learning the needs of the 
younger ones. They are very self-conscious, having an abnormal fear of making a 
mistake. They understand English much better than they can speak it; pupils who 
have been in school seven or eight years frequently write a request rather than to 
speak it. 

The employing of the concrete and practical can not be over emphasized; i.e., actual 
measurements of cloth, paper, boards, and land areas. Many of the pupils can glibly 
say that 9 square feet equals a square yard, but do not know how to find the area of the 
school floor or even to recognize the square yard marked out on the floor. A set of 
liquid and dry measures is useful in the schoolroom. 

The only reading that the children have heard from babyhood until they enter school 
is the intoning of both priest and parishioners at the Russian church. This monoto- 
nous, nerve-racking drawl is only with difficulty broken down and this is done by con- 
versational methods. We must admit that in reading the older ones are almost beyond 
our control to remedy. 

The temptation is perhaps to neglect the beginners in favor of the older pupils, but 
in no school would this method be more erroneous than here. 

The narrowness of the pupils' horizon and incidentally that of the parents could 
be considerably enlarged by means of a moving-picture apparatus. An evening's 
entertainment could be arranged at the Native Library and a descriptive talk given. 
Some pictiu-es of an amusing natiu-e might be presented, for the lives of these people 



80 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



are very devoid of pleasures, and also pictures showing the life of our large cities, 
country life, men actually at work in our manufactories, views of our large harbors 
with their shipping from all parts of the world, and anything that would show the many 
resources and industries of our great country. 

Valuable assistance was rendered by Mrs. George Haley in the way 
of giving instruction to the younger children and in teaching sewing. 
This work was later taken up by Mrs. A. H. Proctor, Mr. and Mrs. 
Haley having been assigned to St. Paul Island for the school year 
1915-16. 

The 1915-16 school year began the early part of September. At 
the end of the month there were under the direction of the senior 
teacher 10 boys and 14 girls. The junior teacher also began giving 
elementary instruction to 23 of the younger children, ranging in age 
from 3 to 6 3^ears. 

Attendance at Salem Indian Training School. — From time to time 
some of the children desire to attend the Salem Indian Trainmg 
School at Chemawa, Oreg., and aU practical encouragement is given 
to them by the Bureau. In 1915 Alexai Emanof, Ouliana Fratis, 
Agrifina Fratis, and Martha Fratis went to San Francisco on the 
Bureau's supply ship and later enrolled at the school at Chemawa. 

In the year 1915 the following listed children from the Pribilof 
Islands were in attendance at this school: 

Natives of the Pribilof Islands in Attendance at the Salem Indian Train- 
ing School, Chemawa, Oreg., 1915. 



Names. 


Attendance began. 


Remarks. 




August, 1914 

do 


From St. George Island. 




Do. 




July, 1911 


From St. Paul Island, returned there September, 




October, 1915 

do 


1915. 
From St. Paul Island. 




Do. 




do 


Do. 




do 


Do. 


Nicholas Orloif 


July, 1911 


Entered from St. Paul Island, but no longer a resi- 




do 


dent of the Pribilofs. 
Do. 









SAVINGS ACCOUNTS. 



The matter of transferring the fimds in the natives' savings ac- 
counts to the custody of the United States Commissioner of Fisheries 
as trustee, noted in the report of the Alaska Fisheries and Fur Indus- 
tries in 1914, was effected except in respect to one account. It is 
expected that the custody of this account will be transferred in 1916. 
The funds were transferred from the Union Trust Co., of San Fran- 
cisco, to the Washington Loan & Trust Co., Washington, D. C. The 
following table shows details in regard to the account with the latter 
company: 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 



81 



Pribilof Islands Natives' Savings Accounts in the Custody of the United 
States Commissioner op Fisheries, as Trustee, 1915. 



Date of 
deposit. 


Fimds of— 


Amount 

de- 
posited. 


Date of 
deposit. 


Funds of— 


Amount 

de- 
posited. 


1915. 
Mar. 10 




?174.24 

219. 90 

14.3. 19 

21.70 

248. 77 

78.19 

460. 80 

78.19 

78.19 

44.30 

271. 70 

847.04 

219. 07 

54.00 

165.16 

165. 16 

151.84 

266. 11 


1915. 

Mar. 10 

May 24 

Mar. 10 

May 24 

24 

Mar. 10 

May 24 

Mar. 10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

10 

May 24 

Mar. 10 

10 




?254. 18 


10 


Bourdukofsky, ApoUon 

Bourdukofsky, Peter 




32.57 


10 


Morculief, Joseph 


98 98 


10 






32.57 


May 24 




Merculief, Marian . . 


32 57 


Mar. 10 






32. 57 


10 






32 57 


May 24 


Fratis, Marl ha 


Oustigof, Peter . .. 


107 24 


Mar. 10 






308. 28 


10 


Galanin, Fehronia 




99 81 


10 






92 60 


10 




Rookavishnikof, Elizabeth. . . 
Shane, Michael 


44 03 


May 24 


Hanson, John 


70 43 


Mar. 10 






44.02 


10 






136. 37 


10 


Kriikof, Julia B 


Zacharoff, Emanuel 


36 78 


10 




Total .. 




10 


Lestenkof, Michael 


5, 143. 12 









The funds are carried by the bank as one account and the records 
as to the amount due each native are kept by the Bureau. Interest is 
paid on the account at the rate of 3 per cent per annum and is credited 
on the 1st days of January and July of each year for the preceding 
periods of six months. The interest is calculated upon the montlily 
balances, which method, owing to the inactivity of the account, se- 
cures virtually the same results as if average daily balances were 
used as the basis of computation. 

On July 1, 1915, interest was credited to the account in the amount 
of S46.90, and through the end of December, 1915, withdrawals had 
been made to the amount of $196.80, leaving a balance of $4,993.22. 
On January 1, 1916, this balance was increased to $5,068.61 by an 
interest credit of $75.39 for the preceding six months. 

CENSUS. 

A recapitulation of the census of native mhabitants of St. Paul 
Island as of Jmie 30, 1915, is as foUows: 

Total native population, June 30, 1914 192 

Births during year ended June 30, 1915 10 

Departures during year ended June 30, 1915 2 

Deaths during year ended June 30, 1915 6 

Dropped from census (married to white) 1 

Total native population , June 30, 1915 193 

A recapitulation of a similar census for St. George Island' follows: 

Total native population, June 30, 1914 117 

Arrivals during year ended June 30, 1915 2 

Bii-ths during year ended June 30, 1915 5 

Temporary departures during year ended June 30, 1915 2 

Deaths during year ended June 30, 1915 1 

Total native population, June 30, 1915 121 

From the foregoing it will be noted that the total native popula- 
tion of the Pribilof Islands on Jmie 30, 1915, was 314. 
86497°— 17 22 



82 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



FUR-SEAL HERD. 



KILLING OP SEALS. 



The killing of seals during the calendar year 1915 was limited, in 
accordance with law, to the number necessary to suppl}^ food for the 
natives of the Pribilof Islands. The number killed on St. Paid Island 
was 2,666, and on St. George Island 1,281, a total of 3,947 for both 
islands. 

Record op Fur Seals Killed on St. Paul Island, Alaska, in the Calendar 

Year 1915. 



Date. 



1915. 

Jan. 2 

May 21 

26 

28 

June 1 

2 

10 

10 

16 

22 

30 

July 2 

3 

6 

14 

14 

21 

24 

27 

29 

30 

2 

5 



Aug. 



Hauling ground driven. 



Si^^ltcll (Sea Lion Rook) 

Northeast Point 

do 

do 

Reef 

Northeast Point 

Reef 

Northeast Point 

do 

do 

do 

Gorbatch and Parade Ground . 

do 

Northeast Point 

Gorbatch and Parade Ground. 

Northeast Point 

do 

Gorbatch and Parade Ground. 

Northeast Point 

Reef 

do 

do 

do 



Number. 



11 
310 
62 
165 



Date. 



1915. 

Aug. 7 

10 

Oct. 21 

22 

25 

26 

Nov. 2 

3 



Dec. 



Hauling ground driven. 



Northeast Point 

Gorbatch and Parade Ground. 

Reef 

do 

Northeast Point , 

Tolstoi and Reef , 

Northeast Point , 

Reef 

Northeast Point 

do 

do 

Reef 

Zapadni 

Northeast Point (north side). , 

Reef 

Northeast Point 

Tolstoi 

■ do 



Total. 



Number, 



1 

70 
87 

cl 
1 

151 
1 

120 

264 

119 
89 

100 
31 
64 

120 
87 
45 

87 



2,666 



a Found dead after drive of July 2. 
b Foimd dead after drive of July 30. 
<■ Foimd dea 1 after drive of Oct. 21. 

Record of Fur Seals Killed on St. George Island in the Calendar Year 1915. 



Date. 



1915. 

June 17 

20 

24 

27 

July 1 

5 

7 

9 

16 

17 

18 

22 

22 

23 

30 

30 



Hauling ground driven. 



East Reef 

Zapadni 

North 

Zapadni 

North 

Staraya Artel 

East and East Reef. 

North 

Staraya Artel 

East." 

Zapadni 

do 

Staraya Artel 

East and East Reef. 

North 

Zapadni 



Nimiber. 



34 
2 

25 
2 

96 

53 

81 
112 

84 

168 

1 

1 

60 
123 

66 
1 



Date. 



1915. 

Aug. 2 

2 

7 

7 

10 
10 
Oct. 20 
27 
Nov. 9 
10 
17 
19 
22 



Hauling ground driven. 



North 

Zapadnj 

East Reef 

Zapadni 

North 

Zapadni 

North 

Starava Artel. 

North 

East 

Starava Artel. 

North 

Staraya Artel 

Total..-. 



Number. 



1,281 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 



83 



CENSUS OF THE FUR-SEAL HERD. 



The policy of taking an annual census of the fur-seal herd of the 
Pribilof Islands, based on actual count of certain components of the 
herds and on estimates of others, was continued. The census was 
taken by G. Dallas Hanna, assisted by other officers of the fur-seal 
service. 

The following table shows in condensed form the components of 
the herd in 1912, 1913, 1914, and 1915, the four years which have 
ensued since the cessation of pelagic sealing: 

General Comparison of Recent Censuses op the Seal Herd.« 



Class of seals. 



1912 


1913 


1914 


1,35S 


1,403 


1,559 


81,984 


92,269 


93,250 


113 


105 


172 


199 


259 


1,658 


100 


2,000 


9,939 


2,000 


10,000 


13,880 


n,ooo 


15,000 


17,422 


13,000 


20,000 


23,068 


11,000 


15,000 


17,422 


13.000 


20,000 


2;i,067 


81,984 


92, 269 


93,250 


215,738 


268,305 


294,687 



1915 



Breeding bulls 

Breeding cows 

Idle bulls 

Young biUls (cliiefly 5-year-olds) 

4-year-old bachelors 

3-year-ol d bachelors 

2-year-old bachelors 

Yearling bachelors 

2- year-old cows 

Vearling cows 

Pups 

Total 



2,151 
103,527 
673 
11,271 
15,848 
18,282 
23,990 
30,307 
23,990 
30,306 
103, 527 

363,872 



oThe 1915 census is not strictly comparable to those of previous years, different percentages of death 
rate having been assumed. 

The following extract is from Mr. Hanna's report on the fur-seal 
census in 1915: 

The census of fur seals on the Pribilof Islands in Bering Sea was taken in 1915 in 
the same manner as in the three preceding years. Bulls in charge of harems, idle 
bulls, and hauling ground seals were coimted at the height of the breeding season, 
July 17 to 21. The pups, young of the year, were counted between July 27 and 
August 7. 

The basic figures of present census calculations must necessarily be the births of 
this and preceding years. By deducting from the number of births the number 
killed and the number lost from natural mortality, those classes which can not be ac- 
curately counted because not all are on land at any one time, may be estimated with a 
fair degree of accuracy. The percentage of loss from natural mortality is an unknown 
factor in the calculations and must be chosen with due regard to all conditions and 
available data. During the years when the natural losses at sea were augmented by a 
very large and uncertain pelagic catch, the percentages were estimated at 50 per cent 
loss for the first year, 15 for the second, 10 for the third, and 5 per cent each for the 
fourth and fifth years. Experience has shown that even then, these figures were very 
conservative. Since the pelagic catch has been eliminated, these percentages are 
found wholly inadequate to give a close approximation to the actual numbers of the 
seals in the different categories. Data derived in 1915 show that the loss while the 
seals are away from the islands is nearly 50 per cent for the first three years. This 
figure is accordingly applied in the estimation of numbers of bachelors present this 
year. The lagging effects of pelagic sealing on the herd have prevented the obtaining 
of any data previous to 1915 which would warrant a change from the old percentages 



S4 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

of loss. This year more than half of the seals in the herd have never been subjected 
to pelagic sealing and the changes in many percentages are marked. In 1916 it will 
probably be possible to formulate laws on increase of the herd, proportions of the dif- 
ferent classes which are ideal and desirable, and the niunber which may be killed 
from the herd for their skins, which will be effective as long as natural conditions 
prevail. 

Pups. — The majority of the pups are born between June 15 and July 25. A few 
of them begin to swim the first week in August, and the number increases rapidly 
thereafter until at the end of the month of August practically all have taken to the 
water, and some move along the shore from the rookery a mile or more. 

By the end of September the young have assumed the silvery gray pelage and go on 
long trips around the islands. They become very fat in September and October and 
many of them then exceed the yearlings in weight. They leave the vicinity of the 
islands in the latter part of November and early in December. On January 2, 1915, 
among approximately 1,000 seals on Sea Lion Rock, not one was of the young of the 
previous summer. 

Each year a few albino pups are born. Their eyesight is defective as a rule and 
they usually die at sea. Three were noted among the pups born in 1915, one on each 
of the following rookeries: Lagoon, Morjovi, and Vostochni. The flippers of albinos 
are light pink to chocolate color, and the fiu" is very light yellowish to tawny. The eye- 
lids are white, in some cases, and black in others, but the iris is usually pink. They 
occasionally grow to maturity. In 1915 three were observed. An albino cow with a 
black pup was observed on Hutchinson Hill at Northeast Point. A 5-year-old albino 
bull roamed about from one rookery to another. A 3-year-old albino male was killed 
on St. George Island and preserved as a specimen by A. H. Proctor. 

The pups on St. Paul Island were counted July 28 to August 3, and on St. George 
Island August 5 to 7 . Because of the number of very young pups and pregnant cows it 
is not advisable to begin the count before July 28, and because the pups are taking to 
the water in considerable numbers after August 7, it is desirable to complete the count 
before the close of that day. But whether each rookery is counted on the same date 
as in preceding years makes no difference in the result as it would in the harem counts. 

In making the count the methods of the 1914 investigation were followed. A. H. 
Proctor and George Haley assisted on St. George Island on two days. Gunner A. J. 
Holton, United States Navy, rendered valuable assistance on the Reef Peninsula and 
at the Northeast Point rookeries on St . Paul I sland . The same natives were employed , 
as nearly as possible, from day to day in order to profit by their experience. 

The pups in each breeding mass were kept separate, corresponding to the masses of 
harems as plotted on the charts during the harem count. The average harem in each 
breeding mass is thereby obtained. 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY, 



85 



Distribution of Pups at the Pribilop Islands in 1915. 



Rookery. 


Date of 
counts. 


Living 
pups. 


Dead 
pups. 


Total 
pups. 


ST. PAUL ISLAND. 


Aug. 3 
...do 


2,429 
1,926 
6,882 

623 
14, 506 
4,479 

387 
11,501 
8,548 
5,586 

216 
4,089 
1,544 
1,053 
2,357 

1 20,404 


46 
28 
96 

9 
244 
56 

7 
122 
192 
96 

3 
72 

9 
12 
38 

577 


2,475 




1,954 




July 29 
...do 


6,978 




632 


Reef 


Aug. 1 
July 28 
July 29 
Aug. 3 
Aug. 2 
...do 


14,750 




4,535 


Lagoon 


394 


Tolstoi 


11,623 


Zapadni... 


8,740 


Little Zapadni 


5,682 


Zapadni Reef 


...do 


219 


Pofovina 


July 31 
...do 


4,161 


Polovina Cliflfs 


1,553 


Little Polovina 


...do 


1,065 


Morjovi 


July 30 
/..do.... 
tjuly 31 


2,395 


Vostochni 


20,981 






Total 


86,530 


1,607 


88, 137 




Aug. 6 
. .do 




ST. GEORGE ISLAND. 

North 


5,622 

4,397 

978 

26 


109 
53 
11 


5,731 




4,450 


Zapadni .... 


Aug. 5 
do 


989 




26 


Little East. 


Aug. 7 
...do 








1,044 
3,119 


3 

28 


1,047 


East Cliffs 


do 


3,147 








Total 


15, 186 


204 


15,390 








St. Paul Island 


86, 530 
15,186 


1,607 
204 


88, 137 






15,390 









Total, both islands 


101,716 


1,811 


103,527 



Percentage op Increase or Decrease in the Number op Pups in 1915 prom 1914. 



Rookery. 



ST. PAUL ISLAND. 

Kitovi 

Lukanin 

Gorbatch 

Ardiguen 

Reef 

Sivutch 

Lagoon 

Tolstoi 

Zapadni 

Little Zapadni 

Zapadni Reef 

Polovina 

Polovina OlifFs 

Little Polovina 

Morjovi 

Vostochni 

. Total 

ST. GEORGE ISLAND 
North 

Staraya Artel 

Zapadni 

South 

Little East 

East Reef 

East Clifls 

Total 

St. Paul Island 

St. George Island 

Total, both islands 



Total 
pups,1914. 



2,119 
1,834 
6,152 

656 
13,559 
4,052 

375 
9,934 
7,625 
4,919 

206 
3,555 
1,449 

927 
2,312 
19, 709 



79,383 



5,301 

4,278 

1,022 

1 

26 

581 

2,658 



13,867 



79,383 
13,867 



93,250 



Total 
pups,1915. 



2,475 

1,954 

6,978 

632 

14,750 

4,535 

394 

11,623 
8,740 
5,682 
219 
4,101 
1,553 
1,065 
2,395 

20,981 



88, 137 



5,731 
4,450 



26 



1,047 
3,147 



15,390 



88,137 
15,390 



103,527 



Percentage of 
increase (+)or 
decrease (— ). 



16.80 
6.54 

13.43 
3.66 
8.78 

1L92 
5.07 

17.00 

14.62 

15.51 
6.31 

17. (H 
7.18 

14.88 
3.59 
0.45 



11.03 



+ 8.11 

+ 4.02 

- 3.23 
+2,500.00 

- 100.00 
+ 80.20 
+ 18.40 



+ 10. 98 



+ 11.03 
+ 10. 98 



11.02 



86 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



The foregoing table is especially interesting when compared with the similar one 
for 1914. o In neither is thei'e any apparent regularity in the increases and decreases. 
That the cows are governed by no absolute law in choosing their rookeries seems cer- 
tain. One small rookery made a phenomenal growth of 80 per cent. Tolstoi, a large 
one, increased 17 per cent, while Vostochni, the largest rookery on the islands, in- 
creased only 6.45 per cent. These are conditions which can not be accounted for with 
the information at present available. 

Mortality of pups. — The following table shows the percentages of dead pups found 
on the rookeries at the time of the count. Not over half a hundred had recently died. 
The majority had been dead long enough to be partly decomposed and gave evidence 
that trampling and crushing between bowlders had caused their death. The greatest 
mortality seems to occur at the height of the breeding season; that is, at the time the 
pups are being born. Only a small percentage seemed to have died a natural death. 

Number and Distribution op Dead Pups in 1915. 



Rookery. 


Total 
pups. 


Dead 
pups. 


Percentage of 
dead. 




1915. 


1914. 


ST. PArL ISLAND. 

Kitovi 


2,475 

1,954 

6,978 

632 

14,750 

4,535 

394 

11,623 
8,740 
5,682 
219 
4,161 
1,553 
1,065 
2,395 

20,981 


46 

28 

96 

9 

244 

56 

7 

122 

192 

96 

3 

72 

9 

12 

38 

577 


1.86 
1.43 
1.37 
1.42 
1.65 
1.23 
1.78 
1.05 
2.19 
1.69 
1.37 
1.73 
.58 
1.13 
1.58 
2.75 


2.2 




3.9 


Gorbatch 


1.3 


Ardiguen 


1.6 


Reef 


1.5 


Sivutch 


1.6 


Lagoon 


.5 


Tolstoi 


1.7 


Zapadni 


1.6 


Little Zapadni 


1.5 


Zapadni Reef 


1.4 


Polovina .. 


1.9 


Polovina Cliffs 


1.2 


Little Polovina 


1.8 


Morjo\n 


1.8 


Vostochni 


2.5 






Total 


88, 137 


1,607 


1.82 


1.9 






ST. GEORGE ISLAND. 

North 


5,731 
4,450 
989 
26 
1,047 
3,147 


109 
53 
11 


1.90 
1.19 
1.11 


2.1 


Staraya Artel 


1.4 


ZnpadTii ... 


.7 


South 




East Reef 


3 

28 


.28 
.89 


.8 


East Cliffs . 


1.1 






Total . 


15,390 


204 


1.32 


1.5 






St. Pau llsland.. 


88, 137 
15,390 


1,607 
204 


1.82 
1.32 


1.9 


St. George Island 


1.5 






Total, both islands 


103,527 


1,811 


1.74 


L8 







The percentages for 1915 when compared with these for 1914 show there was a slight 
decrease in the death rate. The 1914 percentages are inserted in the table to make 
comparisons easy. Only on Vostochni is there a constant high death rate. This is 
doubtless due, as the 1914 investigation has indicated, to the proximity of enormous 
hauling grounds. As Hutchinson Hill fills up with breeding seals this loss may 
decrease. 

No starving pups were seen, and no evidences of Uncinaria ravages were apparent. 
A considerable number of pups with the mange were seen on all the rookeries. As 
some bulls, cows, and bachelors, had it also, it may be advisable to gather statistics in 
1916 upon the approximate number afflicted. It did not seem to affect the pups 

o Bureau of Fisheries document no. 820, p. 44. 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 87 

adversely. A very few were entirely without hair or fur, but the affection in general 
was noted only as small round spots. Some of the older seals appeared to have been 
clipped irregularly all over the body. 

The number of pups which met death as a direct result of the coimt is shown as 
follows: • 

Location and Number op Pups Which Died as Direct Result of Count in 1915. 



Rookery. 


Number 
kUled. 


Cause. 




Morjovi 


1 
1 
5 
4 

5 

1 


Browning. 
Trampling by bull. 
Smothering. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 




Vnsfn^hni . , 




Polovina 




Tolstoi 




North 




Zapadni (St. George) 










Total 


17 









On sunny days, when the pups are driven out in a long, thin line to be coimted, 
they try to pile up, and if they are not quickly separated the lower ones of the pile 
are sure to be smothered. There is one certain way to prevent casualties when this 
piling up occurs, which is to go into the pile of pups and scatter them in every direc- 
tion. One need have no fear of injury from their bites if he wears boots, and no injury 
will result to the pups by being trampled upon. In 1915 almost the entire count was 
made in hot, sunny weather, and it speaks well for the faithfulness and attention of 
the native attendants that so few pups were killed. 

Breeding cows.— The female gives birth to her first young when three years of age. 
The evidence goes to show that the period of gestation is a few days short of a year, 
and the 3-year-old cows are the last of the class to arrive on the rookeries, with the 
exception of the nubiles. Although they were carefully looked for earlier, the first 
branded 3-year-old cows were noted on July 17, on Kitovi rookery. After this they 
were seen on practically all rookeries during the remainder of the season. 

The arrival of the cows on the rookeries is not an occasion for a general battle among 
the bulls. Fights over cows occur after the young are bom and the cows come in 
heat. Many of the cows are then injured in the shoulders and flanks by the bulls, 
and most of the mortality among the cows on land results from such injuries. The 
total number of deaths of cows on land at present, however, is so small as to be almost 
negligible. The total number of dead cows found in 1915 was 39. 

After her arrival at the rookeries, if the cow does not give birth to her pup immedi- 
ately, some time is spent swimming up and down in front of the rookery. She will 
then come out very cautiously, always endeavoring to escape to the water when a 
bull tries to intercept her. And once she is intercepted she spends considerable time 
trying to escape from one bull to another. Very seldom does a bull go into the water 
after a cow. As the water-line tier of bulls of a rookery intercepts the cows the rookery 
fills up by those escaping to the rear. This is exactly contrary to the manner in wliich 
the rookeries fill with bulls. They go around the ends of the water-line row of estab- 
lished bulls. 

The number of pups born shows that there were 103,527 breeding cows in 1915. 
Excellent data regarding the unknown loss at sea during the first three years may be 
obtained from these figures. It is now pretty well established that the average breed- 
ing period of cows is about 10 years. Several branded 13-year-old cows with pups were 
seen in 1915. The loss to the breeding cows each year should therefore be 10 per cent 
of the number present the previous summer. Ninety per cent of the breeding cows of 
1914 should therefore be represented in the figures 103,527. The remainder should 
represent the number of 3-year-old cows wliich came upon the rookeries in 1915. Ten 



88 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

per cent deducted from the 93,250 breeding cows in 1914 leaves 83,925 for 1915. This 
deducted from the number of breeding cows present in 1915 leaves 19,602 as the number 
of 3-year-old cows in 1915. That is, this is the number left of the 40,992 females born in 
1912, assuming, of course, an equal birth rate. Very close to 50 per cent of those born 
have therefore survived. The best figures obtainable previous to this were gotten in 
the days of pelagic sealing and amounted to 61 per cent loss the first three years. 

The natural mortality for each year of the first three can not be determined accu- 
rately. But in order to estimate the number of seals in each category, arbitrary per- 
centages of loss must be assumed . A iter carefully considering the conditions involved 
these have been tentatively placed at 35 per cent loss the first year, 20 per cent of the 
remainder the second, and 4 per cent of the remainder the third, which aggregate 50 
per cent loss during the first three years. 

Harem bulls and idle bulls. — Harem bulls and younger bulls, some of the latter be- 
coming idle bulls later in the season, are the first seals of the herd to appear at the 
islands in the spring. Forty came to Sea Lion Rock on April 14, 1915. For several 
days after their arrival the bulls slept at the water's edge, and not imtil May 2 did 
one get into position on Reef Rookery. 

Not much fighting occurs until after a considerable number of cows have come into 
heat, and then it is more among the idle-bull class than among the harem masters. 
When an idle bull starts down through a rookery a great deal of commotion is caused 
and the bulls near by all start for him. Some bulls will leave their own harem and go 
through five or six others after a young bull on such occasions, yet this harem master is 
unmolested by the masters of the harems through which he passes. Battles to a finish 
are of common occurrence, as the evidence shows, but they are seldom witnessed. 
The injuries thus received sometimes cause death. A large number of young bulls 
were seen on the hauling grounds through the latter part of the breeding season so 
badly crippled they could scarcely travel. 

In many ways the count of harems is the most important census work wliich can be 
done on the islands. But to be of greatest value, each rookery should be counted on 
exactly the same date from year to year. The dates established by the 1914 investiga- 
tion well represent the height of the breeding season. In 1915 this count was made 
between July 17 and 21 , each rookery being counted on the same date as in 1914 with the 
exception of Sea Lion Rock, which was one day later owing to inclement weather 
conditions. The charts of the rookeries published l)y the Coast and Geodetic Survey 
were taken in the field and the positions of the breeding masses and all outlying harems 
were plotted as nearly exact as was possible without instrumental aid. By locating 
the white numbered rocks and natural landmarks which are on these charts, the lines 
of breeding masses can be located with a margin of error of only a few feet. The ground 
which had been hauled over by bachelors was likewise plotted on the same charts 
during the harem counts. 

On St. George Island the breeding and hauling areas were not plotted xmtil the pup 
count, August 5 to 7. A. H. Proctor had recorded the number of harems between 
the white numbered rocks and other landmarks on July 19 and 20, and the breeding 
area does not change appreciably between the harem and pup counts. Tlie margin 
of error of the areas as plotted for St. George is slightly greater than for St. Paul, but is 
believed to be sufficiently exact to be of considerable A^alue in 1916 in showing rookery 
expansions. 

The number of pups in each breeding mass was also recorded separately during the 
pup count and from these counts it is possible to determine the average harem for 
each mass. This shows the variation on each rookery perhaps better than any other 
method. 

The numbered rocks are of very great value in making the harem count. In large 
breeding masses especially, it is impossible for the eye to grasp the entire mass with- 
out a mark or rest of some kind. It is necessary that some of these numbers which 



FITE-SEAL INDUSTRY. 



89 



are dim or obliterated be repainted. And it is even more necessary that lines be ex- 
tended from these numbers to the beach line in the large massed areas. Wliite paint 
placed on the tops of the rocks in a line would be sufficient. On Reef Rookery, for 
instance, the numbered rocks are so far back from the beach line that the number of 
harems between two can not be determined. In a few places additional numbered 
rocks are needed. On the southwest end of Gorbatch the numbered rocks do not 
extend far enough. 

In 1916 it will also be necessary to build some towers. The harems have spread over 
some of the only available observation points on Reef, Tolstoi, and Zapadni. With- 
out some elevated position it is not possible to count the beach line harems and those 
that have extended out over the table-land. On some of the rookeries there is drift- 
wood, which may be used to construct elevated stations. Artificial divisions of the 
rookeries are of great importance in making the harem count. 

Harem and Idle Bulls in 1915. 



Rookery. 


Date. 


Harem 
bulls. 


Idle 
bulls. 


Total. 


ST PAUL ISLAND. 

Kitovi . 


July 17 
...do 


67 

46 

152 

25 

294 

96 

15 

237 

173 

106 

7 

70 
33 
21 
51 
396 


24 
18 
35 

6 
59 
23 

4 
46 
92 
26 

6 
31 
11 

9 
21 
135 


91 




64 




...do 


187 




...do 


31 


Reef.. 


...do 


353 


Slvutch 


July 21 
July 18 
...do 


119 




19 


Tolstoi -■ 


283 




...do 


265 




...do 


132 




...do 


13 




July 19 
...do 


101 


Polovina Cliffs 


44 




...do 


30 




...do 


72 




...do 


531 








Total 


1,789 


546 


2,335 




July 20 
...do 




ST. GEORGE ISLAND. 
North 


141 

89 

23 

3 


53 
31 
10 


194 




120 


Zapadni... 


July 19 
. ..do 


33 


South 


3 


Little East . . 


July 20 
. ..do 




East Reef 


30 
76 


18 
15 


48 


East Cliffs 


...do 


91 








Total : 


362 


127 


489 








St. Paul Island 


1,789 
362 


546 
127 


2,335 






489 








Total, both islands 


2,151 


673 


2,824 









The percentages of gain were about what were expected from the 1914 investigation. 
Only one rookery as a whole lost; this was little East on St. George, and it had only 
one harem to lose. WTien the details of the rookeries are considered and the counts 
of each section compared with the charts of 1914 there is seen to be a shrinkage in many 
of the scattered harem sections of several rookeries. This shrinkage is caused by the 
dying off of the old rookery bulls. It seems to be a law among the young bulls to flock 
to the massed areas, and consequently these made the greatest gains in harems. Only 
when a young bull is completely whipped does he go away by himself. Then he hauls 
out on the beach away from all harem bulls. Sometimes cows will come to him there 
and a new rookery section is started. By far more new areas were started in 1915 than 
showed a shrinkage. Rookery area once abandoned by the dying off of the old bulls 
stands no more chance of becoming occupied again than any other suitable isolated 



90 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



section of the beaches. A young bull is much more likely to start a new rookery than 
he is to repair to the Aacinity of one or two old bulls to swell some scattered harem 
section. 
The percentages of gains are shown in the following table: 

Percentages of Gain op Bulls Over 1914. 



Rookery. 


Harem bulls. 


Idle balls. 


Total. 


1914 


1915 


Gain. 


1914 


1915 


Gain. 


1914 


1915 


Gain. 


ST. PAUL 1?I AND. 

Kitovi 


58 
39 

112 
15 

193 

91 

8 

161 

114 

90 

3 

58 
22 
18 
43 

291 


67 

46 

152 

25 

294 

96 

15 

237 

173 

106 

7 

70 

33 

21 

51 

396 


15. 52 
17.95 
35.71 
66.67 
52.33 
.5.49 
87. 50 
47.20 
51.75 
17.78 
133. 33 
20.69 
50.00 
16.67 
18.60 
36.08 


5 

1 

9 



26 

10 

2 

38 

24 

10 

1 

3 

6 



4 

20 


24 
18 
35 

6 
59 
23 

4 
46 
92 
26 

6 
31 
11 

9 
21 
135 


380.00 
1,700.00 

288. 89 

"i26.'92' 
130. 00 
100.00 

21.05 
283. 33 
160.00 
500.00 
933. 33 

83.33 

425."o6' 
675. 00 


63 

40 

121 

15 

219 

101 

10 

199 

138 

100 

4 

61 

28 

!8 

47 

311 


91 

64 

187 

31 

353 

119 

19 

283 

265 

132 

13 

101 

41 

30 

72 

531 


44 44 




60.00 


Gorbatch 


54.54 




106. 67 


Reel 


61 19 


Sivutch 


17.82 




90 00 


Tolstoi 


42.21 




92.03 




32.00 




225.00 




65.57 




57.14 




66 67 




53. 19 




70.74 






Total 


1,316 


1,789 


35. 94 


159 


546 


243. 39 


1,475 


2,335 


58. 30 






Sr. OEORGE ISI AND. 

North 


94 
63 
14 
ol 
1 
14 
57 


141 

89 
23 
3 

30 
76 


50.00 
41.27 
64.28 

200.00 
6100.00 

114. 2S 
33.33 


4 
4 



3 
2 


53 
31 
10 


18 
15 


1,225.00 
675. 00 

.566.06' 
650.00 


98 
67 
14 

1 

li 
59 


194 

120 

33 

3 



48 

91 


97 96 




79.10 




135.71 


South 


200.00 


Little East 


6 100. 00 


EastEef^i 


182.35 




54.24 






Total 


244 


302 


48.36 


13 


127 


876. 92 


257 


489 


90.27 






St. Paul Island 


1,316 
244 


1,789 
362 


35.94 
48.36 


159 
13 


546 
127 


243. 39 
876. 92 


1,475 
257 


2,335 
489 


58.30 




90.27 






Total, both islands 


1,560 


2,151 


37.88 


172 


673 


291. 28 


1,732 


2,824 


6,3.04 



o South rookery had one harenn in 191 1. 
6 Loss. 



Bureau of Fisheries document no. 820, p. 172. 



This table is one of the most interesting compiled from the 1915 figures. It shows 
the enormous percentages of increase of the idle-bull class over the percentage of 
increase of the harem-bull class on the same rookery. The fact that there was an e.xcesa 
of idle bulls and still the average harem is large seems to be the best evidence that the 
natural average harem is large. But that the natural average harem has not yet been 
reached is shown by the fact that, whereas harem bulls increased 37.88 per cent, 
breedmg cows increased only 11.02 per cent. This discrepancy is partly offset by the 
fact that pelagic sealing was more destructive to the females than to the males. It 
seems that in a state of nature the percentage of increase of harem bulls should be 
only slightly greater than the increase of the breeding cows. The percentage of increase 
of the males over that of the females should, however, increase gradually, as the 
necessity of fighting shortens the life of the males. 

The natural average harem — that is, the minimum average harem — will undoubt- 
edly be almost reached in 1916, when there will be an enormous increase of the idle- 
bull class. Then with accurate counts of breeding bulls and cows it is believed that 
definite data as to increases and average harems may be obtained. 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 



91 



Average harem. — The average number of cows to each breeding bull will be one of 
the most important factors in determining the size of the fur-seal herd after it becomes 
too large for the pups to be accurately counted. A condition has probably never 
existed when every bull had the same number of cows or when the average harem on 
every rookery was the same. The fact that scattered harems are smaller tha,n massed 
harems is the cause of this. In order to ascertain as nearly as possible the proper 
admixtiu-e of massed harems and scattered harems to give the average harem of the 
herd, the average harem was determined in 1915 for every breeding mass. 

The following table shows the average harem for the several rookeries and for the 
herd as a whole : 

The Average Harem Shown by Rookeries. 



Rookery. 



Breeding 
cows. 



Harem 
bulls. 



Average 
harem. 



1915. 



Breeding 
cows. 



Harem 
bulls. 



Average 
harem. 



ST. PAin, ISLAND. 

Kitovi 

Lukanin 

Gorbatch 

Ardiguen 

Reef 

Sivutch 

Lagoon 

Tolstoi 

Zapadni 

Little Zapadni 

Zapadni Reef 

Polovina 

Polovina Cliffs 

Little Polovina 

Morjovi 

Vostochni 

Total 

ST. GEORGE ISLAND 

North 

Stara ya Artel 

Zapadni 

South 

Little East 

East Reef 

EastClills 

Total 

St. Paul Island 

St. George Island 

Total, both islands 



2,119 

1,834 
6,152 

656 
13,559 
4,052 

375 
9,934 
7,625 
4,919 

206 
3, .5.55 
1,449 

927 
2,312 
19, 709 



79,383 



5,301 

4,278 

1,022 

1 

26 

581 

2,658 



13,867 



79,383 
13, 867 

93,250 



58 
39 

112 
15 

193 

91 

8 

161 

114 
90 
3 
58 
22 
18 
43 

291 



1,316 



1,316 
244 

1,560 



36.5 
47.0 
54.9 
43.7 
70.3 
44.5 
46.9 
61.7 
66.9 
54.7 
68.7 
61.3 
65.9 
51.5 
53.8 
67.7 



2,475 
1,954 
6,978 

632 
14, 750 
4,535 

394 
11,623 
8,740 
5,682 

219 
4,161 
1,553 
1,065 
2,395 
20,981 



67 

46 

152 

25 

294 

96 

15 

237 

173 

106 

7 

70 

33 

21 

51 

396 



60.3 



88,137 



56.4 
67.9 
73.0 
1.0 
26.0 
41.5 
46.6 



5, 731 

4, 450 

989 

26 



141 

89 

23 

3 



1,047 
3,147 



56.8 



15,390 



362 



60.3 
56.8 



88.137 
15,390 

103, 527 



362 



2,151 



36.9 
42.5 
45.9 
25.3 
50.2 
47.3 
26.3 
49.0 
50.5 
53.6 
31.3 
59.4 
47.1 
50.7 
46.9 
53.0 



49.27 



40.6 
50.0 
43.0 



34.9 
41.4 



42.51 



49.27 
42.51 



The most conspicuous result shown by these figures is the decrease of the aA'erage 
harem from 59.8 in 1914 to 48.13 in 1915. From some standpoints this is a condition 
greatly to l>e desired. It is undoubtedly approaching the point of stability. Another 
year of counting should determine the number of idle bulls which are required to 
maintain the average harem at its minimum. After this percentage is once deter- 
mined there need never be apprehension as to the sufficiency of male life as long 
as this number of idle bulls is present. 

The followng table shows the proportion of idle bulls to harem bulls in 1915. It 
is believed that this percentage of idle bulls has not yet brought about the minimum 
.average harem; that is, the percentage of idle bulls to harem bulls should l)e some- 
what greater than 31.28, the 1915 figme, in order to reduce the number of cows to 
each Inill to the lowest possible number. 



92 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

Percentages of Idle Bulls to Harem Bulls in 1914 and 1915. 



Rookery. 


Harem 
bulls, 
1915. 


Idle 
bulls, 
1915. 


Percent- 
age idle 
bulls to 
harem 
bulls, 
1915. 


Percent- 
age idle 
bulls to 
harem 
bulls, 
1914. 


ST PAUL ISLAND. 

Kitovi 


67 
46 
1.52 
25 
294 
96 
15 
237 
173 
106 
7 

70 
33 
21 
51 
396 


24 
18 
35 

6 
59 
23 

4 

46 
92 
26 

6 
31 
11 

9 
21 
135 


35.8 
39.1 
23.0 
24.0 
20.0 
23.9 
26.7 
19.4 
53.2 
24.5 
85.7 
44.3 
33.3 
42.9 
41.2 
34.1 


8 6 


Lukanin 


2 6 


Gorbateh 


8.0 


Ardiguen 




Reef 


13.5 


Sivutch 


10 9 




25.0 


Tolstoi 


23.6 




21.0 


Little Zapadn i 


11 1 




33.3 


Polovina 


5.1 




27.2 


Little Polovina 




Mor jovi 


9.3 


Vostochni 


6.8 






Total 


1,789 


546 


30.52 


12.0 






ST. GEORGE ISLAND. 

North 


141 

89 
23 
3 


53 
31 
10 


37.6 
34.8 
43.5 


4.2 




6.3 






South 




Little East 










30 

76 


18 
15 


60.0 
19.7 


21.4 


East Cliffs 


3.5 






Total 


362 


127 


35.08 


5.3 






St. Paul Island 


1,789 
362 


546 
127 


30.52 
35.08 


12.0 


St. George Island 


5.3 








2,151 


673 


31.28 


11.0 







In 1914 the percentage of idle bulls to harem bulls was 11, and the average harem 
was 59.8. In 1915 there is a large increase in the one and a decrease in the other. 
The percentage of idle bulls which is necessary to make the average harem the natural 
one (which is the minimum) is unknown. The large increase in bulls in 1916 will 
probably determine this. And once it is known, as stated before, there need never 
be apprehension as to the supply of males so long as the proportion of idle bulla to 
harems is near that figure. Harems and idle bulls may always be counted with a fair 
degree of accm'acy, even should the herd become many times larger than it is at 
present. If the proportion of idle bulls is sufficient to keep the average harem at its 
minimum, the size of the herd may be very closely calculated from the count of those 
two categories. Undoubtedly the minimum average harem existed in 1896 and 1897 
and would have remained at that point regardless of any excess number of idle bulls 
necessary to maintain this. But the proportion of idle bulls and the average harem 
were not determined with sufficient exactness to become a safe factor in formulating a 
law of increase. 

The average harem should reach its minimum and then the number of idle bulls 
may increase indefinitely without lessening it. The percentage of Idllable seals should 
come out of those males in excess of the number necessary to maintain the minimum 
average harem. Present indications are that the minimum average harem \\dll not be 
far from 40, and the percentage of idle bulls to harem bulls necessary to maintain this 
will be near 50. Even if the percentage of idle bulls to harems is as high as 100 there 
will still be available for killing over 90 per cent of those males which reach the age of 
3 years. Because of the impossibility of obtaining as high as 90 per cent there 



PUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 93 

would still be a large excess of idle bulls over those necessary to maintain the minimum 
average harem. 

Yearlings. — The yearling seals spend a very short time on land. For this reason 
they were unknown as a type for a great many years. They are the last of the herd to 
reach the islands on the northern migration. Very few reach St. George Island before 
July 20 and almost none reach St. Paul Island before August 1 . They become abun- 
dant on St. George by August 10 and on St. Paul by August 20. The evidence is almost 
conclusive that tliis is the only category of the seals which does not arrive at both 
islands almost simultaneously. 

On September 10, 1915, the entire stretch of Zoltoi Sands, St. Paul Island, was occu- 
pied by yearlings and pups, the first time for a great many years. The yearlings are 
not so heavy as the largest jiups at that season, but are much more agile and lithe. The 
fact that the flippers outgrow the rest of the body is one of the most characteristic fea- 
tvu-es of the yearlings. Before leaving the islands in November and December a large 
number of the pups exceed them in weight. Some are heavier by 20 pounds. Once 
recognized, the yearlings are rarely confused with the larger 2-year-olds. 

The number of yearlings in the herd must necessarily be computed from the number 
of births the previous year. The percentage to be deducted for loss at sea is carefully 
considered on page 83. For the first year 35 per cent is the best figure at present avail- 
able. That 50 per cent, the figure previously used, is too high is shown by the 3- 
year-old cows coming on the rookeries in 1915 in greater numbers than should have 
been in existence had this estimated percentage of loss been an actual fact. The fig- 
ures of 1915 show that the total loss through the first three years is only 50 per cent. It 
may not be so great as this, but appears large in 1915 because of the lagging influences 
of pelagic sealing. The division of the 50 per cent loss for the first three years between 
the classes is arbitrary and must necessarily remain so. It is here considered as 35 
per cent loss the first year, 20 per cent the second, and 4 per cent the third year. The 
high percentage of loss the second year is warranted by the fact that when the yearlings 
leave the islands in the fall they are relatively in poor condition. The pups on the 
other hand are rolling fat and likewise many of the 2-year-olds. In variance to 
commonly accepted opinion, the period of greatest hardship for the young seal does 
not appear to be over until it is well into the second winter. Many of the yearlings 
seen in 1913, 1914, and 1915 were very poor. They probably have almost as hard a 
time to live as the pups do. 

Applying the loss of 35 per cent for the first year to the total births of 1914 there 
remain a total of 60,613 male and female yearlings. Half of these should be of each sex. 

Ttvo-year-olds. — The 2-year-old seal is a well-known type. The males come to the 
islands as a class a few days later than the older seals, usually after the middle of June. 
It is a well-recognized fact on the islands that the earliest drives are almost devoid of 
"little seals," and contain a large number of young bulls. The 2-year-old seals were 
long thought to be yearlings and are still considered such by many of the natives. 
But their inability to distinguish between the different classes of seals was well shown 
in 1915. The most intelligent of the natives declared that some of the branded 3-year- 
old males killed were 2-year-olds because they were smaller than what they had 
become accustomed to regard as the 3-year-old type. They did this in spite of the fact 
that they themselves put the brands on those identical seals when they were pupa 
in 1912. 

The 2-year-old males arrive at the islands some two weeks earlier than the females. 
The latter retm-n to land for theii- first impregnation after most of the pups are born. 

No known 2-year-olds were killed on St. Paul in 1915. That is, no seals were killed 
which were less in body length than the smallest known 3-year-old which was killed. 
Consequently no deductions are made from the 2-year-old class for any killed in 1915. 
Skin weights are so absolutely fallacious as a criterion in detennining the class to 
which the animals belong that they can not even be considered. Tliirty-one per cent 



94 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

of the 100 known 3-year-old males killed in 1915 had skins weighing 5| pounds or less. 
This weight has been the division point of the 2-year-old and 3-year-old classes. Any 
computations based upon a premise involving such a margin of error should not be 
seriously considered. The skin of any seal weighs according to the flesliiness of the 
animal, the sharpness of the skinner's knife, the time of day, the condition of the 
weather, and the personality of the Aleut who takes it off. The skin of a small seal 
may therefore be heavy and a large one may be light. 

The total births in 1913 were 92,269. Deduct 35 per cent for loss the first year and 
there remained 59,975 yearlings in 1914. Deduct 20 per cent for loss the second 
year and there remain 47,980 2-year-olds of both sexes in 1915. Half of these should 
be males and half females, or 23,990 of each sex. 

Three-year-old males. — This is the class from which skins are taken at present. It 
was formerly thought that the individuals of this class were uniform in size and skin 
weights, but the figures obtained in 1915 show conclusively that there is a great amount 
of variation. Only 16 seals are known to have been killed from this class in 1914, 
the branded 2-year-olds. Consequently these only can be deducted. 

The number of the class at the close of the killing season, August 10, 1915, is shown 
as follows: Deduct from 81,984, the number of pups born in 1912, 35 per cent for 
loss the first year and there remained 53,290 yearlings in 1913. Of these, half should 
be females, leaving 26,645 males. Five of these were killed in 1913, which leaves 
26,640. Deduct 20 per cent from this for loss the second year and there are 21,312 
2-year-old males at the beginning of the 1914 season. Sixteen of these were known 
to have been killed, leaving 21,296 at the close of the 1914 season. 

Of the 21,296 2-year-old males at the close of the 1914 season, 4 per cent should 
have been the loss at sea. This leaves 20,444 3-year-old males at the beginning of 
the 1915 season; 1,168 of these were killed on St. Paul Island and 994 on St. George 
Island prior to Avigust 10, leaving 18,282 as the niimber which still exist. 

Of the 26,645 yearling females in 1913, 20 per cent should have been lost the second 
year, leaving 21,316 2-year-olds to be impregnated in 1914. Allowing 4 per cent loss 
the third year leaves 20,463 females which should have gone into the breeding cov; 
class in 1915. The number which actually gave birth to pups in 1915 is found by 
deducting 10 per cent from the 93,250 breeding cows of 1914 for loss due to old age, 
and subtracting the remainder, 83,925, from the known number of breeding cows in 
1915, 103,527, leaves 19,602, which is so close to the 20,463 that the difference is 
negligible. 

Four-year-old viales. — Many of the smaller ones of this class intergrade in size with 
the larger 3-year-olds. Since the animals were born in 1911 they have not been sub- 
jected to pelagic seaUng and the losses of 35, 20, and 4 per cent should be applied to 
them. The loss at sea after the third year and up to the twelfth seems to be so small 
that it is negligible. 

The births in 1911 as determined by the 1914 investigation « were 75,000. After 
deducting 35 per cent loss for the first year and 20 per cent for the second year, there 
remained 39,000 2-year-olds in 1913. Half of these should have been males and half 
females. The latter have gone into the breeding-cow class and of the 19,500 males, 4 
per cent should have been the loss the third year, leaving 18,720 3-year-olds at the be- 
ginning of the 1914 season. Of these 1,901 were killed on St. Paul Island and 971 
on St. George Island, leaving 15,848 as the number of 4-year-old males in the herd in 
1915. It is safe to assume that only a negligible number of them were killed as 2-year- 
olds in 1913 and as 4-year-olds in 1915. It is not possible to get a close approximation 
to the exact number from the published skin weights. The 1914 investigation assumed 
a maximum skin weight of 5| pounds for 2-year-olds and the same for a minimum for 
the 3-year-olds and on this basis deducted 515 from this class as ha-ving been killed in 
1913 as 2-year-olds. Data obtained in 1915 show that such a di\-ision can not be made, 

a Bureau of Fisheries document no. 820, p. 35. 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 95 

therefore the 515 supposed to have been killed as 2-year-olds in 1913 are restored to the 
3-year-old class of that year. 

Five-year-old males. — This class was subjected to pelagic sealing in 1911. Therefore 
the losses of 50 and 15 per cent applied to it for the first two years in the 1914 census 
may be allowed to stand. 

The 1914 investigation deducted 541 from this class supposed to have been killed 
as 2-year-olds in 1912. The basis of the calculatit)n was the skin weight which is now 
known to express no age relation. As the number of males killed from the present 
6-year-old class does not enter into the computation of the number of that class it is 
not necessary to do anything further than restore the number to the present 5-year-old 
class. But it is necessary to deduct from this year's 5-year-oId class 515 seals killed 
in 1913. Therefore, taking the figures of the 1914 investigation down to 1912 we have 
at the close of that year 13,954 2-year-old males. Since no pelagic sealing was done, 
only 4 per cent should be deducted for mortality the third year. This leaves 13,396 
3-year-oIds at the beginning of the 1913 season; 2,125 were killed, leaving 11,271 at the 
close of that year. As the loss at sea the two succeeding winters is unknown and can 
not be large, no deductions are made. Therefore the latter may be taken as repre- 
senting the number of 5-year-old males in the herd of 1915. Other evidence goes to 
show that the actual number is, if anything, greater than this figure. 

Bachelor and half-bull counts. — A simultaneous count of hauling-ground seals on all 
the rookeries could not be made in 1915 as in 1914 because of the shortage of assistance. 
The seals on the hauling grounds were counted, however, at the time of the height-of- 
season harem counts. The fact that these extended over a period of five days on St. 
Paul Island and two days on St. George does not alter the result appreciably, because the 
number of seals on any hauling ground at that sea.son is a comparatively constant figure. 

During the days of commercial killing it was believed that about one-fifth of these 
classes were on land at one time. The results obtained by using this proportion as a 
basis for determining the number of 2, 3, 4, and 5 year old males present fully sustain 
the results secured when computing these classes by the method of applying the per- 
centages of loss used in 1915 to the numbers born. 

Complete Census of Fur Seals in 1915. 

Pups, as per count, July 27 to Aug. 7 103, 527 

Breeding cows, 3 years of age and over 103, 527 

Bulls, in active charge of harems as per counts, July 17-21 2, 151 

Idle bulls, in position for harem ser\ace but without cows, as per counts. July 

17-21 '. . . . . 673 

Yearlings, male and female: 

Pups born in 1914 93, 250 

Deduction of 35 per cent for natural mortality in first year 32, 637 

Yearlings in 1915 60, 613 

2-year-olds, male and female: 

Pups bom in 1913 92, 269 

Deduction of 35 per cent for natural mortality in first year 32, 294 

Yearlings, both sexes, in 1914 59, 975 

Deduction of 20 per cent for natural mortality in second year. . . 11, 995 

2-year-old3, both sexes, in 1915 47, 980 

3-year-old males: 

Pups bom in 1912 81. 984 

Deduction of 35 per cent for natural mortality in first year 28, 694 

Yearlings, both sexes, in 1913 53, 290 



96 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1&15. 

3-year-old males — Continued. 

Deduction of 50 per cent for females 26, 645 

Yearling males in 1913 26, 645 

Deduction of known yearlings killed in 1913 5 

Yearling males at close of 1913 26, 640 

Deduction of 20 per cent for natural mortality in second year. . 5, 328 

2-year-olds at beginning of 1914 21, 312 

Deduction of known 2-year-olds killed in 1914 16 

2-year-dld males at end of 1914 21, 296 

Deduction of 4 per cent for natural mortality in third year 852 

3-year-olds at beginning of 1915 20, 444 

Deduction of 3-year-olds killed in 1915 2, 162 

3-year-old males at end of 1915 killing season 18, 282 

4-year-old males: 

Pups born in 1911, as per estimate of Osgood, Preble, and Parker a 75, 000 

Deduction of 35 per cent for mortality in first year 26, 250 

Yearlings, male and female, in 1912 48, 750 

Deduction of 20 per cent for mortality in second year 9, 750 

2-year-olds, both sexes, in 1913 39, 000 

Deduction of 50 per cent for females 19, 500 

2- year-old males at beginning of 1913 19, 500 

Deduction of 4 per cent for mortality in third year 780 

3-year-old males at beginning of 1914 18, 720 

3-year-olds killed in 1914 2, 872 

3-year-old males at close of 1914, and 4-year-old males in 

1915 15, 848 

5-year-old males: 

2-year-old males at close of 1912 13, 954 

Deduction of 4 per cent for mortality in third year 558 

3-year-old males at beginning of 1913 13, 396 

3-year-olds killed in 1913 2, 125 

3-year-olds at close of 1913 11, 271 

No deductions for mortality in fourth and fifth years. 

5-year-old males in 1915 11, 271 

Recapitulation: 

Pups 103, 527 

Breeding cows 103, 527 

Harem bulls 2, 151 

Idle bulls 673 

Yearlings 60, 613 

2-year-olds 47, 980 

3-year-old males , 18, 282 

4-year-old males 15, 848 

5-year-old males 11, 271 

Total, all classes 363, 872 

a Bureau of Fisheries document no. 820, p. 35. 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 



97 



BRANDED SEALS. 



The branding of several thousand fur-seal pups at the Pribilof 
Islands in 1912 has been productive of knowledge not before obtain- 
able. In the winter of 1915-16 the data which had been obtained 
were assembled as far as practicable and some of the more important 
facts are deemed worthy of pubUcation. 

The work of branding the pups in 1912 was undertaken by George 
A. Clark, acting under instructions from the Bureau. Mr. Clark 
being unable to complete the work, it was continued by W. I. Lemb- 
key on St. Paul Island, and by A. H. Proctor on St. George Island. 

The following table gives certain details in regard to pups branded 
in 1912: 

Summary of Pups Branded in 1912. 



Date. 


Island and rookery. 


Males. 


Females. 


Sex not 
recorded. 


Total. 


1912. 
Aug. 29 


ST. PAUL ISLAND. 


28 
311 
407 
202 

10 


18 

254 

328 

172 

9 




46 


Sept. 3 


Gorbatch 




565 


Sept. 7 


Reef 




735 


Sept. 8 


do 




374 


^Do 


Kitovi 




19 


Oct. 29 and 30 


Kitovi and Lukanin 


1,005 
483 


1,005 


Do 


Reef 






483 












Total 


958 


781 


1,488 


3 227 




ST. GEORGE ISLAND. 

North 




Sept. 16 


475 

350 

102 

59 


455 
360 
139 
61 




930 


Sept. 17 


Staraya Artel 




710 


Oct. 9 


North 




241 


Oct. 16 


do 




120 










Total 


986 


1,015 




2,001 










Total, both islands. 


1,944 


1,796 


1,488 


5 228 









The work of branding pups, as carried on by ^Ir. Clark on St. Paul 
Island, was described by him as follows: 

The process of branding is simple. The older natives hold the small group of pups 
after it has been surrounded in a loose fashion, merely to prevent the animals getting 
away. A dozen young men in two groups catch the pups, carrying them by the hind 
flippers, holding their heads flat on the ground by a grip on the skin of the neck at 
each side while the brand is being burnt in and then carrying them out of reach. 
The mark consists of a T, the stem reaching down between the eyes, the crosspiece 
between the ears. A space of half an inch or more is left free between the two burns. 
The red-hot iron burns through the fur readily, leaving a clear surface, a slight addi- 
tional pressure insuring the destruction of the roots of the fur. Five seconds are 
sufficient for each of the two marks and both can be made with a single iron. A 
plumber's gasoline forge will keep three irons in condition and one operator could 
theoretically brand three animals a minute. In practice about one a minute is quick 
work. There is always delay in getting the pups ready. Moreover, the work is 
heavy, not merely for the persons doing the branding but for the native holding the 
animal. The 480 pups branded this afternoon represent a maximum half day's work 
for two men, or approximately 1,000 pups a day. 
86497°— 17 23 



98 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

A number of the branded seals were observed in 1913. In 1914 
they were observed in large numbers. In 1915 they appeared in such 
numbers as to indicate a lower mortality in the first three years of 
the fur seal's life than has been ordinarily assumed. 

In 1913, 3 of the branded seals were kUled on St. George Island. 
In 1914, 17 were kiUed on St. Paul Island and 1 on St. George Island. 
In 1915, through August 10, 53 were killed on St. Paul Island and 49 
on St. George Island. 

With the exception of the one 2-year-old taken on St. George Island 
in 1914 and one 3-year-old, an albino, taken on the same island in 
1915, all the skins taken from branded seals kiUed in 1914 and in 1915 
through August 10 were shipped to St. Louis. The 1914 St. George 
skin is still on that island, and the albino sldn was sent to Washington. 

In December, 1915, H. C. Fassett and G. Dallas Hanna were sent 
to St. Louis to obtain certain data in regard to these skins. Upon 
their arrival in St. Louis it was found that a cask containing 40 of 
the branded skins taken in 1915 on St. Paul Island had already been 
partly processed for the purpose of dyeing them and that certain data 
could not therefore be obtained. Fortunately, however, the sldns 
had been graded as small pups, middling pups, etc., in accordance 
with the regular trade classifications, and this grading is of special 
value in view of the fact that it was done without any knowledge of 
its desirabihty or importance and was therefore carried on in an 
entirely perfunctory manner and on an exceptionally unbiased basis. 

The following table shows in concise form certain data secured at 
the Pribilof Islands and at St. Louis in regard to this subject 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 



99 



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f UR-SEAL INDUSTEY. 103 

William G. Gibbins, who classified the branded skins, has been con- 
nected -with, the fur trade since 1873. For eight years he was with 
C. W. Martin, of the Alaska Factory, in London, and was trained as 
an unhairer of fur-seal pelts under the instruction of George Rice, a 
notable expert in that work. In 1882 he went with Mr, Rice as 
manager of his skin-dressing plant known as the Hudson Bay Works, 
Stratford, London, where he remained until September, 1915. All 
fur-seal skins that came into the factory in direct shipment were 
graded by Mr. Gibbins and their quality reported upon. For many 
years he was called in as an expert to grade all the sealskins which 
were sold by Messrs. C. M. Lampson & Co., the well-known fur auc- 
tioneers of London, and the catalogues were marked according to his 
judgment. 

It will be noted from the table that the classification of 100 branded 
skins of 3-year-old seals was as foUows: 

Small pups 7 

Middling pups 42 

Large pups 42 

Smalls 8 

Middlings and smalls 1 

Total 100 

Also that 15 branded skins of 2-year-old seals graded as follows: 

Extra small pups 3 

Small pups 8 

Middling pups 4 

FOXES. 

The herds of blue foxes which inhabit St. Paul and St. George 
Islands constitute a som-ce of considerable revenue to the Government. 
The supply of suitable food available mider natural conditions is only 
sufficient to support herds of comparatively small numbers. Were 
an abundant supply of seal meat available for food and suitable facili- 
ties for its preservation afforded, the size of the fox herds could be 
increased to numbers limited only by the facilities and help available 
for distributing food or by other factors not now foreseen. At present 
the refuse seal meat contributes some of the food supply to the foxes 
on both islands. In addition salt or dried fish or whale meat is used 
on St. George Island, where feeding operations to maintain the existing 
herd are more essential than on St. Paul Island. The topography of 
St. Paul Island, affording as it does longer stretches of beaches acces- 
sible to the foxes, enables the animals to secure greater quantities of 
food from the sea. 

The trapping of foxes for their pelts in the season of 1915-16 was 
begim in November on St. George Island and early in December on 
St. Paul Island. The work on St. George Island was discontinued 



104 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



on December 29, but on St. Paul Island trapping operations were con- 
tinued, with one intermission of about two weeks, December 13-25, 
until January 6. The take for the season was reported as follows: 
Blue-fox skins, St. Paul Island, 211 ; St. George Island, 209; total, 420; 
white-fox skins, St. Paid Island, 17; St. George Island, 2; total, 19. 
In addition, 1 white-fox skin was taken on St. Paul Island in Feb- 
ruary, 1916, which may properly be included with the season's take. 

Take op Fox Pelts, St. Paul Island, Season op 1915-16. 



Districts. 


Blue. 


White. 


Total. 


Grand 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


total. 


Vicinity of village 


30 
4 

34 
8 
5 
9 

19 


34 

2 

27 

4 

4 

8 

23 


1 
1 
as 
1 
1 
2 
2 




31 
5 

37 
9 
6 

11 

21 


34 
2 

28 
6 
4 

10 

25 


65 






7 




1 

2 


65 




15 




10 




2 
2 


21 


Southwest Bay 


46 






Total all districts 


109 


102 


11 


7 


120 


109 


229 








211 


IS 


229 





















o Includes 1 pelt taken from dead fox found in sand dunes near Northeast Point, Feb. 21, 1916. 

REINDEER. 

The reindeer herds showed some increase in numbers, especially 
on St. Paul Island. A census of the two herds taken in the latter 
part of 1915 gave results as follows: St. Paul Island, 27 fawns and 
65 aged 1 year and upward ; St. George Island, 18 fawns and 44 aged 
1 year and upward. 

RADIO SERVICE. 

The Navy Department kept in operation throughout the year the 
radio stations on St. Paul and St. George Islands. These stations 
have continued to render invaluable aid in the way of enabling the 
Bureau to keep in close touch with affairs on the islands during the 
long winter season when no other means of communication are prac- 
ticable. The beneficial effect upon the Government employees of 
having some means of communication with the outside world in that 
season is well worthy of consideration. 

On St. George Island a new building was erected by the Navy 
Department for use as an operating room and to provide quarters 
for the operator. The building was placed outside the village and is 
believed to be far enough.away to insure its safety should any fire 
start in other buildings. 

On St, Paul Island unprovements were made to the local station by 
the Navy Department, and in connection with the work natives were 
given employment. As a result of their employment they received 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 105 

nearly $1,400 in cash. New buildings were erected, a number of 
large oil tanks were set up, and a fence was built around the area occu- 
pied by the station. A new well was dug, water from which is now 
used to supply the Bureau's tanks on Village Hill. During the process 
of the work a number of workmen and other employees of the Navy 
Department were afforded quarters in the Bureau's buildings. 

PATROL OF THE NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN AND BERING SEA. 

To assist in the enforcement of the provisions of the North Pacific 
Sealing Convention of July 7, 1911, the law makes it the duty of the 
President to cause a guard or patrol to be maintained m the waters 
frequented by the seal herd or herds and sea otter, in the protection 
of which the United States is especially interested, to be composed of 
naval or other public vessels of the United States designated by him 
for such service. Vessels of the Coast Guard exclusively have been 
utilized for this work. 

In February, 1915, the President approved the recommendation 
of the Secretary of the Treasury that the Coast Guard cutters Man- 
ning and Unalga be designated for the patrol work in the season of 
1915 and that the Coast Guard cutter Bear, which was to make an 
annual cruise to the Arctic Ocean, and the Coast Guard cutter 
McCuUocli, which would be cruising in Alaskan waters, should enforce 
the provisions of the convention and the law at such times as might 
be practicable in connection with their other duties. Owing to the 
fact that there had been few, if any, attempts to carry on pelagic 
sealing in the previous tlii'ee seasons, it was felt that the presence 
in the prohibited waters of but one of the two vessels assigned prima- 
rily to the patrol would be sufficient. 

The Uruilga left Port Townsend April 20, arrived at Unimak Pass 
the 29th, and contmued on the patrol detail until July 17 when she 
was relieved by the Manning at Unalaska. The Manning continued 
the patrol work until September 12. 

The Bureau is under obligation to the Coast Guard for many 
services rendered by its vessels in connection with the work at the 
Pribilof Islands. 

SEALING PRIVILEGES ACCORDED ABORIGINES. 

The North Pacific Sealing Convention of July 7, 1911, permits 
Indians, Aleuts, or other aborigines dwelling on the Pacific coast of 
America north of latitude 30° north to carry on pelagic sealing in 
canoes not transported by or used in connection with other vessels, 
and propelled entirely by oars, paddles, or sails, and manned by not 
more than five persons each, in the way hitherto practiced and with- 
out the use of firearms; and provided that such aborigines are not in 
the employment of other persons, or imder contract to deliver the 



106 ALASKA FISHERIES AND PUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

skins to any person. The act of Congress approved August 24, 1912, 
giving effect to this convention, restricts this privilege to the extent 
of prohibiting the killing of fur seals by any person within the 3-mile 
limit in waters of Alaska. So far as the Bureau is informed none of 
the natives of Alaska availed themselves in 1915 of their privilege. 
The Department of the Interior advised that no fur seals were taken 
in the year by Indians of reservations in the State of Washington. 

DISPOSITION OF SKINS SHIPPED FROM PRIBILOF ISLANDS IN 1915. 

The annual shipment of fur-seal skins and fox skins was made in 
September. The shipment consisted of 3,000 sealskins, 253 blue-fox 
skins, and 40 white-fox skins. The skins were transported from the 
Pribilof Islands to Oakland, Cal., on the Navy collier Saturn, From 
that point they were forwarded (with the exception of one skin, 
from an albino seal, which was sent to Washington) via the Southern 
Pacific and Union Pacific Railroads to Fmisten Bros. & Co., St. 
Louis, Mo. 

The fox skins together with the 256 blue-fox skins and the 25 
white-fox skins shipped in 1914 were sold at public auction on October 
21, 1915, by Funsten Bros. & Co. After deducting 2^ per cent dis- 
comit allowed purchasers, the gross proceeds from the blue pelts 
were $57,257.85 and from the white pelts $1,556.10. After deducting 
broker's commissions, $2,352.56, certain storage charges, $25, and ex- 
press charges on the 1915 shipment, $39.56, a balance of $56,396.83 re- 
mained as net proceeds. The freight charges on the fox skins shipped 
in 1914, amountmg to $16.14, were included in a voucher stated pre- 
vious to the sale and consequently this amomit was not deducted 
from the gross proceeds of the sale. 

The sale was successful from every point of view and unusually 
good prices were obtained for a considerable nmnber of pelts. Five 
lots, consisting of 4 blues each, brought $1,092, $1,020, $1,012, $1,000, 
and $980, respectively. The prices obtained for the white-fox pelts 
ranged from a mmimum of $17 to a maximum of $30 per pelt. 

The 3,000 commercial sealskins shipped in 1915, together with the 
2,896 shipped in 1914, and the 400 which were included in the 1913 
shipment but withheld from the sale in December of that year, a 
total of 6,296, remained on hand in the States at the end of the year, 
December 31, 1915. 

POSTPONEMENT OF SALE OF SEALSKINS. 

It was deemed that market conditions did not warrant the sale of 
any fur-seal skuis at any time in the year. Pubhc resolution no. 65, 
Sixty-third Congress, approved February 24, 1915, amended the act 
of August 24, 1912, giving effect to the North Pacific Sealing Conven- 
tion of July 7, 1911, in that it made discretionary with the Secretary 
of Commerce as to when the fur-seal skins taken on the Pribilof 



FUR-SEAL INDUSTRY. 107 

Islands and then in the possession of the Government should be 
sold. This resolution did not apply, of course, to skms taken after 
February 24, 1915. To meet the condition which arose in respect to 
skins taken after that date in such manner as to permit the depart- 
ment to sell them most advantageously for the Government, the fol- 
lowing resolution passed both Houses of Congress and was approved 
June 22, 1916: 

JOINT RESOLUTION Authorizing the Secretary of Commerce to sell skins taken from fur seals killed 
on the Pribilof Islands for food purposes. 

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in 
Congress assembled, That the Secretary of Commerce be, and he is hereby, authorized 
to sell all skins taken from seals killed on the Pribilof Islands for food purposes under 
section eleven of the act of August twenty-fourth, nineteen hundred and twelve, in 
such market at such times and in such manner as he may deem most advantageous, 
and the proceeds of such sale or sales shall be paid into the Treasury of the United 
States. 

DRESSING AND DYEING OF FDR-SEAL SKINS. 

The first sale of Government fur-seal and fox skins in this country 
was held at St. Louis, Mo., on December 16, 1913. Previously the 
skins shipped from the Pribilof Islands by the Government had been 
sold in London. 

In 1915 the Department of Commerce entered into a contract with 
Funsten Bi^os. & Co., of St. Louis, Mo., for the sale by auction of the 
Government take of fur-seal and fox skins for a term of years which con- 
templated that there should be established promptly in this country 
the best-known process of dressing and dyeing sealskins. The estab- 
lislunent of an industry of this character in this country is not only 
desirable in itself but it will also place the market for sealskins here 
upon a firmer basis. Tlie actual treatment of raw sealskins was 
begun at St. Louis in December, 1915, and results subsequently 
obtained indicate beyond doubt that the finished product will be 
equal, if not superior, to any which has been produced elsewhere. 



MINOR FUR-BEARING ANIMALS- 

FIELD WORK. 

Field work was carried on. continuously throughout the year and as 
much of the territory was included within the scope of operations as 
was possible. The appropriations available for the year provided 
for seven wardens. While the primary duties of these wardens are 
to enforce the law and regulations for the protection of the fur- 
bearing animals and to secure mformation in regard to these animals, 
it has been found highly advisable to utihze the services of some of 
them from time to time in connection with matters pertaining to the 
fisheries. On the other hand, some attention has been given to the 
fur-bearing animals by employees who are primarily concerned with 
the fisheries. 

One special warden, with headquarters at Chicken, was employed 
throughout the year at the nominal salary of $10 per month. 

The wardens employed were Harry J. Christoffers, Ernest P. Wal- 
ker, James H. Lyman, Fred H. Gray, Calvin F. Townsend, Wilham 
P. Hemenway, Reginald F. Irwin, Harry H. Brown, Shirley A. Baker, 
and Christian L. Larson, special warden. 

An unfortunate event was the disappearance of a party of three 
persons engaged in patrol work in southeast Alaska. Warden Irwin 
left Ketchikan October 9, 1915, on the hired launch Frances R. 
With him were Charles A. Clark, the master of the launch, and Mike 
De Costa, a cook. As the men did not return to Ketchikan within a 
reasonable time, a search was instituted. The launch was foimd 
wrecked jn the Chickamin River, but the indications were that the 
mishap to the launch was a sequel to some accident to members of 
the party. The search for the missing persons was most thorough. 
It was participated m by officers and employees of the Government 
and by private citizens, and several vessels, public and private, were 
utilized. No satisfactory explanation has been made as to the fate 
of the men. 

REGULATIONS. 

In the early part of the year it was deemed advisable to revise 
the regulations for the protection of the fur-bearing animals. The 
new regulations were pubUshed in Department Circular No. 246, 
third edition, dated May 24, 1915^ 

In revising the regulations no change was made in the seasons for 
the killing of fur-bearing animals. The kiUing after July 1, 1915, of 
108 



MINOR FUR-BEARING ANIMALS. 109 

any fur-bearing animal in Alaska by means of the trap or device 
known as the "klips" or by means of any steel bear trap or any other 
trap with jaws having a spread exceeding eight inches was prohib- 
ited. No attempt was made to prohibit the shipping of Uve fur- 
bearing animals from Alaska. The poHcy of requiring persons who 
desired to engage in the business of breeding and rearing fur-bearing 
animals to secure licenses authorizing them to do so was discon- 
tinued, but permission to kill fur-bearing animals born and reared 
upon fur farms was made contingent upon compUance with certain 
requirements. While the taking in the close seasons of wild animals 
for use as breeding stock on fur farms was not restricted, the killing 
at any future time of animals so taken was forbidden. 

Some hesitation was felt in the matter of removing all restric- 
tions upon the shipping of Uve animals from the Territory. This 
was due in large measure to the demand in previous years for permits 
authorizing the shipments of foxes. But since the law did not 
expressly authorize the department to prohibit the shipment of Uve 
animals and since it was felt that the desire for Alaskan foxes for use 
on fox farms in eastern North America and elsewhere had passed its 
maximum, the policy of requiring permits for shipments was discon- 
tinued. In order to determine the amount of such shipments the 
collector of customs at Juneau was asked to keep a record of all ship- 
ments of the character in question. It developed that in the calendar 
year 1915 Uve fur-bearing animals were shipped from the Territory 
of Alaska as follows: 58 foxes, 34 minks, and 1 black bear. From 
another source it has been learned that foxes have been imported 
into Alaska, three pairs of silver gray foxes having been brought, pre- 
sumably in 1915, from Edmonton, Alberta, for a ranch at Tolovana. 
It would seem that the absence of restrictions upon the exporting of 
Uve fur-bearing animals from Alaska had during the year no material 
adverse effects upon the natural supply of the wild stock. 

The Bureau is not, however, assured that the demand for Alaskan 
foxes for outside use will not in the future reach such proportions as 
to affect unfavorably the fur industry of Alaska, and there should 
be legislation which will provide adequate authority to forestaU 
such a contingency. It is not the number of Uve foxes shipped from 
Alaska which measures the injury to the resources of the Territory, 
for mider proper conditions the exporting of Uve foxes is no more 
haiTnful than the killing of an equal number for their pelts. The real 
trouble is that the taking alive of each wild fox, when proper regula- 
tion of methods employed does not exist, means on the average the 
destruction of several other foxes. 

In the fall of 1915 it became apparent that the decrease in the num- 
ber of martens demanded a rescinding of the annual open season 
extending from November 16 to March 14. It was decided to place 



110 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

no restrictions upon the open season of 1915-16, but to provide that 
on and after March 14, 1916, the killing of martens should be prohib- 
ited imtil November 15, 1921. The formal regulation was promul- 
gated early in 1916, in time to permit trappers throughout Alaska to 
inform themselves in regard thereto before making preparations for 
the trapping season of 1916-17. An examination of the table show- 
ing the statistics of minor furs shipped from Alaska (p. 139) wiUshow 
the marked annual diminution year by year in the number of marten 
pelts shipped. 

SEIZURES AND PROSECUTIONS. 

One unprime red-fox pelt was seized in the latter part of the year 
from Ffank Carroll a resident of Copper Center, who had acquired it 
from a native. 

On November 29, 1915, Assistant Agent Ball swore out three com- 
plaints against Paul Wolkoff, of Kodiak, charging him with the un- 
lawful killing of two land otters and one silver gray fox. The defen- 
dant was tried and convicted on December 1 for the unlawful killing 
of a land otter and was sentenced to serve 60 days in jail and until 
the costs of the prosecution, amounting to $123, were paid. On the 
motion of Mr. Ball the other cases against the defendant were dis- 
missed. One silver-gray fox skin and three land-otter skins were 
taken from him as being unprime. 

In the latter part of the year separate complaints were filed before 
the United States commissioner at Kodiak charging Andrea Yaka- 
shoff with having unlawfully killed five foxes. The evidence was 
identical in respect to each of the five complaints. The defendant 
was tried December 2, 1915. A verdict of not guilty was found on 
the first charge and the others were then dismissed. The five skins 
involved, all of which were unprime, were seized and retained. 

In December Ole Espland was arraigned before the United States 
commissioner's court at Copper Center charged with the unlawful kill- 
ing of six cross foxes. The defendant pleaded guilty and sought clem- 
ency on the ground that he did not know the terms of the law and 
had no way of learning them except by hearsay. In view of what 
were considered extenuating circumstances a fine of but $1 was 
imposed. In this case the foxes while killed in the open season had 
been captured in the close season, the killing being in violation of the 
regulation which provided that fur-bearing animals captured in the 
close season should not be killed at any time. 

On December 21, 1915, Charles Petersen, of Karluk, was arraigned 
at Kodiak charged with the unlawful kdling of foxes. The defendant 
pleaded not guilty and asked for a jury trial. The jury returned a 
verdict of guilty and a jail sentence of four months was imposed. 



MINOR FUR-BEARING ANIMALS. Ill 

On December 22, 1915, Peter Kewan, at Kodiak, charged with 
killing foxes by means of kUpses, waived his right to trial by jury, 
and the evidence against him being conclusive he was sentenced to 
three months in jail. 

The illegal kilhng of a land otter and a beaver was made the sub- 
ject of a prosecution at Eagle, with the result that two persons were 
fined $25 each. As agents of the Bureau were not concerned with the 
case details were not obtained. 

FOX FARMING. 

Fox farming is receiving attention in various parts of Alaska and is 
concerned with the blue fox and the various color phases of the red 
fox. The rearing of blue foxes is confined chiefly to the coastal 
islands, where the animals may have considerable hberty. It is un- 
derstood that attempts to breed blue foxes within limited inclosures 
in Alaska have been generally unsuccessful if not altogether so.'^ 
On the mauiland of Alaska attention is given to the choicer color 
phases of the red fox. Both species are utilized in the Kodiak- 
Afognak region. 

In reference to the color phases of the red fox the following extract 
is taken from a pamphlet prepared by Dr. Ned Dearborn, of the 
Bureau of Biological Survey, Department of Agriculture (Bulletin 301), 
on silver-fox farming in eastern North America. 

The name "silver fox," as commonly used by furriers, includes the dark phases of 
the ordinary red fox (genus Vulpes), variously called silver, silver gray, silver black, 
or black. It should not be contused with the gray, or tree, fox (genus Urocyon) of the 
United States, the fiu* of which is of comparatively little value. The color of the red 
fox of the northeastern States and of its allies of the colder parts of North America 
varies from red to black, and these extremes, with their gradations, form four more 
or less distinct phases, known respectively as red, cross (or patch), silver, and black. 
In the red phase the fur is entirely rich fulvous, except for restricted black markings , 
on the feet and ears, a white area at the end of the tail, and certain white-tipped hairs 
on the back and rump. Grading into the next phase the black increases in extent 
until, in the typical cross fox, the black predominates on the feet, legs, and underparts, 
while fulvous overlaying black covers most of the head, shoulders, and back. A 
gradual increase of the black and elimination of the fulvous, or its replacement by 
white, results in the next phase, the silver (or silver gray) fox, ia which the entire 
pelage is dark at the base and heavily or lightly overlaid with grayish white. The 
color of silver foxes varies from grizzly to pure black, except for a few white-tipped 
hairs on the back and rump. Finally, in the black phase, the white is absent from all 
parts except the tip of the tail, which is white in all four phases. The red phase is 
much more abundant than the others, but all foiur interbreed freely, and wherever 
one occurs occasional examples of the others may be expected. In general the cross 
fox is fairly common, the silver gray scarce, and the piu-e black very rare. 

a In this connection it may be stated that the superintendent of the National Zoological Park, Washing- 
ton, D. C, has ad\'ised that some young blue foxes were received by the park in November, 1899, as a loan 
from the Semidl Propagating Co. It was understood that the foxes were shipped from tlie Semidi Islands, 
Alaska. Young were bom each year from 1901 to 1906. Several litters were raised , but many of the animals 
died while quite young from uncinariasis, enteritis, nephritis, and anemia. There were also some losses 
from accidents and other causes. 



112 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

It will readily be seen that a fox exhibiting one of these phases 
might be differently classified by different persons, and it should be 
borne in mind that the classifications of animals in this report have 
been furnished by various persons. 

The Bureau regrets that many people have gone into the business 
of fox farming without much knowledge of its requirements, no 
facilities for caring for their stock, and apparently with no serious 
intention to pursue the business to any end. Dry-goods boxes, 
chicken pens, and old cabins do not make suitable retaining pens or 
breeding inclosures. The lack of a proper supply of water and the 
use of improper food further insure failure. A fox corral in the 
eastern part of the Territory, which was visited by a warden, con- 
sisted of an inclosure, 20 feet by 35 feet, made from logs set on end. 
No shelter of any kind was provided for the seven foxes on hand. 
The only seclusion which the foxes had was the holes which they 
themselves dug. No utensils for holding food or water were visible. 
Dried whitefish was the sole food supplied. Tlie warden noticed 
that one fox was tied, asked for the reason, and was informed that it 
was sick. It is difficult to see how the owner, if he had any sincere 
intention of engagmg in fox farming, could expect any degree of 
success. In some instances it is realized that a pretense of fox 
farming is made for the purpose of concealing illegitimate operations 
which could not well be carried on otherwise. 

KODIAK-AFOGNAK REGION. 

KODIAK FOX FARM 

In 1914 the Kodiak Fox Farm, a copartnership, was organized at 
Kodiak for the purpose of propagating foxes. It was reahzed that 
fox farming in Alaska was largely undeveloped, and the organizers 
were fuUy prepared to conduct such experiments in the way of 
breeding, feedmg, and caring for foxes as would assist in developing 
the industry in Alaska. 

The copartnership consisted of Karl Armstrong, W. J. Erskine, N. 
Gray, and P. D. Blodgett. Mr. Erskine in behalf of the organiza- 
tion has furnished the department with an exhaustive account of their 
plans and work, and in the interest of the industry it is deemed 
desirable to reproduce the report in part, as follows: 

Selection of location. — The selection of a proper location for a fiir farm is, of 
course, a matter that should be given the most careful consideration by one who con- 
templates undertaking this business. While a well-situated island, of the right size, 
and having the necessary natural facilities for economically conducting a ranch — 
ot which there are many unoccupied along the coast of Alaskans by far the better 
sort of a location for a fur farm; still there are thousands upon thousands of acres on the 
mainland of Alaska that are well adapted for tliis purpose and that probably could 
not be utilized for any other business. WTiere a ranch is located on the mainland the 



MINOR FUR-BEARING ANIMALS. 113 

foxes must of necessity be kept in captivity; but if an island is chosen, one can either 
keep the animals in corrals or permit them to run at large, or both methods could be 
resorted to at the same time. An island ranch also has the advantage of fiu-nishing 
more complete isolation against outside interference with the foxes, and there is better 
assurance against total loss if an animal escapes from the inclosure. 

Long Island, situated about 7 miles from Kodiak, was selected as the location of 
the Kodiak Fox Farm. This island is an ideal one for the piu"poses intended, and is 
near enough to Kodiak — the home of the four members of the firm — so that the manage- 
ment of the ranch can be given the personal supervision of those interested. Long 
Island contains about three square miles of low rolling hills, is partially timbered 
with spruce, affording some most excellent locations for corrals, and is boimtifully 
supplied with water from numerous small lakes and streams. The waters siuTounding 
the island aboimd wdth fish, such as cod, halibut, flounders, salmon, etc. There 
are seA^eral beaches where clams and mussels may be secured at every low tide, 
and in the spring of the year large quantities of eggs can be gathered from the adjacent 
rocks where sea birds nest in numbers. With all these at hand a cheap supply of 
excellent food for the foxes is assiu^ed. Wild berries also grow on this island in great 
quantities, and our experience has taught us that these can be fed to advantage. 

Method of pox ranching. — Fox ranching in Alaska is not a new industry by any 
means, but the methods under which it has been conducted were such that most of 
those who attempted it have met with but indifferent success. In fact, but very few 
have made better than mere wages for the time and effort devoted to it, and still fewer 
have succeeded in reaping a profit in keeping with the capital invested and energy 
expended in the care of their ranches. 

In selecting a method of fox farming the choice must be between two systems— that 
of breeding the animals in captivity, which has been proved so successful by the 
Canadian farmers with black foxes, and that of allowing them to run at large on islands, 
the practice most in vogue among Alaskans with blue foxes. While we are in favor of 
the former method as offering far more possibilities, still there are certain adi^antages 
to the latter, and where a ranch is situated on an island both systems might be resorted 
to simultaneously. 

The chief advantage in permitting the foxes to run at large is that the initial cost of 
establisliing a ranch is materially less than the investment necessary for the construc- 
tion of corrals and inclosures; and for this reason it is possible for some who can not 
afford to undertake the business of raising foxes in captivity, to liberate a few animals 
on a suitable island. By giving such a ranch careful attention, the profits accruing — 
especially with blue foxes at present prices — should be in keeping with the capital 
invested and cost of operation; still, the mere fact that the percentage of loss of young 
foxes on the islands in Alaska has been so great, is a strong argument against this 
method. Mr. Samuel Applegate, who has had a great deal of experience propagating 
blue foxes liberated on islands in the Aleutian group, and who has given the subject 
very careful study, has clearly demonstrated that the blue fox can be successfully 
raised under the system that has been generally adopted, provided proper intelligence 
and care are exercised in handling the business. Even with the remarkable results 
he has been able to accomplish, however, he states that under this system onlj^ a 
small percentage of the pups bom are raised to maturity, and places the average 
mortality among the young animals at 75 per cent. (Alaska fisheries and fur indus- 
tries in 1913, Bureau of Fisheries document 797.) If this statement is correct — and we 
have every reason to believe the estimate is a conservative one — it means that only 
two pups of every eight born reach maturity, or an age where they are of any value. 
Such an enormous loss may eventually mean failure, and the only way we see that it 
can be avoided, or reduced to a minimum, is by breeding and caring for the animals 
in captivity. On Prince Edward Island, for instance, where all fox ranchers rear their 
86497°— 17 24 



114 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

animals in corrals, the mortality seldom exceeds 25 per cent; and in some cases, even 
on large ranches, as high as 100 per cent of the pups born have been successfully 
raised. In our short experience in this business we can testify that we have raised 
every fox that was born on our ranch this year. It is true that we had but five pups 
born; still it is a fact that three of these certainly would have died if they had been at 
large, and could not have been given the extreme care necessary when they were sick. 
The value of these three foxes saved, we figure, repays us to a considerable extent for 
the cost of our corrals. 

If foxes are to be bred and reared according to scientific principles, and with any 
hope of improving the stock and quality of fur produced, then the animals must be 
raised in captivity. This system permits of selective breeding, a thing that can not 
be accomplished if the foxes are allowed to run at large, and also provides a means of 
eliminating undesirable animals from the breeding stock. It also furnishes an oppor- 
tunity of giving the foxes individual care and attention at all times, and reduces 
to a minimum the chances of loss from the many causes that are known to exist on 
the islands where foxes are given their liberty. 

All the members of the Kodiak Fox Farm have had many years of experience in 
Alaska and excellent opportunities to observe the methods practiced by the fox 
ranchers and to note wherein mistakes have been made. Aside from their knowl- 
edge of local conditions, they have investigated as fully as possible the results of fur 
farming ventures in the United States and Canada, and from the data gathered on the 
subject, decided upon the system of fox propagation that is now in use on Long Island. 

LiTERATURK ON FOX FARMING. — Mucli information was obtained on the subject of 
raising foxes in captivity from the excellent report of the Canadian Commission of 
Conservation, entitled, "Fiu Farming in Canada," by J. Walter Jones. This book is 
by far the best work we have seen on this interes,ting subject, and should prove of 
inestimable value to those engaged in fm* farming, or who contemplate undertaking 
this business. Farmers' Bulletin No. 328, of the United States Department of Agri- 
culture, entitled, "Silver Fox Farming," by Wilfred H. Osgood, also contains much 
valuable information, but the work does not treat the subject as exhaustively as does 
the Canadian report. The Silver Black Fox, a monthly magazine published in St. 
John, New Brunswick, and devoted exclusi\'ely to this industry, contains many val- 
uable and interesting articles.^ 

Caretaker.— Since the primary object in raising foxes in captivity is to be able to 
give them exceptional care, then the selection of a proper caretaker becomes an im- 
portant consideration. We have been most fortunate in securing the services of Dur- 
rell Finch, and we believe that if any man of his capabilities attempts this business, 
success is bound to result. Mr. Finch was formerly a stockman in the Middle West, 
and seems to have a natural intuition as to how animals should be handled. For about 
20 years he has been in Alaska, and for a good part of that time was in charge of a sta- 
tion belonging to the Alaska Commercial Co. where a great deal of fur was handled. 
Mr. Finch is responsible for a breed of sled dogs among which are found some of the 
most hardy and intelligent in the country. This he accomplished by crossing the St. 
Bernard with the Husky, and then carefully selecting his breeders from the resulting 
pups. With this experience, and being naturally fond of animals, he is particularly 
well fitted for the work of caretaker. 

One of the partners of the firm, Karl Armstrong, who acts as manager, is also of 
valuable assistance in conducting the ranch. He was also formerly a stockman, and 
the breeding of a thoroughbred line of field dogs has been for years his hobby. The 
services of a veterinary siu-geon may be entirely dispensed with when Mr. Armstrong 

o In this connection the Bureau invites attention to Department of Agriculture Bulletin no. 301, 
Silver Fox Farming in eastern North America, by Dr. Ned Dearhorn. The bulletin is a contribution 
from the Bureau of Biological Survey. 



MINOR FUR-BEARING ANIMALS. 115 

is available, for he can amputate the leg of a fox, administer a dose of medicine, and 
handle a -wild animal as well as anyone. 

In order to succeed in the breeding of wild animals, one of the first aims should be 
to induce them to become as gentle as possible. One of the partners has remarked that, 
•'it takes a gentle man to rear a gentle animal," and in this we are particularly for- 
tunate in having the serA-ices of !Mr. Armstrong and Mr. Finch. 

Corrals. — Considerable time was spent in prospecting the various possible loca- 
tions on Long Island before a final selection of a site was made, and this is a thing 
that should always be given thoughtful consideration when establishing a ranch. The 
ground we finally decided upon is on the top of a low ridge in the thick spruce tim- 
ber and has a slate bed rock lying from 2 to 3 or 4 feet below the surface. This 
location assures us of a well-drained place for the corrals, and even in the season of 
heaviest rain there is no mud under foot. The timber affords the necessary shade 
in summer and protection against the severe weather of wanter, and the fact that the 
bedrock is so near the surface makes us doubly secure against the chances of ha\dng 
the foxes escape by burrowing. 

In 1914, when the Kodiak Fox Farm was established, the inclosure built for the 
foxes consisted of 12 breeding corrals and 12 male pens. The breeding corrals are 
23 feet wide by 50 feet long, and the male pens are 4 feet wide, placed between the 
corrals, and extending the full length of 50 feet. The plan showing the arrangement 
is illustrated on page 117. 

The fences were built 8 feet above the ground, and it was intended simply to run 
a 2-foot strip of heavy netting around the top to prevent escape of the foxes. Upon 
an inspection of the corrals, however, after the completion of the fence on this plan 
and before the overhang wire was put on, it was decided to cover them completely with 
netting, for it seemed to us that a fox would have but little trouble in escaping from 
corrals constructed as ours were. Consequently, before the animals were put in the 
inclosure, netting of no. 20 wire, 2-inch mesh, was ordered, and the corrals com- 
pletely covered with it. Our fears were well founded, for the first day that foxes were 
put into the corrals one of them escaped by climbing the fence and working a hole 
through the light covering wire. We then ran a strip of heavy wire netting, 2 feet 
wide, around all the corrals, on top of the covering wire and laced to it, and since 
doing so have had no further difficulty. Our mistake was in using too light a wire 
for this purpose, and in the new corrals built this year the fault has been remedied. 

As stated previously, the bedrock where these corrals were built is not more than 4 
feet below the surface. In constructing the corrals, therefore, ditches were dug to 
bedrock, following the lines of the fences, and the posts set so they would extend 8 
feet above the surface. In order to prevent the foxes escaping by burrowing under 
the fence, a strip of heavy wire netting, no. 14 gauge, 2-inch mesh and 3 feet wide 
la securely fastened to the sill that lies on the surface of the ground, and allowed to 
extend to bedrock. In cases where the netting was not quite wide enough to reach 
the bedrock, a log was placed in the bottom of the trench and the lower side of the 
wire was fastened to this, 

P'or the fences, above groiind, two strips of wii-e netting were used, each 4 feet 
wide and 2-inch mesh. The lower strip is no. 14 gauge and the upper no. 15, and 
the two are joined by being stapled to a center rail of the fence. 

Improved corrals built in 1915. — In the construction of our new corrals, built in 
1915, a number of improvements have been made. (See detailed plan of these corrals 
on p. 116.) Instead of using logs and rails from the woods, sawed timbers have been 
utUized in the construction of these corrals, the result being a considerable saA'ing in 
the cost of labor and a great improvement in the appearance of the ranch. 

An important feature of these corrals is that double-wire fences have been used 
throughout; this as an additional precaution against escape, and also to prevent the 
foxes from being injured by fighting through the Avire netting. For the same reason 



116 



ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 



double ground wires have been resorted to. As a further protection against the possi- 
bility of foxes liberated on tlie island coming in contact with those in the corrals, the 
lower half of the inside of the outer fence is coA'ered ^v■ith netting of 1-inch mesh, 




no. 16 gauge. The entire structure is covered with wire netting, 2-incli mesh, and 
no. 16 gauge. 

The location of the male pens has also been changed in the new corrals. Instead of 
placing them between the breeding corrals, as was formerly done, we have parti- 



MINOR FUR-BEARING ANIMALS. 

tioned off 12 feet of the front end of the latter, thus affording 
tions. A door or gate connects the breeding corral with the 



117 

a pen of better propor- 
male pen, and except 




during the period when the male is separated from the female, the pair may have the 
run of the entii-e inclosm-e, an area of 1,500 sciuare feet. 



118 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUE INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

It will be noted that the fences of the new corrals are but 6 feet in height, which we 
have demonstrated is sufficient height in this country, where the snowfall is light. In 
a district where the snow is apt to exceed 2 feet in depth, the height of the fence 
should be increased accordingly; also, if no covering wire is used, the fence should be 
at least 10 feet high. Aside from the fact that a considerable saving in construction 
cost is effected by building low fences, the danger of the foxes being injured by falls 
is greatly lessened. Foxes are great climbers, and it often happens that they are 
seriously injured by falling from high fences. 

Many of the fox ranchers have constructed their corrals so as to allow a passageway 
around each one. This plan, of coiu-se, acts as a safeguard against the foxes fighting 
through the wire, but we think there are objectionable features in this method of build- 
ing the inclosures, and that the general scheme we have followed will better serve 
the purpose. The nest houses in our corrals are placed at the end farthest from the 
entrance, so it is not necessary for the keeper, when feeding and otherwise caring for 
the foxes, to approach nearer to the nests than just inside the entrance gate of the corral. 
This is an important matter, for during the period of gestation, and until the pups 
are weaned, extreme caution must be exercised not to disturb or excite the female. 
With passageways completely smTounding the breeding corrals, there is apt to be a tend- 
ency to disturb the foxes at a time when they should be left entirely alone, and for 
this reason the plan of construction should be given careful consideration. By fol- 
lowing our plan of construction the chances of accident from the animals fighting 
through the fences will surely be eliminated, and then the cost of construction will be 
considerably lessened. Fewer posts will be required for the corrals; and in case the 
ranch is situated where an outer inclosure is necessary, considerable expense can be 
avoided from the fact that a smaller area will have to be surrounded. 

Care must be exercised in the selection of wire netting, and this should be the grade 
that is galvanized after wea\'ing. Nothing lighter than no. 14 wii'e should be placed 
under ground, and we would recommend, when it is possible to secure a heavier weight, 
the use of no. 12. For the fence wire we believe that nothing lighter than no. 14 should 
be used; some of the foxes are large and very strong, and by continually biting and 
pulling at one place in the fence a hole might easily be made if the wire is not of 
sufficient weight. For the covering wire no. 16 is heavy enough, but we think it 
would be dangerous to use anything lighter. Two-inch mesh might be used with 
safety for all the netting, although the use of 1-inch mesh wire for the lower half of 
the fences has its advantages. Any netting with larger mesh than 2 inches, however, 
should not be used in the construction of fox corrals. 

In fastening the wire netting to the posts and stringers a liberal supply of staples 
should be used. We recommend galvanized staples, 1^ inches long and of no. 9 
gauge. 

Instead of using a lacing wire for connecting the strips of netting, as is done generally 
in constructing fox corrals, we have found that galvanized hog rings make a much bet- 
ter, cheaper, and neater job . These are used by fishermen on the Pacific coast for build- 
ing fish traps of wire netting, and can be secured from any house that deals in salmon 
cannery supplies. The rings are easily and quickly applied by the use of a hog ringer. 

Om- advice generally, to those who contemplate going into the fm--farming business, 
is not to attempt to economize on the material that goes into their corrals. Only the 
best material and workmanship should be considered, for the fox is a valua})le animal, 
and the loss of a single animal through improperly constructed inclosures might repre- 
sent a sum gi-eater than the entire cost of the structures. 

Nest houses. — In the construction of the nest houses, or artificial burrows, in 
which the male and female ace to live for a good part of the year, and where the female 
is to whelp and rear her young to the weaning stage, the gi-eatest care should be exer- 
cised. Our nest houses have been built on the lines suggested by J. Walter Jones in 
his Canadian report, but the plan has been somewhat altered through information 
gained by conversation and correspondence with parties who have had vast experience 



MINOR FUR-BEARING ANIMALS. 



119 



in breeding foxes. These are, we believe, thoroughly suited to the purposes intended. 
In fact, the results obtained during the past season in the use of these houses have been 
so satisfactory that the structures now being put into the new corrals are identical, 
except that the nests have been made 18 by 22 inches instead of 16 by 20 inches. 
This change was made to accommodate some of the exceptional!)' large foxes, as it was 
feared the nest might be somewhat crowded during the whelping season if made in 




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the smaller size. These houses have been built with the idea of furnishing a shelter 
as nearly as possible like the natural burrows, and at the same time adding featiu'es 
that would improve the sanitary conditions and make the nests accessible for inspec- 
tion, cleaning, etc. 

Above is a drawing of these houses showing general method of construction and 
arrangement. The hatch, which is the nest cover, is easily removed in order to get 
at the interior of the nest, and for the purpose of facilitating this operation three auger 
holes are bored through the top and bottom boards of the hatch. By placing one's 
fingers in the top holes the hatch can easily be lifted, and at the same time these holef 



120 ALASKA FISHERIES AND FUR INDUSTRIES IN 1915. 

serve as a means of ventilation for the nest. The hinged roof makes the interior of 
the house very easy of access. 

The nest, in order to assure warmth, is completely surrounded by a dead air space, 
accomplished by the use of double walls and covering the air space side of the nest 
walls with building paper. In an extremely cold climate it would probably be well 
to insulate the nest further by filling the air space with planer 8ha\angs, sawdxist, or 
some other such material. In this section, however, the air space affords sufficient 
protection against the cold. 

The interior of the house is finished entirely with dressed lumber, and all sharp cor- 
ners are rounded off to prevent injury to the fur. Great care is also taken to be sure 
that no nails are left protruding that might injure the fox or his fur. 

The floors are of 1-inch boards, doubled, and with building paper between . The 
walls are of 1-inch lumber, covered with building paper, and then with either shingles 
or weather boards. The roof is shingled over 1-inch lumber, and is hinged at the 
upper side. 

To afford ventilation in warm weather, two small windows are provided, one at each 
end of the house near the roof. These are 5 inches square and are filled with wire 
netting. A wooden cover is arranged to button over the windows in cold weather, or 
whenever it is desired to close them. A faA'orite place of refuge for the foxes is the 
space on top of the nest, where they can keep