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ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

AMERICAN HISTORICAL 
ASSOCIATION 

FOE THE YEAE 

1945 

VOLUME II 
SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY, 1765-1794 

EDITED BY 

LAWEENCE KINNAIED 

(PT. I) 
THE EEVOLUTIONAEY PEEIOD, 1765-1781 




UNITED STATES 

GOVBENMBNT FEINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1949 



For sala by the Superintendent of Documents U. S, Gorernment Printing Office 
Washington 20, P. C. - Price $1*75 



SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY, 1766-94 

TEANSLATIONS OF MATERIALS 

FEOM THE SPANISH ARCHIVES 

IN THE BANCROFT LIBRARY 

PART I: THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1766-81 



EDITED 

WITH INTBODUOTIONS 
BY 

LAWRENCE KENNAIRD 

Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley, California 



CONTENTS 

Page 

FOBEWOBD XIII 

HISTOBICAL INTBODTJCTION xv 

DOCUMENTS : 

Royal Decree Commissioning Don Antonio de Ulloa Governor of 

Louisiana, May 21, 1765 1 

Grimaldi to Ulloa, July 3, 1765 2 

Fernandez de Angulo and Quadra to Ulloa, December 3, 1765 3 

Rodriguez to Armona, April 10, 1766 4 

Grimaldi to Ulloa, May 24, 1766 5 

Ulloa to Bucareli, May 28, 1766 10 

Ulloa to Bucareli, June 14, 1766 11 

Ulloa to Bucareli, July 8, 1766 12 

Ulloa to Bucareli, August 31, 1766 12 

Ulloa to Bucareli, December 12, 1766 13 

Ulloa to Bucareli, December 28, 1766 14 

Statement of Governmental Expenses, 1767 15 

Ulloa to Bucareli, January 23, 1767 (No. 12) 19 

Ulloa to Bucareli, January 23, 1767 (No. 13) 20 

Ulloa to Bucareli, March 3, 1767 20 

Extract from the Records of the Meeting of the Superior Council 

of the Province of Louisiana, March 7, 1767 21 

Ulloa to Bucareli, March 11, 1767 23 

Ulloa to Bucareli, March 20, 1767 (No. 18) 24 

Ulloa to Bucareli, March 20, 1767 (No. 1) 24 

Ulloa to Bucareli, March 25, 1767 25 

Ulloa to Bucareli, April 2, 1767 26 

Ulloa to Bucareli, April 6, 1767 (No. 23) 27 

Ulloa to Bucareli, April 6, 1767 (No. 24) 27 

Grimaldi to Arriaga, May 13, 1767 28 

Royal Order, May 19, 1767 29 

Grimaldi to Loyola, May 27, 1767 29 

Ulloa to Bucareli, June 17, 1767 (No. 26) , 30 

Ulloa to Bucareli, June 17, 1767 (No. 28) 31 

Ulloa to Bucareli, August 28, 1767 (No. 31) 32 

Ulloa to Bucareli, August 28, 1767 (No. 37) 32 

Ulloa to Bucareli, August 28, 1767 (No. 3) 33 

O'Conor to Ulloa, September 5, 1767. , 38 

Ulloa to Bucareli, September 21, 1767 85 

Jerningham to Ulloa, November 28, 1767. 36 

Ulloa to Bucareli, December 2, 1767 (No. 41) 38 

Ulloa to Bucareli, December 2, 1767 (No. 42) 38 

Jerningham to Ulloa, December 14, 1767, , 39 

Ulloa to Bucareli, December 25, 1767 40 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, February 11, 1768 40 

Ulloa to Bucareli, February 20, 1768. 42 

Piemas to Ulloa, February 22, 1768. * *. 43 

O'Conor to Ulloa, March 15, 1768 43 



VI CONTENTS 

Page 

Regulation of Louisiana Commerce, March 23, 1768 45 

Grimaldi to Ulloa, June 20, 1768 50 

Ulloa to Bucareli, June 22, 1768 (No. 47) 50 

Ulloa to Bucareli, June 22, 1768 (No. 48) 52 

Grimaldi to Ulloa, June 25, 1768 54 

Ulloa to Bucareli, July 20, 1768 (No. 50) 55 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, July 20, 1768 56 

Ulloa to Bucareli, July 20, 1768 (No. 52) 57 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, August 4, 1768 (No. 16) 57 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, August 4, 1768 (No. 18) 58 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, August 4, 1768 (No. 20) 59 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, August 4, 1768 (No. 21) 60 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, August 4, 1768 (No. 17) 61 

Ulloa to Bucareli, August 10, 1768 62 

Ulloa to Bucareli, August 13, 1768 63 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, August 18, 1768 64 

Accusation Against Pierre Simon for Inciting Indians Against the 

Spaniards 65 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, August 23, 1768 69 

Grimaldi to Ulloa, September, 1768 70 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, October 6, 1768 (No. 1) 71 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, October 6, 1768 (No. 2) 73 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, October 6, 1768 (No. 4) 75 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, October 10, 1768 76 

Ulloa to Grimaldi, October 26, 1768. 77 

Ulloa to Bucareli, November 16, 1768 81 

Ulloa to Bucareli, December 8, 1768 83 

Loyola to Bucareli, April 20, 1769 84 

Bucareli to Arriaga, July 7, 1769 86 

Proclamation by O'Reilly, August 21, 1769 89 

Proclamation by O'Reilly, August 24, 1769 89 

O'Reilly to Muniain, August 31, 1769 90 

Proclamation Fixing Prices, September 7, 1769. 98 

Bucareli to Arriaga, September 18, 1769 94 

O'ReiUy to Gage, September 21, 1769 95 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, October 17, 1769 (No. 3) 96 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, October 17, 1769 (No. 4) 103 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, October 27, 1769 105 

O'Reilly to Bucareli, November 10, 1769 106 

Gage to O'Reilly, November 18, 1769 107 

Establishment of the New Orleans Cabildo, November 25, 1769. ... 108 

Proclamation by O'Reilly, December 7, 1769 126 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, December 10, 1769 (No. 23) 126 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, December 10, 1769 (No. 19) 127 

O'Reilly to Grimaldi, December 10, 1769 129 

O'RetUy to Arriaga, December 10, 1769 (No. 16) 132 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, December 10, 1769 (No. 21) 135 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, December 16 1769 140 

O'Reilly to Browne, December 21, 1T69. . , 14S 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, December 29> 1769 (No* 85)......, 144 

0*Reffiy to Afrtaga, , Peeopfce* 2% 1169 (N*M). 158 

Statement of Payment for Indian Presents, January 9 1770. ,.,*., 154 



CONTENTS VII 

Page 

Nugent and Kelly to [O'Reilly], January 14, 1770 156 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, January 21, 1770 156 

Rabbadie to O'Reilly, January 30, 1770 156 

List of Officials Appointed by O'Beilly, February 4, 1770 157 

List of Militia Officers Appointed by O'Beilly, February 12, 1770. . . 158 

Priests Recommended by O'Reilly, February 14, 1770 159 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, March 1, 1770 *. . . 160 

Muzquiz to Arriaga, March 1, 1770. 161 

O'Reilly to Arriaga, March 1, 1770 (No. 36) 161 

Arriaga to Muzquiz, March 21, 1770 . 162 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, March 24, 1770 (No. 23) 163 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, March 24, 1770 (No. 24) 163 

O'Reilly to Bucareli, April 3, 1770 . 164 

O'Reilly to Unzaga y Amezaga, April 3, 1770 165 

O'Reilly to Bucareli, April 5, 1770 167 

Indian Slaves at Ste. Genevieve, May 28, 1770 167 

Unzaga y Amezaga to Grimaldi, June 8, 1770 170 

Piernas to Unzaga y Amezaga, July 8, 1770 171 

Declarations Received by Pedro Piernas Concerning Indian Slaves 

at St. Louis, July 12, 1770 172 

Durnford to O'Reilly, 1770 179 

Bucareli to Arriaga, August 17, 1770 180 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, August 25, 1770 (No. 37) 181 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, August 25, 1770 (No. 41) 181 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, September 22, 1770 (No. 42) 182 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, September 22, 1770 (No. 43) 183 

O'Reilly to Grimaldi, September 30, 1770 189 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, October 24, 1770 (No. 47) 186 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, October 24, 1770 (No. 48) 187 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, October 26, 1770 187 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, November 24, 1770 (No. 50) 188 

Grimaldi to Unzaga y Amezaga, November 24, 1770 (No. 51) 188 

Bucareli to Arriaga, December 12, 1770 189 

Unzaga y Amezaga to Piernas [No date] 189 

Croix to Unzaga y Amezaga, April 3, 1771 192 

Arriaga to Unzaga y Amezaga, May 20, 1771 193 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, May 20, 1771 193 

Arriaga to Unzaga y Amezaga, June 20, 1771 (No. 60) 193 

Arriaga to Unzaga y Amezaga, June 20, 1771 (No. 63) . . 194 

Arriaga to Unzaga y Amezaga, June 20, 1771 (No. 58) 194 

Census of Louisiana, September 2, 1771 190 

De Mezieres to Unzaga y Amezaga, November 1, 1771 197 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, January 12, 1772 197 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, January 14, 1772 197 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, February 5, 1772. ... . . 198 

Bill of Lading, New Orleans to Ste. Genevieve, March 18, 1772 199 

Testimony of Pablo Segond, June 1, 1772 199 

Rouquiere to Pedro Piernas, June 14, 1772 202 

Clermond to Pedro Pternas, June 14, 1772. 208 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, June 29, 1772 . . . . 204 

Piernas to Unzmga y Amezaga, July 4, 1772 , . . , 204 

Piernas to Unzaga y Anaezaga, July 80, 1772 **.... 206 

Piernas to Unmga y Amezaga, August 1, 17T2 ......*.... 208 



VIII CONTENTS 

Page 

Gage to Unzaga y Amezaga, August 3, 1772 208 

Ripperda to Unzaga y Amezaga, September 9, 1772 209 

Buoareli to Unzaga y Amezaga, September 26, 1772 210 

De La Pefia to Unzaga y Amezaga, December 30, 1772 211 

De La Pefia to Unzaga y Amezaga, January 18, 1773 (No. 1) 211 

De La Pefia to Unzaga y Amezaga, January 18, 1773 (No. 2) 212 

Gage to Unzaga y Amezaga, February 20, 1773 213 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, March 10, 1773 214 

Piernas to Unzaga y Amezaga, April 12, 1773 214 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, May 15, 1773 218 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, July 16, 1773 219 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, August 9, 1773 219 

Passport Given to Traders of the Oto Nation, September 11, 1773. . . 219 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, September 18, 1773 221 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, February 3, 1774 221 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, March 8, 1774 221 

VaUedano to the Governor of Louisiana, March 18, 1774 222 

Arriaga to Unzaga y Amezaga, May 30, 1774 223 

Census of Negro and Mulatto Slaves at Natchitoches, September 26, 

1774 223 

Petition of William Grant to Governor Chester, February 20, 177f>. . 225 

Judice to Unzaga y Amezaga, March 23, 1775 225 

Arriaga to the Governor of Louisiana, April 7, 1775 226 

Acosta to Unzaga y Amezaga, April 26, 1775 226 

Acosta to Unzaga y Amezaga, April 30, 1775 227 

Nations of the Missouri, May 19, 1775 228 

Cruzat to Unzaga y Amezaga, March 18, 1776 229 

Unzaga y Amezaga to Arriaga, April 27, 1776 280 

Torre to Bucareli, May 2, 1776 231 

GAlvez to the Governor of Louisiana, May 21, 1776 232 

Unzaga y Amezaga to G&lvez, June 19, 1776 232 

Unzaga y Amezaga to Navarro, September 20, 1776 234 

Spanish Loan to Virginia, September 21, 1776 28 i 

Cruzat to Unzaga y Amezaga, November 21, 1776 285 

Bernardo de G&lvez to Jose" de G&lvez, March 21, 177*7 23<> 

Regulations Governing the Tobacco Trade in Louisiana, June 15, 

1777 287 

Proclamation Fixing Prices, July 15, 1777 23<9 

Henry to the Governor of Louisiana, October 20, 1777 241 

Extract from the Virginia Gazette of October 31, 1777 242 

Proclamation Concerning Louisiana Commerce, November 21, 1777 242 

G&lvez to Grand-Pre", December 7, 1777 241 

Reports Concerning the Revolutionary War, December 22, 1777 244 

Chester to G&lvez, January, 1778 247 

Henry to the Governor of Louisiana, January 14, 1778 248 

Rutledge to G&lvez, January 23, 1778. 250 

Extension of Free Trade Under Charles III, February 2, 1778 250 

Marfa Benancia to the Governor, February 27, 1778, , 254 

Navarro to Bucareli, March 4, 1778 255 

Gdlvez to ViWers, March 5, 1778 256 

Extracts from Letters by Pollock, 1778 257 

Pollock to G&lvess, 1778 258 



CONTENTS Ji-a. 

Page 

Special Instructions to Leyba from Galvez, March 9, 1778 258 

Willing to G&lvez, March 24, 1778 260 

Willing to Glvez, April 1, 1778 262 

Willing to Gdlvez, April 5, 1778 263 

Willing to Gdlvez, April 13, 1778 263 

Gdlvez to Navarro, April 14, 1778 ^ 265 

Morgan to G&lvez, April 26, 1778 266 

Gdlvez to Navarro, April 27, 1778 260 

Pollock to Gdlvez, May 2, 1778 270 

Calvert to Pollock, May 4, 1778 271 

G&lvez to Henry, May 6, 1778 272 

Declaration of Stephen Shakespear, May 6, 1778 278 

Navarro to Bucareli, May 14, 1778 276 

Willing to Gdlvez, May 24, 1778 278 

Bucareli to Gdlvez, May 27, 1778 279 

Willing to Pollock, May 30, 1778 282 

Barker to G&lvez, May 30, 1778 283 

Pollock to Willing, May 31, 1778 283 

Willing to G&lvez, June 1, 1778 284 

Bernardo de Galvez to Jos< de Glvez, June 9, 1778 286 

Pollock to Gdlvez, June 16, 1778 287 

Pollock to GSlvez, June 18, 1778 288 

Barker to Galvez, June 22, 1778 288 

Census of the City of New Orleans, June, 1778 290 

McGillivray to G&lvez, July 3, 1778 290 

Dallas to McGillivray, July 3, 1778 291 

Blommart to McGillivray, July 6, 1778 293 

Harrison to Pollock, July 7, 1778 294 

Leyba to G&lvez, July 11, 1778 (No. 171) 295 

Leyba to G&lvez, July 11, 1778 (No. 173) 296 

Pollock to G&lvez, July 20, 1778 297 

Leyba to Gdlvez, July 21, 1778 298 

Leyba to Gfilvez, July 21, 1778 299 

Leyba to Galvez, July 25, 1778 300 

Pollock to G&lvez, August 5, 1778 300 

Blommart to McGillivray, August 5, 1778 301 

Leyba to G&lvez, August 6, 1778. 302 

George to Gdlvez, August 14, 1778 - 308 

George and Harrison to G&lvez, August 18, 1778 308 

Barker to Gdlvez, August 25, 1778 304 

Pollock to G&lvez, August 29, 1778 304 

G&lvez to Leyba, September 2, 1778 305 

Croix to Gdlvez, September 11, 1778 305 

Barker to McGillivray, September 12, 1778 306 

Willing to G&lvez, October 7, 1778 30? 

McGillivray to G&lvez, [No date] ** 308 

Laurens to Navarro, October 27, 1778 309 

Leyba to Galvez, November 16, 1778 (No. 252) 310 

Leyba to G&lvez, November 16, 1778 310 

Leyba to G&lvez, November 16, 1778 (No. 255) , 312 

Leyba to G&lvez, November 16, 1778 (No. 253) 314 

Navarro to Bucareli, December 6, 1778 - 315 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Leyba to Galvez, December 9, 1778 316 

Leyba to Galvez, December 9, 1778 '. 317 

Leyba to Galvez, December 9, 1778 (No. 257) 317 

Leyba to Galvez, December 9, 1778 318 

Leyba to Galvez, December 9, 1778 318 

Collell to Galvez, December, 1778 319 

Galvez to Leyba, January 13, 1779 320 

Galvez to Leyba, January 13, 1779 321 

Galvez to Leyba, January 13, 1779 (No. 272) 321 

Bernardo de Galvez to Jose" de Galvez, January 15, 1779 321 

Collell to Galvez, January 15, 1779 322 

Bernardo de Galvez to Jose" de Galvez, January 15, 1779 (No. 228) 325 

Bernardo de Galvez to Jose" de Galvez, January 15, 1779 (No. 233) 326 

Bernardo de Galvez to Jose* de Galvez, January 15, 1779 (No. 227) 327 

Bernardo de Galvez to Jose* de Galvez, January 15, 1779 (No. 235) 328 

Bernardo de Galvez to Jose" de Galvez, January 15, 1779 (No. 234) 328 

Galvez to Leyba, January 30, 1779 329 

Leyba to Galvez, February 5, 1779 329 

Galvez to Leyba, March 9, 1779 330 

Account of the Capture of a Spanish Schooner by Indians at the 

Bay of Espfritu Santo, March 20, 1779 381 

Expedition Against the Karankawa, (1779) 384 

People of Ste. Genevieve to Leyba, March 28, 1779 385 

Panis to Galvez, April 29, 1779 336 

Navarro to Royal Audiencia of Mexico, May 29, 1779 338 

Collell to Galvez, June 15, 1779 840 

Collell to Galvez, June 27, 1779 342 

Audiencia to Navarro, June 28, 1779 843 

Dalling to Galvez, June 29, 1779 344 

Bernardo de Galvez to Jos< de Galvez, July 3, 1779 345 

Leyba to Galvez, July 13, 1779 (No. 332) 846 

Leyba to Galvez, July 13, 1779 (No. 331),.. 347 

Leyba to Galvez, July 13, 1779 (No. 330) 348 

Leyba to Galvez, July 13, 1779 (No. 329) 849 

Cabello to Galvez, July 24, 1779 850 

Navarro to Audiencia, July 29, 1779 352 

Viceroy of Mexico to Navarro, August 27, 1779 853 

Galvez to Navarro, August 29, 1779. , 355 

Release of Spanish Vessels Seized by the British, September 18, 

1779 . 857 

Collell to Galvez, September 26, 1779 . . . 358 

Navarro to Mayorga, October 21, 1779 .......*.. 360 

Leyba to Galvez, October 28, 1779 (No. 867) 361 

Leyba to Galvez, October 28, 1779 (No* 865) t 861 

Jefferson to Galvez, November 8, 1779 3^2 

Navarro to Mayorga, December 28, 1779.. $64 

Instructions of Galvez to Mlro", December 31, 1779 866 

Navarro to Mayorga, February 7, 1780. .......................... 868 

Villiers to Galvez, February 27, 1780 . . . 878 

Navarro to Mayorga, March 5 1780. . . ,**............ 874 

Galvez to Jefferson, 1780 875 

Delavillebeuvre to Mlr6, April 25, 1780.. ......................... 876 

Fraser to Delavillebeuvre, April 26, 1780 , , . 377 



CONTENTS XI 

Page 

Menard to Villiers, May 29, 1780 . 377 

Delavillebeuvre to Galvez, June 24, 1780 gTg 

Villiers to Galvez, June 25, 1780 379 

Juzan to Galvez, July 11, 1780 38 2 

Durnford to Galvez, July 12, 1780 !..!.! 388 

Pollock to Galvez, July 25, 1780 ggg 

Blommart's Note to Pollock, August 5, 1780 3$4 

Gil Ybarvo to Galvez, August 5, 1780 384 

Pollock to Piernas, September 5, 1780 385 

Piernas to Gil Ybarvo, September 11, 1780 386 

Mayorga to Galvez, October 4, 1780 ."."!!.*!!! 386 

Gil Ybarvo to Piernas, October 12, 1780 388 

Cabello to Vaugine, October 31, 1780 .......!..*.* 389 

Gil Ybarvo to Galvez, November 1, 1780 390 

Chief of the Taovayas to Galvez, November 4, 1780 392 

Dodge to Cruzat, November 11, 1780 .\.\ 392 

Cruzat to Galvez, November 12, 1780 * \ ] 393 

Cruzat to Galvez, November 12, 1780 (No, 2) *...!!!!!! 395 

Cruzat to Galvez, November 13, 1780 . , . . 396 

Cruzat to Galvez, November 14, 1780 (No. 1) 393 

Cruzat to Galvez, November 14, 1780 (No. 4) 393 

Cruzat to Galvez, November 14, 1780 (No. 7) 399 

Cruzat to Galvez, November 21, 1780 400 

Act of Possession of East Bank of the Mississippi Biver North 

of the District of Natchez, November 22, 1780 4^ 

Indian Chiefs to Cruzat, 1780 4 01 

Examination of Lef evre, December 14, 1780 , 403 

Cruzat to Dodge, December 15, 1780 405 

Cruzat to Rogers, December 15, 1780 405 

People of Vincennes to Cruzat, 1780 406 

Cruzat to People of Vincennes, December 15, 1780 407 

Cruzat to Galvez, December 18, 1780 408 

Cruzat to Galvez, December 18, 1780 411 

Dodge to Cruzat, December 25, 1780 412 

Malliet to Cruzat, January 9, 1781 413 

Cruzat to Galvez, January 10, 1781 415 

Cruzat to Galvez, January 18, 1781 417 

Mir6 to Gil Ybarvo, January 26, 1781 ] . . . 417 

Spanish Act of Possession for the Valleys of the St. Joseph and 

Illinois Kivers, February 12, 1781 418 

Juzan to Ezpeleta, February 19, 1781 , 419 

Ezpeleta to Juzan, February 19, 1781. 420 

Report of Troops Used in the Pensacola Expedition, February 

28, 1781 .... 421 

Statistics on the Pensacola Expedition, February 28, 1781 422 

Jacob Winfree's Commission, March 17, 1781 424 

Orders Issued to the Inhabitants of Baton Rouge, May 2, 1781 425 

Grand-Pre* to Piernas, May 7, 1781 425 

Campbell to Galvez, May 19, 1781 437 

The English Seek Refuge in the Chickasaw Country, June IT, 1781 428 

Citation of Santiago, A Negro Slave, July 1, 1781. . , . , 428 

VJOliers to Galvez, July 11, 1781 



XII CONTENTS 

Page 

Cruzat to Mir6, August 6, 1781 431 

Hancock to G&lvez, August 15, 1781 434 

Navarro to G&lvez, September 10, 1781 435 

Campbell to G&lvez, November 29, 1781 435 



FOREWORD 

The Louisiana papers of Bancroft Library, University of Cali- 
fornia, supplied the incentive and material for the beginning of this 
work. The collection, which is composed of more than 900 original 
manuscripts and rare pamphlets, was obtained by Hubert Howe 
Bancroft from Alphonse Pinart, who had acquired it in Havana 
during the early 1880's. All the documents had come originally from 
the Spanish governmental files of Louisiana and West Florida, and 
cover the period 1764 to 1809. Of the many types of correspondence 
represented, that of the governors and lieutenant governors is the 
most extensive. As a whole, the manuscripts have an excellent dis- 
tribution with reference to time, place, and event. A frontier 
atmosphere pervades much of the collection since many of the letters 
and reports were written by commandants of remote posts, traders, 
Indian agents, squaw-men, and half-breeds. Even the Indians them- 
selves, through interpreters, made their contributions to the historical 
documentation of the period. Untutored men of the border often 
made up in picturesque expression and unvarnished statement for 
what they lacked in grammar and literary style. Manuscripts in 
Spanish, French, and English reflect the trilingual character of the 
correspondence. 

In final organization the present work was limited to a period of 
thirty years, 1765 to 1794. It developed in two phases. First, all 
the Louisiana manuscripts were transcribed, translated, and prepared 
for publication. Later, selected documents were added from Ban- 
croft Library's rich collection of transcripts and photographic repro- 
ductions of Spanish archival materials in order to present a more 
complete documentary history. 

The resulting three volumes begin with the appointment of Antonio 
de Ulloa as first governor of Louisiana and end with the decline of 
Carondelet's Indian confederacy after Wayne's victory at Fallen 
Timbers. From an administrative standpoint the collection belongs 
to the governorships of Ulloa, O'Reilly, Unzaga, GHilvez, Mir6, and 
the first half of that of Carondelet. Geographically it pertains to 
the Mississippi Valley and adjacent Spanish and Indian territory to 
the east. Topically the documents cover such diverse subjects as 
insurrection, war, defense problems, finance, colonization, religious 
matters, commerce, agriculture, Indian affairs, and international 
rivalry. 

Beginning with the period of the Revolutionary War, American 
activities in the West are extensively represented in the collection. 
Emigrants from the United States eventually became Spain's most 
aggressive Mississippi Valley colonists. The advance of the Amer- 

xm 



XIV 

ican frontier was of major importance to the two nations, and a 
corollary was the accumulation in Spanish archives of a great store 
of pertinent historical documents from both sides of the border. 
The brief collection presented here is representative in that it in- 
cludes letters signed by such noteworthy Americans as Thomas 
Jefferson, Patrick Henry, John Hancock, Oliver Pollock, Benjamin 
Franklin, and James Robertson. Documents are the life-blood of 
history, and Spain in the Mississippi Valley unwittingly performed 
a significant service by preserving materials which give vitality to 
the study of the American westward movement. 

In translation an attempt has been made to follow the styles of the 
writers of the manuscripts in so far as clarity permitted. A polished 
literary rendering of a document written originally in ungrammatical 
French or Spanish would be a distortion of expression. English 
documents are reproduced with no editorial changes and offer a fairly 
accurate parallel in style and form to those written in Spanish and 
French. While a few of the documents included here have previously 
been published, in most cases they appeared in historical periodicals 
or works now out of print. An extensive group of original Louisiana 
manuscripts translated and published by Professor Herbert E. Bolton 
in his work, Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier, 
has been omitted. 

Many persons were involved in the preparation of this collection, 
and, for their assistance, the editor makes grateful acknowledgment. 
Professor Bolton, director of Bancroft Library, originally suggested 
the project and has given it strong support at all times. Without 
the friendly interest of the late Sidney Hellman Ehrman the work 
might never have been undertaken. Mr. Sidney M. Ehrman, the 
West's greatest patron of historical study, generously contributed 
funds. Linguistic experts employed were Dr. Beatrice Quijada 
Cornish, Dr. Gwendolin B. Cobb and the late Nellie van de Grift 
Sanchez for Spanish, and Dr. Theodore E. Bowie for French. For 
the second phase of the work the University of California Institute 
of Social Sciences gave financial assistance by means of research 
grants. A special word of appreciation is expressed to Professor 
John D. Hicks. Mrs. Eleanor Bancroft and the other members of 
Bancroft Library staff have been most co-operative at all times. 
Dr. Lucia Burk Kmnaird has been the editor's principal adviser and 
assistant during the entire work 

LAWHUHOE KIHHAIBD 
University of California 



INTRODUCTION 

Spain occupied her colony of Louisiana reluctantly. After France 
ceded the province in November 1762, it was not until May 21, 1765, 
that His Catholic Majesty appointed Antonio de Ulloa, captain of 
the royal navy, as first governor and captain general. The king 
specified that no drastic change in administrative procedure should 
occur and that the colony should be placed under the direction of the 
Ministry of State rather than the Ministry of the Indies. 1 A ship 
was sent from Spain to meet Ulloa at Havana and convey Mm and 
his small retinue to the new province. 2 

Ulloa arrived at New Orleans on March 5, 1766, with a force of 
about ninety men. 3 Effective occupation depended upon a plan to 
induce French troops stationed in Louisiana to enlist in Spanish 
service. Difficulties developed immediately. French soldiers were 
unwilling to re-enlist at their former pay because it was less than that 
received by Spanish troops. Ulloa wrote to Grimaldi, the minister 
of state, recommending that the French soldiers be paid at the 
Spanish rate. 4 Although the recommendation was approved, it was 
not effective in obtaining the desired enlistments. 5 

Until his military forces could be augmented, Ulloa decided that 
it would be impossible to take formal possession of the province. A 
temporary expedient was adopted under which Aubry, the French 
governor and military commander, would govern as Ulloa's agent 
while colonial expense would be assumed by Spain.* An important 
factor in this decision was the hostile attitude of the New Orleans 
merchants. A few days after Ulloa's arrival, these merchants pre- 
sented a demand that he announce the conditions under which he 
intended to take possession of the colony. Furthermore, he was asked 
to state specifically whether trade between Louisiana and France was 
to continue as before and whether the colony would be free to trade 
with the ports of Spanish America. The demand- was so truculent 
in tone that Aubry advised Ulloa to temporize. Investigation later 
proved that Laf reniere, the attorney general of the Superior Council, 
and Foucault, the intendant, had encouraged the malcontents to sub- 

1 See below, p. 1. The diplomacy of the cession of Louisiana by France to Spain has 
been extensively treated in the following: William B. Shepherd, "The Cession of 
Louisiana to Spain*" Political Science Quarterly, XIX (1904), 439-458; Arthur S. Aiton, 
"The Diplomacy of the Louisiana Cession,'* American Historical Review t XXXVI (1931), 
701-720; B. Wilson Lyon, Louisiana in Wrench Diplomacy (Norman, Oklahoma, 1934), 
13-36, 

a See below, p. 2. 

a Vicente Bodrfguez Casado, Primeros Anos de Domindtin JEspanola en la Luteiana 
(Madrid, 1942), 100-101; Charles Oayarre*, History of Louisiana (4 vols., ed. 4, New 
Orleans, 1903), II, 131. 

* See below, p. 5. 

B See below, p. 13. 

GayarrS, op, dt., II, 166-107. 

XV 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

mit their demands. The merchants, having enjoyed a measure of 
freedom from commercial regulation during the interval between 
active French control and Spanish occupation, were determined not 
to relinquish it. The opposition, which resulted in Ulloa's expulsion 
two and one half years later, was clearly in evidence at the time of 
his arrival. 7 

Meagerness of Ulloa's forces and his refusal to present his instruc- 
tions to the Superior Council fostered the prevalent belief that the 
cession of Louisiana had been merely a political maneuver between 
the courts of France and Spain and was not intended to be permanent. 8 
In the face of strong resistance to Spanish control, the governor could 
do little more than avoid clashes which might result in open rebellion 
and to await the arrival of additional Spanish troops. Consequently, 
during the first year and a half of his administration, he spent scarcely 
a third of his time at the capital. 

Soon after his initial trouble with the merchants, Dlloa departed 
upon an inspection of the settlements and did not return to New 
Orleans until May 17, 1766. He was cordially received in the out- 
lying districts and went as far as Natchitoches on the Bed Eiver. 10 
After the governor returned to New Orleans, other difficulties arose 
when he removed supervision of the slave trade from the Superior 
Council and entrusted it to a board of his own selection. 11 The 
situation became critical on September 6 when, in compliance with 
instructions from Spain, he directed Aubry to proclaim new com- 
mercial regulations. Although these were designed to protect the 
general public from profiteering, the merchants and shippers again 
made violent objections. To calm this storm the governor withdrew 
to the mouth of the Mississippi where he established his headquarters 
until the following summer. 12 Governmental affairs in New Orleans 
were left in the hands of Juan Joseph de Loyola, commissary of war 
and military intendant, Estevan Gayarr6, contador or royal comp- 
troller, and Martin Navarro, the treasurer* 

One of Ulloa's chief objectives in Louisiana was to found new 
forts and settlements along the Mississippi as defenses against British 
establishments to the east. While at Balize the governor prepared 

T An interpretation of the reasons for the conspiracy In Louisiana put Into exwution 
on October 20, 1708, Archivo General d India, Audiencia d Santo Domingo, 80-4-7 
(Bancroft Library transcript). Th materials used In thi work are those, of th Bancroft 
Library collection which includes many transcript and photographic reproductions of 
manuscripts in Spanish archives. For brevity, subsequent citations will indicate only the 
location of the original manuscripts a shown on the copies, 



See below, p. 10, 

a* Bepresentatlon of the Superior Council to the King of France, November 12, 1708, 
A0I f And. SB, 



"Gayarrt, op. oit., II, 108-173, 



INTRODUCTION XVII 

careful instructions for the undertaking. 13 Loyola was given the 
responsibility of organizing and equipping an expedition which was 
to consist of three parts, each under the command of a Spanish 
officer. 14 On April 12, 1767, seven boats loaded to the gunwales with 
soldiers, colonists, supplies, and Indian presents began the ascent of 
the river. 15 One party, under the command of Lieutenant Juan 
Orieta, founded San Gabriel in the Iberville district. 16 Lieutenant 
Pedro Piernas established San Luis de Natchez on the west side of 
the Mississippi about a league from British Natchez. 17 Captain 
Francisco Biu continued to the mouth of the Missouri where he con- 
structed Fort El Principe de Asturias on the south bank and a block- 
house named Don Carlos Tercero El Eey on the north. 18 

In the meantime, Ulloa himself undertook the construction of a new 
establishment at the mouth of the Mississippi. He abandoned the 
old French post Balize on the east pass and selected as a new site a 
small island in the northeast pass which he named Isla Real Catolica 
de San Carlos. 19 The reason for this change was that the shifting 
currents of the river had deepened the northeast channel so that it 
afforded a safer passage for vessels entering the Mississippi. On Isla 
Real, Ulloa constructed a governor's house, a church, barracks, 
hospital, warehouses, shops, and a wharf over a thousand feet in 
length? While he was thus employed, his fiancee, Francisca Ramirez 
de Laredo, daughter of the Conde de San Javier of Lima, arrived 
and their marriage took place. 21 

With widely dispersed establishments to supply and both the 
French and Spanish governmental expenses to be met, Ulloa was soon 
hard pressed for funds. He reported that the expenses of the colony 
exceeded the annual allotment of 150,000 pesos. The king approved 
an increase to 250,000 pesos but the new arrangement did not become 
effective until the middle of 1767 and even then the allotments arrived 
late and in insufficient installments. 22 Funds for the support of 
Louisiana were to be supplied by Bucareli, captain general of Cuba, 
who in turn received them from Mexico. The last half of Ulloa's 
administration consisted of a series of financial crises and a great 
portion of his official correspondence was made up of pleas for men 
and money. He foresaw clearly that without one or both even 

18 Louis Houck, ed., The Spanish R$f?ime in Missouri (2 vols,, Chicago, 1909), I, 1-28. 

w Loyola to Ulloa, January 16, 1787, Archive General de Indias, Papeles de Cuba, 
legajo 109. 

Loyola to Ulloa, April 23, 1767, AGI, PC, leg. 82. 

Rlu to Ulloa, April 29, 1767, AGI, PC, leg, 109. 

w Piernas to Ulloa, June 5, 1767, AGI, PC, leg. 2357. 

Houck, op. oit., I, 29-31, 49-52. 

See below, p. 149. 

See below, pp. 23, 149-150, 

a* Arthur Preston Whitaker, "Antonio de Ulloa," Hispanic American Historical Review, 
XV (1935), 189. 

* See below, pp, 15-19, 38, 52. 
700296 49 vol. 2 2 



XVIII INTRODUCTION 

nominal Spanish control over Louisiana could not be maintained. 23 
He was forced to buy on credit and had difficulty in meeting the 
government's obligations. Soldiers and civilian employees were fre- 
quently unpaid. 24 It was not surprising that he eventually was 
forced to leave Louisiana, but rather that he was able to remain 
so long. 

French dissatisfaction with Spanish occupation was focused upon 
the person of the governor. By character and education Ulloa was 
not a man with appeal for inhabitants of a frontier community. He 
was Spain's outstanding scientist and throughout his stay in Louisiana 
he collected notes systematically upon climate, geography, flora, and 
fauna an activity totally beyond the comprehension of most of the 
French inhabitants. 25 Yet, as an administrator, he was interested in 
the welfare of the colony and carried out his instructions as thor- 
oughly as his limited resources permitted. In matters of general 
policy few changes were made in subsequent administrations. 

Ulloa retained the French system of managing the Indians. He 
utilized the services of experienced French commandants in the 
frontier posts, continued the practice of giving the Indians presents, 
and depended upon licensed traders to keep the tribes under control. 
The Indian trade was an extensive business and an important 
element of the provincial economy. Its chief centers were St. Louis, 
Arkansas Post, and Natchitoches. 128 A great number of tribes re- 
ceived goods through St. Louis in exchange for peltry. Some of 
the more important were the Great Osages, Little Osages, Kansas, 
Otoes, Pawnees, Sacs, Foxes, lowas, Missouris, Sioux, and Ottawas. 
St. Ange, the commandant of St. Louis, reported that twenty-five 
tribes from both sides of the Mississippi commonly came to his post 
to receive presents. 27 Arkansas Post was the distribution point for 
trade with the Arkansas and the other neighboring tribes. From 
Natchitoches trade was conducted with the Cadodachos, Little Caddos, 
Yatasis, Tonkawas, Wichitas, Hasinais, and Bidais. 28 O'Conor, the 
governor of Texas, attempted to exclude Louisiana traders from Ms 
jurisdiction but Ulloa regarded the trade as essential to the control 
of the Indians. After some difficulties with the Yatasis, he per- 
mitted Villiers, the commandant of Natchitoches, to allow French, 
traders to operate freely among the tribes of the Louisiana-Texas 
frontier, 29 Captain Riu, in Ylinuesee or Spanish Illinois, likewise 

* Bee blow pp, 31, 53, 02-63. 
See below, pp. 38, 40, 42, 55-50. 

* Antonio de TTlloa, Notloim Americana (Madrid, 1772) , poartm. 

* Herbert Eugene Bolton, e<l f Attwnme <fe JtfyMre* an& the L0viiana~Te&# VronH*r f 
jr7f*-J7*0 (2 rota., Clwelan<l, 1014), I t 70-75, 

* HGUGIC, op, eto., I, 44-45, 

* Bolton, op, oft., I 74. 



INTKODUCTION XIX 

made concessions to the traders in order to maintain better relations 
with them and with the Indian tribes. 30 

Immigration and colonization occupied a great deal of the gov- 
ernor's attention. In contrast to Spain's other colonies, foreign immi- 
grants were welcomed in Louisiana. Colonization was an important 
element in the history of the entire Spanish period. Ulloa, upon his 
arrival, found an Acadian migration already under way. He assisted 
these immigrants by grants of land, and gave them agricultural imple- 
ments, rations, and even livestock. 31 In the north, British occupation 
of Illinois and Canada caused many French inhabitants to move to 
the west side of the Mississippi. St. Louis, founded originally as a 
trading post by Laclede and Chouteau in February, 1764, quickly 
grew into a village of importance and was selected as the headquarters 
of the first lieutenant governor of Ylinueses. 32 The period of greatest 
French settlement in Louisiana was during the Spanish regima 
Acadian immigration alone continued for more than twenty years. 33 
Influenced by reports from Acadian friends, a number of Maryland 
Catholics opened negotiations with Ulloa for the purpose of obtain- 
ing permission to settle in Louisiana. The governor gave a favorable 
reply and allowed a representative of the group to visit the province 
and to examine lands which might be suitable for the colonists. 34 

Despite the lack of military forces, Ulloa gave as much attention 
as possible to the problem of defense. Precautions were taken to 
prevent English traders from entering Spanish territory and dealing 
with the Indians. The governor kept close watch upon the British 
establishments along the eastern shores of the Mississippi and made 
recommendations concerning military defense. However, it was with 
doubtful relief that he reported in 1768 the withdrawal of English 
troops from West Florida to reinforce those of the eastern seaboard. 
He noted the difficulties England was having with her colonists and, 
on October 8th, reported to his government that it was believed that 
the people of Boston were determined upon complete independence. 35 

During Ulloa's administration there was much unrest both in the 
English colonies and in his own. Conduct and motives of the 
Louisiana merchants and shippers were not unlike those of ISTew 
Englanders. The Superior Council sought to maintain its authority 
as did the English colonial legislatures. Many an Acadian settler 
had moved from the disturbed Atlantic colonies only to find similar 
unrest at New Orleans. While Ulloa was reporting the troubles of 



*Houck, OP- <** 

See below, pp, IT, 43, 70. 

M Louis Houck, A History of Missouri (3 vols., Chicago, 1908), II, 7-16. 

* Gayarre*, op. c**., HI, 171, 185-186. See Pt, II, p. 160. 

* See below, pp. 36-37, 30, 40-42. 

B See below, pp. 60-70, 71-72. 



XX INTRODUCTION 

the English, he was well aware of the discontent in Louisiana. In 
the fall of 1768 a conspiracy was organized for the purpose of ex- 
pelling the Spaniards. 86 Leaders of the uprising were those who had 
opposed Ulloa from the beginning and included Laf reniere, Foucault, 
and a number of influential merchants, planters, and politicians. 
Failure of Spain to send troops, inadequate financing of government 
expenses, and Ulloa's refusal to show his commission to the Superior 
Council were all factors which contributed to the agitation. Objec- 
tives were the expulsion of the governor, elimination of trade re- 
strictions, and establishment of the Superior Council as the supreme 
governing body of the province. The conspiracy of 1768 was the 
culmination of opposition which had developed in 1766 and 1767. 37 
In January 1768, Aubry had written, "It is no pleasant mission to 
govern a colony which undergoes so many revolutions." 38 To incite 
rebellion, the conspirators, in the fall of 1768, circulated rumors 
among the Acadian and German planters that they would not be paid 
for the provisions the Spanish government had purchased from them. 
When St. Maxent was sent by Ulloa to pay the debts, he was arrested 
by the order of Villere, the commandant of the German Coast, and 
the money seized. 89 Foucault called a meeting of the Superior Council 
for October 28, and early that day armed bands of Acadians and 
Germans arrived in New Orleans under the leadership of Noyan and 
Villere. Other armed planters soon joined them. Confronted with 
this force, Ulloa, upon the advice of Aubry, boarded the Spanish 
frigate which was anchored in the river. 40 

A petition bearing more than 500 signatures was presented at the 
meeting of the Superior Council demanding that it expel the Spanish 
governor. The following day Laf reniere addressed the Council and 
urged favorable action upon the petition. In its bold denunciation 
of despotism his speech bore some similarity to that delivered by 
Patrick Henry when he introduced the Virginia Resolutions before 
the House of Burgesses in 1765. Over the protest of Aubry, the 
Council ordered Ulloa to depart and petitioned the king of France 
to reclaim the province. 41 Ulloa returned to his old headquarters at 
Isla Real Cat61ica where he remained for two weeks and then sailed 
for Havana upon a French vessel. 42 

In New Orleans a period of uneasy quiet followed the expulsion 

w See below, pp. 38, 40, 42, 53, 77-81. 

^An Interpretation of the reasons lor the conspiracy in Louisiana, AGI, And BD 



op. ott., II f 186. 
An interpretation of the reasons for the conspiracy in Louisiana, AGI, And* SB, 

88-6-7. 



** Oayarrt, op. oft., It, 192-209, 

* Ulloa to BocareH, December 8, 1708, AGI, PC, * 1065, No. 64, 



INTRODUCTION XXI 

of the governor. Although the Spaniards who remained in Louisiana 
were not molested, the Superior Council and the conspirators urged 
the departure of the Spanish frigate El Volante captained by Joseph 
Melchor de Acosta. After some repairs the vessel sailed on April 20, 
1769, for Havana transporting a number of troops which had been 
withdrawn from the new posts on the Mississippi. 48 However, the 
officials, Loyola, Gayarre, and Navarro, were not forced to depart 
because the Spanish government had outstanding debts of about 
100,000 pesos. 44 While they remained, there existed the possibility 
that additional allotments of Spanish funds might be received. 
Aubry, who had opposed the insurrection, exerted a restraining in- 
fluence upon the inhabitants and the fire of rebellion gradually sub- 
sided. When the conspirators sought aid from the British, they were 
coldly received. They devised a scheme to create a republic but, 
instead of winning popular support for it, they met strong 
opposition. 46 The insurrection was dead. 

The Spanish government still moved slowly but was now deter- 
mined that the occupation of Louisiana should be undertaken with a 
great show of force. Lieutenant General Alexandro O'Reilly, one of 
Spam's most distinguished military men, was selected to command 
the expedition and given extraordinary powers to employ all measures 
necessary for re-establishment of Spanish authority in the province. 
In contrast to Ulloa, who could never obtain more than a handful of 
troops, O'Beilly was given far more than were necessary. Of ships, 
artillery, and supplies, he also had a surplus. After extensive prepara- 
tions he sailed from Havana on the Volante accompanied by twenty 
other vessels and more than 2000 first-class troops. 46 Total white 
population of New Orleans at this time was approximately 1800.* 7 

O'Reilly and his squadron arrived in the river before New Orleans 
August IT, 1T69. He disembarked on the afternoon of the 18th and 
with great ceremony took possession of the province. Three days 
later he arrested all the leaders of the insurrection. On the 26th he 
required all the inhabitants to take the oath of allegiance to the king 
of Spain. 48 Prosecution of the leaders of the revolution was assigned 
to Felix del Rey, advocate of the royal audiencias of Mexico and 
Santo Domingo, and the trial was conducted with great legal for- 
mality. Five conspirators including Laf reniere were sentenced to 
death, six were given prison terms, and Villere, before the end of the 

* Loyola's report of troops returning to Havana, April 16, 1767, AGI, AucL SD, 80-1-7 ; 
Aubry to Bucarell, April 14, 1769 (Spanish translation), ibid. ; see below, p. 84. 

**See below, pp. 84-85. 

^Marc de Villlers du Terrage, Les DerniSres Annies ae la Louisiana frangatse (Parla 
1903) 285 ; Gayarr6, op. oit., II, 281-282, 

* See below, pp. 80-88. 

Gayarre\ op. oit,, II, 355. 

See below, p. 90. 



XXII INTRODUCTION 

trial, met Ms death in prison tinder mysterious circumstances. Prop- 
erty of all conspirators was confiscated. 49 Foucault alone escaped 
trial because he was an official of the French government. 60 

Even before the trial had ended, O'Keilly had turned his attention 
to the political and economic reorganization of the colony. To pre- 
vent an inflation of values, which the great influx of Spanish troops 
might cause, he issued a proclamation on September 7th fixing prices 
of foods. 61 Undesirable merchants were expelled and Spanish com- 
mercial regulations enforced. However, to give Louisiana an outlet 
for its products, he proposed free trade for the province with Havana 
and the ports of Spain. The king gave this recommendation his 
approval. 62 The Superior Council was abolished, a Cabildo created, 
new laws and regulations proclaimed, and governmental expense 
reduced. 68 By December, O'Eeilly was able to send a considerable 
part of his military force back to Havana. 154 He devised a plan of 
defense based upon the organization of strong colonial militia rather 
than upon the employment of Spanish regular troops and also drew 
upon the French population to fill many colonial offices. For more 
effective administration the districts of Natchitoches and Ylinueses 
were placed under lieutenant governors. The first was Athanase de 
Mezieres, a Frenchman of long experience on the Louisiana-Texas 
frontier. 55 The second was Pedro Piernas who had succeeded to the 
command of Captain Kiu in the Missouri country during the latter 
part of Ulloa's administration. As assistant and special adviser on 
Indian affairs to Piernas, O'Eeilly appointed St. Ange, former French 
commandant. 50 

The Indian policies of O'Keilly were substantially the same as those 
of Ulloa with the exception that he ordered abolition of Indian 
slavery. 67 The French system of controlling the tribes by means of 
licensed traders and distribution of gifts was continued* Considerable 
economies were effected, however, by purchasing all goods used for 
Indian presents through the firm of Hanson and Maxent. 58 Among 
the tribes of the Louisiana-Texas frontier, hostilities engendered by 
former French and Spanish rivalry had not entirely subsided and 
De M&zieres was assigned the task of reconciling the Indians to the 
new administration. He made numerous journeys into the Indian 
country, negotiated treaties, and supplanted unauthorized traders 

* Sentence passed by O'Beilly upon leaders of tfce :Loulslana uprising, October 4 1760, 
AGI, PC, leg. 81. 

> Alc^e dottier, A, History of Louisiana (4 vols, Paris and New York, 1904), I, 221. 
**See below, p. 93. 
See below, pp. 103-105, 105-106. 
> See below, pp. 97-98, 108-125, 132-135, 103-164. 
** See below, p. 120. 

see below, pp. 129, 187 ; Bolton, op. olt, I, 70-84. 
a See below, p. 280. 
^8ee below, p. 120. 
below, p. 147. 



INTRODUCTION XXIII 

with those properly licensed. 69 Other lieutenant governors and com- 
mandants of frontier posts also devoted a major portion of their 
efforts to Indian affairs. Louisiana's Indian population far exceeded 
the white and the maintenance of peace with the tribes was essential 
to the safety of the settlements. The problem was rendered even 
more serious by the intrusion of English traders both from West 
Florida and Illinois into the Indian country west of the Mississippi. 
Furthermore, English merchants along the Mississippi supplied un- 
licensed French traders with goods and thus diverted much commerce 
from legitimate Spanish channels. O'Eeilly took severe measures to 
prevent this illegal trade, but as long as the English remained on the 
Mississippi it never entirely ceased. 

O'Eeilly investigated the condition of the posts established by Ulloa 
and decided that none of them was well located either for military or 
economic purposes. Buildings on Isla Heal Catolica were demolished 
and headquarters for river pilots were removed to the old French 
site of Balize. San Gabriel was turned over to a few German settlers 
who had established themselves in that district. San Luis de Natchez 
was entirely abandoned and the Acadians who had been taken there 
were distributed among the settlements lower down the river. 61 On 
the Missouri only a few men were retained to guard the mouth of the 
river and the principal part of the garrison was removed to Ste. 
Genevieve and St. Louis. 62 By March, 1770, O'Eeilly had completed 
his task of reorganization. As special commissioner of the king, he 
installed Luis de Unzaga as governor and departed for Havana. 
Expressing his satisfaction for O'Eeilly's work, the king approved 
all of his acts and recommendations. As a result of O'Eeilly's occu- 
pation, Louisiana became a dependency of the captaincy-general of 
.Cuba. Thereafter its affairs were placed under the supervision of the 
Ministry of the Indies in the manner of Spain's other American 
colonies. 68 

Unzaga, by the mildness and restraint of his administration, did 
much to reconcile French inhabitants to the Spanish regime. The 
population of the province increased and there was an expansion of 
agriculture and trade. Purchases of tobacco by the government, 
although small at first, caused more planters to turn to this crop. 04 
The governor, realizing the need for goods in Louisiana, made little 
effort to check the contraband trade carried on. between the inhabitants 
and the British. 65 A brief war scare occurred in 1770 and 1771 as a 



* Bolton, op. cit.> I, 70-110. 

"ZM& I, 76-79 ; Houck, ISpan&an Regime 4** Missouri, I, 77. 
* See below, pp. 144-148, 
Houck, op. oit, I, 78-83. 

*> Royal Cedilla, August 17, 1772, AGI, Aud. SD, 86-5-24. 

" Caroline Maude Burson, The Stewa^sMp of Don mteftam Mtorti, HBl-HBt (New 
Orleans, 1940), 75 ; see below, pp. 188, 193.' 
* Gayarr&, op. ott., III, 46. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION 

result of the Falkland Islands dispute between England and Spain. 
The British regarrisoned their West Florida ports and Ungaza pre- 
pared for an attack.** The expected war did not occur, but renewed 
English interest in the Mississippi led to greatly increased commer- 
cial activities from which the Louisiana planters profited. Francisco 
Bouligny stated in a report of August 10, 1776, that the annual com- 
merce of the colony was about 600,000 pesos of which only about 
15,000 pesos passed through legitimate channels. The remainder went 
to the English who had established many floating stores along the 
river and thus supplied the Louisiana planters. 67 

During Unzaga's administration a serious problem was created 
by the depredations of the Osage and Missouri Indians, Despite 
their dependence upon traders from Spanish Illinois for goods, they 
were not only troublesome to the inhabitants there but also perpetrated 
numerous attacks upon the French of Arkansas and Natchitoches dis- 
tricts. 68 As a retaliatory measure Lieutenant Governor Piernas in 
1773 suspended all trade with them. Traders from British Illinois 
recognized the opportunity and a party headed by Ducharme 
ascended the Missouri with the purpose of taking over the com- 
merce of the Osage and Missouri. Piernas promptly organized a 
body of volunteers which, under the leadership of Pierre Laclede, 
surprised the intruders in the Indian villages and captured all their 
supplies. 169 Eventually the cutting off of trade produced some favor- 
able results because in March 1776, Francisco Cruzat, the successor 
of Piernas, reported that the conduct of the Osage and Missouri had 
improved. 70 However, their repentance was very temporary in 
character and usually in proportion, to their need of supplies. 

The most portentous events of Unzaga's administration were the 
outbreak of the Revolutionary War and the arrival of Americans 
upon the Mississippi. Fortunately for Spanish- American relations, 
Oliver Pollock, an Irish-American merchant and strong supporter 
of the cause of independence, was already well established at New 
Orleans. In Havana he had made the acquaintance of O'Reilly who 
later granted him certain commercial privileges in Louisiana. At 
the beginning of the war, Pollock was already a man of prestige and 
wealth. His diplomatic and financial assistance was an important 
factor in American successes in the west. 71 In September, 1776, 

Clarence Edwin Carter, Great Britain a< the IlUmi (Jonntry, m,f-m| (Washing- 
ton, 1910), 142-144; see below, pp. 170-171, 103-104, 

m Fortler, op. ott., II, 38-39. 

Bolton, op, oit., 1, 193-194, SCO, II, 24-26 ; see below, pp. 202-203, 204-205. 

See below, pp. 214-218. For an extensive collection of documents pertaining to the 
Ducharme affair see Abraham P. Nasatir, ed, < *Bncharme l i Invasion of Missouri: An 
Incident in the Anglo-Spanish Blvalry for the Indian Trade of Upper Louisiana,** 
Missouri Historical Rwiew, XXIV (1920-30), 3-25, 238-260, 420-439. 

* See below, p, 229* 

"James Alton Jam**, Oliver PoIZooTb (New York, 1937), 



INTRODUCTION XXV 

Captain George Gibson and Lieutenant William Linn came from 
Fort Pitt to New Orleans under orders from Congress and tlie State 
of Virginia to negotiate for munitions. Pollock's influence was a 
factor in their success. Through his intercession with Governor 
Unzaga they obtained about five tons of gunpowder delivered from 
the king's stores. A part was sent up the river in charge of 
Lieutenant Linn and was delivered to Fort Henry and Fort Pitt. 
The remainder was shipped by sea to Philadelphia. 72 This incident 
marked the beginning of Spain's direct aid to the Americans. 

Bernardo de Galvez succeeded Unzaga as governor at the be- 
ginning of 1T77. With the support of his court he aided the Ameri- 
cans actively while strengthening the defenses of his province. In 
the spring several American boats from the Ohio arrived at New 
Orleans in quest of munitions. The commander of the expedition 
brought a letter to Governor Galvez from Colonel George Morgan, 
the commandant of Fort Pitt. Morgan appealed for aid in obtaining 
supplies, made inquiry concerning the reaction of Galvez toward a 
possible attack upon Pensacola, and requested that Americans be 
permitted to trade freely at New Orleans. When the boats returned 
to Fort Pitt, they carried munitions valued at approximately $70,000 
and a letter from Galvez expressing willingness to co-operate with 
the Americans, provided his assistance were kept secret. At the 
same time he gave a favorable reply to the request concerning trade. 73 
However, when Patrick Henry, the governor of Virginia, wrote in 
October and proposed that New Orleans be made a free port for 
western American products, Galvez replied that he could not agree 
to it. 74 Thomas Jefferson, after he succeeded Henry as governor 
in 1779, also wrote Galvez upon the subject of free navigation of the 
Mississippi and its importance to the western settlements. 75 Thus, 
before the war had entered its final phases, the Mississippi issue was 
well defined. Galvez aided the Americans in many ways, but he 
did not have the authority to change Spain's commercial regulations. 

Meanwhile, Spain attempted to improve Louisiana's economic con- 
dition by liberalizing commerce and expanding agriculture. As 
a result of successful development of the governmental tobacco 
monopoly in Mexico, Galvez was authorized to make extensive pur- 
chases in the province. He reached an agreement with the planters 
as to prices, and on June 15, 1777, issued a proclamation governing 
methods of selection and preparation of tobacco for export. 76 Al- 
though the crop for the year was not as large as expected, tobacco 

TO IUd. t 01-65 ; see below, pp. 234-235. 

w John Walton Caughey, Bernarffo de G-dlvez in Louisiana, 1776-1783 (Berkeley, 1934), 
90-92. 

w See below, pp. 241-242, 272. 

re See below, pp. 362-383. 

See below, pp. 237-238 ; Gayarre; op. dt. f III, 107. 



XXVI INTRODUCTION 

cultivation grew steadily in importance. Within a decade it had 
become one of Louisiana's main cash crops. A shortage of plantation 
labor was met by a partial relaxation of restrictions upon the Negro 
slave trade. 77 

Galvez had scarcely begun to put the province upon a military 
basis when the war reached the Mississippi. Two American expedi- 
tions were organized in the West in 1778. The first, headed by James 
Willing, was directed against the British colony of West Florida. 
The second was led by George Kogers Clark against the English 
posts of the Illinois country. Willing surprised the citizens of 
Natchez and met no resistance. He called the settlers together and 
required them to take an oath of neutrality. Farther down the 
river he raided plantations of loyalists, seized considerable property, 
and captured a number of British boats including the armed vessel 
Rebecca?* A volunteer detachment organized by Pollock in New 
Orleans ascended the river to co-operate with Willing. Another 
band of volunteers from New Orleans captured the British vessel 
Neptune, while the Despatch escaped down the river only to fall 
into the hands of the American privateer Joseph Calvert. Willing 
brought his plunder into New Orleans to be disposed of by Pollock, 
for whom he bore a commission appointing him agent for the 
'Continental Congress. Galvez permitted Willing's forces to remain 
in New Orleans and assigned them quarters in a government build- 
ing. The loot, which consisted largely of Negro slaves taken from 
loyalist plantations, was auctioned by Pollock. 70 

Alarmed by American activities on the lower Mississippi, the 
British sent war vessels into the river and reinforced their West 
Florida posts. Willing's second attempt to invade West Florida 
met with disaster and the Americans found themselves bottled up 
in New Orleans. To placate the British, who protested vigorously 
and demanded the surrender of the Americans, GAlvez returned 
some of the prices. 80 When Pollock saw that the American force 
had been neutralized, he made arrangements to send Willing to the 
United States by sea. 81 Galvez authorized Willing's force, then 
under command of Robert George, to proceed northward by land 
making a long detour by way of NatcMtoches, Opelousas, and Arkan- 
sas Post in order to avoid all contact with the British, 8 Pollock 
had to draw upon Ms personal funds to cover the expense of George's 

"See below, pp. 270-281; Burson, op. pfe., 75-70, 

w See below, pp. 282-264; Clarenee Walworth Airord, ed. JKot&wWa Beeor^ (Spring* 
field, 1909), 45 ; John Walton Cimgheyv 4< Willing* Bxpdition Down the Mississippi, 1778,'* 
JDwisfcwa Mtetorleal Quarterly, XV (1032), 5-40. 

w See below, pp. 282-284 ; James, op, dt, t 120-121, 

* See below, pp. 297-208 ; Bolton, op. ott., H, 2m ; Andrew Blllcott, The Journal of 
Andrew MUcott (Philadelphia, 1814), 130-133. 

* James, op, ott., 147. 

w See below, pp, 3Q3--304, 



INTKODUCTiON XXVII 

return journey. 83 WiUing's expedition failed chiefly because it was 
too small for the task assigned and because the British had access 
to their Mississippi settlements both by way of the river and by the 
lakes. 

In the meantime, George Rogers Clark had successfully taken the 
British posts in Illinois. Lieutenant Governor Fernando de Leyba 
had received orders from Galvez to assist the Americans. He invited 
Clark to visit him at St. Louis and received him with great ceremony. 
Clark remained as a guest at Leyba's home for two days and a 
friendship began between the two men which was to be of great 
value to the American cause in Illinois. To pay the expenses of 
the occupation Clark was forced to draw drafts upon Pollock at 
New Orleans and to purchase on credit in St. Louis. When the 
merchants were reluctant to accept Clark's receipts, Leyba personally 
guaranteed a considerable portion of the debts. As a result he, as 
well as many others who helped supply American forces in the 
West, suffered financial losses. 84 The main burden of maintaining 
Clark in Illinois, however, fell upon Pollock. He sacrificed his 
personal fortune, utilized his credit to the limit, and borrowed from 
the Spanish treasury at N"ew Orleans. Spain aided the Americans, 
but considering that it would have been impossible for her to defend 
Upper Louisiana if the British had recovered Illinois, it was meager 
aid. In the years 1778, 1779, and 1780 Galvez lent 74,087 pesos to 
Pollock on behalf of the United States. During the same period 
Spain spent three times that amount for presents given to the 
Louisiana Indians. 85 

While the American Revolution was in progress, Galvez was trying 
to strengthen his province by means of immigration. He instructed 
Fernando de Leyba, the lieutenant governor of Spanish Illinois, to 
offer special inducements to all Catholic settlers who might come 
from east of the Mississippi, particularly to those who were French 
and German. 86 Arrangements were also made to import colonists 
from the Canary Islands and Malaga for establishment in Lower 
Louisiana. By the end of 1779 more than 2000 had arrived. After 
the failure of Willing's West Florida expedition, many of the inhabi- 
tants who belonged to the American faction fled to Spanish territory. 
One group founded a settlement south of the Iberville Eiver with the 
permission and assistance of Galvez. In gratitude the settlers named 
their village Galveztown. 87 Since this district was strategically 

Caughey, Bernardo de Gkttvess, 131 ; James, op, oit., 148. 

** Lawrence Kinnalrd, ed., "Clark-Leyba Papers," American Historical Review, XLI 
(1035), 92-93, 111-112. 

88 Caughey, op. cit., 99, note 51; Statement by Contador Joseph de Orue of all dis- 
bursements by the branches of the royal exchequer in Louisiana from January 1, 1768 to 
the end of 1785, May 31, 1787, AGI, PC, leg. $97. 

* See below, pp. 258-200. 

w gee below, p. 326 ; Caughey, op. dt., 80-81 ; Gayarre*, op. oit., HI, 115-116, 119-120. 



XXVIII INTRODUCTION 

located in case of war with England, the governor enlarged the 
establishment by sending there some of the Canary Island immi- 
grants. Francisco Collell was appointed commandant and two 
companies of militia were organized, one of Anglo-Americans and 
the other of Canary Islanders. 88 

After France entered the war against England in 1778, Governor 
Galvez knew that Spain also would soon become involved. He care- 
fully laid his plans for a campaign against Manchac, Baton Rouge, 
and Natchez. When news arrived in 1779 that Spain had declared 
war, Galvez was ready to attack. Concealing his intentions from 
the English, he advanced towards Manchac. Even his followers 
did not know the purpose of the expedition until he approached the 
fort. Only then did he announce that he had received news of the 
declaration of war. 89 Lieutenant Colonel Dickson, the British com- 
manding officer, withdrew with his main forces to Baton Rouge. 
Only a few men were left to defend Manchac and it quickly fell 
when attacked by Louisiana militia. As Galvez advanced into the 
Baton Rouge area, William Pickles, captain of the American 
privateer Morris which had formerly been the British Rebecca, 
entered Lake Pontchatrain and captured the British armed vessel 
West Florida^ thereby closing the lake route to the English. 00 On 
September 21, 1779, Baton Rouge fell and the British commander 
was forced to surrender all English posts on the Mississippi, Cap- 
tain Juan Delavillebeuvre was immediately dispatched with a small 
force to Natchez bearing an order from Colonel Dickson to the 
commandant directing him to yield Fort Panmure without resistance. 
In addition he carried a letter from Pollock addressed to American 
sympathizers of the district urging them to assist the Spaniards 
in every way possible. Consequently, Natchez was occupied without 
bloodshed. 91 

After the fall of the British Mississippi posts, Galvez immediately 
began preparations for an attack upon Mobile. He sent Estevan 
Miro as special agent to Havana to request additional troops. With 
considerable difficulty he was able to procure a small force to support 
the expedition. G&lvez requisitioned every available ship in 
Louisiana, and was finally ready to sail from New Orleans January 
18, 1780. The campaign did not begin auspiciously. Bad weather 

w See below, pp. 340-343; Lawrence Kinnaird, "American Penetration Into Spanish 
Louisiana," "New Bpain and the Anfflo-Ameriean West (2 vols. ; I*o Angeles, 1032), 1, 229 ; 
V. M. Scramuzasa, "Oalveztown, a Spanish Settlement of Colonial Louisiana/* Louisiana 
Historical Quarterly, XIII (1030), 58<W500. 

Oayarr<, op. oit,, III, 124-127. 

* Manuel Serrano y Sara, ed. DoGumentog XfiMttfricos de la tfloridd y la ftia{0n<i BlgU* 
XVI, al XVTU (Madrid, 1912), 343-350 ; Caughey, op. eit,, 109^160 ; Gayarrt, op. of*., Ill, 
130, 

n A letter of thanks written by <MlrB to Pollock, October 21, 1770, 10 translated to J. F. 
H. Claiborne, Mississippi t a Province, Territory and State (Jackson, 1880), 122. 



INTRODUCTION XXIX 

hindered the landing and three ships ran aground. Eventually, on 
the 28th day of February, Galvez had his forces ready for the 
attack. The seige progressed slowly, and it was not until the 12th 
of March that the Spaniards were able to construct a heavy battery 
which dominated the British Fort Charlotte. After one day's bom- 
bardment Captain Elias Durnford, the English commander, sur- 
rendered and Mobile was occupied. 92 

In the north, the British of Canada were separated from their new 
enemies, the Spaniards, by great distances. Nevertheless, an 
expedition made up chiefly of Indians was organized to descend the 
Mississippi and attack St. Louis. Fortunately Governor Leyba was 
forewarned. When the attack came on May 26, 1780, he conducted a 
successful defense, despite his inadequate forces. 93 This was Leyba's 
last important contribution to the service of Spain. He died a few 
weeks later and was succeeded by Francisco Cruzat. 

The attack upon St. Louis had clearly shown the danger of 
British influence upon the Indians, and Cruzat worked to win over 
the neighboring tribes to the Spanish cause. When two Milwaukee 
chiefs reported that the British were accumulating a store of supplies 
at Fort St. Joseph and requested that Cruzat send a military force 
with them to attack the place, he complied with the request for two 
important reasons. First, he needed the support of friendly Indian 
tribes and feared that, if he refused, the Milwaukees would think 
the Spaniards were weak and consequently might go over to the 
British. Second, he hoped to destroy the supplies at St. Joseph, 
thereby preventing or at least making more difficult a British attack 
upon St. Louis the following spring. 94 The military operation was 
assigned to the militia. Captain Eugene Pourre was given com- 
mand of a detachment of sixty-five militiamen and sixty Indians 
which left St. Louis January 2, 1781, by boat. He ascended the 
Mississippi and Illinois rivers until ice forced him to abandon the 
boats and to march overland. On February 12, Pourre's force took 
Fort St. Joseph completely by surprise. 95 In a formal ceremony 
the region was declared to be the possession of Spain. 96 After a 
distribution of booty the detachment returned to St. Louis without 
incident. The St. Joseph expedition was the most spectacular and 

m See below, pp. 366-368 ; Articles of capitulation for the surrender of Mobile, March 13, 
1780, ACT, PC, leg. 193; Peter J. Hamilton, Colonial MoUle (Boston, 1910), 312-316. 

A. P. Nasatlr, ed., "St. Louis During the British Attack of 1780," New Spain and 
the Anglo-American West, I, 239-261. 

w See below, pp. 415-417 ; Lawrence Kinnaird, "The Spanish Expedition Against Fort 
St. Joseph in 1781, a New Interpretation," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XIX 
(1932), 173-191. 

See below, pp. 432-433. 

80 See below, p. 418. On November 22, 1780, Baltassar cle Villiers, commandant of 
Arkansas Post, had taken possession by formal declaration of the east bank of the Mis- 
sissippi north of the jurisdiction of Natchez. See below, p. 401. 



XXX INTRODUCTION 

successful Spanish military operation in the upper Mississippi Valley. 

Governor Galvez at this time was preparing for a campaign to be 
directed against Pensacola, then the chief British stronghold on the 
Gulf. Not receiving sufficient co-operation at Havana he went there 
himself and eventually obtained the desired military and naval sup- 
port. Galvez sailed with the first part of his expedition on February 
28, 1781. 9T After he arrived off Pensacola a delay occurred because 
the officers of the supporting Spanish fleet were reluctant to risk 
their vessels in attempting to run past the batteries which protected 
the harbor. Galvez sent Pedro Rousseau, captain of the brig Galwez- 
town^ to take soundings of the channel at night. On March 18 the 
governor, on board the Galveztown, ran past the British batteries of 
Fort Barrancas and was followed by three other small craft from 
Louisiana which were under his direct command. 08 The following 
day the main portion of the Spanish fleet entered the harbor. On 
the 22nd Galvez' small army was augmented by reinforcements from 
Mobile and New Orleans and on April 19th another Spanish fleet 
arrived bringing troops from Havana. With more than 7,000 troops 
at his command, Galvez began the siege of Pensacola. Fort George 
was defended by British troops under command of General Campbell 
and supported by numerous Indian allies. On May 8th, General 
Campbell was finally forced to capitulate after Spanish artillery fire 
had caused an explosion in the powder magazine of Fort George, 
Governor Chester and General Campbell agreed to surrender the 
entire province of West Florida. 90 

While General Campbell was waiting for the Spanish attack upon 
Pensacola, he appealed to loyalists in the Natchez region to create a 
diversion by instigating a revolt against the Spaniards, He sent 
commissions to Blommart, Eason, Alston, Winf ree, and several others 
who had expressed willingness to engage in the undertaking. On 
April 22, 1781, Blommart led an attack against Fort Panmure at 
Natchez and forced Commandant Delavillebeuvre to surrender. 
Carlos Grand-Pr6 ? Spanish commandant at Baton Rouge, began 
moving militia detachments toward Natchez but no resistance was 
encountered because recent news of the fall of Pensacola had broken 
the morale of the insurgents. A force under Captain Morandiere 
landed at Natchez on June 22nd and occupied Fort Panmure without 
opposition. Blommart and most of the other leaders of the uprising 
were eventually arrested and sent to New Orleans for trial. Many 
of the insurgents, however, fled into the Indian country where they 

"gee below, pp. 421-424. 

Gayarr4 op, oi*., Ill, 138-140. 

* **Dlary of the Operations of the Expedition against the Place of Peniacola, Conducted 
by the Arms of H. Catholic M., Under the Orders of the Field Marshall Bon Bernardo de 
Gtivec," Louisiana MMorfawl Qttorf%, I (1017), 46-84. 



INTRODUCTION XXXI 

remained to plague the Spaniards for many months. 100 Despite that 
fact, the year 1781 marked the end of Spain's major military opera- 
tions in North America. Governor Galvez turned over his adminis- 
tration at New Orleans to subordinates and departed for Havana. 
In the sixteen years which had elapsed since the arrival of Ulloa 
in Louisiana, Spain had experienced a revolt among her French sub- 
jects, suppressed it, reorganized the administration of the province, 
judiciously aided the English colonists in their struggle for inde- 
pendence, participated in the war against England, conquered West 
Florida, and pacified the rebellious inhabitants of Natchez. The 
revolutionary period ended with Spain in possession of her main 
objectives in North America, and one of the most important of them 
was the control of the Mississippi and its commerce. 



*Labbadie to Mlr6, May 22, 1782, No. 1 (translation), AGI, SD, 87-3-10: Nararro 
to Galvez, June 4, 1782, No. 120, 46fcL; Declaration of Labbadie, July 5, 1782, Bancroft 
Library; Beports of British plans to attack Spanish Illinois, July 8, 1782, IMA.; Pro- 
ceedings of council of war held at St. Louis, July 9, 1782, *&*&, Cruzat to Mir6, August 
8, 1782, ibid.; Colbert to Miro, October 6, 1782. iMd. See Part II, pp. 18-10, 21-84. 



ROYAL DECREE COMMISSIONING DON ANTONIO DE ULLOA 

GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 

May SI, 1785* 

THE KING 

Don Antonio de Ulloa, captain of my royal navy. Noting your 
intelligence y zeal, and behavior, I have named you as governor of 
the province of Louisiana, ceded to me by the Most Christian 
King, my cousin, and consequently added to my crown. You will 
take possession of this province by virtue of the orders of this 
Sovereign which will be sent to you by my Secretary of State with 
the respective instructions by which you will be guided in everything. 

I have decided that in this new acquisition, for the present, no 
change in the system of its government shall be undertaken and, 
consequently, that in no way shall it be subject to the laws and 
practices observed in my dominion of the Indies, but that it shall 
be regarded as a separate colony, even with respect to all trade between 
them. It is my will that, with the same independence from the 
Ministry of the Indies, its Council, and other tribunals connected 
with it, everything pertaining to it shall go through the Ministry of 
State, and that you shall give an account to me, only through this 
channel, of what happens relative to your duty, and that you shall 
receive your orders, instructions, and all that pertains to the govern- 
ment and administration of that new independent dominion from 
this ministry. 

I assign to you six thousand pesos salary per year which will be 
paid from the allotment set aside for that province. Your receipt 
for this amount will be honored by the Treasurer or other minister 
entrusted with my royal treasury, from whom you receive the salary. 
Such is my will, and notice shall be taken of this decree in the general 
accounting offices for the disbursement from my royal treasury, and 
by the Council of the Indies. 

Given at ARANJ"UEZ, May &/, 1765. 
I THE KING. 

1 Archive General de Indias, Audieneia de Santo Domingo, 86-5 21. Documents pub- 
lished in this work are from the Bancroft Library, University of California, and the 
Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla, Spain. In addition to its collection of original 
Louisiana manuscripts, Bancroft Library also has copies, chiefly in microfilm, of all other 
documents herein presented. Citations indicate the location of the manuscripts with 
the exception of a few designated as Pinart transcripts. The latter were made by 
Alphonse Pinart in Havana from the Papeles Procedentes de Cuba before these papers 
were removed to Spain in 1888 and 1889. The manuscripts from which the Pinart 
transcripts were made should also be in the Archivo General de Indias although they 
have not been specifically located. The Library of Congress, with funds provided by 
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Included many of the documents published here in its extensive 
program of photographing the sources of American history in European archives. The 
Division of Manuscripts, upon numerous occasions, has generously made available Its 
material to the editor to assist in checking the textual accuracy of various passages. 
Unless otherwise noted the documents are written in Spanish. For additional explana- 
tion of method used in preparing this work, see Foreword. 

i 



2 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

GRIMALDI TO ULLOA 

July 3, 1766? 
No. 185. 

In connection with the discharge of your office of governor of New 
Orleans and captain general of Louisiana which the King has con- 
ferred upon Your Lordship, I enclose the instructions which his 
Majesty desires to be observed. Your Lordship will comply with them 
and with the attached decree of the Most Christian King in the dis- 
charge of this trust and the method of taking possession of that post 
and territory. The vessel carrying these parcels of letters is also taking 
the gifts which have been allotted for the savages. The presents 
consist of the various goods indicated in the attached list, and Your 
Lordship will use them for the purposes prescribed in the instruc- 
tions. 

The commander of the frigate La Liebre, conducting this expedi- 
tion, has been given necessary orders by the Ministry of Marine, 
instructing him to proceed to Your Lordship at Havana in order to 
continue under your orders to New Orleans, and from there return 
to Spain when Your Lordship considers this expedient. 

Your Lordship will see to it that the one thousand quintals of flour 
carried by this frigate are stored, cared for, and distributed for the 
proper purposes of the service, and in conformity with the instruc- 
tions. In this connection corresponding orders have also been given 
to the comisario. 

The Sefior Bailio Arriaga is sending Your Lordship, tinder 
separate cover, the original commission of your appointment; and 
with it you will find a duplicate of this dispatch. 

Your Lordship will also find in these covers thirty commissions 
for the French officers who are transferring to our service, together 
with the other copies mentioned in the instructions, with the excep- 
tion of the letters from Sefior Conde de Fuentes, which are omitted, 
cts they do not appear to be necessary. 

Monsieur de Vilemont will deliver to Your Lordship a case con- 
taining fifty silver medals of merit, and enclosed herewith are six 
gold ones. 

I have nothing more to advise Your Lordship, referring you to 
the instructions; and I add that Your Lordship should see to it that 
the Capuchin Fathers are given the assistance due their character, 
as in all matters connected with their journey they are entirely in 
the hands of Providence. When they arrive at their destination, 
Your Lordship will arrange to have the letters they receive delivered 
post-free* as their poverty is deserving of this aid* 

a AGI, Papeles de Cuba, legajo 174. 



THE REVOLUTIONABY PBKIOD, 1765-1781 3 

I repeat to Your Lordship the charge given you in the instruc- 
tions to assist and protect Monsieur de Vilemont and his family, as 
I consider this gentleman very deserving of this distinction. 

As regards the allotment and funds to be raised at Havana for 
the budget of the colony, I refer you to the instructions and to what 
Senor Don Julian de Arriaga specially advises Your Lordship. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

MADRID, July 3, 1765. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Eubric). 
FERNANDEZ DE ANGTTLO AND QUADRA TO ULLOA 
December 3 9 1765* 

The Marques de Grimaldi, First Secretary of State, either will 
inform or has already advised Your Lordship of the decision of the 
King with regard to the establishment of a new monthly maritime 
post between these dominions and those of the two Americas. 
Inasmuch as the general direction of posts in these realms is under 
our charge, and as this had been extended by special royal orders 
to those which may be established in other dominions belonging 
to the Crown, we consider it advisable to bring this to Your Lord- 
ship's attention, as well as the appointment of His Excellency Don 
Cayetano Badan to serve as administrator of the maritime post to 
be established in the new possession of New Orleans and province 
of Louisiana, supported by the royal exchequer. In view of this and 
the early departure of this gentleman to take up his post, we trust 
that, in conformity with the documents of instruction which have 
been given him, as well as those which His Excellency is addressing 
to Your Lordship regarding the respective sub-delegation of revenue, 
you will co-operate with your customary zeal with all that you can 
contribute toward the achievement of the important purposes to 
which these royal instructions are directed, and which we are con- 
vinced will redound to the benefit of the people there, as well as 
to the efficient use of the revenue. 

As it is probable that royal treasuries have not yet been established 
there and that consequently funds are lacking to defray the expense 
of the establishment of the maritime post in that city and district, we 
are under this date communicating the necessary orders to the chief 
administrator of those of Havana and Island of Cuba, so that he 
may endeavor to furnish the funds necessary for this purpose by the 
most opportune and convenient means. We do not doubt your 
diligence and zeal for the best employment of the revenue, nor that 
you will instruct Don Cayetano Badan in all the particular matters 

AGI,PC,leg. 174. 



4 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

relative to this establishment and its conduct, so that the intentions 
of the King, those of the Marques de Grimaldi, and our own may 
be perfectly carried out with the assistance and best efforts -of Your 
Lordship. 

On this occasion we take pleasure in placing ourselves at Your 
Lordship's orders, wishing to please you in everything. 

May God preserve you the many years we desire. 

MADRID, December S, 1766. 

Your Lordship's most attentive servants kiss your hand. 

LAZARO FERNANDEZ DE ANGTJLO (Eubric) 
ANTONIO DE QUADRA (Eubric) 

KODRfGUEZ TO ARMONA 

April 10, 1766* 

The French schooner La Julee having arrived at this port, its 
captain, Don Luis Monjeon, has delivered to this administration the 
covers and letters which I forward to you by the special courier Juan 
de Amoedo, a resident of this city. They are as follows : 
2 small boxes wrapped in rubber, addressed to the Most Excellent 

Marques de Grimaldi. 
1 package sealed and wrapped in unbleached linen for Sefior Joseph 

Antonio de Armona. 
1 nailed box, also for said gentleman. 

38 separate letters for Havana and Spain, received in the Province 
of Louisiana from the hands of Senores Don Antonio de Ulloa, 
and Don Juan Joseph Loyola, Gomisario of War. 

This captain says that he could not make the port of Havana on 
account of very contrary currents, and that he is bound for Santo 
Domingo with wood. I immediately told this commander that, as he 
had delivered thase covers, he should depart immediately. I gave him 
a receipt for everything listed above and he delivered the same to me 
as he had promised in Louisiana. 

God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

MATANZAS, April W, 1766. 

SIMON JOSEPH RoD&fatTxz (Eubric) 

Sefior DON JOSEPH DE ARMONA. 



*AGI, PC, leg. 174. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 5 

GRIMALDI TO ULLOA 
May 24, 1766* 

The King has taken note from Your Lordship's letter of the llth 
of March last, of the reluctance of the French soldiers in that colony 
to enter the service of His Majesty at less pay than his troops re- 
ceive in America, and the request of those who have completed their 
time that they either be given their discharges or new enlistments. 

Eegarding the increase in pay. His Majesty, taking into considera- 
tion the fact that for some time the cost of food and goods has been 
increasing in that colony, the importance of keeping these soldiers 
satisfied, and the great hardships and isolation in the detachments 
they occupy, has decided to grant them the same pay as that which 
he has designated should be given the other troops in America. The 
attached regulation, drawn up by me, will inform you what each 
member of a regiment is to receive ; and although that troop does not 
have the same organization, each member thereof is to be paid that 
amount allotted to his rank. 

With regard to discharges, His Majesty does not think that we 
can in justice deny them to those who have completed their terms 
of service, if they do not wish to agree to new enlistments. He 
authorizes Your Lordship to deal with them on this principle and to 
make a new agreement with them for five years or as long a period 
as possible from the time they enter the service of His Majesty, giving 
them whatever enlistment you think proper, with the idea that, al- 
though somewhat more expensive, the soldiers whom Your Lordship 
re-enlists will be less costly than those sent out fresh from Europe. 

With these inducements, and by assuring them that they will find 
no difference from the good treatment which they have enjoyed up 
to now, the King trusts that they will not persist in their refusal to 
enter Ms service, and that Your Lordship will be able to take pos- 
session of that colony in his royal name without trouble. However, 
if some refuse to re-enlist, they are to be given their discharges 
immediately because His Majesty does not wish to have forced 
soldiers, but rather those who serve him well and willingly. 

In order to offset any decrease in the size of the troop because of 
those who do not wish to re-enlist, I shall send you as soon as I receive 
the statement which you promise me, two or three hundred men, 
mostly French, and try to havei them of better quality than the 
hundred Spaniards who were on the frigate. In order that you may 
employ the surplus officers, these men will be sent without those they 
would ordinarily have. For this purpose I require the statement 

* AGI, PC, leg. 174. 



6 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

promised by you, but knowing Your Lordship's punctuality, I expect 
it before long. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

Aranjuez, May %h 1766. 

EL MAKQTJES DE GRIMALDI (Eubric) . 

Senor DON" ANTONIO DE ULLOA. 

(Regulation mentioned in the preceding letter) 

Regulation covering pay of veteran troops employed in America, 
and method of payment of monthly allowances to sergeants, drum- 
mers, corporals, and private soldiers. 

Regulation covering monthly pay to ~be received <by the officers and 
other members of infantry regiments employed in America. 

Number Officers and Other Members Monthly pay in 

of men pesos fuertes 

Captain of grenadiers 60 

Lieutenant of ditto 38 

Sub-Lieutenant of ditto 30 

1 Sergeant, first class 16 

1 Sergeant, second class 14 

1 Drummer 10 

3 First corporals at 11 pesos each. 33 

3 Second corporals at 10 pesos each 30 

54 Grenadiers at 9 pesos each 486 

63 Another company of grenadiers totaling 717 

Captain of fusiliers 50 

Lieutenant 32 

Sub-Lieutenant 25 

1 Sergeant, first class 14 

2 Sergeants, second class at 12 pesos each 24 

2 Drummers at 9 pesos each 18 

4 First corporals at 10 pesos each 40 

4 Second corporals at 9 pesos each 36 

64 Soldiers at 8 pesos each 512 

1155 Fifteen other companies, totaling the same as the preced- 

ing one 11265 

1358 

Sum total 13450 

General Staff o/ the First Battalion 

Colonel 200 

Major 85 

Adjutant Major 45 

Two Flag Sub-Lieutenants at 25 pesos each 50 

Chaplain 30 

Surgeon 40 

Master armorer 16 

1 First fif er 10 

1 Second fifer 9 

1 Drum major 14 



THE REVOLTJTIONABY PERIOD, 1765-1781 



Second BattaUon 

Lieutenant Colonel 135 

Adjutant Major 45 

Two Flag Sub-Lieutenants at 25 pesos each 50 

Chaplain 30 

Surgeon 40 

Master armorer 16 

First fif er 10 

Second fif er 

For gratuities to the men and care of arms there shall he 
paid to each of the effectives appearing at review two 
and one-third reales monthly. Assuming that the regi- 
ment is complete, the total per month amounts to 397.4% 



1363 



14681.4% 

The King commands that all pay be settled and paid monthly in 
conformity with the above; to which royal decision the governor 
and royal officials shall give the most exact compliance. 

ARANJUEZ, May &1 9 1766. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Rubric) 



Method to be observed in the payment of the monthly allowances 
to sergeants, drummers, corporals, and private soldiers of regiments 
of veteran infantry employed in America. 



Grenadier Company 


Monthly 
Allowances 


Held back for 
clothing and 
maintenance 


Total 
pay 




Pesos 


Reales 


Pesos 


Reales 


Pesos 
fuertes 


1 First sergeant 


14 
12 
7 
8 
7 
6 

12 
10 
6 

7 
6 
5 


2 
2 
2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 


2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 

2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 


6 
6 
6 
6 

6 
6 
6 
6 


16 
14 
10 
11 
10 
9 

14 
12 

10 
9 
8 


1 Second sergeant 


1 Drummer 


1 First corporal 




1 Grenadier 


Regular Infantry Company 
1 First sergeant 


1 Second, sergeant 


1 Drummer 




1 Second corporal 


1 Private soldier 





Officers, sergeants, drummers, corporals, and private soldiers in the 
artillery shall receive the pay indicated for grenadiers and the pay- 
ment of their allowances shall be made in the same manner. 

Inasmuch as veteran troops cannot be recruited during their stay 
in America, any gratuities there shall be at the pleasure of the King, 
and the corps shall administer the funds only under those rules and 



8 SPAIN IN THB MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

formalities which best conserve the same and guarantee the legiti- 
macy of the expenditures made; for which purpose the regiment on 
Its return to Spain shall give the inspector an exact account of the 
funds on hand, expenditures made, and men short, so that with due 
consideration of all these particulars, he may leave the corps sufficient 
funds to put itself in good condition and have the balance returned 
to the royal treasury. 

For the mess of the troops one real daily shall be deducted from 
the monthly allowance and all the remainder paid into the hand of 
the soldier himself for tobacco, other sundries, and voluntary expen- 
ditures, but not including barber or laundress, who must be paid 
from the deduction made for maintenance. 

Under no consideration shall there be admitted into the veteran 
troops as drummer or fifer any slave, or any negro or mulatto, even 
though free. All men of those ranks must be white, of good conduct, 
and honorable character. 

Each year the troops shall be outfitted with coat, waistcoat, 
breeches, and other necessary items. After this outfitting (which 
should be determined by the climate) has been done, pay shall be 
settled to the first day of the month in which they begin to wear the 
new outfit. After retaining for each soldier four pesos as an emer- 
gency fund for use in case of need, the balance remaining shall be 
immediately paid. 

Each day of hospitalization among the veteran troops shall be 
charged for at the rate of two reales for a sergeant, one and a quarter 
for drummer, first or second corporal or grenadier, and one real for 
each private soldier. 

The monthly settlement shall be the only one made to the troops 
by the royal officers. Each month they shall charge for the days 
of hospitalization during the preceding month, without longer delay 
than from one month to another. For this purpose the comptroller, 
or person in charge of the hospital, shall be instructed to furnish the 
offices of the royal exchequer on the first day of each month a 
formal statement of hospitalizations during the preceding month, 
classified by regiments, and to give a similar document to each corps 
for its information. 

In order to facilitate the settlement of pay, there shall be no high 
or low grades for sergeants, drummers, corporals, or private soldiers. 
All those who appear at review shall be given their pay for that 
month, but anyone who is recruited thereafter or is promoted to 
sergeant or corporal shall not be entered on the rolls until the 
following review. However, the corps must give recruits the allow- 
ance due them, taking this from the gratuity chest, to which shall 
be devoted pay left by the dead and deserters. In regard to those 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 9 

promoted, they shall be credited with their new pay only from the 
first day of the month in which they appear at review. 

To avoid any complaint by soldiers over the price of the goods 
furnished them for their maintenance, the captain, upon learning 
that a soldier needs some article, shall give the cost of same to a 
sergeant so that, accompanied by the soldier, and provided that the 
soldier is satisfied with the price and quality, the sergeant may pay 
for same. Both of them shall return with the article purchased to 
the captain's house for his approval. It is to be thoroughly under- 
stood that the soldier is never to be required to patronize a certain 
shop, but rather that he is to be allowed full liberty in this particular, 
except when the corps makes a formal contract for goods to definite 
advantage. However, for this purpose there must be a committee 
of captains, a written contract, and samples approved by the in- 
spector, who must see to it that the contractors comply faithfully, and 
that in no way is injury done the soldier. 

In order that the settlements and payments of the troops may 
henceforth be made with due formality and proper precautions for 
the best protection of the royal interests, in each regiment there shall 
be a subaltern officer as paymaster, to whom shall be given an appoint- 
ment signed by all the captains, one lieutenant, and one sub-lieutenant 
of each battalion, who must agree to the selection of the officers of 
this rank. This appointment must be approved by the inspector 
and be registered in the office of royal exchequer, so that the signa- 
ture of the officer selected may be duly honored. This officer shall 
sign the payrolls of the corps and receive all pay monthly. 

Punishments in the troop shall always be in accordance with the 
stipulations of the royal ordinances. Good treatment and the exact 
observance of military laws are the only means of preserving among 
the troops that discipline and subordination so important to His 
Majesty's service and recommended by his repeated royal orders. 

The captains must bear in mind that they are always responsible 
for the discipline of their companies, and that they have subalterns 
to assist them in this, but not to relieve them entirely of this duty. 
They shall also see to it that their sergeants and corporals are fully 
instructed in all the points of their duties. 

All officers shall take particular care that the soldiers appear on the 
streets with greatest cleanliness, and far from tolerating in America 
any lack of respect or subordination, they shall see that they are 
observed with the greatest strictness. 

Captains shall not permit any member of their companies to wear 
any article which is not part of his uniform, prohibiting the purchase 
of such ; and officers at their inspections of clothing, which shall take 
place every Saturday, shall bear this prohibition in mind. 



10 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

it be announced by public proclamation that any shopkeeper 

or oilier person who trusts a soldier for a larger amount than two 

not have the right to demand payment, nor may the 

captain compel this, in view of the bad example which would result. 

This proclamation shall be repeated every six months. 

shall be served with the same formality as in Spain. Mess 
orderlies shall carry it to the troops, but shall never be permitted to 
make use of negroes for this purpose, nor for washing pots or fetch- 
ing wood, even though they pay them themselves. 

Everything not covered in this regulation shall be governed by 
the provisions of the general ordinances of the army and regulations 
issued for the government of troops in Spain, 

From these regulations Senor Don Antonio de Ulloa will select 
those suitable for the government of Louisiana. 

GBIMALDI (Kubric) 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

May $8, 1766* 
No. 2. 

I returned here on the 17th from the journey which I made to the 
posts of the colony. On the 18th I received Your Lordship's favor of 
April 17th in which you advise me of the decision made for the 
despatch of the one hundred and ten thousand pesos allotment for 
this place which is to come by His Majesty's frigate, the Jupiter. 
In compliance with what Your Lordship instructs me, I immediately 
sent a large boat from here to La Baliza with Treasurer ad interim 
Doi\ Martin Navarro to receive the funds there. In this way I avoid 
the necessity of having the frigate come up the river. However, up 
to the present there is no advice when it will arrive but, when it does, 
it need not be delayed. 

I advise Your Lordship of this, placing myself at your orders. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, May 8, 1766. 

Your Lordship's most attentive servant and friend kisses your 
hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BTJOAEELI Y UBSTTA. 



AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 " * 11 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

June 14, 1766 7 
No. 3. 

I have received Your Lordship's favor of May 2, by the frigate 
Jupiter, which on the 3rd of this month anchored between the Ma del 
Gato and Venaos on the Mobile coast. According to what the captain 
says, it was necessary to anchor because the pilot whom he was given 
did not dare to proceed from there to La Baliza as had been decided. 
Moreover, according to his story, the captain was given neither course 
nor orders in writing as to the place where he should come. He was 
told that the pilot would direct him and this he has done in the 
manner mentioned above, resulting in great delay to the captain and 
unnecessary expenses for both vessels here. One of the vessels has 
been at La Baliza since May 21 and the other, which on June 9 went 
in search of the frigate, at the anchorage. In the meantime, the 
captain has come to me here with the funds, bringing them, by Ms 
felucca. He arrived yesterday and counting has begun today. I 
judge that it will be four days more before he can set sail for Vera 
Cruz while he could easily have been there already if he had 
come directly to La Baliza. This is the fault of the pilot and of his 
not having been given a course like the one I have sent for such 
occasions. t 

I take note of the retention of the 60,000 pesos of the allotment, 
which are not needed at present, until the court has decided what 
is to be done. I believe that Your Lordship will be advised by it 
as to what is proper since I have so arranged it. In this connection 
the advices communicated to you by the court will serve Your Lord- 
ship as a guide, but whenever there is occasion to make remittances of 
money on any vessel that is selected, it should be done by placing on 
board a real pilot of this route and coast, so that he may carry out 
his mission and arrive at La Baliza, and not embarrass the one in 
command of the vessel with his inexpertness. 

If the Volante is not there when this occurs, the frigate Jupiter 
can bring it on its return to Vera Cruz, because its captain and 
officers are now more experienced than they were, at the cost of not 
having hit the mark on the first voyage. It will always be necessary 
to seek a pilot, doing so constantly, and being content with fishermen 
because, although they are no good as pilots for large vessels and 
are ignorant of the ship's course, they do know the coast. 

I wish Your Lordship all felicity in the heavy duties of your 
government and that your health may remain unimpaired, and 

TAGX, PC, leg. 1055, 



12 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

again place myself at your orders In all sincerity, praying Our Lord 
will protect you many years. 
NEW ORLEANS, June 14? 1766. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUCAKELX T URSUA. 

ULLOA TO BUGAKELI 

July 8, 1766* 

No. 4. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR : It has finally been necessary to remove the 
sergeant of the Spanish company of this colony, Pedro de Flores, at 
the proposal and the request of its captain, Don Francisco Riu, for 
the offense of swindling and having been incorrigible therein, not 
only now but also from the time he was in Spain. He has become 
addicted to this irregularity with greater license here, although I 
have attempted to prevent his continuing these excesses. Perhaps 
he may incite others to desertion, of which enough is being experi- 
enced on account of the proximity of this colony to the English ones. 
It has seemed to me that, in order that the King may not lose this 
man, I should send him to Your Lordship with his regimental regis- 
try, which I enclose, so that you may attach him to whatever regiment 
of your post you consider best. 

I remain at Your Lordship's orders with great willingness and 
pray that God protect you for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, July 8, 1766. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BTJCARELI. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

August SI, 1766* 
No. 7. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR: I have been ordered by His Majesty that, as 
soon as possession was taken, I should make a beginning of the works 
to the full extent permitted by the funds allotted to this place. Al- 
though this amount is small for such a large task, my obedience will 
be manifested by my prompt execution of what I have been ordered. 

In this connection I beg Your Lordship, when you are permitted 
by your pressing duties, to be pleased to order that there be remitted 
here the 60,000 pesos remaining there although I consider that, pend- 
ing a reply to the last reports, possession may not be taken. The 
reason is that there are not even enough troops to garrison the posts 

*AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 
AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 13 

when possession is taken. The French troops, despite the fact that 
they have been informed that His Majesty is placing those of this 
colony on the same scale of pay as all those in the Indies, insist that 
they be given their discharges, because they have completed more 
than eight years since the time of their last enlistment. There is no 
other recourse than to bring the troops from Spain. 

I am Your Lordship's servant with great willingness and pray 
God protect you many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August &/, 17\_6ff\. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 
Senor DON ANTONIO BTJCARELI. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

December 1%, 1766 w 

No. 8. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR AND ESTEEMED FRIEND: This colony is so 
lacking in what is necessary that there is not to be had here even 
what is most requisite for its repair. On the other hand, there are 
things so urgent that they should have been done as soon as peace was 
concluded, and they are so many that one does not know where to 
begin ; but in order to make a beginning somewhere, I am writing at 
this time to Don Joseph de Armona, asking him to furnish me some 
workmen and flags, reserving other requests for the future. 

I am also writing to Quartermaster General Don Miguel de 
Altamira, so that from the allotment that has already been made or 
from other sums that His Majesty may be pleased to assign for these 
expenses, he may furnish him all the funds he may ask for. Al- 
though I do not doubt that he will do so, nevertheless, knowing the 
distinguished zeal of Your Lordship for whatever is conducive to 
the service of His Majesty, I can do no less than request that you 
please lend your assistance in all this, giving Don Joseph de Armona 
the aid and guidance that he may need, although his own knowledge 
is very great, and persuading the quartermaster general, despite the 
urgencies that I presume exist there, to lend his aid in these matters 
which need it very much. 

I hope that with the aid of Your Lordship everything will be 
accomplished, and that we shall attain that which is of such great 
importance. 

I offer Your Lordship my services and with sincere affection pray 
God to protect you many years. 

BALIZA, December 1%, 1766. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 
Senor DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

"AQI, PC, leg. 1055. 



14 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

UlJLOA TO BUCARELI 

December 88, 1766 

No. 11. 

MT VERY DEAR SIR: Some of the passengers who were ship- 
wrecked on the Nuevo Oonstante have asked me to permit them to 
proceed to your city on a French vessel, setting forth the losses 
that would be caused them by remaining longer in this colony. 1 
have agreed to this, inasmuch as there is at present no Spanish 
vessel in the river, permitting them to proceed by the brigantine 
La Resurse^ whose captain is Jean Dursse. The persons who are 
going both from the abovementioned vessel and from the Oorazon 
de Jesus are those shown by the attached list. 

For this reason the said captain has been entrusted with boxes of 
letters, and when these, together with the passengers and baggage 
are landed, Your Lordship will please allow him to set sail again 
without any hindrance being placed in the way of continuing his 
voyage. 

I place myself at Your Lordship's orders and pray God to protect 
you for many years. 

BALIZA, December $<S, 1766. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 
Senor DON ANTONIO BTJCAREU. 

(Accompanying the foregoing) 

List of passengers and seamen taken by the French brigantine, 
captained by Jean Dursse, from this colony to the port of Havana, 
together with their baggage. 

PASSENGERS 

Don Santiago Eegato and family 4 chests and 2 bottle cases. 

Don Gregorio Alsazua one trunk and one bottle case. 

Don Pedro Alonso Truley one trunk. 

Don Joseph Gomez 2 trunks. 

Don Francisco Bautista Liandry one trunk and one letter case. 

SEAMEN 

Juan de Games, caulker one chest. 
His servant. 
Joseph Biva. 
Vicente Gonzalez. 



PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 15 

Joseph Gonzalez with, some letters addressed to Don Manuel de 

Urrutia. 
Antonio Molina. 
Juan Cazal 3 boxes. 

GOVERNMENTAL EXPENSES 
1767 12 

COLONY OF LOUISIANA 
No.l. 

Prior to acquainting himself with the expenses which were neces- 
sary for the maintenance of the colony of Louisiana, the King allotted 
to it one hundred and fifty thousand pesos annually, and decreed two 
things : first, that the Indians should continue to be given the same 
ordinary and extraordinary presents as had been given them by 
France ; second, that all the military and civil employees which His 
Most Christian Majesty had there should remain in the service of 
His Majesty and at the same salaries. 

In the instruction sent to Don Antonio de Ulloa, all this was 
covered and he was ordered to submit lists of the annual amount of 
said presents and salaries and as exact a statement as possible of all 
the other indispensable expenses of the colony. 

He has submitted these, and from everything it appears that the 
ordinary expenses are as follows : 

ORDINARY EXPENSES 

Pesos 

The maintenance of a regiment costs in the Indies, on the basis of pay 
which it receives at present, 176,171 pesos annually. According to 
the reports rendered by the French commandants and those now sub- 
mitted by Ulloa, 1200 men are necessary to garrison the posts of the 
colony properly. Let us suppose that at present no more than one 
battalion is maintained. This will cost 88,000 

Payment of the various employees in the offices of justice and police of 
the colony cost France $6,040 livres, amounting in pesos to 17,200 

Payment of the salaries and wages of the various commandants and 
employees in the posts of the colony 8,448 

The prime cost of the goods which must be sent annually, according 
to the estimate made by the consul at Bordeaux, amounts to 441,811 
livres to which must be added the expenses of commission, trans- 
portation to the port, packing and freight, which will be at least 6%, 
amounting to 26,508 livres, and making a total of 468,319, equivalent 
in pesos fuertes to 93,660. Half of these goods is for the annual 
presents to the Indians and must be counted as expense ; the other 
half is for the King's stores and is sent in place of money 40,830 



And. SD, 86-6-6. 



16 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Pesos 

The prepared medicines which must be sent annually for the hospital 
maintained by the King for the posts are estimated at 30,000 reales, 

including containers and packing 1,500 

The other expenses of the hospital in which officers, soldiers, paupers, 
and negroes of the King are treated are not estimated but must be 

considered 000 

For the spiritual care of the city and posts 24 Capuchin monks are 
required; each of the twelve now there were given by France 120 
pesos annually for support. They claim that they cannot live on this 
and that it will be necessary to increase it to 150, totalling annually. 3,600 

Salary of the governor 8,000 

Comisario 2,400 

Contactor 1,500 

Contador's clerk 600 

Spanish clerk needed in the contaduria 000 

Salary of the Lieutenant Colonel of Cavalry M. de Yillemont, who was 

here formerly 1,000 

Salaries for the commandants placed over the new Acadian settlers 
must be included, which, based on what the other post commandants 

enjoy, will amount to 600 

Two engineers must be sent to take charge of the works which must be 
carried out and their salaries should be considered 000 



179,678 

So that even without including in the total some important items, 
the indispensable ordinary expenses amount to one hundred and 
seventy-nine thousand, six hundred and seventy-eight pesos, which 
is 29,678 more than the present allotment. 

EXTRAORDINARY EXPENSES 

To the said expenses must be added other no less considerable ones, 
which, although they may be called extraordinary, will continue for 
a long time. 

In order to understand these, it must be noted that in the whole 
colony there is not a building which does not need repair, and that 
those which require rebuilding are quite numerous. 

It is necessary to rebuild the principal church of the city, as the 
present one is so threatened with ruin that it has been decided to 
remove the Holy Sacrament and place it in a guard house. 

A church must be built for the Ursuline nuns, who have none. 

The convent of the Capuchins must be rebuilt, because they have 
one now in such ruin that they are compelled to live in private 
houses. 

La Baliza must be rebuilt, as it is so damaged that everything 
there at present is assessed at only 983 livres. 

A fort must be established at the mouth of the Missouri Eiver to 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 17 

guard its entrance and defend the settlements of Pencur and Ste. 
Genevieve, opposite wMch the English have f ortified themselves. 

There must be another opposite Manchac, to prevent the English, 
who have one there, from coming over to the south bank of the 
Iberville River, and to protect our convoys up the river. 

The post of Ylinueses is in extremely bad condition and must be 
repaired without delay, as it is one of the most important of the 
colony. 

The fortification of New Orleans consists of a stockade which is 
continually deteriorating on account of the moisture of the soil. The 
cost of repairing it must be considered. 

Also to be considered is the cost of the repair of the warehouses 
and other buildings of the King, which, being of wood and earth, do 
not last long. 

To this must be added the cost of increasing the population of 
the colony, which should constitute its greatest strength. 

It will be difficult and very costly to colonize it with Europeans. 
Since the cession of Canada to the English, various families of 
Acadians have come in after suffering great hardship and misery on 
the way, and have been formed into a settlement. 

Ulloa praises these people highly and considers practically certain 
the promises they made that, in order to preserve their Catholic 
religion, about ten thousand families will come, provided their 
passage is paid, land given them to cultivate, and means of sub- 
sistence for the first year. 

The passage of each family which has come in has cost France 20 
to 25 pesos. Besides allotting land to them, France has assisted them 
with tools to clear and till it, together with a gun and ammunition 
for hunting, and corn for food and seed. 

Ulloa says that this is not sufficient, and in view of the misery he 
has seen them suffer, it will be necessary to add a cow and calf, six 
hens, and a cock. Supposing that many families come, even though 
not as many as Ulloa thinks, if such aid is given them, it will be 
necessary to provide funds for this purpose. 

In New Orleans and all the other posts of the colonies there are 
the following serviceable cannon: 

45 of 18 

5 of 12 

6 of 8 
15 of 6 
14 of 4 



85 

70029649 vol. 2 4 



18 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Ulloa says that in order to equip every post with those indis- 
pensably necessary, it will be necessary to send : 

20 of 24 
15 of 12 

4 of 8 
17 of 6 
31 of 4 

4 of 2 



91 

15 Mortars of 8 inches 

14 of 9 

8 of 6 

37 

20 Howitzers. 

In order to serve the artillery, there are needed 11 officers, 22 ser- 
geants, 135 gunners, 28 bombardiers, 6 artificers, 4 smiths, 5 car- 
penters, 4 armorers. 

With regard to the artillery which must be sent, it is probable that 
this will be supplied from the King's arsenals, but the pay of the 
men sent to serve it must be counted as an ordinary expense of the 
colony. 

"Ulloa reports that the English have on the Mississippi River several 
coast guard vessels, and are never without one or two war frigates. 

He adds that it is necessary for us to keep at least another frigate 
there to protect our shipping on the said river and insure respect 
for the colony. 

This point requires a decision, and if it is decided to keep vessels 
there, their maintenance must be provided for. 

The savages and Ohoctaws living in the part ceded to the English 
must be given presents for the years 1761 and 1762. Since then 
they have been content with promises, but now they insist strongly 
that they be given these, threatening war if denied. 

This is a tribe which could destroy various settlements of the 
colony if steps are not taken to satisfy it, and for said gifts some 
eight thousand pesos are needed. 

This is an expenditure which France should make, but as she does 
not do so and we would suffer the results, it is necessary to assume 
it and include it among the extraordinary expenses. 

These matters have been discussed with Bailio Arriaga and Don 
Miguel de Muzquiz, and in view of everything and bearing in mind 
the other obligations of the crown, they have given their decision 
in writing. In this they are of the opinion that the allotment of 



THE EEVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 19 

that province should be increased to two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand pesos for all its expenses, with the stipulation that twenty-five 
thousand pesos should be used precisely for assisting the Acadian 
families who may come to the colony, without diverting this amount 
to any other purpose. 

They are also of the opinion that, without causing any shortage 
here, some artillery could be sent there, which for the time being could 
be half of what Ulloa requests, together with half of the men he 
also requests to serve it. 



The King approves the allotment of the 250,000 pesos, in accord- 
ance with the conditions given above, but stipulates that this increase 
of 100,000 pesos in the allotment must not take effect before the 
middle of this year, 1767, in view of the shortage being suffered by 
the treasury of Mexico. 

ULLOA TO BTJOARBLI 
Jamary 83, 1767 M 

No. 12. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : I find on my hands at one and the same time 
three expeditions, three settlements, and four forts, which, although 
not costly in themselves, are made so by the great distance at which 
they are to be formed, as I have informed Your Lordship. At the 
same time all the expenses of the colony have been paid from last 
June on in Spanish money on account of the total discredit into 
which the paper has fallen ; and the whole colony is now dependent 
on these funds. 

In this connection I can do no less than request Your Lordship 
most urgently to forward, the moment it is received and with- 
out the least delay, the allotment or any other funds that His Majesty 
may assign to this place. Please bear in mind that there is no recourse 
here from which to obtain funds, and that these people, even with- 
out cause, clamor seditiously, as has already been experienced on 
various occasions, making it indispensable to maintain what little we 
have at present. There are also the new settlements that are to be 
made, for all of which, funds are necessary. 

I remain your most devoted and affectionate servant and pray that 
God protect you for many years. 

BALIZA, January S3, 1767. 

ANTONIO DB ULLOA (Kubric) 

Sefior DON ANTONIO BTTCARELI. 



AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



20 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

ULLOA TO BTJOARELI 
January S3, 1767 14 

No. 13. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR : The vessel carrying this letter is touching at 
your port with covers for the ministry, as well as to leave there Don 
James Noble, "an Irishman by race, but who says that he is naturalized 
in Spain. It is very important that he should proceed directly there 
by the very first opportunity that offers itself, either mailboat or 
other vessel, to discuss with the ministry matters of the greatest con- 
sideration. I have already advised and informed it that I was having 
him set out for that city. 15 

This man was there after the English took possession of that place, 
and had large commercial interests. 

When it was returned to us he bought from the Spaniards in 
Pensacola the properties they had there, but the civil governor, Mr. 
George Johnston did not permit him the use of them. He recently 
came to this colony to engage in business in which he has not been 
entirely successful. 

I beg Your Lordship, inasmuch as the matters that oblige me to 
dispatch him there are of interest to the service of the King and in 
view of what I owe to his favor, to aid and assist him to sail as 
promptly as possible. I do not doubt that the Minister of State, for 
whom I have given him an open letter which he will show to Your 
Lordship, will thank you for doing so, and I shall always remain 
properly grateful. 

I hope for many opportunities to show my sincere affection as your 
faithful servant and may God protect you many years. 

BALIZA, January 88, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 

Sefior DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 
March 3, 1767 1<s 

No. 15. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR : As it is possible that the allotment for this 
colony may be delayed, I have informed Your Lordship there are no 
means here of obtaining funds in cases of urgency. The contingency 
has already arrived, due to the indispensable expenditures which have 
been made for the armaments that have been ordered and those being 
made separately by the French commissariat. 



I, PC, leg. 1055. 
35 Havana. 
AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 21 

Iii view of this and also of the fact that here everything causes 
revolts and sedition, I should thank Your Lordship, if your circum- 
stances so permit, please to order that I be sent promptly 40/XX) or 
50,000 pesos for account of the allotment. This sum is more important 
to receive now than the entire amount at one time in May or June, 
because, as it is not all consumed at one time, if there is sufficient for 
the ordinary expenses, nothing more is needed. 

If there were any funds here, they could be made use of as loans 
until those of the King arrive, but there are none. The money wMch 
enters here immediately returns to Europe, so that the colony is 
entirely devoid of any recourse. For this reason, as I have already 
told Your Lordship, a small sum is more desirable in an emergency 
than a larger one afterwards. 

I promise myself that Your Lordship, in view of these circum- 
stances, will kindly lend your assistance, in so far as circumstances 
permit, toward remedying the present need, as you know better than 
anyone else the consequences and the situation in which the colony 
finds itself, populated by foreigners everywhere and surrounded by 
perils. 

May God preserve the life of Your Lordship many years. 

BALIZA, March 3, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Seiior DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

EXTRACT FROM THE EECORDS or THE MEETING or THE SUPERIOR 
COUNCIL OF THE PROVINCE OF LOUISIANA 

March 7, 1767 17 

On this date, the King's attorney general makes remonstrance that 
the court has always been reluctant to tolerate advocates or solicitors 
in this colony ; that it has always applauded the ministerial orders, 
which are the basis for the establishment of this country, and 
which declared lawyers to be harmful to its development. The multi- 
plicity of affairs, and the need to distinguish between certain com- 
munities for the apportionment among the various co-heirs of the 
dowries, rights, and other claims, and the grandsons and the great- 
grandsons who give proof in their claims of their proper descent, 
had induced this court to allow an advocate and a solicitor to prac- 
tice their calling, with the purpose of advising the parties, of urging 
them to make a settlement, and of uprooting the cause of lawsuits 
by a compromise and properly drawn up guardianship accounts. He 
further points out that these motives were worthy of the open pro- 
tection which the council granted, in its capacity and out of its free 

* Bancroft Library (Printed In French). 



22 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

will, to the sad and grievous state of client and defendant; that it 
is the duty of the same attorney general to describe to that^ same 
court the abuses which arise and the rapid strides made by cupidity; 
that it is notorious that the quickest road to fortune has been taken 
by this aforesaid advocate and still more by the new solicitor, and 
that their clients are loudly complaining of exorbitant fees and 
vexations. A petition containing four or five sheets of writing costs 
f our-and-twenty piasters. The decrees rendered by this same court 
are paraphrased, and we have just seen a final decree costing nine 
hundred and fifty-two livres, of which more than seven hundred 
should be refused. There is an intent to claim that the solicitor's or 
the advocate's activities in speaking to the chief justice or the 
attorney general should be paid for in addition to the cost of the 
petition and that the signal disinterestedness, and the modest rights 
and fees, adopted by the gentlemen of the bar, were not sufficient for 
men who should deem it an honor to follow principles precious to 
honor and humanity. Finally, it is the duty of the said attorney 
general, in order to correct abuses, stamp out the progress of cupidity, 
and restore their rights to all parties who by their status are under 
orders from the court, to demand : (1) that it be stated in the Decree 
of Intervention, that the court tolerates MM. Doucet and Azemar in 
their functions as advocate and solicitor, merely for the purpose of 
counselling the parties, or inducing them to compromise, and of 
obliterating the cause for litigation by compromise or properly 
drawn up guardianship accounts; (2) that they shall be required to 
sign all their papers, and that fines and legal sanctions be applied to 
all phraseology employed in contempt of the court or the persons 
against whom they shall plead; (3) that they shall be forbidden 
to receive any payment from their clients except against a receipt; 
(4) that they state the amounts of their expenses with reference to 
clerical work and other fees to be determined by a councilor com- 
missioner and by the attorney general. Finally the attorney general 
demands that all the parties be authorized to lodge a complaint 
against the advocate or solicitor who becomes delinquent in these 
cases, so that they may be restored in their rights to the full extent 
of the law ; and that the Decree of Intervention be recorded, read, 
published, posted, and intimated to MM. Doucet and Azemar, sole 
advocate and solicitor tolerated in this city. After the said remon- 
strance and request were seen and examined, the attorney general 
withdrew. The council has tolerated and does tolerate MM. Doucet 
and Azemar, in their functions solely as advisers to the parties, to 
induce them to compromise and uproot the causes of litigations, 
through private agreements or properly drawn up guardianship 
accounts. It has commanded and does command them to sign all 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 23 

their legal papers ; it forbids them to use any phrases, in writing or 
otherwise, which would be in contempt of the court or the persons 
against whom they are pleading, under penalty of an arbitrary fine 
and legal punishment; likewise it commands them to receive no sums 
from their clients without giving them a receipt, and whenever they 
shall have clerical work or other expenditures, to have them deter- 
mined by a councilor commissioner, in presence of the attorney 
general. In view of all this, it has authorized and does authorize all 
parties to lodge complaints against the advocate or solicitor who shall 
be delinquent, so that they shall receive justice with the full severity 
required by the circumstances. The council has ordered and does 
order that this decree shall be recorded, read, published, and posted 
wherever need be, and intimated to MM. Doucet and Azemar, sole 
advocate and solicitor tolerated. The attorney general's deputies 
are enjoined to watch over the execution of this decree. 

Given in the Council Chamber, March seventh, seventeen hundred 
and sixty-seven. 

For the Council 
GARIC, Chief Clerk. 

TJlXOA TO BtTCARELI 

March 11, 1767 

No. 16. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : I bring to the attention of Your Lordship 
the opening of a new channel in the bar of this river, running to 
the northeast and having somewhat more water than the one to the 
east, the former entrance. 

Adjacent to it I have had raised five poles, 40 varas long, in the 
form of a pyramid, to serve as a lookout, and in clear weather I 
have no doubt that they will be sighted by vessels four to five leagues 
off shore. This I bring to your attention so that you may advise 
those coming from there, informing them that this pyramid 
indicates the entrance of the bar from whatever direction they see it, 
as it is situated on an islet two gun-shots north of the channel. 

I hope for many occasions to serve Your Lordship and beg God 
to protect you for many years. 

BALIZA, March 11, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Sefior DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 



, PC, leg. 1055. 



24 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 
March W, 1767 

No. 18. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : The mail schooner El Postilion arrived here 
from Havana on the 12th instant, bringing the workmen and 
materials that I had requested of the administrator general, Don 
Joseph de Armona, for the establishment of the forts that are to 
be made. As for the success of these measures, they may already be 
looked on as attained, since the expeditions, which were ready, are 
to set out without delay. For Your Lordship's kind and effective 
assistance, which always distinguishes you, I offer my gratitude. The 
prompt dispatch of the expeditions is essential since everything 
depends on these measures and also because, as I have told Your Lord- 
ship, in this colony one cannot count on anything here that will help 
in the carrying out of what is needed. This circumstance is most 
regrettable in connection with the many others that afflict the one 
who is entrusted with command of it. 

I hope for continued opportunities to serve Your Lordship and 
to serve on those occasions with zeal. I beg God to protect you 
many years. 

BALIZA, March 80, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 
March SO, 1767 

No. 19. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR : I give Your Lordship many thanks for the 
particular attention with which you have been pleased, at my recom- 
mendation, to treat Don James Noble until his departure for Spain. 
This forethought is very important for the affairs of this colony, as 
I have already informed Your Lordship. 

I shall look forward to having similar opportunities of pleasing 
Your Lordship and pray that God protect you many years. 

BALIZA, March 80, 1767. 

AOTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUGARELL 



AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 
AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONAKY PERIOD, 1705-1781 25 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 
Marches, 1767 

No. 20. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : By this opportunity I am sending to Your 
Lordship for your disposition Gregorio Gor, one of the seamen 
enrolled and registered in the Comissariat of War of this colony 
for the service of His Majesty here, for the crime of having made 
himself leader of a mutiny with eleven others. Encouraged by the 
bad example of the disorder reigning in the colony, they refused to 
perform their duty. 

For the purpose of moving these dilapidated huts a league and a 
half from here to an island adjacent to the new bar channel which has 
been discovered to be the best place where the pilots should be, 
I ordered a boat manned by Spanish seamen to come from the city. 
This step I took as a reproof to the crew of the French boat that is 
maintained here at the expense of His Majesty but which has refused 
to do anything that is for his royal service, demanding special pay- 
ment for anything they do. The boat arrived at the bar, and since 
it was necessary for it to transport to the island the materials to be 
usecl as a foundation there and to assist in this work, as is the 
custom on this river, the first day the crew did so without objection. 
However, on the second day, in imitation of the French in the license 
with which the latter conduct themselves without obedience or respect 
for their superiors, all of them as one man refused to perform this 
work. They presented themselves to me in a body and the man I am 
now sending to Your Lordship, acting as spokesman for the others, 
told me emphatically that all those present would not do any work 
on the island. I did not give him time to proceed, but had him 
taken by the French storekeeper and two or three others, whom I 
immediately summoned for this purpose, to a poor hut that serves 
as a prison and placed him in irons. I told the others that the ships 
in this bay have yardarms for mutineers, which was enough, so that 
without more ado they went to work. 

The night before there had also been trouble with the same men 
about the rations, which they spurned with contempt for the Spanish 
Sovereign who provided them. 

If these excesses are not corrected in the beginning, especially in 
a country as populous as this one is, it will be impossible to have 
anything done here in the service of the King, particularly as there 
are not troops in the colony to restrain license. On this occasion 
there was not, nor is there yet, a single soldier here, French or 



I, PC, leg. 1055. 



26 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VAJLLBY 

Spanish., because three of them had gone to the city to take as a 
prisoner on his own vessel the captain of a small sloop for the 
offense of threatening to strike the captain of French infantry in 
command of this place. Such audaciousness is common here. Three 
others had gone to take the news of the arrival of the mail boat, so 
that preparations might be made. These six men are ne'er-do-wells 
with the name of soldiers. Such is the garrison of the mouth of the 
Mississippi and the colony of Louisiana. 

In view of the fact that it is necessary to maintain the colony 
and the service of the King by fear and energy rather than by power, 
I can do no less than ask Your Lordship to order the seaman, Gregorio 
Gor, placed in El Morro in shackles for the period of two years. With 
this example I am convinced there will be some subordination in those 
remaining here; and even though the progress may be small, there 
will be some when there is some obedience. He has received his pay 
from the day he enlisted to that of his arrest. 

Consider, Your Lordship, how can there be any progress here or 
regularity in the conduct of the government when there are no troops 
with which to maintain respect and to restrain license. It should 
be understood that these seamen and the others who have been 
enlisted for the three expeditions to the number of 100 men are those 
who rove about on the vessels in illicit trade, independent, and without 
any discipline whatever. Since this vice prevails with the same 
excess as all the others in the colony, it is a providence of God that 
it has been possible to control them. This has been done up to the 
present by threats, but now these will not suffice unless they see those 
who commit excesses punished. 

I place myself at your command and pray that God grant you 
many years of happy life. 

BALIZA, March 85, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Kubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

ULLOA TO BTJCARELI 

April 8, 1767** 
No. 21. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: The captain of the mail schooner has been 
entrusted with Matias Garreta, a Spanish seaman of this colony, so 
that Your Lordship may please order that he be punished for the 
offense of having attacked and resisted the French patrol, wounding 
one of them, in a house where they found him out of hours and 
disorderly. For this crime, if Your Lordship is so pleased, you may 

AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 27 

punish Mm with two years in irons in El Morro, so that this may 
serve as a warning to others here. I inform Your Lordship of this 
for the reason that there is no way or means of punishing here those 
who commit oflfenses such as this one, 

I remain at the orders of Your Lordship with the most sincere 
affection and pray God to protect you for many years. 

BALIZA, April 0, 1767. 

ANTONIO BE ULLOA (Eubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

April 6, 1767* 
No. 23. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : Don Julian Antonio de Urcullo has delivered 
to this treasury of His Majesty nine thousand pesos fuertes to defray 
the ordinary expenses arising here; and as he is to receive the same 
amount in that city, I shall esteem it a favor if Your Lordship will 
order that he be paid this from the allotment for this year 
by virtue of the receipt that he has from the treasurer ad interim 
here. 

I look forward to serving Your Lordship and hope that in the 
accomplishment of your orders you will regard me as a faithful and 
obedient servant. I pray God to protect you many years. 

BALIZA, April 6, 1767. 

ANTONIO BE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

April 6, 1767 
No. 24. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : Don Julian Antonio de Urcullo, captain and 
first pilot of the ship El Nueva Oanstante, is returning to your city 
by the brigantine San Joseph y Nuestra Senor a del Carmen (alias 
El Bella India), which he bought for the purpose of carrying the 
cargo that he was able to save from his ship. 

It has been necessary to ballast it with brick, for lack of anything 
else in the colony with which this could be done. It has on board 
two Spaniards who were here, as shown by the special permission 
given them. 

It is also taking another Spaniard named Don Manuel de Eoal- 
caba, who is going secretly as an exile from the colony; for it is 

AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 
*AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



28 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

agreed that he has taken this means of freeing himself from ignomini- 
ous disaster, leaving behind many fraudulent debts and numerous 
persons who have demands on him for his excessive gambling and 
other irregularities. 

I obey the orders of Your Lordship and with the truest affection 
hope for many future opportunities to serve you. May God protect 
you for many years. 

BAIJZA, April 6, 1767. ANTOOTQ ^ ULLQA (Rubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

GRIMALDI TO AREIAGA 
May 13, 1767 25 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : I have brought to the attention of the King 
a summary of the individual reports which Don Antonio de Ulloa, 
governor of the province of Louisiana, has written at various times 
about the expenditures which are necessary to make in order to 
maintain it, showing that it is impossible to do so with the 150,000 
pesos which were allotted to it in the beginning. I have also read 
to His Majesty Your Excellency's opinion of January 29 and that 
of Don Miguel de Muzquiz of March 4, about this matter, and His 
Majesty has agreed to what is proposed therein and has decided to 
increase said allotment by another hundred thousand pesos. This 
is not to take effect nor to be counted on until the first day of July 
next, so that, with said increase, that province will enjoy in 
the current year an allotment of two hundred thousand pesos, and 
from the beginning of next year, 1768, and thereafter, two hundred 
and fifty thousand. This amount must defray all expenses of divine 
worship, maintenance of troops, salaries of employees, gifts to the 
Indians, and the establishment and preservation of fortifications and 
buildings. It is stipulated that 25,000 pesos be devoted solely for use 
in assisting the Acadian families who may come to said colony, and 
that this sum may not be diverted to any other purposes. 

I advise Your Excellency of this at the direction of His Majesty, in 
order that you may issue the proper instructions, so that this year 
the said colony may be paid by the royal treasury of Mexico the 
said 200,000 pesos, and the next year and thereafter, 250,000. 

I trust that when Your Excellency does so, you will advise me 
of it ; and I pray Our Lord to preserve you for many years. 

ARANJtnEz, May 13, 1767. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Eubric) 

Senor BAILIO FRET DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA. 



2 s AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 29 

ROYAL ORDER 

May 19, 1767 26 
THE KING. 

My viceroy, governor and captain general of the kingdom of New 
Spain and president of the Audencia of Mexico : As it is impossible 
for the assignment of 150,000 pesos for the annual allotment of the 
province of Louisiana to defray the expenses which necessarily arise 
and may arise in the future, I have resolved to increase the said 
allotment by another hundred thousand pesos; but this is not to take 
effect nor be counted upon until the first day of July next Conse- 
quently, with this increase, that province shall enjoy in this current 
year two hundred thousand pesos allotment, and from the beginning 
of next year, 1768, and thereafter, two hundred and fifty thousand 
pesos, with which must be defrayed all expenses, for fortifications 
as well as every other kind that may arise. As these amounts are 
to be provided by the treasury of my royal exchequer in that capital, 
you will send them for this purpose to the intendant of my royal 
exchequer of the Island of Cuba and the town of Havana, so that 
they may be applied as agreed upon with the governor of that 
province, Don Antonio de Ulloa. 

Take good note of this for punctual compliance therewith. 

Given at ARANJTTEZ, May 19^ 1767. 

GRIMALDI TO LOYOLA 
May 7,1767 

The governor, Don Antonio de Ulloa, has brought to the attention 
of the King the orders he has given for the establishment of three 
settlements on the Missouri, Colorado, and Iberville rivers. The 
King has taken note of them and I am informing Ulloa by this mail 
of his royal approval, so that they may be put into effect and 
observed until His Majesty issues a general regulation for the gov- 
erning of the colony. I am instructing him to send you a copy, 
signed by him, of the instruction which he issues or sends to the 
storekeepers, and a copy of the articles bearing upon the relation 
the commandants may have with the royal exchequer, so that these 
offices being advised of them, you may have them observed insofar 
as affects you. 

One of the things of which he will inform you, if he has not 
already done so, is the method to be followed for the maritime 
service at all the posts of the colony. Another is the order that the 
commandants of the new settlements be given a five per cent profit 

AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 
AGI, PC, leg. 2357. 



30 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

on the goods shipped for their own benefit, any additional price they 
may bring falling to the royal exchequer. The King wishes that 
both measures be put into practice in all the posts of the colony and 
desires that you should contribute for your part to their being 
instituted. However, as it is not probable that this can be done 
insofar as affects the old posts until possession is taken, it may be 
advisable to keep the idea secret until then. Secrecy is very essential 
in those who handle government affairs and very necessary in almost 
everything, but particularly in measures aiming to reform abuses, 
because if they are published beforehand, opportunity is given for 
the invention of obstacles by those interested in their continuance. 

May Our Lord protect you the many years I desire. 

ARAN JTJEZ, 7th of May 1767. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Rubric) 
Senor DON JUAN JOSEPH DE LOYOLA. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

June 17, 1767 
No. 26. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : By this opportunity there are being returned 
to your city the man who came here as a master shipwright, Lorenzo 
Jejun, together with a boy, his apprentice, Cristobal Anaya, Fran- 
cisco Utreta and Joseph Corral, journeyman cooper and apprentice, 
and Tomas Contreras and Gregorio Contreras, cabinet maker and 
apprentice, who are being discharged as not being suited for the 
work for which they were engaged. Experience has shown the deceit 
with which they presented themselves, seeking places as master 
workmen, when they are not even deserving of being called journey- 
men. It has been learned that some of them paid others of their 
crafts in your city to certify to their ability and good work so 
that they might be believed. However, this does not in any way 
detract from the merit and service rendered His Majesty by Don 
Joseph Antonio de Armona, at whose direction they came here, as 
it was a deceit that has been detected by experience. It was not easy 
to discover there and, due to the urgency and speed with which they 
were obtained, it could not be ascertained which of them were skilled 
at what they pretended to be, because otherwise the royal exchequer 
would have had a greater burden without any advantage or profit. 

aAGI,PC,leg, 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 17654781 31 

I place myself at your command with assurances of faithful obedi- 
ence and pray God to protect you for many years. 
ISLA EEAL CATOLICA BE SAN CARLOS, Jime 17, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 
Senor DON ANTONIO BUCAREM. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

June 17, 1767 
No. 28. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR : If from the end of March there began to be 
felt the effects caused by the lack of money, as I informed Your 
Lordship after this became the case, you, with your wisdom, can 
well realize the present situation in which the colony has been placed. 

All payments are suspended, not only by the Spanish commissariat 
but also by the French, and even the officials find themselves in the 
same predicament. This results not only in seditious and insolent 
rumors but also very extravagant and intolerable threats. 

This mail should have been dispatched to Your Lordship the 
middle of last month, but because a small English sloop that was 
purchased for this purpose has been found unseaworthy, it has 
been delayed until the departure of the schooner Nuestra, Senora de 
las Dolores from Campeche, which is taking it. 

I cannot exaggerate to Your Lordship the peril in which the colony 
finds itself, nor the importance of the arrival of some aid to fulfil 
the most urgent requirements and to quiet the disturbances that are 
being experienced. Therefore I again beg you earnestly, if you have 
any means of doing so, not to fail to arrange to remit some amount 
at once even though it be no more than 20,000 to 30,000 pesos, in case 
the allotment has not yet arrived. If it is already there, it can 
be sent, either all or the larger part, because, as I have already said, 
there is no objection to its being brought by schooner if accompanied 
by some trustworthy person, as otherwise I do not have confidence 
in its master. 

I offer myself to the orders of Your Excellency and pray God to 
protect you for many years. 

ISLA EEAL CATOLICA DE SAN CARLOS, Jum 17, 1767. 

ANTONIO BE ULLOA (Eubric) 
Sefior DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 



aAGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



32 SPAIN IN TEGS MISSISSIPPI TALLEST 

ULLOA TO BUCARBLI 



No. 31. 

MY VERT DEAK SIR: There arrived at the new establishment of 
Ma Real Catolica de San Carlos, the 21st instant, Master Juan Cam- 
inada "with his settee San Juan Bautista^ bringing the sixty thousand 
pesos that Your Lordship advised me in your letter of the 30th ultimo 
were being sent for account of the allotment of this colony. 

I shall see to it that this fund is received as soon as the vessel 
reaches this place, and shall give the said master the corresponding 
receipt in discharge of the obligation that he has contracted. 

I place myself at your Lordship's disposal and pray God to guard 
your life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August 88, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUCARELI T URSUA. 

ULLOA TO BTJCARELI 
s, 1767 * l 



No. 37. 

Mr VERT DEAR SIR : In letter of the 29th ultimo, Your Lordship 
advises me the same as the Most Excellent Sefior Marques de Grimaldi 
instructs me under date of May 27, last, regarding the suppression 
of this council as soon as possession of the colony is taken. In its 
place the governor shall exercise jurisdiction, having at his side 
for matters of litigation, an assessor whose nomination His Majesty 
reserves for himself; in this tribunal, in addition to the French 
notary who is there at present, it is indispensable to have another 
Spanish one supplied by Your Lordship with the title of royal notary 
of government and of affairs of war and exchequer. As it will be 
costly and troublesome to have one come from there, he should be 
assigned a moderate salary inasmuch as he is not to collect fees for 
the official acts he performs. 

In view of this, and as Your Lordship offers so graciously to seek 
a man of integrity and honesty to fill this post, Your Lordship may 
do so, advising him in. advance that the salary is six hundred pesos 
annually, so that with this knowledge he may see whether it is advan- 
tageous for him to change his domicile. 

It will be advisable for Your Lordship to give the preference in 
making this selection to one who is married, so that there may be 
thus one more Spanish family in the colony. 

sAGI, PC, leg. 1055. 
8i AGr, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 33 

I wish Your Lordship continuance of good health and pray that 
God protect your life the many years I desire. 
NEW ORLEANS, August $S, 1767. 

ANTONIO BE ULLQA (Rubric) 
Sefior DON ANTONIO BTTCAREU Y URSUA. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

August 8, 1767 32 
No. 38. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR: Under date of April 10, Your Lordship 
informs me of the troubles with which you found yourself beset 
because of the delay of the allotment of your post. At the same time 
you informed me that you had exhausted all the sources from which 
you could supply your needs, and that, since this was the same 
difficulty I was experiencing here, as I described to you in my 
letters of March 3 and 15, Your Lordship could not assist me in any 
way until such time as the funds should arrive from Vera Cruz. 

There is no doubt that these things are the cause of great con- 
sternation to those in command, especially to me, finding myself in 
a country so poor that it is not possible to raise 500 pesos among all 
the citizens comprised in it. I so inform Your Lordship in another 
letter of mine under this date, which you will receive at the 
same time. 

I trust that, in conformity with what Your Lordship will have 
represented to the Sefior Viceroy, the remittances will be made with 
more regularity in the future, and thereby the service of the King 
will not find itself forced to experience the delays that are inevitably 
entailed by the lack of funds, since money facilitates everything. 

I desire to express my wish for many occasions on which to serve 
Your Lordship and pray God to protect you for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August $8, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Sefior DON ANTONIO BUCARELI Y URSUA. 

O'CoNOR TO ULLOA 

September 5, 1767 M 

Received the 16th of December. 

MY DEAR Sm: I have received your favor of the third of last 
August in which you are pleased to ask my predecessor, Don Angel 

AGI, PC,leg. 1055. 
"BL. 

700296 49 vol. 25 



34 SPAIN IN" THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

de Marios y Navarrete/ 4 upon receiving it to send the six deserters 
who went from your jurisdiction to this one. This can not be brought 
about by myself since Don Angel de Martos y Navarrete not only 
released the aforementioned deserters but gave them passports by 
means of which they were able to leave two months before I took 
over the command of this province. Some of them started for Vera 
Cruz and others for Mexico City. This is the reason that I am 
unable to send these six deserters to the commandant. Monsieur 
Laperiere, as you advise that I should do in your abovementioned 
letter of August 3. 

These abuses, it seems to me, will cease in the future; for I shall 
send all classes of people, without any exception, who pass from that 
colony to this jurisdiction without a passport from Your Lordship 
or from the commandants of the posts, to the city of New Orleans 
under sufficient guard and custody so that Your Lordship may do 
as you deem advisable. To this end I am issuing the proper orders 
on this date to the presidios under my command so that they shall be 
fully complied with. i 

Not only the deserters from the new Louisiana have found shelter 
in this presidio, but likewise those from the presidios of this prov- 
inca A proof of this is the fact that this garrison of Los Adaes is 
composed of the aforementioned deserters. Don Angel de Martos 
took advantage of the deserters from these presidios in order to 
prefer charges against the captains and suspend them from their 
offices. All this was at the instigation of Don Manuel de Soto Ber- 
mudes 85 who, in the year sixty- four, had the presidio of San Agustin 
de Ahumada burned with the purpose (according to the judicial pro- 
ceeding drawn up by Don Angel himself on the subject) of taking 
the person of the captain by fire and sword. 

Realizing that Your Lordship is exceedingly busy, and fearing to 
cause you too much trouble, I am not making you a report of all 
that happened in the aforementioned presidio of San Agustin de 
Ahumada, and in others of this province by the direction of Bermudes. 
I shall be indebted to Your Lordship if (in case he is in the town) 
you will send him to me at this presidio, and if you will be kind 
enough to order the commandant of Natchitoches, Monsieur La- 
periere, to make all the necessary efforts to capture this Bermudes 
so that the people of this province may enjoy a longed-for tran- 
quillity. This can never be realized with the aforesaid Soto in the 

* Angel Martos y Navarrete received the appointment as governor of Texas in 1756 but 
did not arrive at his post until 1760. During his administration he became involved in 
a personal quarrel with Captain Rafael Martinez Pacheco, the commandant of San 
Agustin de Ahumada, which resulted in the incident mentioned in this document. 

88 Manuel de Soto Bermudes served as secretary to Governor Martos. He was engaged 
in the Indian trade and later had an establishment between Natchitoches and the Yatasl 
nation. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 35 

vicinity as he does everything possible to stir up the soldiery and 
settlers of these presidios. I beg of Your Lordship that the order 
which you may decide to give to Monsieur Laperiere on this matter 
be rigid. 

I shall immediately make known to Your Lordship all that may 
pertain to the royal service in these regions without having recourse 
to any of the French commandants. 

May our Lord preserve for as many years as possible the life of 
Your Lordship of which I have great need, 

EOTAL PRESIDIO or NTJESTRA SENORA DEL PJLAR BE Los ADAES, Sep- 
tember 5, 1767. 

Your affectionate and devoted servant kisses the hands of Your 
Lordship. 

HUGO O'CoNOK (Rubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO DE ULLOA. 

ULLOA TO BUCAEEM 

September 21, 1767 m 
No. 39. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR : The settee San Juan Bautista^ which brought 
the 60,000 pesos for account of the allotment, is returning to your 
city. Although this sum has brought some relief, it is not sufficient 
to pay all the creditors in full, despite the fact that they were 
promised and were so led to expect that they would receive what 
was owed to them at the first opportunity. 

For this reason it is necessary to contract new obligations on those 
that were not settled in full. Adding to this the fact that we are 
expecting from one day to another the troops and officers who were 
to leave Spain for here, it is inevitable that, as soon as this takes 
place, it will entail new and greater obligations. For this reason I 
hope that Your Lordship will please order that there be no delay in 
remitting the funds to complete the allotment, when the Viceroy of 
Mexico has had them sent to your city, as he promised. 

I greatly appreciate Your Lordship's care in making this first 
remittance. It arrived at a time when I already could not bear to 
listen to the clamor but had no place to appeal, as money is one 
thing that is absolutely lacking here. 

I offer my obedience to Your Lordship's orders with repeated will- 
ingness and pray God to protect you many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, September 21, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BTTCARELI. 



*AGI,PC, leg. 1055. 



36 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

JERNINGHAM TO ULLOA 
November 28, 1767 

Maryland North America Mouth of Nicomico river 
/St. Marys Gountie^ Novem 18 [17671 

EXCELLENT Sra: I have enclosed to your Excellency a faithfull 
copy of a letter, dated New Orleans July 31, 1767 it having no 
nominal or manual signatur Credit could not be given to it here; 
besides it hints only at the questions pointed at, permit me to request 
an answer more explicit. Grant me also the favor [of] your pardon, 
if I undertake to acquaint you, that a British subject is free, that 
he may emigrate Where he pleases. In time of peace, nothing Can 
stop him but his Creditors, should he have any. Your Court and 
governors of his Catholic Majesty, need be under no apprehensions, 
of Kindling any Jealously in ye Breast of the British Ministry on 
that account, because a Clearance from the officer of the port where 
the adventurers Would ship themselves as migrators is not only a 
passport and permission, but a positive assent of his Britannic 
Majesty ratified by his officer affixing his seal to it. The Letter of 
the 31 July says, lands are granted in property Without fee, or 
future taxation. It does not inform What is the lot of individuals, 
or What people of property, may purchase or What price. 

Was this certyfied with the other proposal of y e 2d may many 
Who are the descendants of pure noble and ancient Blood Would 
settle among you. Objection: unless we have his most Catholic 
Majestys royal assurance of Irish or English priests [s] the Migrants 
could not comply With ye dutys incumbent of a Eoman Catholic, nor 
have any spiritual consolation at the hour of death. This the letter 
Says his Catholic Majesty shall be necessarily consulted on; all that 
would enter to plant there familys among you could not have objec- 
tion to taking the oath of allegiance to his Catholic Majesty, as their 
intentions Would be to become his subjects; in consequence, must 
conform to all the Laws and customs as every good [subject] should 
doe Where he resides. None of the roman Catholics of this province 
have never betrayed there allegiance. 

ISTor it never has been demanded of them by his Britannic Majesty. 
The fertility of your soil and healthiness of the climate are well 
Known from history, and converse With those Who have travelled 
and resided there. We have seen many letters from the Acadians 
to their Countrymen, praying them to speed themselves to partake 
of their good fortune in that f ruitf ull region, as they could not have 

AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6 (English). The author of this letter was the grandson of 
Sir Francis Jerningham, an English Catholic. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PEEIOD, 17654781 37 

been a Sufficient time in the Country, to render an account of it, and 
in general, but illiterate people not great confidence could be reposed 
in their relations; in many essential particulars they are very much 
Wanting. First how they are served or the natives in the Country, 
With priest or Missionars ; New Orleans, we Know, does not want 
them. Are the seculars or what religious orders are among you. 
We Know, since his Catholic Majestys late orders no Jesuits reside in 
his Extensive dominions. Your Excellency may be assured, there 
are hundreds of roman Catholic familys here, to whom the advan- 
tages granted to the Acadiens Who are gone among you Would be a 
great blessing to them; but men of property and fortunes must 
Know before they dispose of their estates here on What terms they 
can acquire an equivalent among you which is not to be attained to 
by any other method, we can devise than by your Excellencys infor- 
mation, so as to leave no further doubts among us. You Can not 
Expect, on such a treaty, any person to appear authorized With a 
public Caracther because it relates solely to the roman Catholics. 

Who Can not represent or serve, in any office under the British 
government. Secondly tho the constitution does not impede his 
Subjects from migrating to any part of the globe Sound policy 
dictates to her as to all other nations, to Encourage an encrease 
rather than decrease of their inhabitants. 

I am your Excellencys most humble and obedient Servant. 

HENRY JEKNTNXJHAM, 
m Doctor and Eques Anglicanus. 
P.S. 

Your Subscribers father Was first Cousin of the present dutchess 
of Norf olch the 1st dutchess in Britain. 

I am related to many of the prime nobility, roman Catholic in 
England my Eldest Brother died a Jesuit at Borne. 

My younger Brother Charles is now lieutenant Colonel in a Eegi- 
ment de Stampech Cuirassiers pour le servise de Sa m. 1 m p. . . . 

Hugo still younger a recollete at douay in French flanders. 

Three sisters one Elizabeth and Edwardina [illegible] all religious 
at the augustins' nuns at bruges, in the Austrians netherlands. 

My uncle Sr. george Jerningham Knight and Baronet now living, 
was in a public Caracther at the Court of Charles 12, King of 
Suede his son lately marryed my lord Dillons daughter and his 
youngest son is a lieutenant Colonel in the service of his Christian 
Majesty. 

I have a wife and seven children. 



38 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

December 2, 1767 38 
No, 41. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: There is now being experienced here a 
scarcity of funds equal to that suffered in August when the 60,000 
pesos brought by the settee San Juan Bautista were received. Since 
that time, the payments of the French officials have been suspended, 
as well as payments for the flour, provisions, and other things ob- 
tained from the French and English merchants by the Spanish 
commissariat. They are clamoring over their not being paid their 
money, and because of the losses entailed by the long stay they must 
make here and the greater expenses caused their vessels. The same 
thing is the case with the officials and other employees, who have 
nothing upon which to subsist except their salaries ; and when they 
do not receive these, as is the case now, they suffer the greatest want. 
The result of this is a general and continuous clamor among every 
class of people dependent upon the treasury of the King. 

I take into consideration the fact that you probably have not 
received funds, so that you could send them here; but if the allot- 
ments are not received more regularly than they are at present, I do 
not know what will happen, because, as I have told Your Lordship, 
all recourses are closed when money is lacking. The King suffers 
from this seriously in the supplies of provisions which, when bought 
at the wrong time, cost double or triple what they do if purchased 
when they should be. 

I place myself at Your Lordship's orders and hope for many oppor- 
tunities in the future to prove my desire to serve you. May God 
protect your life for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, December #, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 

Seiior DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

ULLOA TO BUCARELI 

December 8, 1767 
No. 42. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : The packetboat El Cazador, whose captain 
and owner is Don Jacobo Chaquelain, lieutenant of militia of this 
colony, will touch at your port and land Don Pedro Laredo y Astorga, 
who is proceeding from this colony to Spain. He came here in com- 
pany with my wife. This circumstance obliges me to recommend him 
to Your Lordship, so that during his stay there you may please show 

as AGI, PC,'leg. 1055. 
*> AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONABY PERIOD, 1765-1781 39 

him any attention that you may care to, a favor that I shall appre- 
ciate greatly. 

I place myself at Your Lordship's orders with a true desire to 
serve, and pray God to protect you many years, 
ORLEANS, December , 1767. 



ANTONIO DE UIXOA (Kubrie) 
Senor DON ANTONIO BTJCARELI, 

JERNINGHAM TO ULLOA 

December 14,1767 
May it please your Excellency. 

SIR : If I presume to trouble you since my answer, to your 31 of 
July dated New Orleans 1767, it is to acquaint your Excellency that 
the bearer James Walker, is sent by his neighbours, to your Excellency 
to receive your information relating to the subject I have been 
Writing to you about in my letters of the 2d may 67, and nov the same 
year, also in his own name, and, that of his neighbours, begs your 
Excellencys permission to travel in the Country, and assistance of 
passaports necessary therefore, that he may be able thereby to get 
information, and inteligence of the soil and Civil government in 
order at his return to satisfy his friends and neighbours. Who are 
desirous to settle among you. This same James Walker is a plebeyan 
and mechanic. His father, and mother Were Koman Catholics, and 
dyed in that faith. He was Christened in the same communion and 
has behaved as a good Cristian, and moral man, With the Esteem of 
his neighbours, and those Who are acquainted With him; he pos- 
sess[es] lands in freehold here, nor has he any other Views or in- 
tentions in his Expedition, but to enable himself at his return to 
render agreeable accounts, to his friends relations, and neighbours, 
that may Encourage them to undertake the same voyage With their 
f amilys. He proposes With your Excellencys permission to remain 
some months, under your government, to see the produce of the soil, 
at the different seasons the manner [s] and Customs of the people 
their Way of living, and how the Laws are executed; Questions 
every reasonable, and thinking person Will be enquisitive about at 
his return. 

I am your Excellencys most obedient and humble servant. 

HENRY JERNINGHAM m. D. et eques Anglicanus. 

December 14 th , 1767. 

AGI, And. SD, 86-6-6 (English). 



40 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

ULLOA TO BTTCAKELI 

December 86, 1767 41 
No. 48. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : Inasmuch as I am sending a cover to your 
city for the ministry, I can do no less than repeat to Your Lordship 
the difficulties in which we find ourselves here due to lack of funds. 
We have entirely exhausted the few there were, and are left with no 
recourse for daily expenses. 

Everybody is without pay, troops, officials, offices, and purveyors. 
In the hope that the balance of the allotment would be received dur- 
ing the month just ending, the people had been suffering their want 
with patience; but now that they have seen the contrary come to 
pass, it is inevitable that this will result in some very serious disaster, 
for the reason that, as I have told Your Lordship, there is no place 
here to turn for aid. 

I place myself at Your Lordship's orders and pray God to protect 
Your Lordship many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, December 25, 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 

ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 
February 11, 1768 42 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : The Catholics in Maryland, having received 
the unsigned reply which I wrote them on last July 31, a copy of 
which I sent Your Excellency, have again written to me through the 
recently arrived Acadians. From the copies of the two letters which 
I have received from them and send to Your Excellency, you will 
note fully what they have to say. The signs are for the purpose of 
making the letters recognizable. 

Your Excellency will also see that they have sent a man in whom 
they have confidence, one of those who plan to come here to settle, 
so that he may inform himself upon the conditions and security 
which they wish to have, as well as the character of the lands they 
are to settle after abandoning the property and comforts they have 
there. 

Since this matter is already taking shape, some assurances are neces- 
sary before permitting the inspection of the country which the emis- 
sary is to make. I have questioned the Acadians themselves, and 



I, PC, leg. 1055. 
AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 41 

without exception, they confirm all that the letter says. They state 
that these people are Catholic families who were expelled from 
England at the time of the troubles in the kingdom over religion 
and subsequent matters. As they have remained since then Catho- 
lic in all purity, they are oppressed and despised under the dominion 
of the Protestants. Having learned of the good reception given 
the Acadians and their present prosperous circumstances, they are 
planning to change their domicile and to sacrifice all the property 
they have there for the sake of freedom in the practice of their re- 
ligion and for their self-respect. 

With these assurances, I have arranged for the emissary Jacobo 
Walker to go ifdth the Acadians to San Luis to inspect the settle- 
ments of those who have come here during the last two years, and 
in particular to observe the comfort and peace already being en- 
joyed by those who arrived last July. I have also arranged for 
him to be taken by boat from San Luis five or six days' journey up 
the Colorado River to the Kio de Canas so that he may see the extent 
of the country and its good character. When he has returned to 
the Mississippi, I have arranged to have him taken by the Bayou 
of Chaf alalla to Opelousas where he will see another quite prosperous 
settlement of Acadians, great expanses of territory, and prairies ex- 
tending as far as the eye can reach. 

All of this is explained more fully in the two instructions, copies 
of which I am also sending to Your Excellency. Thus, this man, 
in whom his compatriots have placed their confidence, will be a 
living letter, and I shall have little to write in reply to theirs, merely 
referring them to the report which he will give them. 

Your Excellency can see that in this way, if the country suits 
them, the colony will quickly be thickly settled with people who are 
irreconcilable enemies of England on account of the contempt and 
persecution they have suffered, and that, while the King is gaining 
subjects, England will be losing them. I am convinced that a flood 
of settlers will be coming here within a short time, if they once 
begin, leaving empty the country they abandon as they fill up this 
one; because if Maryland offers many more than a thousand families, 
how many more will there be from the neighboring provinces fol- 
lowing the example of the first ones. 

I shall advise Your Excellency of the results of this inspection 
at the first opportunity. There is nothing to be done in this matter 
except to let them come, if they decide to do so. If the successor 
whom I desire and have requested of Your Excellency arrives, he 
will be informed of the places where and the manner in which he 
should locate them so that they will be useful to His Majesty and 
to the growth of the colony. He will subsequently be instructed 



42 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

how to handle this matter without any bad results ensuing with the 
court of England. 

I myself shall write to those Catholics, assuring them of the con- 
fidence which they should have in whoever is the governor here, and 
I shall tell them to write to me in Spain in case of necessity. I tell 
Your Excellency this so that you may have no misgivings as to the 
success of this venture, provided only that the paths already beaten 
be followed. 

I place myself at Your Excellency's orders and pray God to pre- 
serve your life the many years I desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, February 11, 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your mot humble servant kisses Your Ex- 
cellency's hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 

Most Excellent Sefior MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 

ULLOA TO BTTCAREU 

February 20, 



No. 46. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: Having described to Your Excellency on 
previous occasions the miserable and critical state in which this 
colony finds itself through lack of funds, I have nothing more to 
add, because the longer the delay the more the want and troubles 
will increase. Words cannot express the harm and losses being oc- 
casioned our foreign creditors and all who are dependent on their 
pay or salaries from the royal exchequer. In addition to the want 
that all are suffering there must be counted the increase in the price of 
foodstuffs, even while they are in the greatest abundance, on account 
of everything being sold on credit, with lack of confidence in being 
paid. They look on this as contingent since no one has the where- 
withal to send to the plaza to buy what is needed for the day. We 
find ourselves in the position of being entirely without daily al- 
lowances for the French and Spanish troops. 

One of the suppliers of flour, Moore of New York, among others, 
weary of waiting payment for more than six months, and injured 
by the delay of his vessel and the expenses occasioned by it, has asked 
me on two or three occasions with great urgency to permit him to 
go to collect this in that city [Havana] . I have tried to delay as much 
as possible, but if he returns to insist on it as I believe he will do, 
as well as others in imitation of him, it will not be possible to deny 

"AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE BBVOLUTIONABT PERIOD, 1765-1781 43 

tMs to Mm, in view of the justification and reasons that he has, be- 
cause these are now extreme and there is no remedy to be had. 

I place myself at Your Excellency's orders with the greatest will- 
ingness and desire to serve, and pray God to protect you many 
years. 

NEW ORLEANS, February S0 y 1767. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO BUCAKELI. 

PIERNAS TO ULLOA 
February 22, 1768 ** 

MY VERT DEAR SIR : I have at hand the sheet of instructions for 
the transportation of the Acadians from their establishments, to- 
gether with the other documents, insertions, reports, and the letters 
for Constable Julian Albares. I acknowledge receipt of these and, in 
accordance with your instructions, I shall give the most exact com- 
pliance to what Your Lordship commands. 

May God keep Your Lordship many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, February 22, 1768. 

Your most humble and true servant kisses the hand of Your Lord- 
ship. 

PEDRO PIERNAS (Rubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO DE ULLOA. 

Acknowledgement is made of the receipt of the sheet of instruc- 
tions regarding the conveyance of the Acadians. 

O'CoNOR TO ULLOA 
March 15, 1768** 

MY DEAR SIR: Immediately upon the receipt of your very 
esteemed letter of October 17th of last year, I sent to Mexico City 
by courier the cover for the MarquSs de Rubi."* 5 As soon as this 
gentleman notifies me of its receipt, I shall inform you of it without 
delay. I expect that this will take place very shortly as the Marques 
reached Mexico City last February. 

As Your Lordship is so fond of the Marques, I do not doubt that 
you will take great pleasure in learning of the successful outcome 

<* AGI, PC, leg. 2357. 

**BL. 

* The Marques de Rub! was commissioned to Inspect the posts of the northern, frontiers 
of New Spain and to make recommendations for more efficient defense against the warlike 
Indian tribes. He visited all the frontier presidios and settlements from Sonora to Los 
Adaes on the eastern border of Texas. He left Mexico City March 18, 1760, and reached Los 
Adaes on September 10. Relaci6n of Nicolas de la Fora, Biblioteca Nacional, Mexico, D. 



44 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

of the matter entrusted to him. This circumstance moves me to 
give Your Lordship the agreeable information which I have received 
from Mexico City (both officially and through private sources) , that 
His Excellency the viceroy has approved all that was decided by the 
Marques in this province; and this notwithstanding the underhand 
scheming of Don Angel de Martos in trying to make out his Lord- 
ship as a man of little experience, and saying of him other things 
with the avowed intention of injuring his reputation, despite the 
fact that on his tour he acted in the most honorable manner. Martos 
cannot be anything but the man he is, but he ought to realize the 
difference between himself and the Marques de Rubi, and not permit 
Manuel Bermudes to slander a gentleman of such distinguished birth 
and position by blindly subscribing to everything that has been ar- 
ranged by the aforementioned Bermudes who is an enemy to God and 
the King. 

According to reports, the said Soto Bermudes is walking about 
Nachitos with the permission of the commandant there, and holding 
up to mockery all the measures of the superior government notwith- 
standing the fact that his crime is that of high treason. This Your 
Lordship will see by the general report, which I shall send upon 
my arrival at Los Adaes, about all that has happened in this prov- 
ince by direction of the aforementioned Soto. His acts make him 
deserving that it shall be your pleasure to order the commandant 
of Nachitos to hand him over to me. The Marques will take great 
pleasure in this I assure you. 

In the accounts liquidated by the order of the Marques, and ar- 
ranged according to the instructions given to this effect, there were 
discovered eighty thousand and four hundred pesos overcharges on 
account of the troops in those which Don Angel de Martos made up 
for the garrison of Los Adaes during the time of his administration. 
It is to be noted that the Marques forgave him more than twenty 
thousand pesos. But this seemed little to Don Angel because he 
wished that his accounts should be approved contrary to all law or 
reason, and to the detriment of these poor soldiers who complained 
bitterly to the Sefior Marques. His Lordship listened to them, ex- 
amined everything carefully, and saw that as a matter of fact what 
they declared was true. On the strength of this he saw that justice 
was meted out in due form, corrected an infinite number of abuses, 
and ordered that a new regulation governing the fixed price of pro- 
visions should be drawn up. I enclose a copy of this to you so that 
Your Lordship may do me the honor of telling me whether you find 
it in accordance with that which ought to be established and carried 
out in a Christian manner. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 45 

The favors which I owe to the Marques are many, but none of 
them, has been so important and so pleasing to me as having been 
assured of the friendship and the coveted correspondence with Your 
Lordship which has been confirmed by your letter dated the 17th 
of October of last year. In it you are kind enough to promise ine 
your protection. This expression of friendship leaves me so ex- 
tremely grateful that I am anxious to be worthy of your greater es- 
teem on repeated occasions in which I may prove my devoted as 
well as grateful affection. I assure you that my obedience to your 
orders will always be a happy duty for me and I hope that the oc- 
casion to serve you will soon be realized. 

I pray that his Divine Majesty may preserve your esteemed life 
many years in the best of health. 

SAN ANTONIO DE BEXAR, March 15, 1768. 

Your very devoted and grateful servant kisses the hand of Your 
Lordship. 

HUGO O'CoNOR (Kubric) 

Senor DON ANTONIO DE ULLOA. 

P. S. After writing this, I received a letter from the captain of 
Orcoquiza, Don Melchor Af an de Kibera, a copy of which I enclose. 
In it you will note in part the proceedings of Soto Bermudes and 
the grave danger to the royal service to which his stay in NacMtos 
may give rise. Your Lordship will decide about the matter what- 
ever may be your greatest pleasure, in the knowledge that the pres- 
ent commandant of Nachitos is boasting that he will protect him, to- 
gether with other expressions by no means respectful to the Spanish 
nation. Because of all this he deserves (excepting the opinion of 
Your Lordship) a stern reprimand. 

(Eubric) 

KEGULATION OF LOUISIANA COMMERCE 
March 88, 1768" 

Royal decree providing the rules and conditions under which 

commerce may be carried on between Spain and the 

province of Louisiana. 

Since the province of Louisiana came under my sovereignty, it has 
been my desire that my new subjects residing therein shall not ex- 
perience any injury by the change of sovereign; and that means 
shall be sought to protect them, encourage them, and provide for them 
everything conducive to their prosperity and increase which is not 
opposed to the general interest of the monarchy. With this object 

*BL. (Printed ) . 



46 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

I have resolved that commerce shall be established between Spain 
and the province of Louisiana, and that for the present, until a new 
order is issued, it shall be carried on under the conditions, circum- 
stances, and method expressed in the following articles. 

I. 

This commerce is to be carried on through the same ports which, 
by decree of the 16th of October, 1765, were authorized for that of 
the islands of Barlovento. These ports are Cadiz, Sevilla, Alicante, 
Cartagena, Malaga, Barcelona, Santander, Corufia, and Gij<5n. 

II. 

In order to facilitate this commerce, I have decided to grant free- 
dom from the duty of Palmeo, established by the plan of the year 
1720; from that on tonnage; from the tax which they paid to the 
Seminary of San-Telmo; from the duty on foreign goods; from 
the charges for inspections and examinations of careenings, equip- 
ments, licenses for sailing, and other expenses which previously 
existed. In fact it is to be carried on in accordance with the same 
terms as that established by royal decree of the 16th of October, 
1765, for the islands of Barlovento, that is to say: Any merchant 
or person shall be allowed freedom to sail and carry on this com- 
merce at the times convenient to him, without necessity of applying 
to the court for a license, but only under the obligation of informing 
the administrator of the customhouse of the authorized port when 
he presents the ship for loading, in order to arrange that all goods 
and products which may be loaded shall pass through the custom- 
house without the collection of any export duty. A list of the ship- 
ments is to be made and a bond is to be furnished. Upon his return, 
a corresponding receipt certifying to the unloading of the aforesaid 
goods and products in the province of Louisiana is to be given. It 
must be fully understood, however, that the shipping of foreign wines 
is not to be permitted because I have prohibited it. 

III. 

The vessels in which this commerce is to be carried on must be of 
Spanish construction and belong to Spaniards, or persons naturalized 
in these kingdoms. Also the captains and two-thirds of the crew 
must be Spaniards or naturalized; and if these circumstances be 
lacking, no vessel shall be permitted to load or sail for the purpose 
of carrying on the aforesaid commerce. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 47 

IV. 

All the ships which take on cargoes in the aforesaid ports for the 
purpose of going to Louisiana must go directly to that province, 
without entering or arriving at any other port or coast of my 
dominions of America and adjacent islands. The violence of storms 
or any other unexpected accident may not be used as an excuse, but 
they must be proved in proper form, and the cause which made 
sailing directly to the destination impossible must be judged to be 
legitimate. Otherwise it is to be understood that the change of 
route, entrance, and unloading in another port was intentional and 
for private purposes. In this case, proceedings must be taken against 
the captain, his property, and bondsmen, as a defrauder of the royal 
revenues and violator of the laws, decrees, and orders which estab- 
lish the regulation of the commerce of the Indies. 

V. 

The administrators and clerks of the customhouses of the ports 
authorized for this commerce must make a true and accurate list of 
all the goods and products which are shipped to Louisiana, agri- 
cultural products, and goods of Spain as well as agricultural products 
and goods of foreign countries, and at the same time an itemized 
statement of their value; and nothing is to be shipped without the 
supervision of the abovementioned administrators. 

VI. 

No duty is to be collected at the time of the export of any of the 
products and goods which are shipped to Louisiana, whether they are 
foreign or of the country. 

VII. 

Foreign goods and products which are taken from the ports indi- 
cated must be actually those which have been already introduced into 
the aforesaid ports and have already paid the duties in force. 

VIII. 

When the loading of the ship is completed, the register must be 
closed, and the captain must give a bonded guarantee for ten percent 
of the value of his cargo. Under this bond he is obligated to trans- 
port directly to the aforesaid colony the goods and products loaded. 
He must prove their delivery therein with a return receipt or certifi- 
cation, which he must present on his return at the same custom- 
house of the port from which he sailed, signed by the minister of 



48 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the royal treasury and the person authorized for the examination and 
supervision of the goods shipped by the vessels which may arrive at 
the colony. He must also obligate himself to come with the goods, 
products, and money which he may take on in Louisiana, to some one 
of the authorized ports and present therein the register which is 
formed and must be given by the minister of revenue of the colony 
of the products which he brings back from that colony. The only 
exception is to be made in case of the total loss of the vessel through 
shipwreck, fire, or some other unavoidable accident, of which he 
must bring proof according to the custom of the sea. 

IX. 

If through the violence of storms or some unexpected accident he 
should arrive at some other port in America, he must present evi- 
dence in legal form of the cause which prevented him from reaching 
his destination ; and if it be judged legitimate, he will be permitted 
to unload and sell there the goods and products which he is carrying; 
but in this case he must pay ten percent of its value, on account of 
export duties, for the fulfillment of which the bond is also to serve. 

X. 

The return receipts or certificates which testify to the discharge 
of the goods and products comprised in the register must be pre- 
sented at the customhouse of the port of departure, so that in virtue 
thereof the obligation or bond which they may have given shall be 
canceled. 

XI. 

As soon as the vessels arrive at Louisiana they must present the 
register to the minister of the royal treasury, who will permit the 
unloading of the products and goods listed in it without imposing 
any charge on account of my royal treasury, since I desire that for 
the present all the products and goods carried to it from the desig- 
nated ports shall be free of import duties in Louisiana, and that they 
shall only pay the charges for anchorage in the river, or any other 
municipal duty which it is customary to charge in that port. 

XII. 

After the cargo has been discharged the aforesaid minister shall 
give to the captain the return receipts or certificates which testify 
to the unloading in that colony of the products and goods comprised 
in the register, so that, when he presents them at the customhouse of 
the port from which he sailed, the bond furnished for this purpose 
shall be canceled. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 49 

XIII. 

The products and goods which he takes on in Louisiana for his 
return definitely must be those manufactured or raised in that 
province; for I absolutely prohibit the shipping to Spain of those 
introduced from other places. 

XIV. 

An accurate list of the products and goods which, in accordance 
with the preceding article, are taken on for his return, and of the 
money brought, must be given to the minister of the royal treasury, 
with a formal declaration that they are products of that colony. 

XV. 

This list must be presented by the captain on his arrival in Spain 
at the customhouse of the port in which he arrives, so that, in virtue 
thereof, the bond which he gave for this purpose may be canceled in 
the port from which he sailed. 

XVI. 

The goods, products, and money which in the aforesaid manner 
come from the colony of Louisiana must pay for the present four 
percent import duty in the ports of Spain authorized for tMs 
commerce. 

XVII. 

If the products and goods brought from the said colony and intro- 
duced into the ports of Spain cannot be disposed of in them and it 
is desired to take them to other countries, it may be done freely, 
without paying any export duties. 

Let all this be observed and let the necessary orders be given to 
the ministry of the treasury in your charge for its fulfillment; and 
let copies of this decree be forwarded to the proper tribunals and 
officers for their information so that they may attend to its observance 
in so far as it may pertain to them. Signed by the royal hand of His 
Majesty at El Pardo on the 23d of March, 1768, A. D. 

MIGUEL, DB MTJZQTJIZ. 

It is a copy of the original which His Majesty sent to me. Madrid, 
March 28, 1768. 

PUERTO Eico, July S3, 1768. 

Let this royal dispatch be forwarded to the royal auditor's office 

700296 49 vol. 2 6 



50 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

of this place, and let due note be taken thereof so that all orders 
may be complied with. 

This royal auditor's office in my charge. 

PUERTO Bico, July 3, 1768. 

FRANCISCO GONSALES (Rubric) 

GRIMALDI TO ULLOA 
June W, 1768** 

In view of what Your Lordship says in your letter of November 
30, last year, about the good disposition and willingness with which 
M. D'Aubry, commander of the troops of His Most Christian Majesty 
in your colony, has co-operated in all matters pertaining to the service 
of His Majesty since the arrival of the governor, troops, and Spanish 
ministry there. His Majesty has decided that, when possession of the 
said colony has been taken, this gentleman shall be given by the 
treasury there in the royal name of the King a present of three 
thousand pesos fuertes, so that he may arrange for his voyage to 
France. Under this date I am communicating the corresponding 
order to (Jomisario Don Juan Joseph de Loyola. I advise Your 
Excellency of this so that you may see how the King has agreed to 
your proposal. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

ARANJUEZ, June W, 1768. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Kubric) 
Senor DON ANTONIO DE ULLOA. 



No. 47. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO BTTCARELI 

June 28, 1768** 



MY VERT DEAR SIR: The brigantine of Captain Moore, bound 
for your city with letters, is proceeding in charge of Lieutenant of 
Frigate Don Andres de Balderrama of the packetboat El Volante, 
accompanied by the cadet volunteer of the same Volmte, Don Pedro 
de Encalada, and its surgeon, Don Pedro Bullon. To the latter, in 
view of what he has represented to me and as this vessel is to return, 
I have given permission to go visit to his family. He is leaving a man 
to take his place and is returning here on the same brigantine. 

" AGI, PC, leg. 174. 
AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 51 

The ship is also taking twelve of the workmen who came from that 
city last year. Since they have been discharged as being useless and 
very bad workers, I am hairing them returned and have adjusted 
their accounts up to the days on which they were dismissed. I am 
inclosing to Your Excellency a list of them. 

This vessel, at no cost to the King, is proceeding there voluntarily 
for the purpose of performing this errand and returning here with 
a reply, as its captain is interested in this matter. There is no reason 
to delay Ms return. Both he and the officer have been instructed to 
place themselves at Your Excellency's orders in whatever you may 
be pleased to command them. As its owner is one of the principal 
suppliers of flour and salt meat to the colony, I advise Your Excel- 
lency, so that, with all confidence, you may entrust to it anything 
that you have for this country. This is with the qualification that, 
if at the expiration of one month from his departure from here, he has 
not returned, I shall understand from the longer delay that Your 
Lordship has had him detained or is keeping him to bring the funds 
that are to be remitted for the troops and the rest of the citizenry. 
This action will be of great satisfaction to the public, which is equally 
interested. 

I hope that Your Lordship offers many opportunities for serving 
and I pray God to protect you many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, June ##, 1768. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor DON ANTONIO BUCAREU. 

(Accompanying the foregoing) 

List of the workmen of the dockyard of this colony who came from 
Havana and are to be returned to that city as not being useful here. 

Bali&a or Isla Real 

Josef de Flores, master mason. 

Josef Eomero, journeyman ditto. 

Juan Rodriguez Jacinto, apprentice smith. 

Natchez 

Juan Feliz Botfn, master smith. 
Bias Hernandez, journeyman ditto. 
Gregorio Padilla, master carpenter. 
Juan Laureano Valencia, journeyman ditto. 
Josef Rafael Navarro, apprentice ditto. 



52 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Agustin Chavez, master stonemason. 
Baltasar Luarca, journeyman ditto. 

New Orleans 

Juan Phelipe Ruiz, journeyman cooper. 

Josef Waldo de Cardenas, ditto carpenter. 

NOTE. Although Feliz Montero and Juan Antonio Flores, master 
carpenter and apprentice, who were stationed at Iberville, are in this 
city to go to Havana as are the others, their accounts cannot be drawn 
up. The reason is that, although the storekeeper of that port sent 
down his accounts on May 22, this year, they were returned to him 
because of some discrepancies that were noted in them, and up to now 
he has not sent others. 

NEW ORLEANS, June 00, 1768. 

LOYOLA 



No. 48. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO BUCARELI 
Jime 0, 1768 * 



MY VERY DEAR SIR: The need of funds in which this colony 
finds itself has caused the extreme and serious crisis now being 
experienced. The reason is that last year there was no allotment, 
only 60,000 pesos having been remitted for account of this colony, 
while this year not even the balance of 140,000 has been received, 
much less the one for this year. [Torn] I have sent the vessel of 
Captain Moore, that has just arrived from New England with a third 
cargo of flour, without giving him more time than necessary to land 
it and take on ballast, to take these letters for Your Excellency, the 
quartermaster general of your island, and the court. The purpose 
is to satisfy, by means of the reply which he brings back, the creditors 
of the royal exchequer, among whose number is the said Moore, for 
balances due them since August, last year, as well as the public. At 
the present time it is very rare to find anyone who is not interested 
in the funds of the allotment, which, without having been received, 
have circulated in imagination from one hand to another in pro- 
portion to the want that is being suffered by everyone. The diffi- 
culties have been increasing the longer the remedy is delayed. 

I assume that funds expressly intended for this colony have not 
yet been received in your city from Mexico since the allotment for 
the year '66 was sent. If they have been received, I have no doubt 

. PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1705-1781 53 

that Your Lordship's zeal and consideration of the conditions 
prevailing in this new dominion would have caused you to have 
ordered them dispatched immediately, in accordance with the instruc- 
tions of His Majesty. [Torn] I can take no other step for the satis- 
faction of the public and the discharge of my duty than that of 
asking Tour Excellency to let me know when the royal exchequer 
can discharge its obligations to this colony and satisfy the large 
number of creditors it has at the present time. I must ask what has 
been the reason why the allotment for last year was not remitted 
in its entirety and why up to the present no news has been received 
that the one for this year will arrive before it ends. This informa- 
tion will serve to guide me in what I should do in the discharge of my 
obligation. 

A limited amount, like that of last year, is not sufficient now, 
because when that was received, I advised Your Excellency that 
there still remained unpaid more than half of the obligations, includ- 
ing those to the said Captain Moore for flour and other comestibles 
which he had supplied to that time. As the new obligations that have 
been incurred in the ten months which have elapsed since then have 
been increasing, the public debt is that much greater, while the means 
of paying it are less in proportion to the large number of creditors 
in and outside the colony. This situation could have been taken care 
of with the distribution of a limited sum, as was done at that time, 
only through the hopes which were given them that before the end of 
the year there would be funds to pay them in full. As this has not 
come to pass, either at that time or up to the present, the natural 
result is the lack of confidence they feel. In addition to this, difficulty 
is being experienced in maintaining the circulation of money and 
discharging obligations to all kinds of people, because for the last 
four months there has been a complete suspension among the public 
of all payments in cash. Debtors are protected from claimants by 
the courts, in view of the lack of any circulation of silver, which is 
the only money that has been current since the beginning of last year. 

Such a situation is the more difficult and its consequences much 
more serious in a new dominion, as is this one where, at the same 
time that a new sovereignty begins, want makes itself felt. Further- 
more, little attention is paid to it. For these reasons it is inevitable 
that the new subjects and those that supply the necessities of life, 
should make most dire predictions for the future, because, as their 
fealty has not become deep-rooted nor their confidence been won, dis- 
trust cannot fail to be widespread, and it reveals itself automatically. 



54 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

I hope for many occasions on which to serve Your Excellency 
and pray God to preserve you the many years that I desire. 
NEW ORLEANS, June fM 9 1768. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA ( Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor DON ANTONIO BUCAREIJ. 

GKIMALDI TO ULLOA 
Jime 8$, 1768 

The officers and men of the Spanish Company who are to form the 
battalion of your province are now embarking in Cadiz, together 
with artillerymen, clothing, cannon, etc., as Your Lordship will see 
from the attached statement. This is being done so hurriedly, I am 
advised by Sefior Don Julian de Arriaga, that there will not be time 
for them to be joined by the following: Don Pascual de Ulloa, 
captain of the King's own regiment, who is in Madrid and is going 
as major with the rank of lieutenant colonel; Don Juan Ygnacio de 
Urriza, naval quartermaster, who is going as military counsellor and 
adviser to Your Lordship ; Engineer Beas and two other officers, one 
going as adjutant and the other as ensign of the battalion. All of 
them will proceed immediately to Corufia to embark on the packet- 
boats of the maritime post. 

With the troop sailing from Cadiz there will be incorporated the 
hundred and some odd mercenaries who are now in Havana. Their 
number has been reduced by that governor's having put twenty of 
them on the fortification works as a punishment for their having 
fled to the convent of San Francisco and from there demanded the 
wine ration which had not been given them, as had been done with 
later arrivals. The reason was that, when they embarked, it had 
not yet been decided to give this as a general thing to those going to 
America. Other mercenaries up to the complement of 250 effectives 
(orders having already been issued for the replacement of the twenty 
abovementioned) will continue embarking in Corufia with all the 
promptness permitted by the small capacity of the packetboats. 

On the arrival of the convoy from Havana, Your Lordship will 
organize the battalion, and although it will be rather small until 
the arrival of the other mercenaries, you will arrange to take posses- 
sion immediately. If any of the French soldiers who are due to be 
given their discharges wish to remain in the battalion, Your Lordship 
may admit them under the terms of enlistment which you consider 
advisable, inasmuch as in any event they will be less costly than those 
sent from here. 



AGI, PC, leg. 174. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765*1781 55 

I deeply regret the delay in dispatching these troops, but greater 
promptness has been impossible because the expulsion of the Jesuits, 
the transfer of troops, the sending of some to Mexico, and other 
exigencies which have arisen have absolutely prevented it. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years as I desire. 

AEANJTJEZ, June $5, 1768. 

EL MAKQUES DE GHIMALDI (Eubric) 
Sefior DON ANTONIO DE ULLOA. 

ULLOA TO BUCAEELI 

July W, 1768^ 
No. 50. 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VEST DEAR Sis; On the 12th instant I received Your Ex- 
cellency's favor of June 7, brought by the packetboat La Eermosa 
LimerLa^ which brings 100,000 pesos for account of the allotment. 
This vessel, having had a long and difficult voyage, passed over the 
bar on the 9th and its arrival has given great satisfaction and relief. 
From the letter that I sent Your Excellency by Lieutenant of Frigate 
Don Andres de Balderrama on the English brigantine La Africa of 
Captain Moore you will have noted the difficulties in which this 
country found itself after great penury. There had not been seen 
for six months any money circulating in it or any person having been 
paid. 

Very well taken, despite the urgent requirements here, was Your 
Excellency's decision not to risk the entire 200,000 pesos on one single 
vessel, because in case of some contretemps, there would be no means 
of remedying it. As Your Excellency had at your disposal the other 
brigantine that I dispatched there for the same purpose, you could 
have increased the remittance, retaining the sum you considered 
proper for the expenses of the troops which had already arrived at 
that city and for those that were expected up to the full number 
that is to form the battalion of this province. 

The 100,000 pesos that have just arrived are not sufficient to pay 
the obligations of the royal exchequer up to now. These, includ- 
ing the uniforms that were given the French troops at the end of 
last year and the expenses incurred by the Volcmte, will exceed 124,000 
pesos, because, even without these two items or the pay of the 
French troops employed in the presidios, the sum that was owed at 
the middle of last month amounted very nearly to 10,000. Conse- 
quently we are left in almost as bad a position as we were when we 

181 AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



56 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

received the 60,000 pesos that Your Excellency remitted, because in 
these two years we are lacking 181,000 pesos to complete the two 
allotments. In case the troops arrive, I doubt that there will 
be funds for their pay until another remittance is received from 
Mexico. It is not possible to defer payment for the flour and other 
things that have been unpaid since last August, nor the pay and 
salaries which are in the same condition. 

I hope for many occasions to demonstrate my desire to serve and 
pray God to protect you for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, July W, 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most affectionate and faithful servant 
kisses your hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Sefior DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 



No. 15. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 
July SO, 1768 



MY VERY DEAR SIR : Having made the intimation, of which I in- 
formed Your Excellency, to the old Jesuit who was acting as parish 
priest in the towns of Ste. Genevieve and Pencur in Ilinueses, the 
commandant, M. de St. Ange now advises me that he immediately 
went over to the English side, and that he has been instructed and 
warned that, if for any reason he again comes over to our side, he 
will be arrested and brought here. 

The commandant there is now making representations, after the 
many others which he had already made, that there remains not a 
single ecclesiastic in that place, and those towns are unprovided with 
any recourse in any of the cases which may arise. The same thing 
is true at the fort of the Missouri, and the two nearer here. They 
are for this reason totally without any practice of religion and divine 
worship. I doubt not that Your Excellency has given careful con- 
sideration to this matter in order to take the proper action thereon. 

May God preserve Your Excellency many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, July W, 1768. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 



AGI, Aud, SD, 86-6-6. 



No. 52. 

Excellent Sir. 



THE REVOLBTIONAKY PERIOD, 1765-1781 57 

ULLOA TO BUCABEJLI 
July SO, 1768 w 



MY VERY DEAR Sra : From Your Excellency's letter of June 7th, 
I note the selection of Don Josef Fernandez as clerk of the court of 
Spaniards, war, and royal exchequer of this government, his conning 
by the packetboat La Hermosa Limena^ details as to his family, and 
the opinion that Your Excellency has formed of him. Likewise I note 
the letter sent to the quartermaster general in your island to have 
his passage arranged for. 

In view of the ideas expressed by Your Excellency about his coming 
to serve in this colony, and, because in the beginning he will not have 
any fees to collect since the number of Spaniards is very small, he is 
to be assisted by paying Villaescusa for his passage, etc., so that he 
may have clear the 600 pesos assigned him as salary. I shall arrange 
to have the rent of the house he occupies defrayed on the account of 
the royal exchequer until such time as his office permits him to do 
so himself. 

I desire many occasions on which to serve Your Excellency and 
pray God to protect your life for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, July W, 1768. 

ANTONIO DE UIJLOA (Eubric) 

Most Excellent Senor DON ANTONIO BTTCARELI. 



No. 16. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO GRIMAIDI 
August 4, 1768** 



MY VERY DEAR SIR : I am well aware that the English from New 
York and Philadelphia have set up stores of goods in the part of 
Illinois belonging to them for the purpose of establishing a profitable 
commerce with this province and gradually absorbing the silver 
entering it. Seeing that the prohibition, which I made in the year 
'66, that no trade or commerce should be carried on between the two 
dominions was not sufficient to stop this, and that it is difficult to 
enforce observance of it because of the many opportunities offered 
by the proximity of the two banks, I have totally prohibited the 
taking of silver there from here and ordered the confiscation of all 
that is found in the boats going across. 

AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 
*AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



58 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Inasmuch, as the troops, officials and other employees are the most 
numerous group there, I have ordered that the latter be supplied 
there with what they need for their support and a warrant for the 
value thereof issued against the treasury here by the storekeeper 
with the approval of the commandant. Those who have furnished the 
supplies shall be paid here. At the annual adjustment of accounts 
the employees shall select some person to receive what they have 
coming from their salaries; but as regards the troops, they will be 
paid the balances due them when they are relieved at the end of two 
years. During that time, being supplied with bread, meat, and other 
necessities from the King's storehouse, they do not need the balances 
due them from their allowances and pay. Otherwise the money would 
all immediately flow over to the English side, as happened with the 
funds sent there last year. Since goods are sold by the English at 
lower prices than here, what would happen in the future would be 
that they would supply themselves there to the grave detriment of 
the commerce between those realms and this province which would 
then be short of funds which escaped by that channel. 

I place myself with the greatest respect at the orders of Your 
Excellency and pray God to preserve your life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August h 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most faithful servant kisses your hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 



No. 18. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 
August 4, 1768. m 



MY VERT DEAR SIR : The troops which were to have arrived here 
have been delayed longer than was expected. Consequently the ship- 
ment of presents which should have been sent to the Missouri at the 
beginning of this year has also been delayed, together with other 
things required for the support of that settlement and good relations 
with the Indian tribes. It has become necessary for me to delay no 
longer but to dispatch a boat to take these things. I believe that it 
will have time to reach there and return before the arrival of the 
troops. They are also greatly needed there since very few remained 
after the offense committed by those who were on the boat. This 
state of things necessarily increases the expenses as the troops must 
be transported in other boats when they arrive. The situation would 

*AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



THE RBVOLTJTIONAEY PEBI0D, 1765-1781 59 

have been avoided if all of them could have gone together. I had 
postponed the dispatch of the boat, as I have already told Your 
Excellency, with the idea of keeping down the expenses. 

I place myself at Your Excellency's orders and pray God to pro- 
tect you for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August -{., 1768. 

Your most faithful servant kisses Your Excellency's hand. 

ANTONIO BE ULLOA (Rubric) 
The Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GBIMALDI. 



No. 20. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 
August 4, 1768. m 



MT VERY DEAR SIR : In the lists of officers which I sent to Your 
Excellency in the year '66 you will find the name of M. de St. Ange, 
for a long time past the commandant of Ilinueses. He is an elderly 
man and very well known among the tribes there because of the long 
time he has held that command and his having fought with them 
against the English. His residence has been in Pencur since Fort 
de Chartres passed into the hands of the English. It is necessary 
to keep him in the same command which he has held not only on 
account of his conduct but also because of the credit and reputation 
which he has among the Indians. Consequently this officer will have 
to be retained in the service of His Majesty with the rank he holds 
in the list of officers and the corresponding salary. He is a man of 
advanced age, and when he comes to the end of his days, the officers 
of our troops naturally will have more knowledge of the management 
of the Indians, and that command will be reduced to the status of 
that of the Missouri without having aggrieved the man who holds it 
at present, as would be the case if he were removed. 

At Missera or Ste. Genevieve, twenty leagues below Pencur, there 
also resides, as special commandant, another retired French officer, 
M. de Eocheblave. As this is also a well populated place, it cannot 
get along without a commandant, principally because it is almost 
opposite the English Fort de Chartres. Up to the present the com- 
mandant has not received a salary because before peace was concluded 
these places were very small and their inhabitants resided in the 
part which is now English. 

It is necessary to retain him, for although this town is part of the 
government of Missouri, it cannot get along without a chief or com- 

AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



60 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

mandant, either military or civil, because it is twenty-five leagues 
from the Missouri and is daily growing larger. For this reason will 
Your Excellency ascertain in both cases what is His Majesty's 
pleasure, and communicate to me his orders, fully assured of my 
prompt and faithful compliance. 

May God protect Your Excellency's life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August 4, 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble servant kisses your hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 
The Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 

ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 

August 4, 1768? 1 * 
No. 21. 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: In my letter No. 3 of July 20 I informed 
Your Excellency of what has been done in the matter of raising 
wheat, and that now the difficulty is that there are no millstones. As 
this is not a country of quarries it is necessary to get them elsewhere. 

On inquiring whether they can be obtained from Havana, I am 
told that none are there except those which come from Spain. For 
this reason it is useless to try to get them from that governor. If 
Your Excellency, in the midst of your heavy duties, should consider 
this matter deserving of your attention, you might be pleased to order 
that vessels bound for Havana should bring some sets of millstones 
in their ballast, and have a model of a horse mill made so that it 
might be copied and mills established here. The two here at present, 
one at Opelousas and the other being established by Don Juan de 
Messieres at Natchitoches, are so imperfect that they require the 
strength of two mules to turn the stone and these animals have to 
be relieved by others, while all that they grind from daybreak until 
night is only four bushels. 

It will be advisable to send now six sets for horse mills and six 
sets more for water mills because from February or March to July, 
when the river is high, the water mills run, but are shut down the 
other eight months. 

The model is necessary so that the grinding may be less costly than 
it is at present and so that the design of the various water and horse 
mills may facilitate this development, because there is no advantage 
in having good harvests of wheat if there is no way to turn it into 
flour at little cost. 



, And. SD, 86-6-6. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 61 

I remain entirely at your Excellency's service and pray God to 

guard your life many years. 

ANTONIO DE UiaLOA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent, Sefior MARQUES DE GBXHAIDL, 

ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 

August 4, 1768 
No. 17. 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR : One of the most difficult tasks of this govern- 
ment is the regulation of the trade or commerce with the Indian 
tribes in such a way as to keep them in peace, friendship, and good 
harmony with the presidios without increasing the trouble and 
burden of the presents and support which they frequently come to 
get from them. Consequently, I have given the greatest attention 
to this matter, being of the opinion that to continue giving them 
everything, as was formerly done, is to keep them addicted to this 
bad practice, and once habituated to it, to increase their importuni- 
ties. On the other hand, this course will open the way for the 
commandants and others handling the matter to take advantage of 
the same opportunity. 

With this idea I have labored to reduce the extraordinary Indian 
expenses and to have the commandants realize that the Indians cannot 
be despotic in their demands, and that they must not be given every- 
thing they are minded to ask for, with threats of attack if they are 
not gratified every time they come to the forts. This measure was 
not sufficient to secure the end desired. The principal difficulty was 
that the merchants who trade with them, in order to secure greater 
profits, induce the Indians to come to the presidios, telling them that 
they will receive wonderful presents there. This situation has already 
been experienced and the Indian tribes themselves have reported it 
to us. 

In order to prevent this long-standing and pernicious abuse in the 
future, I have ordered that the territories of the various tribes be 
distributed among the better class of traders, giving them licenses 
to enter the tribes to trade for one year and making them responsible 
for anything which may occur to the detriment of the peace and good 
relationships. They are required to persuade the Indians not to 
come to the forts except at the customary times for receiving their 
presents and to supply them regularly with the things they custom- 
arily use so that it may not be necessary for them to come to the 

AGT Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



62 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

forts to ask for these as extra presents because they had not been 
supplied with them. I believe that, in this way, the Indians will be 
less burdensome, and that in time this vicious custom will be 
abolished. 

I send Your Excellency herewith a copy of one of the licenses so 
that you may see the terms under which they are issued. This one 
will serve as a model in the future. 

I place myself with the greatest respect at Your Excellency's 
orders, and pray God preserve your life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August 4? 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most obedient servant kisses Your 
Excellency's hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 

Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 



No. 53. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO BUCARELI 
August 10, 1768.** 



MY VERY DEAR SIR: On the 30th ultimo, when Don Andres de 
Balderrama arrived here, he delivered Your Excellency's two letters 
of the llth of that month, and upon his reporting that he had 
brought no more silver than that which arrived by the packetboat 
La Hermosa Limena^ which crossed the bar on the 9th, the difficulties 
and clamors have increased, for the reason that the creditors cannot 
be paid even half of their claims. After reducing the payments to 
one-third and paying wages, salaries, and pensions for only the first 
three months of the year, there is nothing left for the expenses 
of the maintenance of the Volante. I do not mean the pay and wages 
of its officers and crew, but only its provisions and supplies from the 
time of its arrival here to the present, which are being supplied 
independently of the treasury by the merchant, M. Maxent. It is 
a cruelty that at the end of two and a half years of making dis- 
bursements without any interest, there is no way of reimbursing him. 

How can Captain William Moore, a creditor to the extent of 24,000 
pesos, the greater part since August last year, be satisfied with a third 
of this sum after the expense and losses that he has suffered all this 
time waiting for his money? 

All the others are in the same position to the total of 130,000 pesos, 
and it is absolutely necessary to provide for the pay of the troops 

*> AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 63 

and other unescapable necessities. The receipt of the 100,000 pesos 
is the same as if no funds whatever had arrived, and the clangers 
and risks in which we find ourselves are no less than those there 
were before. For this reason Don Andres de Balderrama was in- 
structed, and must have told Your Excellency that, if he encountered 
on his way any vessel bringing funds, he was to ascertain the amount 
and, if they did not amount to or exceed 150,000 pesos, not to interrupt 
his voyage but to continue it, for the reason that, without this sum, 
nothing could be done in the situation in which we find ourselves. 

In order to quiet and put a stop to the distrust, and the rumors 
and troubles that it brings, Your Excellency will please order that 
Don Lucas Villaescusa return again, bringing at least an addi- 
tional 50,000 pesos of the 100,000 pesos remaining there, as the balance 
will be sufficient for the troops there and those that arrive from 
Spain. I have so promised the interested parties, as the only means 
of calming them and making them restrain themselves with this hope. 
Since I have broken my word to them so many times, they have 
become suspicious of what they are told about subsisting in some way 
until the arrival of Moore. 

There is no other way of rectifying matters at present, and of 
being able to go ahead, because if there were any means or things 
that could remedy matters, I should already have undertaken them, 
as I have done with the new settlers. I have sent word to New 
England that they should postpone their coming for the present, 
because we do not have funds with which to assist them. Likewise 
we are suspending for the same reason almost all the works that 
should have been made, confining ourselves to wages, salaries, 
ecclesiastic pensions, and the troops. 

I remain entirely at Your Excellency's orders and pray God to 
protect you for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August 10^ 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most affectionate and faithful servant 
kisses your hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULJLOA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Sefior DON ANTONIO BTJCARELI. 



No. 55. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO BUCARELI 
August IS, 1768 



MY VERT DEAR SIR : I have taken note of the shortage that may 
be caused in your city by the absence of the officer and ten soldiers 



*>AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



64 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

who came escorting the 100,000 pesos brought by the packetboat La 
Hermosa Limefia. It will make no longer a stay than to discharge a 
cargo and again load a cargo of pitch and boards, which, according 
to contract, it is taking there for account of the royal exchequer. It 
did not arrive here till the 4th instant; and as soon as it has com- 
pleted loading, it will again depart without delay. Of this I advise 
Your Excellency in reply to yours of June 8, reiterating my wish to 
serve Your Excellency and praying God to protect your life the many 
years I desire, 

NEW ORLEANS, August 13^ 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble servant kisses your hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 
Most Excellent Seiior DON ANTONIO BUCARELI. 



No. 25. 



ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 
August 18, 1768. 61 



MY VERY DEAR SIR: I am now studying the case of a French 
trader named Pedro Simon, who is accused of having suggested to 
various tribes of Indians that they should make war on the Spaniards 
on the frontier of Mexico. This affair requires a nice judgment be- 
cause there are no other witnesses than the Indians themselves. As 
they are accustomed to give as an excuse for their atrocities the first 
one that comes to hand, no true judgment can be formed on the case 
in which the accused alleges in his own behalf that he does not under- 
stand the language of these Indians. 

At the order of the commandant of Natchitoches, Don Louis de St. 
Denis went to make this investigation and arrest the culprit. This 
was done because some thirty Indians appeared to report that the 
trader, Pedro Simon, had suggested to them, on behalf of the com- 
mandant himself, that they should get ready to make war on the 
Spaniards, for which reason they had come to learn whether this was 
his will. 

I referred this case for legal advice to a jurist who was for many 
years the King's attorney general in the Island of Granada. In his 
opinion he condemns Pedro Simon to forced labor for five years on the 
royal works to which he may be sent, and fines him 200 pesos to be 
paid to the exchequer; but this opinion and case are open to great 
doubt at the present time, principally as there is no complete proof 
of the crime. Consequently I shall not proceed to execute such a 
sentence without more proof than I now have, because among the 

AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 05 

Indians there are only two who say they heard him, while all the 
others, to the number of eighteen, say only that they heard it from 
other Indians; so the case reduces itself to the statements of two 
Indians, which is enough for accusation, but not for proof of same. 

The accused is in jail, and I shall order that some other steps be 
taken to see what can be brought to light, of which I shall advise 
Your Excellency, and pray Our Lord to preserve your life many 
years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August 18, 1768. 

Your most devoted servant kisses Your Excellency's hand. 

ANTONIO BE ULLOA (Rubric) 
Most Excellent Sefior MAKQTTES DE GKIMALDL 

ACCUSATION AGAINST PIEKKE SIMON FOB INCHING INDIANS AGAINST 

THE SPANIARDS 62 

Abstract of the investigation made by the Chevalier de Villiers, 
commandant at ISTatchitoches, of one Pierre Simon, trader and native 
of Pointe Coupee, concerning some pernicious statements made 
by Simon among the savage nations, with the purpose of having the 
nations attack the Spaniards. 

1. The report which notes the fact that seven savages, of whom 
two were chiefs named Houahan and Cocaye, had come to Natchi- 
toches to declare that the said Pierre Simon, being among the 
Aliis, encouraged the savages to make a raid on the Spaniards with 
the consent of Monsieur de Villiers, commandant, and that conse- 
quently they were going to assemble but to this the said commandant 
opposed himself, urging these nations to be peaceful and friendly, 
and sent them back to go themselves and contradict these false 
statements. 

2. The order of the aforesaid commandant of Natchitoches to 
Monsieur de Saint Denis, one known and respected by the nations, 
to go with two soldiers and one militiaman for his bodyguard to 
the Ahis, the village of the savages, to deny the false statements of 
the said Pierre Simon and to act according to the instructions given 
to him in consequence thereof. 

3. The instructions given to the said Sieur Saint Denis containing 
seven articles. 

THE FIRST 

To go promptly to Los Adayes to present the letter, of which he 
is bearer, in order to secure two soldiers from its garrison. 

*BL. (French). 

700296 49 vol. 27 



66 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

SECOND 

To leave promptly for the Hais, where the said Simon is located, 
whom he will arrest cautiously, etc. ... If he were not there, to 
find out secretly where he might be etc. . . . 

THIBD 

To proceed with the examination of the said Simon, as to the 
statements he has made, calling the chiefs and all other savages to 
ascertain the truth etc. . . . 

FOURTH 

The said Sieur Saint Denis shall address all the savages etc. . . . 
and shall tell of the chiefs particular affection for them and the 
friendship he bears to the Spaniards, his brothers etc. . . . He shall 
obtain assurance from them that they remain orderly and peaceful 
with the Spaniards as they are now all part of one nation etc. . . . 

FIFTH 

He shall inquire whether there are any other French traders among 
the savages in the dependencies of Los Adayes, and he shall order 
them to withdraw etc. . . . 

SIXTH 
To return with the said Pierre Simon etc. . . . 

4:. Letter of Monsieur de Villiers to the governor of Texas about 
this matter and about the mission entrusted to Monsieur Saint Denis, 
bearer of this letter, etc. . . . 

5. The report of the said Sieur Saint Denis in which he gives the 
details of his mission to the Hiatasses and the Nacooodosses where 
he found the said Pierre Simon with Leveille, Eouleau, Thibaud, 
and Blaud, traders, whom he has seized and from whom he has taken 
the following depositions. 

Ahouahan and Cocayes, chiefs, declared that they had not heard 
anything from Pierre Simon but that two chiefs named Le Noir of 
the Great ISfacocodosses, and Le Sanche of the Assinai had received 
the order from the said Simon to attack the Spaniards by Monsieur 
de Villiers' command; that these first ones having been invited to join 
in this affair had gone to Natchitoches to make their report about it; 
and that the commandant had forbidden them to attack the 
Spaniards, and after inducing them to be peaceful, had sent them 
back to carry that message etc. . . . 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 67 

Having questioned the subjects of the said chiefs and Little 
Nacocodosses they declared that they heard other savages make the 
same statements of which Simon is accused. 

Two CadauX) at the time in the said village, declared as above. 

Six Adayes declared as above. 

Four AMs declared nothing, as they were not the head men of 
their nation. 

The two Nacocodosses of the great village declared that they heard 
the said Pierre Simon make these statements, telling them that they 
should attack the Spaniards and that it was the desire of the French 
chief. Being confronted with the accused they maintained their 
deposition in his presence. Pierre Simon protested that these state- 
ments were invented by them. 

One Leveille, trader, states that he has not heard the said Simon 
say any of the things of which he is accused, but nevertheless the 
rumor among the savages was that they were going to make a raid 
on the Spaniards. 

One Rouleau, trader, declared as above. 

One Blaud, trader, declares that he had not heard the said Simon 
make any bad statements against the Spaniards, and that the said 
Simon had told him on behalf of Monsieur de Villiers to withdraw 
to French territory. 

One Thibaud, trader, declares as above. 

And the said Pierre Simon, accused, declares that, having gone to 
Natchitoches and then wishing to go up among the nations to pay 
some debts, he received a passport from the commandant, in which 
he was ordered to inform all the French traders that they should 
withdraw from the Spanish territories, and having gone to the AM^ 
he had given these orders to parties named Maniere, Oesaire 
Borme^ Frangois Barre, and Blaud who were located in the said 
village, and that afterwards he had gone to the Hiatasses. 

I addressed these savages, etc. . . . for which they were quite glad, 
and having contradicted these evil statements, I left them a white 
flag etc. . . . urging them all to be friendly and peaceful, etc. . . . 
I informed the traders to go to the Natchitoches within fifteen 
day . , . and I took the said Simon to Natchitoches. 

Signed, SAINT DENIS. 

I, Saint Denis, declare that two Nacocodosses savages have warned 
me that one Patris, a Spaniard, had told them that the Spanish 
troops were to be assembled in order to destroy them etc. . . . 

6. The depositions of the traders named above, taken at 
Natchitoches, at the request of Monsieur de Villiers, commandant, 



68 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

by Monsieur Saint Amant, officer in the fort, and acting major 
etc. ... In the presence of witnesses etc. . . . 

The deposition of one Jacques Rouleau, trader, who says he knows 
Pierre Simon, having met him at the Yatasses, had informed him 
that his passport ordered him to command all traders to withdraw 
to French territory, but the said Simon made none of the statements 
of which he is accused. 

That of Matthias Thibaud, trader, is similar to the one above, 
and only adds that he has noticed things going on among the 
savages, but not understanding their tongue was unable to learn 
anything from them. 

That of Frangois Blaud, trader, says the same thing, and that he 
has merely heard several savages say that the said Simon has made 
these statements among the nation to induce them to make raids on 
the Spaniards. 

And that of the said Pierre Simon says that it is not true that 
Monsieur de Villiers, the commandant of Natchitoch.es, had ever 
told him to get the savages to attack the Spanish, nor is it true that 
he has ever made these statements or other similar ones, since he is 
not conversant with their tongue; that he journeyed to the neighbor- 
ing nations in Spanish territory to communicate to the traders the 
order he had for them to withdraw and go to Natchitoches. 

SUMMARY OF THIS PROCEDURE 

Two savage chiefs named Le Noir and Le Sanche said to two other 
chiefs named Houahan and Cocaye that Pierre Simon had told them 
on behalf of Monsieur de Villiers to attack the Spaniards. 

The subjects of the said Ahouahan and Cocaye and the Little 
Nacocodosses declare that they have heard other savages repeat the 
statements of which Pierre Simon is accused, said Simon apparently 
having brought the word of the French chief to attack the Spaniards. 

Two Cadaux declare as above. 

Six Adayes declare as above. 

Four Ahis have declared nothing as not being among the principal 
men of their nation. 

Two Nacooodosses declare that Pierre Simon told them that they 
were to attack the Spaniards because it was the will of the French 
chief; and having confronted them with the accused, they main- 
tained their deposition in his presence. Pierre Simon declared that 
these statements were false and of their invention. 

Leveille, Eouleau, Blaud, and Thibaud, all traders, declare that 
they have known and spoken to the said Pierre Simon, but that he 
has never made them any of the statements of which he is accused, 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1165-1781 69 

and they do not accuse him at all. However they declare that several 
savages told them that they were Indisposed toward the Spaniards. 

Monsieur De Saint Denis^ declares that a Spaniard named Patris 
said to two Nacocodosses savages that the Spanish troops were to 
be assembled to destroy them. 

And the said Pierre Simon declares that Monsieur de VilUers has 
not commanded him to tell the savages to attack the Spaniards; that 
he has made none of the statements imputed to him as he does not 
know their tongue. 

It is Monsieur Azemar's opinion that the two Nacocodosses savages 
should be confronted again with the said Pierre Simon; that in the 
meantime the said Simon should be examined by a man familiar 
with the laws; that Patris should be secured in order to know If 
there has been collusion. 

The question is to find out, in order to base judgment, whether 
two savages who declared the said Simon to be guilty are sufficient 
to condemn the accused. If they were Christians, they would be 
sufficient. 

Monsieur de Villiers must be cleared by a judgment. 



No. 28. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 

August S3, 1768** 



MY ViRY DEAR SIR : In this colony we are suddenly in receipt of 
important news from the English. Yesterday there arrived here an 
officer named Mr. Green with letters from the governor general of 
Pensacola, Don Frederick Haldimand. Under date of the 16th of this 
month he advises me of the decision of his court to withdraw the 
garrisons which the English have in the forts of Bute at Iberville, and 
Panmure at Natchez, demolishing the first and abandoning the sec- 
ond. Likewise the general himself with the greater part of the gar- 
rison of Pensacola and Mobile will retire to St. Augustine, Florida, 
where the English are going to establish general headquarters. For 
this reason he proposes that we take over the provisions which they 
have in the forts at the original cost. 

The officer has informed me that the decision received from their 
court is that the general will be at St. Augustine, Florida, and have 
there a command of 3000 troops from which will be taken the garri- 
sons for all the islands under that command. He also stated that in 
Pensacola there will be only one company of fifty men and from 
there a small detachment will be sent to Mobile. This indicates that 



AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



70 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the English have been undecided about the value of these possessions, 
and that the expense occasioned England is not repaid by the profit 
taken from them. 

Eegarding this river, we shall feel more at ease without the con- 
cern occasioned us by their proximity. On the other hand, our cares 
will be increased by the tribes of Indians dependent upon the two 
English forts and who are on their side, as it is probable that they 
will come to our side, or even here, to beg as is their custom. Even 
so the move will be good for us and will put a stop to the constant 
movement of officers and troops as heretofore. 

The officer adds that a commissioner will remain at Natchez, and 
that the town will be continued for those who wish to go there to 
settle, although I doubt that anyone will do so in the absence of 
troops to control the Indians. At Pensacola they have constructed 
many works upon which they have expended much capital, but they 
are abandoning it all. 

I shall be happy to receive Your Excellency's orders so as to 
comply with them faithfully and obediently, and pray God to spare 
your life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August $3, 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most devoted servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Seiior MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 

GRIMALDI TO U;LLOA 
September, 1768 ' .* 

The Council of War has examined the petition sent me by Your 
Lordship from Don Pedro Piernas, at that time first lieutenant of 
the Spanish Company of your Province and commander of the Fort 
of San Luis de Natchez, in which he requests permission to unite in 
marriage with Dona Felicitas Portneuf . It was without some docu- 
ments which he should have submitted to Your Lordship in con- 
formity with the regulations of the military pension fund. However, 
the council was of the opinion that (in order to avoid delay due to 
the distance) he should be given this permission, subject to several 
stipulations. As the King has now approved the decision of the 
council, I advise Your Lordship of his royal order, so that you may 
inform the interested party of same, but instruct him that before 
contracting marriage he must submit to Your Lordship said certifi- 
cate of baptism and a certified copy of his commission as captain. 
Without these his wife will not be entitled to the benefits of the 



AGI, PC, leg. 174. 



THE KBVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 71 

pension fund according to the provisions of the said regulation, unless 
said Don Pedro should die in action. 

Your Lordship will send me said certificate of baptism and copy 
of Ms commission and also include the certificate of marriage for 
filing in the office of the fund. 

I pray God to preserve your life many years, 

SAN ILDETOKBO, Septem&er, 1768. 

MAKQUES BE GRTMALPI (Eubric) 
Sefior DON ANTONIO mm ULLOA. 



TO GEIMALDI 

October 6, 1768. m 
No. I. 
Most Excellent Sir : 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : Under date of August 23, 1 informed Your 
Excellency of the news received of the English having abandoned 
the forts which they had on this river, and retiring with most of their 
troops from Pensacola and Mobile to St. Augustine. This movement 
has been carried out. On the 5th instant, the troops from the two 
forts left here for Pensacola. They had set out from that post for 
their new station at almost the same time that the two officers who 
brought the news of this event arrived here. 

The artillery at Bute has been brought through here to Pensacola, 
but that at Panmure has been left in that fort in charge of a merchant 
named Bradely, who has begun to form a settlement with negroes. I 
do not know whether it will be able to survive, because the Indians 
will not fail to harrass it and to commit raids on its territory. 

On the 14th of last month there arrived here an English naval 
officer, one Michilman, and a hydrographer, who had come with a 
schooner to the entrance of the lakes. They are engaged in making a 
map of all the coast of Florida and of this region. 

From them I have learned that, although the English have with- 
drawn the infantry from Pensacola and Mobile, they are not doing 
the same with their naval forces. Two frigates-of-war still remain 
in that port at the request of the people who are established there 
and are engaged in trade with the ports of Campeche and other 
Spanish ones on this Gulf. The governor has consented to one com- 
pany of fifty men remaining in Pensacola and thirty more in Mobile, 
to protect them from the attacks which might be made on them by 
Indians. 

These men have reported that the troubles in New England con- 
tinue to spread. The people have compelled Governor General Don 
Thomas Gage to flee from the capital and retire to the fort, where it 

*AGI, Aud. SB, a6-6-6. 



72 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

is said they have him besieged. They also added that these troubles 
and conspiracies are greater in the province of Boston then in the 
others. The inhabitants there are determined on total independence 
from old England. This is what was giving the greatest concern. 

No vessel whatever has arrived from Ylinueses for some time. 
For this reason I do not know whether the English troops which 
have been there up to the present will remain there or whether they 
will be withdrawn, as has been reported. 

This news changes the situation in this country considerably. 
Formerly 800 men were not sufficient to garrison it as long as the 
English might try to invade it by bringing naval forces to blockade 
it at the entrance, cutting communications or landing forces at any of 
its many harbors. 

This number is less necessary now on account of our not being 
faced by forts or troops of another nation to cause concern at the 
present ; and, in regard to the interior of the colony, there are needed 
only enough to prevent attacks by the Indians and to keep the people 
in order. The troops could now, if His Majesty should think this 
advisable, be reduced to one half, which will be sufficient to keep a 
detachment of sixty men at the Missouri and Ylinueses, fifteen at 
San Luis de Natchez, fifteen at Arkansas, thirteen at Natchitoches, 
thirteen at Pointe Coupee, thirteen at San Gabriel de Iberville, eight 
at the fort of the Bayou of St. John, outlet of Lake Ponchartrain, 
eight at the fort of Tigullo, and ten at Isla Heal, making a total of 
155, From a complement of 400, this would leave 245 in the city for 
reliefs when required. There would result a saving of a large part 
of the expenses in comparison with the present footing. I shall give 
Your Excellency my ideas on this matter in the following letter 
under this date. 

I place myself at Your Excellency's orders and pray God to pre- 
serve your life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, October 6, 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

Your most obedient servant kisses Your Excellency's hands. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 73 

ULLOA TO GRBCALDI 

October 6, 17$8. m 
No. 2. 
Most Excellent /Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR Sra : One of the greatest of my cares in this post 
has been the lack of advancement in those things which the country 
clearly promises to the state and nation. In this connection I search 
for some means of reducing expenses, so that whatever does not pro- 
duce a profit may entail the least possible burden on the exchequer. 
But I realize that it has not worked out this way, because the de- 
partments and objects of the government are so many that, no matter 
how much one may wish to reduce them, their total ever increases. 

With the withdrawal of the English troops from Pensacola and 
Mobile, together with the governor general who resided there, and 
the abandonment of the two forts of Bute and Panmure at Iberville 
and Natchez which they had on this river, the situation of the country 
changes in aspect, and becomes more favorable to the interests of 
the royal exchequer. 

In any event England now teaches us to economize by abandoning 
whatever it considers unable to produce any advantage, and without 
renouncing its dominion or rights, reduces its government to a civil 
one, thus decreasing the considerable expenditures occasioned by the 
military part. 

If we on our part should imitate this style of government, the ex- 
penses of this province could be reduced to less burdensome figures. 

The offices of the intendancy and the oontaduria de intervention 
are costly on account of the number of officials employed, and this 
represents the greatest expenditure of the royal exchequer. 

Everywhere in the Spanish Indies it has been the custom to have 
the royal exchequer and its revenues managed by two royal officials, 
or at the most three; auditor, treasurer, and cashier, but generally 
there are only two ; auditor and treasurer. I shall cite to Your Ex- 
cellency as an example Huancavelica, a very expensive place, to which 
the food must be brought from outside. There are only an auditor and 
treasurer, with salaries of 1500 pesos each when they are permanent, 
those who hold office temporarily and are appointed by the viceroy 
receiving only half as much, a chief clerk, and a second clerk with 
small salaries. These men handle from 700,000 to 800,000 pesos a 
year, receiving and disbursing same and having to attend to various 
other tasks, not only in connection with that province but also four 
or five others which are dependent upon that treasury. Nevertheless 
they are sufficient to handle everything in connection with the royal 

* AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



74 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLB1 

exchequer, both receiving and disbursing, and keeping the accounts 
with all the formality required and prescribed by the regulations. 

Here we have an intendancy, an auditor's office, and a treasury. 
The two first named have various clerks to run them, but still their 
chiefs complain that they are not sufficient for the work they have 
to do. For this reason it seems to me that, if there were established 
a royal treasury on the same footing as the others in the Indies, and 
as prescribed by the laws thereof, much would be saved in the 
salaries of clerks and also of their chiefs, bearing in mind the footing 
on which the English in Pensacola would be. 

As the governor no longer has the English to contend with, he 
need not be of the same character as before, nor will he have the 
reasons for making the expenditures which there have been up to 
now. For this reason he will not have to endure the afflictions he 
otherwise would, and his salary should be proportionate to the char- 
acter which it is decided to give him. 

A reduction in the number of troops means a corresponding one 
in the number of officers, including the artillery corps and the engi- 
neers, as there is no longer any need of having more than one artillery- 
man in the forts to care for the little artillery they have. 

The f rigate-of-war can also be dispensed with, as it is not probable 
that vessels flying the English flag will come here with troops, officers, 
and provisions, as heretofore; and for our nationals, whether Spanish 
or French, this frigate will not be needed. There will only be needed 
enough seamen for the boats which are going to and coming from the 
forts. 

I cannot tell Your Excellency exactly how much these savings will 
amount to, but they will be considerable even by beginning the re- 
duction of expenses through halving the number of troops and reduc- 
ing the salaries of the offices. These are the items of prime 
consideration. 

The province will have less commerce, because the smaller the funds 
arriving, the fewer will be the goods brought in for consumption. 
But this will not make it poorer than it is, nor will there by this be 
any lack of necessities, because it will always produce the food it 
does now. If wheat should be grown, as now appears probable, there 
will be more opportunity for the progress of its inhabitants. 

The important thing is to establish a commerce designed to handle 
the great quantity of lumber of all kinds, which is the principal item 
exported from here. As regards its other products it is necessary for 
the inhabitants to export these in order to obtain the other necessities 
of life which they must import from abroad. 

I do not doubt that Your Excellency in your great wisdom has 
already reflected on these matters, and that consequently you will 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 75 

take the steps most In conformity with the pleasure and service of 
His Majesty, the goal toward which I direct my zeal. Al- 
though the fixed troops and the intendancy are now established on a 
different footing, the conditions which compelled this have changed. 
In recognition of the greater expenditures entailed in continuing the 
present system, it might now well be altered, in view of these 
changes, and what has been demonstrated by experience. 

I place myself at the service of Your Lordship and pray God to 
preserve your life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, October 6, 1768. 

Your most obedient servant kisses Your Excellency's hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 

ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 

October 6, 178 

No. 4. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: I have advised Your Excellency in my 
previous letters of the miserable conditions existing here on account 
of the scantiness of the funds which arrived last year and this, be- 
cause even after allowing for the value of the powder which Your 
Excellency had sent from France, the amount lacking to complete the 
allotments is considerable. 

According to reports I have from the Kingdom of New Spain, the 
obligations of the royal exchequer at the end of last year amounted 
to five and a half million pesos. It has been three years since the 
allotments of the presidios of the kingdom had been paid, but the 
worst thing about this situation is the little hope of any reduction in 
these obligations or any improvement relative to the shortage of 
revenue. 

For this reason it is clearly impossible for Louisiana to be sup- 
plied fully with its allotments, and this in itself makes more neces- 
sary the reduction of expenses as much as possible, even in those 
things which seem indispensable. If this is not done, the result will 
be, as is already the case, that the expenses of the province cannot be 
defrayed nor the credit of the royal exchequer maintained. 

Therefore the withdrawal of the English troops in this vicinity and 
the abandonment of the forts which they had on the river is most 
opportune. If they had done this sooner, we could have avoided the 

AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



76 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

expense of those we have established and cannot now abandon because 
of the settlements which are dependent upon them and must be pro- 
tected from the attacks they might suffer from the Indians. 

With regard to the settlements from here to Iberville and Natchez, 
which naturally will continue to be extended, it may be possible to 
avoid henceforth the expense of the Acadians and have those who 
come find some way of supporting themselves with the aid of their 
own countrymen, or otherwise, without giving them anything more 
than lands when they ask for them. 

This would relieve the royal exchequer of quite a heavy expense. 
They are now of less importance, not only because there are no Eng- 
lish to trouble us on the 500 leagues of river between here and Ilinueses, 
but also because there is already a sufficient number of families to 
multiply the population by means of the opportunities offered them 
through the commerce which is being established in this province. 
Consequently it may now be considered as a land tilled and sown, 
and lacking only the water to make it grow, and time for the crop 
to mature. 

I remain at the orders of Your Excellency and pray God to pre- 
serve your life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, October 6, 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

Your most obedient servant kisses Your Excellency's hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GREMALDI. 



No. 7. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 
October 10, 1768** 



MT VERT DEAR SIR : The independence of the English merchant 
vessels, which arrive with flour, meat, and other provisions for this 
city, has compelled me to order the captain of His Majesty's packet 
Volante to fire on any which may tie up on the opposite bank with- 
out first presenting permission in writing from me. I ordered the 
alcalde of the river or lieutenant of the port to cut the lines of any 
which may do the same on this bank without similar permission, and 
to inform them that the middle of the river is all that is free to them 
in accordance with the treaties of peace, but that the banks are the 
dominions of His Majesty, where no vessel may tie up without the 
permission of the governor, 



*AGI, Aud, SD, 86-6-6. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 77 

The cause of this is their not wishing to be subject to the payment 
of the anchorage duties paid by all vessels, nor the fees of the pilot 
and the bar launch which brings them into the river and takes them 
out again. They also wish to avoid the inspection which I have 
ordered made of all vessels before departure, in order to prevent the 
desertion of seamen and troops. 

I have remonstrated with them several times about this, warning 
them that steps would be taken if they did not mend their ways. 
Since they have not complied, it has become necessary to order this 
done, so that they may know that, while they are free on the river, they 
are not so on its banks anywhere around this island, and that when- 
ever they tie up to it they must pay the same duties as the vessels 
of our own nation. 

They have also been informed that this does not apply to war 
vessels nor those freighted for account of the British King, (whose 
commanders have not failed to comply with the obligation of seeking 
permission to tie up to one side or the other, which they have also 
done on the occasions when they were carrying troops), but only 
merchant vessels coming here for business reasons. 

I have thought it advisable to inform Your Excellency about this. 
Thus informed, if there should be any complaint on the part of the 
English minister, you may answer him with a knowledge of what 
has given rise to this order. 

I welcome every opportunity of placing myself at Your Excel- 
lency's disposal, and pray God to preserve you the many years I 
desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, October 10, 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most obedient and faithful servant kisses 
Your Excellency's hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 

ULLOA TO GRIMALDI 
October 06, 1768" 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: Yesterday, the 25th, at eleven o'clock M. 
Maxent came to inform me of what had been learned about the 
present disturbances, and a little later the engineer, Don Ypolito 
Amelot brought me the same information. This leaves no doubt that 
there is already a general conspiracy of the whole colony to refuse 
submission to the dominion of His Majesty. 



> AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-6. 



78 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Their plan is to present a manifesto full of complaints against me, 
because it is necessary to have some pretext to excuse their report 
to the council They claim that, as my government is harsh even 
before possession has been taken, it will be much more so after this 
is done. The conspirators will ask, according to what has been 
learned, that the council intimate to me that I should depart from 
the province with all the Spaniards, leaving the colony under the 
dominion of France, as it formerly was. In order to make it appear 
that they are forcing the council to accede to this decision, they 
have drawn up a memorial and have been gathering the signatures 
of the citizens here, and the outsiders, of whom there are a large 
number, as well as the Germans and Acadians, whom they have won 
over by pointing out to them the injuries which are being done to them 
by me and the Spanish government. They vary their talk according to 
the class and situation of each kind of people, and do many other 
things which even the people who have given me this information 
cannot explain. 

On receipt of this news, which I immediately communicated to the 
governor general, Don Carlos Aubry, we met and he assured me that 
he had heard nothing of this up to that time. He said that only two 
days before it had come to his knowledge that the people wished to 
make representations on a matter of commerce, but that he had never 
suspected that it was of the nature which had been discovered, nor 
that the decision would be forced by violence. We discussed what 
should be done to extinguish this conflagration. By means of the steps 
which he took with M. Laf reniere, the attorney general of the council, 
as well as my own, we learned that next Friday the city will be full of 
people, the Germans and Acadians coming to it, together with the 
people here, armed to carry out the coup. We also found out that in 
the city they have in a certain house (which one has not been learned) 
a large store of guns and ammunition to arm those who lack them. 

When the governor tried to persuade the attorney general to exert 
himself to put down this uprising, the latter replied that he could 
not do so, because things were so far advanced that this was impos- 
sible. He assured him that the manifesto or representation to the 
council was in very proper and respectful terms, and that everything 
would be done in the best of order without trouble or noise. This 
confirms, even if there were no other proofs, that he and his friends 
have instigated this sedition. I should call Your Excellency's atten- 
tion to the fact that no one in the colony but myself knows anything 
of His Majesty's decisions about the council and form of government. 

One of the arguments which has been used to win over the 
Germans and Acadians to the uprising is that they have not been 
paid for the grain which they supplied for the support of the other 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 79 

Acadians, and that this is because I and the Spanish ministers plan 
to swindle them and divide this sum up among ourselves. 

I immediately ordered that, of the less than 6000 pesos, comprising 
all the funds there were in the treasury yesterday, M. Maxent should 
be given 1500, which is the most that can be owed them, and that 
he should pay them and try to see if he can quiet them with the 
assistance of the commandants, Messrs, de Arensburg, Judice, and 
Veret. Three thousand were sent them last year also in payment 
for the same. This pretext is as unfounded as all the others they 
have used, because if anyone owes them, it is the French commissariat 
for grain they furnished in the year ? 66 to supply this city. They 
were made to sell this in the market place, but were not paid for it. 
But on such occasions when they desire to escape the obligations of 
fealty, they disguise their real reasons with specious arguments, and 
this is what has happened in this case. 

My informants tell me that the ones who are collecting the signa- 
tures, which is like enlisting under a flag for sedition, are one Cares 
and the Milhet brothers, all foreigners engaged in business here. 
The first named is the man who was refused entry for a party of 
negroes which he brought from Martinique on account of their having 
been vicious characters there. Regarding this, I made a report to 
Your Excellency. There are also M. de Bienville, ensign-of-ship 
in France, brother of M. de JToyan, and Vilere, a relative of 
Laf reniere, together with some others of the same group. 

In order the better to insure this deed, the attorney general, who, 
as I have already told Your Excellency, is the one at the head of all 
this, has decided upon the creation of some new councilmen to 
replace the old ones, who are incapacitated by age and sickness. He 
has selected for these offices three citizens, laymen and members oi 
his faction. 

The French governor is of the opinion that this uprising has been 
plotted among Lafreniere, Comisario Foucaut, and Noyan, the son- 
in-law of the former, who is associated with Foucaut in a plantation. 
He has not been named to me as an accomplice by my informants, but 
in view of the part he played in the uprising in the year '66, 1 am not 
loathe to believe what the governor says. 

The French governor is determined to leave and abandon the 
province in case I am compelled to do so, because he knows the 
gravity of this, and that the court of France can not regard it 
favorably. He has called his officers together and exhorted them to 
follow his example and to conduct themselves with honor on this 
occasion, reminding them of all that they and their families will 
lose if they do not do so. He hopes that the few troops here will 
remain faithful. Today he has called up the militia, but does not 



80 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

expect much of them. It has been learned that they have had some 
rather improper notions, among them being the uncalled-for action 
of having discarded the Spanish uniform which they adopted of their 
own free will last year without the slightest suggestion on my part. 

What these people want is, as I have told Your Excellency on 
other occasions, military or political employment according to the 
fancy of each, highly comfortable and lucrative at the expense of 
the King. They desire liberty in everything, and that the Sovereign 
be so only in expenditures but not in authority with the country said 
to belong to Spain, and the people to France. They want to have 
plenty of money here, but in order that it may go to France and not 
to Spain, and finally under the term full liberty, all that is under- 
stood by it. 

They make imputations against me because in this business I am, 
as the executor of His Majesty's orders, the one who must bear the 
burden of their fault finding. One of them results from my reports 
to His Majesty and his subsequent command to publish in these 
realms and this province the project of commerce, which excludes 
that of France. 

With the withdrawal of the English, I thought, in view of the 
tranquillity which was reigning up to that time, that half of the 
troops would be sufficient for the protection of the country. Now, 
in view of what is being experienced, I see that more are necessary 
in order to conquer it, because when there was the least reason and 
excuse for it, this news has come to light. I have not done the least 
thing with respect to the vessels going to and coming from Santo 
Domingo, for the reason that, as Your Excellency had not given me 
any orders to the contrary, I had nothing on which to base action. 

The beginning and origin of everything was Noyan's decision to 
sell his plantation and go to Cayenne with his negroes. 

This man recently married the only daughter of Laf reniere. There 
was great grief and tears over the separation, and the way they were 
assuaged was by deciding at a dinner that the whole family and their 
friends should join the same party. They knew that this threat had 
not disturbed me, but that on the contrary I, with, considerable 
severity, had told those who spoke to me about it that they could 
leave the colony as honored citizens, but that His Majesty did not 
desire subjects who were not content and could better themselves 
elsewhere, and that he would never regard as good subjects those who 
were so only for Bordeaux wine. I mentioned this since they were 
giving as one of the causes of their displeasure with the new com- 
mercial regulation, that they would not have this wine but would 
have to use that of Catalonia, which did not suit their palates. 

They saw that I was not moved by all this and perhaps reflected 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 gl 

on the uncertainties of the Cayenne project and their regret at leaving 
their country and the estates they had in it. Consequently they 
decided in their meetings and parties to take off their masks alto- 
gether, and to take as a pretext the harshness of my actions and 
government, citing the measures I have taken, but without making 
mention of the gravity of the causes which gave rise to them. Up to 
now these measures have been only in matters pertaining to the royal 
exchequer and expenditures. They argued that as formal possession 
had not yet been taken and they were still subjects of the Most 
Christian King, it was not wrong to try to continue being so and 
to have the country again as it was before the cession. 

I have given Your Excellency this long account before the trouble 
breaks out. By means of Don Manuel Felix Riesck who is going 
there I shall give you information of what transpires, so that subse- 
quent events may not be confused, if the living voice can make more 
comprehensible the facility with which these uprisings are provoked 
here, together with the character and propensities of these people, 
than can the muteness of the pen. Your Excellency can inform your- 
self from him about all the deceptions I have suffered here since my 
arrival and the way I have overlooked the liberties they have taken, 
although sometimes my tolerance was overstrained, despite its being 
considerable. 

I place myself with all respect at Your Excellency's orders and 
pray God to preserve your life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, October 26, 1768. 

Your most sincere and devoted servant kisses Your Excellency's 
hand. 

DON ANTONIO DE UULOA (Eubric) 

Most Excellent Sefior MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 

ULLOA TO BTJCARELI 
November 16, 1768 70 

No. 58. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR: By this time I expected to be in your city 
with the extraordinary news that will be imparted to Your Excellency 
by the Eeverend Father Saldafia. He will also inform you of the 
cause of my being delayed, which I cannot attribute so much to con- 
trary winds, as to what he will tell you; and he will explain in the 
report that he will make to you more than I am in a position to say 
about this matter. 



AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 

700296 49 vol. 2 8 



82 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Under the present circumstances it is very important that Your 
Excellency should assist the said Father Saldana so that he will not 
have to wait more than twenty-four hours from arrival until de- 
parture in a mail boat or other vessel that is provided for his use. 
Already since the 3rd of this month a vessel has been on its way to 
Santo Domingo to take to France the news of what has occurred. I 
have not had an opportunity to do much for, the reason that, as I am 
in the dominion of the enemy itself, they are my masters until I reach 
Havana, and any channel that I might select would be to place in 
their hands anything that I might write. 

The English captain, Thomas Hammond, of the sloop Live Oak-, 
who was going to sail from this river for Pensacola, has promised 
me to take this passenger and two or three others to Havana, first 
touching at Pensacola to leave there some mules and other animals of 
which he has charge. Your Excellency will please reward him for the 
service he is rendering in doing this, and see that he is paid 300 pesos 
for the voyage, as this is the sum that has been agreed upon. 

Your Excellency can well imagine my situation, and that of those 
accompanying me, suffering not only from what we have already 
gone through, but also what we shall have to endure before we reach 
Havana. As it is mandatory that my passage to Spain be made as 
quickly as possible, Your Excellency will please furnish me with a 
vessel on which I can make the voyage with my family. This matter 
Father Saldana will explain fully to Your Excellency. 

I place myself at Your Excellency's orders with protestations of 
my faithful and constant devotion; as also does your countrywoman. 
She finds herself surrounded by tribulations, as you can well imagine, 
but despite them she tells me that she wished to send two short notes. 

I shall thank Your Excellency if you please have the harbor pilot 
sent out as far as possible as soon as the three-masted French vessel 
on which I am travelling is sighted, for the reason that its pilot is 
not a coast pilot. This action will set our minds at rest to some extent. 

May God protect Your Excellency many years. 

ISLA REAL CATOUCA DE SAN CABLOS, November 16, 1768. 

Most Excellency Sir, your most faithful servant kisses your hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Senor DON ANTONIO BUOARELI. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 83 

ULLOA TO BTJCARBLI 

December 5, 1768 n 

No. 64. (Copy) 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MT VERY DEAR SIR: I am under the necessity of proceeding to 
Spain promptly, in order to report with, the detail required by the 
ministry all that has transpired in New Orleans, the origin 
and other circumstances concerning that extraordinary uprising. 
Consequently it seems to me to be necessary to place in the hands of 
Your Excellency the orders and instructions that I have received 
relative to that government, to the end that you may look them over 
and select those that may be important here for the things that may 
take place. You may return to me the others, although, in view of the 
state of the rebellion when I left there, I am of the opinion that the 
instructions of His Majesty that I have, as well as those that may 
arrive up to the time news of what has occurred comes to Ms 
royal knowledge, cannot be observed. These instructions are all based 
on the supposition that those people will remain as loyal and agreeable 
to the taking possession in the name of His Majesty as they always 
pretended to be. 

Among the items I am leaving Your Excellency is a package of 
letters patent for Spanish and French officers of infantry, artillery, 
and engineers. Although some of the parties concerned are here, 1 
have decided not to deliver these until I see whether it is possible to 
do so despite what has occurred. With the same idea Your Excellency 
may open all the official covers addressed to me that may arrive 
during my absence to see whether there is anything in them that can 
be applied to this city while the troops and employees are here. How- 
ever I am convinced that this will not be the case until Your Excel- 
lency receives the instructions of His Majesty regarding the stay 
of troops in this city. I expect that those addressed to me will be 
based on the supposition that I am in Louisiana and that that 
country will still belong to His Majesty. 

The only difficulty that may arise is in connection with the war 
vessels or chartered ones bringing the troops and armaments, for the 
reason that those drawing more than 10% French feet of water 
cannot pass over the bar. They are useless for whatever is planned 
there, and can without hesitation be ordered to return to Spain, 
where steps will probably be taken adapted to what His Majesty 
plans to do. The packetboat El Volante, which is the only one of 
the vessels there that is of service in that place, can be counted 



, PC, leg. 1055. 



84- SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

upon. This is all that occurs to me to say to Your Excellency on the 
matter. I place myself at your orders and pray God to protect your 
life for many years. 

HAVANA, December 8, 1768. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most faithful and affectionate servant 
kisses your hand. 

ANTONIO DE ULLOA 

Most Excellent Senor DON ANTONIO BUCAKELI. 

LOYOLA TO BTJCARELI 

April W, 1769 72 

(Copy) 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: At the time of the departure of Senor 
Governor Don Antonio de Ulloa from this city I was convalescing 
from a serious illness that brought me to death's door and obliged 
Chief Auditor Don Estevan Gayarre to take charge of the adminis- 
tration of everything that was in my care. However on the regaining 
of my former health, although still weak, I began to discharge my 
former duties in the month of January, this year. 

I believe that Your Excellency has been informed by the said 
Senor Governor of everything that has occurred in this colony and 
in the uprising of the 29th of October, last year. Since then the 
people have remained quiet, although there has been no cessation of 
the urging on the part of the representatives of the people to compel 
the departure of His Majesty's packet El Volante from this river with 
all the Spaniards, as they recently demanded. They have succeeded 
in bringing about the departure of the packet on this very day, but 
not our own withdrawal, because the council has wished to maintain 
what was prescribed in their decree of October 29th, last year, and 
because we are without funds with which to pay the debts of His 
Majesty, which amount to about one hundred thousand pesos fuertes. 
We are unable to comply with the instructions of the said governor 
in a letter sent to this intendancy on the 20th of the same month, 
ordering that all these debts should be paid before our departure. 
It has not been possible to do this, for the reason that the remittance 
of only 8000 pesos made by your general treasury, together with the 
5000 turned over to this treasury by the said Senor Governor has 
been exhausted, despite its having been applied only to unescapable 
obligations for which it was impossible to find any other recourse. 
Although the French troops have been paid for all of the current 

AGI, Aud. SD, 80-1-7. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 85 

month, there Is nothing left to do so In May. This urgency and that 
of the following months until the receipt of the decision of His 
Majesty well deserve the attention of Your Excellency. I am making 
a representation under this date to the Senor Quartermaster General 
of your island who, I am sure, will communicate the same to Your 
Excellency. 

Sailing under the escort of the said packet is His Majesty's sloop 
La Alegre Ca&adora, belonging to this colony, which will be at the 
disposal of Your Excellency and of the said Seiior Quartermaster 
General on its return to this river. We promise ourselves that we 
can thus expect, if not assistance proportionate to the urgency in 
which we find ourselves because the vessel is considered small and 
poorly armed, at least prompt information on what we do not yet 
know, but what it is time that we should know, We are convinced 
that on its return here it will encounter no difficulty, as it is coming 
for the purpose of paying these troops and the employees in the 
service of His Majesty. We have nothing more than our current 
salaries, without which it is impossible to live. And for our part 
it is regular to request the slight expense to the royal exchequer 
for the maintenance of this small vessel, especially the pilot in charge 
of it, M. Le Conte, who receives 40 pesos monthly and rations for all 
the time employed in the service of His Majesty. 

The fact that no decision was arrived at in the council that Your 
Excellency had called in your city to consider the difficulties pre- 
sented to Senor Governor Don Antonio de Ulloa on his departure 
from here, as he advises me in his letter of December 9, that year, has 
embarrassed us greatly in deciding the matters that had presented 
themselves up to that time, as well as those that arose subsequently. 
Up to now we have dealt with them as best we could. 

The principal authors of the uprising still continue in the same 
frame of mind as in the beginning, although they are very uncertain 
as to the decision that they must make in case they find themselves 
pursued by the forces they expect. The best course which has 
presented itself to them up to now is that of going to live in the 
territory belonging to the King of England on this continent. This 
step is easy for them (as Your Excellency has been informed by 
the said Senor Governor) by way of various channels leading to a 
lake dividing that territory from this, the voyage being made in 
small boats, launches, barges, etc. 

We are awaiting the decisions of His Majesty without fear (at 
least for the present, in view of the state in which everything is) 
that undue anxieties will present themselves. If, during this time, 
Your Excellency has anything to instruct me, I shall derive great 
satisfaction therefrom, not only as regards the ends of the service 



86 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

for which Your Excellency may consider me useful, but also the 
personal ones of Your Excellency. 

May Our Lord guard Your Excellency's life many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, April W, 1769. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most attentive servant kisses Your 
Excellency's hand. 

JUAN JOSEF DE LOYOLA 

Most Excellent Sefior DON ANTONIO MARIA BUOARELI. 



No. 1135. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



BTJCARELI TO ARRIAGA 
July 7, 1769 



MY VERY DEAR SIR : In my letter No, 1130 dated June 24, last, 
I reported that on the afternoon of that day there entered this port 
His Majesty's frigate Polos, on board of which was Lieutenant 
General Don Alexandro O'Eeilly, who delivered to me royal order of 
April 15. I stated that I, having taken note of the object of his 
mission therefrom, took proper steps to prepare his expedition. 

And now, taking advantage of the opportunity of the departure 
of a vessel of the free commerce bound for Cadiz, as I also did on the 
previous occasion, I have the special satisfaction of being able to 
report to Your Excellency that yesterday morning at six o'clock the 
said general set sail on the frigate Volonte, together with twenty 
other ships, carrying the troops, artillery, munitions, provisions, 
equipment, and funds shown in the attached statements. These are 
what he said he needed. Thus was completed an expedition which 
not even those who saw it prepared and who worked equipping it 
ever believed could be made ready in eleven days, as it was. 

The quality of the veteran troops and militia composing the troops 
selected could not be bettered, either in discipline and vigor or in the 
good spirits and disposition with which they embarked. All of them 
are eager to show their zeal on this occasion. 

The number of volunteers from the troops and citizens who offered 
themselves, asking to be chosen, was so great that it was necessary 
to refuse the former and accept from the latter only those shown in 
the said statement. 

I intended to keep the Queen's Eegiment here for service. How- 
ever, after considering the expense which would be entailed, also 
the fact that the one from Sevilla must arrive before long, and that 
very favorable results may ensure from its being known in Europe 

AGI, And. SD, 80-1-6. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 87 

that Havana is in a position to organize an expedition without cut- 
side aid, I decided, in accord with Don Alexandra O'Reilly, that it 
should proceed with the expedition and that I should depend upon 
the services of the militia so far as demanded by necessity. 

In addition to the cash funds shown in the statement as being car- 
ried by Don Alexandro O'Beilly, the troops and militia are provided 
mess allowances for forty days, so that they may supply themselves 
with what they need, as it is not possible with so many ships to have 
any one person do this. 

In order to avoid the consequences which I fear from our shortage 
here, I dispatched the frigate Palas to Vera Cruz, on the 29th ultimo, 
with proper advices to the viceroy, asking Mm to assist us. Mean- 
while I am taking steps to replace everything that has been taken 
from the necessary allotments of Morro, Atares, and the batteries 
of the post, because, as I have devoted all my best efforts to the 
preparation of this convoy, no part of those under my control was 
excepted. The same has been done by the intendants of royal 
exchequer and the branches of the navy. All co-operated for its 
success with the most distinguished zeal, so as to make themselves 
deserving of the favor of the Bang. 

I beg Your Excellency so to inform His Majesty, in order that the 
prompt dispatch with which all the difficulties which presented them- 
selves in the fulfillment of his royal wishes were overcome may win 
his royal gratitude. 

May God preserve Your Excellency the many years I desire. 

HAVANA, July 7, 1769. 

"L kiss Your Excellency's hands. 

Your most obedient servant, 

ANTONIO BUCARELI Y URSTTA (Rubric) 
Triplicate. 
Most Excellent Senor Bailio Frey Don Julian de Arriaga. 

(Accompanying the foregoing} 

Statement showing the troops, artillery, munitions, equipment, 
goods, and provisions loaded for the expedition to New Orleans. 

Number 
of men 
Troops 

The First Battalion of the Infantry Kegiment of Lisbon 679 

The First Battalion of the Infantry Regiment of Havana 567 

Pickets from Aragon and Guadalajara, intended for the formation of 

a battalion in Louisiana 213 

Two companies of Oatalufia Light Infantry 162 

One picket of the Dragoon Regiment of America 50 

Sixty artillerymen from this post and thirty-one from Louisiana, in- 
cluding in the total one sergeant and six sappers 91 



88 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Number 
of men 
Troops 

One company of grenadiers of the White Militia Battalion 80 

Ditto of the Mulatto Battalion 80 

Ditto of the Negro Battalion 80 

One picket of the Volunteer Militia Cavalry Kegiment 40 

Noble cadets of Havana 6 

Distinguished volunteers 8 



Total Troops 2,056 

Engineers 

Captain Don Juan Cotilla 

Sublieutenants : Don Juan Treuexo, Don Ramon Yoldi 
Artillery : 

Cannon, 16-pounders 18 

Ditto, 8-pounders 8 

Ditto, 4-pounders 20 

Mortars : 

Of 12 inch 2 

Ditto of 9 2 

Plain shot, for 16-pounder 2,000 

Ditto, 8-pounder 3,600 

Ditto, 4-pounder 7,515 

Bombs, 12 inch 199 

Bombs, 9 inch 200 

Powder, quintals 850 

Bullets, quintals 1,000 

Cartridges 160,000 

Flints 40,000 

NOTE 

That there is being taken sufficient supply of grapeshot cartridges 
for the artillery and of combustible materials for igniting vessels 
or buildings when advisable. 

ANOTHER 

That sufficient supply of artillery fittings, tools for pioneers, hand 
grenades, iron, nails, and other items for any need is being taken. 

PROVISIONS 

Navy rations for forty days. 

Flour for four months, together with a sufficient supply of dried vegetables 

and salt meat. 

FOB THE HOSPITAL 

One surgeon major, together with the surgeons of the various corps. 

Medicine chest. 

Surgical ditto. 

Two hundred pallets. 

Diets proper for the number of men composing the expedition. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 89 

FCJNBS 

One hundred and fifty thousand pesos fuertes, in addition to the troop's hav- 
ing been given pay and allowances for the month of July and August of 
this year. 

HAVANA, July 7, 1769. 

( Rubric) 

PROCLAMATION BY O'REILLY 

August SI, 1769 
**y Order of the King 

DON ALEXANDRE O'REILLY, Commander of Benfayan In the Order 
of Alcantara, Lieutenant General and Inspector General of His 
Catholic Majesty's Armies, Captain General and Governor of the 
Province of Louisiana. 

By virtue of the orders and powers invested in me by His Catholic 
Majesty, we declare to all the inhabitants of the province of Louisiana 
that, although past events have fully justified His Majesty in express- 
ing to them his displeasure, he is willing to be moved solely by 
clemency toward the public at this point in the belief that it has 
sinned only because it allowed itself to be led astray by the intrigues 
of ambitious, fanatical, and ill-intentioned people, who have rashly 
taken advantage of its ignorance and great credulity. The latter 
alone shall be responsible for their crimes and shall be judged 
according to the laws. 

So generous an action should assure His Majesty that his new 
subjects will endeavor each day of their lives by their fidelity, zeal, 
and obedience to deserve the mercy he grants them, and the pro- 
tection which he henceforth accords them. 

Done at NEW ORLEANS, August #Jf, 1769. 

O'REILLY (Rubric) 

PROCLAMATION BY O'REILLY 
August S4, 1769 

DON ALEXANDRE O'REILLY, Commander of Benfayan in the Order 
of Alcantara, Lieutenant General and Inspector General of His 
Catholic Majesty's Armies, Captain General and Governor of the 
Province of Louisiana. 

Several inhabitants have pointed out to us that individuals in the 
city and the country were using no restraint about selling goods TO 
slaves of both sexes and without distinction as to age, and were 



7 *BL. (Printed in French). 
BL. (Printed in French). 



90 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

making no inquiries as to the source of the money with which they 
were paid; and that they are likewise continuing to buy from the 
said negro slaves everything which they bring either to market or 
elsewhere, without express permission from their masters, despite 
the various prohibitions made. These complaints appeared to us 
well-founded, and it is indispensable to remedy this abuse which is 
so contrary to good order. We have examined the proper regula- 
tions and especially the decree of October 12, 1765, which states, 
"that all merchants, residents, and others of all classes are expressly 
forbidden to trade with negroes and other slaves without previous 
permission from their masters, or unless they are known to be 
so authorized, under penalty of being fined five hundred livres the 
first time, of returning and surrendering the money which they have 
received, and of losing the stocks and goods thus bought or sold 
by the said slaves." 

The wisdom of these prohibitions which are in such conformity 
with good order induces us to renew them in the present ordinance j 
all residents are as a consequence commanded to conform with them. 

The lieutenant of police is directed to have it read, published, and 
posted in all the usual places. All officers of the guard are hereby 
commanded to lend their aid to enforce these provisions whenever 
called upon to do so. 

O'REILLY (Rubric) 

NEW ORLEANS, August %4, 1769. 



O'REILLY TO MUNIAIN 
August 31, 1769. 



Most Excellent Sir. 



MY VERY DEAR SIR : Under any circumstances I owe Your Excel- 
lency a detailed account of all that I do, and I should never wish to 
omit any manifestation of my gratitude and invariable desire of 
meriting the favor of Your Excellency. 

I arrived at this city with all my convoy on the night of the 16th 
and 17th instant. I disembarked on the afternoon of the 18th, and 
with the greatest formality took possession of the Province in the 
name of His Majesty. On the 21st, I had all the principal leaders 
and instigators of the recent uprising arrested; and on the 26th, the 
inhabitants of all classes took an oath of fealty before me, each one 
signing same in the order which Your Excellency will see from the 
attached formulary No. 1. 

The edict, of which I enclose a copy, reassured the populace, which 
was greatly terrified. 

, Aud., SD, 87-3-10. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 91 

With the leaders already Imprisoned and their property confis- 
cated, their trials are now proceeding in accordance with the laws 
before the judges whom I brought from Havana for this purpose. 
All the declarations and judicial proceedings in this grave case are 
attended in my name and as my representative by Captain Don Josef 
Carroja, a man enjoying my full confidence. He signs everything 
together with the assessor and the notary, and gives me a detailed 
account thereof. In this way I am better able to insure justice and 
due formality in such a grave case. 

This official will be very useful to the King in military and political 
matters, and I shall not fail to give him all the instruction I can. 

I have had to overcome many difficulties in navigating this river 
and in keeping the convoy together. The populace here, very fear- 
ful of the consequences and constantly excited by the rumors which 
were continually being spread by the leaders of the recent troubles, 
gave me more concern from my fear that they would flee to English 
territory than that they would make any resistance. 

They sent three deputies to welcome me at the mouth of the river, 
where I was detained, waiting to assemble all my convoy, but the 
true purpose of this ceremony was to spy out my real forces and to 
ascertain my intentions. I succeeded in convincing them that all the 
inhabitants and Indians in the province, even though fanatical and 
united, could not hope to resist the troops, artillery, and other prep- 
aratives which I had. Without departing from the truth, I ex- 
plained to them my desire of doing good and my great repugnance 
at doing harm, and that I should never do it unless it were just and 
even necessary. This was fully believed even by the leaders them- 
selves. As I realized the importance of speed, the whole convoy, in 
spite of the great rapidity of this river and the dead calms which I 
experienced on it, made twenty-four leagues by warping and towing, 
and to the great surprise of these inhabitants we tied up in this port 
on the 17th instant, when we awoke them by the salute which we fired 
to the post at dawn. 

The chiefs and all the troops under my orders are entirely to my 
satisfaction. Not an officer or even soldier has said a single improper 
word to these people, nor done anything meriting the slightest dis- 
approval. This great moderation and good conduct has filled these 
natives with confusion, as they (through malign influences) had so 
greatly wronged our nation without knowing us. 

My measures up to now have produced as favorable effects as 
might be desired for the King, the public, and my own satisfaction. 
I can already assure Your Excellency that within four months more 
the authority of the King will be firmly established in this province 
and all the objects of the mission which has been entrusted to me 



92 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

carried out (as far as I am able). I shall then proceed to Havana, 
where I hope to find the orders which his Majesty may be pleased 
and which Your Excellency may see fit to give me. With them I 
shall always comply with the greatest punctuality and satisfaction. 

At the present time I have only one hundred and two sick, none 
seriously. This is very fortunate after a long voyage in such hot 
weather. 

Two days before our arrival lightning struck one of the vessels 
of the convoy, killing two men and injuring eight more, but after 
bleeding the latter they soon recovered. 

All of the officials who have come from Spain at my order have 
turned out very well. They are applying themselves assidiously, 
thereby serving the King and training themselves to be more useful 
to him. 

I again place myself completely at Your Excellency's service and 
pray Our Lord to preserve and bless Your Excellency's valuable 
life for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, August 31, 1769. 

Your most attentive and grateful servant kisses Your Excellency's 

hand. 

ALEXANDRO O'EEILLT (Eubric) 

Most Excellent Sefior DON JUAN GREGORIO DE MUNIAIN. 

(Accompanying the foregoing} 

We, the undersigned retired officers, residing and domiciled in this 
city of New Orleans and its vicinity, today, the twenty-sixth of 
August, 1769, of our own free will swear to preserve the most in- 
violable fealty and obedience to His Catholic Majesty, our sole and 
legitimate sovereign, to reveal to the governor of this province with- 
out any delay whatsoever all that we know of any opposition to 
his sovereign authority and service, and to resist its execution with 
all our might and at the risk of our lives. 

NOTE. The clergy, militia, farmers, traders, merchants, artisans, 
and others domiciled here have taken this oath, which was read to 
them, first in Spanish and then in French. The commandant general 
first instructed them that any who did not want to do so could with- 
draw, because the King did not wish any subjects who did not desire 
to be such. 

After having taken this oath with the greatest solemnity, each 
class signed in the presence of two notaries and two officials. Those 
who did not know how to write made a crossmark, and the officials 
wrote at the side the name of the one who had done so. 

At the end the officials and notaries certified to having witnessed 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 93 

the taking of the oath and the signatures, which formality seems 
called for by the gravity of the matter. 

The clergy in their oath obligated themselves to preach frequently 
to their parishoners the aforesaid obligations to their King. While 
the schoolmasters and teachers swore to instruct their pupils in the 
obedience and fealty which they owe to their sovereign, and to explain 
to them the formulary of the oath. 

PROCLAMATION FIXING PRICES 
September 7, 1769 77 

DON ALEXANDRE O'REILLY, Commander of Benfayan of the Order 
of Alcantara, Lieutenant General and Inspector General of the 
Armies of His Catholic Majesty, Captain General and Governor of 
the Province of Louisiana. 

Nothing requires greater attention from the government than the 
equitable regulation of the prices of food products. Having 
taken note of the abuses which are being practiced in this regard 
and desiring equally that the farmer receive due recompense for hi? 
labor, and that the soldier, the resident of the city, and other con- 
sumers may not be tyrannized over, we have, after taking all the 
steps compatible with the sincerity of our intentions, established this 
tariff of prices to which it is our will that all conform with the 
greatest exactness, under penalty of a fine of fifty livres for the first 
offense, whether the offenders be sellers or buyers, and double in 
case of a second offense. We order that this be proclaimed, pub- 
lished, and posted at all the customary places in this city, especially 
in the market place, and that the printer print enough copies to 
sell to all who may demand them. 

New Orleans, the 7th of September, one thousand, seven hundred 
and sixty-nine. 

TABIFF OF PRICES OF VARIOUS FOOD PRODUCTS 

Fresh beef per pound 6 sols 3 d. 

Fresh pork ditto 6 sols 3 d. 

Unrendered lard 12 sols 6 d. 

Quarter of mutton 3 liv. 2 sols 6 d. 

Quarter of lamb 1 liv. 5 s. 

A mother hen 1 liv. 5 s. 

Capon 1 liv. 17 s. 6 d. 

Big hens and pullets 12 s. 6 d. 

Pair of grain-fed pullets 18 s. 9 d. 

Dozen eggs 12 s. 6 d. 

Turkey, 18 months old 3 liv. 15 s. 

Year old turkey and old turkey-hens 2 liv. 10 s. 



AGI, PC, Leg. 187 (Printed in French). 



94 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Young turkey 1 liv. 17 sols 6 d. 

Jar of milk to Nov. 1st 12 s 6 d. 

Jar, from Nov. 1st to end of March 18 s 9 d. 

Pound of fresh butter 1 liv. 5 s 

Jar of lard 1 liv. 17 s. 6 d. 

Jar of bear grease 1 liv. 11 s. 6 d. 

Pound of veal [Illegible] 

Quarter of medium size venison 1 liv. 17 s. 6 d. 

A quarter of large venison 2 liv. 16 s. 

A quarter (25#) of unhulled rice 6 liv. 5 s. 

A quarter (25#) of hulled rice 17 liv. 10 s. 

Red and white Apalachian beans 6 liv. 5 s. 

Barrel of whole corn 6 liv. 5 s. 

Barrel of corn meal 2 liv. 10 s. 

Barrel of dried Mdney beans 15 liv. 

Jar of lentils 1 liv. 5 s. 

Barrel of peas or English beans 10 liv. 

Pair of pigeons 18 s. 9 d. 

French domestic duck 1 liv. 5 s. 

India duck 1 liv. 11 s. 3 d. 

Wild game meat per pound 5s. 

Wild beef tongue 1 liv. 17 s. 6 d. 

Pound of ordinary fish such as meull, casseburgos, etc. . . 5s. 

Pound of choice fish, such as bass, redfish, etc 6s. 3d. 

Barrel of sweet potatoes 3 liv. 2s. 6 d. 

Cord of wood, delivered at the levee 8 liv. 15 s, 

Cord of drift wood, ash, oak, etc. at same 7 liv. 15 s. 

Cord of drift wood from the forest, at same 6 liv. [TOKN] 

French wild duck 1 liv. [TOEN] 

Other wild ducks 18 s. 9 d. 

Teal, two marsh hens for one teal 6s. 3d. 

Cartage in the city 18 sols 9 d. 

The present price of bread is six sols, three deniers, but since the 
dearness or cheapness of flour determines the price of bread, the 
public will be advised when there is any change. 

Proclaimed, published, and posted, the 7th of September, one thou- 
sand, seven hundred and sixty-nine. 

BUCARELI TO ARRIAGA 
September 18,1769 

No. 1208. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VEKY DEAR SIR : The lack of news of the expedition against 
New Orleans and the appearance that it was being delayed (as on 
the 6th instant two months had elapsed since its departure from 
here) has kept me in suspense up till now. However, with the re- 

And. SD, 80-1-7. 



THES REVOLUTIONABY PERIOD, 1765-1781 95 

turn to tMs post of three vessels of the said expedition, I have re- 
ceived advices that on the 28th of July the convoy crossed the bar 
of the Mississippi and, overcoming the currents of the river with no 
little difficulty, cast anchor in front of the city the night of the 17th. 
There, the troops having disembarked, lieutenant General Bon 
Alexandro O'Reilly took possession with all the tranquillity that was 
desired. It is reported that the inhabitants have sworn allegiance 
and fealty to the Bang, and are ashamed of recent events which 
made necessary an armed force such as they had not believed 
possible in such a short time, nor so completely equipped as is the 
one that has surprised them. 

So, I beg Your Excellency to bring this to the attention of the King 
and explain that I do not take time to describe the voyage and the 
happy success of the expedition in detail, because I think it un- 
necessary, as the said general is doing so himself with this same 
mail, according to what he informs me. 

May Our Lord guard the important life of Your Excellency many 
years. 

HAVANA, September 18> 1769. 

Most Excellent Sir, Your hand is kissed by your most attentive 
servant. 

ANTONIO BTTCARELI T URSUA (Eubric) 

Most Excellent Senor BAHJO FREY DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA. 



O'REILLY TO GAGE 
September 81, 1769 7ft 



(Copy) 



No. 1. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



MY VERY DEAR SIR : On the 18th of last month I took possession 
of this province in the name of His Catholic Majesty, and until his 
further orders I shall remain here as captain general and governor. 
I shall be very happy if this post affords me the satisfaction of 
pleasing Your Excellency, whose renown has made me respect you 
highly, although I have never had the opportunity of meeting you. 

I have given the strictest orders to the commandants of all the 
posts under my command to keep the Indians to their obligations, 
always giving them to understand that our close friendship entails 
the most sincere co-operation, and that any affront that they offer 
to the subjects of His Brittanic Majesty will be considered the same 

"AGI, And. SD, 80-1-9. 



96 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

as if made against those of His Catholic Majesty. They will always 
hear such talk from me, and if any person under my orders deviates 
in the slightest from the sincere friendship and good harmony hap- 
pily existing between our respective sovereigns, which I desire to 
cultivate by all means possible, he shall be punished according to 
his fault. 

Any aid that I can render the vessels going up and down the river, 
I shall be very glad to furnish, but I beg Your Excellency to give 
orders that none is to put in at this city without permission, nor 
land goods in any part of the territory of the King, my master. 

In everything that occurs during my stay in this governorship, 
my sole desire is to be on good terms of understanding with Your 
Excellency to whom I now give assurance of my invariable desire 
of pleasing you. Anything that you care to ask and that I am able 
to grant I shall do with the greatest satisfaction, because, in addi- 
tion to this being very proper to the orders that I have, I shall take 
special pleasure in demonstrating to Your Excellency my affection 
and esteem for your own good qualities. 

May God guard Your Excellency many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, September 1, 1769. 

Most Excellent Sir, Your Excellency's hands are kissed by your 
attentive servant. 

ALEXANDRO O'REILLY 

Most Excellent Senor DON THOMAS GAGE. 

O'EEILLY TO ARRIAGA 

October 17, 1769 BQ 

No. 3. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: After a most thorough examination of all 
the affairs of this province, I shall describe to the King, through 
Your Excellency, the number and quality of the troops which I con- 
sider necessary to keep it in proper subordination and tranquillity 
by means most conducive to its preservation and discipline and which 
will save the exchequer all superfluous expense. Next month I shall 
draw up and send Your Excellency a detailed and comprehensive 
report of all the items and expense of the colony to the royal 
exchequer. 

The former distribution of the troops among the multitude of 
posts would leave us helpless everywhere and, with a large number 
of storekeepers and other employees, it would be as costly as useless. 

80 AGI, Aud. SD, 80-1-7. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 97 

Without regard for particular interests^ I shall reduce everytMng 
to what is necessary, but I shall omit no expense which I consider 
useful or essential. 

Natchitoches and Opelousas are the only posts through which goods 
can enter the Kingdom of Mexico. I shall arrange to have at both 
of them Spanish officials who speak French well, and who will be 
relieved quite frequently so as not to give them time to become cor- 
rupt by illicit gains. But what will contribute more than anything 
else to the prevention of such entries will be the vigilant care of the 
governor of this province in controlling the merchants of this city 
who supply and give credit on these goods. 

I found established here two Genevan brothers, named Duraldes, 
who were dealing in diamonds, watches, gold caskets and other 
jewelry, galloons, laces and other costly goods, for which there would 
be no outlet whatever here. This made me suspicious of their busi- 
ness, and I was able to ascertain that these Duraldes kept this stock 
here for the illegal trade, and that they had sent some shipments 
to Campeche and Vera Cruz. These parties, when accused, even con- 
fessed this to me themselves. 

I have ordered them to leave here before the end of this month, 
together with three Jews, named Nonsanto, Mets, and Brito, who 
had also made some illegal shipments and had correspondents in 
Vera Cruz, Campeche, the nearby presidios, and other places. By 
pursuing this same course with equal care, 1 can assure you that the 
value of the illegal shipments which can be made from this colony 
to the other dominions of the Bang in America will be very small. 
This is the important objective. 

I have found that the interested parties are strongly in favor of 
a multitude of posts, as well as desirous of having a store at each of 
them. It has always been claimed that these produced profits for the 
King, and as the accounts have never been audited, it has never been 
possible to prove otherwise ; but I, having thoroughly examined this 
matter, assure you that the losses were large and the expenses heavy. 

In the economy of this province the exchequer will save annually 
more than one hundred thousand pesos fuertes of the two hundred 
and fifty thousand allotted to it. 

In the valuations made of the French buildings taken over by the 
King, I have convinced these people that the appraisals were un- 
favorable to the Spanish exchequer to the extent of sixty some thou- 
sand pesos fuertes, and this very day we and the French are signing 
the new valuations of the greater part of the buildings, with a reduc- 
tion of fifty-two thousand, five hundred and twenty-one pesos fuertes 
and seven reales, as Your Excellency will see from the attached state- 
ment marked with the letter "A". It is worth Your Excellency's 
reading. 

700296 49 vol. 2 9 



98 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Up to the present time I have been unable to secure from these 
offices of royal exchequer the adjustment of a single account, despite 
the small obligations of the King in this province. From the very 
day of my arrival I have constantly been pressing all the employees 
for these. I have placed in the contaduria a very clever major and 
some clerks, and in the storehouse a lieutenant and some clerks. 

All the accounts were far behind. This makes it difficult for me ; 
but as I want everything in proper order, I have taken the most ef- 
ficient steps to have all old accounts adjusted, and, in proportion to 
the need, I shall continue to take other steps to secure the desired end. 

What will Your Excellency say when you learn that there are one 
hundred thousand pesos fuertes of the notes of this treasury circu- 
lating among the public as currency; and that from the day of 
Ulloa's arrival in this province until I took over my command, the 
accounts of the first year had not been adjusted, nor of any of the 
following years, and that the greater part of the deliveries from 
the stores were on verbal orders. However, the deliveries are now 
being handled in the proper and legal manner. 

Your Excellency will be more surprised by this disorder and 
delay when you learn that the King collects no customhouse duties 
nor any tribute whatever in this province. There was a comisario, 
who exercised the functions of intendant, with three officials in his 
office, paid by the King, an auditor with five, a treasurer and a store- 
keeper general with four officials. According to the system which 
I propose, a comisario of war, a treasurer, a storekeeper general, and 
four clerks among all of them, will be sufficient to take care of all 
the obligations of this colony. With this number all the accounts 
could be adjusted every four months. 

I summoned the chiefs of the Indian tribes within sixty leagues of 
this capital. All of them appeared with the trappings of greatest 
solemnity and respect. From the enclosed report, marked with the 
letter "B", Your Excellency will see that they are greatly pleased 
to hear me, receive from my hands the presents which I had promised 
to give them, and to see the troops under my orders maneuver. 

All of this produced in them a high respect for the power of the 
King and great satisfaction over the treatment I had given them. 

I have found the French officers and troops here without money 
and without provisions. I have supplied them with what they 
needed, as Your Excellency will see from the attached letter from 
the French commandant, M. Aubry. Three officers and some hundred 
soldiers have already embarked for France. There still remain 
fifty soldiers and some officers, who expect to embark at the begin- 
ning of next month. I am omitting nothing to assist them and to 
facilitate their prompt departure. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 99 

For many years past there has been the greatest disorder in the 
administration of justice in this province. It has become nothing but 
partiality and mere formality. Even when suits between parties 
have been adjudicated by the council, the decisions have not been 
carried out. This has increased my tasks, but the public welcomes 
this work. 

The case of the prime movers and leaders of the uprising is being 
prosecuted with the greatest justification and formality, and I be- 
lieve that such convincing and well-substantiated proofs are rare in 
similar cases. No one whom I have wished to apprehend has escaped 
me, nor a single witness failed me. 

There was no kind of subterfuge which the leaders of the upriang 
in this province did not use in their projects and plans, but their 
sole aim was to better their own fortunes, whatever the cost. 

I have already expelled from here as many as eighteen persons^ 
whose names Your Excellency will see from the attached report, 
marked "C". There will be about a dozen more, when the case is 
concluded. They were deserving of punishment, but I thought it 
best to rid the colony promptly of those already known to be dis- 
satisfied, turbulent, and lovers of change, thereby securing perfect 
tranquillity in the province with no more harm or punishment than 
absolutely necessary. 

From the day of my arrival in this city, my tasks have been in- 
creasing daily, but now, thanks be to God, I am approaching the 
end of the most difficult and urgent matters. 

It will be a great consolation to me that His Majesty is well-served. 
This is my sole desire, and would that I had more talents, in order 
to do it better and fulfill all the desires of Your Excellency's in- 
comparable zeal. 

May Our Lord guard and bless Your Excellency's life many years, 
as I desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, OCTOBER Jf7, 1769. 

Your most attentive and devoted servant kisses Your Excellency's 
hand. 

ALEXANDRO O'BEHJ/Y (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Sefior BAILIO FRET DON JULIAH DE ARRIAGA. 



(Accompanymg the preceding) 

(A) Statement showing the prices at which the buildings that 
belonged to His Most Christian Majesty were appraised last year, 
1767, and those at which they have been valued this year, according to 
the revaluation made by the undersigned experts and engineers, with 



100 



SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



the assistance of the ministers of royal exchequer, and the difference 
resulting between the two estimates, to wit: 

BUHDIKGS 





First 
Estimate 


Second 
Estimate 


Difference 


The great hospital, including one for 
the officers and the foundation made 
for the construction of the principal 
kitchen, together with the two tem- 
porary ones now being used and other 
works connected with the said 
building . . ... 


440,999- 6- 6 


268,299-15-5 


172,699-11- 1 


The general storehouse 


51,535- 0-11 


43,181-19-2 


8,353- 1- 9 


A.nother similar one 


42,648- 9- 5 


23,655- 6-7 


18,993- 2-10 


The principal guardhouse, including the 
military and civil prisons ......... 


182,050 2 


151 509 4-5 


30,540-17- 7 


The house In which the comisario lived, 


105491- 9- 8 


82,262- 5-6 


23,229- 4- 2 


The present hospital for the troops . . . 
The house in which the physician lives, 
and the botanical garden 


29,886- 5- 
13,189- 6- 2 


23,135- 6-4 
11,146- 3-7 


6,750-18- 8 
2,043- 2- 7 










Totals 


865,799-19- 8 


603,190- 1-0 


262,609-18- 8 











The total difference amounts to two hundred and sixty-two thou- 
sand, six hundred and nine livres, eighteen sous and eight deniers, 
French money, equivalent to fifty-two thousand, five hundred and 
twenty-one pesos fuertes, seven and three-fourths reales. 

The difference shown by this statement between the first appraisal, 
made in the time of and under commission of Don Antonio de Ulloa, 
by Don Carlos Aubry and M. Foucault, with the assistance of the 
auditor, Don Estevan Gayarre, and experts under supervision of 
Engineer Don Ipolito Amelot, results from their having estimated 
the prices at that time in accordance with a contract which M. Dabadie 
had made some time before for the works of the King in this city. 
However, when the present governor of His Catholic Majesty in this 
province learned that the said prices were excessive, he asked for a 
new appraisal, made at the prices current on the day when Don 
Antonio de Ulloa arrived at this city, the time when the appraisals 
and deliveries were to be made according to the orders of both 
France and Spain. As everyone thought this request to be well- 
founded and just, we unanimously agreed thereto ; and, having sum- 
moned the best qualified persons in all the offices and after 
administering to them the customary oath, they made new appraisals 
which appear to us to be just. This is confirmed by their being the 
same as the prices agreed upon in a contract made under the super- 
vision of the said engineer, Don Ipolito Amelot, for all the King's 
works in this province a short time after the arrival here of Don 
Antonio de Ulloa. Since that time there has been no change in 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PBBIOD, 1765-1781 101 

prices according to all the experts. Therefore, we, the undersigned, 
fully convinced of the equity of this new appraisal, agree thereto, 
OKLEANS, October 7, 1769. 

(Eubric) 



Luis DE UNZAGA T AMEZAGA 
ABBEY (Eubric) (Eubric) 

HTPOUTE AMELOT (Eubric) JEAK ABNOTJLD VALENTIN, (Eubric) 
JTJAN DE COTILLA (Eubric) Comptroller of Navy 

ESTEVAIST GAYAKRE (Eubric) 

(B) After having taken possession of the province of Louisiana 
in the name of His Catholic Majesty, and received the oath of fealty 
from its inhabitants, the Excellent Senor Don Alexandra CFEeilly 
summoned all the Indians living within sixty leagues from this city. 

At half past eleven o'clock in the morning there arrived at His 
Excellency's house nine chiefs, accompanied by the interpreters, each 
one respectively authorized, together with quite a number of Indians, 
singing and playing on their military instruments. 

His Excellency entered the principal hall of his house, and having 
seated himself under the canopy, accompanied by all the officers of 
the garrison and the principal persons of the city, the Indians were 
admitted into his presence, preceded by the interpreters. After they 
had placed their military implements at His Excellency's feet, each 
one of the chiefs saluted him with his flag, which is a snail pole 
decorated with feathers in the shape of a fan, waving it in a circle 
over his head, and touching him on the chest four times with it, then 
giving it to him. Each one then presented him with his burning 
pipe, the chief himself holding it while he smoked, which His Excel- 
lency did as he was not ignorant of its significance; and finally each 
chief gave him his hand, which is the Indian's greatest sign of friend- 
ship. 

When these ceremonies had been concluded, the chief of the 
Bayogoulas asked permission to speak, and His Excellency having 
granted it, the chief made substantially the following speech : 

"Eed men, chiefs and warriors, in your name I speak to the great 
chief whom the great King of Spain has sent to take possession of 
these lands. 

"Father and great chief, we hope that thou wilt deign to have 
pity on these, thy children, and grant us the same favors and benefits 
as did the French, and that thou wilt now deign to have our arms 
and implements repaired and give us some little assistance to live on 
for the rest of this year. 

"I am afraid of displeasing thee, great chief of chiefs, and so I 
close, assuring thee that all these red men, warriors and chiefs of the 



102 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

tribes will be inviolably faithful to thee, both here and in all the 
posts where there are people at thy orders." 

When he had finished, all the other Indians (in ratification of what 
he had said) raised their voices, beat on their chests, and made signs 
of approval. 

His Excellency then explained to them the close bonds of blood 
and alliance between the kings of Spain and France, as a result of 
which this cession of the colony had been made. He told them any 
particular offense against either was common to both sovereigns and 
nations, and that he, who was the friend of one, was also the friend 
of both. He impressed on them their great good fortune in now 
being subjects of the greatest King in the world, because, in addition 
to having many kingdoms and more than thirty millions of vassals, 
he was to the highest degree heroic, clement, just, and faithful to 
his friends and allies. He exhorted them to refrain from the hostili- 
ties committed up to this time, as these were all contrary to the 
sacred intentions of His Majesty. He charged them with good treat- 
ment of the English, because, although they were not related by the 
same bonds as was the French nation, they were friends of His 
Majesty. He assured them of the punctuality of the annual presents, 
and that the King did not wish to demand of them any other grati- 
tude than their constant fidelity. Finally he promised them, in 
confirmation of the royal protection and in addition to the presents 
he had already mentioned, to honor them with a medal bearing the 
royal effigy. He also promised that in the afternoon he would 
parade all the troops of the garrison, and impressed on them that this 
was a very great honor, given only to persons of the highest rank. 

The Indians were so surprised and pleased that they looked at 
each other as if they could not believe the news. 

At the end of the speech, His Excellency arose from his chair to 
place about the neck of each one of the chiefs the medal which hung 
from a silk ribbon of deep scarlet color. He first had them kiss the 
royal effigy, and then with his bare sword he touched them on both 
shoulders and chest, and made over their heads the sign of the Cross, 
and finally gave each an embrace and his hand, whereupon they again 
showed such admiration that it was evident how pleasing to them 
was the ceremony and that it was the first time they had seen it. 

He then had distributed in his presence the gifts promised, which 
were only articles of small value. In the afternoon he had all the 
troops march out under arms and practice some evolutions, whose 
number, uniformity, skill, and beauty left the Indians astonished and 
showing their joy at finding themselves under such powerful protec- 
tion. 

The following day they departed with such signs of satisfaction, 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 103 

according to the interpreters, as were never before seen in them. TMs 
is confirmed by all the French officials here. 



(C) List of the persons who have been expelled from this province 
on account of having shown themselves to be dissatisfied, turbulent, 
and prejudicial to the public peace. 

Names Occupations 

Two Durand brothers Merchants 

Two Boudet brothers , ditto 

Two Duraldes brothers .ditto 

Juan Sauvestre . .ditto 

Ellas Hughes ditto 

Papiom , ditto 

St. P^ ditto 

Doraison .ditto 

Fournie ditto 

Juan Brunet ditto 

Blache ditto 

Loquet , Clerk in our offices of royal exche<Fier 

Maison First bailiff of the council 

Juan Vincent Merchant and watchmaker 

Regnier Surgeon of the hospital 

In addition to the abovementioned there are to leave this province 
during the current month two Jews, named Brito and Mets, and 
before the end of the next month the Jew, Nonsanto, for the reason 
that all three are undesirable on account of their businesses and the 
religion they profess. 

ALEXANDRO O'REILLY (Rubric) 

O'REILLY TO ARRIAOA 
October 17, 1769 81 

No. 4. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: Your Excellency is well aware that this 
province cannot live without commerce. It needs flour, wine, oil, 
tools, arms, munitions, and all kinds of cloth to make clothing, and 
can obtain them only by exporting its products. 

These are wood, indigo, cotton, peltries, and a little corn and rice. 
There would be no outlet in Spain for the wood, which is one of the 
most important products for these people. Of our colonies, Havana 
is the only one where it would have a sale. I consider its importa- 
tion there profitable for both the King and that island. It would 
be advantageous to the King because it would conserve, for the con- 

AGI, And, SD, 80-1-7, 



104 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

struction of his ships, the cedars now being used for sugar chests, 
and planks from here would cost His Majesty less for sheathing 
vessels and other works in which they could be employed. 

This lumber would be profitable for that island, because it would 
make the sugar chests cheaper, as well as other works carried on 
by the people of Havana. 

By permitting this province to engage in the free commerce with 
Spain and to carry it on with Havana, as Florida formerly did, 
these inhabitants would find in Havana itself an outlet for all their 
products, and obtain there most of the things they need. Thereby the 
King would obtain the duties which those goods pay in Spain, and 
the excise which they pay on being landed in the island of Cuba. 
The sugar mills would develop greatly with an outlet for the rum 
which is now useless and lost. Its consumption here would be very 
considerable, and each barrel would pay the two pesos duty which is 
placed on it in Havana. But in order for this commerce to develop 
and be mutually useful, it seems to me advisable and necessary that 
the wood, peltries, indigo, cotton, corn, and rice of this province 
should not pay import duties at Havana and that, on goods from there 
shipped to this province, no new excise or export duty be demanded. 

It would also be advisable for the ships belonging to this colony 
to be admitted at Havana and the ports of Spain, but under the con- 
dition that there shall not be admitted at this city nor used for trans- 
port any vessel not Spanish or not of the colony, and that my suc- 
cessors shall look after this with special care. 

From Catalonia vessels would come with red wine. They would 
load wood and other things here for Havana, and get sugar there. 
I think that this arrangement would assure an outlet for the products 
of this colony and a supply of what it needs, and I do not think it 
possible to establish it more securely or more advantageously to the 
interests of our commerce. 

The King, having been informed through Your Excellency of 
what I consider advantageous to his service in this matter, will com- 
mand what is most to his pleasure. 

I must explain to Your Excellency that, pending His Majesty's 
decision, in order to give these people an outlet for their products 
and a supply of what they need, I shall be obliged to issue passports 
for the French ports of the island of Santo Domingo, but I shall 
limit this privilege to the said vessels of the colony, which number 
five good ships. 

I found the English entirely in possession of the commerce of 
this colony. They had merchants among the Germans and stores 
in this city, and I can assure you that they got nine-tenths of all 
the ready money spent here. The commerce of France accepted the 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 105 

products of the colony in payment for goods, but the English,, selling 
more cheaply, got all the silver. I made the English merchants and 
other citizens of that nation whom I found in this city depart, and 
I shall henceforth admit none of their vessels into this port, 

May Our Lord guard and bless Your Excellency's life many years. 

FEW ORLEANS, October 17, 1769. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most attentive servant kisses your hand. 



AUEXANDRO O'KimLY (Kubric) 
Most Excellent Seiior BAILIO FREY Don JULIAN DB ABBIA.QA* 



TO ARRIAGA 
October 7, 1769 s2 

No. 9. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : The case that was being prosecuted against 
the twelve leaders, instigators, and principal accomplices of the 
recent uprising in this province has been concluded. The merits of 
the case resulted in the penalty of the gallows for six of them, but 
as one of them had already died in prison, and as there is no hang- 
man here, five of them were shot on the 25th instant, at three o'clock 
in the afternoon. The other six were sentenced to imprisonment in 
a castle, one for life, two for ten years, and three for six, and all 
twelve to confiscation of all their property. 

The six sentenced to prison in a castle are being sent on this 
date to one of the fortresses of Havana, to the captain general of 
which I am sending a copy of the sentence for compliance therewith 
in that post. 

The property of these prisoners had been sequestered from the 
beginning, and I have now given special directions for its prompt 
liquidation, according to law, so that the part that belongs to the 
exchequer may be applied thereto, and the widows and creditors 
may receive theirs. 

Full satisfaction has now been given for the offense committed 
against due respect for the sovereign authority of the King in this 
province and the bad examples set for his subjects. Everyone 
recognizes the necessity, justice, and clemency of the proceedings, 
and this example will remain eternally graven on the hearts of all. 
Respect for the authority of the King is greatly augmented by the 
strict justice and great celerity with which it has been carried out. 

Henceforth, I shall receive without discrimination those who were 

AGI, Aud. SD, 80-1-7. 



106 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLJHJY 

seduced and signed the first representation to the council, and it 
will be the greatest consolation to the public to know that I shall 
not leave in the province any memory of that ill-considered act. 
I shall reconcile and calm their minds by all means possible, and 
none is more effective than to let them know that there is and 
always will be entire forgetfulness of the past, and that everyone 
will find in the government the protection and favor of which he 
is deserving. 

The attached certified copy of the accusation by the prosecuting 
attorney, the sentence, and its execution will inform His Majesty 
in detail of all these grave proceedings. 

1 hope that I have carried out his royal instructions, and if I 
have attained this happiness, my satisfaction will be complete. 

May Our Lord preserve Your Excellency's valuable life many 
years. 

NEW ORLEANS, October 27, 1769. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most attentive servant kisses Tour 
Excellency's hand. 

ALEXANDRO O'KEILLY (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor BAILIO FRET DON* JULIAN DE ABRIAGA. 

O'REILLY TO BUCARELI 

November 10, 1769 s * 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY DEAR SIR : There will be a definite need for a priest here to 
serve as chaplain of the battalion of Louisiana. I beg Your 
Excellency to send me, at the first opportunity, one who, in addition 
to the other requirements, will possess the ability to learn French 
well and I request that our bishop amplify his powers as much 
as possible. 

It is my hope that God will keep Your Excellency many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, November 10^ 1769. 

Most Excellent Sir, your affectionate servant kisses Your 
Excellency's hand. 

ALEXA3SDRO O'REILLY (Rubric) 

S^nor DON ANTONIO MARIA BUCARELI. 



AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 107 

GAGE TO O ? REDLLY 
November 18, 1789 m 

(Copy) 
No. 4. 

NEW YORK, November 15, 1769. 

SIR : I avail myself of the earliest opportunity of thanking Your 
Excellency for the honor that you do me in your letter of September 
21, last, advising me of your arrival at New Orleans to take over the 
governorship of the province of Louisiana. 

Permit me, Your Excellency, to offer my congratulations on this 
occasion, and to express the satisfaction given me by your safe arrival, 
and because such a great and important commission has been con- 
ferred on a person of the distinguished merit of Your Excellency. 

Nothing can be more pleasing to the King, my master, than to 
learn of the orders that Your Excellency has given to the com- 
mandants of the posts under your command. His Majesty desires 
sincerely to cultivate the friendship of His Catholic Majesty, and 
to strengthen the union that happily exists between both sovereigns. 
To this end the British commandants on the Mississippi River have 
orders to bend all their efforts toward maintaining peace and tran- 
quility between the Indian tribes and toward promoting the best 
harmony and union between the subjects of both crowns. 

On account of my profound respect for His Catholic Majesty, 
as well as my esteem for the Spanish nation, I had the greatest, 
satisfaction in sending to the officers under my command orders so 
expressing my wishes, and Your Excellency may rest assured that 
nothing can give me greater pleasure than to have opportunities of 
manifesting to Your Excellency the esteem that I have for your own 
merit, and my invariable desire of complying with your wishes. 

The kind promises of Your Excellency to give all proper and 
possible aid to British vessels navigating the Mississippi, and your 
gracious expressions toward myself demand of me the most lively 
appreciation. Insofar as my department is concerned with matters 
of that nature, I shall not fail to instruct the subjects of His Brit- 
tanic Majesty not to introduce anything into New Orleans, nor land 
goods in the territories of His Catholic Majesty without permission. 

There remains for me only to ask of Your Excellency your protec- 
tion and good offices for the detachments of troops of His Brittanic 
Majesty and other subjects of his going up and down the Mississippi 
from Illinois to the sea. I do not doubt from the candor and good 
disposition of Your Excellency that they will enjoy the same, 

"AGI, And. SD, 80-1-9. 



108 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

I have the honor to be Your Excellency's most obedient and 
humble servant. 

THOMAS GAGE 

Most Excellent Senor DON ALEXAKDRO O'REILLY. 

ESTABLISHMENT or THE NEW ORLEANS CABUDO 
November 25, 1769 85 

DON ALEXANDRE O'KEILLY, Commander of Benf ayan of the Order 
of Alcantara, Lieutenant General of the Armies of His Majesty, 
Inspector General of Infantry, and by commission Governor and 
Captain General of the Province of Louisiana. 

The trial which has just taken place as a consequence of the 
recent insurrection in this colony, has fully demonstrated the part 
and influence exerted by the council in those proceedings, in 
countenancing, contrary to its duty, the most criminal actions, when 
its whole care should have been directed to maintaining the people 
in the fidelity and submissiveness which are due to their sovereign. 
Therefore, and in order to prevent hereafter evils of such magnitude, 
it is indispensable to abolish the said council, and to establish in 
its stead that form of political government and administration of 
justice prescribed by our wise laws, under which all the states of 
His Majesty in America have been maintained in the most perfect 
tranquility, contentment, and submission. 

For these reasons, in pursuance of the power which our Lord the 
King (whom God preserve) has been pleased to entrust to us by 
his commission, issued at Aranjuez, the 16th of April, of the present 
year, to establish in the military and police forces, and in the 
administration of justice and of his finances, that form of govern- 
ment, dependence, and subordination, which should accord with the 
good of his service and the happiness of his subjects in this colony, 
we establish, in his royal name, a city council or cabildo, for the 
administration of justice and preservation of order in this city, 
composed of six perpetual regidores, in conformity with the second 
statute, title ten, book five, of the Recopilacion de las Indias. Among 
these shall be distributed the offices of alf erez royal, provincial alcalde 
mayor, alguacil mayor, depositary general, and receiver of penas de 
camara : or fines awarded to the royal treasury. These shall elect, 
on the first day of every year, two judges, who shall be styled 
alcaldes ordinary, a syndic attorney general, and a manager of the 
income and taxes of the city such as the laws have established for 
good government and administration of justice. 

* BL. (Printed in French). 



THE KEVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 109 

As the lack of advocates In this country, and the little knowledge 
which his new subjects possess of the Spanish laws might render 
a strict observance of them difficult, and as every abuse is contrary 
to the intentions of His Majesty, we have thought it useful, and 
even necessary, to make an abstract or regulation drawn from the 
said statutes, which may serve for instruction and elementary 
formulary in the administration of justice and economic govern- 
ment of this city, until a more general knowledge of the Spanish 
language may enable every one, by the perusal of the aforesaid 
statutes, to extend his information to every point thereof. In con- 
sequence thereof, and with the reservation of His Majesty's good 
pleasure, we order and command the justices, cabildo, and their 
officers, to conform punctually to the requirements of the following 
articles : 

I. 

THE CABILDO. 

1. The cabildo, at which the governor shall preside, or, in his 
absence, the alcalde ordinary who shall have the first vote, shall 
'assemble at the city hall (1) on the first day of every year, and 
proceed to the election of alcaldes ordinary and the other officers 
abovementioned ; it shall also assemble every Friday, for the purpose 
of deliberating on all that may concern the public welfare. The 
syndic attorney general shall propose in these assemblies what may 
appear to him for the welfare of the republic. One or two regidores 
shall immediately after inform the governor, if he has not presided, 
of the resolutions that may have been taken ; and, except in pressing 
cases when the cabildo for very important reasons may assemble 
at the governor's dwelling, it shall not assemble in any other place 
than the city hall, (2) under the penalty, to the officers who com- 
pose it, of being deprived of their office. 

2. In urgent cases, which cannot be deferred until the usual meet- 
ing on Friday, the regidores may hold an extraordinary sitting; 
they shall be notified to that effect by one of the door-keepers of 
the cabildo; (3) and if any one of the members shall not have been 
notified, the resolutions which may have been taken shall, if he 
shall challenge the same, be void; (4) as also in case the majority 
should not have been notified, even if all those who have been 
notified shall not object thereto. No assembly shall ever be held 
except by order of the governor, and the members shall keep a 

(1) Statute 1, title 9, book 4, Recopilacidn de Leyes de los Reynos de las Indiaa. 

W Stat. 2, iUd. 

(3) Stat. 2, ibid. 

U) Stat. 1, title 4, part 1. 



110 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

profound silence with, respect to the subject upon which the assembly 
may have deliberated. 

3. The regidores shall have a vote in the elections, as well as 
the alcaldes of the preceding year, who shall remain in the cabildo 
until the election of their successors shall be confirmed, and they 
shall have been received. (5) However, the alcalde who, in the 
absence of the governor, shall exercise the functions of president, 
(6) shall not have a vote; and as soon as the elections shall have 
been determined, the secretary of the cabildo shall give information 
thereof to the governor, (7) who alone may decide on the validity 
of the opposition made by any member to the persons elected to 
the municipal offices, and confirm the alcaldes and other officers. 

4. The office of alcalde should be given to capable persons who 
may have the information necessary to fill worthily so important 
an office. (8) They shall have a house in the city, and shall reside 
therein. Those who are employed in the militia (9) may be named 
to those offices ; and they may also be given to those regidores whose 
official duties will not conflict with these posts. (10) 

5. The alcaldes, and the other elective officers of the cabildo, 
cannot continue in office without the unanimous vote of all the 
members. (11) Without this condition, they cannot be re-elected 
until two years after they shall have relinquished their badge of 
office. (12) 

6. Neither the officers of the treasury, (13) those who are indebted 
to the said treasury, (U) those indebted to the cabildo, nor the 
sureties of either the one or the other, (IS) those who have not 
attained the age of twenty-six years, (16) nor the new converts to 
our holy faith, (17) may be elected to the said offices. 

7. The election being confirmed by the governor, the door-keepers 
shall deliver tickets from the clerk to the elected, notifying them 
to go to the assembly hall in order to take the oath prescribed by 
law, (18) the form of which will be found annexed to this regula- 
tion, and to be received and installed in their offices. 

(5) Stat 3, title 3, book 5. 

(6) Stat. 15, title 3, book 5. 

(7) Stat. 10, Hid. 

(8) St&t. 4, iUd. 

(9) Stat. S,iUd. 

(10) Stat. 7, title 15, part 1. 

(11) La Oour Philipique, sec. 2, number 36. 

(If) Stat 9, title 3, book 3, Recopilacidn de Leyes de las India* 
(IS) Statute 7, ibid. 

(14) Stat 7, iWd. 

(15) La Oour PMUpique, sec. 2, number 36. 

(16) Stat 2, title 9, book 3, of the Reoopilacidn de Leyea de las India* 

(17) Stat 23, title 5, part 1, iUd. 

de Cos- 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 HI 

8. The clerk shall keep a book entitled "Resolutions", in which 
he shall record the elections and the decisions of the 
ordinary and extraordinary, and which shall be signed by all the 
judges and members who may have been present thereat. (13) 

9. The regidores cannot give their votes for the said offices in 
favor of their father, son, brother, father-in-law, son-in-law, step- 
son, or step-brother of their wives, (SO) although they may be 
elected by all those who shall be entitled to vote. 

10. Whenever the cabildo shall deliberate upon an affair which 
may personally interest a regidor, or other officer of the cabildo, 
or even any one of his kindred, or for other particular reasons 
which might induce a suspicion of partiality, he shall withdraw 
immediately, and shall not return until the affair shall have been 
decided. (1) 

11. All decrees, royal provisions, and despatches, which may be 
addressed to the municipality either by the governor or other 
authorized minister, shall be opened in the cabildo only, where they 
shall be recorded, and the originals preserved in the archives of 
the said cabildo. () 

12. In case of the death or absence of one of the alcaldes ordinary, 
a new election will not be necessary as the alf erez royal shall exercise 
the duties of that office during the remainder of the term of the 
deceased or absentee, and, if two alcaldes should be lacking at the 
same time, the other office shall fall by right to the senior regidor, 
provided he does not hold in the cabildo any office incompatible with 
that employment, (88) as specified in the present regulation, in the 
articles dealing with each particular office. 

13. Whenever the regidores are present in a body, they shall 
preserve the following order, as in the cabildo, viz: the alf erez 
royal shall take the first place; (&) the provincial alcalde mayor 
the next; the alguacil major, and the other regidores according to 
their seniority. 

14. Each regidor, according to his rank, and by turns, shall be 
charged with the maintenance of the municipal ordinances, and 
of the other dispositions of government for the public good. He 
shall control the prices of provisions, exacting the fines, and putting 
in force the penalties incurred by the delinquents. 

15. Whenever there shall be the question of augmenting the price 
of meat, with which this city is abundantly and constantly supplied^ 

(19) Stat. 16, title 9, book 4, of the Recopilacttin de las India*. 

(tO) Stat. 5 t title 10, book 3, of tlie Recopilacitin de las India*. 

(SI) Stat. 14, title 9, book 4, of the Recopilaci6n de las India*, 

(tt) Stat 17 and 18, book 4, iftitf. 

(3) Stat. 13, title 3, book 5, toid. 

(#4) Stat. 4, title l f) book 4,, 



112 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the cabildo, at a public bidding, shall adjudge the contract to the 
one who shall undertake to supply it on the best terms and for 
the greatest advantage of the public. 

16. The cabildo shall have cognizance of appeals from sentences or 
condemnations pronounced either by the governor, or by the alcaldes 
ordinary where the sum involved does not exceed 90,000 maravedis ; 
(25) this must be understood as extending only to wholly civil 
cases, for in criminal cases the appeal must be made to the superior 
tribunal, which His Majesty will have the goodness to appoint, in 
consequence of my representations to him on that subject. 

17. For the purpose of authorizing such appeals, the cabildo 
shall name two regidores, who, in quality of commissioners, and 
after having taken the oath, shall decide on the justice or injustice 
of the sentence from which an appeal is made, conjointly with the 
judge who may have pronounced the same. (26) This nomination 
shall be made as soon as the cabildo shall be so required by the 
appellant, the form of which, as well as that of the examination of 
the said appeal, will be fully set forth in their places. 

18. In the first ordinary assembly which will be held after the 
annual elections, the cabildo shall name two regidores to receive the 
accounts from the city steward of the preceding year of the sums 
which he may have received belonging to the city, and of the 
expenditures by order of the cabildo, for the objects to which those 
sums are destined. They shall have those accounts rendered with 
the greatest exactitude, and shall oblige the said steward to deliver 
up immediately to his successor the residue of the said account; 
the said regidores being responsible for the total thereof when the 
said accounts shall be settled by one of the principal officers of 
finance. (27) 

19. Although the application and expenditure of the public 
funds for the purposes to which they are destined belong to the 
cabildo, it cannot, even in extraordinary cases, dispose of more than 
3,000 maravedis thereof; and when a greater expenditure may be 
necessary, the consent of the governor must be previously obtained. 
Without it the said cabildo cannot assign either salary or allowance 
for any purpose whatsoever. (28) 

20. The electors in the two jurisdictions, being responsible for 
the injury and detriment which the public may sustain through the 
bad conduct and incapacity of the elected officers in the administra- 
tion of justice and the management of the public interests, should 
have for their only object in the election of alcaldes ordinary and 

(5) Stat. 17, title 12, book 5, ibid. 

(96) Stat. 2, title 18, book 4, ibid. 

(7) Stat. 21, title 9, book 4, ibid. 

(t8) Stat. 2, title 13, book 4, ibid. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 113 

the other officers, the service of God, the King, and the republic; 
and, to prevent an abuse of that great trust, their choice should 
be directed to those persons who shall appear most suitable for 
those offices, by the proofs they may possess of their affection for 
the King, their disinterestedness, and their zeal for the public 
welfare. 

21. The cabildo is hereby informed that it should exact from 
the governors, previous to their installation in office, a good and 
solvent surety and a full assurance that they will submit to the 
necessary inquiries and examinations during the time they fill their 
posts ; and that they will pay what may be adjudged and determined 
in that respect. (89) This article merits the most serious attention 
of the cabildo, which is responsible for the consequences that may 
result from an omission or neglect in exacting those securities from 
the governor. 

22. The offices of regidor and clerk of the cabildo may be sold. 
Those officers shall also be allowed to assign them in the manner 
prescribed by the laws of this kingdom. In acknowledgment of 
this favor, and in consideration of the value that these offices will 
acquire by the privileges of being relinquished so that they may be 
effectively transferred from one person to another, there shall be 
paid into the royal treasury, for the first assignment, one-half the 
sum at which the said offices may be rated, and one-third of the 
same for every subsequent assignment thereof, exclusive of the 
royal custom of half-annats, 86 receivable without any deduction in 
Spain. (30) This fee shall also be paid by the alcaldes ordinary 
who may be yearly elected to those offices. 

23. To render these assignments valid, the assignor shall observe 
a delay of twenty days, computing from the date of the resignation ; 
and the assignee shall present himself to the governor within seventy 
days from the date of the same, provided with an authentic act sub- 
stantiating the said assignment, and likewise the abovementioned 
twenty days' delay that the assigner shall have observed. Should 
neither of those precautions be taken, the assigner shall forfeit the 
said office, which shall be deemed vacant, to the profit of the King's 
demesne; and neither he nor his heirs may lay claim to any portion 
of the price at which the same may be sold. (31) 

24. The said assignments shall not be valid, unless made in favor of 
persons known to be capable, (82) of the age of twenty-six years, and 
possessing the capacity and talents necessary to the common good of 

(S9) Stat. 9, title 2, book 5, Recopilacitin de Leyes de las Indicts. 
88 Half the income of the first year. 
(30) Stat. 1, title 21, and stat. 4, title 19, book 8, iUd. 
(SI) Statutes 4 and 6, title 21, book 8, RecopUacitin de Ia9 India*. 
(SS) Stat. 9, title 21, book 8, iUd. 
700296 49 vol. 2 10 



114 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the republic, and worthy of the cabildo, on account of the injury 
which would result therefrom should those officers be deficient in these 
qualifications. (33) The said assignments shall be carefully executed 
and preserved by a public notary of the place at which they may be 
made, (34) 

II 

THE ALCAIDES ORDINARY. 

1. The alcaldes ordinary shall have first cognizance of all matters 
in dispute, either civil or criminal, between the people of their juris- 
diction which includes all the inhabitants in the cities and their de- 
pendencies. Exception must be made, however, of those who enjoy 
ecclesiastic or military exemptions, or some other privilege. (1) 

2. The alcaldes ordinary cannot interfere in affairs of government, 
which come exclusively within the jurisdiction and department of the 
governor. (2) 

3. In all matters on which the cabildo may deliberate, the alcaldes 
ordinary present therein, during their year of office, shall have an 
equal vote with the regidores. (3) 

4. The alcaldes shall appear in public with decency and modesty, 
bearing the wand of royal justice a badge provided by law to dis- 
tinguish the judges. (4) When administering justice they shall hear 
with mildness those who may present themselves, and shall fix the 
hour and place of audiences. It would be appropriate that these be 
at 10 o'clock in the morning at the town hall ; (5) and for the decision 
of verbal cases, in the evening between 7 and 8 o'clock, at their own 
dwellings, and in none other. 

5. One of the principal objects of justice being to prevent effectu- 
ally those disorders which take place during the night, one of the 
alcaldes, assisted by his alguaciles and the clerk, shall go the rounds of 
the city ; and, in case a greater force should be necessary, they may not 
only demand it from those persons who may be present, but also from 
the guard house nearest. , 

6. It is also the duty of the alcaldes ordinary to keep a watchful 
eye upon fornication, and to punish the same, and all other public 
offences, conformably to the laws; of this a sufficient detail will be 
given herein. 

7. The alcaldes may hear and decide verbally in civil cases, when 
the demand shall not exceed twenty piasters, (6) as also in criminal 



(33) Stat. 7, title 20 ; stat. 10, 11, title 21, book 8, 

(34) Statute 7, title 21, book 8, ibid. 

(1) Stat. 1, title 3, book 5, Recopilad6n de las Indias. 
<) Stat. 11, title 3, book 5, ibid. 
(,*) Stat. 15, title 3, book 5, Hid. 

(4) Statute 11, title 2, book 5, ibid. 

(5) Statute 13, title 2, book 5, iUd. 

(6) Statute 1, title 10, book 5, iUd^ 



THE REVOLUTION AHY PfiBIOD, 1765-1781 115 

cases of little importance. They may also hear and decide verbally 
those which may exceed that sum, in case the parties interested shall 
consent thereto. 

8. Cases legally brought before one of the judges shall be continued 
and decided in his tribunal, and neither the governor nor any other 
shall deprive him of the jurisdiction thereof. (7) The governor* how- 
ever, at the demand of the parties thereto, may, by an order in writ- 
ing, and suitable to the case, require and summon the alcalde to render 
speedy justice, conformably to law. 

9. In cases of controversy with respect to jurisdiction, between the 
governor and one of the alcaldes, or between these last, where one of 
them may claim cognizance of a case instituted with the other, either 
by reason of the said case having been also instituted in Ms tribunal, 
or his supposing the same exclusively within his jurisdiction, they 
shall draw up a report of the said controversy, in which they shall 
set forth their pretensions in a grave and legal style. The case shall 
remain in abeyance until the decision of the superior, whom they shall 
be bound to consult, and to whom they shall deliver an exact copy of 
the proceeding, unless one of the judges may give way to the claim 
of the other, and thereby put an end to the said controversy. If, how- 
ever, in the interval of the decision, one of the judges should proceed 
in, or take the least cognizance of, the aforesaid case, he shall forfeit 
his claim to the same, which shall be immediately vested in the 
other. (8) 

10. If one of the parties pleading shall challenge the alcalde who 
may already have taken cognizance of a case, he may not continue the 
same except in conjunction with another; and, if the latter should 
also be challenged, he shall associate himself with a regidor, who shall 
take an oath to do his duty impartially, and to terminate the case 
according to law, and as speedily as possible. Whatever may be done 
by the alcalde alone after exception has been taken against him, shall 
be void and of non-effect. The oath taken by the party to the written 
act of exception, that he is mistrustful of the alcalde, shall be suffi- 
cient to render the same valid ; but, if the party shall purpose to ex- 
clude him entirely from the hearing of the case, besides the aforesaid 
oath, he shall make known and substantiate the ground on which he 
relies for the support of his pretensions. If the judge should be 
related, even in the fourth degree, to the adverse party, or is in such 
habits of friendship with him as to excite a suspicion of partiality, or 
prejudiced against the challenger, in all these cases he shall be excluded 
from the hearing of the case in controversy, which shall be committed 
to the other alcalde. 



(7) Statute 14, title 2, book 3, 
(*) Statute 8, title 9, book 5* 



116 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

11. Two referees appointed, one by the alcalde, and the other 
by the challenger, after taking an oath to execute their office im- 
partially, shall determine whether the case be of the nature before- 
mentioned; and, if of the said nature, they shall exact the entire 
exclusion of the alcalde therefrom; and, if a difference should arise 
between the referees, a third, named by the judge, shall decide 
thereon ; which decision shall be indispensably binding. 

12. The diversity of cases not permitting a special detail of the 
forms of proceeding therein, the alcaldes shall be guided by the 
formulary hereunto annexed ; and shall consult with the counsellor, 
to be appointed for that purpose, upon all doubtful cases which 
may occur in their practice, or which may not be provided for 
by the said formulary; and shall approach, as nearly as possible, 
to the spirit of our laws for the administration of justice. 

13. The alcaldes ordinary, accompanied by the alguacil mayor, 
and the clerk, shall, every Friday, make an inspection of the prison. 
They shall examine the prisoners, the causes of their detention, and 
the time of their imprisonment. (9) They shall release the poor 
who may be detained for their expenses, or for small debts; and 
the jailer shall not exact from them any releasement fee. (10) The 
alcaldes may not set at liberty any of the prisoners detained by 
order of the governor, or of any other judge, without the express 
consent of those officials. 

14. They may not release those who are imprisoned for debts 
due to the domain; (11) nor for fines imposed by law, unless the 
sum due shall be previously deposited. (12) 

15. The governor, with the alcaldes, the alguacil mayor, and 
the clerk, shall, yearly, on the eves of Christmas, Easter, and Pente- 
cost, make a general visitation of the prisons, in the manner pre- 
scribed by the laws of the Indies. (13) They shall release those 
who have been arrested for criminal cases of little importance, 
or for debts, when the debtors are known to be insolvent; and 
shall allow them a sufficient term for the payment of their creditors. 

III. 

THE PROVINCIAL ALCALDE MAYOR. 

1. The provincial regidor alcalde mayor shall bear the rod of 
justice, and shall have jurisdiction over crimes committed in the un- 
inhabited places, that is to say, outside the cities and villages. (1) 

(9) Statute 1, title 7, book 7, ibid. 

(10) Statute 16, title 6, book 7, and statute 17, ibid. 

(11) Statute 16, title 7, book 7, ibid. 

(12) Stat. 17, title 7, book 7, ibid. 

(13) Stat. 1, title 7, book 7, ibid. 

(1) Stat. 2, title 13, book 8, Recopilaci6n de Castillo. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 11? 

Thefts, robberies, carrying away of property by force, rape of decent 
women, as also treason, or attacks accompanied by wounds or 
followed by death, setting fire to or burning down of houses or 
crops, and other crimes of this nature, shall be within the 
competency of the said provincial alcalde mayor. 

2. He may also take cognizance of the aforesaid crimes, although 
committed in cities, when the offenders have quitted the same, and 
have withdrawn to the country with their plunder; as also of 
murders or assaults committed on their officers while in the exercise 
of their duties, or even afterwards, if the same are the result 
of malice. (2) If, however, the governor, or one of the judges 
ordinary of the city, shall have previously taken cognizance thereof, 
the provincial alcalde mayor shall not interfere therein, for the 
reason that the jurisdiction of the same is vested in the alcalde 
ordinary. (3} The judge, however, who shall have apprehended the 
offender, shall have the preference therein, even if the others should 
have preceded him. (4) 

3. Whenever it shall be known that the crime does not concern 
the tribunal of the Santa Hermandad, 87 the provincial alcalde mayor 
shall refer the cognizance of the same to one of the alcaldes ordinary* 
without waiting to be required thereto. (5) 

4. The provincial alcalde mayor shall see that travellers are 
furnished with provisions at reasonable prices, as well by the pro- 
prietors of plantations as by the inhabitants of the places through 
which they may pass. (6) 

5. The principal object in the institution of the tribunal of the 
Santa Hermandad is to repress disorders, and to prevent the 
robberies and assassinations committed in unfrequented places by 
vagabonds and delinquents, who conceal themselves in the woods 
and attack travellers and the adjacent inhabitants. The provincial 
alcalde mayor should assemble a sufficient number of the commis- 
saries or brothers of the Santa Hermandad to clear his jurisdiction 
of this kind of people, by pursuing them with spirit, seizing, or 
putting them to flight. (7) 

6. For the purpose aforesaid, and conformably to the usage of 
the other provinces of the Indies within the domain of His Majesty, 
the provincial alcaldes mayors, their commissaries, and the brothers 
of the Santa Hermandad shall have the right of arresting, either 

(2) Statute 2, title 13, book 8, Hid. 

($) Statute 10, title 13, book 8, ibid. 

U) Statute 10, title 13, book 8, ibid. 

(5) Statute 13, title 13, book 8, ibid. 

(6) Statute 15, title 13, book 8, ibid. 

(7) Statute 1, title 13, book 8, and statute 1, titie 4, book 5 t ibid. 

m A court of justice which had the right to try and punish persons who had committed 
misdemeanors or other offenses in open fields or upon public roads. 



118 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

within or without the city, all runaway negroes and fugitives, and 
may exact a reasonable fee therefor; which right shall not be vested 
in any other person save the master of the fugitive slave. 

The said fee is all the more just since the provincial alcalde 
mayor, to comply with his duty, must, at his own expense, travel 
through unfrequented places, for the benefit of the inhabitants. 

7. The said officer shall render speedy justice in all matters 
within his competency, (8) and from his judgment there shall be 
no appeal; (9) otherwise it would be impossible to remedy the 
injurious consequences that would result therefrom. But, on the 
other hand, his judgments shall be pronounced in strict conformity 
with the spirit of the laws, to which end he shall consult some 
lawyer; but, in the interim, he shall be guided by the instructions 
herein contained, which relate to the administration of justice and 
the forms of procedure. 

8. This office of the Hermandad being created with a view to pre- 
vent those disorders which may be committed in unfrequented places, 
the provincial alcalde mayor should make frequent trips from the city. 
This duty consequently renders his office incompatible with that of 
alcalde ordinary, to which he cannot be elected. He may, therefore, 
not lay claim, except by obtaining permission of the King, to commit 
to a lieutenant, appointed by himself, the duties of the Santa 
Hermandad. 

9. The said officer and his lieutenants must take an oath, in the 
form annexed to this summary ; he shall account to the governor for 
the appointments he may have made, and shall notify him of the 
judgments he may have pronounced, to the end that the same may be 
put into execution. Although this formality is not prescribed by any 
law, yet it is necessary for the purpose of preserving harmony and 
subordination, and for the facility of procuring assistance. 

10. In all controversies, with respect to jurisdiction, which may 
occur between the tribunal of the Santa Hermandad, and any other 
tribunal of the province, the parties shall conform exactly to the 
instructions which have been given in the particular article relating 
to the alcaldes ordinary. The instructions which have been given in 
relation to exceptions against judges, should also be strictly followed, 
as no altercation should take place on that subject between these 
officers. , 

IV. 

THE ALGRJACIL MAYOR 

1. The alguacil mayor is an officer charged with the execution of 
sentences and judgments rendered, including payments ordered, tak- 

(#) Statute 18, title 13. book 8, Recopilacitn de la* India*. 
(9) Statute 9, title 13, book 8, ibid. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PEEIOD, 17654781 119 

ing possession of goods for sale, imprisonments, and the punishment 
of crimes. He cannot be elected alcalde ordinary, (1) unless he 
shall have appointed a lieutenant to discharge his duties, in the man- 
ner prescribed by the provincial alcalde mayor. (jB) 

2. Recovery of moneys upon writs of execution, orders for taking 
possession of goods, and seizures of real property, shall be carefully 
executed by the alguacil mayor in taking the fees allowed by law, (3) 
and fixed by the tariff included in the present regulation. 

3. The alguacil mayor shall also have the superintendence of the 
prisons. He shall commission the jailers (4) and keepers of prisons, 
after having presented them to the governor, that he may judge of 
their capacity for those offices, (5) under the penalty of being de- 
prived, for one year, of the right of nominating the same, which 
shall, for that term, be vested in the governor. All the jail fees which 
the prisoners may pay shall be for the use of the alguacil mayor. 

4. The said officer cannot appoint as lieutenants any persons except 
such as are known to be suitable for those employments, (6) who 
are young, and do not exercise any mechanical profession. They shall 
be presented to the governor, and approved by him, and shall take 
the oath required. (7) The alguacil mayor may not appoint to the 
said office either the relatives or servants of the judges and officers, 
(8) but he shall be allowed to change the said lieutenants when he 
may have just reasons therefor. (9) 

5. The alguacil mayor and his lieutenants shall go the rounds, and 
shall visit the public places, both by night and day, to prevent noises 
and disputes, (10) under the penalty of being suspended from their 
offices, and payment of the damages that may result from their neg- 
ligence. (11) They shall arrest, without other authority, the offenders, 
and shall give immediate information thereof to the alcaldes. (J$) 
They shall not tolerate unlawful games, nor public and scandalous 
offences. (13) They are also hereby informed that, although they have 
the power of arresting any one without orders, they may not release 
the same, under the penalty of being deprived of their offices, and of 
being declared incapable of holding any other. (14) 

(I) Statute 29, title 11, 20, book 2, JRecopitocidtt, de las Indtas. 
(*) Stat. 3, title 20, book 2, ibid. 

(3) Stat. 3, title 20, book 2, ibid. 

(4) Statute 13, title 20, book 2, ilid. 

(5) Stat. 14, title 20, book 2 t ibid. 
() Statute 5, title 20, book 2, ibid. 

(7) Stat. 6, tit. 20, book 2, ibid. 

(8) Stat. 7, title 20, book 2, ibid. 

(9) Stat. 11, title 20, book 2, ibid. 

(10) Stat 21, title 20, book 2, ibid. 

(II) Stat. 20, title 20, book 2, ibid. 
(J) Stat. 23, title 20, book 2, ibid. 
(IS) Stat. 24, title 20, book 2, ibid. 
(14) Stat. 28, title 20, book 2, ibid. 



120 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

6. The alguacil mayor shall conform strictly to the articles which 
relate to the prisons, and to the tariff which specifies the fees which 
are demandable. He shall also be present with the judges ordinary 
in the visitations of the prisons, which shall be made at the times 
prescribed by this regulation. 

V. 

THE DEPOSITARY GENERAL. 

1. The depositary general whose duties are incompatible with those 
of a judge cannot be elected alcalde ordinary, unless he names a lieu- 
tenant, who may be charged with the care of the deposits. 

2. Before assuming the said office, the depositary general shall give 
good and valid sureties, which shall answer for the safety of the de- 
posits, and which shall be approved by the governor, the alcaldes, 
and the cabildo. (1) This warranty shall be recorded in the book to 
be kept by the clerk of the cabildo for the recording of the deposits 
(2) in which he shall inscribe the day, month, and year, of the said 
warranty. 

3. The governor, the alcaldes, and the cabildo shall carefully ex- 
amine the books which exhibit the sureties of the depositary general, 
the state of his property, and that of the said sureties, which shall be 
certified by the clerk of the cabildo, in order that the same may be 
verified the succeeding year, so as to have the necessary information 
thereon. (3) 

4. If, by the said examination, it shall be found that the situation 
of the depositary general, or of his sureties, be such as to excite appre- 
hension, he shall be prevented from exercising the duties of his office, 
until he shall have rendered his accounts, and given a better secur- 
ity. (4) 

5. The depositary general shall deliver at the first demand the 
sums which may have been deposited with him, in the same coin 
in which he received them; to which the judges, and other officers 
competent thereto, should pay particular attention. (5) 

6. The depositary general shall record the deposits in a book 
similar to that of the clerk of the cabildo. (#) He shall receive 
for the same, and for deposit fees, three percent, as explained in 
the commission which he has received for the exercise of his office. 

(1) Statute 18, title 10, book 4, Recopilacidn de las Indias. 

() Statute 21, title 10, book 4, iUd. 

(3) Statute 18, title 10, book 4, iUd. 

(4) Statute 19, title 10, book 4, iUd. 

(5) Statute 20, title 10, book 4, iUd. 

(6) Statute 21, title 10, book 4, ibid. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PEEIOD, 1765-1181 121 

VL 

THE RECEIVER OF FINES. 

1. The receiver of fines, whose duties are incompatible with those 
of alcalde ordinary, shall have cognizance of all matters in relation 
thereto, as also of those arbitrarily imposed by the judge; (1) and he 
shall keep and render an account of these, using for that purpose 
a book similar to that kept by the clerk for the same object, in 
which they shall be entered according to date. 

2. For the security of the remainder of the accounts rendered 
by the receiver of fines, he shall give good and valid sureties, (?) 
in the same manner as the depositary general. Examination shall 
be made yearly into the state of the said sureties, which shall be 
changed if they become less substantial. 

3. To the end that the receiver may fully discharge the duties of 
his office, and a certain knowledge be acquired of the funds in his 
possession, the clerk, in whose presence the fines will have been laid, 
shall advise the clerk of the cabildo of the same, who shall enter 
them in a book, the sheets of which shall be signed by the governor. 
(3) Afterward the clerk of the cabildo shall inform the receiver 
thereof, who, by these means, will at once collect the amount of 
the sums he should receive ; and the book of the cabildo will serve to 
make him render an account of the sums which are entered herein. 

4. The receiver of fines cannot employ the proceeds thereof without 
the order or permission of His Majesty, by reason that the same, 
being the property of His Majesty, cannot be removed without his 
approbation. He shall dispose of only that portion which has been 
imposed by the judges (4) in conformity to the orders lie may 
receive, and not otherwise. 

5. The receiver shall discharge, out of the aforesaid portion of 
fines, the drafts which may be drawn by the governor, the alcaldes, 
and the other judges, who shall limit themselves to the sums which 
may be necessary. (5) 

6. The said receiver shall render a yearly account of the sums 
he may have received and paid in the execution of his office. His 
accounts, shall be reviewed by the officers of finance appointed 
thereto in this province. (#) 

7. He shall be allowed a commission of ten percent on all sums 

(1) Statute 1, title 25, book 2, Recopiladtin de las India*. 

(2) Statute 36, title 25, book 2, ibid. 

(3) Statute 39, title 25, book 2, 4M& 

(4) Statute 5, title 25, book 2, Mid. 

(5) Statute 25, titie 25, book 2, ibid. 

(6) Statute 25, title 25, book 2, ibid. 



122 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

which may be recovered and received by himself from those parties, 
or by those commissioned by him, for the recovery thereof. (7) 

VII. 

THE ATTORNEY GENERAL. 

1. The attorney general of the commonwealth is an officer 
appointed to assist the public in all its affairs, to defend it, secure 
its rights and obtain justice, and to prosecute all other claims which 
have relation to the public cause. (1 ) 

2. In consequence thereof, the attorney general, who is appointed 
solely for the public good, shall see that the municipal ordinances 
are strictly observed, and shall endeavor to remedy anything through 
which the said public might suffer. 

3. For these purposes he shall apply to the tribunals competent 
thereto, for the recovery of debts and revenues due to the city funds, 
in his quality as attorney for the city. He shall prosecute causes 
with the activity and diligence necessary to discharge him from 
the responsibility in which he would be placed by the slightest 
omission. 

4. He shall see that the other officers of the council or cabildo 
discharge strictly the duties of their offices; that the depositary 
general, the receiver of fines, and all those who are to give sureties, 
shall give such as are good and valid; and in case of expiration, he 
shall demand the renewal thereof, conformably to law. 

5. He shall be present at, and take part in, the division of lands, 
and other public matters (2) to the end that nothing unsuitable or 
injurious may occur in the distribution of the same, 

VIII. 

THE CITT STEWARD. 

1. The city steward shall have the management of, and shall receive 
all that is comprised within the denomination of city lands. He shall 
give receipts to debtors, and shall record all sums which he may re- 
ceive, as also the expenditures he may make for account of the cabildo, 
in order that he may be able to render his accounts as soon as his 
year of office shall expire. 

2. He shall discharge the drafts of the cabildo upon the income of 
the city, and none other. He shall abstain from furnishing or lending 
any sums to any individual whomsoever, under the penalty of being 



(7) 

(jf) Statute 1, title 2, book 4, Recopilacitin de las India*, 
(8) Statute 6, title 12, book 4, ibid. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1705-1781 123 

responsible therefor, and of being declared incapable of holding any 
office In the republic. 

3. The construction and upkeep of bridges, within and without the 
city, shall not be defrayed out of the city funds. This expense shall 
be borne by those who shall enjoy the benefit thereof, amongst whom 
the same shall be proportioned in the manner defined by statute 1, title 
16, book 4, of the Becopilacion de las Indian. 

4. Whenever any public work shall be undertaken, either by the 
cabildo or by Individuals, care shall be taken that the same may be 
substantial and durable. (1) A regidor shall be named for that pur- 
pose, who, without any compensation, shall inspect the said under- 
taking. (#) 

5. The expense of public mourning for the royal family shall be 
defrayed from the city funds, with all the economy which the cabildo 
can adapt to these circumstances. (3) 

IX. 

THE CLERK OF THE CABUJX). 

1. This officer shall preserve in his archives all the papers which 
may concern the cabildo, its cases, and the trials. He shall inscribe 
in a book all the bonds and deposits which have relation to the deposi- 
tary general ; and, in another book, those which relate to the receiver 
of fines. He shall also keep a third book for trusteeships and their 
sureties, ordinary and extraordinary, in which he shall record the 
patents and commissions delivered by His Majesty, (1) and shall 
take care to preserve the originals in the archives of the cabildo. 

2. The clerk of the cabildo shall never suffer any paper or act to be 
removed from his archives, and if the judges should be obliged to 
have recourse to the same, he shall furnish them a correct copy thereof, 
but shall never part with the original. (%) 

3. The said clerk of the cabildo and of the government shall note, 
at the foot of all acts and copies of documents which he may deliver, 
the fees which he has received therefor, under the penalty of forfeit- 
ing the same, and of incurring the other penalties established to pre- 
vent him from exacting more than is allowed by the tariff (3) . 

4. The clerk of the cabildo and of the government shall in- 
scribe, in a separate book, the mortgages upon all contracts which 
may be made before him or any other. He shall certify, at the foot 



(1) Statute 4, title 16, book 4, of Recopilaoidn de las India*. 
() Stat 3, title 16, book 4, ftict. 
(3) Stat. 3 f title 16, book 4, ibid. 

(1) Stat. 21, title 10, book 4 ; stat. 39, title 25, book 2 ; *t&t. 6, title 8, book 5 ; statutes 
16 and 18, title 9, book 4, Recopilaoidn de las India*. 
() Stat. 20, title 9, book 4, *Wd. 
(5) Statute 28, title 23, book 2, iWtf, 



124 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

of each deed, the charge or mortgage under which the sale or the 
obligation may have been made, conformably to the intention of the 
law, in order to prevent the abuses and frauds which usually result 
from that omission. 

5. The regidores, the clerk, and all those who may succeed to any of 
the venal offices established by the laws of the Indies, are hereby 
informed that the royal ordinances require that, within the term of 
five years, computing from the date of their commission, they must 
obtain His Majesty's confirmation and present the same to the gov- 
ernor of the city or province in which they reside, under the penalty 
of being deprived of the said offices. 

X. 

THE JAILER AND THE PRISONS. 

1. The jailer shall be appointed by the alguacil mayor, and ap- 
proved by the governor, before assuming the duties of his office. He 
shall also be presented to the cabildo to be received, and to take an 
oath to discharge faithfully the duties of the said office, to guard the 
prisoners, and to observe the laws and ordinances established in this 
respect, under the penalties therein declared. (1) 

2. The said jailer may not enter upon the duties of the said office, 
until he shall have given a good and valid bond of two hundred 
piastres, which surety shall warrant that no prisoner detained for debt 
shall be released without an order from the proper judge. (#) 

3. The jailer shall keep a book in which he shall inscribe the names 
of all the prisoners, that of the judge by whose order they have been 
arrested, the cause for which they are detained, and the names of those 
who have arrested them. (3) He shall reside in the prison, and for 
each considerable fault committed by him he shall pay sixty piasters, 
applicable one half to the royal chamber, and the other to the in- 
former. (4) 

4. It is the duty of the jailer to keep the prison clean and healthy, 
to supply it with water for the use of the prisoners, () to visit them 
in the evening, (<#) to prevent them from gaming or disputing, (7) 
to treat them well, and to avoid insulting or offending them. (8) 

5. It is likewise the duty of the jailer to take care that the female 
prisoners are separate from the men, (9) that both of them are kept 

(1) Statute 5, title 6, book 1, Recopilacidn de las Tndias. 

(f ) Stat 4, ibid. 

(S) Stat. 6, Mid. 

(4) Stat. 7, ibid. 

(5) Stat. 8, ibid. 

(6) Stat 11, iUd. 

(7) Stat 13, ibid, 

(8) Stat 9, iUd. 

(9) stat. 2, ma. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 176&-1781 125 

in their respective apartments, and that they are not treated worse 
than their offense deserves, or than is prescribed by the judges. {10} 

6. With respect to his fees, the said jailer shall confine himself 
strictly to those which are established; he shall take none from the 
poor, under the penalties of law. (11) He may not, without incurring 
the same penalties, receive any gratuity either in money or in goods, 
(12) He shall avoid entirely either playing, eating, or forming any 
intimacy with the prisoners, (IS) under the penalty of sixty piasters, 
applicable one-third to the royal chamber, one-third to the informer, 
and the remaining third to the poor prisoners. 

FORM of the oath to be taken by the governors, the alcaldes, and 
the other judges, when taking possession of their offices. 

DON N.) elected governor, or alcalde, &c., (according to the 
employment or office,} I swear before God, the Holy Cross, and the 
Gospel, to uphold and defend the mystery of the Immaculate Con- 
ception of Our Lady the Virgin Mary, and the royal jurisdiction to 
which I am attached T>y my office. I also swear to obey the royal 
ordinances and the decrees of His Majesty, faithfully to discharge 
the duties of my office, to decide according to law all cases which 
may come before my tribunal; and for the more certain attainment 
thereto, I promise to consult with such as are well informed in 
the law, whenever opportunities may occwr in this city; and, lastly^ 
I swear that I will never exact other fees than those fixed T>y the 
schedule, and that I will never take any from the poor. 

At NEW ORLEANS, November 85, 1769. 

DON ALEXANDRE O'BEILLY. 
FRANQOIS XAVIER RODRIQUEZ, 

Clerk of the expedition. 

Printed 'by order of His EXCELLENCY, 

PROCLAMATION BY O'EEILLY 
December 7, 1769** 

DON ALEXANDRE O'B-EiLLY, Commander of Benf ayan in the Order 
of Alcantara, Lieutenant General in His Majesty's Armies, Inspector 
General of the Infantry, and by commission Governor and Captain 
General of the Province of Louisiana. 

All inhabitants and residents of this province are informed that 
the wise and just laws of His Majesty very expressly forbid any 



(10) Statute 10, title 6, book 7, Recopiladtin de las Indias. 

(11) Stat. 13 and 14, Wid. 
(1$) S. 10, ibid. 

(IS) S. 12, ibid. 

w BL, (Printed in French). 



126 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

subject of any quality or condition whatsoever to make any Indian 
a slave or to possess any such, under any pretext whatever, even 
though there be an open war against that Indian's nation. In 
consequence whereof, all subjects of His Majesty, and even all 
transients, are expressly forbidden to acquire, purchase, or take over 
any Indian slave, beginning from the day of publication of this 
order. The present owners of the aforesaid slaves are also informed 
that they shall be unable to part with those they now have in any 
manner whatsoever, except to give them back their liberty, until 
receipt of orders from His Majesty. The said owners are enjoined 
to make a declaration to the record office of the name and nation of the 
said Indians, and to set a value on them. 

In order to secure exact information as to the number of Indians 
kept in slavery in all the dependencies of this colony, the post 
commandants are ordered to make an exact census of all the Indians 
who are in slavery in the entire area of their commands. This 
census shall contain the names of the said slaves, their age, their 
sex, and their descent, together with the names of their masters, 
and the price and valuation of the said slaves. A copy of this 
census shall be sent by them to the office of Monsieur Garic, scribe 
to the cabildo, to be joined by him to the declarations which he is 
to receive from this city and its dependencies. The whole is to 
be disposed of subsequently as His Majesty shall deem fit. 

In consequence whereof, it is commanded that these presents shall 
be read, published, and posted in the usual places and sent to all 
the posts of this colony likewise to be read, published, and posted, 
for the purpose of having their contents executed. 

Given at our mansion at NEW ORLEANS, December 7, 1769. 

O'KEILLY (Kubric) 

O'REILLY TO ARRIAGA 
December 10, 1769 

No. 23. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VEKY DEAR Sm: From the 16th to the 18th of this current 
month there will embark for Havana the six companies of fusiliers 
of the fixed regiment of that city which have been here. I have 
arranged for their transportation on two good vessels at a very rea- 
sonable cost, amounting to only two thousand pesos fuertes for both 
the troops and two hundred and twenty-two barrels of salt meat and 
two hundred and twenty-six of bacon which I found in these stores, 

AGI, Aud. SD, 80-1-9. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 127 

and which I am sending to Havana on account of their being of no use 
here. This meat and the greater part of the bacon was brought during 
the time of Don Antonio de Ulloa. When I had it inspected some time 
after my arrival I found it necessary to order fifty-five barrels of 
salt meat and ten barrels of bacon thrown into the river because of 
its being declared spoiled by the experts who made the inspection. 
The experts were one naval officer, the purser of the frigate, and 
the first official of the auditing office of this province. 

No stock of provisions is needed at this place or the posts de- 
pendent on it, and keeping such here would entail a very large, 
continuous, and useless expense. The province will always be able 
to supply everything necessary in abundance, with the exception of 
Hour ; and when this becomes scarce here, they make a bread of rice 
which serves very well. I have always found this to be tme from 
the time of my arrival here with all the troops and seamen of the 
expedition, without having had the slightest difficulty in securing for 
them an abundant supply of all the provisions necessary. 

I am sending this meat to the intendant of Havana, so that he 
may collect the value of it from the commandant of the navy yard, 
who needs it, and make the corresponding credit to this province. 

I pray Our Lord to guard and make happy your important life 
for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, December 10, 1769. 

Most Excellent Sir, Your most humble and attentive servant kisses 
Your Excellency's hand. 

ALEXASTDRO O'REILLY (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor BAILIO FRET DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA. 

O'REILLY TO ARRIAGA 
December 10, 17 69?* 

No. 19 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : The sale of the property adjudicated to the 
exchequer in the sentence pronounced by me under date of October 
24, last, of which I have sent Your Excellency a copy, is being executed 
with great care and formality. I have commissioned for the handling 
of these accounts Captain Don Joseph Carroja (a trustworthy and 
efficient officer), Treasurer Don Martin Navarro, as he is a royal 
official, my assessor, Don Manuel Urrutia, my prosecuting attorney, 
Don Felix Rey, and the clerk of the old council, Don Juan Garic, 
after I had first taken the oath of each one to proceed with the greatest 



*>AGI, Aud. SD, 80-1-9. 



128 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

legality and in conformity with the laws. The justice with which all 
these matters are being carried out fully satisfies the parties inter- 
ested, and leaves in the public mind a most favorable concept of the 
equity of our government. 

I am doing all that I can toward the prompt dispatch of these 
matters, so that the widows and creditors may get what is theirs and 
the royal exchequer the part which belongs to it. 

M. de Arensburg, a Swede by race, former captain in the service of 
France and chevalier of the order of St. Louis, was appointed com- 
mandant of the Germans with salary of two hundred pesos per year 
(which was paid by His Majesty from the day of arrival of Don 
Antonio de Ulloa in the province), together with some emoluments 
as judge of the district. M. Villeret (married to the granddaughter 
of said Arensburg) , now deceased, as he was sentenced to the gallows, 
was the one who brought about the uprising of the Germans, and led 
them to this city to seize the colony from Don Antonio de Ulloa and 
the Spaniards. This Arensburg did nothing to restrain the Germans. 
He permitted Villeret to operate, pretending to be unaware of what 
he was doing, so that in any event he would be safe from the law. 
He succeeded in doing so, but in all respects was very guilty. It is 
in nowise advisable to permit him to live on that coast, because there 
the bad effects of his great influence over the minds of those people 
has been evidenced, I have ordered him to sell his property there at 
once, and have permitted his two sons to settle at Opelousas, 92 leagues 
from here, a place where their settlement cannot cause the slightest 
inconvenience. 

I have permitted the father, who is 77 years of age, to live in this 
city, as he has requested. All his relatives, who are good people, have 
made themselves guarantors of the conduct of the sons, who, like 
thedr father, show great penitence for their guilt, and the greatest 
gratitude for this benign treatment which, nevertheless, embodies 
exemplary punishment in the sale of their property. 

M. de Sasier, who after the recent uprising went to France as 
deputy of this council, is a very bad man, too headstrong to be per- 
mitted to reside in this province, and by my decree is included in 
the number of those expelled. This Sasier has never shown any 
respect for justice, nor has he ever been deterred in the means through 
which he attains his ends. 

May Our Lord preserve the life of Your Excellency many years. 

Most Excellent Sir, your hand is kissed by your attentive servant. 

ALEXANDKO O'REILLY (Rubric) 
Most Excellent Senor BAILIO FREY DON JULIAN DE AKKIAGA. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 129 

O'REILLY TO GRBCAJLDI 

December 10, 1769 * 
No. 21. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAB SIR; The day after tomorrow 3 the 12th Instant, I 
shall set out on my journey to Pointe Couple, fifty leagues up the 
river from this city and, with the exception of the vicinity of this 
capital, the only well-populated place in the province. The inhab- 
itants have been notified to come to the place I have indicated in each 
district, which they can do at little inconvenience to themselves. 
There I shall hear their complaints, see for myself the country and 
its inhabitants, establish militia companies as needed, and leave in- 
structions for their prompt assembly and defense in case of an Indian 
attack or when needed by this governor or for any other object of the 
service. 

Governor Don Luis de Unzaga will accompany me on this journey 
so that he may assist me with Ms knowledge and may himself become 
well-informed on all the affairs of the government, to which object 
I have ever given special attention. 

On the 16th of last month I sent two officials to Atakapas, Opelousas, 
Natchitoches, and Eapide to take oaths of fealty from the Inhabitants 
and to secure all the information I need. For this purpose I have 
given the instruction of which I enclose a copy. They will return 
at the beginning of next month, and on receipt of their reports I 
shall amplify my last orders relative to these places. 

The good reports which I received from the most trustworthy 
citizens of this country about Don Atanasio de Mezieres, retired 
captain of the service of France, and the good opinion which I 
have formed of his personal conduct decided me to appoint him 
lieutenant governor of the post of Natchitoches and its district. I 
have given him the instructions of which I enclose a copy and have 
assigned him the salary of thirty pesos per month, but have excused 
this post from making the large expenditures formerly made, as 
Your Excellency will see from the general regulations which I shall 
send to you very soon. I hope to secure for the presidios of Mexico 
the tranquility which they have not heretofore had and to make 
much more difficult any illegal entry into that kingdom. 

This Mezieres has a good amount of capital of his own with which 
to answer for his conduct, much experience, and knowledge of the 
Indians and the district of Natchitoches, where he has been settled 
for many years. He has five children, and in order to bind him 
more firmly to the service, I have given the eldest two, who are of 

AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-7. 



700296 49 vol. 2 11 



130 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

good presence and distinguished birth, appointments as cadets, which 
has caused great satisfaction to the father. 

The viceroy of New Spain has sent me a warrant asking for 
the apprehension of the person of Don Manuel Bermudez de Soto ; 
former secretary to the ex-governor of the province of Texas. This 
Bermudez knew this province very well and had many friends here, 
but this has served him nothing. As a result of my circular order, 
he was arrested and handed over to the commandant of the presidio 
of Los Adaes. Anyone who commits a crime in that kingdom and 
flees to this province will suffer the same fate. 

I pray Our Lord to preserve and bless Your Excellency's precious 
life the many years I desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, December 10^ 1769. 

ALEXANDRO O'REILLY (Eubric) 

Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 

(Accompanying the foregoing) 

Instructions to be observed by Captain Don Eduardo Nugent and 
Don Juan Kelly in the discharge of the mission which I have 
entrusted to them. 

ARTICLES 

1. The object of their mission consists principally of taking the oath 
of fealty from all the inhabitants of Atakapas, Opelousas, Natchi- 
toches, and Eapide on the Eed Eiver, taking an accurate census, 
hearing all the requests and petitions of the inhabitants, and inform- 
ing themselves of the general and particular grievances of the citizens 
and what is their cause. On their return they shall give me an exact 
account and deliver to me the memorials presented by the citizens, 
together with the information they have gathered to substantiate the 
truth of the statements of each. 

2. They shall assemble the people at the place most convenient for 
all, take the oaths of fealty with the same formality as practiced in 
this city by me, and shall have everyone sign at the end of the at- 
tached paper which gives the tenor of the oath ; and at the foot both 
officials and the two principals in each town shall certify that they 
have witnessed the oath taken by all, and the preceding signatures. 

3. At each town they shall receive the memorials presented by the 
people, inform themselves carefully of the truth of the statements of 
each, and without deciding any matter themselves, bring the petitions 
of the parties to this city for my decision. 

4. They shall ascertain as best they can who are the objectionable 
characters in each of the said places, in order to inform me on their 
return, but they shall guard themselves in their reports against the 



THE BBVOLUTIONAJBtr PBKIO1), 17&1-1781 131 

rivalries and enmities customary among neighbors, and for this pur- 
pose they shall have the facts stated, so that they may ascertain their 
truth through other channels. 

5. They shall take a census of the citizenry in accordance with the 
attached formulary No. 2, and another of the cattle in accordance with 
No. 3. 

6. From Natchitoches they shall go to see the presidio of Adaes, 
from whose governor they will be able to obtain information about 
the objectionable characters in Natchitoches, those who furnish arms, 
powder, and ball to the Indians who wage war on our presidios in 
Mexico, and others who bring in contraband goods, where they do 
this, and what the goods are. 

7. They shall bring me an exact report on the presidio at Adaes, 
its fort, garrison, provisions, and from where it obtains what it 
needs. All these reports must be confidential. 

8. They shall keep a diary of the whole journey, with a clear de- 
scription of the distances, character of the roads, @nd means of 
traveling them with a battalion of troops going from this city to 
Opelousas, or coming down here from Natchitoch.es. They shall also 
describe in their report the character of the country and its products. 

9. They shall everywhere impress on the inhabitants of the great 
clemency displayed by the King toward this colony, the felicity 
which may be expected under a government so kind and just that the 
good will always be protected and esteemed, the evel punished, and no 
one imposed upon or wronged. They shall state that everyone may 
rest assured that prompt justice will be rendered them. 

10. If there are any Indian places near the road, they shall visit 
them and examine them in order to inform me. 

11. They shall distribute in Natchitoches the presents they have 
for the Indians and explain to them that once a year they will be 
sent a similar gift, without their having to give anything in exchange, 
and that the kindness of the King, so liberal with them, desires only 
that, for their own good, they live in peace and quiet with everyone. 
Under no circumstances must they do any harm to the presidios of 
Mexico, nor lend ear to any other word than that sent them by the 
great chief of the province or by the man who is in command in 
that town at his order and in Ms name. 

12. They shall instruct the Indians that when deserters and male- 
factors come to their villages and try to impose on their credulity 
with harmful lies, they must arrest them and take them prisoners to 
the commandant of Natchitoches, and that their doing so will greatly 
recommend their fealty. 

13. They shall treat all the inhabitants in the towns with great 
courtesy, particularly the militia officers and distinguished persons 
in each town. 



132 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

14. They shall review the militia in each town and bring me a 
list showing the exact usefulness to the service of officers, sergeants, 
and soldiers, 

15. They shall try to ascertain whether there are dissentions in 
the towns, the cause of these, and who are the instigators. 

NEW ORLEANS, November 16, 1769. 

O'REILLY (Rubric) 

To Don Luis de Unzaga, approving the salary assigned to Don 
Atanasio de Mezieres as lieutenant governor of Natchitoches. 

In his letter of December 1, last year. Lieutenant General Don 
Alexandro O'Reilly reported, among other things relative to that 
colony, his having appointed Don Atanasio de Mezieres, retired cap- 
tain in the service of France to be lieutenant governor of the post 
at Ifatchitoches, and explained his reasons for this selection, the 
advantages to be expected from it, and that he had assigned him the 
salary of thirty pesos per month. 

His Majesty has seen fit to approve this assignment and I so 
advise Your Lordship for your information, praying God to preserve 
you many years. 

SAN LORENZO, October %4, 1770. 

(Accompanying instructions in French.) 

O'REILLY TO ARRIAGA 
December 10, 1769 m 
No. 16. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : On the 26th of last month I appointed six 
regidores to form a cabildo and government in this city. On the 
first day of the current month I assembled them in my house, took 
from each the oath prescribed by the Laws of the Indies, and after 
exhorting them to the exact discharge of the trust which His Majesty 
was placing in them, I, in said cabildo, turned over the political 
government of this city to Colonel Don Luis de Unzaga, instructing 
him to preside over the cabildo on the following day and to proceed 
with the election of two alcaldes ordinarios, a sindico procurador 
general^ and mayordomo de propios. This was done and the cabildo 
showed its desire for harmony by their selections. 

I also send Your Excellency a statement showing the names of 
the regidores, alcaldes, sindico procurador, and mayordomo de 
propios, together with two printed proclamations in exact con- 

* AGI, Aud. SD, 80-1-9. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 133 

formity with the Laws of the Indies, which I have had drawn up 
by my asesor^ Don Manuel de Urrutia and my promotor Don 

Felix Rey. One proclaims the establishment of this cabildo 
the instructions for the members thereof. The other is for the 
guidance of judges in judicial cases, to facilitate their actions, give 
litigants necessary information, and make the public accept with 
better grace the change of government. I, to this end, have had 
the said proclamations printed in French. 

It has seemed to me very necessary to abolish formally the old 
council of this province and to inform the public and Europe of 
the reasons this body has given the King for such a necessary and 
just decision. I considered this occasion opportune for doing so. 
To this end I drew up the document which serves as an introduction 
to the first proclamation and had it published separately for the 
information of all. It will be of infinite satisfaction to me to know 
that the reasons and clauses on and with which I base and explain 
such an important decision meet with the approval of His Majesty, 
as well as the time and manner in which I have handled this change 
of government. 

For the unavoidable expenses of the regidores and in order that 
they may better appreciate their positions, it seems to me very 
advisable and even necessary under the circumstances existing in 
this province for His Majesty to allot the following: to each regidor 
one hundred pesos per year; three hundred pesos to the escrHano 
of the cabildo, who is in charge of the French archive and is very 
useful for his knowledge of both languages and practical knowledge 
of the affairs of this country ; five hundred pesos to another escribano 
who is to come from Havana (he is indispensable here and will 
not take less) ; and eight hundred pesos for an attorney to serve 
as asesor in cases arising here. These amounts for the administra- 
tion of justice and political government of this country will total 
two thousand, two hundred pesos per year, a sum estimated with 
the greatest economy, but which I consider sufficient for all the 
objects of the service and the satisfaction of the public. 

His Majesty had in this city a piece of ground intended for a 
government garden. It was of very little benefit to the governor 
and cost the King sixty pesos fuertes annually for its care, plus 
four hundred and fifty pounds of flour. As there was no council 
house in this city, and the old council has always met in the house 
of the French intendant, I have contracted with Francisco Duplanti 
for the construction of a house for the cabildo, a plan of which I shall 
send Your Excellency by the next mail. I ceded to said Duplanti 
the ownership of this garden, and he obligated himself to construct 
the council house by the end of next April and to pay to the royal 



134 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

exchequer the sum of seven hundred pesos fuertes within the term 
of four years, counted from this date, thereby saving the King, 
the annual and useless expense of the care of said garden. The 
exchequer will receive seven hundred pesos fuertes cash and this 
city will have a very decent house for its council. 

For the revenues of this city I have established to the general 
satisfaction of the councilmen and public a tax of twenty pesos 
per year on each of the six inns permitted, forty pesos on each of 
the twelve taverns, and the same amount on each billiard hall, of 
which there are six. There has been great rivalry for preference 
in obtaining these licenses. The total revenues produced by this 
means mount to eight hundred and forty pesos fuertes per year 
and will be an assured and permanent income for the city. 

The butchers have promised to pay, without any increase in price 
of meat, three hundred and sixty-five pesos per year in the revenues 
of the city, and are benefited by the elimination of some gifts and 
unjust taxes to which they were formerly subjected. 

Every cask of brandy will pay to the city when landed, one 
peso fuerte. Estimating the annual consumption as five hundred 
casks, which is the most moderate and exact figure that could be 
taken, this tax will produce five hundred pesos fuertes annually. 

His Majesty has on both sides of the plaza plots of ground, eighty- 
four French feet wide by three hundred and thirty-six feet long. 
If this land is rented to individuals wishing to build shops, it will 
embellish the plaza, be of benefit to the public, and increase the 
revenues of the city. This, together with all the abovementioned 
items, I estimate will amount to two thousand pesos fuertes. With 
this sum, the cabildo will be able to pay for the city fiestas, royal 
obsequies, salaries of porters, and various other unavoidable expenses 
which it will have. 

It gives me great satisfaction to see the good our laws and political 
government are doing here, and I am convinced that with every 
prudent and equitable conduct on the part of my successor, these 
favorable impressions will be fostered in the minds of the people. 
I have given the greatest attention and care to this matter, as its 
importance deserves. 

In this city there has been established for many years an anchorage 
tax of six pesos per vessel of 200 tons or over, and three pesos for 
those under this tonnage. This tax is devoted to the preservation 
of the river bank, which is always needing some repairs. I have 
made no change in this tax nor in its use, as I consider both very 
advisable. 

The appointment of the regidores and escribano of the cabildo, as 
well as the revenues for the city require the express approval of the 



REVOLUTIONAKY PERIOD, 1765-1731 135 

King. I beg Your Excellency to bring this to his attention 
also order this treasury, or the offices in Havana, in our 

dependency on them is established (which I believe very advisable) 
to pay annually from the royal exchequer the abovementioned 
salaries to the regidores^ two escribanos, and the attorney who is 
asesor to the governor, thereby definitely and formally establishing 
the aforesaid matters, 

I always report to Your Excellency for His Majesty's information 
everything as it really is; and moreover, after the most careful 
examination and with a desire for accuracy I propose whatever 
I consider most useful for the service. However, I should be very 
pleased to have His Majesty deign to hear some other better opinion 
than mine on all these matters, or decide with his own great under- 
standing whatever is most to his royal pleasure. 

I pray Our Lord to preserve and bless your valuable life the 
many years I desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, December 10, 1769. 

Most Excellent Sir, I kiss your Excellency's hand. 

ALEXANDRO O'REILLY (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor BAILTO FREY Don JULIAN DE ARHIAGA. 

O'REILLY TO ARRIAGA 
December 10, 1769" 

No. 21. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : From the attached documents Your Excellency 
will see what happened to an English vessel that entered Espiritu 
Santo Bay. It had on board the Acadian, German, and English 
families shown by the attached statement. In connection with the 
complaint that has been made to me here by the English captain, 
I have taken the declarations of which I enclose copies, and I shall 
send the originals to the viceroy of New Spain through the governor 
of the presidio of Los Adayes, so that he may take what action he 
sees fit. 

The English families have returned to Pensacola. They were mere 
vagrants. I have given the Germans and Acadians lands, tools for 
their fields, and two hundred and sixty-seven pesos fuertes in money. 
The settlement of these poor families is very costly to the exchequer, 
and of very little benefit, on account of the location of the country 
and the quality of the products that their labor can produce. 

AOI, And SD, 80-1-9. 



136 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

May Our Lord guard the valuable life of Your Excellency many 
years. 

NEW ORLEANS, December 10, 1769. 
Your most attentive servant. 

ALEXANDRO O'REILLY (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Seiior BAILIO FREY DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA. 

(Accompanying the foregoing] 

Copy 

Account of sale of various merchandise sold to Don Rafael Martinez 
Pacheco, commandant of Fort Cokesau in September last by Don 
Philip Ford, to wit : 

Pesos 

1 piece of superfine camlet, 30 yards at 4 reales 15 

1 piece of linen, 30 yards at 3% reales 13-1 

1 piece of Irish linen, No. 79. 25 yds. at 6 reales 18-6 

12 yards of cloth, 12 r. a yd 18 

4% yds of Irish linen, 6 r. a yd 3-3 

11% yds of linen, 3% r. a yd 5-% 

20 yds of linen, 4 r. a yd 10 

1 cut of superfine cloth with trimming 25 

4 yds of scarlet cloth, 5 p. a yd . . 20 

5% yds of Irish linen, 6 r. a yd 3-7% 

5 yds. of Manchester velvet, 3 p. a yd 15 

4% yds of white serge, 5 r. a yd 2-6% 

7 yds of superfine sagathee, 1 peso a yd 7 

9 yds of Durando, 3 r. a yd 3-3 

19 yds of Duray, 3% r. a yd 8-2% 

6 superfine napkins, 2 pesos each 12 

4% yds of JDurando, 4 r. a yd 2-2 

1 pair of silk breeches of punta de Atiija G 

5 pairs of silk hose, 4 p. a pr 20 

2 pairs of fine woolen breeches, 20 r. a pr 5 

5 ounces of thread at 2 r. and 3 oz. at 3 r 2-3 

1% arroba of unbleached thread 16% r 2-4% 

6 cravats at 4 reales, 3 at 3 and 3 at 1% 4-5 

12 doz. large gilded buttons at 3 r 4-4 

20 bundles of mohair at % r 1-2 

5 bundles of twisted silk at 1 r 5 

'( bundles of twisted silk at 1 r. and 5 doz buttons at 1 r 1-4 

6 doz. large buttons at 1% r 1-1 

5 doz. large buttons at 1 r 5 

3 doz. small buttons at % r 1% 

2% doz. large buttons at 1% r 3% 

1 bundle of twisted silk 2 

2 pair of breeches of punta de abuja* red at 20 r 5 

4 pair of calamanco shoes at 12 r 6 

4 pair of calamanco shoes at 8 r 4 

2 pair of silk shoes at 20 r 5 

1 pair of silk shoes 2 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 137 

% pair of men's shoes at lf> r. ... fi 

1 pair men's shoes 1-4 

40 yards of striped cotton gingham at 4 r 20 

1 flannel jacket 1 

2 saws at 2 r. and 6 at 1 1-2 

4% yards of striped flannel at 3 r ..........,.. 

5 steel saws at 16 r 10 

1 iron saw at 10 r. and 1 bronze teapot at 20 r S-S 

2 coffee pots at 10 r 2-4 

3 large saws at 5 p 15 

7 barrels of nails, weighing 2075 arrobas at 12 pesos per quintal .... 248 



Total pesos 



I have received for the total of the above account a bill of exchange 
on Mexico for five hundred and sixty-one pesos. 

PHILIP FORD 



We, Don Miguel Knaresbrough and Don Bartolome Maonemara, 
charged by His Excellency the Senor Captain General of this province 
with the translation of the foregoing invoice, certify that this is an 
exact one. In witness whereof we sign these presents in New Orleans 
on December, 1769. 

MIGUEL KNAEESBROUGH 
BARTOLOME MAOHEMABA 
O'REILLY (Rubric) 

Copy 

To the Most Excellent Sefior Don Alexandro O'Reilly, knight com- 
mander of Benfayan in the order of Alcantara, lieutenant general 
and inspector general of the armies of His Catholic Majesty, captain 
general and governor of the province of Louisiana. 
MOST EXCELLENT SIR : 

We, John Steel, Francis Loundiz, Joseph Mattingly, Philip Ford, 
Leonard Mattingly, Neal Kerigan, Joseph Hamilton, Charles Stuard, 
and Joseph Mattingly, Jr., seamen of the English schooner La 
Bretana, presenting ourselves most humbly before Your Excellency, 
say that on the 5th of January, this year, we left the port of Mary- 
land with one hundred passengers aboard, destined for New Orleans, 
and that on the 21st of February following, we sighted the coast of 
Louisiana; but due to easterly winds and continuous fog we were 
driven some eighty leagues south and then to the west of the Missis- 
sippi. Finding ourselves without food and water, we were obliged 
to put in at a small bay where we found a Spanish captain named 
Don Francisco Thobar. From him we requested a passport and food 
to get to New Orleans, both of which he refused us (despite the fact 



138 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

that a clergyman who was there, and our supercargo offered him any 
security he wanted). On the contrary he seized our schooner with 
all its sails, tackle, equipment, passengers, crew, and merchandise, and 
took everything (except the schooner) with him to a fort forty leagues 
inland of which he was commandant. There he obliged the crew and 
passengers to work until the 21st of May, when he ordered the captain 
and pilot placed in stocks, keeping them so twenty-four days on half 
rations, until an order arrived from the governor of that province 
to set them at liberty. 

On the llth of August the said Don Francisco Thobar forced our 
supercargo to take away the merchandise that had been seized, which 
he was obliged to do on account of having nothing with which to 
continue his journey. 

The said captain Francisco Thobar also commanded our captain to 
take away the sails, tackle and equipment of said schooner, which he 
did not wish to do as they were all rotted and of no use. We also 
suffered from the fact that the schooner had been entirely despoiled 
and destroyed by the savages which was not strange, as it had been 
left without anyone to guard it since the 8th of April. 

We were detained by the said Don Francisco Thobar until the llth 
of September, when Don Rafael Martinez Pacheco, commandant of 
Fort Cokesaw, was sent by the governor of that province, to take 
us to Natchitoches. There we were embarked in some canoes for 
New Orleans, where we arrived on the 9th of this month. 

So, we beg Your Excellency please to do us justice, not only with 
respect to our property that was lost, but also for the personal in- 
juries which we have received without having given any cause there- 
fore, a favor that we hope for from the kindness, good disposition 
and great humanity of Your Excellency, whose life may Our Lord 
preserve many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, November 20, 1769. 

We, Don Miguel Knaresbrough and Bartolome Macnemara, en- 
trusted by His Excellency, the captain general of this province, with 
the translation of the foregoing memorial, certify that this is an 
exact one. In witness whereof we sign these presents in New Orleans 
on December 1, 1769. 

MIGUEL KNARESBROUGH 
BARTOLOME MACNEMARA 
O'REILLY (Eubric) 

Names of the persons who are to declare all that they know about 
the detention of the English schooner La Bretana of Captain Don 
John Steel by Don Francisco Thobar, commandant of the fort of La 
Bahia del Espiritu Santo, which persons were at the fort at that 
time. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 139 

Bon Thomas Dufaaris, lieutenant, discharged in April or May 
Don Antonio Trevifio, lieutenant. 

Don Fosteno Lasso. 

Don Thomas Allagars, corporal, discharged in September last. 

Don Manuel Trevifio, soldier. 

Don Los Santos, sergeant. 

This list was given me by the captain of the English vessel that 
entered Espiritu Santo Bay. 

(Kubric) 



BILL OF EXCHANGE 

Senores Don Joseph Mateos Chirinos and Company, permanent 
regidor, residents and merchants of the City of Mexico. 

MY VERY DEAR SIRS : At sight of this you will please order paid 
at the demand of Don Philip Ford, residing in this presidio of La 
Bahia del Espiritu Santo, the sum of five hundred and sixty-one 
pesos, the value of a lot of cattle that he has sold me to supply the 
presidio of San Agustfn de Ahumada, in my charge. At sight of this 
and on receipt of the person collecting same, it is to be fully paid 
and charged to my current account. 

Said PRESIDIO or LA BAHIA, September IS, 1769. 

BAFAEL MAirrf NEZ PACHEOO 



CERTIFICATE 

I, Don Francisco Xavier Rodriguez, notary public of His Majesty, 
one of those of the city of Havana, and of the expedition under 
the command of the Most Excellent Senor Don Alexandro O'Beilly, 
knight commander of Benfayan, lieutenant general of the royal 
armies, inspector general of infantry, charged by special commission 
of His Majesty with the superior government and captaincy general 
of this city of New Orleans and province of Louisiana, etc., as best 
I can, certify, bear witness, and true testimony that the foregoing 
copy is in exact agreement with the original that was submitted to 
me by Don Philip Ford to whom I returned same, and to which I 
refer; and at the request and in compliance with the verbal order of 
His Excellency I issue these presents on the customary paper in this 
city on the 7th of December 1769. 
In witness of the truth thereof. 

FRANCISCO XAVIER KODRIGTJEZ 
Notary Public of the Expedition* 



140 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

This is in agreement with the copy of the bill of exchange and 
original certificate placed by me at the end thereof, to which I refer, 
and in compliance with the verbal order of His Excellency. I had 
made and did make these presents in New Orleans on the 14th of 
December, 1769. 

In witness of the truth thereof. 

[SEAL] FRAKCISCO XAVIER RODRIGUEZ (Rubric) 

Notary Public of the Expedition 



List of German and Acadian families who went by an English 
vessel to New Orleans to settle. This vessel was lost in the Gulf of 
Mexico when it put in at Espiritu Santo Bay and the families arrived 
at this post on October 24, 1769. 

German Families 

Age 
(Years) 

Nicolas Marcoff 62 

Channe, his wife 45 

Jean George, their son - 19 

Marie, their daughter 15 

Marie Madeleine 12 

Joseph, their son 10 

Francois, their son 8 

Jean August in (5 months) 

Nicolas Orre 66 

Christine, his wife 40 

Mathieu, their son 20 

Margarite, their daughter 18 

Jean, their son 12 

Lois, their daughter 7 

Valentin, orphan 13 

Barbe Lois, daughter 11 

Blisabet, their daughter 8 

Eve, their daughter 4 

Jose" Basbler 50 

Susanne, his wife 30 

Joseph, their son 10 

Michel, their son 8 

Andre", their son 6 

Jeane, their daughter 4 

Anne Marie, their daughter 2 

Adam La Maur 50 

Chaterine, his wife 32 

Jacob, their son 12 

Anne Marie, their daughter 10 

Elisabet, their daughter 8 

Marie Anne, their daughter 5 

Chaterine, their daughter 2 

Jacob Miller 30 



REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 141 

Anne Marie 30 

Barbe, their daughter 6 

Catherine, their daughter 4 

Anne Marie, their daughter 3 

Jacob, their son 2 

Andre Reser 31) 

Marie, his wife 37 

Jean, their son 10 

Henry, their son . 8 

Jean Pierre, their son 

Catherine, their daughter 2 

Rose, their daughter (8 months) 

Filippe Pigleal Si) 

Marie Magdalene 24 

Catharine Asuher, widow 40 

Michel Chevalier, her son 21 

Catherine, her daughter 10 

Magdalene, her daughter 14 

Bachelors, established 

Andre Meche , 25 

Daniel Muin 30 

Henry Thomas 26 

Cristian Pringle 24 

Jean Legueur 23 

Antoine Mtirguier 30 

Acadian Families 

Olivier Benoit 40 

Marie Bruset, his wife 46 

Charles, their son 15 

Marie Rose, their daughter 8 

Magdalene, their daughter , . 6 

Louis Last< 39 

Anne, his wife 38 

Marie 15 

Marie Rose, orphan and Benoit 13 

Marguerite 9 

Antoine, their son 7 

Paul, their son 6 

Ysabelle, their daughter 4 

Btienne Ruvel, widower 46 

Btienne, his son 21 

Francois 18 

Pierre - 16 

Ochodol - 14 

Honnore Trahun 45 

Marie Corprun, his wife 50 

Pierre, their son IS 

Joseph Le Jeune, orphan 13 



142 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Age 
(Years) 

Antoine Belar 36 

Marie, his wife 22 

Btienne Simon, their son 2 

Jean Bicente Le Jeune 20 

Blalse, his brother 18 

Margarite, their sister 17 

Nanette, their sister, remained at the CoquiaU 13 

Pierre Prinne 25 

Susanne Plant, his wife 20 

Bachelor, not established 
Jaques Ruseau 28 

NATCHITOCHES, October 7, 1769. 

[SEAL] BORME 

This is a true copy of the original statement in the chief auditing 
office of Louisiana, to which I certify as the one temporarily exer 
cising the functions of auditor thereof. 

NEW ORLEANS, December lh 1769. 

IGNACIO KAMON DE EZPELETA (Eubric) 

NOTE. That hy virtue of the decree of the Most Excellent Sefior 
Don Alexandro O'Keilly of November 16, 1769, there have been given 
to the sixteen families shown in the foregoing statement sixteen large 
axes, sixteen hatchets, sixteen spades, sixteen iron pots, six drawing 
knives, and two hundred and sixty-seven pesos in money at the rate 
of three pesos to each person. 

And each one of the eight German families, in consideration of 
the fact that they are to settle at the fort of Iberville, have been 
given, in addition to the foregoing, one gun, twelve gun-flints, and 
three pounds of powder. 

NEW ORLEANS, date as above. 

IGNACIO EAMON DE EZPELETA (Rubric) 

O'KEILLY TO AERIAGA 
December 16, 1769** 

No. 27. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : There is no limit to my gratitude to the King 
for the extreme graciousness with which he always honors me and 
cements my devotion to his service. Every clause of Your Excellency's 
letter of August 29 fills me with satisfaction. So authentic a proof 
of royal approval will always be the best heritage that I can leave to 

MAGI, And. SD, 80-1-9. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 

my children and the fortune that I most esteem. I beg Your Excel- 
lency to aid me In giving His Majesty my most lively and 
thanks, manifesting to him my invariable desire of deserving Ms 
confidence and good opinion, and that to this end I shall omit nothing 
within reach of my limited ability. Would that I had greater 
and powers to do so better. 

His Majesty, making the honorable citizens of Havana joyful by 
his appreciation, which they have won by the zeal shown when they 
offered themselves with the greatest willingness for this expedition, 
will inspire in them a good frame of mind and recognition of how 
much they owe to the incomparable benignity of their Sovereign. 

The aforesaid letter will be valuable not only in Havana, but also 
throughout America, on account of the emulation that it will produce 
in the minds of these Creoles if the chiefs proceed to make as advan- 
tageous use of it as they can. 

I pray Our Lord to guard the valued life of Your Excellency many 
years. 

NEW ORIGANS, December 16 y 1769. 

Most Excellent Sir, your attentive servant kisses your hand. 

ALBXANBRO O'RmLLY (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Sefior BAILIO FREY DOK JULIAN DE AEMAGA. 

O'BBILLY TO BROWNE 
December %1 1769 * 

(Copy) 

No. 3. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: I have received with the greatest esteem 
and appreciation Your Lordship's favor under date of the 28th 
ultimo, and grateful for the kind expressions and promises that 
you make me, I assure Your Lordship, as regards my office and 
person, of my best co-operation and a will always desirous of cultivat- 
ing the sincere friendship which happily exists between our respective 
courts. 

This is the declared will of the King, my master, which I shall 
conform to with infinite satisfaction. 

At the end of the month I expect to embark for Havana, and 
from there I shall proceed to Spain, leaving as my successor in this 
governorship, Colonel Don Luis de Unzaga, who writes you the 
attached letter to assure you of his invariable desire of pleasing you. 
This worthy officer will co-operate in everything to the best harmony 
and friendly understanding with Your Lordship, as well as all Ms 
successors in this command. Any aid which may be needed by the 



AGI, Aud. SD, 80-1-9. 



144 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

subjects of His Brittanic Majesty and which he can offer will be 
given by Mm with great pleasure. 

If, before my departure from this province or wherever else I may 
be, I can serve or please Your Lordship in any way, I shall do so 
with great pleasure, and with this assurance Your Lordship may 
always give me your orders. 

I pray Our Lord to guard Your Lordship many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, December 21, 1769. 

Your Lordship's hands are kissed by your attentive servant. 

DON ALEXANDRO O'REILLY 
Sefior DON MONTFORT BROWNE. 



No. 25. 

Most Excellent /Sir. 



O'REILLY TO ARRIAGA 
December 89, 1769 w 



MY VERY DEAR SIR: The new post called Isla Real Catolica, 
established with the greatest zeal by Don Antonio de Ulloa at the 
mouth of the Mississippi River on account of its advantageous situ- 
ation, has deteriorated to the point described by the attached report, 
No. 1, and the accompanying map. As these damages demand repairs 
to prevent the risks to which the troops and sailors garrisoning this 
post are thereby exposed, I sent Captain of Engineers Don Juan de 
Cotilla with Don Guido Dufossat and Don Luis Andry to make a 
careful inspection of the said Isla Real Catolica. This they have 
done, as described by the said document No, 1. 

I find that the cost of the present repairs to the aforesaid post, only 
recently completed, would amount to one thousand, one hundred and 
thirty pesos fuertes. Each year new and large expenditures would 
be necessary. The sailors and troops would always be exposed to 
the great force of the winds and the violence of the sea beating upon 
that island composed entirely of mud which cannot bear weight. In 
time of war the post would be indefensible and its garrison lost in 
case of attack. Consequently, I have thought it well to call in this 
city a new council, presided over by my successor, Don Luis de 
Unzaga. In the council the unanimous opinion of the members was 
what Your Excellency will see in the attached document No. 2, which 
I send you, signed by all those attending. I have agreed with this 
opinion, finding it very well founded and advantageous for the serv- 
ice, and consequently I shall have a careful inspection made of the 
new location which they believe the best for the purpose. If the 
necessary solidity is found there, I shall have three small houses 



AGI, Aud. SD, 80-1-9. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 145 

constructed which are quite sufficient for the small garrison and 
sailors who must be kept at that post. In order that may 

cost the royal exchequer as little as possible, I shall make use of 
the wood and other materials at the Isla Seal Catolica, and even 
keep at the new post for its future repairs everything that is possible 
to remove from the one which it is necessary to abandon. Conse- 
quently there will be materials necessary for whatever repairs are 
needed there for many years. 

In case that the necessary security is not found in the careful in- 
spection which will be made of the ground indicated in document 
No. 2. for the new post of Baliza, I shall have it established at 
the old Baliza, which was occupied by the French about fifty years 
ago. There the expenditure which will have to be made will be 
small. 

The present post of Isla Eeal Catolica can in no way defend the 
mouth of the river. Vessels entering it do not come within range of 
the cannon, nor is defense a thing to be proposed at a place far dis- 
tant from any aid. It does not permit any fortification whatever, 
not only on account of the muddiness of its soil, but also because there 
is no necessary material unless it is brought from a great distance 
and at immense cost. There is certainly in this province nothing 
which is worth the defense. Even if carried out, it would be good 
for nothing because, in case of war with England and of the latter 
making some attack on this province, its troops would probably come 
through Lakes Borgne and Ponchartrain to the vicinity of this 
capital, where there are many easy landing places. In consequence 
the defense of the capital must rest solely on its defenders. 

I have reduced the troops, sailors, and cost of the said post to 
what Your Excellency will see in the attached document No. 3, 
basing my regulation for the sailors necessary there upon a council 
which I had formed of three merchant captains, very intelligent and 
experienced in this navigation, the pilot of the frigate who was 
stationed eleven months at that post, and presided over by Captain 
of Frigate Don Josef Melchor de Acosta. I have followed without 
any variation whatever what they have proposed on this matter. 

I likewise found myself under the obligation of deciding on that 
post established by Don Antonio de Ulloa at Natchez. The Acadians 
settled there have written me a memorial of which I send Your 
Excellency a copy marked No. 4, I referred it to Don Guido Duf os- 
sat and Don Juan Villebeuvre for a report. The former was named 
Captain of Engineers by Don Antonio de Ulloa and constructed the 
fort, and the latter was in command there for a long time. 

I then asked for a report from the commandant of the French 
troop, Mr. Aubry, because of his practical knowledge of the country. 

700296 49 vol. 212 



146 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

All agreed upon tlie uselessness of the post and the justice of the 
request of the inhabitants, as Your Excellency will see from their 
opinions noted at the foot of said memorial. 

I considered the matter as carefully as possible, and consulted with 
my successor in this command. It was evident to me that the in- 
habitants settled at Natchez could in no way contribute to the defense 
or support of the colony. They are one hundred leagues from this 
capital, and have upon their return from it to go up a rapid stream 
which makes the voyage longer and more costly than the products 
which they raise can bear. 

The fort was costly to the King on account of the repairs which 
it required every year, the rations which have always had to be pro- 
vided for the troops, and because it served as a pretext for continual 
expenditures for the Indians who came there. 

So many small detachments would very soon lose the discipline 
of the troops and would weaken the small forces we have here to the 
point of making them worthless everywhere. That post, far from 
stopping illegal trade, would be the best and only means of carrying 
it on. 

The English will never come by land with goods. They lack all 
means of doing so and they would immediately be known and the 
goods confiscated. Our own people are the ones who can and always 
want to trade illegally, and that post, far from all control and in- 
spection, would be a secure haven, protecting the greed of everyone 
employed there. 

These reasons made me assent to the request of the inhabitants, 
and grant them the permission they have asked to settle among 
the other Acadians, twenty to thirty leagues from this capital. Noth- 
ing can better prove the necessity of this request than their asking 
as a favor and without assistance to be allowed to leave a land where 
they have built their cabins, and worked clearing and tilling it for 
some two years past. 

At the new settlement of these families, they can, on account of 
their union with their own people, better defend themselves from 
any attack and find a sale for the excess cattle, fowl and provisions 
which they raise, and, in any emergency, repair promptly to this 
capital. 

The fort at Iberville, thirty-five leagues up river from here, I have 
likewise abandoned, not considering it in any way advisable to keep 
a garrison there. It would always be costly on account of the rations 
for the troops, and much more so on account of the presents for the 
Choctaws (who live in English territory) , who would not stop com- 
ing. Most of the time they are invited by the people who would 
have an interest in the pretext of making them these presents. It 



THE BBVOLUTIONAEY PERIOD, 1705-1781 14? 

should be borne in mind that this post is indefensible In of 
outbreak of war, and would serve only to entail obligations which 
it is not advisable to assume. 

I have given the buildings of the said fort and the adjacent 
to the six German families who arrived recently, as I advised Your 
Excellency in my letter No. 21. As I have given these families guns 
and bayonets, the King will have no more expense there, and will 
have as many troops here together as possible. This battalion has 
only the detachment at Baliza, the posts near this capital, which 
are changed f requently, and those at Arkansas and Ylinueses, which 
are composed of fixed troops, all of the Seventh Company. The 
officers and soldiers at these posts need more support than their 
monthly pay, with the exception of those at Baliza, where it is 
necessary to give the troops and sailors rations, because there is no 
place near there from which they can supply themselves. 

In order that you may fully understand these matters, I must 
explain to Your Excellency that the King has here all the buildings 
that he will need for a hundred years, and that every fortification in 
this province is an expense without any advantage to the service* 
From Baliza to Ylinueses it is impossible to construct anything 
but a moat and a palisade. The upkeep of these is costly, the wood 
soon rots, the moat fills up with mud brought down by the winter 
floods, and the very banks of the river cave down as they cannot be 
covered with stone. This is shown in this city, whose moat and 
palisade, constructed in the year 1760, cost the King of France sixty- 
nine thousand, five hundred and two pesos fuertes. Today most of 
the wood is rotted, and the moat completely filled in many places, 
and easily passable anywhere. 

Even if new, this fortification would be of little use in stopping 
any enemy. Four cannon shots would level the stockade, and the 
moat, which can never be deepened because the water is everywhere 
near the surface of the ground, would not hinder the passage of 
troops ; and so I repeat that the defense of this province must consist 
solely of its defenders and in keeping the enemy occupied elsewhere. 

The presents for the Indians have already been distributed to all 
the tribes inhabiting our territory with the exception of those for 
Ylinueses. These presents will leave here next month. 

In order not to have dealings with this very involved store, the 
adjustment of whose accounts has caused me so much trouble (with- 
out having secured same), and in order to inform myself better as 
to the cost, I have obtained these presents from the firm of two 
merchants, named M. Eanson and M. Maxent, who have formed a 
company to supply them. They have been paid for at prices current 
here which are the ones I am sending Your Excellency herewith. 



148 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Although the Indians have never received as much as at this time, 
the cost of their presents and the cost of distributing them amounts 
to only 3,755 pesos fuertes and six reales of silver, as Your Excellency 
will see from the attached certificate of Treasurer Don Martin 
Navarro, who has paid for them. 

From this Your Excellency will see the misconceptions which 
the greed of the people employed in these distributions have wished 
to create about this matter. In return for presents given to the 
Indians, the latter reciprocated with others, which were always to 
the commandant while the cost of the original presents was borne 
by the King. 

At Ylinueses, when Captain Don Francisco Riu went there with his 
detachment, he himself confesses that the present given him by the 
Indians was worth two thousand pesos fuertes which Riu said he 
divided with the French commandant, M. de St. Ange. 

From the regulation made here the Indians know what they are 
to receive from the King each year, and in this there will be no 
excessive charges nor deceit in the distribution. I assure you that 
the Indians who have come here have in no previous year cost the 
King so little, nor have they ever gone away so well supplied with 
presents or so contented; but it has taken plenty of work to reduce 
things to this method and overcome the ideas which the private in- 
terests of so many persons have spread among the public with much 
guile and little truth. 

His Majesty, informed by Your Excellency of what I consider 
most advisable for his service in the matters dealt with in this letter, 
will decide what is most to his pleasure. 

May God protect and make happy your important life for many 
years I desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, December #5, 1769. 

ALEXANDER O'REILLY (Rubric) 
Most Excellent Senor DON BAILIO FRET JULIAN DE ARRIAGA. 

(Accompanying the foregoing) 

No. 1. Inspection of the present post of Baliza, situated at the 
mouth of the Rio de San Luis de Misisipy. 

During the time of the French regime this post was established 
where the channel was the deepest, on one of the islands forming 
the various mouths through which this river flows into the sea. The 
buildings consisted of five small wooden houses for the quartering 
of a detachment. The pilots also stayed there with their boat, all 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 149 

for the purpose of showing the entrance to navigators and rendering 
them prompt assistance. These poor works were all that remained 
of the fortifications with which the French, at great cost, had tried 
to make that post a strong one. 

It was of no avail, because both that island and the adjacent ones 
are formed by the banks thrown up by the river on the bars or flats 
at its mouth and by accumulating on these sandbanks the debris 
and soil carried down by its violent currents and dropped in the 
quiet waters where the main channel of its vagrant course does not 
flow. From this circumstance come the following results: 

First, this ground has only a slight elevation above water level and 
is created by the putrefacation of the canes, reeds, and other marine 
plants which naturally spring up when these flats or banks are ex- 
posed to the air and sun after the high waters of the rivers recede. 

Second, whenever the river changes the direction of its currents 
(as happens every day), it washes away in one place and builds up 
in another, decreasing or increasing 1 , the size of these islands, or 
perhaps destroying some and creating others. 

Third, as these islands have no solid foundation, but only a thin 
mud in reality composed of sediment from the stagnant water and 
corruption of the banks, whenever any weight is placed on the soil 
the crust or dry surface breaks and lets the heavy body sink. This 
happened with the artillery which the French placed in the battery 
they erected. For this reason nothing can be constructed, even on 
piling because, as soon as the pile penetrates and passes through the 
crust, with no machine other than its own weight it sinks without 
touching bottom, however long it may be. 

This unstable ground has still another powerful enemy. That is 
the sea, which, whenever it becomes disturbed, destroys the islands 
more or less according to the force of the waves or the duration of 
the storm; and as the winds from the southeast are frequent and 
strong for the greater part of the year, these islands are exposed 
not only to this washing away, but also to continual inundations. 

When Governor Don Antonio de Ulloa came to take possession of 
this colony, he found, on reconnoitering the mouths of the river, that 
the channel known by the name of East Pass had less water than the 
Northeast one, and he immediately decided that this should be the 
principal entrance to the river. He selected as a site for a lookout 
post another island called Eeal Cat61ica de San Carlos which, 
although half a league or more from the channel, is the nearest one 
to it. On this island he ordered constructed various buildings such 
as the house of the governor, the barracks, church, hospital, etc., some 
of them of wood and brick. These buildings were constructed in. 



150 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the years '67 and 5 68, and are now in the condition shown in the 
statement. Included are the repairs needed at present by those in a 
condition to last some time. 

The governor's house, of wood and brick, is entirely ruined and 
should be demolished, as well as the kitchen and storehouse, so that 
the sea will not carry away their materials, since it has washed away 
thirty-five toises of ground of the island from the year '67 to the 
present. 

The church is in the same state and condition as the former, and 
for this reason should likewise be torn down. 

Peao* 

A store, all of wood. The front has collapsed, the foundation needs to 

be strengthened, and shored up with props. 

These repairs will amount to one hundred pesos 100 

The storekeeper's house somewhat in ruin and the rubble work broken. 30 
The pilot's house very much in ruin, and the nibble work ruined in places. 100 
The wooden barracks, two sid.es in ruin ; the foundation needs repair and 

some props , 10 

The surgeon's house in rather bad condition, foundation needs repair 10 

The hospital of rubble work between wooden posts is the largest building 

and in the best condition of all those on the island. However the rubble 

work is beginning to crack. Repairs will amount to 20 

The bakery in somewhat bad condition and the rubble work cracked in 

places 40 

The carpenter's and blacksmith's house, partly in ruin. Repair will cost. 20 
The forge house and the other small houses, constructed for the workmen 

at the beginning of this settlement, are completely in ruin 

The wharf, one hundred and seventy-five toises in length is more than 

half destroyed and in ruins, as also is the guardhouse. Repairs will 

cost 800 



Total 1130 

NOTE. Any repairs made at present to the wharf will be useless, 
because the currents of the river have taken a new direction and 
eaten away the low ground, on which it was built, for a distance of 
more than forty toises in the space of only eight months. The floating 
piles beat against the main supports of the wharf. Eepairing it is 
useless and its ruin complete and unavoidable. There is added an- 
other important defect to the others it already had, that is, the lack 
of a landing place. There is no place where the launch can tie up, 
except on the side toward the sea, where there is no protection and 
therefore frequently inaccessible. 

ALSO : The consideration of the cost of the repairs necessary at 
the present time should not serve in judging future ones as time 
goes on. Because of the instability of the ground which has cracked 
and dislocated the timbers and framework of the buildings, their 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1705-1781 151 

strongest part, the deterioration will be Incomparably greater in. the 
future, and consequently repairs more costly. 

But all subject to the best judgment and opinion of His Excellency. 

ISLA REAL CATOUGA DE SAN CARLOS, November 12, 1769. 

JUAH DE COTILLA (Rubric) Gui0o DUFOSSAT (Bubric) 

Ltns ANDRY (Rubric) 

No. 2. 

In the city of New Orleans on the 6th of December, 1T69 5 at the 
order of the Most Excellent Senor Don Alexandra O'Reilly, faaight 
commander of Benfayan of the order of Alcantara, lieutenant gen- 
eral of the royal armies and inspector general of Infantry, DOB 
Joseph Melchor de Acosta, captain of frigate of the royal navy and 
commander of the one named the Volante^ Captain Don Juan ds 
Cotilla, commandant of engineers of the present expedition, Don 
Hipolite Amelot, engineer in chief of His Most Christian Majesty, 
who was in charge of the works of His Majesty during the governor- 
ship of Don Antonio de Ulloa, Don Balthazar de Villiers, captain of 
the battalion of Louisiana and commandant for many years at the 
post of Baliza, Captain Don Guido Dufossat and Lieutenant Don 
Luis Andry experts resident for many years in this city, Don 
Antonio Paredes, pilot of the royal navy, and Boatswain Juan Bausa, 
who were stationed at La Isla Real Cat61ica at the time of Its first 
establishment, repaired to the house of Senor Don Luis de Unzaga, 
colonel of the royal armies and present governor of this place, for 
the purpose of holding a council. At the council, the present condi- 
tion of the said Isla Real Catolica and its buildings and the evident 
risk of perishing to which its garrison and sailors are exposed were 
all shown by the report and notes of the inspection made at the 
order of the said Most Excellent Senor Don Alexandro O'Reilly. The 
said Engineer Don Juan de Cotilla, gave as his opinion that in the 
matter of transferring the present post of Baliza to the former 
one used by the French during all their regime, the question should 
be studied carefully and that each one should render his own opinion. 

Wherefore the members having informed themselves of the condi- 
tion of the aforesaid island and its buildings, of which they were well 
aware, as it is a matter of public knowledge and notorious in this 
city, and considering that the deterioration and impairment to be 
observed at present at the Isla Real Catolica has made it unin- 
habitable, they were in full agreement that the former post used by 
the French is to be preferred to this one. They decided that the 
latter should be transferred immediately to the former or to some 
other place, nearby and suitable, that will serve the purposes for 
which the said post was needed and maintained, without the objeo- 



152 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

tion of Its being inundated by the Mgh tides. Moreover it appears to 
Don Hipolite Amelot and Don Balthazar Villiers that a suitable site 
is the one opposite the old Baliza on the other side of the river known 
by the name of the Pasa del Vuelo. However, all is subject to the 
more expert opinion of the aforesaid Most Excellent Senor. 

Whereupon the said council was adjourned, and those attending 
signed this with the abovementioned Seiior Governor. 

Luis DE UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA (Rubric) 
HIPOLITE AMELOT (Eubric) JUAN DE COTELLA (Eubric) 
Guno DUTOSAT (Eubric) BALTHAZAR DE VILLIERS (Eubric) 

AOTOMO DONATO PAREDES Luis ANDRY (Eubric) 
(Eubric) 



No. 3. Sailors destined for the post of Baliza. 

Pesos 
fuertea 
per year 

Bar pilot Joseph de la Pefia 200 

The Captain of Baliza, Domingo Ragas, at six pesos fuertes per month . . 72 

Sailors 

Diego Flores at four pesos monthly 48 

Felix de Mendoza, ditto 48 

Francisco Antonio de la Osa, ditto 48 

Isidro Cevallos, ditto 48 

Pedro Sanchez, ditto 48 

Pedro Clas, ditto 48 

Francisco Conejo, ditto 48 

Antonio Carmona, ditto 48 



Total per year, pesos fuertes 656 

Rations. Number and cost thereof to the royal exchequer. 
For the aforesaid sailors, including one to be given the man in charge 
of the distribution. At the present time, according to the contract made, 
each ration costs the royal exchequer fifteen sous, French money, thus 
making the eleven rations cost per year 584 

Given to the troops at Baliza, whose cost to the royal exchequer exceeds 
the regular charge made for the troops by 156 



Total annual cost of the post of Baliza 1396 

ORLEANS, January 8, 1770. 

ALEXANDRO O'REILLY (Rubric) 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 153 



TO 

December 89,1769* 

No. 24, 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR Sm : Since bad weather has delayed my departure 
for Polnte Coupee, I have been able to finish the accounts submitted 
by the French comisarw, M. Bobe, for the year 1766, during which 
the expenditures of the administration of this province were handled 
by M. Foucault. I had all these accounts audited by Auditor Don 
Estevan Gayarre, who disapproved the items shown by the attached 
paper. I passed these to M. Bobe, who noted on them his replies to 
the objections. I then formed a council, whose opinion on these mat- 
ters Your Excellency will find at the end of the same paper. I 
think that my notes substantiate the justification with which the 
items indicated were rejected. M. Bobe himself, to whom I passed 
them, found no reason to give to the contrary, as Your Excellency 
will see from his report at the end. All this clarity and good faith 
has seemed to me necessary in a matter of interests between two 
courts so closely united. 

From the attached brief abstract Your Excellency will see the 
harm that resulted to the royal exchequer from the administration 
of the expenditures of the province having been left in the hands of 
M. Foucault during the years 1766 and 1767, and the injustice and 
despotism with which he was wont to proceed in everything. 

The reasonable salaries of the French clerks, after they were re- 
duced to what is now necessary to approve, amount for the said two 
years to nine thousand, three hundred and seventy-two pesos fuertes, 
as Your Excellency will see from the enclosed certificate from M. 
Bobe. With the individuals whom the Bang was paying in Ms own 
offices, it seems to me the salaries were quite sufficient for the dis- 
charge of their duties. This is proven by the fact that at the present 
time a much smaller number of clerks is handling everything current, 
together with the embarkation of the troops that are returning to 
Havana. I do not wish to imply by this that in any way is blame to 
be attributed to Don Antonio de Ulloa, to whose zeal and interest 
I do the justice that it deserves. I believe the sole cause of the ir- 
regularity to have been the desire that he had on his arrival of mani- 
festing to everyone his confidence and good feeling toward the 
French. Afterwards he was not able to remedy the damage, and to 
make up his mind at the end of the first year to remove M. Foucault 
entirely from our administration, or to compel him, as he should 
have done, to submit his accounts. I know that he asked him for them 



* AGI, And. SB, 80-1-9. 



154 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

several times, but Foucault always delayed submitting them for the 
reasons that are quite evident from the attached paper. 

The accounts of the French administration in the year 1767 have 
now been submitted to our auditing office, and I hope that they will 
be audited and entirely finished by the middle of next month. I 
shall then send Your Excellency the general result of them, together 
with a clear and formal statement of all that the royal exchequer 
has expended in this province since His Majesty has been defraying 
the expenses. All this will show Your Excellency the advantages 
and dire need of establishing new regulations here. I shall do every- 
thing that I can, and I hope that the results and my constant desire 
for the best service of the King will win the approbation of His 
Majesty and of Your Excellency. 

May Our Lord guard Your Excellency many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, December 29, 1769. 

ALEXANDBO O'KECLLY (Eubric) 

Most Excellent Senor BAILIO FRET DON JULIAN BE ARRIAGA. 

(The documents mentioned are in French.) 

STATEMENT OF PAYMENT FOR INDIAN PRESENTS 
Jmuary 9, 1770 * 8 

Statement of the funds paid at the order of the Most Excellent 
Senor Don Alexandro O'Reilly, governor and captain general of 
this province by the treasury under my charge to the Senores Maxent 
and Ranson for the goods delivered by them for presents to the 
savages from the arrival of the said Senor to this date, as shown by 
the total of each tribe. 

Distributed in this capital in the presence of the said Most Excel- 
lent Senor. 

On September SO, 17G9 ty 908 

m s andreatea 

Tcmicas ............................. . .......................... 121-&-33 

Tinsas ......... - ............................................... 57-4-15 



50-4-4 



Bayageulas .......................... . ................ ........ 26-5-19 

Othogulas ........................................ ........... 41-5- 1 

Ohavachas ........................................ .".'.'I.".'!!.'!.'.'! 32-2-0 

Ochanya ....................................................... 45-5-17 

On October 22 

Chactos ............... - ........................................ 64-5-18 

Biloxis .................... - ................................... 71-2-5 

Pascaugulas ........................... . ............... . ....... 59-0-33 

Movllefios ........ . . ............. . ............................. 31-3- 2 

Ribbons for the medals ..................................... ' " * ' 5_0_ Q 

On the 29th, Ohetimachas .................................... [\\ 107-7-32 

On November 16, Arkansas ........................... . ......... 515-4-28 



THE BEV0LUTI0NABY PERIOD, 176M781 155 

Sent to Natchitoches by Captain Don Eduardo Nugent and Men- 
tenant Don Juan Kelly, 

For the Great Cado 127-6-28 

For the Little Cado 1-7-22 

For the Natchitoches 40-5-10 

For the savages of El K&pdio , - 50-1-23 

For the Yatasse 42-4-00 

For the Alibamones , 15-6- 6 

For two barrels of rum 1-0- 

On January l t 1770 

Delivered to Captain Don Pedro Piernas for distribution by Mm 
at Ylinueses to the twelve following tribes, 

On January 1, 1770 

The Ayooua nation 

The Great Osages 

The Scieux 

The Santeux 

The Canc6 

The Little Osages 

The Kenard 

The Cascasias 

The Pannimaha 

The Autocdata 

The Misouris 

The Sact I60O-O- 



3253-6- 5 

The total of the foregoing statement amounts to three thousand, 
two hundred and fifty-three pesos, six reales and five maravedis of 
silver. 

NEW ORLEANS, January 9, 1770. 

NOTE. The transportation of the present for Ylinueses has cost 
nothing this year on account of its having gone by the boat carrying 
the troops destined for said post. As this has been arranged for 
future years, including all risks of fire, Indian or other attack, at 
five hundred pesos, the said annual present for Ylinueses will amount 
to two thousand, one hundred pesos fuertes, and the total for all the 
tribes in the province to three thousand, seven hundred and fifty-five 
pesos, six reales and eleven maravedis of silver. 

MARTIN NAVARRO (Rubric) 
With my supervision, 

IGNACIO RAICOX DB EZPELBTA (Kubric) 

I am certain that the cost of the presents given to all the Indian 
tribes inhabiting this province does not amount to more than the 
sum stated by the auditor ad interim and the treasurer in the fore- 
going statement In the future, far from increasing, I believe that 



156 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

it will be possible to reduce it somewhat, leave them well-satisfied, 
and commerce better protected and benefited than it has ever been. 

The Indians coining to the post of Ylinueses are given bread and 
a little rice. The cost is not included in the preceding statement, 
but it is known positively that this will not amount to much. 

NEW ORLEANS, January 9, 1770. 

ALEXANDRO O'REILLY (Rubric) 

XUGEOT AND KELLY TO [O'REILLY] 
January 14, 1770 * 

There is a small settlement of Apalache Indians here, composed 
of a total of twenty-one poor houses, twenty-six men, and some 
eighteen women of all ages. They live on the game in the woods and 
the small quantity of corn which they grow. Most of them are 
Catholics and many speak our language. 

On the afternoon of the 5th of January we left Natchitoches to 
return to the city, but in the course of this journey we were unable 
to make any observations, as it was necessary to travel both day and 
night. 

NEW ORLEANS, lJ/,th of January, 1770. 

EDUARDO NUGENT (Rubric) 
JUAN KELLY (Rubric) 

GRIMALDI TO UNZAGA 

January 1, 1770 10 
No. 14. 

The Conde de Ingimbert, residing in your province does not appear 
to have been mixed up in any way with the recent revolutions ; and 
being on the other hand an individual in whose behalf certain persons 
of distinction have interested themselves, I shall appreciate it if Your 
Excellency will help and assist him in everything you possibly can. 

May God preserve Your Excellency many years. 

EL PARDO, 21st of January, 1770. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Rubric) 

Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA. 

RABBADIE TO O'REILLY 
January SO, 1770 101 

SIR : I am unable to add anything to the letter which my daughter- 
in-law has the honor of writing to Your Excellency concerning the 

AGI, PC, leg, 2357. 
AGI, PC, leg. 174. 
*<*BL, (French). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 157 

recovery of the sums which are due her in Louisiana and 
accrue from there. I join her in imploring your justice and your 
good-will on her behalf and on that of her children. That which is 
owed them In that colony forms two-thirds of their fortune. 

I have the honor of being with respect, Sir, your very humble 
and obedient servant. 

LA ROCHELLE, January 30, 1770. 

EABBADIE, Commissaire of the Navy. 

M. OREILLI. 

P. S. Will you be so kind. Sir, if you have been good enough to 
read my son's correspondence, to have it forwarded to M. du Verge 
or to M. de Bissise, infantry officers of his Most Christian Majesty. 

LIST or OFFICIALS APPOINTED BY O'REILLY 
February , 1770 im 

A. statement of the names of the lieutenant governors and the 
local commanders chosen by me, together with a statement of the 
district included in the respective jurisdiction of each. 

Lieutenant Governors 

Ylinueses district Captain of Infantry Don Pedro Piernas. 
JSfatchitoches Captain of Militia Don Athanazio de Mezieres. 

Local Commanders 
Half the German Coast, which includes the parish of St. Charles 

Captain of Infantry, Don Francisco Simard de Bellisle, who 

already draws half an active captain's pay. 
The other half of the German Coast, which contains the parish of 

St. Jean Baptiste Captain of Militia, Don Roberto Robin de 

Laugni. 

Pointe Coupee Captain of Militia, Don Francisco Allain. 
Opelousas Don Gabriel Fusilier de la Clayre. 
Iberville Coast as far as Ascension Parish Don Luis Tisne. 
Fourche de Chetimachas, which includes the Parish of Ascension 

Captain of Militia, Don Luis Judice. 
Kabaannose, which includes the whole parish of St. James Captain 

of Militia, Don Nicolas Verret. 
Rapide Don Estevan Mardefret Laysarde. 
Ste. Genevieve in the Ylinueses -Captain of Militia, Don Francisco 

Valle. 

When the local commanders receive no other salary from the King, 
they should draw from the royal treasury 100 pesos a year, an in- 
dispensable salary for these appointments in view of the situation 

*AGI, PC, leg. 1055. 



158 



SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



and circumstances in this province. Since local commanders, Don 
Roberto de Laugni, Don Juan Francisco Allain ? Don Gabriel Fusilier 
de la Clayre, Don Luis Tisne, Don Luis Judice, and Don Mcolas 
Verret, receive no salary at all from the King, after the first day of 
the present month each will be paid a consideration of 100 pesos a 
year as long as he exercises the said office. 

AT.EXAKPBO O'Rm,T*Y (Rubric) 
NEW ORLEAKS, February h 1770. 

LIST OF MILITIA OFFICERS APPOINTED BY O'REILLY 
February 12, 1770 10S 

Statement showing the names and ranks of all the militia officers 
of this province appointed by me and the districts where they are to 
serve. 



Com- 
pany 


Name 


Rank 


District 


1st 


Don Carlos Luis Boucher de 
Grandpre\ 

Don Nicolas Lorenzo 
Lasisse. 


Mrst adjutant major 
of all the militia of 
this province. 
Second adjutant major 
of the militia of this 
capital. 
Captain . 




2nd 


Don Antonio Gilberto 
Maxent 


Captain 




3rd 


Don Luis Ramon . 


Captain . 




4th 


Don Bartholome McNamara. 


Captain 


In this capital 


1st 


Don Juan Joseph Duforest. 


Lieutenant 




2nd 


Don Juan Laffite ......... 


Lieutenant 




3rd 


Don Juan Hervouet ....... 


Lieutenant 




4th 


Don Francisco Langlois . . * 


Lieutenant 




1st 


Don Juan Baptista Cavelier. 


Sub-Lieutenant 




2nd 




Sub-Lieutenant ...... 




3rd 


Don Pedro Gondeau 


Sub-Lieutenant ...... 




4th 


Don Lorenzo Wiltz ....... 


Sub-Lieutenant ...... 






Don Joseph Ducros 


Standard Bearer 






Don Antonio Cavelier ..... 


Standard Bearer 






("Don Martini 


Captain 


}' 


1 


J Don Juan Luis Lambert . . . 


Lieutenant 


St Louis of Ylinueses 




(Don Eugenlo Poure ...... 


Sub-Lieutenant . . 






("Don Francisco Valle 


Captain 


. 


1 


j Don Enrique Carpentier . . . 


Lieutenant 


Ste. Genevi&ve of 




(Don Francisco Duchoquet. . 


Sub-Lieutenant 


Ylinueses. 




[Don Luis Juan Cecer Borme. 


Captain 


1 


1 


J Don Romigio Poisot 


Lieutenant 


LNatchitoches. 




[ Don Vlctorio Dupain 


Sub-Lieutenant 






("Don Santiago Courteblau . . 


Captain 


J 
1 


1 


1 Don Jaime Patin , 


Lieutenant 


iOpelousas. 




[Don Santiago Courteblau . . 


Sub-Lieutenant 










J 



*AGI, PC, leg. 2357. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 17KV-1781 



159 



Com- 
pany 


Name 


Rant 

f 


District 




fDon Juan Francisco Allain. 


Captain *. 






f Don Juan Francisco Ailadn. 


Lieutenant , . , . 




1 


1 Don Jorge Baron 


Stib-Hdeii tenant 


iPointe Couple. 




{Don Antonio Bordelon .... 
("Don Nicolas Berret 


Second Adjutant Major. 
Captain . 


1 
| IjCftJbi&hfin^Itf otfpe coittprto- 


1 


/Don Miguel Cantrelle 


Lieutenant . . ... . 


ling all the parish of St. 




(Don Santiago Cantrelle . . . 


Sub-Lieutenant ...... 


1 James. 




fDon, Luis Judice 


Captain . 


jtf**UB. 

IFonrcJte <!e Ch&ii!n&cb&B 


1 


| Don Nicolas Berret 


Lieutenant . * 


Ccompriainff all th pw- 




I Don Luis Judice . . . 


Sub-Lieutenant 


f Ish of AsceiuiioxL 




("Don Roberto Robin Laugni. 


Captain 


| Half the German Ocmat 


1 


| Don Pedro Bosier Lebrnn . . 


Lieutenant 


tcompristejj the p&xlBli 




[Don Noel Ferret ......... 


Sub-Lieutenant .. 


1st Jean Baptist 




fDon Luis Agustin Mellon . . 


Captain 






Don Francisco Irepanier . . 


Lieutenant 


The other half of the 


1 


Don Alexandro Bore . 


Sub-Lieutenant . . * . 


German, Coast which 




Don Nicolas Longueval . . . 


Second Adjutant Major 
of the two militia 
companies of the 
German Coast. 


comprises the Parish of 
St Charles. 



Each of the above companies must always consist of one captain, 
one lieutenant, one sub-lieutenant, three sergeants, four first corporals, 
four second corporals, and sixty men. 

In said militia only the following will receive a regular salary; 
Don Carlos Luis Boucher de Grandpre, first adjutant of all the 
militia of this province, with the salary of an active lieutenant of 
infantry. 

Don Nicolas de Lasisse, second adjutant of the militia of this 
capital, two hundred and forty pesos per year. 

Don Nicolas Longueval, second adjutant of the German Coast, 
one hundred pesos per year. 

NEW ORLEANS, February 1$, 1770. 

ALBXANDRO O'EEILLY (Rubric) 

PRIESTS RECOMMENDED BY O'REILLY 
February U, 1770 1M 

The number of priests which we consider necessary to serve the 
parishes and for the spiritual care of the inhabitants of this province : 
For the city of New Orleans and its environs 6. 
For the parishes on the German Coast, extending for ten leagues 

on each bank of the Mississippi River 2. 
For two parishes, one at Kabaaimose and the other at La Fourche 

de Chetimachas, extending for twelve leagues on both banks 

of the said river 2. 



PC, leg. 1055; also leg. 2357 (French). 



160 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

For the parish of Iberville, six leagues long 1. 

For the parish of Pointe Coupee, eight leagues long, on the right 

bank of the river 1. 
For the parish of Opelousas 1. 
For the parish of Atakapas 1. 
For Eapide and the Apalache Indians who live in that vicinity and 

are Catholics 1. 

For the parish of Natchitoches 1. 
For the two parishes in Ylinueses, one at the town of St. Louis and 

the other at Ste. Genevieve 2. 
Total 18. 

ORLEANS, February 1, 1770. 

O'REILLY (Rubric) 



No. 37. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



O'REILLY TO ARRIAGA 
March 1, 1770 106 



MY VERY DEAR SIR: From the attached statement Your Excel- 
lency will see that the sale of the property of the twelve insurrection- 
ists included in the sentence handed down by me under date of 
October 27, last, has been entirely completed. The widows have 
already received their dowries, the creditors the part due them, and 
the treasury the amount to which it was entitled in accordance with 
the laws. 

The judicial fees of my asesor, promoter fiscal, and escribcmo for 
such a long period and voyage amount only to two thousand and 
seven pesos and four reales of silver fuerte. This is an example of 
disinterestedness and moderation, as uncommon as it is advisable in 
this case, in order that these people may realize the clemency with 
which widows, orphans, and creditors have been treated and that 
their contemplation of this justice, promptness, and disinterestedness 
may make them honor our administration of justice. 

Having concluded the sales, accounts, and distribution of the pro- 
ceeds, I have approached all the parties concerned to learn whether 
they are satisfied in every respect that they have been given full 
justice. They replied unanimously that they had no complaint what- 
ever to make to me. They gave many thanks for the prompt dis- 
patch and good treatment. It is not enough to do justice; it is most 
advisable that the populace should acknowledge it. 

It is not very common, I believe, to finish in so short a time and 
so completely such an important, complicated, and voluminous mat- 

* AGI, Aud. SD, 80-1-9. 



BBV0L0TIONABY 

ten All been brought to a successful conclusion by con- 

tinually at it. 

I pray Your Excellency to advise the King of the of 

this matter, which I am convinced will be in conformity with Ms 
gracious and most just wishes, 

May God protect Your Excellency's life the many years I desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, March 1, 1770. 

Most Excellent Sir 5 your most humble and devoted servant 
Your Excellency's hand. 

ALEXANDRO O ? EEILI*Y (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Sefior BAILIO FREY DON JUIJAN BE AHRIAGA. 

MIFZQTTIZ TO ARRIAGA 
March 1, 1770 100 

Summary and Explanation* 

The intendant of Cataluna explains in the attached representation 
that it will be very difficult to develop the commerce of Louisana 
unless the Spanish vessels carrying goods from this country to that 
colony are permitted on their return to call at the ports of the Wind- 
ward Islands, in order to use for other goods the money which they 
are bringing back. I send this to Your Excellency together with 
the note enclosed by said intendant so that, in view thereof, Your 
Excellency may be pleased to tell me what I shall reply to him. 

May God guard Your Excellency many years. 

EL PARDO, March 1, 1770. 

MIGUEL DE MUZQUIZ (Rubric) 

Seiior DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA. 

O'REILLY TO ARRIAGA 
March 1, 1770 

No. 36. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : From the attached documents Noa 1, 2, and 
3 Your Excellency will see the unavoidable necessity that I was under 
of abandoning the post of Isla Real Catolica, established by Don 
Antonio de Ulloa at the mouth of the Mississippi River. Its situation 
was advantageous for supplying pilots promptly to vessels arriving 
there, and the said governor was convinced that with some precau- 
tions he could protect the island from the currents and further con- 
solidate the soil by the weight of the buildings, but experience proved 

*AGI, Aud SD, 80-1-9. 
MT AGI, And. SD, 80-1-9. 

700296 49 vol. 213 



102 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the contrary. The ground gave way, ruining and destroying the 
buildings, and it is now well-known that repairs and upkeep would 
continually have been a large and useless expense. It was even with- 
out a landing place, due to the river's having carried away the jetty 
and soil supporting it. This whole matter was examined with the 
greatest care by persons best fitted to do it. As the unanimous 
opinion of all of them supported the urgent need of abandonment, 
I ordered that the post should be transferred to the former Baliza, 
which was occupied by the French for so many years. The total 
cost of this transfer to the royal exchequer will be nine hundred 
pesos fuertes as Your Excellency will see from the contract made, 
the details of which are set forth in document No. 3. I do not con- 
sider further expenditure necessary, nor that the object deserves it; 
but such an advantage could not be attained at so small a cost were it 
not for the fact that the French buildings are already built and 
established at the old Baliza. 

I pray Our Lord preserve the important life of Your Excellency 
many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, March 1, 1770. 

Most Excellent Sir, the hand of Your Excellency is kissed by your 
most attentive servant. 

ALEXANDRO O'KEILLT (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Senor BAILIO FRET DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA. 



ARRIAGA TO MUZQUIZ 
March 81, 1770* 

Most Illustrious Sir. 

I have taken note from the representation of the intendant of 
Cataluna, Don Juan Phelipe Castanos, which Your Excellency sent 
me with your letter of the 1st instant, and which I return to you, 
of the difficulty of inaugurating in that principality free commerce 
with Louisiana, unless the Spanish vessels are permitted on their 
return from that colony to call at the Windward Islands. It does 
not seem to me advisable to discuss this matter until the arrival of 
Lieutenant General Don Alexandro O'Eeilly ; but I consider strange 
the proposal of proceeding from Louisiana to the said Islands, as 
Havana is the only place where they should call in regular sailing 
and it does not prohibit the shipment of its products. 

May God guard Your Excellency many years. 

THE PALANCE, March 21, 1770. 

Sefior DON MIGUEL MUZQUTZ* 



AGI, Au<L SD, 80-1-9. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 163 

GRIMALDI TO UNZAGA 

31 arch 24* 1770 im 
No. 23. 

I am advised bj Your Excellency under date of the 29th of 
November, last year, that Lieutenant General Don Alexandro 
O'Reilly had communicated to Your Lordship the order of the King 
in which he was instructed that on his return he should leave Your 
Lordship in command of that colony. In consequence thereof Your 
Lordship has taken charge of the political and military government 
from the first of said month, on which day there was established a 
cabildo and an administration in conformity with our laws. 

The King has taken note that his royal intentions have been com- 
plied with in this respect. I shall continue to inform Your Lord- 
ship of what His Majesty commands with respect to the colony, as 
I have already done in the previous mails, on the supposition that 
upon the receipt of my letters, the said lieutenant general will have 
already left there and that Your Lordship will be in possession of 
that command. 

May God guard Your Excellency many years. 

EL PARDO, Stfh of March, 1770. 

MARQUES BE GRIMALDI (Bubric) 

Sefior DON Luis DE UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA. 

GRIMALDI TO UNZAGA 

March 94, 1770 
No. 24. 

In his letter of the 10th of December, last year. Lieutenant General 
Don Alexandro O'Keilly reported that he had established in that 
province the Laws of the Indies and the political government pre- 
scribed by them. He sent a statement of the regidores and escnbano* 
whom he had appointed, the two alcaldes ordinaries^ the sindico pro- 
curador general and, the mayordomo de propios whom the new 
cabildo, presided over by Your Excellency, had elected. He also sent 
two proclamations made in accordance with the Laws of the Indies. 
In the first he abolished the former superior council of the province, 
established a cabildo and administration, and set forth the functions 
of each one of those who compose them. In the second he issued an 
instruction for the guidance of the judges in judicial matters. He 
also reported the properties that, without any detriment and to the 
general satisfaction of the contracting parties and of the public, had 
been assigned to the city for its expenses and the amount which he 

* AGI, PC, leg. 174. 
n AGI, PC, leg. 174 



164 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

considered very advisable and even necessary to be furnished by the 
royal treasury for the administration of justice and political gov- 
ernment of the province. He likewise reported the contract which 
he had made for the construction of a town hall. For all of these 
measures he sought the approval of the King in so far as it was his 
royal pleasure, so that these matters should be definitely and formally 
decided. 

I brought this letter to the attention of the King and all the docu- 
ments enclosed and His Majesty has deigned to approve in toto the 
abolition, the establishment, and other measures therein referred to. 
Of all this, at his royal order, I inform Your Excellency, so that 
everything may continue unchanged in the form it has been estab- 
lished by said lieutenant general pending the despatch of the royal 
approval, embodied in a formal decree on these and other matters, 
to be sent by the Council of the Indies. 

But I must call Your Lordship's attention to the fact that in the 
instruction issued on the method of substantiating and deciding law 
suits there appears on page 28, No. 6, this article: "The married 
women who commits adultery and the adulterer shall be turned over 
to the husband, so that he may do with them as he wishes, provided 
that he may not kill one without killing the other." Since this 
article was objectionable, one of the fiscales of the Council of the 
Indies was instructed to give his opinion on the matter, and as he has 
given it, I send Your Excellency the original of the order of the King 
so that you may execute the purposes thereof. 

May God guard Your Lordship many years. 

EL PAUDO, Wk of March, 1770. 

MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Rubric) 

Sefior DON Luis DE UNZAGA. 

O'EEILLT TO BUCARELJ 

April 3, 1770^ 

(Copy) 
No. 8. 
Most Excellent Sir. 

Mr VERY DEAR SIR : In case of the death or serious illness of the 
governor of Louisiana, Your Excellency will appoint to that post the 
officer who is most to your satisfaction, for the reason that, as that 
battalion has at present no proprietary commander to whom to sub- 
delegate the post temporarily, it will be necessary for you to send 
promptly the person who merits such special confidence from Your 
Excellency. 

, PC, leg. 174. 



REVOLUTIONARY 165 

The governor of Louisiana has charge of the of the 

veteran troops and the militia of that province, but with de- 

pendency upon and subordination to Your Excellency. To he 
must submit all proposals for appointment to he 

promptly obey all your orders. 

May God preserve Your Excellency many years. HAVANA, 3j 

1770. 

I kiss Your Excellency's hand. 

Your most affectionate servant. 

DON ALEXANBRO O'REELLY (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor DON ANTONIO MAEIA BUCAKELI. 

This is a true copy of the original. 



No. 52. 

Most Excellent Sir. 



TO UNZAOA 
April 3, 1770 112 



MY VERY DEAK SIR: Under date of January 27, last, the Most 
Excellent Senor Marques de Grimaldi writes me as follows: 

"Your Excellency advises me in your letter of October 17, last* 
N~o. 4, tliat the provisions and goods needed by the people of 
Louisiana, can be obtained only in exchange for products of that 
province. What they need is flour, wine, oil, tools, arms, ammuni- 
tion, all kinds of clothing, and articles of personal adornment, for 
which they can give in exchange lumber, indigo, cotton, furs, and 
some corn and rice. Your Excellency is of the opinion that, in order 
to establish a commerce capable of supporting and even developing 
that province, it is necessary for it to be declared as included in the 
free trade with Spain and for it to be permitted to trade with 
Havana. Your Excellency also considers it advisable and necessary, 
in order that this commerce may be more firmly established and 
mutually advantageous, that no import duties whatever be paid in 
Havana on the products of said province, and that no new excise 
or other duties be imposed on the goods shipped there from Havana. 

"As the King is disposed to grant the said province all the benefits 
possible, he has decided that it shall be included in the free trade 
which was established for the Windward Islands. The ships of the 
province shall be received in the ports of Spain and in Havana the 
same as Spanish ships, but with the stipulation that no ship which is 
not Spanish nor of that colony shall be allowed to enter the said colony 
or be used for transportation. The governors shall strictly see to it 

xMA6I.PC.leg. 174. 



166 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

that lumber, furs, indigo, cotton, corn, rice, and other products of 
the province, on proof that they are actually products thereof, pay 
no duties when they enter Havana, and that likewise goods and 
products shipped from Havana to said province pay no export 
duties, but they shall absolutely prohibit direct communication and 
trade between the said province and foreign ports and colonies, as 
well as with the ports of New Spain, observing this in order to 
escape the rules and regulations prescribed by the decree pro- 
claimed on March 23, 1768, for the commerce of said province of 
Louisiana. 

"For the formal establishment of all the foregoing the correspond- 
ing decree will be issued by the Council of the Indies, but, as in the 
meantime it would be very prejudicial if the commerce of that 
province were impeded and suspended, Your Excellency may in- 
augurate it in conformity with the aforesaid decision of His Majesty, 
which will also be communicated to Havana by Senor Don Julian de 
Arriaga." 

In compliance with the foregoing royal order and another which 
I have received from the Most Excellent Senor Bailio Frey Don 
Julian de Arriaga under date of January 26, last, in which he in- 
forms me that he is giving Your Excellency and the intendant of this 
island a general order to put into execution all the measures resulting 
from what I have established in the province of Louisiana by virtue 
of the powers which the King granted me, I give to Your Excellency 
the attached copy, No. 4, of my dispatch to the court regarding said 
commerce. As this dispatch and the said royal approvals set 
forth the rules under which the commerce of this island with 
Louisiana is to be opened up and carried on, it remains for me only 
to beg Your Excellency to be pleased to give the proper orders for 
compliance therewith, henceforth issuing permits to ships from this 
island which wish to carry products or goods to said colony. 

The tobacco of Louisiana is of inferior quality and its introduction 
into this island would have serious disadvantages. For this reason 
it should not be admitted, and I have given the proper orders to my 
successor, in which I command that under no circumstances is he to 
permit its export and that the consumption of this product shall be 
confined to that province. 

Tar, pitch, meat, and birds are some of the products of the prov- 
ince of Louisiana which, on proof of being such, should be admitted 
into this island. 

His Majesty's subjects in Louisiana have been warned that pro- 
ceedings will be instituted in conformity with the laws against any- 
one who brings to this port or any other of this island any goods 
or products which are not known to be produced in that province 



REVOLUTIONARY 

and which are not entered on the manifest from the of the 

royal exchequer there which every Tessel carry. They 

warned that all goods which such persons may have in the 
province will be held liable, as well as those which are hera 

I pray Our God to preserve and bless Your Excellency's life many 
years. HAVANA, April 5, 1770. 

Your most affectionate servant Your Excellency's hand. 

AUBXAKBRO O'RmiXT (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor Dow ANTONIO MAEIA BUGABELL 

NOTE. A dispatch similar to this one has been sent to the intendant 
of this island under the same date. 

O'REILLY TO BUCABEO 

April 5, 1770 

(Copy) 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: Inasmuch as the King has declared Ms 
desire to favor the commerce of Ms new subjects in Louisana, we 
should extend all the leniency possible with regard to the duties paid 
in this port by vessels anchoring here. Therefore I consider that the 
said duties should be made the same as those established and observed 
here for vessels in the free trade with Spain. 

I also consider that, in order to facilitate the commerce of Louisana 
and make more apparent to the people there the advantages which 
they gain from the trade with this island, they should be permitted to 
obtain a proper amount of its products in the same way as is per- 
mitted to Campeche. This can in general result in no inconvenience, 
as what they need in the way of clothing and provisions is at least 
equal to what they can ship here of their products. 

May God preserve and bless Your Excellency's life many years. 

HAVANA, April 5, 1770. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your 
Excellency's hand. 

ALEXANDRO O'REILLY 

Most Excellent Senor DON ANTONIO MARIA BUCAKELX. 

INDIAN SLAVES AT STE. GENEVIVE 
May 88, 1770* 

General census of all the Indian slaves, their ages and their nations, 
and names of the masters. Recorded in the clerk's office. 



AGI, And. SB, 80-1-9. 
*"BL, (French), 



168 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



TO WIT 



In the year 1770 on the twenty-sixth day of May there appeared 
at the clerk's office of the jurisdiction of Ste. Genevieve, one Nicolas 
Boyer, resident, who stated that he had two savage children born 
in the country, one a boy five years old and the other a girl eight 
years old, both baptised, one called Francois and the other Mar- 
gueritte, estimated at eight hundred livres each which makes sixteen 
hundred livres; and another savage sixty years old, valued at three 
hundred livres, in all making nineteen hundred livres. This state- 
ment has been made sincerely and truflifully at the above place and 
the above year and date. Not knowing how to sign he has given us 
a cross mark for the signature of Boyer. 

On the same day and year as above there appeared at the clerk's 
office of the aforesaid jurisdiction one Henry Carpentier, inhabit- 
ant of the said place, who stated that he had a savage woman named 
Angelique, baptised, twenty years of age, and one child one year old 
called Therese, born in the country, the mother being of the Pawnee 
nation, and another called Victoire, not baptised, nine years old, of 
the Pawnee nation, all three being valued at nineteen hundred livres. 
This statement has been sincerely and truthfully made at the said 
place in the said year and day and signed on the record CARPENTIER. 

On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's office of 
the said place one Louis Eobinet who stated that he had a savage 
girl thirteen years of age, not baptised, called Lisette, of the Pawnee 
nation, valued at one thousand livres. This statement has been 
sincerely and truthfully made on the aforesaid day and year, and he 
signed on the record ROBHSTET. 

On the same day and year one Francois Valle, captain of the 
militia, stated that he had a savage called Gabriel Ouessa, baptised, 
thirty-seven years old, of the Pawnee nation and valued at twelve 
hundred livres. This statement has been sincerely and truthfully 
made at the aforesaid place, year and date and he signed on the 
record VALLE. 

On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's office of 
the said place one Antoine Aubuchon, resident, who declared that 
he had one savage woman named Marianne, baptised and having 
two children, a boy named Baptiste seven years old, the other called 
Louis, four years old, both Creoles baptised, the mother being twenty- 
five years of age, and all three being estimated at two thousand 
livres. This statement has been sincerely and truthfully made at 
the aforesaid place, year and date, and he signed on the record 



On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's office of 
the jurisdiction of the aforesaid place one Antoine Diel, inhabitant, 



REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 189 

who declared that he had one 

of the Pawnee nation, having a negro child six of 

baptised and called Louis, the both valued at two 

This statement has been sincerely and truthfully at the 

said place, year and day, and he made a cross for a on the 

record. 

On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's of 

the jurisdiction of the aforesaid place the widow Billeron who 
that she owned one savage named Joseph Tiruguet, baptised, thirty 
years old, and one savage woman his wife, twenty-six years old, mar- 
ried before the Church and called Suzanne, both of the Pawnee 
nation, valued at two thousand livres. This statement was 
sincerely and truthfully at the aforesaid place, year and day, 
the widow Billeron signed on the record. 

On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's office of 
the jurisdiction of the said place, Louis Trato who declared that 
he had at Ms house and belonging to Laurent Truto, merchant voy- 
ageur, a savage woman baptised, seventeen years old, called Mar- 
gueritte, valued at a thousand livres, a savage called Baptists, thir- 
teen years old valued at eight hundred livres, one Indian boy and 
one Indian girl about ten years old, not baptised, valued at twelve 
hundred livres, the whole making three thousand livres. This dec- 
laration has been sincerely and truthfully made at the aforesaid 
place, year and day and Louis Truto signed on the record as guardian 
of the aforesaid slaves for Laurent Truto. 

On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's office of 
the jurisdiction of the aforesaid place one Pierre Gadobert, who 
stated that he had one savage named Pierre, baptised, nine years old, 
of the Comanche nation, valued at twelve hundred livres. This 
declaration has been sincerely and truthfuly made at the aforesaid 
place, year and date, and he signed on the record GADOBEKT. 

On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's office of 
the jurisdiction of the aforesaid place one Michel Placet who declared 
that he had one savage woman thirty-five years old of the Panis 
Pique nation who has three children born in the country, all of them 
baptised, two daughters, one twelve years old, the other six, both 
born blind, and the other an infant at the breast, the whole valued 
at three thousand livres. This declaration has been sincerely and 
truthfully made at the aforesaid place, year and date and he signed 
on the record PLACET. 

On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's office of 
the jurisdiction of the aforesaid place one Baptiste La Rose, who 
declared that he had a savage woman called Marie about twenty 
years old, valued at eleven hundred livres. This declaration has 



170 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

been sincerely and truthfully made at the aforesaid place, year and 
date and he signed on the record with a cress. 

On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's office of 
the jurisdiction of the aforesaid place one Francois Poitou, inhabit- 
ant, who declared that he owned one savage woman of the Panis 
Pique nation, baptised, twenty-five years old, called Fanchon, valued 
at fifteen hundred livres. This declaration has been sincerely and 
truthfully made and he gave as a signature on the record a cross 
as the mark of Poitou. 

On the same day and year there appeared at the clerk's office of the 
jurisdiction of the aforesaid place the widow of Meziere Huberdeau, 
who declared that she had a savage woman named Marianne, thirty 
years old, baptised, of the Pawnee nation, having two female chil- 
dren born in the country, one three years old called Elizabeth and 
the other eighteen months old called Ursule, both baptised, valued 
at two thousand five hundred livres. This declaration has been sin- 
cerely and truthfully made at the aforesaid place, year and date, and 
she signed on the record MARIE JEANBTE HUBERDEAU, widow. 

And not knowing any more persons at the said place of Ste. Gene- 
vieve who owned Indian slaves, I have concluded the present declara- 
tion as being in conformity with the record in the office of Ste. 
Genevieve this twenty-eighth day of May, seventeen hundred and 
seventy. 

VALLB (Eubric) 

UNZAGA TO GRIMALDI 
June 8, 1770 115 

Most Excellent Sir. 

SIR: From two English vessels which have passed by this city 
taking supplies to their posts of Manchac and Natchez by virtue of 
the free navigation rights which they secured on the Mississippi Eiver 
in the recent treaty of peace, I have learned that two regiments of 
500 men each have arrived at Pensacola. These, together with its 
garrison of an equal number, make a total of 1500. I also learned 
that General Haldimand has arrived with a number of workmen to 
construct quarters and fortify that port, together with several vessels 
with munitions of war, and two frigates of the King. The vessels 
were soon to enter this river, bringing back the garrisons of Natchez 
and Manchac which three years ago were withdrawn to New York 
on account of the uprisings there. The fact that these have now been 
put down permits their return to their stations. 

These advance precautions reveal the plans of the English toward 

* AGI, And. SD, 86-6-7. 



REVOLUTIONARY 171 

this province as soon as war is declared^ of at- 

tacking it, especially from the of Manchac, which is 
between the Iberville coast and Pointe CoupSe. The 
there will be the first to suffer their raids when they the 

to descend upon this capital. It ought no to fear their 
on account of being unprotected on every side from which it be 
attacked, and having no defense other than 472 men (according to the 
last summary of reviews) , a small number to attend to so many 

The frigates~of-war which are now bringing the detachments to 
Manchac and Natchez and those which will appear on river us 
soon as the preliminaries of war are opened will not only cut off aU 
retreat and communication but will also fall upon this capital with- 
out opposition because of our having abandoned the posts of the 
same names of Manchac and Natchez which we formerly had. 

I am turning over these thoughts every day in order to select the 
best means of defending it, as opportunity offers and my limited 
knowledge and experience dictates. 

All of which I communicate to Your Excellency in order to in- 
form you of the state of this province and the news from its neigh- 
boring colonies of Pensacola and Mobile. 

May God protect your worthy person the many years I desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, Jime 5, 1770. 

Luis DE UNZAGA T AMEZAGA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor MARQUES BE GRTMAIDI. 

PIERJSTAS TO UNZAGA 
July 8, 1770 ^ 

Mr DEAR SIR : In accordance with the decree published for the 
justification and declaration which must be made of the Indian 
slaves, I send to Your Lordship copies of the declarations made by 
the inhabitants of the two towns of St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve of 
the Indian slaves who are in their possession, with all the conditions 
prescribed in the proclamation, so that Your Lordship may have 
knowledge of the matter and make such use of them as is requipBd. 

Our Lord keep the life of Your Lordship many years, 

ST. Louis, July 5, 1770. 

I kiss Your Lordship's hands. Your most devoted subject and 
servant, 

PEDRO PTON AS (Bubric) 

Senor DON Luis DE UKZAGA, 



172 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

DECLABATIONS RECEIVED BY PEDRO PIEBNAS CONCERNING INDIAN 
SLAVES AT ST. Louis 

July 18, 1770** 

Declaration made by the private residents of St. Louis of the 
Illinois, who have red Indian slaves, giving their name, age, and cost. 

To WIT 
The Sieur Labuxiere 

On July 3, 1770, the Sieur Labuxiere appeared at the government 
house at St. Louis, in compliance to orders which we have had pub- 
lished, and has certified to having a savage woman named Louison, 
about twenty-four years of age, not baptized, who cost him eight 
hundred and ten livres in silver. The said affidavit he affirms is 
sincere and truthful. He has signed on the said day and year. 
Signed, LABUXIERE. 

Of the same day. 
Hubert 

The Sieur Hubert, merchant of St. Louis, has appeared and de- 
clared himself to be possessor of a savage named Joseph, baptised, 
about twenty-five years of age, who cost him twenty-four hundred 
livres in silver. He affirms this declaration to be truthful and sincere, 
and has signed on the stated day and year. Signed, HUBEBT. 

Of the same day. 
Dubreuil 

On the stated day, the Sieur Dubreuil, merchant of St. Louis, ap- 
peared certifying that he was the possessor of a savage girl named 
Jeanette, not baptised, about fifteen years old, who cost him the sum 
of one thousand livres in silver. This declaration he affirms is sincere 
and truthful, and has signed before us. Signed, DUBREUIL. 

Of the same day. 
Doriocourt 

The Sieur Dubreuil, merchant of St. Louis, appeared and declared 
that he was the possessor of a savage woman named Eose, belonging 
to the estate of the deceased Sieur Doriocourt, whom he is taking 
down to New Orleans to be delivered to the heir. The said slave, 
about thirty-five years old, cost the deceased Sieur Doriocourt, the 
sum of eight hundred livres. He affirms his declaration to be truth- 
ful and has signed, DUBREUIL. 

Of the same day. 
The Sieur Duralde 

The Sieur Miloney Duralde, in the name of, and as the testa- 
mentary executor of the late Sieur Valeau, has certified that he has 

, (French). 



REVOLUTIONARY 173 

in Ms possession, belonging to the of the a 

savage woman, named Susanne, about twenty-eight old, 

baptised, who cost twelve hundred in silver. This 

he affirms is sincere and truthful and signed with us. 

MlLONET DURALDE. 

Of the same day, 
Taillon 

Joseph Taillon, resident, has appeared and certified he pos- 

sesses a savage woman named Marie Louise, baptised^ 
thirty-five, born in Illinois, who cost Mm fifteen hundred in 

silver, and has two children, boys, baptised, one aged thirteen and 
the other eleven, whom the said Taillon estimates at two thousand 
livres in silver. In addition he owned another savage girl, Marie 
Koze, baptised, about eleven years old, who cost him four hundred 
livres in silver. This declaration he affirms is truthful and has made 
his cross, not knowing how to write. 

Of July 3. 
Kondeau, called Langlois 

The Sieur Alexandra Langlois called Rondeau, has appeared and 
declared that he was the possessor of an Indian girl, named Josephte, 
between fifteen and sixteen years old, not baptised, who cost the sum 
of eight hundred livres, which declaration he affirms is truthful and 
sincere and has made his cross not knowing how to sign. 

Of the same day. 
Marchetand 

FranQois Marchetand declared that he was the possessor of a savage 
about thirteen years old, named Pierre, not baptised, who cost him 
six hundred livres in furs. This declaration he affirms to be truthful 
and has signed, MARCHETAND. 

Of the same day. 
Dame Choutaud 

Dame Choutaud appeared, and certified that she possessed two 
savage girls, one about sixteen years old, the other thirteen, named 
Thereze and Manon, baptised, who cost her each, one thousand livres 
in silver. This declaration she affirms is truthful and sincere, and 
has signed, MARIE CHOUTATTO. 

Of the same day. 
Poure, called Beausoleil 

Eugene Poure called Beausoleil appeared and declared that he 
possessed a savage girl named Rozete, about sixteen years of age, not 
baptised, who cost twelve hundred livres in silver; a savage, named 
Jacob, not baptised, who cost him one thousand livres in silver, a 
savage girl named Angelique, baptised, who cost eight hundred 



174 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

livres; and a savage named Francois, about twelve years of age, 
baptised, who cost seven hundred livres. This declaration he asserts 
is truthful and has signed, POUHE. 

Of the same day. 
Baguette 

Jean Bte. Langevin, called Baguette, appeared, and declared that 
he was the possessor of a savage, not baptised, called Hypolite, about 
seventeen years of age, who cost him fourteen hundred livres in 
silver. This declaration he affirms to be truthful and not knowing 
how to sign made a cross, as the ordinary mark. 

Of the same day. 
Bonvarlet 

Lambert Bonvarlet appeared, and declared that he was the pos- 
sessor of a savage girl, not baptised, named Madeleine, aged about 
twelve, who cost eight hundred livres in silver, and made his cross 
not knowing how to sign. 

Of the same day. 
Nicolas Boyer 

Nicolas Boyer appeared and declared that he was the possessor 
of a savage girl, named Marie Jeanne, baptised, about twelve years 
old, who cost nine hundred and sixty-four livres in silver. He avers 
this declaration true and sincere and signed, NICOLAS BOYER. 

Of the same day. 
La Deroute 

Michel Rolet called La Deroute, has appeared and declared that 
he owned a savage girl named Rozette, about nine years old, not 
baptized, who cost five hundred livres in silver. This declaration he 
asserts is truthful and signed before us. 

Of July 3. 
Carier 

Charles Carier, resident, appeared and declared that he possessed 
a savage girl named Angelique, not baptised, aged about thirteen, 
who cost him seven hundred livres in silver. He has made a cross, 
not knowing how to sign. 

Of the same day. 
Dufresne 

Louis Dufresne, voyageur, appeared and declared that he possessed 
a savage about seven years old, named Pierrot, not baptised, who 
cost four hundred livres in silver, and a savage girl named Marie 
about eight years of age, not baptized, who cost him four hundred 
livres in silver. This declaration he asserts is truthful and has signed, 
Louis 



REVOLUTIONARY PBRIOO, 175 

Of the same day. 
Martigny 

The Sieur Martigny appeared and declared himself to be the 
possessor of a savage woman named LIzette, baptised, about thirty- 
five years old, who cost f ourteen hundred livres in silver, and who 
has two children one of whom is a girl, of about six, named EHzabet, 
baptised, whom he estimates at eight hundred livres in, silver, and 
a boy of about four named Joseph, baptised, whom he estimated 
at six hundred livres in silver. This declaration he asserts is 
truthful. In addition he declares that he has a savage named 
Batiste, about fifteen years of age, baptised, who cost one thousand 
livres in furs, and has signed, MAKTTGKY. 

Of the same day. 
The widow Dodier 

The widow Dodier appeared and declared that she was the 
possessor of a savage girl named Fran$oise, about fifteen years of 
age, baptised, who cost one thousand livres in silver, and a savage 
girl named Louison of about twelve years of age, baptised, who cost 
eight hundred livres in silver. This declaration she asserts is 
truthful, and her son-in-law, the Sieur Cote, signed for the appearer, 
COTE. 

Of the same day. 
The Voyageur Lamy 

Michel Lamy, voyageur, appeared and declared that he possessed 
a savage woman named Ursule, baptised, about twenty-three years 
of age, who cost him twenty-f our hundred livres in silver, a savage 
named Jacob, baptised, about thirty years of age, who cost him 
two thousand livres in silver ; an Indian girl named Catherine, twelve 
years old, not baptised, who cost him five hundred livres in silver; 
and a savage girl named Charlote, not baptised, about nine years 
old, who cost him two hundred livres in furs, which amount to 
four hundred livres in silver. This declaration he affirms is truthful^ 
and has signed, LAMY. 

Of the same day. 
Bizet 

Guilliaume Bizet, a merchant, appeared and declared that he 
possessed an Indian named Jacob, not baptised, about fifteen years 
of age, who cost him eight hundred livres in silver. This declara- 
tion he affirms is truthful, and signed before us, BIZET. 

Of the same day. 
Buet 

Rene Buet appeared, and declared that he possessed a savage 
I4sette ? about forty ye&rs of age, baptised, who cost 



176 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

two thousand livres In silver, and her child named Pierrot, baptised, 
about fifteen years of age, who cost twelve hundred livres in silver. 
This declaration he affirms Is truthful, and made his cross, not 
knowing how to sign. 

Of July 3. 
Bissonnet 

Louis Bissonnet appeared, and declared that he possessed a savage 
named Joseph, about fourteen years old, not baptised, who cost 
him. six hundred livres in silver. This declaration he affirms is 
truthful, and signed with a cross, his usual mark. 

Of the same day. 
Falardeau 

Joseph Falardeau appeared and declared that he was the possessor 
of a savage girl named Charlotte, ten or eleven years of age, not 
baptised, who cost him five hundred livres in furs, and made a cross, 
not knowing how to sign. 

Of the same day. 
Labadie 

Silvestre Labadie, voyageur, appeared and declared that he was 
the possessor of a savage girl named Marie, of about thirteen years, 
not baptised, who cost him twelve hundred livres in silver. This 
declaration he affirms is truthful and signed, LABADIE, 

Of the same day. 
Montardy 

Pierre Montardy, merchant, appeared and declared that he was 
the possessor of a savage girl named Angelique, not baptised, about 
twelve years of age, who cost him nine hundred livres in silver, which 
declaration he affirms truthful, and signed before us. In addition he 
owned a savage named Jacob, about twelve years of age, not baptised, 
who cost him twelve hundred livres in silver. This declaration he 
affirms is truthful, and has signed, MONTARDY. 

Of the same day. 
Marie 

Alexis Marie, resident, appeared, and declared that he was the 
possessor of a small savage named Castor, not baptised, about eight 
years of age, who cost five hundred livres in silver. This declaration 
he affirms is truthful, and has signed, MARIE. 

Of the same day. 
Barssalou 

Gerard Barssalou, resident, appeared and declared that he was the 
possessor of a savage girl, about eight or nine years of age, named 
Fanchon, not baptised, who cost six hundred livres in silver. This 
declaration he affirms is truthful, and has made his cross, not knowing 
how to write. 



REVOLUTIONARY 177 

Of the same day. 
Jean Sale 

Jean Sale, resident of St. Louis, appeared and lie 

was the possessor of a savage named Louis, about thirteen years of 
age, not baptised, who cost twelve hundred livres in silver, a 

savage girl about thirteen years old, named Jeanette, not baptised, 
who cost him one thousand livres in silver. This declaration lie 
affirms is truthful, and made Ms cross, not knowing how to sign. 

Of the same day. 
Monsieur de St. Ange 

Monsieur de St. Ange, a retired captain residing at this post, ap- 
peared and declared that he possessed a savage named Francois, 
baptised, about twenty -eight years of age, and a savage woman named 
Lizette, about forty years of age, a little savage named Jean Baptiste, 
about eleven years old, and another little savage named Louis, about 
three months old, all baptised. The said Francois cost six hundred 
livres, Lizette a like sum of six hundred livres, the said Jean Baptiste 
four hundred livres, and Louis the child, son of Lizette, the sum of 
one hundred and fifty livres. 

In addition he declared that he owned a savage woman named 
Angelique, not baptised, about thirty years of age, who cost six 
hundred livres, and a little savage named Ignace, not baptised, age 
eight to nine years, who cost six hundred livres in silver. This 
declaration he affirms to be truthful and has signed, ST. ANGE. 

Of July 3. 
Monsieur La Clede 

Monsieur La Clede Liguest, merchant, appeared and declared that 
he was the possessor of a savage woman named Lizette, and her male 
child, named Paul. This Lizette is about twenty-seven years old and 
her child five or six months old. Both are baptised. She alone with- 
out the child cost twenty-six hundred livres. In addition he owned 
another savage woman named Franchise, about twenty-four years of 
age, baptised, with her two boys, both baptised, the one named Louis, 
about five years of age, and the other named [torn] about three months 
old. The said Frangoise cost with her first child the sum of three 
thousand one hundred and fifty livres in silver. This declaration is 
sincere. In addition he owned a savage named Cupidon, baptised, 
about twenty-two years old, who cost him sixteen hundred livres in 
silver, which is all the Indian slaves that he has, and has signed, 
LA CLEDE LIGUEST. 

Of the same day. 
The Sieur Berard 

The Sieur Berard appeared and declared that he possessed a little 
savage named Leveille, aged between twelve and thirteen, not bap- 

7nr2ftfi 49 vol. 2 14 



178 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

tised, who cost the sum of six hundred livres In silver. This declara- 
tion is truthful and he has signed, BERARD. 

Of the same day. 
La Brosse 

Joseph La Brosse appeared and declared that he was the pos- 
sessor of a savage girl named Angelique about thirteen years old, 
baptised, who cost him seven hundred livres in silver. This declara- 
tion he affirms is truthful, and has signed, JOSEPH LABKOSSE. 

Of the same day. 
Belisle. 

Jean Bte. Belisle declared that he was the possessor of a savage 
named Jean Baptiste, about eleven years of age, not baptised, who 
cost him nine hundred livres in silver. This declaration he affirms is 
truthful, and has signed, BELISLE. 

Of July 5. 
Volsay 

Monsieur De Volsay, retired officer of the troops of His Most Chris- 
tian Majesty, appeared and declared that he was the possessor of a 
savage girl named Thereze, about twelve years old, baptised, who 
cost him eight hundred livres in silver. This declaration he affirms is 
truthful, and has signed, VOLSAY. 

Of July 5. 
Nicolas Barsalou 

Nicolas Barsalou appeared and declared that he possessed a savage 
woman named Marion, about thirty years of age, not baptised, who 
cost him six hundred livres in silver; another savage girl named 
Catot, about twelve years of age, not baptised, who cost him eight 
hundred livres in silver; another savage girl named Lizette about 
eleven years of age, who cost him six hundred livres in silver; and 
another savage girl named Peronelle, about six years old, not bap- 
tised, who cost him five hundred livres in silver. This declaration he 
affirms is truthful, and has made a cross not knowing how to sign. 

Of July 9, 1770. 
Desnoyer 

Veronique Desnoyer appeared and declared that she was the pos- 
sessor of an Indian half-breed, named Joseph, about thirteen years 
old, baptised, who cost her one thousand livres in silver. This decla- 
ration she affirms is truthful, and made a cross not knowing how to 
sign. 

Of July 12. 
Trudeau 

Laurant Trudeau appeared and declared that he was the possessor 
of a savage named Jacob, about twelve years of age, nqt baptised^ 



REVOLUTIONARY 179 

who cost him six hundred livres, and a girl 

about twelve years of age, not who also cost him the smm of 

six hundred livres, and he has signed, LAOIAHT TEO>BAU. 

Copy conforming to the original whleh is in my at ST. 

Loos, July 12, 1770. 

PmstNAB (Rubric) 



DURXPORD TO O ? EBILLY 
11770] " 

(Copy) 
No. 5. 

SIR : It gives me great pleasure to have news of Your 
before your departure from Louisiana, and to be so assured of your 
good wishes. I shall do everything in my power to maintain the 
harmony existing between the subjects of both crowns^ and I shall 
co-operate with Colonel Don Luis de Unzaga, Your Excellency's 
successor, toward that laudable end insofar as I am able, 

I give Your Excellency my most sincere thanks for the prof esslons 
of friendship that you make toward the subjects of the King, my 
master, and in particular for the justice done to the British mer- 
chants who were trading in that colony before Your Excellency's 
arrival there, and to whom were owed large sums* 

Mr. Evan Jones described to me in terms of tie greatest appre- 
ciation the favors that he had received from Your Excellency in 
the transaction of his business in New Orleans, and if he could.do so 
on this occasion, I am sure that he would express his recognition of 
how much he owes to Your Excellency. I beg Your Excellency to 
permit me to assure you of my gratitude for the promise that Your 
Excellency makes to extend to him your favor in the future. 

The copy of the orders that Your Excellency has given to the 
various posts of the province under your command and which you 
have been pleased to send me, is a special proof of your good wishes. 

Whenever the King, my master, gives me orders to establish a post 
in his territories on the Mississippi I shall not fail to imitate and 
follow such a good example as the one that Your Excellency gives me. 

I should regret it greatly if this letter should not reach Your Ex- 
cellency before your return to Spain, so that you may receive my 
deep thanks for your generous promises on behalf of those who 
were driven from Natchez by a band of Choctaw Indians and wished 
to settle in the territories of the King, your master. 

I hope that this will not affect in any way the other settlements 
on the river, as, according to advices that I received two weeks ago 
from that tribe, all of them were in a state of the greatest tranquility. 

* AGI, And. SD SO-1-9, 



ISO SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

This leads one to believe that this disorder was caused by brandy, 
and that the ones who imbibed are to blame for this occurrence. 

The day after the arrival of Senor Jargio, I dispatched a messenger 
to the Choctaw nation to get more detailed news of this event. I 
shall await his return before making a decision. 

As I shall soon lose the nearness of Your Excellency whose way of 
thinking is so similar to my own, I confess that it fills me with 
satisfaction to learn from Colonel Don Luis de Unzaga of his great 
desire of following in the footsteps of Your Excellency, which will 
be to the mutual advantage of the governments in our charge. 

I beg Your Excellency in all sincerity to accept my thanks for 
your kind letter. I wish Your Excellency a happy voyage to Spain, 
and that Your Excellency will believe me to be, 

Your Excellency's most obedient and grateful servant, 

ELIAS DTJRNTORD 

Most Excellent Senor DON ALEXANDRO O'REILLY. 



TO ARRIAGA 

August 17, 1770 * 19 
No. 1508. 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : By one of the vessels proceeding from New 
Orleans, which has just entered this port, Don Luis de Unzaga 
writes me as per the enclosed copy of his letter, regarding the English 
having reinforced their garrison at Pensacola. He also gives his 
views on the part he should play in case of a war in which he is 
attacked. I have thought this worthy of being brought to the atten- 
tion of His Majesty so that in view of all this, he may determine 
what is to his royal pleasure. 

Meanwhile, I intend to reply to Don Luis Unzaga only that he 
should always keep himself informed on the actual number of 
troops garrisoning Pensacola and those stationed T>y the English 
in the posts on the frontier, giving me prompt advice of everything. 
I am telling him that we are at peace with the English, and that 
during this, or even when some "break occurs, he should follow the 
instructions left him T)y Lieutenant General Don Alejandro O^Reilly, 
choosing the course which his military experience leads him to judge 
most advisable for the "benefit of the service, the honor of our arms, 
and the security of the country entrusted to him. 

I doubt that the English have three battalions in Pensacola, or 
even that their colonies are so tranquil ; but if both of these things 
are true, we may be sure that it can only be for a definite purpose 
in case of a break, and that, if it is their plan to seize the province, 

" AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-7. 



REVOLUTIONARY 181 

It will be very difficult to prevent it The of 

will have enough to do to defend Havan% it not be 

exposed by the uncertain of 

aid should arrive In time and delay the there, It 

facilitate those which the English would as 

useful. 

I am of the opinion that the of Louisiana only to 

indicate the frontier of the King's dominions there, to the 

English from extending theirs during peace, and as a for 

the declaration of war when they try to force them. 

This refers only to the defensive, because when it is a of 

war in which we must play a part, it must depend on prior regula- 
tions and special orders of the King covering the case. 

I beg Your Excellency to report all this to His Majesty. Mean- 
while, I shall continue seeking information and keeping watch on the 
movements of the English, despite the difficulty of obtaining news 
and its slight reliability when obtained. 

May God protect Your Excellency the many years I desire. 

HAVANA, August 17^ 1770. 

Your most humble and excellent servant kisses your hand. 

ANTONIO BUOAKEM T URSTJA (Rubric) 
Most Excellent Senor BAHJO FEET DON JTTIIAN BE AHEIAGA* 

GRIMALDI TO UNZAGA 

August SS 9 1770 
No. 37. 

We are fearful that perhaps the English will declare war on us, 
and on this matter Don Alexandro O'Reilly will write to Your 
Excellency. It is the will of the Bang that Your Excellency should 
conform to the instructions which this general may give you. I 
inform Your Excellency of this at the order of His Majesty* pray- 
ing God to protect you many years. 

SAN IIJDEFONSO, August #5, 1770. 

Eii MARQUES DB GRIMALDI (Rubric) 
Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA. 

GRIMALDI TO UNZAGA 

August S5, 1770 *'* 
No. 41. 

The court of France, moved by the urgent petitions addressed 
to it by the relatives of the criminals involved in the rebellion in. 



, PC, leg. 174. 
V PC, leg. 174. 



1S2 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLET 

your province and condemned to imprisonment in the fortresses of 
Havana^ lias commended them, through the Sefior Due de Choiseul, 
to the compassion of the King. His Majesty, desiring to manifest 
to the Most Christian King the regard which he has for any sug- 
gestion of his, has seen fit to grant all of them their liberty and 
to order that the governor of Havana be instructed to send them 
to Santo Domingo by the first vessel sailing for Puerto Eico, or 
in any other which they themselves may hire at their own expense, 
in case they do not wish to wait until there is one for Puerto Eico. 
He is to warn them before they leave never to enter again the 
domains of His Majesty under penalty of death. I am notifying 
the said governor of the order for his compliance therewith and 
am giving Your Lordship this advice for your information. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years, as I desire. 

SAK ILDBFONSO, August #5, 1770. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Eubric) 
Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA. 

GRIMALDI TO UNZAGA 

September jR8, 1770 * s * 

No. 42. 

Following His Most Christian Majesty's cession of the province 
of Louisiana to the King, His Majesty decided that this new dominion 
should be kept separate from his others in America. For this 
reason and because it was considered that for the coinage the real 
de velldn was more suitable for that province than the Iwre tournois 
and other moneys formerly used, it was commanded that accounts 
should be kept and settlements and payments made in reales de 



As a result of the expedition which Lieutenant General Don 
Alexandro O'Eeilly made to that province to quiet and put down 
the uprising which had broken out there, it became a dependency 
of the captaincy general of the island of Cuba. Therefore, in view 
of its present condition, it is considered advisable to establish in 
that province a system uniform with that followed in Havana. 
Consequently, the King has decided that in the governmental offices 
of Louisiana settlements and payments shall be made, and money 
used and counted in the same way as in Havana. This letter is 
in reply to a representation made to Don Alexandro O'Eeilly by 
Contador Don Esteban Gayarr6, of which GayarrS sent me a copy 



REVOLUTIONARY 

on May 1st, this year. I advise Your of for in- 

formation and compliance therewith in 

May God preserve Your Lordship years. 

SAN ILDEFONSO, September , 1770. 

EL MARQUXS DE GRIHALDI (Rubric) 
Senor DON Louis DE UNZAOA. 



GRIMALDI TO U 

September 8$, 1770 im 
No. 43. 

In consequence of the King's having permitted the return to Spain 
of Don Esteban Gayarr6, contador of that province, His Majesty Ms 
seen fit to appoint to serve in that post Don Antonio de Agular, 
official of the contaduria of the army of Havana, with the enjoy- 
ment of the salary of 1,600 pesos which was assigned to this post in 
the regulation established by Lieutenant General Don Alexandro 
O'Kellly. This salary is to begin to run from the day on which he 
takes charge. He is to fill this post of contador subject to the orders 
of Your Excellency, in whom are combined the powers of intendant. 
He is to observe exactly and punctually the said regulation, as well 
as the general and particular instructions left by the said lieutenant 
general, until the King commands otherwise. I advise Your Ex- 
cellency of this so that, as soon as said Aguiar presents himself with 
the notification which I am sending him, which will serve him as 
Ms appointment, you may put him in charge of said oontaduria and 
have him paid the corresponding salary* 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

SAN" ILDEFONSO, September $2, 1770. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Rubric) 
Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA T AMEZAGA. 



TO 
September 30, 1770*** 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR : Under date of the 26th in$tant, Your Ex- 
cellency is pleased to command me at the order of the King to give 
my ideas and opinions on the attached letter from the governor of 
Havana, together with the one enclosed from the governor of 
Louisiana. 

AGI, PC, leg. 174. 

* AGI, And. SB, 86-6-T. 



184 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Before my departure from Louisiana I had various advices from 
the English colonies, reporting the reinforcement of the garrison of 
Pensacola with two battalions of infantry, in addition to the one 
already there. These are for the purpose of garrisoning all their 
posts, particularly that of Natchez, eighty leagues up river from 
New Orleans, where they were attacked by the Indians during my 
time. 

It is the object of the English during times of peace to subdue the 
Choctaw Indians, who number some five or six thousand warriors and 
are very turbulent, thereby assuring all the trade in peltry which is 
very profitable to them, and facilitating for their boats the naviga- 
tion of the river as far as Illinois. It is also their object in times 
of war to conquer Louisiana, if there are not equal forces there, to 
interrupt communication between New Orleans and Ylinueses, and 
carry on themselves all that trade in peltry along the Ohio, commonly 
called there Belle Riviere^ by which they now send many goods from 
New York. 

I consider it difficult to defeat the object they pursue in times of 
peace, on account of the advantages they have in the lower cost of 
their freights and goods. Regarding the one they have in time of war, 
I do not think that, without greater forces from here, we can hope to 
resist 1500 men of veteran troops and more than 7000 Indian com- 
batants of the Choctaw nation, together with other friendly nations 
whom they have there always ready to march in the hope of loot. 

They are also in the position to go up the river with two or three 
f rigates-of-war at the same time that they are able to transport the 
men they want by way of the lakes and land them two leagues from 
the capital itself. 

In order to make a good defense in case of war with the English, 
it will be necessary to send there two more battalions of veteran 
troops, arm and pay a thousand militiamen, and make good use of 
the Indian tribes living in the territory of the King who are friendly 
to us. All this would entail considerable expense. 

I consider Louisiana very useful and desirable for the King to 
have, for the reason that it assures his realms on that side indisputable 
boundaries which in time of peace prevent any advance by another 
nation. It keeps illicit traders away from the whole frontier of 
Mexico, and makes impossible the influence which they might secure 
over the many Indians on the frontier of Mexico, who, led by them 
and well supplied with powder and ball, would in time do us much 
more harm than they can at present. 

Since I have been in Louisiana and have made the Indians on that 
frontier realize the good treatment they are receiving and have let 
them know that they would be denied powder, ball, and all assistance 



REVOLUTIONARY 185 

If they harmed the subjects of the King, has 

secured. 

I repeat my idea that Louisiana not in of 

war, and that its fate will be determined in of If the 

had there the troops necessary for its defense, the 
withdraw theirs In order to employ them where they do us the 

most damage, without our being able afterwards to employ 
them the forces we had there, on account of the lade of people in 
Florida and the distance from their other colonies. Therefore^ I 
think that the governor of Louisiana should be instructed to obtain 
frequent news of what Is occurring In Pensacola and Mobile (which 
will be very easy for Mm.) 

He should report everything to the governor of Havana, and when 
he has good reason to fear hostilities, put on pay militia companies 
to the number of 700, and form a separate company of fifty hunters 
as a light troop. 

He should maintain two light and good vessels on the lakes and 
another at the mouth of the Mississippi to advise him promptly of 
the enemy. 

He should immediately begin to do all he can to open a road to 
Bayagula, and, when attacked by superior forces, retire with all his 
troops to Opelousas, where he will find meat and other provisions, 
the production of which he should immediately begin to encourage, 
as we agreed upon before my departure. 

From Opelousas the governor will be able to protect the presidios 
of Mexico on that frontier, and approach it as near as he thinks 
advisable. 

The governor justly fears that the enemy may cut him off from 
the Opelousas road by coming down from their posts of Natchez and 
Manchac to occupy the crossing. It seems to me that this can be 
prevented by stationing a detachment at the angle where the Baya- 
gula empties into the Mississippi River; and for this he can make use 
of the militia companies which he has on pay, together with some 
veteran officers and a small detachment and some cannon. 

The detachment at Arkansas, aided by the Indians of the vicinity, 
can always defend itself and, when necessary, retire to Natchitoches. 

The detachment at Ylinueses can likewise retire to the Indians of 
the Missouri, whose friendship the captain commandant was strongly 
instructed to gain by good treatment in everything and punctuality 
in making presents. 

Even though there be no doubt about the arrival of the troops at 
Pensacola, as advised by the governor, it cannot be thought due to 
any warlike purpose, because we know for certain of their peaceful 



186 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Intentions prior to the incident at Malvinas, and that the news of it 
could not have reached them before those measures* 

There should be sent from Corufia and Cadiz, as available, a hun- 
dred good soldiers for the complement of the battalion of Louisiana 
and to furnish the militia with sergeants and corporals. 

There should also be sent 800 guns and bayonets, and 1500 cartridge 
boxes, with an equal number of cartridge belts, as cartridge boxes 
have not been distributed to the militia, nor is there any store of arms 
left there. I so reported in my official letter No. 34, which I wrote 
to Your Excellency from Louisiana, asking for this number of arms, 
as being necessary. 

This is all that occurs to me on the subject dealt with in the attached 
letters, which I return to Your Excellency. 

May Our Lord preserve and bless Your Excellency's precious life 
many years. Your most attentive servant kisses Your Excellency's 
hand. 

MADRID, September 30, 1770. 

ALEXANDRO O'KEILLY (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor MARQUES DE GRIMALDI. 



GRIMALDI TO 
October &4, 1770 125 

No. 47. 

In a letter written from that capital by Lieutenant General Don 
Alexandro O'Keilly under date of March 1, this year, he reported 
having formed, in that colony, twelve companies of militia, three of 
them in the capital and nine in its districts. He sent a list of all the 
officers appointed and proposed that they be given commissions by 
the King, like those held by the militia officers of Havana and Puerto 
Rico. As His Majesty has agreed to this, they are being prepared 
and I shall forward them to Your Lordship as soon as they are 
ready. 

He likewise proposed that Adjutant Major Don Carlos Luis 
Boucher de Grand-Pre be given the salary of forty pesos fiwrtea per 
month as from the 1st of December, last year, 1769; the second 
adjutant of the militia of that city, Don Nicolas Lorenzo Lasisse, 
twenty pesos fuertes per month as from the 1st of January, of this 
year; and the second adjutant of the two companies formed on the 
German Coast, Don Nicolas Longueval, at the rate of one hundred 
pesos fuertes per year as from the 1st of February, this year. His 
Majesty has also agreed to this assignment of salaries from the days 

, PC, leg. 174. 



REVOLUTIONARY 187 

Indicated. All of this i Your so that be 

paid by the treasury there, if it is not so 

now on they may be given the allowance to which they are 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years, as 1 

SAN LORENZO BL REAL, October 4, 1770. 

EL MARQUES DE GKIMALDI (Rubric) 
Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA. 

GRIMALBI TO UNZAGA 
October 4, 1770 

No. 48. 

In a letter dated last December 1, lieutenant General DOB 
Alexandro O'Reilly gave an account of various matters relative to 
that colony, and among them he reported having named as lieuten- 
ant governor of the post of Natchitoches, Don Atanasio de Mezi^res, 
former captain in the service of France. He explained his reasons 
for this choice, the advantages he expected from it, and that he had 
fixed Ms salary at 30 pesos per month. His Majesty has deigned to 
approve this appointment and I so inform you. 

I pray that God will protect you the many years I desire, 

SAN LORENZO EL REAL, October 4j 1770. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Rubric) 
Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA. 

GRIMALDI TO UNZAGA 

October 86, 1770 127 

No. 34. (Copy) 

The King, having been informed of the events leading up the 
arrest of Lieutenant Colonel Don Pedro Gerardo de ViUemont, now 
deceased, who met his end in Louisiana, finds no reason for depriving 
him of the salary due him to the day of his decease inasmuch as 
the fight he had was in self-defense. The attack was not justified 
nor was any sentence passed which should deprive him of Ms salary 
up to the day of his death.. It should be delivered to whoever is 
the legitimate party to receive it, and in order that the revenue of 
that province may meet this extraordinary expense, His Majesty 
desires that half be paid in the coining year, 1771 and the other 
half in 1772. I am giving this same instruction to the intendant of 

AGI, PC, leg. 174. 



188 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Havana, and am advising Your Excellency for your information 
and compliance in the part affecting you. 
SAN IIDEFONSO, October 96, 1770. 

T&L MARQUES DE GKIMALDI. 
Senor DON Luis BE UNZAGA. 

GBIMALDI TO UNZAGA 
November S4, 1770 128 

No. 50. 

Your Excellency will advise the cabildo of your city that its 
petition, requesting permission to export the tobacco of that province 
to the French Cape in exchange for Negroes, is in the hands of 
Sefior Don Julian de Arriaga, and that the decision of the Bang 
on tiiis matter will be communicated to it by him. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

SAN LORENZO, November 4, 1770. 

EL MARQUES DE GRIMALDI (Eubric) 
Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA. 

GRIMALDI TO UNZAGA 
November 24, 1770 

No. 51. 

As your province has been added to the other dominions of His 
Majesty in America, and as its affairs for this reason have a direct 
relation with those of the Indies generally, particularly with those 
of the island of Cuba on account of the greater frequency of the 
reciprocal commerce, and because of the court of appeals which is 
to be established in Havana, His Majesty has decided that it is 
indispensable that everything be handled and managed by the 
ministry of the Indies. Consequently, I have turned over all the 
papers relative to your province to Senor Don Julian de Arriaga, 
through whom Your Lordship will henceforth receive the orders 
which His Majesty may see fit to despatch for it. Likewise Your 
Lordship, as well as the inhabitants there, shall address to him all 
advices, petitions, and appeals which may arise. 

Notwithstanding this change, I shall not forget the affection with 
which I have looked after the interests of your province and its 
inhabitants, and I shall always try to co-operate and with my influence 

***AGI,PC,leg. 174. 
**AGI,PC,leg. 174. 



REVOLUTIONARY 189 

to promote whatever may be conducive to its 
perity, and best interests. Sefior Don Julian de do 

the same. Your Lordship may your 

one of its members, so that they may inform the other 
that whatsoever be the hand through which the King 
matters affecting them, they will find in His Majesty all the favor 
and protection permitted by circumstances and the general 
of affairs. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 
LORENZO, November 24 1770. 



E& MABQUES BE GBIMALDI (Rubric) 
Senor DON Luis DE 



BUCARELI TO ARRIAOA 
December 12, 1770 * TO 

No. 1645. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : In compliance with the order of the King, 
communicated by the Senor Marques de GrimaJdi under date of Au- 
gust 25, last, the six prisoners of the uprising in Louisiana who were 
being held in Morro Castle here have been set at liberty and have 
been embarked on the brigantine of the Asiento de Negros m which 
set sail on the 4th instant. They are being sent to Puerto Rico, so 
that from there they may be transported to the Island of Santo 
Domingo, in conformity with the stipulations of the said order. I 
inform Your Excellency of this, as I do of everything which occurs 
here. 

May God preserve Your Excellency many years. 

HAVANA, December 1%, 1770. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble and grateful servant kisses 
Your Excellency's hands. 

ANTONIO BUCARELI Y URSUA (Eubric) 

UNZAGA TO PIERNAS m 

I acknowledge receipt of yours of May 25, last year, advising of 
your arrival at the town of St. Genevieve, where you were received 

AGI, And. SD, 80-1-9. 

^Apparently a reference to the asiento granted by the Spanish goYerament to an 
organization known as Aguirre, Arfstegul, and Company. This company established a 
Puerto Rican entrepot for the trade early in 1768 and continued operation until 1772 
when it became bankrupt. See James Ferguson King, "Evolution of the Free Slave Trade 
Principle," in The Hispanic American Historical Review* XXH (1942), 40-41. 
I, PC, leg. 81. 



190 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

as lieutenant governor in conformity with the commission issued by 
my most excellent predecessor which you carried, and that, in com- 
pliance with his orders you recognized as deputy and magistrate 
Don Francois Valle, captain of the militia company organized in 
said town, and delivered to its officers their respective commissions. 

You also advise that on the 14th you left for St. Louis, where you 
arrived on the 18th, taking the command of that place, which was 
previously held by M. St. Ange. You said that you were sending 
me this news in order not to miss the opportunity of a pirogue which 
was coming down the river, and promised to report more formally 
later. 

You also report in the abovementioned letter the death of a soldier, 
Luis Dubur, forty leagues above Arkansas. In the letter which you 
wrote from that post on April 9, of the same year, you report that 
Lieutenant Don Joseph Orieta had remained there with six Spanish 
soldiers and that you took the same number from those who were 
already there, delivering to its commandant, M. Desmazelieres, the 
fifteen uniforms belonging to that garrison. 

In another of June 14, the same year, you sent me the rolls of 
the two militia companies organized in the towns of St. Louis and 
Ste. Genevieve, ranging in age from fifteen to fifty years, and re- 
ported on their state of discipline. 

Under date of the 18th of the same month and year you inform me 
of the publication in that jurisdiction of the ordinances issued by my 
most excellent predecessor and given to you for this purpose. 

Under date of the 24th of the same month and year you report 
that you have stationed Lieutenant Don Luis Vilard, a corporal and 
seven soldiers of the troop under your command at Ste. Genevieve, 
and a sergeant and six soldiers at the fort of Missouri. You state 
that you had taken possession of the same with the formality of an 
inventory of everything you found (copy of which you enclose) , and 
instructed everyone in what he should observe relative to the orders 
given to you. 

In another letter of the 27th of the same month and year you report 
the flight of the storekeeper, and the inventory made of his property 
and that belonging to the King of France. 

Under date of July 2nd of the said year you report that various 
inhabitants of that town had engaged to buy Indians and even had 
advanced money. As a result they had acquired fourteen, and you 
ask what you should do about this matter. 

On the 6th of the said month and year you advise that, as article 18 
of your instructions provides that you should reduce the high rent of 
480 pesos for the houses serving as quarters for the troops to a more 
reasonable figure, you have agreed with M. Laclede on 800 pesos 



IlEVOLDTIONARY 1{ 

per year from May 20, 1770, on. As the 

with regard to the town of Ste. Genevieve, you the 

rent to sixty pesos which I infer is from the 20th of OB. 

In one of July 7th of the year, referring to my of 

February 21st of the same year, in favor of Ana Testas M. 

Robinet, a merchant of Ste. Genevieve, you report the various cred- 
itors of this individual, Ms situation, and the steps in the 
matter. 

In another of the 8th of the same month and year you send 
of the declarations made by the inhabitants of St. Louis and Ste. 
Genevieve regarding the Indian slaves they possess* 

You advise under date of the 12th of same month and year that 
in compliance with article 24 of your instructions you called the 
citizens of Ste. Genevieve together and they agreed to make a jail 
at their own expense as soon as they gathered the harvest and that 
you would then summon those of St. Louis for the same purpose, 
flattering yourself that this would have the same happy success. 

On the 14th of the said month you send me various papers and 
documents, which I have received, together with the passport which 
you gave to the master of the boat of M. Laclede, and a statement of 
the bales of pelts which he carried. 

Also under date of the 28th of the same month and year, you 
advise that M* Pero is coming down to this town with Ms bateau 
laden with peltry, and that there is no other news than the unofficial 
information which you have received that the flight of the storekeeper 
was occasioned by a letter written from this capital, warning him that 
the order for his arrest was on the way up. You also report what 
should be done regarding the papers on this individual, etc. 

In reply to all these communications, I approve everything you 
have done as being in conformity with the instructions issued by 
Senor O'Reilly for the establishment of that post. I add the follow- 
ing instructions for the continuation of your command and in answer 
to your questions : You should send me a copy of the inventory of 
equipment and supplies at the fort of the Missouri. You should 
handle the matter of the storekeeper as I have instructed you in my 
letter of September 1 of last year, that is, that you sell his effects 
and send the proceeds to this capital, together with those which can- 
not be sold, and all the papers inventoried. The fourteen Indians 
bought by the inhabitants of St. Louis, even after the publication of 
the ordinance, may be kept by their owners as slaves, but not sold 
pending the decision of His Majesty. You shall instruct them, as 
well as all others in that jurisdiction, not to buy any Indians hence- 
forth nor subject them to slavery. The rents of the houses serving 
as quarters for the troops at St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve may be 



192 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

paid as you have stipulated at the rate of 300 pesos for the former 
and sixty for the latter annually, as I am instructing you in a separate 
letter. 

Eegarding Eobinet, you will observe what I have decided in the 
instruction which I have sent you, pertaining to what you should do in 
this matter. The Indian slaves in all that district shall remain in 
possession of their owners, but not be sold, pending the decision of 
the King, as provided by the ordinance on the subject. All the pass- 
ports which you give to the masters of the bateaux which come down 
to this capital shall describe the goods which they carry, as you have 
begun to do with those which have come down subsequent to the 
instruction which prescribes this indispensable requirement. Eegard- 
ing the matter of the storekeeper, I repeat my order of September 
1st, adding that, if among his papers there was found the letter of 
which you were informed, I shall punish its author, but I believe that 
said letter is a fiction or fancy which has been concocted in a fruitless 
effort to excuse the bad conduct of said storekeeper, since nobody in 
this world desires to do anything except to excuse and justify himself. 

[Without date or signature] 

CROIX TO UNZAGA 
April 3, 1771 133 

I have noted what Your Lordship states under date of January 5, 
last, regarding the conduct of the lieutenant of the presidio of Los 
Adaes, and the reverend president of the missions of the province of 
Texas toward the lieutenant governor of Nachitoches, Don Atanasio 
de Mezieres, of the province under the command of Your Lordship. 
I have given the necessary order to the Colonel Baron de Eipperda 
to the end that he may calm the spirits of his subordinates, and see 
that the satisfaction due the said Mezieres is given him. I trust 
Your Lordship will practice the same diligence toward him in order 
that, with honorable forgetfulness of the former ill-feeling, their 
friendship may be firm and mutual. Thus the new vassals of the 
King may not have the least complaint or unpleasantness that may 
occasion other difficulties. 

God keep Your Lordship many years. Mexico, April 3, 1771. 

EL MARQUES DE CROIX (Eubric) 
Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA. 



*AGI, PC, leg. 149-1. 



REVOLUTIONARY 

ARBIAGA TO UNZACJA 

ATay SO, 1771 ^ 

No. 53. 

Informed by your letter of last January 15th and by the 
panylng reportj both relative to an account of the money you 
expended In the purchase of tobacco for Hew Spain from the ten 
thousand pesos remitted to Your Lordship for that purpose by 
viceroy of that realm. His Majesty, the King, has approved the 
permit you gave for the export of the said tobacco* 

It is his royal will that henceforth you furnish the said viceroy 
with all the allotments which he may request and wMch the crop 
of that colony may provide. 

May God guard Your Lordship many years. 

ARANJUEZ, May W, 1771. 

EL BAILIO FREY DON JULIAN DE AKRIAGA (Eubric) 
The GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

ARRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OP LOUISIANA 

M ay W, 1771 13S 
No. 55. 

Although Your Lordship has already been advised not to permit 
any commerce whatever between your province and El Guarlco or 
any other foreign port, the King commands me to instruct Your 
Lordship again to exercise the greatest vigilance and care, so that 
in no way may the absolute prohibition of commerce which His 
Majesty desires your province to observe with all foreign dominions 
be contravened. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

ARANJUEZ, May SO, 1771. 

EL BAILIO FRET DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA (Eubric) 
Senor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

ARRIAGA TO UNZAGA 

Jime SO, 1771 *** 

No. 60. 

His Majesty approves the measures which Your Lordship, In 
your letter of March 22, this year, reports having taken in view of 
the fear of some break with the English, of which Your Lordship 

v* AGI, PC, leg. 174. 
AGI, PC, leg. 174. 
AGI, PC, leg. 174. 

700296 49 TOl. 215 



194 IM 

He of the you have continued 

to the town to Opelousas and 

a which you promise to 

lie with the governors of 

the the which you say exists. 

Your years. 
0, 1771. 

EL BAILIO Don JULIAN OK AIKIAGA (Bubric) 

01 Y 



TO UMZAGA 
/tine 0, 1771 ' 

No.a, 

The King has note of the petition which Your Lordship, 

in your of 22d of March, this year, has forwarded from the 

Urroline of your city, requesting that they be given funds 

for the construction of a church for their convent. He understands 
the origin of the petition arises from their having been promised 
by DOE Antonio de TRloa, during the time of Ms governorsMp ? 
that he would request that sufficient funds for it be set aside from 
the temporalities of the regulars expelled from Havana. His 
Majesty is aware that these nuns have a chapel very adequate for 
their small needs since the inhabitants have a commodious parochial 
church. This was constructed during the governorship of Don 
Alexandro OTteilly, following the separation of ecclesiastics in most 
churches which made spiritual ministration to the public difficult. 
Therefore, His Majesty commands me to inform Your Lordship 
that he does not consent to this petition* 

May God protect Your Excellency many years. 
/tme 0^ 1771. 



BAH.IO FRIT Don Juixor DE AREIAGA (Rubric) 

Seiior DON Luis DE UKZAGA r AMEZAGA. 

ABMAQA TO UKZAGA 

June m, 1771 * 
No. 58. 

Hie King does not consent to the petition of that cabildo to permit 
it to export the tobacco of that province to tie French Cape in 



*AGI,PC.ltt.:L74. 



for Negroes His 

to permitting any or El or any 

foreign port (the sole of 

the said province is greatly by the 

which it is permitted with Havana. The STO 

now than before coming under its dominion. I Your Lord- 

ship of this at his royal order, 
May God preserve Your Lordship years* 

June 0, 1771. 



EL BAIUO FKBY DON JTOIAN DE AKEIAGA (Rubric) 
Senor DON Luis BE UNZAGA T AIOKAGA, 



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197 

D TCI UK2AOA 

Zfweiriber 1, 1771 * 

jP0 2A0 

Sm: I have the honor to to Your the 

that have been with the Taovaya 

come as deputies and intermediaries for ally, the 

tribe. They declare that this tribe will be for 

ing the desired peace for which they have to sue so 

and from so far away* Thus peace will be on a 

(according to the magnanimous and kindly of Your 

and of the Baron de Eipperda) in this jurisdiction and the 
ing province of Texas. 

May God guard the important life of Your Lordship many 
years as I incessantly pray. 

FORT OF SAN JUAN BAUTISTA DE NATCHITOCHES ? November 1, IT) 7. 

Senor Governor General, your most humble servant the hand 

of Your Lordship. 

ATHAN I(> . am Mmiiksm (Rubric) 

ARRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
January IS, 1772 m 

NO. n. 

I am sending to Your Lordship at the decree of the King six copies 
of the Eoyal Pragmatic Sanction which he ordered issued, prohibiting 
the entry into and use in the dominions of His Majesty of cotton tex- 
tiles of foreign manufacture, or those with mixture thereof, under the 
provisions and penalties prescribed therein, in order that Your Lord- 
ship may have this published in that government and brought to the 
notice of all, so that they may not plead ignorance. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years, 

EL PARDO, January IS, 1772. 

EL BAILIO FRET DON JULIAN DE AJRRIAGA (Rubric) 
Senor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

ARRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 

January U 9 1772 142 
No. 72. 

It has been decided by the Bang that, in case any English war 
vessel attempts to engage in smuggling in those dominions or in 

*"AGI,PC, leg. 2357. 
uiAGI, PC, leg. 174. 
"AGI, PC, leg. 174. 



198 IN 

is not but only of a not 

to us, the of the be instructed in 

to an to the of the 

of the Our are the obligation of 

and of the of the or any 

act in No foreign vessel, either war 

or be to any port of His Majesty. 

if a to make a port, in BO 

any of the be allowed to land, nor to inspect 

or the of the port and its fortifications. The 

is to be in capturing smugglers and inflicting 

on the prompt punishments permitted by the 

they be of the crew of an English war 

or thereof. In of the use of violence or force in 

contraband, if the English are the first aggressors, the in- 

to encounters given above does not apply, as it Is 

to self to employ force against the one who 

the violence, I advise Your Lordship of this at the order of 

His so that you may see to it that all of this resolution is 

duly complied with in the district of that government. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years, 

EL PAEDO, January U f 177& 

BL BAILIO FBBY DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA (Rubric) 
Sailor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 



TO THB GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
February 5, 177^ 14 
Mo. T5. 

Experience has shown that the weight and size of the chests in 
which are placed the petitions* letters, and documents which are sent 
from thorn dominions to this court and its tribunals, delay their 
receipt, due to the difficulty of transporting then from La Coruna. 
This can be remedied, and the increased cost eliminated which such 
a practice entails on the postal revenues, by sending said official letters 
in covers wrapped in strong paper or in oilcloth, using boxes (and 
these light and of regular size), only when necessary, as it is im- 
portant for said revenues that the chests and mail bags be of the 
proper kind for their best interests. The King desires that Your 
Lordship should take the necessary measures, so that the method 
described may be adopted with official correspondence as far as 
possible. 

May God protect you many years* 

EL PARDO, February 5, 177%. 

EL BAILIO FRET DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA (Eubric) 

Senor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA, 



AGI, PC, leg. 174. 



199 

BILL OP LADIXG, NEW TO 

1 



I certify that I received from you, Mnrfy s in my 

for transportation to the Illinois, of Misere, the follow- 

ing merchandise marked and numbered as in the margin* To wit : 
M "R Five hogsheads of dry 

d.N.la 2 Two bales of the 
MB 

A Two hogsheads of liquor 

M R Two hogsheads of the 

ME 

S Five hogsheads of the same with iron bands. 

M R Thirty barrels of the same 

MR 

B Five barrels of the same 

M R Three barrels of sugar 

W M One small box 

I R One of the same 

M R Two of the same 

I R One iron coffeepot 

All of this merchandise I undertake to deliver to the Illinois, 
village of Misere, as being the product of the English factories, to 
Messrs* Muray and Ramsay or to their account, without the risk of 
any damage or accident. In consideration whereof the said Messrs. 
Muray and Ramsay shall pay me for the freight of the said mer- 
chandise, which has been estimated at twenty-eight and a half hogs- 
heads at the rate of thirty piastres per hogshead, the sum of eight 
hundred and fifty-five piastres in beaver or deer skins on the basis of 
the price they are worth in silver at the said Illinois, running no risks 
of accident or damage except through my own fault. I have signed 
three of the said bills of lading, one fulfilled, the others of no value. 

FEW ORIGANS, the 18th of March, 177. 

Signed, averring that he is 

P. SBGOND 

Collated on the original which has been presented to us by Monsieur 
Braune, clerk of Messrs. Muray and Ramsay. 

TESTIMONY OF PABLO SEGOND 
Jime 1, 177 1M 

I, Don Pedro Piernas, captain of infantry and lieutenant governor 
of the establishments of Ylinois and its dependencies, to-day ^ June 1, 

***BIj* (French). 



200 IN THE 

1772, by Villar, 

of th* of and of Ste, Genevieve, of 

the of the In the of Monsieur 

and in Ms to the of 

Sta to Muray and Ramlsay, 

of th* In of the received from 

Mr. of Fort de Chartres, and of that of Mr. 

Mtarny, in that the aforesaid goods 

of Don Luis de Bnzaga, governor general of 

this by of Mr. by him in New Orleans, 

1 to me Senor Pablo Segon, in order to 

of the truth, and in accordance with his declaration 

to as are required. In my presence at the post on the 

day, month, and year t before two witnesses, Don Antonio de 

Or0 ? of this garrison, and Sergeant Augustin Vincent 

of the he replied in the following terms : 

Does he promise God and the King to speak 
the in whatever he may be asked, what is his age, and is he 

Apostolic Roman Catholic! 

ANSWER. He swears and promises to speak the truth in whatever 
he be asked; he is Apostolic Roman Catholic; and he is thirty- 
two years of age. 

QUESTION. Is It true that he took from Kew Orleans to the post of 
Ste. Genevieve in his boat the goods contained in the bond which has 
been presented to him belonging to the English merchants named 
Kamisay and Muray f 

ANSWER. It is true that he carried the goods covered by his bond, 
which he acknowledges as correct. 

QUESTION. From whom did he receive the goods mentioned which 
he transported from New Orleans! 

ANSWER. He received them from Senor Francisco Murfi, a mer- 
chant living in New Orleans, to deliver them in Ste. Genevieve at 
the disposition and order of Messrs. Muray and Bamisay, merchants 
and contractors to the troops of Fort de Chartres in the English 
district. 

QUESTION. Are the aforesaid goods comprised in the statement of 
cargo which he presented to the governor general of the colony before 
his departure? 

ANSWER. The said goods are comprised in statement mentioned 
above signed by the said governor, 

QUESTION. Had he loaded the said goods with the knowledge of 
the governor, and had he obtained permission to carry them to a 
destination in the English district? 

ANSWER. He said nothing to the governor nor did the latter inti- 



201 

to him any of the of the bat 

he that Mr. to 

over the goods, that lie the to 

to the as as he at 

Ste, Genevieve. He also the had it. 

goods were for the of the of Fort 

de Chartres, and in virtue of a letter by Mr. Wllkins, 

mandant of the said fort, for purpose, the Mr. 

isay delivered to the governor on his at ew 

QUESTION. Had Mr. Eamisay shown to the the 

sion which he had obtained from the governor! 

ANSWER. Mr. Ramisay did not show to the the 

sion in writing, but he did assure Mm that the governor had 
it to him verbally, and with this understanding he did not give any 
notice to the governor of the transport of the goods, nor did lie 
any distinction of them in the general statement of his cargo, and 
he took the goods on board as freight, with the sole obligation of 
transporting them and delivering them to Ste. Genevieve at the dis- 
position and order of the two merchants named Messrs. Muray and 
Eamisay. 

QUESTION. To whom did he deliver the said goods in Ste. Gene- 
vie vef 

ANSWER. On Ms arrival at the said post he delivered them to 
Monsieur Datchurut, a merchant of that place, on an order which 
the latter presented from Mr. Muray for this purpose; and in virtue 
of it Segond had made the delivery, in accordance with his con- 
tract, of all the goods contained in the order. 

QUESTION. Did he know whether Monsieur Datchurut had deliv- 
ered or transported the goods mentioned to the English district or 
had put them in the possession of Mr. Muray as they were directed 
to him? 

ANSWEB. He knows that the goods spoken of remained in the house 
of Monsieur Datchurut, and that the latter was awaiting permission 
to deliver them to Mr. Muray; because, when Lieutenant Don Luis 
Villar was informed of their being sent, he had ordered him to keep 
them until he could inform the commandant of St. Louis, Don Pedro 
Piernas, of the arrival of the goods, and ascertain whether he ought 
to permit their transportation to the English district. The witness 
believes he has already informed the commandant. 

QUESTION. Has he anything to add to or take from his declaration 
(it having been read to him), and is it the same as he gave?^ 

ANSWER. He has nothing to add to or take from it, and it is the 
same as he gave under the oath taken. 

In certification of this he signed it on the aforesaid day, month, 



202 IN 

me IE the of the 

it me at St. of OB 1, 1772, 

(Rubric)* 
P* (Rubric), 

NICHOLS VINCENT (Rubric), 
DB 0o (Rubric), 

l| t 

Sa: When their wintering expedition to 

St Louis my Hie to this village. As I knew nothing 

through suspicion, I did not dare take the liberty 
of you of the of the nation of this village* 

I hope, Sir, that you will be so kind as to let me give you a few 
It 

Upon my arrival hero, I learned that they had killed and robbed 
three Frenchmen, and two prisoner They killed one of them 

Natchitochee. You will permit me to tell you that I do not 
know the of the two others who were killed on the river of the 

The first was Doget, who resided at the post of Arkansas. 
His son and one other young man were made prisoners. They served 
as slaves to the murderer during the whole trip. He hoped that in his 
village he could trade one and keep the other. The murderer arrived 
here in presence of half the village with the two prisoners, one with 
Ms hair done and the other with his undone. He took them to Ms 
hoiase mad kept them as slaves for three daySj having them serve him, 
without a angle chief opposing it Although I was the only trader 
here ? I could not spare myself from saying to the chiefs : "How is it 
possible for you to allow Frenchmen to be slaves in your village?" 

They replied; "Be quiet. We shall go and get them tonight, and 
if he resists in order to obtain merchandise we shall take them by 
force. 15 Toward nine or ten o'clock in the evening they gathered and 
took them away from the murderer and placed them in the care of a 
headman until the arrival of those gentlemen* The murderer, seeing 
himself deprived of aU his hopes, and seeing all the chiefs with- 
drawn each one to his house, sent for the little one tinder the pretext 
of speaking to him. When he once had him in his house he would 
not give him up, saying that he had received nothing and that he 
wanted to keep him as a slave. The headman that same night re- 
ported to the chiefs and in tie morning a hundred and fifty of them 
met They obtained the prisoner by demanding him and they put 

"BL, (French) . 



REVOLUTIONARY 

Ills As as the 

his When to us 

without its having us anything. The of the 

to the little one by all He to ga to the 

of Arkansas to his affair, but not of his 

wanted to go there, saying only the to the 

Illinois. 

In the beginning of April a left to 

the Black Pawnees. They came with two French 

Several days after the arrival of the party, the chief of the 
sent for all of us to tell us that it was a that were 

near the Pawnee village they saw two men whom they pursued 
killed, believing them to be Pawnees and not Frenchmen, 
they had not left with the purpose of killing any of the latter, 

I make so bold as to assure you. Sir, that as for us, not a single 
trader up to now has any cause for complaint in the village. We 
have traded at our will and without any difficulty. I have the honor 
of being. Sir, with a most perfect consideration, your most humble 
and devoted servant 

EouQinismi (Rubric). 

At the village of the Great Osages, June 14? lift. 
[ Addressed :] 

M. DOK PIBBHAS, commandant for the King at St. Louis, 



TO PIERHAS 
JuneU, 177 14t 

MT FATHER: I desire with all my heart to come to see you but 
I am afraid of the heat and of the nations which are around your 
village. 

I am remaining with the Frenchmen whom, you were good enough 
to give us for our village. They could not come down at this 
time because our river is almost dry. I am staying with them until 
they go down and I shall travel with them* 

We beg you be good enough to command the nations of the 
Mississippi when they come to see you, to be peaceful, as we desire to 
keep your road open so as to come to tell you exactly tie good and the 
evil that is going on in our village. 

I am your faithful and devoted son. 

CLMRMOOT, chief of the milage. 

At the village of the Great Osages, Jtme 14 -W& 
[Addressed :] 

To M. DOK Pu>o PuatisrASj captain of infantry, lieutenant 
governor of the establishments of Illinois at St. Louis. 

*BL. (French). 



is 

TO OF 

/tin* 29, 1772 im 
No. 93. 

tins of the of the governor 

of a of Your Lordship had 

to him of 27, with regard to 

the bj the In the establishment which they 

at the of in the other establishment 

at the from that capital, 

the of nothing intervening between 

the Biver* they are making these 

in the to the English, His Majesty 

it is not to the of the royal interests to 

so to our territory. Therefore, he orders me to 

Tour Lordship to yourself well-informed of every- 

do in two and the immediate vicinity, con- 

to report thereon such prompt action as the 

of their operations demands* I communicate this to Your 

at his royal order for compliance therewith, and to inform 

yon under I am similarly advising the said governor. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

AftAOTtnez, June 9, 1779. 

EL BAIMO FKEY DON" JOTIAN DB AEBIAGA (Rubric) 
Seior GOVBENOH OF LOTJISIANA. 

PHRKAS TO UNZAGA 
4,1778* 



MY DBAS SIR: The result of the information from Your Lordship 
bearing on the cruelty and evil inclinations of the Great Osage nation, 
and the ill-treatment received from them by the hunters on the banks 
of the Arkansas and St. Francis rivers, caused me, when it came down, 
to take the aforesaid nation to task as- it merited. A complaint so just 
demanded satisfaction. I formally remonstrated with them for their 
lack of co-operation, their hostile attitude, overbearing procedure, and 
their failure to keep peace or submit to reason. I am advising Your 
Lordship so that you may take the steps to correct such conduct and 
make the necessary provisions so that the traders of this post may 
have with them harmonious relations, proper treatment, and fairness 
in their commercial dealings. 

There is but one part of the nation which makes an effort to with- 

aAGI,PC,leg. 174. 



205 

the This all the 

Your Lordship to me It Is by the 

I to Your Lordship. One Is of 

nation, the other, from of the is 

written to me. The two 
to me in of a 

1 to to the of so 

they may be delivered over to their relatives, in the afore- 

place. Your Lordship will be duly of 

One part of the families of this Great 
withdrew in order to establish itself at a way off on the 
From this part, there was formed the which to-day is 

under the name of Little Osage. This is one of the 
inclined to thievery, and most evil-intentioned of all the 
The Little Osages, with, the Missouri tribe, their ally and neighbor, 
to whom they have similar characteristics, have at all times given 
the commandants plenty to do. These have made allowances, 
suffered, and have overlooked their impertinences in the past. To-day 
they find themselves being imposed upon. Having accustomed the 
Indians to privileges, it is extremely difficult to reduce them to reason. 
Long before my arrival, the English made efforts to attract them for 
their commercial ends, rewarding them lavishly, and giving them a 
flag which they raised over their villaga I learned of this from M. 
St. Ange. 

They have been permitted to assume undue importance, and having 
the advantage of being in close proximity to the English nation, have 
always shown themselves daring and insolent. Up to the present time 
this, of course, has represented no greater harm than the stealing of 
horses from these posts, and the forcing of contributions from traders 
who pass through the aforesaid nations in order to traffic with the 
other more interior nations of the Missouri River. On account of 
these things and their recognized perfidy, they are found at war with 
all the other tribes on this continent, who long for their destruction. 
Their tranquillity cannot be assured unless an example be made of 
them which will act as a deterrant to other tribes who might be in- 
clined to imitate them. Were we to tolerate their traditional haughti- 
ness and continued extortions, it would be to maintain them in the 
belief that they inspire fear and their insolence would reach even 
greater heights. These two nations of the Little Osages and the 
Misouris are the least numerous of all and the easiest to reduce by 
means of extermination. 

May God preserve you many years. ST. Louis, July 4, 177. 

Your faithful servant kisses the hands of Your Lordship. 

PEDRO PBSRNAS (Eubric). 

To Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA. 



206 IN THE 

TO l?HAaA 

July M, I77S im 

MY Sit : I to of Ste. 

in to a with the two of Indians 

of tbe and as I have written 

to Your I on my arrival the two parties had 

to vary grieved for what they had 

of am with a of the Sotoux and 

was them. The latter, having 

of the by the Little Os&ges and the Mis- 

our fort their disorderly entrance into the town 

of St. Louis, to be resentful. To prove their 

and will toward us, they resolved to avenge this daring 

act the as they were at war with them. In 

to and the Little Gsages and Missouris 

to the which they owe (so they say) to the territory 

of father, the aforesaid party remained in the out- 

of the town without committing the slightest depredation, 

an opportunity to attain the desired end. 

They carried out their plan by of a surprise, for, the 

principal chief of the nation of Little Osages and Ms second in 
authority having gone out for a walk were attacked by the afore- 
party and killed* The rest of the nation immediately sallied 
forth from the town to avenge the death of their two chiefs, but 
they were repulsed by the attacking party and forced to take refuge 
in the town. One of them lost an arm, and from the wound he 
runs a risk of losing his life* If this should happen, it would redound 
to the good of his nation and to ours, for he is the most insolent 
one and the instigator of their aggressions. After this occurrence 
the rest took the occasion to set out on the return to their village, 
expressing a desire for Spanish protection since it had succeeded 
in freeing them from their enemies. They were made to understand 
that without our friendship they would all have perished, as was 
in fact the case, for the opposing party was restrained by considera- 
tion and respect for us from doing them any more harm than they 
had already received. The incident I believe will serve them as a 
warning. 

The party of Missouris on the day before this episode was so 
unregenerate as to send some thirty of their Indians to steal more 
horses from the inhabitants of St. Genevieve and the settlements of 
the English district. In order to accomplish their purpose they 
stole some pirogues from this post When th theft was learned, 



KEVOMTTIONAUY 207 

on the chief of the in 

this with six Indians, lie 

to with to 

an accomplice ; and as he is the who the 

to bad behavior. It is he who the 

he is the one who planted the English as I 
to Your Lordship. He is the of all 

the knowledge of the principal chief of Ms nation, he 
his followers to attack us. I him to be 

I have him secured in irons in order to the to sur- 

render all the horses and pirogues which it has stolen to 
itself in the peaceful way that is required. If it not d0 so, 

I have threatened to send him and all those Imitating him to Your 
Lordship so that you may put them where they will pay for their 
lack of loyalty and for their boldness. 

Of the thirty who went down to steal the horses, one was caught 
in an English settlement, and they have him also a prisoner, having 
punished him and beaten him thoroughly with sticks while lie was 
being taken there. At Ste. Genevieve the inhabitants, on seeing 
the Indians, compelled them to desist from their undertaking, to 
abandon the horses which they had already caught, and to return 
to their village, hotly pursued. One of them, companion of the 
chief held as a prisoner, and as insolent as he, who returned to inform 
him of the ill success of the undertaking, was also arrested and is 
now secured by a pair of irons. They are both in great fear of 
what I have told them to the effect that, when their nation comes, 
in order to make them understand that I do not fear them, I shall 
cause them to be embarked in their sight and conducted to the 
presence of Your Lordship, to be punished by perpetual banishment. 
I believe this demonstration will make an impression on them and 
may serve to hold their pride in check. But notwithstanding that 
an example of this kind, if carried out, would perhaps produce more 
effect on the nations than anything else, I shall not put it into execu- 
tion until I shall have received the sanction of Your Lordship. 

May Our Lord preserve Your Lordship many years, 

ST. Louis, July 80, 17n. 

I kiss Your Lordship's hands. Your most faithful and devoted 
servant, 

PEDRO PIERNAS (Eubric) 

Senor DON Luis DB UNZAGA. 



208 IN 



TO 
/, 

MY SIB: The will Your Lord- 

of in tli of the to 

bj M f . in his boat. Following 

I the of to the 

Your Lortkhip is informed of it, and until 

1 am the has been obtained or ? 

at the Muray and Ramsay deposit the amount 

of and a In this district equal to the 

of the This will avoid the loss or deterioration 

by their being held pending the 

of Your LordsMp as to their transference. I feel assured 
by no one will any injury and they will be 

for the King in the declaration does not turn out to be 
true. 

As Your LordsMp has told me of the departure of a boat loaded 

in of Pedro Perigar, with two negro slaves belong- 

ing to him, I must inform you that the boat has not arrived at this 

Before it reached the post of Ste. Genevieve, it crossed to 

the town of Oka in the English district and there discharged its 

merchandise which belonged to an Englishman named Morgan who 

came up in the said boat. 

The boat of M r . Segond is going down to that capital, and with 
it the instrument case number 247 for trepanning, which I delivered 
to Segond to take to Your Lordship in obedience to your directions. 
Heaven guard the life of Your Lordship many years. 
ST. Louis, Jf, 1778. 

I Your Lordship's hands. Your most faithful servant, 

PEDEO PIERJSTAS (Rubric) 
Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA. 
[Note] Replied that there is no necessity to make provision. 



GAGE TO 
August 3, 177 152 

NEW YOKK August $*: 1778. 

SIR : I have had the honor to receive your Excellency's Letter of 
the 19*A May from New Orleans on the Subject of the many fraudu- 
lent Practices of M r . Blouin, who resided Several Years on the Missis- 
sippi. The said M r . Blouin has been rambling about in these Coun- 

*BL, 

AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



REVOLUTIONARY 

try's a considerable of lie 

at the Hinois* of at New by 

Aubry. He Appears the Aid of his to 

be forming a great many Projects, its lie 

the Inhabitants of the Illinois to in the 

Prosecution of some of his Schemes, but at 

covered that they have been A German,, by 

arrived lately from the Hinois for a Debt, I 

delivered to said Witmar a Letter he brought me with 

from Mess r A Toumier et S l . Pr' at Kew the 

fraudulent Dealings with Monsieur Viviat and his 

in order to lay the same before the Councilors at Law ; tho' I 
hend not much can be done therein at this Place. 

Your Excellency will perceive from what I have wrote I am 
too well acquainted with the Character of Monsieur Blouin, to give 
Credit to all his Assertions, or to be decieved by his Projects, 

I return your Excellency my sincere Thanks for the Account you 
have been pleased to give me of Monsieur Blouin and your Excellency 
will permit me to assure you of my Inclination at all Times to obey 
your Commands, and to desire you would employ me in any Services, 
that I can render you in this part of America. 

I have the honor to be, Sir, Your Excellency's Most Obedient, and 
most humble Servant. 

THO S . GAGE 

His Excellency Doisr Luis DB UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA, Governor Gen- 
eral for his Catholick Majesty of the Province of Louisiana. 

RIPPEEDA TO UNZAGA 
September 9, 177^* 

MY DEAR SIR : I have received information that in a place on the 
long coast where this province in my charge borders on the Gulf of 
Mexico (not very far distant from Opelousas and still less from 
Atakapas) Englishmen have been seen carrying on trade with the In- 
dians; and as some one has said, they were cutting timbers for 
houses. There was, however, a difference of opinion as to whether 
it was at the mouth of the Trinidad River (from which the presidio 
of Orcoquiza was removed almost two years ago, this presidio of 
San Antonio de Bexar being re-enforced with its thirty soldiers), 
or at that of San Jazinto, which is not even a day's journey from 
the first named to the west, or at that of Los Brazos, three day's distant 
from the aforesaid Orcoquiza or Trinidad River, in the same direc- 



700296 49 vol. 216 



IN" MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

IE it be 1 am to the 

are at the it is the 

the an 

At ons to the has for to the 

of the it)* 

not be even though not 

the is two hundred leagues 

an twenty-five are provisioning them- 

for the of the reconnaissance. They 

to the or drive them out in case they 

is, if can overpower them. If not, 1 shall gather 

I can get to go and endeavor to expel them. In 

if it should be I ask Your Lordship at this time 

to me with as you can, and also to give an order 

to the governor of Natchitoches, so that (being the nearest 

by he available aid for me, should I find myself 

to ask for it* In utilizing every moment and 

on the with whatever I may be able to gather up 

if little bad) , I shall despatch a messenger to ask for the 

abovementioned at the place designated. I do not doubt 

I receive it, in view of its great interest for the service of 

God and King, and also of the well-known zeal of Your Lordship 

in everything that conduces to the discharge of your important duties. 

I teg you to be pleased to give me an immediate reply. The three 

soldiers who set out to-day in haste for this purpose have orders to 

await it at Los Adaes. 

I repeat to 1 Your Lordship my desires to serve and please you, and 

that our Lord may preserve your valued life many years. 
SAK AHTOHIO BE BBXAR, September 5, 7772. 
I Mss Your Lordship's hands. Your most attentive and devoted 
servant, 

BARON DB EIPPERDA (Rubric) 

Senor DON Luis BE UNZAGA T AMEXAGA. 



BTTCARELI TO 
Septemb&r S6, 177 154 

Mr DEAR SIR : By the letter of Your Lordship of July eleventh, 
last, I am informed of the receipt of the one hundred and twenty 
thousand pesos, which is the allowance for that province. This was 
taken by the Bang's brigantine, the San Juan Neponmceno, in money 

** AGI, PC, leg. 



211 
of the In of the of 

May God Your 

&J, 1772. 
Your attentive the of Your 

AHTOKIO Y UasuA (Rubric) 

Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA, New Orleans. 

DM LA PKNA TO 



Senor Governor General. 

MY DEAR Sm : I bring to Your Lordship's attention I have 
received the sixth deserter who was found at the of the Ayx, 

He was not delivered on the first requisition by Senor Gonzales be- 
cause the necessary instrument for the c&wi6n had not 

sent as was ordered in his decision by the Reverend Father Santa 
Maria ; but after I asked for him a second time, accompanying my 
request with the required document, there was no delay whatever in 
sending him. M r . de Mezieres has taken charge of this criminal, in 
view of my severe illness, and I believe will send him to appear 
before Your Lordship upon this occasion. 

The deserter informed me that he belongs to the artillery company 
of Havana, and Senor Gonzales did not wish to deliver him until 
his registration or a copy thereof is presented. This request comes 
from the deserter himself, who, being an artful person, apprehends 
that, if he presents himself without the document which ought to 
accompany him, he would fare worse. Since he was a deserter under 
the charge of Senor Gonzales both would be responsible if he did not 
have it. 

Our Lord guard the life of Your Lordship many years. 

NATCHITOCHES, December SO, 177. 

I kiss Your Lordship's hands. Your most faithful servant. 

JPH. DE LA PBNA (Rubric) 
Senor DON BE UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA. 

DE LA PENA TO UNZAGA 
January 18,1778 

Senor Governor General. No. 1. 

MY DEAR SIR: I bring to Your Lordship's attention that the 

Cancis or Apaches (by another name) , accompanied by another allied 

__ 



212 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

nation, are preparing to fall upon the Aynais, where the blow by 
Captain Vigotes was given, in order to avenge the deaths of their 
envoys* Up to the present time the reports are vague, and I shall not 
be certain of them until there is renewed confirmation. 

Regarding the nations of the adjoining province, they are at present 
very quiet, and of those in our district I have nothing new to say. 

As to the authority which you cite me in your last letter requesting 
that its contents be put into execution, I have been relieved of the 
necessity of carrying out the measures by the agreement (although 
it has not been presented to me) previously made by the parties be- 
tween themselves, the debt being paid and the creditor satisfied. 

Our Lord guard the life of Your Lordship many happy years. 

NATCHITOCHES, January 18, 1773. 

I kiss Your Lordship's hands. Your most devoted servant and 
subject. 

JPH. DE LA PENA (Kubric) 

Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA. 

DE LA PENA TO UNZAGA 
January 18, 1773 7 

Senor Governor G&rteral. No. 2. 

MY DEAR SIR: In reply to your last letter relative to my health 
since my leaving Los Adays for this post, I have to tell you first, 
that the fever attacked me while I was putting into effect the measures 
regarding the deserters whom I have sent to you ; second, that I had 
the fever daily until the first day of the present year, and after that 
it came on every other day. I do not believe that this affliction 
will leave me as readily as I hope unless it is made possible for me 
to obtain the most proper remedy. 

In consequence of this, I expect that Your Lordship in your kind- 
ness will be charitable to me by permitting me to go down to that 
capital, with the object of recuperating my health before it becomes 
worse. For almost four months it has afflicted me greatly, causing 
me grave physical harm in all respects. 

Our Lord guard the life of Your Lordship many happy years. 

NATCHITOCHES, January 18^ 1773. 

I kiss Your Lordship's hands. Your most faithful servant and 
subject. 

JPH. DE LA PENA (Eubric) 

Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA. 



THE RBVOLUTIONAEY PERIOD, 1765-1781 213 

[Draft of Unsaga^s reply to the preceding letters ;] 

I answer your letters of the 30th of December of last year and the 
18th of January of the current year by saying that the deserter 
Antonio Giron arrived and has received the same sentence as the six 
previously sent by going to serve in the regular regiment of Havana 
for six years. 

Eamon Benero, who, you inform me, is a deserter from the royal 
artillery corps and claimed by the lieutenant of Adaiys, repeats Ms 
petition to be sent there, and, if he should be reclaimed, you will 
inform me so that I may take the necessary measures. 

I have received the news about the Apaches, and I await the out- 
come if it turns out to be true. I am also waiting to hear whether you 
have reconciled the parties of the commission which I gave you so 
that the debtor shall pay the creditor. 

I am sorry to hear of your illness, but, although I desire your im- 
provement, I cannot at present consent to your being relieved because 
I believe the lieutenant governor is coming down to this capital. How- 
ever, if he does not do it and you continue in broken health, I shall 
attend to your just petition. 

May our Lord guard you etc. 

NEW OKLEANS, February 5, 1773. 

Sefior DON JOSEPH DE LA PENA. 

GAGE TO UNZAGA 
February W, 1773 158 

NEW YORK February 80 1773. 

SIR : I have had the honor to recieve Your Excellency's Letter of 
the 28 th . of October, in which Your Excellency gives me a strong 
Testimony of a virtuous and benevolent Heart from the Anxiety you 
express to Vindicate the Character of an Officer of Rank, and excul- 
pate him from the Malevolent Accusations of an Evil Minded Person. 
I have Information of many Instances of Your Excellency's Good- 
ness and Politeness to the Subjects of his Britannick Majesty who 
have had Occasion to go into the Province of Louisiana, for which 
Your Excellency will permit me to return you my most unfeigned 
Thanks. 

The King My Master having been pleased to grant my Bequest for 
Leave of Absence to settle the Affairs of my Family, I take this 
Opportunity to bid Your Excellency Farewell, and offer My wishes 
for Your Prosperity and Happyness and to assure Your Excellency 
that I shall with great Pleasure obey any Commands you shall honor 
me with in England. 



3J AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



214 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

I have the honor to be with great Respect and Esteem. 
Sir Your Excellency's Most Obedient and most humble Servant 

THO. GAGE 

His Excellency, SEN r . DON Luis DE UNZAGA & AIOXAGA, Governor 
General for Ms Catholick Majesty of the Province of Louisiana. 

ABEIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
March 10, 1773 l 

From Your Lordship's letter of the 24th of October, last year, His 
Majesty notes that you add to what you had previously stated in 
yours of the 2nd and 14th of the same month, relative to the expedi- 
tion which was being prepared in New York, and which you had 
understood to be of only two regiments for the Danish islands. How- 
ever^ you state that having given up this enterprise, they had directed 
it toward pacifying the islands of San Vicente and Tabago. 

May God guard you many years. 

EL PARDO, 10 of March, 1773. 

DON JULIAN DB ARRIAGA (Rubric) 

Senor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

PIERNAS TO UNZAGA 
April 12, 1773 

MY DEAR SIR: As a result of Your Lordship's letter of the 27th 
of last August, relative to the management and most convenient 
procedure with regard to the restless and evil-intentioned savage 
Indians and, likewise taking into consideration the critical circum- 
stances therein indicated, I have given orders that no trader 
accustomed to deal with the Little Osages and Missouris shall carry 
on trade with them until such time as I shall have definite proof 
of their peacefulness and submission. Realizing that this is the 
only method to-day which might bring them to reason and oblige 
them to beg for the aid our friendship affords, I have recourse to 
it, with this end in view, as well as to avoid the risks resulting from 
their evil disposition in threatened thefts and murders. Their in- 
tention being to rob and kill the traders who might go up to the 
other Missouri tribes, it appeared to me that the deprivation of 
arms and ammunition would be very much to the point in order 
to check the aforesaid nations. 

To this end, I had prohibited commercial intercourse with them 
and feel confident that the desired effect might have been realized 

*AOI, PC, leg. 174. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 215 

had not a trader from the English district stealthily introduced 
himself into their midst. He was cognizant of the defensive measnres 
in this post, but impelled by covetousness, and ignoring the havoc 
which it wrought among the dwellers in these parts, he committed 
the black deed of entering the Missouri Kiver by night. He went 
up with two boats laden with merchandise for trading and muni- 
tions of war to the Little Osages and Missouri tribes, just at the 
moment that the latter found themselves in the need of having to 
solicit our help because of the attack threatening from the other 
nations, our allies, who were just then making preparations to 
curb them. 

The arrival of the aforementioned trader induced them to change 
their plans and desist from their intention to go down and give 
the necessary satisfaction for their insults. Finding themselves 
well-supplied by him with all requisite arms and ammunition where- 
with to defend themselves and continue their raids, they returned 
with the said trader to the village to continue their trading, thereby 
placing themselves in a position to resist the invasions of their 
enemies and frustrate all the effect of the preparations which had 
been made. They seemed confident they could get along very well 
without our aid and assistance. According to the declarations re- 
ceived, which under separate cover I forward to Your Lordship, 
the aforesaid trader was successful in making them believe in him, 
inspiring in them sentiments totally in opposition to the maxims 
of Christianity, and impressing' upon them the benevolent character 
of his government. 

In such a situation, I clearly observed that delay was unwarranted, 
and considered the measures to be applied. Taking advantage of 
several indications which led me to infer the place, although remote, 
and wishing to assure myself of its correctness, I took it upon myself 
to organize and place under arms a body of volunteers of the 
country, with the avowed intention of investigating and giving 
punishment to the aforementioned transgressor and his followers, 
should there be verification of the sttspicion directed against him, 
and should his well-known character and ambitious desires be equal to 
making further attempts along these lines, as I had been forewarned. 

Upon the expeditious carrying out of the provisions of the plan 
depended the success of the enterprise. The primary object of the 
instructions of Your Lordship was never overlooked. This had to 
do with the expenses incurred, the possible lack of available men 
and [torn]. The successful result was effected as planned without 
its costing either the King or any private individual one single 
maravedi. 

Considering the uncertain value of the merchandise and furs 



216 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

of the aforesaid trader, I proposed that someone at Ms own risk 
and on Ms own account standing the expense of foodstuffs, ammuni- 
tions of war, boats, and of other necessary things indispensable 
for the expedition and the maintenance of a body of forty volunteers, 
all inhabitants of this post, might undertake the expedition with 
the end wMch I had in view. Two persons who lived here offered 
themselves, accepting in every way the proposition made them. The 
cost was a voluntary matter as was also the risk involved and there 
was to be no idea of reimbursement from the royal treasury for the 
expenses of the enterprise. With such assurance, I immediately 
caused to be armed two [torn] pirogues and sent out the detachment 
in them well-munitioned and supplied with provisions for a period 
of two months. The party was capable, by reason of number and 
strength, of overcoming all opposition. The expedition was placed 
under the command of Don Pierre Laclede, the principal and first 
founder of this settlement. I selected Don Pierre for this com- 
mission because of the confidence merited by him, his reliability, 
and his punctuality in complying with instructions that might lead 
to a successful outcome. I remit the instructions to Your Lordship 
so that you may know them. Laclede's reliability and prudence 
have been the sole motives in his selection since they serve as an 
example to the other inhabitants who might prefer their own 
interests [torn]. 

Seeing him in readiness and in command of the expedition in 
such a difficult and critical moment, and feeling his help was a matter 
of urgency in order to aid him in his labors, no one could excuse 
himself under this or that pretext. The effect desired was accomp- 
lished because all those selected presented themselves willingly and 
with the best of disposition to follow him. This willingness was 
increased and rendered more effective by granting them one half of 
everything captured, should it be accomplished. The compensation 
was offered as an added inducement and with the consent of two boat 
owners [torn] in order to urge and stimulate them in compliance 
with their duty. All this brought about the anticipated success. It 
will be more extensively outlined to Your Lordship in the official 
report which contains all the steps taken in the aforesaid expedition 
on the Missouri Eiver, and of which I enclose herewith a copy. It 
includes all the articles taken from Juan Maria Ducharme, prime 
instigator and leader of the intruders. He is sole proprietor of all 
the merchandise and furs noted therein which are the product of the 
illegitimate trade which he carried on with the aforementioned nations 
during his stay there contrary to all law. 

I am likewise directing to Your Lordship the general and detailed 
inventory taken at this post upon the return of the expedition. This 



THE REVOLUTIONABY PMBIOD, 1765-1781 217 

includes all that was captured, belonging to the aforementioned 
contraband trader, as well as the distribution and apportionment of 
the material among the two persons who fitted out the expedition 
and the individual men of the company, as had been promised and 
agreed with them. 

Both parties have been completely compensated, and the King 
has been saved from the slightest expense. Furthermore, the example 
set has caused a halt among the other traders of the English who, 
without it, perchance might endeavor to imitate the audacity of 
the aforesaid Ducharme. His pernicious daring would have impeded 
the reduction of these nations, making us the target of their perfidy. 
If they found themselves assisted and supplied by the English, it 
would make them independent and fan their insolence and abuse, 
which is now [torn] checked because they were deprived of the 
accustomed and expected aid. Ducharme had gone down there ac- 
companied by an Indian from the Little Osaga nation. He was 
in his company at the time of the landing of our detachment, and 
the discharge of firearms and guns carried by the expedition was 
such that, conquered by fear, and without even awaiting the result 
of the struggle, he deserted the spot, and returned in haste to his 
village. 

The fear and terror which he felt was communicated to the rest 
of his nation and other allies, since they were persuaded that there 
was a whole fleet coming up to destroy them. The news, exaggerated 
by their fear, was passed on to the Missouri nation. This I 
learned from another trader who stopped there as he was coming 
from the Kansas, totally ignorant of what had occurred in these 
places. He stated that the chief and others were disposed to come 
down to implore clemency, and to offer satisfaction for the theft 
of horses which they had already rounded up to return, and, that 
if it were not done quickly, it was because of the fear of the other 
nations, our friends, who were seeking to pursue them. Immediately 
upon their retiring, they would come to solicit the liberty of their 
two prisoners whom I still hold, and thus increase their friendship 
by means of a submission and peace which will be permanent. I 
believe their disposition to be sincere because of the excellent reception 
accorded this trader. 

This nation had indicated that it would seek to get possession of 
two of our men in order to keep them as hostages, thereby obliging 
us to deliver their two. Not only have they not attempted to do 
this, although they might freely have done so with the trader, but 
they kept him there, and for three days which he voluntarily spent 
in their village, made him presents, and not the slightest harm 
was done him, nor were the furs which he carried taken from him. 



218 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALW5Y 

All this he himself confirmed to me OB the 8th of this month, when 
he arrived at this post He also added that he had been escorted 
a certain distance until they felt he was safe, and had passed the 
Tillage of the Little Osages, in order to prevent his being insulted 
or robbed should the latter still persist in their evil intention. 

I feel persuaded that, with the expedition and the capture of the 
trader, of which they are not ignorant, with the submission of the 
Missouris and of the Great Osag&s who came to deliver to me the 
chief of the band who committed the murders on the banks of the 
Arkansas (whom I hold as a prisoner as I have already informed 
Your Lordship), and with the frequent assaults from the other na- 
tions who, taking sides with us, have offered to harass them and 
endeavor to destroy them, the nation of the Little Osages will be 
reduced to submission. I am sure they will, as in the case of the 
others, come submissively and peacefully to ask for mercy and the 
indispensable aid of our protection. I therefore expect a favorable 
termination of the affair without any shedding of blood or expense 
to the royal treasury. The tranquility and the course of commerce 
which safeguards the maintenance of these settlements will then 
be re-established. 

May our Lord preserve the life of Your Lordship many years. 

ST. Louis, April Wth, 1773. 

Your devoted servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

PEDRO PIERNAS (Bubric) 

To Seiior DON Luis I>E UNZAGA. 

ARRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 

May IS, 1773 
No. 122. 

The King has taken note from Your Lordship's letter of January 28, 
last, of the discovery of a mine two hundred and fifty leagues from 
your capital in territory under its jurisdiction. You stated that you 
were unable to ascertain its nature, but it appeared to be of silver, and 
you had informed the viceroy of New Spain thereof, so that he might 
send experts from the mines in Coahuila. You also explained that 
you had detached a corporal and some soldiers to guard the mine and 
prevent the English from taking it. 

His Majesty approves this action and awaits Your Lordship's ad* 
vices on the results of the examination. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

ARANJUEZ, May 15, 1773. 

DON JULIAN DB ARRIAGA (Rubric) 

Senor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 



i AGI, PC, leg. 174, 



THE EVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1766-1781 219 

ARRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 

July 16, 1773 l 
No. 1S3. 

Don Daniel Mosnier, merchant of LA Rochelle, lias made represen- 
tations that there is owed to him by Don Martin Navarro, treasurer 
of your province, twenty-nine thousand eight hundred eighty-one 
reales and twenty-six maravedis, which he received on deposit when 
Don Pedro Poupet was made a prisoner of state. The effects which 
were found in his house were confiscated. Among then was included 
this sum. He requests the return thereof but does not give any other 
proof than his simple statement. His Majesty commands that Your 
Lordship send information on this matter. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

MADRID, July 16, 1773* 

DON JUMAN DE ARRIAGA (Bubric) 

Seiior GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

ARRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 

August 9, 1773 ie8 
No. 134. 

The King has approved the reply made by the viceroy of New 
Spain to the representation made to him by Your Lordship that he 
should send you experts to examine and open the mine discovered in 
your province. He, far from agreeing, was of the opinion that under 
no consideration should this operation be put into effect on account 
of the difficulties which would result therefrom. For this reason His 
Majesty desires Your Lordship to conform therewith, observing cau- 
tion and prudence in the orders which your zeal may dictate, so as 
to prevent the neighboring English from entering to work it in vio- 
lation of the frontier. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

SAN ILDEFONSO, August 9, 1773. 

DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA (Rubric) 
Senor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

PASSPORT GIVEN TO TRADERS OF THE Oro NATION 

September 11, 1773 164 
(Copy) 

DON PEDRO PIERNAS, lieutenant governor of the settlements and 
dependencies of the Illinois : 

wAGI, PC, leg. 174. 
*AGIPC,leg. 1T4. 
M*BI* t (French). 



220 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

The Sleurs Chauvin and Lajoye are permitted to go to trade with 
the Hotos nation with Pierre Lange, Nicolas Saint Pierre, Joseph 
Cadien, Jean Lamontagne, and Baptiste Mary, their employees. They 
shall do it peaceably, without giving cause to the savages to complain 
of their methods. In order to forestall any complaint on their part, 
the Indians shall agree upon and establish a price with the traders 
for each kind of merchandise which will be destined for their nation. 
This price must be equitable, and applied without cheating or dis- 
simulation. 

The traders are forbidden to sell, loan, give, or intrust to any of 
the Frenchmen who have remained and are at the present time in the 
nations, any kind of trading merchandise or goods, no matter of what 
nature, for trading purposes, and not even for their own personal 
use. On the contrary, they are commanded to force these Frenchmen, 
in our name, and by virtue of this deprivation, to return with them. 
They are expressly commanded to return to this post with all their 
employees without exception in the month of July the next year, 1774, 
at the latest, whether they have finished their trading or not. They 
shall not leave any kind of goods either in this nation or in any others, 
or on the way, or still less in the hands of any Frenchmen under any 
pretext whatever, under pain of being severely punished according to 
the circumstances and necessities of the case. 

They shall not trade with any other nation except the one with 
which they are licensed to trade, and they shall not take any goods 
over and above the quantity which is allotted to them. They shall 
watch over the conduct of their employees, and if any one of the men 
happens to fail in his conduct and causes trouble in the nation, and 
also if they should hear of any statements made by the savages which 
would be to our disadvantage, they shall give us a full account of it 
upon their return. They are granted eight or ten jugs of brandy 
which are solely meant for the indispensable needs of their crew and 
not at all for trading purposes. They shall pass by Fort Missouri 
to have this passport viseed. 

Given at ST. LOOTS on the llth of September, 1773. 

PEDRO PIERNAS 
It was presented in this fort September 14, 1773. 

JUAIST OLIVIER 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 221 

ARRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 



September 18, 

No. 141. [Copy] 

Eef erence is made to the balance of seventeen thousand, three hun- 
dred and sixty-one reales and twenty-three maravedis of silver which 
Your Lordship reports in yours of May 17, last, as having been shown 
outstanding against His Most Christian Majesty by the audit of the 
accounts of the storekeeper at Ylinueses. This sum was for the goods 
covered by the accounts assumed as outstanding by the Conde de 
O'Reilly at the time of his taking possession of that colony. Has 
Majesty has decided to pay this debt as Your Lordship proposes, and 
for this purpose Your Lordship will issue the proper orders to the 
royal officials there and note the same on the accounts settled during 
the time of said Conde de O'Reilly. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

SAN ILDEFONSO, September 18, 1773. 

(Rubric of Arriaga) 

Sefior GOVERNOR OP LOUISIANA. 

ARRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
February 3, 1774, lee 

No. 150. 

The King approves the decision which Your Lordship reports in 
your letter of 27th of August, last, that you had made pursuant to 
royal order of the 21st of May, to detach from the mission of Capu- 
chin religiosos of that province Padre Fraile Hilario Genoveaux, 
and appoint him curate of the parish of Los Ylinueses, five hundred 
leagues distant from the capital. This measure will prevent his dis- 
agreements with his colleagues. 

EL PARDO, February 3, 177 k 

May God guard Your Lordship many years. 

DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA (Rubric) 
Sefior GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

ARRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
March 5, 1774 

No. 151. 

Notwithstanding what Your Lordship wrote ? me on August 27, last, 
the King on the ninth of the same month, advised the viceroy of 

w*AGI, PC, leg. 174. 
*AGI, PC, leg. 174. 
M*AGI, PC, leg. 174. 



222 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI TALUSY 

New Spain of the approval of his well-founded reasons, which I have 
communicated to Your Lordship, why under no circumstances would 
he consent to examine, open, or work the mine, said to be of silver, 
discovered two hundred and fifty leagues from your capital, and why 
Your Lordship should not persist in your intention to do so. The mine 
should not be opened in order that the English may not seize pos- 
session of it. Such a step could not be remedied inasmuch as we 
do not know what they might do in such a remote place where it 
is impossible to maintain soldiers to guard it. There are also other 
reasons given for the decision. His Majesty commands me to instruct 
Your Lordship to desist from this enterprise, and to announce pub- 
licly that it is not a silver mine, and not worth working. However, 
every year Your Lordship should send someone to that place who is 
acquainted with its location. It is not probable that the English 
will have any pretext to cross over to the other side of the Mississippi 
River (the boundary recognized by them) thereby violating the treaty. 
This they certainly will not do without some great inducement. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

EL PAMX>, March 8, 1774. 

DON JULIAN BE ARRIAGA (Rubric) 
Senor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

VALDELLANO TO GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
March 18, 1774 168 

In the letter of October 12 of last year, the Reverend Bishop of 
Cuba, Don Santiago Joseph de Chavarria, mentioned within another 
letter of September 7, a copy of which he enclosed, that the Spanish 
Capuchins assigned for the care of souls in this province advised him 
that the French clergy had the intention of secretly disposing of the 
house and property belonging to the mission under their care and 
then returning to their province in Champagne. Although Your 
Lordship is distrustful of these maneuvers, as they had been tried 
previously, and has probably taken the necessary precautions to 
prevent any surprise in this regard, it seemed well to communicate 
this information to you. In a letter of October 4, he gave an account 
to His Majesty of all that was being done in compliance with his 
orders and of the efforts made to prevent anything which could dam- 
age his royal service and interests. 

When the matter was refuse<l to the council and laid before the 
focal, it was decided, along with other affairs, to charge Your Lord- 
ship (as I do now) to be vigilant in the matter mentioned, and in 

** AGI, PC> leg. 174. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 223 

regard to any Intention connected with it. It informs you that 
in this province nothing can be done by the French without the 
express permission of His Catholic Majesty and orders of this tri- 
bunal, to whom Your Lordship should give an account of the affair 
and explain whether the matter of which the bishop spoke is true. 

May God keep Your Lordship the many years I desire* 

MADRID, March IS, 177 ^ 

EL CONDE MB VALDELLANO (Rubric) 

The Governor of Louisiana. 

ABRIAGA TO UNZAOA 

May 30, 177k 160 

No. 159. 

In your letter of the 18th of last October you reported the clan- 
destine communication existing between the English traders and 
various nations of savages in the wilderness of that province and 
against which your measures have not sufficed. To remedy this the 
King has determined that you are to give orders to Don Atanasio 
Mezi&res, lieutenant governor of Natchitoches, to stop it, and make 
such arrangements as may be dictated by your experience, situation, 
and practical knowledge of the country. 

May God guard Your Lordship many years, 

ARANJUEZ, May <?#, 177h 

DON JULIAN DE ARRIAGA (Rubric) 

Sefior DON Luis DE UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA, 

CENSUS OF NEGRO AND MULATTO SLAVES AT NATCHITOCHES 
September 26, 1774. 

Post of NatchitocheS) 1774. 

Number of Negroes and Mulattoes of both sexes and all ages in 
this post on the 26th day of September, in view of which, the citizens 
have been taxed at the rate of eight reales de vellon for each one of 
their slaves, in conformity with the order of the governor general to 
his lieutenant in said jurisdiction under date of June 17, this year, 

iAGI, PC, leg. 174. 
> AGI, PC, leg. 189-1. 



224 



SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



Names of those paying 


Negroes 


Mulattoes 


Total 
No. 


Reales 
de Ve!16n 


Males 


Females 


Males 


Females 




I 

8 
13 
9 
3 
1 
3 

1 
2 
8 
2 
6 
1 
2 
2 
3 

13 

2 
2 
3 
5 
8 
" 1 
6 
10 
1 
2 
8 
3 
1 
2 
1 
2 
4 
5 
1 
2 
6 
1 
1 


2 
2 
1 
3 


1 
1 
3 
9 
2 
4 
2 
3 
1 
2 
1 
3 
1 
4 
2 
I 
3 
1 
1 
7 
1 

1 
2 
5 
5 

3 
7 
1 
3 
13 
3 

1 
1 
1 
3 
3 
1 
2 
10 
1 


1 



1 


3 






1 
2 

1 







2 



1 

2 





1 

3 










1 

1 




1 




3 

1 










1 



1 








4 













3 
2 


1 











1 





1 




2 


2 

12 
25 
11 
9 
3 
6 
1 
4 
3 
11 
3 
16 
3 
3 
5 
5 
1 
22 
1 
2 
3 
4 
10 
14 
1 
15 
19 
2 
5 
22 
6 
1 
3 
2 
3 
8 
9 
2 
4 
18 
2 
1 
1 
4 
4 
2 
4 
5 


16 
8 
96 
200 
88 
72 
24 
48 
8 
32 
24 
88 
24 
128 
24 
24 
40 
40 
8 
176 
8 
16 
24 
32 
80 
112 
8 
120 
152 
16 
40 
176 
48 
8 
24 
16 
24 
64 
72 
16 
32 
144 
16 
8 
8 
32 
32 
16 
32 
40 




Don Juan Baptista Trfchele 


Don Luis de Sn Denis 


Dofia Maria, de Sn. Denis 


Madam Le Doux . ........... 


Don Antonio Cbarbonet ....... 


Don Juan Baptista Eoujot .... 
Don Sn. Yago de la Chaise 


Pedro Dartigaux . . * ....... 


Juan Baptista Prndhomme .... 






Pedro Sorel 


Juan Piseros 


Ciaudio Mercter 


Pedro Villard 


Alexis Grappe 


Pablo Lafflte 


Francisco Vasseur 


Pedro Valentin 


Juan Baptista Davion ........ 


Domingo Montche 




Gaspard Derbonne 


Juan Baptista La Berry 


Diego Lambre ... 


Bartnolomeo Rachal ...,.,.. 


Pedro Badin 


Widow Buart 


Pedro Bailliot 


Luis Tobart 


Marin Grillet . 


Juan Baptista Brevol 


Juan Baptista Dubois 


Joseph Duprez 


Juan Baptista Duprez 


Athanazio Poisot 


Remigio Poisot Jr 


Pedro Derbonne 


George Le Cler 


Luis Buart 4 


Jeannis 


Pedro Metoyer 


Don Sn. Yago Fazeixde 


Don Luis Le Court 


Luis Bachal 


Juan Baptista Le Conte 




162 


124 


21 


16 


323 


2,584 



Having assessed a tax on all slaves both negroes and mulattoes, at 
the rate of eight reales de vetton per head in satisfaction of the deaths 
of four of their race, and as the number of registered slaves in this 
jurisdiction is three hundred and twenty-three (as is certified by the 



THE KEVOLUTIONARY PMEIOD, 1765-1781 225 

attached list), the aforesaid tax amounts to 2,584 regies de mUon 
which have been collected and are being remitted. 

PETITION OF WILLIAM GKAOT TO GOVEBKOK CHESTER 
February W, 1775 m 

To His Excellency Peter Chester Esquire, Captain General and 
Governor in Chief in and over the Province of West Florida &c. 
The petition of William Grant a Reduced Lieutenant of the Royal 
Regiment of Artillery 
Humbly Sheweth 

That your Petitioner obtained a warrant of Survey on the Sixth 
Day of July 1774 for Five hundred acres of Land That the time 
limited for a return thereof is now elapsed 

Your Petitioner therefore prays for a renewal of the said Warrant 
for the aforesaid Tract 

of Five hundred acres situated North and by East about nine miles 
from the Junction of the Rivers Amit and Ibberville Butting and 
Bounding on all sides by vacant Land 

And your Petitioner as in Duty Bound shall ever pray &c. 

WILLIAM GRANT by 
EVAN JONES his Atty. 

Pensacola 1775 

[On outside of the document :] 
Wth February 1775 

Petition of Wm. Grant for a renewal of a War 1 , of Survey for 500 

Acres Old Warrant dated the 6th July 1774. 

JODIGE TO UNZAGA 
March 83, 1776 

MY LOED : Several savages of the Octchianja nation who have their 
village in the district of the Opelousas, have just arrived at my house 
this morning, and after their customary ceremonies, they told me that 
they were coming to town for the express purpose of begging you, 
My Lord, to give them a chief for their nation since theirs died five 
years ago. They say that since that time they have not dared to come 
and see Your Lordship, in view of the fact that part of their people 
have withdrawn to the English, and that perhaps you would not 
have looked upon them favorably. They have prayed me to write to 
you in order to inform Your Lordship of their Desire. 

"i BL, (English) . 
BL, (French). 

700296 49-Y01. 217 



226 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

1 have the honor of being with a very deep respect. My Lord, your 
most humble and obedient servant, 

LOUIS JUDICE 

At LA FOUHCHE DES CHETHSCACHAS, the 83rd of March 1775. 

ABRIAGA TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
April?, 1775 

No. 180. 

The King has taken note of the occurrence in connection with the 
Indian of the Pascagoula tribe, who Your Lordship reported, under 
date of November 28, last, had received a commission as captain and 
a medal such as the English are accustomed to distribute as presents 
in order to win the other savages over to their side. He has also noted 
that Your Lordship had given him another one for the second chief 
and honored him with an effigy of His Majesty. Your Lordship's 
action is approved and for similar cases or those in which you con- 
sider it advisable to distribute other medals, I enclose six silver ones, 
three with the original of this royal order and the others with the 
duplicate. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

ABAHJUEZ, April 7, 1775. 



JULIAN DE ABRIAGA (Rubric) 
Senor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

AOOSTA TO UNZAGA 

April 86, 1775 
f 
Senor Governor General. 

MY DEAR SIR: I beg to advise Your Lordship that yesterday there 
passed through this post for the village of the Alibamones, in English 
territory, four Indians of the Choctaw nation. They carried their 
baggage and arms with them, which inclines me to the belief that they 
intend to spend some time in that region. I beg to reiterate to Your 
Lordship the petition made to you under date of the 24th of this 
month, and also to call attention to the condition in which this fort 
finds itself after the hurricane which took place on the 16th of the 
present month, so that, cognizant of all matters, you may order that 
which is most convenient. 



, PC, leg. 174. 



THE REVOLUTIONAKY PERIOD, 1765-1781 227 

I am at the service of Your Lordship, whose life I beg God to pre- 
serve for the years that I desire. 
MANCHAK, April $#, 1775. 
Your respectful servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

TOMAS DE AOOSTA (Eubric) 
To Seiior DON Luis DE UNZAGA Y A&OEZAGA. 



ACOSTA TO 
April 30, 1775 175 

Senor Governor General. 

MY DEAR SIR : The chief of the Pascagulas, passing through here, 
told me with an interpreter, that upon passing by the village of 
the Umas, they called him, and that when he did not, wish to stop, 
they fired upon him ; and one of the balls passed through the blanket 
worn by an Indian woman who came with him. I wish to advise 
Your Lordship of this, as well as of the fact that I have written 
to Monsieur Judice relative to the affair. 

An Indian named Francisco of the Tinza nation, quite civilized 
for his kind, and settled on some land near to this post, told me 
yesterday that some of the same Umas were getting ready to make 
war against the nation of the region, and that one of this nation 
had so told him. I also wish to inform Your Lordship of this. 

I wish to know what I am to do in case one of the enemy nations 
should attack the Indians of this district, and especially should the 
latter find themselves in this post, whether by chance or having come 
expressly with the intention of obtaining our help. I trust I shall 
merit the orders of Your Lordship, so that in no way nor at any 
time shall I fail in their compliance. 

I am reproducing for Your Lordship (and pardon me that I do 
so) not only the situation of this post, but also I am submitting the 
proposal that you send eight or ten men from the battalion, and 
among them two carpenters with their tools. I feel assured that 
it will not cost a maravedi to the King, and that in four or five 
months the fort will be constructed in this place, and this detach- 
ment will feel sheltered. When the work is finished, I shall send 
back the men. Your Lordship may well understand that with the 
seven men I have, none being skilled in carpentry, it is impossible to 
expect them to do it and also work in the mess, procure the 
wood that is required for it, and for the fire which is kept up all 
night by the sentinel. Maintaining the fire is to serve the double 
purpose of signaling to those who might pass and of letting the 
Indians realize that no vigilance is spared, and that it has always been 



228 



SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



the custom. I believe I should be lacking in the compliance to my 
obligation, were I not to acquaint Your Lordship with the af oresaid, 
and wishing always and upon every occasion to comply, I cannot 
omit this information. 

Until I shall have secured the acceptance of all herein proposed, 
I beg of Our Lord that you may be spared to me in perfect health 
for many years. 

MAKCHAK, April 80, 1775. 

Tour respectful subject and servant kisses the hand of Your 
Lordship. 

TOMAS WE ACOSTA (Rubric) 

Senor DON Luis DE UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA. 

NATIONS OF THE MISSOURI 



May 19, 1775 







List of the nations with which we are accustomed to trade in pelts 
in the dependency of the Missouri River, with the enumeration of 
the number of traders who can go to each one, and the quantity 
of merchandise which experience has taught to be sufficient for the 
best success of said commerce. 



Names of the nations 


Number of 
Traders 


Quantity of Goods 
Value in pounds of furs 


Maha 


2 
1 
1 
2 
2 
2 
2 
1 
7 


5,000 1 
1,800 
1,200 
4,000 
7,500 ^ 
7,200 
4,000 
3,000 
15,000 


12,600 
" t*ic] 

26,700 
" [sic] 


Pauls Malta 


Pauls . . 


Hotos 




Little Osages (forbidden) 


Missouris (destroyed) 


Republic (not able to enter) 


Great Osages (forbidden) 





Total in furs 48,700 



NOTE. The 48,700 pounds of value in fur make, according to 
the exchange of the country, 97,400 in money, and if the commerce 
begun with the Eicarra nation upon the said river is undertaken, 
it is possible to send one trader with one thousand pounds in order 
to promote trade in that nation. 

ST. Louis, May 19, 1775. 

The trading of brandy must not be permitted among said nations 
as it is pernicious and does not aid the peace and public welfare. 

Dated as above. 

PEDRO PIERNAS (Eubric) 

AGI, PC, leg. 2358 



THB REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 



CRUZAT TO 
March 18, 1776 17T 

MY DEAR Sm : The nations of the Little Osages and the Missouris, 
this winter, have behaved and conducted themselves much better 
towards the traders, who, consequently, have returned with the utmost 
satisfaction and profit. I was informed by a trader who had just 
come from the Great Osages that the latter, too, are behaving them- 
selves and that the traders hope to come out in their commerce with 
them with the same success as the ones before them did. The Kansas 
nation, whose speeches have caused the delay and the return of the 
traders who were going to it and the other nations situated farther 
up, has not given me any satisfaction as yet. I only know from a 
party of the Missouris which is here now in this town that the great 
chief of the Kansas nation will arrive shortly with the chief of the 
aforementioned Missouris. I have every reason to believe that every- 
thing will turn out satisfactorily. 

A few days ago, the principal chiefs of the Little Osages were here 
to see me and, although I presented them with a much better gift 
than had been designated for them or that which is usually given in 
consideration of their good behavior, I think that they both left 
somewhat disappointed, each thinking that he had deserved a medal. 
This last circumstance embarrassed me so that I did not dare give 
them what they expected until I had communicated the details to you. 
Although each of the chiefs has his own particular merit, the second 
in rank is a man very highly respected among his followers and the 
traders assure me that his band surpasses that of the chief who is 
first in rank. I was further told that they are very jealous of each 
other, continually vying with each other, and that both work very 
hard but merely with the hope of winning the medal. According to 
the custom already established, it is more usual to give the medal to 
the first in rank and there is really no reason why he should be denied 
it. In giving it to both of them there would arise the inconvenience 
of the second chiefs of the other nations having reason to expect the 
same. Depriving the second of the medal and giving it only to the 
first, I would have as a result of Ms displeasure, censure, and jealousy, 
the stealing of horses from the inhabitants of the neighboring towns, 
and the insulting of the traders. That is why I have refrained from 
offending either of them. It is well to know that the second chief 
mentioned has already been honored by my predecessor, Don Pedro 
Piernas, with a coat and hat, presumably on account of his power 
and influence among his people. However, not content with this deco- 
ration, he aspires after the other, the medal. To avoid all this trouble 

1T7 BL. This is a transcript obtained by Alphonse Pinart from the Papeles de Cuba 
before these documents were removed from Havana. 



230 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

and act with more certainty, I told them that I would consult you and 
that they should await your decision. Then everything would be 
arranged satisfactorily for all of us. Having explained the situation 
to Your Lordship, I beg of you to tell me whether it would be more 
convenient to decorate each with a medal subordinating the second 
chief to the first or to give it only to the first. 

God guard Your Lordship many years. 

ST. Louis OF YLINUESES, March 18^ 1776. 

FBANCISCO CRTTZAT 

Seiior DON Luis BE UNZAGA. 

UNZAGA TO ARRIAGA 
April 87, 1776 l 

No. 154, 

Most Excellent Sir. 

SIR : As I deem it indispensable that a military commandant be 
appointed for the Acadian Coast, extending from fifteen to thirty- 
five leagues from this capital, I am moved to make a proposal of defi- 
nite interest to the royal service which will result in great advantages 
to the arms of His Majesty, should it meet with his royal approval. 

This Coast was settled by people who fled from their native Acadia 
for the sake of their religion. They were located at the expense of 
His Majesty in the settlements which they now occupy in this prov- 
ince. It is flourishing in industry and agriculture, but above all in 
its large number of robust young men, from whom could be formed 
six companies of militia, most useful in the cases for which this plan 
is proposed. In event of any declaration of war with the English, 
they would be the first barrier against the enemy, either going to the 
aid of the fort of Manchac or being used for any other purposes of 
the services once they learn subordination and discipline from a mili- 
tary chief by being instructed in military evolutions. This could be 
done Sundays and feast days as with the two German companies, so 
that it may not interfere with their work. 

For this purpose, officers would be assigned to them, and these 
would also serve to guard against the natural captiousness of this 
militia, which should be kept at some useful occupation on the days 
when they drop their daily work on their farms. This very fact 
will put a stop to their intercourse with the English, from whom 
they are separated only by the boundary channel on one side, and 
on the other by the width of this river. 

For each of these companies a sergeant and a corporal of this 
battalion would be taken from those entitled to some rest, with 

M AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-11. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 231 

which, they would be recompensed as retired soldiers. This would 
result not only in the instruction of the companies in the discipline 
of the service, but also in our language which necessity and inter- 
course would make them understand. 

If Your Excellency, in view of these reasons, should consider 
them to have the weight which I give to them, and if you should 
care to proceed with the appointment of a commander, I can do 
no less than propose to you as the best person, brevet captain and 
second adjutant of this post Don Luis Antonio Andry, who, besides 
having acquired the experience in the service of France and Spain 
shown by the attached statement, has in addition personal merits, 
talents, and a knowledge of mathematics. He is the only one here 
grounded in this science, which he has employed and still employs 
to the benefit of the service. These qualities make him worthy of 
the post of commander of the said militia companies, with a salary 
of sixty pesos monthly, the same as enjoyed by the commander of 
the two German companies, should the King be graciously pleased 
to allot it to him. 

May Our Lord preserve the valuable person of Your Excellency 
the many years that he can. 

NEW ORLEANS, April 27, 1776. 

Your most humble servant kisses Your Excellency's hand. 

LUIS DE TJiNZAGA T AMEZAGA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor BAILIO FEET DON JULIAN DE AJBRIAGA. 

TORRE TO BUCAREU 

May 8, 1776 

Confidential 

No. 24. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR: Your Excellency will no doubt be advised 
by this mail of the prudent concern caused the court by the con- 
siderable forces which England is dispatching to American waters 
for the purpose of subjugating her colonies of the north. It is 
advisable that Your Excellency should know that measures are being 
taken in this port to investigate the operations of the English forces 
and to communicate information to the places where it is considered 
advisable to have news of them. I inform Your Excellency that 
not only will an attempt be made to obtain this information in the 
colonies themselves, but also that cruisers will be stationed at the 
principal places through which shipping passes from North America 

* AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



232 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

to our settlements, in order to observe and watch, the English vessels 
passing through, and to communicate the information which they 
observe, sending it preferably to that port or province which is 
considered most interested. A frigate which will be stationed be- 
tween Cape San Antonio and the Sound of Campeche will take 
with, it a small boat, so that in case it sights any English squadron 
entering the Gulf of Mexico, or receives such news from any vessel, 
it may report this at one and the same time to both Vera Cruz and 
this port. 

All of which I report confidentially to Your Excellency for your 
guidance, and I shall not fail to communicate subsequent news with- 
out loss of time, when the nature thereof so demands. 

May Our Lord preserve Your Excellency the many years I desire. 

HAVANA, May , 1776. 

Most Excellent Sir, I kiss Your Lordship's hands. 

EL MARQUES DE LA TORRE (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor BAILIO FRET DON ANTONIO BUCARELI Y 

URSUA. 

GALVEZ TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 

May SI, 1776 
No. 220. 

I particularly charge Your Lordship by order of the King to 
endeavor to encourage the planting of tobacco in that province with 
the view of supplying the government monopoly in New Spain. 
Toward that end Your Lordship will make contracts with the 
planters of that colony who need help. The tobacco of that 
province is of excellent quality and very much to the liking of the 
consumers in all the provinces of the said kingdom. 

God keep Your Lordship many years. 

ARANJUEZ, May 1, 1776. 

JPH. DE GALVEZ (Rubric) 

Senor GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA. 

UNKAGA TO GALVEZ 

J<wel9, 1776 
No. 160. 
Illustrious Sir. 

SIR : In accordance with royal order of February 28, of the cur- 
rent year I am directed to investigate with all care and secrecy not 
only the success of the English troops and of their revolting colonies, 



I, PC, leg. 176. 
AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-11. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 233 

but also the intentions of both parties, making use of any means 
at my disposal 

The latest news that has arrived here by the various English 
vessels which navigate this river to their establishments is question- 
able, as the royalists and rebels report the news according to their 
feelings. I understand, however, that the armed forces of the King 
of England number more than eighty men of war of fifty to sixteen 
guns and twenty-five thousand men. Since the affair at Boston, the 
English have blockaded their ports and taken twenty vessels, among 
them twelve from Georgia, loaded with rice, which they sent to 
that place. They burned the others. A frigate which sailed along 
the coast took two brigantines, one from Carolina and the other 
from Tortuga. The rebels took Montreal and raised the siege of 
Quebec with the loss of a thousand men and the commanding gen- 
eral. On the 30th of March of this year seven vessels, the largest 
of thirty-two guns, arrived at Providence Island, but Mr. Brown, 
the governor, having advance notice of the expedition, sent what 
powder he had there to San Agustin in Florida. However, he could 
not prevent them taking him and his secretary prisoners nor prevent 
them from taking the guns, cannon, ball, supplies, and ammunition 
which they found and sent to South Carolina. According to the 
last news from Pensacola they are fortifying themselves awaiting 
these same seven vessels with two more which had come to attack 
them because an English frigate of war of sixteen guns had entered 
this harbor and taken nine vessels belonging to the rebels. This 
frigate sailed the seventh of this month to that port in order to 
aid it. Nevertheless, I am not entirely at ease about the circumstances 
since I am inclined to doubt the security of the present situation. 
I do not discount the possibility that the two sides may unite and 
surprise the dominions of some of the other powers of Europe in 
order to idemnify their costs and damages or for the attainment 
of other designs which I shall try to ascertain by all means possible. 

I have sent a trustworthy man to Pensacola and I am now making 
ready a ship of an inhabitant of the English district to sail to 
Philadelphia, on the pretext of bringing flour under a passport to 
Cadiz. The ship will have a Spanish crew, for if at his arrival 
at those coasts he encounters a war vessel, he can excuse himself as 
having been blown off his course. He will instruct the Spanish 
captain as to the time necessary to complete the mission and the 
course he will follow. I am certain that the captain will keep it 
a secret and I flatter myself that nobody will penetrate it, not even 
the owner of the vessel. He is convinced that the shipping of said 
flour is for relieving the need of the people. 



234 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

I shall not be able to let you know the result of this expedition 
until the beginning of next year as the boat mentioned will not 
depart for some time because the harshness of the winters in that 
area will force the ships of Great Britain to take refuge in the 
harbors of which they are masters. 

May God protect Your Lordship the many years I desire. 

NEW ORUBANS, June 19, 1776. 

Most Excellent Sir, your very obedient and faithful servant kisses 
your hand. 

Luis DE UNZAGA T AMEZAGA (Eubric) 

Most Excellent Senor DON JOSEPH DE GALVEZ. 

UNZAGA TO NAVARRO 
September 00, 1776 182 

I transmit to you the attached order and two receipts from Mr. 
Gibson, agent for the colony of Virginia, to whom there were deliv- 
ered by my order one hundred quintals of powder from the royal 
stores of this place as it was to the advantage of the service of His 
Majesty. The value of the powder is one thousand eight hundred 
and fifty pesos, and was provided as follows: ten quintals of good 
quality at forty pesos, ten of medium quality at twenty-five, and the 
eighty remaining of inferior quality at fifteen. The amount has been 
taken care of for the time being by the aforesaid two receipts or 
letters of credit payable in the city of Cadiz. I have given an account 
of this matter to the superior government for the necessary approval. 
In the meantime, in order that the keeper of the magazine may not 
be inconvenienced in the least, you shall offer no objections, and shall 
approve the account he presents in which he charges the said number 
of quintals to Gibson until the royal decision of his Majesty is 
received. 

God keep you many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, September W^ 1776. 

Luis DE UNZAGA (Kubric) 
Senor MARTIN NAVARRO. 

SPANISH LOAN TO VIRGINIA 
September 1, 1776 183 

I The Subscribers' Agent for the Colony of Virginia being legally 
appointed by the Grand Council of the Said Colony do hereby engage 
that the Said Grand Council of Virginia shall by the first conveyance 

'as AGI, PC, leg. 573. 

AGT, PC, leg, 573 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONAKY PEBIOD, 1765-1781 235 

after a duplicate of these presents gets to their hands Remit or cause 
to be remitted to Cadiz the Sum of One Thousand Eight Hundred & 
Fifty Spanish mill'd Dollars which Sum shall be paid into the Boyal 
Treasury at Cadiz aforesaid for the sole use of His Excellency Briga- 
dier General Don Lewes Unzaga y Amenzaga Governor and Com- 
mander in chief of His Catholic Majesty's province of Louisiana, 
&c, &c 3 Being for value received of him His Excellency aforesaid, & 
for the True performance of the within mention'd Covenant I do 
hereby Bind the Grand Council of the Colony of Virginia one of the 
thirteen united Colonies of America, 

In Testimony whereof I have Sealed & Subscribed three Instru- 
ments of Writing all of this Tenor & Date the whole of which tkree 
Instruments are to be rendered Void by the remittance of the Sum of 
Eighteen Hund d . & Fifty Spanish milled Dollars as within mentioned 

Done at New Orleans this 21. st day of Septem r , 1776. 

GBO. GIBSON Capt, l, at Virg*. Reg 1 , 

in the american Service and 

Agent for the Colony of Virginia 

CRTJZAT TO UKZAGA 
November 81, 1776 184 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: The traders of Missouri left this town for 
their destinations on the third of September and, although the Little 
Osage and Kansas tribes were not very friendly, I have been informed 
by various soldiers and by letters from the traders themselves that all 
of them reached their destinations and that never before had they 
been so well-received by the savages as this year. The latter are well- 
satisfied and quite peaceful, and for this reason they assure me that 
trade will be highly profitable. My only regret is that all of the 
traders whom I had planned to send could not go as I had intended, 
and that some of them could not even complete their stocks of goods 
on account of the total lack of them in this town. Had it not been 
for Perrault, who brought up a considerable quantity, the Missouri 
would have been only half supplied. 

The Sioux nation, located on the Mississippi, which, as I reported 
to Your Lordship last year, was very angry because of the deaths of 
five chiefs who had come down to see us and ask for the medal which 
had been granted them. The bad opinion the Sioux had gained of the 
traders who accompanied them when they returned to their nation 
has been changed because I have had two letters from the son of the 
head chief of the nation, who died on the same occasion, in which he 
asked me to send him a trader. On being assured of the foregoing. 



"** BL. A Pinart transcript. 



236 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

I consented to his request and sent them one with two thousand 
pounds of merchandise. He left here about the middle of August and 
returned on the sixth of this month, having done a good business. He 
assured me that the whole nation was quite peaceful and that it desires 
our friendship. This is all that I can inform Your Lordship on this 
matter. 

May God protect Your Lordship many years. 

ST. Louis OF YLOTUESES, November 1, 1776. 

FRANCISCO CRUZAT 
Senor DON Luis DB UNZAGA Y AMEZAGA. 



TO GALVEZ 
March 81, 1777*** 

No. 24. 
Illustrious Sir. 

MY DEAR SIR: Lieutenant General Conde de O'Beilly, in the 
creation of the positions in this province which are shown in the 
regulation of the appointments, nominated Mr. St. Ange to assist the 
lieutenant governor of the establishments of Ylinueses with his 
advice in the management and government of the Indians because 
he had a perfect knowledge of them. His salary was thirty-one 
pesos per month, but the said Mr. St. Ange having died and it 
being the first duty of my position to procure the best service for His 
Majesty, I have selected the retired captain of infantry, formerly 
of the French service, Don Pedro Francisco Volsay who, during 
the long time of twenty-five years that he was in the garrison at 
that place, has acquired great esteem and prestige among the aforesaid 
Indians, and has made himself greatly respected by them. He may 
occupy this position and with the same salary as given in the said 
regulation and he may enjoy it from the day he took possession, 
with the responsibility to return the amounts received if his nomi- 
nation is not approved by His Majesty. All of this I relate to Your 
Eminence in order that by bringing it to your notice you may decide 
what would be more to his royal pleasure. 

May God guard Your Eminence many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, March 21, 1777. 

Your obedient servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

** AGI, And. SD, 86-6-11. 



THE EEVOLUTIQNAKY PERIOD, 1765-1781 237 

BERKARDO DE GALVEZ (Eubric) 
Most Illustrious Senor DON JOSEPH DE 



KEGTJLATIONS GOVEROTHG THE TOBACCO TRADE IN LOUISEAHA 
Jnne 15, 1777 186 

Price Fixed for Louisiana Tobacco, and the Conditions to T>e Observed 

By the Inhabitants. 

First : That tobacco shall be received in this city, either in rolls 
or in bundles, no earlier than the month of January. 

2nd, The inhabitants will be required to bring their tobacco into 
the city in barrels averaging one hundred fifty pounds gross. 

3rd. The barrels (which must be made of dry wood, to prevent 
the risk of the tobacco being spoiled by the humidity of the wood 
itself) will be furnished by the inhabitants who will see to it that 
the outsides of the bottoms are polished, and that several holes are 
bored so as to prevent fermentation. 

4th. The tare of the barrels shall be indicated on one of the 
ends, and each inhabitant shall write in fairly large letters on the 
same ends: "Tobacco from such and such a place, grown by so 
and so, in such and such a year." 

5th. There shall be delivered at the storehouse only the tobacco 
of the first and second cuttings, which each inhabitant shall perform 
with great care, giving special attention to the second cutting. 

6th. The tobacco in bundles and rolls must be of good quality, 
and great care should be exerted to prevent any other kind from 
being employed in the barrels or in the rolls. 

7th. The posts of Natchitoches, Attakapas, and Opelousas may 
make all their tobacco into rolls in order to avoid the costs of trans- 
porting tobacco in bundles, and all the inhabitants shall tie to each 
roll a printed slip of paper sent for that purpose. These papers 
will be distributed to them by their respective commandants, in 
accordance with the number of rolls each shall have. The inhabitants 
will be obliged to report to their commandants the number of arpents 
to be used in growing tobacco, and the area must be measured very 
accurately. 

8th. The inhabitants may add to their crop the tobacco privately 
grown by their Negroes. They shall have it put in rolls in their 
own presence, in order to guarantee the quality of the tobacco for 
which the masters will be responsible since it will be received only 
under their names. 



AGI, PC, leg. 1232 (Printed in French). 



238 SPAIN IK THE MISSISSIPPI VALUE 



The tobacco in rolls from Natchitoches, Attakapas, and 
Opdousas will sell in tMs city at the rate of ten sols a pound, after 
being examined and accepted by the experts. The residents of those 
places will be exempt from the expense of barrels. 

10th. All the inhabitants along the river shall make their tobacco 
into bundles except those who cannot afford the expense. They shall 
report this fact to their commandant who shall authorize them to 
roll their tobacco. 

llth. Tobacco in bundles shall be paid for at the rate of seven 
sols a pound. All the inhabitants along the river shall furnish at 
their own expense barrels for their crops, whether they make rolls 
or bundles. 

12th. The rolls must be very firm, and the barrels generally well- 
pressed so as to contain as much tobacco as possible. 

13th. The inhabitants must be made aware that the tobacco will 
be closely inspected, so that they cannot be too careful about seeing 
that there is not a single leaf in the barrels that does not come up 
to standard. If any one should commit the least fraud, his trial 
will be all the more severe since his penalty will be proportioned 
to the wrong he will have done to a crop as important to the entire 
colony as this one. 

14th. The inhabitants will be free to sell in the country, for 
the consumption of the Negroes and the Indians, all the tobacco of 
the third cuttings, as well as the leaves of the first and second 
cuttings that have holes or rust. 

15th. Tobacco shall be accepted only with a passport in which 
the commandant of the district shall mark the approximate quantity, 
and attest that it has been grown on the land of the inhabitant 
whose name it bears, in order to prevent any fraud from being 
committed by persons who are not as interested as the inhabitants 
in the success of this crop. 

16th. 'No person shall sell his tobacco of the first and second 
cutting without the express permission of the government. 

17th. The bark that is commonly used to tie the tobacco together 
must be very thin and in one single strip. It must go around the 
roll six times in the Natchitoches manner, and must weigh one-half 
ounce only. This weight will be discounted, and the experts will 
watch this point very closely. 

NEW ORLEANS, June 15, 1777. 

Signed BERNARDO DE GALVEZ 

From the press of Antoine Boudousquie, Printer of the King and 
the Cdbildo, 1777. 



THE KEVGLUTIONABY PERIOD, 1765-1781 239 

PROCLAMATION FIXING PRICES 

July 15, 1777 18T 

DON BERNAEBO BE GALVEZ, colonel of the armies of His Majesty, 
intendant and governor general par interim of the province of 
Louisiana, etc. 

Preoccupied with all things which tend to provide for the greater 
advantage of the inhabitants and farmers of this province, we have 
until now tolerated much higher prices for the farm products and 
food supplies than that specified in the price list ordained by His 
Excellency, Count O'Beilly, under date of 7th of September, 1769, 
and followed under the government of Unzaga, our predecessor. It 
is not only because of the abuses committed by the monopolies which 
increase every day, and the excessive and usurious prices at which 
they sell the food supplies and farm products to this province, but 
more because of the complaint of the public in general that the high 
cost curtails subsistence, that we are obliged to put in force the said 
price list, and ordain its execution in all its terms. We make an 
exception only of oil and fat which we stipulate shall be sold at the 
rate of fifty sols per jar. In the same manner thrashed rice is fixed 
at the rate of four and a half piastres a barrel. In consequence, we 
have ordained and shall ordain that the said price list shall become 
effective in all its terms from this date with the exception of the 
abovementioned items. It prohibits and forbids all persons of what- 
ever state and circumstances to violate it under any pretext whatso- 
ever, under penalty of confiscation of food supplies and farm 
products which they might sell at higher prices than the fixed price, 
and such penalty as we judge suitable for the first offense. In case 
of a repetition of the offense a person is to be prosecuted as a violator 
under the rigor of the laws. 

Meanwhile all inhabitants who shall have rice to sell are granted 
the right to dispose of as much as possible during the period of eight 
days, counting from this date. After this time expires they shall 
be held for its sale in conformity with the said price list The price 
list likewise prohibits and forbids all merchants of food supplies, 
poultry, and grains to sell entirely wholesale, until after the public 
has time to stock up. In case the supply wagon arrives after eleven 
o'clock they cannot sell wholesale until after five o'clock in the 
evening, under the penalty above stated. Finally, in order that no 
person ignore it, and since we find that the said price list which has 
been abused for so long may have been mislaid, we have ordained 
that it shall be published again and posted prominently with the 

, PC, leg. 1232 (Printed In French). 



240 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

present ones at all the customary places in this city. Duplicate copies 

shall be sent to the various commandants of the province so that 
they may make every effort to see that it is complied with. 

Executed at the Government House at NEW ORLEANS. 

July 15, 1777. 

Signed BEENARDO DE GALVEZ 

By order of His Excellency, signed Juan Baptista ffaric. Notary 
of the Government. 

Price List 

Fresh beef, the pound 6 sols 3 d. 

Fresh pork, ditto 6 sols 3 d. 

Rendered lard 12 sols 6 d. 

Quarter mutton 3 liv. 2s. 6 d. 

Quarter lamb 1 liv. 5 s. 

Hen 1 liv. 5 s. 

Capon 1 liv. 17 s. 6 d. 

Big hens and pullets 12 s. 6 d. 

Pair of grain fed pullets 18 s 9 d. 

Dozen eggs 12 s. 6 d. 

Turkey hen, 18 mo. old 3 liv. 15 s. 

Year old turkey hen and old turkey hen 2 liv 10 s. 

Young turkey 1 liv. 17 s 6 d. 

Jar of milk to November 1st 12 s. 6 d. 

After Nov. 1st, to end of March 18 s. 9 d. 

A pound of fresh butter 1 liv 5s. 

Jar of lard 2 liv 10 s. 

Jar of bear grease 2 liv 10 s. 

A pound of veal 8s. 

A quarter of young venison 1 liv 17 s. 6 d. 

A quarter of old venison 2 liv. 10 s. 

1 quarter of unhulled rice 6 liv 5s. 

I quarter of hulled rice 22 liv 10 s. 

Red and white apalachian beans 6 liv 5s. 

Barrel of whole corn 6 liv 5s. 

Barrel of ground corn 2 liv. 10 s. 

Barrel of dry kidney-beans 15 liv. 

Jar of lentils 1 liv 5s. 

Barrel of English peas and beans 10 liv. 

Pair of pigeons 18 s. 9 d. 

French domestic duck 1 liv 5s. 

Mallard duck 1 liv. 11 s. 3 d. 

Wild game meat, the pound 5s. 

Wild beef tongue 1 liv. 17 s. 6 d. 

Pound of ordinary fish like meuil, casseburgos, etc 5s. 

Pound of choice fish like bass, red fish etc 6s. 3d. 

Barrel of sweet-potatoes 3 liv. 2s. 6 d. 

Cord of wood, taken from the levee 18 liv. 15 p. 

Cord of drift wood, ash, oak, etc 7 liv 10 s. 

Cord of drift wood, all kinds of wood 6 liv. 5 s. 



THE REVOLIJTIONAKY PEBIOD, 1765-1781 241 

Price List 

French wild duck 1 liv. 5 sols 

Other wild ducks 18 s. 9 d. 

Teal duck - 6s. 3d. 

Two water-hens for one teal duck 

Cartage charges in the city 18 s. 9 d. 

I, Jean Baptiste Garic, government notary, resident of this city 
of New Orleans, certify and state that the order and price list above 
mentioned has been read and proclaimed in all the customary places 
in this city by Nicolas Jourdain, town crier, and it has been prom- 
inently posted at the principal gateway and other public and cus- 
tomary places of the city of New Orleans, the 15th of July 1777. 

Signed J. BAPTISTE GAEIC. 

Duplicate copy collated with the original of the above date and 
year. 

HENRY TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
October 20, 1777 188 

WlLMAMSBTJRG, October 0**, 1777 

SIR : I humbly conceive that it is an object worthy the attention of 
Your Excellency and of the Ministers of Spain, although the grandeur 
of your nation does not depend on Commerce, to secure the Trade at 
least of the Southern States of America, and thereby deprive their 
ancient and natural enemy the English of all those vast supplies of 
Naval Stores, and many other Articles which have enabled them to 
become so powerful on the Seas ; Immense Quantitys of Hemp, Flax, 
Skins, Furrs, Beef, Pork, Flower, Staves, Shingles <&. c the produce 
of our back country might be easily carried down the Mississippi to 
New Orleans, which place if it were made a free Port, would be re- 
sorted to by the French, and Dutch, who might take off the Tobacco 
and other Articles, which Spain would not want for her own con- 
sumption. Indeed if you were once more in possession of the two 
Floridas, you might enjoy a great part of the Trade of our Northern 
States. If your Excellency should think it would be worthy the 
attention of your Court to cultivate a correspondence with these 
States through the Mississippi, we would establish a post at the mouth 
of the Ohio, to facilitate the necessary intercourse between us. I 
have ordered our agent at S*. Domingo to apply for some of the 
Stores, which by your kind assistance we understand are lodged at 
New Orleans for our use. We have not received your Excellency's 
letter on this subject, but are informed by the President of the Con- 
gress that such Letter had been delivered to the Committee of 

AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 
700296 49 vol. 2 18 



242 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Congress. I shall also order a Boat down the Mississippi, for the 
remainder of the Stores at New Orleans, by which I shall do myself 
the honor to write more fully to your Excellency. 
I have the honor to be with great respect 

Your Excellency's most obed*. humble Servant. 

PATRICK HENRY 
Governor of Virginia. 

REPORTS FROM THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION 189 

Extract from the Virginia Gazette of October 31, 1777. 

Postscript to a letter from the administrator of posts at Fredericks- 
burg, dated the 28th of said month. 

"After having written you, the post arrived and Mr. Bayton writes 
me in his note of the 21st instant, which was sent by special delivery, 
that General Washington is in possession of Philadelphia. I offer 
you my congratulations on this news." 

Extract from a letter from a Member of Congress, dated York- 
town, Pennsylvania, October 24. 

General Howe is now fleeing precipitately from Philadelphia, cross- 
ing the Schuylkill River, with our army pursuing him vigorously. 

A letter of October 30 from the agent of the Congress in Virginia, 
states that General Gates has taken the following prisoners : 

1 Lieutenant General 

2 Major Generals 

7 Brigadier Generals. 
2 English gentlemen 
1 Irish gentleman 

5 Members of the House of Commons 
5 thousand soldiers 
15 thousand guns 

40 cannon of all calibres, stores, baggage, etc. etc. 
The same letter repeats that General Howe has crossed the Schuyl- 
kill River and is retreating to the place where the squadron lies, and 
that General Washington is in possession of Philadelphia. 

(A rubric) 

PROCLAMATION CONCERNING LOUISIANA COMMERCE 
November 21, 1777 1J > 

DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ, colonel in his Majesty's armies, in- 
tendant, inspector, and temporary governor general of the province 
of Louisiana, &c. 

*AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 
"BL, (Printed In French). 



REYOLUTIOHAEY PEBIOD, 1765-1781 243 

Know ye all, that His Majesty, whom God keep, having been 
pleased to show this province the desire which he has for its pros- 
perity, by granting to the inhabitants the privilege of selling their 
goods and products for money or bills of exchange to the French 
vessels which may come from the American islands, has again sent us 
his orders, dated March 10 last, whereby he enjoins us to inform the 
said inhabitants, that for the sake of their greater advancement, and 
to augment their property by increasing agriculture, he is willing in 
his royal clemency to permit them to receive Negroes in payment for 
the said goods, independently [torn] . . . will be offered. In pur* 
suance whereof, we inform the inhabitants and settlers of this prov- 
ince, that henceforward they may sell their goods and products to 
the French vessels and receive in payment Negroes from the cargo, 
or money or bills of exchange at their discretion, without being ac- 
cused of violating the laws of the kingdom concerning illegal trading. 
However, it should not be understood that we are deviating from the 
prohibition in our ordinance published on April 13, last, concerning 
the importation from the American islands to this province of half- 
breed or quarter-breed Negroes. On the contrary we mean and com- 
mand that it be executed in full, under the penalties provided* The 
present permission which his Majesty deigns to accord refers only to 
full-blooded or three-quarter Negroes. 

And so that no person may remain ignorant of this, we have com- 
manded and do command that the present order be read and published 
to the sound of the military drum, and posted in all the usual places 
of this city. 

Given at our Government House at New Orleans, the 21 st of No- 
vember 1777. Signed BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. And lower, by command 
of His Lordship, signed JUAN BAPTISTA GARIC, government scribe. 

We, Jean Baptiste Garic, government clerk, Tedding in this city 
of New OrleartS) certify and attest that this proclamation has J>een 
read and published in all the customary places of this city ~by Nicolas 
Jourdain, public crier ^ to the sowd of the military drum and accom- 
panied ly a detachment of grenadiers and sergeants of the Battalion 
of Louisiana, and was immediately posted in the square, at the door 
of the principal building and at the other public and usual places of 
this city of New Orleans, on November 1 9 1777. Signed JEAN 
BAPTISTE GARIC. 

This copy is collated with and conforms to the original which 
remains in the office of the government notary. 

At NEW ORLEANS, the %1 November 1777: 

From the prmt shop of Antoine Boudousquie, Printer to the Kmg 
and the CaUUo, 1777. 



244 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



TO 
December 7, 1777 m 

With M. Dubertrand I send 2T6 pesos which will cover your salary 
and the pay of the detachment under your charge for the months of 
November and December current, as shown by the enclosed account. 
You will inform me of its receipt at the first opportunity. 

On another occasion there will be remitted to you the goods for 
the Tonica Indians which you discuss in your last letter. 

May God guard you many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, December 7, 1777. 

BERNARD DE GALVEZ (Rubric) 

Senor DON CARLOS GRAND-PRE. 

RETORTS CONCERNING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 

December 22, 1777 ^ 

(Copy) GUARICO, December 8, 1777. 

On November 27, there arrived here a frigate 52 days out of 
Samalo, which left the convoy of the troops at the Island of La 
Madiera. It was carrying 350 artillerymen. 

On the 29th, an armed brigantine, which made the passage from 
Charleston here in 17 days, brought the news that General Howe 
still remained in the same position he was in after the battle of the 
14th of September, without having been able to embark a single 
soldier of the six or seven [thousand] remaining to him. The admiral, 
his brother, in the efforts he made with his squadron and convoy 
to aid him, had lost eight or ten ships, both war and merchant, 
some sunk by the chevaux-de-frise, as well as by fire from the shore 
batteries defending them. The batteries likewise set fire to others. 
However, this general persists in refusing to surrender, except after 
a battle. To this General Washington will not commit himself on 
account of his humanity in not wishing to shed blood and because 
he is convinced that, as soon as the Delaware River freezes over where 
the squadron lies, the lack of provisions from which the English are 
suffering will bring them to reason in the same way as it did with 
General Burgoyne. 

On December 13, there arrived two frigates, one from Havre de 
Grace and the other from Nantes, with no special news. 

On the 4th, three frigates arrived, two from Marseilles and the 
other from Bordeaux. Of the former, one touched at Cadiz, but 
reports nothing in particular. There also arrived a sloop and a 



I, PC, leg. 2358. 
AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



THE REVOLUTI0NABY PERIOD, 1766-1781 245 

guairo 1&B from Virginia which confirmed verbally the statements 
made in the extracts from the gazette of that place which I enclose* 
They added only that before their departure they heard it generally 
said that more than two thousand prisoners of the army of General 
Howe had been taken on its precipitate retreat, and that he was being 
vigorously pursued. 

On the 6th there arrived five frigates with troops, convoyed by 
the frigate-of-war La Inconstante, which had left in Guadalupe and 
Martinique the men destined for those posts. 

On the Tth six frigates, also with troops, and convoyed by the 
frigate-of-war La Desdenosa, arrived after having touched at the same 
ports as the preceding ones, and for the same purpose. These are still 
here in the port of El Guarico and its jurisdiction, as shown by 
the attached list, together with six large frigates-of-war. 

On this same day there also arrived a brigantine from New Orleans 
without news. 

On the llth there arrived a sloop from Virginia, a schooner from 
Boston, and a brigantine from Nantes. The first brings the news 
that General Howe has been trapped by the army of General Wash- 
ington which has taken some two thousand prisoners, and that it 
is believed that the whole army will be taken, because of the critical 
situation in which the English will find themselves. The second 
reports that General Burgoyne, with all his officers and army, was 
still in Boston in compliance with the terms of surrender. The 
third reports nothing special. 

On the 12th there arrived the frigate Santa Barbara, of the 
Asiento de Negroes of Havana, from which port it sailed on the 
llth of November, carrying seventy thousand pesos for the purchase 
of slaves. There also arrived the Bang's sloop El Filar, under com- 
mand of Ensign of Frigate Don Sebastian Furnariz, which also 
sailed from the same port on the 10th of September, coming by 
way of the old channel where it suffered cruel weather. It reports 
that while at El Mulo a Spanish launch arrived which left Havana 
on the 27th of November, and it was learned from it that a frigate 
of the said Asiento de Negroes had arrived at that port, and that 
another one had been lost in the said old channel. The sloop El 
Pilar came only for the purpose of bringing Don Josef de Acosta. 

On the 13th a guairo arrived which had made the passage from 
Virginia to this port in eleven days. It brought the news that the 
army of General Howe, on its retreat and in the two engagements 
it had with General Washington, lost, including dead, wounded, and 
prisoners, about 700 men. The report was, that seeing himself 
entirely surrounded and his communications with the squadron of 

"A small two-masted craft 



246 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLET 

the admiral, his brother, cut. General Howe wrote to General Wash- 
ington offering, in the name of His Brittanic Majesty, to suspend 
hostilities for three years, provided that he be permitted to proceed 
with his army to New York. General Washington, according to 
the report, replied that with regard to the person of His Excellency, 
he might go in all safety whenever he pleased, but that his army 
must remain prisoners of war and that the suspension of hostilities 
must be for ten years. He stated he would not give ear to any 
other propositions. Up to the time of the departure of the above 
mentioned vessel, nothing had been heard about the results of this 
proposition. 

On the 14th there arrived a frigate from Bordeaux, bringing no 
news except that it had encountered off Monte de Plata an English 
frigate-of-war, which, after firing several cannon shots at it, 
boarded it and insulted its flag and captain by taking him on board 
her as prisoner for more than 24 hours. For this reason the frigate 
La Tersicon y Rename sailed that day and the Indiscreta had already 
done so. The Desdenosa sailed the next day. 

On the 15th a frigate from La Rochelle arrived bringing 300 
recruits and reporting that as many more are to follow. 

On the 19th a guairo which in nine days (an unbelievable thing) 
had made the passage from Virginia here, confirmed all previous 
reports, and added that the royalists, having assembled all the 
troops they had in Rhode Island, Long Island, and other places, 
together with those from the squadrons, totaling more than four 
thousand men, tried to attack the forts defending the chevaux-de- 
frise. However, General Washington, learning of this, reinforced 
them with more troops and sent one of his generals to defend them 
with more than six thousand men. Although the royalists attacked 
them, they accomplished nothing but the loss of more than 1,600 
men, and when this came to the knowledge of General Greene, who 
was lurking with his troops in the neighborhood of Ehode Island, 
he took advantage of the withdrawal from that place to attack and 
take possession of it, This left General Howe in the most unfortunate 
position, and awaiting replies from the Congress to his proposals. 

On the 21st there arrived the frigate Minerva which left Havana 
on November 23. It reported the loss of the frigate Trinidad, and 
the repairing of the sloop La Amistad. 

(Rubric) 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 247 

CHESTER TO Qfajvm 
January, 1778 M 

PENSACOLA Jcmuary 1775. 

SIR: I am very happy to learn by Your Excellency's esteemed 
favour of the 4th Ultimo,, that the Sloop with the Flour is safe re- 
turned to New Orleans ; and I must beg leave to repeat my best thanks 
for Your friendly intentions manifested upon that occasion, as also 
to assure you, that I am truly sensible of Your sincere good wIU 5 to 
afford me, at all times every assistance in your power. 

The two fugitive Negroes which you were pleased to sead round to 
me, have been delivered to Captain Lloyd, and Mr. Strother. These 
Gentlemen have a grateful sense of Your Excellency's politeness and 
generosity to them and I am to thank You for your kind attention 
to the interests of His Majesty's subjects in my Government an 
attention, which be assured, I shall ever exert my self to repay. 

By the Vessel which carries this Letter, Your Excellency wiH re- 
ceive a Fugitive Slave, who hath been lately secured in this Town; 
and who is said to be the property of an Inhabitant of Your Prov- 
ince, whose name I have not been able to learn. I am therefore to 
request that Your Excellency will be pleased to deliver the said Slave 
to his Owner, if resident in Your Colony; otherwise to return Mm 
by the first opportunity to Me. 

I am further to acquaint Your Excellency that about five months 
agoe Three Slaves (One of whom is the property of James O'Neil 
and the other two of James Kirk, both Inhabitants of this Town) 
ran away from their said Masters and I have lately been informed 
they were apprehended in Your Government, and are now in custody 
at New Orleans. Should therefore, my information be true I am 
to request that Your Excellency will be pleased to give the necessary 
Orders for having them sent round by the first vessel to Pensacola 
that they may be restored to their respective Owners, who will thank- 
fully pay all expenses incurred on their account and that the Negroes 
may be the better known I herewith inclose their descriptions. 

I flatter myself that Your Excellency will rest assured, that I shall 
be happy at all times to receive Your Commands and to convince 
You, by every means in my power the great truth and regard, with 
which I have the honor to be 

Your Excellency's most obedient humble Servant 

PETER CHESTER 

His Excellency DON BERNARDO DE GALVEJZ, Governor of Louisiana. 

iw BL, (English). 



248 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

TO THE GOVERNOR OF LOUISIANA 
January 14, 1778 195 



WlLLIAMSBUEG VlRG a . J&n y 11^ 1778 

SIR: I have taken the Liberty to trouble your Excellency with 
several Letters lately which went by Sea And considering how Liable 
our Vessels are to be taken by the British Cruizers, and that the 
Intercourse with New Orleans was precarious in that Eout, I in- 
formed your Excellency that I should send a Messenger to wait on 
you by way of the Missisippi. Colonel David Eogers will have the 
honour to wait on you with this, & to receive such Commands as your 
Excellency may please to have on that Eiver, which by opening an 
easy and safe communication with the Gulph of Mexico invites to 
that Intercourse & correspondence between the Subjects of his 
Catholic Majesty & the good people of this Commonwealth which I 
flatter myself may be managed to the Advantage of both. An Infant 
State engaged in a formidable War, procuring with difficulty many 
Articles necessary for maintaining it with vigor, must feel consid- 
erable Distresses. These Virginia feels; but thanks to Heaven they 
are not greater than her Courage to encounter them. Her own in- 
ternal Eesources, aided by perseverance have removed some of them, 
while others have been alleviated by the friendly Interposition of 
the Spanish & French Nations, and signal Successes have in many 
Instances crowned the American Arms. 

Sensible of the Value of that Friendship which your Nation hath 
tendered to Virginia & of the Favours received from you, I am 
anxious to make the best Eeturns in my power 
" I beg your Excellency to consider whether the annexing West 
Florida to the American Confederation will not greatly distress the 

^ English West India Settlements, & hinder the progress of their Eival- 
" * ship to Spain. I'm told they get supplies of Lumber & some provi- 
sions & other things from Missisippi. These the Americans can 
.easily stop if it would be acceptable to your Nation. 

I have thought it necessary, for securing the Intercourse with New 
f Orleans, to build a Fort some where near the Mouth of Ohio (But 

N. 2 -j that shall depend upon what your Excellency shall please to write 
[me on the Subject.) The inland Navigation of Missisippi & Ohio, 
altho at present subject to many Inconveniences, has this great Advan- 
tage that British Cruizers cannot infest it. Our Trade by Sea is very 
much distressed by them, which occasions the want of Woollens, par- 
ticularly Blankets, Linens, & Military Stores. In order to supply 
these, Colonel Eogers will receive from your Excellency such goods 

i*Aai, PC, leg. 2370 (English). Compare with letter in Official Letters of the Gover- 
nors of the State of Virginia, (3 vols., Kichmond, 1926-29), I, 227-229. 



THE HEVOLTJTIONABY PEKIOD, 1765-1781 249 

as you may please to send by him & which in your Letters to Congress 
were said to be lodged at New Orleans for this State. 

The Operations of the War with England have been carried on to 
great Extent, insomuch that the expences of it are become heavy. 
This induces me to ask of your Excellency whether it would be pos- 
sible for you to furnish this State with a Sum of Money on Loan, 
suppose One hundred & fifty thousand Pistoles or what other Sumf 
Whether this Sum would be most conveniently advanced at New 
Orleans, the Havanah, Cadiz, or what other place! 

Your Excellency will naturally enquire what I have to give in 
Exchange for these Advances? I answer the Gratitude of this Free 
& Independent Country, the Trade in any, or all of its valuable pro- 
ductions, & the Friendship of its warlike Inhabitants (at present I 
J know not upon which of these things you set the greatest value. But 
1 they are tendered to you & you will have a Eight to chuse that which 
[is most acceptable to your Excellency & the Spanish Nation.) 

I beg leave to refer you to Colonel Rogers for the explanation of 
any matters you may wish to know concerning this Commonwealth & 
the progress of the War. He is a Gentleman in whom your Ex- 
cellency may place Confidence. He will be able to give satisfaction 
in many particulars which cannot fall within the Compass of a 
Letter. 

I must entreat your Excellency's peculiar Favor & protection to 
this Gentleman, and that in his progress Homewards he may meet 
with every assistance which his Situation & Circumstances may 
require. 

Six hundred thousand people of all Ages are Subjects of this Com- 
monwealth, a very small proportion of our Country is, as yet, Culti- 
vated, & we have more Land than can be settled for many Ages to 
come. Our Manufacturers are yet in their Infancy, but Agriculture 
hath flourished to great Extent & enables us to spare Commodities of 
great Value and Variety. 

For an Inumeration of these Commoditys I must refer to my 
former Letters. I wish that such of them may be selected by your 
Excellency in Return for the goods & the Money I ask on Loan, as 
may best suit with your Occasions, & that I may have the earliest 
Information on the Subject. With Sentiments of the most perfect 
Esteem & Regards, I have the Honor to be Sir 

Your Excellencys most obedient & very humble Servant 

P.HENRY 

I desire it may be remembered that I directed this Letter to be 
translated into French & have Signed it & Col. Rogers will deliver it 
to his Excellency the Spanish Governor. But inasmuch as the French 
Language is not accurately understood by many person here, the said 



250 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Translation is Imperfect, & particularly in the parts marked N. 1 
N. 2 & N. 3, where the Sense is omitted in the French Letter. But 
This Letter written in the English Language on this paper, I send 
as authentic, & that on which I rely, & will consider as containing the 
sense & meaning of the Executive Power of Virginia. Done at Wil- 

liamsburgh aforesaid 

P.HENRY 

RlJTLEDGE TO G.ALVEZ 
January $3, 1778* 

CHARGES TOWN S. CAROLINA Janry 83 d 1778 

SIR : The Gentleman who will deliver this Letter having informed 
me that, you profess great Friendship for the united States of 
America, & express a Desire to render Service to any of them, & such 
Disposition having indeed been manifested, not only by the Court, 
but the People, of Spain, I am therefore induced to write to you 
on the Subject. 

It appears to me, that a Trade, with the Creek & Cherokee Indians, 
may be carried on, with greater Safety, (whilst the Spanish French 
& British Nations continue at Peace with each other,) thro 5 the 
Channel of Orleans, than directly to & from this State, in which 
I have the Honour to preside I wish, then to know, from you, 
whether, it is consistent with your Police & Regulations, to permit 
the Establishment, & Eesidence of an American House & Agent, 
at New-orleans, for the purpose of carrying on this Trade, by im- 
porting Foreign Goods; necessary for it, into Orleans, & exporting, 
the Returns from thence, on Account of the Congress, of this State, 
or, of private Persons, licensed by them, or me, assuring myself that, 
if it is, such Permission will be readily granted 
I have the Honour to be with great Respect Sir 
Y r . most obed*. h ble Serv 1 . 

J. RUTLEDGE 

His Excellency DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

EXTENSION or FREE TRADE UNDER CHARLES III 
February 2,1778 

ROYAL DECREE 
IN WHICH HIS MAJESTY HAS RESOLVED 

to make more extensive the concession of free trade included in the 
decree of the 16th of October, 1765. Instructions of the same date, 



*w AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONABY PERIOD, 1765-1781 251 

and other later decisions, which only included the islands of Barlo- 
vento and provinces of Campeche, Santa Marta, and Rio del Hacha, 
but which now include that of Buenos Ayres, with importation 
through it to the other provinces of South America, and extend 
to the other authorized ports on the coast of Chile, Peru, etc. 

Issued on the second of February, 1778. 

BY ORDER OP His MAJESXT 

TTI Madrid : By Juan de San Martin, printer for the Secretaryship 
of State, and the general Offices of the Indies. Year 1778. 

Moved by the paternal love which all my vassals of Spain and 
America merit from me, and in view of the fact that, since the colony 
of Sacramento on the Plata Eiver no longer exists, the principal 
motive for the prohibitive measures relative to commerce of these 
kingdoms with those of Peru through the province of Buenos Ayres 
no longer exists, I have resolved to make more extensive the concession 
of free trade, contained in my royal decree of the 16th of October, 
1765, including instructions of the same date, and other later decisions. 
These only included the islands of Barlovento and provinces of 
Campeche, Santa Marta, and Rio del Hacha, and take in now that 
of Buenos Ayres with importation through it to the other provinces 
of South America, and extend to the other authorized ports on the 
coasts of Chile and Peru. Thus the conditions of those privileges will 
be improved, and will react to the universal benefit of my dominions, 
under the following rules and articles. 



All my subjects in Spain may transport or remit through the com- 
mission men and agents, according to the Laws of the Indies, the 
products, goods, and merchandise of these kingdoms, and also foreign 
goods legitimately introduced therein (except wines and liquors of 
the aforesaid foreign importations which are always to be strictly 
prohibited) with the exemptions which I have already granted to 
them from the duties of Palmeo, tonnage, San Telmo, foreign goods, 
registration, inspection of hulls, equipments, licenses to sail, and all 
other expenses accruing from the plan of the year 1720, and the 
regulations then in use. There is to be paid only at the time of 
shipment at the respective customhouses of the peninsula three per- 
cent of the price of the goods and products of Spanish origin, and 
seven percent on foreign importations over and above the duty 
paid at the time of their introduction into these my dominions. These 
foreign goods must never be, nor ought they to be confused with the 
goods and manufactures of Spain, nor be substituted for them, under 



252 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the penalty that both shall be confiscated, and the guilty participants 
shall incur the loss of position and other punishments incident to the 
defrauding of my royal revenues. 

II 

Other similar duties of three and seven percent will be exacted 
at the time of landing at Buenos Ayres, and other ports of Perti, 
Chile, Santa Marta, Hacha, and islands of Cuba, Santo Domingo, 
Puerto Eico, Margarita, and Trinidad as an aid to my beloved vassals, 
Spaniards and Americans. 

in 

In order to facilitate the shipments of my subjects and their car- 
goes, a passport and a royal patent such as are wont to be issued by 
your office and the corresponding permits of the administrators of 
my customhouses will suffice, with the obligation of documents in 
return, according to Article VII of this my royal decree, to show the 
routes and point of landing of all or part of the merchandise, and 
the arrival of the vessel either at its destination, or some other place, 
due to the accidents of the weather. 

IV 

After the verification of the duties at the time of shipment at the 
authorized ports of Spain, the administrators at the customhouses 
shall send signed memoranda of the cargoes, with complete separa- 
tion of native and foreign goods, to the inspectors in charge of the 
vessels sailing for the ports of the Indies ; and these officials in turn 
are to direct them to you, so that the necessary information and 
instructions may be despatched to America by your department. 



The ships destined for this commerce are to be outfitted and 
definitely to set sail from the ports of Seville, Cadiz, Malaga, Ali- 
cante, Cartagena, Barcelona, Santander, Coruna, and Gijon on the 
continent ; from Palma and Santa Cruz de Tenerif e in so far as the 
islands of Mallorca and the Canaries are concerned, according to 
their particular concessions. 

VI 

All cargo on the aforesaid vessels of free commerce, upon their 
departure from the ports of Spain, the Canary Islands, and Mallorca, 
as well as upon their return from the ports of America, must be 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 253 

exactly and formally registered in the respective customhouses, or 
royal treasuries, under penalty of seizure because of the mere fact 
of not being contained in the permits or registries. 

VII 

If on account of weather or lack of speed it may be more to 
the interests of the owners or shippers of marketable goods to 
vary their destination in the Indies ? they may do so with the same 
papers if it be to ports comprised in this concession. Note should 
be made at the end of the permits, furnished at the customhouses 
of Spain, of the change of route and the reason, and whether the 
duties are paid on that portion of the goods discharged at the first 
port of arrival of the vessel. No new charges are to be made on those 
which continue on to another port, except in case products or mer- 
chandise of the country are taken on in the port where a stop is made 
or where the vessel may land. Let it be distinctly understood, that, 
if through unforeseen accidents, the ships of this free trade should 
arrive at other ports not authorized for it, their unloading shall be 
prohibited, as well as the sale of their cargoes, nor shall any goods 
or merchandise be received thereon. 

vni 

Between the provinces and islands included within this concession 
my subjects may carry on trade with the respective goods and mer- 
chandise under these same regulations. 

IX 

The moneys and other registered goods brought by the merchant 
ships upon their return from the ports of America, shall for the 
present pay upon their departure therefrom and upon their entrance 
into Spanish ports the duties outlined in the Laws of the Indies. The 
commerce of Louisiana is subject to its special concession. 



The judges of Spain and the Indies, the administrators of custom- 
houses, royal officials, and other employees in charge of my revenue, 
are not to solicit or receive any payment, fee, or gratuity from the 
owners of the vessels, their captains, and the receivers of the goods 
and merchandise for any papers of registration, and for their prepara- 
tion and prompt despatch excepting only the cost of the paper and 
expense of recording, and the aid of the notaries at the ports of the 
Indies in accordance with the new tariff of duties which I have 



254 SPAIH IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

ordered made. Let it be well understood by all that anything done 
to the contrary will incur my royal displeasure and other punish- 
ments corresponding to the circumstances of the case; rather do I 
order that they protect them and give all the help they may require. 
You will bear this in mind, issuing orders in the part under your 
charge for its strict observance; and to the same end, you are to for- 
ward copies of this my royal decree to the ministry of the treasury 
who likewise will see to its fulfillment, and to the necessary tribunals 
and judges, so that all my vassals of these dominions and those of the 
Indies may know of it. Signed by the royal hand of His Majesty in 
El Pardo, on the second day of February 1778. 

To Don Joseph de Galvez. It is a copy of the original which His 
Majesty has directed to me. 

MARIA BENANCIA TO THE GOVERNOR 
February 87,1778* 

E COR Ens, February 27, 78. 

GOVERNOR INSPECTOR GENERAL : The genuine charity that all who 
are under your command recognize in Tour Lordship causes us to 
solicit from you, who are the most kind father of all, that you look 
upon us with merciful eyes upon me, Maria Benancia, a native 
of Santa Fe, Kingdom of Mexico, who, with my four daughters, 
was taken captive on the third day of June of 1778 199 by the nation 
named Quman Ches. 200 I was sold to the Panis nation together 
with three daughters. One was left in the Quman Ches nation, 
making four. After having been one year in the Panis nation I 
met Andr&s Labonharda who promised to gain my freedom by 
marrying me. I consented provided that he were man enough to 
support me and keep me in the state which God and the Church 
order. At the present time I see that he cannot support me, be- 
cause he has difficulty enough to support himself. Everything he 
makes he spends for drink, for he is a great drunkard. I have found 
a man who can keep me in the state of life which God and the Church 
command. 

At present the aforesaid Lavonhard is raising difficulties, and 
trying to turn her head the other way and take her to the forest 
and sell her, for double the price which she cost him. Now the 
aforesaid woman says he is unable to support her, and that it ex- 
asperates her to have to pay him the amount which she cost him, 
for she served him during the time he had her, but that if Your Lord- 



199 The writer of the letter made an error In the date. 
300 Cornanches. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 255 

ship will grant her permission to marry the man to whom she is 
promised, the aforesaid man obligates himself to pay whateYer sum 
Your Lordship may name. We await your kind orders. 

I should rather prefer to be in the hands of the enemies than to 
continue in his power. While in the Rivera he beat me, telling me 
that I was not his wife. He said that I was Ms slave, that I had 
cost him Ms good money and that he could do whatever he pleased. 
I shall not tire you further, and may heaven preserve you the years 
desired is the wish of your humble servant. 

M Axf A BKNAN <HA 

NAVARRO TO BUCAEEM 
March 4, 1778** 

Confidential. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: In your confidential letter of January 27, 
last, Your Excellency was pleased to report the prudent precaution 
which you had taken of postponing the shipment of the one mil- 
lion, seven hundred thousand pesos on the frigates La Dorada and 
Santa Marta, intended for this year's allotments, until Your Ex- 
cellency is informed by me as to whether or not the reasons wMch 
led to the dispatch of the squadron from tMs port to meet the 
merchant fleet now give rise to any suspicion of risk in remitting 
these funds under the protection of only the two frigates. 

In order to reply to Your Excellency in the manner that the im- 
portance of this matter demands, I have conferred with the com- 
mandant general of this squadron and the intendants of navy and 
royal exchequer, I find that the reasons which caused the squadron 
to sail to meet the merchant fleet no longer exist, as there has been 
no further news that English war vessels have entered the Gulf, 
nor that there are any of these vessels at Pensacola. Since neither 
the orders of the court nor the operations of the British forces 
directed against the colonists give rise to any fears wMch might 
hinder the safe voyage of the said two frigates, we have concluded 
that Your Excellency may well dispatch them at once with the 
aforementioned funds. 

It has also been decided that it will be very advisable, if Your 
Excellency is able to send the total of the allotments by the same 
two frigates so as to receive them here in advance, because, on ac- 
count of the footing on which this squadron now exists, after the 
departure of the merchant fleet, there will be no sMp suitable for 
carrying them in May. 

* AOT, Ouerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



256 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

The two merchant ships are being convoyed by two warships 
and the funds and goods are distributed among the four vessels. 
There are two frigates more, so that this squadron has left only 
four ships, of which Senor Don Juan Bap. ta Bonet says he can- 
not spare any, because of instructions he has from the court. The 
frigates Santa Marta, La Dorotea^ and La Agueda are the only ones 
left. The first must proceed to its destination, Cartagena, to take the 
allotment for Cumana, another must take those for Santo Domingo 
and Puerto Eico, and the other is to remain here for any eventualities 
that may occur. 

With this information, Your Excellency may decide what your 
well-known prudence considers most advisable for the good of the 
service. 

May our Lord keep you the many years that I desire. 

HAVANA, March 4, 1778. 

Most Excellent Sir, Your hand is kissed by your most attentive 
servant, 

DIEGO JOSEPH NAVARRO (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Sefior BAUJO FEET DON ANTONIO BUCARELI y 
URSTTA. 

GALVEZ TO VTTJJERS 
March 5, 1778* 

I received the communication of the 25th of last month from 
which I learned of the arrival at that place of Mr. Willing with 
a party of Americans after having captured the English post of 
Concordia. I trust in your zeal and prudence in knowing what 
measures to take to prevent the attacks of the Chickasaw Indians, 
on account of the aid you gave those Americans. 

As soon as I see Francisco Farg Jones and Antonio Generaces, 
I shall punish them because they misused the passport that you gave 
them in that they were dealing with the foreigners, thus betraying 
the confidence you had in them. 

God guard Your Lordship many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, March 5, 1778. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ 

Sefior DON BALTASAR DE VILLIERS. 



* BL. A Pinart transcript marked Arch. Gl. Cuba, Flor. Occ. 1-1217. 



THE BEVOLTJTIONABY. PEBI0D, 1765-1781 257 

EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS BY Pounces 

1778 ** 
Extract of a Letter to Congress dated 6 th March 1778 

I liave del d . Your Letters to the Gov r . and am now getting them 
translated properly. But as this Vessell is just going off I have 
read them over and Communicated the Contents to him which he 
is well pleased with & still disposed to serve you, therefore rest 
assured everything You desire shall be put in execution immed 7 , 
as the Gov r . has promised to assisst me with some Cash tho> he 
has not as yet rec d . any order for so doing 

Extract from a Letter Dated 7*\ May 1778 

Though I am now dispatching the Bateau Speed well under the 
Care of Mons r . Conand & goes regularly cleared under Spa. Colours 
for the Illinois Country, yet as exasperated are they upon this 
Biver & at Pensacola that it is a doubt with me whether they will 
not stop her above & perhaps take her tho' Spa. property, as the 
Gov r . of Pensacola & the Cap tn *. of the two Sloops which went away 
from here a few days ago, threaten Vengeance against the Gov r . 
for not Delivering up every American here with all the prizes 
taken & ca -& say they will make Beprizal on this Town which in all 
probability will be the means of bringing on further Ceremonies 
betwixt the Courts of Spain & Great Britain tho' People in general 
think this will not happen as they suppose the Latter have enough 
upon Hand already. However I cannot conclude this important 
Subject without giving the greatest applause to Gov r . Galvez for 
his noble Spirit & behaviour on the Occasion, for, tho' he had no 
Batteries erected, or even Men to defend the place against the Two 
Sloops of War, and at sametime a Small Sloop with a Hundred 
Men in the Lakes all coming against him with Demands & Threats, 
yet in this Situation he laughed at their Haughtiness and despised 
their attempts, and in short they returned as they came, but as I 
have good reason to suppose they are not yet satisfied & only wait 
for more force. In gratitude to this Gov r . I think you should lose 
no time in sending a sufficient number of Troops to guard the Eiver 
above, & if possible to spare a sufficient number to take Pensacola 
and then You are sure of all the Indians & perhaps afterwards be- 
come a Valluable Conquest 

Extract of a Letter dated 6 July 1778 

In my last Letters I mentioned the Threats & Demands that the 
People from Pensacola were making daily on Gov r . Galvez here 

* AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 
700296 49 TOl. 2 19 



258 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

for the Protection he had as openly shewn to the Americans since 
the Arrival of Cap 1 . Willing's party in this Country, by receiving 
our Prizes, suffering us to fit out Armed Vessells & ca from this place 
against them, and at a time when they assert, that the Court of 
Spain & Great Britain are upon the best Terms & a solid Peace 
& Tranquillity & in consequence tell him, they will represent his un- 
paralelled Conduct in the strongest Terms to the Court of Great 
Britain, who they are assured will demand satisfaction of the Court 
of Spain & have him bro 1 . to a severe Account for Ms Transactions, 
tho 5 he is in little dread of the former, yet it gives him some un- 
easiness on Account of the latter as there is no account here of War 
being declared or even that the Court of Spain have acknowledged 
our Independancy, he may therefore be liable to Censure from Ms 
own Court for acting as publicly in our favor, & contrary to the 
oppinion of Ms Council here, however in hopes of a speedy Rupture 
with Great Britain, & an everlasting Alliance with the States, he 
remains fully satisfied with what he has done, & is always ready 
to contribute his services towards the Cause & will be happy in 
giving You farther proofs of it if You should happen to send an 
Expedition against Pensacola 

POLLOCK TO GALVEZ 

1778 4 

SIR: Having received from the honorable Congress representing 
the tMrteen united provinces and the independent State of North 
America a commission to act as their agent in the dominions of His 
Catholic Majesty in Louisiana, I beg Your Lordship's permission to 
announce this to you. 

The friendsMp, which I desire to be permanent, existing between 
His Catholic Majesty and the states for whom I act, encourages me 
to hope for Your Lordship's protection in the discharge of the task 
that has been entrusted to me. 

I have the honor to be, with the greatest respect, 

Your Lordship's most obedient servant, 

OLIVER POLLOCK. 

To His Lordship Seiior Don Bernardo de Galvez, Governor and 
Commander in Chief of the Province of Louisiana. 

SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS TO LEYBA FROM GALVEZ 
March 9, 1778* 

Special instructions to be observed by Captain Don Fernando de 
Leyba, appointed to be lieutenant governor of the settlements in 

*AGI, PC, leg. 23TO. 
SOB AGI, PC, leg. 2358. 



THE BEVOLUTIONAEY PERIOD, 1765-1781 259 

Ylinueses, dependent upon this province of Louisiana under my 
command. 

1. He shall try to induce the settlers to devote themselves to the 
sowing and cultivation of hemp and flax, explaining to them the 
great benefits which this will bring them, inasmuch as His Majesty 
declares by his royal orders that these two commodities will be 
free from all export and import duties into Hie ports of Spain. 
He shall advise the said settlers that I have proposed to the King 
that he furnish them Negro slaves in order to develop more quickly 
the crops abovementioned, but that pending receipt of the royal 
decision, they should make a start with these crops, in order to have 
sufficient seed. 

2. Confidential. He shall make every effort to win the good will 
of all the Indian tribes, not only those in the territory of His 
Majesty, but also those under the jurisdiction of the English. He 
shall use for this purpose all the tact and good treatment possible 
in order to attract them to our dominions, but in such a manner as 
not to compromise himself, in order to avoid complaints on the part 
of England. 

3* Confidential. Acadians or Apostolic Roman Catholics in 
English territory, and Irish, Canadians, and Germans should be aided 
with great zeal in increasing the population of the posts entrusted 
to him. In order to attract settlers even from Canada, he shall in- 
form them that all families wishing to settle in our dominions will 
enjoy the protection of His Majesty, be given lands, and provided 
with the tools necessary to cultivate them, together with rations 
monthly until they have gathered their first harvest after their ar- 
rival. He shall advise them that I Have made representations to 
His Majesty, asking whether this assistance will be given free, or 
whether under the obligation of repaying it when their circum- 
stances so permit. This will be done in conformity with the at- 
tached regulations and the persons who have furnished the said 
tools and rations given a certificate specifying the quantity of each 
article and its value. It shaU be the duty of said lieutenant 
governor to send to this government, at least at the end of each 
year, an exact account of the number of new subjects (of His 
Majesty) , including those to whom tools and provisions have been 
given up to the date thereof, for comparison with the certificates 
which have been paid by this royal treasury. In order that this 
post may proceed with the clarity required to make this account 
or abovementioned report demanded of it, he shall keep a book in 
which he will enter the name of each individual, showing each family 
separately, and with columns for the tools distributed, and for the 
months in which they receive rations. He is charged with handling 



260 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

this matter, so important as regards our people, with all the care 
which, his prudence may dictate. 

4. Confidential. He shall endeavor to learn all the news occurring 
in the English part (of Illinois) , concerning the war of this power 
with the colonists, the situation of hoth parties and their plans so 
as not to allow himself to be surprised in case of any unforseen 
design. If there is any news of importance, he shall communicate 
it to me promptly, after first assuring himself of its truth, in order 
not to incur useless expense to the royal exchequer. 

5. Confidential. If he should have correspondence with any 
American chief of the American provinces, he shall observe the 
greatest secrecy, and report same to me; and in case he should re- 
ceive letters for me, he shall send them to me by the first oppor- 
tunity or by a special courier if so instructed. 

6. As it may happen that subjects of Ms Britannic Majesty or of 
the united provinces may arrive to ask him for sanctuary in our 
territory in order to save themselves and their property from their 
respective enemies, he shall grant this to both parties without dis- 
tinction, not permitting them to be violated or outraged in any 
way, because, as they are under the flag of His Majesty, they should 
enjoy the same protection as his own subjects. 

NEW OKLEANS, March P, 1778. 

[Draft by BERN AEDO DE GALVEZ] 

WILLING TO GALVEZ 
March Si, 1778** 

Sra : I am exceedingly sorry to find myself under a necessity of 
troubling Your Excellency with a Reply to the Letter of the 19 th . 
Instant with which you have honoured me. My duty impells me 
to it I therefore hope You will be pleased to reconsider the Cases of 
the several Claimants of the Prizes N. 2, 3 & 5. 

N. 2 is a Vessell belonging to British Subjects, on her Voyage to 
the West Indies laden with Articles absolutely necessary for the 
Enemies of the States I have the Honor to serve She was seized, 
and made Prize without the least Alarm or Insult given to any of 
his Catholick Majesty's Subjects She was on float in the Eiver Missis- 
sippi the Navigation whereof is equaly free to British as Spanish 
Subjects and the American Independant States claim by the Laws 
of Nations a right to pursue take and seize the Persons and property 
of all British Subjects wherever they can possess themselves of either 
not in the particular protection or ports of any Nation Neutral in 
the present War. The Vessell in question was not in Spanish port 

*AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REYOLUTIONAET PERIOD, 1765-1781 261 

or protection. The Court of Vice Admiralty of Pensacola adjudged 
in the Case of American Vessells taken in the River Mississippi That 
the Capture so made came under the Denomination as that of Prizes 
made on the high Seas. By the same Rule I claim as a Lawful! 
Prize the Vessell and Cargo in question. If notwithstanding Your 
Excellency is not of oppinion that this prize is Legaly made, I hope 
You will suffer the Vessel and Cargo to be sold, and the proceeds to 
be sequestred in Your Treasury untill a future determination by the 
Court of Spain and Congress. 

The Boat or prize N. 3. tho 5 lastly taken below English Manchaek 
was in fact in the actual possession of Lieutenant Mclntyre an Officer 
under my Command at Manchaek in the British Territories Stolen 
off in the Night by M r . Shakespear contrary to his Faith pledged, 
and I cannot help thinking that I have a right even to demand the 
Boat and Goods that were on board her as a property belonging to 
and stolen from me, supposing even the late Owner had actualy 
applyed for and received the protection of a Neutral power. But 
this last was by no means the case. The Boat was on float tho' fastened 
to a Log of Wood near the Shore on the River Mississippi the Pos- 
sessor having neither demanded nor obtained your protection at 
that time. These matters considered (of which further proof may 
be made) I hope the Boat & Cargo will be adjudged lawfull prize 

With respect to the Boats or prize N. 5 I have in a former letter 
to Your Excellency given a true State of their Capture. I chased 
them upon the River Mississippi about five Leagues above Spanish 
Aux Arcs. One of the Boats was Boarded and Taken upon the River, 
The Other chased & Boarded The Instant She touched the land on 
the Spanish side of the Mississippi. Both were brought to the 
English side But upon Application made I permitted them to deliver 
at the Spanish Aux Arcs a quantity of Flour for the use of his 
Catholic Majesty's Troops. As I observed before they traded to a 
British post, supplyed the Enemies of the States of America, had on 
board the Goods received in return thereof, and had neither Passport, 
Permission nor protection as I presume to hope from any Officer 
of the Court of Spain for such Illicit Trade. I therefore must take 
the Liberty to esteem the Seizure of both these Boats as consonant 
to the Universal Custom of all Civilized Nations, and that they will 
be adjudged as Lawfull Prize accordingly 

I have the Honor to be with Respect, 

Sir Your Most Obedient & Most H ble Servant 

JA S . WILLING 
Capt" in the Service of the Indep*. 

United States of America. 

NEW ORLEANS 4*\ March 1778 



262 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

WUXUSTG TO GALVEZ 
April 1, 1778 * 07 

NEW ORT JEANS April 1, 1778 

Sm : I am Inexpressibly sorry that any Act of mine should be the 
means of giving your Excellency the least displeasure; I am conscious 
of the rectitude of my intentions however I may have error'd with- 
out designing the most remote Approach to any disrespect to your 
Person or Authority, both which I hold in the greatest esteem and 
deference 

By what I can understand by the Translations I have been able 
to obtain of the Letter of the 27 th . Ult. which you did me the honor 
to write, Your Excellency has been informed That I affixed Procla- 
mations in the Publick parts of this City & c . Permit me Sir to assure 
you that I set up a Notice in writing within side the House wherein 
I lodged by Your Excellency's permission and in no other place 
whatever; This House I Esteemed my Quarters under the protection 
of your Government 

This Sir I thought the least offensive method of requesting such 
Brittish Subjects as were by me made Prisoners of War to the Ameri- 
can Arms, to repair onboard the Prize Ship Rebecca when I should 
grant them Permission in writing with full assurance to remain 
unmolested by any American Officer or Soldier upon their pledging 
their Honor that they would surrender themselves when thereunto 
required upon any future Cartel and as those Gentlemen could not 
or would not have any opportunity of being acquainted with my 
desire, if the same had not been made known to them in this City, 
I hoped, that such Notice as I gave them was the least likely to 
give Offence to your Excellency and might have answered the desired 
purpose; But as it had an effect I did not forsee, I take this opportu- 
nity to begg Your Excellency to be assured; That I am exceedingly 
sorry, any Act of mine should give you the least degree of disgust or 
Offence and shall in future take particular care that I shall myself 
and all Officers and Soldiers under my Command be particularly 
cautious of avoiding whatever may possibly be esteemed disagree- 
able to your Excellency or prejudicial to any of his Catholick 
Majesty's Subjects under your Government 

I have the honor to be with Eespect 
Your most obedient h be Serv 1 . 

JA*. WILLING 
Capt n . m the Service of the Ind*. 

United States of America. 

, PC, leg, 2370 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PBRIOD f 1765-1781 263 

WILLING TO 
April 5, 



Sm: I am extremely sorry that I should in any Case differ in 
Opinion from your Excellency, But I cannot help thinking that the 
prizes No. 2 5 3 & 5 do not come within the same line with those 
others already delivered up at your Desire; And must yet take the 
liberty of insisting upon the right the Troops or Naval Powers of 
the American States have to seize and ? take the Persons and Property 
of all British Subjects upon any part of the River Mississippi from 
its source to the Sea in like manner as upon the high Seas provided 
the same is not on shore upon His Catholic Majesty's Territorys or 
under the Guns and protection of any Fort in Your Excellencys 
Government, Neither of which was the Case of either of these prizes 

The prizes in question are now in your Power and under your 
Authority ; But I apprehend I cannot be answerable to My Masters 
the Honorable Congress for the Eestitution of these Prizes if your 
Excellency does not think proper to give me a positive Order in 
writing for so doing; I shall at the same time expect that you will 
be pleased to enforce A restitution of those Negroes part of the 
Captures I legally made that are now onboard of a British Ship of 
War off this City Which Negroes were part of the property I had 
here and to which you accorded protection as well as any other 
Property that may in future be taken or received onboard of any 
Brittish Ships in like manner Which your Excellency was pleased 
to promise upon my delivering up a Negroe belonging to a Brittish 
Subject that had come onboard the Prize Ship Rebecca in this Port 
I have the honor to be 

SIR 

Your most Obedient & most humble Servant 

JA*. WELLING 
Capt" In the Service of the Indep* 

United States of America* 

NEW ORLEANS 5 th . April 1778 

To His Excellency DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ 

WILLING TO GALVEZ 

April IS, 177$ *> 

April 13*. 1778 

SIR: With respect to what Your Excellency mentions in your 
Letter of the 6 th Instant touching the seizure of the Persons and 
effects of a William Eason and the Person of Archibald Crawford, 



* AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 
* AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



264 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Permit me Sir to assure you that the Information you had regarding 
both is totally fake. The truth is that Eason was taken upon the 
English Shore Six or Seven Leagues above the Natchez on his way 
to the English Arkansaws with certain Merchandize partly for Sale 
and partly to be given to such Indians as would take Arms against 
the Americans; That he was employ'd by M r . Harry Stuart a 
Deputy Superintendant in Indian Affairs for His Brittanick Majesty 
for this notable purpose, as well as to debauch and bring over the 
Arkansaw Indians to the English Side. This Sir pretty clearly ap- 
pears from an intercepted Letter from Eason to Stuart, a Transla- 
tion of which I herewith transmitt for Your Excellencys considera- 
tion and the Originall shall be produced whenever you shall please 
to require it I shall make no Comment upon the Letter in question, 
leaveing it to your superior Judgement to determine how far this 
Fellow merits passports or other Indulgence 

He pretends to being a Spanish Subject, but at Pensacola he very 
lately had a Grant of Lands in consideration of his Services in his 
Indian Transactions : All and more than I have said of this Fellow 
may be farther proven by the Testimony of Men of integrity and 
reputation not to be justly brought in Comparison with this base 
Fellow; Whatever he may have informed you he shewed no passport 
whatsoever to Lieutenant Mclntyre the Officer who made him Pris- 
oner; But permit me Sir to suppose that he had One in the common 
form; In this case Sir give me leave to ask, Would your Excellency 
grant passports to any persons (to serve by way of protection) who 
should carry supplys of Arms, Ammunition, or other Merchandize 
for the use of the Enemys of the American States; I should cer- 
tainly expect your Excellencys Answer in the Negative 

As to Archibald Crawford he was made prisoner onboard the 
Armed Ship Eebecca at English Manchac, was suffered to go at 
large as a Prisoner of War upon Parole, and afterwards was stopped 
upon the Eiver by Lieutenant Harrison an Officer under my Com- 
mand and who is now upon Duty up the Eiver; But so far was he 
from being deficient in paying due deference and respect to your 
Excellencys passports, that he knew Crawford to have been prisoner 
of War upon Parole, he yet set him at liberty upon his producing 
your passport agreeable to the Orders he had received from me 
respecting all such Cases 

I have the honor to be with great Eespect 

Sir 

Your most Obedient and very humble Servant 

JA*. WILLING 

Capt". 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 265 

GALVEZ TO NAVABRQ 
April 14, 1778* 

Confidential [Copy] 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: According to various secret reports which 
I have received from different persons, it appears that the English 
are planning an attack on this city for its having given asylum to 
the Americans and their prizes. Although the reception given the 
said Americans is the same as practiced in the ports of Europe and 
the islands of America, against which the said English have taken 
no vengeance whatever, they will perhaps dare to do so here, see- 
ing it undefended. Such a proceeding would not be at all prudent, 
the more so as it does not seem that they are in a position to seek a 
war. However, the appearances agree with the reports, as there 
are already two frigates in front of this city, and, according to re- 
ports, two or three others are yet to come, of which, one is thought 
to be at the mouth of this river. It is said to have 32 guns, and 
this artillery must be passed by any other ship entering there. If 
this is so, these two frigates can have no other object than this 
place, as they have no reason to go up to Manchak, Natchez, or the 
other English settlements, nor anything to gain, because there is 
nobody there. 

The officer in command of these frigates is said to be a brutal 
man, capable of committing any act, without regard for the con- 
sequences. His intention appears to be to demand of me the prizes 
of the Americans and their persons, particularly the commander 
and officers of his party, and unless I agree to this, to fire on the 
city and destroy it. It is clear, and Your Lordship will recognize 
this, that I cannot accede to such a demand (which has already 
been made of me by the governor of Pensacola in a letter which 
I have just received) . It is also evident that I should be, as I am, 
determined to defend these Americans and their prizes, and to em- 
ploy in that purpose all the forces I have, although very few, be- 
cause the Bang would certainly not approve of my allowing them 
to violate with impunity the asylum sought by the said Americans 
in his royal name, and naturally granted them under this same 
protection. However, it is physically almost impossible for me to 
undertake much defense with few more than 200 men. Of those 
almost all are overdue for discharge, and entitled to retirement al~ 
lowances. There are only four artillerymen, even those being sepa- 
rated, one on detachment and three at this post. Consequently, it 
is indispensable that Your Lordship should aid me with some com- 
panies or pickets from your regiments and some artillerymen, that 

a AGI, Guerra, 1780, Bx. 24. 



266 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

is, in regard to land forces. Also in regard to sea forces, it is neces- 
sary for Your Lordship to ask the commandant general of that 
department to send me three or four war vessels, light and manage- 
able in this river, so that, with this aid, my efforts may not be fruit- 
less, and so that, in case of attack, the arms of the King may maintain 
their honor and advantage. 

I do not believe it necessary for me to point out to Your Lord- 
ship the promptness with which these reinforcements should arrive 
(whatever Your Lordship may send me), because it is my plan to 
prolong the negotiations and avail myself of all means possible to 
gain time. 

Despite my well-founded fears, I still do not believe that the Eng- 
lish will dare to attack me, but at the same time, one should not 
trust in a nation which has given proofs of the little scrupulousness 
in keeping faith, when such is their whim. 

The location of this post is the most unusual and critical it could 
possibly be. It is open and is the only frontier that Spain has with 
the English. If war were declared, it would be more secure than 
now, because then its defenses would begin at La Baliza, but, as 
it is not declared, I cannot prevent them from anchoring at the very 
levee or mole. This disadvantage is like my having the point of a 
sword at my breast, waiting for the enemy to lunge and run me 
through before I am permitted to draw my own blade. Finally, 
I shall omit no effort or precaution that can contribute to the best 
defense of this province which the King has intrusted to me. Give 
me, Your Lordship, with the greatest promptness, what aid you 
can, but at the same time do not be concerned, because, as I have 
said, I shall yield in nothing that would prejudice the honor of the 
nation. 

May God protect Your Excellency the many years I desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, April 1^ 1778. 

Your most humble and attentive servant kisses Your Excellency's 
hand. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ 

Senor DON DIEGO JOSEF NAVARRO. 

MORGAN TO GALVEZ 

April 86, 1778^ 

FORT PITT, April 26, 1778 

SIR : On the 24th of February, I had the honor of receiving Your 
Lordship's letter, dated August 9, last, and I immediately for- 
warded to Congress by special messenger what Your Lordship sent 

i AGI, PC, leg. 2370. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 287 

me, as I have not the good fortune to understand the Spanish lan- 
guage. Unfortunately, to date, it has been Impossible to find any 
member of that body or any other person able and worthy of being 
entrusted with its translation, for which reason His Excellency, the 
President, commands me to present Ms respects to Tour Lordship, 
regretting this unfortunate occurence, but explaining that he him- 
self will have the honor of writing to Your Lordship as soon as he 
succeeds in having the letter translated. 

When Your Lordship has occasion to write to Congress or to 
favor me similarly again, I should appreciate it if you would be 
so kind as to do so in English or French, so that we may not again 
find ourselves in such a predicament. As Congress has not yet 
found anybody who can translate your last favor, I beg Your 
Lordship please to send a duplicate in English or French by the 
first opportunity. We shall regard it as a particular favor and a 
very special courtesy on the part of Your Lordship. 

This letter is being sent by the boats which are going down the 
river to join Captain Willing, and as I think that Your Lordship 
would not be adverse to being informed of the principal events of 
the war since my letter of April, 1777, and the present status of our 
cause, I take the liberty of giving you a short account of them. 

I mentioned in my letter of April 22, last, that General Howe 
with his British army and auxiliaries were then in Brunswick. 
General Washington with his American troops seized the strong 
defensive positions in that vicinity, and will not abandon them. 
General Howe, not being able to attack him with any certainty of 
success, retired on the first of July to Staten Island on the seacoast, 
where he received English reinforcements and set sail with, a fleet 
of 260 ships, including war vessels and transports, to attack Phila- 
delphia from the other side. At the end of August he disembarked 
19,600 men at the head of Chesapeake Bay, twenty-eight leagues 
from that city, and set out on the march towards it, arriving at the 
end of September, but not without having been constantly harried 
and his numbers diminished about a thousand by frequent attacks* 
Evacuating the city, General Washington fortified himself in ad- 
jacent positions, from which it was impossible for General Howe 
to dislodge him without heavy losses. 

Our small fleet opposed the British one on the Delaware River 
and burned several of their war vessels, among others the Augusta 
of sixty-four guns and a frigate of thirty, which were blown up on the 
same day, October 24. Nevertheless, the superior forces prevailed at 
last, and although General Howe was cut off in Philadelphia and Ms 
provisions exhausted, he was relieved by the British fleet in the 
of November, This w^s due to carelessness on our part m 



268 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

not having fortified a particular channel of the river, which up to 
that time had never been considered navigable, even for the small- 
est vessels. We recognized our error too late, as General Howe 
would have been obliged to surrender with his entire army within 
a few weeks or make a dangerous and disastrous retreat. However, 
he spent the winter in Philadelphia, and General Washington oc- 
cupied the highlands and strong positions around the city so as 
to prevent the British troops from receiving fresh provisions or 
forage from anywhere but Europe. In this position the two armies 
now remain, without a foot of American soil, other than that oc- 
cupied by the British troops, being under the dominion of England. 

We have been more fortunate in Canada. Our General St. Glair, 
judging that Ticonderoga could not resist General Burgoyne who 
was advancing to attack it with ten thousand men and heavy artillery, 
abandoned that fortress on July 5, and withdrew to the vicinity of 
Albany. General Burgoyne followed him, sending out large detach- 
ments to lay waste the country, but these were totally routed by the 
militia and he lost in various actions and encounters two thousand 
men, dead and prisoners. However, General Burgoyne kept on ad- 
vancing. On the 19th of September, thirty miles from Albany, he was 
attacked by General Gates at the head of our militia. The battle was 
hard-fought and bloody, ending at the close of the day with both sides 
claiming the victory. On October 7, the two armies encountered 
each other on the same field where they had fought on the 19th of 
September. A general action took place, which was likewise hard- 
fought, with the death of many soldiers on both sides. Neverthe- 
less, General Gates forced the British troops and their auxiliaries 
to abandon eight brass cannon, which he captured, as well as their 
hospital and 500 prisoners. This number plus those taken prisoner 
and killed in the battle of the 19th totalled two thousand, so that 
there remained to fight General Gates no more than six thousand. 
These were, indeed, veteran troops, officered by eight generals of 
experience, who decided to retire again to Canada; but General 
Gates, anticipating this, had occupied all the passes, so that on the 
thirteenth he had them totally surrounded. This resulted in a 
parley, and on the sixteenth General Burgoyne surrendered with all 
his army, artillery, arms, and provisions to General Gates, and they 
are now prisoners in Boston. The total of those now in our hands 
amounts to eleven thousand, eight hundred men. 

Our small fleet continues to be successful on the sea, and our army 
is in such shape that General Howe, reduced at present to 12,000 
men by losses in the frequent encounters, will be obliged to confine 
himself to his quarters until he receives large reinforcements. It is 
said that Lord Townsend or General Lord Amherst is to take over 



THE KEV0LUTIONABY PERIOD, 1765-1781 269 

the command in America for the next campaign, with more than 
thirty thousand additional troops. If this be true, our liberty will 
be much more creditable for us with his defeat. 

If I can in the future contribute to the pleasure of Your Lordship 
with my reports, I shall try to give myself that honor. 

I am with the greatest respect. Sir, 

Your most obedient and humble servant, 

GEORGE MOBGAM". 

To His Excellency Don Bernardo de Galvez, Governor General of 
Louisiana. 

GALVEZ; TO NAVARRO 
April 7, 1778 21Z 

Confidential Copy. 

MT VERY DEAR SIR : The report that an English frigate of thirty- 
two guns had entered the mouth of this river, as I advised Your 
Lordship under date of the 14th instant, has been proved unfounded. 
Nevertheless I still ain left with the same suspicions which I re- 
ported to Your Lordship, because the reasons for my uneasiness 
are constantly increasing as I find myself blockaded by the same 
two frigates, a little less than cannon shot from this post, and by 
two privateers in my rear. The audacity of one of these even 
went so far that it fired upon a small Spanish sloop on Lake 
Pontchartrain, where it was out of range of, but in sight of a small 
and poorly equipped fort we have there. It caused the sloop to 
run aground on our own shore, and then continued to fire on her. 

The aforesaid frigates have maintained silence and none of their 
officers has come ashore, except messengers with letters for me, bring- 
ing replies or making their unjustifiable proposals. The operations 
of the said privateers have been hostile. Conversations have been held 
on board by the commanders of said ships (of which I have definite 
knowledge through the means I employed to obtain the same) threat- 
ening to bombard this post as soon as the reinforcements which they 
expect arrive, unless I surrender to them the frigate Rebecca, cap- 
tured by the Americans, together with the leaders of the latter (to 
which demands I cannot accede). All these things are reasons jus- 
tifying the caution which I must exercise in order not to permit 
them to commit any disgraceful action against the territory entrusted 
to my care. 

In order to prevent these incidents, I again remind Your Lord- 
ship that the troops which I have at this post, exposed on all sides, 
number no more than two hundred men, most of them worn out from 

* AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



270 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

service, one artillery officer, and four artillerymen. TMs small num- 
ber will doubtless impel Your Lordship to hasten the dispatch of 
die aid which I have asked of you. With it, and the few militia- 
men I can raise, I shall be in a position to make an honorable 
defense. This is of interest to the honor of our arms, as it assures 
a bulwark for the whole kingdom of Mexico, which the King perhaps 
believes secure by being under the protection and forces of the post 
commanded by Your Lordship. Without such recourse I see all 
the measures I plan to take made impossible by lack of men. 

To the number of land troops I need, which should be as many 
as Your Lordship can spare me without causing too great a shortage 
at your post, I hope Your Lordship will add a company or picket 
of dragoons, as these are absolutely indispensable to me in the present 
circumstances. 

I am continually constructing some batteries to fortify the town 
on its river side. To serve these I am organizing a militia artillery 
company, but even with the greatest efforts it can scarcely be trained 
to do so. This one defense, together with that of the King's brigan- 
tine Scmta Teresa, to which I have added four guns in addition to 
the eight it already had, is the only resistance I can ofier at present 
in case of attack. 

I hope that, when my reasons are weighed together with the urgent 
need in which Your Lordship must see me, you will not delay a 
moment in sending me this requested assistance. I beg you not to 
doubt that the few forces I have will be employed with the honor and 
zeal with which we are all inspired when the glory of our sovereign 
and his arms are concerned. 

May God protect Your Excellency many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, April 27, 1778. 

Your most humble and attentive servant kisses Your Excellency's 
hand. 

DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ 

Sefior DON DIEGO JOSEF NAVARRO. 

NAVARRO (Eubric) 

POLLOCK TO GALVEZ 

May 2, 1778 21S 

SIR : In the instructions given to me by Congress I am informed 
that I am to receive from Your Excellency the advance necessary 
to enable me to continue the operations which I must carry out in 
the execution of their orders ; but it will be entirely impossible for me 
to complete what has already been begun, as well as to continue with 

*** AGI, PC, leg. 2370. 



THE REVOLUTIONABY PERIOD, 1765-1781 271 

the rest which is planned for the service of the States of America, 
if Your Excellency does not condescend to make me some advances 
of money on behalf of these States. I have good reason to believe 
that the Congress has already established its credit with the Court 
of Spain, but I doubt not that Your Excellency is better in- 
formed on this than I can pretend to be. Only the greater mari- 
time power of the British has prevented the shipment of American 
products here, more than enough to supply aU the needs which 
might arise here, but I am quite certain, according to the information 
received, that a considerable quantity of flour was being prepared 
to be brought here by the Ohio and Mississippi rivers with this sole 
object in view. 

And I beg Your Excellency to rest assured that I shall economize 
as much as possible in any request of this kind which I may make. 
Be assured that under the present circumstances your compliance is 
very essential, and for it the States of America will remain under 
the greatest obligation. I have the honor to be with all the respect 
due Your Excellency, your most obedient and humble servant. 

OLIVER POLLOCK, 
Agent of the United and Independent States 

NEW ORLEANS, May #, 1778. 

To His Excellency DON BERSTAJOX) DE GALVEZ. 

CALVEBT TO POLLOCK 
May 4,1778* 

SIR : After having written Your Honor yesterday afternoon from 
on board a French brigantine outside Baliza, I was informed by the 
commandant there that a sloop from Pensacola had entered the river 
a short time before by the northeast pass. I immediately followed 
and overtook it about one league up river. This sloop belongs to 
Mr. Jones of El Amit and has a passport from the governor, with 
a translation of the same in English, from which I understand that 
it is not good beyond the Bayou St. Jean and that river. In any 
event, as it does not extend any protection for entering the Missis- 
sippi River, I consider it to be a good and legal prize of war. Never- 
theless, as I do not want to do anything in the slightest degree 
contrary to Your Excellency's wishes, I have decided to put on it a 
copy of my letters patent, and to allow it to proceed to New Orleans 
with the passport which it has from His Excellency. While on board 
I ascertained its destination, inasmuch as it may be set at liberty if 
His Excellency so orders, or condemned as a lawful prize. I note 
according to its passport that its crew consists of only four men, in- 

a* A.GI, PC, leg. 2370. 



272 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

eluding Negroes. Having found one of the latter aboard I sent him 
with one white man on board the privateer to replace the two whom 
I gave them from the crew of the latter for the trip up the river. 
This was necessary on account of their shortage of men. The sloop 
was not detained by me an instant, but on the contrary I ordered 
them to try to go up as quickly as possible, for which purpose I had 
two of my men put on board her. They have orders to present 
themselves to Your Honor, who will act as you think best. 

This letter is being despatched by the boat of the commander, and 
the prize will follow as soon as the wind permits. 

I am. Sir, your most obedient servant, 

JOSEPH CALVERT. 

BALEZA, May 4, 1778. 

To Mr. Oliver Pollock. 

GALVEZ TO HENRY 
May 6, 1778 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : I have received Your Lordship's two letters 
of October 18 and 20, last year. In reply I have to inform you that 
the goods which I had accumulated in this city for the service of 
the States have been shipped, as Your Lordship will note from the 
enclosed copy, No. 1, of the letter which I wrote at the time of ship- 
ment to Messrs. Robert Morris and William Smith, superintendent 
general of commerce of the colonies. 

From the copy referred to, Your Lordship will also note the 
reasons why I cannot agree to the proposal of commerce which Your 
Lordship desires between the States and this province, but which 
I should be glad to see established, as it would be advantageous to 
both nations. 

I enclose for Your Lordship a copy, No. 2, of the letter which I 
am writing to Messrs. Morris and Smith, so that they may know the 
critical situation in which I find myself among my neighbors for 
having admitted into this province under my command, Captain 
Willing and his party and the prizes he has taken from the English. 

I also enclose another copy, No. 3, to inform you how I am helping 
Mr. Pollock, agent of the colonies, with money for the maintenance 
of Captain Willing's party, even though I do not know whether my 
Court will approve of it. 

I give Your Lordship due thanks for the sentiments with which 
you express your appreciation for the reception given in the name 
of the States and Government of Virginia to Captain Gibson and 
for the stock of goods which could be furnished him at that time, 

, PC, leg. 2370. 



THE BEVOLUTIONARY PEBIOD, 1765-1781 273 

and I assure Your Lordship that I shall not spare any effort or 
trouble which may redound to the benefit of those colonies, on account 
of the particular affection I have for them. 

May God preserve Your Lordship for many years. 

May 6, 1778. 

[Draft by BERNAHDO BE GALVES] 
Senor DON PATRICK HENRY, Governor of Virginia. 

DECLARATION OF STEPHEN SHAKSPEAR 
May 6, 1778 2W 

The Examination of Stephen Shakespear late of Manchack in the 
Province of West Florida merchant taken on oath at Pensacola this 
Sixth day of May in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hun- 
dred and Seventy eight. 

This Examinant saith that the Ship Rebecca lading at Man- 
chack having been seized by a Party of Rebels on Monday the 
Twenty third day of February last past this Deponent had a Bat- 
teau belonging to himself laden with Sundry Goods and early in the 
morning of the next day he dropped down the River Mississippi in Ms 
Batteau about seven leagues below Manchac That having heard that 
the said Ship Rebecca had fallen down the river about a League 
below Manchack and was on the Western shore of that River this 
Deponent left his Batteau in the Charge of one Frederick Spell and 
on Wednesday the twenty fifth of February set off for Manchack 
where he arrived the next day and having laden two Canoes with 
Goods sent them from Manchack on the Twenty seventh and the 
next day having obtained a Spanish Pasport from the Commandant 
of the Spanish Fort at Manchac he set out for his Batteau which 
the next day he found aground where he had left her on the second 
of March he got the Batteau afloat and fastened her to the Others 
by the head and stern : that on or about Ten oclocke at night of Next 
day one Joseph Calvert and two Men with arms came by land and 
Seized his Batteau fastened as aforesaid to the Spanish Shore as 
this Deponent was Informed by the said Frederick Spell and one 
Simon Richards : That the said Joseph Calvert on the morning of 
the said Second of March passed by the Batteau on horse back and 
was going up the River as far as Baton Rouge as he told this Depo- 
nent: That the said Joseph Calvert as this Deponent hath heard 
and verily believes hath resided in the Province of Louisana ever 
since the month of August one thousand and seven hundred and 
seventy six and that during that Period he hath not been out of 

w AGI. PC, leg. 2370 (English). 
700296 49 vol. 220 



274 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the said Province of Louisiana. That in the Evening of the fifth 
of March this Deponent arrived at New Orleans and found his Bat- 
teau and the goods in her made fast to the Levee and was told by 
the said Joseph Calvert that he had taken the said Batteau Thus 
on the Seventh of March this Deponent waited upon the Governor 
of New Orleans who directed him to draw up a Petition which he 
did and presented it to the Governor who as the Interpreter informed 
this Deponent had appointed the Lieutenant Governor Chief Justice 
and Contador Commissioners to try the point whether the said Bat- 
teau was a lawfull Prize or not That on or about the Tenth of March 
this Deponent was Examined at the Government house before the 
Lieutenant Governor, Chief Justice and Contador as he believes (he 
knows the Lieutenant Governor and Contador but does not know 
the Chief Justice) that James Willing and Oliver Pollock were 
present at this Deponents Examination That on or about the Thirty 
First Day of March he went to the Government House with the In- 
terpreter and was Informed by the Lieutenant Governor that the 
matter had been decided in his favour and an order would be given 
for the delivering of this property to him. That on or about the 
fourth of April last the Interpreter informed this Deponent this 
Property would be delivered up whenever he pleased, upon which he 
went to the said Oliver Pollock who said he could not then deliver 
anything as it was too late and appointed this Deponent to call at 
sun rise on the monday following That on the monday following the 
said Oliver Pollock told this Deponent that he must Speak to the 
Governor before anything could be delivered up after which every 
thing would be delivered up but to the very great Surprize of this 
Deponent the said Oliver Pollock the next day told him that nothing 
would be delivered up till the Captain of His Majestys Ship (then 
at New Orleans had given up all the American Negroes then on 
Board his Ship) meaning such negroes as had been taken by and 
had escaped from, the Rebels) that on or about the Tenth of April 
last this Deponent having been informed that he might have his 
property again he went to the said Oliver Pollock who delivered 
sundry things and paid him for others but declared he could be 
accountable only for such things as were mentioned in a list which 
he Showed this Deponent and which he said was wrote by the said 
Joseph Calvert and had been delivered to him by the said Joseph 
Calvert as a list of the things taken in the said Batteau: a Copy 
of which All this Deponent took and is herewith annexed marked 
with the Letter (A) That on or about the fifteenth of april last 
this Deponent went to the Lieutenant Governor with the said Fred- 
erick Spell who declared to the lieutenant Governor that he assisted 
in loading the said Batteau and came Down with her to New Orleans 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIO0, 1T65-1T81 275 

Where the whole of the goods laden on board were unladen Mid 
put into Carts belonging to the said Oliver Pollock and carried 
away but where he could not tell That the Lieutenant Governor 
Promised this Deponent another hearing of his Case That in the 
afternoon of the said fifteenth of April the annexed paper Marked 
with the Letter (B) and stuck up by a Spanish officer in M r * 
Ogilvies Tavern That at the time appointed this Deponent went 
to the Government House where an Oath was Tendered to each 
Individual written both in French and English. That at the time 
of the oath being Tendered the Governor pulled out his Watch, and 
told those present that he would give them half an hour to consider 
whether they would take the oath or not and that such as refused 
to take it must leave New Orleans the next day by Twelve oclocke; 
and that as he was determined to observe a Strict neutrality between 
the two Parties the same oath should be tendered the americans the 
next day. That the next day Friday the Seventeenth of april at 
noon this Deponent left New Orleans as he did not Choose to take 
the said Oath but he did not hear nor does he know whether such 
oath was Tendered to the Eebels or not That during a great part of 
the time this Deponent was at New Orleans a Publick Guard house 
was allowed the Eebels in that Town, and Centinels posted at the 
Door thereof and this Deponent hath been Credibly informed by 
many Gentlemen and he easily believes it to be true that the Eebels 
have actually confined and detained British Subjects in Irons in the 
said Guard House and afterwards by Force carried them in Irons on 
Board the Ship Rebecca laying before New Orleans 

STEPHEN SHAKSPEAB 

Taken & Sworn at Pensacola This 6 th . of May 1778 

Before me (Signed) E. E. WEGG Atty Gen 1 . 

The abovementioned Stephen Shakspear being again Sworn on the 
holy Evangelists farther saith that the paper hereunto annexed 
marked with the Letter (C) contains a true account of the Several 
Goods laden on Board the Batteau within mentioned belonging to 
him this Deponent, with their values as also the Several Goods de- 
livered and paid for by the within named Oliver Pollock with their 
Values ; as also of the deficiencies in the said Goods with their Val- 
ues : the said deficiencies amounting to the sum of four thousand and 
eighty eight Dollars and three Eeals 

STEPHEN SHAJBLSPEAR 

Sworn the 6 th . May 1778 before me 

E. E. WEGG Atty Gen 1 . 

PENSACOLA 5*. May 1778 

I Certify this to be a true Copy of the Original Examination for 
E. E. WBGG Atty Gen 1 . 

E. 



276 



SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



(Copy) 

(A) Refered to in the annexed affidavit 

SIR: Underneath you have a mem. of Sundries taken on b d . a 
Boat Six Leagues below Manchack which is said was the property 
of M r . Shakspear and that he bro 1 . them from Manchack after that 
place was taken, you will please to dispose of them with the Batteau 
to the best advantage for others & Sir 

Your Humble Serv*. 

JOSEPH CALVERT 
NEW ORLEANS, March 9 th . 1778 
To M r . OLIVER POLLOCK 



615 Skins Deer 

41 Bundles Worsted & thread Stock- 
ings 

1 p 8 . Cottons 

2 Kegs with Gunpowder 

3 Scale Beams 
1 Box Soap 

200W t Indigo or thereabout 
21 Cotton Counterpanes 
13 p". Dimety 

1 p". Carpeting 
5 Carpetts 

2 Bundles Womens Cloaths 
ab*. 60 w*. Beavour 

2 Baskets Silver Buckles 
2 Remnents Dimety 



1 Pair Brass 1 p r . Wooden Scales 
1 Empty Case 

5 Inkstands 1 Pewter Gup 
1 Desk 1 Trunk 

1 Watch 

22 p 8 . Silk Ferreting 

2 p 8 . Bla '.Ribbon 

6 leather Pocket Books 
Some medicines 

60 Shirts and Trowsers 

1 Remnant of Cotton 

2 Remnants Dimothy 

3 Inkstands 

1 p 8 . Silk ferret 

2 Pocket Books 



NAVARRO TO BUCARELI 
May 14,1778 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VENERATED COUNTRYMAN AND FRIEND: I cannot now reply 
to Your Excellency's esteemed and friendly letter of March. 27, be- 
cause the events of the last two days have been very important 
Yesterday the aid which I am sending to Louisiana sailed and the 
ships were out of sight by half past two in the afternoon. They 
would have departed four days earlier but for the tardy measures 
of the navy, which did not have the King's packet-boat in condition 
to sail. 

I beg Your Excellency most humbly to do everything possible to 
send conscripts as well as the allotment, since I am greatly in need 
of them. 



" AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1705-1781 277 

I am entirely at Your Excellency's command. 

Your most humble countryman and servant kisses your hand. 

DIEGO JOSEPH NAVABBO (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor BAILIO FEET DOK ANTOHIO BUCAKEQ. 
I enclose some news I have received from Jamaica. (Rubric) 
HAVANA, May U, 1778. 



Copy of a letter written by the captain of a French irigate-of- 
war named La Inconstante^ just arrived from the port of Jamaica 
on February 15th of this year, to Baron de Cadlnan, colonel in 
chief of the regiment of Dijon and major general of the troops and 
militia of the Windward Islands. 

The English are generally unprovided with everything, and were 
it not for aid brought by a merchant fleet, escorted by a frigate 
and three small corvettes, totaling thirty vessels, I believe they 
would be reduced to the deepest misery. They brought only pro- 
visions and 200 recruits and, on board the frigate, Madam Parker, 
wife of the new admiral. He is expected from day to day. 

Six hundred regular troops compose the forces of this island, 
against which I shall protect myself with the aid of seventy ships 
and all the troops which Santo Domingo can furnish me, and all 
within one month, because they have only one poor ship, which 
must return to Europe, and four or five armed frigates. All their 
war vessels are in other ports. 

I have observed that they fear some invasion on our part. How- 
ever, due to the courtesy of the admiral's orders, I have been well- 
treated all during my stay here, excepting the first day. As they 
must send a frigate to El Guarico, and as I shall not be able to 
be there, I should like to have them treated with the greatest 
courtesy. Therefore, I charge you so to indicate to M. de Lillencourt, 
so that they may be permitted to go freely all over the city, as I 
do in Kingston. 



News from Jamaica received from the master of a fishing boat 
which, as a result of a storm, arrived at that island from Cuba. 

He says that he arrived at the port of Lucia forty leagues from 
Kingston, after losing his vessel, and was taken to the latter port, 
where he learned there were one manual or ship of sixty guns, 
two frigates of twenty-four, a very few small vessels, and about 
eighteen privateers. The garrison consisted of 400 or 500 regular 
troops and two thousand urban militia, composed of English mer- 
chants and Indians. 

He learned that at the end of December, last, there arrived a 
flotilla from Bristol of forty merchant vessels, convoyed by two 



278 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI YALLEY 

ships of seventy guns, and four frigates of eighteen and twenty. On 
April 6, last, there entered that port from London thirty-three mer- 
chant vessels, escorted by two ships of sixty guns and four frigates 
of eighteen and twenty. Near the Windward Islands, they encoun- 
tered two armed American frigates which they commanded to 
surrender, and when these did not obey, they sank them. There 
also arrived on various days nine merchant vessels, which, together 
with those of the same kind mentioned above, are armed with can- 
non, although many are of wood. He heard that there had entered 
the ports of that island various others and that the cargoes of all 
these vessels were composed of few goods, but many provisions and 
staves. 

On the 14th of said April, he made his departure in a boat he had 
bought and, coasting along the south of Jamaica, he noted in the 
port of Norfi, fifteen leagues from Kingston, where vessels return- 
ing to Europe gather, that there were about seventy laden with 
goods of the country. 

HAVANA, May 9, 1778. 

NAVARRO (Rubric). 



WlLLIKG TO 

May 84, 1778 

May it please Tow Excellency 

It is with the utmost mortification I inform your Excellency that 
the sudden and unexpected appearance of the Enemy in the Lakes 
has in a great measure frustrated my Intentions. I expected to 
have had possession of Manchac it is now Ten days since; but the 
unsettled State of my Mens Accounts and the discontent which it 
occasion'd prevented my moving as expeditiously as I could have 
wish'd. However I have the honour to inform you that every thing 
is ready, and myself as well as my Officers should be sorry to see 
the Enemy Fortify themselves so advantageously, could they by 
any means prevent it. C* Eumsey Esq T . reports to me, that he con- 
cieves a party may yet get up time enough to open the Levy, drown 
the Country fell some trees in the Baiu and by Burning and de- 
stroying the Buildings and other materials, put a stop to their Op- 
erations untill such Time as sickness or y e arrival of a Eeinf orcement 
might effectively prevent their fixing themselves Solidly However 
I submit the whole to your Excellencys Superior Judgement fully 
convinc'd that you have the Honour & Interest of the States (my 

, PC, leg- 2370 (English). 



THE KBVOLUTIONABY PERIOD, 1765-1781 279 

Masters) Service as much at Hart as Mm Who has the Honour to 
Subscribe himself with all Respect 
Your Excellencys 

Most Obed most devoted Humble Servant 

JA S . WELLING 
Cap*, in the Sermce of the Indep*. 

United States of America. 
Sor Excellence DON BERHARDO DE GALVEZ 
ORLEANS May &4, 1778 

BUCAEELI TO &ALVEZ 
May 87, 1778* 

No. 3810. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: In reply to what I wrote to the governor 
of Louisiana on the 26th of September last, regarding the shipment 
of tobacco from that province for the monopoly of this kingdom, 
and the remittance that I was making of 60,000 pesos requested by 
him in payment, concerning which I rendered account to Your Ex- 
cellency in letter No. 3325, he solicited an additional 60,000 pesos 
on the estimate that the present and next year's crops, which h 
had contracted for, should yield one million pounds, or slightly more. 

Following the report of the direcdon^ I authorized the re- 
mittance to royal officials of Vera Cruz, of 50,000 pesos, to be reg- 
istered as destined for Louisiana on the frigate Santa Leocadia. I 
trust that this amount will come with the rest of the allotments for 
Havana in the same way as the 60,000 pesos were handled, inas- 
much as the continuation of this method met with the approval of 
the governor of Louisiana", to whom I gave due advice of this ar- 
rangement. 

With matters at this stage, I have just received a letter from the 
governor himself, in which he announces that he has made a ship- 
ment of 29,488 rolls of tobacco by the brigantine Jesus, Maria y 
Joseph. He requests that I withhold the second remittance of 60,000 
pesos, inasmuch as, after covering all charges on the shipment of 
tobacco which he was forwarding, there remained a balance in that 
treasury of 47,440 pesos, 5 reales, and 17% maravedis, to be applied 
to the payment of the next crop, since the yield had not equalled 
their expectations and plans. 

As the 50,000 pesos were in Vera Cruz ready to be sent to their 
destination, I have notified those royal officials to withhold the re- 
mittance, since it is not now required in Louisiana. 

Adi, And, Mexico, 89-4-13. 



280 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

The brigantine abovementioned is conveying Don Antonio Le 
Blanc, who is being sent by the governor of Louisiana to the rappee 
factory. Regarding the arrangements I have made for his trans- 
portation to this capital and the rest of the instructions given for 
the receipt of this tobacco and payment of freights. Your Excel- 
lency will learn from the enclosed copy of my reply to the same 
governor. I trust that Your Excellency will kindly give His 
Majesty a full report. 

May the Lord protect Your Excellency for many years. 

MEXICO, S7th of May 1778. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most attentive servant kisses the hand 
of Your Excellency. 

B FR. DON ANTONIO BUCARELI Y URSTJA (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Senor DON JOSEF DE GALVEZ. 

(Accompanying the foregoing} 

(Copy) 

DEAR SIR: Subsequent to my advice to the direction del tabaco 
in view of Your Lordship's letter of the 1st of the present month 
and documents attached, it has given the necessary order to the 
factor of the revenue tax in Vera Cruz for the receipt, subject to 
requirements of weight and grades, of the 29,488 rolls of tobacco 
shipped by Your Lordship in the brigantine Jestis, Maria y Joseph, 
whose captain and master is Don Miguel Iznardi. The instructions 
are that it is all to be consigned to this capital including the 12 
barrels and 12 cases as they came, and also the remainder loose in 
bales made of grass matting and protected with burlaps. Of the 
latter only three bales are to be sent to Orizaba covering the three 
different grades of Pointe Coupee, Rapide, and Natchitoches, so 
that after the general inspector has taken due note for necessary 
purposes, they may be sent to the cigar factory of that plant, saving 
the screenings for that of the rappee. 

The factor has likewise arranged for the payment to the said 
captain and master of 1,613 pesos on which he adjusted the freight, 
receiving the tobacco by rolls, according to his contract. 

On arrival at this capital the tobacco will be examined by the 
same direction to determine in which manner it arrives in the best 
condition, and to decide whether in future shipments the bunches 
should be barrelled or shipped in bulk. I shall advise Your Lordship 
about this in due time. 

Meanwhile, I pass on to Your Lordship the desire of the direction 
that a portion be sent in bundles so as to make tests in the cigar 



THE EEVOLUTIONABY PERIOD, 1705-1781 281 

f actory to see whether it can be taken care of advantageously at its 
lowest price. This was stated in the report, a copy of which I sent 
to Your Lordship with my letter of the 26th of April, last. 

From the enclosed certified copy of the settlement by the general 
auditor of revenues, it appears that the 119,406 net French pounds 
are equivalent to 127,366 pounds 6 2/5 ounces Castilian charging the 
former the 6 2/3 percent, provided for in draft No. 3 which Tour 
Lordship encloses (giving a difference of 426 pounds 10 10/16 ounces). 
On this basis the Castilian pound is equivalent to 10 11/16 grains in- 
cluding all charges at Vera Cruz. Although the shrinkage in transit 
will have to be deducted when It is known, it never as a rule amounts 
to one real per pound. The advantageous price assures the interest 
of the royal treasury, and its desire that the 700,000 pounds annually, 
will be supplied. However, Your Lordship doubts being able to ship 
this amount even during next year for the vital reasons which you 
explain. This decrease is prudently guarded against by a cor- 
responding increase in the crops of the same year in the towns of 
Cordova and Orizaba. 

Your Lordship states that there remained in coin in your royal 
treasury to be applied to the payment of the next crop, 47,440 pesos, 
5 reales, 17% maravedis, the balance of the 60,000 pesos which I 
arranged to be remitted to Your Lordship for this purpose. In 
your letter of the 12th of last April, Your Lordship advised me of 
having received this sum but asked me for the present not to make 
further remittances of funds. Consequently I have ordered the 
suspension of the 50,000 pesos which, under date of 26th of April 
last, I had informed Your Lordship I was planning to remit. For 
this purpose it was already in Vera Cruz awaiting the vessel that 
I advised Your Lordship was to convey it to Havana, as was done 
in the case of the 60,000 pesos. 

I informed the governor of Vera Cruz of the measures taken for 
the receipt of the tobacco and payment of freights to the captain 
of the said brigantine that conveyed it. He asked my decision about 
the matter in view of the letter he received from Your Lordship, 
a copy of which he forwarded to me. Your Lordship also advised 
me of it in yours. I have ordered that Don Antonio Le Blanc, 
whom Your Lordship sent on the same brigantine by virtue of my 
request on behalf of the rappee factory to be established here, 
shall be provided convenient transportation, if not already arranged, 
to this capital, and assisted with whatever he requires and desires. 
On his arrival we shall talk personally with him regarding the salary 
he will be assigned. One third of it will be deducted and left as 
security to be applied to the reimbursement of the 3,500 pesos which 
Your Lordship made him supply from existing revenue funds. 



282 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

This is all I can say for the present in reply to Your Lordship 
regarding the matters mentioned in your letter. I shall attend Le 
Blanc, as Your Lordship recommends, in all he solicits if it is within 
my power, so as to have the satisfaction of pleasing Your Lordship 
as I desire. 

God guard Your Lordship for many years. 

MEXICO, mh of May 1778. 

Your most attentive and faithful servant kisses the hand of Your 
Lordship. 

B FRET DON ANTONIO BUCARELI T URSUA 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

The above is a true copy of the official letter sent to the Governor 
of Louisiana, which I attest. 

MEXICO, 7th of May, 1778. 

MELCHOR DE PERAMAS (Rubric) 

WILLING TO POLLOCK 
May 30, 1778 **" 



ORLEANS 80 th May 1778 
[Copy] 

SIR : I address you in this manner not only to prevent any Verbal 
altercation but as a method the most fitting both the Circumstance, 
and the Command I have the honor to hold in the States Service 
In the first place to Begin with my Instructions ; the following Ex- 
tracts will serve to specify their Tenour After being ordered to 
make prize of all British Property on the Mississippi Eiver I was in- 
structed to apply to the Governor of this Province for Liberty to 
make Sale of them. That obtained I am again Instructed to pay 
One moiety of the Net proceeds into Your hands as Agent for the 
Congress Now Sir how differently these matters have been con- 
ducted, you are better acquainted with than myself. But it is my 
Business at present to Insist upon a total change of Procedure 

My Men and Officers are discontented, myself displeased and the 
Governor himself highly disatisfied with Your Conduct and what 
is of the most serious consequence My Men are deserting and the 
American Bank as it is termed is become proverbially Ridiculous In 
a word the Service suffers and our Enemys rejoice This therefore 
is to insist that you forthwith make out all your accounts so that the 
one half belonging to me and the Men be instantly divided and that 
you have the Ballance that is due on that Score ready to pay into 
my Hands on Monday or Tuesday next; Free of other charge or 
Commission than those of the Vendue Master. 



** AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 283 

As to M r . Goadings attempt to their Accounts it must ever prove 
abortive, unless the Cash is ready to pay the Ballance that is due, 
this being done I am well convinced there will be no further dis- 
content and that the Men will chearfully return to their Duty 
I need say no more than that the Service and honor of the States 
requires your immediate complyance, and that every ill effect which 
may arise, will be entirely owing to your Neglect I have kept a 
Copy of this to lay before The Congress and Govemour if needful! 
I am Sir 

Your mo : h ble Serv 1 

(Signed) JAMBS WTT.T.TKG 

Oaptatm m Service of tJie 
United Indep*. States of America 

BARKER TO GALVEZ 

May SO, 1778 221 

MANCHAC, May SO, 1778 

SIR : I have the honor to command a considerable detachment of 
British troops sent from Pensacola to establish a post at this place 
as a result of the plundering perpetrated by some miscreants, subjects 
in rebellion against His Britanic Majesty on the Mississippi River. 
Finding that the robberies and destruction they have committed are 
much greater than was reported in Pensacola, particularly the theft 
and destruction of cattle, I take the liberty of asking Your Ex- 
cellency please to permit the Spanish subjects under your jurisdic- 
tion to sell livestock and other fresh provisions (as we have enough 
salt ones) to the garrison under my command. This favor I doubt 
not but that Your Excellency will grant in view of the good harmony 
existing between the courts of Spain and Great Britain. 

I have the honor to be with the greatest respect, 

Your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

WILLIAM: BARKER 
Captam Commanding m Mtmehac 

To His Excellency Don Bernardo de Galvez, Governor of Louisiana. 

POLLOCK TO WILLING 

May 81, 1778 222 

NEW ORLEANS 31'* May 1778 
[Copy] 

SIR : In Answer to Your very Extraordinary and unexpected Letter 
of Yesterday which I believe you had given yourself a moment Be- 

~~*i AGI, PC, leg. 2370. 
*AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English), 



284 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

flection you would never have sign'd, But in Case You should con- 
tinue in opinion of your present Sentiments, Those Gentlemen whom 
you threaten and have already charged my Character, shall in a full 
and clear Exposition of Facts be convinced that You have grossly 
misrepresented matters the Accounts shall be drawn out as You 
desire and had You settled the valuation of the Ship every thing 
would been closed before How far you have conducted yourself 
agreeable to your Instructions I leave to your own Eeflections. The 
Prize Goods You put voluntarily into my hands and desired me to 
purchase Merchandise for the amount of Your part to be sent up to 
Fort Pitt for your benefit I have speculated accordingly; till I found 
your Departure from here was uncertain ; The disatisf action of Your 
Men and Officers, It cannot possibly be that I am Cause off : I have 
furnished You with every thing You demanded and supported a 
number of Men at no Small Expence, and at same time obliged to 
advance Heavy Sums of Money to Bateau Men and others to carry up 
the States Goods, and yet under these circumstances, you are not 
ignorant of the large quantities forwarded far beyond the funds in 
my hands, which I have chearfully run myself in debt for, and for 
which I am not afraid of being rewarded by My Masters the Hon. ble 
Congress whom you make a pretence of laying your unsupportable 
Grievances before; In order to throw the Odiom upon me; as to 
the Governor I believe he is displeased But whether at my Conduct 
or Your Military Maneuvers he is the best Judge 

Before I conclude let me Councill you to be more cautious whom 
you touch as some how or other the Enemy is acquainted with all 
Your proceedings 

I am Sir 

Your most Obed* Servant 

(Signed) O LR - POLLOCK 

JAMES WILLING Esq r . Captain in the Service of the American 
States. 

WILLING TO GALVEZ 



June 

NEW ORLEANS l at . Jime 1778 



SIR : It grieves me to be under the necessity of Troubling Your 
Excellency On any account. But, as what I have to say at present, 
Concerns the States I have the Honor to serve As well as the Interest 
of My Men and Officers, I flatter myself you will Treat it with your 
accustomed Patience and Politeness. Facts, that Speak for them- 



8 AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REYOLUTIONABY PBKIOD, 1765-1781 285 

selves need no embellishment of Language, the following are so 
obvious, that I have not the least doubt but it will prove a matter of 
Amazement to Your Excellency how any Person assuming to him- 
self the Name of Gentleman should attempt to support or apologize 
for an Act of so Atrocious and UngratefuU a nature as is that of 
which I have to accuse a M r . Watts 

When this Gentlemans Slaves were seized for the use of the 
American States by Order of their Agent, the Officer who commanded 
the Detachment; from motives of humanity suffered him to remain 
with Four Negroe Men ; to assist him in rowing down his Family to 
Orleans for which I have his Receipt to produce As a farther 
proof of my Attention to the Misfortunes of his Family I purchased 
Four others such as Mr. Watts pointed out to be delivered here on 
the same Terms as those which the whole should be sold for, Nay it 
was my Intention not to have troubled him for immediate payment 
untill Urged by his perfidious and Ungentlemanlike Behaviour. 
These Four I delivered to him myself, And in the account sent him 
charg'd only 225 Dollars Seraba was a Negroe purchased by Lieut. 
George and is evident since Was enticed away by him and kept con- 
cealed. For notwithstanding He declared upon His Word of Honor 
he knew nothing about him, He was discovered in the most shame- 
full and Ridiculous Disguise going up with him in the same Boat 
this Afternoon. Senegal another which makes the 10 in JTumber, 
Husband of One of the Women, He desired one to send to him which 
I did about an Hour after the delivery of the others But upon his 
Honour again which I humbly conceive is not much to be depended 
on He declares he never received him However I am perfectly con- 
vinced nay have the justest Reason to imagine that he put him On- 
board one of the English Frigates with the First Four ; This Gentle- 
man is now about quitting Your Territorys to join his former Friends 
and settle on his own Plantation where the Royalists are about forti- 
fying themselves, and I am persuaded intended to Cheat me out of 
the whole notwithstanding his Boasted Honour JTay he even threat- 
ened me and said he was protected by Your Excellencys Pass in the 
Act, which Declaration I am convinced is equally falacious with all 
his other assertions. I therefore hope Your Excellency will Compre- 
hend thoroughly the State of the matter and Render me such Justice 
in Behalf of the Congress as is due to the Cause, and is consistent 
with that Honor and Integrity for which you are so eminently Con- 
spicuous and which I am persuaded be it what it may it will be 
highly approved of by the States my Masters. With Respect to the 
Price I submit it to Your Excellencys Judgment, But humbly pray 



286 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

he may not depart without returning tlie aforesaid Ten Negroes or 
their Value I have the honor to be with the most profound Eespect 
Sir 

Your most devoted and Obliged humble Servant 

JA S . WILLING Capt n . 

N. B. besides the above mentioned Negroes these Three Slaves were 
left with M r . Watts Daphne, Amy, & Philesia, 

GALVEZ TO GALVEZ 
June 9, 1778* 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : I refer to the royal order of the 20th of Janu- 
ary last, in which Your Excellency advises me that the King desires 
me to aid the commandant general of the Provincias Internas, Don 
Teodoro de Croix, in the war which he is waging against the Apaches 
on the frontiers of the provinces adjoining this colony, with the help 
of friendly northern Indian nations and that of the commandant 
of Natchitoches. I am advised that I should employ in this all those 
efforts and measures which may be possible, but without weakening 
the forces and posts under my command. In reply I must inform 
Your Excellency that in consequence of a dispatch which I received 
from said Don Teodoro de Croix, I ordered the commandant of 
STatchitoches, Don Atanasio de Mezieres, to proceed to San Antonio 
de Bexar, as the former requested of me, to aid him in the expedition 
which he was undertaking, but without soliciting the aid of Indians. 
However, whenever he does so, I shall try to provide it with all 
speed possible, issuing for this purpose the proper orders to the said 
de Mezieres so that he may assemble as many as he can and proceed 
to the place of meeting indicated by the aforementioned commandant 
general. 

Recently I received another dispatch from the latter under date of 
the sixth of January last, in which he requests me to proceed with 
a body of hunters to assist him in the aforementioned project, to 
which I could not assent ; firstly, on account of not having the order 
of His Majesty to absent myself from this jurisdiction and finding 
myself highly embarrassed by the revolutions which occurred in this 
province between the Americans and English, as I reported to Your 
Excellency; and secondly, because the few hunters who are in this 
province are very useful for its subsistence, because of the buffalo 
meat, bear grease, and tallow with which they supply it, as well as the 

3**AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-11. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 28? 

skins which they get from the trade they carry on with the Indians. 
It is not possible to count on these people in any emergency, inasmuch 
as they do not stay in this city longer than the short time it 
for their sales and purchases. Upon finishing, they lay in their sup- 
plies and start out on another trip, during which they live with 
the Indians for years at a time. All of which I report to Your Ex- 
cellency so that you may be pleased to bring it to the attention of 
His Majesty. 

May God preserve Your Excellency many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, 9th of June^ 1778. 

Most Excellent Sir, your must attentive servant Msses your hand 

BEKKABDO DE G&LYEZJ (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Senor DON JOSEF DE 



POLLOCK TO GALVEZ 
June 16,1778* 

ORLEANS 16*\ Jime 1778 



SIR : The fortune of War having thrown a small Detachment of 
American Troops into your Government, to whom your Excellency 
has been pleased to grant all the Hospitality becoming the Greatness 
of your Prince, and your own Goodness, 

I am highly sensible notwithstanding, that their tarry here, must 
be disagreeable to your Excellency, and the Inhabitants of this 
Province; as well on account of the critical situation of publick 
Affairs, as that of the present scarcity of all kind of provisions, 
particularly Bread; which your own Subjects cannot procure: which 
gives me great pain to experience. Yet we are (in this situation) 
unfortunately surrounded by our Enemies, and should we attempt to 
proceed up the Eiver, we have nothing to expect but the inhuman 
Barbarity which is generally committed by those Savages whom 
Britain is basely reduced to employ against us. Therefore I have 
in vain applyed to procure Merchant Ships to transport this Detach- 
ment home to our Colonies by Sea under Spanish or French Colours, 
but as I find this impracticable I must now in the Name of my 
Masters The Honorable The Congress apply to your Excellency to 
grant me permission to put our own Ship in order for Defense, so 
that I may embark all the Officers and Men belonging to said De- 
tachment, as soon as possible for our Colonies, by which Your Ex- 
cellency and your inhabitants will be releived from any farther 

AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



288 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

inconveniences that may arise in your present alarming Situation, 
and at same time be Gratefully acknowledged by, 

Your Excellency's Most Obedient and very Humble Servant 

O LB . POLLOCK 

Agent for the United Independent States of America. 
His Excellency Dox BERNAEDO DE GALVEZ. 

POLLOCK AND PICKLES TO GALVEZ 

June 18, 1778 22e 

NEW ORLEANS 18 Jwne 1778 

SIR: I am honored with Your favor of Yesterday, in answer to 
mine of the 16 th . Instant 

And as Your Excellency is good enough to grant a conditional 
Permission, to fit out the Ship, named the Morris, in order to carry 
the American Party from this place to the Continent. 

Captain William Pickles the Commander of the said Vessel!, does 
hereby join with me, in giving our Word of Honor, and every thing 
that is sacred, to Your Excellency, that we have no other Design, or 
Intention, and that we will strictly comply with the Contents of your 
Letter, & the Conditions therein mentioned; which favor will be ac- 
knowledged by the United Independent States of America, as also 

by- 
Sir 

Your Most Obedient & Very Humble Servant 

O LR . POLLOCK 
W M . PICKLES 
His Excellency Doisr BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

BARKER TO GALVEZ 

Jwte m, 1778 m 

SIR: I have the honor of your Excellency's Letter of the 9 th . 
instant in answer to mine of the 6 th by Captain MIntosh. 

Though I never could entertain a Doubt but that you would pay 
proper attention to the Accusations against M r . Harte it gives me 
great Satisfaction to find that you are taking immediate Measures 
for that purpose; and as soon as I am informed that the Offender 
John Harte is in New Orleans to stand his Tryal, I shall send either 
one or (if necessary) both Gentlemen (whose Affidavits I have trans- 
mitted to your Excellency) personally to appear, and give their Evi- 



I, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 
AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 289 

dence against such an Offender whose Crimes (as an Incendiary) 
would condemn him by the British Laws to immediate death. 

The said Harte has repeatedly boasted with much Satisfaction 
before your Commanding Officer and others at Point Coupee of Hie 
depredations he has committed, saying that had an order to do it 
from one Oliver Pollock and a man of the name of Pickles, residing 
in New Orleans which must (in my opinion) shew a Contempt to all 
Government. 

That I should prefix twenty four hours for your Excellency's 
Answer, You cannot think strange whilst that rebellious Banditti is 
permitted to keep Guards and muster their men in your Town and 
other parts of your Government. 

If I had had the least Doubt that your Excellency would not have 
taken immediate Notice of the Accusations made against the said 
Harte; I should have thought an hour's delay would be improper to 
risk, as others might follow the Example of that daring rascal, and 
then return to the Spanish side, as a Cover for their Villainies. 

By the latter part of your Excellency's Letter (if rightly under- 
stood by me) I must suppose You to have misapprehended my mean- 
ing, for I could not from your known Character as a Gentleman 
mistake myself so much as to require anything that you could not 
with honor grant to me. 

I have the honor to return my Thanks to your Excellency, for the 
Favors granted in your Letter of the 4 th . instant, and shall take par- 
ticular Care that your Indulgence shall not be abused and am with 
the greatest Eespect. 

Your Excellency's Most Obedient & very humble Servant 

WILL : BARKER 

Captain in his Britcmnic Majestys 
Service Commanding the Fort Mcmchac 
MANCHAC S% nd Jw,e 1778. 

P. S. Captain Miller, who will have the honor to deliver this to 
your Excellency, goes down on his ordinary business, will wait on 
you on his leaving Town 
His Excellency DON BERNARDO GALVEZ. 

700296 49 vol. 221 



290 



SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



CEXSTJS OF NEW ORLEANS 

June, 1778 s * 
Census of the city of New Orleans as of the month of June, 1778. 

Kecapitulation of the 68 blocks forming the city of New Orleans. 







Males 






] 


Females 










1 Age 
from 
birth 
to 
13th 
year 


2 Age 
from 
13 
years 
to 49 
years 


3 Age 
from 
49 
years 
to old 
age 


Total 
of 
males 


1 

Age 


2 
Age 


3 

Age 


Total 
of fe- 
males 


Total 
of both 
sexes 
General 
total 


Whites 


253 


475 


101 


829 


254 


397 


72 


723 


1,552 


Freemen of 
mixed blood. . 


53 


40 




93 


63 


90 


2 


155 


248 


Free Negroes . . . 
Slaves of mixed 
blood 


9 
72 


13 
33 


6 
1 


28 
106 


8 
52 


46 
53 


23 
2 


77 
107 


105 
213 


Negro slaves . . . 


98 


315 


43 


456 


87 


363 


35 


485 


941 


Total . . . 


485 


876 


151 


1,512 


464 


949 


134 


1,547 


3,059 


Census of last 
year, 1777, 
amounted to . 


455 


720 


155 


1,330 


483 


863 


133 


1,479 


2,809 


Difference from 
last year . 


30 


156 


4 


182 


19 


86 


1 


68 


250 




More 


More 


Less 


More 


Less 


More 


More 


More 


More 



There are 302 militiamen. 

A. That in this number of 250 persons above that of last year in the city, there are 
118 male whites and 91 female whites, and [torn]. This census shows 302 militiamen 
tn town the last showed only 136. There is an increase of 196 persons. 



McGlLLIVBAY TO GALVEZ 

July 3, 1778 

May it please your Excellency 

SIR: There is no doubt, but that your Excellency, a Gentleman 
so much respected for politeness & a willingness to oblige, will 
permit the Bearer, Doctor Dallas (not long since from Jamaica) 
to stay some time at New Orleans to settle some private Business. 

He is a Gentleman of an undoubted good character, who intended 
(bo settle upon this Eiver & for that purpose, but, in an unlucky 
hour, sent a number of Slaves & goods of various kinds before him, 
which he lost by a Seizure made some time ago. As his Case may 
be really thought hard, no doubt it will be an inducement to your 
Excellency, to shew him all favour imaginable. 

M r . Graham, an Officer in his Majesty's Service, goes down with 
M r , Dallas, and M r . Gordon, an Evidence among many, that may 
be had, against one Hart, who is not worthy the name of Man, 



i f PC, leg. 191 (French). 
* AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 291 

having descended to the Lowest meannesses of Villainy 5 & wil $ I 
hope, meet with that doom, which, your Excellency wou'd wish in- 
flicted upon all such. 

Captain Barker writes you fully on this head* 
I have the honour to be y. r most Obed. 1 

JOHIST McGmt*i?RAT 
L. C* Commanding at MancJmo 
MANSHAC 3 d July 1778 

DALLAS TO MoGm.TVRAY 
July 8, 1778^ 

SIR: Having lately traveled over the District of Natchez and 
been at pains to collect every Information which might in any 
Measure tend to the publick Interest, I now think it a duty incumbent 
on me to lay the same before you as Commanding Officer of Ms 
Majestys Troops here, in order that you may the better be enabled 
to persue such steps as may appear most Conducive to promote the 
publick service, and as I have no sinister or interested Views in my 
representation (farther than becomes an Individual who wishes well 
to his country) , I flatter myself its authenticity will not be doubted 
and that you will pardon the Liberty which I now take upon me 
in addressing you on such a Subject. 

It is with particular pleasure I inform you that the People in 
general express the most grateful Sense of the Measures which you 
persued whilst amongst them, to restore Harmony, Order, and 
Security to that lately distracted Settlement, they cannot help how- 
ever regretting that the publick service has rendered it necessary 
for you to quit them so soon, and to leave their Country in such 
an unprotected and defenceless Situation 

I beg Leave to assure you from the best Information which I 
could gather upon the spot, that the whole Number of Men in the 
Settlement Capable to bear Arms, do not exceed at present fifty 
including the Bangers left at the Fort under the Command of Capt 
Jackson, and I verily believe that were twenty Men properly 
Conducted to invade the Settlement (which from the Number of 
Expreses sent up the River by Willing, and the bad Inclinations 
of many of the Hunters there is great reason to expect may be the 
Case,) they might take Poscession of the Fort, and again distress 
that late flourishing Country, and this Assertion will not appear 
extraordinary when you consider the total Want of Discipline which 
at present prevails, and the little Harmony and Confidence in each 
other which unhappyly reigns too much among the People. 

*BL f (English) . 



292 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

It appears to me to be extreemly unfortunate that a proper Post 
of Eegular Troops is not established in that Settlement, under the 
Command of an experienced Officer who by his good Conduct would 
conciliate the Affections of the People and give a Firmness and a 
Stability to the Settlement, as well as to Conduct the Publick Works 
now carrying on at the Fort (at a seemingly very great Expence 
to Government,) and which I am afraid for want of a proper 
Engineer, will not at last answer the purposes which might naturally 
be expected, where so much money is likely to be expended. 

The Appointment of Mr. Hutchins to a Command in your Regi- 
ment seems to create great uneasiness amongst the People as they 
alledge (but with what Justice I know not) that he allows his 
private Eesentments too far to influence his publick Conduct, in 
so much that many of the best Settlers have told me that in the 
Event of his getting the Command there, they must abandon the 
Settlement from their knowledge of the unrelentless perserverence 
with which he will persecute them if in power. 

It is with much Concern that I have lately heard of the Insinua- 
tions, which have been thrown out against the Loyalty of Mr. Hiorn 
who as far as I can learn from the People and my own knowledge 
of that Gentleman's principals are void of Foundation as I have 
been universally told that he has proved himself one of the greatest 
Friends which the Settlement has had and from his Influence with 
Willing has in a great Measure been the means of preventing the 
Ruin of the Inhabitants, as well as an Active and vigilant Majistrate, 
but of this you will be able to judge having been in that Country 
so lately yourself. 

As from the Conduct of the Spanish Governor, there are many 
Reasons to dread a Rupture with the Court of Spain perhaps noth- 
ing could more effectually secure the Settlements upon this River, 
as well as anoy our Enemies than a few properly constructed Gallies, 
advantagiously situated up the River Mississippi as they could at 
all Times promote the service in whatever Quarter they might be 
most necessary as well as prevent any Desent of the Rebels from 
above, which from many Circumstances, there is great reason to 
dread; Four Tradesmen who were sent up to repair Mr. Blommorts 
Mill have deserted, and as I traced them to Point Couppee, I think 
it almost certain that they are gone to give Intelligence to Willing's 
Party, and their being suspicious Characters renders this Supposi- 
tion by no means improbable, it therefore become more necessary 
that a speedy Reinforcement should be sent to reinforce the Post 
at the Natchez, before any attempts can be made against it. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 293 

In passing through the Chactaws it gave me great Pleasure to 
find that Mr. Charles Stuart had by Ms prudent Conduct brought 
that Tribe to such a good Way of thinMng, that altho 5 they Com- 
plained of the seasons being sickly, they were nevertheless willing 
to turn out to a Man 5 did the publick Service require their Aid, and 
they also declared that in future they would no longer persist in 
their Visits to Orleans as they found that part of their Conduct 
to be disagreeable to their beloved Man at Pensacola; Whose 
Character I cannot help respecting for his Activity in promoting 
the Welfare of the Province. 

As I set out tomorrow for Orleans, and have but little Time to 
write, I therefore beg you'll excuse this hasty Production and that 
you'll believe me at all times to be with respect and Esteem Sir 
Your most ob. 1 & very hum.* serv 1 

JAMES DALLAS 

MANSHAC 3 d July, 1778. 

Coll. 6 JOHN McGlLLIVRAT. 



BLOMMART TO 

July 6, 1778 m 

SIR: This morning Mons r Menard left this on his way from ihe 
Arcansaws to Orleans he informs us that a Party of the Eebells 
commanded by a Cap 1 . Conner from Fort Pitt with two Barges & 
22 Men & a Serjent arivd there Expecting to meet with M r . Willing 
or at least his Orders as pr. Appointment but on hearing Our Num- 
bers & Warlike preparations they have pushed back & its more then 
likely they are gone to Join a Cap 1 . Linn who was to have sett off 
with a Party of men to reduce the Illinous a few days After his de- 
parture M r Menard informs me that this Leader of Eebbells was 
mett by 22 Pirogues & two Barges full of Savages below the Mouth 
of the Ohio, that they wanted him to goe on shore to them but that 
he declined their Invitation I am not clear that for the Above 
reasons that they dare Venture up again & should they be mett by 
our Deserters or any one who can give them an Acct. of our Week 
situation they may be bold Enough to once more force their way 
down to Join Willing. 

We are doing the needfull to the Publick Works as you Ordered 
we have one Bastion Compleeted two Garages have the Guns Mounted 
the Gate Framed & going on as fast as our Week situation will 
permitt. I long to hear from you its now 17 days Since you left this 

aaiBL, (English). 



294 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

I hope you will f av r . us with some News from you I beg leave to 
refer you to Cap 1 Jackson meanwhile I am Sir 

Your most Eespectfull Humb le Ser*. 

J. J. BLOMMAKT (Rubric). 

NATCHEZ the 6th July 1778 

Colonell JOHK 

[Addressed :] 

On His Majes*. Service 
Colonell JOHN 

Commander m Chief at Manshac. 

HAKRISONT TO POLLOCK 
July 7,1778* 

OLIVER POLLOCK Esq r . 

NEW OELEANTS 7 th . July 1778 
(Copy) 

SIR: M r , Eobinson has shewn me a very affecting Letter, on a 
Subject of the most extraordinary nature, addressed to him here, 
from my Uncle Captain Phillip Barbour in the Goal at Pensacola, 
the 11 th . ult . 

You are acquainted Sir that as he was not permitted to sell his 
Corn here, and that You would not allow him to send it to Pensacola. 
You agreed that he might ship it to the West Indies in order to 
obtain a Market, and thereby enable him to discharge a Debt he 
owed Mess rs . Morgan & Mather of this place. Upon which He and 
the said Morgan & Mather Chartered a Vessell for Barbados, and 
dispatched her with the said Corn on board. 

But it now appears by the abovementioned Letter, that a most 
Villainous and Treacherous Scheme has been put in execution by 
said Morgan & Mather, not only to send said Corn to Pensacola (by 
private Order given to the Captain) but also to betray into the 
Hands of his Enemies a Gentleman entirely innocent, and who in 
every part of his Conduct respecting public Affairs particularly, 
has acted with the greatest Prudence, and Integrity. 

I must therefore request you Sir, as Agent for the Hon ble . The 
Continental Congress of America, in whose Service I have the honor 
to be, that You will make enquiry into the Nature of and Circum- 
stances attending this "black Affair, and know if his Excellency Gov- 
ernour Galvez, permits any of his Subjects, or any British Subject 
under his Protection, to order a french Vessell cleared out of this 



AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 295 

Port for the West Indies, to enter into Pensacola, entirely to the 
prejudice, and hurt of the States of America; and in a base manner 
to betray into the Hands of His Enemies, a Gentleman whose Char- 
acter is unsullied, and generaly esteemed. 

His Sufferings now in goal at Pensacola, tho 5 of the most distressing 
nature, is not as much the Object of Enquiry at present, but Satis- 
faction from the Authors of his Calamities I pray for. Inclosed I 
send You his Letter for Your better Government, and must one 
more beg Your Attention to my Bequest. I am 

Sir 

Your Very Hble. Serv*. 

(Signed) RICHARD HARRISON 

LETBA TO GALVBZ 

July 11,177s 2 * 3 

ST. Louis, July 11, 1778 
No. 171. 
Senor Governor General 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST HONORED SIR: The only diversion of 
Don Joseph Piernas during the voyage was gambling at dice with 
the sailors of the boats, and in order that I should not hear the racket, 
they used to go off in the woods, from whence my ensign would come 
back, sometimes with his face swollen, and at others, all covered with 
dirt and limping. As soon as I ascertained who had the dice, I seized 
them and threw them away, and this put an end to the fighting and 
wagering of trousers and shirts. 

When Don Joseph Piernas passed through Manchac he made 
friends with a merchant of the English part named Mr. Filpatris, 
who, not knowing the bad character of this man, entrusted him with 
a draft for 329 pesos and 6 reales on M. Dubroll, a resident of this 
post, in order that he might collect the amount and remit same to Mm 
as promptly as possible. He kept the draft in his possession less than 
four days, selling it on the boat for the price of five kegs of rum and 
a barrel of gun powder, but later, having arranged a more profitable 
sale, he tried to break the first one. This resulted in an argument 
and the affair came to my notice. I was not surprised (considering 
who was involved) and was glad to know about it, because the 
owner of the draft is a foreigner, while the man who won his 
confidence was a Spanish officer. I immediately settled all the trouble 
and took possession of the draft. I am writing Mr. Filpatris by this 
opportunity that it is in my hands and that he will be paid as 
promptly as possible. 

*AGI. PC/le* 1. 



296 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Piernas has been telling everybody that, on account of my little 
ability and lack of experience in tlie government of this post. Your 
Lordship had appointed him to be my adviser or counsellor. I have 
not paid the slightest attention to this nor to other things of the 
same kind which have come to my notice, partly because I consider 
him not the kind of man to be able to discredit me, and partly because 
his deceit is manifest, as everyone sees the contempt with which I 
treat him. 

I remain with all respect at the orders of Your Lordship and 
pray God to preserve your life for many years. 

My very dear Sir, your affectionate servant kisses Your Lordship's 
hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Eubric) 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 



[Draft in margin, first and second page] 

I was greatly pleased to learn of your safe arrival at your destina- 
tion after a 93 days' voyage, as you report in your letter of July 11, 
and that four days later you took over your command with the proper 
formalities, causing great rejoicing among those settlers. This gives 
me great pleasure and I shall await the reports which you promise 
to send me next winter. 

Don Francisco Cruzat has delivered the two swivel guns and you 
have done well to keep the flag. 

The said Cruzat has been paid the 1,752 pesos advanced during the 
first six months of this year, upon presenting the certificate which 
you had given him. 

From your other letter of the same date I take note of all you 
say regarding the conduct of Piernas, and I greatly approve of the 
way you comported yourself with him, as well as the action you 
took in connection with the obligation given him by Fitzpatris for 
collection. 

August 31, '75. 

LEBYA TO GALVEZ 

July 11, 1778* 
No. 173 

ST. Lotris, July 11, 1778. 
Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: Having been told by 
M. Maxent shortly before my departure from your city that I would 
find at this post a year's supply of presents for the Indians, I re- 

PC, leg. 1. 



THE KEVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 297 

quested Don Francisco Cruzat to deliver them to me. To this he 
replied that he had not received these presents; but that it was true 
that last year M. Pedro Lacled came to him and asked to be given 
some merchandise in payment for one year's presents for the Indians 
which Your Lordship had commanded him to advance at this post. 
He said he did not comply since the presents were few and of poor 
quality. I report this to Your Lordship for your information. 

I remain with all respect at the orders of Your Lordship, praying 
God to preserve your life many years. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric) 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

POLLOCK TO GALVEZ 
July 20, 1778 235 

NEW ORLEANS 20 th July 1778. 

Sra : After the restitution of M r . Ross's Vessell and Cargo agree- 
able to Your Order which was sometime ago taken as a Prize by Cap- 
tain Calvert. M r . Boss has been pleased to make further Demands 
[torn] as detention of his Vessell and a number of Articles which he 
very unjustly pretends were taken or rather missing out of the Vessel, 
and in short runs up an Account against its Captors for upwards 
of a thousand Dollars which Account tho 5 quite absurd I have at the 
desire of Lieutenant Governour Bouligny submitted to be examined 
into by Mess re . [torn] and Beauregard, and upon their bringing Cal- 
vert & M r . Ross before them, they find it too Delicate a matter for 
them to determine. In consequence of which I now beg leave to ac- 
quaint Your Excellency, that I do not by any means conceive that the 
Captors are by any means liable for such Demands though Your Ex- 
cellency has been pleased to deem all the Prizes made by us from the 
British, from the Entrance of the Eiver to Manchac Illegal, and 
obliged us make Restitution thereof; as we are [now] doing by 
our [torn] ... I am convinced will [torn] . . . until lull Resti- 
tution [torn] by Great Britain for the Vessels seized on this River 
belonging to the United Independent States. From these Circum- 
stances it is to be hoped Your Excellency will allow there was a 
foundation for our Proceedings in making Retaliation upon them 
which causes a Right and the Law says in the Courts of Admiralty 
of all Civilized Nations, that, when there is a Cause or even Suspicion 
for Seizure, no Damages are to be paid by the Captors duly author- 
ized for so doing. 

""" AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English) 



298 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

And as I humbly conceive Your Excellency will allow there has 
been sufficient Cause for our Seizing and detaining the Different 
Prizes ffiven up I hope Your Excellency will in future take no Cog- 
nizance thereof whatever. 

I beg Your Excellency will hand me an Answer to my two last 
Letters I have the Honor to be with great Respect 

Your Excell y 's Most Obedient and Very humble Servant 

O LR . POLLOCK Agent 

His Excellency DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

LEBYA TO GALVEZ 

July 81, 1778 236 

ST. Louis, July 81, 1778 
Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: The following Indian 
nations have come to welcome me: the Kickapoos, Sacs, Mahas, Mas- 
cutens, Missouris, Great and Little Osages. According to reports I 
have received, about a dozen more are still to come. Some nations 
have sent me word that they will leave their dogs to guard their 
villages, that is, that they will come with their wives and children. 
The Missouri nation has done this and has been here for two weeks, 
eating us out of house and home. There are only two ways of treating 
these people, either run them out with guns or feed them. For the 
former they give no cause, nor have we the forces to do so. I am 
following the latter, although I have found in the archives a regula- 
tion or statement drawn up by Don Pedro Piernas of January 4, 5 7l, 
concerning the rations of bread which are to be given to the Indians 
during the year. However, those times were very different from the 
present. The war with the English is causing a great number of 
Indian tribes to go from one side to the other without knowing which 
side to take; or, more certainly, terrified by the Bostoneses, and in 
order to escape their anxieties for a few days, they come to this post 
under the pretext of asking for advice on their troubles, and consume 
many rations of bread. These were not distributed in the year '71 
because of the absence of any such reason. Since my arrival here, 
the fewest that have been distributed in one day is fifty rations, and 
there have been days when it was two hundred. Each nation which 
arrives, even though a foreign one, must be given not only bread but 
also a present. We are using for these, (and they are not sufficient) 
goods which were intended for some tribes which did not come to 
get them. I advise Your Lordship of this matter so that you may 

** AGI, PC, leg. 2358. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 299 

tell me whether my certificate for the total of the rations which 
have been distributed to the Indians will be honored by your treasury 
in favor of the purveyor or only the number specified in the above- 
mentioned order of 71 that is, 1,072 rations. 

I remain with all respect at the orders of Your Lordship and pray 
God to preserve your life for many years. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses your hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric) 
Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ, 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 

July HI, 1778 237 

ST. Louis, July SI, 1778. 
Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: At the beginning of 
August next, traders will leave this post for the nations of the Mis- 
souri. I have divided this commerce up into small shares, thereby 
filling many needs. The details of this (which I shall send to Your 
Lordship this winter) appear to have greatly pleased the public, with 
the exception of those who, although not totally deprived of a share, 
expected a larger one. 

I beg Your Lordship please to send me four or six medals for the 
Indians, as I have already distributed the two that Don Francisco 
Cruzat gave me, one to the second chief of the Great Osages, 
and the other to the first chief of the Little Osages. It is necessary 
to give one to the second chief of the Little Osages, not only be- 
cause he was promised one by my predecessors, but also because he 
is an Indian much beloved by his people. I have told him in full 
council that he may come here in November to get it, and that I 
shall give it to him without fail. The other medals are to be kept 
on hand to be given out if some good Indian has to be rewarded or 
some bad one cajoled. 

The settlers here are now harvesting their wheat, which by divine 
mercy is most abundant. The same is expected of the corn crop. 

I remain with all respect at the orders of Your Lordship and pray 
God to preserve your life many years. 

Your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lordship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric) 
Senor DON BERNARDO DE 



, PC, leg. 2358, 



300 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

LETBA TO GA&VEZ 
July 25,1778* 

No. 189. ST. Loms, July 25, 1778. 

Senor Governor General. 

MT VERT DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: Under tlie date of the 
llth of this month I advised Your Lordship that next year's presents 
for the Indians have not been received by me. Now I have to report 
that of those for this year I have received only a small part of that 
which M. Maxent put on board my boat. He assured me that the 
rest would be delivered by M. Lacled. However, as he has not done 
so, and as the visits of the Indians and the gifts I have to distribute 
are very numerous, I advise Your Lordship of this, as well as of the 
action I have taken in order not to make the Indians discontented, 
which is that of ordering the merchants of this post to provide me 
with what may be needed for such presents. It has not yet been 
necessary to put the order into execution, but I know that they are 
taking it with very bad grace on account of the scarcity and costliness 
of their merchandise this year. I therefore beg Your Lordship, in 
order that I may return to them the goods they may supply, to direct 
M. Maxent to send me the rest of the presents for the current year, 
which are at that place in his charge in three large cases. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders and pray God 
preserve your life many years. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric) 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

POLLOCK TO GALVEZ 
August 5, 1778 239 

New Orlecms, 5 August 1778. 

SIR : I am absolutely under the necessity of applying to your Ex- 
cellency for Two Thousand Dollars more, as Mons r . Fagot who is 
arrived from the Illinois with different Bills of Exchange drawn on 
me by the Commanding Officer there, obliges me to pay him part 
of said Bills, which with other unexpected advances lays me under 
this Obligation. 

I have the Honor to be with Eespect 

Your Excellency's Most Obed*. & Most Hie. Servant 

O LR . POLLOCK 

His Excellency DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ 

88AGI,PC, leg. 1. 

AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PEBIOD, 1765-1781 301 

BLOMMART TO McGnxiroAY 
August 5, 1778 24 

Colonell JOHN MCGILLIVHEY 

D r . SIB: Your esteemed fav r8 by Capt Calvert & Mons r . Mason 
I duly Rec d . & have fully Noted the Contents; the Barge Auning & c 
with about 16 Gallons of Taffee I Eec d . from Lieut. Carter the latter 
have appropriated where most needfull Agreeable to your Recom- 
mendation Monsieur Mason has been Rec d . with all the Friendship & 
Hospitality w ch . layed in our Power and as I find Mm a person suiting 
our purpose would with submission lay down the following Plan 
The Eebells have beyond a doubt posessed themselves of the Illinois, 
a Fertill & Extensive Country that has Cost Government many Thou- 
sands w ch . Posestion must be Allow d . is the Key of the Mississippie and 
the Waters Adjacent so that while the War Continues we must look 
upon ourselves lyable to their imbarisments no time is therefore to 
be lost to fall on a method by w^. we may be apprised of their in- 
tentions. 

Mons r . Mason to whom alone I have spoak on the subject is a fitt 
Person to send to the Arcansaws If he could procure a Spanish Pass 
and be f aseliated with a small Cargoe to take a Power of Attorney 
from me to settle with Mons r . DeVilliers, there to Eemain & hold 
himself in Readiness to give us inteligence of the Enimys Approch 
should you adopt the Plan no time is to be lost. 

I am much disappointed for want of the Iron & Cordage w *. I 
begged might be sent us by first Opportunity I hope those Articles 
are to be had, Col n . Hutchins ariv d here the 18th Ultimo has Vizited 
the Fort & much Approves of our Works Except that we have no 
Bastions or Flankers w ch . we are now bussy in preparing; we have 
the three largest Guns Completely Mounted Fronting the River have 
Drild out & proved the 4 Pounder w c \ lay under the Fort & gott it 
on the Ramparts preparing to mount. The Gates are up & I will 
venture to say will meet with your approbation being well fixed & 
Formidable the Powder House almost finished as is also all the Ram- 
parts. P. Alston is Expected down in a few days with Timber and 
Plank w *. is much Wanting I hope you will bring us Guns shott & 
Ammonition & as Cattle gitt scarce a quantity of salt Provisions to 
hold out a Sheige would be Necessary I only wait your arivell to 
sett off for Pensacola did I imagine my Barge was wanting would 
have sent her to you Cap 1 . Jackson sett off for Pensacola a few days 
since Cap 1 . Lyman Commands everything seems to goe on as well 
as can be Expected should M r . Mason stand in Need of Money I will 
Hon r . his Draft for ps. 100 to inable him to putt his Plan of going to 

*BL, (English). 



302 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the Arcansaws in Execution I hope this will meet you preparing to 
sett off & that I shall shortly personally assure you how much I am 
D r Sir 
Your most assur d . & most Eespectfull Huin le Serv*. 

J. J. BLOMMART (Rubric). 

N B My Mother who injoys a perfect Health desires to be perticu- 
larly Remembered 

NATCHEZ the 6 th Aug*. 1778. 
Colonell JOHN McGimraaEY. 
[Addressed :] 
On His Majes 68 . Service 

Colonell JOHN MCGILLIVREY, Commander in chief at Manchac 
Fav d . ~by Mons r . Mason 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 
August 6, 1778^ 

Senor Governor General ST. Louis, August 6, 1778. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : I could send Your Lord- 
ship a report similar to the attached one made against Don Joseph 
Piernas every day of the year and on some days more. But as my 
tasks are many, and those of Your Lordship much more, and as it 
is not proper for me to spend my time in writing, or to make Your 
Lordship waste yours in reading, I shall send only this one, in order 
to let Your Lordship know that there is no hope of improvement in 
this man. Therefore, I beg you earnestly to take him away from my 
side and by so doing Your Lordship will not only please me, but also 
all the other settlers who have been insulted and badly counselled 
every day by the said Don Joseph Piernas. 

I remain with all respect at the orders of Your Lordship and pray 
God to preserve your life many years. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric) 

Seiior DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 



[Draft of reply in margin of first page.] 

From your letter of August 6, and the enclosed report I note with 
much displeasure the conduct of Don Joseph Piernas and the lack of 
any hope of improvement in him. As I note from the said documents 
that M. Sarpy had demanded an apology from him for not having 



AGI, PC, leg. 1, 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 303 

acknowledged his salute, you shall make the said Piernas give him due 
satisfaction for having insulted him. 

I return the memorial of Juan La Rue which you send me in 
another letter of the same date, with the corresponding decree in 
which I grant him the favor he requests. September 2, '78. 

GEORGE TO GALVEZ 

August U, 1778 242 

NEW ORLEANS, 14 th Aug*. 1778. 

SIR : Captain James Willing having committed to my Care, and 
put under my Command a Detachment of American Troops which 
he formerly Commanded (now under Your Excely's Protection) in 
order that I may proceed with them immediately Home; and as it 
is impracticable to proceed up the Eiver Mississippi from here the 
Party being so few in number and surrounded by our Enemies on all 
Sides, I find myself under the necessity of begging Your Excel- 
lency's Permission to march the said Party through your Territories 
by way of Appelousaa & Nachetosh to their own Country, Which 
favor will be gratefully acknowledged by the United States of Amer- 
ica, & much oblige 

Your Excellency's Most Obedient & most Hum 1 Serv 1 . 

ROB T . GTEORGE 
His Excellency Doisr BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

GEORGE AND HARRISON TO GALVEZ 

August 18, 1778 248 

NEW ORUBANS, 18 August 1778. 

SIR: I had the Honor of receiving Your's of this Date, accom- 
panyed with Your Excellency's Permission to march my Party of 
Men through Your Territories on condition that I shall not attack 
any part of the British Dominions, or their Subjects or Property on 
my Eoute 

As I am perfectly satisfied with Your Excellency's Duty towards 
Your own Prince in keeping up the good Understanding and Friend- 
ship & Neutrality subsisting between the Courts of Spain & Great 
Britain joined with my sincere intention of passing through Your 
Territories fully determined not to molest either British, or any other 
Subject whatsoever untill I arrive at our own Territories for the true 
performance of which, the Officer who goes Second in Command does 
hereby join with me in giving our Oath & Sacred Word of Honor to 

AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 
I % PC, le^. 2370 



304 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

duly & faithfully comply with this Engagement & in returning Your 
Excell y our most sincere thanks for all favors You have hitherto been 
pleased to confer upon us, at sametime assure You we are with all 
due Respect. 
Your Excellency's Most Obedient and Most Hum 1 . Servants* 

EOB T . GEORGE 
R. G. HARRISON 
His Excellency DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 



BARKER TO 

August 25, 1778^ 

MANCHAC, 85 th . August 1778. 

SIR: Lieutenant Moore, (who will have the honor of delivering 
your Excellency this Letter,) is the Person mentioned with M r . Gor- 
don in the Affidavit against Hart, and who I am informed (by M r . 
Graham) you think necessary should appear, his being absent upon 
duty, and not returning till a day or two ago, prevented my sending 
him sooner. 

I hope your Excellency will now be able to pass your final Sentence 
in this Affair, and that you will be pleased to acquaint me with the 
Result. 

I have the honor to be, Your Excellency's Most Obedient humble 
Servant. 

WILL: BARKER 
Captain In the 16 th Reg* Commanding 

the Garrison of Manchac 

POLLOCK TO GALVEZ 
August 89, 1778 

NEW ORLEANS, 9*\ Aug*. 1778. 

SIR: Your former proceedings with respect to the Neutrality 
which you obliged the American Party to keep up on this River 
towards the English I presume is a sufficient appology for my 
troubling You with this Letter 

In consequence I beg leave to acquaint Your Excellency, that a 
Captain Graham a British Officer, has taken a Negro Boy named 
Wilks belonging to me, which Slave I purchased, & paid M r . David 
Williams for five Years ago, and have had him in my possession, 
till the 26 th . of last month, at which time I am informed that the 
said Officer, did enveigle him from this Town, and receive him on 
board his Bateau up at the Point, about two Miles above this place 

** AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 
M* AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 305 

carried him away & lias him now in possession at Manchack; in 
consequence I hope Your Excellency will desire that the said Graham 
may be ordered to return the Negro Boy in question to the place 
from whence he so unjustly & fraudulently carried him off, and 
such other Steps taken as Your Excellency may judge proper for 
such a presumptuous Act. 

I have the Honor to be Your Excellency's Most Obed*. & most 
Humble Servant 

O LR . POLLOCK 

His Excellency DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

GALVEZ TO LEYBA 

September 2, 1778 246 

No. 213. 

I note from your letter of July 27, that you have divided up 
the commerce with the Indians into small shares, the traders having 
departed at the beginning of this month, and that this has filled 
many needs, details of which you promise to send me next winter. 

I send you two large medals for the principal chiefs and shall 
send you small ones for secondary chiefs when they reach me, 
recommending that you give the former only to the principal chiefs. 

I greatly rejoice over the abundance of the harvest. 

I fear that you will have frequent visits from the Indian tribes 
during the war between Great Britain and her colonies and that 
they will consume many rations, as you state in another letter of 
the same date. But I must tell you that I have no authority to 
increase the number of 1,072 rations, which you found stipulated 
in the papers left by Don Pedro Piernas, because it is the same as 
stipulated in the regulation of the obligations of this province. 
For this reason you will try to prevent their exceeding this number, 
as with proper management you can see that they do not stay more 
than three or four days, and not two weeks as I note the Missouri 
nation has done. 

May God preserve you many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, September ft, 1778. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Rubric) 

Senor DON FERNANDO DE LETBA 

CROIX TO GALVEZ 
September 11, 1778 

MY DEAR SIR: Let Your Lordship be advised by the enclosed 
copy of the decision made by the governor of Texas, and also of 

*** AGI, PC, leg. 1. 
a^BL. 

700296 49 vol. 222 



306 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the reasons for such action. The inhabitants of that province who 
may carry on commerce with the friendly nations to the north, are 
to acknowledge their subordination to that government, and no 
commerce of any kind is to be carried on without his expressed 
approval. 

Although this solicitude appears just to me, I have done nothing 
except to make suggestions to the aforesaid governor, requesting 
that he take care of the inhabitants, as subjects of His Majesty, 
zealously supervising their conduct and seeing to it that justice shall 
be administered against any one who may commit any excess or 
punishable crime. I make this known to Your Lordship so that, 
taking advantage of your decision, measures may be devised in 
order to avoid the injuries which perhaps might be occasioned by 
the unrestricted trade of some men who, distant from their chiefs, 
live constantly among barbarians. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

CHIHTJAHTTA, 11 th of September, 1778. 

Your most attentive servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

EL CAV. DE CROIX (Rubric) . 

Senor DON BERNARDO GALVEZ 



BARKER TO 

September 12, 1778 248 

MANCHAC, September 12 th 1778. 

SIR: I most heartily congratulate You upon the happy Seizure 
of the Illinois Boats you mention, as the detection of the Letters 
found in them will entirely put it out of the Spanish Governor's 
Power to plead that just, and honorable Neutrality, which he so 
much boasted of observing; and will warrant any Trouble, or Search, 
We may think proper to make on any Spanish Boats; with, or 
without their Colours passing this river. 

I have great reason to suppose from his behavior in Hart's Affairs, 
and the Tenor of his Conduct, relative to the Kebels; and our 
Officers sent to him on Business ; that he is, a Man of no Integrity, 
and solely in their Interest; and hope You will be able to prevail 
on Governor Chester, to represent him in his true light, to our 
Government; and that He will send me full Orders, to retaliate; 
and I will forfeit my Life, if I do not most amply, for the Insults 
offered, since I came here. 

The Advice Boat, (Smith) is not returned since You left this, 
otherwise would have sent him immediately to Pensacola, with your 
Advices; therefore suppose, You will be there, before any Accounts 
from me. 



(English). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 307 

An Advice boat from Fort Pitt, to Willing; came here last nigfrfc, 
but as they had stopped the Evening before at M rs . MMntosh's 
She sent a Canoe express with an account of her coming down, 
which arrived here before her, in consequence of which I sent a 
Boat to the Spanish Side, to waylay her, but so Cautious were they 
that they landed some distance above the Point opposite Shakespear's 
and let their Canoe drift down, which was taken up by my boat: 
They got down by Land, below our Fort. The Commanding Officer 
(who they say is a Colonel) and two or three of the Men Crossed 
over to Fitzpatrick's where they have been all day. 

I have sent bye M rs . M c .Intosh ? s Messenger (who saw the Rebels 
at her house, and can be positive to their Chief) an account of this 
matter to Captain Fergusson, (who is about Ten or Twelve Leagues 
below, on his return) in hopes He may be able to catch them (nine 
in Number) as I believe He will not stand much on Ceremony, 
having sent him your Dispatches; by which He will very readily 
judge what Compliment is due the Spaniards in this part of the 
World. 

We hear by a Man just arrived from Point Coupee that they 
mentioned there, that a great number of Americans are coming 
down, if true; what is to become of the Garrison of Manchac? We 
will do the most We can, as there is no retreat. 

Our Men since you left us, have but one Night in bed ; therefore, 
You may judge of our Duty; & how necessary it is to be reinforced 
here. 

I am with the greatest Esteem for Colonel M c .Gillivray His Most 
Obed*. humble serv*. 

WILL: BARKER 
Gapt. 16th foot Commanding at Mancliac. 

P. S. I enquired about the Salt you mentioned and Capt. 
M c lntosh informs me, that he sent to engage it, so suppose he will 
write to you concerning it. Excuse the badness of the Paper as 
I realey have no better. 

WILLING TO GALVEZ 
October 7, 1778* 

May it please Your Excellency 

I have the Honor to represent to Your Excellency that in the Month 
of February last, on my Route to this Place I was inform'd that a 
Monsieur Eapico who was a British Subject Trading with the States 
Enemy and supplying them with necessaries for the support of an 
unnaturel War against America, was coming down the River; In 

AGH, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



308 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

consequence I left a Party of Men who took Mm and Ms Cargoe, 
he after this got a Spanish protection and Flag, and upon my arrival 
here, You claimed not only his Person but the Property, and I was 
obliged agreeable to the Laws of Nations to deliver him and it up. 
Upon the same footing and in behalf of the United States, I demand 
Monsieur Lefont who was an American Subject, but afterwards 
went over an obtained protection from His Catholick Majestys Com- 
mandant at the Illinois, together with permission to come with Mons r , 
Dalcharets Boats to New Orleans ; He contrary to the Faith of Na- 
tions as appears by the Treaty of Peace was seized and taken out of 
a Spanish Batteau regularly Despatched and Navigated by Spaniards 
and French Men Spanish Subjects by the British Officers and their 
Crew at Natchez and he sent as I am informed to Pensacola as a 
Rebel & Traitor as Your Kingdom is at present in a State of Neutral- 
ity with respect to the present War, and knowing from experience 
Your Unexampled Justice to all Mankind think it my duty to lay 
before You the present Case being assured that you'll demand and 
persist on the same Justice from the British that seizes or Insults 
your Flag in all cases whatsoever as You have demanded of Me in 
part of the United States, Wishing you may continue to flourish in 
all Your undertakings in this Quarter and Happyness in the World 
of Spiritts I am with Eespect 

Your Excellency's most Obedient and most humble Servant 

JA S . WILLING 
Capt n . m the Service of the United 

Independent States. 

NEW ORLEANS, 7*. October 1778. 

His Excell 7 . DOK BERNARD DE GALVEZ. 

McGlLLIVRAY TO GALVEZ * 

May it Please your Excellency 

Your letter addressed to Colonel Hutchins is received ; but cannot 
be answerd at present as Col. Hutchins is not here; he is expected 
daily & no doubt will answer it. I found it open, as it had been reed 
at Manshac by the Commanding Officer there. A Gentleman in your 
Character, I am sorry to think should act with so much partiality 
in favour of a Band of Eobbers & permit them to stay within your 
Territories, when you force British Subjects to take the Oaths of 
Allegiance to the Crown of Spain. 

Did you not mean entirely to distress his Britannic Majesties Sub- 
jects you certainly woud have made the Bobbers have taken the same 
Oath. If your are sincere in the Neutrality and did not act with par- 

* AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 309 

tiality M r . Willing & his Party must have taken the Oath of Alle- 
giance, which the British Subjects took under the same Circum- 
stances & are of course became Spanish Subjects agreeable to the 
Tener of that Oath. I wonder much that a Gentleman of your Power 
who calls himself a good Christian shoud have so little feeling that 
your heart wou'd not bleed for the Distresses of those unhappy People, 
who so much suffer it by Willing, who durst not have done so much 
had he not Eun sensible of the Protection he shou'd receive from you. 
If the Court of Spain mean to make War with the Court of Great 
Britain, I cou'd wish it wou'd be done fairly; but not that a War 
shou'd arise from the Distresses of a few Subjects your Neighbours 
who have so heartily advanced the Prosperity of y r . Colony. 
I have the honeur to be y r Excellencys most Ob 1 . 

JOHIST McGlLLIVRAY 

Commanding at Notches 

LAURENS TO NAVARRO 
October #7, 1778 251 

PHILADELPHIA, %7th October 1778. 

SIR: Your Excellency's Letter of the llth March last address'd 
to Congress in favor of Don Juan De Miralles, I had the honor of 
presenting to the House the particular Affection which you were 
pleased to express therein for Don Juan has been justified by his 
Honorable Deportment during his residence in these States. 

It cannot but be pleasing to your friendship to be told that the 
influence which Your Excellency's Kecommendation naturally con- 
veys, has, in this instance, been rendered little necessary by the 
Claims of the personal merit of Don Juan. 

The United States of North America desire Peace and harmony 
with other Nations and they particularly consider the prospect of 
a friendly intercourse between the Subjects of His Catholic Majesty 
and their own Inhabitants as a great Branch of their future felicity. 
The Kind Prayer which you have made for our preservation we 
beg leave to retort in sentiments of the utmost cordiality. 
I have the honor to be With the highest Esteem & Kespect 
Sir 
Your Excellency's Obedient & Most humble Servant. 

HBKRT A. LATJRENS 

President of Congress. 
His Excellency DON D. J. NAVARRO 
Governor & Captain-General of 
Cuba &c &c &c Havana 



AGI, PC, leg. 1301 (English). 



310 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



LEYBA TO 
November 16, 1778 

No. 252. 

ST. Lotus, November 16, 1778. 
Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : The constant rains which 
fell while these settlers were harvesting has caused the loss of half of 
the wheat. This, in conjunction with the many soldiers on the other 
side, has made bread and other provisions dear, although we had 
expected them to be abundant and cheap this year. 

I remain with all respect at the orders of Your Lordship, and pray 
God to preserve your very important life many years. . 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Eubric) 

Senor DON BERNARDO BE GALVEZ. 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 
November 16, 1778* 

ST. Loms, November 16, 1778. 
Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : The Missouri River is 
the main feature of this district. On its banks and on those of the 
rivers emptying into it are settled all the Indian nations who carry on 
the commerce of this place. Because of this, it is of the greatest im- 
portance to guard its entrance* For this purpose, there is situated 
on it (number 4) the fort, (only in name) of San Carlos, with a gar- 
rison of six men and a corporal. The lowness of its situation, and 
a beach in the form of a semi-circle of one-half league in width, 
covered with trees which time has formed in front of the aforesaid 
fort, are impediments to the observation from it of the boats which 
enter and leave the aforesaid Missouri. Because of this fact, and 
because of the ruined condition in which the fort is, one may consider 
it as useless. 

The best site in all this territory which is available for establish- 
ing a fort and near to it a great settlement is the one named Aguas 
Frias on the height of Del Monte de Pudra (number 11), which is 
precipitous on the side of the river, and elevated above it twelve 
paces with two zigzag ascents situated on the sides. The lieutenant 
governor of this district could be established in the aforesaid fort 

*AGI, P(Xleg. 1. 
aBL. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 3H 

with a garrison of two hundred men, distributed in the following 
fashion : Twenty-five in Miseria, an equal number at this post, and 
twenty at the entrance of the Mua River, eighty leagues distant from 
this pueblo going up the Mississippi. In that place it would be 
necessary to construct a small fort enclosed with a stockade, and 
some building for the shelter of the garrison. The principal object 
of this detachment would be to impede the entrance which the Eng- 
lish make through the aforementioned Mua River in order to carry 
on trade with our Indian nations situated to the north, from whom 
they annually bring out furs to the value of fifteen to twenty thou- 
sand pesos. 

There follow from this two no less serious disadvantages in addi- 
tion to the aforementioned one of not closing this entrance. First, 
all the aformentioned Indian nations are devoted to the English. 
Second, through these Indians the English succeed in introducing 
their trade among the nations settled on the Missouri, a matter which, 
if totally accomplished, as they did part of last year, would reduce 
this settlement to the greatest misery. Furthermore, from the afore- 
said settlement, a cruise could be made one or two hundred leagues 
further up the river where equal or greater contraband trade is car- 
ried on. The repeated seizure of contraband goods would check 
them and cause them to realize that this is not their home. To-day 
they come in, judge this place theirs, or believe that it has no owner. 
But for all of this, forces would be required capable of checking the 
attacks which all of the bandits who participate in the said commerce 
might attempt in spite of our just procedure. 

Returning to the matter of distribution of the garrison, I say 
that the one hundred and thirty men remaining with the lieutenant 
governor should be stationed in a stone fort in the place mentioned. 
The fort need not be of the strong and expensive type constructed 
in Europe. The wall should rather be similar to that of the barracks 
in this place, with embrasures for a battery and a bank behind the 
parapet five feet in height. Such a work, in my opinion, would not 
represent a very great cost as there is stone easily available. The 
cost would be materially reduced if three or four soldiers who are 
masons were available. The fort would serve, first, to guard the 
entrance to the Missouri ; secondly, to render aid to the post which 
might have need of it. To this end, and to be able to relieve the 
garrisons, it would be necessary to have two or three small boats. 

The fact alone of transferring the commander of this district, the 
fort, and garrison to the site in question, would act as an inducement, 
so that from this town, from that of Miseria, and from the English 
district, there would come various inhabitants who would settle in the 
neighborhood. It would not be difficult to have families come from 



312 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Canada, for I have been informed by some merchants who have just 
arrived that there are many who are desirous of leaving the clamor 
of war. They would join our ranks. If their poverty were such 
that they would not have means of undertaking the journey, I believe 
there would be many who would come if offered assistance. 

The map of this district which I forward to Your Lordship has 
not been drawn with the semicircle and the circumf erentor. How- 
ever, from what I have seen of the land and the river, as well as 
from information received from the most expert and able voyageurs 
in this country, I dare to assert that were it to be checked with 
the said instruments, there would not be found any great dis- 
crepancy either in the courses of the rivers, or the situation of the 
places. In addition to this we had to confront the difficulty of map- 
ping a territory unknown to us. Nevertheless, the measurements are 
exact. Your Lordship receives with the plan my good will and my 
limited ability, ever disposed to comply with anything that Your 
Lordship may deign to demand of me in this or any other matter. 

The plan and the explanation thereof are in French because of 
my poor writing and since there is not at this post anyone who can 
write Spanish even moderately well, unless it be a soldier, of whose 
services I have not availed myself because of the many errors which 
he makes. 

I remain with all respect obedient to the orders of Your Lordship 
and beg that God may preserve your very important life the many 
years which I desire. 

My dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses the hand of 
Your Lordship. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Eubric). 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 

November 16, 1778 254 

No. 255. 

ST. Lotus, November 16, 1778. 
Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : There is not a foot of 
soil in this country which is not suitable for all kinds of crops, and 
there are many .square leagues of beautiful meadows on these heights ; 
but the settlers are interested only in trading with the Indians and 
neglect their farming. All are, or wish to be merchants. This has 
the following results : 

1. There is always a scarcity of food at this post. 

a* AGI, PC, leg. 1. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 313 

2. The classes of people are so mixed up that one cannot tell who 
is a farmer and who is a merchant. 

3. The person in command of this post (and even sometimes Your 
Lordship) is so overwhelmed with requests for permits for the 
Missouri that, as it is impossible to satisfy them all, it is impossible 
not to make some enemies. 

The way to bring these people back to reason, so that everyone 
will attend to his business and the country flourish, is for Your 
Lordship to lend your assistance. Self-interest is the motive force 
in all men. These people are interested in commerce and not in 
farming because the latter gives them little or no gain, while the 
former supports them and even makes them rich. This same reason 
would incline them to farming if the flour which could be made 
here were disposed of in this very post. It could be in the following 
manner : Supposing that there were at this post a garrison of eight 
hundred men and that these lands supplied their bread, this troop, 
at the rate of a pound and a half daily, would consume per year 
1,200 barrels of flour of 300 pounds each. Estimating the price of 
the flour at twelve pesos, the cost of the barrel at one, and the freight 
at two, the total income for this post would amount to 18,000 pesos 
annually. It must be understood that in order to interest these set- 
tlers, it would be necessary for this amount to be paid directly to 
the people themselves, so that they would receive it as they delivered 
the flour. The reason is that its delivery to this post would entail 
more expense to them, partly because most of the settlers have no 
connections whatever here, and partly because of the risks there 
would be in connection with the persons whom they appoint as their 
agents. I firmly believe that, if this is done, the population would 
increase greatly and before long the sowing of hemp could be con- 
templated. Although this was already proposed to these settlers by 
my predecessor, and readily agreed to by everyone with the promise 
to set to work doing it, they have now entirely forgotten. Since 
one of the things which attracted them to the idea was that perhaps 
they would be advanced Negroes, they are all awaiting this aid before 
beginning. However, in my plan about the flour, there is no neces- 
sity of making loans, as the settlers will be able to put themselves 
in a position to undertake this sowing of hemp or any other crop 
suited to the colony which might be useful to them. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders and pray God 
to preserve your important life the years I desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric). 

Sefior DON BERNARDO DE G-ALVEZ. 



314 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

(Draft accompanying the foregoing} 

I have taken note of all you write in your letter of November 16th 
last about the assistance and means which it would be advisable for 
me to lend for the purpose of encouraging the cultivation of those 
beautiful prairies by the sowing of flax, hemp, and wheat, to which 
those settlers would devote themselves, so that the classes of people 
could again be distinguished, as at present they are all confused 
and everyone wants to be a merchant on account of the profits he 
could make in trading, while none can be expected from farming 
without the said help. I ought to tell you I have made representa- 
tions to the court that for the realization of the royal inten- 
tions in the development of flax and hemp (which crops, the 
lands of Ylinueses would produce very well), and in view of the 
poverty of these settlers, it would be advisable for the King to ad- 
vance them Negroes as they requested, and as your predecessor in- 
formed me. His Excellency the Minister replied in a royal order 
that, having informed the King of all this, he would take the best 
and most opportune measures for sending Negroes. For this reason 
it is necessary to await them. You will make known to those settlers 
these good intentions of our sovereign so that, in view of them, they 
may proceed to get ready for this raising of flax and hemp, which 
promises them profitable results, and, if possible, to undertake it 
even before the arrival of the slaves promised by His Majesty. I 
must add that I cannot forecast the price of flour, as this is susceptible, 
like all other things, to variations according to circumstances. More- 
over, I do not see that what you propose would stimulate those set- 
tlers to cultivate the soil, when it is the same as has been practiced 
for a long time here, in that whatever arrived was sold at this capital. 
January 13, 1779. 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 
November 16, 1778* 

No. 253. 

Senor Governor General. ST. Lotas, November 16, 1778. 

MY VERT DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : I have installed the new 
sub-lieutenant of militia, Don Benito Vasquez, in his post. After I had 
done so, M. Mutardi, the sergeant of the same company, came to me 
and asked me to request Your Lordship to permit his discharge. As 
his request seemed to me to be inopportune, I asked what reasons 
he had for so doing. He replied that he had served many years 
as a sergeant of the veteran troops of France, and that since 
the establishment of the Spaniards in this colony, he had served in 

s^AGl, PC, leg, 1, 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 315 

the same rank in the militia of this post. He said that he believed 
he had always served with merit, but that as the sub-lieutenancy 
of his post had been given to Don Benito Vasquez (who had no other 
merits than that of having been a private soldier and a servant of* 
Don Pedro Piernas), he wished to be given his discharge from the 
company. I afterwards learned that there were others who had 
their eyes on this post, but I have pacified them all, telling them not 
to lose hope, because as the number of militiamen in this company 
was very large, I would propose to Your Lordship, that, if such were 
agreeable to you, it should be divided into two companies. In this 
case there would be three posts to fill, nominations for which I shall 
send to Your Lordship, if you approve of this being done. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders, and pray 
God to preserve your life many years. 

My very dear Sir, your most faithful servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric) . 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE 



NAVARRO TO BTJCARELI 

December 6, 1778 256 
No. 45. 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERT DEAR SIR: I have just received from Philadelphia 
from reliable and trustworthy sources the following advices: 

Under date of September 21st, the British army in New York 
and vicinity, composed of fifteen thousand men, more or less, under 
the command of General Clinton, and the squadron of sixteen ships 
and ten frigates under Admiral Gambier, successor to Lord Howe, 
appeared to be intending to evacuate that place and its port, as 
it was known that they had' embarked their artillery, munitions of 
war, and the baggage, but that the true destination of these troops 
and of the squadron was uncertain. Some persons thought that the 
intention was to disembark them in New England to attack Boston, 
or to reinforce the ports of Halifax and Quebec. Others thought 
that they were going to guard and reinforce the English Windward 
Islands, principally Jamaica, or to attack some of the Spanish or 
French possessions. It is said that the French squadron under the 
command of Comte d'Estaing, consisting of twelve ships and four 
frigates was still in Boston, repairing the damage it had suffered in 
a heavy storm. 

Under date of October 24, they confirm these reports, adding that 



*** AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



316 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

at the beginning of October, 3,000 men had sailed for Jamaica, and 
that they vouched for the truth of the embarkation of troops in 
New York, especially 6,000 men, whose clothing had had the woolen 
linings removed. 

Separately from these advices, it has been learned by way of the 
French colony of the Island of Santo Domingo that on the 13th 
of last month, there arrived at the port of El Mulo an American 
schooner, ten days out of Philadelphia, with the news that on the 
20th of October, 140 transports had sailed from New York with 
troops and war equipment. Also General Clinton, convoyed by the 
squadron commanded by Lord Howe, left the port of New York 
entirely abandoned, but without his destination having been learned. 

I advise Your Excellency of all this for your guidance and warn- 
ing, to which end I shall continue to notify you of all events which 
may be reported, so that we may all be mutually informed of the 
operations of the English in the present state of affairs. 

May God protect Your Excellency the many years that I desire. 

HAVANA, December 6, 1778. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most attentive and humble servant kisses 
Your Excellency's hand. 

DIEGO JOSEPH NAVARRO (Rubric) . 

Most Excellent Senor DON ANTONIO MARIA BTJCARELI. 



LEYBA TO 

December 9, 1778 

ST. Louis, December 9, 1778. 
Senor Governor General. 

MY VERT DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : The fact that various 
settlers have complained to me that vegetables and fruits have been 
stolen from their gardens, cattle from their corrals, and boats from 
the banks of the river, has obliged me, in order to stop this (long 
standing) disorder, to place a pillory with collar in front of my 
house, with the determination to expose to public shame anyone 
caught in such crimes. Furthermore, a patrol is being sent out every 
night with proper orders. Perhaps these precautions or the threat 
of punishment alone will be sufficient to restrain the miscreants, as 
nobody has complained to me since they have been taken. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders, and pray 
God to spare your important life the many years I desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LETBA (Rubric). 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 



, PC, leg. 2358. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 317 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 
December 9, 1778* 

Senor Governor General. ST, Louis, December #, 1778. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : The traders who went 
to the Hotas tribe last year seized, at the order of M. Francisco 
Cruzat, from two Englishmen who had gone into the said tribe, 
one thousand, four hundred and seventy-three pounds of deer skins 
which they had collected, and brought them to this post. The cul- 
prits fled, but I brought suit against them for this deed, and as 
they were convicted of contrabanding, I passed sentence that these 
skins should be divided "into three parts, one for the King, another 
for the court costs, and the other for the denunciators. The part 
belonging to the King I have spent for a boat and a pirogue for 
the use of this detachment. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders and pray 
God to preserve your very important life the many years I desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Eubric) . 

Sefior DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 



LEYBA TO 
December 9, 1778 259 
No. 257. 

Senor Governor General. ST. Louis, December 9, 1778. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: M. Perro has handed 
me a cover containing ten letters from Your Lordship, nine dated 
September 2, and the other August 31. The cover was open, this 
having been done in Natchez. I presume that Your Lordship has 
already been informed of this. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders and pray God 
to preserve your important life the many years I desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DB LEYBA (Kubric) . 

Sefior DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

[In the margin] : 

P. S. I have not received the two large medals mentioned by Your 
Lordship; and I beg you please to send me a pair of small ones, 
as they are the ones I have promised. 



I, PC, leg. 2358. 
* AGI, PC, leg. 1. 



318 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 
December 9, 1778 

Senor Governor General. ST. Louis, December 5, 1778. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: A hunter named Lucas 
David, who left this post with a passport from Don Francisco 
Cruzat, dated May 31, of this year, has been inhumanly murdered 
at the mouth of the Mua Kiver by the Sios Indians, one of our na- 
tions of the north, and as if their deed were some trifling matter, 
they have sent me word that they are coming to visit me in the 
spring. I shall receive them as they deserve, if my powers are equal 
to my desires. This is a nation (of six or eight thousand men) much 
addicted to these deeds and it pays no attention to warnings. Never- 
theless, if I had even a fair-sized garrison, I believe that I could 
put this territory in such a condition that the hunters and travelers 
would not be victims of those savages. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders and pray God 
to preserve your valuable life the many years I desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Eubric) . 

Seifior DON BERNARDO DE G-ALVEZ. 

P. S. Although the Virginia gazettes contain nothing special, I 
send them to Your Lordship, in case more recent ones have not 
reached your city. 

LEYBA TO Gixroz 
December 9 ,1778 

Senor Governor General. ST. Louis, December 9, 1778. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : The troops of this de- 
tachment are so well clad that the most poorly dressed has a dozen 
shirts, an equal number of stockings and a proportionate number of 
shoes, breeches, etc. All of them prefer to buy personally the goods 
they need. They can purchase them here for cash more cheaply than 
in your city, and always to their taste, having .them made up by the 
tradesmen here. All this is to beg Your Lordship (at the behest of 
said troop) not to send them their clothing allowance in goods but in 
cash. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders and pray God 
to preserve your important life the many years I desire. 

*AGI, PC, leg. 2358. 
*AGI, PC, leg. 2358. 



THE KEVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 319 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LBYBA (Rubric)* 
Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

COLLELL TO GALVEZ 

December, 1778*** 

Senor Governor General. 

VILLA DE GALVEZ, December, 1778. 

MY DEAR SIR : I notify Your Lordship that on the 12th of the 
current month Simon Bichar, a German, came here to settle with his 
wife, one son, and two daughters. He told me that Your Lordship 
had allowed him four arpents square of land, the same four he marked 
out a half league distant from the town. 

On the 19th of same month Felipe Torgesu, a single man, a car- 
penter by trade, came and asked me to allow him a piece of ground. 
I gave him letter &, number 3, on condition that he build his house 
within six months and that, should he depart before two years, he will 
leave his house and ground to the benefit of the King. He agreed to 
this proposition. Likewise the lot & of block number 4 has been as- 
signed to Mr. Jons. These people have come after the departure of 
Your Lordship. 

I remit to Your Lordship a statement giving the settlers who reside 
in the town, the slaves and cattle they possess, what they have sown, 
the lots assigned in the town and the habitations of which the plans 
lack the approval of Your Lordship in order that they may be valid. 

I have received of Mr. Magsan 40 hinges, 39 flints, 10 hooks, 8 tam- 
pers, 4 locks with their keys, two kegs, half a box and a bag of 
nails, 4 barrels of wheat, 3 of barley, one of oranges, a box of hemp 
seed, another of flax. Everything remains under my care, with the 
exception of what is marked down in the statement as given to the 
settlers. 

Twenty-five thousand nails are needed for the roof of the barracks 
and the kitchen. They should be the size of the sample which the 
sergeant brings. Those sent by Mr. Magsan are said to be useless 
because they are so large that they will break all the tiles. 

I beg Your Lordship to send me an instruction book that I may not 
err in anything which is required of me. 

For the present there has been no complaint among the settlers and 
the troops, and I hope that it will be the same in the future. I have 
allowed to the troops for a garden, the land in which they are working, 
as Your Lordship ordered me. I beg Your Lordship, if you agree to 



* AGI, FC, leg. 2351, 



320 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

it, to leave me with this detacliinent. I shall remain content and ex- 
tremely grateful In this case I ask Your Lordship to advance me my 
pay for the whole year and to give it to the sergeant so that I may 
buy all the necessities for my support. I hope to receive this favor 
from Your Lordship while asking God to guard the life of Your 
Lordship many years. 

I kiss the hand of Your Lordship. 

Your devoted subject and servant, 

FRANC. COLLELL (Kubric). 

DON BEENAEDO DE GALVEZ. 

GALVEZ TO LEYBA 

January 13, 1779* 

[Draft] 

I am answering your letter of November 16th last, in which you give 
me an account of the uselessness of Fort San Carlos at the entrance 
of the Missouri River, and of the disadvantageous site in which it is. 
You propose that it be placed in the district named Aguas Frias, add- 
ing likewise that it would be convenient to establish another fort at 
the entrance of the Mua River because of the advantages which you 
say would result from both. For this garrison and that of the other 
posts there would be needed two hundred men who would be divided 
in the manner you mention. I must inform you that I am lack- 
ing in the power to make such extraordinary outlays from the 
royal treasury. You are not ignorant of the fact that the funds avail- 
able for this province are reduced to the salaries of the employees and 
daily pay of the troops. There must likewise be added to this diffi- 
culty the fact that the garrison of this colony is already insufficient 
to assign two hundred men to those settlements. I am therefore un- 
able to consent to your proposal, but I shall communicate it to His 
Majesty in order that he may determine what is his pleasure. In the 
meantime, I would suggest to you that you endeavor to prevent the 
entrance of the English into the aforesaid rivers, and see that they 
do not win over our Indians. This matter is expressly charged in the 
instructions carried by Your Lordship. 

I received the plan which you have forwarded, and by it will have 
information of those settlements. I thank you a thousand times. 

January 13, 1779. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 321 

GALVEZ TO LEYBA 

January 13, 1779^ 
No. 273 [Draft] 

In view of the repeated advices given me by the commandant of 
Arkansas of the murders and robberies which our hunters are con- 
tinually suffering on that river from the Osage Indians, I must ask 
you to consult secretly with some of those inhabitants as to the best 
means to prevent such atrocities. It is not right that the said Osage 
tribe should receive such a great favor as the present which is annually 
distributed among them in the name of the King, and then, in return, 
commit atrocities against his subjects. I charge you to lose no time 
in a matter which merits such great consideration. 

January IS, 1779. 

Sefior DON FERNANDO LEYBA. 



No. 272. 



GALVEZ TO LEYBA 
January IS, 1779** 



Having received the large medals which I requested from the court 
to distinguish the principal chiefs of the Indians from the secondary 
ones, I send the two I promised you in my letter of September 2, last. 

May God preserve you many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, January 13, 1779. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Rubric). 

Senor DON FERNANDO DE LEYBA 



No. 226. 



GALVEZ TO GALVEZ 
January 15, 1779 ^ 



Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : I enclose for your Excellency a copy of the 
letter which I have received from Lieutenant D. Raymundo Dubreuil, 
commandant of our post of San Gabriel de Manchak. From this 
letter Your Excellency will note the news, which he tells me he has 
learned from the English commander of Manchak, relative to the 
disposition of the English to construct forts on this Mississippi River, 
and to garrison them with a considerable number of troops. Although 
this news has come directly from Pensacola I, however, do not con- 



* AGI. PC, leg. i. 

AGI, PC, leg. 1. 

aee AGI, Au<J. SD 86-6-11. 

700296 49 vol. 223 



322 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

sider it very reliable ; but if perchance it is confirmed, I shall be on 
the look-out in order to advise Your Excellency of whatever occurs. 

May God protect Your Excellency for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, 15th of January, 1779. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most faithful servant kisses your hand. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Eubric). 

Most Excellent Senor DON JOSEF DE GALVEZ. 

(Accompanying the foregoing) 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : I inform Your Lordship that the governor 
of Pensacola has received orders to make a chain of forts and bat- 
teries all along the banks of the Mississippi River which belong to 
the English, to construct galleys, and make levees and landing places 
everywhere. Colonel Dickson becomes governor of this part of Louisi- 
ana. They are going to begin shortly in this post of Manchak and 
at Baton Rouge, two brick forts with quarters in them which can hold 
three hundred men each as a garrison. Three hundred men destined 
for Pensacola have already arrived with five frigates. A portion of 
the force is awaiting the rest, with a general as the governor of Pto- 
sacola who set sail the same day as those who have arrived. There are 
also eleven thousand Hessian volunteers who must have already dis- 
embarked in America. This is what I can recall of the letter from 
the governor of Pensacola to the commandant of Manchak. There 
has also arrived the confirmation of the alliance of Spain and 
England. 

There are gazettes which carry much news and, if I can get a copy 
of them, I shall send them to Your Excellency. 

May God protect you for many years. 

Your most faithful servant kisses your hand. 

MANCHACK, December 31 , 1778. 

RAYMTJNDO DTJBREUIL. 

This is a copy of the original, which is in this government secre- 
tariat in my charge. 

N*EW ORLEANS, January 5, 1779. 

JOSEPH FOUCHER (Rubric). 

COLLELL TO GALVEZ 

January 15,1779* 

Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: I received Your Lordship's letter dated 
December 81. It arrived in my hands on the 12th of January, and 

C,leg. 2351. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 323 

I am informed of its contents and am carrying out the orders wHcli 
you give me in it. 

Because the inhabitant Fitzpatrick has gone to Pensacola and 
has stopped building the four houses which he had promised to do 
for Your Lordship, it has become necessary for me to make use of 
the residents. Mr. Gre obligated himself to build one ; Mr. Genaro 
Nikolson another; Mr. Huescat another; and Meo Gre, Jr., another. 
These men obligate themselves to construct the houses some time 
during this month, as Your Lordship informs me the said Fitz- 
patrick had agreed to do. These houses they will place on plots 
Nos. 3 and 4? letters d and c of both, because they consider these 
lands to be the best in the town, as they are situated in the center 
on the first street that is to be built in it, of which I have taken 
the measurements. 

For the purpose of lodging the families (thinking they would 
come before), I had retained the house of Mr. Huescat, that 
of Luis Deves, and that of Mr. Gulvi, capable of lodging SO indi- 
viduals. I still retain these houses for this purpose, except that of 
Mr. Gre, who had promised me he would live with his family in the 
dwelling while ours was being built. 

It is essential that the families coming to this place shall bring 
the necessary provisions for their support, for here there are none, 
nor are there any axes, picks, hoes, spades, or machetes for cutting 
the cane, nor grindstones for grinding their tools. 

In order to establish these families I have looked for a piece of 
land half a league distant from this place, below it, capable of ac- 
commodating the 150 families or more, with the convenience of 
a small stream which enters it from the Amit River, the water of 
which is very good. In case Your Lordship does not find this 
ground suitable, because it is somewhat apart, they may be placed 
next to the town at such distances as Your Lordship may think 
proper. 

I have hired two Negroes to clear the ground chosen for the 
building of the four houses, and to make ditches all around it to 
drain off the waters whose overflow (in these as well as the other 
houses in the town) settles on that ground [torn] the house of 
Mr. Gre [torn] which it has in its circumference. 

The kitchen is finished, and I have put a tablet on it (which cost 
ten pesos) stating that it may serve as a storehouse in which to 
deposit the provisions which the families may bring with them for 
their sustenance. In the meantime I hope that Your Lordship will 
order me to construct another of stakes, the cost of which would be 
much less and would afford the same service. The wo'od for my 



324: SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

house and the barracks is all cut and ready for the erection of the 
said building, which will be finished within a short time. 

In my anxiety to carry out Your Lordship's wish that the in- 
habitants shall plant as much grain as they can, and as they have 
not much land cleared for the purpose, I have granted to Mr. Gre 
and Luis Deves (up to the month of July) the plots Nbs. 19 and 
W, on which they have sowed two barrels of wheat and half a 
barrel of barley. In this way the clearing of the plots and the 
providing of grain for next year's sowing is taken care of. The 
wheat which was sowed in the month of December is more than 
half a handsbreadth high. 

The inhabitants of this place, in order to demonstrate the love 
and kindness which they feel for the Spanish nation, have begged 
me to give a Spanish name to each one of their dwellings. I granted 
their wish and gave them the following names : 

Dwellings Names I gave In whose "honor they were 

them named 

That of Luis Deves La Carlota .... In honor of the King, Our 

Lord, may God preserve him. 

" of Leandro Deves La Antonia For the Prince of Asturias, 

Don Antonio. 

" of Mr. Wet La Luisa For the Princess of ditto, 

Dofia Luisa. 

" of Mr. Moris La Joaquina . . . For the Infanta Dofia Joa- 

quina, daughter of the afore- 
said. 

" of Mr. Bernat La Mariquita .. For Marfa, daughter of the 

said Infanta. 

" of Mr. Quenti La Gabriela ... For the Infante, Don Gabriel. 

" of Mr. Beeli La Pascuala . . . For the Infante, Don Pascual. 

" of Mr. Gulvl La Maria For the Infanta, Dofia Marfa. 

" of Mr, Guillermo La Jaymissa For the Infante, Don Jayme. 

44 of Mr. Nikolson La Josefa [torn] 

14 of Mr. Gre La Bernardiua. . For Don Bernardo de Gdlvez, 

Governor General of Louisi- 
ana. 

" of Mr. Huescat La Martina For Don Martin Navarro, Aud- 
itor of Louisiana. 

" of Genaro Nikolson... La Magsan For Mr. Magsan, Captain of 

the Army. 

44 of Mr. Escot La Mir<5 For Don Estevan Mirtf, Major 

of the Battalion of Louisi- 
ana. 

" of Mr. Keynals La Mosun For Don Martin Mosun, Cap- 
tain of Spain. 

'* of Mr. Paquer. La Navas For Don Manuel de Navas. 

Captain of the same. 

" of Mr. Simon La Ylaria For Don Ylario Estenos, Cap- 
tain of Havana. 



THE HEVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 325 

By wish of the inhabitants they gave to that of Meo Ore, the 
name of La Catalana, for their Senor Commandant Francisco 
Collell, sub-lieutenant of Louisiana. 268 

Nothing in the above is valid without your approval, to which I 
defer and shall always defer. In the meantime I am praying God 
to preserve the life of Your Lordship for many years. 

TOWN OF GALVEZ, January 15, 1779. 

Your most attentive vassal and servant kisses Your Lordship's 
hands. 

FRANC. COLLELL (Rubric). 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 



GALVEZ TO 
January 15, 1779 ^ 

No. 228. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: I told Your Excellency under date of the 
24th of October, last year, of the faint hopes I had that Captain Don 
Luis Andry had not suffered the fatal misfortune of having been lost, 
in view of the long time which had elapsed since his departure from 
this post, without my having had the slightest news from his destina- 
tion, nor from his stopping place. Now, to my greatest regret, I have 
been informed by the post commandants of Natchitoches and Ataca- 
pas, Don Atanasio de Mezieres and Don Alexandro Declouet, that in 
the neighborhood of La Bahia del Espiritu Santo, there have been 
found the remains of a schooner which was lost at that place. These 
commandants had been informed at the same time that the Indian 
savages of that coast had destroyed the crew of said vessel, consisting 
of fourteen persons. The signs are all very indicative that it was 
Andry who has suffered this sad misfortune, not only as this was the 
number composing his crew, but also because the description of the 
lost boat likewise agrees with the one which carried Andry. 

In view of this lamentable situation which is now indubitable, it 
remains only for me to present to Your Excellency as strongly as pos- 
sible the request that you be pleased to turn the merciful heart of our 
sovereign to the relief of this afflicted family which, while weeping 
for the loss of a father and a son, doubts whether it can console itself, 
considering the disastrous or horrible fate suffered by those unfor- 
tunates. 

The deep insight of Your Excellency will know how to appreciate 

288 For a detailed account of the founding of the settlement, consult V. M. Scramuzza, 
"Galveztown, a Spanish Settlement of Colonial Louisiana," Louisiana Historical Quarterly, 
XIII (1930), 553-609. 

AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-11. 



326 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

what must be their sorrow, and also how great the distress of a 
large family whose only means of support was centered in the head 
of it; and so I repeat to Your Excellency my humble entreaties that 
through your intercession they may receive from the royal mercy the 
consolations which their sad condition so justly deserves. 

May God protect Your Excellency's life for many years. 

NEW OIIJLEANS, January 15, 1779. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble and faithful servant kisses 
your hand. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Rubric). 

Most Excellent Sefior DON JOSEF DE GALVEZ. 

GALVEZ TO GALVEZ 
January 15, 1779 

No, 233. 

M ost Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: I have now returned to this capital from 
the journey I made, as I reported to Your Excellency in despatch of 
the 9th of November, last year, to inspect the most advantageous 
lands on which the families of settlers should be established, I 
must inform Your Excellency that I have selected from among the 
various places which I have inspected, with all the reflection de- 
manded by an object of this kind, a site on high ground near the 
confluence of the Amit and Yverville rivers, unknown until now by 
the people of the country. It was discovered accidentally by the 
English and Americans who fled to the dominions of His Majesty 
in the recent revolution, where they formed a small settlement to 
which they gave the name of Galveston (Villa de Galvez) requesting 
me not to change its name inasmuch as having found this refuge 
during the time of my command, they wished this name to be an 
indication of the time of its founding. 

The advantages offered by this settlement are many, the principal 
ones being the following : It is near this capital, not more than thirty 
leagues distant. It is possible to go there either by land or by water, 
which circumstance is very convenient for the transportation of 
goods ; it is within the very island of New Orleans in the lake region 
where up to now we have not had any settlement, and for this reason 
all the island is exposed to being surprised by the Indians or by the 
English, who on this side could approach the capital without being 
detected. It is the only passage by water that these English have 
to go from Pensacola to Manchak or Natchez and, except through 

AGI, And. SD, 86-6-11. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 327 

here or by the Mississippi, they must go through almost im- 
passable forests. Finally, these lands are the only high ones 
on the island and are free from inundation. Consequently these 
lands are capable of other and better crops than those that are 
flooded and are situated where there are sanguine hopes that 
the crops of wheat will do welL This grain is unsuccessful up to 
now in other places despite the efforts made. I shall continue to 
endeavor to introduce this crop which is of prime necessity. 

The unfortunate death of Captain Luis Andry, the only person 
there was in this country well-qualified to draw up plans accurately, 
makes it very difficult for me to fulfill the promises that I have made 
about this matter. The plan of Galveston and its neighborhood is 
now being drawn up by Don Josef Briones, pilotin del rey. When 
it is completed, I shall send it to Your Excellency, so that you may 
have a clear idea of this settlement, and subsequently I shall also 
give Your Excellency news of the families who have been able to 
settle there. For this purpose I am at present dispatching them as 
rapidly as possible in order that the planting season may not be 
over, and that the new settlers may have a harvest this year. 

I desire that everything should be approved by His Majesty and 
by Your Excellency, and that Our Lord will preserve your life many 
years. 

NEW ORLEANS, 15th of January, 1779. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble servant kisses Your Ex- 
cellency's hand. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Rubric). 

Most Excellent Senor DON JOSE DE GALVEZ. 

GALVEZ TO G!LVEZ 

January 15, 1779 m 
No. 227 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR ; The interpreter for the nation of Arkansas 
Indians has made a representation to me that the 120 pesos annually, 
which are assigned to him by the regulation governing the obliga- 
tions of this province, are not sufficient for his subsistence. This is 
due to the expense necessarily caused him by lodging in his house 
various Indians (when they visit that commandant). Consequently, 
I have increased the pay by four pesos additional allowance per month 
which he began to enjoy from the first of April of last year. 

I inform Your Excellency of this so that you may please bring it 
to the attention of His Majesty, and seek his royal approval. 

** AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-11. 



328 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

May God protect Your Excellency many years. 
NEW ORLEANS, January 15, 1779. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most faithful and humble servant kisses 
your hand. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor DON JOSEF DE GALVEZ. 

GALVEZ TO GALVEZ 

January 15,1779 

No. 235. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: The commandant of Arkansas has repre- 
sented how useful it would be to have an armorer to take care of 
the arms of the troops garrisoning the post under his command, 
and repair those of the Indians there. Consequently I have decided 
to accede to this request, assigning the pay of 108 pesos per year to 
the individual who was appointed for this post and who began the 
enjoyment thereof from the first of April of last year. I inform Your 
Excellency of this and request that you seek His Majesty's approval. 

May God protect Your Excellency's life the many years I desire. 

NEW ORLEANS, January 15, 1779. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most faithful and humble servant kisses 
your hand. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Rubric) . 

Most Excellent Senor DON JOSEF DE GALVEZ. 

GALVEZ TO GALVEZ 
January 15, 1779 27S 
No. 234. 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: Representations have been made to me by 
the interpreter of the Indian tribes pertaining to the post of Natchi- 
toches, that the small pay of 50 pesos annually, which is assigned to 
him in the regulation covering the obligations of this province, does 
not suffice for his subsistence on account of the expense necessarily 
caused him by lodging these Indians in his house. Consequently, I 
have granted him 46 pesos additional pay. 

I report this to Your Excellency in order that you may bring it 
to the attention of His Majesty and request his royal approval. 

* AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-11. 
AGI, Aud. SD, 86-6-11. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 329 

May God protect you for many years. 
NEW ORLEANS, January 15, 1779. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble and faithful servant kisses 
your hand. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Rubric). 

Most Excellent Senor DON JOSEF DE GALVEZ. 



No. 278. 



TO LEYBA 
January 30, 1779 274 



As a result of the insults which have been offered to various set- 
tlers of this province traveling down the river by the English 
posts, and of the complaints which I have made to the commanders 
of the latter about this matter, we have agreed that in order to avoid 
these, all boats of subjects of His Majesty which have to pass by the 
said posts shall carry a flag with the cross of Burgundy. They will 
be distinguished by it and recognized as Spanish, and pass freely 
without any trouble or insult whatever. I inform you of this so 
that you may order that all boats, barges, or large pirogues manned 
by at least six men (as the small ones with less men are excluded from 
this agreement) carry a flag with the cross of Burgundy. These 
can easily be made with a little vermillion and a white cloth. 

May our Lord preserve you many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, January 30, 1779. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Rubric). 
Senor DON FERNANDO DE LEYBA. 



LEYBA TO 

February 5, 1779 
No. 281. 

ST. Loins, YLINEUSES, February 5, 1779. 
Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: The chiefs of our na- 
tions of Indians are very urgently asking me for flags. I have told 
them that I would bring their requests to the attention of Your 
Lordship. I consider this to be just for the reason that, since our 
establishment in this colony, only once have they been provided with 
them. As it is their custom to have the flag always flying above 
the cabin of the head chief, there are tribes which have only a flag 



2w AGI, PC, leg. 1. 
* AGI, PC, leg. 1. 



330 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

pole and on it usually some rag full of holes and patches. Four or 
five would be sufficient for the present. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders and pray God 
to preserve your important life the many years I desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your 
Lordship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric). 

Sefior DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ* 
P. S. [In the margin of the first page] . 

In my previous letters I have begged Your Lordship to send me 
some small medals for the secondary chiefs, and I now renew my 
request. 

[Draft] 

In view of the request which these nations of Indians have made 
to you and which you communicate to me in your letter of February 
5, 1 send you six flags, to be distributed as needed. 

March %3. 



No. 295. 



GALVEZ TO LEYBA 
March 9, 1779 276 



From your letter of December 9, last year, I have noted that the 
soldier, Francisco Cote, to whom leave had been granted, returned 
to join his company on October first, and that Juan Olivier has taken 
his leave. 

From another of same date I also note that at the representations 
of the settlers regarding thefts of cattle from their corrals, of vege- 
tables and fruit from their gardens, and of pirogues from the bank 
of the river, you have placed a pillory with an iron collar in front 
of your house to expose those to shame who commit these crimes, 
and that every night a patrol goes out to stop this disorder. I must 
tell you that as this punishment is too terrible for such a minor 
offense you should exact only a payment by the delinquents for the 
damage done. This I am convinced will be sufficient to stop them 
without need of resorting to the collar which must be used only for 
grave deeds or crimes. 

May God preserve you many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, March 9, 1779. 

BERNARDO DE GALVEZ (Eubric). 
Sefior DON FERNANDO DE LEYBA. 



AGI, PC, leg. 1. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 331 

ACCOUNT OF THE CAPTURE OP A SPANISH SCHOONER BY INBIANS AT 
THE BAY OF EspfRTTU SANTO 

March $0,1779 

Extract concerning the catastrophe which, occurred on the northern 
coast to a schooner of His Majesty, that had sailed from the port 
of New Orleans in order to map and draw plans of the port of 
San Bernardo and Matagorda, and the motive for the assassination 
perpetrated at the bay of Espiritu Santo by the Karankawa Indians 
and the fugitive Indians of the mission of Eosario who had found 
refuge among them, stating the origin and primary cause of the whole 
affair. 

During the night of the thirteenth of July of the preceding year 
of 1778, the Indians from the mission of Eosario> on the bay of 
Espiritu Santo fled, aided by the Karankawas who inhabit the 
islands and coasts of the north. The prime instigator of this evil 
was an Indian named Joseph Maria (who, because his mother was 
not able to continue with the speed which he desired, killed her with 
a spear thrust), urged on by a brother of his named Joseph Luis 
and another one named Antonio (who are the ones now imprisoned 
in the presidio of La Bahla) , and also another brother named Matheo. 
Joining the aforementioned Karankawas, they began to commit 
various hostilities in the neighborhood of the aforementioned 
presidio. 

Colonel Baron de Ripperda, governor of this province, desiring 
to stop such grievous wrongs, pardoned the fugitives on condition 
that they return to their mission, making exception of Joseph Maria 
and Matheo considering that they were the chief evil-doers in the 
aforesaid flight. With such a motive, and with the solicitude and 
intercession on the part of the Eight Eeverend Fray Joaquin de 
Escobar, minister of the aforesaid mission, they were successful in 
having some of the fugitive Indians return. To accomplish this 
no diligence was spared. For this purpose the aforesaid priest re- 
turned to the coast about the month of February of this year in order 
to complete the gathering of some of the Indians who were dispersed 
on the coast and allied with the Karankawas, among whom there were 
two named Patricio and Joaquin. 

The said priest knowing that Joseph Maria and Matheo had in 
their power a young Christian who had been saved from the wreck 
of a boat which had sunk on that coast, endeavored to see them. 
This he accomplished, and asked for the aforesaid youth, who was 
given up freely and brought to the presidio of La Bahia. From 
him has been learned the pitiful tale of the vessel which was ship- 
arc BL, 



332 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

wrecked on the coast. Everything was verified by the commandant 
of the aforesaid presidio, Joseph Santoxa, who told me of the matter 
on the 13th of February. I, therefore, ordered that the young man 
be summoned before me in order to obtain his formal declaration. 
This was accomplished on the 12th of March of the present year. 

Swearing under oath, he said his name was Thomas de la Cruz, 
an Indian, native of the town of Msamal in the province of Yucatan, 
thirty leagues from the port of Campeche. He stated that he was 
twenty years of age, and a sailor ; that he had come from Campeche 
to Vera Cruz, and from that port to Havana, from which he went 
on to that of New Orleans, where there was one of his Majesty's 
schooners about to sail to explore the sea-coasts of the north, in 
particular the region of San Bernardo. He took a place in it, and 
in his opinion, the party left about the month of December, 1777. 
It reconnoitered the aforementioned port of San Bernardo, and 
made a map. Then, finding that provisions had run out, the party 
was obliged to go to the port of Matagorda. When they arrived 
there, they found that there were people on the coast. The captain 
ordered that five sailors land, and among them was one named 
Christobal Gomes, who had been an enlisted soldier at the presidio 
of La Bahia. He said that he knew many of the Indians at that 
point, and that it would be an easy matter to provide themselves at 
that rancheria with all they needed and then pass on to the presidio 
if it were necessary. The captain agreed, and therefore they landed 
with all their arms. 

The captain, observing that three or four days had passed and 
the men did not return, ordered shots fired, and the flag run up. 
Thereupon two Indians appeared who began to speak in Spanish, 
saying that they were soldiers at the presidio of La Bahia, and 
that their commandant had placed them there in order to give 
advices of any news that might occur on that coast. When the 
captain heard this, he ordered that two sailors leave in a boat to 
bring the men, which in fact they did. Brought to his presence 
they said that one was named Joseph Maria and the other Matheo, 
and they offered him meat, and impressed upon him the need of great 
care as the Indians of that coast were very bad, and he might run 
great risk. 

The captain, noting such courtesy, availed himself of them in 
order that they might endeavor to seek out the five missing men. 
He also ordered the meat to be brought, all of which the afore- 
mentioned men promised to do. Thus they embarked on a boat with 
three sailors, who never appeared again. However, Joseph Maria 
and his companion returned, pretending that they had made arrange- 
ments to search for the five men. They stated that these men were 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 . 333 

probably wandering through the forest, and that the other three 
would remain on land caring for the meat which was to be brought. 
All this was nothing more than a scheme on the part of the two 
aforesaid Indians, Joseph Maria and Matheo, in order to reduce the 
numbers of the crew and cause delay until the other Indians, their 
companions, should arrive and thus carry out their intentions on the 
premeditated day, which in fact they did. 

The Indians came aboard where there were no other people besides 
the captain, his son, the second captain, a coast pilot, and another 
sailor, with the aforesaid Thomas de la Cruz. The last named was 
in the hold, from where he heard the shots with which they killed 
the others. He hid among some sacks of provisions and thus saved 
his life; for after the awful massacre had taken place the Indians 
came down, and found the said Joseph Maria with the referred-to 
Thomas de la Cruz. Joseph Maria took him by the hand, and told 
him not to fear, and saved his life, for when they went on deck 
the other Indians tried to kill him ; but he defended him, and held 
him as his captive. Thomas de la Cruz served him from the 20th of 
March of the preceding year, when this misfortune happened, until 
the month of February of this year, when he was delivered to the 
Very Eeverend Father Joaquin de Escobar, minister of the mission 
of Kosario. 

After dancing over the dead bodies, the Indians took all the 
clothes of the captain and the sailors and threw the bodies into the 
water. They took on land the six swivel guns that the schooner 
had, two barrels of powder of a quintal each, three boxes of gun 
shot, eleven guns bearing the mark of the King and even a greater 
number which the captain and the crew had for their personal use. 
The Indians took all the foodstuffs and set fire to the vessel, taking 
also with them two large canoes which were used by the crew. All 
of this they divided later among the Karankawa Indians of the 
coast and the apostates of the mission of Eosario, of whom the 
aforementioned Joseph Maria, Matheo, Patricio, and Joaquin re- 
turned to the mission. 

The principal instigators were Joseph Maria and Matheo. They 
were the ones who deceived with such cunning and audacity the 
captain of the aforesaid schooner, whose crew consisted of the said 
captain named Don Luis Landrin, a second captain and a pilot, a 
boatswain, a coast pilot, eleven sailors, and a boy, son of the captain. 
The boatswain was one of the five mariners who first landed, and 
all of this happened because of the excess goodness and confidence 
of the aforesaid captain, and because he permitted them to enter 
his cabin and the hold of the ship where he had the guns with 
which they killed the crew, thus taking possession with great ease. 



334 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

After this deed, Joseph Maria induced the Karankawas and his 
companions to go to the environs of Villa de Camargo, where they 
stole a great part of the horses and flocks of sheep. 

The Karankawas in their full strength are fifty to sixty souls, 
and the apostates of the mission of Eosario are very few because 
they are again being brought to the mission. The Karankawas most 
of the time live in some islands that front the coast and because 
of that they have many canoes which they use. They have damaged 
many of the firearms which they took from the vessel because they 
do not know how to use them, breaking them on tree trunks in the 
forest and ruining them. The sailor Thomas de la Cruz remains 
in this royal presidio but desires to return to the town of New Orleans. 
All this account has been deduced from documents, numbers 6, 7, 
and 8, which are being forwarded to the commandant general in 
letter number 34, under date of 14th of March, so that informed 
of the matter, he may make such provisions as may appear most 
appropriate. 

BEXAR, March W, 1779. 

. CABELLO (Rubric), 



EXPEDITION AGAINST THE KARANKAWAS 
[1779] 278 

The construction of the eight large canoes on the Guadalupe River, 
which is distant twenty-five to thirty leagues to the west from the 
Bay of San Bernardo, for the transportation of twenty-five armed 
men from the coast to the islands is fruitless. The aforesaid 
canoes cannot navigate through this place, for when the tide is low, 
a great part of the lake is dry and there are innumerable oyster 
beds. All these islands are liable to be overflowed and they are 
without trees. That of San Luis, which is the largest, is probably 
eighteen leagues long, and excessively barren, but it has many lakes. 
It would be impossible for anyone to find refuge on it, because it 
has no trees which could serve as shelter. The possibility of the 
Indians hiding there is even less, and for this reason no men are 
needed to drive them out. The greatest difficulty to the settlement 
of the islands is the absence of fresh water, and of wells. I walked 
around the greatest part of them making excavations of about six feet 
but could not find any. Consequently, although the Indians are wont 
to go to them, it is in small numbers and only for a few hours to fish 
because there is no game. 

For these reasons and the impossibilities which the Commandant 
Don Domingo Cabello mentions, it appears to me at the present 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 

moment far more advisable and less expensive to form tlie expedition 
from this town with boats of small draft. Well-equipped and travel- 
ing along the rivers Chafalaya, Mermentao, and Carcasiut, they 
can approach within forty-five leagues of the Bay of San Bernardo. 
There are some twenty leagues of bad coast line, but one can always 
get through. In addition to this, there is the possibility of providing 
for the necessary foodstuffs through Opelusas which is three days' 
journey from Mermentao. 

Likewise in the Atacapas and the Opelusas, boats and pirogues 
are found or could be effectively constructed, and there are suitable 
persons able to manage them and trained to this sort of work. 
There could even be found a proper number of armed men, accus^ 
tomed to the hunt. 

As to the season best adapted for this expedition, the best time 
is from April to the end of July because from August on the hurri- 
canes and bad weather begin. 

The place best suited for the rendevous appears to me to be to 
the east of the Trinidad or Orcoquisas River, where all our men could 
be placed under shelter with a small breastwork. Furthermore, at 
this place there are open roads to Los Adaes, Natchitoches, and Ope- 
1 nsas, through which they may be supplied what they need. It is 
distant only thirty leagues from the Bay of San Bernardo, and from 
the shore side of the islands the trip could be made with ease and 
without risk, facilitating easy and rapid communication with this 
town, a thing of great importance. 

PEOPLE or STB. GENEVIEVE TO LEYBA 
March 28, 1779 27d 

To MONSIEUK DON FERNANDO DE LEYBA, CAPTAIN or THE INFANTRY 
REGIMENT OF LOUISIANA, COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE WESTERN 
PART OF THE ILMNOIS, AND LIEUTENANT GOVERNOR OF THE SAME PART. 

SIR : The undersigned, inhabitants of the post of Ste. Genevieve, 
take the liberty of appealing to you in the critical situation in which 
they find themselves placed, on account of the thefts of the Petits Os 
and Missouri savages. For the last seven or eight years these tribes 
have come each year to the outlying areas of the post and have stolen 
the horses of the inhabitants, who have borne these losses as well 
as it has been possible for them, hoping that, if their chiefs so recom- 
mended, these tribes would remain quiet. 

But the said undersigned persons now find themselves totally de- 
prived of horses because of the repeated thefts of the said nations 
which have again lately taken from them about twenty horses, two 

, (French). 



336 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

of which were stolen from a stable. Far from noticing any change to 
their advantage, they fear with reason that they will he unable, 
through lack of horses, to grind their wheat and accomplish their 
other labors. Consequently, the petitioners have recourse to you, Sir, 
so that it may please you to interpose your authority and take the 
necessary steps to stop the plundering of these nations, and they shall 
not cease to say prayers for your prosperity and safe-keeping. 
At STB. GENEVIEVE, S8th of March, 1779. 

Mark of DEGIRE LAROZE, fils X, Mark of PIEKE Roir X, 
Mark of STE. AIT BEEN X, Mark of BotrcHi X, 

Louis LACROIX 

Mark of DEROTJSELE X, Mark of BAPTISTS LACROIX X, 
Mark of GORVO X, Mark of VERKON X, 
Mark of Fois. JOYEUSE X, Mark of AUGUSTS X, 
Mark of LANGELLIER X, Mark of L. COTJRTOIS X, 
Mark of SIMONATT X, Mark of P. CHAUVIK X, 
Mark of JAQUE COTTRTOIS X, Mark of AT. AUBXJCHOK X, 

COLA BOUPE 

Mark of B. MORKEATT X, Mark of Fois. LACROIX X, 
Mark of COISTSTANS X, Mark of DANTOISNE RENO X, 

VERSAILLES, REGIS LASOTJRCB, 
FRCO. VALLE, fils^ HIPPOLITE ROBERT, 
Mark of BOYE, pere X, Mark of FRANCE X, 
L'ATJLBE (Rubric), P. CERRE (Rubric), 
GANOH, Fois. GUELLE, 
PIERR OBTTCHOST, DELVTJE (Rubric) , 
Mark of ROTTSIER X, Mark of BAPTISTE BEQUETE X, 
Mark of MOZELE X, Mark of COTE X, 

Mark of GUSTEE^ AUBTTCHON X, Mark of DEJAC BIIXRON X, 
Mark of ESTTESN LIEVREMON X, Mark of LOTDTS BALDUC X, 
PLACET, ANTOIKE DITCLOS, 
Mark of BERNYEE X, 
PRATTE (Rubric). 

PANIS TO GALVEZ 

April9, 1779 

(Copy) 

Senor Governor. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR : In view of the tasks which Your Lordship 
has entrusted to my care, and in order to justify the confidence with 
which you have honored me, I have to inform you that the port and 

woAGI,Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 337 

stronghold of Pensacola, the arrogant guardian of the Gulf of Mexico, 
ceded to the English by the recent treaty of peace, is the best refuge 
they have for their ships and the key to these seas. There they not 
only can defend and maintain respect for their dominions, but also 
harass our shipping and attack the realms of our sovereign. With 
good reason the English in their writings glory in its possession, be- 
cause in addition to its size, protected from all winds, it is the best port 
known in all this Gulf. It has at its entrance a depth of four 
fathoms, gradually increasing to about eight in its inner reaches. 
Its settlement, almost on the seashore, which is very sandy, is com- 
posed of some one hundred or more houses, all constructed of wood, 
the greater part of them of only one story, inhabited by about two 
hundred residents. This is not counting the itinerant traders who 
reside there, the number of whom increases or decreases slightly 
according to the condition of their business. In an emergency, by 
calling up the few men who live on the nearby farms and the negroes 
employed in farming and the domestic service of their masters, they 
can raise an armed force of five hundred men of both classes. With 
this number and assuming that the garrison has been reinforced on 
account of the present fears, as the British court is resolved to defend 
this port at any cost, it will probably be defended by three or four 
thousand men. On this supposition and because it has no fortifica- 
tions other than the irregular quadrangle formed of square posts, 
six to nine inches thick and about ten feet high, it would not be 
difficult to attack and capture it with one division of six ships of the 
line and as many more frigates, some mortar boats and sundry armed 
sloops or schooners. These would, at the same time, serve as trans- 
ports for landing seven thousand troops. The sloops or schooners, 
escorted by some frigates, with three thousand men of selected light 
troops, should in advance steer a course for the Rio de los Perdidos, 
which is between Mobile and Pensacola, some five leagues from the 
latter. They could enter its mouth and, penetrating without oppo- 
sition as far as the house of the pilot there, could disembark the 
men, who would set out on the march. It would be somewhat diffi- 
cult for about three leagues, as there is nothing but a path winding 
through the pines, bayous, and marshes. Farther on, the woods be- 
come thinner and the road more passable and solid. They should 
proceed in three divisions, somewhat separated, but in sight of each 
other, in order to lend each other a hand in case of necessity. 

At the entrance of the port, opposite the island of Santa Eosa, 
there is a detachment commanded by a captain, protected by a wooden 
blockhouse, like those at the four corners of the post's fort, with 
windows serving as gun ports and loop-holes for muskets. After 
dislodging this guard, the forces should disembark at the foot of 

700296 49 vol. 2 24 



338 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

the farm of Mr. Snell and, gaining the height from which it would 
naturally be defended by its servants and negroes, the troops could 
continue by a wagon road for about one-fourth league to the first 
houses, which extend irregularly to the fort. The companies of 
grenadiers should attack the battery, recently built of brush and 
sand, on this side, while the three thousand men from the land side 
would assault another facing them, making use of the cannon of the 
batteries themselves, while the guns of the ships silence the fire from 
the breastwork and batteries defending the side facing the sea, all 
likewise constructed of sand and brush. They should open as many 
breaches in the stockade as they think sufficient to wreck it and en- 
filade the parade ground. The quarters of the troops, two stories high, 
the adjoining house, originally intended for the governor but which 
now serves as an artillery store, and the four block houses at the 
corners of the fort, all constructed of wood, are the first objects 
which present themselves to view and the easiest to destroy and render 
useless with bombs. Because of their weakness, the breastwork, its 
battery, and the faces of the corners, as well as those works recently 
thrown up on account of the fear of attack, will hardly resist the first 
few cannon shots as it is certain that the force of those which hit 
them will make them fall. There are now in Pensacola seven cannon 
of 32 calibre and ten of 24. The others surmounting the enclosure 
and bastions, numbering fifty or sixty pieces, together with a few 
mortars, are not much defense on account of their short range, all 
of them being naval guns. 

My desire has always been, and still is, to discharge all the tasks 
which Your Lordship is pleased to entrust to me. If I have suc- 
ceeded in this one, I owe it entirely to Your Lordship, as your talents, 
ideas, and instructions have inspired and guided me. Believe, Your 
Lordship, in my sincere good will and deep loyalty to do everything 
possible in the service of my Monarch and Master and of Your 
Lordship. 

May Our Lord guard Your Lordship many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, April 9, 1779. 

Senor Governor, your must humble and loyal servant kisses Your 
Lordship's hand. 

JACINTO PANIS. 
Senor Governor DON BERNARDO DE 



NAVARRO TO ROYAL ATJDIENCIA OF MEXICO 

May %9, 1779 281 
No. 65. (Confidential) 

* AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 339 

Continuing the personal and confidential correspondence which 
I was carrying on with, the deceased Most Excellent Sefior Viceroy 
for the purpose of communicating all the news I receive of the 
operations of the English, French, and the American colonists on 
this continent, I send Your Highnesses herewith a summary of what 
I have just received from Philadelphia. In my opinion, it deserves 
Your Highnesses' attention and is for your guidance. 

May Our Lord protect Your Highnesses the many years that 
I desire. 

HAVANA, May 29, 1779. 

I kiss the hands of Your Highnesses. 

DIEGO JOSEPH NAVABKO (Kubric). 
Senores KEGENTE and OIDORES of the Koyal Audiencia of Mexico 



News received recently from Philadelphia from a wholly reliable 
source. 

It has been learned that fourteen ships of thirty guns, with two 
thousand troops under the command of General Clinton, who were 
trying to make a landing on the coast of New England have been 
lost on Long Island. This accident obliged the general to return to 
that port without having accomplished anything. 

A vessel from Martinique brought news of the arrival there on 
February 18th of the French squadron under command of Oomte 
de Grasse, composed of four ships of the line and three transports. 
With these reinforcements, the squadron of Comte d'Estaing now 
consists of sixteen of the former and several frigates-of-war. 

Also an English squadron has arrived at the Island of Santa 
Lucia to reinforce that of Admiral Byron, which now consists of 
twenty-six ships, nineteen of seventy to ninety guns, two of fifty and 
five of forty-four. Despite the strength of this squadron, the Comte 
d'Estaing set sail with his on March 23, as also did Admiral Byron. 
They sighted each other, but made no movement to attack, and 
returned to their respective ports. Byron's squadron suffered greatly 
from the maladies infesting the Island of Santa Lucia. The 
French squadron on the contrary is in better condition. 

It was reported that Congress intends to withdraw the three 
commissioners it has in France, but there are opinions to the con- 
trary. More troops are said to be embarking in New York, destined 
for the English islands or to reinforce those now in Georgia, where 
they have had some encounters with the colonists, but without any- 
thing worthy of note having occurred. 



340 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

It is said that an American frigate captured three English 
privateers. Three other frigates which were cruising along the 
coast of Virginia captured an English privateer schooner, whose 
captain gave them various news, in view of which they sailed until 
they encountered a convoy taking provisions to Georgia, and proceed- 
ing in two divisions. Not being able to attack both of them at the 
same time, they attacked only one. It was composed of seven ships, 
one of twenty guns, another of sixteen, one schooner of eight, and 
four brigantines. They captured all of them and took them to 
Boston, together with their passengers and cargoes, consisting of 
barrels of flour and salt meat, equipment, clothing, arms and saddles 
for a complete regiment of cavalry, together with various officers, 
chaplains, and merchants. 

Finally, it was reported that Congress had decided to send to 
Spain a minister plenopotentiary to His Majesty, with proposals 
to cede to the King all the inner part of the province of Louisiana, 
which they have conquered from the English, and to arrange for 
giving support to the Spaniards with three thousand troops in the 
taking of Pensacola and Florida, in exchange for financial assistance. 

HAVANA, May 29, 1779. 

(Rubric) . 

COLLELL TO GrALVEZ 

June 15, 1779 282 

Senor the Governor General. 

MY DEAR SIR: On the 14th of this month the schooner of His 
Majesty under the command of Captain Don Josef Briones arrived 
here. I received from him the much appreciated letter of Your 
Lordship of May 24. I also received the two cannon of four with 
their carriages, the sixty muskets, and other war materiel that Your 
Lordship was so good to send for the defense of this place or town 
and to arm the militia company which is to be formed as you ordered. 
The latter I shall do next Sunday. I shall fill the said company, 
for the present, only with Spaniards and Frenchmen, of whom there 
are sufficient to utilize the guns I received. I am not sending to 
Your Lordship the recommendation for their officers until I have 
informed myself about them and learned which ones can occupy the 
said ranks because of their distinction and character. 

In regard to the English settlers, if Your Lordship agrees, another 
company of thirty-three men, who are experienced in arms and in 
going into the woods, can be formed in case the need calls for it. 
In this company there can be Captain Jauyme Mkolson, Lieutenant 

*** AGI, PC, leg. 2351. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 341 

Genaro Mkolson, and Second Lieutenant Meo Gre, because they are 
the most honorable men among them, First Sergeant Mr. Escot, 
and Corporals Mr. Jorge Quenti, and Luis Devez. These will be 
sufficient to command said company until the* number increases. 

Enclosed I send Your Lordship the report of the families who 
have come to this new settlement since January 19, 1779, which was 
the last date until today that a report was sent. In it are noted 
on the margin the deaths and at the foot the births. This can 
serve as an indication of the high and low which occurred in the 
time mentioned. 

By my agent Don Josef Eomagosa I send Your Lordship the 
account of the amounts of money I have received and the payments 
I made out of these. As indicated by both reports, the balance results 
in a credit of 59 reales which remains under my care as Your 
Lordship will see in the papers I send. I hope that this will have 
Your Lordship's satisfaction and acceptance. 

I notify Your Lordship that on the tenth of the current month 
the settler Meo Gre lent a boat to an English settler named Mr. 
Be. When the latter passed by the post of the English to return 
to his plantation he was detained by the commandant of said post 
who recognized that the boat belonged to said Gre, and took it. 
He gave as a reason that the owner was a rebel against his Brittanic 
Majesty. When this came to my knowledge, I wrote to the said 
commandant, reclaiming the boat, and telling him that Gre was 
a subject of His Catholic Majesty. He answered me what Your 
Lordship will see in his letter, which I am forwarding. Not know- 
ing whether Your Lordship will approve that I take reprisal, I shall 
not do so till I know what Your Lordship will decide. 

Mr. Huescat died on the second of the current month. He left 
in his will one slave to his wife together with the household goods, 
and another one to his daughter. There remain six slaves, three 
horses, and some hogs. They should be sold at public auction in 
order to satisfy his debts which are many and much entangled. 
For this reason I ordered his executors to post a notice so that the 
public may know that within eight days all the creditors of the 
deceased must assemble here to put in their claims. I have decided 
to have the auction this week, and allow six months' time to those who 
buy anything at it. This decision I communicate to Your Lordship. 
If there is anything against the provisions, I should appreciate having 
it made known to me in order to remedy it instantly. 

The surgeon Don Antonio Demar, who up to now has given proof 
of his ability, by his zeal, and the correctness with which he has 
assisted the sick people, begs Your Lordship kindly to grant him 
some salary sufficient to keep himself and to pay for his work. 



342 



SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



The English doctor who aided the sick until the arrival of this 
one charged 128 pesos for the medicine and the work he did, as is 
stated in the report he presented to me. I am not paying him till 
Your Lordship approves it. 

The settlers are still sowing and I believe that what I promised 
Your Lordship will be attained, namely, that all will have a crop. 
There are 42 houses built in the town and only three needed to 
enclose the square fully are lacking and they will be finished this 
week. There are twelve people sick with fever but no one is 
seriously ill. I believe that in the future more sickness will be felt 
unless care is taken to put on the roofs as quickly as possible, in 
order that they may be protected a little. I cannot put the hospital in 
use till some of the house is roofed. 

It is certain I was told that after six months stay here I should be 
relieved. It caused me some perturbation not to be relieved of the 
command, and not to know the reason. I thought that I may have 
fallen from grace with Your Lordship, a thing which would worry 
me greatly. I consider, however, that these may be groundless ideas 
that I formed in my mind for which I beg Your Lordship to forgive 
me. Your Lordship's letter has dissuaded me so much by its words 
that I believe that, if all my determination had not been long employed 
for Your Lordship, it would make a very great change in me. As 
proof of this I beg Your Lordship to command me with assurance 
of satisfaction in whatever your pleasure will be. 

May God guard the life of Your Lordship many years. 

VILLA DB GALVEZ, Jww 15, 1779. 

Your affectionate subject and true servant kisses the hand of Your 
Lordship. 

FRANC . COLLELL 

DON BERNARDO DE 



COLLELL TO GALVEZ 

June 27, 1779 28S 

First militia company of the town of Galvez. 

Report giving the names which constitute said company, formed at 
the order of Don Bernardo de Galvez, governor and intendant in- 
spector general of this province on June 16, 1779. 



Captain, Don 

Lt Dn Agustin Brounet p.* 84 

2d. Lt. Dn Antonio Diaz p. 

Sergt 1st. Franc Monson p. 

Another 2d Agustin Pinto. p. 



Another 2d Jph. Pereira p. 

Corp. 1st Franc Pena p. 

Another 1st Luis Rivera p. 

Another 1st Juan Medero p. 

Another 1st Bartolome Hernandez, . .p. 



*AGI, PC, leg. 2351. 

284 Already in the service, and present. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 



343 



Corp. 2d Bartolome Diaz p. 

Another 2d Ramon Lopez p. 

Another 2d. Juan Ant Martin p. 

Another 2d. Domingo Garzia. ... p. 

Antonio Montesinos p. 

Josef Quintero p. 

Josef Morales, 1st p. 

Josef Rodriguez Fomes p. 

Agustin Capitan p. 

Domingo Acosta p. 

Franc Toledo p. 

Josef Martin p. 

Ygnacio Ramires .* p. 

Juan Sanches Melian p. 

Josef Perez p. 

Franc Rodriguez p. 

Juan Gonzalez Siverio p. 

Diego Morales p. 

Xptobal Mesa p. 

Antonio Alonso p. 

Fillerno Chocho p. 

Felipe Romero p. 

Franco Herrera p. 

Matheo Rodriguez p. 

Mathias Martin p. 

Josef Pereira Sanches p. 



Juan de Barrion P- 

Sevastian Pereira. P- 

Juan Suares P- 

Miguel Martin P- 

Juan Medina P* 

Juan Ant Sanches p. 

Salbador Milan p. 

Josef Espino P- 

Franc Suarez .p. 

Pedro Barrero .p. 

Jph. Charnero . . .p. 

Juan Hernandez p. 

Alonso Serdena p. 

Manuel Garzia p. 

Bizente Sardina p. 

Thomas Collado p. 

Josef Morales, 2nd p. 

Josef Bermudes. p. 

Josef Antonio Rodrigues p. 

Josef Antonio Gonzales p. 

Pedro Martin p. 

Nicolas Hernandez p. 

Sevastian de Nis p. 

Josef Anguel p. 

Xpotbal Bentura p. 

Josef Tilano p. 

Antonio Santos p. 



Total: 
Resum^ 

Officers 2 

Sergeants 3 

Corporals 8 

Soldiers 49 

Total 62 



VILLA DE GALVEZ, June 87, 1779. 



FRANC. COLLELL (Kubric). 



AUDIEKOIA TO NAVARRO 

June 28, 1779 285 

No. 11. (Confidential) 

Important and worthy of being known by this government are the 
reports from the foreign colonies, contained in the summary which 
Your Lordship is pleased to enclose in your letter of May 29th, last. 
After giving Tour Lordship proper thanks for the care you have 

MAGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



344 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

taken in communicating them, the Royal Andiencia can do no less 
than inform you that it hopes you will continue to report all the 
news which comes to Your Lordship's attention in order that this 
may be used as judgment dictates, and the necessary precautions and 
measures taken. 

May God etc. 

MEXICO, Jme $8, 1779. 
Senor DON DIEGO NAVARRO. 

BALLING TO GALVEZ 



JAKAICA, &9th June 1779. 

SIR : With no less surprize than concern. Your Excellency may rest 
assured, have I been informed by James Constant Captain of a 
Spanish Schooner called the Charlotte, bound from New Orleans to 
S*. Domingo, that he had been in open Violation of the faith of 
Nations Captured by a privateer from this port. 

Such insolence, or rather such piracy, I have not lost a moment, 
after due information, to reprobate in the severest manner; sorry am 
I, Sir, that the delinquent has not fallen into my hands, for had it 
been the case your Excellency may rest assured, I should have taken 
such exemplary satisfaction, as would in future intimidate any mis- 
creant from attempting such daring insolence, equally disgraceful to 
humanity, as it may be injurious to the good faith that subsists be- 
tween our Courts. 

The Court of Vice Admiralty immediately took cognizance of the 
Affair, and after a candid and impartial trial acquitted the Vessel 
and found costs for your Captain ; and the Attorney General of our 
Island has received instructions from me to sue for the Bond the 
delinquent was obliged to give at the time I granted him a Commis- 
sion, which I hope hereafter will so far terrify other privateers that 
they will give over such practices, equally subversive of the good faith 
that ought to subsist between nations in friendship, as they are dis- 
honorable to the perpetrators. 

I take this early oppotunity, Sir, to inform you of the decision of 
our Courts, as well likewise to assure your Excellency, that, during 
my administration, I shall be ever disposed to protect the rights and 
interests of his Catholick Majesty's Subjects, and take exemplary 
Justice on all persons who shall in future dare to perpetrate such 
atrocious villanies. 

I have the honor to be with great respect your Excellency's most 
obedient, and most humble Servant 

JOHN BALLING 



"BL, (English). 



THE KEVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 345 

(Attached to preceding document) 

STATE OF THE SPANISH SCHOONER CHAELOTTA 
IN THE COURT OF VICE ADMIRALTY 

JAMAICA, April 7th, 1779. 

Mess 1 * 8 . Dick Milligan agents for y e Owners of The Brig Sir Will ra . 
Erskine a Letter of Marque The Commission granted at New York. 

John Hamilton is appointed Captain by y e above Owners who sent 
into the Port of Kingston a Schooner call'd Le Charlotta whereof 
Jacques Constant was master. She was LibePd on y e 7th of April 
as French Property; to this Libel a claim was put in; & June 22 d 
it came to a Trial ; on full Evidence the Vessel & Cargoe were acquited 
& Eestored to the Claimants, & full Costs out of Purse decreed to be 
paid by y e Captors. Some Dollars & Tabaccoe not claimed in y e 
original Claim is now demanded by Jacques Constant as his Prop- 
erty ; & he is admitted by y e Court, to come in & establish his right. 

GALVEZ TO GALVEZ 

July 3, 1779 287 

No. 303 (Confidential) 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MT VERT DEAR SIR : Under date of June 9th of last year I reported 
to Your Excellency that there were then assembled at the English 
post of Natchez one thousand men, whites and Indians, and at that 
of Manchak two hundred, with the idea of opposing the Americans. 

I also informed Your Excellency under dates of February 5th and 
25th, last, of the coming of 225 more to said post, due to the arrival 
at Pensacola of the troops under the command of General Campbell; 
and now there have just arrived at Manchak 400 more men, and, 
according to the advice given me by our commandant, the English 
expect 300 more of the Waldeck Regiment. 

With these reinforcements, the number of troops which the English 
have at this post now amounts to more than one thousand men, 
veterans of the campaigns they have made against the Americans, 
without including in this number the other thousand or more, above- 
mentioned, which can easily return to join these, as they will prove 
in due time. 

They give us as a pretext for these movements of troops that a 
large number of colonists are shortly to descend upon their settle- 
ments ; but it is evident to me that this approach of the Americans 
is a pure supposition of the English, who perhaps have no other object 
than that of reuniting their forces on the river in order to be in a 
better position to attack us at the first advice of a rupture. 

, And SD, 87-3-10. 



346 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

The forces that I have to garrison this post consist of two hundred 
men of the pickets of Havana, and three hundred of the battalion, 
of which, although complete, the other members are detached in the 
many posts which they have to cover. In addition to this, the major 
part of the said three hundred men is composed of the latest recruits 
from the islands and Mexico who do not yet know either the handling 
of arms or the evolutions. 

As to the militias, although I am certain of their good will, Your 
Excellency knows very well that one cannot count much on them, 
because, as war is not their profession, they do not wage it with 
enthusiasm. Besides, they always have in mind, in view of the danger, 
the consideration of their families, and this increases the risks for 
them. 

Notwithstanding this situation, I am under the necessity of making 
use of all the means and measures afforded by this province. I have 
issued confidential orders to the commandants of our establishments, 
charging them very strictly to maintain the greatest vigilance and 
to send me immediately a report of all the individuals who, in their 
respective jurisdictions, are in a position to take up arms and leave 
their homes and families with the least prejudice to the latter if the 
occasion demands it. 

This news I report to Your Excellency so that by considering the 
difference between the forces that I have and those of the English, 
you may please bring it to the attention of His Majesty, assuring 
him that, in any case, I shall display the zeal and affection deserved 
of me by the colony whose preservation he has been pleased to entrust 
to me. 

May Our Lord protect the life of Your Excellency for many years. 

NEW ORLEANS, July 3, 1779. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble and faithful servant kisses 
your hand. 

BERNARDO DB GALVEZ (Rubric). 

Most Excellent Sefior DON JOSEF DE GALVEZ. 

LEBYA TO GALVEZ 

July 13, 1779* 
No. 332. ST. Louis, YLENTUESES, July 13, 1779. 

Senor Governor General, 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: There have arrived 
at this post from your city five boats, all loaded with rum, sugar, 
and coffee, which for these people are the world, the flesh, and the 
devil. But even if such goods were not articles of vice, Sir, they 

*AGI, PC, leg. 1. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 347 

would be worse than useless at this time, because there is no 
merchandise to furnish the Indian tribes, neither are there any furs, 
which are their money, coming into this town. Two boats are still 
to come. If these arrive as poorly stocked as the others, I do not 
believe the results will be happy. It is indispensable that our Indian 
tribes be provided with their accustomed goods. There are not 
enough in this post to supply the smallest of them. Even when 
we take to their villages what they need, Sir, they find reasons to 
make threats. If nothing is sent to them, as now will be the case 
because there are none, they will come furiously to this town to learn 
the reason for the lack of goods. On learning this, it is inevitable 
that they will turn their backs disdainfully on us and go to trade 
with the English (whose traders, even without this reason, make of 
our tribes a source of wealth) . This will result in two disadvantages : 
no furs will come into our territory and the Indians will be won 
over to the English trade, which is certainly more profitable to them 
than ours. In order to see whether I could remedy this I sent some 
merchants to the other side to get goods for the Indians, but the 
English traders, from whom nothing is hidden and who see our need, 
asked such exorbitant prices that only a person who wanted to ruin 
himself would accept them. Their intention is to give the blow which 
I am trying to prevent, and for success in averting it I shall omit no 
measures which may occur to me, and shall inform Your Lordship of 
the results. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders and pray 
God to preserve your very important life the many years I desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric). 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 

July IS, 1779 289 
ISTo. 331. ST. Louis, YLINOTSES, July 13, 1779. 

Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED Snt: By virtue of the 
authority which Your Lordship was pleased to grant me in your 
letter of January 13, to form two militia companies from the one 
here, this has been done, although the newly created one is of cavalry. 
At the present it consists of forty-eight mounted men, three sergeants, 
and three officers. The number will be larger when some youths 



*AGI PC, leg. 1. 



348 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

wlio wish to enlist get horses. The infantry company remains on 
the footing of one hundred and seventy-six men. I do not send 
Your Lordship the rolls of both of these on account of the prompt- 
ness with which M. Borgas is dispatching his boat. The officers whom 
I have appointed for the cavalry company and who have been 
installed in the name of Your Lordship are as follows: Captain, 
Don Eugenio Purre, former lieutenant of infantry of this town; 
lieutenant, the resident Don Luis Chevalier; sub-lieutenant, the 
resident Don Carlos Tallon. In the infantry company, Don Benito 
Vasquez has been promoted from sub-lieutenant to lieutenant of 
same, and to this vacancy, the sergeant of the same company, Don 
Pedro Montardy. These five promoted officers hope to have the 
honor of receiving their commissions from Your Lordship. 

The uniform of the cavalry company is coat and breeches, red; 
cuffs, waistcoat, lapel and collar, blue; buttons, gilt. 

I remain witfc all respect at Your Lordship's orders, and pray God 
to preserve your important life the many years I desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your 
Lordship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Eubric). 

Sefior DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

P. S. A road has been constructed from this town to Ste. Genevieve, 
from which will result to the district under my command the follow- 
ing benefits: To be able to help that town with the new cavalry 
company if necessary; to have communication with it all the year 
round. This formerly was lacking during the winter, as the great 
mass of ice which comes down the river (when it is not entirely 
frozen over) , prevents not only navigation from this town to that 
one, but also crossing to Cao. The renting of horses and of caleches 
formerly practiced on the other side by the people of my district 
in order to come and go by land to the said town of Ste. Genevieve, 
will remain in this district under my command. 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 

July 13, 1779 29 
No. 330. ST. LOTOS, YLINTJESES, July 13, 1779. 

Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : Don Joseph Piernas was 
in this town for about a year. His scandalous conduct and irregular 
mode of life, together with the demands of some parents that I find 
some way to stop the ruin of their children, which they considered 

*>AGr, PC, leg. 1. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 349 

inevitable with such bad company, obliged me to send him to Ste. 
Genevieve, where his conduct is as explained by the enclosed letters 
from Don Francisco Cartabona. 

For my part, I renew my request that Your Lordship remove him 
from this post if possible. 

I remain with the greatest respect at Your Lordship's orders, and 
pray God to preserve your very important life for the many years I 
desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric) 
Seiior Don Bernardo de Galvez. 
[Draft in the margin]. 

In reply to your three letters of July 13 last, I shall say that I note 
from those enclosed from Don Francisco Cartabona the bad conduct 
of Sub-lieutenant Piernas, but I cannot remove him as you ask, at 
the request made to you by some parents, because, recognizing his 
incorrigible behavior, I sent him to your detachment to see if he 
would improve; but before his departure I had him make a memorial 
to the King asking for his retirement. I have already dispatched 
this and am expecting an answer any day. 

Having taken note of what you tell me regarding the cargo carried 
by the five boats which arrived, I shall take steps to have the owners 
carry goods suitable for trading (if these are to be had here) , in order 
to avoid the unhappy consequences which you state would be caused 
by the lack of them. 

I am very gratified at the forming of the cavalry company, and 
approve of its uniform. I cannot send now the five officers' commis- 
sions you request, on account of the prompt departure of the boat. 

I likewise approve and thank you for the road which has been made 
from your settlement to Ste. Genevieve, from which results not only 
the advantage of communication through our own territory, but also 
the fact that help can be sent there in case of need. 

NEW ORLEANS, August #, 1779. 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 

July 13, 1779 
]STo. 329. ST. Louis, YLINUESES, July 13, 1779. 

Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: Some fifty American 
deserters, turbulent and lawless fellows, who were in Ste. Genevieve, 
were greatly troubling that town, eating without paying, and going 

, PC, leg. 1. 



350 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

out to assassinate any countryman or soldier from the other side whom 
they might find wandering around. I saw that this might expose me 
to some very disagreeable predicament, as some day, pursued by their 
enemies, they might engage in combat in my district. In that case 
we should find ourselves obliged to defend a gang of criminals and 
forced to demand satisfaction from the United States. I have there- 
fore ordered them to return to their own side, which they immediately 
did. 

I remain with all respect at Your Lordship's orders and pray God 
to preserve your important life the many years I desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Kubric). 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

CABELLO TO GALVEZ 
Jk 1779* 



MY DEAR SIR : By my orders the Eeverend Father Fray Joaquin 
de Escobar, teacher of the mission of Kosario, at the presidio of 
Espiritu Santo, at the beginning of the month of February of this 
present year, went to the north coast in pursuit of some Indian fugi- 
tives from his mission, whom he found established among the Kar- 
ankawas who live on the said coast and neighboring islands. Having 
gathered together some of them, he brought with him a captive whom 
he was able to rescue from the power of an Indian of his mission 
called Joseph Maria, who, because he had been the moving factor in 
the uprising and flight of his companions, the padre did not dare to 
bring, knowing the punishment to which he was condemned. This 
captive is an Indian of the province of Campeche, who was a sailor 
in a schooner under the command of Captain Don Luis Landrin, who, 
by order of Your Lordship, had gone to explore the coast mentioned 
and several ports on it. 

He dropped anchor in Matagorda Bay below the presidio of the bay 
of Espiritu Santo and about eighteen leagues from it. The Karankawa 
Indians, and the fugitives from the mission of El Eosario killed the 
captain and crew of the said boat, with the exception of the afore- 
said sailor called Thomas de la Cruz, who was made captive by 
Joseph Maria, one of the aforesaid apostates, and by whom he was 
delivered to Padre Escobar. The father, having learned of the dis- 
aster which had happened to the aforesaid boat, informed me of it, 
together with the commandant of that presidio. Consequently, I 
ordered the said captive to appear before me, and after taking Ms 

BL. A Pinart transcript. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 351 

declaration in the necessary legal manner, I sent it to my commandant 
general on the 14th of March of the present year, so that he might 
decide upon it according to his pleasure. 

In an official letter to my commandant general I suggested that the 
only way to punish this wickedness, and in particular that of Joseph 
Maria and Matheo, would be by Your Lordship's despatching another 
ship to this coast, seeing that the maps made of the ports had been 
lost. Upon its arrival at Matagorda Bay it would be natural that the 
said Indians might come aboard, as they would, and then the crew, 
being well-prepared, could arrest them, and in particular Joseph 
Maria and Matheo. In order that I may give a report of this affair 
to Your Lordship, and a description of these perfidious apostates, I 
am, as opportunity permitted, sending the sailor Thomas de la Cruz to 
Your Lordship, since he begged to be sent back to that destination. 

But also in this affair, among the many and incredible troubles 
suffered, is that of the delay of replies to the official letters sent to 
the superior government. Another is that my commandant general 
has not replied to me. Nevertheless, I have not for this reason been 
willing to fail to place in the hands of Your Lordship the account 
of the disastrous occurrence to that ship, its crew, and goods. The 
said descriptions and the person of the aforesaid Thomas de la Cruz 
I have sent by Francisco Garcia, so that Your Lordship, with your 
great understanding, may make such use of them as you may see fit 
for the service of the King our master; and through your own many 
powers you may take such steps as you think best to remedy this state 
of insecurity. I am left in the painful condition of being only a 
witness of the outrages committed here, for I lack the powers and 
forces with which to punish such evil deeds as that which just 
occurred. 

On the night of the 25th ultimo, at one o'clock, the Karankawa 
Indians surprised the aforesaid mission of Rosario, being guided by 
the apostate refugees from it who are living among them. They car- 
ried off 22 Indians of both sexes and all ages. After information 
had been given to the commandant of the presidio, he left imme- 
diately with 17 soldiers of that troop, 20 citizens of the presidio, and 
20 Indians from another mission, who were all he could collect. 
Overtaking the Indians at break of day, they were ambushed in a 
thicket on the opposite side of a river. From there they poured upon 
the party such a hot fire that one soldier was killed and some were 
badly wounded. It was impossible for them to ford the river, as the 
enemy concealed themselves so completely in the thick woods that 
they could not be seen. Consequently the soldiers were compelled to 
return to their presidio. I have wished to inform Your Lordship of 
that matter because of the importance it may have. 



352 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

In the mail of this month I shall forward information, together 
with the letters that you have sent me, to my commandant general, 
hoping that what he may decide will have some effect on this matter. 
I remain in all at the disposition of Your Lordship. 

I beg our Lord, etc. 

BEXAR, July fc 1779. 

DOM CABELLO. 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

NAVAERO TO AUDIENCIA 
July 99, 1779 293 

No. 72. ( Confidential ) 

I realize that Your Highnesses must have special orders from His 
Majesty, relative to what should be sent from your Kingdom to this 
post under the present circumstances arising from a declaration of 
war upon Great Britain. Nevertheless, I consider it my duty not to 
fail to inform Your Highnesses of what I have been instructed by 
confidential royal orders of May 19 and 24, last, so that, in vi&w of 
everything, Your Highnesses may be pleased to issue the strictest 
orders to the effect that I be supplied abundantly with everything, 
especially funds, without limitation to allotments. As Your High- 
nesses will understand, it is not possible to get along with these 
allotments when I am instructed to supply everything, without spar- 
ing expense. Therefore, it is clear that there must necessarily be an 
extraordinary amount here for present expenses, as well as those 
which may be incurred by the other places which I must take care of. 
I am ordered to supply whatever may be needed by the president 
of Guatemala, the governor of Louisiana, and by those of the various 
other provinces in these dominions, but especially the two first named. 
They have been advised, as have the others, to ask me for what they 
need. I am told that the Sefior Viceroy of your kingdom has been 
instructed to send this post all the artillery cast in the temporary 
foundry ordered established at Vera Cruz or in its vicinity, and all 
the powder made in its factory, inasmuch as this place is to be con- 
sidered to some extent the general depot of military supplies. From 
it distribution is to be made to the other posts of the said dominions, 
according to their importance and needs, not losing sight of the fact 
that this post is the most important place in America. 

With this information, Your Highnesses' sagacity will recognize 
that my action in asking you for abundant shipments of provisions, 
powder, conscripts (which are notably lacking), and funds is for no 
other purpose than the best service of His Majesty, the honor of his 

a*AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 353 

arms, and the glory of the state. Consequently Your Highnesses will 
deign to hasten your measures to the utmost, so that no time may 
be lost. 

I shall endeavor not to lose any time in sending to the governor of 
Vera Cruz all the useless bronze artillery or that of irregular calibres 
which is of no use in this post, so that it may be recast into regular 
types. I am so ordered by the said confidential letter of May 24. 

May God protect Your Highnesses many years. 

HAVANA, July $9, 1779. 

I kiss the hands of Your Highnesses. 

DIEGO JOSEPH NAVARRO (Kubric) . 

Senores REGENTE and OIDORES of the Eoyal Governing Audiencia 
of Mexico. 

VICEROY OF MEXICO TO NAVARRO 
August 87, 1779 294 

No. 8. (Confidential). 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: I am in receipt of Your Lordship's confi- 
dential letter of July 29, last, in which you set forth to the royal 
administrative audiencia your most urgent requirements on account 
of the present state of war and your need of abundant supplies, 
especially funds, for the requirements, not only of your post, but also 
of Louisiana and other posts here in America which Your Lordship 
has to supply. 

In prompt compliance with everything ordered for these important 
objects by His Majesty, the royal administrative audiencia imme- 
diately took the most vigorous and opportune measures to prepare 
with the greatest promptness possible the supplies which should be 
sent to you. 

These measures, together with those which I have energetically 
taken, have already prepared the shipments to such an extent, even 
in the short time between the 12th instant, when news of the war was 
received, and the present date, that two-thirds of the flour and dried 
vegetables required by the intendants of army and navy for those 
purposes have already been purchased and are en route or in Vera 
Cruz for shipment. 

Eight hundred thousand pesos have been dispatched to the port 
of Vera Cruz to be transported in different ships to your island thus 
dividing the risks. Three hundred thousand are for Louisiana, and 
five hundred thousand, half and half, for the requirements of your 
post and the navy. 

* AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 
700296 49 vol. 2 25 



354 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Besides these funds, the vessels carrying them will also take all 
the flour and dried vegetables that can be loaded on them without 
too much delay at the said port. Although orders have been issued 
that they be maniied and armed for war as well as can be done 
there, the administrator of royal exchequer, Don Pedro Antonio 
Cosio, has also been instructed to advise the intendant of the army 
that it is indispensable, in order to avoid the risks existing at the 
present time, for some ships to come to meet them. All the powder 
possible will also be sent, even though Campeche is also being sent 
five hundred quintals. From now on the shipments of this item will 
be large, as I have ordered everything possible done, not only that 
the work be carried forward energetically but also that a new powder 
factory be started, in addition to the one already in existence. 

With regard to the conscripts, I have ordered Vera Cruz to send 
all they can now, two-thirds for this place and one-third for the 
navy. 

The frigates chartered for these purposes, on the account of the 
King, are named La Galga, 8cm Cristobal, and La Caraguena. Al- 
though the contracts for these had already been made with all the 
proper conditions, they were strongly opposed to sailing imme- 
diately, not wishing to do so until the middle of October, next, justly 
fearing the dangers of the equinox. Neither the present circumstances 
nor my desire of aiding your post with all possible speed permit delay 
because of these difficulties. Therefore, I have instructed the gover- 
nor and administrator of royal exchequer there to have them loaded 
and made ready without a moment's delay, and directed to sail imme- 
diately, overcoming any opposition by increasing the payment. If 
this is not sufficient, he is to insure the ships at the expense of the 
royal exchequer. 

All these measures will show Your Lordship how much attention 
I have given to the aid which is to be sent you, how much has been 
done to prepare the various shipments, make them large, and to have 
this first one now being prepared shipped with the greatest prompt- 
ness. My vigilance in these commendable objects is and will be very 
great, and I desire that Your Lordship know this so that you may 
carry out your projects and measures with the least difficulty, all to 
the end that our forces may co-operate to gratify the desires of His 
Majesty and glorify his royal name. Your Lordship will see how 
advisable it is for this purpose for you, in conjunction with the com- 
mander of the squadron, to see to it that the ships which come for 
the various shipments be of the proper strength and able to transport 
them with all possible security and protection. 

May our Lord protect Your Lordship many years. 

MEXICO, August 27, 1779. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 355 

Your most attentive and dependable servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

[Unsigned Copy]. 
Senor DOJST DIEGO JOSEPH NAVARKO. 



GALVEZ TO 

August 29, 1779 295 

(Confidential copy] 

The King has decided that the principal objective of his arms in 
America during the war with the English is to drive them from 
the Gulf of Mexico and the banks of the Mississippi, where their 
settlements are so prejudicial to our commerce, as well as to the 
security of our richest possessions. The present conditions in Europe 
favor the success of this important enterprise. Great Britain, weak- 
ened by her enormous losses, pressed by superior forces in both hemi- 
spheres, abandoned by other nations, who for a long time have been 
irritated by her odious dominance, and on the point of having her 
own island invaded by a French army of more than forty thousand 
men, will find herself unable to resist our efforts if we act with pru- 
dence and energy. To await aid from Spain would endanger the suc- 
cess of an operation in which speed is so essential, and perhaps the 
delay would lose the propitious moment for executing it. Therefore, 
His Majesty desires that an expedition be organized without delay, 
composed of whatever land and sea forces it is possible to assemble 
in those dominions, and that an attack be made on Mobile and Pensa- 
cola, the keys to the Gulf of Mexico, sending detachments before or 
afterwards to attack and clear the English from the banks of the 
Mississippi, which should be considered as the bulwark of the vast 
empire of New Spain. 

For this purpose Your Excellency will send all the troops you can 
spare from the garrison of your island, and the same will be done 
by the viceroy of Mexico. Both of you shall agree on the number 
of men each is to contribute and conform with the plan and opinion 
of the governor of Louisiana, who is informed of the position and 
forces of the enemy. In any event, it will be necessary to assemble 
four or five thousand men, including three hundred dragoons, or an 
even larger number of troops, in order not to fail in a stroke of such 
importance. Although the English have no strong fortifications at 
Pensacola, but only some wooden batteries, it is probable that they 
have greatly reinforced the garrison of that post, knowing its im- 
portance and fearing our attacks. 

The troops sent by Your Excellency should be of selected men as 

* AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



356 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

far as possible, commanded by officers of talent and energy, of which 
none shall be above the rank of colonel. Each battalion will take 
with it two bronze campaign guns and a full supply of proper stores, 
munitions, and provisions, so that they will lack nothing they need 
to operate effectively. 

The King desires that the commander-in-chief of this expedition 
shall be Brigadier Don Bernardo de Galvez, proprietary governor 
of Louisiana. He has had the foresight to map the area and acquire 
a practical knowledge of that country. He maintains agents among 
the enemy, is informed of the diversions which are to be made at 
the same time in Georgia by the troops of the United States of 
America, and has gained the friendship of the Choctaws and 
other tribes of Indians, who would side with the English if they 
saw at the head of this enterprise another and unknown leader. 
Finally his effective measures, plus perhaps a happy combination 
of events, have won him credit among the members of the Amer- 
ican Congress and have spread respect for his name among the 
English settlements in the vicinity of Louisiana. His great knowl- 
edge of war and his reputation among the enemy has determined His 
Majesty to select the said governor, giving him preference over other 
officials of greater experience and doubtless more suitable for any 
other enterprise than this one. 

The operations of the land troops will be supported by a squadron 
of a strength proportionate to the important object to which it is 
destined. On this matter, the Senor Marques Gonzales de Caste j on 
is giving the proper orders to the commandant of that department, 
and Your Excellency, together with the viceroy of New Spain and 
the governor of Louisiana will agree with him and with the chief 
who goes in command of the squadron, on the number of warships 
to be taken, the method of transporting the troops with safety, the 
point of meeting of the convoy from your island with the one from 
Vera Cruz, the place where the landing is to be made, the timing of 
the attacks, and all else conducive to the success of the enterprise. 

At the same time that the land and sea attacks on Pensacola and 
Mobile are made, troops of the United States to the number of three 
thousand men will invest St. Augustine, Florida, and perhaps they 
will make another diversion along the upper reaches of the Mississippi. 
This is promised by the Congress in exchange for some sums which are 
to be given them as payment for their expenses. Don Juan de Miral- 
les, who resides in those states, upon receipt of the advice which I am 
sending him through Your Excellency, will arrange the manner, 
time and places for making their attacks, so that the expeditions may 
be well co-ordinated. 

I inform Your Excellency that the court of France has just re- 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 357 

peated to the governors of its islands and to the chiefs of Its 
squadrons in those seas orders to co-operate in the defense of our 
possessions and assist with their land and seas forces any enterprises 
we may undertake against the English settlements. In view of this, 
if the troops which can be assembled from your island and from New 
Spain without leaving either place undefended are not sufficient for 
the conquest of Pensacola and Mobile, Your Excellency will ask the 
governor of the French part of the island of Santo Domingo for 
the number of men necessary, and these will go to complete the 
expedition or be left to garrison your island, whichever Your Ex- 
cellency thinks most advisable. 

The success of this enterprise depends in a great measure upon the 
enemy's being unaware of it until the moment of its execution. So, 
Your Excellency shall preserve profound secrecy about this, and 
take effective measures for the embarkation of the troops and equip- 
ment, pretending an objective other than the real one, for example, 
that of attacking Jamaica. You shall come to an agreement with 
your chief of navy, the viceroy of Mexico, and the governor of 
Louisiana, and send to the latter all the aid he needs that you can 
spare him. The King trusts that you will make all the efforts, in- 
spired in you by your love for the royal service and your country, 
to assure the splendor of the Spanish arms in an enterprise which 
is of the greatest importance. 

May God protect Your Excellency many years. 

SAN" ILDEFONSO, August %9, 1779. 

JOSEF DE GALVEZ. 

Senor Governor of Havana. 

NAVAKRO (Eubric). 

REUBASE OP SPANISH VESSELS SEIZED BY THE BRITISH 
September 18, 1779 

Whereas in Pursuance of his Majesty's Orders for making Ke- 
prizals upon the Vessels and Goods belonging to the King of Spain, 
or his Subjects, in consequence of the Hostile Declarations of that 
Court, several Spanish Vessels have been seized in the different Ports 
of this Island, as well by the Officers of his Majesty's Ships of War 
stationed here, as by the Naval-Officer or his Deputies, and were 
subject to a legal Condemnation in course. The Necessity of pre- 
venting the Conveyance of any Intelligence to our avowed Enemies 
at that Juncture, authorized the Detention of those Vessels at all 
Events : But the Glory of our Sovereign calling upon us to illustrate 
his disinterested Justice and Magnanimity, we have taken into Con- 

*BL, (Printed in English). A Spanish translation is in AGI, Grticrra, 1780, Bx. 24. 



358 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

sideration the Hardships incurred by those Persons who came here 
to Trade with us upon the Faith and Confidence of Treaties, or have 
been detained in our Ports from the peculiar Circumstances of the 
Times, and have given Orders for the Kelease and Discharge of all 
Spanish Vessels and Cargoes which have been seized and detained 
as above, permitting their several Masters and Crews to take charge 
of , and return with them to their respective Ports, without Trouble 
or Molestation; for which Purpose, we have granted to them the 
necessary Protections: And the several Officers of his Majesty's 
Ships, as well as those of the Customs and Naval-Officer, are hereby 
ordered to deliver up all Spanish Vessels which have been seized 
as above, and permit them to sail with their Cargoes on TUESDAY 
the FIFTH day of OCTOBER, or as soon afterwards as possible, 
giving them all necessary Assistance, that their several Owners, 
Masters and Crews, may return impressed with that Eespect for 
our Generosity and Justice, which it becomes a great Nation to 
manifest, even to it's Enemies. 
GIVEN under our Hands, this 18th Day of September, 1779. 

P. PARKER. JOHN DALLJNG. 

COLLELL TO GALVEZ 

September 86, 1779 

Senor Governor General. 

MY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: I received Your Lordship's 
letter of the 26th instant, in which you notify me of the victory 
you had over the English of which I never was in doubt. The 
actions of Your Lordship have given to the world so many proofs 
of your courage and prudence that we could with reason expect 
what has happened against the enemies. This victory should be 
placed in history among those of the first rank. It is a phenomenon, 
because it has been said of other generals that they won various 
victories but have sacrificed many men, but Your Lordship with 
the loss of only one man has obtained the surrender of 400 and 
the advantageous result of the evacuation of Natchez. 

All the people of this town have celebrated this victory with 
great demonstrations of joy to congratulate Your Lordship, and 
I also congratulate you with all my heart. My only regret is that 
the inhabitants here do not have that which is necessary in order 
to honor the victory with illuminations. 

I have regretted very much that I cannot see Your Lordship but 
I realize the obstacles which prevented this desire. 

*AGI, PC, leg. 2351. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 359 

I thank Your LordsMp for what you said about my small successes 
and I wish that other greater ones will occur in order that I may 
more actively demonstrate to Your Lordship the love and zeal I have 
in the service of the King and Your Lordship. 

I know very well that this town is the only place left where the 
English might enter. Therefore I have taken precautions to finish 
the fort and to investigate to see by which way they can enter 
by land because I believe that our privateers will watch the way by 
water. Captain Arno departed from this town (in the small 
schooner which I sent to fetch corn and rice) on the 20th of this 
month provided with food for eight days and with the necessary 
arms, instead of the large schooner which Briones commanded. He 
had armed one of the prize schooners, which he found more suitable. 

Captain Don Kamon de Llanes will leave here tomorrow, which 
he was unable to do previously, as he was sick. He takes with him 
some prisoners who are ill The inventories of the prizes I remit 
to Your Lordship herewith. I decided not to send anything until 
I have some definite news of the English corsair, or until Your 
Lordship decided differently. I have not taken inventory of the 
contents of the closed boxes as I did not wish to open them. 

I have sent two pirogues this morning to transport the soldiers 
Your Lordship sent me as reinforcements, but I am very short on 
munitions, and in case of attack I shall not have enough to keep 
firing for half an hour. I beg Your Lordship therefore to send me 
some quantity of powder, musket ball, and swivel guns. 

I shall notify Your Lordship whether it is true that the English 
have a road which passes in front of this fort to Mtalbeni. 

I do not believe it but from the habitation of Christi to Natalbeni 
it is certain that there is one. In order to come to this district they 
have to cross two leagues over the lake, where, if Your LordsMp 
agrees to it, a detachment of four men can be placed to watch and 
give notice here in case there is anything new. 

This is all I have to communicate to Your Lordship, and in the 
meantime I await your kind orders and remain praying God to 
spare your life the years of my desire. 

VILLA DE GALVEZ, September ##, 1779. 

Your Lordship's very humble and affectionate subject and servant 
kisses your hand. 

FRAKO. COLLBLL (Rubric). 

DON BEKNARDO DE 



360 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

NAVARRO TO MATORGA 
October 81, 1779* 

(Confidential) 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: Continuing to give Your Excellency such 
news received liere as deserves your attention, I must report having 
learned from the captain of a Spanish schooner, who was permitted 
to leave Jamaica on the 8th of this month and arrived on the south 
coast of this island on the 14th, that on the said 8th there remained 
in the port of Kingston (principal one of Jamaica) only two 
English frigates-of-war. The four ships of Admiral Byron's 
squadron which, as a result of the engagement with Comte 
d'Estaing's returned there badly damaged, have been repaired and, 
together with the eight which were there, set sail, destination 
unknown. An Italian living in Jamaica had confided to the said 
captain that all the British forces were returning to Europe for 
the defense of their menaced capital and that the Jamaicans, fearing 
that Comte d'Estaing planned to attack them, had called all their 
militia to arms. However, as he had given up this idea, they had 
dismissed them, but continued training them in the use of arms. 
Finally, he reported that up to the day of his departure no Spanish 
prizes had entered the said port of Kingston but there were many 
French ones. 

I send Your Excellency herewith a copy of the proclamation 
published by the governor of Jamaica, printed in the Spanish 
language, permitting the free departure for their destinations of 
some Spanish vessels which were being held there. Your Excellency 
will note that he does not state their character, from which we may 
infer that they are in clandestine trade, with the exception of the 
one which brought this news. This one had gone there, with a 
passport from me, on business of the Asiento de Negros. 

May Our Lord protect Your Excellency many years. 

HAVANA, October 81, 1779. 

Most Excellent Sir, your humble servant kisses your hand. 

DIEGO JOSEPH NAVARRO (Rubric). 
Most Excellent Senor DON MARTIN DE MAYOROA. 



AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 361 

LEYBA TO GALVEZ 

October 28, 1779 

No. 367. ST. Loins, YLINCESES, October 28, 1779. 

Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR: I have permitted five 
traders of this post to bring in some goods from the other side. This 
has remedied our lack of goods with which to supply our Indian 
tribes ; but inasmuch as they have bought them dearly, I have been 
obliged to permit them to take them to the tribes themselves. For 
this reason I have not, as last year, made a wide distribution of 
permits, but, as between two evils, I think I have chosen the lesser. 

I remain with the greatest respect at Your Lordship's orders, and 
pray God to preserve your very important life the many years I 
desire. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric). 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE 



LEYBA TO GALVEZ 

October 8, 1779 

No. 365. ST. LOOTS, YLINTJESES, October 28, 1779. 

Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR AND MOST ESTEEMED SIR : M. Maxent has not sent 
the presents for the Indians this year. I have distributed all those 
I had on hand. Therefore there remains nothing of this kind for next 
year. 

I remain with the greatest respect at Your Lordship's orders and 
pray God to preserve your life many years. 

My very dear Sir, your most affectionate servant kisses Your Lord- 
ship's hand. 

FERNANDO DE LEYBA (Rubric). 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

[Draft] 

By the first opportunity there will be sent to you by Mine. Maxent 
(her husband being absent on the expedition to Pensacola) the pres- 
ents for the Indians of your post, which you say in your letter of 
October 28, 1779, to the governor general are needed for 1780. 

May our Lord etc. 

NEW ORIGANS, February 19, 1780. 

Senor DON FERNANDO LEYBA. 



AGI, PC, leg. 1. 
a*AGI, PC, leg. 1. 



362 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

JEFFERSON" TO GALVEZ 

November 8, 1779 301 

WMSBTTRG, in VIRGINIA, Nov r . 8 th 1779 

SIR/ 

By M r . Lindsay who was sent from our County of Illinois on the 
Missisippi, to New Orleans and lately arrived here on Ms return by 
the way of Havannah, we hear that Col. Eogers had left New Orleans 
and proceeded up the Missisippi. We are anxiously expecting by 
him your Excellency's answer to the Letters of 14 th . January 1778 by 
Col. Eogers and January 26 th 1778 by Cap*. Young from Governor 
Henry to whom I have had the honour of Succeeding on his resigna- 
tion, the accession of his most Catholic Majesty since the date of these 
Letters to the hostilities carrying on by the confederated powers of 
France and North America, against Great Britain, thereby adding to 
their Efforts the weight of your powerful & wealthy empire, has given 
us all the certainty of a happy issue to the present contest of which 
human events will admit. Our vicinity to the State over which you 
immediately preside, the direct Channel of commerce by the river 
Missisippi, the nature of those Commodities with which we can 
reciprocally furnish each other, point out the advantages which may 
result from a close connection and correspondence, for which on our 
part the best foundations are laid by a grateful sense of the favours 
we have received at your hands. Notwithstanding the pressure of 
the present War on our people they are lately beginning to extend 
their Settlements rapidly on the waters of the Missisippi and we 
have reason to believe that on this particularly and the branches im- 
mediately communicating with it there will in the course of another 
year be such a number of Settlers as to render their Commerce an 
object worth your notice from New Orleans alone can they be tolerably 
supplied with necessaries of European manufacture, and thither they 
will send in exchange, Staves & peltry immediately & flour, pork and 
Beef as soon as they shall have somewhat opened their Lands. For 
their protection from the Indians we are obliged to send and Station 
among them a considerable armed force, the providing of which with 
Clothing & the friendly Indians with necessaries, becomes a matter 
of great difficulty with us for the smaller forces have hitherto kept 
up at Kaskaskia on the Missisippi, we have contracted a considerable 
Debt at New Orleans with M r . Pollock, besides what is due to your 
State for the supplies they have generously furnished, and a number 
of bills from Col. Clarke now lying under protest in New Orleans. 
We learn by M r . Lindsay that M r . Pollock is likely to be greatly 
distressed if we do not immediately make him remitances. The most 

*a AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). See also Official Letters of the Governors of the State 
of Virginia, II, 59-61. 



THE BBVOLUTIONAB.Y PEKIOB, 1765-1781 363 

unfavourable harvest ever known since the settlement of this Country 
has put it out of our power to send flour obliging us for our own 
Subsistence to purchase it from the neighboring States of Maryland 
and Pennsylvania, to whom we have ever til this year furnished large 
quantities. The want of Salt disables us from preparing Beef and 
Pork for your Market, in this situation of things we cannot but con- 
template the distress of that Gentleman brought on him by services 
rendered us, with the utmost concern. We are endeavouring by remit- 
tances of Tobacco to establish a fund in France to which we may 
apply to a certain extent; but the Casualties to which those Tobaccoes 
are liable in their transportation render this dependence less certain 
than we could wish for M r . Pollock's relief and besides that we have 
very extensive occasion for them Young as we are in Trade and 
manufactures, and engaged in war with a Nation whose power on 
the Sea has been such as to intercept a great proportion of the Sup- 
plies we have attempted to import from Europe, you will not wonder 
to hear that we find great difficulties in procuring either money or 
commodities to answer the calls for our Armies and therefore that 
it would be a circumstance of great relief to us if we could leave our 
deposits in France for the Calls of that part of our State which lies 
on the Atlantic & procure a suspension of the demands from your 
quarter for supplies to our Western forces one two or three years 
or such longer time as could be obtained. With this view Governor 
Henry in his letters of January 14 & 26, 1778 solicited from your 
Nation a Loan of Money, which your Excellency was so kind as to 
undertake to communicate to your Court. The success of this appli- 
cation we expect to learn by Col. Eogers, and should not, til then, 
have troubled you on the same Subject had we not heard of M r ! 
Pollocks distress, as we flatter ourselves that that application through 
the intervention of your Excellency may have been successful and 
that you may be authorized to advance for us some loans in money. 
I take the liberty of soliciting you in such case to advance for us 
to M r . Pollock 65,814 5/8 Dollars, encompassed as we are with diffi- 
culties we may fail in doing as much as our gratitude would prompt 
us to in speedily replacing these aids, but most assuredly nothing in 
that way within our power will be left undone. Our particular 
prospects for doing it, and the time it may take to accomplish the 
whole shall be the subject of another Letter as soon as I shall have 
the honor to learn from you whether we can be supplied and to what 
extent. By Col. Rogers I hope also to learn your Excellency's Senti- 
ments on the other proposition in the same letters for the establish- 
ment of corresponding posts on your side and ours of the Missisippi 
near the mouth of the Ohio for the promotion of commerce between 
us. 



364 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

After returning our most cordial thanks to your Excellency for the 
friendly disposition you have personally shown to us, and assuring 
you of our profound respect and esteem beg leave to subscribe myself 

Your Excellency's Most Obed*. & Very h ble Servant 

TH. 
Duplicate 

NAVARRO TO MATORGA 
December 3, 



No. 86. (Confidential) 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MT VERT DEAR SIR : From the attached copy of the confidential 
royal order of August 29, last, which I just received. Your Excellency 
will see the decision of His Majesty that the principal objectives of his 
arms in these dominions is to drive the English from the Gulf of 
Mexico and the banks of the Mississippi, and the methods by which 
the court considers this enterprise attainable. 

This matter has been discussed by the commander of the squadron 
and myself. In view of the present state of affairs and the news re- 
ceived in this part of His Majesty's dominions, we find that it is impos- 
sible to co-operate fully with the enterprise of Your Excellency, the 
governor of Louisiana, and the commandant general of El Guarico, 
unless its execution is deferred considerably. The reasons are that 
the season is advanced and the contingencies of the sea do not permit 
the promptness demanded by what is contemplated by the said royal 
order. Therefore I shall inform Your Excellency of what has been 
planned and decided should be done by the commander of this 
squadron, the governor of Louisiana, and myself in compliance with 
the original order of May 24. 

In view of this order, it was decided to make a direct attack on Pen- 
sacola, for which it was planned to assist Don Bernardo de Gilvez 
with 3,500 men from here, sending him an officer of Engineers, so that 
he might consult with him, as one fully acquainted with the plan. 
The latter should then return to this post with all the information 
and other arrangements made for the success of the enterprise. 

This engineer proceeded to New Orleans and on his arrival there 
learned the happy news that the governor had taken the posts held by 
the English on the Mississippi, with the success and ease which Your 
Excellency will have noted from the summary which I sent you. 

After he had attained this first objective, Don Bernardo de Galvez 
changed the plan of investing Pensacola which he had communicated 
to me. He explained how well prepared the English were there with 

, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 365 

additional batteries of large and unusual calibres sucli as we did not 
have. This made the project impossible, and it was concluded that the 
most advisable thing would be to take Mobile which supplies Pensa- 
cola with the greater part of its requirements. Once the former is 
captured, Louisiana and the territory acquired would be secure, and 
from there it would be possible to proceed against Pensacola, fully 
informed of conditions. 

The engineer returned with this news and it was discussed. A deci- 
sion was made to prepare immediately 1,200 troops and 200 workers, 
supply train, equipment, and munitions, and to send them to Mobile, 
so that the governor of Louisiana, gathering all the forces he could 
in the province, might fall on that place without loss of time. 

Everything was made ready, and the said governor was so advised. 
Had it not been for the weather's being unfavorable for good sailing, 
the convoy would have already left this port. In order better to assure 
success and cut off all aid from there, one war ship, two frigates, and 
one war packet were dispatched to cruise oft Pensacola and Mobile. 
These vessels have now safely returned, with the exception of the last. 
It was somewhat damaged, but is to be repaired immediately so as 
not to miss the first good weather presenting itself. 

As the enterprise against Pensacola will certainly be more prac- 
ticable once Mobile is taken, I have written to Don Bernardo de 
Galvez to advise me what number of troops and supply train he will 
need for it, in order to continue his operations until the wishes of the" 
King are realized. Once the present expedition has set out, there will 
be no cessation of the work here of preparing another 1,500 men and 
all the equipment possible. Of course, a very considerable shortage in 
the defenses of Havana will be caused, both by these troops and the 
others that are being sent him, should the enemy attempt to invade it. 

In order to prevent this as far as possible, it is of the greatest im- 
portance that Your Excellency send to Vera Cruz a fully equipped 
veteran regiment, so that, on advice of this, ships may be dispatched 
from here to bring it to this place. Here this regiment will never be 
superfluous, provided that Your Excellency can spare it, for the rea- 
son that this port and post is considered the general depot of this 
continent, and best able to supply the various dominions of His 
Majesty on it and the adjacent islands. 

In regard to the measure of having recourse to the French colony 
of the Island of Santo Domingo for supplies, as indicated by the said 
royal order of August 29, Your Excellency will already have recog- 
nized that it is remote and the passage so difficult that, even if its 
captain general could spare troops, he lacks the warships to convoy 
them. He has even asked me for some to guard its coast, but I have 
been unable to give them to him because this squadron has only two 



366 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

warships and six frigates in condition to set to sea, while two of the 
latter must be sent to Cartagena, according to a recent order received 
by Sefior Don Juan Bautista Bonet. 

In view of this and the news of the misfortune of Comte d'Estaing 
in having been compelled to abandon the conquest of Georgia, retreat 
from Savannah, and set sail for an unknown destination. Your Excel- 
lency can well imagine the anxiety which that French colony must 
feel. Consequently, in order to undertake the capture of Pensacola, 
we can count only on what the Bang has here and in Louisiana and 
what Your Excellency can spare, directing your efforts, without loss 
of time, to preventing the enemy from bringing up superior forces 
to frustrate the plan agreed upon with the governor of Louisiana. 

In the foregoing it seems to me that I have explained to Your 
Excellency everything necessary for your proper information in such 
an important situation as that in which we find ourselves of being 
able to give to the King the glorious day to which his most benign 
heart aspires. 

May Our Lord guard Your Excellency for many years. 

HAVANA, December %3, 1779. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble and attentive servant kisses 
your hand. 

DIEGO JOSEPH NAVARRO (Rubric). 

Most Excellent Senor DON MARTIN DE MAYORGA. 

INSTRUCTIONS or GALVEZ TO Mrao 
December 31, 1779 2 

No. 10. 

Instruction which I, Brigadier Don Bernardo de Galvez, give to 
Colonel Don Estevan Miro, for compliance therewith in the various 
commissions which are the object of his mission. 

He shall leave here tomorrow, January 1, 1780, on the flag of 
truce brigantine Las Dos Hermanas, bound for Jamaica, without the 
knowledge of anyone but the captain, who has already been advised. 
He shall make it clear to the latter how important it is for the service 
of the King that the voyage be made with the greatest speed. 

He shall pass through the sound at latitude 25 degrees, 30 minutes, 
to see if he can find the King's ships, and if he does so, he shall inform 
their commander of the reason for his voyage, so that he may, for 
his part, contribute to the good success of the measures being taken. 
He shall continue on without the least delay to Havana, in which 
port he shall recommend that the brigantine, captain, and crew, be 
delayed as little as possible. He shall request of that governor the 

* AGI, And. SD, 86-6-7. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 367 

aid of 2,000 men, to arrive at Mobile and Pensacola by the middle of 
February at the latest. 

He shall tell him that this aid will be of no use unless it is accom- 
panied by provisions for another two months for the 3,000 men which 
we shall have in Mobile, as the English have withdrawn all the in- 
habitants, and if the troops lack these provisions, they cannot subsist, 
and some will have to return to this colony, and the others to Havana, 
without effecting the capture of Pensacola. 

He shall explain that, if we do not seize this place immediately, the 
conquest of Mobile will be useless because, as no other forces can be 
left there than the garrison of its fort, it is probable that the English 
will return to recapture it since they are close by while our forces are 
remote. 

If Mobile is lost, this province runs a great risk because, if the 
Indians see us retreat one step backwards, they will turn coat, as 
they have done with the English, and they will move against this 
colony. This will result in trouble enough to cause its loss. 

If, despite these important considerations, this aid is denied be- 
cause the situation in Havana does not permit its being given, he shall 
advise me immediately of this impossibility so that I may take action 
in time. 

If such occurs, I should still be sent provisions, unless in Havana 
also there are not enough to keep them from starving. Then we shall 
both suffer the same fate together. 

If they absolutely refuse the aid of troops for the reason that they 
cannot complete the number of 2,000 men, he shall explain that 1,500 
will be acceptable, if that can be done, or even 1,300, if no other re- 
course remains. 

As they may also give as a reason for denying this aid the condi- 
tion that it must be with the greatest promptness, a somewhat longer 
time may be given, but on two other indispensable conditions : first, 
increasing provisions according to the delay, and second, giving 
us prompt information of this for our guidance. 

In case the delay is due to artillery equipment, it may be stipulated 
that this may follow later, as operations will be begun with that 
which is available there. 

An extra large number of bombs and mortars should be sent, as 
these will be most effective in Pensacola, where everything is of wood ; 
likewise siege guns, combustibles, and grenades. Those which are 
not used will be returned. 

He shall see the commandants of each department, and inform 
himself as to which one is best fitted to aid me. 

He shall try to see that salt is taken so that salt meat can be 
made in the country. 



368 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

He shall particularly ask for the regiment of Navarra, and shall 
tell its colonel the reasons why I do not write to him, as well as 
the bishop, the Countess de Macuriges, and others who have been 
writing to me. 

He shall propose the most opportune means of removing the 
English prisoners from here, leaving me only the Germans, if 
necessary. 

He shall have sent the goods mentioned in the note to be given 
him by Don Martin Navarro, as well as the one I have given him. 

He shall say that Colonel Gonzales is to go with the brigantine, 
and that it is to convoy me. 

The captain of the vessel and the party interested in it shall be 
paid for all the detentions and delays which may be occasioned 
by this mission. 

He shall remain in Havana the least time possible, but shall not 
return without bringing me definite information on the state in 
which things are, and upon the success of his mission. 

If , on account of the time spent in carrying this out, he thinks 
that I may already be in Pensacola, he shall approach that port, 
making the signals of identification agreed upon by the war-vessels 
of the Department of Havana, asking the general of marine there 
for these in case he comes in a private or merchant vessel 

He shall do the same on passing Mobile, and only in case of not 
finding us in said ports shall he proceed to La Baliza. It shall 
be understood that whether he approaches Pensacola rests with his 
own discretion, taking into consideration the time spent in Havana 
and the speed of the vessel on which he returns, with the under- 
standing that a Dutch flag and a red pennant, either on the Punta 
de Santa Kosa or on the Barrancas Coloradas, will be a signal that 
we have already landed. 

NEW ORLEANS, December 31, 1779. 

NOTE. That the brigantine El Kcvulican is to accompany us to 
Mobile for the reason that, as a frigate, a brigantine, and a sloop are 
cruising off La Baliza, we might suffer misfortune if we sail with 
only the Volante. 

NAVARRO TO MATORGA 
February 7, 1780* 

No. 90. 

Most Excellent Sir. (Confidential) 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: By the mail boat which sailed from this 

port on December 26, last, I wrote to Your Excellency what the 

* AGI, Onerra, 1T80, Ex. 24. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 369 

commandant general of this squadron and I had planned in order 
to comply with the King's orders relative to undertaking the conquest 
of Mobile and Pensacola, and what had been done in order to effect 
this, as Your Excellency will have seen from my dispatch of the 23rd 
of the said month, No. 86, duplicate of which I now enclose. 

From the same dispatch Your Excellency will have noted my 
request that you be pleased to have a veteran regiment in Vera Cruz 
fully equipped, so that it could come to this post. The forces of 
this class are being taken from this post which, on account of its 
importance, should always be in the most secure state of defense. 
I promised to send ships which would be able to bring them. 

The adverse weather which has been prevailing has not permitted 
the departure of the convoy and transports of the 1,412 men for 
Mobile. The governor of Louisiana was advised of these prepara- 
tions and informed that, after the departure of these troops, more 
would be prepared if he requested them in order to continue the 
conquest of Pensacola. But the convoy did not arrive, the season 
was advancing and, according to the advices he had, he was to 
undertake the conquest of Pensacola, first taking by main force the 
batteries located by the enemy to prevent entry into the bay. There- 
fore he sent to me Lieutenant Colonel Don Esteban Miro, who 
arrived at this port on the 12th of last month, with the request that 
I send him promptly whatever increase of forces I could over the 
said number of 1,412, as well as equipment and provisions in 
abundance. 

As spring approaches we lack information as to the whereabouts of 
the squadron of Comte d'Estaing. Some reports say it is in Europe 
and others in Martinique. If the former is true, the English may 
be planning to abandon New York, as they did Rhode Island, 
assemble in their Windward Islands and, protected by their squadron 
(of whose conditions and location we are ignorant), fall on this 
place, thinking it to be without most of its forces. Consequently, 
I drew up a statement showing clearly the number of troops that 
could be withdrawn for a few months for the said conquest. 

In view of this and what was discussed and considered in various 
conferences by Senor Bonet and myself, we agreed on what Your 
Excellency will see from the attached document which is a copy of 
the original. This plan entails the necessity of chartering armed 
merchant vessels to go to Vera Cruz to get the said regiment, as 
well as the powder, flour, etc. which Your Excellency has had pre- 
pared to send to this post, with instructions that on their return 
they should set a course for the latitude of 25 or 30 leagues in the 
western quadrant of the Sound to the south of Pensacola, as ex- 
plained by the said copy of the agreement. I gave the necessary 

700296 49 vol. 226 



370 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

instructions to the quartermaster general, who is now engaged in 
chartering the frigates El Principe Carlos and La G-alga, recently 
returned from Vera Cruz. With these two and those named Nuestra 
Senora del Rosario and Santa Rosalia which are returning to the 
said port of Vera Cruz on their own affairs, as well as some other 
small vessels which Your Excellency can have chartered there, accord- 
ing to what you see fit to send, it seems to me that all that is desirable 
and advisable can be carried out. 

The last ones to sail will carry the signals of identity which the 
said copy says would be given them by the comandante general 
de marina. I seize this opportunity of the departure of the 
frigate Santa Rosalia^ whose owner and captain is Don Joseph 
Antonio Flaquer, to inform Your Excellency of all this. I trust 
that, in your constant vigilance and particular love of the good of 
the service, the state, and the glory of our arms, Your Excellency 
will be pleased to contribute with your customary zeal to the success 
of all that His Majesty desires, as shown in his royal orders, 
especially that of December 29, copy of which I enclosed for Your 
Excellency in my said dispatch of December 23, No. 86. 

At the same time as the departure of this vessel, the war ships 
are sailing for Mobile and Louisiana to support that governor in 
case he has begun his seige. It is probable that the comandante 
general de marina, who has to make this decision, will hasten the 
departure of the rest of the expedition, whenever the weather permits, 
as all the troops are on board ship, the first since December 18th, 
and the last which have been added, since the beginning of this 
month. 

May Our Lord guard Your Excellency many years. 

HAVANA, February 7, 1780. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble servant kisses your hand. 

DIEGO JOSEPH KAVARRO (Eubric) 
Most Excellent Senor DON MARTf sr DE MAYORGA. 

(Attached to the foregoing) 

Agreement of the Most Excellent Senores Don Diego Joseph Navarro, 
governor and captain general of the island of Cuba and post of 
Havana, and Don Juan Baptista Bonet, commandant general of the 
squadron stationed there, drawn up in consequence of the arrival of 
Don Estevan Miro, brevet lieutenant colonel and major of the fixed 
battalion of Louisiana, who was deputized by his governor, and 
arrived at this port on the 24th of this month, as stated in dispatch 
of the same date : 

The said governor had received by hand of Colonel Don Geronimo 
Giron the letter which the latter had brought from the governor and 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 371 

captain general. It advised him what had been done at this post for 
the prompt dispatch of 1,200 troops and 200 laborers for artillery and 
fortification work, together with the corresponding equipment, muni- 
tions, and provisions, so that, together with the forces assembled in 
that province, he might undertake the conquest of Mobile. The letter 
stated that, after the departure of this convoy, the work of preparing 
troops, train, etc., intended for the enterprise against Pensacola 
would be continued, so that they could be dispatched when requested 
by Don Bernardo de Gralvez from Mobile. Consequently the latter 
decided to send Miro to explain that it was desirable that the said 
increase of forces, train, and munitions should be dispatched imme- 
diately in as large numbers as possible, with provisions for four 
months, and supplies of salt to make salt meat from the cattle found 
in Mobile, and that subsequently a vessel should be sent every fifteen 
days or every month with provisions for the replenishment of those 
consumed by the expedition. Finally he explained that the troops 
of the reinforcements should include the infantry regiment of 
Navarra. 

The governor and captain general, and the commandant general of 
the squadron have taken note of these points and other reasons in- 
serted by Don Estevan Miro in the abovementioned dispatch. In view 
of the repeated orders of His Majesty, instructing them to co-operate 
in these enterprises without leaving this city and island undefended, 
as well as the fact that Senor Don Juan Baptista Bonet had em- 
barked on board the warships 308 militiamen in place of an equal 
number of veterans who had been performing this service, the 
governor and captain general presented in one of the various con- 
ferences held on this matter a detailed statement of the veteran troops 
and militia that could be assembled. He proposed to retain half of 
each for the defense of Havana, its forts, etc. and showed that only 
567 men of the infantry regiment of Navarra could be added to the 
number of 1,412 which included troops, the artillery and fortification 
laborers and had been all ready for the expedition since the beginning 
of December, but because of adverse weather had not sailed. 

On this basis it was decided that the equipment should be increased 
by four guns of 24 calibre, two hundred bombs, two siege guns, to- 
gether with the corresponding train, eighty infantry tents, twenty 
cavalry tents, and five tents for arms. The commandant of the 
squadron directed that everything should be transported on war- 
ships, not only to effect the earliest possible departure of the expedi- 
tion but also to save the royal exchequer the expense of merchant 
vessels which might have to be chartered for this purpose. 

The said Don Estevan Miro added verbally that he thought his 
governor was already en route to Mobile with 908 men of veteran 

700296 49 vol. 2 27 



372 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

troops, and 500 men of white and colored militia, Indians, and every- 
thing he had prepared. He stated that according to the instruc- 
tions given him on his departure from La Baliza, it was one of his 
tasks to explain the necessity of sending to Mobile warships able 
to enter its bay and support Galvez, but despatching one to Baliza 
with news of the ones which were being sent to Mobile, in case the 
governor had not already sailed. This vessel at the same time should 
bring Second Engineer Don Francisco Xavier de Navas who is in- 
formed about everything done here. The commandant general of 
the squadron decided that this ship should be His Majesty's brig- 
antine El Renombrado y selected and ready to sail since the first of 
December for this very purpose. The others were the frigate El 
Cfiambequin Caymcm, the packet San Pio, and the brigantine Santa 
Teresa. The whole expedition would sail from this port, taking 
advantage of the first good weather presenting itself. 

The said two, the captain general and the eomandante de marina, 
consider, on the one hand, that it is not possible to take from this 
garrison a larger number of troops than those being sent to Brigadier 
Don Bernardo de Galvez, without disregarding His Majesty's orders. 
On the other, they have to consider the taking of Mobile. Its gar- 
rison is reduced to only 100 men, as Don Estevan Miro has stated, 
without hope of aid from the citizens who, not wishing to take up 
arms, have fled to the woods or have been imprisoned by the English, 
their property confiscated and taken to Pensacola. Moreover Mobile 
has received no aid nor does it appear that it is garrisoned by more 
than one thousand five hundred men, including militia. An attack 
on it must begin with the batteries of Las Coloradas, taking them 
in the rear, in order to clear the entrance to the bay, and for this 
operation of assault there is no need of all the combined forces of 
the expeditions from Havana and Louisiana. Yet without this suc- 
cess the enterprise is impracticable, as the warships and the convoy 
cannot enter the said bay. But, once Las Coloradas is taken, such 
entry is possible, and consequently once the ships are anchored in 
the bay, it will be possible to disembark the rest of the troops, train, 
and equipment without trouble or risk, and to besiege the post and 
set it on fire with red hot shot, bombs, and fireballs until it surrenders. 
The said senores therefore consider that the departure of the present 
expedition from Havana should be undertaken. It should proceed 
to Mobile, as already agreed, so that the governor of Louisiana may 
use it as he thinks best in view of the circumstances in which he finds 
himself, and the news and positive information that he has or may 
receive. Once the conquest is completed, he should lose no time 
returning as many of the troops as possible to Havana in order 
to put it in a good state of defense, in case the enemy, freed 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 373 

by some eventuality affecting the squadron of Comte d'Estaing, 
should decide to attack it. As yet no help has arrived at Pensacola, 
but he has at his disposal the Yuchi Indians, as is believed from their 
promises and the advice given them in advance to place themselves 
under the orders of the said governor. Therefore it is so decided 
and agreed. Furthermore His Majesty orders the viceroy of Mexico 
in royal order of August 29, that he assist with what forces he can 
spare for these conquests, and that armed merchant vessels be char- 
tered and dispatched to Vera Cruz without loss of time to get the 
veteran infantry regiment which His Excellency was asked on Decem- 
ber 23, to have ready and fully equipped at that port. At the same 
time these vessels will bring all the powder they can carry, as the 
squadron is already short of it, while this city has little more than 
half of its allotment. They will also bring all the flour, dried 
vegetables, etc. that can be loaded on them for the general depot 
and the requirements of Havana. These vessels on their return 
from Vera Cruz are to steer a course to the latitude of 25 to 30 
leagues in the western quadrant south of Pensacola until they 
meet the squadron. They shall identify themselves by means of the 
signals which will be given them by the comandante general de 
marina, in order that Brigadier Don Bernardo de G-alvez, having 
ascertained what they are carrying, may take what he needs, both 
of troops and provisions, and then send the said vessels with the 
remainder to Havana, escorted by one or more warships. In witness 
whereof, they signed it. 
HAVANA, January 31, 1780. 

DON DIEGO JOSEF NAVARRO 
DON JUAN BAPTISTA BONET 
(Rubric). 

VlLLIERS TO GALVEZ 

February 87, 1780* 

ARKANSAS. 87 February, 1780 

SIR: One Andres La Bombard, a voyageur, had freed from 
captivity among the Panis the woman who is presenting this petition 
to you. She admits that she promised to marry this man if he 
would take her out of slavery, but she has been so ill-treated by 
him, and she has noted so many bad qualities in him, that she would 
rather go back to her former servitude than to suffer the pain of 
marrying a man with whom she could not live. She is none the 
less grateful to him for the service which he has rendered her, and 
she is in despair because she is not in a position to repay him what 

*BL, (French). 



374 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALJL/EY 

she has cost Mm, a matter of 100 piasters. I am obliged to state 
that this La Bombard is a scapegrace and that she would be very 
unhappy with him. 

I have the honor of being with deepest respect, Sir, your humblest 
and most obedient servant, 

BALTHAZAR DE VILLIERS (Rubric). 

To M. DON BERKARDO DE 



NAVARRO TO MATORGA 
March 5, 1780 805 

No. 95. (Confidential) 

Most Excellent Sir. 

MT VERT DEAR SIR : From my confidential dispatch of February 
7, No. 90, which, with others, was carried by the private frigate 
Santa Rosalia, whose owner is Don Josef Antonio Flaquer, Your 
Excellency will have noted all that had occurred up to that time in 
connection with the departure of the present expedition and other 
general news received here. 

Since that time there has occurred as regards the former, the 
embarkation of the troops on the 15th of the said month. They 
remained on board until the 26th of the same, when as a result of 
a heavy storm on the night of the 22nd and part of the day of the 
23rd, the comandante general de marina ordered them ashore 
until an opportune time for their departure. Thinking that it might 
be this morning, on account of the continued good weather, they 
are returning on board today. 

The merchant frigates El Principe Carlos and La G-alga have 
been chartered to go to Vera Cruz for the purposes which I explained 
to Your Excellency in my said dispatch of the 7th ultimo. I wished 
them to set sail under the escort of the expedition as far as the place 
where they should separate, as is being done by the vessel named 
Nuestra Senora del Rosario or El Diamante, which is carrying my 
letters to Your Excellency with instructions to throw them into the 
sea in any event which may give rise to the fear that they might 
fall into the hands of the enemy. However, they cannot leave now 
for lack of men but their captains think they can procure them by 
the time the convoy sails, and I shall try to assist so that they may 
not be delayed. 

I had planned to send my letters by one of the said ships, Principe 
or Galga, but as I do not wish to leave Your Excellency without 
proper knowledge of everything occurring here, I am entrusting them 
to the Diamante and shall send duplicates by the former, unless 

** AGI, Guerra, 1780, Ex. 24. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 375 

the mail from Spain arrives first (this is giving us no little concern 
as we have had no news from those dominions since that brought 
by the vessel which left there September 28) and the correspondence 
is dispatched by the revenue office. 

In regard to news of the French and English squadrons, there 
is no change from what I have informed Your Excellency, as the 
same doubts persist. But with regard to the movement of British 
troops in these dominions, I have just learned from a dispatch sent 
me by the general of the American troops in South Carolina that six 
thousand men have left New York. Part of them are already at the 
mouth of the Savannah River but the real destination of the others 
was unknown. Ten thousand men remained in New York for its 
defense. Opposing them was General Washington with fifteen thou- 
sand after he had reinforced Carolina with four thousand. 

This is all that occurs to me to report to Your Excellency that 
would be of interest to you. 

May Our Lord protect Your Excellency for many years. 

HAVANA, March 5, 1780. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble servant kisses your hand. 

DON DIEGO JOSEPH NAVARRO (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor DON MARTIN DE MAYORGA. 

GALVEZ TO JEFFERSON 

1780* 

[Draft] 

MY DEAR SIR: I have had the honor of receiving Your Honor's 
favor, dated at Williamsburg, November 8, 1779. It has given me 
particular satisfaction to learn from it that Your Honor has suc- 
ceeded to that governorship by designation of your predecessor, Mr. 
Henry. I flatter myself no less with the well-founded hopes that Your 
Honor entertains of seeing soon terminated the present troubles with 
England by means of the powerful influence of France, with whom 
the power of the King, my master, has opportunely aligned itself. 
I note with particular satisfaction the exact measures and solid foun- 
dations for population and commerce beginning to be made by the 
State of Virginia. However, as my nation has been engaged in a 
costly war, and as this province is one of the most exposed, having 
the enemy at its doors, the immense and innumerable expenses oc- 
casioned to the crown in this country by the two expeditions which 
I have just happily completed, do not permit me to make the slightest 
advance of money to relieve Your Honor and this province of the 
embarrassment caused by the situation of Mr. Oliver Pollock. 

From the duplicate and triplicate of the reply carried by Colonel 

so6 AGI, PC, leg. 2370. 



376 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Rogers, who had the misfortune to be killed on the way by the 
Indians, Your Honor will have been informed of the steps I have 
taken and what I have written to the court upon the matter. The 
present state of the war has naturally been the cause of its not having 
yet replied. As soon as I receive a reply I shall communicate it to 
you through the said Mr. Oliver Pollock. 

I hope Your Honor will give me opportunities of showing the 
perfect consideration with which I desire to please you, so far as lies 
within my power. 

May God etc. 

DEIAVILLEBETrVRE TO MlRO 

April 5,1780 
Copy of the letter of the commandant of Natchez. 

MY DEAR SIR: I have had the pleasure of receiving, through Don 
Carlos de Grand-Pre, the gratifying news of the taking of Mobile, 
which he tells me you had communicated to him. At the same time 
an Englishman arrived from the Choctaw nation with the same in- 
formation and also news that the Indians of that nation had robbed 
the families who went from here to Tombecbe, Mobile, and Pensacola. 
It seems that they had killed some of them. These reports have 
made such an impression that those who were to have gone are now 
working their lands, and those who had started are returning, some 
of them having already arrived. Not having any hope of retiring to 
the Ohickasaw nation, because they had been assured by the English 
merchants that our flag had been raised in that nation, and not 
knowing where to go, they have decided to return. 

The benevolence of our governor toward the English militia who 
were in the fort of Mobile, which was divulged by the Englishman 
who came here from the Choctaw nation, appears to have satisfied 
the citizens, for the Englishman referred to says the people of 
Mobile and Tombecbe, and the merchants of the nations are well 
pleased, and give our governor the praises that he deserves. . . . 

On the 23rd, nine American families arrived with passports from 
the commandant of Arkansas. It is now more than two months since 
they had departed from the two Carolinas, but they have nothing to 
report except that they were attacked on the Ohio Kiver by a party 
of Cherokee and Shawnee Indians. In the attack the Americans lost 
forty persons. They come with the intention of settling here, to 
which I have consented. 

FORT PAKMURE, April 85, 1780. 



BL. A Pinart transcript marked AG Cuba, Fl. Occ. 3-1219. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 377 

FRASER TO DELAVILLEBETJTOE 
April 26, 1780 308 

DEAR SIR YASSOTT $6th April^ 1780. 

I have the pleasure to acquaint you that Mr. Swanson Mcllain 
with 5 ships more with goods likewise 5 frigates and 2 74-gun ships 
are arrived at Pensacola likewise G 1 . Clintone expected daily from 
Savanna with troops from whence he set of a long time agoe. We 
had at Pensacola before the arrival of these shipping 1500 troops 
with 1500 Indians so that if Governor Galvez does go their I hope 
he will meet with a warm reception. We understand that he sailed 
for their about 7 days ago but it is supposed he will go back to Orleans 
& not attempt Pensacola at all. All this news came up to the Tom- 
begbe river by Joel Walker who came to see his Unkle Capt n . Walker 
who was wounded at Mobille. I hope you will make yourself easier 
in your situation as I hope everything will turn out for the better. 

I am dear Sir Your Most humble Serv 1 . 

ALEX R . FRASER 

DON JUAN DELAVILLEBEUVRE, 

Captain of The Infantry Regiment of Louisiana and 
Commandant of the Fort of Panmure. 

I certify on my word of honor that the above copy is exactly like 
the original which was obtained by me and copied by me at this 
fort on the 25th of June, 1780. 

JTJAN DELAVILLEBETTVRE (Eubric). 

MENARD TO VELLIERS 
May 89, 1780 309 

To MONSIEUR DON BALTHAZAR DE VILLIERS, CAPTAIN COMMANDING 

THE POST OF ARKANSAS, CIVIL AND MILITARY JUDGE 

OF THE DEPENDENCIES. 

SIR : Francois Menard replies to the summons sent to him on the 
29th of May, last,, by Antoine Bouquet on your behalf in pursuance 
of the complaint made by one Zabulon Matheo, an Anglo- American, 
which states that Jacques Mongrain had told him that Menard had 
stolen from him and Joseph Tessier, his two associates, about seven 
hundred pounds of tallow. The aforesaid Zabulon Matheo says that 
he was in partnership with them and asks for one-third of the tallow 
which the said Jacques Mongrain gave to me as payment and brought 
to me himself, paying me one-half of what he owed me. If it is 
owed to him, let him go to one of his partners who is here, Joseph 

BL, (English). A Pinart transcript marked AG Cuba, Fl. Occ. 2-1218. 
*BL, (French). 



378 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Tessier, and let Mm deal with him, as Jacques Mongrain is dead. 
When I received this tallow as one-half payment, I told the late 
Jacques Mongrain to see to it that I was paid before he arrived at 
the aforesaid post, as I assured him that he would not be in a position 
to pay me once he got to the post because, for the last three years, 
the merchants have been unable to get anything out of their catch. 

This word "restitution" which the Englishman uses in his petition 
hurts me. Why should I pay back to a thief what Jacques Mongrain 
gave to me in payment and delivered to my door? The style of the 
Englishman's secretary might have been more polite. Only a vulgar 
person uses these expressions. Not so very long ago there arrived 
an Englishman or a German with a boat loaded with tallow which 
he had stolen. This can be proved by many people, and their proofs 
and affidavits are in proper hands, and will appear some day. This 
same Englishman, some time later, brought a lot of cotton cloth. On 
both trips he was quite well received and was openly admitted to 
the stores. At present he is at the post undisturbed. All this causes 
me to take precautions. I am telling all my voyageurs to see to it 
that I get paid before they arrive at this post. I implore your justice 
and I ask that the Englishman Zabulon be punished for using such 
indiscreet expressions as "making restitution." 

MBJSTARD (Kubric). 

Presented by me, Antoine Bouquet, in the presence of a witness. 

ARKANSAS, 89 May 1780. 

To Pass on; ARKANSAS, 89 May 1780. 

VILLIBRS (Eubric). 

DELAVILLEBRETJVE TO GALVEZ 

J we % 1780 

MY DEAR SIR: Juan B a . Barker, German by nation, has just ar- 
rived. He comes with two other men from the post of Cascasia and 
Caxa to Pointe Coupee with the intention of establishing himself 
there. He brings the news that 19 days ago from today 1200 Indians 
of various nations of the Strait, together with some 50 Canadians and 
35 Englishmen, painted like the Indians, attacked the post of Pain- 
court at a time when its inhabitants were away at their farms. He 
said that in this attack there were 63 on our side dead, wounded, or 
prisoners, of all sexes, colors, and ages. Of the enemy it is only 
known that, while those Indians were taking the scalps of some 
inhabitants, they were frightened by a cannon shot and immediately 
ran away with the plunder. The commandant of the aforesaid post 
wrote to Colonel Clark who hastened to his aid with 500 men. Having 

ai BL. A Pinart transcript marked AG Cuba, Fl. Occ. 2-1218. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 379 

arrived a little after dawn, he pursued the enemy and caused them 
to take flight. It is believed that the enemy will probably make 
another attempt next month. 

He also states that Lieutenant Colonel Montgomery has gone up 
with 300 men to the place called La Praderia de los Eobles 250 leagues 
distant from Illinois, and that they keep constantly 60 horses for 
scouting duty. . . . 

It is said here that a man named Huper, formerly an inhabitant 
of this district who absented himself secretly (when the other citizens 
there became suspicious of him) has a commission as captain, signed 
by General Campbell, for the purpose of raising in Tombecbe and 
its vicinity a company to attack this district. It is reported that 
his route was by way of the mountains which pass between the Choc- 
taws and Chickasaws, and although I do not know from where the 
news came, I copy it here for Your Excellency. 

May Our Lord preserve you many years. 

FORT PASTMURE, June %4, 1780. 

JUAN DEIAVILLEBETJVRE 

S r . D\ Ber do . DE GJVLVEZ. 

VlLLIERS TO GlLVEZ 

June 85, 1780^ 

POST OF CHARLES III or ARKANSAS, 
June 85 , 1780. 

SIR : It is a rule in this post that the last person to equip a hunter 
should, upon the latter's return, have first claim on him for repay- 
ment. The associates, Jaques Mongrin and Joseph Tessier, owed to 
their last outfitter last year about 400 piastres ; yet one Menard, be- 
fore their departure, had caused them to agree that before arriving at 
the post they should reserve from their produce 700 livres of tallow 
to settle drinking debts. This took place in March last. 

Having been apprised of this by one Zabulon Mateo, one of their 
associates who was claiming a third of it, I took steps upon my 
authority and caused to be withdrawn from the stores of the said 
Menard that amount of tallow which he is known to have received 
in a clandestine manner and even to have supplied the means to 
get it. The seizure was made in favor of the persons to whom the 
hunters are indebted. I believe myself authorized to do this by vir- 
tue of an ordinance, the articles of which I have sent you, Sir, in 
my letter of February 25, and which the said Menard himself in- 
voked when it was favorable to Mm. This caused the seizure of 2500 
livres of tallow from Raymond Vaissiere's pirogue in favor of 
Menard and 1900 livres in favor of others. 



*BL, (French). 



380 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

Now the duplicity of this man is remarkable in that he knows 
how to claim the protection of the laws or ignore them according to 
his interests. He himself is low enough to admit this fact in his 
petitions. Therefore, in pursuance of this ordinance, it would seem 
very equitable that the total debt of over 400 piastres owed by Joseph 
Tessier and Jaques Mongrin be paid by the said Menard, provided, 
Sir, that you approve it. This deserved pecuniary penalty would 
be all the more justified since this man has been several times in 
opposition to the just orders of my last two predecessors, who in a 
case such as this one added to many others should have sent him to 
you with a fine recommendation. It is in this fashion, Sir, that this 
man has amassed some property and become arrogant, having at all 
times traded illegally. He has always eluded the vigilance of the 
commandants by having merchandise brought in surreptitiously by 
the rivers, by receiving on the quiet payments which were legitimately 
due to others, or by causing the hunters to get drunk, making them 
gamble and by this means getting hold of their cargos, or having them 
do errands for his own profit. 

Such are the conduct and the character of the man I am complain- 
ing about and who feels sure that his half-brother Mr. Ruby (who 
knows him as well as I do) , will speak on his behalf to you, Sir. He 
also trusts to the protection of several other persons, as if anybody's 
solicitations were capable of causing you to commit an injustice. Such 
is this man who in one petition states that he has received nothing 
from the hunters for the last three years. His imposture is proved 
by the abstract that I have made and which is included in the state- 
ment I am sending with this, without mentioning the amounts he 
may have embezzled, although this is his sole occupation. 

Is there anything more infamous than the advice which he himself 
has confessed in a petition to have given to the hunters for the 
purpose of evading the law? Last year I had paid him about 200 
piastres for one Jean Bte. Imbaut who now owes me about 600 
piastres. What does Menard, as great a rascal as this other man, 
do ? He has an understanding with him to receive the product of 
the hunt, unknown to me and to my detriment, and this would have 
happened had I not been warned. All that I have had the honor of 
telling you is nothing in comparison to what I have heard, but of 
which I have no proof. He supports at his house most of the time 
a band of vagabonds and people of his ilk who protect him by tes- 
tifying according to his directions, fiis conversation is always evil 
and he disregards my orders to such an extreme that last month he 
went so far as to induce some people who were living with him to 
refuse to march with a detachment that I had ordered them to join. 
If I am to be blamed, Sir, it is for not having sent him to you then. I 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 381 

fined him last year for giving brandy to the savages, and he should 
have been fined a hundred times. 

I must admit that my leniency has increased the impudence of 
these people. When I received your letter of April 10, 1779, Sir, 
I was so assured of my innocence that I read it publicly. I thereby 
committed a great imprudence for I should have foreseen that all 
that gang residing in my dependency would go hence to have re- 
course to your justice whether they deserved it or not, and seek 
through specious reasons to evade the order which I have thought 
necessary to establish here, and that is doubtless what has caused 
Menard to challenge my orders when I made him surrender the tal- 
low. With regard to him I now ask your justice. 

The fear I had. Sir, of being taken by you for a vain person and for 
one who wished to impress you, has always prevented me from at- 
tracting your notice to the pains and the care I have taken in the 
establishment of this post, besides the expenses I have incurred, but 
I am forced to do it by the circumstances. And why should I blush 
to tell you that I have encouraged agriculture, that I have attracted 
husbandmen here, and that I expect more? I have made advances 
to them, I have taken care of them ; even now I am still feeding the 
families of the unfortunate hunters who, having been robbed by the 
Osages cannot hunt, nor pay, and have no means of subsistence. 

While I should be helped in an act which is humane, I find myself 
opposed by the man I am complaining of. He does exactly that 
which is most certain of discouraging and rendering desperate these 
miserable people. He has been so low and so unworthy as to go into 
their houses to take their concubines away from them, and from a 
sexagenarian man and woman he has taken their bed cover and a 
mosquito net of coarse cloth. This has caused a complaint that I have 
countersigned in conformity with the sentiments which I know you 
entertain and which should inspire similar ones in any officer vested 
with your authority and thus honored by you with your confidence. 
To deserve it even more, if possible, I watch myself with the most 
scrupulous attention in order to cause no criticism in my conduct 
of the administration of this post. I had first started legal proceed- 
ings in connection with what I mentioned in this letter, but I felt 
ihat in miserable posts like this one it was better to avoid chicanery 
as much as possible. Besides, Sir, I am sparing you a lot of cor- 
respondence which would tire you and would end nowhere. Even this 
letter is too long. 

Finally, in order not to waste any more moments which are 
precious to you I close by urging you earnestly that, if any complaint 
is made against me, you should order me to inform you of its motive, 
and not to spare me if, through my own fault, I am in the wrong. 



382 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

On the other hand I also urge you to punish severely the slanderers 
who by creating a fuss about minor interests are persuaded that by 
making a large noise they can escape punishment justly deserved 
for more important reasons. 

I have the honor of being with respect, Sir, your most humble and 
most obedient servant, 

BALTHAZAK DE VILLIBRS 

To MR. DON BERNARD DE GALVEZ. 



TO GALVE55 

July 11, 1780* 

MY LORD : I must inform you that it is true that a detachment 
of troops composed of one hundred men has come out of Pensacola 
and has come to the Perdido Eiver but they have gone back. To oppose 
the raids of the Talapoosas, there is at present a guard of sixty 
militiamen, all of whom have taken the oath of fidelity to His Catho- 
lic Majesty. The general threatens to take all inhabitants by force 
to Pensacola. He is calling all the nations and is loading them 
with goods, making them promise to come within three months to 
form an army with the Chickasaws and four nations from the north 
which are due at any time to receive their instructions. At the end 
of that time he plans to attack Mobile and chase us out, and then 
the English will go to take New Orleans. I have all this information 
from the savages, from whom I understand also that they have had 
a two-day feast at Pensacola because the English have taken two 
French generals, and they have illuminated the whole city. 

Just as I am writing to you a party of Choctaws is arriving from 
Pensacola. They tell me that the feast I mentioned took place in 
celebration of the capture of Charleston, and all the Spaniards, 
French, and Americans are dead. They say also that they have seen 
four vessels entering which the English have taken from us, and 
that they have seen five chiefs arrive by boat. They also state that 
many troops were arriving at the Perdido Eiver and that many had 
already got there with a quantity of horses. They said that they 
thought it was for the purpose of making a fort, but that I should 
always be on my guard because I was to be attacked. 

I must inform you that my son is at Pensacola. I imagine that 
he must have been attracted by some great promise made to him on 
the part of the general. It is surprising to see the goods which the 
English are giving to the savages. However, I do not think that they 
will succeed in attracting all the Choctaws for several have told me 

*BL, (French). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 383 

that it was only necessity and nothing else that made them go to 
secure things from the English. I hope that they think so. 

My messenger has just arrived from up the river. He tells me 
that Colbert is coming with a party of Chickasaws. This is all that 
he has been able to learn from the savages whom he has met. I have 
heard no other news today. 

I have the honor of being, with profound respect, my Lord, your 
most humble and obedient servant, 

P. JUZAN (Rubric) 

AT THE POINT, 11 July 1780. 

DTJRNFORD TO GALVEZ 
July 1%, 1780 31S 

SIR : I beg leave to ask of Your Excellency the Following Favor, 
That if I should find it more convenient to return to Great Brittain 
in a Flag of Truce, to sail about the end of September next from this 
River ; and to take me and my Family on board at pensacola ; if I 
should have it in my power on my arrival at pensacola to Obtain a 
Flag of Truce from thence, to This place; will Your Excellency 
grant me permission to dispose of the said vessel to a Spanish subject 
on His and my Account and permit said Vessel to load in this River 
in the same manner as the other two Vessels now here, carrying Flags 
of Truce have done; and to proceed to England with a Flag of 
Truce as speedily as possible with safety. If this Favor can be 
granted me by Your Excellency it will do an Essential service to 
Him, who hath the Honor to Acknowledge Himself 

Your Excellency's most Obedient and most Obliged humble 
servant 

ELIAS DURNFORD 

NEW ORLEANS, ISth July 1780. 
His Excellency GENERAL DE GALVEZ. 

POLLOCK TO GALVEZ 
July 25, 1780^* 

ORLEANS MzJA, July 1780 



SIR : I beg leave to acquaint your Excellency, that in Consequence 
of the protection Granted to the American Troops at the Illinois by 
your Commanding officer there, that severall of Col. Clarks Reg*. 
has deserted to your side and as the continuance of this Dissertion 
may be attended with worst of Consequences (as it is only practiced 



BL, (English) . 
AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 



384 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

by those that are Disaf ected to the general Cause) both to his Catho- 
lick Majesty and the United States of America I hope your Excel- 
lency will give orders contrary to such protection, & deliver up such 
as have or may hereafter desert, which will totally prevent this 
dangerous practice. 

I have the Honor to be with all due Respect 
Your Excelencys 
Most Obedient 

& Most humb u Servant 

OL R . POLLOCK 
His Excelency 

BERNARDO GALVEZ. 



BLOMMART'S NOTE TO POLLOCK 
August 5, 1780 

In all the Month of January next I promise to pay Oliver Pollock 
Esq r or Order the Sum of Four Hundred & thirty two Dollars two 
& one half Ryalls Value Rec d in New Orleans this 5th Aug at 1780 I 
say with lawful interest p s . 432. .21^. 

J. BLOMMART (Rubric) 

GIL YBARVO TO GALVEZ 

Augusts, 1780 
Senor Governor General. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: Although Senor Pedro Piernas, former com- 
mandant of this place, gave Gil Morin permission to settle at the post 
of JsTatchitoch.es, it is to be hoped that Your Lordship will order said 
permission withdrawn, and command said individual to return to his 
domicile in his own jurisdiction. He was licensed by this troop for the 
purpose of being permitted to bring from San Antonio some cattle, 
horses, and other goods that he had, on the condition that he establish 
himself in this small settlement. 

Due to the scarcity of food that formerly existed in this town, he 
and other individuals were permitted to go to the post of Natchi- 
toches in search of food which they needed for their families. Be- 
cause of this I found it necessary to send two dispatches to Mr. 
Bonne, commandant of said post, to have all the people from this 
jurisdiction who were in the one under Ms command return to this 
settlement. He ordered the others to return, but this individual he 
allowed to go to the capital in quest of the permission, which he 
obtained. This small settlement was established at the order of the 

AGI, PC, leg. 2370 (English). 
*AGI, PC, leg. 70. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 385 

Most Excellent Sefior Viceroy and legalized by the Sefior Com- 
mandant General, who ordered the magistrates thereof most strictly 
that no one from this settlement should be permitted to go and settle 
in the province of Louisiana, as Your Lordship will see, if you care 
to have me send you a copy of this order. 

I have thought it well to make this request of Your Lordship, so 
that this disobedient man may not remain settled in that post at Ms 
own free will. I desire to prevent this abuse by the others, which in 
imitation thereof they may desire, as well as the lack of respect 
which should be paid to justice. 

This favor is especially to be hoped for from Your Lordship, 
for whom I pray God to preserve the years which my affection de- 
sires for you. 

NACOGDOCHES, August 5, 1780. 

Your most faithful servant kisses your hand. 

ANTONIO GIL YBARVO (Rubric) 

Sefior DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 

POLLOCK TO PIERNAS 
September 5, 1780 s17 
SIR : NEW ORLEANS 5 tn . Sept r . 1780. 

By the misfortune of the late Hurricane, in which my Batoe (com- 
manded by Mon r . Motard) was Overset at P*. Coupee and lost great- 
est part of Cargoe, particularly a quantity of Gun powder, I had 
on board belonging to the United States, for the use of the different 
Posts at the Illinois country, in this situation, I am under the neces- 
sity of applying to your Honor for one thousand W*. being indis- 
pensably necessary to replace the Loss for the use of said Posts, by 
return of the Batoe, which I hope to dispatch again in three days 

I must also beg the favour of your honor for one Swivell & fifty 
fathoms of four inch Good New Rope for the use of the Batoe, which 
I cannot possibly procure without your assistance 

I have the Honor to be with all due Eespect 

SIR 

Your Most Obed*. 
Humble Servant 
OL B . POLLOCK 

His Honor 
D N . PEDRO PIERNAS. 



ACH, PC, leg. 2370 (English) . 



386 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

PDERNAS TO GIL YBARVO 

September 11, 1780 

[Copy] 

MY VEKY DEAR SIE : Being in charge of this province, due to the 
absence of the Senor Governor General, I received yours of August 
5th, this year, in which you request said Sefior to withdraw the per- 
mission given by me to the said Gil Morin to settle in the post of 
Katchitoches. Having taken note of the sound reasons on which 
you base your request, I am writing under today's date to the com- 
mandant, Don Esteban de Vaugine, so that he may take the proper 
measures in order that this individual may return to Nacogdoches. 
I shall appreciate it, however, if you will be good enough to over- 
look this fault and not punish said Morin in any way because of it. 

It will give me great pleasure to know that this poor unfortunate 
has been well received by you. With this occasion I repeat that I 
am at your orders etc. 

May God, etc. September 11, 1780. 

Sefior DON ANTONIO GIL YBARVO. 



MATOKGA TO 

October 4, 1780. 
No. 694 
Most Excellent Sir. 

MY VERY DEAR SIR: The governor of the province of Louisiana 
sent to Vera Cruz by His Majesty's sloop Nuestra Senora del Carmen 
and other private vessels three hundred and thirty English prisoners, 
including ten officers, whom he held as a result of the surrender of 
their forts to our nation, after permitting those who were Catholics 
and voluntarily wished to take our side to join the fixed regiment 
there. 

I know that this chief found himself under the necessity of taking 
this step for various just reasons, and that only the consideration of 
how troublesome it would be for him to keep them, on account of 
the difficulties which the proximity of the enemy would have made 
greater at every step, compelled him to get rid of them. 

I leave it to the wise understanding of Your Excellency to realize 
how my cares were increased when I received news of the arrival of 
these prisoners at Vera Cruz, where Your Excellency knows better 
than anyone else the lack of facilities for keeping them secure. These 
reasons and those which Your Excellency will see set forth in this 
letter are the ones which led me to send them to Havana. 

It is certain that, although they were under arrest, it would have 

**AGI, PC, leg. 70. 

* AGI, Inclif erente General, 146-2-7. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 387 

been necessary to assign a corresponding number of veteran troops 
to guard them, and this would have resulted in a lack of men for 
the defense of the port and its coasts which demand so much at- 
tention in the critical circumstances of the present war. It would 
have been even less prudent, indeed, to lodge them in the castle of 
San Juan de Ulua because they would acquire a knowledge of its 
situation, etc., resulting in harm to us, since it is the only defense of 
the port and the city. 

Finally, Most Excellent Sir, neither did it seem proper to intern 
them in the Kingdom, because this would increase the manifest in- 
conveniences. Although I considered everything seriously, as it was 
a matter of importance on account of its delicate nature, I did not 
wish to make a decision on it until I had studied it carefully. 

For this reason I asked for the opinion of the royal council and 
Inspector Don Pascual de Cisneros. Both were unanimously of the 
opinion that the best thing was to send the prisoners to Havana. 
An added reason was that it was more than certain that, as soon 
as the English learned of their presence in this Kingdom, they 
would send vessels here under the pretext of exchanging prisoners, 
but principally for the purpose of informing themselves of our con- 
dition and forces. 

Having been assured by that conclusion that my first idea was what 
should be done, I instructed the ministry of Vera Cruz to proceed 
with the plan and this was actually done, using the xebec-of-war El 
Cayman^ which was there at the time, and the ships which came 
under charter from New Orleans. These sailed with the prisoners 
on August 26, last, for Havana, to whose governor I sent proper 
advice of everything. 

While they were in Vera Cruz, the soldiers were given two reales 
daily and the officers one peso for their subsistence, and were treated 
with the greatest courtesy and attention. 

All of which I report to Your Excellency, and hope that, if this 
action meets with your approval, you will please inform His Majesty 
and request his sovereign sanction thereof. 

May Our Lord preserve Your Excellency the many years I desire. 

MEXICO, October 4, 1780. 

Most Excellent Sir, your most humble and faithful servant kisses 
your hand. 

MARTIN DE MAYOBGA (Rubric) 

Most Excellent Senor DON JOSEF DE 



(Accompanying the foregoing) 

To the viceroy of New Spain, informing him that the King has 
approved his having sent to Havana the English prisoners brought 

700296 49 vol. 228 



388 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

to Vera Cruz by the sloop El Cayman at the order of the governor 
of Louisiana, and the daily allowances which he assigned to their 
maintenance. 

Having informed His Majesty of the reasons which moved Your 
Excellency to send to Havana the English prisoners brought to Vera 
Cruz by order of the governor of Louisiana, and of the daily allow- 
ances which Your Excellency assigned to the officers and men dur- 
ing their stay in the latter port, he has see fit to approve this, and 
I so advise Your Excellency for your information. 

God, etc. 

EL PARDO, February 17, 1781, 

Senor VICEROY OF NEW SPAIN. 

GIL YBARVO TO PIERNAS 
October 1%, 1730 

MY DEAR SIR: I have the satisfaction of having received Your 
Lordship's letter of the llth of September, by which I notice that you 
have conceded to me the person of Gilmorin who, at Your Lordship's 
order, was delivered to me by the commandant of Nachitos. I thank 
Your Lordship, and offer myself for whatever you might order. I 
have also given up four Frenchmen who for eight years have resided 
in my district, where they had married and become residents. Their 
commandant at Nachitos requested them of me, and my desire is to 
maintain the best harmony in everything. 

Sir, will you pardon any incovenience I may have caused by 
asking for Gilmorin ? I continue to rely upon your goodness, for I 
am requesting that Your Lordship instruct the commandant of 
Opelousas to cause a few families to return. They, with my per- 
mission, went out in search of supplies, but have been set against me 
in the aforesaid post through the evil counsel of some individual. 

Sir, believe me, I only ask their return because of the following: 
First, it is in conformity to the orders under which I act. Second, 
my post is new and very sparse in population to be among so many 
Indians. Therefore, I expect with your kind help to succeed in 
getting them back. I have taken Gilmorin in like my son and I 
promise to do the same with the rest. 

May our Lord protect the life of Your Lordship the many years 
which I desire for you. 

JTACHITOS, l%th of October, 1780. 

Your most attentive and grateful servant kisses the hand of Your 
Lordship. 

ANTOOTO GIL YBARVO (Eubric) 
GOVERNOR PEDRO PIERNAS, 



THE BEVOLUTIONAKY PERIOD, 1765-1781 389 

CABELLO TO VATTGINE 
October 31, 1780 321 

MY DEAR AND MOST EESPECTED SIR : I have reflected upon what 
Your Lordship intimates in your letter of September 6th last, rela- 
tive to the complaints regarding some of the nations of friendly 
Indians in this province. I note that, because of the stubbornness and 
great numbers of the Comanches who commit hostilities in these ter- 
ritories, it may be that they have been joined by some Indians of that 
district. I think that the best methods of remedying such evils 
ought to be considered. Encouragement has already been given to 
Don Joseph Maria Armant to open and establish the commerce which 
I mentioned to Your Lordship in my letter of the 15th of October, 
in order that their pacification might prove attractive, and that my 
good intentions shall be carried out. In addition, I have now ordered 
that the captain of militia, Don Nicolas de la Mathe, shall go to 
those nations with two good interpreters of all those languages, and 
that he shall convince them how greatly I esteem them and how I 
desire to preserve the peace which my predecessor. Colonel Baron 
de Kipperda, established with them. The activity, zeal, and good 
character which are apparent in the aforesaid Nicolas de la Mathe, 
make possible the success of this enterprise. 

I am thoroughly familiar with the character and inclinations of 
these Indians, and I am convinced that good reasoning with them 
does not suffice, unless at the same time they are given presents and 
other inducements. I have, therefore, arranged that he take them 
some little present which he brought here in order to make friends of 
the nations that Lieutenant Colonel Don Athanazio de Mezieres did 
not win over when he was in those parts last year. I now find it not 
advisable to venture forth because of the risks incident to the condition 
in which the Comanches are at present. I am therefore writing to 
Josef Maria Armant so that he may supply the necessary things 
which I have listed, and to Don Nicolas de la Mathe, in the belief that 
the former, knowing I shall pay at his demand, will immediately sup- 
ply him the necessaries and render me an account. 

* For the better accomplishment of this matter, which is so greatly 
to the interest of the service of the King, our master, in the preserva- 
tion of these dominions, and the welfare of this province, I avail 
myself of the favor which the generosity of Your Excellency has of- 
fered. I therefore request that you bring your influence to bear on 
Joseph Maria Armant so that he may supply quickly these aids 
to the aforementioned La Mathe who will write you on this matter. 
At the same time Your Excellency can make available to the af ore- 



390 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

mentioned La Mathe all else that may be requisite to Hie discharge 
of Ms commission and the matter which I have entrusted to his care. 
Through this procedure I expect to extricate myself from the dif- 
ficulties into which the peculiar system under which I operate has 
plunged me. 

I have advised my commandant general of all these arrangements, 
and have directed to him the advice which Your Excellency recom- 
mends. I have manifested to him at the same time, the courtesy and 
kindness which I have received from Your Lordship and of which I 
wish to avail myself on this occasion for the better accomplishment 
and successful termination of the expedition of Don Nicolas de la 
Mathe. I am also going to write to Don Bernardo de Galvez rela- 
tive to the many offers which he has made to me whenever I should 
find myself in situations of this nature. I reiterate my gratitude and 
desire to serve you, and beg that God may preserve your life many 
years. San Antonio de Bejar, October 31, 1780. Your most obedient 
servant kisses your hands. 

Signed DOM. CABELLO 
Snr. DON ESTEBAK DE VOGINE 

I certify that the letter above is copied word for word from the 
original which remains with me. 

At the FORT or THE FATCBCITOCHES, 83rd of February , 1781. 

VATJGINE (Eubric) 

GIL YBARVO TO GALVEZ 
November 1, 1780 822 

Senor Governor Don Bernardo G&lvez. 

MY VERT DEAR AND ESTEEMED SIR : The particular affection which 
I owe you obliges me to inform Your Lordship of the embarrassment 
in which I find myself with regard to the nations of this district 
under my command because of their dissatisfaction concerning 
the promise made them by Lieutenant Colonel Don Atanasio de 
Mezieres in the treaty of peace. He said they would be given an 
annual present, a trader in every village, and a table of prices for 
every chief in which would be shown the price that he should pay 
the trader for his goods and the trader should give for his skins, for 
skins are used by these Indians as pay. This lasted for some time, 
and during this time the merchandise was easily available and the 
skins brought good prices. Nevertheless, the high Indian price list 
ruined their traders and suppliers. At the present time the business 
is so terrible that the promises to the Indians have been withdrawn. 
As they are a people who are not satisfied except with gifts, they are 

I, PC, leg. 70. 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 391 

at this time angry with the French and Spaniards. They complain 
that we are two nations and, although they have been informed to the 
contrary, they do not understand it in any other way. They are 
destroying at every step my flags, staff of command, and medals, 
saying that they cannot live on the luster of these. Their irritation 
increases when they see Don Atanasio de Mezieres pass among the 
tribes with various loads of goods and give these to the Tancague 
and Taguacana nations. The others are becoming jealous of them, 
especially the Taguallas, who are the most numerous and daring and 
who have some connection with the Comanches. For this reason, it is 
necessary to pay particular attention to this nation. I, for my part, at 
the expense of my limited funds, am supporting them until my gover- 
nor gives the most prompt assistance on this matter, as I have in- 
formed him. At present the tribes are so insolent that they have sent 
me word that, if within four months we do not fulfill what was 
promised them by said Don Atanasio de Mezieres, they will consider 
us as enemies. All of this I reported to my governor and to the com- 
mandant of JSTatchitoches, Don Estevan Vaugine. Furthermore, as 
the case was so urgent, I went personally to Natchitoches to see said 
Senor, who is concerned with the Indians and their complaints the 
same as I am. Consequently, my dear Sir, we are in this matter 
between the sword and the wall, unless God provides prompt relief. 

All of this I particularly beg Your Lordship to bring to the atten- 
tion of my chief, so that these matters which demand attention may 
not slumber. In case of an attack all that I can do (as I have few 
men, without arms or munitions, in the midst of the tribes, and with 
news that there are now coming down from the north I do not know 
what white people to trade with them) is to cross my hands. Al- 
though I have reported all this to my immediate chief, the latter 
passes it all on to the commandancy and the assistance may come too 
late in case of urgency. This news and bad tidings I communicate 
to you as you are my benefactor. Placing all I own at Your Lord- 
ship's disposal, I remain here in Natchitoches, praying His Divine 
Majesty to preserve Your Lordship's important life the many years 
I desire. 

NATCHITOOHBS, November j?, 1780. 

Your Lordship's hands are kissed by your most faithful servant. 

ANTONIO GIL YBARVO (Eubric) 



392 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

CHIEF OF THE TAOVAYAS TO GALVEZ 
November 



Words of the Great Chief of the Village of the Taovayas addressed 
to their father Don Bernardo de ffalvez. 

MY FATHER : It so happened tliat I had gone from my village to 
work the animals in order to feed our families. Your child, whom 
you have sent, has come to our village. I have received him with 
open arms. He announced to me on your behalf that he was coming 
to search for the Spaniards who are living in my village. Im- 
mediately I turned over to him five of them who came from the Alli- 
tane who happen to be our neighbors, but who shed our blood and 
steal our horses daily. 

As they belong to your children, the Spaniards, I shall fulfill and 
adhere to any demand which you might make. 

I find myself much too embarrassed to be able to go to see you. 
On the other hand the road from your village to mine is too obstruc- 
ted to enable me to go and taste of your drink and tobacco. The 
Osages are continually killing us and stealing our horses, as well as 
those of the other nations. 

My father, I hope I shall not be deceived by you as I have been 
by Monsieur de Meziere during the trip he made me take to San 
Antonio. 

My father, we are deprived of everything, and have neither 
hatchets, nor picks, nor rifles, nor powder, nor bullets with which to 
defend ourselves from our enemies. 

My father, what few rifles, hatchets, and picks we do have are all 
worn out and cannot be used. I pray you to grant me a blacksmith. 

My father, I end by offering you my hand, as do all the people of 
my village. 

QTJI TE SAIN 
Chief of the village of the Taovayas 

This 4th of November, 1780. 

DODGE TO CRUZAT 
November 11, 1780** 

SIR : I have the honor of addressing to you herewith talks from 
savages of the Wabash which I have taken from the hands of Mr. 
Chapeau. I do not wish to allow those who are not authorized to 
confer with them to take such liberties. If everybody indiscrimi- 
nately is entitled to give or receive their messages, neither His 
Catholic Majesty nor the United States need appoint agents. 

*BL, (French). 
*BL, (French). 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 393 

It appears from Mr. Chapeau's report that the French of St. Vin- 
cennes and the savages want help to avenge the death of Colonel 
Labalme. As for us, we are determined not to heed them, in view 
of the promise of allegiance which the inhabitants have made (by 
request) to the King of France thinking thereby to evade the govern- 
ment of America, of which they are beyond doubt the subjects by 
conquest. 

They have wanted to listen to a man who was a total stranger to 
them, and who, in order to make his own way, had no compunctions 
about sacrificing them. It is they who (according to appearances) 
have induced the savages to take the step which they are taking 
today. Eest assured, Sir, that we shall always be glad to co-operate 
with you in everything connected with the common cause, and to keep 
you in touch with all developments of this question. 

I have the honor of being with respect, your most humble and 
obedient servant, 

JNO. DODGE, Agent of the State of Virginia. 

KASKASKIAS, November 11, 1780. 

To M. CRUZ AT, ESQ., Commandant of Saint Louis. 

CRTJZAT TO GALVEZ 

November 12, 1780 

MY DEAR SIR: Upon my arrival at this place, Lieutenant Don 
Francisco Cartabona advised me of an incident during his period 
of command involving the Indian named La Balaf re, principal chief 
of the nation of Little Osages. 

This nation came with the abovementioned chief to this town on 
the 28th of June of the present year, under the pretext that it desired 
to be forgiven for the thefts of horses which it continually made in 
these settlements. As the chief who wanted to prove his repentance 
was being received, it was learned that at that very instant some of 
the inhabitants' horses were being stolen, and the aforesaid La 
Balafre himself had on that very day stolen from different in- 
habitants in their own homes some silver service and other things. 
The provisional commandant took the precaution of arresting the 
brazen chief when he saw the insolence and daring which he mani- 
fested in coming to solicit clemency and pardon for the crimes of 
his nation, 

A few days after his imprisonment he tried to escape, assaulting 
the sentinel and seeking a way to disarm him in spite of the vigilance 
of the guard who, with considerable difficulty, arrested him on the 
street. His intention was to kill some of the soldiers and make his 



394 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

escape. This was verified by the fury, wrath, and blind animosity 
with which he opposed his arrest. He intended to disarm some 
soldier, but did not succeed. 

He was kept imprisoned forty days, supplied with all necessities, 
even treated much more humanely than he deserved, and when least 
expected, cruelty found lodgment in his perverse heart. While he 
was peacefully staying in the quarters assigned to him with his wife, 
who had been permitted to keep him company, he took the knife of 
his wife and fondling her with honeyed words, induced her to lie 
down next to him. Scarcely had this poor woman placed herself 
at his side, when he gave her a great blow with his knee on her chest. 
The poor unfortunate was left as if in a faint, and he then wounded 
her with three dagger thrusts, two in the throat and one in the chest. 
Immediately he laid hold of an old stock of a musket and with this 
he tried to hit over the head the soldier Domingo Alonso who was 
prostrate in bed, ill and without strength. The shouts of the 
troops in the barracks caused the other troops who were in the 
patio to assemble. Various inhabitants bear witness to his furious 
delirium. It became impossible to lay hold of him without injuring 
him because he was like a mad dog, foaming at the mouth. With the 
greatest barbarity he attacked anybody who came near to him, like 
a desperate person who looks not to his life. Finally it was possible 
to tie him, although he was a man of superior strength. 

From the time of his last arrest until six days later when he died, 
he refused food and drink, uttering a thousand oaths, making great 
threats in the name of his nation, and injuring his face and all his 
body by striking himself against the floor and wall. This caused 
his death, as Your Lordship may well imagine, more than any mis- 
treatment which he received. His wife died on the third day after 
receiving her wounds, although all necessary care was administered 
to her by the surgeon, as is well known. 

This happening, which in the eyes of every reasonable and civilized 
man would indispose the heart against its author, might perchance 
have moved the Little Osage nation to come and obtain revenge for 
the death of their chief, to which he himself contributed, and to 
assassinate miserably some of these poor inhabitants and steal their 
horses, the principal means of their livelihood. However, a few days 
after my arrival at this town when the nation referred to came to 
see me, I treated them with kindness and made presents to them as 
usual. In doing this I took into consideration the critical situation 
in which these settlements find themselves and the necessity which 
I have of using the Little Osages, with our other allied nations, to 
repress and punish the Kansas nation. As Your Lordship knows, the 
last mentioned has already committed some murders on the Missouri 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 395 

River, assassinating and burning seven hunters who were hunting on 
that river, of which I inform Your Lordship as is my duty. 
May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 
ST. Loins OF YLTNTJESES, November 1, 1780+ 
Your devoted servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

FRAN CO . CRUZAT (Rubric) 
Senor DON BERNARDO BE G&LVEZ. 

CRTTZAT TO GALVEZ 

November 1%, 1780 
No. 2. 

MY DEAR SIR : In my letter of the 29th of September last, I ad- 
vised Your Lordship that Monsieur De la Balme was ready to start 
out for the Strait with an expedition from the American district. 
This man, apparently well-informed and at all events capable, so it 
seems, started on his march on the fifth of this month with fifty 
volunteers, inhabitants of the American district, with the purpose 
of going to Vermellon, a place which is on the banks of the Mis, 
where reside a nation of Indians and some English merchants. He 
planned to wait there for two hundred Frenchmen from Post 
Vincennes who are to join his party. All of them, under his orders, 
in addition to the Indians he has gathered together for that purpose, 
are to direct themselves to Los Yyas, a small village situated on 
the aforesaid banks of the Mis, where there is only English com- 
merce. The English there have three or four hundred pounds of 
merchandise, and according to information, his idea is to take poses- 
sion of it and then pass on to the Strait. 

I fail to conjecture how the aforementioned Monsieur De la Balme 
arrived in this country without letters from the Congress or from 
Fort Pitt which is located on the upper part of the Ohio River, where 
there is a commandant and a commissary who have full information as 
to the Americans who are here. It is my belief that, if he had brought 
the letters, Colonel Montgomery would have notified me of it, as he did 
of the character and disposition of the man. Of this I have already 
advised Your Lordship, suggesting that you put into effect the 
project of taking the Strait without more equipment or other muni- 
tions of war than two pounds of gun powder and a corresponding 
amount of shot, carried by and furnished to each one of the volunteers, 
as well as provisions for forty days. 

This officer, if he is only fortunate enough to capture the mer- 
chandise of Los Vyas as he intends to do, will use it to wage war 
and distribute it among the Indians, or he might join forces with 

*BL. 



396 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

some strong party of Americans who perhaps would be coining from 
the aforementioned Fort Pitt. In my opinion, he may thus make 
himself master of the Strait. I have heard it said the two forts of 
that settlement were in an excellent state of defense. Notwith- 
standing that fact, I have received news that the inhabitants, 
maltreated by the English, desire to see in their country either our 
flag or that of the French, in order to shake off the yoke that op- 
presses them. They themselves are turning against our enemies, who 
treat them like slaves, forcing them to carry loads of earth upon their 
backs for the fortifications they endeavor to complete. 

Notwithstanding the manner in which Monsieur De la Balme has 
spoken to the Indians in the presence of Lieutenant Don Francisco 
Cartabona, and upon all other occasions in favor of our nation and 
that of the French, urging the savages not to abandon the protection 
we offered them and that they should endeavor to harass the enemies 
as much as possible, I have no assurance that Ms intentions are al- 
together as favorable to us as he would wish to have it appear on the 
surface. I have therefore never had much confidence in him and 
shall always keep an alert eye on all movements of the aforesaid 
M. De la Balme, until I shall have been assured of the honesty of 
his operations, of which I shall give exact information to Your Lord- 
ship. 

May God preserve the life of Your Lordship many years. 

ST. Louis OF YucmrasES, November ./#, 1780. 

Your devoted servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

FRAN CO . CRTTZAT (Rubric) 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 



CRTTZAT TO 
November IS, 1780** 

No. 6. 

MY DEAR SIR: Jacob Poric, a Canadian merchant, set out from 
the city of Montreal on the 27th day of last June, and arrived at 
the post of the Mis on the 3rd of last September, with much merchan- 
dise. He brought the news that the French, on the 6th day of June, 
without any opposition, landed with twenty thousand men under 
the orders of Mr. Duchaf au on the St. Lawrence River below Quebec, 
capital of Canada, with the purpose of laying siege to this city. 

A merchant of Post Vincennes, named La Yoneza, who arrived 
from Virginia on the 23rd of August, asserts that Mr. Duchafau 
passed last winter with his squadron on the coasts of New England. 

A Canadian, by the name of St. Michel, who escaped from Michil- 
limackinac on the 24th of September, and arrived at this town on 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 397 

the 25th of October, states that there had been some dissension 
between the commanders of the party, composed of fifteen hundred 
men, which was to have marched against us last summer. These 
dissensions and the courageous resistance made against Langlade 
by the Indians El Heturno and Naquihuen were responsible for the 
abandonment of the plan they had made to attack us at the time of 
the corn harvest. However, there are still two hundred Canadians 
in the aforesaid Michillimackinac ready and willing to undertake 
a new enterprise against these settlements, as they anticipate doing 
next spring. 

This deserter asserts that there are still sixty men of the regular 
troops in the aforementioned settlement, and that the English are 
constructing a new fort in the island of Bois Blanc which is not far 
distant from the old fort of Michillimackinac, where they find them- 
selves out of provisions because supplies have not yet arrived from 
Detroit. 

The same St. Michel states that the Iroquois Indians, who started 
out from Quebec last spring in order to reconnoitre up to the mouth 
of the St. Lawrence River, were almost all destroyed by a large body 
of troops who wore white blouses with red collars and trimmings. 
This is the statement made by the few Iroquois Indians who escaped 
the attack. The information finds confirmation in that given by Jacob 
Poiric. From the uniform, one conjectures that the troops could 
only be French or American, as the English are not accustomed to 
wear white uniforms. 

There is news that one of our greatest enemies, who last winter, 
through persuasion and large presents, excited the nations of the In- 
dians of the Mississippi to come and commit murders with the cruelty 
which is their custom, is finding lodgement in the extreme northern 
part of the river, fully supplied with merchandise. His purpose is 
to incite the nations of the north and cause them to execute with 
excessive fury their barbarous hostility against these settlements next 
year. 

I have certain information that a merchant from Montreal, named 
Duguet, has arrived with much merchandise at the post of Saint 
Joseph, situated on the banks of the Illinois, belonging to the juris- 
diction of Detroit, with the sole motive of exciting the Pu nation and 
all the others in the neighborhood against these settlements. All 
the information I receive I send to Your Lordship as I receive it. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

ST. LOTUS OF YLINXTESBS, November 13, 1780. 

Your devoted servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

FRABT CO . CRTTZAT (Rubric). 
Seiior DON BERNARDO DB 



398 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 

CRUZAT TO GALVEZ 

November U, 1780 
No. 1. 

Mr DEAR SIR : Through the Renard Indians and the chief Naqui- 
huen who are in this town, I have learned that a great number of 
Indians of different nations and even of the same nations who came 
to attack us last spring, are now getting ready to come next spring 
with the idea of soliciting our clemency and alliance. In order to 
receive them and make them presents, I shall have great need of 
merchandise, particularly gun powder, cloth, blankets, brandy, guns, 
vermillion, and other indispensably necessary articles that are de- 
sired by the Indians. All of this I make known to Your Lordship. 

To purchase goods here, as I have found myself obliged to do, would 
create a far greater expense for the royal treasury than their receipt 
from that city. This will be noted in the general account which I 
shall forward with details of what I have caused to be brought here 
as well as that which I have purchased for the aforesaid purpose. 

May God preserve the life of your Lordship many years. 

ST. Louis or YLINUESES, November 11*, 1780. 

Your devoted servant kisses the hand of your Lordship. 

FRAN CO . CRUZAT (Rubric). 
Senor DON BERNARDO BE GALVEZ. 

CRUZAT TO GALVEZ 

November 1^ 1780 S29 
No. 4. 

MY DEAR SIR: There arrived yesterday at this post the man 
named Antaya, one of the men assigned with Mr. Boucher de Mon- 
breun to accompany a party of Indians of the Renard nation, and 
some of their principal chiefs, who are coming to request that they 
be received under the protection of the Spanish flag, and that they 
be treated as our allies and friends. It is true that some of them 
permitted themselves to be won over last spring by the English 
but the great body of the nation has maintained itself neutral, and 
always with the idea of not separating itself from our friendship. 

The advantages resulting to these settlements in obtaining the 
good friendship of the aforesaid Renard nation obliged me, because 
of many essential motives, to send the aforementioned Antaya two 
hundred and fifty leagues from this town to the most northern part 
of the Mississippi where the said nation resides, in order to force 

them to take one side or the other. I have the satisfaction of saying 

___ 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 399 

that they have preferred our alliance, and have closed their ears 
to the persuasions of our enemies, who invariably excite them with 
the same force as they use in inspiring them against us. 

The aforementioned Antaya has brought me the news that the 
English were employed constantly in taking provisions and muni- 
tions of war to a place called the Bay two hundred and fifty leagues 
from Michillimackinac and from Prairie du Chien on the Missis- 
sippi, with the idea of making an expedition against these settlements 
this spring. 

The continued visits which I receive from the nations of Indians 
most of the time even prevent me from sleeping the requisite hours. 
The indispensable and intricate negotiations of a government which 
were left in a most disordered condition because of the death of Don 
Fernando de Leyba do not permit me to acquaint Your Lordship 
with the many other matters which I shall place before you by means 
of the bateaux which are preparing to go down about this time. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

ST. Louis OF YLZNTTESES, November 1^ 1780. 

Your devoted servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

FRAN CO . CRTJZAT (Rubric) 
Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 



CRUZAT TO 

November U, 1780 **> 
No. T. 

MY DEAR SIR : Irrespective of the appearances that we shall not 
be molested this winter by the enemies, and despite the fact that 
we have reduced the number of employees for the daily service of 
this town to one hundred men as I have already advised Your 
Lordship under this same date, I find myself obliged to maintain 
Mr. Buche de Monbreun on the Mississippi with the Sac nation, 
forty leagues from this said post, with a detachment of forty 
militiamen ; and Mr. Maye with a detachment of twelve, on the bank 
of the Illinois. This is necessary not only so that both may observe 
the movements of the enemy, but also in order to win the affection 
of the nations, bring the undecided ones to our friendship, and main- 
tain those who are our allies in the condition necessary for the 
preservation of these settlements. 

May God preserve your Lordship many years. 

ST. Lotus OF YLINUESES, November 1%., 1780. 

Your devoted servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

FRAN CO . CRTJZAT (Rubric). 

Senor DON BERNARDO DE GALVEZ. 



> BL. 



400 SPAIN IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY 



CRUZAT TO 

November 81, 1780 s31 

No. 3. 

MY DEAR SIK: After the mail had been forwarded, the fatal 
and sad news for all of us in these settlements arrived to-day of the 
destruction of the military detachment of Mr. de la Balme. This 
incident becomes even more painful when we consider that the 
consequences thereof will make themselves felt in all the Illinois, 
as the inhuman enemies who wish to overpower us will not forget 
to spur on the Indians with this example of success, promising them 
greater returns in the future. 

Mr. de la Balme arrived with a detachment of one hundred 
Frenchmen made up of volunteers from the towns of Oka, Okoa, 
and Post Vincennes, and some Indians of the Mis. He captured 
an English merchant and took possession of a well-stocked warehouse 
filled with merchandise that the English had there in order to 
support their friendly nations and incite them against us. After 
having remained in that post for a period of eleven days, this 
officer set out from the Mis with his party and a hundred horses 
laden with the aforementioned merchandise, with the intention of 
returning to Illinois. He was attacked at dawn, one day after his 
departure, by six hundred men of the Shawnee, Loup, and Mis 
' nations who killed thirty-one of his men, and set to rout all the 
remainder of his detachment. Mr. de la Balme himself perished 
in this unfortunate attack, thus filling all these settlements and 
Post Vincennes with general anxiety. 

This information which I received very soon after the disaster 
compels me to forward it to Your Lordship with the greatest possible 
haste so that you may recognize the situation in which I find myself 
and the strong possibility and likelihood that I shall be attacked 
next year by our tenacious and barbarous enemies. 

May God preserve Your Lordship many years. 

ST. Louis OF YLINUESES, November 81, 1780. 

Your most affectionate servant kisses the hand of Your Lordship. 

FRAN C . CRTJZAT (Rubric) 
Senor DON BERNARDO DE 



THE REVOLUTIONARY PERIOD, 1765-1781 401 

ACT OF POSSESSION OF EAST BANK OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER NORTH OF 
THE DISTRICT OF NATCHEZ. 

November m, 1780 2 

Don Balthazar de Villiers, captain of the Louisiana regiment, 
political and military commandant of Fort Carlos III of Arkansas 
and its dependencies. 

On this the 22nd day of the month of November, 1780, in the name 
of the King of Spain, Don Carlos III (may God keep him), we 
have taken possession of the left bank of the Mississippi River oppo- 
site the Arkansas, White, and St. Francis rivers, as far as the 
boundary of the district of Natchez, to be the dependencies and come 
within the jurisdiction of this post. Being at the place formerly 
known as Concorda, we have inclosed this document together with His 
Majesty's royal coat of arms in a tin box and have bu