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80001 8SB2Y 




Iff ^ 

.* \ 




Univerfal Hiftory, 


Earlieft A c c o u n t of T i m e. 

Compiled from 

Original Authors; 


lUiiftrated with Maps, Cuts, Notes, &c. 


A Genehal Ihd£X to the Whole. 

Bafil. Imp. ad Lroif. fir. 

VOL. ir. 

Printed for T. Osborne, in Gray'i-hn ; A. Millar, 
the Strunii and J. Osborn, in Pattr-ne/ier Raw. 


^. . . . « V 


, ii I ' —— ^■y^'*— '^^— — **^— T^TTTT' 

/ . 



Earlieft Account of Time. 

V O L. II. 

B G p K I. 

77)e Asiatic Hiftqty to ihe lUme of 
Alexander the Gteat. . 


Of the Egyptian cbr^iolop to the time <?/ Alexander 

the Great* 

WE clofed the fbregoihg volume with the beft ac- 
count we could gather from the moft credible 
hiAorians, of the antiquity, government, laws, 
religion, cuftoms, arts, learning, and trade^ of 
tJie a^tient Egyptians. Our vouchers, for what we have 
advanced on tnefe feveral fubje^, were Herodotus, Dio' 
dorus Siculus, and Strabo, who dll travelled into Egypt 
with no other view but to inquire into the origin, tra- 
4itions, and records of that nation % and_ to acquaint 
tfaemfelves with the cuftoms and manners of the inha- 
bitants. We fliall now proceed to the hiftory of the 
princes who reigned in Egypt from the moft early times 
10 the final reduction of the country by Mexander, when 
Xbfi icY^¥ predi^ion of the prophet ivas fidfiUedy Thire 

hz JhaU 

fbe Hijlory of Egypt B. f- 

(hall bt no more a prince of the land of Egypt «. But 
^as chronology, or the referring the rei/n of each prince, 
^ftd the events that happened in his reign, to theif propcf" 
dates, is the light of hiftory, and without it the beft, and, 
in other refpeSs, irioft exaft relations, would be only a 
(chaos of fa£b heaped together, we ought to fettle the Egy- 
ptian chronology, before we eater, upon the hiftory of the 
Egyptian kings, .But here the guides we have hitherto 
followed, eithecj quite fprfajce i|s, or give us fuch informa- 
tion as we can by no means depend on, having been them- 
felves grofly impofed upon .by forged records, and falfe tra- 
ditions, AH we can do therefore is, to acqujiint the. rea- 
der with the fe^itiments of the antients on this fubjeft, and 
the various hvpothefes, and <:hfOnological ^ftams, which 
the moderns have built upon what they found m die anti- 
ents. But, for the better imderftandmg of what (hall bc^ 
faid, it will be neceffary to exhibit the feries of the kings 
of Egypt f according to* the feverfel authors who have re- 
corded their fucceflions. 

I. ^ Table of the laji Jixteen of th( thirty dynafties^ 
according to the old Egyptian chronicle ^, the four^ 
teen firft dyn'ajiies being ivanting. 








Xxn. . 









Generations. Years. 

15 Of the cynic circle reigned 445 

8 Tanites_ 7 ^, .." 19® 

4 Memphites 
14 Mempbitei 

5 Dipjpolites 
8 Utojpolites^ 

3 Tknifes 

2 DiofpoUtes 
o a lies 

3 Ethiopians 
7 Mentphites 
5 Perfiam 

I Tanite 

^V-J J 

- 103 


- 348 

- 194 


- 228 

* .i 

. - 4 i?i 

• * ■ » 

>-' |8 

- • 

- 19 


- 44 


- 44 


- 177 


- 124 




* 39 


r 18 

The fum of the thirty dynafties is, 36525 


* Ezcjc. XXX. 13. ** See vol.i. p. 196. SYNCkLt. 

chron. p. 51^ 52. Euseb. chron. Qraec. Sitncell. p. 45, &c. 

C nt to the time of Alexander. 

II. A Table of the Egyptian dynafties from 



According to Africanus. According to Eufebtus, 

The I. dynajiy of Thinites, 
ot kings of This ; confijl* 
ing of eight princis, 

I Mines {h)^Ttigviti 6i 
7. Athothis (B) 
^Cencenes '> - 

4 Fenephes (C) 

5 Vfaphadus 

6 Miehidus 

7 Semempjis 
o Bienacbes 





The I. dynajiy of Thinites, 
or kings of This ; comjtji- 
ing of eight princes, 


1 .Mrw^x reigned 

2 Athojlhis 

3 Gencenes 

4 Venephes 

5 Ufaphaes 

6 Niehes 

7 Semempjis 

8 Ubienthes 






7^^ n. dynajiy of Thinites, 
conjijiing of nine kings, 


< Boethus reigned 

2 Caachos (D) 

3 Binothris 

4 7X7X 
Chce9es ' - 
Sefochris (E) 





T3&^ n. dynajiy of Thinites, 
conjijiing of nine kings. 


1 Bochus reigned - 

2 Chous (D) 

3 Biophis 

4 - - - 



8 Sefochris 

9 Cheneres 



(A) This prince they fay, alfo built the palace at Mem 
Was the fifft «uar» who reigned phis {2), 

in Egyptf and fucceeded the 
demigods ; he was killed by an 

(B) Athothis^ fuppofed to be 
the fame with Thoth pr Hermes^ 
pradifed phyfic, and wrote 
|Oine books of anatomy. He 

(C) He built the pyramids at 

(D) In his reign the ox Afis 
began to be worlhiped at Mem* 
phis, Mnevis at Heliopolis, and 
the goat at Mendes (4). 

(E) This prince is (aid to 

(x) SjnttlU f* 54, 55» (») Ihid. 



(3) ItiJ* 

(4) UiJ. 

" hare 

' The Hijtoryhf^gj^i 




Accorciing toAfrlcanus. 

7hi llL dynajiy of Mem- 
phites, conjijiing of nine 


1 Necherophes r€\^tA. 28 

2 Toforthrus (F) 29 

3 2j!r/j 

4 Mefochris 

5 Sotphis 

6 Tojertajii 

7 u^fy&/j 

8 Siphuris - 

9 Cerpheres 




According to Eufebius. 

Tie in. iy»j/?j^ ^ Mem- 
phites, conjijiing of eight 


1 Nacherochis 

2 Seforthus * 



^^ IV. ^;»/j/?y of Mem- 1 
phites, confining of eight I 


1 Stfr/j reigned 

2 Suphis{G) 

3 Suphis 

4 Mencheres 

5 Rhatoefes 

6 Bicheres 

7 Sebercheres 

8 Thamphthis 





274 1 


73^^ IV. dynaJly of Mem* 
phites, conjijiing of feven^ 
teen kings. 

-* - reigned - 

3 Stt^A/V (G) • 

have been of very large ftature, 
that \%j five cubits bigh> and 
three broad (5). 
.(Fj toforthrus was the Egy- 

' ptian JBfculapius^ excelling in 
the art of phyilc. He iirfl 

-'' found out the manner of build- 
ing with hewn ftones, and 1m- 

• .jproved letters (6). 

(5) ^^•^f /• 5^^ 57« 



(G) This king is reported to 
have feen the gods, and^ repent- 
ing of it, to have wrote a fa- 
creid book^ greatly efteemed by 
X^t Egyptians. It is aUbfaid 
he built the largeft pyramid 
near Memphis^ attributed by 
Herodotus to Cheops (7), 

(6) md. 

(7) ^^- 

\. . 

t-- . 




According to Africanm. 

The V. dfmjiy of Eliqdian- 
, tines. 

J Ufercheris reigned 28 

2 Sephres 

3 Isephercherei - 

4 5^r/V 

5 Cheres 

6 Ratkuris *• 
^ Mercherei 

.0 Tarckerei 
9 Obnus 






According to kufebm. 

The V^ dynafty of Elephah- 
tines^ confijling of thirty-- 
one kings* 

I Othoes reigned - 

4 Phiops 


JSTJ/ yi. is^^^;' <?/ Mem- j The VL <i^«^;^ ^/ Mem- 
phites, confijiing, of fix phites. 


I Othoes reigned «► 
^ fhim - . 5;J 

3 Methufuphis ^ 7 

4 Phiops - 94. 
.^ M^ntefuphis - i 

6 Nitocris (H) - 12 


57^^ Vn. dynafiy of Mem- 
phites, confifiing offeven- '\ 
ty kings y who reigned 70 




7i&^ VII. dynajly of Mem- 
phftes, confijiing of five 
kings J who reigned 75 

(H) A xncft illuftrioas «nd which HeroJohu attribute» to 
lieautiful woman, who builc the Mycerinus (8). 
.third pyramid near Memphk^ 

\ ' I 

(8) 'Idtm,f» 5S.«rHrr«i/0f. /. !!• r. X344 



X. ■ 

fbe Hiftory of Egypt 


According to Africanm, 

The VIII. dynajiy of Mem- 
phi tes, conftjiing of twenty - 
feven kings ^ who reigned 

1^6 years, 
« « • « 

The IX. dynajiy of Heracle- 

ots, confijling of nineteen 



1. Jchthoes (I) reigned 
♦ « « « 


According to Eufehius. 

The Vni. dynajly of Mem- 
phi tes, conjtjiing of five 
kings ^ who reigned 1 00 

« « « ♦ 

ITje IX. dynafty of Heracle- 
opolitcs, confijiing of f out 

I. Achthus . - *. 
« « « ♦ 


Ti^X. //y»^;7^Heracleots, | The X. dynajiy of Hersicleo^ 

confijling of nineteen kings ^ 
who reigned 185 years. 

polites, ionfifting of nine^ 
teen kings ^ who reigned 185 


The XL dynajiy of Diofpo- 
lites, confifling of Jixteen 
kings ^who reigned J^'^ years. 

After whom Ammenemes 
reigned 16 years. 

The Xi. dynajiy of Diofpo- 
lites, conftjiing of Jixteen 
kings ^who reigned /^'^y ear 5. 

After whom Amnnnemei 
reigned 16 years. 

T o M E a 

The Xll. dynajy o/Diofpo- 
litcs, conjifting of feven 


I. Oefongofes\ or 5^- 7 , 
fonchoris^ reigned S 

a. Ammanemes - - 38 

(I] Aibtboesytzs a inoft in- 
haman prince: after feveral 
cruelties by him exerdfed on 

The XII. dynajiy of Diofpo- 
lites, confijiing of feven 


1. Sefyncboris reigned 46 

2. Ammenemes - - 38 

his fubjedb, he fell into mad* 
nefs, and was flain by a croco- 
dile (9).. 

(9) Uid. f. 59, 

i. Sifojtris 

C. in. fo the time i 

AtSording to Africanus. 


3. Sefoftris - • - 48 

4. Lachares{K) - - 8 

5. Ammeres - - - 8 

6. Ammenemes - - 8 

7. Scemiophris y\ii%ti^Qt 4 


The XIII. dynafty ^/Diofpo- 
lites, confifting of fixty 
kings y who teigrud 184 

7he XlV^dynaJtyis wanting. 

The XV. dynajlyof Phoeni- 
c\Mi Jhepherdsy conjifting of 
fix kings. 

I. Saitis reined - 19 
%. Byon^ or neon - 44 

3. PachnanyOt Apachnas 61 

4. 5/tftfff - - - 50 

5. Archies - - - 49 

6. Aphobis - - 61 


7X^ XVI. rfjK»?/?y of Greek 
Jhepherdsyconfifiingof thir- 
ty--two kings J who reigned 
$iS years. 

^ Alexander. 

■ ] 



According to 

Se/oflris - 
Labaris (K) 




- • '. 


The Xin. dynafiy of Diofpo^ 
lites, conftjiing of fixty 
kingSy who reigned 453 

The XIV. JynaffyofXoites^ 
confifting, of Jeventy *fix 
kings y who reigned 1049 
or 484 years. 

The XV. dynafiy ^Diofpo- 
lites, who reigned 25* 

The XVI. dynajfy of Thc- 
bans, conjifting of fiye 
kingSy who reigned 190 

(K) Tbb plnoe madechoice his fepulchre ( i o)^ 
•f the labynnth 9xArfinoe for 

(10} Uid. £tt.6o^ 



'^^ ^&ry ^fBJgjpt 


ACGonJkig to Africanus. 

The Xy 11. iynaftyy cotftftrng 
of forty-three other poflor 
iingSy and forty 'threet\i^ 
bans^ who reigned together 

According to Eufibkis. 

The Xyn., dyna/fy (f/ Phfje- 
nician Jhepherds, 


1. Saites reigned - - 19 

2. Beon - • " " 43 
' 3. Aphophis (L) - - 14 

4. Archies - - - 30 


^ .ffitf XVHI. dynajiyofp\o(- 
' polit^s, conjijiing offixteen 

-^ -^ > "Years, 
1. -^mw(M),calledairol 
, ; ^fm^iiind Tethmoyisy> 
fon oiJJJith^ reigned J 
. ±^ Chehros - - " ^3 
3. Amenopbtbis r - 21 
£^. Amerjts - - - 22 
$1' Mifdihris '"' - * 13 
6. MtfphragmuthofisyOX 7 ^ 

'-'^. Tidhmofis - - - ^ 
8. AmenophisjOrAHemnon^i 

■ in 

•- : 'I 

- - 12 

- - 12 

" - 5 

- - I 

^ - 19 

g. Horus 

16, Achi'rresl. 

11. Rathos 

12. Chebres 

13. Acherres 11. 

14. Armefes - 

15. RamtneJJes 

16. Amenopn - 


TJtf X VIII. i^«/7/?y ^/ Diof- 
polites, conjijiing ofjixteen 


1. Amojis reigned 

2. Chfbron - - - 

3. Ammenophis 

4. Miphris - - - 

5. Mtfphragmuthojis - 

6. Tuthmofis - - - 
i:Amen4his ■'- - - 

8. Horus - - * - 

9. Achencherfer - - 
xo. Athoris - - - 

11. Cbencheres - - . 

12. Acherres - - - 
ri3. Cherres - - - .. 

14. ArmeSj or Danaus 
t5. Amme/isy or ^gyp- 7^^ 

l6." Memophis * - 40 

- •♦ * 










* - (L) Hiis f»rinoe is fii|)^re()> 
ciiy fooiejto-be the Pharaob 

who advanced Jofepb. ( 1 1 } < 
(M) Under ^m^ it is fup^ 

pdfed, hfjfricdnus, that tho 

I/raelitesi»fMttAoui t>f Egypt i 
b^t Eu/eiiu4 places the #a'0^«/ 
under C^^^r/^^r^i^the^elerenth 
of this dj^nafty (12}. 

• ... 



According to Afric4nus. 

The XIX. dynajiy of Diof- 
polites, conft/iing of ftx 


- 61 

- 26 

- 60 


1. Sethos reigned 

2. Rhap faces 

3. Ammenepbthes - 

4. Rafhefes - - 

5. Ammifiemnes ^ - - 

6. Thuorts^ the Polybus 
of Homer 



Accordii^ to Eufibins. 

The XIX, </>«^;p ?/" Diof- 
pplitcs, confijiing of 'ftye 


1. S^/Aw - - - - ^5 

2. Rhapfes - - - 66 

3. Ammenephthes - - 40 

4. Ammenemmes * - ^6 

5. Thuoris - - "7 




TA/ XX. djnafty of Diofpo- 
lites, confiliing of twehe 
tingff who reigned 135 

7J^ XXI. dynafly {/*Tanites, 


I • Sinedis reigned « 26 

^i PfufenesyOxPfunefes 46 

3, NepMcberes - - 4 

4.. Amenenophtbis • • 9 

5. Ofochor - - - 6 

6. Pinaches - - - 9 

7. Sufennes * • * 3^ 


7i# XXn. 'dynaftyof^Vi- 
teftites, cmfijting of nine 
tings. Years. 

The XX. dynafly of Diofpa- 
lites, confijiing of twelve 
kings J who reigned i}8 

73^^ XXI. dynafly ^Tanitcs, 
tmfifting of feven kings *^ 

' ears. 


1. Smehdis - - - 

2. Pfufennesl. - - 

3. isepbercberes - - 

4. Amenopbtbis - • 

5. Ofocbor _ - . •* - 

6. rfinaches - - - 

7. Pfufennesll. - • 

1. Sefonchistcigaed 

2. Ojoroth - - 

3. ^ * 

4. ^ 

5.- . . 





7J^ XXn. dynafly of Bu- 
baftites, confi/ling of three 
tings. Years. 

l.Sefenchofis iclffted - . 21 

2. Uforthon - - - IS 

3. Wacell9fJifis - - 13 

6. TirriA 

The Hiftary of Egypt 


According to Africanus. 

6. Tacellotbis - - - 13 

l:: : : 

9. - - - 



ne XXm. dynajfy of Ta- 
nites, conjiji'mg of four 

I. Petubates reigned • 40 
2* Oforcho^ or Hercules 8 

3. Pfammus - - - 10 

4. Z^^ - - . . 31 

TJ/ XXIV. dynafly of one 
Sake* . 

Bochchoris reigned - 6 

The XXV. //;^«i7/7y ^/ Ethi- 
opians, confifting of three 


1. Sahhaconx€\^^ - 8 

2. Seuechus - - - 14 

3. Tarcus - - -18 


3^1? XXVI. ^;/«^;f <?/Saites, 
confi/iing of nine kings, 

Y. M. 

1. Suphinates rcigntd 7 o 

2. Nerepfos - - 60 

3. Nechaol. - - 8 O 

4. Pfammitichus - 54 O 

5. Nechao II. - 60 

6. Pfammuihis - 6 

According to Eufebius. 

The XXIII. rf^ff^ ^r Ta- 
nites, conjijiing of three 


1. Petuhafles reigned 25 

2. Oforthon^ ox Hercules 9 

3. Pfammus - - - 10 


7J^ XXIV. flr;r«tf/?y */ 0«« 
. Saite. 


Bochchoris , or B anchor is 

reigned - - 



The XXV. dyna^y of Ethi- 
opians, conji/iing of three 


1. Sabbacon reigned - 12 

2. Seuechus - - - 12 

3. Taracus - - • 20 


T;^^ XX VI. dynafly <?/Saites, 
conjijiing of nine kings. 

1. Ammeris reigned 

2. Stephanathis 

3. Necheptos - - 

4. -Nechao I. - - 

5. Pfammitichus 

6. ^€fhaolh 


- 12 

: J 

- 8 

- 45 

- 6 


C III. to the time of Alexander. 

According to Africanus, 


7. Uaphris - - 19 o 

8. Jmojis - - 44 o 

9. Pfammacherites o 6 

150 6 

The XXVII. dyna/y of Per- 
fians, conning of eight 

Y. M. 

1. Cambyfes reigned 6' o 

2. Darius^the fon ? /• -. 
ofHj^afpes^ J 3^ O 

3. Xerxes, the Great 21 

4. Jrtubanus - o 

5. Artaxerxes - 41 

6. Xerxes Ih - 

7. Sogdianus - - ' o 

8. Darius^xhz fon ^ • 
of Xerxes * ^' ^9 





124 4 

T»^ XXVni. dymjiyof one 

Amyrteos reigntd • .6 

7J< XXIX. dynajy of Men- 
defians, conning of four 

. Y. M. 

1. Nepherites reigned 6 o 

2. Achoris - - 13 o 

3. Pfammuthis -10 

4. iNephorotes -04 

20 4 

According to Eufeblus. 


7. Pfammuthis^ or I 
PJammitichus II. J ^^ 

8. Uaphris - - - 25 

9. Amofis - - - - - 42^ 


^Ti&^ XXVII. dynaJiyof?tf- 
fians, confining of eight 

^ Y. Ml. 

!• C<7ff?iWix.relgned 3 o 

2. The AfiiT^/ -07 

3. Darius - - 36 o 

4. Xerxesl. - - 21 O' 

5. ArtaxerxesLon- 1 
gimanus - j ^ 

6. Xerxes II. 


7. Spgdianus — - 


Z><7rii/5,the fon 7 
of Jr^/^^x, J ^9 


120 4 

TA^ XXVIII. /j^«ij/?y ^/tfw 

. Years. 
Amyrtanusj or Amyr^-'i x 
/^(fx, reigned - J 

75i^ XXIX. dynajiy ^Men- 
defians, conftJHng of five 


1. Ne^herites teigned 6 o 

2. Achoris - - 13 O 

3. Pfammuthis - 10 

4. Jnapherites -04 

5. Mutbis - - 10 

21 4 


m Bifiaj 0f Egjrpt 


Aooordiiig to j^rkmna. 

The XXX* dynafiy of primes 
afSebcmiytuSy£$m^i^g of 
. thru kings. 

1. Neifanebesl. TOffitd z8 
2^ %fos - - - - 2 
3. Ni^anebesIL - 18 


According to £i;/iMKf« 

The XXX. djnafhfofffimci$ 
of Sebennytus, iomfifiing 
of threikinp. 

I* NfRfmehes reigned 

2. Teas - - • . 

3. Ne&anehis • 



^ of Egyptian hngs from Manetho^ 
according kt Jofephus \ 


limaus reigned - 

The paftor kings. 

1. Salatis 



2. Baon - - 


3, Aphacbnas 

4. Aphophis -r - 




5, yanias 



^ JJfn 










jlmonophis - - 



JmeJJtSy a woman 



Mephres - - - 




Thmofis - - 

Orus - - - - 

Acenchres - - 

Acencheres I. - - 
Acencheres II. 
Armais • - - 

Ramejfes r - • 
Harmijfes Miamun 



at la 










■ 12 


■ 12 







• «9 


393 o 

IV. A Table of tbi Theban kings from the Later- 

cuius of Eratofthenes ^ 


1. MeneSj or ^^^^hX^^ 
reigned - - . J 

2. Athothesl. ^ - 59 

3. Athothesll. - - 32 

4. Diahies - - - 19 

5. Pemphos - - - 18 

^ Contra Apion. 1. i. 

b.TcegarAmachusMom' 1 

f^/V/, or Tcegaramus J '7 
7. Sicechus - - - 6 
0. Goformies^ ox Eleji^^ 

pantus - - - .53^ 
g. Mares - - - 26 

* Apud Syncell. p. 92, &c. 

10. Anoyphes 

C.11U *o Ike tim of Akvahda*. 

„ v««. 


IQ, Aiuyphts - - - 20 

27. ChuthtrTaurut 

- *■ 

11. SfWw- ' - - i8 


12. Chnubui Gnturut 27 

the philofopJier 

13, Rauofis- -— - I J 

ag. ChomaEphtha 

- If- 

1+. Biyrh - - - - 10 

30. AnthunimOchy, 


15. Saiphis- - • - 2g 

Siunkfoehos - 

16. Senfaephis - -27 

11. Pintcathyris - 

- 16 

17. Mifehtrh - - Si 
28. MuJIhit - -— 33 

3t. Stamtnemts 

- 2-$, 


• 51' 

Is. Pemmus Archmtitt 35 

34„ ^/jr;> - - 

•* 43 

4o. Atappm the Grtat loo 
21. Eibtfcus Carat - i 

«. SiphoatHfrmu 

- S 

3&- - - 

- d 

i.%.Nimxh - - - 6 

37. Pkrurim, or Mi*r * 

23. ^r/^ai . _ . 21 

38. ^OTwrfiiCW, ©r 


24,. TTnofmares - - 12 

mythantmus ~ 

23. rv*//"^, or n.--j 8 

ntUui - - . - J <* 

26. SemphucraUl ~ 18 


V. ji TABfcE «/ #if ^Tptian kings accordiiig i 
the feries of ^mcdlus ■. 


reigned - - 

2. Cufudel, or Cudrus 

3. Aflflercbus 

4. Spaniu! - - . 
5- - - 
t». - - - 
7. Serapis ~ - , 
^. Sefonchajis - - 49 

9. Amtntmts - - - 29 

10. Amajty qtAh^ % 

11. Aeeftpithrts - - 13 
I2i Acbtreas - - - 9 
13. AmiyfeSfdtArmiy-} 

/„ - .... 5 4 

lA. Chamats - ' - - 12 
15. Amtfifei ' - • 65 




18. Rbamifes • ■ ~ 29; 

19. Rhamejfamertes -' it' 

20. TIiyfimoTts - - ^ 

21. Rham^Mcat - j^- 

22. Rbamejfsmem 1 ia 

23. RJiamrJfi, fon of >' ' 
fitfrtw - . - 5W 

24. Rhamffi, foil of ? ■ ' 
Uaphrtt^ - - 5*9 

25. Cencharis . ~ ff 
.2^1 fii^// ?. * - ig 

27. £<r0n - - - 44 

28. ApKhnas - - ^ 

29. Apbepbis - - - 61 

30. S^Moj - - ■• Jp 

31. C<rt«tf - - - 2» 

32. ^/A - - - 24 

33. Amajii, 01 Tithmofis 22 

34. Chibfan 

I chrftoog. p. 91, &(^ 

35. Amiphtt 

Tie Hijiory of Egypt 

«. Amephes - - - 15 1 

36. Ammfis - - . II 

37. MifpbragmutbtJU l6 

- as 

- 39 

- 29 
. 26 

8 or 30 

17. Mtjfb _ 

38. Miffhres 

39. Tuthmojis 

40. Amemphthis 

41. //ir«J 

42. Acheneheres 

43. Athoris 

44. Chenchites 

45. Acheres - 
46*. Armaus^ or Danaus 9 

47. RhameJpSy or iff- 1 ^g 
^>'//w - - - - J 

48. Amenothis 

49. Thuoris 

50. Nechepfos 

51. Pfammuthis 

52. - . 

53. (>/«j . 

54. Rhampjis 
^5. Amenjesj or -^^^"l^A 

ff^/TI^X - - * - J 

56. Ochyras - - - 14 

57. Amedei - - - 27 
5K. Thuorisy or Polybus 50 
59. Athothis^ or Phufanus 28 
60 • Cencenes - • ■" 39 

61. Uennephes -• - 42 

62. Suffacim - - - 34 

63. Pjuenus^ oxSenip"'} 
fuerus - - - - J ^, 

64. Amrntnophts - 

65. NephicbiTiS - 

66. 5<i/V/i • - 





67. PJmachis 

68. Pefubaftes - 

69. Of§rtbon 
0. rfammus 
r. Cofuharis 

2. Ofirthon 

3. Tacebphis 
4* Bocchoris 

5. Sabacon 

6. Sebechon 

7. Tar aces - • 

8. Amaes 

79. Stephinathes • 

80. Nacepfus 

81. Nechaabl. 

82. Pfammitichus 

83. Nechaablh 

84. Pfammuthis^ 
Pfammitichus II. 

85. Uaphres - • 

86. Amafis 

87. Amyrtaus 

88. Nether it is - 

89. Achoris 

90. Pfammuthis 

91. Menas 

92. Ne6lanebes 

93. T!?w - - 




- 6 

- IS 

- 9 


VI. ^ Table </ /i&^ >t/;sf^i ^/ Egypt. 



















According to Herodotus. 


♦ •■ * 

« - « 


According to Diodorus Si^ 


MenaSy or Mneves - - 

- - 52 of his defcendants 
1400 years 

Buftris - ^ . 

- - 7 of his defcendants 

fi^^m the 8th of them 
* * « 


C. nt h the time 

According to Herodotus. 

« « 


k 4 






« * 





Anyfis -^ 


Any lis again 


- - - 12 kings 










According to Diodorus St' 

Ofymandyas - * 

- - 8 of his dcfcendants 
Vchoreus the Sth of them 

- - 12 generation^ 

- - 7 generations, one of 
thefe oafycheiy the law- 
giver , 

Sejoojis I, - - 

Sefoojis II. 

- - fevcral generations 
Amafis {Ammojis) - • 
Amfanes the Ethiopian 
MendeSy or Mar us 

- - 5 generations, an in- 

Proteus ^ ^ m 




iVi/w X 

6 generations 

Chemmisj or ChembeS ' 

Cephren^ or Chabryis 

MycerinuSy or Cherinus 


Bocchoris • - j 


- - interregnum 2 years 

« « « 

- - 12 kings 
Pfammitichus - • 

- - 4 generations 

« « • 


The' difagreement between thefe feveral fucceflions of 
Egyptian kings, both in their names, and the years of theit 
refpe£live reigns, is fo great, and there are fuch chafms^ 
and apparent corruptions and miftakes, in them all, that it 
woaM feem bft' kbour to go about to reduce them into a 
chronological feries, fo as to agree with one another, muth 
leis with Scripture, and the chronol^ical obfcrVatloiits of 

Vol. IL B other 

The Ui^ Mf Esrjt K,l 

vti ^r hA*AUf^ It > Hvwci43'^ vt ftali iii J irigirtbii 

4/d^^ultiCb^ 4ucxvicjj>g to doe old cbrooidby if oot obIt 
^li^nc/jfc /jufiji>'.f, vailllir cabccaeding the age of t^ iroffl^ 

^' l/'j( ;iiu^<.4it to t>c »! aflrofMfliicaiJ calculariop ; b j «ri 
^^c Uffyptiam would htire tbetr drnaftjei to htpc 
|i;/'/i;^) ;i wiiolc pcfkMJic reyolutioo of thezodisc*; 
liicicfori; w<; (h^il iioc <;Scr to make an^ ufe of it. It 
mA) be obfcrved, that tbou|h thb fum be (aid to be the 
%\WiHHX ni tlie thirty dytuSiet, yet therein muft be in- 
t\iiiii:i\ die {0,000 yeari wliich the Sun reigned^ the 3984 
^^ti\h ici(/H ol Huiurn^ and the other twelve gods, and the 
217 ycwb reign of the eigitt demigods ; making, together, 
;{4,voi yriirb. Ai» to the fourteen firft dynaliies, whidi 
wc conceive to be omitted in the fragment we have re- 
inainiii;/ of tliii chronicle, the meaning of the original 
in.iy^ pi jhupa be, that the fifteen generations of the cynic 
(iiilc, wbicb are placed in the tabic in the fifteenth dynafiy, 
iiiitl iii^Muil 44 { years, do make up the firft fifteen dy- 
Dailies ; iihil (bi.^ fcenia to be confirmed by the fum total of 
ibi' y taiu t>l ibc lixtctn laft dynaliies, as in the table, which 
\sk 2140 years, and, with the faid 34,201 years, makes 
;^,;{4i i ti» wbiv h \i we add 184 years, for the duration 
i>t ihc twcmy-f »^l»th dynatty, the number of which is 
onuniJ, wc ihall have the complete fum of 36,525, And 
ionitquv nil\\ dv Ju(5\ing thence the fum of the reigns of the 
gvKls uNsl vlcin:\;v\!sj thc iHTHwindcr will be 2324 years, for 
|Ik" vKn uion ot thc fuccccding dynaftics, according to th» 
vbivMMv Ic \ Nvhivh is a ixumbcr reatonable enough, though 
\l vunKU b*.' uxonciled tv> the account of Mamtho. 

\ in h UK^^cdivUKs \,^f MuKKthoy which are given in thc fc- 
vv nJ iaSk\ h»vc this aouitioiial cc^rruption, that their or- 

K Jci h..s ixvu JiUuibcu bv tranlcribers : and as in their pre- 
Lilt oJ;v!u.ou chvv coiuioc poi&blv be reduced to any oae 
ji\lt^.ln ot v.'^.c:'oa\i\ ^ K»aic have altered that Jit pofitioa 
uvw^iviit; :o '/'^^M xaits^vis hvpv.>chcto ; while others make 
ihv^u wv'/v >%*:': :lviiuand abfolucelv reject theiie dynaftics^ 

r>is ^ v.\ii: o; Wwuio^i :u> been called :n queilicn bv 
ic ".*.;.*! ^WitciN ^ HOC onlv Ixcauic of the iiicrtxibie anci- 
*^..;i\ u* Vfciuco hw> hilKiv I* iut>pv:i*cd a> have aic^moed^ 

^ K^^ .>w < ^oc. wc a«ui. 31. ;«>>9. Sti:^imwj^4«. ,ui|j :ai:r. 

but from the account which, it is faid, heihimfcfr gave of 
the records from whence he took it, pretending to havfe 
extraded it from ccrtaih pillars in the Serfist^ic land, oil 
which infcriprions had becii made in the facrecl drarlcft arid 
letters, by 77>ffrA, the firft //rrwf ^ ; and were tranrta ted, af* 
ter the flood, oat of the' &cred dialeft into the Greek (N) 
tongue in facrod letters (O), and laid up in Books by J^h* 
' thodamon^ the fon of the fecond Hermes^ the father of Tat^ 
in the inner rcceflcs of the Egyptian temple? 8. ' Now it is 
abfolutcly impoffible,that the 6r(k Hermes ^ who lived in the 
earlieft ages of the Egyptian monarchy, could write an hi- 
ftory of (b many generations which came into the world 
after his death, -unlcfs he did it by infpiratiori : and if Ma^ 
neths could be To ftupid as to allert this, it muft neceflarily 
have overthrown the credit of his whole work. But we do 
i?ot think that writer could mean any fuch* thing: the 
vfords cited from him do not fay he took his nJtfhoU hiftorjr 
from thofe pillars ; though he mighty pi'obaWy, quote thofe 
records ta fupport the antiertf biftory which preceded the 

a • • 

% Sy»celi. p. 40. S^vol. i. p. 169, 170^ (E). 


(N) DTi&tiUingfleet[i'3,)s 
with great reaibn, thinks this 
i^bfolucel/ incredible^ the Greek 
language being not known in 
Egypt^ fit ieail not in reqvteft 
there, fo early as this : for the 
Greeks had Little or x^o com- 
merce with . the Egyptians till 
the time of P/ammiticbuSf as 
we have orbfervefd more than 
once. It ieems alfo very un- 
likely, thajt Manetho fhould af- 
fert this ; for, befides the impro' 
bability above-meiitioned, the 
Egyptian. ^ory was fo far froia 
being tranflated to his hand, 
that* be himfelf was obliged to 
tranflate it into Greek from the 
lacred regifters ( Y4] ; for which 
feafon we fofpe^ fome cor- 
ruption in thispailage; and^ if 
It De n6t too'1x>id a conjedlure, 
we ihpuld guefs^ that^ infiead of 

.. (ij) Orig. faer, IM'u «.*• 

ikXm<tA- ^vnVj the. Greei 
tot^te, it ought to be rtad, 
t?^hi^nv ^a>¥h', the n/uigar 
fpngue: but we dare not di* 
£late, in fo dubious: a point. • 

(O) The original wordl 
^rCf yfgifjL(*.A(riv U^oy\vpiK6if^ 
wjbich the learned writer,named 
in the preceding cote, tranHate^ 
hieroglyphic chara^erSyZnd very 
juftly wonders how any tranfla- 
tion can be made, into fuch cba- 
rafters, which rcprefcnt things, 
and liot words (1 '5}. ' But as 
thefe charaders are plainly cal« 
led letters^ we conceive they 
could not be hieroglyphical in 
the common acceptation of the 
word, bat rather fuppofe thena 
to be the fame, with the fners" 
graphic, or fac^ed letters ahove* 

(14) Jof€pbn4aft.j^i», I i. p. X33^' 

^ao ^*^ Hijiorj o/Egfpt \ B. I, 

time of Thoth *, and fucb p^lars^ or, at Icaft, (bme pillars 
which were of great antiquity, and by the priefts attributed 
to Thoth y muft have been extant in the ^j^ of Mmtetho^ 
or he could neveic have appealed to th^n in fo j^blic a 
manner, efpecially in writing to his prince. It may alfo 
be anfwered, that though TTk^tbxmdc the firft infcriptiona 
on thofe pillars, yet it is not impoffible but^ in fucceeding 
times, other infcriptions might be added to thofe of Tiathi 
for the pillars might be in common phrafe afcribed to hidoi^ 
though the hifiorical infcriptions were continued after hit 
death, by others. But, after all, it may be queftioned, wfae* 
ther M^netho really intended to fupport ms btftoiy .bj^iAe 
authority of thofe pillars : for the palTage wherein he ^ 
tions them feems to have been taken out of another 
of his, called Sothis, or Set/t^ which was not hiftorical, but 
prophetical. For, in his dedication of that work to Pt^lgagi^ 
•Philadelphus^ he fays, that his interpreting the facred bck>ks~ 
oiF Hermes was in obedience to that prince's command, 
who inquired of him concerning the future events that 
were to happen in the world ^. And as to the records 
from whence he took hi$ (liftory, we are elfewhere aiTured, 
it was from the facred regiilers s which were kept by the 
priefis, and written in the Bgyptian language, ilnce he 
tranflated them into Greek. . 

The ftronger prejudice, therefore, againft the credit of 
this writer, arifes from his chronology. The Egyptians^ it 
is true, pretended to an exceflive antiquity, and to have 
certain records for a prodigious length of time paft. This 
appears not only from the old chronicle above-mentioned, 
but from the extravagant numbers of years their priefts im- 
pofed on Herodotus^ Plato, and Diodortis (P) j but Ma-^ 


* Vid. Syncell. p. 40. * Joseph, cent. Apion. 1. u 

f. 1336. EusEB. praep. ev. I.ii. inprooem. 

(P) Seine of thefe incredible accounts are as follow: 

from Fukan to jflexanJer (§6) - - • 48,863 

From the reign of the Sun to Alexander (17) * 239OPO 
From Opris to Alexander ( 1 8} above . « 1 0,000 
Or alihoft - , - • • ' « « 23,000 
VtotA Hercules to Amafit [i^) - • •- ^. 17,000 

'From Bacchw to Amajts (20) ■- - •• • 15,000 

Thegods and heroes reigned (21 ) * • 18,000 

(16) Diog, Lam, infro€tjfu (17) Diod.'^k, L i. p. 14. {\%) Idem 

ihief* p» 20. (Z9) lbr«/. /«u« c.43. (xo) Ueti^ibid* (ai) DitU 

i^i fip. p. 41. from 

C. III. to the time ^Alexander. 4i 

netho feems to have been much more modeft. The fum 
of his thirty-one dynafties from Menn to fifteen years \)^' 
fox^ Alexander (without taking the reigns of the gods and 
demigods into the account) , if cafl: up, will amount to 
abo^ 5300' years, which wiQ reach higher than the crea- 
tion of tne world. And "Jojeth ScaUger ^ has accordingly 
fettled their chronology in fuch a manner, that, by his own 
way of reckoning, it exceeds the epoch of the creation 
1^36 years. But th^e is a lefler number mentioned by 
Syncellusy who fays, the account of the years of all the 
dynafties wais 3555 $ which is much more reafonable than 
the othefy and yet will agree with no fyften\.Qf chronology, 
unlefs we take part of this number for the peigns of the^ 
antediluvian princes of Egypt r Manethe^ ^ we have al- 
ready ^ferved, began his hiftory with feven gods, and 
nine demigods 1,^ who reigned 1985 years; and then fuc*" 
deeded mortal kings, the nrft of whom was Menes : thefe 
three races feem to be the fame with thofe called, in the 
old chronicle, Auriia^ Mejiraij and Egyptians ^. Now 
if we allow {sis'is moil reafonable, in cafe there be any fha- 
dow of truth in this 'part of the hiftory}, that the epds, or 
Jurita^ were anteduuVi^ ; the demigods, or mejirai^ 
the poftdiluvian^ of the irac^ 6f Mizraim ; aiid the mortal 
men J or Egyptians ^ Menei and his fuccefibrs ; and if we al^ 
IotV 1200 years, part of the 1985 , for the rcigris of the firft » 5 
the remainder, Y85, will be the years of tne reign of ^z- 
retlm^toA his defcendants: and,deduding the wbole 1985 
out of tliefkid* 3^55; there will remain 1570'y^rs,. the di- 
ftance from^ Aienes ta the fifteenth yearbNcfore jtlexfnuUn 
This way of i>mputixig; twnild be plaufible', ^were it not 
th^ die epocB'of ihc B^tiah kingdom will, by this 
means, precede the dzipenioh of mankind; which can 
hardly be lujiniifed, unlcKs it be allowed, that the E^^p- 
tians ref^OneO the years of the government of their ftrfl 
ancefloiis Over thtir defcendants before they left Sbinaar^ 

^ Canon ifagog. I.ii. p. 228. ' See vol. i. p. 197, 

» Ibid. p. 196. ■ Ibid. p. 197, 199. 


From Om^the M of them» to the 1 80th Olymphutl X2) 1 5,606 

Kings of Egypt before Amajis reigned (23) « 1 3,000 

. From their firfl mortal kin^ to .£#/i6«»'( 94) . .• r^ ' 1I9340 

TharewerechiDDidcsat jUafi (25)of :f . ^ 8000 

(21) UtmihU. ' («3) Fnt^MeUf Lue.^^ (24.) Hefi,tAi 

B 3 and 

and arrived iii Egypt. But the great objeflion of all is, 
that Mahethb^^ mmhct of 3555 appears to Belong wholly 
to the fuccefibrs of Mcnes^ and we have no manner of war- 
faM to itiakfe. any dedu^ion froijfiVit. . 

Some chronologers therefore, particularly TatherJ^^^^ ^ 
(v(rho to6k delight in contradifting Scaliger)'^ ifc^eft the 
whole fch^me of Man^t'ho*^ dynafties as fajyulous^ and of 
rto manner of value, of credit. And others iP, to .whom 
Ehfeb(|Us^Cii the way in^ls canon 9, omit the firft. fixteeni 
dyharti'esi (inly, ind begin their cnronology \yitli^ tlpje feven- 

gu'cflccl, that {fiefe dynafties.were iiot fucqefli^e^ .b,vt collar 
tieral. ' He fuppbfes that Egypt ^ immediate!/ a;fter; the death 
of Mehes^ was divided, into fpur diftin<3 'Wqgdojiis, "of 
irhibesp Thisy M^niphis^ and the Ldwer .Egypt ^ ^>cGde$! 
jbrtie of leffer note, whicli aroft afterwards, and ^hofc 
cp6chs arc. more difficult *t6 be^f^^^^ and that, it conti? 
nafcd fodiyjded for'^lniofl fevefi.'«^ tifl ^^ paftors 

made theniielves' maftefsqf 'all, except tfiat of Thebes '^ 
after wh'dfe. expulfion, about 'J;'qc> years ^ffftr^.^j^sftpt be-! 
c^efufeie<3:'t6 one prince, / By this meansj tfe^ifr;ation 
pf the ww)le empire, Uom. Menes to the end of Iherei^n of 
Amafii^ *is reduced to 181,9 yc^Fs* It mdfl: be ob{ervccl," 
that ^x John^'Jl^arJham nwfc^. great ufe of .the uUe.orthe 
Itheban kings alven us hy, ErahflHekes* of .which y^e fliatt. 
fpeak by-and-Hb|y. .• . .. ~. . ,, ... 

The nextVno undpr'tooK'to^nicKJel t|iis Egyptian chr^ 
nology is Vlfadi^r Pezrm^ wlid^^by ibllo'^Ijog jthe JUrger 
chronology'of . t'he Septuaglniy- h?^_ more- Jajj^u^Cj^ , arid al- 
]6yfis the duV^fioh of the Egyptian fempire zai^.-ycais froni 
Menes to rie^anebus. This-authbcV likewifc!,; goos on tl^d 
fame foundation with Sir John Marjhami, in malciiig the 
firft feveriteen dynafties notTucceffive, butcollaterai. He is 
of opinipn, th^t the Mefineans^.ox offspring of Mizraim^ 
thenrft inhabitants of Egypt ,[ were thofe whom tJaeir po- 
fterity honoured with thfe titles of gods and demigods ; 
and that, though they began to people the country, yet 
they formed no kirigdom there^ .till Menes ^ utrho tegin his 
. •• ■ . ■ • • ^_ 

^' D# dcSlr. temper. 1. ix. c. 15. P Qhtvibxhrty Us- 

sEniiis, & Jac. Gapellus. Plmzohia^ efteeins the firft -four- 
teen or fifteen to be febulous. ^ Chron. Graec. p. 89. f In 
his canon chronicus iEgyptiacus, &c, . • * ^ ' 


C. IIL to the time of Alexander. t^5 

reigp 648 years after the deluge, Sefa/iris he places in the 
time of the judges of Ifrad^ Deborah then prefiding over 
that people ^. 

From the plans of thefe two great men, feveral other 
chronological writers have formed fyftems of their own^ 
difiFering, in fome refpeds, from them, as well as from each 
other. The chief care of them all is, to fix the times of 
Menes and Sefy/iris\ which when they have done, they 
imagine the reft follows almoft of courfe. The opinions, 
as to thefe two princes, are h various, that it would lead 
us into too great a[ detail, to mention them all in this place ; 
and what we judge moft curious, and worthy notice, in 
fuch diiquiiltions, will be more properly introduced, when 
we give their hiftories. One thing may generally be ob-* 
fervol, with refpe^b to all thefe writers, efpecially with rc<- 
fpeft to Perizonius^ that they are much oftener in the 
right in refuting and dete£Ung the errors and miftakes of 
one another, than in fettling or adjufting any thing of their 
own that may be fafely relied on* 

The fundamental hypothefis which all thefe writers go 
upon, that there were, in the mofl early times, feveral 
kingdoms in Egypt at once. Teems to be veiy probable, 
the ocripture imentioning the kings of the Egyptians in the 
pluraT, even fo^te as ,the time ^Jehoram J. The king- 
doms of Thebe$ and Memphis divided Egypt between theni 
for feveral centuries j and it is certain, from Herodotus 
and DiodoTMSj that there were, at leaft, two kings in that * • 

country at tiie time of the invaiion .of the Ethiopians under 
Sabbaco. But it does not appear, that Manetho himfelf, 
though he wrote the hiftory of five Egyptian nations *, did ' 

make any of die d}mafties he has given us collateral or 
contemporary; on the contrary, unlefs his tranfcriber^i 
have done hun more wrong than we have reafon to fufpeft, 
he placed tiiem all in a continual fuccei&on < ; and it is 
taking the.utmoft liberty with Manetho to alter it, unlefs 
we charge the fault on the records which he tranf^ribed. 

Aft£R Cambyfes had carried away their records, the 
Egyptian priefts, in all probability, to fupjdy their lofe, and 
'keep up rabir pretences to* antiquity, began to write new 
records, lirfierein they not only neceflarily made great mif- 
takes, but added a ^ood deal of their own inventioil, efpe- 
'^ially as to diftant times. From thefe materials, for want 

> Pezron, antiq. des temps retablie, c. 13. ^ a King^ 
vii. 6. » SiTNCEH- p. 40, * Sec PeiiizoK. orig. 

^gypt. p. 6?j ^. -J 

■ 'B4 ' of 

^ ne Hiftcry of Egypt B.I^ 

of better, Manetho coUeding his hiftory, mi^ft have inter* 
' mixed a good deal of fable, as there is indeed in the anti- 
quities of all nations (the Jews excepted) 5 for it cannot fee 
expe£ied, that people in the circumftances of thefe early 
nations could have began to keep records till fqme ages afteir 
their fettlement. It is unjuft therefore to lay the whole 
blaipe of the confufion and uncertainty we find in die 
Egyttien hiftory at the door of Manet ho : he colle£ted, for 
ougnt we know, faithfully from the records he had ; and 
we have fo little genuine remains of him, and what we 
have, have been fo mangled by tranfcrlbers and pretenders 
to correft him, that Ifis found Icfs difficulty iri gathering 
the difperfed remains of her^ead hufband, than it mufl be 
to patch up a figure which might bear fome refemblance 
of that hiftorian. Several antient writers, of good judg- 
m«it, a^ Jofephus^ Plutarch^ Porphyry^ and Eufebim^ 
loolced on him as a writer whofe authority was to be de-t 
periled on; and the curious fr^ment tranfcribed from him 
oy Jofephusy before his. copies had been corrupted, feems 
to confirm diis good opinion, being the mofl valuable an4 
authentic piece of Egyptian hiftory of fo great antiquity^ 
that is extant; and the ferjes of kings we have exhibited 
thence, in the third table, is a pretty exa6t record^ con- 
neftJng, if there be any cre4it in Manetho^ the Egyptian 
and Grecian hiftories, by acquainting us that Sethofis was 
Mgyptus^ and his brother Armaisj Danaus. ■ 

<*/'^ '% ^ " ^ ^^* °^ Theban kings given by Eratefibenes has had 
tahgne tf^ ^gjjy favourable reception among the learned, not only 
?f *^' as a fupplement to Manetbo^ who has intirelv omitted that 
?^*" fucccffion, but as a certain foundation for fixing the Egy^ 
^?/tf« chronology (QJ. His authority has been preferred <o 
that of Manetho b, in regard he was no Egyptian prieft, 

^ Vid. Marsh, can. chron. p. 8, 26^ 297. Cumberl. on 
Sanchon. p. 4169 &c. ' • 

(QJ Befidcs the obfervation the lower Egypt ; which ob« 

tfDicararcJIn/Sj mentioned here- fervatiop may be of ufe to thofi: 

after, there is anpther alHxed to \^ho have a mi6^i|o frame ^ 

Ilffares, the nintli king of this table of the dynai^s, though 

catalogue in Scaliger*s edition Goar, in his editpn of Syncel^ 

of Eufebiui^ Greek chronicle /«/, lias omitted it, and taseni 

('26), purporting, that he was Scaliger with adding It of hia 

conteippprary with the fu* own invention (27}. 

|ecmh dynajjy of %behans'm ' 

(z6) Pag. 18. If 54« (»7) Gear, in hqi, adSynctU, j^.' ^zit 

. t u 

^ • • •- - 

C. X!I. to the time df Alexander. «5 

J)ur a Cyrenean^ a man of eminent learning, and keeper oiF 
the Alexandrian library, and took his catalogue from the 
facred records of Thebes^ or had it from the lacred fcribes 
there «. Together with the Egyptian names of the kings, 
he has given their interpretation in Greeks which thofe 
(killed in the Coptic tongue allow to be juft in fome in- 
ftances ; but feveral of them being corrupted and unintel- 
ligible, we have chofeh to omit them. 

This feries is fuppofed to Be connected with a knowit 
epoch in the Grecian hiftory, by a remark of Dicaarchus^ 
Arifiotle^ fcholar, who fays, that from the reign olSefm^ 
chyisy who fucceeded Orus^ the fon of Ifis and OJiris^ to 
the reign of Nilus^ are 2500 years j and from Nilus to' the 
firft Olympiad 436 years ^. Who Sefonchofts was, is very 
iiricertain : the hrft king of the twelfth dynafty of Manetho 
ieems to have borne this name, or one Very near it; but he 
.jnuft have lived too late to be the perfon Tiere meant; and 
if he be taken to be the immediate fucccflbr of Orus^ Ke 
muft have been one of the demigods, and the fame with 
Jresj or Mars ; which carries us back into fable. Thft 
iirft of thefe obfervations therefore can be of no great ufe ; 
for the time of Scfanchojisy after this way of reckoning, 
will precede the deluge, even according to the Samaritan 
x:hrofiology, neat 700 years. But the other king, named 
by Dicaarchusy is found in the catalogue of Eratoftbgnes^ 
the laft king but one there being Phrufmy or Nilus j and 
therefore his time being known, the years of all the pre- 
^ceding kings are eafily adjufted to any fyftem of chrono- 
logy. This feems plaufible enough : yet we are afraid it 
"will not altogedier agree with the account of DiodortiS* 
It is plain Dicaarebits {\vp^{eA Nilus reigned at tfite time 
of the Trojan war ; for his calculation will carry us up thl* 
ther ; but, according to Diodorufy Nilus muft have beea 
fcveiy generations later thin Proteus y Who reis^ed in 
Ep'pi at the time of the Trcjan war, by the joint teitimohy 
othim and Her a dot ws ^ -, fo that Dicaarcbus feeitis only to 
have given a tolerable guefs at his age, and not fixed it 
with fuch certainty as to enable us to determine it within a 
century atleaft. Beiides, it is more than probable, that 
fliis 'X3h\6 of Erdtojihenes hz^i\i£QTti by time and tran- 
jTcribers, as well as the dynafties of Manetbo $ and there 
are doubtlefs feveral miftakes in the numbers as well as 

^ Vid. Syncell. p. 147. <^ Dicj&AB^CH. apud fcholiaft* 
Apollon. Argon. 1. iv. vcr. 272. « Dioooit. Sic. l.i. p.56. 

SEROD, 1. ii. c. 112. 
■ in . 


*5 ^^^^^ ^f Egypt . B. L 

-names ; the fum totals for example, which S^ncellus reckons 
to be 1075, will not ^ree witH the particulars; for, if 
carefully caft up, they an^ount to no more than 1055. 
Ofthifi' A$ to the ferie? of SyncelluSy given in the fifth tafle, ,00 
ries of Which Svc John Marjbam built niubhf, we have a worfe 
Syncellas. opinion or it than of any of the other, efpecially in the 
more early aees, where it is fupported by no ^oncurrii^ 
evidence at dl. He ieems to have compoied it by picking 
ferf and there fuch names and numbers,, and fomedmS 
ifi^g both out of hb own head, as he fanfied, in.ordef 
to accomniodate it to the facred dironology 8 \ and there- 
lore we {hall take no further hotice of it. 
Ofthefue'\ jT^^B need not fpcnd many words to fliew, that it is np± 
etjfions ae-^Q ,yiX]^oSAAe to frame a confiftent chronology, as fome 
€9rding to jfi^'e attempted \ from the fuccef^ons of kings in Hero^ 
Herodo- ^f(tk$ and Diodorus, For, befides their irreconcileable dif^ 
tns and agreement in feveral inftances, they confeffedly omit a great 
Diodoros. number of princes, and mention no yeafs of the reigps c^ 
p^ers; whereby fuch chafms are left, that nobody can 
ioii how to fill up y, '^ind their manner of reckoning by de* 
jpchtSj'p/ generatiofia, is too vifibly uncertain. Before 
7J^mmiithus xh^ is very dark; and 

^oji^Tit^x.Adit^x'mQ^s time it begins to dear up, yet 
lJ(^.*vanafions betweeii all the liiftbrians fince his reign arp 
cpnliaerable, as appears by the tables. 
''^^'Wb' fliall,not thej:efore wafte our time in compofing an 
hypothetH^al fcheme of thfefe kings of Egypt : of fuch per- 
fermances t6ere,are choice already; and. they are much 
jncireeafy to frarne>tban to fupport : calculations by num;- 
t)er§ of. yisars, which are fo liable to miftake and corrup- 
tion,' i^auft n^eds Be very precarious; and it feems much 
mdfe.reafonable to rely qn the coincidence of fa£b, and 
hifiorical fynchronifms, from. which chiefly we (hall, in 
the. coiirfe of our hiftory of Egypt, endeavour to fix the 
tim^5 6f Aich events as we judge capable of it. And this 
we tlti^nk is the moft that can be done with any degree 
of certainty ; for it is amazing to us, that men 
fliould pretend to adjuft the Egyptian chronology, from the 
moft early times, to fo great a nicety as a few years, and 
di£tate dogmatically in a matter of fuch abfolute uncer- 
tainty and. confufion» 

^ Vid. can. chron. p. 7. ^ Vid. Perizon. orig. JEg* 

p. 53, &c. ^ Vid. CoNRiNG. adv. chronol, c. 17, i8« 

Stilu^fl. orig. iacr. L i. c. j|, 


G. HL to the fim ^/Alexander* a/ 

S E C T. IV. ' 

-.♦......,. s 

\^^)^,tJiJiory of Ofiris, Ifis, Typhon, and Orus. ; 

t t.> 

fip]^ORE we enter upon the hiftoiy of the mort^. 
•?-f, jbi^gs of Egypi^ we are in fome manner obh'ged ta 
ijof^ ,ti^e following dark and antient (i61ion. Oftris^ an4i 
IJh, were faid by, fome to be the fon and daughter of, Saturn; 
zniJRhia^ :but, according to others, their grand-fqn and^ 
grand-'daugnter,. being defcended from yi^iter and %»^ 
wiip had a deity born to them on each ot the five mt^r* 
9alary days of the Egyptians. Thefe five deities wero 
CaQ^ Ofiris, Ifis^ -Typhon^ JpoUo^ and Venus a. We have^ ' 
tbei;;9rigin> and generation again differently, and with dM^ 
i^y^ral.particulaj^ related as follows : Soly furprifmg i^/a. 
ifi,3 private Congrefs with Saturn^ Pf^y^ that fhe might 
9^J^ delivered in the fgace of any one month, or day o£ 
tha j^ear^ Soon aAjer AUrcury^ falling in love with the god^ 
(lets, embraced her alfo; and, beating Z*«;m at dice, tool^ 
iFrom the ///«^r year the feventy-fecond part of every day," 
^<j ifjb^eof .CPinppied five days, an^ added them tp the 
year of 360 davs, that fhe might bring forth in them ; and 
thefe they celebrated as the birth-days of OJtrisy Ifisy 
Typhm^ U^usj anA^Xepttbe'. On -the nrfl day OJTrirvfzs 
b^m^^i^ M hif'bittivvfi^roice was I^ani cryuig out, Th^ 
hl^^y* dll things fiybme into the world : or, according to 
<rt}i^,^'a'dfflnM iile9'iP/7wy/fj, going to fetch water froirf 
tR4 jteiiMd <Sf Jipier at Yhebesy heahl a loud voice com- 
li^'SD^td^rOclSmi', The great and beneficent iinj^ Ofiris 
fs'm^^'tityh^^0i^ered to this da'hifel, who was dirfcaed 

ta^j^fOiRVi w ^^d with aH tbV veneration due to. 

hmVjprrpming'^the.Jfhyftcn^ called PamjUay like thiafc^ 
n^e^^f /(j^W/tf, ui,,h^ .On. the fecond day 

•^^iKffi Wf^. b|'9¥8pi^.foirih, whoni fbme called Jpolh, and. 
^tnjke-.MerXf/MSm 'Ti^G third was the. birth-day of 
^3i^^^' i who .oingie.iiOt. into the world i^ proper tinie and 
placit, but by a violent ehmtion leiapsd out of his mother's 
iideu ' :*On the fburth dxy Jfisj and on the fihh Nephthe^ or 
I^h)hys^ took birth;, which lafl was adfo called Finis^: 
sMf^itSi, and ViSfiffia.^ Sol was the feth^ of Ofirii and' 
Jfhe&fi '^' Mertury oi Ifis i and SaturH gf Typhm and* 

Nephthh The third, being the birdi-day of 73!?^^» was* 
counted inaufpicious, or unlucky ^ fo that the kings thereon 

. ,\"\ f DiOD. Sic lib. i. p. i«* 

is ^e Hi/iory of Egy^t -B.F. 

fufpended all bufineis^ and ajbftained from eating and 
drinking, Nfphthe' mziried Typhcn^ and Ifis married Ofi- 
ris. As for thefe laft> it is faid, that, iQticed by a mutual 
love, they embraced whilft yet in their mother's womb ; 
and it was thought, \ii2± Arueris^ the elder Orus of the 
Egyptians J and the Jpolh ofthcGreehy fprang from that 
early conjunftion (A). Ofiris had no fooner obtained ihc 
kingdom of Egypt ^ than he reclaimed th^ inhabitants from 
their favage and brutal way of living, fhewed tliem the 
fruits of the earth, and inftitutcd divine worfhip 1> ; budd- 
ing the city of Thebes, as is (with great uncertainty^ faid, 
and ere£ting feveral temples, and, amongft die reft, one 
'to yupiteruraniusy and another to Jupiter Ammoriy his 
father, who reigned before him «. But j that his bene- 
ficence might not be confined to the bounds of his own 
country, he undertook to vifit the feveral nations on the 
earth, all which he civilized, not by the forcible conftraiiit 
of arms, but by dint of perfuafion, and by the allurements 
ef mufic and poetry <J. His fetting^out, and the more 
remarkable particulars of bis travels, are thus told. 

*» Plut. de Ifid. k Ofirid. p. 355, • Diod. Sic ubi fupr, 
* Plut. obi fapr. 

(A) Herodotus gives them a 
^ughter, Bubafiuy or Diana % 
9nd ieems to have heard the 
fiory of thefe &bu]ous princes, 
with ibme variation from what 
is related by Diodortu and Flu- 
iarch, the only authors we have 
who have written, this ii£tion ' 
St length. And particularly, 
fptdkmg of the floating ifland 
ChefUmisj near the city ofButus, 
he writes that, by an Egyptian 
tradition, Latona,- one of the 
primary deities, refiding at 
Btttns, had Orus committed to 
her care, at a time when Tj- 
phon was in fearch after, him to 
de&roy him ; and (he accord- - 
ingly concealed him in the 
aboveiaid ifle. Now, accord- 

ing to Plutareh, Typbvii\'mi 
kept .wi(hin.bound9 by j^c pru«. 
dence of ^ during zX\ t^iee?^'' 
peditioQ of Ofiris ; with ifihjuik 
account thb violent proceeding 
cannot coniifl; and Herodotus, 
does not in the leaft hint at this 
fearch afterwards. Diodorus 
fays Orus accompanied hb fa- 
ther in his travels; be was 
therefore but of the reach of 
his enemy; and after his ^« 
ther*s niHrder, this author (ay 9^ 
he was fa hx from flying firom 
Typhon, that he xoaj^ .head 
againft him» overcame him in 
batt}e,;and/lew him. It ap- 
pears (hen, ihzlHeroeUtushtiixi 
this fi£lion related in. a third 
and different manner (i). 

(x} Berodot, lib, ii. r. 156. 

B ■ I ' 


C. IIL t§ the time of Alesander. t$ 

' Having in view the vaft and beneficial defign aborC'* 
menticMied, he raifed a great number of followers, amongft 
whom¥ras'hb htotYitr Apollo^ who claimed the iaurei 2» 
facred to him, as the ivy was to Ofiris. He took alfb his 
two fons with him, Anubis (which will be feemingly con- 
tradiAed by-and»by) and Macedo. Thefetwo wore coats 
of mail, '.and over them the (kin of fuch a beaft as corre- 
iponded with the nature of their courage ; fo Anubis had a 
QQ^s fkin, and Macedo the (kin of a wolf; "and hence, faid 
they, the dog and the wolf were worfhiped in Egypt. Pam 
aUb was of the company ; he was afterwards highly revered 
over all the coimtry, infomuch that he had not cmly fia* 
tues and templet ereded to him, but alfo the city of 
Chemms^ which (ignified Pan*s city. Add to thefe Mar9^ 
iamous for planting and dreiSng of vines ; and TriptoUmus- 
for (owing of com, ahd gathering in the harveft. Finally, 
OJiris took with him nine virgins, proficients in mufic, 
who being committed to the care of Apollo^ he thence ob- 
tained the title of mafter of the ninejtfters, or mufes j fomt 
fatyrs he met as he went towards Ethiopia^ who were ac- 
ceptable for their jocund difpofition, and diverting by their 
^uitic behaviour, (kipping, and dancii^. 

But, before he left Egypt ^ he provided againfi any di(^ 
turbances that might arife in his abfeiice, by committing / 

the adminiflration to trufty and fagstdous perfons. For he 
invefled IJis with the regency, in which he left hWfAgsul^ 
Hermes to aflifl: her. Hermes was alfo called Merctery^ 
fthoihj TTntyth^ Tauautes^ Trifmegijius^ and by other names. 
It is a common opinion, that diere were two perfons or 
more who bore thefe feveral appellations ; but, leaving thq 
difcuffion of fo dark a point, we will here fpeak of them as 
one perfon, and enumerate the inventions and books afcribed 
to him. He, faid they, invented articulate founds, appel- 
latives, letters, religion, aftronomy, mufic, wrcftling, aritfa^ 
metic, ftatuary, the three-ftringed lyre, and the ufe of the 
olive, and not Minerva^ as the Greeks miftakenly aflerted* 
He was ftiled the father of eloquence, and {hence, he de- 
rived his name of Hermes^ the interpreter, or fpeaker *; 
As to the books he wrote, Seleucus reckoned them at 
no lefs than 20,000 ^ ; and Manetbo exceeds him, com* 
putins them at 36,^25*6. Thefe numbers are fo enormous, 
that It has been a fhunbling-^biock to the learned to con- 
ceive how one perfon coUM foe the author of fuch myriads 

« DiODOR. Sic 1. i. p. 14, &c. ^ Selevc. apad lamblicli; 
df inyft. i4£g]rpt. $. 8. cap. i • ' MAMCTiiOt apad oand. ibM. 


(9 thfiifipry $f %fgf^^, ;;B.t 

of tni£b« Therefore fame have fuppofc^ thefe computa- 
tions to refer to vexfes, others to leaves of the pa^rta % 
^d others ag^in to fuccin<Sl difcourfes and proverbs^- But 
Clement of Alexandria^ vfiW lead us out pf this labyri^tt^ 
by the following at^punt of an antient Egyf^tan proceiliop c 
The yJr/? that advanced, fays he, was a -chanter^ or finger# 
who bore fome fymbol of mufic : his bufin^fs was to receive 
two pf the books of Mercury, or Thoth j of which the one 
contained hymns to the gods, and the other rules fof tht 
Jcirig to obferve. Secdndly, an ajlrologer^ bearing ^ di^ 
and a palm, which were fymbclis of aifa-ology : he was ob* hav^ the four aftrological book& oi Mercury by 
heart ; the firft of whii:h contained the places of th^ fjuced 
ftars, and the three others treated of the fun and mpoot 
their eclipfes, illuminations, rifmg, and the }ike« Thiriily% 
dn hierogrammatem^ or (acred fcribe» with a feather pa 
his head) bearing a book and a rule, in which wece ink 
and a reed to write with : he was verfed '\t\ the fubje<^ of 
ten books, the i. treated of hieroglyphics; 2. of cofmof 
graphy ; 3. of geogra^y 5 4. of the order of the fun and 
moon ; 5. of the live planets ; 6- of the chorography of 
Egypt ; 7. contained a defcription oS the Nihy 8- aifer 
(cription of the facred utenfds, and of the places confeccsited 
toAem; g. treated of meafures, and the loth of what"* 
ever was neceflary in the Egyptian worfhip* Fourthly^ t 
ftoliftes, a kind pf foLemn marfhal, holding the cubk'f»f 
juftice, and a cup for libations : he knew whatever coiv 
oemed the inftitution of youth, and the fealing of victims* 
The whole Egyptian religion was comprehended in tet 
books ; the i. related to the facrifices ; the 2. to firft-fruits s 
3. to hymns ; 4. to prayers ; 5. to proceiiions ; 6* to jfefti* 
yals, and the other four to die like fubje^b. Fifthly, and 
laft of all, came ihcprcphet, bearing a water-pot openly 411 
his bofom, and followed by thofe who carried the pror 
ceflional bread : he, as prefiding over the temple, ftudie^ 
the ten books called facerdotal, which fpoke of the isnw^^ 
the gods, and the whole difcipline of the priefthood. Hert 
we have an account of thirty-fix books of Hermes j ber 
fides which he wrote fix more, which treated of anatongiy* 
difeafes, medicaments, and the like; fo that he was ait? 
Aor of forty-two in all K This is a more rational ac* 
count. But, to return &om whence we digrefled, thii 
iagacious perfon, or one of the £une charaSier^ was left 
behind to ai&it IJis in the government of the kingdom* 

^ CtiUiv Aiisx« flrom. hn.^ii* 

MoRZOVEtL^ Hercuks was appointed over die £arcc9 

ft boin6; mdJtttausj Buftris^ and Prometbius^ were coii?* 

iiituted governors over feveral provinces. OJirisj having 

thus fettled afFairs. in Egyptj began his progrefs, moving 

£rft towards Ethiopia. In this country he raifcd the banlu 

of the NiU^ and dug feveral canals, thereby to prevent 

the too frequent inundations, and to abate and diftributo 

the waters of the Nile. Whilft he was thus employed in 

Ethiopia y the NiU broke down its banks in Egypt^ and 

overflowed great part of the countf^ with (o furious 

and fo fudden a tide^ that it fwept away all befort 

it, and drowned great multitudes of people, doing parr 

ticular damage in Promethiu^s jurifdidion, whereat 

be was grieved almoft to defpair. But Hircules foon 

drained off the waters, and thence is (aid to have iho( 

through the eagle which preyed on Promethius^t beart^ 

for tihe fuddenneis of this flood was compared to the fligbiC 

pf an eagle, and the river from thence was fometimei 

called after that bird. But to return to OJirii i h^ in* 

firu^led the Ethiopians in all rural matters, and, having 

built them feveral cities, he departed, leaving fome be* 

hind .him to a& as bis governors, and others to gather in - 

bis tribute. From Ethiopia he went into Jrabia^ and thus 

continued his travels till he had got beyond India. la 

india he built feveral cities, and particularly Nyja<, which 

he fo called from the place where (according to fome) ho 

was bred up. Here he planted the ivy, which was no-wnei^ 

elfe to be found in India ; and left fo many monumenta 

oi himfelf behind him, as afterwards gave room to dif* 

pute, whether he was not orjjginaUy of this part of %\m 

world. Having £urvcy^ all J^^ he croflied the HelleJ^ 

ponty and, landing in Thrace^ killed Ly^urgus^ the king 

of ^ country, who oppofed his progress. Here he left 

Maro to cultivate the land, and coAimanded him to buiM, 

a cky^ and call it, in derivatiqp from bb own nanae^ 

Maronea. Afterwards he bellowed on his ton Macedi^ 

the country of Macedon^ which borrowed its name from 

him ; and TriptoUmus had charge of Attica, At length 

OJiris returned back into Egypt^ laden with the choiceA 

produ£tions of the earth, and with the bleflings of tty^ 

whole race of mankind, iiiio confented to his deification. • 

., B^T his brother 23^Mf -flew him fopn, after hia arrival, 

fmd cut his body into twenty-fix pieces, giving one ta'Cach 

•f hit accomplices K It was thus that fi^me fpoke coQr> 




•ie iei:-: .: Ijir-: . jut top •.torr *»» ziRjr r 
--e ''-.iowin? r-'-t.nn T^fooyt, icsno^ 

• • *■ ■ 

J.rr-:" ■.-."hit. -.- rrrerri i "crr rria^rnncsnc 
:nafle. ^- a— j'ttt tcidb- ro !iim :* '.e 

nycn ^ -.••?•'. .1 1. 'ssfcn^ Trzr, -cid 

• ^ » 


ie «r;S J7 -. 

He irrrrnrirTrs 

K^ ^ 


'. - r^ * K~ "^ •*. . .-,■»< 


— • —2- -^■'*- •'^-i iXLCc-i u.'N. •Mxxfcrs c 

"C. til. hibe time of Alexander. 31 

fight. Therefore (he repaired thither, and, to pafs ovct 
the methods Ibe pradifed to pofTefs herfeif of the co£n, 
flie there obtained it. When (he firft caft her eyes oh it, 
ihe cried with fo loud a voice as ftruck the king of Byblus*s 
youngeft fon dead ; for flie had infinuated herfeif into his 
family, as the moft ready means to obtain what ihe want- 
ed ; hp having raifed a building over the broom which hid 
the coffin. With his eldeft fon and the coj^n ihe ftrait- 
ways embarked i and, in her pailage, dried up the Pha^ 
drusy provoked by a blaft of wind which .blew from the 
mouth of that river as ihe iailed by, about break of day. 
Being now private, and at leifure,ihe opened the coffin, ana, 
laying her &ce to the face of the deceafed, bathed it with her 
tears. As ihe was thus giving vent to her grief, the king's fon 
Ihe had brought away with her from Byblus^ came behind her, 
and faw what ihe was doing ; whereat enraged, ihe turned 
on him with fo dreadful a countenance, as frighted him fo, 
that he died. Some faid he leapt into the. Tea. This is 
fuppoied to be Maneroi ^. She brought the body to Butvs^ 
and hid it ; hut Typbon^ hunting by moon*light, feU on it, 
and tore it into fourteen pieces, which he fcattered abroad. 
Ifis then traverfed the lakes and watry places in a boat 
made of the papyrus ^ feeking after the. limbs of Ofiris. 
Whence it was held, that tbofe who went on the water in 
boats made of that wood were in no danger from croco- 
diles, who either revered or dreaded the goddefs. In what- 
ever place (he found a limb, ihe there buried it ; for 
"which reafoh there were many .tombs afcribed to Oftris : 
but others f^id, ihe made feveral figures of his body, 
and prefented them to as jpany cities, pretending to each, 
that they had the original', and fo' eflabliihed his tvprihip 
in mslny places s arid i^nadip it difficult for Typbon to find 
out the right monument, in cafe he ihould.ever get the 
fuperiority, and continued in his implacable malice againft 
OJiris K This burial was alfo related , ^fter a, thirds and 
afmpft jQXxitt different manner^ For the author from whom 
we took the firil account of his death, reports that IJis 
■ got together the twenty-fix pieces of his mangled bod)', 
joined them, and embalmed them ; and afterwards pre- 
vailed on the Egyptian prieils to confent to, and promote 
. his drifi cation, in confideration of a third part of EMt 
which ihe gave them ; and they buried him at Memphts, 
But the place of his burial was^ a matter of great diipute 

* See vol- i. p. 487. ^ Plut. ubi fupr. p. 357^ 358. 
Vol. II. C ' ' and 

34 ShtHifior^ rf'Eg^t B- L 

and controvcrfy ; though fooue produced the following 
infcription in iacred cbaraders^ :whicb they faid Was on a 
'pillar in Jrabia. 

Saturn, tb^ yfnmgeji of all the gods^ war pty father. 
I am Ofiris, that king who led an arm^ ^^fi^ ^^ ^^ 
deferts jjf India, and frpm thence northward as far 
as theffringi of the river \hex^ and thence quite to 
the ocean. I am the elde/lfon of Sattu'n, fprungfrom 
a noble fiock^ and of generous blood \ coufm to the 
day. Nor is there a plaee where J have not been^ I, 
who f reel) difpenfed my benefits to all mankindi 

Isis, aftcrthe moft diligent fearch, could never recover 
the privities of O^r/j, which, being thrown into the river^ 
ivere devoured by the lepidetusy At fquameus^ Aephagru^ 
.and the oxyrynckus^ which four forts of filh the Egyptians 
hated iqpon that account : but ihe made ample amends 
for this irreparable lofs, by inftituting a kind of ieparate 
worihip, which was devoutly and univerially paid to the 
image of that part afterwards. 

There were various reports concerning the adions of 
Jfis and Orus after the death of Ofiris^ as alfo relating to 
Typhon. And firft it was affirmed, that they overcame 
him in battle, and flew him °^. Secondly^ he was faid 
to have been thunderftruck by Jupiter j and plunged under 
the lake Sirbon n (B}, where being fuppofed to lie fub- 

"» DiOD. Sic. ubi fupr. p. 79« " Apolion. Rho». 

Argo. lib. xi. Sc Herodot. Liii. c. 5;* 

(B) According to Diodorus weak, was fulkient la deceive 

Siculusy the lake or bog ^ir^mr, the eye of the wandering tra- 

Serbottis, or Selbonis, under vcller, who no fooner fct foot 

mount C/7/£»i, was 200 furlongs upon it, than he felt it give 

in lengthy very narrow, but way under him^ and was irre- 

fery deep. Many, miftaken coverably loft, and this even 

in their road, nay, whole af- at the yfery brink of it. It 

xnies, mifguided in their march, was alfo called Barathra, or 

have been fwaliowtd up in it. the profound gulphs (2).. Bat 

The ihore aU round it was it has fisom tinxe to time die* 

heapsof (and, which the winds creafed in extent; for P/iny 

blowing over the furface of ipeaks of it as a* iinall place to 

the bog, the lower particles what it had formerly been (3); 

lighted thereon,, and^ by de- and itisnowquitechoakedup». 

grees, formed a loofe skin, or its place being no more to be 

cruft, over it ; which, though found (4} » 

(2) Died, Sic, /. i. p, 26. 1$) PUn, bj/i, naU U v, f . 13. (4.) T^y^ 
4« /*. Lucat^ torn, iii. /.■ 306, 


C. ilL to the iimi of Ale^iatider. 

merfed, it was thence called Tyth9n*5 exbalfltiont ^; And 
thirdly, it was alTerted, that Ujiris^ afcending from the 
infernal regions, inftruded Orusy and prepared him to 
war with Typbon ; and that after a battle, whicfi conti- 
nued feveral days, this laft was made prifoner. But IJis^ 
refloring him to his liberty, fo enraged OrUSy that he tore 
off the royal attire from her head, when Mercury^ being 
jprefent, clapped her on an helmet made of an ox's headji 
mflead thereof. Tfpbott, after .this', renewed the war 
twice, and wa^ both tiqieS- vanquiihed P ; andy being no 
longer able to withftand, or i^ake head againft hts ene* 
mies, concealed himfetf, it feems, under the above-men- 
tioned' lak^.&Vr^^i?'). O^is moreover appeared to jfis^ 
and had a fort by her^ caUcd Harpocrates ; but he proved a 
weak and inffrm perfon. Here Plutarch breaks oflT, and^ 
afTuringus that his is the genuine ftory, proceeds to e^laiii 
away the whole Into an allegory^, mit, feeing Diodorus 
continues hii$ atCcbunt to the death of tfis and Oir»y, . we now 
turn to him : Ifo^ having thus qudled her enemies/lr&ignc^d 
with great prudencej juftice, moderation, and benefi- 
cence : and, tkcaiufe of her great and conftant ^ffj^dioa 
towards QJirisi which appeiared iq nothing more than in 
the vow. fl^, made of widowhood, a kw was ehafled,* 
which allowed of the mariiage-^contradl between brother 
and fifiier : a^d from the £une fource fprang the cuftom of 
preferring the qiieen before the king,- and the wife before 
the husband K At laft fhe died, and was buried at Mem-' 
phis^ as the comtnon opinion was ; but this aUcr was dif- 
puted. And particularly thbfe, who laid a ftrefs- upon the 
abovc-inferted infcriptioft, affirmed, there wte aAbther 
pillar near ^to fhe former ih'A/^Hay and dxat the follow*' 
ing words in fiicred cbara£ters w^ire legible upon' it : 

/, Is IS, am fhe que^ri of thh coufttry^ and waituiored 
by Mercury, ff^at I have ordtinedy no one majf make 
void. I a^ the eideft daughter of ^2X\xm^ theyoungejt^ 
of the gois. 1 am th^fijier and wife of king O&is. 
Jamjbe wbo Jirjl found corn for tbe ufe of man. I am 
the mother of king Orus. . idtmjhe who arifetb m the 
4^izft<^^* ^^ ^'^/ ^f B^baftus was built in honour of> 
fn£. FareweJ! Rejoice ^ O Egypt, my nurfmg mother f 
-r-Tbis was all, laid they, that Was to'be diftrnguUbed, 
of this infcjrfption^ 

• PiiUTAncH. in vita Antonii,- p. 916. ^ tleni. de fiid,- 
& Oiirid. ubi fupra. ^ Herodot. ubifupra, ' Plut. 

\x\A fupra. * See vol.* i. p. 466. < DiODl S i c« ubi fapra.* 

G 2* Shit 


'36 fhe Hiftory of Egypt B.L 

Snt bad a moft fiately temple ereded to her at the city 
6f Buftris^ fituate near the middle of the Delta \ fome 
remains of which are thought to be ilill ftanding (C). 

*> Hbropot. lib. 11. c. 59. 



« «< 

. (C) Take thedefcription and 
account of thefe ruins in the 
author*s own words : " I here 
'' (aw the remains of one of 
** the fincft, vafteft, and moft 
" ancient temples of Egypt, 
« All the ttones are of 
" enormous length and thick- 
*^ ne(s, and all of granite. 
** They are, for the moft part, 
^ adorned with fculptureis in 
** relie*vo, which rcprefcnt 
** men and vwomeD, and all 
**. forti of hieroglyphics. Many 
^* of thei^ ftones bear the image 
of a man ftanding upright, 
with a long peeked <jap on 
** his head, and holding a go- 
^ blet or bow], in each haiid, 
•* which he prcfcntiT to three 
or four- young women, 
*' which ftand alfir upright, 
^ one behind another. The/e 
^ young women have each 
'^ of them a javelin in one 
<< hand, and a ftaff, ihort- 
•* er than the. javelin, in the 
•* other ; and on each of their 
^ heads is a ball between two 
•« long taper horns. Others 
'*' of thefe ftones are ynbel* 
". liihed with hieroglyphical 
** reprefentatations of birds, 
*' fiihes, and terreftrial ani- 
" mals. A lofty and very fub- 
V ftantial pillar of fine gra- 
'* nite, having each of the 
" four faces of its upper part 
" wrought with four angular 
*^ flutines or notches, feems to 
^: have been ereded to fupport 
^ the arcades and vaults of^this 



<* fumptuous edifice. On each 
<* face of this pillar there is 
** alfo carved the head of a 
'* woman bigger than the life. 
** Thefe fculptures have not 
*^ been in the leaft injured by 
'* time, nor by the fun, nor 
** by the Arabs. ... It feems 
to be more than probable^ 
that this temple, whofe re- 
*^ mains I have here defcribed, 
*^ was the very templcrof the 
« goddefs Jfitf and that the 
" city of Rufiris, mentioned 
*' by Herod9tus9 is now the 
'^ veiy town of Bahahity fi* 
'' tuated in the middle-of the 
** DeitUy near Sebennytus, or 
^' Satiwtanud, My opinion is 
** the more rational, in that 
^ throughout all the iflandtt 
*' was never heard* nor known, 
^ that any monument of marble 
**- orftone, either .little, or big, 
^ was ever found there, tkl^ 
** could lUit with any ether 
'^ deity than the.goddef»^. 
'' . . . Theie ruins, which ace 
'* near to Bahibtit^ are about 
** 1000 paces in circumference. 
** They are about a league 
.^ ffom the Nilit about two 
^^ or three leagues from Sam- 
**^ manudr and about twenty- 
*^ five or thirty leagues north 
** of Kdbira, There is nei- 
** ther brick, nor plafter, noc 
^* morter, nor common flonet 
amongft thefe reliques ; there 
is nothing to be feen hot 
** gceat blocks of granice(5]. 



(5) Nwvi mtm, da- mijfiwi dc la cmf^ de-ytj. dans dc Ztvawt^ tom,^ ii. 


C. III. to the time of Alexander. 

' There is nothing faid of Orus any farther, than fhat 
he was the laft of the gods and demigods ^ ; and therefore 
^e here conclude this fabulous or m) llerious feflion. 


S E C T. V. 
^he reigns of the kings of Egypt. 

7Mr£ NES^ oxMenas^ is univerfally agreed to have beer\Menes, or 
•"-^ the firft mortal, who reigned ovtx Egjpi {h). lAMenas. 
his time the whole country, except Thebais^ was a mora fs ; 


\ ■ * Idem ibid. c. 144. 

(A) ItiionallhaxKls^freed, 
that Menes was the firft mortal 
who ruled over Egjypt ; but all 
are not of one simd concern- 
ing him, in any other refpedl. 
And though we have refolved 
to fdllow no particular hypo- 
thefis in the Egyptian afiairs. ais 
thinking th'e^. all hot a little 
dubious ; yet we IhalU in the 
moH futnihary way (fb as to 
be confilleht with perlpicaity), 
entertain the 'rdetder, from time 
to time/ with the conje£tares 
of fome of the moft noted chro; 
nologerSy who have laboured in 
the ungrateful, work of fettling 
the Egyptian antiquities. I9 
conformity to what we now 
propofe, we (ban take i^otice^ 
that^ according to Sir John 
Marfiaml (his Mems was the 
Cbiam or Ham^ the fon of Noah 
in Scripture, the Jupiter Ham- 
mon or AnmoH of the Egyptians, 
the nanws' or Adonis of the 
Pbatnidans, the Saturn of San- 
cboniatbo, and the firft that 
taught the Egyptians to fare 
fumptuonfly ; which alone, as 
it is reported of him, were a 

fufficient inducement to tbink^ 
that he could not have lived ia 
the early and flmple times im* 
mediately after the deluge. 
He lays it down, that Mmn 
was king of all Egjpt, and tht 
father pf the Egyptian god Mir- 
€ury or Atbotbis (i). 

On the other hand, Perizi^r 
nius maintains the Mtfirm M 
fmigods to h^e . reigned th» 
firft iu Egypt X apd will not 
allow Mines to h^vo .bec0 ei#> 
Ither Hmn or Misraim^ Mantf have beea the Egyptism 
yupitrr, or Msms the fitther 
of the Egyptiasg Mercury. If 
it be, true, fays that writer) 
l^lMenes taught xhtEgyptiami 
to feed delidoufly, and to adorn 
their beds, it is manifeft, there 
yrere Egyptians before his time,, 
accuftomed to a more coarfli 
and fimple way of living ; and 
confequently, that he was not 
(he founder of their race» Ham, 
or his fon Mizraim. He ftr« 
ther obferves, that Hammon 
was not properly the E^fptiam; 
Jupiter ; the name of Jupiter 
. being given him in afteragea 

(x] rid* Merf>^ CM. ihr^p 

■^ ^ The Hifiory cf Eg^pt B, I, 

sA>A no land appeared between the \ak.e Jtfairh and the 
M'JiltTrnruan fea, whichr was fe^en "dayS pallagc on 
the river. He diverted the coiirfe of the M/<, which 

hy the Graki, foad of foreign' O^rit, places Mmri after hiin, 

gods, to wbofe proper name and, in confequence thereof 

they ufed to pre^ that of Jk- . tranfpofee the feries bfthe kingt 

fitir, is JiifUfr'Bt/as, JUpilir of E^ypl, mentioned hy Hera- 
Cafivs.lec, Ai for the rarname i/o/w, after thi* oismier ; Srfa- 

of Dianiuj, (n'j^rim^fnmjn- ^ris, Phtran, Prttiui, Upui, 

filtr, givfch him by Eretefihi- Rian^niliu, iScerit, Chtaft^ 

nis, Virnaiini thinks be was Ctpbm, Mjcermui, Nit»eri$, ■ 

to called, becaufe he reigned and the reft in the iatne order 
immediately after the Mijtr^i, , u they ftand in HiraJetiu. He 

ta Jindgsdi. It is his tipioiOb, fappofes litna to be the fanK 

that Ments lived about the witb Amemf^ii and Mrmwtn^ 

iayt of'jftriihM ; but he does vnd that by £orrup^i5D he wu 

ttoc Ifty ] t doWQ for certahi; called, Mrft», Mtiifi, Mhuns^ 

and will not sllow him to havi Mitiiei, Wntiiii, Eatpbn, Vt- 

bisen the father of Athothfs; Hi ntfhtS, PhdHienephii, OJymm- 

Mireury, tbSiigh he is fo Hiled thym '\pj\^akijas\, Ofiman- 

hy Eratifkptti {z). • Jei, I/mandti, Imaiidts, Memr 

Father Pnkait, «h6 vttote HM, 4rminim. Accordiog tQ 

before PtrriA^rfiu/, bVings.-the his hypothefis, &fm/j is aboDt 

vetgQ o^ Ments much Idter yxs year; older than P/amm- 

down than the dayi of iliMi, 'tichmi. He holds it irruioiu} 

|K MiKT^M. According tdh^ 'to fuppofe, that there was any 

hypochcfisMfjiAi began to reiga king of all Eppi, till after the 

•904 year after the crcatib^, expuliion or the jheph<rds ; 

and &48-afi»rthe Hood. Thit and obfer/es, that the miradei 

be endeavodrBhy all means to of Mtmthii weie not fpokei) 

prove, and ftems (o be pretty of, or kno^n in Greece, till 

prnfidentthathcisintheiighc; feme ages after tUi Tr«/ij» war ; 

bat itwOaldbe endlefs to. ente^ fth- Homer txletTiiliT^iiei at 

fnto cheargumenuof the chro^ the glory' Of i^s 4ays, ana 

nologert we Ibail, from time to makes nooietitl'dbof Afr^jfj; 

time, refort toj and we foall which, and the ttqipie rfr«/- 

fvoid it at muth as pofSble, tdn, that flood, ibjh6 midft of 

except when their reafonmg is it, he grants to hive heen built 

Very plcar and important, or hy Mines. In a\yord,,thishy- 

, theirnotiansvery finguhr[3). pochefis reduces the antiquity 

i. Sir J/aae UnuloB, in oppo- of the Egyptiea_ empire, of 

fition to all the chronologers which j^ln(n was the hrfi kinj^ 

who have wi-itten before him, much lower than aqy other 

fSOfopnioO, thttS'^fi/r/jWM (4J- 

(1) fmKM>Agjpl. trig..^ um. *iitlf*:Bm>rim, h 
—tif. de, iimp. r„tb. & difn. (+J Sir Jffac If, 

fiVial iingdimi amiaiitd, p. )i4f . , 


C. IIL to tie time of Alexander. ^^ 

before waQied the foot of the fandv mountain towards 
Lihya^ and built the city of Merhfhis within the anticnt 
bed of the river. On the north fide of it he i;nade a lalce^ 
and on the weft another, both without the walk, and 
both fed by the NiUy which flowed along the caft fide of 
the town : and in the city itfelf he built thtt famous tem- 
ple of Vulcam, He was the ficft that InftruacJd the" 
Egyptians \n religious matters, that introduced 40meftic 
magnificence and luxury» and that inftituted the pomp of 
fealrs; on which account^ his memory was loaded with 
the execrations of one of his fucceilbrs, as will, be ob- 
ferved hereafter. 

Aft^r this, Herodotus 3eddx^%9 thatthe Bgypfihns pro* 
duced a catalogue of 330 lungs,, extending front Menes to 
Moerisy who was the laflr of the lumiber \ and* that there 
was nothing worth notice recorded of any of theW, except 
one Ethiopian woman, called NitierisK On thfe other 
hand, jD/^^rxfx ^ writes, i}a^% Mencs's famUy cnjdyed the 
throne tatbe fifty-fecond defcent, and that theiir feveral 
reigns took up the fpace of 1400 years <^. Since therefore 
there is A> vgft a chafm in both^ we think we' may (afeljr 
venture to fill it up in part^ with what we find concern- 
ing, the fh^pherds* who ruled; over £^/; and.the rather, 
becaufe this whole tranfaAiort feems to belong to fome 
very remote period of the t.gyptian hiftorv. 

It happened, in the reig|n.of JiW^^ king-of Egypty tbatT'/^r/r- 
GoD being dtfpleafed with thet Vgyptians^ they uxfered 2^ruption of 
gredt revohition V for a ^lukitud^ of men, i^tiQ^le in their ^^^ paibrs 
race, to<ft course, and, pouring from the eaS^'hXiakEgypt^or fhcp- 
made war with flie inhabitants-; irto'fubmjttod to themi^«^»* 
without tryihgdie event d? a battle. Having roduoed the 
princesj they ihhjumanly butnMhe cities, threw down the 
temples of. the gods, and I?ehkved- in the moft cruel' and 
infulting xixatfmer over the anti^pt irihabitaiit^, putting 
them to 4^tb^ and carrying awajr th?ir wives a^irf diildren 
into capti^(tyf.. They made one pf their owii^unibet king, <re^j,yj/j^ 
whofe n^mc was. ^tf/tf/rx. Heufualfy refided ^tJi^emphi^S2\2xiifor- 
and, leaving garifons in the moft .proper plac^,: kept ha^tbiir kingy 
the upper and loyrer region un^cr tribute : ^t |iiiiiticularly 
he fortified die eaftern parta* fearing an invaTipn of, the Jf-^ 
fyriansj who were at that time very powcrft4% ; Eiading 
therefore a convenient cM^ m thtt Saitic ffomf^ W^i^h was 
feated on the eaftern banks of the river Bubafiisy and which 
was called Abaris^ in the ahtient theology, her rebuilt it, 
* HsRODOT. I. ii, €• 99, ^ W- ibid. c. ioq. « D^od*. 

Sic. 1. i. p. 4:3^. 

C 4 tnd 

-40. Ti^e Hifioty of Egyipt B.I, 

aud furrounded it with a very ftrong wall, and kept a ga- 
rifon of 24,000 foldiers therein. It was his cuftom, about 
the time of harv^, to come hither to gather in his com, 
and to pay and exerdfe his foldiers, that they might alwap 
be ready and fit for aftion, and be a conftant terror to any 
who ihould attempt an invafion. Salatis died, and was 
fucceeded by five others j viz. Beorty Jphacnas^ jfpephiSy 
Janias^ and jffis ; whp^ treading in his footftcps, did their 
utmoft to root put the wnole nation of the Egyptians. This 
people were- called Hycfos^ ox King-Jhepherds (C); hyc^ in 
the (acred diale^^, fienilying a king^ and fos^ in the com- 
mon dialeS, fignifying a paftor^ ox Jhepherd ; and of thefe 
two came the compound Hycfos. They came from Arabia^ 
according %q Manethoy as quoted by yofephus^ iwid held 
all lower \gsipt in fubje£tion for, the fpacc of 259 years'* ; 
at the end of which they were obliged, by a Idngbf upper 
Egypt y named Amofu and Thethmofisy to quit the cbuntty, 
and retire elfe where. That prince's father had, it ieems^ 
gained conficlerable advantages t>ver them, arid ihut them 
up in a place called Jvarisj or Aharis^ meafuring 10,000 
acres of land. ; There they were clofcly bcfieged-by his fon 
AmoftSy with ^ armv of i|.8o,ooo men : bat the king, find- 

^ Maneth. ^gypt. 1. ii. apod Jofepb. 1. 1; contra. Apion. 

(C) We will barely tranfcribe noufly fpoken of, to have been 

. the opinions of the above-cited ^ IfratUtti themielvcs (2). 

ehronologers, asf to the time of Zxx Ifaac Newton in9k€s'tlie 

this irruption, as it is repre- paftors to h^y^ been the Ca- 

fentedy of the fhepherds into wzAffiVrj^ who (led from y^Mj, 

Egypt i Sir ' y^bn Marjbapt and went intp ^^iV ; but, in 

places it T57 years before the thfir flight, feized on the ktDg- 

txodus of the children of i^Ajr/ dom of the lower £i[^^^. in the 

(i).F/r/«»«/ii/, drawing a very reign of limaus^ whom the 

circomftantial parallel between (ame author calls namms^ or 

what is recorded of the (hep- '[hamtkuz (3). Greaves , after 

herds by Manetho^ and what a parallel drawn by him be^ 

is faid of the obfcurity of the tween the hiftory of the fliep- 

JlfraeUteSi the power and dig- herds and of the Ifraelites^ 

taty of Jofifhf and the mira- which feems as natural and as 

colous works of Mo/es^ which plauiible as that of FerizontMS^ 

almofl ' utterly deftroyed the will by no means, allow them 

country ; upon the dofe, pro* to have been the iame people 

Qoonces the fliepherds, fo hei- (4}. 

(1) rtd. Manrfb. nMfip, (z) Ptnaton. ubi Jup. (3) Sir Ifase 

J^tvft<m^itbi Jupy {^) OreMjva^^ pyramid, p, %iy %2, 

C. in. to the time tf/ Alexander. 41 

mg bt could not reduce them by force, propofed an agree- 
ment; which they readily accepted; and, in virtue of 
which, they were to abandon Bgypf^ and die king was to 
allow them to retire whither they pleafed, without mdle- 
fiction. The agrceinent was faithfully executed on both 
fides ; the fhepherds withdrew from Egypt ^ with their fa- 
milies, to the number of 240,000 ; and, taking the way of * 
thedefert, entered Syria : but, fearing the Affyrians^ who 
were then very powerful, and mafters of Ajia^ they buBt 
themfelves, in the land which is now known by the name of 
Judeoy a city, capable of holding fo great a multitude, and 
called it yerujalem : thus Manetho ^ Jpion^ upon the 
^thofity of Ptolemy the Menieftan^ an Egyptian prieft^ 
who wrote the annals of that kingdom, fuppofes Amofis^ 
or Thethmofts,, to have been contemporary with Inacbus king 
of Ithe Argives. Hence Tatian ^, Jtffiin the martyr g, C&- 
fpens of Jltxandria \ and others, taking the expuliion of the 
Ihei^rds, and the exodui of the children of Ifrael^ to 
be one and the fame event, will have their leader, Mofes^ 
to have been contemporary with Inachus : but, as Inachus 
is now, by the generality of chronologers, thou^t to have 
lived long before Mnfes^ and the circtmiftances of the ex» 
9dtiSj as related in hcily writ, differ fo widely from thofc 
atteoding the e?^pulfion of the fhepherds. We cannot agree 
with Ac above-mentioned Writers, and Tome modern chro^ 
ndogers, in fuppofing diem one and the fame event. A9 
we know not where to give place, according to the feries of 
time, either fo the irruption or expulfion of the fhepherds, 
we have chofen to joiii them together, and acquaint the 
reader, at the f^me pme, with what wcind in the anticnt$ 
concerning both^ though the one was 259 years poflerior to 
the other (D}. This is all the genuine account we have of 
the imiptK>n of the fhepherds. 

^ Mamsth. apud Jofeph. ibid. ^Tatian. orat.^ntxa 

Grace g JvsT. inparzm. ^ QhEu. A|.sx^ ih-oip.-ri. i« 

(D) Sir I/aac Kewton places of (he world 1920, 2048 bcs 

this ezpal£on in the year 1070 fore Chriil ; and their eipoUica 

beforeCHRiiT, or ^2 years be- in 2 1 79 of the world, and i Baj 

fore the firft expedition of ^/^- before the chriftian sraj(6).i 

Jlris^ or Sefac, as he calls bin), the reigns ofSalatis, their .£j-ft 

iD|o Africa (5). Their ir- kingi an > his hye, fuccefjfors, at 

rupcion happened, according marked by Manetho^ an3buACi<» 

toarchbiihop Vfier^ in the year ing to 259 years (7). . - 

(5) Sir Jfaae NeiotuCt Qmt fbr§tf§/trj» (6) FUl, UJk* ad<n ann^ 

Bufirjs I* 

41 . ,, The Hipry of Egypt B. I. 

. Wb now return to Herodotus and Diodorus ; of whom 
the latter makes nuntion of fevera) princes between Menes 
and Miris. 

. According to his accoant, Buftrh (E), in procefs of 
time, became king, and was fucceeded by eight princes of 
bis line ; the laft of which was called alfo Bufirisy and was 
the founder of th^ city oS Thebes^ which he made the capita) 
of the kingdom*. ^ 

Ofyman. ^ Osymandy as (F) appears next. It is uncertain whom, 
^y^* <>r when, he fucceeded. The BaSfrians revolting from 
bim,"he reduced them, as is faid, with an army confifting 
pf 400,000 foot, and 20,000 horfe. Of all the antient 

rmuments of the kings, for which the city of Thebes was 
renowned, his was of the greateft note. It confifted of 
vaft courts, porticos, fhrines, temples, a library, his own 
Bi$ tmh, tomb, and other buildings. The firft court, which wa3 

- ■ * ■ 

.r ' Dioo. ubi fupr. 

(£) Sir John Marfiuun and 
Sir Ifaac Nenuton think, that 
po fuch king ever reigned, and 
that, what is faid concerning his 
cruelty is merely faljulous ( § ). 
Terizofiius^ on the contrary, is 
i)f opinion, that theri6 was fuch 
a king of Egypt ^ but who was 
not fo ancient as Dioihrus makes 
him ; taxing thathiilorian with 
tod great indulgence towards 
*he-.^>5^//«» vanity (9). 

(F) U we rely on Sir John 
Marjhaniy we fhould call Ofy- 
mandyas Amen of his and Mem- 
Hon ; as alfo, Imandes\ J/man' 
dest and OfimanieS'\ bhi» per- 
haps, {ays he, derived from 
Ofirls^ and that from 'Ifis. 
V/hat ieems to be \C\% chief ar- 
guinent in fupporC of thi^ opi- 
nion^ is^ that the city they pre> 
tend hebcficged, is faid to have 
iKfn furrounded by a river, 
ivbich be thinks was the river 
Muiaus^ and the city itfdlf «^V 

/a 5 for Pliny iays, that river 
furrounded che fortreis of the 
Sufiaksi and obferves, that 
Su/a was conamonly called, bf 
the Greeks^ Memnonia. . He 
obferves moreover, that A/fw? 
non's expedition into JJta wai 
more celebrated by the Greeif 
than that of Sefoftris ; whidi 
he attributes to the poets, who 
fprang firi!: up in or near his 
time ; and- concludes, ^lat he 
dwelt fome time in Sufit\ " All 
this, according to his coftcttiH 
he endeavours to prove ..from 
antient teHimony (10)^ 

Ferizoftius offers many coft* 
jeflures concerning this king, 
and the time of his reigri ; but 
comfes to no- ppfitive decifion-^ 
and (caffcd offers a conjedlure, 
fo dark this period appears to 
him { 1 1 >. Sir IJaac bicwton 
takes Ofymqndyas and Menes 
to be the fame perfon, as wt 
have hinted above. 

Qj^ira^. ubijup. ' 


C. ni. to the time of Alexander. , . 45 

of various kinds of ftone. Was 200 feet in extent, and 45 feet 
high. Next to this was a fquare portico, each of whofc 
fides was 400 feet long ; and, inftead of pilla^s^ fu^ported 
by repreientations of animals of 15 cubits high, all of 01I6 
ftone, and adorned with figures after the anttent manner. 
The cieling was blue, and feecjed with ftars. Frorik 
this portico they Went into a fecond court, in all refpe<^s 
like the firft^ except that it was more enriched widi varioug 
Sculptures : in the entrance thereof were three ftatues, afl 
of one ftoi>e, the worfcmanfhip oi Memnpn the Syenite : on^ 
of them was in a fitting poflure, and the largefl in all 
Egypt J the length of its foot exceeding feven cubits. This 
was hi^ own ftatue ; the other two, which flood one s^jt 
each knee« reprefented his mother and daughter. Thi^ 
wonderful piece Was not,fo admirable for the exqulfxte art 
of the carver, as for the beauty of the flone, which was free 
from the leaft flaw or blemifh. It had this infcriptiori j I dm 
Ofymandyas, king of kings : he that would know my grandr 
euTy or where I lie^ let him furtafs me in any of my works. 
Here was alfb another flatue of his mother, flanding by her- 
felf, twenty cubits high, and cut out of one flone : fhe had 
three queens on her head, fignifyihg, that fhc had been the 
daughter, wife, arid mother of a king. This couit led to 
a fecond portic6, or piazza, far exceeding the firfl. Oh 
the wall of this the king was reprefented, with his arm^, 
bdieging a town iftciompafled by a river, and fighting ia 
flic front of the battld, accompanied by a lion: concerning 
Whicli, fome faid, he always fought with a tame lion at his . ^ 

fide^ and others, that the figure of that animal was only' 
an emblem of his extraordinary colirage. On the fecond 
wall were the captives, with their hands and privities lopped 
ofij to exprefs their cowardice. On the third were all 
forts of fculpture^ and paintings, which reprefented his fa- 
crifices and triumph. In the middle of this piazza was an 
altar in the open air, built of the moft fhining marble, of 
excellent workmanfhip, and wonderful proportion. On 
the fourth fide, or wall, were two gigantic flatues, all of 
one fldne, in a fitting poflure, and 27 cubits high. Near 
unto thefe were three pafTages, which gave admiflion into a 
great hall, fupported by columns, after the manner of a 
mufic-theatre, and 200 feet fquare. In this place were 
many wooden ftatues, reprefenting parties engaged in law, 
and the judges hearing the caufes. Thefe lafl, to the num- 
ber of thirty, were carved on one fide, with their prefident 
in the midfi of them, at whofe neck hung an image, with 
'\\& cvesibut^ to reprefent truth^^ and with many books about 


44 ^^^ Hijloty of Egypt B. I. 

him. By this they chofe to fignify, that judges ought to be 
proof againft bribery, and refpeft nothing out truth and 
equity. Next was a gallery or walk, in which were apart- 
ments ftored with the moft delicious eatables. Here \hi 
king was moft curioufly wrought, and painted with the 
moft lively colours, as prefentingto God the gold and filvcjr 
annually dug out of the mines in Egypt ; the amount whereof 
lyas 3,200,000,000 minas, or 96,000,000 of pounds fter- 
ling. Next was the facred library, with this infcription i 
TChe difpenfary of the mind. Contiguous thereunto were 
the images of all the Egyptian gods, with the king paying 
the ofFerings due and peculiar to each of them j that OJiris^ 
and the reft of the disities placed beneath him, might know, * 
that he had pafFed his life with piety towards the gods, and 
with juftice towards men. Next to the library was an edi-- 
fice of curious archite£lure, wherein were twenty couches 
tofeaft on, and the ftatues of Jupiter^ J^no^ and the king; 
who was thought to be here intombed. Around this were 
feveral pavilions, in which moSt curious piSures of the con- 
fecrated animals were fecn. From hence was the afcertt to 
the fepulclire, where was feen a ring or circle of gold, 
365 cubits in circumference, and one in thicknefs, fur* 
rounding the monument. This ring was divided by th^ day^ 
of the year, andihewed the rifmg and fetting of the ftars, 
^d their afpedls, according to the Egyptian aftrolow. This 
Qrcular border was carried away by Cambyfes thc^rerfian. 
^uch was the tomb of Ofymandyasy whofe defcenaant$ 
reigned after him to the eighth generation* The laft of 
Uchoreos. them was called Uchoreus ^. 

The building and fortifying of Memphis^ which have 
already been afcribed to Menes^ are attributed to this Ucbo" 
rfiits (F) alfo. . He is faid to have given that city a circuit 
bf 150 ftadia, or neaf* io riiiles, and by mounds and trenches 
to have fecured it from the infults either of the Nile^ or of 
^ invader. He adorned it with palaces, which, though 
they fuirpafled ithofe in any other country, yet fell fhort of 
"lyhathad been done in that way by his prcdeceffors. For 
the inhabitants held this tranfitory life in no eftimation, if 

^DiODOR. I. i. p. 44. 

(F'Thclaft-mcntioncdchro- of the fame genius, and there^ 
nolbger thinks the works of fore weald willingly think them 
of Uchereui and Mctris favour one and the fame perfon ( 1 }. 

(i) Vi4, Sir JJaae f^ewtm uhifupr, 


C. III. to the time of AteSandcr. 45 

compared with the joys the virtuous were to poiTels horc-' 
after ; and were proportionably lefs fplcndid in the lodgingi 
tficy prepared for the former, than in the repofitories they 
founded for the latter. This king tranflated the imperisu 
feat from Thebes to Memphis K. 

After, him, uncertain when, reigned Safychisj the SafycUs. 
fecond Egyptian legiflator. 

We have now brought Dt odor us down to Myn's ; andf 
that we may dp the fame with Herodotusy we muft relate 
what he has faid concerning Nitocris (G). She fucceeded Nitocrii. 
her brother, an Ethiopian^ whom the Egyptians murdered, 
but afterwards conferred the fucceffion on her. She, medi* 
tating revenge for her brother's untimely end, put many 
of the Egyptians to death privately, andbyftratagcm; and is 
particularly faid to have contrived a fubterraneous building', 
whither flie invited the principal adors againft her brother to 
partake of a feaft, and, in the midft of their mirth, to have 
turned the river upon them by a private paflage, and drown- 
ed them all. Tlien, to fcreen herfelf from the rage' of the 
people, (he took refuge in a place well fortified with aflies^. 
She was of a fair complexion, her hair was yellow, her 
perfon beautiftU ; but it s^peais, that, diough her mind 
was great, as is (aid, (he was not a little inclined to crU-^ 
elty. She is reported to have built the third great pyramid K 

Af t e r twelve generations, Mceris^ or ^yris (H), came 
to the throne. This was he who dug the fsunous lake which 


e Idem uhi fapr. p; 46. ^ Hbrod. 1. ii. c. 100. i Syn- 

CELL. p. 58. ^ before, p. 7, (H). 

( G ) Her name (ignifies much to the fame purpofe ( 3 % 

Minerva nfi&rix. Sir John Sir i^Srar jN^/off makes her the 

Marjbam places her (bon after filler and fucceilbr of Myceri^ 

the Ifraelites came into Egypt, nrn { \ . 
He thinks Jofephus means her (H , He recovered Memphis 

by the name ofNic-auIe, queen from the paftors, (ays Sir yahft . 

of Egypt and Ethiopia ; but Mar/ham ( j* ). Perizomus fixes^ 

that he is miftaken, in fuppoitng upon ' nothing concerning him.' 

tYicNkoeris of Herodotus to be Maeris was sdfo called Maris p 

the queen who vifited Solomon, Myris, Meres, Marresy Smarrer, 

According to this chronologer^ and more corruptly, by chang* 

(he was queen of This, Thebes^ ing Minto -<^, T, ^, 2, TX, A^ 

3xid Memphis, and much older &ff. Jyres, Tyris, Byires^S/iris,* 

dian the Babylonian Nitocris Uchoreus, Labaris ; fo fayd Sir 

(2). Father Petron writes Ifaac Ne*vifton {6). 

(2) Marjb» ubifupr, {3) Ptxron^ ubi fufr„ (4) Sir Ifaac New^ 

e^ttH fr^^ (5) Mdrfh^ ubifrt* (^) ^w* ^I<^oz l^ev^t. uhi fvp. 

'" " bore 

46 ^he Hijiory of Eg^ B. I^i 

bore his nime, 'and erefted the two pyranyds which flood 
in the midft of it J^. He alfo built a mmptuous portigo on 
the north fide of Fulcan^s temple at Memphis K According' 
to Herodotus J he was the 330th king from Menesy and the 
immediate predeceflbr to Sefoftris, 
SefoArie. Sesostris, Sejoojirisy Sefoojisy Sefonchisy Sefincbojisy Se^ 
thojisy and feveral other appellationsy are, by (I) fome) hel4 


* Sec rol. I. p.450, 4ff I. 
ubifupr. p. 47. 

(I) Sir John Mar/ham al- 
lows him to have been called 
by theie feveral appellations, 
and others befides, which we 
may perhaps have occaiion to 
mention, by-and-by. He is 
clearly of opinion^ that the Se- 
Jofiris of the profane hidorians 
is the S'e[ac or Shijbak of the 
facred: he takes notice^ that 
the more antient kings of ^^/, 
with whom the patriarchs were 
formerly concerned, are always 
fUled Pharaoh j whereas Shi- 
jbak is the iirft Egyptian king 
in Scripture called by his 
proper name ; except Ramefes 
be rather the name of a king 
than a country. Thisfampijs 
chronologer thinks, that, when 
Sefoftris, or Shijhak^ as he calls 
kim> fet out to invade j^fia^ he 
could not well avoid hWmg up- 
on Judaa^ and accprdingly 
took the capital thereof, Jeru^ 
falemy which he Aripped of its 
i^iches, and reduced Rehoboam 
the king to ferve hin^; for 
^here is exprefs mention made 
in the LXX and vulgate ver- 
fions, that he was followed by 
multitudes o£ Lihyans, froglo- 
efytes^ and Ethiopians, nations 
whom« according to proiane 
accounts, he bad previoufly con- 
quered. He then lays a ilrefs 

^ Herodot. ibid. c. 161. D109V 

npon Jofephus^ who fays. Thai 

Herodotus, through miftaket 

afcrihed the actions of Sefac t$ 

Sefoflris : and again ; That Ht' 

TO^otMZ'wasonly mifiaken inthi 

kin^s name ; adding, that, fince 

Herodotus and Jojefhui agree 

as to the fa£b, there is no great 

matter in the differenee of the 

names they ufe; and becaufif' 

Herodotus profefTes to have feeff 

fome of Se/oftris*s ignominioof 

pillars in the Syrian Pailejtinei 

and becaufe it is iaid in the Scri« 

pture, and by Jofepbus^ that 

Rehoboam gave up the city with^ 

out the lealt refifUnce, hefeems 

to be clearly of opinion, that 

Se/acy or ShijS^qk, (et them ^p 

upon that very account ( 8 ). 

Let m now fee what Peri- 
%omus has tp offer in cdntnti 
di^bn to this ; for we have al- 
ready pbierved, that he sifikeaf 
it his chi^f bufinefs to confute, 
the foregoing chronologer. - He^ 
then lays it down with great po* 
fitivenefs, that Sefac and Sefi^ 
firis are kings widely diffeteot 
and remote fi*om each other. 
How he proves this, we fhaU 
give in the briefeft and dear^ 
order we are able. 

I .He examines theexpreffiona 
above-cited from Jofepbus ; ^nd^ 
after proving that^&raral of the 

(?). Vid, Marjb. uhi fup. 


C. III. to the time jof Alexander. 

to belong to one man, v^hofe reign is eftieemed tbejgMft 
extraordinary part pf the Egyptian hiftorv. He is r^(e* 

* fcntcd 


learned, as well as Sir John 
Mar/ham^ haVe taken them 
wrong, he proceeds thas : 
Firft» he infills, that, by the 
common confent of the Gr^^^, 
Sefiftris was moeh older than 
the Trojan ^2Lr. So lays He- 
rodotus % and the fame is re- 
ported by Diodorus, only with 
this differeojce, that he makes 
a mach greater fpace between 
this kii\g and that war than 

' Hetodotus does. This aifo is 
evidently confirmed by Strabo 
(9), and by Ariftotle (lo), 
who places him before Minos 
the Cr^/^nr lawgiver : as alio by 
the writers of the Argonaut ex- 
pedition, thefcholiaftof^/^- 
mtu (11).; by Arrianus (12), 
who makes him contemporary 
to Jandyfu the Scythian ; by 
Jomandes ( 1 3 )» who fays he 
fiouriihed before the Amaxjons ; 
and laftly, by Jufiin and Mli- 

I «« ( 1 4 ) ; the former declaring 
that Sefiftris lived before the 
days ofNinus, and the latter, 
that be was inftru^ed by^ Mer- 
€ury^ and fo makes him equal to 
the Egyptian Mercuty^ who 
muft certainly have been more 
antient than the time of Bjbc- 
ioam. After thefe citations, he 
blames Sir John Marram for 
making flight of fnchabandant 
teftimony, and for pronoancing 
the whole a miilake which arofe 
from the ignorance of the 
Greeks: and then proceeds; But 

' conld the Greeks be Grangers to 
thft age of Sefiftris^ if he lived 

fo late ? there was no very great 
interval between Homer andKr- 
hoboam : and who can conceive 
that he, who was bom in j^a 
Minor ^ and fpent the greatdt 
part of hid days there, or in the 
adjacent ifles, and lived, at 
Marjham allows, after the days 
ofSefofirisi ivho, (ays he, can 
account for his not making men- 
tion of Sefiftris in any of his 
poems, as he did of Mernnon, 
who siuft have followed this 
conqueror very near ? Mtmnfin 
was celebrated, &ys Mar/Sint^ 
bec^ufo he lived nearer to t£e 
poetical times ; but Ferizonius 
will have it, that Homer wrote 
foon after the death of Reho- 
heamt and therefore muil have 
followed him near enough to 
have had perfect information 
and frcih records of the deeds 6f 
Sefiftris : befides Afta Minor at 
that time was all Greek, by the 
jEoIic and Ionic colonies which 
were tranfplanted thither fome* 
time before the reign of Reho' 
boami and the inhabitants mull 
have principally been Greis 
when Sefiftris invaded Afia Mi- 
nor y\f Marjham be right. Whiat 
is here find of the Afiatic Greeks ^ 
is to clear the way for a farther 
confutation of Marfietm, who- 
obierves, that, if SefiftrisYad 
extended the war intoGr^^r^,we 
fhould have bad clearer lights 
concerning him, nor would be 
have been involved fo much 
in obfcurity ; feeing the Athe- 
nians, Lacedemonians $ and C«- 

(9) VhL L i.f . 38. & A zvH. f, B24. (to) Fid, ftitU. tiL io« 

(I t) L. in^r. ^'|^, (|a) Afiid Pbotium^ €od, 53,- (23), Qeticis, c. 6. 



Rented as potent at land and on fea, wife, juft> gene* 
rouSy szioTOMAy magnificent, but ambitious aunoft 


rintbianSyloMii, began to preierve 
the memory of thiols; that 
the Jfiatic Greeks were not 

at this time very regardful of 

. foreign tranfa£tions, were unskil- 
ful in letters, and that JEf^Tm^ was 
sot yet born, who was older than 
any Greek hifbriographer : 
and from hence concludes, that 
we ought not to wonder, 

. that the Egyptian affairs are al 
moft utterly tinknpwn. To 
this it is anfwered, that the 
Jfiatie Greeks were more likely 
to tranfinit the hiftory of ^^- 
fofiris down to pofterity, as be- 
ing fiiperior and ienior in learn- 
ing to the Eurofean ; that, if 
they did not immediately keep 
written records, chey undoubt- 
edly preferved very ^ithful tra- 
ditions of pail occurrences, 
which they propagated from 
one generation to another, and 
particularly in the cafe of 4^^- 

. fiifiris^ the monuments of whofe 
conquers they had before their 
tythi and if his monarchy de- 
fcended to his fucceffors, as 
Marjbam thinks it did to the 
firil Olympiad, and if Homer, 
was not yet born, it is certain 
that he muft have been born 
foon after, and whilft the fame 
and power of this monarchy 

.muft have fubfiiled. In a 
word, Perizonius prefers the 
jffiatic before the, European 
Creeks, as to what concerns the 
remembrance of antient mat- 

. ters ; and proves that the latter 
received the greateft part of 
their arts and fciences, nay, of 
their alphabet, from the for- 
mer; obferving, that, if not all 

yet moft oftheandentdftG/wi 
writers were Jfiaties. He con- 
tinues ; Now if Se/bfirisiavtMi 
Jfia Minor after the Greeks 
fettled there, the j^//VGr#^if, 
who firft of all delivered 
down the memory of things, 
both in profe and verie, moft 
certainly have known fome- 
thing of this celebrated expe- 
dition, either from the writings 
or the traditions of their fore- 
Others, and have given at juft 
and accurate an account thereof 
as the European Greeks could 
have given. But nothing of 
this appears ; for Herodotus^Hblt 
moft antient of the Greek iufto- 
rians we have, profcfles to have 
received the whole flory of Se» 
foflris from the JSjj(^iii»prieftii 
He thinks moreover, that, fup 
pofing Marjbam to be in the 
right, the European Greeks maSt 
have had fufiiaent knowlege of 
Se/ojris, feeing he carri^ on 
the war into Thrace, and that 
Lycurgus, within an hundred 
years afterwards, mufb have 
travelled into Jfia, wheno^ be 
brought over with him the 
works of Homer, He certainly 
would have alfo brought fbrne 
account with him of fo great a 
vidlory from the Jfiasic Greeks, 
if it had been obtamed only 70 
years, or thereabouts, bciore. 

2. But the Greeks alone did 
not put Se/oftris many ag^ 
more backward than- Sejaci 
the Egyptians did it alfo. M^ 
netbo exprefly fays, that ^ff* 
ptus and Danaus were .only 
different names for Sethojts [Sf 
foftfisl^dxA his brother jimoah. 



C. llli /y/iS* time efAicxaxviet. 

beyond tompare. Both the Greeks and Egypttaris^ wnpr 
Recorded his adUons, whether in profe or -veife; ' differed 



Now Dafiaks csLtntinto Greece, 
as is iaid^ three ages before the 
Trojan war, and he could bor- 
row this from no Greek author, 
at leafty that is extant ; and 
therefore, that Se/aftris and 
Armais were ^gyptus and Dd- 
nam, -feems to hare been the 
oj^nion of the Egyptians, or^ at 
leaft^ of MoHetbd, 

'3. The fkcred hifloty does 
not favour the opinion of Se- 
fiftris^z being Se/ac ; for, by the 
pro&ne accounts, Bejbftrisy in a 
continued expedition of nine 
years^ over-ran all Afia: but 
the Scripture makes ho &rther 
mention of ^^^- than that he 
fpoiled the temple and the city, 
and returned back. Jofiphus 
fays cxpreflyi that he rft- 
tumed into his own cbuntrfr. 

' 4. What Mdrfiam fays of 
the duration of Sefofiri$\ mo- 
narchy, as that it reached down 
to Amaisiab and Uxziab kings 
of Judaby and to the beginning 
of the firft Olympiad; by the 
Scripture it appears,* that the 
kifigs ef Judaby after Rebobo- 
a^f never ferved any foreign 
powef^ <^r paid any tribute, till 
they were invaded by the ^ 
fyrietns, • So that, if Sefifiris 
ttnd Sbijbmk be the fame^ as 
Marram would have them, it 
doek not appear that the Egy- 
ptian monarchy was of any du- 
ration ; Ui that here he is alfo 
miftaken. So far we have 
given you the argumetits of P^- 
r/«««iitf againfl Marfiam: we 
will now infert his opinion as 
to the times when this con- 
queror livedo 

Vol. n. 

Andy cohternih'g this, he 
fpeaks with great uncertaiiify 
and caution. He begins thus : 
Herodoiia declares^ that king 
Maris had not been dtfad qui^e 
906 years When he was in 
Egypt, Now the fame hift^- 
rian makds Sejbjlris the imme« 
diate fuCcefTor of ili<2rr//; and 
moreover fkys, that the Trojan 
i^r was about 800 years be- 
fore he wrote ; and that jRT/r- 
culesy the ion ofAlcmenay went 
into igypt about 906 yearslid- 
fore hiinfelf. By this chrono- 
logy, Sefifiris lived about ai 
age or century befbre the Tri^ 
j4n l^r, and i^as contempo- 
rary with . the abovefaid -fifirr- 
eulety or a little later. So it 
follows fiiom this computation i 
but, in h^i he inuft have been 
older, if he be the fknle with 
JEgyptuiy tvhofe brother Z)«- 
ndus was the (ixth predeceflbi^ 
of Perfeusy who was the great 
grand^ther of tiercules : and 
fix)m hence he coAjeAures, thai 
Sefifiris ihay be fixed in the 
days of the Judges. But, con- 
tiilues he, it may be objefted, 
that there is not the lead men- 
tion made of SefiftHsy arid what 
h^ did, itt holy Writ. To this 
he anfwfcrs, that the I/rdelites, 
when Sefiftris came into Pale^ 
fiine, were under fnbjddlion td 
the various nations which in- 
habited the country ; for thaf 
Palefiine bent under the incur-- 
lions of Sefifiris^ appears plain 
from Herodotus y who thefe faw 
the ignominious pitlarS whicll 
he ufed to raife in coun- 
tries where he met with no re- 
D fifiance^ 


iThe Hiftvry of Egypt B. L 

widdy from each other ^'iut they could never differ morey 
nor fure fo much, as our modern chronologers andhiftorkuis 


fiftance. And iince the J/rael- 
itei were not principals in this 
infam^j they might imagine it 
not primarily to concern cheniy 
but accidentally to have fallen 
upon them in common with 
their makers; and therefore 
took no notice thereof, as 
thinking it coald be no imme- 
diate part of their own hillory. 
Add to this, that Se/o/triscaa\d 
make no long ftay there, con- 
fidering that they voluntarily 
fubmitted to him, and that he 
had no lefs a conqueil in his 
eye, than all the eaftern parts 
of. the world, if not the whole 
habitable earth ; which re- 
quired difpatch .-and thence he 
takes occafion to fpeak in the 
words oi yu/tin, that, though 
. Se/o/fris gloried in his con- 
queds, he abilained from em- 
pire, and made no change in 
thegovcrnmentof any country. 
Finally, he fuppofes alfo, that 
Se/ofiris might have come into 
Talejtine when Ifrael was un 
der the Mwhites ; and owns, 
that it is no way important 
whether or no Danaus was the 
brother of Sejofiris ; deems 
what Manetho iays on that 
head, to be calculated to pleafe 
the Greiks ; and, in a word, 
concludes, that he has de- 
firoyed Sir yohn Mar/hanC^ hy- 
pothefis, by proving \kiZX.Mtnis 
18 not Homy or Mizraim ; or *Sr* 
/ofiris, Shijhak ( 15 . 

We will now, in general 
terms, infert the opinion of 
fetcron. He teaches, that Se- 

thofis and Sefifiris are one and 
the {ameperfon,and that he wai 
the^^;^2a brother to Datum i 
that he was a prince widely di- 
ftant from Se/onchUf whom he 
will have to have been the iame 
with Shifiuik ; and that neither 
Se/oncJb^ru, or Sg/oMchqfis, was 
Sefoftris^ but diflind »hbth from 
him and from each other. We 
forbear entering into his lea- 
fons, and proceed to another 
learned man, who has no eae 
notion in common with what 
has entered into the heads of 
thefe three celebrated chroliQ" 
logers (16). 

We mean Mr. WhifiM^ whe^ 
becaufe he is fmgular in takios 
this king for the vtxy PiaraA 
who perifiied in the RedSe^^ 
and the very ^Typh^n of the l/fy" 
tbologifts, we wiU give you his 
own words. And fir^ he pr^* 
mifes this propoikion : ** Hmr" 
'* meffet Mi JmSufi, or Rmmg' 
Jei theGreat^ thegrandfikther 
" of ^ejofirii^ was king-of the 
^* lower Egypt when HE/hmfu 
born : Anenophh III. his 
fon, was there king aftef 
him durii^ M^/fs*^ youth; 
** and Sethosf or Sithqfis^ or 
« Se/oftrts the Qreaty the f<M 
'' of JmenofhU .lll» was id 
" during the reft of the fcrvi- 
** tude of the children of J^* 
rael in Egypt ; and was tluiC 
y try Pharaoh whopeci(hed.i» 
" t\it Red Sear r<tlienoffjM 
13 reafons or arguments in d&r 
monflation of thi& pro( ol^^ion !• 
but, pafTm^ over to the tenths 







{!$) Vii% Ptrmnu ubifup. ^16) Ptssron, anti^, da tempi ntab* p* C4. 

C. HI. to the ti$ne of Alexaiidef. 

do, in fixing his age, and in fpeaking concerning him : 
however^ we (hall €oIl«& the beft account we can of his 


ie thrfc fayij that '* tli^. '" firm thofc accounts we have 
f' prefer^ration of Mofss, and << in ^r/a/a^^i an heathen, and 





his education by PharOoPs 
daughter (17); are very 
agreeable to what her bro- 
ther, Aminophis III. did 
*« about, or foon after, the 
^^ birth of Mofes i I mean, 
** when he called together, 
*< and educated with his Ton 
** Sefoflris, no fewer than 
** feventcen hundred boys 
** ( 1 8), or all the male children 
•* that were born in Egypt 
** the fame day with him : 
** which might well be in imi- 
** tation of ^hermutis [the 
daughter of this Fbaraohy 
who was otherwife called 
HarmeffesMi'AmourtyOr Ra- 
•* mefies the Great'], when (he 
** drew Mo/es out of the river, 
** and educated him for her 
*' own fon v' 19). And, by the 
** way, if this Tbermutis were 
^* but as fagacious and learned 
** as her great niece Atbyrtes, 
** the daughter of Sefoftris, is. 
** dcfcribed by Diodorus (20), 
<* we (hall have no reafon to 
*«• wonder at what St. Stephen 
** informs us, that Mofes ivas 
*' learned in all the nxi/dom of 
** the Egyptians, and was 
*' mighty in ivords and in deeds ^ 
even beffore he received any 
particular commiflion from 
God for the delivery of his. 
people out of Egypt, Nay, 
** indeed, thele laft words con- 
** cerning Mofeiy that be was 
fo early mighty in awards and 
in deedsi feem to mie to con- 

(iS) Mittfj.p.%%1 





. (17) Ex9d. ii. 

** Jo/Muj thtjrwy concern* 
" ingMo/es^s wife and valiant 
<^ condu^ under the king of 
" ^Vt^y when he was young,- 
^< againft the Ethiopians ; who 
*^ attempted the conqueft of 
'^ that country at that time. 
'* Which fucceffes of thefe E^ 
*< gyptiansf under the condudk 
<< of Mofesy might probably 
*< enough encourage king i^^- 
*< fofiris to undertake thofc 
*« other vaft expeditions which 
*< raifed the Egyptian monar-r 
^« chy, and fpread his empire 
'« over almoU all the then 
*< known world. Nor is ifi 
*' impoffible to fuppofe, that 
** the Ethidpic war, which is 
'' known to have been under- 
*^ taken both at fea and land, 
by this Sefoftrisy might be 
when he was young; and 
might be that very Ethiopic 
war which was managed by 
MofeSy under the kmg of 
Egypt y as mentioned by ^r- 
tapanits and Jofephus,'''* 
Mr. Whiflon^% eleventh argu- 
ment runs thus: "There are 
" evident remains of this Sefo" 
" y?r/i's periftiing in or near the - 
Red Seay as did this Pharaoh 
at the exodus out of Egypt; 
** Diodorus affurcs us, tiiat Se* 
foftris at lail became blind i 
and that fo lie was volunta- 
rily the occaiion of his own 
'^ death ; and Uuit he deferv- 
edly obtained the admiratipn 
of the prieds and people, of 

(15} Kj^d. u\ JQ. 










*: Esjfi 

The Hifiory of Egypt fi. I. 

Sesostris then is by fome thought to havebeendie ton 
of Jmenop bis -, but, whoever his father was, it is fiud9 that die 


Egypt on account of that his ** fame end that the Erjfftum 
magnanimous death. But ** Pi6«r«0^ did, and was drown* 
^ what fort of voluntary and ** ed in or near to the fiune Xgd 
** maenanimous death this was, '* Sea. For as they, in fiuc 
'* it ictms the Egyptian priefts ^* phces at lead, long kept the 
*^ did not inform him. But << memory of Ofyris^ the ofiul 
** then, ifweconfider, thatS#- ** name of any beloved king of 
*^ foftrti'% real or Egpptian " ^gypt that was murdered i aa 
" naYne was Setb-os^ or SetJi- '* was I/is the ufual name oC 
ojis ; and that there was an *' fuch a king^s wife, or queen ^ 
antient famous £^/iA«king9 '* and Tjpbo the ufual name of 
'* whofe fiditious name among ** fuch a murderer ; fb it waa 
** the Greeks was Yjpbon, tbe ** here. OjyHs feems to have 
^ prouii i but his real or Egy» *' been fome beloved king that 
'* ^//a;7 name was no otlier than *' Sefofiris had flain [perhaps 
^' ^^/i&y as PltUarcb himfelf, a *' his own brother Rasmajfks ] ^ 
'' ereat mailer of old Egyptian ** and him(elf (eems thence to 
*' learning, more than once af- ** have had the hateful name of 
«* fures us ; that Typbo*s own " Typbo given him by the 
** city Felufium was peculiarly " other's fubjefti. And cer* 
** the city of this ^tfoftris^ " tainly this name Typbo^ or 
*' whither he firtt came when " tbe proud^ was never applied 
** he returned from his famous ** more fitly than to this Se/o^ 
** eaflern expedition-; and where " ftris ; who after his conqued 
** he and his queen received a '^ nfed fometimes to take his 
" fort of miraculous deliverance ** hories out of his chariot, and 
'' from the murderous defigns ** to harnefs a certain number 
•* of his brother Armais^ and " ofhis captive kings, and to be 


was, by the Egypt ians^ called *« drawn in ftate by them, in- 

** according to his own name " Head of the other. And, as 

** Seth ' ron ; and the nomos " to the death of this Typbo, the 

thereto belonging, the Setb- " Egyptian records are plain 

roite nomos ; we fhall find, " and dire£lj and afTure us, that 

that what the Egyptians " he was firuck by a tbunder^ 

'* could not, or would not, di- " holt, and bis blood ran out at 

•* redly inform Diodorus of in " Heroopolis, a city ytry near 

in the way of plain hiftorical *^ the place where the Ifrael* 

fad, and thereby concealed *' /Vfj entered the ^^r^ 5/^i j the 

the true manner of his death " very fame, I fuppofe, that 

«« from foreigners ; yet did *' Mofes calls by its elder name . 

** fome of thofe Egyptians pre- ** ^ Baalzephon j that the fame 

*« ferve the memory of it un- *' city was called Blood, or 

*' der another form ; and that " The bloody city, from that 

" t\ihSetb,ot Setb-os,ox Seth- '' firft Jhedding of the hlogd of 

f* ojis^ or lypho^ came to the ** Typho there-, and that he 

*' Her 

C* ni. to the time of Mtxmditr. 

god Vulcan appeared to him in a dream, and admonifhed 
him, that the foo which was or fhould be born to him, 



*• Itet drowned under tht 'wtUert " lightnings mentioned in this 
of the lake SirboD, which is <^ account of 7ypho^% deArudti- 
not far from the Red Sea ; ** on, other than what we have 
and was antiently fuppofed *^ hinted at in the cafe oiPha- 
to communicate therewith ** raoh^s de(lru6Uon in our pre-* 
under-ground. Thedtyalfo '' fent copies of the P#ff/tf/^»ri&s 
itfelf feems to me to have its **" where we find, that God 
later name Herotpolis, or the '* looked through the pillar of 
city of heroesy on this very ** fire, and of the clowd^ and fo 
account, that near thereto «• troubled the bofis oftheEgy^ 
the moft potent Egyptian ** ptians, that their chariot- 
king, and his mighty com- '* ivheels *were taken off, and 
mandersy with their intire '^ they drove heavily ; and thi 
army, thofe great heroes, be- " Egyptians re/bl*ved to Jlu 











came martyrs for the Egy- 
ptian idois^ idolatry, and ty** 
ranny, in oppofition to the 
God of I/rael,and hi$ peo- 
ple : nor do 1 meet with any 


" from the face of Ifrael, he- 
«* caufe they now perceived^that 
** God him/elf fought for them 
ctgainfi the Egyptians, whild 
nuith the blaft of his mftriti 
other in hiflory for that ap- « the tAjatersnuere gathered to^ 
pellacioUi And very remark- «< gether ; and dire£tly fet'down 
able it is, how exa^ly all this <« by Jofephus zxidiArtapanus in 
agrees to the other mpre di- <« the hiltory itfelf; and alfb 
re£t Egyptian account already <c by the pfalmift in his celebra- 
fet down ; <i;/«. That Sefo- « tion of this moft wonderful 
** ftri»\ death was voluntary « deliverance and judgment ; 
and magnanimous, and fuch, « who declares, that,be£ides tht 
indeed, as was highly extol-' « -pouring out of water front 
led both by the priefts and « the clouds at that time, the 
people oi Egypt, And whaf « fiies then fent out a foundi^ 
Paidinus in Aufonius could *< and God*s arrows went 
mean, when, inf the diiUndt << abroad i that /i&# voice of his 







mention of two of the nK)ft 
illuftrious kings of Egypt , 
Necepfos and Sefiftris, he fays 
of the latter, Et qui regna- 
vit, fine nomine- mox, Sefoo- 


thunder was in the heaven i 
that the lightnings lightned 
the world i and that the 
earth trembled and Jhook: in 
exaft agreement with the 

ftris ; that he who hai been <^ heathens account of the de- 
fo great a king, was hy-and- *^ ilrudion of Typho?^^ To con- 
by without u name ; unlefs elude ; the fkme writer thinkai 
he refer to fome fuch igno- it a plain folution to the que- 
minious death of his, as We ftion, of what became bf the fa- 
have here defcribed ; is hard mous Egyptian (nonacchy after 
to fay. Nor is that /i^i/^r- the death of ^^y^r/jr f that he 
Mtf wftorm effbundtr emd and his numerous hoft wa& loft 

54 ^he Hiftory of Egypt Kh 

Hij/ather'^ould be lord of the whole earth, l-raught with this vi- 
gathers i^fion, he got together all the males in Egypt born on the 
all the boys fame 

in Egypt 

that nuere in the UedSea ; wh'ch^ together ** his minftrcls, called by the 
horn on the with the lofs o.^ 600,000 flaves, " Greeks Calliope, to Oeagrur 
fame day as the Hehrenui were no better f' the fon of 1 bar ops \ and of 
^itb him. in Egypt ^ he thinks mull have « Oeagrus and CaJHape "was 
given a great fliock to the Egy^ " born Orpheus^ who faile4 
^/itf«power,and naturally ruined ^* with the Argonauts: this 
their newly-acquired monarchy. ** Bacchus was therefore con- 
In a word, it is his opinion, that " temporary to S^/oj-ris ; and 
tlie fudden extindion of this vaU '^ both being kings of Bgypt^ 
monarchy, at the death of its ^' and potent at Ka, , and great 
founder Sefofiris^ is little elfe ^f conquerors^ and carrying on 
than a depionflration, that lie ^^ their conquefts into Indiit 
was that very Pharaoh who " and 7brace, they qiiift (x one 
with all his hpll periihedin the '* and the fame man. 
jRedSea [^i), *^ 2, Dic^archnSf at he is tit-: 

The great Sir Ifaac Newton " ed by the/choliajl upon^^A 
is of opinion, that Sefofiris is f* /7«/«j (23), reprints Qfiri^ 
ihe OJiris of the Egyptians^ the " and Orus, two generadoos^ 
l^cchus ^^xkit Greeks^ zxi^ the '^ older thsm St/ofiriSf faying, 
S<r/27c or Shyhak of the Scripr ** that after Orsts^ the fon of 
ture ; ■ towards the propf of ** Ofiris and IJit^ reigned ^<- 
which he produces the ^Uowt f^ fonchofis. The people of 
ing arguments : . , '' Naxus made Bacchms two* 

" I . Bacchus the Conqueror " generations older than ^he- 
f * loved two women, Venus and ** feusy and for that end fdgn* 
f« Ariadne i by the lail of thefe " cd two Minos'" s and tsuoAri" 
f< he had fons who were Argo- ** adne*s. Now, by the con* 
« ;?^i//i ; therefore the great " lent of all antiquity, Ofirii 
f< Bacchus flourifhed but one '* and Bacchus v/trt one and 
<< generation before the Argoit^ " the fame king of £^/: this 
« »ai//;V expedition. ThisjB^c-. «* is affirmed by xheEgyptfovs^ 
** chus was potent at fea (22), '* as well as by theGraksi 
** conquered eajd ward as &r as ^* and fome of the antient my- 
^< India, returned in triumph, '< thologiib, as Eumolpus and 
*• brought his army over the ** Orpheus (24), called OJiris 
•* Jfelle/ponti conquered7]&rtfr^, " by the names of Diofrjfu^ 
** left muAc, dancing, and poe- *' and Sirius. OJiris was king 
*5 try there if killed Lycurgus " of all £^/, and a great con- 
'« kingof IT/^^zrr, andjP^«/iv»i ** queror, and came over the 
** the grandf6n of Cadmus } •* HeUeJpont in the days of 
** gave the kingdom of lycur^ " TtiptoUmus, and f ubdued 
^^ ^KT to Tharofs i and one of '* Thrace, and there killed Zf- 

fai) yid, TnnfioiC$ t^endiKf l[z2) T/V/. Hermi^nm afud At be* 

navm, I. U (23) Argonm^ U iv. «, a7a, (»4) ^>»^ 


C. HI. to tbi time of Alexander. 

iame day with his fon, and appointed nurfes^and proper per- 
fons to takecare of them, and had them treated in all refpe£l$ 



•' curguii and therefof* hb 
« expcdicioa fails in with that 
** of the great Bmccbui. Ofi-^ 
<' risy Ba^cbus^ and Si/oftris^ 
<< lived about the iame time i 
« and by the reiacion of hiftc- 
** riansy wej« all of them king» 
<« of all Egypi^ and reigned at 
<< betes ^ andadorned that ci ty^ 
** and were very potent by knd 
** and fea: all three were great 
** conqi^rora, and carried o» 
*' their conqiieib by land thro* 
** Afia^ aa far as India : all 
*« three came over the Helie/- 
<c p9irt, and were there in dan* 
<K ger of lo^g their army : all 
« three conquered Tbrace, and 
*< there put a flop to their vi- 
M( Tories, and returned back 
€c from thence into Egypt : all 
c< three left pillars with infcri- 
r< ptions in their conqaeils : 
<( and therefore all three muft 
c< be one and the fame king of 
<< Egypt i and this king can 
« be no other than Sejac. All 
** ^VP^» including Tbebais^ 
« Etbhfim^ and Libya^ had no 
<< common king be^re the ex- 
** pulfion oix^ktjhefberdt^ who 
<< reigiied Lathe Ir^zvfr Egypt \ 
** no conqueror of ^Wa, /v- 
«* ^/tf, ^<j A^/iwr, and Tbrace^ 
*^ before ^^r ; and the iacred 
** hiHory admits of no Egyptian 
** conqueror of P«Z^fWb(efore 
" tliis king. 

** 5. BaccbtuhsLdLslyam WO" 
**^ men in his army^ and they 
** were commanded by Afra«r- 
<' m, herfelf a iU^ (zc). 








Diodoi^us (26) calb her A^- 
rfJTtfy and iaith, that ihe ]va9 
queen of the jimasims in Z/** 
/ytfy and there conquered tho 
jftlaiftUej and G^rgotte, an4 
then made a league with 
Oruj the fon of Ifij, fent to 
hcF by his Either 'Oj!ris or 
Bacchus for that purpofe ;^ 
and, pafling through £^/^ 
fubdued the JrMans^ an^ 
^rM,^ and Ciliciay and camo 
through Pbrygim^ <vi%, in 
the army of Baccbut, to the 
Mediterrameam I but, paffing 
over into Bur^, was flain, 
with many of her women, 
by the Tbrmciam and^ 
ibUms^ under the conduA o# 
Sifylus a S^tbiofHy and M^ 
/i</ a Tbractan, whom Lycur* 
gus, king of T/jr^ce, had ba« 
nilhed. This (fiiys our moft 
fagaciotts author) was that 
^ycMTgMS who oppoiisd the 
paf&ge of Baccbtfs ovtr the 
Helle/pMt, and was foon af- 
ter conquered by him» and 
^in: but afterwards Bac 
cbus met with a repulfe from 
the Greeks, under thecon« 
duft of Perfeus^ who flew 
many of his women, as Pau^ 
fmmas (27) relates, and was 
affiiled by the Scythians and 
Tbracians under Sipyius and 
l/hpfus \ which repttlfes, to- 
gether with the revolt of hii 
brother Danaus^, put a ftopi 
to his vi^ories : and, in re« 
turmnghome, he left part 
of his men in C^kbisx^^^t 

(25) Vid. Died. I. ui. /• 140. (s6) Likaip. 131^ i^u |47) P4it- 

P 4 ^ iQQttat 

56 ^eHiJlofyofEgyipt B.I. 

Hke his own child ; perfuaded that they who had been the 
conftant and equal companions of his childhood and youth, 




f^ mount Cauea/us, under JBe- 
** tes and Prometheus ; and his 
** women upon the river Ther^ 
** modon near Colchis^ under 
** their new queens Marthefia 
^^ and Lampeto ; for Dhdorus 
^^ (28), fpeaking of the Ama- 
^ sconsy who were feated at 
•* TbermodoHt faith, that they" 
*/ dwelt originally in Libya ^ 
and there reigned over the' 
■Atlantidest and, invading 
^' their neighbours, conquered 
^' as hx as Europe : and Am- 
*^ mtanus (29); that the anti- 
V ent ^M^2«^ff/, breaking thro*^ 
*.* many nations, attacked the 
*' Athenians^ and then, rcceiv- 
** ing a great flaughter,retired 
<* to ThermoJon : and Jufiin 
^^ (30), that thefe Amazons had 
^' at iirft, he means at their 
•* firft coming to Thermodon^ 
' ^5 two queens, who called 
** themfelves - daughters of 
" Mars i and that they cbn- 
*' qaered part oi Europe ^ and 
^' ibme cities in Afia^ <ujz. in 
*' the reign ofMinerikt; and 
** then fent back part of their 
•* army, with a great booty, 
^* under their faid new queens;' 
** and tlaxMartheJtay being af- 
** terwardfi flain, was fucceed- 
^* cd by her daughter Orithja, 
** and fhe by Penthefilea ; and 
** that The/eus. captivated and 
•^ married Anthpe, the fifter of 
*' Oriihya, Hereu/es mzdev/zr 
** upon the Amazons^ and in 
** the reign of Orithya and 
•* Penthefilea they came to the 



*' Trojan war : whence the firft 
<^ wars of the AmazAms in £«- 
^' r^^ and ^/z, and their &t- 
<^ tling at Tbermodon^ were but' 
<' one generation before thofe 
** actions of Hercules and fhe^ 
** feus J and but two before the 
<< Trojan war, and fo fell in 
^f with the expedition of Se- 
<* y^m ; and fince they war- 
'f redinthedaysof^andher 
*^ fon Or«/, and were a part of 
** the army under Bacchus or 
*^ O^r/V, we have here a fiir- 
^< ther : argument for making 
Ofiris and Bacchus contem- 
porary to Sefoftrisj and all 
three one and the fame king 
** yjit\i Sefac, 

" 4. The Greeks mdkxm OJh 
*^ ris and Bacchus to be (bns of 
<* Jupiter, and the Egyptian 
*^ name of Jupiter is Amman. 
** Mtfff^/i&0 (31) in his eleventh 
and twelAh dynafties, as he 
is cited by Africanus and 
Eu/ebiusy names thefe four 
kings as reigning in order; 
Ammenemesy Ge/ongefesy or 
** Sefonchorisy the ion of Am- 
*^ menemeSy jiptmenemesy who 
" was flain by his eunuchs, and' 
<< Se/oftrisy who fubdued all 
<' Afiay and a part of Europe f 
" Gefongefes and Sefoncboris' 
are corruptly written for 
Sefonchofisi and the two firft' 
" of thefe four kings, Amme*' 
^' «/}»^/ and Se/ottchofisy are the 
'* fame with the two laft. Am- 
'* menemes 9XidSefoftris^ that is, 
". WiUi Amman end ^^^ ; fos 








(30) I,/^. ii. c, 4. (31) ^ff he/ore^ p, t. 

(29) £>i3. zzil. c, %0 


# > 

C. Ill* to the time of Alexander. 

would prove the moft faithful minifters, and moft affeSion- 
ate fellowrfoldiers. They were abundantly fiirniflied with 






•^ Diodrus faith, that Ofiris 
*^ built a temple at Thebes to 
** his foher Jupiter Ammon^ 
^f who reigned in that city 
f^ (32) : and Thymafiesy who 
•* was contemporary to Or- 
■^ fheusy wrote exprefiy, that 
•* the fkther of Bacchus was 
'* Ammofiy a king reigning over 
part oi Libya ; that is, a king 
of Egypt reigning over that 
part of Libya antiently called 
'* Ammonia: T\ei<rA i AiCvn 
•* ircnf kKAKilro dtml *AfJLT 
*f /x«VS'(33). AllL%Awas 
*f called Ammonia from Am- 
*f mon-y that is, that king of 

" ^EyP* ^^^°* whom Thebes 
*^ was called Na-Ammon, and 
•' Ammon-Ne, the city of Am- 
•* mottf and by the Greeks Diof- 
polis the city oi Jupiter Am- 
mon. Here again our author 
'' feems to demonftrate, that 
** Sefoftris and Qfiris were the 
*f fame perfon.'* 

5. And to corroborate what 
i^ uid in the prepeding article ; 
Se/oftris^ upon his returning 
home, divided Egypt by mea* 
fiire amongft the Egyptians ; 
and this gave a beginning to 
furveying and geometry: and 
lamhUchus derives this divifion 
of Egypt ^ and the beginning of 
geometry, from the age of the 
gods o{ Egypt. And becaufe 
Sefoftris, or Se/ac, to render 
the Nile more ufefal, dug ca- 
nals from it, and thereby made 
a general diftribution of its 
water ; this chronologer is of 
<)pinion, that the river was con- 

fecrated to him, and he was^ 
called by its names, JEgyptus^ 
Sirisy Nilus ; and obferves from 
Piutarchy that the fy liable O, 
put before the word Siris by 
the Creeks, made it fcarce in- 
telligible to the Egyptians, 

6. He thinks it appears, 
" That Se/oftris was alfo 5^/- 
" Jhaby or Se/ac, becaufe thf 
*^ firft conqueils this king in 
** faid to have made were y r*- 
*^ glodyticay Libya, and Ethio- 
** pia ; and, in the firft year of 
** Rehaboamy Sefoftris [ Se/ac ] 
" came out of Egypt with a 
** great army of Libyans, Tro* 

*^ i^4y*^'9 ^^^ Ethiopians i and 
^^ fpoiled the temple, and re- 
'< duced Judea into fervitude ; 
'* and went on conquering^ 
*^ firft eaftward towards India^ 
** and then weftward as far as 
*^ Thrace ; for GoD bad gi^ven^ 
" him the kingdoms of the coum" 
** /r/>j(34). 

7. There is no one argument' 
on which this great chronolo^ 
ger lays a greater ftrefs, for the 
proof of what he advances con* 
cerning Sefoftris than the fol- 
lowing : " So/on, having travel- 
" led into Egypt, and convcrfed. 
<^ with the priefts ofSais about 
^' their antiquities, wrote a 
** poem of what he had learn- ^ 
*f ed,butdidnotfini(h it(35)j 
'^ and this poem fell into th« 
**f hands of P/atOy who relate^ 
<< out of it, that at the mouth 
" of the Streight.y near Her* 
*^ fir/fj's Pillars y there was ai^. 
" ifland called Atlantis, thq 

(32) See before, p. i%. (33) Stepb, in 'Aix*4mfa* 

3p2f *^ 3>— -5, (35) Piatf in Timant Critia, 

(34.) I CbmtV 

'J pcpplt 

|8 The Hiftory of Egypt ^ B. K 

every thing needful, and, as they grew up,thcy were by de* 
gfecs inured to laborious and manly cxercifes, and were in 











people of which, nine thou- 
fand fears beibre the days of 
Solon, reigned over Lihya as 
far as Egypt ^ and over Eu- 
rope as far as the Tyrrhdnean 
Sea ; and all this force col- 
lected into one body invaded 
Egypt and Greece^ and what- 
ever was contained within 
the pillars of Hercules i but 
was refilled and ftopped by 
the Athenians f and othsr 
Greeks ; and thereby the reft 
of the nations not yet con- 
quered were preferred : he 
faith alfo, that in thofe days 
the godsy having iinifhed 
their conquefts, divided the 
whole earth amongft them- 
felvesy partly into larger, 
partly into imaller portions, 
and inftituted temples, and 
facred rites, to themfelves; 
and that the ifland of Atlan- 
tis fell to the lot of Neptune, 
who made his eldeft fon At- 
las king of the whole ifland, 
a part of which was called 
Gadir ; and that in the hi* 
fiory of the faii ijjars men- 
tion njjas made of Cecrops, 
Erechtheus, Erichthonius, 
and others ^^r^Thefeus, 
and alfo of the fwomen ivho 
nvarred luith the men, and 
of the habit and ftature of 
Minerva, thefiudy ofivar in 
thofe days being common to 
men and nvomen. By all 
thefe circumftances it is ma- 
nifeft, that thefe gods were 
the Dii magni ma jorum gen- 
tium, and lived between the 
age of Cecrops and fhefeus ; 
and that the wars which Sefir 



** fris, with his brother Nep- 
** tunty made upon the nation^ 
^^ by land and by fet, and the 
^^ refiflance he met witik ia 
" Greece, and the falkM¥h)g 
" invs£(mo£ Egypt by Neftme, 
^ are here defcribed ; and )iow 
the captains oiSefifiris iha- 
red their conquefis amongft 
*^ themfelves, as the captains of 
Alexander the Great did hiy 
conquefb long after ; and, in- 
'* ilituting temples and prk&M^ 
** and facred rites, to them- 
*' felves, caufed the nations to 
** worihip them, after their 
'^ death, as gods: andthitthe 
** ifland Ge^ir or Gades, with 
** all Uhya, fell to the lot of 
^' him who after deatk waiT 
** deified by the aame of i^ 
tune. The time, therefore, 
when thefe things were done, 
is by ^^/m limited to tlieage 
of Neptune the ^her ciAt- 
" las ; for Homer tells us, that 
Ulyfes, prefently after the 
Trojan war, found Calfpfig 
the daughter of Atlas, in the 
Ogygian ifland, perhaps G#- 
** dir ; and therefore it was but 
two generations before the 
Trojan war. This is' that 
Neptune, who, with Apollo, 
or Orus, fortified Trty with 
a wall, in the reign of Lao' 
" me/(on the htherofPriamusi 
** and left many natural chil- 
" dren in Greece, fbme of which 
were Argonauts, and others 
were contemporaries to the 
Argonauts ; and therefore he 
fiouriihed but one generatioB- 
before the Argonautic expe- 
ilition> and, by confequence, 
















C. III. to the time of Alexander. 

particular never permitted to tafte of any thing till they 
had performed a courfe of i8o furlongs, or upwards of 
•22 miles. By this exercifc of the body, and by a pro- 
per cultivation of the mind, they were equally fitted to 
command ^d to execute. Amenophisj after he had been 
at this yaft expence and trouble inlaying the foundation of 
his fon's future grandeur, refolved to give him and his 
companions an opportunity of difplaying the good effe£U 
of their inftitution ^ and tnerefore he fent him and them 
ipirith an army into Arabia. In this expedition the yowngSends 
Sefoflris furmounted all the dangers of ferpents and venom- /»/<? Ara- 
ous creatures, all the wants and hardfhips of a dry and bia and 
barren country 5 and in die jend fubdued the jfrabians^ who, Afric. 
till that time, had never been conquered. His father 
then ordered him wcftward, and he fubdued the great- 
eft part of Afric ^ ; nor did he ftop, it feems, his career, 
till he faw me Atlantic ocean '. Whilft he was on this 
expedition, his father died ; and, having now the reins in his 
own hands, and being elated by the fuccefs which had hi- 
therto attended him, he grafped at the conqueft of the 
whole earth ; or he called to mind the predlftion of the 
god, and prepared for the enterprize. Some fay, that his 
daughter^/Ayft^, a young woman ofgreat wit and fagacity, 
excited him thereto by her counfel, reprefenting it as an 
cafy matter ; others, that flie obtained afliirances of her fa- 
ther's fuccefs by cKvination, by dreams in temples, and pro- 

* DioD. 1. i. p. 4S. 

f* aboat 400 years before Sohn 
«« went into Egypt: but the 
<* prieHs oi Egypt in thofe 400 
<^ years had magnified the fto- 
i* ries and antiquity of their 
*^ go^s {o exceedingly, as to 
?* make them gpoo years older 
i* than Solotty and the ifland 
^ Atlantis bigger than all A- 
^ fric and Afia together, and 
*< full of people ; and becaufe 
^< in the daysof 5o/«« this great 
^ ifland did not appear, they 
^* pretended that it was funk 
** into the fea, with all its peo- 
f * pie : thus great was the va- 
« ja|ty of the priefts of Egypt 


' JLucAN. X, ver. 27. 

in magnifying their antlqui- 
** tics." Thefc are the ino(| 
obvious and diredt argomenti 
concerning Sejoftrisy which we 
meet with in Sir Ifaac Ninjoton* 
The learned UJher is of opini- 
on, that Sefoflris and Armait 
were the fons of Amenophis^ 
who was drowned in the Red 
Sea ; and that Amemphis wat 
the Beius of the Greeks^ being 
the father oijEgyptus and Da^* 
naus ; for, according to Mant'* 
tho^ Set ho/is or Sefoflris wasalfo 
c?\\tAMgyptusy and his brother 
Danaus, as we have hinted 
above (36). 

(36) Fid, UJb. ad A. M. 2494, 


6o ^^ Hiftory of Egypt . B. L 

digies in the air, and the like 6 y fo that, according to thefe, 
he could be no very young man at this time. Laftly, it 
was faid,that he was inftrufted by Mercury y who gave him 
counfels proper for carrying on the war h. 
VniiT' Having in view a general conqueft, and knowing that 
takis t9 he TtiM^ be long abfent, and far remote from Egypty he 
€onquer bethoujjht himfeif by what means he might retain the hearts 
xbi nuboii and afieitftions of his own people ; wifely deeming it die 
mi9rld. moft natural means of preparing thofe who followed him, 
to lay down their lives chearfully in his fervicc ; and rf 
preventing thofe at home from attempting any innovations 
during his abfence. He therefore, as much as was in his 
power, endeared himfeif to all his fubje£b, by largelles in 
money, by donations in land, or by the remijOion of pu- 
nifhments : he difcharged all who were guilty pftreafon with 
impunity, and paid the debts of all who were thereby in- 
cumbered, of which laft he had many in his army. In 
fine, he wrought upon the minds of all by feir fpeeches. 
Divides ^nd a familiar deportment. In the next place he divided 
£gypti«/0the whole kingdom into 36 nomes^ or provinces ; affigncd 
36 names, a governor to each of them ^ ; and conftltuted his brother 
Armah fupreme regent, invefting him with ample power \* 
but forbad him the ufe of the diadem, and commanded him 
to offer no injury to the queen and her children, and to ab- 
ftain from the royal concubines ^. Having thus fettled Ac 
government, he picked out the choiceft . of his fubjeds» 
and lifted an army equal to the vaftncfs of his defigns, and 
beftowed the chief cominands of it on hisr beloved* com- 
Kr infli" panions, who were upwards of 1700 in number. As an 
tutes the e^meft of his benevolence, and befides the favours he had 
military beftowed on them in common with the reft of their coun 
wder. trymen, and that he and his fucceffors might always havt 
a regular force ready at hand, he fettled certain portions by 
lot, of the moft fertile land in Egypt ^ on his whole army; 
whence an handfome income arifing to them, neither they 
nor their pofterity might lie under the neceffity of feeking 
a livelihood by mercantile or mechanic callings, but wholly 
apply themfelves to the military exercifes. His army con- 
fifted of 600,000 foot, 24,000 horfe, and 27,000 warlike 
Conquers chariots. He firft marched into Ethiopia^ and reduced 
Etkiopia. the inhabitants to a tribute of ebony, gold, and ivory K He 
is generally believed to have been the firft that fubdued 

« DioD. ubi fupr. p. 49. ^ JEliah, var. hift. 1. xii. c. 4.' 

' DiOD. ubi fupr. p. 50. ^ Mansth. apad Jofeph. con* 

tra Apio. 1. i. p. 1041. ' Diod. ubi fupr, 


C. lil. to the time of AlcxzndcT. St 

Ethiopia and Troglodytica ; and is faid to have reached the 
promontory of Dira^ near the ftreights of the Red Sea ^ 
Ivhere he (et up apillar,with an infcription in faCred chara- 
ders ; and went on as far as the country where cinnamon 

f rows, or, at leajft, fome place from whence cinnamon was 
rought, where he raifed monuments and pillars with in- 
fcriptions, which were to be feen many ages after »• 

His land-forces alone were not anfwcriable to tht con^ His fleef$^ 
queft he intended ; and therefore,breaking through the an- 
tient fuperftition of the Egyptians^ he was the firft of their 
kings that fitted out fleets of tall ihips. He had two; the 
one of 400 fail, in thz Arabian g\A^\\y if Diodorus is to be 
credited n, who gives us this number, and Herodotus^^ 
who mentions the fame fleet in general terms ;^ and the 
other in the Mediterranean SeOy if we may believe Ma^' 
netho P, who by Sethojis underftands Sefojlris. By thefe na- 
val armaments, and by the great ifervices they are faid to 
have done, Sefojlris probably wiped away the aterfion thd 
Egyptians had to fea-afFairs9, at lead for a time; and in- 
ftituted the marine clafs, as, by what appears hitherto, hcHetnfli-- 
did likewife the military order. But, not to dwell on tutei thr 
this conje^ure, we fhall only add, that his confecrating a««r/W 
fpacious and magnificent Ihip to the fupreme god of the^/«^»*'' 
Thehans '^ looks as if he dcfigned to bring navigation into ^''der. 
credit in Egypt, With the firft of thefe fleets he failed 
out of the Arabian gulph into the Red or Indian Sea, and 
fubdued the coafts thereof; and, continuing his courfe tilt 
he was ftopped by certain fhoals, and difficult places, re- 
turned back to igypt ■ ; or, according to another author, 
he went not on board himfelf, but fent them out againfl 
the iflands and maritime places of die continent, as far as 
India *. With his Mediterranean fquadron he conquered 
CypruSy the fea-coaft of Phoenicia «, and feveral of the 
Cyclades w. This is all we know concerning his exploits by 

Now,as to his further conquefb on die land, it is by i\' Continues 
moft all antiquity agreed, that he over- ran and pillaged ^Ithnofb'u 
Afia^ and fome part of Europe^ He crofTed the Ganges ^€onquefi$ 
on the banks of which river heere£led pillars, and, to \x{ttind'wurt*^ 
the poet's expref&on, did the fame in the remotefl moun« 

" Vid. Strab. 1. xvi. p. 769, 770. Vid. etiam I.xvii. p. 
790. Pun. hift. nat. 1, vi. c. 29. » Ubi (up. ^ Ubi 

iiip. ^ Apud Jofeph. contra Apion. ubi Aip. ^ See 

vol. i. p. 5 15. '' Sec before, ibid. » Herod. 1. ii. 

c f 02. t DioD. ubi fup. ■ Maneth. apud Jofeph. 

contra Apion. obi fap, w I>ioi^ abi f»p. p. 5 1 . 


6i The Hifiory of Egypt B. t 

tains of India ^ .* and, indeed, he is (aid to have marched 
on till he was flopped by the main ocean eaftward ^ From 
thence returning, he invaded the Scythians and Thraciam ; 
but the accounts of his war with the former do not aQ 
agree in giving him a complete conqueft over them* /{k 
roJotuSj Diodorus^ Agath'tasl^ and others, reprefent hioi 
vi£lorious ; but fbme relate, that he was repulfed, and &mI 
from the ScytbianSj and was worfted by the Colchiam. For 
Jujiin tells us, that Vexores or Stfojiris difpatcbing embaf-* f 
fadors before him, to^fummon the Scythians to furrender, 
they fent back his meffengers with contempt, threats, and 
defiance, and immediately took up arms. SefoftriSy being 
informed that they were advancing towards him by bafty 
marches, fuddenly faced about, and fled before thein^ 
leaving all his baggage and warlike ftores to the purfuer% 
who followed him till they came on the borders of Egyft \ 
Pliny relates, that he was overthrown by the king of Cd^ 
chis * ; and FaUrius Flaccus infinuates, that he was ttr 
pulfed with great {Iaughter,and put to flight,in thefe parts ^| 
but whether he had good or bad fuccefs in thefe countritSi 
S»ff9fedto\i is a common opinion, that he fettled a colony in Colchis \ 
yi///ftfrtf- though Herodotus y whom we chiefly rely on in this matter^ 
^ '*. does not decide whether it was of his own planting, <rf 
Colchis, whether part of his army, tired out, loitered in the rear, 
and voluntarily fat down on the banks oi the river Pbaji$ 
in that kingdom. He fays, from his own knowlege, that 
the inhabitants were, undoubtedly, of Egyptian defceat, a§ . 
was vifible from the perfonal fimilitude they bote to the ] 
Egyptians^ who were fwarthy,and frizzle-haired ; but,morf 1 
cfpecially, from the conformity of their cuftoms, particu* ' 
larly circumcifion ; and from the affinity of their language, 
with that of Egypt, And many ages afterwards, at JEiT, 
the capital of Colchis^ they Ihewed maps of their journeys^ ; 
and the bounds of fea and land, for the ufe of travellers^! j 
and hence came geography. This relation to each other 
was acknowleged on both fides d. We now attend upon 
him into Thrace^ the utmofl: boundary of his progrdl's wcfi- 
ward in Europe* H^re he was in danger of lofmg his arnay 
through want of provifions, and the difliculty of the pafles| 
and therefore he here flopped his progrefs «. But the more 
probable opinion is, that his return was haftened by ad** 

w DioNYs. in perieg. ver. 625. ^ Diod. ubi fup. p. co. 
y L. ii. p. 55. * L. ii. c. 3. * L. XJ^xiii. c. 3. *> Ae- 
GONAUT, l.v. ver. 420. <^ Apollon. Rhod. Argon, l.iv.v^, 
272. . ^ Herod. ibid. c. I03»i04. ^ Dioo. ubi fiip. p. 51. 


C. III. to 4h time of Alqcander. £• 

vice he received from the high-prieft of Egypt concerning 
hb brotlier's revolt and difobcdience®. How^'ver th s was, 
his pillars were no-wbere to be feen in Europe beyond Hhfiikr^ 
Thrace^ : for it was his cuflom to fet up pillars in cycryamJ/m* 
country he conquered, with this infcription, or one to the/My* 
;like cScSt J Sefoftris, i/ay of kings^ and Urd of lords^ fnb* 
dued this country by the powir of bis arms. If the nation 
liad Ignobly crouclied to him, he, beildes the infcription, 
caufed the privities of a woman to be carved, as a mark of 
their effeminacy and bafenefsg. If they had defended 
themfelves bravely, their pillars bore the diftindion of the 
contrary fex, in tcftimony of their courage^. Befidet 
thefe, he left ftatues of himfelf behind him, two of which 
are ftill to be feen, ikys Herodotus^ the one on the ro^id be- 
tween Epbifus and Phocaaj and the other between Smyrnm 
and Sardis : they were armed after the Ethiopian and £* 
gyptian manner, were five palms high, and held a javelin 
in one hand, and a bow in the other, Acrofs the breaft 
they had a line drawn from one ihoulder to the other, with 
this infcription ; This region I obtained by thefe my /houlders. 
They were miftaken for images of Memnon K 

Upon advice, therefore, of the rebellious proceedings of i?#/«rffi^ 
his brother, who, encouraged by his longabfence, and great Egypt, 
diflance, had afTumed the diadem, violated the queen, and 
taken to himfelf the royal concubines ^, he haftened from 
Thrace^ and, at the end of nine years, came to Pelufium^ . 
attended by an infinite multitude of captives of all nations, 
and loaded with the fpoils of Jfui \ Here the rebel Armais^ 
or DanatdSy received him with outward iubmiffion and joy, 
but with a private defign tQ take away his life, and root out 
his family, y^^^cordingly, he invited the king his brother, 
the queen, and her children, to a banquet he had pre- 
pared for their refrefliment : they accepted the invitation, 
drank freely, and, being thereby overcome, betook them- 
felves to reft ; in the mean time, he caufed a great quan- 
tity of dried reeds to be laid all round the apartment where 
they flept ; and, fetjng fire to them, hoped thereby to ac- 
compUfh his wicked delign. 4S^y^m,perceiving the dan- 
ger he was in, and that his guards, overcharged with liquor, 
were heavy, and incapable of aflifting him, lifted up hi» 
hands, and, imploring the gods in behalf of his wife and 

« Maneth. apud Jofeph, contr. Apion,ubi fup. f Herod* 

DxoD. ubifup. < H£&0D. ibid. c. 102^ & 106. ^ Vid. 

Syncbll. p. 59,6o, * Herod, ibid. c. 106. * Ma- 
KETH. ubifup. ^ Herod, ibid. 6. 107. 

3 children^ 

64 ne Hiftoty cflS^^t B.L 

// MfVarK- children, ru(hed through the jBames, and they followed him* 

hujlyieli' In thainkfgiving for this wonderful deliverance^ and to ^Kt* 

Wind from loxm the vows he had made in his extremity , he prefented 

tlnmur' donations to feveral gods, and, particularly^ to /^i!rtfa«, 

der9us Wlr- as will be obferved hereafter. Herodotus writes, that hk 

^^u^^" wife pcrfuaded him to lay two of his fons acrofs die fire, 

brotbir. ^^^ ^^ xxt^ii over them. He then took revenge on hib 

brother Armais^^ who is faid to have been the Uanauttk 

the Greeks ^ ; and, being on this oCcfafion drhren out ciC 

Egypty to have withdrawn into Greece. 

SEsosTRis,having thus defeated his brother's iinliatunl 
defigns, and feeing himfelf again in the quiet poflfcffion of 
his kingdom, adorned all the temples with fpoils and rich 
gifts, and rewarded his army in proportion to every man^ 
merit. His army was not only glorious in their jfeturfif 
for the mighty actions they had performed, and the gtat 
riches they had acquired, but, alfo, for the great variety of 
foreign commodities they brought home with tbenij and 
with which they flored the whole kingdom. Now, layiilg 
afide all thoughts of war, he diibanded his forces, . leaving 
every one to the undiflurbed enjoyment of tvhat fortune 
had favoured him with. As for himfelf, he henceforward 
applied his mind to fuch flupendous works as might immor^ 
talize his name, and everlaftingly contribute to the puUici 
Hisworh, His works were of three forts; religious, military, and 
civil : and, firft, he crefted a temple in every city o( JEgypty 
which he dedicated to the peculiar and fupreme deity of 
each place : in the courfe of fo univerfal an undertaking a^ 
this, no Egyptian was fet to work ; wherefore, upon all 
thefe temples there was this infcription. No one native la* 
houred hereon P. In the city of Memphis^ before the temple 
of Vulcan^ he raifed fix gigantic ftatues, which were each 
of one ftone ; two of them were 30 cubits high, and rc- 
prefented himfelf and his wife ; the other four were 20 cu-* 
bits, and reprefented his four fons q. Thefe he dedicated 
to Vulcany in remembrance of his and his family's prcferv* 
at ion at Pelujium^. Many ages afterwards it was faid^ 
that Darius would have placed his own flatue above this of 
Sefojirii > but the pricft of Vulcan ftifly oppofcd it,urging, 
that the Perfian^ though great, had not yet equalled tfc \ 
Egyptian^ and, particularly, had never conquered Scythia\ ' 

"Dio ). ubi fup. p. 53. " Herod, ibid. * ManbtiT. ^ 
ubifup. p DioD. ubi fup. p. 51,5a. * Hbroo« ' 

ibid. c. 1 10. ' DiOD. ubi fup. p. 53, 


1 cm. to the time of AltxsaidcT. 65 

li and that therefore it was unjuft to prefer hinhto one he 
1: had not yet excelled, and fo put a ftop to the attempt r. 
He, moreover, raifed two obelifks of hard ftone [marble] 
120 cubits high ; and charged them with infcriptions, which 
defcribed the greatnefs of bis power, the amount of his re- 
venues,and the nations be conquered. Thefe are his works, 
which may be faid particularly to oommemorate his own 
piety and glory. Let us now take a view of what he did 
for the benefit and lafting welfare of his people. 

In order to prevent the incurfions of the Syrians and 
jfrabiansj he fortified the eaft fide of Egypt with a wall, 
tvhich ran from Pelujium through the defert to Heliopelis^ 
1500 furlongs, or 187 miles and an half. He moreover 
raifed an incredible number of vaft and lofty mounts of 
earth, to which he removed fuch towns as had before too 
low a fituation, to feciure the men and cattle from the dan- 
gers of the Nile in its inundations. All the way from Mem^ 
phis to the fea, he dug canals, which branched out from the 
Nile J and not only gave an eafier communication from one 
place to another, and greatly advanced the trade and pro- 
fperity of the kingdom, bui; alfo rendered the country im- 
pafTable to an enemy, or, at leaft, very incommodious and 
difficult. So that Egypt^ which had hitherto been famous 
for her horfes and chariots, and was admirably well adapted 
for either, was now no longer the fame place in thofe re- 
fpeds, and put on a new face s. This looks as if Sefojlris 
feared, that the feveral nations he had difturbed, or,ac leaft, 
fome of them, might unite againll Egypt : but quite the 
reverfe appears, by his haughty carriage towards the tribu- 
taries, as will be feen by-and-by. In the mean time, ic is 
faid, that fome of the captives grew defperate under the in- 
tolerable flavery impofed on them ; and that, particularly, 
the Babylomans arofe, and refolved, at all hazards, to ihake 
ofF their bondage. They firft feized upon a ftronghold, 
and, aSing ofFenfiively againft the Egypt ians., wafted the 
country round about them : but, on the offer of pardon^ 
and a place for their dwelling, they were pacified, and built 
themfelves a city, which they called Babylon* The lik« was 
faid of the Trojan captives ^ According to Herodotus^ 
there was a report, that this king, after he returned from 
iiis wars, divided the land equally amongft all the Egyptians j 
b)it as (his is inconfiftent with what has been faid of tlie 
lands he beftowed on his army before he fet out, which we 

^ Herod, ubi fup. c. no. ' • Diod. ubi fup. p. 5?. 

< Idem ibid. 

Vol. II. E take 

take to be more oonformable to die genius and policy ef 
this warlike prince, we are inclined to think, that Hen* 
Jottts was mifinformed. The fame author, upon this oo* 
caiion, fays, that the king referving to himfelf a fmall leat 
out of the lands fo divided, whenever it happened,that the 
waters of the Nile, in their retreat, waflied away aay put 
of a perfon's ground, he gave information thereof to the 
king, who, in fuch cafe, remitted a proportionable part of 
the rent, and, by fending furvreyors to meafure it, gave rife 
to the invention of geometry *. 

His behaviour towards the conquered princes who waK* 
Htj info- ed on him with their tribute, is laxA remarkably infolent: 
Itnce. for, upon certain occafions, he is faid to have unharnefied 
his horfes, and, yoking kings together, to have made them 
draw his chariot u. This pradice he continued, as is faid, 
tin a certain day ; when, obferving one of the king9, who 
drew him along, look with great fted^nefi back on one of 
the wheels, he afked what took up his thou^s^, that he 
kept his eye fo fixed on that objedl ? He anfwered, << O 
^' king, the going round of the wheel calls to my mind 
*' the viciffitudes of fortune: for as every part of the 
^* wheel is uppermoft and lowermoft by turns, fo is it with 
^^ men ; who one day fit on a throne, and on the neactare 
«« reduced to the vilefl degree of flavery." This anfwer 
brought the infulting conqueror to his fenfes % fo that he 
gave over the pradice, and thenceforth treated his captives 
with great humanity. At length he lofl his fi^ht, and laid 
violent hands on himfelf. The manner of his death was 
extolled, by the priefts, into the highefl 2JSL of magnani- 
mity ^ ; and, that nothing might be wanting to make hit 
hiflory completely glorious, they reported, that the phcentx 
came to Thehes during his reign '^. By what has b^n here 
faid concerning Sefojirisy it may be gathered, that he was 
the firft who divided Egypt into nomes, and its Inhabitants 
into orders and clafTes \ that he was the firfl Egyptian king 
who was confiderable at fea ; and that he ereded the fim 
great empire in the world. Jujiin fays, he neither aimed 
at it, nor kept it ; being contented with the bare glory of 
the conquefl he made y. But all are not of his opinion. 
Pheron,«r Pheron was the fon of Sefofiris^ and fucceeded him: 
Sefoih-is he is alfo fliled Sefoofts [Sefojfris] II. The flory of his 
II* reign, as it is handed down to us, favours more of fi£tion, 

* Herod, ubi fup. c. 109. » Diod. ubi fup. p. 53, 

Plin. l.xxxiii c. 3. ^ Diod. ubi fup. p. 54, « Ta- 

cit, ann. vi. p. 154, r L. i. c. i. 


cm. to ibe Hm if AUxmSslt: 6^ 

than of truth. He performed nothing in the mih'tary waf ^ 
but had the misfortune, in common with his father, to be 
ftruck blind. Though this might be realljf owing to Hi h 
fome infirmity derived from his parent, yet is it reported, ^nrril 
that his lofs of fi^t^was a punimment imlided on him for MW. 
his impiety towards the river : for the Nile having, in his 
time, overflowed the country to an unufual height, a gale 
of wind arofe, and greatly difturbed the waters; whereat 
he capricioufly took offence, and infolently darted a javelin 
among the waves : upon this, he was immediately feized 
v^th a pain in his eyes, and, foon after, by a total darknefs, 
which opprcflcd him for ten years ; in the eleventh year the 
Oracle at Butus declared, that the term of his afHidion was 
elapfed, and that his fight Would return to him, if he paid 

Particular devotions to the god z,t Heliopqlis^ and wafhed 
is eyes with the urine of a woman who had never known 
any man befides her hufband. He began with his own 
wife, but,reteiving no benefit from her, went on from one 
woman to another, till, at length,, a poor gardener's wife 
afforded him the relief the oracle had promifed. Hcr^^^^^co^ 
therefore, he made queen; but, as for the adulterefles, he*^''*'^'' 
fent them to a city called ErythiMus, which,togetherwith.^^^ 
them, he burnt. He paid his vows to the gods in fevcral ^^f *' ^'^ 
rich donations, and, particularly, raifed two iftagnificent^'f'^!.''**^ 
obeliflcs in the temple of the Sun at Heliopolh^. obtl^Jks. 

Many ages after, the fceptre fell to Amafn^ or Ammofts, Amafo, «#• 
He mifufed his people with the utmoft violence and inju- An«nofis, 
Aice. Many he condemned to death. Without a caufe ; a tyrant. 
many hd deprived of their pofleffions, upon no other mo- 
tive than hjs own imperious will ; and towards all he be- 
haved with infupportable arrogance. Under this opprefTor 
they groaned for a while, not daring to refift fo dreadful a 
power; but, in time, A^ifaneSy king of Ethiopia ^ made 
war againft Ammofis^ and, entering Egypt ^ the people joined His fitt* 
him, and drove their unnatural prince from the throhe *. jeQsjoim 
Amosis is faid to have aboliihed the cufiom of facri- W/^^ /A# 
ficing men to ^uno at Heliopolis^ and, inftead of them, to£thiopi- 
have fubftituted waxen images. They were examined, and ans, /« 
fealed like pure calves, and called Typhonians **. Three qidrvve bim 
them were burnt in a day, and their afhes fcattered abroad, •*'• 
fo as to be no more feen, and this publicly every year, du-* 

* Herod, ubi fup. c. 1 1 1. Diod. ubifup. ^. 54. « Idem ib. 
** JosfiPH. cont, Apion. l.i. p. 352, &c 

£ 2 fine 

68 Stbe Hifiory rfEgjpt %l 

ring the dog-days, at the city of Iditbya ^. y^fipf^ kob 

upon the whole ftory as fabulous ^. * 

Aai&nes Actisanes united Egypt and Ethiopia under him, «ri 

the Ethio- was king of both. He bore his profperity with mat 

plan. deration and prudence, and behaved afFeAionataj^ txm 

his new fubje£b. He caufed a general fevch to be 

after the Egyptian thieves and robbers, and, giving 

juft hearing, comnuinded their nofes to be cut oflF^ and- fat 

He fends them a\Vay to the remoteft part of the defert between S/- 

all the £- ria and Egypt ^ where be built them a town, which WMcd* 

gyptian led Rhinocolura^ from the disfigurement of its ■■*%wtim 

tbie'ves inhabitants. This part was fo barren, that it (ceice rf* 

and rob- forded any one neceflary of life ; for even the few wdb 

hers to ^Ji'^ ponds, there found, were brackifh, bitter, and moft mi- 

Rhinoco- pieafant to the palate. Hither he banifhed them, diattfac; 

^^^' might not injure their honeft neighbours by living amoif 

them, nor be hid incomers among the innocent. Bute 

frightful and barren as their fituation was, neceffity, Ae 

mother of invention, fuggefled a means to them of fif- 

plying themfelves with food : for it is reported, thatdef 

made long nets of flit reeds, and with them cau^t gmt 

numbers of quails, which came in flocks from the far 

ihore •. 

Actisanes died, and the Egyptians were left to thdr 
own difpofal ; and therefore they chofe them a king, 
Mendcs,«r named, bv fome, Mendes^ and, by others, Marus., He is 
Marus. celebratcci for the fepulchral labyrinth he built. 
He builds a After Mendes^ there enfued an anarchy, or inter- 
labyrinth, reign, for five generations. At length, ^.Mempbitt^ of ob- 
Proteus// fcure birth, was chofen king, ^'x^ Egyptian nzxat ^9m 
chofen QeteSy which the Greeks rendered Proteus (K). Both He- 
^H^ rod$tm 

« Maneth. apudPorph, deabftin. 1. ii. c. 55. 
SEPHus, ubifup. * DiOD. ubifup. p. 55. 


(K) According to PtfW«^»/«/, 
Proteus was the Sethos of Ma- 
netho^ and the Typhon of the 
poets. He thinks, that Homer^s 
Proteus, and this king, are the 
fame perfon ; and that he was 
lliled a fea-god, becaufe he had 
conunaad^d on the coafls of £- 

gypt. He gives no credit to Be* 
rodotusy as to the arrival of P4- 
ris and Helen under this kii^. 
It is not condilent with his hv- 

pothefis ( I ) . 

Sir Ifaac Nen.vton^Qn the con- 
trary, feeras to give credit to 
Herodotus J as far as j'elates to 

(i) Vid^ PenXiK, ubi fup^ 


C. in. to the time of Alexander. 69 

rodotus and Dtodorus fuppofe him to have lived in the time 
6f the Trojan war. The priefts gave him out for one 
ikilled in the weather, or a magician ; and pretended he 
could aflume any (hape or form he pleafed^ even that of 
fire. This fable, as it was told by the Greeks^ drew its ntfahU 
origin from a cuftom among the Egyptians (perhaps intro- ^Pro- 
duced by Proteus)^ who were ufed to adorn and difiingui(h teus, 
the heads of their kings with the reprefentations of ani- whutcf 
mals or vegetables, or even with burning incenfe, as fo dtrivgd. 
many enfigns of royalty, to ftrike the beholders with dread 
and iuperftition g. Whilft Proteus reigned, Paris ^ or Alex^ p^^jg ^^ 
ander^ was driven on the coails of Egypt by a ftorm, and Helen 
there landed with Helen^ whom he was carrying from ri'vt in 
Greece to Troy : but, when he heard the perfidious breach of Egypt, 
hofpitality this young man had committed, he feized him, 
his miftrefs, and his companions, with all the riches he had 
brought away with him from Greece. As for Helen^ and 
her hufban^'s efFeds, he detained them, promifing to re- . 
ftore both to the injured party, whenever demanded ; and 
io he did : but Paris and his companions he commanded 
to depart out of his dominions in three days, upon pain of 
being treated as enemies. He had a very rich smd fumptu* 
ous temple ere^ed to him at Memphis^ and left a fon and 
fuccefToF behind him, called Rhemphis ^. 

Rhemphis is alfo called Rhampjinifus (L), and Was ofRhem- 
an inclination to hoard up money. Diodorus reports himphisyor 

td Rhaumpfi 
% Idem, p. ^6. ^ Herqq. ubi fup. c. U2| ^ situs, 

Paris and Helena ; but makes fon of Sefiftfh^ and to be the 

him coteipporary with Ameno^ fame with Rhampfe^ \ and this 

fhisy whom, as we have al- he advances, fraught with the 

ready obferved, he fuppofes to authority of Af4sii^/y&ff, who calls 

be one and the (ame perfba himthe fonof ^r/>&0i; and that 

with Menes, He tbinkls, l^e t^^ %m,ous ii^icription, which 

might have l^^n gove^or of' wats interpreted to Cajar Ger* 

fome part of the Lo<wer Egypt manicus at TheSes, related to 

under^/9^»0/;&/j; andobferyes, hini. And^ indeed,, there is no, 

that ifqmer places him on the very great difibrence between 

^a-coail:, and calls hin\ the fer-' the Rhamjes of Taeitus and the 

vant of Neptune ; and that his Kampfes pf Manet hoi in fine, 

Greek name figni^es only a that he enjoyfid by right, what 

prince, or prefiden/ ( i ) . his father had obtained by con • 

(L) Sir y^oJhu. id^rfiam is in- qu^fl (2). 
dined to mink him the eldefl 

(i) S/'r IjaacNewtorCi. cbronoL of antient kia^doms amendid* (%) Fid. 

yd ne Hijiofy ^/Egypt Ri; 

to have been fo fordidly aTaricious, that, during his whob 
reign, he rather aded the part of a mean-fpirit^ ftevardi 
than of a king ; that he never could find in his heart to be 
at the leaft expence in any thing that might tend either tK> 
the honour of the gods, or the good of men : and that to 
bis fordid temper was owing the immenfe treafure he lefjt 
behind him, no lefs than 400,000 talents i. Her&JptfIS 
fufficiently in(]nuates,that he was fond of riches ; but docs 
not reduce him to fo wretched a degree of bafimeff. 
htil/s tie Rhampfinitusj by^ he,added the weftem portico to the tem* 
'Uf€fi€m pie of Vulcan^ and ereded two ftatues before it) each 25 
fArti€9t9 cubits high : one of them faced towards the north, an4 
the timpU was adored by the Egyptians under the title of Summer } 
§fY}ik»n^ the other looked towards the fouth, and went by the name 
of Wint^j ^nd was abhorred. Moreover, he had accu- 
mulated a far greater ftore of wealth than any king of 
Egypt that fucceeded him ; and, being defirous to depofit 
mndatrea' it in fome fecure place, commanded a treafure^houfe to b^ 
fure-boufe^ firmly built, for that purpofe. The architeA employed in 
this work placed one of the ftones in fo artful a manner, 
that it might be taken out, and put in again, by on^ man 
only; it being his intention to have fomeibare of the riches 
of the place. But, about the time that the treafure wa« 
lodged in it, he was fetz'ed with a violent fit of fickneft } 
and, finding himfelf at the point of death, he fent for bis 
two fons, declared to them the whole artifice, and gave 
them the mofl exa£l dire£tion$ in the management of the 
bufinefs which he forefaw would never be his fate to accom- 
plifh, The father died, and the young men, impatient to 

* Diop, ubifap, 

Penzonius fuppofes that the Ramifess Ramefii, JRameJfei^ 
JUbamfes of Tacitus is ^efoftris RamefieffRhampfesyZndRhemp^ 

himfelf. But tL^meffes^ox Rham- fis^ and that the obeliik which 

Jinitus, the fon of Proteus 9 he was fent to Rome by the em- 

jpakes cotemporary with the peror Confiantiuu with an in-r 

Trojan war, in which he is fup- ftription interpreted by Herput- 

ported by a paflkge from Pliny pion, an Egyptian prieft, expref- 

(3]. fing that he was long-lived,and 

Sir J/aac Nekton conjedures reigned pver a great part of 

him to have been the fon of ^ the earth, as ^Ifo that pomp- 

tnenophisf or Menes, and to be ous infcription mentioned by 

fhadowed under the different Taa'tus, belonged to him (4). 
nances of Rhamfinitus, Ramfes^ 

(3) Ferix, uhi fitp^ (4) Sir Tfaae Ntvtt, ubi fup, 

5 t^c 

cm. totbetimefAkxaixAtr. yx 

take advantage of the difcoyery, repaired, foon after fait 
death, to the treafury ; and having, M^ith great eafe» ttrtwhUh is 
moved the ftone, carried o£Fwith them a confiderable (Mm^plimdered 
repeating, every night, the fame theft. Some time after, ^ the ar^ 
Rhampjinitusj going in to view his wealth, was furprifed toibiuSTi 
find a vifible diminution of his treafure ; and the more, as hisMvtf fa^* 
feal was whole on the door, the only part of the building 
which he thought could give entrance. The two brothers 
continued their night expilations, till the king, after two or 
three further furveys, was perfedly fenfible, that, by fome 
means or other, his wealth fuiFered a fucceilive decreafe. 
^e then ordered ihares to be laid all round the veiTels which 
held his money. The two brothers failed not to come at 
night ; but one of them, as he approached a veflel full of 
iUver, was immediately taken in the fnare. As he found it 
impoffible to make his efcape, he called to his brother, who 
flood without, and earneftly intreated him to come in, and 
cut off his head, that fo he might fave his own life, and 
prevent the difcovery of their clandeftine theft. The bro- 
ther, confulting his own fafety, and defpairing of his, com- 
plied with his requefl i and, putting the flone in its place 
again, took the head away with him. Early next morning, 
the king, gping in to fee the event of his projed, was fo 
furprifed to find a man taken in the fnare without a head, 
that he baftened out in the greateft confufioju ; from which 
he no fooner recovered, than he dire£led that the body (hould 
be hung on the outfide of the wall, and expofed to public 
view ; charging the guard, appointed to takecare of it, to 
make a narrow in(pe£tion into the countenances of the 
fpedlators, and in whomfoever they perceived figns of for- 
row and mourning, to bring fuch perfpns into his prefence. 
The mother of the deceafed, hearing that the body was 
expofed in this manner, diftrafied with grief, and upbraid* 
ing her furviving fon, threatened, if he did not procure her 
his brother's body, and bring it home, to l^t the king know 
who had robbed his treafury. The young man did h\^ utmoft 
|o bring her to fome temper, by remonftrating to her the 
impra<Sticabi]ity of her requefl:, but to no purpofe. Finding , 
her, therefore, unalterable in her refoiution, he gratified her, 
in the end, by the following fubtil invention : loading his 
afles with (kins of wine, he drove them towards the place 
where the body hung up. Having reached the guard, he 
privately opened fome of the fkins^ and,ftriking l)imfelf, in 
token of defpair, as foon aSi the wJne began to run o^t, he 
^unterfeited the trouble. anAiE^pndernatiQA oi jiper/9n ut- 

£ 4 terly 

72 Tbi Hijiory of Egfpt B.I 

terly undone : in the mean time, the foldters upon duty 
ftrove to five as much of the liquor as they could for them- 
felvcs ; which he feeing, reviled them with the moft bitter 
reproaches, for the pleafure they took in his misfortune, in- 
ftead of offering to aflifl: him : but they ufing him kindly, 
he pretended to oe pacified, and, lead i tig his afles out of the 
way, feigned to be very bufy in fecuring the remainder of 
his wine ; in the mean time, the guards flood round him, 
and he, pretending to be pleafed with their jokes and hu- 
mour, at laft confented to give them a ikinof the wine; and 
they, in return for fo great a favour, prefled him toftay,and 
take part of it with them : he complied, and when the ikiB 
was emptied, he gave them another ; fo that, by exceffifc 
drinking, the whole guard was overcome, and fell into a 
deep fleep : then watching his opportunity, in the dead of 
the night, he took down the body, laid it acrofs an aft, and, 
{having the right cheek of each of the foldiers, by wajr ojf 
deriiion, carried it home to his mother. The news of this 
was matter of new wonder to the king, who, to find 
out the perfon who had done it, bethou^t him of die 
following expedient : he ordered his daughter to proftitute 
herfelf, in a certain apartment of the palace, to all comers 
promifcuouily ; but under this reftridion, that fhe ihould 
previoufly extort from each of them a confeiEon of the moft 
ingenious a£tion he had ever managed, and the moft wicked 
crime he had ever committed. The daughter pun&ually 
complied with her father's inftruAions -, which the young 
man being apprifed of, he refolved to perplex the king a 
little farther. With this view, he got the arm of a dead 
body, yet frefh, and, taking it under his cloak, went in to 
the king's daughter : (he examined him, in the fame form, 
and to the fame purpofe, as (he had done the reft who had 
been with her before him ; when he frankly confefied, that 
the moft abominable and wicked adion of his life was the 
cutting ofF his brother's head, when infnared in the trea- 
fury ; and the moft ingenious thing he had ever done, was 
the ftealing the body from the guard that kept it. She then 
offered to lay hold of him ; but he, holding out the dead 
arm to her, haftened out, while flie grafped it ; and, by the 
favour of the night, made his efcape. Rhampjinitus^s rage 
being now converted into an admiration of the bold- 
nefs and ingenuity of the man, he caufed it to be pro- 
claimed in every city, that if the perfon, whoever he was, 
would difcover himfelf, he ftfould not only be pardoned, 
but rewarded. The young iAmi, confiding in this, went 


C. III. to the time of Alexander. yj 

ftraitway to the palace ; and,having made himfelf known, in 
the end, the king gave him his daughter in marriage, ac- 
counting him for fuperior in wifdom to any man then living 
upon earth. Our author does not warrant every particular 
of thisftoryi./ 

After this, it was fabled, that Rhampfinitus defcended Rhampfi* 
alive into the infernal regions, where he played at dice with mvi%gois 
Ceres ^ but neither won nor loft ; and that, at his departure^ tlownu . 
flie prefented him with a golden bowl. The fpace between ^^//» 
his defcent and return to the upper regions was obferved 
with great folemnity by the Egyptians^ for many ages after- 
wards. And now, that we may conclude the hiftory of 
this Idng with fome air of truth and probability, he reigned 
with great prudence and jufiice, and was a conftant and 
ftriA obferver of the good order, which, till his death, had 
uninterruptedly fubiifted throughout the kingdom, from its 
firft foundation K 

This king was fucceeded by fevcn others, all of name- 
lefs fame, and ignoble charader, except one, called Niius. 
He is celebrated for the great number of canals he dug all 
over the country, and for his endeavours to make the Nile Nilns. 
as univerfally ferviceable as poffible. Whence it was, that 
the river, which had been hitherto called jEgyptuSy was 
now called after his name K 

Cheops, Chemmis, orCnCMBEs (M), is, by Z)i^- Cheops, 
dcruSy reckoned the eighth from Rhampfinitus, Herodotus Chemmis, 
places no diftance between diem. 1 his king is branded ffrChem- 
tor his impiety and tyranny. He began his reign with bcs, a ty- 
(hutting up the temples,and forbidding all public facrlfices $ ^^^* 
and then, trampling on the laws, and invading the liberties 
of his people, reduced them to a ftate of the moft Istborious ( 

flavery. Great numbers he fent to dig out ftone in the 
quarries among the mountains of Arabia ^ and to tranfport 
them into Egypt °^ : and haraiTed them in the end, in 
raiftng the largdi of the three great pyramids <>• By thls^ Bui/ds th 
and other vain^glorious works of the fame kind, he was largeft 
reduced fo low, that he e;cpofed his daughter to common pyramid, 
proftitution; telling her, in general terms, to earn what Pr0/?//»/// 

his daugh- 

* Herod, l.ii. c. 121 — 123. ^ Idem ibid. * Diooi/^r, ivho 

ubi fup. p. 57. ^ Herop. ubi fup. c 1 24. » Idem ibid. iuiJJs a 

c. 125. &Diob. ubifup. See vol. i. p. 426.' /mail 

.py rami dm 
(M) Sir Ifaac Neivton fu- called Chemnis, Phiops\jfpathuSf 

fpedsy that he intended to be Apappus^SuphiSySaophisfyphoas^ 

worihiped, himMf, after death ; Syphap/Ss^i^iphis, Sj/pl^s,Jnoi' 

and fuppoics, that he was alfo fhis, and^M^ • 


74 ^^ W^rj of Egfpt B. L 

file could. She obeyed, and, by her fether's ejcample, de^ 

firing to perpetuate her memory, required each of her nk 

lants only to contribute a ftone towards a building flie had 

in view. With the ftones, (o coilefied, flie built a linall 

pyramid n. This tyrant reigned fifty years o. 

Cepbre- He was fiicceeded by Cephrenesj Cephrenj or Cbahyis. 

nesyCe- It is doubted whether Cephren and Chabryis were one and 

phrea^ or the fame peribn ; fome faying that Cephren was the bro" 

Chabry^, ther, and that Chabryis was the fon of Cheops. ButJeaT* 

a tyrant, j^g ^j^ obfcure controverfy ; this king trod in the fbedleps 

BuiUs a of his predeceflbr, and, particularly, in building a pyramid : 

pyramid, but it fell much fhort of the former. He reigned fifty-fix 

years. Though both he and his predeceflbr defigned thefc 

pyramids for their eternal manfions, to ufe the Egyptiem 

pbrafe, yet neither of them were depofited in them after 

death : dreading what the rage of the multitude might 

prompt them to, their friends buried them v^re nobod]^ 

could ever find them P. 

Aft£R Egypt had been thus afflided, by tyranny, fnr 
Myceri- one hundred and fix years, Mycerinus^ or Cherinsis (N), 
nuSf #r the fon of Cheops^ a good and merciful prince, afcended 
Cherinns, the throne. Abhorring the impiety and injuftice of hisfii* 
« good ther, and his uncle, he opened the temples, reflored thela- 
prince. crifices, and allowed the people to purfue their private af- 
fairs. His generofity and good-nature are reported to have 
been fuch, that if, at any time, complaint was made to him 
of a hard fentence pronounced in matter of property, he 
would fatisfy the party aggrieved to the amount of the lo&, 
out of his own treafure 9. Whilft he was thus intent on 
the happinefs of his people, a heavy misfortune fell upon 
Hisdaugb-i^^^i the death of his daughter. He mourned her with 
ter dies, great bitternefs, and honoured her with an extraordinary 
4tnd be bu' funeral : for,caufing an hollow wooden image of a cow to 
ries ber in be made, and richly gilt, he therein depofited her body. 
em extra' This cow was never interi'ed, but was expofed in a magni* 
wdinary ficent chamber of the palace, in the city of &ais ; where 
^tiOfeur. they burned the moft exquifite odours by day, and illumi«- 
nated the place by night with a lamp. In a room conti* 
guous to this, were twenty naked images of women, which 

* Herod, ubi fup. c. 126. See vol. i. p. 428. ^ Herod. 
ubifup. c. 127. P Idem ibid. c. 128. Diod. ubi fup. p. 57, 
j 84 ^ Hb rod. ibid. c. 1 29. 

(N) The laft-cited chrono* lUcberetj Mofiberes^ Mencbe- 
loger calls hin\^ aUb* Cberes, res. 



m. "^tf tbf time of Aksmitr. 75 

pricfis of S^is reported to have be^n the concubines of 
:irinus. But, u it generally happens in cafes of remote 
quity, this was not the only repprt that was fpread con- 
nng this cow, and the ftat^e^. It was faid, that Mya^ 
Sy filing in lov9 with t^s dnygbter, forced and deflow- 
her \ whereupon (be fell int^ a de^ naelancholy, and 
violent hands on herfelf. The tweqty naked ftatues in 
next room, faid they, were her woi|ien,who had been 
vmenta) in betraying her to her ffit^er's unnatural luft, 
therefore bad their h^nds cut off by the qMeen. They 
iared, inde«], without hands $ but our author, who was 
3^witnefs of thefe things, tells uf , thrv were dropped 
with age, and lay (battered upon the iloor. He tells 
slib, that the cow was in a kneeli^ig pofture, and as 
as the largeft cow living. Her neck an^i head were 
!y laid over with gold, and between the horns was a 
en circle, in imitation of the fun ; and her body had a 
Tyrian carpet thrown over it. This fepulchral image 
removed oncQ a year from the apartment where it 
1, and expofed to the open day, in purfuance of a re*> 
\ the deceafed made to her father, that iheinight behold 
iin once every year '• 

pw to return whence wedigrefled > the death of his 
hter was not the only misfortune that befel Mycerinusj 
r« dreadful pn^ ^nfued ; for it was denounced againft 
from the oracle at Butuf^ that he bad but fix years 7^^ 9racb 
I to live I and that in thp fev^nth he (bould die. Mat Butus 
he was greatly troubled, and fent to ex|X)ftulate with declares 
»racle, remonftrating^ that, iUi^ his father and. \^c\cyhim to be 
had been monfters ^ impiety and ^ry^elty, had h^^n/^ort- 
id with great length of dayis, tt would be UQgrafteful/^'z/V. 
quite his piety and humanity with the eic^ution pf 
^ a fentence. The oracle anfwen^d > Tk^X his fath^ 
mcle knew the decree of fate, whi^h had condi^iuied 
Egyptians to 150 years of bondage and mi^ry* anda£^ed 
rmably thereto ; but his having int^^jc^pf.ed the cwpft 
ix niifery, as Vot being acquainted with that decree, 
he caufe he wa$ fo fuddenly to be cut off* Finding 
fore that his doom was irj-cverfible, he confulted how 
^ke the moft of the fmall remainder of life 3 a^id^^om- 
ing a great number of lamps to be lighted up 0vify 
> he fpent his whole time in drinking and revelling. 
Qiceforward making no diftir^ion between day and 
» he roved about among the gcoY£s and mesdows, tod 
>rpve^h( heard of themoft gay and xii^^ibil company. 
* Jdemibid. c. 130— 13J. 


y6 The Hijiory of Egypt. B. I. 

Efulea^ Thus he went on, thinking to convid the oracle of felf- 
'vours to hood, and, inftea4 of fix, to live twelve years. Finally, 
ctwviS Mycerinus is faid to have built a pyramid, whidi, frwn 
the orach the bafis to the middle, was of Ethiopian ftone ; and on 
of falf' th^ northern front of it he infcribed his own name. Th» 
mood* pyramid the Greeks^ by a grofs miftake, attributed to thq 
courtefan Rhodopis^ who flourifhed in the days of Amafii^ 
feveral reigns lowers. 

We now proceed to G«f^Atf^«x, the fether of Biff /5^f 
the wife. He is alfo named Technatisy by Plutarch ^^ and 
Neochahis^ by Alexis. What interval there was betvireen 
him and Mycerinus^ or whether any, does no-where plainlj 
appear. This king is famed for his abftinence, and for tte 
execration he denounced againft Menes. For it is recorded 
of him, that, leading an army into Arabia^ and travelling 
the vaft and barren deferts,he there fell into great ftreights, 
and want of provifion ; and,being one day obliged to take 
up with the poor and flender diet he met with, he after- 
wards fell into a profound fleep. This fo delighted him, 
Forhhds that he forbad all excefs and luxury, and curfed MeneSy 
all luxury ^who firft introduced them : and fo earneftly did hepcrfc- 
andcurfes cute the memory of this his predeceflbr, that, by the con- 
Menes. jent of the priefts, he engraved his curfe upon a pillar, 

which was feen in the temple at Thebes, 
Bocc'.io- BoccHORis, thefon of Gnephachthus^ was fiirnamed /i^f 
"«• ^ wife. He was defpicable in his perfon, but, for prudence 
and wifdom, fer beyond any of his predeceflbrs. He is 
reckoned the fourth Egyptian lawgiver ; but his laws ' fcem 
not to have concerned any thing, except commerce, and 
the regulation of the public revenue. His judgments wcre^ 
for their excellence, retained many generations after his 
death ; but his great qualities were fomewhat debafed by his 
propenfion to avarice ". So high was the veneration his 
fubjefts paid him, that they fabled JJis to have fent an afp 
to deprive him of his fight, that he might judge righteoufly^. 
However, he drew a general odium upon himfelf, by letting 
in a wild bull to the facred one, called Mnevis ; but tiiis 
got the better, and killed his antagonift. At laft, with all 
the equity of his judgment*, the purity of his mind, he is 
faid to have been taken by Sabbaco the Ethiopian^ and burnt 
alive y. 

r Idem ibid. c. 133—134% Sec vol. i. p. 427. » Dc IW. k 

Ofir. * Sec vol. i. p. 466, u Diod. 1. i, p. 59, 85. w JPtuT^ 

^i^vaa^idLi^ p. 529. 3c i£LiAN. deanim. l. xi. c. ii« 
y Syncel. p. 74. 


C. III. to the time of Alexander. yy 

1 AsYcHis is, by Herodotusy placed next in order to My- Afychis. 

> terinus', but in compliance with Diodorus, we have put 
two reigns between them, notwithftanding our full per- 

^ fuafion, that Bocchoris and Jfychis were the fame king, as 

. we fhall take occafion to obferve by-and-by. It is recorded 
of AJychisy that he built the eaflern portico to the t^m^lQ BuUds thi 

. of Vulcan^ with a magnificence that eclipfed the others, f^^ . 
And, finding that the riches oi Egypt were lodged in a few/^''^f. 
hands, and that credit was decayed, he enacted a law, '^"'*"^'* 
whereby a man might borrow money upon the fepulchre^^**** 
of his father, and depofit the body, as a pledge, in the hands; ^^*'** 
of the creditor ; and,till it was redeemed, the debtor might ' 
neither be buried in the fepulchre of his father, or In any 
other, nor put any of his defendants there. This Wing^ and a 
to furpafs all his predeceffors, built a pyramid of brick, ^wi/j;- 
which he charged with a very vaunting infcription *. ramid. 

After Afychis^ a blind man, nam^ Anyjis^ from a city ^^yg^^ 
of the fame name, became king. In his reign Sabbaco king 
of Ethiopia broke into Egypt with a powerhil army, and 
Anyjis fled for fhelter to die fens, leaving the kingdom to 
the invader a. 

Bu T before we enter upon the reign of Sabbaco^ let us 
take a curfory retrofpeft of thefe three laft reigns, and per- 
haps we may find reafon to think, that Bocchoris and ^^- Bocchoris 
chis are diirerent names for one king, and that the blind «9i/Aiy* 
man ^J^yfa was his contemporary. For the law faid to have chis the 
been inftituted by Afychis favours fo much of Bocchoris* s/ame king^ 
genius, as might incline one to think them but one man. «»/ con- 
And iif it be true, that Bocchoris was burnt alive by Sah-tfrnporary 
hacoy they muft not only have been fo, but Anyfts muft alfo'^ Anyfis, 
have been king of another part of Egypt at the fame time, ^f^ jr^?* 
Furthermore, it is declared bjr Herodotus^ that Ecus the'^^^'^^'' 
fsithcr of Pfammitichus was flain by the fame J?^A/^^/^«^.^..^* 
Here we have three kings, if we may fuppofe Ecus to have"^^ * *"' 
been of royal dignity, fubdued by one and the fame enemy, 
and all in Egypt. From hence it may appear, that many 
of the kings of Egypt are placed in order of fucceffion, that 
were collateral, merely out of oftentation, and to fupport 
the pretentions the priefls made to the exceffive antiquity of 
their kingdom. 

We now return to Sabbaco ; from whofe cruelty towards Sabbaco 
Bocchoris J we fhould conclude him to have begun his reign /^^ Ethi- 
with the like barbarity towards others,were we not aflured, opian. 


. 2 HsROD. l.ii. c. 136. See vol. i. p. 428, 429. * Hi.R0 
ttbi fup. c. 1 37. ^ Idem ibid. €.152. 


diat he no fooner found himfelf finnly tftatdifhed on the 
throne, than he became a new man ; fo that he vi hi^iljf 
e^ctolled for his mercj, clemencf » and policy. He is duHight 
to have been the So m Scripture, and to have entered into 
a league with Hojhea king of Samaria^ againft Sbalmwh^ 
naffar king oiJJfyria. He was excited to the inva&Ml of 

^ ^SyP^ ^y ^ dream or vifion, which aflured him he fhouU 
hold Egypt fifty years ; and, when that term was expired, 
he voluntarily retired into Ethiopia again, refignii^ his 
conquered kingdom. But, whilft ne was in Egytt^ he gave 
the higheft proofs of his wifdom and piety, and yielded to 
none of his Egyptian predeceflbrs in the art of governing^ 

Cy- He never woulcl confent to the death of any criminal, thou^ 
capitally condemned, commuting the punifhment into hard 
labour, which purely confided m railing of mounts, aiid 
digging of canals \ fo that the cities of Egypt were raifed 
higher, and rendered more commodious,than they had been 
by Sefojiris ; and particularly the city of Bubajiis^ where 
flood a moft magnificent temple, confecrated to the goddefi 

«^of the fame name. At length Sabbaco had a vifion in his 
fleep, wherein the tutelar god of Thebes admonifhed him, 
that he could not hold hold the kingdom of Egypt with 
fafety and happinefs, except he maffacrcd the prieits as he 
pafTed through them with his guards. Being haunted with 
this vifion, and his heart abhorring fo dreadful an under* 
taking, he fent for the priefls, and declaring to them vAizt 
the gods prompted him to, he thence concluded, that It was 
their pleafure he fhould remain no longer in Egypt ; and 
that therefore he was determined to return to his native 
country, and refign a crown which he could not preferve 
without fo general a flaughter. It had been foretold, that 
he Ihould reign 50 years ; thefe were now expired ; and 
therefore, looking upon the vifion as a command to quit 
Egypty he readily complied with it, and returned into 

As foon as Sabbaco had departed the kingdom, Any/b 
came out from his hiding-place, and reafTumed the govetn- 
ment. He had been abfent fifty years, and in that time 
had formed an ifland for his habitation, compofed of afhes 
and earth ; for, when any Egyptian came to him with pro- 
vifion, he always defired, that afhes might be brought to 
him, unknown to the Ethiopian. This ifland was called 

^ Idem ibid. c. 137— 139. DioD. Sic. ubi fupra, p. 59* I ' 
^ HfiROD. ibid. c. 140. 



C. in. to the time of Alcttrtdtef. 75^ 

Aftsr him rdened on^ Sithon^ who i^9 both king, and Sethon 
prieft of Vulcan. He not only negleded the military c\zk king and 
as order, but injuriouily divefted them of their privileges/'*'*^, 
iind lands; whereat diey were fo iiicenfed, that, thinking 
tfaemfelves abfolved from their alkgiamre^ they entered 
into a combination not to bear arms under him. But he, 
iregardleis of their threats and murmuf-s, gave himfelf 
wholly up to contemplation ; and the fundtions of religion. 
This was the ftate of afikirs when Sennacherib king of ^^ 
fyria drew near to Pebfiumj defigning to enter Egypt, Se- 
thon, perceiving his danger, and fenfible that now hi;s only 
truft muft be in the military order, whom he had fo unjuftly 
dealt with, had recourfe to them ; but in vain : they 
obftinately periifted in refufing to march under his banner. 
The prieft now, deftitute of all other advice and fupport, 
repaired to his god, and, in the utmoft dejed^ion of mind, 
implored his aid. Whilft he was yet in the temple, he fell 
into a deep fleep ; during which it feemed to him that the 
god, ftanding at his fide, exhorted him to take courage, 
and promifed that, if he would but go out againft the a/- 
Jyriansj he ihould obtain a complete viftory over them. 
f raught with this vifion, he aflembled together a body of 
artificers, ihopkeepers, and labourers ; and, with this un- 
experienced multitude, bent his march towards Pelujium, 
The very night after his arrival there, an infinite number 
of field-rats, entering the enemies camp, gnawed their 
quivers, bow-ftrings, and fhield-ftraps, to pieces c. This is 
confonant to the prophecy of Ifaiah : The king of Ajfyria 
/hall not come into this city (meaning JerufalemU norjhoot 
mn arrow there j nor come before it with ajhield^. How- 
ever, archbifhop LJ^^r^and Dr. Prideaux^ are of opinion, 
that Sennacherib, what lofs focver he might have fuftained 
at Pelujium, eiftered Egypt, and, having deftroycd the fa- 
mous city of No, carried with him, on his return into 
AJfyria, a great multitude of Egyptian captives : for it 
Was, according to them^ on this occafion, that the oro- 
phecy oi Nahum was fulfilled: Yet tvas Jhe (the populous 
No) carried dway ; Jh€ went into captivity ', her young chil- 
dren alfo were dajhed in pieces at the top of all thejireets; 
and they caji lots for her honourable men j and all her great 
wen were bound in chains %, This calamity happened to 
the city of No, as the above-mentioned vvrriters obferve, 
while Ethiopia and Egypt were her ftrength h ; and at this 

« Ideinibid. c. 141I ** 2 Kings xix. 32. « Ush. ad A," 
M. 5293. i Fai0. conned^, part. i. book i. p. 23. odav. 

s Nahum iii. lo. ^Ib. ver. 9. 


neHiftcry of Egypt ELI 

time Tirhakah kin^ of Ethiopia y zxASethm king of £#i^ 
were joined in alliance. But this opinion, hmw e v tir ph» 
fible, has great difficulties attending it ; as we flail flievii 
the hiftory of the Jiws. WhtnSeth§H nextmomii^ fbuall 
the enemy thus difarmed, and moving off, he purfucd dm 
with great flaughter. In memory of thb miraculous evo^ 
a ftatue of ftone was eroded to ms king, in die tcmpkcf I 
Vulcan J holding a rat in one hand, and ddtveriag dicfc 
words : IVhofoever beholdeth mff let him btpi§msK ' 

A fhort time after the death of Sithen^ ^iyp^ ^^^^^tt (opal 
what motive is not precifely known) divided into twehc 
kingdoms, and twelve of the chief Egyptian lonls wereif-l 
pointed over them. Thefc 12 entered into the ftri^fceft aflo-| 
ciation for the public welfare, l^his mutual league ivas con- j 
ceivcd rn the mod obligatory manner, and cemented by fl|die 
ftri£left ties that could poffioly maintain a perpetual uni oJ M M 
harmony among them ; becaufe it had been foretold by ail 
oracle, upon their afliiming the government, that heot 
their number who fhould perform a libation in a brasa 
cup, fhould, in time, be king of all Egypt. This new re- 
gulation was attended with (Kace and happine(s, and th 
twelve kings rcfolvcd to raifc a monument, which migjl 
perpetu.ite their names to the latcil ages ; and accordinglj 
they raifcd the famous labyrinth ^ near the lake Afceriu 
At length they all met together, to facrifice in the ten^ik \ 
of Vulcan ; ami being to offer a libation on the laft day, the 
high-pricft, through miftake, brought out only eleven i ' 
the twelve gold bowls, which were referved for the ufcflf' 
the twelve princes ; and Pfammitichusy (landing the laft in 
order, and being unprovided for the ceremony, took offli 
helmet, vi'hich was of brafs (they all twelve wore die fSuiie)> 
and performed his libation with that. This he did inail* 
vertcntly ; but it being obfer^'ed by the reft, they calkS 
to mind the oracle, which promifed the whole kingdom of 
Egypt to him who fhould happen to perform a libation ia 
this place with a brafs bowl. Wherefore, though thej 
were fatisfied he had no ill intention, and, for that reafoDi 
would not Ibntence him to die, yet they were unanimouily 
for confining him to the marlhy country, divefting him of 
the greateft part of his diibicl:, and foi bidding him to con- 
cern himfclf with the affairs of the public ^ The reafiw 
of this difcord is told differently by others ; and the whole 
is attributed to envy : for, at the divifion of the country 
into twelve provinces, as has been obferved, tlie fea-coafts 

iHEROD.l. ii. c. 141. ^ See vol. i. p. 445. ' Hkroi. 

ibid.c. 151. 






C. III. to the iime cf Alexander. S i 

fell to thelotof Pfammitichus j and he, grcady encoiirtiging 
all commerce wim the Grecians and Phcenicians^ not only 
accumulated great wealth, but acquired alfo the favour and 
friendfliip of feveral foreign kings and nations ; which drew 
on him the envy of his colleguesj who,- fearing he fliould 
grow too formidable^ and afreft to rule over them, tefolved 
to reduce him betimes. Wherefore they ill declared war 
againft him ; and he, finding himfelf unequal to the con- 
flift, hired an arftiy of mei-ceharies, cbnfifting chiefly of 
loniansj Cariansy and Arahitins; repelled force with force, 
and, in the end, fubdued the other kings, and put an end 
to the duodecemuirate in. On the other hand it is related^ 
that, in purfuance of his fentence, he retreated to the fens ; 
but, greatly refenting the feverity of his ufage for fo trifling 
a thing, done yrithout any evil defign, he fent to the ora- 
cle of Latona^ at the city of Butus^ to know how, and 
when, he might hope for redrefs. The anfwer he received 
was, that Brazen would fuddeflly rife out of the fea, and 
avenge his caufe. This he received as a flat abfurdity : 
but, not long after, fome Imian and Carian pirates landed 
in brafe armour : and an Egyptian^ who had never feen 
men armed fo before, going up to Pfammitichusy and iac-- 
iquaintiiig him, that certain brazen men had rifen oiit of 
the fea, and were pillaging th.e land near the fea-fhore, he 
perceived that the oracle was come to pafs : therefore, per- 
fuading them to ftay, by the large promifes he made them 
if he lucceeded, and joining to them fuch Egyptians as 
were well afFefted to him, he fubdued and deSironed the '^ 

eleven kings, and feized on the whole kingdom for him- 
felf °. It is faid, die decifive batde was fought at Monem^ 
phis' I (hat fome of the kings were flain, and that others- 
took refuge in jifric. Thus was the government by twelve 
difkJved, after it had fubfifted 15 years ©. 

.Hitherto the Egyptian hiftory has been covered with- y^^f of 
an impenetrable mift : it now begins to clear up a litde*' Aq^ 
Pfainmitichusy of the tribe of Sais, thus poflfefled of the* ig^g. 
whole: kingdom of Egypt 9 reigned with as much wifdom^^f.Chrift 
magnanimity, and fpdendor, pa any of his predcceflbrs. 67b. 
He was the fon of EcuSy whom Sabbaco put to death \yv>^ 
when he conquered Egypt ; and, had ha not fled tntoPfammi- 
SyriHy would have fbared in bis father's fate. He madetichus. 
gpod his engagements -with, his allies, and over and zbov^Gi'vts 
prefented themwidv cextaiti laxulson each fide of the Nik^*great en^ 
and called their fetdements the camp. He alfo put feveral courage- 

• A D10D4. Sic. ttbi fop. p. -59. » HwloD. uhi fop', c; 152. Qj-^i^s 
•D^OD. p. 60, - . •' . -^ 

<- Vol* n. f: childrea 

7be Hiftory of Egypt B. L 

children under their tuition, that they mj|^ be inftruAol 
in the Greek language. They had their iitiiatioa near the 
fea, below the city of Bubajis^ by the PduJUtn movdi of 
the Nile : and here they continued till Amafis renoM 
them to Memphisy as will be ihewn in its mace. How- 
ever, it is here proper to obferve, that oiele Gnaems 
are faid to have been the firft foreigners who were per- 
mitted to dwell in Egypt ; and that, from the intercouHe 
and correfpondcnce which was conftantly kept up between 
them and their countrymen in Greece, we are well afliiiBd 
of the truth and exa£bieis of the Egyptian hiftory fribm 
the days of PfammitUhus ». 

CoNCE RNi N G the public edifices he ereded there is fixne 
'^ difagreemcnt : Herodotus fays, he,added the fouthem, and 
^* Diodorusy that he added the eaftern portico to the temple 
of Vulcan. The former writes, that he built a ipacions 
edifice oppofite to this portico, for the reception of the god 
Jpisy whenever he fliould appear ; and that it was enriched 
with fculptures, and furrounded by gigantic ftatues, Z2 cn^ 
bits high, inftead of pillars. The utter, that he incoD- 
paiTed the temple with a wall, fubftituting colofles inflevl 
of pilafters^^. 

In confideration of the fidelity and warlike experience of 
the foreigners, who had placed him on the throne, he al- 
ways kept feme of their countrymen in pay, and wentib 
far as to compliment them with the poft of honour when 
he. marched his army into Syria ; where he warred many 
V. years. This fo incenfed the Egyptians^ that upwards of 
200,000 of them deferted him, and marched ofF in a body* 
Perceiving his error in thus affronting his own fubje<^ he 
at firft fent fome of the chief o£Ecers after them, to excuie 
the matter : but, finding that their perfuafions had no effed, 
he took fhipping, with fome of his friends, and overtook 
them on the banks of the Nile : and there, intreating them 
to halt, in confideration of all the natural obligations that 
could endear their country to them, and their gods ; they 
unanimoufly ftruck their fpears upon their £ields, and 
cried out, that, as long as they had arms, they did not 
doubt but they fhould find a country to fetde in : and, 
difcovering their nakednefs, added, that thev fhould never 
want wives and children. They then fuUenly marched on, 
tUl they came into the territories of Ethiopia j where tJicy 
fat down on a fertile fpot, and dwelt there. 

» Herod, ibid. c. 154, ^ Idem, ubifupr. c. 152. Diop. 
ubifupr. p. 62. ^ 

^ To jepaijr this lofs, he eameftly applied himfelf to the6/Mr/ tii 
■advancement of commerce, and opened his ports to all ^r//^ 
* firangers ; whom he greatly carefled, contrary to the cruel £g)T(^ 
■ or refervcd maxims of his predeceflbrs* At the fame timeA'^V''"'* 
; he was thus intent upon his afiairs at home, he entered 
' into, or renewed an alliance with the Athemansy and other 
' Greek nations I But his reign is for nothing more remark^ 
able, than for the long and tedious fiege he laid to ^^otus jj^^ ji^^ 
in Syria y which held out againft the whole power of Egypt ^r Azo^^ 
for the fpace of 29 jrearsffl. His condu£l towards the Scythi- x.}X%, and 
am^ who, about this time, pofiefled themfelves of jlfiay ^xAtranfitc 
were now marching with a defign to pour themfelves mxotion nviri 
£iypty is highly conunended : for, inftead of oppofing/i&/ Scy* 
them, he joined them in Syria^ and by his prefents andthians. 
intreaties prevailed on them to march back again u. After 
a reign of fifty-four years o he died, and was buried in die 
the temple of Bubaftis^ or Minerva ^ at Sais^ the place 
where all the Saitic kings were depofited. He is reported 
to have been the firft king of Egypt that drank wine P, to 
hare fent to difcover the iprings of the Nili% and to have 
made an, experiment to find out which was the moft antient 
nation in the world : to which purpofe, he got two new^ 
born children, and brought them up after fuch a manner 
that they never heard an human voice ; and becaufe, wheli 
at two years old they pronounced a word (beccos) which 
£gnified bread in the Phrygian tongue, the Egyptians no 
longer vaunted of their feniority before all odier nations,' 
but fubmitted to the PAry^i^Tiw'. 

Nechus was the fon and (viCCtKor of Pfammiiichus, Yearbf 
He is the Pharaoh Necho of fcripture, and was a prince of flood 
a magnificent and warlike genius, and great both at land 1732. 
and fea« In the beginning of his reign he attempted to cut Bef. Chr. 
a canal from the Nile to the Rid Sea ' 5 but, after the lofs ^*6* 
of 1 2C,ooo of thde employed on this work, he was warned ^J^'V^ 
by an ofacle to defifl:, and leave the firdihing of it to a^*^*"* 
Barbarian or foreigner. He obeyed the oracle i and thence* 
forth tummg his thougihtd to vrarlike enterprizes, built a 
fleet of galleys in the norther^ [Mediterranean] &sl^ and an^^ 
other m die flteights of the Arabian gulph, where fbotfteps 
of h^ navdt preparations were feen many ages afterwards <• 

' Idem ibid. ^ Herod. 1. ii.c. 157. » Idem, 1. i. c. 105. 
^ Idem, t^ii, It. 157. 9 EuDOX. apod Pktarch. it Ifide 8c 

Ofifide,.g.^5jf3« * ArRBNiRVs, 1. viii. p. 545. ' HbAod^ 
'1. ii, Ct at . ^ Idea ibid, c 158. • Idvmj ibid. c. 159. 

Fa He 

-.84 The Hiftory of Egypt . . : B- Ir 

'AffeHs the He fent fome of the moft expert Phoenician mariners he couU 
einpire of procure, upon a difcovery of the African coafts. According- 
iht fia. Jy, failing out of the Red Sea through the ftreights of Babet- 
mandelj zs now called, they fteered down the eaftem (bora 
of yff?-ic ; and, doubling the Cape of Good^Hope^ coafted up 
northward, till they came to the ftreights of Gibrabar \\f^ 
•which they entered the Mediterranean^ and jfo retunied 
. / ■ into Egypt : this voyage they performed in three years '. 
Histvars He was not only great at fea, but was alfo fonnidable 
qt land. \yy j^^j^ JofephuSy following Cteftas^ fays, that he made 
war upon the Medes and Babylonians ; who had juft then 
diffolved the AJfyrian monarchy, and were grown dreadful 
to the nations tar and near " : but the Scripture expreflj 
fays, that he went out againft the king of Ajjyria^ who 
was then on the river Euphrates^ perhaps at aahyUn : in 
his march thither, "Jofiah king of Judah refiifed him .^t 
•paflage through Judea^ and drew up an army to prevent 
his defign, which was to befiegc Carchemijh ^. Finding 
therefore that Jojiah oppofed him, he fent meflengers to 
him to remonftrate, that his arms were not taken up with a 
defign to do Jojiah the leaft prejudice ; that the war he 
was going to engage in, was undertaken by the exprds 
"command of God ; wherefore he would do well not to 
incur the wrath of heaven by withftanding its decree^ 
■But, finding that Joftah gave no ear to his remonftrances^ 
•he refolved to give him battle; and both armies being 
drawn up in the valley of Megiddo (or Magdolus^ as Ht- 
rodotus has it ^), Jojiah was wounded mortally with ao 
*'- arrow, as he was driving his chariot up and down the 

ranks ; and, perceiving his end to be near, he commanded 
his army to retreat, and Necho held on his march U 
Arriving on the banks of the Euphrates^ he there took the 
great city of Carchemijh ; where he lodged a fufficient ga- 
^ rifon, and, after three months, returned to wards £>jj^/ *, 

As he drew near to Jerufalemy he hea,rd that Jihoahmt 
had taken upon him to be king ; and, fending him an order 
to meet him at Riblah in Syria ^ he there bound him in 
chains, and fent him away prifoner to Egypt. After which 
he went to Jerufalem^ and made Eliakim^ whofe name he 
clianged into Jehoiakim^ king over Judah^ impofing on 
him at the fame time a tribute of an hundred talents ot 

^ « Idem, 1. iv. c. 42. * Josephu5 antiq. 1. x. c 6« 

^ 2 Kings xxiii. 29. 2 Chron. xxxv. 20. ^ Herod.I. ii. Ci ijg;! 
^ 2 Chron. xxxv. 24. Joseph vs autiq. ohifupr. • ' Ideoi.ibjd. 1 
' ' ^ fjvcr, 

Cfi lil. to the time: of AlScaricfen ^ 

filver, and one talent of gold*. And thus he becamet 
mafter ofjudea and Syria. Herodotus ftys that he took- 
the great and mountainous city of Cadytis in Palejiine^ i 
that is, as (bme^ underftand him, Jerufalem. It is plain 
tfechus was there ; but it is almoft as plain, that he entei'ed 
it in a peaceable manner b. Hitherto he was fucceisful in 
his wars, and weakened the declining power oi AJJyria ; 
which very ibon after ceafed to .give name to a monarchy : ' ' 
and, in commemoration of his good fortune, or in gratis 
ttide to the god^ he is feid to have confecrated the gar- 
ments he wore in thefe actions to Apolh^ and to have fent 
diem to the oracle of the Branchida in the land of the 
Mdileftans «. 

But he did not long enjoy his new acquifitions ; ior^His turn 
fi>me years after, Nebuchadnezzar came from Babyhn^offirtuni^, 
with defign to drive the Egyptians from Cdrchemijh^ and re- '^ 

Qoverthe Syrian and Phaentcian provinces 4. But he, no 
way daunt^ at the formidable power of this newly^reded 
monarchy,' marched towards the Euphrates with a very 
fiUmerouis array, zigainA Nebuchadnezzar ; but in the end 
Necho was routed with a terrible flaughter, and loft Gjpt- 
chemiflf, with all Syria and Judea^ quite to Pehftum^. 
Ue afterwards entered into a confederacy with Jehoiakiniy 
and made as if he intended to renew the war againft the 
Babylonians ; but he did nothing of moment afterwards^ 
nor ftirred out of Egypt f. He died about eight years after 
he had l)eep defeated by Nebuchadnezzar y having reigned 
lixteen, and left his fon Pfammis to fuccecd him- in the 
kingdom g. 

In the reign of Pfammis^ the fon of Necho^ embafladors Year of 
came into Egypt frooi the Ekans^ to know if the molt flood 
fege Eg^tians could add amy diing to their regulations 1748. 
<ionceniing the Olympic games,, or could perceive any de-Bcf. Chr. 
fc&ki them. When the king was informed of their bu- 600. 
finefs, he called a council of the wifeft men in the nation j ^--^N^V> 
and, fending for the embafladors, he aflced them, if their ^^°*'"^-' 
own citizens were allowed to contend at thei^ games. The 
Eleans anfwered, they were. The Egyptians pronounced, 
that they erred from all the rules of hofpitality ; fince it 
was natuial for them to favour their fellow-citizens more 

: • 2 KingsxxSi. 33. ^ Vide Pride a vx conned, p. 56, 57. 
EfERpD. ubi fopr, ^ Idem ibid. c. 159. ** Jercm.xlvi. i, 2. 
2 Kings xxiv. 7'. « Jose phus, ubi fupr. ^ 2 Kings 

W^' 7' Jf|6£PiiUs ttbi fupr. ^ Herod, ubi fupr. 

, F 3 than 

8^ fbeHiJtotyofZgyft P-l 

than Grangers : that if they were come to be infoisied 

concerning v^at ought, or ought not, to be oone in the 

matter they had propofed, the moft cquitablie )aw thcf 

could m^ke, would be to exclude their oiyn countrymen, 

and admit none but ftrangers to contend for the prisei, 

Pfammis reigned fpc years, and died in an expe4ition againft 

the Ethiopians^ leaving his fon Jpries to fucceed him ^* 

Year of Apries is the Pharaoh-hophra of Scripture, The firft- 

^^^ part of his reign was great and proiperous, the laft, info- 

'754- lent and miferable. In the firft year of his reien he 

Bef. CTjr.j.g^giygj embafladors from Zedekiah king of Judaby aid 

594* with them he entered into a league, promigne to affift 

^^^^^ their king againft the king of Babylon \\ and, s^ut two 

His af* 15^^ after, marched out of Egyft wth a de%n to relieve 

fairsiuitbJ^^f^^^l *^" clofely befieged by Neiuchadniz%gr \ 

tbe]zvt^. who no looner heard of his motions than be raifiidthc 

' fiege, and refolved to meet him K But the Egyptiam^ 

afraid of venturing a battle, retreated as faft a3 the nabyk^ 

mans approached, till they got back into their own ooiiih 

try \ leaving the Jews to the merciless rage of their enem^^ 

in contempt of the moft folemn engagements. And foe 

this breach of futh it was that Ezekiel denounced die 

heavy doom againft them, that they fhould be confounded 

and defolate for forty years enfuing ^ ; and that afterwaidi 

|:hey fhould degenerate to fo bafe a degree, as not to hafe 

it in their power ever to fet up a king of their own for Ac 

time to come ^ ; which will be feen accompliihed jn th^ 

courfe ol this hiftory. The Scriptures paint him in veir 

^advantageous colours, and in the end threaten him wita 

'it violent death ; which was his fate, as we ihall fee anon. 

Jh the mean-time it may not be amifs to take notice, da^ 

Herodotus gives this king twenty five years of greater 

profperity than any of his predeceffors, except Pfmramitir 

thusy had enjoyed ; though Diodorus allows Kls wholq 

reign no more than twenty-two years. However, they 

both agree in giving him the charad^er of a martial prince, 

and fpeak of fucccj&ful wars which he waged, both by fiea 

His n)iit!h and land, againft the Tyriansy Sidonians^ and Cjpriots o. 

ries. The city of otdon he took by ftorm ; and, having vanquifhed 

both the Pbctnicians and Cypriots in a fea-nght, he le*- 

turned with immenfe fpoil into Egypt "9. This no way 

clafhes with what the facred writings record of him; but 

1 1dem ibid. c. 1 6o, i $ i . * Ezck. xvii. 1 5. * Jotflk 

xjncvii. 5. ^ Idem ibid. ver. 7. " Ezek.xxix. 8 — it. 

^ Idem XXX. 13. *» HiROD. ubi fupr, c. l6i. DiOP. 

abi fupr. p. 62. P Idem ibid. 


O in. to the limof AlcxsLti^tr. tf 

lis rather confonant therewith : for Aire he muft have been 
i)« mighty king, in whom the Jews dared to confide againft 
I the monarch of Babyhn I And, as to the feint Afries made 
I to relieve Jerufalem^ and his Ihameful retreat, that rather 
ijleAeAed difhonour on him> than amounted to a misfor^ 

I tune. 

i And now, to obfervc the perfeft agreement and harmony 
I between the facred and prq&ne writers, let us hear the 
I fermer pronounce judgment againft him, and learn from 
I the latter, how it was executed. We have already ob- 
, ferved, that the Scripture threatened this Img with a vio- 
, lent death : the words of the prophet are ; Thus faith the 
Lord^ Biholdy I will give Pharaoh-hophra, king d/" Egypt, 
into the hand of his enemies^ and into the hand of them that 
feek his Rfe i as I gave Zedekiah king of Judfah into the 
band #/* Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon his enemy ^ and 
that fought his life q. Ma^ predictions of the fame kind 
are uttered againft him in Ezekiel\ but there he is con-" 
founded with his fubje£b, and therefore we (hall pafs theni 
Over. Now the profane hiftorians acquaint us, how thefe 
prediftions were fulfilled: the CyreneanSj a colony of the 
Greeks J being greatly flrengthened by a numerous lupply of 
their countrymen under their third Icing Battus the Happyy 
and encouraged by the Pythian oracle, they began to drive 
out the Libyans^ their neighbours, and (hare their pofiefllors 
among themfelves. Hereupon ^n^iV^^r, king of the in- 
jured Libyans^, fent an embafly of fubmiffiou to Jpriesy and 
implored his proteftion from the violence of the nQv/ThecoMfi 
comers. Jpries^ complying with his requeft, fent a ipowcr-o/hi^ 
ful army to relieve him. But the Egyptians being defeated ''«''»• 
.with great flaughter by the Cyreneansy, the few, who - 
' cfcaped, were highly incenfed againft the king, as if he 
had fent them to certain deftru£tion, in hopes that Acy 
being cut oft', he might tyrannize without controul over 
the remainder of his fubjeCTs. What ground there was for 
this fufpicion, does not appear ; but it prevailed to fuch a ' 
degree among the giddy multitude, that almoft an uni- 
venal defeflion enfued. Upon news that they were afTem^ 
bled in a tumultuous manner,, and talking loud of a revo- 
lution, Apries fent a trufty friend, as he thought, and one 
much rdpcfted by the people, called Amafisj to appeafe jj lurav^ 
them* But he, inftead of reconciling them with Apries jedfy 
made intereft with riiem for himfelf; and, as he was pre-Amafis, 
tending to reproach them, and recal them to their alle* 
^i^nce, one of them came behind him, put an helmet on 

^ Jcrcm. 



:^e Htftory of Egypt \ ,* \:: 

his head, and ialuted him king of Eg^t ; and from that 
inftant he prepared to war againft his mafter f. Apries^ 
finding himfelf thus betrayed, commanded on^ PatarbimiSf 
the mod confiderable of all the Egyptians^ who^as vet ad-: 
hered to him, to go to the rebdlious camp, and bring 
Amafn to him alive. He obeyed ; and, coming in fight <^ 
Amafti^ called out to him, charging him to attend, on die 
king* At tliis, Amqfts^ who was on hoirfeback) lifted up 
hjs thigh with the utmoft fcorn, and, breaking wind^ bid 
him carry that back to his mafter. Patarbemis ftill prcf-. 
fing him to obey the royal fummons, he returned this final 
anfwer. That he had been fome time preparing to vifit die 
king ; but, that he might do it in a proper maimer, he 
would bring a fuitable equipage along with him. IPatar- 
bemis had now heard and fecn too muph to imagine he 
ihould fucceed in the bufincf^ he was charged wiui, and 
began to thinjc, thaf the bcft fer\'icc he could dp for AprUs^ 
lit thi§ conjunfture, would be to giye him the moft early 
notice of the pofture and tcnipcr of the rebels. He there-r 
fore haftened back to the king, who no fooner faw hifl| 
without Amafuy than he ordered his ears and nofc to be 
cut oft'. This infolent and tyrannical behaviour complex 
ted his ruin : for when this reft of the Egyptians^ who had 
continued faithful to him, beheld the inhuman mutilation 
of fo worthy and noble a perfon, they all withdrew froni 
him, and went oyer to Amajis. And now the tyrant. on 
the one hand, and the ufurper on tlie other, prepared for 
war ; the ope haying the whole body of the natives under 
his banner ; the other only fuch Carians^ lonlans^ and other 
mercenaries and foreigners, as he could engage in his ferr 
vice s. 

DuRiNC thcfe inteftinc broils and diverfions, which muft 

;• have greatly weakened Egypt j it is probable that Nebuchai" 
nezzar^ who much about this time broke up his thirteen 
years ficge of Tyre^ and had at laft nothing but an empty 

t' town for his pains, took advantage of the troubled ftate of 
this kingdom, in hopes here to acquire fuch fpoil as might 
make amends for what he miffed at Tyre, And this is perr 
feftly confonant to the Scripture, w-liere it is foid ; Nebu- 
chadnezzar king <j/'Babylon caujed his qrrpy to ferve a great 

■ fervice agai?t/l Tyrus ..... yet had h^ no wages nor his 

army for Tyrus Therefore^ faith the Lord God^ Bcr 

holdy I will give the land of Egypt unto Nebuchadnez2jar 
king of Babylon and it jhall he the wages for hU 

r HtROD. ubi fopr. c. i6i, 162. DiOD. ubi fupr. » Heroq. 
ubi fupr. c. 163. 


C^ HI. to t^fi tifM of Alexander. 89, 

army K A nation in fuch diftraftion as Egypt nuift have 
been in at this time, was an eafy prey to a number of ex- 
perienced veterans ; and, befides, muft have been in the 
ihoft proper condition to gratify an army already worn out 
lyith fatigue, as the Babylonians doubtlefs were. Nebu^ 
chqdnezzar therefore entered Egypt y and miferably harafled 
the country, fjew and led away great numbers of its inha- 
bitants J fo that fomc think it did not recover from this 
in^curfion for forty years, as had been foretold. At length 
he left the country j but, whether he appointed Amajis for 
his lieutenant, or what terms he made with him, is what 
■\ve do not take upon us to fay ; no more than whether 
Amafts and Jpries ftood their ground, and made head 
againft the enemy ; or left him to aft- at his pleafure in 
PsyP^' This alone is certain, that the Babylonian carried 
away an immenfe booty with him. 

And now w? refume the civil war, which we haveCmV 
been Qbliged to interrupt, by taking a view of the devafta-wiir he^ 
tion of the country by a foreign^ enemy. Apries marched /wf^ir 
from Saisy where he nad a moft fumptuous and delightful Apries 
palace, at the head of 30,000 Cdrians and loftians ; and tnd Amat 
Jmajis, on die otlier hand, was in motion at the head of anfis, 
army of Egyptians ". They met in the fields near Mem- 
phis ; and Apries was fo far from doubting of viftory, that 
he is faid to have entertained a notion, that it was not' in 
the power even of any god to diveft him of his kingdom ^, 
as he is upbraided by the prophet, The river is mine^ and t 
have made it x. But his confidence availed him nothing; 
the armies drew up at JlAemphis, and though the foreigners 
idid wonders, yetj being overpowered by numbers, they 
>vere utterly defeated, and Apries himiblf was taken pri- 

And now Amajisy of the tribe ofSaisj ufurped the kins- Year of 
dom. He confined Apries in the palace of Saisy formerly flood 
his own ; and treated him with great care and refpeft. 1779. 
But the people were implacable, and could not reft "v^llft Bef. Chr. 
jfpries enjoyed his life 7 : and therefore, murmuring againft 569. 
AmaftSy and rcmonftrating that his lenity was wrong apr ^^yv^N^t 
plied in extending it to his and their common enemy, heAmafis. 
found himfelf under a neceffity of delivering Apries into 
their hands. And now, being fallen under the power of a • . 
thofe ^ho fought his Ufe^y they ftrangled him, and laid ^"^/tranzUd. 

^ Ezek. xxix. 18, 19. « Hbrod. ubi fupr. c. 169. Diod. 
"vbi fupr. w Herod, ubi fupr. ^ Ezek. xxix. 3. 1 Plato 
feTira: »Jerem, ubi fupr. . ^ 

^ body 

90 ne HifiorycfEgy^t BIl 

body in the fepulchre of his anceftors, whidi was in die 
temple of Minerva j adjoining to the palace, on the left- 
hand going in. Here it was that all the princes of Ac 
tribe of Sais were intombed *. 

We know it is £ud, that Amafts did not thus ufurp die 
throne, nor fucceed Apries. It was one Partamisj bj 
thev, whom Amajis fucceeded, and that, by the foUowii^ 
incident : Partamis celebrating his birth-day, Amajis^ as 
yet a private perfon, prefented him with a moft beautiful 
and elegant garland of flowers : whereupon being invited 
to his table as a gueft, and thenceforward added to the 
number of the king's friends, he was at laft fent at the 
head of an army to reduce the Egyptians^ who had rebel- 
led ; but the army made him king, out of the hatred the^ 
bore to Partamis a. We are inclined to think, that tlic 
Partamis here, and the Patarbemis above, are the famd 
man ; and, if fo, he was rather the idol of the people*s 
affe£tions, than the obje£t of their hatred. But we for- 
bear enlarging any fartbef on this fubjedt, and fhall <mly 
fay, that the author, who gives us this account, is not 
always the moft faithful tranfcribcr. 

Whoever Amajis fuccecded, and which way foever 
he came to the crown, it is commonly allowed, that ht 
was of plebeian extraction. And, perceiving at fii^, that it 
was with reluctance the people payed him the refpe£l due 
to the fublimlty of his ftation, he took a golden ciftem, in 
which his guefts were ufed to wafh their feet, and ordered 
it to be melted down, and caft in the fhape of a god 
This precious idol was fet up in the moft frequented part 
of the city; and all paid due reverence and honour to it 
He then called an aflembly of the Egyptians j and acqiiainted 
them, That the god they now worfliiped was made of 
the veflel which had ferved for the meaneft ufes : that his 
own cafe was the fame ; formerly he was a mean perfon, 
but, being now their king, he expected and required to be 
honoured and obeyed as fuch. It was a rule with him to 
attend clofely to bufinefs every morning, and to divert 
himfelf with his friends the remainder of the day, drinking 
and making merry with them : but his mirth was fomewhat 
of too low an allay for a king; at which fome of his friends 
were fcandalized, and afTured him, that fuch forgetfulnefi 
of his dignity would draw the contempt of all his fubjefis 
upon him. To this he replied, that as a bow alwa)^ bent 
would undoubtedly lofe much of its fpring and energy, and . 

* Herod, ubi fupr. ' Hellanic. apud Athens. deipnoC ^ 
. XV. p. 680. 3 

* . • I 



C* III. 10 fie tim of Alexander. ^1 

in the end be whoUv ufeleis; fo a man who fliould9 ^ui-> 
interruptedly, attend upon ferious matters, would grow 
ftupid, and lofe his fenfes : and, being perfefUy convinced 
of this truth, he was determined to divide his time between 
bufmeis and diverfion. And indeed it is faid of him, that, 
when a private man, he ddighted in his cup and his teft f 
and was fo averfe to bufinefi, that he fupported himfof in 
his riot and luxury by thieving. In confequence of this 
heinous pra£tice, being oftentimes accufed, and continually 
denying his guik, they were ufed to carry him to the ora- 
cle of uie place, where-ever he was, by which he was feme- 
times conviAed, and fometimes acquitted. When became 
to the throne, he recolledled the former trania£tions of his 
life, and, calling to mind the deceitfiilnefs and ignorance of 
the oracles, who had pronounced him innocent, he 
jnighted the temples of fuch gods, abftained from their 
facrifices, and refuied to prcfent them with any donations* 
Dn the oMitrary, he highly revered thofe for veracity and 
pmnifcience, who had charged him with his odious crime b. 

He built a portico to the temple of Minerva 2X Sais,ni ftABc 
which was of the utmoft magnificence, both in the vaft-^Mrlf •/ 
peisof its proportion, and d^ maffivenefs of the mate-^^n^^ 
pals, adorning it with colofles, and the monftrous images 
(of Andirofphynges. But, what is moft to be admired, ne 
femovcd an houfe all of one ftone, from the fame city to 
^ai^. The exterior dimenfions of it were twenty-one 
cubits in front, fourteen deep, and eight high : the in- 
terior meafures were eighteen cubits, twelve, and five. 
Two thouiand mariners were employed three years it> 
franfporting this extraordinary edifice. It ftdod near the 
(entrance of the temple, and was never carried quite int 
cither, as was faid, becaufe the chief engineer fighed one 
jlay, as if he was tired out with the work ; at whicl^ 
Amafts, who ftood by, taking offence, would never fufFer 
bim thenceforth to concern himielf with it; or, becaufe 
one of the men, who were rolling it into the temple, was 
cruflied to death by it. He was very magnificent in the 
gifts and omamfsnts he beftowed upon the other celebrated 
temples, particularly on that at Memphis i where, before* 
t|ie temple of Vukanj he caufed a cofofius to be made 75 
feet in length, lying on its back ; and on the fame bans, 
or pavement, he ere^ed t^o ftatues twenty feet high, 
cut out of the fame ftoiie, and ftanding on each fide of 
%he great one. The great temple of Ifts at Memphis was 
i)uilc by bim^. 

Y Hbroo. ibid, c, 1 73 — 1 75, « Idem ibid, c 176, 177. 


gz . 1'he Hijlory of Egypt ' ^. P 

^btftatt Moreover, Egjpt is faid to have been perfedly happjr 
9f Egypt during his reign, in the fecundation of the NiU^ and to 
Wider him\\xxiit, now contained no lefs than 20,000 populous cities.^ 
and his And, that good order might the better fubfift in the midft . 
lavji. (yf fo vaft a multitude, Amafis enaded a law, whereby 
every Egyptian was bound once a year to inform the go- 
vernor of the province, by what means he earned his fiv* 
ing, and, in de&ult thereof, to fuflFer death ; which wii 
alfo the punifhment now ordained for thofe^ who were 
not able to give a fatisfa£lo*ry account of themfdves * : 
and for this, and the other laws he enaded, he is ftikd 
the fifth lawgiver of Egypt ^, 
Is very fa* ^^ ^^^ ^ g^^^ friend to the Greeks^ and had a vifit from 
wourabU Solon c. Bcfides the favours he conferred on particular per*» 
to all the fons and cities of that nation, he gave full liberty to the 
Greeks. Greeks in general to come into£^j^/, and to fettle, either in ' 
the mod celebrated mart of Naucratis^ or drive on their 1 
trade upon the fea*coa{ls ; granting them places where they 
might ere£l altars and temples to their own deities. Ac-; 
cordingly they eredled feveral temples, the moft frequented 
and noted of which was called the Grecian temple, beihg 
built at the joint charge of the Ionian cities of Cbio^.Tusj 
Phocaay and Clazomena ; of the Dorians oi Rhodes j CnUtiSy 
HalicarnaJfuSj Phafelis^ and of the Molians in the city of 
Mitylene, Thofe of Mgina alfo built a temple to Ju^tirtl. 
their own expence ; the Samians another tojuno^ and tbfr 
Milefians^ a third to Apollo. The Greeks eleaed officers to 
prefide over their commercial affairs, and their religion, 
and ([henceforward became a confiderable body in Egypt ^. 
So great was the fame of Amafis for his generoiity and. 
humanity, that when the Delphians^ whole temple had 
been burnt, were going about from city to city to raife 
fuch a contribution as might enable them to pay that 
part of the expence which was impofed on them, they 
applied pot only to the Greeks in Egyptj but alfo to. 
Amafis himfelf, who gave them a thoufand talents of alum^^* 
Marries a^^ made an alliance with the Cyreneans^ and, beihg de-. 
Qr^ek. firous of a Grecian woman, or elfe willing to give an am- 
ple teftimony of the aiFe£kion he had for that people, he 
married Ladice^ the daughter of Battusy according to- 
fome ; and, according to others, of Arcefilausy or Critobubtt^ 
^ perfon of high authority among the Cyreneans. Thii 
marriage was very extraordinary in its beginning, and 

• See vol.i. p. 465 . Herod, ubi. fupr. & c. 1 78. ^ Diod. i 
ubi fupr. p. 85. « Herod. I. i. c. 30. ^ Idem, I. ii. c. 178, ' ' 
^ Ideni ibid. c. i8a 


•C. HL to: the time i?/ Alexander. ^ 

could not be confummatcid without the intervention of a 
deity. For Amafu^ the' he found no impediment in him- 
felf with refpedt to other women, was at the fame time 
,fenfible of a total inability in regard to his wife. Here- 
.upon, fufpe£ling fome fecret charm, he told her one 
night, that, how deeply foever fhe was verfed in fuperna*- 
tural contrivances, (he fliould not efcape the vengeance he 
intended to take on her for her ingratitude to him. She 
denied the charge, and, applying with fighs and tears 
,to Venus^ vowed to fend a ftatue of her to Cfrtne^ and 
.ered: it there, if file delivered her from her prefent diflrefi* 
The goddcfs heard her prayer, the impediment .was xt^Amracii* 
moved, and the king thenceforth ufed her with all the 
kindnefs of a tender husband. Ladice performed her vow 
to the goddefs, whofe ftatue, fet up by her, was feen with- > 

out the gates of Cyrene fome ages afterwards. This mi-* 
i^cle, as it was doubtlefs call^, brought x\^t gods of the 
Greeks into as much credit with Amajis as they were with 
the Greeks themfelves, as we gather from his confecrated 
:donations to Greece* To the city of Cyrene he fent a gilt His tonfe- 
flatue of Minerva^ and his own pi£lure done to the life, crated do-- 
To the city of Lindus he gave two ftone fiatues of the ^t^tiims to 
feme goddefs, with a linen pe£toral or ftom^cher wonder- Greece. 
fully wrought and adorned. To Samos he fent two wooden 
images of himfelf, which were feen (landing feveral ages 
afterwards, behind the gates^ of the gr^t temple of Juno. 
^This donation he made to Samos for the fake of Polycrates^ 
with whom he was in efpecial alliance. As for Lindus^ 
it was reported, that the daughters of Danaus founded 
the temple of Minerva there, when they fled from the 
ions of /Egyptus. To all the great things which have been C0Hquerf 
)iltherto fdid.of him, we may add, that he was the firft Cyprus, 
who fubdued Cyprus^ and who exa^d tribute from the 
CypriotSy its inhabitants ^. 

Hitherto we have reprefented this reign in the ma^ 
jeftic colours the Egyptian priefts beftowed on it ; and 
under fo prudent a prince as it is likely Amajis was, the 
greateft part of what tbey faid may be true enough : but 
they ^dwelt fo much on the glory of this reign, as to for- 
get all the ignominy that was mixed with it. Xenophon 
write;, that Cyrus conquered Egypt ' ; and if fo, it muft 
have been during this long reign \ and Herodotus (ays^ that 
Amafif sind Crcejuf were leagued together againft Cyrus ^. 
It is certain. That Nebuchadnezzar almoU ruined the 
;'.^ H&RQD. ubi fupra. c. i8i« 182. Dion, ubi fapra. 
• Cyropacdk fiib fin. «; in prolog, f Hirod. 1, i, c. 77. 
». , / • - whole 

94 ^^^ tiijiory ef Egypt B. i 

whole kingdom ; but no mention is made of this by pro> 
&nc authors, who, fo far as they have touched upon the 
Egyptian affairs^ have copied the antient records of that na- 
tion, or depended upon the oral traditions of their pricAt. 
But now that it was no longer in their power to ooncedl 
... . their difhonour, they frankly confefied it. For^ according 
/ to themfelves, the latter days of jimajis were darkened by a 

r^ ^ dreadful ftorm, which threatened the utter ruin of Egyft'f 
^^^* and though he died juft foon enough to efcape the rage of 
it, yet his dead body was fo cruelly abufed and deftroyed, 
that) couM be have been feniible of the hard fate be was 
doomed to, he, according to the Egyptian fupcrftition, 
would have thought the lofs of his kingdom a trifle, if 
compared virith it. 
anJwfy, For, by fome means or other, Amafis had incenfed 
Cambyfis the Perjian (who was naturally a rafh and paf- 
fionate prince) againft him to fuch a degree, as has fcuce 
its parallel in hiftory. The feeds from whence this enmity 
fprang are not certainly, nor perhaps at all, known to us. 
On one hand it is faid. That Amafis fending an EgjjAm 
oculift to Cyrui king of Perfia^ who had defired tohavc 
the beft in his kingdom ; the man, who was chofen bjr 
the king for this purpofe, took it much at heart, that he 
ihould be thus exiled, as it were, from his wife and chil- 
dren, and fent into Perfia ; and efpecially fincc Cyrus had 
deiired the beft oculift in Egypt ^ which, he was confcioos,' 
was not himfelf. The angry Egyptian^ continuing in Pirfit^ 
and plainly perceiving the turbulent genius of Cambyftfj 
prevailed on him to fend an herald to Amafis y to demand 
his daughter to wife, aflured, that whether Amafis com- 
plied with this requeft or not, he (hould have his full mea* 
fure of revenge on him. Cambjfes hearkened to this man, 
and did as he had fuggefted. When the Pirfimn henU 
came to Amafis^ he knew not what to refolve on : he 
dreaded the Perfian power, if he refufed ; and was afluuned 
of the diihonour which muft be refleded on his familyf if | 
he complied, knowing that, inftead of heing a wife, bis 
daughter would be no better than the Perfian^s concubine. J 
At laft he bethought him, that his predecefTor bad left J 
behind him an only daughter, of great beauty, and fflt- A 
jeftic deportment, called Nitetis. Her therefore be fent k 
with all the pomp and fplendor becoming his own dauj^ j^ 
ter, to Cambyfis in Perfia j who, when he faw her, it ta 
luted her by the title of daughter to Amafis. She imnt' p 
diately anfwer«d, that Amafis. had deceived him ; that fh^ 
was not his daughter 5 but the unhappy child of the 


CHL te th time of Akxaxtitr. 95 

unfortunate AfritSy whom Amajis had put to death, and 
whofe throne he had ungratefully ufurped. At this Cam^ 
bxfesy fired with indignation, vowed the deftru£Uon ofAmafis* 
Tnis was the ftory f he Pirjians told : but we look upon the 
whole account as fabulous. 'Tis more likely, that Jmafis ^, 
who had fubmitted to Cyrusj refufed, upon the death of 
that great conqueror, to pay his fuccefTor the fame ho- 
oiage and tribute. But, whatever was the caufe of this 
war, we leave Cambyfes preparing for it, and return to 

Whilst this cloud was gathering, Pharus of Hali- Am^iis is 
carnajffusy commander of the Grecian auxiliaries in the istrmd 
pay of Amajis y took fome private di%uft, and, leaving^ Pnaoes 
Egypt ^ embarked for Pirjia. He was a prudent coun-?/* Hali- 
fellor, a valiant captain, perfeftly well acquainted with^™*®^* 
every thing that related to Egypt ; and, befides, had great 
credit with the Greeks in thefe dominions. Amafis was 
immediately fenfible how great the lo(s of this man would 
be to him, and how much he lud it in his power to 
ftrengthen the hands of CamlyfeSy pr any prince elfe, who 
(hould undertake to invade him i and therefore in all hafte 
he fent a trufty eunuch with a fwift galley to purfue him i 
who overtook him in Lycia, However, he was not 
brought back to Egypt ; for, making his guard drunk, he 
continued his way to Pirfia^ and prefented himfelf to 
Cambyfes J as he was meditatix^g the downfal of Egypt^ 
which he forwarded by his counfel ^nd difcoveries, as 
Amajis had dreaded 8. 

We have already oUei^ed, that there had been an ^i^MeAesf^ 
cial harmony between Amajis and Polycrates the tyrant of lyooitis 
Somes I but a mifunderftanding arimig between thcmiiii ntsM^. 
polycratesy when occafion ofiered, joined Cambyfes againft 
bis former Egyption ally. For Amajis^ receiving continual 
accounts of the uninterrupted fuccefies and, depredations 
of this Samiany feared that in the end feme heavy difafter 
would fall upon him, equal to the gfery of his triumphs ; 
and therefore fei^t him this letter advifine him as fotY 
lows : Amafis to Polycrates fpeaketh .*., .It is with plea^ 
Jure / hear of the happy Jiate of my friend and ally. Ne^r 
^ertbilefs t fear fir thy great profperitieSy knwiing the un^ 
fiahlmfs of fortsme. For my party 1 fi>ouU rather chufe^ 
that my affairs y and tbofe alfo of my friends y Jhould ha, 
fmilimes profperousy and fometimes uiwapf^y^ than hav$ 
them go on with contitmd Juc^efs. Xherefore do tho^ n(tMft 

^ HcaoDOT. IvL e« i» 2* * Idm ibid* e. 4u 

4 hiarken 

g6 ^he Hijlory of Egypt 8. 1. 

hearken to my counfel^ and do as IJhall hid thee^ to take 
away from thy happinefs : conjiderthen with th)felf^ what 
thou tojfejjefi of greateft value to thjfelf\ and what would 
the moji bitterly grieve thee^ if loji : and when thou hift 
found it 9 caji it away from thee^ Jo that it may never more 
be beheld by man. If thy happinefs^ after this, kmwetb 
no mixture of evil, preferve ihyfelf againji the forrovo 
that may come upon thee, by repeating the remedy I tavi 
Jhewn thee. When Amafv heard, that Polycrates had taken 
his advice, and had accordingly thrown a very valuable 
iignet into the Tea, but that it was found a few days after- 
wards in the belly of a fi(h, and reftored to him, he gave 
him over as the mod unhappy of men ; and, dreading to 
partake as a friend in feme difmal calamity, which he 
feared muft befal him, he difpatched an herald to Sanui 
to renounce the alliance, and all the obligations between 
him and Polycrates, that he might not mourn his misfbr- 
tune with the forrow of a friend ^. Amaji^, by thus dif- 
folving the cement of this conjunftion, left Polycratet 
to zGt againft him, if his inclination led him fo to do \ 
and accordingly he offered a fleet of (hips to Camhyfts^ to 
ailifl him in his invafion of Egypti Thus we fee Jmafa 
in danger of an inexorable, cruel, and moil powerful 
enemy, in concert with a difgufled and formidable friend. 

His death, ^y^t before the dreadful day came, his life ended, after he 

Year of had reigned forty-four years. His dead body was embalffl- 

£ood ed, and depodtcd in a fepulchre he had built for bimfclf in 

1823. the temple at Sais \ but there, to fpeak in the antient 

Bcf. Chr. Egyptian phrafe, he enjoyed but a fhort repofe, as will 
525. be feen hereafter. 

^;f^^'^'^ H K was fucceeded by his fon Pfammenitus, whofe reigff 

xTamine- ^^g (j^^j.^ ^^^j calamitous. For he was fcarce feated on 

'"^"'* the throne, when Cambyfei appeared at the head of a pow^ 
erf ul army, on the borders of Egypt. Pfammenitw drew 
together what forces he could, to prevent his penetratiif 
into the kingdom. But in the mean time Cambyfes, lay- 
ing fiege to Pelujium, made himfeif matter of that im- 
portant place by the following flratagem : he placed id 
the front of his army a great number of cats, dogs, and. 
other animals, that were deemed f^icred by the Eg^tians^ 
and then attacked the city, and took it without oppoiition, 
the garifon, which confifted intirely of Egyptians, not 
daring to throw a dart, or (hoot an arrow, that way^ thw^ 
fear (rf* killing fomc of thofe animals ', 

* Idem/ibid. c.'4b — 43; * * Polvjen. I. viil. ' 





C. in. to the time of Alexander. 97 

Cambysis had fcarce taken poiFeffion of Pglujium^ the 
key of E^t on that fidb, when Pfammenitus advanced 
vrith a numerous army to ftop his further progrefs ; where- 
upon a bloody battle enfued. But before the two armies 
engaged, the Gretks^ who ferved under Pfammenitus^ to 
Ihew their indignation againft their treacherous countryman 
Phanet^ brought his children into the camp, killed them 
in the fight of their father, and, in the prefence of the 
two armies, drank their blood. The Perjians^ enraged ^' w 
at fo cruel a fight, fell upon the Egyptian army with fuch ^^^'^ 
fury, that they foon put them to flight, and cut the great- '^'^^ h 
eft part of them in pieces. Thofe who efcaped, fled, to J:»n^oy- 
Memfhis^ where they were foon after guilty of an horrid *^*' 
outrage towards a herald, whom Cambyfes fent to them in 
a ihipof Mitylene ; for they no fooner fawher come into 
the port than they flocked down to the fhore, de&pyed the 
fhip, and tore the Perfean herald and all the crew to pieces, 
carrying their mangled limbs in a barbarous triumph into 
the city. Not long after, they were clofely befieged by the Taktnpri* 
Perjians^ and in me end obliged to furrender : and fo Ml/oner^ mnd 
the gloiy of Egypt. The news of this ftruck with fuch ^o/es his 
terror the Libyans^ Cyremans and Barceans^ that they ^ngdtm. 
fubmitted to Cumbyfesy and implored his protection. ^ 

Upon the tenth day after Memphis had been taken, The parti- 
Pfammenitus and the chief of the Egyptian nobility were cuiars of 
fent ignominioufly into the fuburbs of that city to a£t a his capti^ 
part in one of the moft doleful tragedies that can be con- •^'O' 
ceived : for the king being there feated in a proper place, 
he faw his daughter coming along in the habit of a poor 
Have, with a pitcher, to fetch water ftom the river, and 
followed by the daughters of the greatefl; families in Egypt ^ 
all in the fame miferable garb, with pitchers in their hands, 
all drenched in tears, and bemoaning, with loud lamenta- 
tions, their unhappy condition. When the fathers faw 
tbeir children in this diftrefs, and reduced to fo mean a 
ftate, they burft out into tears, all but Pfammenitus^ 
who, though ready to fink under his grief, only caft his 
eyes toward the ground, and there fixed them. After 
the young women, came the fon of Pfammenitus^ and 
two^thoufand of the chief Egyptian youths, all with bits 
in their mouths, and halters round their necks, led to 
execution, to expiate the murder of the Per/tan herald, 
and the Mitylenean failors. For Catnbyfes caufed ten 
Egyptians of the firft rank to be publickly executed for 

^ HsKOD.ib. c. II. 13, 
Vol. 11. G every 

^8 ^he Hifiory of Egypt B. L 

every one of thofe they had flain. But Pfammenitus^ like 
one ftupefied, and quite fenfelefs, as they pafled by, ob- 
ferved the very fame conduct as before, whiIft'thejGj}r- 
ptians about him cried with the loudeft lamentations. A . 
Ihort fpace afterwards he faw an intimate friend and com- 
panion, who, now that he was advanced in years, bad been 
plundered of all that he had, and was begging his bread from . 
door to door in the fuburbs. As foon as he perceived this 
man he wept bitterly, and, calling out to him by his name, 
ilruck himfelf on the head as one frantic. Of this the fpies, 
who had been fet over the captive king to obferve his be- 
haviour, gave immediate notice to CambyfeSy who thereupon 
fent a meiTenger to know what might be the caufe of fuch 
immoderate grief. Pfammenitus anfwered, *' That the 
calamities of his own family confounded him, an4 were 
too great to be lamented by any outward figns of grief; 
but die extreme dlflrefs of a bofom friend gave him 
^^ more room for refledion, and therefore extorted tears 
*' from him.'* Cambyfes was fo affefted with this anfweii 
that he fent to ftop the execution of his fon ; but his or- 
ders were given too late ; the young prince having been 
put to death the firft. At the fame time Pfammtmius 
himfelf was fent for into the city, and refiored to bis 
liberty : and, had he not betrayed a defire of change and 
revenge, he might have been entrufted with the aoount- 
ftration of Egypt ; but, being of a vindidive temper, be 
was feized, and condemned to drink bull's blood ^ Thus 
and death, liQ ended his life after a difmal reign of fix months, and 
a fhort captivity ; and with him died the antient fplendor 
and liberty of Egypt. 

The Egyptians now felt the heavy preffure of conqueft 
ne dead in a very extraordinary manner. They faw their late king 
tody of Amafis inhumanly taken out of his tomb, cruelly mangled, 
Amafis and finally burnt. They law their god Apu flain, and 
burnt \ and ^^y[ priefts ignominioufly fcourged j all which made fuch 
^^.^^ . dreadful impreiGons on the minds of the whole nation, 
A^iylatn. jj^^j jj^gy ^ygj. afterwards bore an irreconcUeablc ayeriion 

to the Perjians. 
Egypt a Thus were the Egyptians reduced to the lowefl degree 
pro'vinceo/of fubmiflion ; their royal line was extinft ; their religion 
the Per- ^^^ trampled on in the moft outrageous manner ; and 
lian em- themfelves pcrfecuted and defpifed for the profeffion thqf 
'''■'• made of it. 

^ Idem ibid.c. 14^16. 

A peoplS 


C in. to ibe Hm$ of AJezandcr. 99 

A P£OPLE who had been bred up to fucb a folemn ob- 
fervance of the inftitutions of their forefathers, muft needs 
think themfelves unhappy under fuch governors as held 
their laws in derifi(»i ; and therefore they continually con- 
fulted how they mi^t {hake off the intolerable yoke of 
their Perfian oppreflbrs. 

At length they broke out into an open revolt, in theT'^f Egy* 
relen of Darius tiji/iafpiSj and continued in a ftate of re-ptians re- 
bellion againft the Ptrfians all the firft year of Xerxes ^\ 'voltfrom 
but, in tne iecond year^ of the fame prince, they were re-^^'l^cr- 
duced to harder fubje^on than before, as is ufually the^*"'» ^*' 
cafe ; and had one Acbanunesj brother to Xerxes^ for tiieir-^^'f ^' 
governor. again. 

But the more feverity they fuffcred, the more they were Year of 
exafperated. In the fifth year of Artaxerxes Longimanus flood 
tliey revolted ^ain ; chofe Inarus king of Libya to fill their 1 888. 
throne ; and called in the Athenians to their affiftance ; who fief.Chrift 
chearfuUy embraced this opportunity of expelling die Per- 4^0. 
Jians out of Egypt ". The Egyptians almoft fucceeded in V-^*>^V-^ 
their proje<a. The ^>i/wrtf«j falling on ^g Per/tan Attt^^^^ ^ 
at fea, took and deftroved fifty fail of them ; and then,-^^*''' 
failing up the Nile^ lanaed, under die command oi Chari-**^': ^ 
timisj and joined the Egyptians and Libyans under Inarus. ^ '^S 
They all attacked Achamenides the Perfian general, ^^ugh^f y f. 
his army was 300,000 ftrong ; of whom there fell 100,000, •* 

together with the general himfelf. The reft betook them- 
felves to flight, and returned to Memphis -, but, being pur^ 
fued by the Egyptians, they took refuge in a very con- 
fiderable, and by much the beft fordficd, part of that city, 
called the white %valL The Egyptians had the reft of it, \ 

and blocked up the Perjians three years within the white 
walU ■ '' 

By this fuccefs the Egyptians hoped they had wrought a 
total deliverance for themfelves and dcfcendants; but their 
profperity was of no long duration. They were, at the end 
of three years, obliged to raife the fiege of the white wail, 
by the Perfian army, under the command of Artabazus 
governor of Ciliciaj and Megabyzus governor of Syria ». 
In the mean time, when Inarus heard of the formidable 
preparations which were making by tbefe Perftan governors 
to relieve the befiegcd, he rcdouoled tlie attacKs on the 
white waUy and made die utmoft ciForis to carry it \ but 

'^ Herod. 1 vii. c. i. * Idem ibid. c. 7. ^ Thucydid. I. i; 
« Thucvdid. ubi fupr. D40D. Sic.l. xi, 

G 2 the 

100 Tbe Hifiory (ff E^ft B-t 

the Perjians within defended themfclvcs with fuch bravery, 
that the Egyptians maie no confiderable progrefi towards 
the redu6kion ot the place ®- 

In the third year of this (le^, and the ninth dlArUh 
xerxes^ Inarm and his auxilianes were obliged to laife the 
fiege of the white waU^ and defeated with ^eat flauehter, 
which fell chiefly on ^e Egyptians. In dns fi^ Jnarus 
was wounded by Migabyvcus \ but nevertheless he retreate d 
with his Athenian confederates, and fuch of the Effftiant 
as adhered to him, to the cite of Byblus^ in the iflnid of 
Profopitis ; which bring wmcd on each fide by navigable 
branches of the Nile^ £e Athenian fleet was ftatioiKd in 
one of them ; and here they held out a (vcm of a year 
and an half. But the bulk ot the Egyptians lubmitted to 
the conqueror, and acknowleged Artaxerxes for dieir finre- 
reign ; but Amyrtteus retreated with a party into the fais> 
where he ruled many years, not in the leaft molefted by the 
Perjians \ the inacceffibleneis of the place fecuring him 
agamft aU their attempts. 
Inarns ^ jj^ ^^ mean time Inarus and his auxiliaries, on the ifland 
^M/Tf- of Profopitis^ were bufy in defending themfelves agsunftdie 
E ''nt Perftans^ who attacked them widijgreat vigour : but finding 
j^^^^' that bare ftrcngth was not like to efFe£hiate a redudion^ 
mJain to ^^ befieged, ^ey had recourie to art and ftratagem ; fi)r, 
dfe Per- <lniinine that branch of the Nile in whidi the Atbeman fleet 
£2113^ rode, mey at once rendered the ihipping ufdefsy and made 
Year of ^ P^g^^ ^J which the whole body of dieir army mig^t 
flood march over to the ifland. When Inarus iaw this, he, and 
1895. ^ ^^ Egyptians^ with fifty of his Athenian aasdliaries, 
Bef. Chr. delivered themfelves up to Afegabyzus^ on condition of 
453* being fecured in their lives : the reft of the Athenians^ 6000 
in number, letting fire to their Ih^, refi)lved to die fwonl 
in hand ; which me Persons perceiving, thought it advife- 
able to offer them fome reafonable terms ; which diey dU 
accordinglv, and their propofiJs were accepted?. The 
Athenians had fent a fleet of fifty fail to relieve the ifland of 
Profo^itisy where their citizens were in conjunftion widi 
the Egyptians ; but they arrived too late ; and as toon as 
they entered the river, were aflaulted by the PerRans^ bodi 
on the river, and from the fhore ; fo that they all perifliedi 
And thus ended the war between Inarus king of JEgypt and 
Artaxerxes king oiPerftay under whom the Egyptians citi 

oDioD. ubi fupr. p. 281. p Thuctdid. abifupc 

DiOD. ubi fupr. p. aSa. q Th vcydid. ubi fupr. 


C in. to the tim qJ Alexander. loi 

after kept quiet, and made no attempts to recover their 
liberties. Sartamas was appointed governor of £gyptj 
and Inarus was carried prifoner to Suja^ where he was 
crucified, notwithftanding the promife given him of his life 
when he furrendered r. 

Amyrtje us the Saite^ in the mean time, held the 
Fensy and in the fifteenth year of Artaxirxes wis joined by 
a fleet of fixty fail of Athenian fhips ' ; but nothing of mo- 
ment was traniaded at this time to the prejudice of the 
Per/ians in Egypt. 

In the tenth year of Darius Notbus the Egyptians re- 7h Egy* 
volted once more from the Perfians : for Amyrtaus being P^iansr^- 
apprifed of the difcontents of the Egyptians^ and that they **^,^ * 
were ripe for any attempts to regaia their liberty, fallled'f*r' 
out of his fens, and being joined by all the Egyptians^ )^^tiM,and 
drove the Perfians out of the kingdom, and became kin^ ^hT^ 
the whole country of Egypt t. ^'fj*' 

Amyrt JEUs, thus in pofleflion of the kingdom ofEgypty ytzr of 
by the total expulfion of the Perfians^ refolved to attack g^^ 
them 'vi\ Phoenicia alfo, having the Arabians in confederacy. 1Q14. 
with him in this undertaking u. But he was engaged by 3^. Chr. 
Darius in perfon, and overthrown; and about this tune he ^14. 
died, or was flain in battle. K./'s/'sJ 

Pausiris his fon fucceeded blm in the kingdom, with Axnyrts- 
the confent of the Perfians w. And now the Egyptians y us Hug. 
though perhaps tributary to the PerRanSy had a governor Pftufini. 
of their own nation to alleviate the ourden they bore. 

PsAMMiTiCHUs fucceeded Pauftris. He wasdefcended 
from the famous Pfammtichus^ whofe hiftory we have 
given above. He was a barbarous and ungrateful man, as 
appears by the only incident we have of his reign : for Ta- 
mus^ who had been admiral in the Perjian fervice, though 
he was a Memphite by birth, thinking it advifeable, ror 
reafons of ftate, to leave the Perjian fervice ; and, confiding 
in the friendihip of Pfammtichus^ whom he had formerly 
obliged by manv friendly offices, put. all his fiunity and 
effeob on board nis (hips, and failed for Egypt. But when 
Pfamtnitichus heard of his arrival, and that he had brought 
great riches vdth him, he, unmindful of what Tamus me* 
rited oif him, and of all the laws of humanity and hofpi- 
talit)^ fell upon him as an enemy ; and, having flain him, 
his family, and his followers, feized on thoie treafures 

' Thucyd. K i. • Plutarch in vita Cimott. TuucYrnD. 
ubi fapr. Dioo . ubi fupr. < £u s ebi v s in chronico. 

* PzoD. Sic. 1. xiii. p. 355. ^ Herod. 1. iii. c. 15. 

G 3 whicK 

102 7he Hiftcry of Egypt " B. I." 

which Tamus hoped to ha\'e enjoyed in his native country*. 
This is all we know concerning this cruel prince. ' 
Ncphc- ^^ ^^^ fuccecded by Nephereus. This king being in- 
leus. vnted by the Laccdemon'iaKi into a confederacy agaimctfae 
Year of Per/tans^ he fcnt them a fquadron of an hundred galleys, to 
flood carry on the. war by fea, and 6oc,coo meafures [bulhels] 
'953- of corn for the fubfiftence of their army; but the vefleb 
Bcf. Chr. which were laden with this \'aluable prcfent, ignorantly 
395. putting into Rhodes^ whofe inhabitants had juft then put 
^^^Y^v/ themfelvcs under the protection of the Perfian fleet, which 
then rode at anchor there, under the command of Comn 
the Athenian^ they fell a prey to him, and never reached 
the Lacedemzniamy. 
Acoris. Ac OR IS fuccecded Nephereus. He joined Etiagffras 

Year of ting of Cyprus ^ and the Arabians j Tyrians^ and Barceans^ 
flood 2L people of Libya, s^gainft the Perfiam *. Acoris fent fomc 
J.9S9' forces to the affillance of Euagoras^ the chief of this league; 
fi "^^^' being defeated, came into Egypt ^ to engage ^^m; 
ir^L I ^^ ^^ ^™ ^'^^ ^^^ ^^ ftrength ; but Acoris could not be 
prevailed on to come fo totallv into his meafures, and only 
difmiflcd him with a fupply of money, by no means equal to 
the neccflities of that prfnce. Soon after Gaus^^ the only 
furvivor of the family of Tamus, whom Pfammitichtts mur- 
dered for the fake of his wealth, and who, as well as his 
father, hacj been promoted to the degree of an admiral in 
the Perftan ffervice, being difgufted at the ill ufage of S7r/- 
hazus the king ofPerJia^s general, in the former part of die 
Cyprian war againft iw^^^r^^j, revolted from the Perjiani: 
he was followed by a great part of the fleet and army ; 
and entered into a league with Acoris and the Lacedemo- 
nians. But the year after G.a,us was treach^roufly flain by 
fomc under him ; and Tiachos, who had undertaken to ex- 
ecute the fame projeft, dying before it could be accom- 
plifhed', it wis dropped ; and the Perfiam were freed ftom 
the troublcfome effefts of thk new alliance «. 

It was now thirty years lincc the Egyptians had fhaken 
off the Perfan yoke under Amyrtaus, and had alf along, 
upon every c.ccrifion that offered, fignalized their averTion 
■ to the Perfian government. But Arcaxerxes Mnemon being 
' now at full leiuire to chaftifc them, they once more were 
threatened with a cruel v^ar. Great preparations were 
made on both fides : Acoris joined a great number of Greets^ 

^ DiOD. Sic. I. xiv. p. 41 5. ^ Idexn ubi fupr. p. 439. 

Justin, 1. vi. c. 2. Orosius, I. iii. . * Th^qpgimf, in ex- 
cerpt. Photii. Dioo. Sic. 1. xv. p. 459* * Idem ibid. 


C s IIL to the time of Alexanden 103 

ajid other mercenaries, under the command of Chabrias 
the Atheniany to his own fubjefts^; but the Perjians being 
dilatory in their proceedings, Acoris died before it com** 
menccd ; and 'Vi'as fucceeded by 

PsAMMUTHis, who reigned only a year^. Pfa^lml^ 

ATTfiKhimNepherotes: (who is called the laft of the this. 
Mendejian race, reigned four months d. Ncph«- 

ANirthen NeSfanebis^ the firft of the Sebennytic racc*.'^'*^^- 
In the fecond year of his reign the Perjian army and fleet ^^^^ °^ 
came upon his coafts and borders, and made tlieir firit at- "^^ 
tempt upon Pelufium : but NeHanebh having had time p r^^?r 
fufficient to make the neceflary preparations, that city and the ^' 

adjacent country were fo well provided for the reception of . ^2}l^\ 
an enemy, that no impreflion couki be made there. The K^^v^nc^ 
conmianders on the Per/tan fide differing in their counfek, jjjg^ 
and entertaining jealoufies of each other's glory, they did 
nothing in this war ; for, though they entered the Alende^ 
Jian mouth of the Nile\ poflefled themfelves of the fortrefs 
that guarded it, and ftruck the Egyptians with the utmoft 
conftemation ; yet they gave them time to recover their 
courage : for NeSfanebis lodged a fufBcient garifon in Mem-^ 
phis i a|id taking the field, with the reft of his forces, {o 
annoye4 Pharmbazus the Perjian general, that he could 
make no confiderable progrefs 5 and the Nile^ at the ac-? 
cuftomed period, overflowing the land, the Perjians were 
obliged to march oflTj which they did net without con- ■ 
fiderable lofs®. Thus ended this war. 

About five years afterwards Agefilaus king of Sparta 
came with the charafter of an ambaifador to NeStanebisy to " 
folicit fuccours for the Lacedemonians^ then driven to great . ' , 
diftrefs by the Thebans^. Seven years afl:er NeSanehis 

Xachos fucceeded him* He gathered togedier all the Year of 
ftrengthhe was able, to defend his country againft the am- f^^cA 
bitious idefigns of the Perjians ; who, notwithftanding their ig8r.' 
many jnifcarriages, had hot laid afide the thmights of fub- Bef.Ctorift 
jesting E^ypt to their dominion once more. To ftrengthen 36*. 
himfelf the more, he fent to Greece to raife mercenaries; i^^-v-^^ 
and fucceeded fo well in his application to the Lacedemo^T2LQhQs, 
nrans\ that they difpatched'a good number* of forces tohinv, 
under the command of Agefilaus g. Tachos had" promifed 
this king,- that he (hould be generali^mq of all the forces ;; 

*> Idem ubi fupr. p. 47 1 . 'See before, p.. 1 1- ^ See 

before, ibid. * Sec before, p. 14. * Diob. ubi fupf. 

p. 478, 479. Cornel. N EPOS, in Iphicratc. ^Plutarch. 
an Agefilao.' ^ Idem ibid. Dxod. ubi fupr. p. 506. 

104 ^be Hijiory of Egjpt EI, 

Uisimpo' but, upon tlie firft interview, he conceived fuch difiid- 

UiU coH' vantageous ideas of the old monarch, that he thenceforward. 

ilua to- flighted his <;ounfeIs, and defpifed his perfon* He.expe&d 

'wards to have fecn a gay and magnificent man, whofe habit and 

^efiiaus;- train ^ere equ2 to the fame and fplendor of his expkiti, 

and not a plain, mean-loolcing pld man. Thb hafiy snd 

ill-grounded impreflicn may be well faid to have been the 

ruin of Tacbos^ as will be plainly feen. For Tacb^s aUomd 

Jgcjilaus to be nothing but general over the mercenariei >| 

land, which alone had been fuffident to difguft fo great, 

fo old, and fo experienced a commander, and was the firft 

caufe of his averfion to Taches. The conunand of the fleet 

he gave to Chabrias the jfthenianj referving to himfelf Ae 

fuprcme dirediicn of all. Having joined his mercenariei 

and Egyptians together, he marched out of Egypij defigft- 

ing to attack the Pcrjiam in Pbceniciaj contrary to the ad? 

vice of Ageftlaus^ who reprcfcnted to him the unfettkdflate 

of Egypt y and remonftrated how much more it would be 

for his infiereft to manage the war by lieutenants, and 

ftay himfelf in his kingdom. The event {hewcd^ dnt 

Jlgefilaus\ counfel was the refult of a verv prudent fer^ 

caft ; for while Tachos was in Pheenicia^ the Egyptians r^> 

L Jrpven volted, and fet up his kinfman Ne^anebus in hia fieaiL 

9ut of bis Jgejilausy taking this opportunity to vent his refentment 

kingihm. againft Tachos^ joined NeSiantbuSy and deprived the other 

Year of of his kingdom ; who fled through Arabia^ and took refiige 

flood v^ith the king of Perfia S. 

1987. K£CTAN£BUs viras fcarcc featcd on the throne, wfaena 

^^' ^""^^ Mendejian rofc up in oppofition to him, with a force con? 

3"'- fifting of 100,000 men. Ne£ianebus was advifed by Jge* 

jSO^*^^A7«j to fall on them immediately, and difperie tfaeny 

btti tbe ^^^^^^ ^^y ^^^ formed themfclves into a regular body by 

imfi king difcipline : but he, fufpe£ting that Ageftlam intended td 

f/*EKypt. ^^^y ^^^' ^ ^^ 1^^^ betrayed 7<7f^0j, gave no ear tohinii 

A rebtlli' ^ ^^^ mean time, the enemy gathered ftrength and reguhr 

9n Mgainft order every day, and became fo formidable a body, that 

bimt Ne£f ambus was conftraincd to (hut himfelf up in one of his 

towns, and endure a fiege. . He now urged Agefilaus to 

fally out upon the befiegers, that, putting them into diC* 

order, he might, in the mean time, march out and take 

the field : and becaufe he refufed to comply, NiSfamkus 

grew more and more jealous of him. The enemy had nis 

their lines almoft round the town ; which when AgiJUaitt 

perceived, he told NeSfanebus^ that now was his tiine to 

< Plutarch. & Xenoph. in Agefilao. Thbopomp. U Lt* 
CEAS Naugrat. in.^gyptiacis apud Athen. l»xiv. c L 

C. in* to tbi timi of Alexander. 105 

fally out ) that bv the lines the bcfiegers had ralfcd, they 
would not be able to incompafs him ; and that the gap 
HvlMph.was not yet filled up, was wide enough for^iim to 
aiafcb through with ikfety and convenience. The king 
followed his advice^ an4 hereupon a battle enfued, in which 
the befiegers were deleated ; and the remaining part of the 
war being left to the management of Agejilausy NeSfanebus's 
ccHnpetitor was every-where driven out of the field, and at vjificlf ii 
lenMi. taken prifiMier. And- thus was NeStanchus fettled f«^i7//. 
ia mt ftdl and quiet pofieffion of die kingdom of EgyptK 

In the twelfth year of his reign, the Sidonians and Phet-^ He is 
miciatiSf revolting from the king of Perfta^ entered into vJoineJ fy 
coiUcderacy with him aninft that monarch. This hap- f^/ Sido- 
pened very opportunely for him ; for, as the Perfians had ^^\ 
been in conrant agitation againft him, and were now^.^^^'' 
making vaft preparations to reclaim Egypt^ he had a very ?^'"*. ^"^ 

Eod barrier, feeii^ the Perfian forces could not apprpacn ^P™^ 
borders, but bv marching through Pbmmcia. ^^^^^fTv 
fere, to keep up their fpirits, Niitrntebus detached a body^^^^^^^* 
of four thoufand Greek mercenaries, under the command 
of Mmier the Rbedian^ to join them, in hopes to manage 
the war at a diftance. The Pbcenicians^ encouraged by 
this fupply, drove ihi^ Perfians out of their territories !; 
and immediately after, the 6y^r/0f J entered into the alliance 
againft Perfia K Darius Ochus iindixig that his lieutenants 
made no progrefs in fuppreffing die reWls, refolved to hea4 
his troops in perfon, keeping his eye chiefly upon Egypt. 
Atentn the Rhodian hearing this, and being at the fame 
time informed of the prodigious numbers of the Perjian 
armv, went over to the king of Perfia^ by whom he was 
Idndly received, as one who might do him fignal fervicc by 
his knowl^e of the country oi Egypt j and every thing that 
related to it. When Ne^anebus found, that the king of 
Perjia was refolved on his ruin, and was taking the moft 
cflSxhial meafures to compafs it, he got together an 
army of an hundred thoufand men, confifting of twenty 
thoufand mercenaries from Greece^ as many from Libya ^ and 
die reft Egyptians \ but they did not all together amount to 
a diird part of the Per/tan anny. With fome of them he 
-garifoned his frontier-towns, and with the others he guarded js invaded 
the pafles through whiqh the Per/tans were to march. Thc^^/;^Pgy. 
Perjign detached Aree bodies from his army. The fii'ftj.fiani, 
commanded by Lacbares the Tbeianj fat down before Pei- 

a Plutarch, ibid Poltjen. ftrat. I. ii. * Diod. I. xvi. p. ' 
531, 532,533* ^ idem ahifupr. p. 53a* 


io6' The Hiftory of ^Ejgfpt • H.H 

luftuf/tj garifoned by 5000 Gr^^/f J. Thcfeconrf, uiidertht 
command of Nicoflratus the Argive^ embarked on boduda 
fquadron of the Perjian fleet, and failing up the Nili into 
the midft of the country, landed there, and made a fb^M 
incampment. Hereupon the whole country being alariBd^ 
Cltniusy of the ifland of Cos^ muftering all the nei^boiirilig( 
garifons, undertook to diflodge Nicdjhatus firom his » 
trenchments. Hereupon a battle enfued, which was-feug^t 
with great obftinacy; but at laft theiE0^/ftf»5gave'?#ii^, 
having loft CUnius and five tlioufahd more of thcif num- 
ber, and were utterly broken and difperied. . Thd lofs of 
this battle was the ruin of E^pf f for when Ni^aneha 
heard it, he drew off from the pafle^j-' where he had -ilsry 
prudently poftcd himfclf, and marched for AHmtpbis^ to 
defend that city 2i^\x\i^ Nicoftratus^ who'/he feared^ had a 
dcfign upon thnt capital with his vidoribus fleet and army. 
When the Gr<?^;f' garifon tn Pebfjiuin heard that NeSfanekm 
had deferred his poft, they thought' there was no fuithtf 
room for hope ; and therefore came to t 'parleywitlvZtf^ 
chares y and delivered up the city to 'him^' upon oofiditiM 
that they and their cfFefts fhould be fafely convseyed tt 
Greece. Mentor the Rhodian^ who corAmanded th^tilM 
body of the Perjian detachment, finding the psifies un- 
guarded, entered the country through them ; and, c^uiing 
it to be univerfally fpread abroad. That Ochus would fft* 
cioufly receive all that fubmitted, but- cut ofF, without 
mercy, fuch as' r^fifted, as he had been known to havt 
done before; both the Egyptians and the Egyptian Grieek 
ftrove which fhould make the moft humble and ready fufc 
miflion. This when NeSfanebus faw, he was driv^ to 
defpair, and, taking what trcafure he could cany, widi 
mtdfies him, he fled from his palace in Memphis into Ethidpia^TisA 
i»/« Ethi- never returned more. He was thelaft mtivc E^yptiigk 
opia, who governed Egypt ^ which has ever fince been uiider^ 
EgyP^ foreign yoke. NeSianebus loft his kingdom by relying tM 
fnally re- much on himfelf. He, as has been (hewn, was (bated oa 
duced by the throne by Agefilaus : his wars againft Perjia (for- life 
the Per- *Perftans were always attempting ^ reduftic^n of Egyfff^ 
V '* - were managed by the prudence and valour of Diaphanm 
' ^mA ^^ Athenian^ and Lamius the Lacedemonian \ but, arror 

g gating to himfelf a (hare of their fuccefTes, he took upon . 

BefQirift^"^ to aft from his own notions', and fo brought ruii 

* ^ upon himfelf, and ignominy and (lavery upon his fubjcfli 

For henceforward igypt was a province of Perjia^ till 


0* ^ 

»Hcm ubi fupr. p. 534,^535. . ; .; i 


C. ril. to tit time of Alexander.* lo;^ 

AhxandiT fubverted that monarchy, and was received by Submits to 
the Egyptians with open arms, as their deliverer from theAlcxan^ 
Perfian tyranny. They never had any tolerable under- ^er. 
ftanding with tnat nation ; which, it is likely, may have y^,. ^f 
purely, if not chiefly, been owing to the wide diflrerence ^qq^ 
between them in religious matters. We now conclude 2016. 
this feflion with the fevere prcdidionof the prophet, TbereBcf, Chr. 
ftfaltbi no more a prince of the land of Egypt m. 332. 

S E C T, VI. 

The fuccej/ion of the kings of Egypt, according to the 

oriental biftorians. 


AS the oriental hiftorians differ intirely from the Greeks 
in their accounts of the Egyptian affairs, it might be 
deemed an inexcufable omifiion in us to take no notice of 
the feries of the Egyptian kings, as delivered by them. We 
wiJl not take upon us to vouch the truth of what we copy 
from them ; but cannot help thinkiiig their accounts^ how- 
ever fabulous, no lefs worthy of notice rfian the fables of 
^e Phoenician and Greek writers •. . 

It muft be alloVlred^ that there are many more origi- 
nal hiftories of this country to be found (even in Europe) 
ill the oriental tongues, than are yet to be met with in 
Greek. It muft llkewife be granted, that the former are 
more methodical, more copious, and though in many 
things they may be as fabulous, yet experience hath de- 
monftrated, that they contain as much, or more truth. 
The nature of this work will not allow us to unravel again 
the geography, natural hiffory, and antiquities of Egypt^ 
in order to demonftrate the juftice of this aflerdon; and 
therefore we fhall content- ourfelves with a note on this 
fubjed, and p^fs on immediately to the proper matter of 
the feflion, viz* the hiftory of tne Egyptian kings, in that 
order in which the moft celebrated of the oriental writers 
have givdn them ( A). 


^ £9ek. XXX. 13. . . ^ See the whole 3^ and4^^ §. in 

this chapter, and compare them with what follows. 


(A) It IS certainly without over-niQe writers amongft the 
apy great juftice, that fome moderns invoigh with fuch bit- 


io8 72r Hilt$ry of E^pt B. L 

In the firft place we muft take notice, that thefe authpn 
divide the antlent Egyptian monarchs into three claAs. 

temefs againft the or/ental au- 
thors in general^ as if they 
Wrote alto^ther without me- 
thod, and delighted in nothing 
but prodigies and fables. What 

of Egypt, we ivill mention cdj 
two ; the firft relating to the 
country, the? latter, to its wih 
narchs. The firft is that of 
Ahmeiml Vtakrixi : he divided 

weha,veailertedabove,isafaft «his ()ook into feven pazti: 
of fueh unqueftionable truth, i . He treated of the land of 

that feveral flieets might be 
fpent in forming the catalogue 
of all the oriental writers who 
have ooQie even to our know* 
lege ; but as we are by no 
means fond of perplexing our 
readers with ufelels citations, 
we will content ourielves with 
only marking a few, that they 
may be aflored they are not 
impofed upon, but that the 
thing is as we .re|pre(ent it. 
The ^mous Khtmdimir wrote 
in the Perfian tmigue an uni- 
verfal hiftory, under the. title 
of a coUeSiw of the fureft 

Egypty aod its revenues. 2. Of 
its inhabitants. 3 . Of the aa* 
tient Babylon in Egypt. 4. Of h 
the city of CMrt, as it wasii 
the time of the author, c. Of 
the revolutions which hadibq^ 
pened in Cain. 6. Of the 
caftle of Caire, and of As 
princes who have refided tfand- f 
in. 7. Of the cauica whid | 
haVe induced the ruin oSEgjft. 
He wrote, befides, a copiooiltt' 
ftory of all that happened 11 
this country from the time it 
fell under the dominion of de 
caliphs, to the year in wUdi 

and moft authentic ^ucnunts of he diec^ *vi», of the Hejrm^ t^l* 
the moft remarkaHf events, A. D. 1467. The other, 7m« 
drawn from the hefi antient hi- fouf BenTagri Wirdi, who db- 
fiorians. This body of hiftory tained the glorious fumameef 
was divided into twelve parts. Meneauskb Mefr, i. e. the hiflo* 
The firft, which was a kind of rian of E^t, by a work ho 
pre&ce, contained the cofmogo- compofedm fbur volumes, coi' 
.nj. The fecond, the hiftory of taining the intire hifiory rftUs 
,the prophets. The third, a country to the year 1449. Of 
chronological hiftory of learn- which work he dfo made at 
ing, and learned men. The abridgment, iearine, as he ex- 
fourth, an account of the anti* prefies it in his utle, that it 
ent monarchs oiPerfia, and of might be mutilated by another. 
their kinj^doms before Moham- The larger hilbry was traa(ht- 

med, in which we have an ac- 
count of Egypt. This author 
Unifhed his work A. D. 147 1 ; 
and we beg leave to fay, there 
were few authors in Eutopcy at 
that time, who could have 
written more methodically. As 
to the particular hifiories of 

edintoTWrij^by the commaad I 
of the emperor Zelim ; whkh j 
is fufHcient to (hew, that in tk | 
eaft there is no want either i \ 
hiftorians, patrons, or critio^ 
however barbarous we trs 
pleafed to think them (i). 

(1} Vii. Oerkht. i/M mtat, nrt, Mefr, Mecrizi, JnM Ben Te£ti , 

C. In. to the time of Akxi^Aer. tog 

The firft of thefc are faid to have ruled in this country be-. 
fore the creation of Jdam^ and amongft thcfc they place 
Gian Ben Gian^ to whom they afcribe the pyramids «. 

The fecond clafs of E^ptian kings are faid to have 
reigned before the deluge. The account that is given of 
the people of this country, in thefe early times, ftands 
thus : Krausy who ftood in the fifth dc^ee from Jdamj 
growing into diflike of the conduct of thefe who inhabited 
the country wherein he was bom, drew together a com- 
pany of feventy-eight perfons, and, removing into Egypty 
cleared that country of its woods; and, finding it equally 
pleafant and fruitful, built the city oiMefr^ fo called from 
the name of his father, which he made the capital of his 
new kingdom. Authors are not agreed, whether he de- 
rived from Catriy or from fome other fon of Adami 
but the greateft part of them incline to think he was at 
Cainite of a gigantic feature ; which opinion feems not 
altogether irreconcilable to the writings of Mofss ^* He ig 
find to have reigned i8o years ; but in what year of the 
world he acceded to the throne, is not faid. To him fuc- 
ceeded his fon Tegar^ or, as otiiers call him, Natras^ of 
whom we find nothing record^ that deferves mention. 

Meskam, whom lome call the fon, others the brother 
of the laft-mentioned prince, fucceeded him ; he was a 
sreat magician, and is faid to have performed many flrange 
tilings ; and, dying, left both his fklll and his crown to his 

. Gancam. He was a prieft, a philofopher, and magi- 
cian ; and in his reign it is faid Enoch was tranflated. He 
had for his fucceffor his fon « 

Arvak, who excelled all his predeceflbrs in his skill in 
the occult fciences, by dint of which it is pretended that 
he did many wonders. We muil remember, that all the 
caftem hiflorians agree in this notion, that the fhidy of ma- 
gic, and commerce with fpirits, was the great crime of the 
antidiluvians \ in which, if wc may fo fpeak, they are 
fupported by thofe wridru^s which go under the name of 
the patriarois ; particular^ that treatife which is afcribed 
to Enoch. It is likewife faid, that in the reign of this Egy* 
, ftian monarch, the angels Harut and Marut defcended 
from heaven, and converfed with men ; which is likewife 

of a piece with what is recorded in the book before-meo- 

< Tahixh alThabari. ^ Ebn abd alHoxm. ap. 

Greaves pyramid. & Murtad Ebn Gaf. in mirabil. pyraiaid. 
•Ebn abd alHokm. Qbifupra.K.HONi>BMiRinKhclai&t Alak- 
har. mirabil. pyramid. 

Z tioncd \ 

1 10 Itbe Htftory of Egypt.* B. I 

tioned ; whence it appears, that thefe fables are verj an- 
tient, and have been generally received, no doubt, becaufe 
they were forged from fome hints in the^^y^i/Vwritii^^.. 

nis fon Louchanam fucceeded him, and perfonnedno- , 
thir^ worthy of notice. 

Chasalim, or as fome call him, Hafillmy the fon of 
Louchanam^ is celebrated for his invention of the Nibmiter\ 
which, without queftion, pafled for a wonderful effed of 
magic in thofe days. 

Harsal, or as others call him, Hufal^ the fonofCio- 
falim^ reigned over his people with great lenity \ and in 
his reign it is faid the prophet Noah was bom. 

Ja DONS AC fucceeded Harfal\ of him we are told,tiut 
he firft thought of rendering the Nile of greater ufc by cut- 
ting canals : which is thus I2X probable ; uie inland parts of 
^'j-y^/, being by this time thoroughly peopled, muft necefia- 
rily require fuch an afliftance. 

Semrond received the crown from his father ^tf^M/jr; 
but of him we know nothing more, than that he tranlinittBd 
it to his fon 

Sari AC, or Sarkak ; who left it to 

Sahaluc, or Sahlick^ a famous monarch, of whom, 
verv probably, we (hould have had fome notable account, 
had not his glory been eclipfcd by tliat of his fon and liic- 

Saurid, a monarch equally remarkable for his wifdom, 
jufticc, and power. He is faid to have dreamed, that he 
faw the earth, with all its inhabitants, fubverted ; the men 
lying on their faces, the ftars falling from heaven, and al| 
things filled with difcord and confunon. A year after,* he 
had a fccond dream of this fort ; which fo afrrighted t^im, 
that he immediately fummoned the moft learned of the 
pricfts together, with all the wife men and profeilbn of 
the occult fciences in Egypt. To them he related his 
dreams, and befought them to inform him what they 
portended. Thefe fagcs, having confulted together, and 
taken all the neceflary precautions for fatisfying the king'i 
requeft, declared to him at length, that a mighty deluge 
would cover the earth, and that the efFefts thereof had 
been reprefented to him in his dreams. The king, wheB 
he had heard and confidered this, caufed pyramids, and 
other prodigious ftrufturcs, to he erc£led, to fervefor places 
of refuge for himfelf and his domeftics, as alfo for fepuf 
chres wherein to conferve their bodies. He likewife dcr 

■* Vid. lib. Enoch, ap. fabric, pfeudcpigraph. vetcr. tefbuncnt 
HiRBELOT, bibl. orient, art. Edris. Mii^ibil. pyramid. 


C. III. to the time of Alexander. 1 1 1 

(igned to cover the roof and the walls of thefe places with 
hieroglyphic le£hires, explanatory of all the various fci- 
ehces known to the Egypttansj as invaluable treafures, fct 
apart and confecrated to the fervice of pofterity. He like- 
iieife defigned to reprefent the figure of jthc ftars, the cele- 
fiial figns, with their effe£b and fignificatlons, the (ecrets 
of nature, the produ£l:ions of art, the virtues of drugs, and 
the. fundamental propofitions in geometry. In confequence 
of this project, he built the three great pyramids ; and of 
the manner of building thefe, and of the fubterraneous 
apartments allotted to each of them, the author from 
whom we take this account, gives a large and particu- 
lar defcription. He concludes it with obfcrving, that 
the Egyptians built thefe prodigious ftruftures in the ful- 
nefs of their profpcrity, when they were extremely nu- 
merous, and proportionably rich, when tliey were com- 
pleated, Saurid caufed them to be covered with filks of 
feveral colours, from the top to the bottom, proclaiming 
on this occafion a general feaft, which la(lcd a conflderable 
time, and to which, our author tells us, all the inhabitants 
of Egypt reforted. When this feaft was over, the king 
caufed thirty great veflels, made of a kind of artificial green 
ftone, to be placed in the bottom of the eaftern pyramid. 
Thefe veflels he filled with all kinds of jewels, and precious 
flones J and then, placing covers over them, he poured over 
thefe melted lead, fcattering on the floor a confiderabl« 
number of pieces of gold, to delude the eyes of any greedy 
intruder, and to hinder them from prying into the vefTels. 
r Tlie fecond pyramid he made the receptacle of all that re- 
lated to civil niftory, laying up the books and records in 
fuch veflels as he had laid up his jewels in. In the third 
pyramid he colledled whatfoever related to their ecclefiafli- 
cal hiftory, and to the fublime fciences. In all of them he 
laid up mighty treafures, and difpofed in them all things fit 
for the reception of a prince who fhould fly thither for fhel- 
ter, and appointed alfo in the middle of them convenient 
places for the interrment of him and his domeflics« Thofe, 
and many other particulars, are faid to be taken from the 
antient books of the Cophts \ wherein it is alfo recorded, 
that Saurid reigned three hundred years before the deluge, 
and that he governed Egypt one hundred and feven years. 
When he found himfelf near the time of his difTolution, 
he fent for his fon into his prefence, and, having made before 
bim a long difcourfe of the duty of a king, and of the re^ 
gard which he owed to him as his father and his fovereign, 
he' then dirc£iedj that his corpfc; ihould be carried into his 
, . 5 . pyramid ; 

112 The Hifiory o/EgYV^ ;^^»I- 

pyramid ; that the room in which it fhould be laid, fliouU 
be ftrewed with camphire and fantal-wood ; that hb bodf 
fhould be embalmed with ^ices ; and that his ridiaAiioiir, 
and whatever valuable things he had ufed about hb pcttoot 
might be left in die lame room. All which direfiiom 
were pun£UiaIly complied widi S. 

Hi s fon and fucceflbr Hargib^ whom fome wiitets caD 
Hugib^ and will have to be his brodier, govmied scoofd'* 
ing to the inftru£lions the deceased king Saurid had.^ea 
him, being no lefs careful to fecure the hearts clE hb fiib* 
jofts by a Kind and gentle admmiftration, than he wib to. 
fecure their prpibcrity by ruline wifely and jufthr* He ■ 
(aid to have built the firft of me pyramids ttDibafnrM^ 
into which he caufed immenfe wealth, and a vaft maiSlBf 
of precious ftones, to be brought, and there intenta» as bi 
father Saurid had done. His fitvourite fcience WW c^ 
miftry \ and it is reported, that he had the artof muldpl^ 
ing eold, whereby he filled his treafury, after hehad* xdofajb* 
ea his kingdom with many magnificent ifarudures. . Bk 
^vemed Egypt ninety-nine years, and after hb deaft wif 
mterred in the pyramids. His fucceflbr was hb /on . ^. 

Men ACS, or, asotherscaUhim,M7»i£nKf,oneiirfui£viJif 
ted widely from the examples of his father and grandfii^io^ 
being excefiively proud, intolerably infolent, ^nd'outmi^ 
oufly crueL Many women of quality he ravifhedy flSiJf 
many of the moft deferving of his fubje£b, and w aH crf '^ in 
fcandalous debauches a large proportion of that' tttafiirs 
which his anceflors had drawn together, and fet .api;rt (or 
public ufes. At lail, he came to fuch a heiriit of liflly 
and extravagance, that he built palajces of gold and filver, 
into vrhich he brought canals from the NiUi the bottoms 
of which were covered with precious ftones, diatdittend 
through the water in the eyes pf the fpe&itors. Toxoxsh 
tain all this, he. had all the arts ot tyrani^! iqd 
oppreflio[i \ whereby he became exceflively hktea b^lSs jw^ 
jeds, who. were wonderfully rejoiced when die Bi^i 
norfe ftarted, threw him, and broke his neck : hoWievi^ 
they did not alter the fucceffion, but raifed to the drnmeipi 

fon . / 

EcRoSj of whom we have little or no account ; onl^i 
is rendered probable, that lie was as a ereat tyniit avjUl 
&ther, by the courfe his fubje£b took to lecure thend^j(iei: 
for, either on his death or depofition, they laid aficte hsin> 
ditary fovereigns, and mnde choice of a perfon who tfb 
of the roy:il family, on whom they b^ftowed the crow8« 
c Ebn abd al Hokm, ttbifup.mirabil. pyramid. 


C. III. • to Shi tHue of Aldcahdef . i i i 

'Ermelinous, whom (ome call Malinus^ having thus 
attained the regal dignity, governed with lenity and juftice } 
and^ on his deceaie^ the Egyptians fubinitted to 

FxRAOUK, who was the coufinof the lateking^ and the 
laft monarch in Egypt who ruled before the deluge. He 
was a moft tvrannical prince, and looked upon his fubjeib 
in no other light than that of flaves^ deftined to do what- 
ever he thought fit to command them^ Religion and juf- 
tice were almpft forgotten under his bafe and luxurious ad-» 
minifiration \, and when he was informed, that Naah had 
preached repentence and amendment of life, threatening 
the difobedient with deflrudion by water,, he wrote to king 
Darmafel^ in whofe dominions the prophet xiwelt, to put 
Noah to death, and burn the ark which he was building* 
However, the high-prieft of Egypt i who had read and con-^ 
fidered the facTed books carefimy, being perfuaded in his 
mind, that what Noah had threatened would certainly come 
to pafi) procured himfelf to be feat to enforce the couniel 
given to Darmafel\ whereby he had an opportunity- of 
joining himfelf to i^tf^^, and of matching .his daughter in 
his family, as will be hereafter {hewn^ When die deluge 
came, Egypt was overfpread widi luxury, and the king 
was fo exceffively drunk^ that he had not a perfect idea of 
his danger till uie moment ht^'y^ fwalbwed up and 
drowned. The defcription thefe Writers give of the de- 
luge is very frightful ; and they affirm, that the waters 
continued upon the earth for eleven mondis ; and: that it 
happened two thouiand one hundred fifty-fix years after ttm 
creation b. / 

■ . ■ • 

ne iirigs of Egypt afi& tht dtlu^u 

When Nodh and thofe that were^with him came 6ut 
4>f the. arkf the hi^-priefl of Eg;^t befou^ him to fold 
dieir grandfon Btfx/2ir or^JS^yirr, with him into JBmrt 
-fpeaking to him wonderful thmgs of the pleafantnefs^ m^ 
tality, and riches of that country, which quicUy induced 
Noah to grant htm his re^ueft. On tiieir arrival in his 
native country, the Egypuan prieft explained to them the 
nature of the JVi/f, the neceifi^ of cutdi^ cxnalsy Ae pe^ 
cidiar method of cultivating and improving tiuit foU, die 
means of opening the pyratms, and othtf facred ndincc^ 
and the manner of reaching the true fenfe of the infcrip- 
tionS)and of acquirii^ the fcienoes, which the antient onto* 

^ Tamkh alThabaili. Mhatdl. pyramid. Al Sovvti. 
Vol* II^ H MluvUns 

Il4 rbs Hifttny cf EgfTpt fe-l 

dibmans had pofleQed. Banfar^ by tlie dire^oil cTthis 
ttfieft) fettled himfelf in this country^ which lie. tvbodcr- 
fblly improved, or rather retriev^, imilding for die 
*of his refidence, and the capital of hiar domintoiti^ '% 
and beautiful city, which was afterwards called M§mltVa\ 
but had then no other name than that ^ Ma far ox Mifr^ 
which fignifies the great city ; and a ion being bmiHbo fin 
while he was employed in this work, he called Mm liibjm 
or Me fry who fucceeded him in the kingdom^ bid was die 
freat reftorer of Efypt i, ' 

Some oriental writers vary in their account of this itaaft- 
tjcr, attributing the fetdement of Egypt intirek to MafoTf 
to whom they fay it was felemidy affignedby nit foycre^ 
anceftor Nwfy to whom he was. not a little ^ear^ on ac- 
count of his great capacitv, and the ipnocency of his ifisa* 
nprs.; infi>mudi that M^i? haiHli^ curfed Cbam^ hH ^'" 
• Mner^ and breathed out maity bi^er execrations 
film and his^^ pofteritsr, on ^for/^'s interpofition he i 
cd them widi regard 16 hiisv; and^ in a pathetic HitiA Cft 
G0O9 beiburiit him to blefi and preferve this yoi^g' .Jtbsii^ 
and to give him all ^e riches of the land of , iNc^' Jiva; 
However dsis mi^t be, Mafar certaiidy eftabliftim -^ 
fioirm of government which afterwards lubfifibf ^mtfMfr 
built various dties> and. amafledtotfether st^t'ixqmm 



diitrict he gavb to his ion ^'nvf, or rather- Jl^Mj.wIWk 
descendants afe called C^it. To his fon Jfmwlhiib^ ^iiAdBi. 
fome call Afimtaiy he gave the Upper Egypt.. And w^ 
fon /tbrihusy or Athriby he g^e the flat country^ &id ttle 
fens beyond^fftf rsi/, dire£ling 7-ach of them to creA i^fiur 
city in his territory for the j^lace of his refidence^. 'iuiidlo 
take all lixoghiabK pains to improve and'fertSi^e tiie 'ad« 
jpcent country. He likewife prre orders aboui dte liti^ 
ner of his own burial ; purftiam to which,.w9^ea: he^- 
pfred^ his lims laid his bodv in a cave an hundred aiMtfih 
cubits long; Which cave tney filled with treafure^and {Mf^* 
cious ftones^. caufing diis infcription to be engravt^'qtt^fc 
]^at^ of gold, which was placed dpon the marble monCiAilBiit 
within which Ac body lay: ^^^ Mafar the fon of Ba9^% 
*' the fon ofGhausy the.fon of -W^^^jdied, aged ieven hitandni 
" yearsjfromthedaysof the deluge." (3f this kmg they it- 
port, tliat.he was a.moft wife, juft, and pious perfon, hit- 
ing never done'the lead: i^vrong tb any of his fubje£b|^'ir - 

* Mirabll. pyramid* Takikh AC TuABAai; 


Cfil. tA the time tff AiatmAer. ii^ 

bent bia koet to any idol, but living without care, Ibrnnr, 
or iicfcnefs, till by the courfe of latve hcwas removed 
from thi£ into anouter fiate, having fijdH Teen a multinideof 
oeople d^lceoded /rom his own loxps, and Jcaviflg fevenl 
BgutiOung kjogilaois to. his children K 

To Au/ar fiicceedcdljis fon C^tim i but bovrlong fai 
gprefoed, or what ha performed, is not iuwwn. He vat 
luKeeM by his Cm 

Copt AiLiMj of whom likewife Vfi have no iiicm<»h } 
and dierefore we Ihall only iay, that his fiui Bud^- fuc* 
ceedcd him, as he was fucceeded by his Am GaJ^ .or (?«•• 
Jioii after v^oia Sedeth his fon afccnded the throne, 
whoie fim and fuccdfor was MantaouSy whole fan Co/i" 
9£s reigned afuu" him ; and on his deceafc Us fan Aiarhiff 
ia whde £ead rdgncd Afnutry then Ct'iV, whofe fon Si" 
fabas was his iucceHur ; who left the throne to Sa. This 
monarch built the city, of Salsy and fettled the Egyptian 
Coi^tution. He was fucceeded by his fon MaM^vitiu 
^hom reified J^Ltdarn \ then liis fan- Cbtribaiy to whom 
fucceeded Catcan, - 

■ -ToTis, oraa he is generally called- TuZrV, fucceetled his 
^ther Caleatu ,.,^e,u was who goremed the kingdom of 
MgfPh when^-^^^iAi came down thitl^ with his wi& Sa- 
r«|i whole he^utv,. even after fite wu .p^ her .blpom, 
Aruck all, heholders wHi wonder. On their coming to 
Jl^jr, tne t^pibl w.thekingdoini notice was [>re&ttlv 

_civen to luUs^ iSat a flianger was arrived, who had wjth 
fum a woman, the muii beautiful tliat had ever been b^ 
beld. The Jdog prefently feiit for lUrqbijpy aiid^h^riipg 

...dimu^idcd of him what rdation the \^effDVx^ Hioo^ in< to* 

,>«ild»him, the prophet anfwered, th^tt ioB wa* hi^ fi»|ff. 

"Tjien "TuAj direfled, that fhe .(hQuld.'c«;l)pwght_to.hiin, 
j^ich was accoriiiiigly dyne ; but, v^peq ae {ut; put hfa 

. lund.>vith an intent to touch her, he foi^id U fn^ilcnly 
'i$ruiik. and withered 4 Whereupon, aftveh^nding ^|: be 

^.IRa&deccived, . be beuiughc S^?b to pray for hii% tjiathis 
iian^r might be rcftarmi which he did, aj»ii.d)e Icing 

■jSipit back his hand lound and well. Titlis then demapd- 

■ 1^ o^hcT, in what^egree &e was related to Ih-abim. I 
(im,. bid Jhe, hts ■wip. Why thm^ faid he, didbt d*e*ivt 
mr, 'njayifig that yea was hit Jifttr f Ht did r»t dtiitde 
tkfjffjCUtiiigtWp^™ flie: fir '" 'bet lamwf tbtftofurf 
J^SHt/am his^tr ia Gedt and tit Meref tvtry mtnwh* 

■ Mitvit thtuaity of thi gtdhtad. W hicL anfwv &> WeU 

" KflOHDSH^anluJJip. MiraUL [ifnuiud. At-SarVTt. 
,^. ■ Vi% pkafed 

oleafed the king, that he fent for Ibrahiniy and was in- 
.ftruftcd in his religion/ We arc farther informed, that 
this: king oi Egypt laA an only daughter, a princefi of 
-great parts, and ot a mild and pleafant temper ; me was ex- 
tremely delighted with' die company of Sarahy and woi^ 
iiave made her many and great preiTents, had flie not, by 
%he conmxand of her hufhand, pofitivdy. declined tfaem 
Thp princefs, however, obliged her to accept a female flave; 
whole name was Hagarj and who was afterwards the mo- 
iher of IJhmaeU After the departure of Ibrahim andhis 
Vrife out ofEgypU Tulis became a moft. intolerable tyrant, 
infomuch that his daughter, perceiving that his fubjeds hated 
him extremely, and that there was fome danger of their 
changing the fuccef&on, poifoned him when he had jreiened 
feventy years, and after a ibort intirrtgmtm fuccccded in 
his fteaa. 

The name of this princefs was Juriak^, dioug^ fbme 
writers call her Charoba. She governed with great arti 
-pretending to be alike the mother of all her fubjedsy but in 
fa£l poifuig the power of the foldieiy by that of the priefls^ 
and fecuring the quiet of her reign oy a dextrous manage- 
ment of parties. Under her reign, or under the reign of 
Her daughter, fome hiftorians affirm, that ^t^AmmukiUs 
entered Egypty which they held in fubjedHon for a confi^ 
derable time ; but we have a very imperfcft account of the 
monarchs of that dynafty, amongft whom, however, Acy 
reckon the following princes 1. - . . 

' RiYAN : he is faid to have differed from all his prede-> 
ceflbrs, that is, from all the Amalekite kings of Egypt^ Foe 
•whereas they were idolaters in reljped to religion, and ty- 
Tants with regard to their adminiffaration, tiiis £f)Ftf«'was, 
on tlie contrary, a worfhiper of the true GoD, and a very 
juft and good prince. In his time it is affirmedthat Jo" 
feph came into Egypt ^ and very probably it was from him 
that he received inftruftiqns, which wrought upon him & 
powerfully, as to make him aft in quite a different manner 
from his anceftors. We have many long and fabidous 
itories concerning the adminiftration of that patriarebx 
but as thefe are too prolix to be inferted here, we chuie to 
omit them, and to pafs on to the fuccefibr of this monarchy 
who was his fon . - ■ '■•■ 

• Darem, a perfon altogetlier unlike his father. He 
vas, as to religion, an impious perfon, one who af{e£tedto 
defpife and affront divine providence, and therefore no won- 

* Tarikh al Thabari. Mirabil. pyramid. 

C. HI. ytotbe time of Alaandcn »x ;i 

der that iahit government be was a tyrant and anopprellbr. . 
He did not however enjoy, or rather abufe, the regil dig-i! 
nity lone; but, by the juu judgment of GoD,was drowned 
in the iv/ilr. To whom, as fome hiftorians write, fuc-. 

Cathzm an AmaUkiu^ who was a magnificent princeit 
and rendered, himfelf &mou$ by a variety of noble build- 
ings, with which he adorned this country. Others allege 
that this Riyan left no fon, but a grandfon, whofe name 

Kabus, who fucceeded him, and is faid to have reigned 
in the time oi Mofes^. 

. His brother Validj or Walidj comes next, who is by 
moft of the Jrahian authors faid to be the king oi Egypt ^ 
with whom Mofes had to do, and who perlflied in the Ked 
Sea. He was, fay they, an Arab^^ and of the tribe of iAf , 
though others fay of that oiAmlakf u e. zxi Amalekite^ 
Here it is neceilary to take notice^ that tlunigh fFalid be 
truly a proper name, yet it is alfo ufed by the oriental 
Tenters to (v^fyfueb an om. Hence whenever they nrttet 
with the a&ions of a prince, without finding his name,- they 
prefently fubftitute that of IValid. We muft not there- 
fore be furprifed to find, that fbme authors have given ihxs 
prince another name, becaufe that will make no alteration 
in the hifibry, neither will it at all afFc£k die credit of one 
relation, or the other. This prince is reprefentcd as a 
moft cruel tyrant ; but at the fame time as a man of great 
abilities, and of mudi cimmng. ' With refpecl to the Ip" 
raelitity he pretended they were all his (laves ; and thus he 
made out ius title. Jyeph^ faid he, who brought them 
hither, was himfelf a ilave, and purchafed with the money 
of EgypU r. He brought his kindred thither, who could not 
theretore be better dian. himfelf ^5:onfequently they and all 
their defcendants were -ilaves. Upon diis pretence he re* 
fufisd to fet them at liberty when Afofis demanded them. 
But if he treated them harmly, he treated his own fub|e^ 
no .better ; for, after having impoveriflied them by exceffivc 
taxes, and wafted them in many foolifh expeaitions, he 
at leneth pretended to. exad divine honours from fhcmi 
and, mougb he was apparently one of the worft of men, 
would needs pafs for a god. On this account, if vire m^y 
believe thefe writers, the Almighty was plcafcd to puniin 
him in fo exemplary a manner as no did, by drowning him 

^ Khondemxr. Al Soyvti. 

H3 ^ i4 

ne Htfiry ^ Egypt, Uc, ^.t 

in die Itid Sea ; (he juftice of which, accord^ to their 
nocions, will be more fully explained in a nSth ^ ^B). ' ' 
Daluica, the daughter of Walidy fucce«ded hun : (he 
was a woman of ^eat wifdpm, and is faid to have f\uv 
rounded tiie city of Mejfer with walls of an anutzii^gjex- 
tent, and 'of ftupendous thicknefs. Some authors adCbrt» 
that fhe was no( the daughter of the laft king, but a di« 
ftant relation ; and that upon her deadi ffie bequdadied dl^ 
crown to a Coptifi prince of the a^itient blood royal. VBsi 
name was 0(C) 

* At So YUTi. EBoiv^lMia, Takikh ai« Th A^^^if * Mi* 
lafaiL pyramid. 

(B) The oriental writers ia 
general agree in a ilory they 
tell OS, concerning the deftru- 
Aion of Pharaoh, As they re- 
bte it, it takes ap a great d^ 
fS room 5 but as we have it'nbt 
to fpare, we (ball deliver it in 
as few words as we can. When 
Pharaoh was in the height of 
}iis glory, the angel Qabriel 
preTented himfelf before him, 
iinder the appearance of a 
fhephexd j ancf, after hwng 
made obeifance to him,' com- 
plained that he hsid a fervant, 
npon whom he had heaped 
continual favours, which he 
particularized ; and that, not? 
withllanding all this, that ier- 
van t had deierted him, and was 
even fp ungrateful as to epdea- 
votsr to -OGi him a mifchijsf. 
When Pharaoh had heard his 
complaint ; Endeavour^faidhe^ 
to have him apprehended, and 
I wili order him to be thrown 
into the Re(i Sea. . Great king, 
hidGaSrie/f will you give me 
this in writing ? I vjilly anfwcr- 
pd Pharaoh. 7'hcjft the angel 
wrote fuch .in order, and Pla- 
fC^Qh fubl'cribed it. Af:er- 

wards, ixdien at the paflage of 
the Red Sea Pbmrieh fbnqd 
himfelf in danger of drowning, 
he cried out to the Almighty, 
and be(bught mercy ana for* 
giveaeis. Then Qabriel v^ 
peared ; anidyproducing his own 
writiog»Thoa art the rebeUioof 
flave, faid he, and thus is thy 
own judgment e^^ec?^ On^ thy 
felf, Son^e of our readers i^ay 
be furprifed when we intimate 
that this IS no fable. But raAer 
a parable or allegory | Which is, 
however, an opinion tbatniay 
be well juflified bf Ireafon and 
authority (2). 

(C) The eaftem btaomM 
are unanimous, a» to the inva* 
iion and conqueft of JB]gji|pl^ by 
the JjMaiekiies\ but they di^^r 
extremely as to the time whcD 
this conqueft was made.. ]ll.pi 
fome fay,; that it Wppent^.Gi 
early as in thedaysqf C^^fes 
the third king of Egyftt after the 
deluge ; and they give us a psLr* 
ticular account both of thefr 
invaiion and cxpuUionV Othm 
again pLicc this rev(^ution as 
low as the times of AS?aham^ 
or rather lower ; and, according 

(z) Turikb 2I Tbulari, Kl:T:d.mir. M: abil* fjiimikk 


DA&KUN^^a younfi; man of an excellent diipofitions 
who ruled. nuldly9 and with great wifilom: after him we 
£fkd in the brienttd hiilories Ae names of five or fix kines, 
but without any account of their actions, exciting om^ 
Afiijaf^ who appears to have been the Sbijhak oJf the Scn« 
ptures : then there follows another large chaim in the hit 
itory, itfae lafi: Jdng mentioned being Feraoum al Araj^ 
that is, Pbara$b the lame^ who, we are told, was in- 
vaded by Nihuchadnezzar^ whom the eaftem writers call 
Baltakmjfari and after fafiaining a loi^ fiege in his capi« 
tal Mefr was taken by the conqueror, mi put to death P. 
After this the oriental agr^s better with me weftem hi* 
fioiy ^£gxP^ ^ v^ appear in its proper place. 

C H A P. IV. 

^e Hijiory of the Mdabites, Ammonites, Mi- 
dianites, Edonutes, Amalekites^ Canaanites^ 

and Philiftines. 



T*\E SIGNING in this chapter to write die hiftories 7Z# ^' 
•*^ of thofe nations with whom the children of Ifraelfanffiht 
were concerned, before or upon their lettUne in the landMoabites* 
of Canaarij we (hall begin with that of the Aloahites. 

This people were ^fciended from Moab die ion of 
ZrO/, by his eldeft daughter : but, before we mention the oc« 
cafion of that ioceft, it may be prop^ ^o takie the hiftoxy a 
Utde higher. 

' KHONDfiMia.TAiiixH AJLTaAJiARX. Mirfthil. pycaiiucl. 

40 thefe, Jofepb was Wajiri or both forts i and this might be 

firftminiller, to vo^Amakkite eafily done,if the £FV««HMhi* 

king of Egy^ (3). Thefe va* Itories in the Frim<b)fiD^% li- 

natiom are not, however, brary were printed. But what 

greater tlwi the critics have hope is there of this, whilst af- 

<^l^Rbrved in the ancient Gnek ter (jpending onr youth in the 

hiftcrians, with refpi A to the ftudy of Grttk and Lfitiut we 

fliepherds who fubdued Egypt, acquire from thence an av^fion 

The crath therefore is ihoft and contempt for all writers of 

likely to be difcovered by com- another ftamp ? 
paring the befk hiftorians of 

(3} KbtaJtmift MrtHL fyrtmiJ, 

H 4. Lciirr 

neffi/bry ifMoA. ' B.I 

^ Lot W3S the fon of Harati, die brother ufvArtfAm.; 

- and after his lather's death was brought hfimptnAIMsf 
Ttreb, together widi the reft of hii &iiiilj, from l^.of the 
Chaliittiy.titar native dty,, xo' Harm in Mtjtprtamia.^; 
where Terab dying) Abraham aAerw;^ took his nqdiew 
under hh -prbteAionj v^, akynfiffft t^MtH.*^!Vptf^ 
him, defpairing of an^ children of hia cpwn. .He then- 
fore carried bin) with him into Canaan b ; iriicFCt tStxx th^ 
had dwelt fome time, they were obliged by a finnine to go 
into Egypf-i apd foon after theij return from dieikc^A^ 
|tartcd,, their flocks and herds being fo much increafixL 
that thCT CDuld not dwell together any longer, as the f»h 
turc and water- were not fuflicicnt for bodi ; and thence dilV 
putes arofc between their herdfinen; Jbraham ^Kfpoie&f 
to pre\'clit any mifunderflanding between fo near relations, 
[hat th^y fliould feparate i qod gave Lst the ghDiccof rsa 
moving to what part of the country he th<xight fit. ■Where- 
upon Ltt chofc the plain of Jtrdan^ lying eaftward of Bt- 
thel and v/t* between which Abraham and tie- then dwe^- 
and which, at that time, before the terrible deftruftion ^ 
Stiiom and Gomerraby was'fo' f(i(itfiil and well watered, 
that it is compared to the land aiFtypt^ and even to Pa- 
radife itfelf<f. Tothistielibhtfril plain or valley therefore 
Lit came, and pitched his tent not far from Sodam^ infa=" 
mous for the unnatural wickcdnefs of its inha'piigntj ; aad^ 
afterwards dWch in the city itfelf': but that city, widi 
others in the fame plain, being not lon^ fifter taken bY, 
(Ihe.iorlaomcr and his allies. Lot, who, as fofcpbus tcTU, 
us ', alSftcd the SaJamheSf had the misfortune to be tafc^j.. 
by the enemy, with his family and all his fubftance ; and been carried into captivity, had he not been tJajelyXfri 
iVued by 41^,1 l.tim, who not only delivered him, butre- 
lowwlatl his gopds?. Notwithftandiiig this wa^niiKi 
.;iirf the abominable wickedncfs-of the inhahitants, £^t lS( 
rontinued to live in Soi/tm,.snd bad perilkcd in the cat>-' 
linijilw of that poopl*, if he had not been'miracvloufl^ 
(■iercrT«vt, anvl that p;irtlv tVr _/*rfl6(jni's fakeV Twof 
.inpfl*, who wcrefcnt tocWlrov the place, canie to'^adbsf 
in thp e\TntTi^, in t!ie of tr-T\-eVers ; and Let. 
I'tting in the giitc, tio ftvr.rr u.v ther:: th:;r. he invited and 
pufTci! them to v.- h'.s ^..liiV" *"■* r.:^!::, accotdingto the 
hcSpitaiity of ihc eJ*;::-. n-dcns. They r.iZ fcircc refrefhe^ 

c, 7. 




. i. c. 10. 

C<=,>a:, :}. 


C.tV. Sli Hfji^ rf tSoab. fit 

themiclvcc^ wfa^ theinhaUtann of thecity, both.oM lad 
^oung, being; informed that Z^f had rangers withhlfai^ 
aiuj^inr all-probability, tempted by the beautiful forms which 
theangds had acflumed^, incompafled the houfe, and -de- 
pund^ tJicm 16 be delivered up, that they mieht abufd 
thenu ■ Let endeavoured t6 diiTuaide them from their wicked 
purpofe. and, rather than violate the righti of hdfpitalityV 
offered to abandon his two virgin daiughters to their mefoy; 
on condition they would not moleft hisguefts:' but,tnftead 
of accepting this offer, they came to violence : whereupon 
tiies'angels fuddenly pulled Lit into the houfe, (hut the 
door, 'and ftnlck the riotous aflembly with blindneis ^A). ^ 
Ikt the mean tin^e, the angels acquainted Let ^ith thtori^ 
cornmiffion; advifinghim, if he had alny friends,- for wfabf<( 
Ikfety fae was concerned, that heMvouU immediatiely.tet 
them, know their danger, ajid warn them to depart. W4i^rc^ 
upoir Lot J before it was li^ht, went to bis fon$-<in-^Uw^'' f5 
whom his daughter? were contra£(«d (BV; and,telling theal 
what tb^y muft expefit, if theyftayed lohger iivthe cityj 

^ JosftlPH. aatiq. I.'i. c;li. 

11 ;. • ■ •! - , 

(A). It is B very probable poie thefe.wcretlie.hii(b^sof 

epinion., that thofe mea were other daughters, of Loty vfhq 

fir^ck, no^ with adual Mind- were^d had left U)eic 

nejs^but with a diz^eis^which fathejf *^ iioui^; which tii^iSfB ip 

d^rbed their fight, and repre- be cpn&'med by the aog^]s/>f- 

ieiited obJIeiCis &lfly , and in con- dering Lot to take with htm ^i& 

fuiioii(|ji as were the ^/a«/9 wife and his two diugVtdri,^ 

who were fcnt to take E^^jha njuhicJ^ ^ere thtri prefeht iji^l 

{2). And this is the fenf? of Sut the original words^^i whicH 

xhtSefttiagint. The author of in our ver^on are rendered -i^// 

the^ book of Wlfdom fuppofes fins in Itew^ iMch married bis 

fome diange in the air, faying, daugbttrs{ ^ )»niay be tranflated* 

that' they were cvn^^^iss^ts/' according* to- the JiiierpieaEitfon 

%»ith birrihk griot darbufi^ of Qnkdoi^ bis Jobs ^in .4cwy 

which he comparas to that mvhicb luerf to marry ^ tea. . thft 

with which Mo/es plagued the contradl being made, but the 

JSgyptians^ He adds, that 'tiiey marsiagcnot coofui^niateid- 

couU not even find the way And. diere is no ni^n^n^if^ 

home i ht emery one/ougbt. tbe Scripture, ofany daughtexs X^ 

faffagt of bis enm /^ri (3). . had, except tlie two whq,wpr«i| 

. (B) The Septuagint, Syriac, ikved v/ith him $ butif i^.^iad^' 

jfrsihic, and other tranilations, they muft have periflied \^t^ 

^d fome of the rabbins, fup? their hufbands. 

fxrrr.viii. \, 16. tlarit, in loc'. \z) 2 Kingi vi. ti^ Y'^) .ff^'fdt 

**• ^7: (4) ^^* **^* '5^ (5) ■'^'^' '^'''» '4* ^ . 


After this caoftr^plipy Lm flafcd Mt long in Zmr^ 
fearing fomc further misfortmie ; but trent, iritfahBJaug^ 
fas, to the mountains on the caft of the Dtmi S^t^ and 
dwelt in a care thcrr. In thb folimde, the two Toung 
woraen« feeing no hopes of their crcr being mMmci (D), 
and being vcnr denzousof faariDgcfaiUrcfuasit was igrctt 
rqiroach and fcuidai in thofe c^ys to hare none;* plotted 
tDgether todecene their fethcr, and hate ifliiehjr Uou Ac- 

(21^; that it bas not only tbe nalSf fems Itf hai« beendie 

lineainectiofawoniaB, bait alio cafe; becaafe the BoicinnDi* 

the difiinfiion of fea, and re- gent andciodibleinyclle»%y 

gnlar pcrguioDs, as if it were (bey could ccrer fee it; and 

aliTe;23;;iii4udi^iUeba£been when tbey Iwre afioed die peo- 

fwaUonvd bv feme f^KHlhan pie of the ooontry after it, they 

writer* (23}. Some late oem- citber aflbred diem there wu 
mentaxon ^4^ after aU,tbmk» aofoch thiog^tyKorpltteildcd 

that tberc wzs so miTacalons it flaods fomenhete in tbe 

metamorphofis at all In tbe moontain^ where the njoeft to 

cafe ; bet that (be atber toraed it is very dmg et o ni, 'hicnfeaf 

back oatofcariofitTytofeetbe die wild bois and'ferptpbt 

bcmiiig Dearer, and fe perifbed hot moit fe on aceoOnt of die 

in the dreadful (bower, or by Armir{i%y 3 ' 

fomepoifQfiousTapoQr;orel(e» (D\ Sevciad writen'(x9) ca« 

that the honor e£ the figbt. cofe tbis a€k of LnH^mtjUHo, 

when (he looked back, and by foppofiif what they £d ina 

phinly behe'.d the terrible de- for the icpaiationof Hiankind» 

ibafLion of a plare (he hod bat which, as they tho^gh^'bad 

jail qaitted, itrock her iliff, and been utterly ddbi^'ed,ai|di 

motionleO, like a ftatae; and left, except their fitberanl 

that fne died of the fright. And tbcsilelves. Bat there i| ao 

as to what is urged from Jo/e- mancer of feiftdation fer.fncb 

/Aff/'z5% and ibme bopks of anopinioD. Wberefeit St;*i£»- 

travels {zS\ that this (bitDe or JNm very jniUy "qf^wii* dbt 

pillar, was many ages after, or a6ddn, feyiftg, they ooght ne- 

is DOW, to be (een ; it i« an- rer to have been mother^ i*^ 

fwered, that ^?^^:^^ might be ther than to have madeSidi 

deceived therein,as many othen ufeof'theirfetberf^o). One of 

have been, and daily are, in the(edaagbien a TVtttjjft writer 

things of this nature: which calls /'fMc^ (31). 

_ ^ . . ,_ _.^ ^.^.. . ... ..... _ _ __ ff 

fiitua uJir.j. ' (ZK) 'See a'fi fTifJcm r. 7. ' * (zs) 7?/. ^ua^fm'^eikicid. 
tfrjt JarH. t:fK. ii. K vi. €. 14. " (z- '■ ^-•^s«-;.', itincr, Hie*xf. ^9^- 

(z%) 'Brocia^-J, defer, terrge faitFi. p, I. c. 7. r.amk. X4. (Tj^) Jtj^h, «- 
/if. /. i. r. 12. ClryltiK iKn,xt.K\v, iKGnt, Itcr^nu, /,iv, e. $t, jiadrtC 
Je A}-ah. /. i. r. 6.' 'Jltrod:r, r* Geref. ftut/i. 69. c. 5. f^o). At^tfi* 

. .-.- .' . Fj'Ji. I. xjtii. f . 4 3, (V) ^' 7^"^'! ^^ Ehezgr Firkt, c . »s* ■■ 


CIV. ^eHijiirycfMoab: 12^- 

cordingly^ they put their pnjeA in execution, in the man- 
ner we nhd related in holy writ ; and from this inceftuous 
Tommerce proceeded two ions. That 6f the eldefl daugh- 
ter was therefore named Msah^ fignifying (though not in 
pure HebreWj yet, perhaps, in fbme dialeS of that tongue) 
Of a father ; and was the progenitor of the people we are 
now (peaking of P. 

The pofterity of Lot fettled in the country bordering on Of the 
the mountain where he was born, which fome authors <'0««//7 
make part of Ccelefyria% oititrs of Arabia r • zndytav-poJTefeJfy 
iftg driven out the old inhabitants, pofTefTed a fmali traA, ^^f Mo* 
thence called Moabitis^ or the land of Moaby the defcri-*^""* 
ption of which we refcrve to the geography of Jndea. 

We are but little acquainted with the cuftoms and man* neirgo^ 
ners of this people. They were governed by kings, nhA'vtmmemtf 
circumcifion *, and feem to have employed themfclves,<'^<'«/» 
moftly, inpafturage, and breeding of cattle, wherein their ffc- 
riches chiefly coniifted. They were one of tlie nations 
whofe good the Jews were fbroidden to feck « ; nor were 
they to be admitted to intermarry with the JfraeUtes^ to the 
tenth generation ^. However, they appear to have cultir 
vated a ^ood underftanding with that people after their fet- 
tlement m Canaan^ as appears from the fojourning of £//- 
meUcb there <^, and the reception D^z/iW met with in his 
troubles at Mizpeh d. What language they ufed, we know 
not ; but fuppofe, they fpoke a dialed of the Canaanitijb 
or Hebrew. 

That they had once the knowlege of the true God,7J^,V^^^-. 
we may not only conclude, from the piety of their great^*^^, 
anceftor, who, without doubt, inftrudledhis offspring in 
their duty i but, likewife, from Scripture : for they retained 
this knowlege till the time of MofeSj even after they bad 
snonftroufly corrupted their religion, by introducing the 
worihip of falfe gods « s which they feem to have done 
^pretty early, though the time cannot be iixed. 

Th£ idols of the Moabites taken notice of in Scripture 

^are Chemojh ^ and Baal-peor S ; fometimes, fimply, Peor ^ ; 

or, as the Septuagint write the name, Phegor: but what 

gods thefe were, learned men are not agreed. St. Jerom 

P Gen.adx. 30—37. ^ Joseph, antiq. l.i. c. 12, 

' Stepban. dc urb. in tJiiC'a. « Jcrcm. ix. 2^, 26. 

• Deat. xxiii. 3—6. ^ Ibid. ver. 3. « Ruth 1. i, 2, 

' I Sam. xxii. 3, &c. ^ See Numb. xxv. 11. ^ Numb. 

xxi. 19. I Kings xi. 7. Jerem. xlviii. 13. s Numb. 

aonr. i,and3. ^ Ibid. vcr. 16. Jofh.xxii. 171 &c. 

' - , I fuppoics. 

1 26 Sid Hi^ety «/ Moib^ B. \ 

iuppofeS) that they were twtb names of one and the lame 
idoli>: udifromUiedelMucbeiics into which thofe fell who 
defiled themfelvea with their worihip, feveral writers, boili 
antient and modern, have icprcfented them as ohrceoc 
deities, not much diJFerent from Priaput i. This opiniog 
they endeavour to fuppojt from the etymologies of ^ 
names, and ianfy fome indecency it implied tncrein (E). 
Others^, however, imagine, that though the I/raeliUi au 
Sakmon were intittd, by the ideahitijh women, to worQif 
thofe idols ' ; yet it does not thence follow, that any im- 
modcll ceremonies were u&d in tbcir worfliip t nor ore ii^ 
fuch mentioned in the moft antient authors >" ; and the tty 
motogies, we think, are not much to be relied on. Put 
was the name of a mountain, where the high-places of 
Baal were fituatcd i ; which word figniiies no more than 
Lord, and was a title of the fun, perhaps added to that 
name by way of difiinflion, to denote che ddty adored in 
that place ° ; though he had probably alio a temple in Beih- 
pttTy which ftood in the plain'. ytj}tttt^ fuppofes Baal- 

^ HiEKosYM. inEiai. 1. v. ' IdeminOfeaai, fcumr. 

Jovin. I. i. c. la, Oeioen. inNoioer. hom. xt. TiiEoru-r- 
LACT. in Hofeam. CoKsaKLAitO on Sanchon. p. 67, &C. 
kSELDEHdediu$yR9,lyRtag.i.c.5. Clibic. in Numer. ^j^ 
TKtCK^s comment. 00 Numb. XXV. 'Nuub.xxv. n,Sp 

Patrick 'scomment. uta fup. " Numb. oiii. 38. '"T**- 
9D0KET Vid. Soid. ia St«>-^>»p. - P See-JoA. 
xiij. 17, &20. ^ Deidololatr. I. ii. C. 7. 1 

(E) Par they derive from ter e^aology, they willlijUl 

lira faar, la epm, or firitcb ; to comc from the verb y®9 

becaufe they ulcd an indecent eiafii^, la/til: but Or. ^i' 

pofture before the idol (difiiii- derives it from ^€4rittt(li^ 

dchaHt cor am en foramen ptiicii\, ml^, whicli ligiiifies gKh 

and offered him di.r.g; which, {though in the particular jiiJeft 

the Jpuii pretend, was thewor- of the tribe of Hodairj, fuMO- 

ihip proper to tht£ idol [31). fmg it to bave l>een an aliiu^ 

Ifuis derivation be triie,it was, gical talifnum in the figareofi 

moft probably, a name of con- gnat, made to drive a.via.y fd^ 

tempt impofed bytbe^rwj} infeftsfja); a.t\AltClcrt,viSf 

and the ceremonies they men- takes this idol lor the fun,!)^ ' 

tion, may have been invented camt^a, a root in the fa$ ^ 

to give fome lealoa for the tongue, fignifying /e ^jAw)? 

lume. (33). 

Cheated, for want of a bec- 

(JI) Si^m. Yarbi In Nanicr.iiv. j. Maimrndti meri itev. fariS-'t-M 
Vid. Tbil,JaJ.dtiHB:ir.. auiaihnr, f.n,bi. (JtJ i/viff^n/.vt 

tirf. (.S.p.33". (13) ClirK. tM A'»»l. SJDU..»B. 

C. IV. Tbi Hift$rj of Moab- 

pepr to h^'Biictbus ; and Dr. CumherUnd* fays» he waapro* 
pcrly called MeMj and takes him to be the fiime with Mi^ 
msj 'Mizraim^ and Ofiris (F), who, according to his hy- 
pothefiss were all one and the fiime man *. Chemwjh feems 
to have been a different idol. Niho < is thoudit, by fome, 
to liave been another deky of the Meabites. It was, with- 
out diij^te, an idol of the Bebyhnians^ and poffibly the 
fiunewith Mercurji but whether the ^^^M/fx woruiped 
k, is not fi> certain. There was a town of this name in 
that part of the antient dominions of Moab conquered by 
Sibm^ which the Ifraelites rebuilt, and changed its name « ; 
and 1 part of mount Abarim^ in the (ame trad, was alfo 
called Ntbo. 


' On Sanehon. p. 67. 
317, (Z). ' Ifai. XV. 2. 

idvi. I. P(al. cvi.2d. 

• Sec voLi* p. 304, 305, (D) i 
Jerem. zlviii. i — 22. ■ IlaL 

(F) This learned prelate fup- 
poics Peor was not his true 
Bfune t and», finding Baal Mew 
i%^)^txABitb Mean (1^)9 and 
Setb Baal Mtm (3d}» men- 
tioned in Scripture as a place 
lyiii^ within the old territories 
of Maa^p concludes Mean was 
the proper or honourable title 
of this deity, whom be will 
have to be the iame with Ofiriit 
becaufe of the ebfcene procef- 
fions ufed in honour of tne ]at« 
ter^. agreeing vtry well with 
the immodelt ceremonies ufed 
kk the Wiorihip of the former, 
and from the a£nity between 
die names of Mion and Minis. 
The chief reafons he gives why 
JISEwi was the name of an idol, 
and the fame with ^^r, are; 
1=. The Siffuagint and Arabic 
verfioDS have Meon for a proper 
name, or title of a deity (37}. 
Zi The fargum of Jonatban 
(38) calls Baal Mion a city if 

Balak, in wbiib Ifrael dtfirayid 
tbi idal Peor in tbi hmfi of aU 
tars^ 3. Man Was fo great • 
title of honour, that it is given 
to Gofr himfelf in Scripture 
(39), though it is tranilated 
iwelHng'flMce, But we think 
nothing can be concluded from 
paflages where the word is 
plainly an appellative. 4. Bith 
Mion fignifies the boufi or tcm* 
pbt of Mioni and no other than 
a fuppoled deity tan be faid t» 
have a temple dedicated to it» 
Yet there are feveral names of 
places compounded with the 
word Biib, which have no re* 
lation at all to idols. 5-. The 
I/roiUtis changed the name of 
the city BaalMeon^ when they: 
had rebuilt it, as they did that 
of Nibo, becaufe they were fb 
named from falfe gods (4a), 
But this is no necefUry coxife'^ 

adfiii. 23. f 36 j y^Jb. xiii. 17. (27 J i^*J< ' Chron. v. 8. ^e 

alvifi. 23. • Ci^J On Numb, xxxii. 38. f 39; Ffal, xc. i. 


'ftS m mjUry of Moih. . 8.1 

Of their religious rites and ceremoniei we can fay vnjr 
little- The obfcenity which fome authon chaige them wi^ 
wc have already mentioned : of thii the pfalmift takeint^ 
tice, in fpeaking of thofe who n/ffY^euuiZ/a Baal-peetj > 
but fays only, that they eat thi efftrings ef the desk: hf 
which words he may eidier mean, that the idol which ditf 
impioully honoured with divine worlhip* was no more tbu 
a dead man ; or elfe, that their oblations were made to the 
infernal gods. They facri&ced both in the open air, oi _ 
mountains dedicated to that fervice *, and in temples boik ' 
to their idols in the cities ; and, belides oxen and iams,aii 
extraordinary occafions oSered human vi^ms, accordiif 
to the Pbttnician cufhim j an inftance of which will M 
given by-and-by. 
TifMoab- The firll inhabitants of the land^ afterwards pofieHed 
ites^>w,by the poflcrity of jWooA, Were the Emims, a great and 
—It tti . powerful people, and of extraordinary ftrength and flatuic>. 
^J^tu^^ i They were, inoit probably, defccndanti of Uam, and (rf 
' the lame gi^ntic race with the Anakims and Riphaim \ 
though the Maabitet called them by the name of Bmimst, 
which, in //f^mv, Hgniiics terrihif. T^efe, having beta 
much wealcened by the invafton of CbedsHaBfner, king of 
' Ebm, and his allies S became the cafieT conqucft to the 
Aioaiites, who drove them out, acd took pofleffion of 
their country; but about what time, is uncertain : bow* 
tut ie/t ever, they kept not their new dominions long intire ; for, 
fart of in the days of Mcifes,Sihen, king trf the j^moriVw, who lior- 
lieir ac dercd on them eailward, fought againfl the king of Alsai, 
^fitiomi the prcdeccflbr of Bahk, and took from that nation all 
lathe their land to the north of the twa Arnon^. 
Amorites. Balak, the fonof Z(>)>ar, was on the throne of ^«( 
V /■ '''i^" ^^ Ifraelitts, having fubdued Sihun^ were encunpej 
fntdifir jjj pjjj Qf jjjgjj. ^^^ acquilitions called the plains ef Moob, 
"^^'JJ^^'becaufe they had lately belonged to that nationV IMi 
I^elitn F'""» difmaycd at the approach of the victorious people, 
Year of *'^<"" ^" *3S not in a condition to refill, and not knov* 
flood 8q7.'"S ^^^^ Gox> had forbidden thcoi to attempt the conquift 
Bef. Chr.*°f ^^^ remaining territories, alTembled the nobles, and lib 
II- 1. the princes of the Midianites (a branch of which natkio 
(^^V^ dwelt within the borders of Moak, as wc Ihal! obferve hoe- 
after} -, and acquainted them with his apprehen lions, dtf 
the Ifraelites fhould/as heexpreiTed li^litk uf all that WM 
round absut them, m the ox lUktih up the grufs of the /iM> 

^ See Numb. xxii. 41. " i* Ibid. p. le. it 
* Gen.xiv.j. » Numb. xxi. 36. ^ Nuinb. ixii-l- 

C. iV. ne tiifiory of MoabJ 

Having Gonfulted together, and not daring to truft to their 
arms aloney the afTembly agreed to fend for Balaam^ the 
ion. of BiQTj a famous prophet (G), or diviner^ of that 
tioie, in wbofe prayers and imprecations- they had great 
Gon&Ience) that he might curfe the people, which gave 
them fo much uneafineis (H). Accordingly, embalTadors, 


(G) Some Jt^s imagine this 
Smlmmm was an aiho]oger,who, 
oUerving when men were under 
a bad a^teft of the fiars, pro- 
nounced a curie upon them; 
which fbmetimes coming to 
pais in neighbouring nations, 
gained him a great reputation. 
Several of the antient fathers 
fuppofe him to have been no 
more thanacommonfoothiayer 
(41)^- who pretended to foretiel 
fatore events, but by no juiHfi- 
abk arts. Origin will have it, 
that he was no prophet,bat only 
a foroeror, who went to inquire 
of the devil; but that God was 
plea&d to prevent him, and to 
put what anfwer he thought fit 
ipto his mouth. It cannot be 
denied^ however, but that the 
Scripture exprefly calls him a 
, fropkit } and therefore fome la- 
ter writers (42) are of opinion, 
that he had been once a good 
man, and a true prophet, till, 
loving the wages of unrighte- 
eofiiefs (43), and proftituting 
the honour of God to his co- 
^»e^ufiaefs, he apoftatized from 
God, and, betaking himfelf to 
jdolatrous pra&ices, fell under 
the delufion. of the devil, of 
whom he learned all his ma- 

g*cal inchantments; though at 
is jundure, when the pre- 

ftrvation of his people was con- 
cerned, it might coniift with 
Goo^s wifdom to appear to 
him» and vouch&fe him reve- 
lations. Balaam, indeed, was a 
man of no great probity ; and 
might, by profeffion, be a di- 
viner ; but, by the free accefs 
he had to Gob, it feems appa- 
rent, that he was no common 
Ibrcerer, or maeician (44). 

The Jewi by Balaam was 
not his true name ; but that he 
was io called, beaiufe, by his 
coun&l, DV y i'n Bala am^ i. e. 
be diftreyeJ the peopU of GO0 
(45 ) : and fbme have taken him 
to be the fame perfon who, in 
the book of job, is named 
Enhu[j^6). The prophetical 
traditions of Balaam the Per^ 
Jian magi are faid to have had 
(47) ; and it is thought, that, 
from his prophecy (48), the 
wife men knew the'fignification 
of the ilar which appeared at 
our Saviour's birth (49}. 

(H) It was a received opinion 
among the heathen nations,that 
imprecations might be madef 
which would have e&dk, noff 
only on private perfons, but 
even whole armies and nations i 
and there were particular formn 
and ceremonies for that pur-', 
pofe (50). 

' f4l) Seeyofepb»xm. 22. (41) See Patrick* t comment » on NumS. xxii.' 

(43J 2 Pet. ii. 1 5. (44) Utaciheufe^s My of dk/inity, f-'^<, fiff. 

(45) Vid^Hottinger, fmegma orient, p,^^, {^6) See Patrick' s ccnment,' 

aii fif» {Arj) D'lierbel. bibL orient, p, ^1%. {^%) Numh.\xvim 

X7« (49) Theodtr* Tarfntjisy upud Uyde </*• reh vet, Perf, p. 384.' 

(so) yid, Macrob, Saturn, /. iii. c, 9. Plut&rch. in rita Crajp^ /•'SS3< 

•. I of 

7l€ Hijlory of Moab. B. 1; 

of both nations, were fcnt, not empty-handed, but With 
prcfents, as ufual in fuch cafes, to Balaam^ who dwtfk at 
Pethor^ a city of Mefopot amia ^on the Euphratis ^ ; and toM 
him the occafion of their coming. The prophet defird them 
to ftay with him that night, that he might inquire of God 
whether he fliould go with them, and curfe the IfraeliUs^ 
or not : buf , being commanded not to go, nor curfe a peo- 
ple whom God had determined to blefs ; the next morn- 
ing he told them, he could not difobey the divine conj- 
mahd, and fo difmiffed them. On their return with this 
anfwer, Balak^ whofe fole hopes lay in the prophet, fent 
a fccond embafly to him, confiding of perfons of more di- 
flinguifhed qualityjand in greater number, with promifesof 
great riches and preferment,if he complied with his requeft. 
Balaam told them, that no wealth could tempt him to aft 
contrary to the divine direSions : however, being willing. 
to gratify Balaky he confulicd the oracle once more 5 and 
had then leave to go, provided he faid nothing but what 
God fbould put in his mouth* Balaam therefore went 
with the embafl'adors, refolving, it feems, with himfelf, 
to do his utmoft for the fervice of thofe who had employed 
him. But his intentions being difpleafing to God, an an- 
gel was fent to withftand him on the road. His afs, feeing 
the angel with a drawn fword in his hand, attempted three 
times to turn out of the way ; and, being, thereupon, as 
often ftruck by him, God mlraculoufly opened her 
mouth (I), and (he expoftulated with him for his unfea- 

^ Num. xxii. 5. Deut. »xiii. 4. 

(I) This was fo extraordinary 
an event, that fome y^mj, as 
great lovers of miracles as they 
are, have not been able to per- 
fuade themftlvesjthat it really 
came to pafs. P/jilo (50), in 
relating the (lory of Balaam, 
wholly omits thiscircumftance; 
and Maitnonides (51) pretends, 
it happened to Balaam in a 
prophetical vifion. But as there 
is no doubt of God's power to 
efFeft fuch a miracle, and the 
words of Scripture are vcryex- 
prefs, there can be no reafon 

(<^o) De I'itaMofis, /. i. 

for difbelieving It. The Hea- 
thens cannot reproach Mofti 
with any abfurdity in this dory, 
fince they themfelves relate fo 
many of the like nature, but 
not near fo well fupported. 
Witnefs what they lay of the 
afs upon which Bacchus rode ; 
of the ram of Phryxusi the 
bull of Europa ; the horfcs of 
Achilles and Adraftu5\ the ele- 
phant of For us m India ; and the 
lamb in Egypt, when Bocehoris 
reigned there (52). 

(^j) More n:T9cb, part, li. cap, 42t 


fe.IV. ^e Hiftory of Modbi 131 

ibnable feverity. Balaamy in the heat of his paffion, gave 
no attention to the prodi^ (K) ; but, when he faw the an* 

gl, he fell proflrate on his £ace» and offered to return home. 
It the angel bid him only take care to fay no more than 
what Gob (hould dired him K 

Balaam being come to the borders of iE^^i, Balak 
went out to meet him ; and, after fome expoftulations for 
not comiiis oh the firft mei&ge, brought him to Kirjath^ 
buzzotby vmere the king ofiered facrifices, and feafted Bd- 
laaniy and the princes who were with him. The next day 
Balak brought the prophet up into the high places of Baal 
on mount Abarimy where he might have a full profpedl of 
the camp of the Ifraelitesy whom he had hired him to 
curfe^. There Balaky by the prophet's diredion, built 
feven altars, in which number there might perhaps be fome 
fuperftition ; but the altars, as it appears, were eredled to 
the true God, to whom they offered a bullock and a ram 
on each altar : and the fame they did afterwards in two 
other places oh thc^ mountain. The two firll times Balaam 
fought for inchantments ^, or ufed fuch means as he was 
able, to obtain leave of God to curfe the children of If- 
taily but without fuccefs 3 for, on the contrary, he was 
commanded to blcfs them, fore againft his inclination,- and 
to the great mortification of Balak 8 ; wherefore, the third 
time, finding that no inchantments could prevail againft 
Jacohy nor any divination againft IJraely he omitted his 
former arts, and not only blelTed them a third time, but 
pronounced thofe curfed who fhould utter any imprecationi 
againft that people. Balak y enraged at this difappointment, 
ordered him to depart immediately; but Balaamy before he 
went, pronounced, in j3/7/e7^'s prefence, a noble prophecy 
of the future fuccefTes of the Ifraelitesy and what fliould 
befal fcveral nations and kingdoms ^. As to Moaby in par* 

* Nuhib. xxii. 20j 35. * Namb. xxii. 36—4!. ^ See 
Vol. i. p. 50ti s Numb; xxiii. ^ Ibid. c.xxiVi 

(K) This feelns to be the is^too common in the eaft i and 

true reafon why Balaam ex- from thence might be the lefs 

preffed no more furprize on this aflonifhed to hear a brute 

<)Ccafion; But fome fuppofe fpeak (53). Jo/epbus^ indeed, 

Balaam might have imbibed tells us, but without authority, 

the dodbine of tranfmigration that he was affrighted at the ac* 

of fouls, which was, and ilill cident (54]. 

(^Z) ^'^' C'f^*" comti{ent» in Utum, Cs^J J^I^'P^* antiq. /. ]. 

I 2 ticular, 

x32 me Hijiory of MoA}. B.t. 

titular, be foretold, that a Jlar (M) Jlh9uldc9mi eutcf}^ 
cob, and a fceptre Jhould arlfe out of Ifrael, UfUch fiouU 
fmlte the corners (or, as it mav be better tranilated, tbo 
princes) of Moab, and dejlroyali the children of S^ i (N). 
vVhlch prophecy the moil ludicious interpreters take to bd 
primarily fpoken of Davtd^ and fulfilled by his vidorics 
over that nation ; though it be allowed alio fecondarilj, 
and in a more exalted fenfe, to refer to the Mefliah. After 
this, Balaam returned home ^, but not without giving i 
moft wicked counfel (O) to Balak and the Midianites^ 
which proved very pernicious to the children of Ifrael: for 

* Ibi3* vcf. 17. * Ibid, ver. 25. 

(M) The eaftem nations dc- littk in the erighial t JeremuA^ 

noted a king by a liar, or co- inflead oi'\py\^ karkar^JbaU 

met; the appearance of which defiroy^ having; "^j^P f^hi^ 

they thought, portended the rife the erown of the ^m# (which 

of great princes, and the revo-^ is the reading c^ the Sametritem 

lutions of empires (56). pentateuch in this vtry phoe); 

(N) According to the genius and»inftead of HV fetb^ {IMV 

of the Hehrenu tongue, wherein fitaon^ noife. But we dare not 

it is elegant to repeat the £une hence niake any corre£ku». . 

fentence in different expreflions, (O) Though Mofes mentioBi 

by the children ^/'Seth, the Mo- not this wherie he de&ribes dit 

eibites fhould be intended ; but interview between BaUumzai 

why they are fo called, we can- Baiak^ yet, in another phoe 

not find. There is a paflage in (59), he lays the whole blane 

7^r/w/a>&,whichleems to prove, on Balaam', faying, that the 

that, in his time, this place was Ifraelites trefpafled throtigb bit 

differently read. A fire ^ fays counJeL yo/ephus is very fixd- 

that prophet, J^all come out of cular in relating this circoin- 

Hefhbon, a flame from the ftance, and tells us, tiiat^^iiSMW 

midft of Sihon, 'which pall de- bethought himfelf of it when 

^uour the comer of Moab, and he came to the Euphrates^ and 

the cro^-wn of the head of the thence fent tobegaconfieireBoe 

tumultuous ones ; or, as is bet- with Balak^ and the princes oi 

ter rendered in the margin, of Midian (60). The targmd 

the children of noife (57). The Jonathan, and that of Jtmfe' 

former part of this paffage is /?M,fuppofe,he gave this coudiel 

taken from another text (58), ju(lbeforehe pronounced the Isft 

and the latter from that which prophecy ; and that the iknieis 

we are now fpeaking of: the intimated by thefe words, /wc0 

difference between them is very a^vife or counfel thee (61). 

^56; Vid, Ckric. in Ice, ( ^-j ) Jrrcm. xlviii. 45. (^BjNMmi* 

xxl. 2S. ^59 ; Numb, xxxi. J6. See olfo RevtL ii. 14. (^'>)3^ 

frpkaiitii. /,ivvc.6v (ti) A'umi, ^odv, 14. yiJ, etiam Clo'icJ* 


C. IV. The Hifiory of Moab. 133 

be toUthem, that it was in vain to expert, that God would 
ever deferc thatnation^ fo long as they continued in their 
duty ; and the^pefbre the only way to hurt and diftrers them 
would be, to tempt them to idolatry and difobedience, 
which he thought no means fo proper to effed, as by en- 
ticing them to debaucheries with the Moaiitijh and Mi- 
diamtijh women. And therefore he advifed them to fend 
die moft beautiful virgins they could find, to the Ifraelitijb 
camp, with proper inftru Aions 1. 

This was put in execution; the chief men among them 
making no fcruple to proftitute their daughters on Uiis oc- 
cafion ^ : and the ftratagem fucceecjed but too well. Fqf 
the Ifraelites were immediately taktn with the charms of 
thefe fair idolatrefles ; and, abandoning them&lves to tliem, 
were eafily feduced to worfhip their falfe gods. This oc- 
cafioned a dreadful plague, which deftroyed 24,000 of 
them, befides. thofe who were put to death by the order of 
Mofes n. 

Their hiring of Balaam to curfe Ifrael was the reafon 
why the Moabites were not to be admitted to mix or inter* 
marry with that people, as has been obfer^^ed « ; but the 
Alidianites^ who feem to have been more particularly the 
inftruments of feducing them to idolatry, were more fe-* 
verely punilhed foon after, as will be related in a more 
proper place : and Balaam himfelf had his due reward, 
being flain by the Ifraelites when they took their revenge 
on Midian P. 

The next a£lion which is recorded of the Moabites^ is, Year of 
that they were the inftruments of the fecond opprefSoii of the flood 
the Ifraelites after thdr fettlement in the land of. Canaan, 1005. 
For that people, on the death of Othniel the fon of Kena%^ Bef. Chr. 
being widiout an head, returned again to idolatry ; where- 1 343 
upon God raifed up Eghn king of Mdab to punifh them. ^ 
I'his prince, entering into an alliance with the Ammonites 
and AmaUkites^ invaded lfrael\ and, having made himfelf 
mafter of the city of palm^trees^ that is, as interpreters ge- 
nerally underftand it, of Jericho (P), kept the Ifraelites in 


' Joseph, antsq. 1, iv. c. 6. "» Numb^ xxv. i^. n i^id. 
vcr. 1—5. ° See before, p. 125. p Numb. xxxi. 8. 

Joseph, antiq. 1. v. c. 5. 

(P) Jericbo^ was femous a- ferent kinds^ which grew in its 
mong other things for the great neighbourhood {62). Jofephus 
numbers of pad-trees of dif- feys (63), that Eglon removed 

(62) Dait, X3aiv. 3. Jojef^b* debelhjvd, /. v.c. 4. (65) Idem, ar,t:f^ 

/• ?t ?♦ $• 

134 ^^ Hifiory of Moab. B. I, 

fubje£^ion eighteen years. But God, upon their reouring ' 
to him, railed them up a deliverer, a Benjamite^ named 
£hud ; who, being appointed by his countrymen to cany a 
prefent to Eglon^ refolved to lay hold of that opportunity, 
to deliver his people from the oppreffion diey had h ]aDg 
groaned under. Accordingly, having delivered the prefac 
to the ]cing, and accompanied thofe who had brought i^ 
as far as the quarries near Gilgal (QJ, on their way homci 
he returned from thence,' pretending he had' foniediiiig tb 
impart to Eglon in private. Being thereupon admitted to 
the king's prefence, and the reft all ordered to lyithdraw, 
he told him, that he had a meflage to hini from God; 
which Eghn rifing from his feat to receive, EbudttalMi. 
him in the belly with a daggbr, which he had prepared, 
and concealed under his garnlent for that purpofe (R). The 
wound lyas given with hich violence, that the haft went in 
after the blade ; fo that the &t dofing upon it, for Egkn 
was very corpulent, Ehudw2& obliged to leave the daffiq*. 
in his body. The fervants, after Ehud was gone, havW 
ymXQ^ a iQng time at the door, which they found locked, 
opened it at laft, and faw their mafter lying breathlefi on 
the floor. Ehud in the mean time efcaped beyond Jtr- 
dan^ and, gathering together what forces he could, at- 
tacked the Moabites that were garifoned on the weft of 
the river within the land of Canaan^ and flew ten tboii- 
iand of their heft men ^ which utterly broke the power 

his conrt to this city : bat he turesj, which ibme {uppcdk (o 

&tms to have been midaken : have been fet up there by £|- 

for after it had been biirnt by Ion (Sj), 
Jojhua (64), who curfcd the ( R ) This adion of Ehd 

perfon that fhould rebuild it feme jaflify, by foppofii^ he 

\^l\ it lay in rains till the had GodV exprefs conunand 

days oi Ahah (66). However, for it (68). But as the Scrip- 

the place might ferve for a ga- tore intimates no fach thing; 

rifon to keep the country in others think he might lawfbltf 

awe, for whi^ ufe it was very rid his country. of a tyiut, 

well £tuated. who had unjoilly enilaved ir, 

(Q^Theword^(^//», which by any means (69). A pofi- 

in our verfion is rendered the tion which may encourage aEaf- 

quarries, is by the Septuagint iinations in every cafe^ where 

tranilated id y^v^^A, and in the a£lor judges the caufe he 

the Vulgate, the idolsy the/culp- engages in to be righteous. 

(64) Jojb, vi. 24, (65) Idem, vtr, 26. (66) I Kim xW, 34. 

(67) Chytraus, &c. See niol, i. f, i-jq, in tbe notes. (68) Vid, Fanek, 

in kc, (69) Cleric, in foe. 


C. IV. ' TJf Hipry of Moab. 135 

of il/0tf^, and freed the Ifraelites from the yoke of that 
nation "i. 

We hear no more of the Moabites after this di(after, 
till the time of Saul^ who warr,ed againfl them with fuo 
cefs '• The enmity which fubfiftcd between him and this 
nation, probably induced David^ when perfecuted by that 
prince, to ask the king of Moaif*s protedlion for his pa-r 
rqnts, till his affairs fhould be in a better pofture ' ; which 
the A^oaUte readily granted, and treated them witb great 
hofpitality, while David lay in the cave of yfdullam. How- 
ever, when he came to the crown, the Moabites entered 
into a confederacy againft him with feveral of the neigh- 
bouring nations^: whereupon he declared war againft 
them ; and, having obtained a iignal viftory, put two 
thirds of them to the fword (S), and made tlie reft his 
vaiTals and tributaries u. 

From this time they continued fubjeft to Solomon and Year of 
R0b$boatn^ till the revolt of the ten tribes ; upon which, 'he flood 
it feems, they became tributaries to the kings of Ifrael^ '45*-. 
though they had all along kings of their own, who were^®^"^'^"^ 
little better than viceroys. Mejha^ one of them, paid ^ ^^ 
Ahab a yearly tribute of 100,000 lambs, and as many 
wethers, ^ith the wool ; his riches coixfifting chiefly in 
flieep ^. But, when Mab was dead, he rebelled againft 
his fon Ahaziah *, whofe ihort reign not permitting any 
attempt to reduce him, his brother and fucceflbr Jeijoram^ 

« Judges ill. 12—30. ' I Sam. xiv. 47. « \ Sam^ 

xxii. 3, 4. Joseph, antiq. 1. vi. c. 14. ^ PfaJ, Ixxxiii. 

c, 6, &c. " 2 Sam. viii. 2. i Chron. xyiii. 2. Joseph. 

antiq. 1. vii. c. 5. '*' '2 Kings iii. 4. ^ z ELings i. 1, 

suid iii. 5. 

(S) This is the meaning of Le Clerc thkiks this, probably, 

the facred hiftorian, when he was a juft retaliation for fome 

fays, That David meafured cruelties of the ikme kind^ 

them ijoith a line, cafting them which the MQobvtei had been 

dirwn to the ground ; e*ven ivith guilty of. As the Scripture 

invo lines meafured he y to put to does not fay, VfhsiYitT Da^vid 

death ; and with one full line put to death two thirds of the 

^to keep alive, 1' feems to have whole nation, or only of thofe 

been a coilom in the ea(t, to who appeared in arms againft 

order the priibners of war him r it is more for the honoui 

to lie down, and to meafuie of thajt prince to fuppofe (h^ 

i)y a line ifuch of them, as latter (70), 
^hey defigned -to put to death. 

(70) Idem, in 2 SJtm, vili. 2, 

I 4 ii:\it -/* 

136 The Hifiory of Moab. B. % 

afliftcd by Jehojhaphat king of Judah^ and the king of 
Edom his tributary, made an expedition for that putpolci 
and took a compafs of feven days march through the de* 
fcrt of Edom^ in order to furprife ithe enemy. Haviqg 
reached the land of Moab^ the army was diftreiTed for 
want of water, and muft have peri(bed» had not the pn- 
phet EUJha (Stained a fudden and large fup|)ly for toem 
by a land-flood. The Moabitis^ bring by this time ahmud, 
got together all that were able to ucdx arips ; aad» carW 
in the morning, feeing the water to the wdftward kok 
red, like blood, by reafon of the reflexion of the fun, 
and never fufpe£ling it to be water in that 4ry defert, and 
in fo great a quantity, they immediately took it to be bloodj 
and, fuppofing the confederated princes had fallen out, 
and turned their arms againft one another, concluded, 
they had no more to do than to take the fpoil. On thb 
imagination they ran in confufion to the camp of Ifrad^ 
but foon found their miilake ; for, not being able to fuf* 
taiii the iirft attack of the IfraeliUSy they prefently turne4 
their backs, and great numbers of them were flain by the 
enenly, who purfued them into the very heart of their 
country, wafted their lands, and demolimed their cities, 
except Kir^barafethj where the king of Moab fliut htm- 
fclf up. Mejhoj being befieged, and clofely .prdicdi 
made a fally with 700 choice men, and endeavoured to 
efcape, by breaking through the quarters of the Ed§mltts^ 
which were the weakeft ; but, failing in the attempt, in 
the height of defpair, he took his eldeft fon, who uouU 
have fucceeded him in the throne, and offered faim fort 
burnt-facrifice on the wall (T|. Which barbarous aA 

(T) Several writers (71) fup- for, not to infift on theftrifi 

pofe Me/ha did not iacrifice hi3 acceptation of the two pa^^ 

own fon, but the fon of the king one (peaking of a kii^ of Eim^ 

pf Edom^ whom, they (ay, he and the other of akiiig*s fon, 

took in the folly ; and^ that this it was a knowp cuflom in aa- 

is the fome adion with that tient times, for princes, in ex- 

mentioned by the prophet .4«0/, treme calamities of the pnUic^ 

who threateneth Moab, becaufe to offer their moft beloved child 

be burnt tbe bongs oftbi king of as an expiatory ficrifice, tv 

Edom into lime (72). But they avert the impending yengeanoB 

feem to be different actions ; of the gods (73). 


C. IV. ff*f Jlifiory of Moab. 137 

jraifed fuch horror and indignation in his enemies, that they, 
immediately raifed the fiege, and returned home y. 

It was not long before the Moabites^ entering into an 
.alliance with the Ammonites^ the Edomltes of mount Seir^ 
and other neighbouring nations (U), attempted to revenge 
the lofles they had fuftained in this invafion, onjehojha- 
pbat king of Judab^ by whofe afliftance, chiefly, Jehoram 
nad been enabled to undertake it. But though they had 
got within thirty miles of his capital, before he had any 
advice of their motions, yet their attempt proved unfuc- 
.celsful, and ended in their total ruin. For, upon ^Jehojha^ 
fbdt^s recurring to God, the enemy, feized with a kind 
of panic phrenzy, fell upon one another, and continued 
^he flaughter with incredible fury, till they were all cut 
ioff % as we fhall relate more at length elfewere. 

After this we do not find that the Moabites difturbed 
Ifrael for many years ; however, between this and the 
reign of Uzziah king of jfudah^ they had invaded thcu: 

J Ibid. ver. 6> 27. Josbph. antiq. I. ix. c. 1. * 2 Chroa. 
1. — 25. Joseph. ubi fupr. 

{U) Who thefe nations were, book of Chronicles (74) (tio* 
is uncertain. The original word the Engfijh tranflation in the 
Idebaammonim (hould be tranf- firft place takes it for an at>- 
lated Us it is in the Vulgate) peliative, and renders it the 
nvitb the Ammonites y were it not habitations) ^ and is in both by 
that the children of Amman are the Seftuagint tranAated Mi^ 
mentioned before. To avoid n^ans. Wherefore Bochart 
the abfurdity of which repeti- prefers the Greek reading in 
tion, the Septumgint^ if the the pailage before us^ -to the 
copies they followed were not Hebrew \ being of opinion, 
different from the prefent that there is a tranfpofuion of 
Hibrenu in this place, ren- the letters mm and ain (75]. 
der it, fomi of the Minaeans ; The Chaldee paraphrail has it, 
of which name, Bochart fap- ^tth the Edomltes. But there 
poies, there were two people, feems to be no occafion for any 
one of the race of ^hemy dwel- change, iince the particle pre^ 
ling in Arabia felix^ and the fixed may, agree<ibly |o its 
Other of the race of ffi^xfi, who- force elfewhere, be rendered 
fettled in Arabia Petrara^ and beyond or befidei {76) ; for 
are meant in this place, being, which reafonthefrr^/ry^verfien 
as he thinks, by the Je^s is judged to have rightly in- 
called Meouim, which word terprcted the word% and others 
.occurs in two places of the he^des I'i^^ -Ammonites. 

' (74-) 1 Cbron, fv. 41. 1 Cbroft. xxvi. 7, (75) ' Bochart , plakg, L ii. 
r. ^3* (76) Vide Clerk* in /ctr, 


13$ y*^ Hijiory of Moab* B. I, 

neighbours of Edom ; and, having overcome them, inhu« 
manly burnt their king (whether alive or dead^ is not 
faid), and reduced his bones to afbes : for which 
piece of cruelty God denounced fcvere judgments againft 
them by the prophet Amos >• And, on the declenfion tX 
the kingdom of IfraeU they alfo feem to have retaken 
from the tribes of Reuben and Gad great part of the land, 
which had formerly belonged to them before the invafion 
of Sihon ; for, in the prophecies of Ifaiah and Jeremiah 
againft Moah^ feveral cities in thofe territories are men- 
tioned, as then in the pofTcil^on of that nation, or of the 
Ammonites^j who were probably their confederates in op« 
preffing the Ifraelites. Thefe fucceffes elated the Moabitn 
(o much, that, for their pride and infolence, Gop 
threatened them with utter deftruilion, by feveral of his 
prophets c; and Ifaiah^ in particular, foretold, that within 
three years, Ar and Kir-Harajheth^ two of their principal 
cities, fhould be deftroyed, and the reft of their country 
brought to contempt and defolation.**. This prophecy, a| 
it is dated in the firft year of king Hezekiab^^ muft hayc 
been executed the very year that Samaria was firft bc- 
. fieged by Shalmanefer king of AJfyria yV^ho probably fubjedej 
. Moahy and placed garifons in thofe towns, to ftop the io- 
. curiions, which the Arabs might that way make, before 
be began the fiege ^* 

After the dreadful deftruflion of the army of Z^mt^ 
eherih the fon of Shalmanefer ^ the Moakites often rcf olteil 
from his fucceftbrs, and were as often reduced, till th^ 
were intirely fubdued by Nebuchadnexxar^ into whofe 
hands their king was given, according to a prediction of 
yeremiah%, the fifth year after his t2i\in\g J erufalemy 
TOT the Babylonijh yoke fat fo uneafy on them, that tho* 
they took advantage of the low condition of Judab^ 
and miflfed few or no opportunities of harafling that na- 
tion ', yet, on Nebuchadnezzar^ s departure from Judia 
and Syria^ after his fecond expedition into thofe parts, 
they, with the other neighbouring nations, propofed t» 
Zedekiah to enter into a league with him againft tl^ 
Chaldeans ; which that prince *", notwithftanding the rc- 
monftrances of Jeremiak to the coi^trary, ponfenting to, 

• Amos ii. ly 2, 3. ^ Ifaiah xv. & xvi. Jerem . Ixviii. 

* Ibid. & Ezek. xxv. 8, and 9. Zeph. ii. 8, 9> lo, 1 1. ^ Ifiu. 
XV. I. xvi. 7. « Ibid, c. xiv. 28. ^ Vide Prid. conned, 
parti, b. i. p. 18. « Jerem. xxvii. 3 — 6. xxv. 21. '•Joseph. 
antiq. 1. x. c. 1 1 .' 2 Kings xxiv. 2. '* Jerem. xxvii. i z, &c 

p. IV. me ftiftory of Ammon. 139 

on the acceffion of the Egyptians to their confederacy, it 
became the occafion of his utter ruin; his new allies de- 
fcrting him in his diftrefs. 

From this time hiftory makes very little mention of the 
MoabiteSf who weie henceforward fubjeft to the great 
empires ; and, at length, became one people with the 
neighbouring nations which inhabit the dcferts of Syria : 
fo that though Jofephus mentions the Moabites as a diftinft 
nation long after, faying, they were fubdued by Alexander 
Jannaus king of the Jews >, and tells us, they were a 
Numerous nation, even iq his time " ; yet, in the third 
century after Christ, they had loft their antitnt name, 
and were comprehended under the more general denomi- 
nation of Arabians °. 

S E C T- IL 

fhe Hiftory of Ammon, 

THIS people were the poftcrity of Ammon^ otherwife 
called Ben Ammi (tho* that is not politively known), 
iignifying the fon of my people our kindred, the offspring 
of Lot and his younger daughter ^. We have taken 
notice of this inccftuous birth, in fpeaking of Moab^ the 
fon of the elder fifter by her father p. 

The children of Ammon poffeffed themfelves of the 
country, called, after their own name, Ammonitisy bor- 0/ the 
uering on the northern part of Moabitis^ after having ^^««/ry 
driven out the ZamzumnJmSy as they called them, who P^JTe^eJ by 
V'ere giants, and the antient inhabitants of the land 9.^^^ ^ro- 
Tphis country % as well as Mbabiti-y is, by foma, reckoned "^®"*^^^- 
a part of Coplefyria^j and, by others, ox Arabia, But we 
ihail fpeak of it at length in our defcription of Judea. 

We are almoft utterly unacquainted with the manners 
and cuftoms of this people. They had kings, and were 
circumcifed <, and feem to have been principally addi6ted 
to husbandry. They, as well as the Moabites^ were 
among the nations, whofe peace or profperity the Ifraelites 
were not to difturb. Neither the one nor the other were 
to be admitted into the congregation to the tenth genera- 
tion 5 fo wide was the diftance between the Ifraelites and 
them ! The reafon, becaufe they did not come out to re- 

> Joseph, de bello Jud. I. i. c. 4. » Idem ant. l.i. c. 10. 

» Job. 1. i. ® Gen. xix. 38. p See before, p. 125. 
9 Deuter. ii. 20. ^ Joseph, antiq. 1. i. c. 16. 

• Steph. de orb. In'^AyLAVw. * Jcrcro. ix, 25, 26. 



^c Hiflory of Anunoii. B. L 

lieve them in the wildernefs ; and becaufe they jointlj 
hired Balaam to curfc them '• However, we find there 
was afterwards a very good underftanding between their 
king Nahajh and David ^. 

Ths religion of the Ammonites y as we have already ob- 
ferved concerning that of the Moabitesy was originsdly ts 
pure as it could flow from fo clear a ftream as the in- 
Aru£lion of Lot ; but they alfo fwervcd from it by degrecS| 
And at length degenerated into the moft ftupid^ a^, as 
is generally fuppofed, the moft cruel idolat^. 

Their chief and peculiar deity js, in the Scripturei 
called Moluhy or Moloch. He is alfo thought to be ua- 
derftood under the names of Baaly Milcom^ MoUihy 
AdrameUchy Anamelechy and the like. Tbefe names, or 
titles, iignify no more than lord, or king \ and (bmetinus 
have an epitnet prefixed to them, as in the two laft, where 
he is ftiled the mighty and rich Melechy Mokcbj or king: 
thefe two were the gods of the Setharyites. We flujl 
only fpeak of the Ammonitijh Moloch in this place. Hk 
learned are not poiitively agreed in what relates to hiita. 
It is on all hands allowed, that they addrefled him under 
the title of king, or Moloch ^ His image is faid to hate 
been hollow, and divided into feven receptacles. Tbe 
firft was opened for an offering qf fine flour ; the fecond 
for an offering of turtles ; the third for a (beep ; the 
fourth for a ram ; the fifth for a calf; the fixch for an (»» 
the feventh for a child. It had the head of an ox, and 
the arms of a man ftretched out in zQ. to receive "> (A). 


" Deut. xxxiii. 4. ^2 Sam. x. 2. * Vide Voss. 4 
idololat.& Selden. de diis Syr. fyntag. i. c. 6. " Paul. 

Fagi us apud eund. ubl fupr. 

(A) An antient Tiwv^ tra- 
veller fays, ** that when he 
was in thefe parts, there were 
yet funding remains of the 
antient temple of the Am- 
*' monites^ and therein their 
idol feated upon a throne. 
This idol was of Hone, gilt 
over with gold, and had on 
each hand the image of a 
woman in a fitting pofturc 
(77) : before the idol was 









the altar, on which thtlm* 
*^ momtis offered their fiicri- 
^* £ces and incenfe.'* Stldm 
thinks this idol, and thi< tem- 
ple cannot be thought to have 
been ereded to Moloch, that 
moil antient deity of the Jimr 
monites (7 8) . And, indeed, «f 
think this traveller muft ban 
been fome way or other iffl* 
pofed on, or miflaken. How^ 
ever, we mufl not apprehend 

(77) Bsr}an:in :tir.:rjrt 

(73} Infyr.tag* prim* de diis Syr, 


C. IV. 3^ Hi^ of Ammon; 141 

Tbefe feven receptacles are alfo called feven chapeb i 2XiA^ 
inftead of being >¥ithin the image itfelf, are placed or- 
derly before it "• Whatever was the difpofition of tbefe 
feven places, their number correfponding with that of the 
fun, moon, and five other planets, has gi^en room to fup« 
pofe, that they worihiped the fun o i and the rather, as 
the oblations feem to rife in fuch proportion, as might beft 
anfwer the degree of each of thefe heavenly bodies. But ic 
were endlefs to expatiate in conjectures upon fo obfcure a 
fubjed, as the learned have done. Some accounts there 
are farther concerning this idol, but they are very doubt- 
ful (B). Chemojh alio was a god of the Ammonites ^ con* 
ceming whom we have faid already all we can p. 

As to the fuperftitions paid to Molach^ there is great dif- 
agreement among authors. By the Scripture it is often faid^ 
that the Ammonites pajfed their feed thro* fire to Moloch. 
This expreffion is taken in a literal fenfe by fome, in a 
figurative fenfe by others. The firft ientiment is cm- 
braced by the Jewijh writers (C), who, for the moft part 
hold, that the children were barely carried or led betweea 
two fires, by way of puriixcation : the latter is adopted 


» Sec B£DFORD*s Script, chronol. p 259' ® Vide Vos?, 

nbi fupra. p See before, p. 125 — i 27. 

that the images of M0/9ri& were pnefts; who, upon their re- 

always large and fixed : they taming them, were carried by 

were likewife fmall and porta- their parents upon their ihoul- 

hie, and carried ap and down ders, between two fires^ Ac* . 

in fhrines, according to ap- cording to others, the priells 

pearance, and as the coftom was carried them. A very eminenc 

with other idolaters, as will be Jewi/b writer fays,. •* That 

obferved in due times (70), *• the priefts, or fcrvants of 

(6) To give the r^der the '^ fire> perfuaded men, that 

various opinions of fome learn- '^ their children would die, if 

cd men, Mohch has been taken ** they did not pafs them thro*^ 

for Priapus^ for Mercurjj for ** fire : wherefore, parents be- 

Satttm^ and for Venus ^ or the '* ing anxious for the lives of 

morning fkr (So), But^ as *^ their children^andperceiving^ 

&icy chiefly rules over thefe '^ there was neither danger nor 

conjed^ares, it is enough, that ^ difficulty in performing thc^ 

we barely mention them. *' ceremony, no one negledled 

(C) Some of the Jeuoifi ** it, confidering, that the chil- 

writers hold. That the children " dren were not to be con- 

Were folemnly delivered to the <^ fumed by fire, but only to 

{pi^ Vide emd. ibid. (Sd} Vidi. T^ di id^hbtri^i, B. L*. r. c. 

** pais. 


The Hiftory of Ammon; ft 1; 

hy the Chriftian writers chiefly who think, that they 
actually burnt their children, by way of iacrifice to this; 
grim idoL There was a place near JerufaUm^ where 
this horrid cuftom was obferved. It was called the vallaj 
cf the Jons of Hihnom p (D), fo named from the fhrieb 
of the children facrificed : as alfo Topbeth % from a Hi- 
brew word, toph, Signifying a drum or tabret, t^hicb 
they ufed among other inflrumehts to drown the dreadful 
outcries of the unhappy vidlinis. 
7beydrhf€ As the Moabites drove out the EmimSy and pofiefled 
tut the themfelves of their country, fo the Ammonites forced the 
Zamzom- Zuzims or Zamzummims^ as they called them, from thei/ 
nums. habitations, and fettled there. Thefe Zamzummiths^ ai 
well as the Emims, are ftilcd giants ^ , and were, doubtlefi, 
both derived from the fame ftock K This gigantic race 
had been invaded by Chedorlaomer king ^f Elam ^ ; andj 
perhaps, his having deftroyed great numbers of them, rcn- 
ciered it the more eafy for the children of jfmmon to diflodgp 
the reft. When this expulfion was eflFefted, or in wbi 
manner, we know not. HoweVcr, the Jtmmonites them- 

P 2 Chron. xxviii. 3. *i 2 Kings xxiii. 10. ' Dent 

ii. 20, 21. « Sec before, p. 128. ^ Gen. xivi 5. . 

" pafs through it (81)." This 
alfo is the opinion of Solomon 
Tarhi,Jo/ephKaroy and others; 
but Aben Ezra^ diifenting from 
them, affirms, thdX pajjing thro* 
fire muft be here underllood of 
burning, VoJJius infills on it, 
that where- ever the expreflion 
of pajfng through fire is met 
with, it mufl be taken in the 
ilridnefs of the letter ; but al- 
lows, that in cafes cf great ca- 
lamity, and upon other parti- 
cular occaiions, they gave up 
their offspring as an expiatory 
iacrifice to their god (82). Sei- 
den is of a quite different fen^ 
timent, and will have it, that 
they not only led their chil- 
dren through fire, but burnt 
them alfo at the fame time. 

This he proves, as ^ as a mat- 
ter of this nature can be aibe^ 
tained (83). Upon the whok^ 
remembering how common % 
pradlice it was to olTer up thde 
unnatural oblations among CmmI 
of the neighbouring nations, 
the fame may probably have 
prevailed among the Ammmket. 
(D) This valley was a de- 
lightful place, watered by the 
fprings of Siloah. It was (badyr 
and beautified with gardeoi. 
And, indeed^ it is remarkable^ 
that the heathens commpnlf 
chofe fountain-heads and fo" 
lemn groves for the feencia|-3 
the homage they paid dtetfi 
deities. This cudom our an- 
thor fuppofes they borrotfol 
from th&jimmonites (84). ■ 

(Si) M"fes Maim, more ncvork. lib, iil. c. 7%, (82) J'lJ: Y^. S\ 

[upr. (83) y'idc SM ubij'u^r, {^%^) Hieron. injtnuu c, vii. 32. 


C.'Vf. T^be Hiftory of Ammoii. X4j 

/elves underwent the fame fate in the days of Mofes^ htn% 
difpofleflfed by Sibon the Amoritey who drove them into the 

The names of their firft kings do not occur. They Thiir hi* 
Joined Eglon king of Moab againft Ifrael^^ and ttaxtdfiory. 
in the fucccfles of that war ; but who was their leader, at 
that time, is not fa id. 

About 150 years after, we find the Ammonites en-^^p '^^f 
gaged as principals in a war, under an anonymous king, '"•^^^ /^^ 
againft the Ifraelites. This prince refolved to attempt ^*™^'^ 
the recovery of ^he antient country of th^ Ammonites,^^ ^* 
made afudden irruption into it ; and, bearing all down f f ^'^^^'^ 
before him, reduced the land, and kept the inhabitants 'y^ f 
18 years in fubjeftion '^. Encouraged by his firft fuccefs, ^^ ^j^ 
he crofled the Jordan (E), in order to fall upon the tribes of , ^^^ 
yudahy Binjamin^ and Ephraim *. But, in the mean time, Bef.ChriA 
the Ifraelites^ turning to God, were infpired with courage 1 1 gg, 
to oppofe the infulting invader. Accordingly, they af- v«^y^^ 
fembled at Mizpeh^ whence Jephthahy whom they had 
choftnfor their general, fent an expoftulatory meflageto the 
king of the Ammonites. The king anfwered, that thofe 
hnds belonged to the Ammonites^ who had been unjuftly 
difpofleiTed of them by the IfraeliteSy when they came out 
of Egypt 'y and therefore exhorted him to reftore them 
peaceably to the lawful owners. Hereupon Jephthah fent 
him a fecond meifage, endeavouring to convince him of 
the injuftice of his claim by an hiftorical account of what 
Iiad pafTed on the occafion the Ammonite had mentioned. 
But, finding him bent, at all events, upon war, he fell upon 
him near Aroer ; and, having put his army to Bight, pur- 
fucd the fugitives with great flaughter, as far as the plain 
rf the vineyards y. The Ammonites loft on this occafion 
twenty cities. And thus, after eighteen years bondage, 
an end was put to the tyranny of Ammon over the Ifraelites 
beyond the Jordan. 

The next of their kings we find mentioned, is called Nahalh 
Nahash. He flourifhed in the days of Saul^ from whom king, 

^* See before, p. 133. "^ Judg. x. 8. « Joseph, antiq. 
lib. V. c. 9. / Judg. xi. 33. 

(£) There is a very confide- Scripture fays, the Ammonites 

lable difference here between did adlually crofs over to fight 

the Scripture and Jo/ephus. He with Judah^ and Benjamin^ and 

Iays» the Ammonites and the Ephraim \ fo that the Ifraelites 

fiiliftines had only prepared were in great diilrels. 
^QiK&tiitxiyti Jordan. The 

144 ?^ Hiftory of Ammon* B.I 

Year of he received the juft reward of bis great infolence and hir« 
the flood bar'ity. For, reviving the old claim upon the territory ia- 
1 25 3. habited by the Ifraelites on the other fide fordan^ he wag^ 
Bef ehrift war with them ; and, beinjg at firft attended with g^ 
1095. fuccefs, he even laid fiege to the city of Jahijb, The 
^^v^i^ terror of his arms was fo great, that the innabitants were 
at once for throwing tbemfelves at his feet, and acknow- 
leging him for their lord and king. This fubmifliony which 
would have mollified a generous heart, ferved only to bar* 
den his. He would hearken to them upon no other coo- 
dition, than their confencing every one to the \ob of hb 
right eye, that in them he might fligmatize' the whole 
body ef Ifrael. The inhabitants anfwer^jThat if he wotdd 
allow them bat feven days to endeavour a deliverance 
from him, they would fubmit to his terms after the ei- 
piration of that time, if none was found to deliver theni^ f 
This he granted them, and, fecure within himfelf, waited 
for the cruel fatis&dtion he propofed fliortly to enjoy. But 
he was aiTaulted in three feveral parts of his camp by 5mi/, 
very early on the eighth morning, when he expeoed to 
fee the inhabitants marching out to him^ as thev deceit- 
fully told him they fhould the night before ; and nis army 
was thrown into fuch confufion, that the IfratUtis \ai 
little elfe to do but to put them to the fword. Inftead of 
a battle, it is termed a daughter, which hfled till dw heat 
of the day ; at which time the furviving remnant of Nar 
hajh*s army was fo difperfed^ that no-where two of tfaea 
were to be feen togedier '• Thus ended this war. We 
are informed, that Nabaflf did fome kindnefies to king 
David, Jofe^bus di&rs from Scripture in bis account 
of this war (F). 
Hanon Hanun fucceeded hi& &ther Nahajh (G) in the king- 
Ung. dom ; but whether this Naiafif be the very fame who was 
defeated by Saul at Jahtjbj we are not tdd. However 

2 t Sam.xi. II. 

(F) 'Jofephttt writes^ that de of that tft too s aUd ft 

Vabafo began this war, and reduce them to a llavery ht 

carried it on^ for fome time^ life, (eeing they wonld he 

with the violences ufual in the un2d>le to defend thctnlelvet. 

like cafes, and with this po- This hjftorian (eems hei« to 

litical addition, of plucking be quite wide of the ftaft of f! 

out the right eyes of all chofe the lacred text, 
he took, that they might lofe (G) Notwithftanding ^/^ 

the ufe of their bucklers, which phus informs as, that n§it^ 

covered the left eye^ or the was killed upon the hreakinf- 

G, IV. ^^ tJiftory of Ammon* 145 

this was, we arc informed, that Nahajhj the father of 
Hanun^ lived in friendftiip with David ; who no foonet 
heard, that Nahajh was dead, and that his fon had fucceeded 
hinn, than, for his father's fake, he fent embafladors to 
the young king, to condole with him for his lofs, to 
congratulate him upon his acceilion, and to offer a con- 
tinuance of the friendfhip which had been cultivated be* 
tween the late king and him. Hanun feems to have been 
a weak prince, and had very ignorant counfellors about 
him. For when he received thefe compliments from king 
David by the mouth of his embafladors, inftead of im- 
proving them to advantage, he took a falfe ftep, which 
he never could recover* He was fo far from entertaining 
thefe embafladors with the hofpitality and decency which 
became him, that he fuflrered himfclf to be perfuaded, they 
were no better tiian fpies ; and accordingly, forgetting the 
fdcrednefs of their character, he fliaved off half of their 
beards, cut away their garments Ihort, and, in that (hame- 
ful difguife, fent them back to their king. This amazing 
defcd in policy, and contempt of Davldj in open de- 
fiance of the laws of nature, hofpitality, and gratitude, 
occafioned a war *, which brought deftrucftion upon him 
and his kingdom* 

He was foon informed, how grievoufly David refertted Yc^rof 
the affront, and what preparations he was making to cha- ™ "*^^ 
ftize him for 1t. Hanun^ therefore, perceiving himfelf '3J3- 
on the brink of a war, to which he, fmgly, was unequal, «^*'^"rUt 
djfpatched embafladors to the neigbouring princes, to hire ^ ^,^}^ 
Mid folicit the af&fl;ance of troops from them^ to enable 
him to withflrand the invafion which threatened his king- 
dom. What the troops he procured were, either in qua- 
lity or number, is not certainly known, fince the Scrip- 
ture feems to vary concerning them (H), Firfl^ we arc 


* 2 Sam. X. 2-4. t Chron. xix. 1-4. Joseph* antiq4 1* vii. c. 6. 

upof the fiege of 7/7*5^(85), naturally enough have lived 
we cannot forbear thinking, fifty or threefcore years after- 
chat he lived many years after- wards. We are feemingly fup- 
wa'rds^ and was the father of ported in our opinion by the 
thrs iianun. His bishaviour Scripture itfelf. 
tiijabejb fjpeaks him to have' (H) This we cannot pretend 
been a rafh, hot-'headed young to account for, nor do we know 
Ikian at that thne, and he might that it was ever dcared by an/ 

(85) 7*A^^« «»>//. Rh vf, f. 6. 
Vol. II. X fw 

The Hijtcrj cf Ammon, B. L 

told, that Hanun fent to the Sjriams of Betb-rebcby and 
to the Syrians of Z^bah^ hom whom be had twenty tbou- 
fand frx;tnien ; to the king of Maacbab^ wbo fiiniiflied 
one thoufand men ; and to the king of IfiHwb^ who Cent 
twelve thoufand men «. With this J§fepbus agrees pretty 
well in refped to number, retrenching only the one diou- 
fknd men fupplied by the king of Aiaacbmb^ and allowing 
bim and the king of Ifkoh to have contributed twdve 
thoufand men between them^. Whence, inftead of 
making the number of thefe mercenaries to have amounted 
to thirty-three thoufand, as the Scripture does, be gives 
them at thirty-two thoufand. Aga'in^ we are toM, that 
Hanun fent a thou land talents of iilver, therewith to hire 
chariots and horfemen out of Alefop§tamiay and out of 
Syria Maachah^ and out of Xohab ^ and that he adually 
hired thiny-two thoufand chariots, befides the king of 
Adaachah's men c. Between Jofephus and this paflage of 
Scripture there is a more material difference than before: 
he hysj thofc who came out of MefopQtamia were foot- 
men ^, Here alfo we fee the Scripture keeps to the num- 
ber of thirty-three thoufand. However, though the 
number be the fame as before, the difference is very great. 
But let us proceed to the aftions and event of this war. 

Hanux, having thus drawn a confiderable force ftom 
the nei;:hbouring countries, and raifed an army of* his 
own fubjecls, marched out of Rabhab to fight yoab^ 
whom David had fent at the head of his army. The Am- 
monites and their auxiliaries drew up in two diffin£l bodies; 
(viz.) the Amjnonites under the walls of their city, and 
the auxiliaries at fome diflance on the plain. By this dif- 
pofition they thought to have charged yoab*s front, and, 
at the fame time, to have fallen upon his rear ; but their 
defign was fruftrated, tor the Ammonites were attacked, 
by Alijhai, Joah\ brother, whilft Joab himfelf charged 
the Syrians. Tht Ammonites (E) fuftained Abijhai^s charge 


• 2 Sam. ubi fupr. vcr. 6. 
* I Chron. ubi fupr. ver. 6, 7. 

one in a fatisfadlory m^ner. 
Haderezer is in Scripture men- 
tioned as the chief prince of 
the Syrian nations. Jo/ephus 
ipcaks of one Syrus as chief, 
and calls him king of Mefopo- 
tamia (86). 
(86) Ibid, lib. vU. b, 

. ^ 

^Joseph, antiq. ubi fupt 
<* Ubi fupra. 

(E) In what concerns this 
battle, wc rt]t&. Jo/epbus (i\ 
and chufe to interpret the Scri^ 
pture according to reafon, and 
the nature of things. He iays» 
the Ammonites, perceiving their 
allies to be routed, hurried into 

(i) Anti^, lib. vii. c. 7. 


C. IV. "The Hifiory of Ammori: 147 

ynAk great refblutbn and intrepidity, till, perceiving their 
Syrian fnends to give ground, they thought it advifeable 
to return into their cit^. 

The next year their Syrian alh'es, afhamed of their laft 
defeat, made head again (F) ; but, being utterly routed by 
. David in perfon, the Ammonites were left to defend them- 
ielves asainft the violent but juft refentmcnt of their injured 
enemy 3^; which fell heavy upon them ; for the very next 
year, the third of this war, the country was entered by 
'^ \b^ who haraffed and wafted it far and wide j and at 
;h beileged Hanun in Rabhah, the capital of his king- 
dom : the place held out about two years, during whichy 
Hanun made one defperate fally, and cut off many of the 
befiegers, and, among the reft, t/riah the huiband of Bath-^ 
Jbeha^ At length the city was reduced to the utmoft ex** 
tremities of famine, and ftormed by David in perfon, who 
ciame to have the honour of completing the work. In the 

^ Sam. ubi fupm. Joseph, antiq. ubi fupra* 

their dty without flriking a xiliaries in a furious and doubt* 

firoke. Partiality for his fore- ful confliiSl with ^oab, they 

Others might perhaps have mull have had ienfe and cou* 

tempted him to reprefent them rage enough to march up to 

(o very formidable to their ene* Abijhai^ and force him to bat- 

nues^ But can it be fuppofed^ tie, before the Syrians began to 

that when Joab divided his ar- fly. If the whole ftory be well 

my between his brother and confidered, it is not to be ima- 

himfelfy they did not ad- gined that Ahijbai and the Am*^ 

ranee with an equal pace each monites kept looking at one' 

againft hts oppofite ? and e- another, or^ what is next of 

^ ipecially, as Jofephus allows, kin to it, made very flow ad* 

that the Syrians flood their vances towards each other, 
^uad till a coniiderable flaugh*- (F) Thus it appears by Scri* 

ter was made among them» pture, which turning the ta- 

which cpuld not be tb^ work bles makes the Syrians prin- 

of a minute : Ahijbai muH have cipals in this war, rather aveng* 

moved on veiy flowly, if^ be- ing their laft overthrow thaa 

ibre the^iyriiutf were broken ,he efpoufing the eaufe of the Am* 

did not charge the Ammonites, monites, Jofephus ftrays here 

Qa the other fide, the Ammon' again very unaccountaUy. He 

itss^ who wexB principals in makes the Ammonites fend to 

this wtr, if they had perceived one Balama, a king of the Sy* 

Atybai afraid to give them rians^ beyond the Euphrates^ 

buide* orfeemingly (b, and at . for another army thrice as big 

tte fiwtiae beaeld their ^u- as that they hired before [i). 


jj^J ^ Hifiory of Ammon. Br. t 

afTault Hanun was flain ; and his crown, which weighed a 
talent of gold (113. pounds 10 ounces one peny-weight 
10^ grains of our troy- weight ^L and was adorned with 
precious ftones, a fardonyx, Jofiphus favs, was taken fixxn 
off his head by David. What other fpod was found in diis 
metropoGs is no-where fpecified. The inhabitants were 
treated with extraordinary feverity, being led out and put 
to death with the moft exquifite torments ; harrowed, fawn, 
hacked with axes, and pafl'ed through the brick-kiln. This 
dreadful ufage extended to the reil; of the cities of Ammn 
(G), which held out againft the conqueror ; all fuch {haring 
in the fate of the city of Rabbahj which was deftroyed^ 
and laid level with tlie ground ^. 

After this dreadful vengeance and execution^ it is na 
wonder we hear nothing of a king of Ammon^ nor indeed 
of the nation itfelf, till the reign of Jehojhaphat king di 
Judah. At this time we find them united widi their Die- 
diren the Moabites, and the inhabitants of mount Setr^ 
againft the faid king of Judah. The particulars of this war, 
and how it ended, we have given in the hiftory of Moaht, 
• After this they were overthrown by, and made tn^ 
butary to, Uzziah king of Judah h. 

Th e Ammonites bore this yoke as long as Uzziah lived,* 
but in die reign of his fon Jotham they had an anonymous 
king over diem, who ftirred them up to rebellion againft 
him. The nation at this time muft have been pretty well 
recovered, and having a martial prince at their head, they 
refolved to free themfelves from the oppreflions of their okt 
enemies in Judah, The event was unhappy j they were 
overthrown in batde, and were reduced to compound for 
their peace with Joihamy by paying a tribute of 100 talents 
of filver,. 10,000 meafures of wheats and as many erf bar- 
ley i; in all, about 160,000 of our bufliels : and this £uDe 
. tribute did they pay for three fuccefSve years ^. 

At length, when the Babylonians grew mighty, aiid 
threatened all the kingdoms of this part of AJia with fub- 

^ See Arbuth. tab. of an. coinsv Weights, and meafures, tilv 
XX. ^ See 2 Sam. xii. 29* 31. Joseph, ubi fupra, c. 7. 

I Chron. xx. « Sec before, p. 1 3.6, 1 37. *> 2 Chron. xxvi. 8» 
Joseph, antiq. I. ix. c. z i. ^ Vid. Arbuth. ubi fapix 

^ Idem ubi fupra. 

(G) The Scriptnre feys it means only all fuch as held oat 
extended to all the. cities of obftinately, and defied the king- 
jitnmon ; but we cannot forbear of Ifrael ; and herein we are 
thinking that this cxprellzon fnpportcd by Jo/ephus. 


C. IV. TbeHi/tny ^ Ammon. 

jcEdon, tfaejr perhaps entertained thoughts of i^thftanding 
the commoti enemy with their joint force ; and hence 
might arife a good underftandins between Baalis the laft 
king of AmmiHy and Zedekiah mt laft king of Judab K 
But when deftru£tion came upon Zedekiah and Jerufalem^ 
i&nt jtmmonitis exulted over the ruins of that unhappy city m, 
for which diey were feverely threatened by the prophet »• 
It was not eafy for them to rorbear it, confidering the in- 
veterate enmi^ which had fo long fubfifted between the na- 
tions. However, Baalis received all the Jews that fled 
into his dominions to avoid the captivity, and^ among 
idiofe, one IJhmael^ of the royal blood, whofe intereft he 
oreteifded .to have much at heart. And to give him an in- 
llaAce of his :readineis to affift him, with his counfel at 
Jeaft, headvifed him to go back again into his own country, 
.and ailailinate Gedaliah^ whom the Babylonians had let 
<)ver the poor remnant of the Jews. By thus ftirring up 
JL pretender, he Teems to have aimed at the utter extirpation 
4>f the nation, either out of a pure deilre of revenge, or 
^th fome view to his own advantage. His counfel was 
put in execution .; but .the afTaffin was obliged to flyback 
again to Baalisj who received him into his protenion o. 
Baalis lived not long unpunifhed for having been accef&ry 
^o the murder of the innocent Gedaliah : for, a ihort time 
after, he was attacked by Nebuzaradan the Babylonian ge- 
neral, who put his country to fire and fword, deitroyed his 
chief city Rabbahy and carried away him and moft of the 
jiobles of Ammon into captivity, as had been prophefied by 
Amos : I will kindle a fire in the wall of Rablmh, and tt 
/hall devour the palaces thereof \ and their king jhall go into 
xaptivity^ he and his princes together^ faith the LordP : and 
£%ekiel : And I will deliver thee for a fpoil unto the men of 
the eaji^ and will give them the Ammonites in pojfejfion^ 
.that the Ammonites may not be remembred among the 
nations 9. 

This laft prophecy was in due time completed, their 
name being, in the end, blotted out from the book of 
nations. But, in the mean time, they are mentioned as 
^conjoined with the Arabians^ Moabites^ and Samaritans^ 
in giving all the difturbance they were able to the rebuild- 
ing of the temple of Jerufalem j which they endeavoured 

* 2 Chron. xxvii. 5. "> Sec Jerem. xxvii. 3. " See 

JEzek. XXV. ^ See Jerem. c. xl. xli. ' Amos i. 14, 15. 

^£zek. xxY. 7— K). 

K 3 to 

\^6 ^hi Hiftory of Midiaii; . R L 

to prevent a^ much as in them lay. One Tobidbj called 
the ferva^nt, is faid to have been dien at their head 4. 

As they lived in peace and quietnefs under the great 
monarchi^^ in procefe of time they grew to be more coo- . 
(iderable ;*and in the days of Judas Maccabeus^ were af- 
fembled againft that general in a very great zrtay^ under 
their governor Timotheus. They came to a battle, wherem 
Timotheus and the Jmmoniteswert worfted, and the fiune 
ill-fortune attended them in other fubfequent confli& un« 
der the fame leader, and againft the fame enemy. In the 
end their city Jafer (it was notantiently reckoned a dty of 
theirs), and the neighbouring ' towns, fell a prey to the 
yews, who fmote Sic men, carried their wives and chil- 
dren into captivity, and plundered and burnt the city of 
yafer ; and thus ended this, as it feems, their laft wamre • 
with the defcendants of Ifrael r. 

Nevertheless, towards the beginning of the fecond 
century of the chriftian ara^ they were thought worthy of 
being called a numerous nation < ; but, towards the hXbac 
end of the fame, their name vaniihed, and they themfelvel 
were blended with the Arabians < i as were alfo the AAab^ 
itesy EdomiUSj and others. 


The hifiory ^/Midian, or Madian.' 

Their de- T T is generally agreed that this people drew their origin 
/cent. A from Midian, the fourth fon of Abraham by Keturabj 
from whom they were called Midianites, He received 
large gifts from his father, as did the reft of his brethren y 
and was, as well as they, fent into the eaft country, to bi 
at a proper diftance from Ifaac ». The fons of Midian 
were Fphahy and Epher^ and Henoch^ and Ahidab^ and 
Eldaah b. 

The Midianites were, in their moft early times, evi- 
dently confounded with the IJhfnaelites cj and, many ages 
afterwards, they are mentioned in conjunftion with the 

q Sec Nehem. ii. iv. vi. xiii. See i Mace. v. 6—8.. 

Joseph, antiq. 1. xii. c. 1 1, i z. Prideaux conne£l. part ii. book 
jv. p. 212. ' Vide Just. Mart, in dial, cum Tryph. p. 272. 
t Oric. 1. i. in Job- ■ Geo. xx. 2, 6. i Chron. i. 32. j 

*> Ibid. vcr. 33. Gcn. xxv. 4. « Sec Qcn, xxxvii. ^5—28, | 

Judg. viii. 24. 


C IV. The Wfiery of Midian. 151 

Nahiteans and Kedarenes^ the pofterity of Nabaiifh and 
KidoTy the Tons of Ifhmatl^, Doubtlefs, remembring 
their kindred, they adhered to each other, and were blended 
together. On the other hand, we find them to have been 
fo incorporated, as it were, with the M$abites^ that Mofes 
almoft confidercd them as but one nation ^. Their reli- 
gion was the fame, and they aded in the ftrifteft concert ' 

ti^ether againft him and the Ifraelites. The ties of blood 
united them likewife, as on the one fide they were de- 
fccnded from Abraham^ and on the other from Lot. So, 
juft as they happened to live in the northern or fouthern 
parts of their country, they joined either the Moabites or 
the IflmaeliUs. 

The Midianites were a very numerous race, and may Their 
be difUnguiffaed into two forts, fhepherds and merchants. «w«»^/. 
The fliepherds moved up and down in tents, and drove 
their cattle before them, even when they went to war ». 
The merchants alfo travelled from place to place in com- 
panies ®, or caravans, as the merchants of thqfe parts do at 
this day, and left the care of their cattle to the women, as 
appears by the fiory of Jethro^s daughters (A). The (hep- 
herds, it is likely, had few or no fixed habitations, except 
fome ftrongholds near their borders : the merchants pro- 
bably had few or none but marts and ftations, in places 
convenient for their trade. Thefe grew to be exceeding 
rich ; and, by exchanging their gold and jewels with their 
brethren for tiieir cattle, the (hepherds became rich in pre- 
cious ornaments P. Their manners muft have been in 
many refpe<Sts as different as their way of life : however, 

«* Ifa. Jx. 6, 7. * See Gen. xxxvi. 35. i Chron. i. 46. 

n Sec Judg. vi. 5. P Sec Gen. xxxvii. a 8. * See 

Numb. xxxi. 50, 51, 52. Judg. viii. 24. 

. (A) That ftory feems to in- indeed in this he feeming1ycon« 
form us, that the men in the tradidls what he fays but a line 
foath part of Midian were not or two before^ <viz., that the 
(hepherds ; and therefore we Ihepherds of the country were 
imagine they were merchants, continually at ftrife which 
Jofephus exprefly tells us, that ihould get firftferved with wa- 
it was the cuilom of the women ter ; and from thence infers the 
in this part (which he, by mi- irregularity committed upoq 
fUke, calls Troglodytica) to T^/Jre's daughters (i). 
overlook the cattle; though 

K 4 Uiey 

they are in general reprefented to have been very fumptuoui 
in their apparel. We read of theiv jewels of goldy cbawh 
bracelets^ rings ^ ear-rings, tablets % the purple raiment §f 
their kings, and the gold chains or collars round the neck ^ 
their camels^, 
Their It appears very plain from Job^ that the ufe of writing 

learning, was very early known in thefe parts *, ampng the defcend- 
ants of Abraham ; and the Midianites being alfo of the 
number, we cannot fuppofe them to have been unac* 
quainted with it. Sir Ifaac Newton allows them the 
honour of inftru£ling Mofes in writing ^ The merchant 
muft alfo have been verfed in fome kind of arithmetic ; and 
there being fhips on the Mediterranean fo early sis the dayi 
pf the patriarch Jacob ", and thefe being themldves traders, 
and fituated on the Red Sea, it cannot be fuppofed that 
they could refrain from fliip-building, and viewing the 
fhores of their own fea, and the contiguous coafts. 
From hence we may naturally enough extend the circle 
of their fciences beyond bar^ writing and arithmetic, an4 
allow them a competent fkill in geography, geometry, and 
Their reli' It is plain that the Midianites varied as much fron;i each 
gion. other in matter of religion, as in their manner of life. At 
firft they were, no doubt, pure and right in their way \ 
how long they perfevered in it is not faid, But in th^ 
days of Mofes they wallowed in all the abominations of 
the Moabites w ; thofe we mean who were ncareft to thaj 
idolatrous nation ; nay, they exceeded them in their endear 
vours to perVort the children of Ifracl when they lay in 
the plains of Moah^ in periaading them to bow down to 
Peor 'f ; but wc are indeed told, that Pcor was worfhiped 
by the M'ldlumt'ijh women chiefly y. 1'hus ftood religion in 
the north of :Udian, Now in the fouthwe find them enlijrht- 
ened by a rational and fublime fyftcm, long after their bre- 
thren bad f.iUcn into the fouleft corruption. As a proof of 
this, wc need only mention Jethro^ who is commonly ftilcd 
theprieft of ■"> idian^ and is laid to have lived among % and 
by fome thought to have pr^fided » over the A idianites, 

'Numb ubi fup. ' J'^^g- »ibi Tup. ver. 26. s See Job 

xix 23, 24. f Chron. Of ancient kingd. amended, p. 210. 

° Sec Gen. xlix. 13. wSee before, p. 125. '^Sce 

Numb. XXV. 18. Joseph, antiq. 1. iv. c. 6. ^ Hieron. ia 

Num. horn. 20. * Joseph, anrit^. I. iL c. 1 1. ■ Vid« 

Tremslliz Bibl. Lat. £xod. iii. 


jC. IV, SrV IRfi^ ^ Midian. :t$i 

near tbe Red Sea. His behaviour b in the camp of I/railh 
a fufficient argument in favour of them ; yet, thoueh their 
idigion ¥ras otherwife very pure, it is remarkable they 
could not hfar circumciiion^. They offered up praifb^ 
diaDkfgivings, and facrifices, to God ; but their religious 
rites or ceremonies are not fpoken of, 
' We know not whether they were divided as much from 
each other in form of government as in occupation and re- 
ligion : excepting the cafe of yetbro^ their government is 
reprefcnted rather as ariilocrabcal than monarchical. Their 
Avth however are fliled kings ; and therefore we fhall 
dignify them with the fame tiue, 

Th e mofl antient record we find concerning this nation, fi^if^ ^*. 
^ifter what has been already faid, is their war with Hadadn^ry^ 
tfie Horite^ when Midian was fmitten by him in the field 
of Mwb i 

Th e next is their purchafing of Jofeph from his brethren 
for twenty pieces of filver, and carrying him away with 
them into Egypt ^ where they fold him to Poiiphary one of 
PharaoV% chief officers «. 

Many years after lived in Madian, by the Red Sea^^ 
apriefl, or prince (£}, of the fouthern Midianites, called 
Jbielj or Jethro (F), or the Kinite^ the father-in-law of Jcthro, 
Mefes g. In his time A'ofes, flying from Pharaoh^ arrived 
in jvidian ; and, upon his arrival, met with much fuch 
another adventure as yacob had in Padan^Aram. For, 
V^hile he was taking fome reft near a well, the daughteris 
pf yethroy feven in number, coming thither to draw water 
for their father's flocks (G), were infulted and driven away 

^ Exod. xviii. 10 — 12. ^ See ibid. iv. 25, 26. ** Gen. 

mcxvi. 35. ^ Ibid, xxxvii. 28, 36. ^ Josejph. ubi fupr* 

g £xod. iii. 1 . Judg. i. 1 6. 

(E) The nehrtw word is of 5V/^r«'s father (6) : but with 
IDD chohen^ which fignifies a what foundation, may be cur- 
prince, or a pried, and is pro- forily coniidered hereafter, 
glifcuoufly tranflated both. (G) This infult has given 

(F) This is by fome held to birth to a fufpicion, that their 
have been the fumame of the father was fo far from being 
fiimily (5). The Senjenty call chief, either as prince or prief^ 
him 'Pce^ot/:}A, Raguel^ and fo that he was only an inferior ii| 
docs the Vulgate, and even our the facred order ; and then no 
own verfion in another place : wonder they were abufed, iays 
however, this name is by fome our commentator. Indeed, if 
f)u>ughc to have been the name we do not fuppofe thefe ihep* 

(5) yidt CUric. in Ejtod, ii, {6j rtde eund, ibid. 


154 3^*^ Hiftofy of Midian. R L 

by fome fhepherds ; but Mofes; taking their part, dbli^ 
die fliepherds to retire, and affifted the damfels in watering 
the flocks. On their return home, their father, furprifed to 
fee them come back fooner than ufual, inquired into the 
caufe of their difpatch ; when thev acquainted him with . 
what had happened. Hereupon Jethro^ upbraiding them 6r 
not bringing home with them the kind Egyptian (ibr fo 
they called Mofes )^ fent them back to invite him. M§fa 
complied with the invitation ; and Jethr^^ highly pleam 
with his behaviour and condu6):, committed the care of hii 
flocks to him, gave him, in procefs of time, his dau^tter 
Zipporah in marriage, and kept him with him 40 years. At 
length, underftanding that his- fon-in-law was conuniffiooed 
by God to lead out the children of Ifrael from bondm^ 
he confentedto part with him, and his daughter, and nil 
grandchildren ; who fet out for Egypt : but a difputearififlg 
between Mofes and his wife, about circumciii]V| a child 
upon the road \ fhe came, or was fent back (H) by her 
hufband, who purfued his journey without her^. 

When Jethro heard of the mighty things which tb 
Lord had done through l^ofes^ and how he had deUvatd 
his people, and brought them out of Egypt ^ he took hii 
daughter Zipporahy and her two fons, and his own foQ 

^ Exod. ii. iii. iv. ^ Ibid, xviii a, 

herds to have been firangers in efpecially when the fuljeS of 

this part, it muft be acknow- the difpate was fo veiy im* 

leged^ that it does not look as portant. Farthermore, if the 

if Jethro was a man in any cuilom had been diat JitMs 

great repute or authority. family was circiundfed, 2^^ 

(H) In cafes of doubt like rah his daughter wodd cer- 

this, we can only take what tainly have made no woxdi 

feems to us the mod rational about the execution of a prac- 

£de of the queftion. Divines tice which (he muft have thought 

have explained this matter ma- to have been eiTential. That 

ny ways (y), and fome feem there was fome fort of mifmi- 

unwilling to allow there Was derflanding in this matter not 

any jar between Mo/es and his be allowed^ and therefore «e 

wife, apprehending, perhaps, have urged it as an infianoe to 

that It cannot fuit with the dig- prove that thefe Midiamites did f^ 

nity of that lawgiver's charac- not ufe circumdiion ; and hafe '^ 

ter. But, for our parts, we alfo made it the caufe of Z^ * 

do not perceive how it can re- porah'^s returning back to her * 

fled any difhonour upon him, father. || 

(7) Vidi Lightfiot, Uhifipr, §. 8, 9. Cleric, in Exod. xf. 


tV. The Hift(My of Midiztt: tgg 

0^; and fet out with them towards his fon-in-law 
fSf to congratulate him, and reconcile him with his 
;htcr ZipporaL They were all received very af- 
(Miately by Mefes ; and Jethro hearing from him the 
drous works which had been done for Ijrael^ he blefled 
> for the fame, acknowleged him to be far fuperior 
11 other gods, and took a burnt-offering and facrifices 
3oD : and Aaron and all the elders of Ifrael came to 
: at the folemnity^ and to pay him the refpeA due to fo 
stable a perfon. 

*ftK next day jethro had an opportunity of difplaying 
p^at wifdom and fkill in the due regulation of govern- 
t. He obferved that the people crouded about Mofes 
he day long ; and afking him die meaning of Jt, Mofts 
irered him, that he had been fitting in judgment Upon 
, Jethro told him, he was quite wrong to charge him- 
wjth fo grievous a burden, too much for any one man 
ear ; that it would be enough for him to attend upon 
fublimer concerns only, to confult with God, to de- 
e his holy laws and ordinances, to mftrucl the peo- 
in the right way, (ffr. and commit the judging and 
l-ordering of the people to a fele£l number of the 
\ righteous men among the multitude, who (hould, ac- 
ling to their abilities, be appointed over thoufands, 
dreds, fifties, and tens ; abftaining from every bufmels 
ifelf that was not of the higheft moment. Jethro gave 
this counfel in vain, and thereby adminiftred great eafc 
lis fon-in-law Mofes ^ (I). 


^ Ibid. ver. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, & feq. 

I ] A very eminent divine our author, to a time when as 

tends » that this whole floryr yet the tabernacle was not 

ifpla^, and ought to (land ereded, nor any altar built ; 

vcen the tenth and eleventh Nio/es had not yet received any 

iS» of the tenth chapter of laws from God ; nor had th^ 

whirs ( 8 ) : Firft, becaufe reached mount Sinai, But it is 

hro is faid to have taken neverthelefs pofTible, that 7'/^^ 

Dt-offerings and facrifices for might have offered a facrifice 

D. Secondly, becaufe Mo- in his way, particularly as he 

is iaid to have fat to judge was a prieft ; nor is it unlikely 

people, and to have made that Mofes afled as judge and 

nvn to them the flatutes of arbitrator, before he received 

D, and his laws. As this any particulaer fyflem of laws 

J now (lands, it refers, fays from God. But thirdly, be- 

(S) Liglftfoet, uhi fu(r.\ §. aj, 


fhe Hijtary i?/ Midhuu & L 

This is til that we know concerning Jetbra^ exeat 

that Afrfes difmifled him ; that he left his (on Hohab (K) 

behind him, with a friendly intent that he fbould ferve ai 

a guide through the wildemels : but it was with rdudance 

caafe hfo/es puts off the infki* 
lotion of the j udges and eiders 
over the people, which he was 
advifbd to by Jetbroy till after 
they moved from mount SiuAi, 
This third proof ieems to be 
more valid than the two former, 
but yet« not quite fo plain and 
<lecifive as might be wiihed. 
The putting of Jetbr^% advice 
in execution effedlually and or- 
^rly, mud have been certainly 
the work of time. But were 
%ve to enlarge upon thefeobfcu- 
Tities fo far as we might, there 
would be no end to our work. 
(K) It is very flrange, that 
ithofe who know not how to 
think that Rague/ suad Jethro 
were both names belonging to 
•one man, will yet have it that 
Hohah and Jethro mean one 
and the fame perfon ; and, con- 
trary to the apparent reafon of 
things, that it was Jethro him- 
ielf, under the name of Hohah, 
who is here in treated to ferve as 
a guide to the Ifraelttes (9). 
Jofefbus frequently calls him 
hy the name of Raguel^ and 
fays he was Mofes\ father ; fo 
fays the Scripture, under the 
name of Raguei, in the place 
where Hohah is mentioned. In 
Scripture he is conllantly called 
Ruel, or Jethro, till he de- 
parted from the camp. Shall 
we fuppofe, that he came 
back again, and was thencefor- 
ward called Hohah ? That Je- 

thro retomed to hb own coun- 
try, is exprefly iaid( 10). Tlut 
Hobab did ferve the Ifrae&iesu 
a guide, is phiinly enoogfa m» 
finuated (11). What (etd^ 
ment could Jetbra want ? how« 
as father of a famMy, could lie 
defert them ? how, as he wait 
prieft ora magiftrate» coold be 
be abfent from his charge ? Ob 
the other fide, kow can it be 
fuppoied that a man, who ex- 
preiled fb much good-will to- 
wards the children of Ifraeh 
who was fo thankful to God 
for their deliverance, who own- 
ed his oonvifUon, that tbcy 
were under the prote^on aM 
•care of the Lord Goo ; how 
can it be fuppofed, that fucb a 
perfon would have made the 
lead fcruple of doing any thing 
that could have been requeued 
by Mofesy whom he looked on 
as the immediate minider of the 
Almighty? It is more ra- 
tional to fuppoie that it was a 
fon of his, called Hohaby who 
is here ^oken of, and was left 
behind by his father^ as one 
who, being well acquainted 
with the defert, might be of 
good ufe to Mofesi but who, 
not having the fame faith and 
confidence in God which his 
father had, wanted to return 
home ; but that be was pre- 
vailed upon to flay, and go 
through v\ith them, is clearly 
enough fa id. 

(9) Vide Cleric, in Exod. xi. (£ Num. X. (ic) Exod. xviii. 27. JudgX !<• 

{lijJofcLjb. anti^, I, y, c, Z% 


C. 17. fbe Hfjiofy 0f Midian. 15^ 

he went through with them ; nor was he prevailed on to 
do it without very large promifes K We r«wl farther con- 
cerning the defcendants of Jethroy that thejr were called 
KitiiUs ; and that they joined the children of Judah^ and q-y^ Yit* 
marched with them from the city of palm-trees [Jericho o^] nitcs* 
into the wildemefe of Judab n ; that» upon the taking of 
Hebron ,they were rewarded with a large portion of ground, 
in confideration of their having forfaken their native place, 
and fufFered with the IfraeUUs all the toils of their wars, 
and all the diftrefles in the wildemefso^ : that Heber^ the 
hulband of JaeU who killed Sifera^ was of thi» family P : 
that, on the aforefaid confideration alfo, the Kenites were 
many years afterwards warned by Saul to move ofF from 
the AmalekiteSy when he had it in charge to extirpate diat 
Bation, that they might be no way prejudiced thereby. Thus 
were diey preferved, and fixing their feat upon a rock, and 
there poffefling a ftronghold, they grew wanton and pre- 
fiunptubus ; but were in the end carried away into captivity 
by the Anyrians^ together with the ten tribes oilfraelj as Ba^ 
laam hadprophefied long before : And he [Balaam] looked on 
tbg Kenites • . . and/aid^ Strong is thy dwelling-place^ and 
tbouputtejl thy nefton a rock. Neverthelefs the Kemttfiedl be 
wqftedy until Afhur Jhall carry thee away captive 9. 

1 HB Midianitesy whom we fliall have now occaiion to 
Bicntion as at enmity with Ifraely we apprehend to have 
been chiefly thofe who bordered upon, or lived, as it were, 
in common with the il^tfi7^//^j* Evi^ Rebem(L)j /&r,Evi, Re- 
ZtoTj zii<d^Ribahy were all kings or dukes of ^iftf»(M),kcm^Hur; 
when Mofes overcame Sihon the Amorite \. and greatly fear- Zur, and 
inc for themfelves, they confulted with Balai king of Moaby Rebah, 
what meafures they fhould take to avoid the dangers which 
they thought threatened them. We ihall not repeat here what 
we have already faid on this fubje£l in the hiftory of Moah r. 

' Numb. X. zg-^yi* * Sec before,, in the notesy p. 13J. 

■ Jodg.i. 16. « Joseph, antiq. lib. v.c. 2. ^ Judg. ir. 11. 
* Nomb.xxiv. 21,22. ' See before, p. 128 — 133. 

(L) Jo/epbus calls thefe fivt princes of Midian^ and dukes 

kingft Oems;, Sitres, Robeas^ Uresy, under Sihon king of the Amor'^ 

aod Recem ; and fays, tluc this ites (14). Perhaps they might 

lafi boilt and gave name to the have paid feme homage or tri- 

city of ReitMy the capital of bute to Sihon p or fome . other 

Arabia^ by tne Greeks called way might have been deemed 

Fetra (13). as feudatories under him. 

(M) They are alio Hiled 

(13) J^fefi'' antif. /ih,- IT. e, 7. ( 14} Jo/b, ziii. 02. 


rbe ajiorj rf Nfidiao. B. I. 

Only it will be necelTary to remark once more, diat the /£. 
dianites feem to have fignalized themfelves in a moft extraor- 
dinary manner, in their endeavours to turn the children of 7/*- 
r^^/ from God. Foritmiiftberemembred,thatj5tf£7tfiirhad 
fent them word either upon, or after, his return home, that it 
was in vain they hoped to hurt the darlings of heaven by 
any other way than enticing them to fin, ^the fole means 
whereby Gcd could be brou^t to foriake them : and diat, 
purfuant to his advice, they fent the moft beautiful of dieir 
young women to the Ifraelites », who played their parts fo 
wdl, as to bring many of them to bow down before Baal-' 
peor^ which was attended with great calamities on the 
whole nation (N). It is obfervable, that Ziir, one of the 
kings of Midian^ did not fcruple to proftitute his daughter 
Cozbi on this occafion ^ But it proved fetal to her ; for 
ihe and her paramour Zimri were killed with the feme 
weapon, and the fame wound. 

The Midianites herein enjoyed but a (hort-lived farif* 
faflion ; their forwardnefe upon this occafion, and trea- 
cherous pradices, kindled the wrath of God againft them, 
and Mofes had pofitive orders to fmite them in particular. 
When they heard that the divine command was on the 
point of being executed by twelve thoufand Ifraelites^ un- 
der the conduct ofPhinebas^ they made the heft preparations 
they could to withftand the invafion, by armine their caftles, 
and muttering their ftrength. But their caftles, and die 
ftrength they muftered, availed them little. They were 
defeated, and all their cities, and goodly caftles, laid in afljes. 
Not one male of any age or degree was fpared ; they were 
all put to the fword ; and, among the rdft, Balaam w (0), 
as were all the females likewife that were not pure virgins. 
The country was laid wafte, and all the catde driven off 
b^ore the conqueror, to the number of fix hundred fcvcnty- 

•Seep* 133. ' Numb, XXV, 15— I S. Joseph, antiq,Lir, 
c. 6. Seebefcre, p, 133. * Numb^;c3txi. 1—8. 

(N) Jofephus fpeabi of a i^^ethcr he came back again 

plague upon this occafion, in compliance with & feoond 

which carried off fourteen meiTage, or whether of his own 

thoufand fouls (15% accord, to fee the iffuc of his 

(O) Balaam U pofitively fa!d wicked eounfel, or to ibrw^ 

to have gone Co his place ( f 6), it, is not &id. 
to nave returned hoo^; but 


e. IV. Tbe Hipry of Midian. i5jl^ 

five thoufand Iheep, feventy-two thoufand oxen, and fixty- 
one thoufand afies. The virgins which were carried away 
captive were thirty-two thoufand in number ; and there is 
mention made of great riches in gold, and filver, and iron, 
and other metals, which were carried off in this general 
devaftation v. 

Thus was a branch of the Midianltes utterly cut off; 
but ia proceis of time this lofs was fupplied, and it pleafed- 
God, for the punifhment of Jfrael^^ that they rofe up in 
war againft that finful nation, and in their turn were very 
near deftroying the whole generation of them by fire, 
(word, and famine, for feven fucceffive years. For, about 
one hundred and fifty years after this flaughter of the Mi-^ 
dianitis^ two kings appeared at their head, leading with 
^lem the Amalekites and yfrabians. 

These two kings, called Zebah and Zabnunna^ waged Zebah 
io cruel a war againfl the Ifraelites^ that, not daring Xx^and Zal* 
fiay in the low country, they betook them to the moun- muoiia. 
tains, and there made caves and fortrefTes for their fhelter. 
Th^Midianites^ having therefore no enemy thatwithftood Year of 
them, wailed the fruits of the earth, and drove off all the the flood 
ca^e* This deflruclion they continued for feven years 1103. 
together, marching every fummer-feafon in vafl multi-Bcf. Chr. 
tudes, with 'numberlefs camels, and herds of cattle, about . '^4$' 
^e time the fruits were far advanced, all which they reaped 
for themfelves ; fo that between them, and their infinite 
flocks, there was fcarce any fuflenance left for the Ifrael- 
itis^ who continually fled up to the mountains upon their 
approach ^. 

But God, at length, put a flop to thefe mercUefs in* 
pirfions of Zebah and Zalmunna^ who meant nothing lefs 
than to flarve the inhabitants, and poflefs themfelves of the 
land y. Gideon was chofen by heaven for the deliyery of 
his country on this occaiion, and he did it fo efFe^ually, 
that the Midianites never dared afterwards to contend with 
JfraeL Zebah and Zalmunna^ and their confederates, march- 
ing into the country, according to their annual cuftom, 
pitched their tents in the valley of Jezreel, on this fide y^ r- 
dan. Here as they lay, covering a vafl tradl: of ground, 
ihdrcamp was explored hy Gideon in the night, who, over- 
hearing one of the camp telling his dream to another, who 
interpreted it in favour of Gideon^ was more than ever en* 

f k 

^ Ibid. ver. 9^ 10, 11. Be feqq. Joseph, nbifopra* c. 7. 
• Jndg. vi. I —6. JossrH, antiq. 1. v. c. 7, ^ pftlm 

bdaciii. 11, u« 


rte Hi^ <f MkfiM. B. I. 

eouniged to pot in ryfciifiou a Antigen wIimJi he had 
fofiDcd for their dcAnidioa, wici ooIt three hundred men, 
armed with no other we i pon s dian a xam's ham in one 
hand, and a li^it concealed in a pitcher inAeodicr. Ac* 
cordkielyy about midnight, the \Rdiamta were ahrmed in 
three (erveral quarters of their camp, far the found of one 
hundred horns or trumpets in each ; and, ftarting firom their 
fleep, perceived alfo as manv lights breatdr^ in upon diem 
on three feveral tides. The found of the horns, the ^are 
of the lights, the gfloom of the night, and the loud (houts 
thej heard, ftnick them widi horror and amazement ; and^ 
having no time to recover from their firft conftematioii, 
thejr fell into confiifion ; and, being of difiei^ent languages^ 
attacking each other, a dreadful daughter enfued. The 
kings Zebah and Zalmunna^ ho we\'er, found means to make 
dieir efcape, with a body of about fifteen thoufand men ; 
as did Oreb and Zebj two princes of Midian ( P) ; but the 
latter immediately fell into the hands of the Epbraimites^ 
who put them, to death ; and, by the fbughter which hap- 
pened on this occafton, and had happened before in the 
camp, there fell one hundred and twenty thoufand men. 
The kings Zebah and Zahiurtna (Q,), with their party, 
got over the river, to Karkor^ where they thought them- 
felves fafe ; but were foon obliged to abandon that place^ 
and continue their flight, being clofely purfued by Gideon ; 
who overtook them at lafl, dil'perfed their party, confifting 
of 150CO mens and took them both prifoners*.- Having 
brought T^ehah and Zalmunna home with him, he asked 
them what kind of men they were whom they had former- 
ly (lain at Tabjr ; and they anfwering, they were juft fuch 
as himfelf, of majeflic deportment, he replied, they were 
his brethren, and therefore he would not fpare their lives. 
Accordingly he ordered his fon to kill them ; but they, per- 
ceiving the youth to be but weak and fearful, requefled it 
of Gideon^ as a favour, that he would difpatch them him- 

* Judge? ubi fup. 10, 12, 1 3. & feqq. vii. viii. i — 18. • Vid. 
Joseph, ubi fup. c. 8. 

(P) According to Jo/epbus^ and Hezarbon (1%). He fays 

Oreb and Zeb were kings of alfo, that thefe Hfceen thoufend 

Midian (17). men were all flain (19); but the 

(QJ Jo/epbus fays they were Scriptqre only fays, they were 

brethren, and calls them Zebin difcomfited or terrified. 

' ('7) J^fepl' (i'tij- //i'.v. f. 8. (iS) Idem uhifup^ (19) Jif» 


C. IV. "The Hiftory of Edom. i6i 

felf; which he did; and they were no fooner difpatched,than 
the ornaments were taken from the necks of their camels. 
Thus were the Midtanites ilau^tered a fecond time, and 
plundered of immenfe wealth in cattle, gold, jewels, rich 
attire, l^c. The very ear-rings only, taken frorh them, 
weighed 1700 fliekels K This down&l is, by the prophet, 
termed, the day of Midianc, and the Jlaugbter of Miclian 
ai therocjtofOi^^, Henceforward they gave over the 
trade of war c. 

Thby werei however, a famous nation many ages af- 
ter, and ^e mentioned for their induftry, riches ^ ^ and the 
magnificence of their tents 8 : but in the firft century their 
name was difufed, and fwallowed up by the more famous of 
Arabia. , Between three and four hundred years ago, there 
was a ruined city which bore the antient name (R) ; in the 
beighbourhood of which they pretend to (hew ^ place 
where Mofes watered his &ther-in-law's cattle. 


^be Hiftory of Edom. 

Tp SJUj called alfo Edom, was the progenitor of thisT^^V^^; 
'^ people. He was the fon of Ifaac^ the fon of jlbra^ceftor^ 
ham^ by Rebekahy and born at a birth with Jacobs being 
bis twm-brother, and the elder of the two (A). Thefe 
twins contended i^ile yet in their mother's womb ; an 
early prefage of the ilrife which was to take birth between 
'em, and be tranfmitted to their defcendants, as God him-« 
felf explained it to their mother. Efau was born with red 
hair all over him (B) ; and, as he grew up, he proved to be 

a very 

^ Judges viii.. 1 8, 26. . ' Ifa. ix. 4" ^ If^* x- 26- 

f Judges ubifup. ver. 28^ ^Ifa. U. 6. 'Habak* 

lu. 7. 

(R) AbuUfeda^ from whom (A) It is . remarkable^ that, 

we have authority to fay this, as he came into the world, his 

calls it Madjan^ and Mofes*% brother ^^ro^ had him ^ hold 

fkther-in-lawj Sboaib (20); and by the heeU to intimate that he 

the place is (till one of the ila- would fupplant him, as he af* 

tions in the pilgrimage from terwards did, fays ■ a : learned 

Egypt to Mecca ^ under the name commentator ( i ). 

otSboaib's cave (21). (B) Much is 4id eoaeemiflg 

(to) Deferip, jfrab. ^.41. inttr gto, vtt,finpt, Cnc, mtJ, rJ*^) ^'* 

^ay*s e§Ile£i, of curious trave/s and voyages, tfm. ii. /. i^Z, (xy'Tat^fth^* 

ggrnmant, uponCtn, 9»v. 261 


fhe Hijlory of E4om. B. I. 

a very ftrong and aftive perfon, and, delighting in the chace, 
became a m^;/ of the field \ by which means providii^ plen- 
tifully and delicioufly for his father's table, he won his par- 
ticular affcAion. On the other hand, being of a very maf- 
culine turn of mind, and much abfent from home, he re- 
tained not the kind inclinations of his mother Rebekah^ who 
prided herfelf wholly in Jacobj 2, gende-fpirited man, and 
more frequently in ner eye. It happened that E/au came 
home one day quite fpent with failing and exercife; and per- 
ceiving that his brother Jacob had cooked fome pottage^ 
begged he would fhare it with him. facdh^ taking advan- 
tage of his brother's diftreis, ofFered to relieve him, pro- 
vided he made over his birth-right to him. To this un- 
generous motion Efau confcntecl, thinking himielf at the 
point of death \ ana thus he is faid to have deftifei lb 
hirth-right. Upon this occafion he was called Edmf 
which ngnifies red ; for fuch was the colour of the pot- 
tage yAiicYi Jacob fo dearly fold him* (C). * At the ;^of 

* Gen..xxv. 24— 34. 

this extraordinary hairinefsof interpretation has an eye to the 
the new-born E/au : but, not faStiion among the Arabs of 
to enter into the litde uncertain wearing ikins (4)^ as fome of 
niceties of a fabjedl of this kind, them do at this day 1 bat they 
it is in general thought, that he are fheeps-lkins, warm and (akf 
had not only hair on his head^ fown together, the wool bdng 
but all over his body ; and that worn innennoft (5). 
this hair was as ihrong as bri- (C) We are well apprifed of 
^es ; in ihort, that he was as all that has been fiudf by corn- 
rough and fhaggy as a (atyr ( 2) : mentators and others apoa this 
and this, indeed, feems to be the great tranfa£Uon between thefe 
meaning of the text, which fays brethren ; but it will hardly be 
he was redallovery like an hairy expedked we (hould ran the &me 
garment. This expreflion has lengths they have, or enter in- 
given birth to a conjeflure, to a detail ofwhat they have i^ 
that the hair-garments they on this fubjedli and therefore 
wore in thofe days^ were of a we fhall briefly toach opon 
reddifh colour, like the hair of fome general poiats only. The 
Efau['^), Inftead of garment pottage, it feems, was red, or 
the LXX render it S'o^d t^Ao-vf, yellowifh, and made of lentils 
a brillly, fhaggy ikin ; and the (6) from Egypt (7) ; of vfikh 
Vulgate has the fame interpret* there were two forts, one darker 
ation. It is thought, that each than the other (8), and each 

(2) Idem ubijupra, ver, ac, (3) Cleric* in Gen. locfupra eif» 

(4) Idem ibidm ($) Thcverjot , part u lib, ii. c. 32. (6) Gen, 

xxv. 30, 34. (7} St* Juguji, in PfaL ^Vu (8) Plin, bift, tiMt. 

/• xviii.f. 31* 


rtr. 9%e fliJltfTy if Udortu 16^ 

f yhx^ be pve great trouble and forrow to bis pa- Vear of 
i trV marrying among the' daughters of Hetb ; be took flood ^cti 
(rf tiiem, Judith the dau^ter of Beeriy and Bajhe-^^- Chr, 
k ^daughter of £&;f ^ i but this wore off in time, and ^ ^79^ ^ 

■ ■ ■ 

^ Geo. xxvl. 34, 35. 

[jrjptifeeci by the antients, (12). Thiirdlx^ a fupmc^ity 

QUhe eaft and weft. Plt^ over the reft of the childnm^ 

b from bthersy that equa- is thought^ by fome, to have 

tyisdie^ufualefiedoffed- been the principal prerogative 

Qtion lentils : and another of the birth-right; aikl the 

r Jays fJuSy infpire joy. challenging a particular blefling 

mt the^ had no fath ef- of the dying parent* by others. 

is pbin from the ftrife To conclude, the prerogatives 

kipiSed between EJau of the primogeniture were 

yiSei. To this fome not Confined to the perfon of 

a** that E/au had never the ibn^ on whom the blefQng 

any before ( 10) ; and was conferred* fo as to die with 

is. pretended from £Jau*s him* but defcended to his pofte- 

g only, Give me fome of rity. So the promifes made td 

"•ti^ red, as it is in the pri- ^acoh in his bleffing were not 

jiTb^t tBIs 18* at firft fight* ful^lied in him* but ih his chil- 

at^i^ be true ; for^ drett after him. Such was the 

l^s*' tfiefd lentils mu& pottage* and fuch the birth- 

boea a food hi^ and the reft ri^bt* which were fet in oppo- 

le ^£imi1y were well ac- fition to each other. The Hr- 

ted. with i fo that what hrew word '^'^JQ^yyn halhiteni, 

itienti held conceminff the which J?^* uTes in addteffing 

onibus eSeds lentils nave; ^acob^ occurs no-where but in 

t&e' mind* can have no this place* and therefore has 

attbih. But* to leave this Been variouily interpreted. 

% ttt us take a view of^ Some* with the LXX* expound 

ira-ri^ft't' which was ex- it* as if he ^fked but for a bare 

jdd! for thefe' lentils. The' tafte } others* countenanced by 

privilege of the birth- the ^tf»iar//aff reading* pretend 

fiiy fome* Iwas the inhe- that he afked for the whole* oi^ 

a double portion of the thelargeft (hare« fiut/not to 

^ eSktc (t I )' : others an* dwell on fuch idle inquinVs* we 

i^ prieffliobd hereto* and ihall only add here^ that i^fon 

lb that i?y2i»'s cloaths^ cian neither juftify7^r»^*sinfift* 

dfiich ieieiab dad Jacobs ing* nor Efauh parting with a 

Sis laceHToiar veffimcnts birth-right on fUch term^ (13). 

Su PairJek^t comment . uhi fup, ^uer, 50, (11) Vtr. 3 r . 

^kf»&mt ohfervat, inOentJm, c. ZXTJi. (13} Vid* Citric, 


tz his 


164 The Hifiary of Edom. ^B.i. 

his fiithcr received him into favour again. Ifaac, now 

grown old and dim-lighted, called Efau to him ; and told 

him, that he knew not how near he might be to his end ; 

: and dicreforc Hiould be glad if he would take his weapons, 

' ' , his quiver, and his bow, get him vcnifon, and drefs it for 

him in a favoury manner, as he had often done, that bisfiul 

might blefi him brftre he died {V>). E/au obeyed ; but 

while he was zbfent, his mother, who heard the words 

_ , which pafled between his father asd him, drefled her ka 

Of^Jin Jacob in Efau'% doaths [E), and, preparing a di(h of &- 

Dgf £|jj voury meat, fent him in with it to his famer, who pro- 

"' (D) It ii tlipught, tbat Ifaae freft the brain, when pot on ; 
only lent out £^« by way of Snd -confequemly, thatitiie- 
probation ; tbat is, to try whe- quany abfurd and ridicukms ii 
thcr he had good foccefs or not, the "Ji^s to imagine they d^ 
thereby to faciify himfelf in a fcended from Aiiam to AW, 
fcruple he had whether be and fo downwards co AhrahB£\ 
Ihoutd blels him or no. For, &mily(i7]. Besides, icmaybe 
ai by hii former ill fuccefi he alked, how it came to paf],t[iU 
wai reduced to the neceflity of Xfaa^ could part with fopt^ 
making over hit birth-right 1 dons a relique to his Iob, da- 
lb now, if the Ikme ill luck at- ring his own life-time ? £ythc 
tended him, he fhould take it fiatU of the field \t isnatunlto 
fi>r a' dgn, that the bleffing was imderlland a Icent more manly 
to depart &om him : and tho^ than the Aeams of a perfume, 
he had pronounced the great cfpecially as Efau was fo grtU 
blelling over 7<*f'^> yet when snunter, and perpetually in die 
he perceived, thai Efau had field. However, that expreffian 
brought home the venifon he it fuppofed to have a [Afferent 
lenthiinfbr,hedeemeditatacit import, and to mean, thachis 
expreflion of the will of God cIcKuhs were exijuifiEdy fcenC- 
that Efau Ihould have his blef- ed : and this feems to be cou- 
fing aiib i and he blefled him ac- firmed from the Samarim* 
cordin^y (ij). reading, which, after theword 
_{E) Concerning thefecloatbs, TTNi jAadsh, afield, has WO 
it it laid they had been worn by full; and fo the Ixx have 
jidtm in his miniflry, and that rendered it at i'Jitha.yfS TtJh 
they retained the ineffable fra- fisc and To the Fatgifte has it, 
gr3ncyofparadife(i6}. Others Sicut adar agri pltni ; at dB 
only fuppofe, that they were fmell of a fall field, or, aslt 
laid up in aromatic flowers, or it is fupphed, at ibefmtihf' 
other perfomei, to preferve fold full of fuaeet htrbi ai 
them from mothf, and to n- Jlevicrs. 



C. IV: TbeHifiory cf Edom. 

nounced die irrevocable bleffing over Jacob. Thus viras 
Ifaae deceived, and Efau fupplanted, who coming in with 
his venifon juft after Jacob was gone, IJaac in a great 
agony totd mm, he haa been circumvented by his brother, 
and diat he neither could nor would rccal the bleffing. 
When Efau heard this, he wept bitterly, and upbraided 
his brother with thus deceitfully extortmg firft his birth- 
right from him, and now robbing him of his bleffing. 
Ikiwever, Efau ^id fo far prevail with his tears, and preu- 
ing intreaties, that his father blefled him alfo to this elFed ; 
that bis dwelling Jbould be the fatnefs of the earthy and of 
the diw §f heaven from above (F) ; that hefhould live by the 
fxmriy andferve Us brother y but that he Jbould fbake off the 
fski at laji. It was with a difcontented mind that he heard 
nis lot, and his refentment wroudit fo flrongly upon him, 
that at firft he determined to kill Jacob as foon as their 
fadier fhould die ; which coming to the knowlege of Re^ 
hekab^ flie fent Jacob away to Padan^Aramy under prc-= 


(P) Some give this part of 
X/Sw*8 Ueffing a quite contrary 
ttun, and will have it, that his 
lot was to be in a barren land; 
and that his living (hoald be b7 
limine and violence \ and ac- 
cordingly that Edom was an an- 
gpsteftti foil, not refreihed with 
Cjniely rains (lo). The inter- 
petation of the LXX, with 
4 finall variation of cctJ, by 
9iaking it either a prepofition. 
Of an adverb, may be taken 
both ways. But, on the other 
hand, it is ob&rved, that if we 
IbUow our own tranflation, 
which is diredly in the fenfe of 
the Vulgate^ and in the fenfe St, 
Jermn took it, there will be 
iUll a wide diflbrence between 
Jmctlf'% bleffing and Efa}C% ; 
that in the latter there is no 
mdition made of com and 
wine ; no fach dommioH pro- 
miied as in Jacobs ; and that^ 

(x^) lion vbi jitpr. ver. 30, 
• 39, ('i) Numk zzt T7- 

laftly, whatfoever fiitnefs was 
in the (oil of his country, it did 
not laft long (20). Neverthe- 
less, Mofis feems to tell us, that 
the land of Edom was not fo de- 
ftitute as (bme may imagine ; 
when he promifes the king of 
Edem^ that, if he wonld permit 
the children oilfratl to pais 
through his country, they 
fhould hurt neither the fields, 
nor the vineyards (21) : the 
fields may, perhaps, have been 
rather corn-fields than pafture; 
and, if this be true* the E4om^ 
ites had their com and wine 
too. As to what Malacbi fays 
of the barrennefs and defolation 
of the kingdom of Edom (zz), 
that muft, we think, be rather 
attributed to the cruel effedb 
of their unfortunate wars, than 
to any ^ure in the nfual pro^ 
dud of the foil. 

(zo) Patrick^t eommene, uki fufra* 
LO. (a J AfaUukr i 3. 

L 3 '■ te(ic^ 

tencc of getting him a wife there from among her ami. 
Idndred «• But EJau cooled again» generoufy fhrgpt aB 
that had paft, and, finding that I/aac and Rthheik had « 
great avenion to the daughters <^ Canaany he went qicc 
to IJbmaelj ?ixA took his dauj^ter Jlftf&ffZ^. Ao fiftfX of! 
iJebaioth (G), adding her to the wjyes. he h^d befope^i. 
and removed with hi$ fiunily to mount Siir^^ oot& mMcL- 
with a defign to (ettle there» perhaps, a$ to ftrve a fR&Qli. 
conveniency. The fpot he occupied in this coyitfry todlij 
his name, and was called the field of Edom %^ aoui'iu alni/ 
years he became a very conflderable perfon. 
Year of F o R, when new? was brought him, that bb hloAcf 
flood 609. Jacob was on his return from PAdan-^Aramy b^ ^vjent oit^ 
Bef. Chr. to meet him with a train of four hundred fiJIoiwen^ in ph 
1739. der to honour and affift his brother, and not fAJIfsigSk. \m, 
' a$ he did^ The interview was very tender 00 botli fidci; 
Ejau efpecially, umnindful of what moft men vouM ever 
have remembred, accofted Ti^^ ^^ with tears ct fcfg^ ini 
the moft tender and brotheny aCe£iion : he nobWithU 
the prefents wherewith his brother would. noodiGfif km 
hribol him to a reponciliation, and prefled him |oih«ULM 
his way to mount 5/ir, that they m^t be neijditi^mii^ sfei 
live together ; and when Jacob artfuUy wavM^th^i JBV)t%*! 
tion, under pretence of his ihort nmdics for dwiUtt ^ 
the children and cattle, and promiied to foUowfann^ i^fipk 
defired he would let him at leaft leave fbmeof haa. Mknma^ 
behind, to affift and condud: him on his way % but dkii^: 
ing rejected, he with re]u£bnce left Jac9b beh&id hn^tfit 
took die prefents which had been forced upon bun hrf^ ] 
timorous brother (H); '^o, beipg npwno le& afirudtv 1 
follow hipi, than h^ had been before to give idfii x/gu&Sft 1 


« Gen. x)mi.4i— 46. * Gen.— 9. • Cf^»paSL 
S.^in tbeipnarg. ' . 

(G) It IS manifeftly 60m Ejkm and Jacob at it&ii . „ 

Ijence that £/2i« paid no regM iog« that ihc foriBeE upaijH 

to the divine revelation^ or he fa great a. reprobaiip^ ec vtfMt 

would not have ta^n the de- lally ib bad a vaow.m fiai 

icendantofa bond- woman [H4;- jjiave vnreaibnaUy rqutfaMli 

gar]y who could not inherit the him. "fj? ^liad KUftiioSm 

promifes made to ^r«i4fl» and upon this natter- ia. die. bwf 

J/aac (23). of E/ku ; but, indi^ ^-PM^ 

(H) It appears rtry plain roofly dooci to our haadt JR-^ 

from what ww pafled between very worthy dir^^ we ImB 

C IV. The Hifiory of Edom. 

denial ^9 went and dwelt in Shechem. As for EfaUy he re- 
mained in Seirj till he heard, that his &ther Ifaac was either 
dead, or at the point of death, when he went to Mamre^ 
affifted there Jacob at the funeral of their deceafed parent, 
and took pofleffion of his inheritance ; foxjacob*^ birth-right 
was a fpiritual prerogative, and no ways related to his fa- 
ther's temporal eflate ; fo that by this addition to his for- 
mer fbore> and Jacd> being alfo very rich, and mafter of 
much cattle, they perceived it would be next to impoifible 
to enjoy fuch laijce poileffions together in a country where 
they were both Itrangers ; and therefore, as Abraham and 
Lot bad done before, they parted. Efau^ returning to the 
country of 5Wr, being an hundred and twenty years old, 
Oiarried Abolibamah^ 2l daughter of the couiUry, but ori* 

^ Ibid. &xxxiii. 


content ouriiblves with the fub- 
ilance of what he fays : E/au 
was a plaip, generous, and ho- 
ncft man ; nor does he feem to 
kave been more wicked than 
die other men of bis age and 
dmcs. His generous and good 
temper appears by hi? afieSkm- 
ateoeportment towards his bro- 
ther, and his fpeedy and utter 
oblivion of the injuries and 
il^ts he received from him : 
and though St. Paul calls him 
the profane£/2i«9and £iys he was 
&ated by God, it cannot thence 
he gathered^that he was a wick- 
ed man, or that God punifhed 
him for an immoral life. i. 
This fentence could not extend 
to his pofierity, and is not faid 
to be founded upon his a£iions, 
3. GoD*s hatred of S/au was 
Boc an hatred which induced him 
to pnniih him with an evil i for 
he was as happy in the bleffings 
of this life saMrabam^ J/aac^ 
or Jac^f if not more. His 
children became mafiers of the 
brddof their poiTeffion much 
fixmser than the I/raeJita ; and 

God was pleafed to command 
the Ifraeliies not to diilurb *em 
in their rights. And if his 
earthly felicity was fuch, why 
fhould we deipair of his being a 
partaker of the heavenly ? 3. 
If he was excluded from being 
the heir of the bkfiingy fo was 
Lot and yob^ and other good 
and virtuous men, 4. St. Paul 
means no more than to (hew- 
the JrwSf that God had aU 
along bellowed the £ivoara 
which led to the Messiah oa 
whom he pleafed ; to Mraham^ 
not io Let i to Jacob, not to 
E/au I to the Gentiles, not to 
the Jews^ 5 . Though S/au be 
called pi^nAof or pro^ne, he is 
never called A^iCm or AyLdUf'^ 
T6>A^f, wicked or immoral. So 
that the only defe^ in his da- 
rader is, that he does not ieem 
to have been fo mindful of the 
promifes made to his.fiunily as. 
Jacob was j from whence, and 
from his temper, it ajppears that 
he was not quite fo nt to be the^ 
hdr of the mercies peculiar ta 
his family (24}. 

(24) SbuckfirtTi fwnt^, eftlffocr, andfrof. hi/leryofth V^IJ, W. U." 

JU 4 gpatty 

ne Hifiory of Edom. B, I, 

^nally of Canaan % ^ and henceforward took fuch meafures 
as might be moft conducive to the good and peaceable 
fettlemetit of his defcendants in this country, which was 
defigned by God for the inheritance of his line \ as that of 
Canaan was for the line of Jacob. But thf defcripdon of 
this land we referve to the general defcripdon of Ptf/I^*«f, 

f This country, fo far as we know, was originaUy inha- 
bited by a people called Horites P, who were firft, in all 
likelihood, governed by patriarchs or heads of families, that 
being the moft antient form of government. Th^ were 
afterwards r\iled by kings, who were elefted into that of- 
fice. In procefs of time the andent form of government 
took place again, the governors being flyled dukes, and 
fucceeding, it feems, in right of birth. As to the Edomitesj 
or defcendants of Efau^ they were firfl governed, like the 
Horites, by dukes, and afterwards by kings, as will be feen 
in the courfe of this fecUon. 

a* The character we have of the Edomites^ is, diat diey 
V^ere a bold and daring people, fond of broils and tumults^ 
which they as much delighted in, as others did in the foft- 
^ing pleafures of luxury 9. But this was more peculiarly 
tiie character of the latter Edomites^ who migrated into Ju- 
dea \ nor fhould we have inferted it here, but that it feems 
to be agreeable to the genius of the whole people, as their 
great anceftor Ifaac foretold it. However, diough cou- 
rage was to be one of their charafteriftics, and, perhaps, 
the chief, yet we are under no necefEty to believe it to 
have been of fo brutal a fort as Jofephus reprefents it above; 
for as they were, doubtlefs, a trading nation, we cannot 
well fuppofe they were a ndA. of robbers and incendiaries, 
fewer fuch being found among thofe who are addlded to 
commerce, and confequendy enjoy all the world can af- 
ford them, than among lazy and flothful nadons, and fuch 
as condemn induftry out of a vain and ridiculous nodpn of 
honour. For the latter are, for the moft part, mean, 
beggarly, and bafe ; the former quite the reverfe, as they 
flourifh in plenty and eafe. What therefore their anceftor 
foretold of them, that they fhould live by the fword, per- 
haps, imports no more than that they fhould maintain their 
rights, whether natural or ufurped, with an high hand j 
as all thofe who have claimed the empire of the fea, 
have ever done. Thus, for want of due authority, 
have we attempted the charadlcr of the Edomites^ by 

« Ubi fup. xjotv. xxxvi. * Deut. ii. 5. Jofh. xxiv. 4. 

* Gen. xxxvi. 22, 30. ' Joseph, antiq. lib. xiii. 


q.IV. The Hiftory of Edom: 169 

<!rawing a parallel between them and others of later and 
our own times. And, abating the difference of climates, 
ivrfiich 18 attended with a difference of tempers, we cannot 
be much out of the way in comparine them with other trad- 
ing ftates that ilourifh within our' knowlege, and are far 
from livinj^ upon plunder and rapine. In this we fhall be 
more confirmed when we come to view their behaviour 
towards Mofis ; to whom tho' they refufed admittance into 
their territories, yet they were ready to traffick with him, 
and flipply him with neceflaries, as we fhall fee anon. The 
Edomitesy whofe charaAer yofephus draws above, were a 
d^enerate race, quite flrangers to the liberties and noble 
fpnt of their forefathers, as we fhall fee in the fequel. 

Their arts and fciences were doubtlefs great, cot&- Arts and 
dering the time ; many, and well perfeAed ; and xhoy^^^/ciencis. 
perhaps^ there may be no neceffity to fupppfe, as ^he ex- 
cellent Sir Ifaac Newton has done, that diey were the pa- 
rents of thofe amiable fiflers ; yet we may farely pronounce, 
that they were not much, if at all, behindhand with the 
mofl antient learned nations. The invention and ufe of 
conftellations appear by the book of Job r to have been 
.known to the Edomitesj among whom he dwelt ^ ; a rare 
inftance of the early progrefs of aflronomy, if we fuppofe 
his book to be of fuch antient date as many think. Writ- 
. ing is there mentioned < alfo, and fhips u, and many hints 
given, fufficient to confirm us in a belief, that the fecrets 
sind beauties of nature, morality, and much fublime and 
truly-ufeful knowlege, were cultivated among them. Nor 
is there wanting very ample evidence fi-om profane authors 
to make this appear, as we fhall take proper opportunities 
pf fhewing : and, indeed, it has been a common opinion 
of the learned, that great veneration is due to their memory 
on that account. 

CoNCERNiNQ their religion we are much in the dark. ReBgm. 
They at firft were right in their belief and praftice, as they 
were defcended from Ifaac^ and ufed circumcifion ; but 
they by degrees forgot all, erred into idolatry (for idols it 
ieems they had ^), and had quite laid afide circumcifion 
tiU Hyrcan incorporated them with the Jews^ from which 
time they were confidered as but one nation with them in 
divine matters, as will be feen at the decay of their flate. 

' Chap. be. 9. • St, August, de dvitat. Dei ubi 

fiipr. Lamcniat. ubifupr. * Sec before, p, 152. « Job 
f. ix. 26. X See 2 Chron. xxy. in the argument. 

1 70 The Hijlory of Edbm.' B. I. 

Hifiorj. We now refume the hiftory oiEfau the fiither of this 
people. The number of his family and d o m e fti c sy when 
he nxed his dwdlii^ here, is uncertain^ though probaUv, 
very numerous. According to the hypothefis ^, wiiich m 
diis very obfcure cafe we think ourfelves obliged to adopts 
he fettlol here imder one of the Horite kings $ and there- 
fore he lived in a private manner, and was never oonfidercd 
any more than as the chief of his own houfe ; and thence 
is dignified with no particular title by Mojes. ConcemiDg 
this matter we cannot but think, with bifhop Cumbirhid^ 
that the Horites were at firft ruled by fevend independent 
chiefs or patriarchs, till they were overpowered by Cht- 
dorlaomer king ofElam^ who fwept them before him, widi 
the neighbounng nations. To fecure themfelves, there- 
fore, from fo great an evil for the time to come, they 
united under a more ftable and perfcd kind of govenh> 
ment, and formed themfdves into an ele<%ve kingdom ; ani 
their kings were. 

Be LA, the fon ofBeor : the liame of his city was Dm-^ 

JoBAB, the fon of Z^r^i^ of Bozrab. From a fimili- 
tude of names he has been taken for the holy and padent 
yohy whofe hiftory we (haU find a more proper place tti 
enlarge upon, when we come to that of the jews. 

Hush AM of the land of Temanu 

Hadad, the fon ofBedad : he imote Midian in the field 
of Moaby and the name of his city was Avltb. 

Samlah of Marejkah : in his reign, or in that of his 
fuccefilbr, came EJau^ as we think, into this country. 

Saul of RehoUth. 

Baal-Hanan, the fon of Acbhor. 

Hadar : the name of his city was Pau^ and his wife's 
name was MihetabeL 

Under the three laft, or four laft of thefe kings, SA 
Efau 2nd his family live, as fojoumers in a ftrange land, . 
as Abrabam and ifaacy their forefathers, had done before 
them, in other parts. This monarchy, which was plainlj 
ele£Uve, came, we know not how, to be interrupted aoa 
broken into feveral petty and independent principalities or 
dukedoms ; and, feeing that the pofteritv of Efau exccel 
in the number of their dukes, it cannot oe very incongru- 
ous to fuppofe, that they had the largeft ihare in biineing- 
about this revolution. It is very accurately obferved b^ a 
late and learned writer^ that the firft dukes of the Edimtii. 

^ Sec biihop Cumbirknfi orig. gent, astiq;^ 


C» IV. ne Hijloryi of Edom. i; i 

are iiot ftiled dukes of Edotrty but dukes in the land vf 
Edom '. From whence wc gather, that the grandchil- 
dren of Efauj grown ftrong and potent, could no longer 
brook fubje£Uon to a ftrange line ; b that now the whole 
country became divided into fevcral diftin6t juriicU&ions, 
lod under feveral pettv princes, called dukes, both of the 
pofteritvof £/2r«, ana of that of Seir^ who were all colla- 
teral. The dukes in the land of ^Edom were, i. duke 
Tenmn \ 2. duke Omar ; 3. duke Zepho ; 4. duke Kenax ; 
Cj, duke Korah ; 6. duke Gatam ; 7. duke AmaUL Thefe 
i|ven were the fons of Efipbaz the firft-bom of Efati. 
8- Duke Nahatb; 9. duke Zerab; lo. duke Hammah ; 
II. duke Mtzzab :■ thefe four were the ions of Reuety 
the fecond fon of Efau \ 12. duke leuflj ; 13. duke 7^^- 
^ I duke Korah : thefe three were the fons of Efau nim- 
felf, begot by him after he was an hundred and twenty 
years old, on Aholibamah his laft wife* AU thefe were the 
dukes in the land of Edom ; that is, in that part poflefled 
by the Edomites^ and theace called after them. At the 
feme time were feven dukes over the pofieflion of (be de- 
fcendants of Seir : i. Duke Latan ; 2. duke SboMi 3. 
duke Zibetm i 4. duke Aaeb : be found mules (O) in the 


> SaucKFoaii*li ooaacA. of the fiatd and profine bxft. book 
TuLp. 192. 

(O) Cooeeming this rcmaik- idiom» tn uneonnion difcovcry 

able event dieic is ibme variety in a defert, and tbcrefcre wor- 

of jadgment and interpretation, thy of notioe. Some will have 

Tke Hihrruf word is aiOiP, it to mean hot waters in the 

h^indm, which the LXX not Fbaminan tongue. Some a- 

knowing how to raider, have ^on^ that he foAtred wildafles 

iccained, and accordingly have vo cover his tame ones, and that 

iAfjL j^and fohirt 7he94htmt^ die fwifteft breed of thofe crea- 

Aqmhy and Sjmmachtu. From tuies^ called jamim^ ijprang 

St. Jorom we have ieveral tra- from thenoe. And molt of the 

ifitiont of die Jews conceniin|» vmbbins teach, that he» firft of 

this matter. Some thought, all men^ foffored aifes to cover 

that by the above word muft- the marts in the wildemeb ; 

be underflood ftas^ or large whence the annatnral breed ^ 

w a t ers ; for the &me letters mules were (hewn to the world, 

are ofed lor the word vdikh Now thefe iaterpmadoas^ or 

bcara that in^Kvt: and wUl Ibppoitionsj, are thus combated. 

have it» that while he fed his 1. To make the ihhnw word 

:\ afibs in the wOderneis, mtSAjoms^ it muft be altered in 
he found a aJie^on of waters, the readbg contrary to all an- 
oribtt^iattdNPg to the IMrrw thority axd likelihood: and 


172 the Hifiory of IBAom. B;L 

wildemefe, as he fed the afles of Zibeon his £itber ; 5^ duke 
Di/htn ; 6. duke E%er ; 7. duke Dijhari^. Now, fedng 
that the dukes of Efau^s hne, in the land of Edom^ ^^f^^ 
more in number, may have been greater in mi^t^ thin 
thofe of the Horites in the land of Seir^ it feems not un- 
natural to fuppofe, that the latter were now expelled \q 
the former, who feized^on the land by die preordained dii« 
tribution of God X. At the fame tune, AmaUky or his fpu« 
rious offspring, may have been driven out alfo. 

Accordingly, the next generation of thefe princd 
are ftiled dukes of Edom^ and had no rivals of any other 
family in any other part of the country, which now we 
fuppofe to have been all called Edom. The dukes of this 
fecond race were, i. duke7/m»tf&; 2. ixikit Alvahy%^ 
duke Jetheth^ j^, iuke Jbolibamah *, 5. duke Eiahy 6* 

* Gen. xxxvi. 20, zi. ^ Deat 11, is. 

beiidesy as the Hebrews call ver had been before ; 2* Be- 

great ponds, or lakes, (eas, tt is caufe they were afies whkh 

no wonder* that he found out Anab fed, and not horib; 4. 

fuch congregatioDs of. water; Becaufe in Scripture there is no 

but there is nothing of that kind mention made of mules to the 

in thofe parts, except the lake time of David. But* to oon« 

JJphaltiies, which was made dude, it is thought by a learned 

afterwards. 2. Thofe who ren- interpreter to be the proper 

dtt the word bot-baths^ as the name of a people, the O^DV, 

Vulgate^ according to the P^&dr- Emim, whom Me/es mentiou 

nician ^gnification, feem to as a Amous people, dwelling' 

have rea<r:ili'0'n,^i&AKriMi, and in the neighbourhood of ^iv 

to have believed, that it is fy- (39). And this is further oon- 

nonymous with Q^on, bbant' firmed by ihtS amor item nuir 

mim, which fignifies bot-batbs ; ing, which has it* that hcfimi 

but this is countenanced by no t^faddenlyi that is, M on 

reading or interpretation. 3. them by furpri^e, ixA iat 

Thofe who will have him to comfitol them I and this is die 

have firft found out the breed of mod likely meaning of te 

mules^are confuted by ^0Ci&4^r/* Hebrew text in this places ic 

with the following arguments ; having the very fame fignii- 

I. Becaufe mules were never cation in feveral other placet 

called by that name; 2. Be- (40). However, thewtudii 

caufe the word &<^2fO, matxa^ alfo thought to have been die 

which Mofes ufes, imports the name of fome ufeful plant or 

finding what exifls already, and herb (41 ), which Anab firft^ 

not the invention of what ne- covered. 

(39) Oen, xiv. 5. (§ Deut, xi. lo. (40} Vid, C/erie. etmm. tHCati 

c. xxxvi. 24, (41} mj, fTa^eit. enwu in tit. Talm* Sot, ^ 


C. IV. Tie Hiftory of Edom. 1 73 

duke Pinen'f 7. duke Kenaz\ 8. ^\xktTimani 9. duke 
Afihzar ; lo. duke Magdiel ; 1 1. duke iMtn 2 (P). Thefe 
eleven were dukes of Edom when the children of Ifrael 
c^me into the wildernels ; and, being difmayed at the ap- 
proaiqfa of fo formidable a body, as yet unprovided with a 
feat, dreaded an invafion, not knowing that the Ifraelites 
were under a flrid injundion, by no means tomoleft them. 
Whereibre,fen(ible of the imperfe£lion of their prefent con- 
ftitution, they united. under one head, or king, and pre- 
pared to maintain, their ground againft all foreign at* 

- To this namelefs king, or, perhaps, his fucceilgr, came 
meflengers from Mofesy then drawing near the end of his 
days, to intreat a paiTage through hb country for him and 
his people. And though it was remonftrated to him, that 
the IfraeUUi were his brethren ; and as he could not but 
know how they and their fathers had wandered from place 
to place, without any fixed habitation ; how they had been 
oppreflfed in Egypt \ how God had now led them out from 
under their bofidages and' that they had reached his borders, 


' Gen. ubi fup. 

(P) In Scripture the names been the firft king of Ifrad^ 
of thefe kings and dukes run and to be meant here. It can- 
in a feemingly-confufed order ; not be proved, that any of the 
and (bme are unwilling to think ikid kings were of the line of 
that they fucceeded in the or- Efau ; and this firft monarchy, 
der we have, from bifliop Cum- fet up by the Jhritij^vfzs plainly 
herlandy placed them in (42). dedivei whereas that monar- 
Tbis difFerence in opinion pro- chy, ereded by the children of 
ceeds from thefe words of the E/au^ was, by the very little wtf 
text prefixed to the lift of the know of it, at leaft feemingly, 
kings; And theft are the kings hereditary: for Hadad was a 
that reigned in tkeJandofEdom, minor when David conquered 
iefiri there reigned any king Edom. But we are afraid of 
muer the land of IfraeL Thu trefpaffing too much on our 
is fuppofed to be an .inter- reader^s patience, by running 
pol^tion ; and if we dp npt al- into the many particulars of 
low all the kings of the lift to this debate; and ihall only fay, 
have been elder than Mofes^ we that we have embraced that 
saofl fappofe the whole to be opinion, .which, upon mature 
intfrpohited too ; and, accord- deliberation, foms to us to bf 
ui|^Xi ^^ ^^^ Mofes to have the heft founded. 

(42) Si* SbuckfQrd*t c$nne^, of tbi /acr, sndfrof, bi/t% book vii. p, 19 x, & 


The Hiftory of Edom. B. I. 

being m, or near the town of Kadijh ; it was to be hopei^ 
he would let them paG freely through his country, in tfadr 
way to the land of Canaan : that, if he was wilUng to be- 
friend them, they would keep the highway, and not oftf 
to turn to the right or the left, to hurt the fields, or the 
vinmrds, or drain the wells of water, until they Ind matt 
crofied his territories. To this the jeakiis king of Edm 
anfwered, that he would by no means grant them a pA 
fage; and advifed them not to make the leaft attempt to^ 
wards it : that,if they did, they mieht exped to be oppoU 
by the whole ilrength of his kinedom. And when tbdb 
embaiTadors, or, perhaps, thofe of a fecond embaffir, meed 
him ftill farther upon this important bufinefs, and ma£i 
renewal of promifes, and aflurances of the mofl peaceabU 
behaviour, if they might have the paflage they foliciced | 
protefling, that they would pay for every thing they might 
have bccafion for on the way ; and that they would be il 
expeditious in their marches as their feet would permit ; he 
was highly provoked at their reiterated inffamces ; and,fiBtf- 
ing the Ifraelites might make fome defperatc attempt to 
force the pafTage he denied them, took the field, and 
marched towards them, to intimidate them, and (hew that 
he was not to be prevailed on ^. However, hb enmity did 
jiot run to the pitch of diflreffing them in matters wherein 
be could relieve them without danger to hnnfelf ; and^ |fer> 
haps, to prevent their growing defperate, he ftirnillied dijeo^ 
for money, with what his country afiorded «• 

After this, there is fcarce any hiftory (b obfcureanf 
interrupted, as this of Edom : and, particularlv, wefijodno 
mention made of them from thefe days to tnofe of kioy 
David: however, we will fupply thischafm, in part^ by. 
obferving, that, in the mean time^ the EdomiUs extended 
their dominion, and applied themfelves to trade and aavi-. 
gation, and feized on the empire of the fea, we mean of. 
the Arabian gulpb, at leafl, and the trade thereof. They 
deaJt, it fcems, in very rich commodities ;. pure gold^ gdr 
of Ophirj the topaz of Ethiopia^ coral*, pearls, and the- 
like h ; and became a very confideraUe kingdon> vl-dlB' 
moft common opinion is^. 

But in the height of their profperity their cotinMr i»tf 
Year of invaded by the conquering arms of I/rael^ and Edom Dtffit 
the flood ^ feel tj^g cffeOs of Ifaac's prophecy, that thi eldirfimt,, 

J,3^- ferve the younger. For David^ having gaiht&d^veVjr tdbfi*^^ 
Bcf. Cnr. j^^jjjg yj^Qj-j^g gy^j ^^ Syrians^ MoabiUs^^ond Amtiumtitm 

1040. . . -^ ' . ». .^, . » 

■Num. XX. 14,21. * Deut. ii. 28, 29. ''Jobxxviu. 15— 20. 

Q. IV. ne Hifiory of Edom.* 1 75 

&c. finiflied his conquefts with Idumea. What drew 
upon them fo dreadful a war, is hard to guefs, the facredhi- 
ftorians being quite filent about it ( Q.) : but this they tdl 
us, in the whole, that 18000 of them were cut oiF in the 
Valley of fait ^ ; and that the reft were either brought under 
the yoke by Joab^ or forced to retire into foreign coun- 
tries (R). Hadad their king, as yet a minor, and a party 
with him, took the way of Midian (S), thinlcing, per* 
baps, to crofs the Red Sea \ but, underftanding that 
they and their young king would be favourably received by 
Pharaoh^ they carried him thither ; and Hadad was ac* 
cordingly received, and fuppoxted by Pharaoh with all the 
dignity becoming his royal rank ; and, to complete all the 
favours and kindnelTes which were unfparingly heaped on 
him, he had the queen's [Taphenes^s] fifter given to him 
in marriage <>. But at the fame time that Hadad aoAt his 
way tovrards Egypt^othcvs took different routes: fome, fly* 
ing to the Philijiinesy fortified yfzothj or Jzotus^ for 
them (T) ; and proved a confiderable acceffion of power, 


* 2 Sam. viii. 13. I Chron. xvlii. 12. ^1 Kings xi. 

15, 20. 

( QJ Indeed there is but fapported by very ample aatho- 

veiylittleroomtoguefsatwhat ritys as we (hall immediately 

might pditively be the caufe of obferve. 
this ruin executed upon the E- (S) From hence we luMre, af- 

dtmiUsi but« probably, /^ao//^ ter Roland^ fuppofed, that Mi* 

treating with them for fome of diam was partly bounded on the 

theadvantagesof JTAf/^band^'- north hy Edom{^^)t asif they 

oi^eier^ they refuied to hearken were obliged to fly through Mi* 

to him, and thereby provoked diam to go to Egypt ; but it it 

him to wreft thofe important more likely,that they ftruck in* 

places, the only marts of the ^ Midian^ as the ihorteft cat to 

very rich commodities he want- get i^wAy ^rom the enemy^-with ' 

ed, out of their hands. defign tq imbark for Egypt ^ at 

(R) Sir Ifaac Newton makes IMi^^ ^ ^<une other Aarpoct. 

this difperiion to have been of of th^t country, as the ioBAi : 

very beneficial confequence to way. to go into Egypt. 
the feveral nadons they went (T) According to Six Ifaeet 

Cp^ fuppofing they carrira their Newten'^ hypothefisyftyis^aifd 

arts* fences, and induflry,with his followers were the more 

them where-ever they went kindly received by the king of 

(^^ : and herein he is, in partji Egypt^ as he forefaw the advan* 

(^) Cbron^ of. sm, kingd, MmtnJtJ, J>, ft 09. f 45^ See hzftm^ ^- x s l» 

S *»5e 

1 76 ^e Hiftory of Edonii B. t. 

and of very fingular benefit, to that people (U) : and 
others, that dealt in fhipping, taking a longer way to 
elcape the rage of the conqueror, went towards, or into, 
the Perjian gulph <1 : in a word, diey were difperf^ into 
all parts, there being no fafety for them in thcil: bative 
country (W). 


^ See Sir Isaac Newton^s chronol. of ant. kiogd. arnhKhd, 
p. 104, 105. 

tage they would be of to him, 
by bringing with them their 
ikill in letters, aftronomy, na- 
vigation, and the like; in which 
the Egyptians were, till then, 

(U) The afbrefaid chronolo- 
ger holds, among other things, 
that fome of them,flying to the 
Pbiliftines and the fea-portSyim- 
proved the inhabitants there in 
the arts of navigation and com- 
merce : and, indeed, it is more 
thaajonce (aid, that the Phofni- 
dans came from the RedSsa, 
Hirodotus (47) tells us fo ; and 
Stephanus (48) relates, that A- 
xotus was built by the fugitives 
which fled from the Red Sea, 
•* The Pbienicians^ therefore, 
'* came fr«om the RedSea,in the 
** dayt of la, and her brother 
Phoreneus, king of Argos ; 
and, by confequence, at that 
time, when DawV conquered 
the Edomitesy and made them 
*» fly every way from the Red 
^ Sea . . • And this flight gave 
** occafion to the Philiftines to 
** call many places Etythrai iii 
** memory of their being Ery- 
** tbreans or Edomites^ and of 
'' their coming from the Ery^ 
** threanSea: forErythrawM 
^ the Dome of a city in Ionia ; 












^' of another in Libya i of u- 
other in Locris; of anotbet 
in Beeotiai of another ife 
Cyprus I of another in ^h- 

lia i of another in .^'^i'^^ 
Cbius: zodErytbiaAcrawm 
a promontory in Libya^ ind 
Eryibreum a promontory m 
Creie, and Erytbros^^^aiDt 
near Tibnr^ and ErytJMt 
dty or country in P^biagh 
niai and the name £r^£iff, 
or£r^/^r^r,wasgiventotllB j 
ifland of Gades, peopled by . j 
Pbeenicians .... Edem^E^ I 
rytbra^ and PbamieiOf IR 
names of the fame figniia- 
tion, the words denotiag A 
" red colour ; which makes i 
" probable, that theJTryfi&fiMr 
" who fled from Dandd ietdcd 
in great numbers in Pbam* 
cia ; that is, in all die ib* 
*^ C02&& of Syria fiom Eg^\» 
^^ Zidon; and by calling OOB^ 
*' felves Pbeenicians in theln^ 
<' guageof^ra, infteadofl- 
*^ ryibreans, gave the name of 
^' Pbanicia to ail that i^ 
*^ coaft,andtothatonly(4n).** 
(W) The fame chronologBf 
holds,that the Oes of JReUa&h 
theOannesof Bert/ks (50), ml 
the Eubadnes of Uj^^stus ({i)» 
are feveral names given ton 

(^T) L. j. £. I. /. vU. c. S9. C^l) Jn vocm^AX0!r' ^C4§) •• 

bit ebr^ntL cf ant, lingd, amtndii, p» (oS, 109. (f^o) See p9i»Lp» t^ 

4 JldtmH 

C. IV. rbe Uifiary $f Edom. i 77 

Hadad, though he lived in great eafe and fplendor in 
the Egyptian court, yet, being confcious of his birth, un* 
willing to live in dependence, and thiriling after his king* 
doni, waited only a favourable opportunity to recover it> 
efpecially when it was told him, that David and the ter* 
rible yoah were both dead. At length the time came, 
when Sohmon wallowed in all kinds of impurity ; and,think- 
ing this a proper feafon to take his revenge, he difclofed his 
mind to his hxothcX'Xn'U'W Pharaoh y begging he would dif« 
mifs him. The wife king of Egypt ^ perceiving the great 
troubles and dangers which he muil be expofed to in exe- 
cuting his defign, endeavoured to divert him from fo dan* 
gerous an undertaking \ but Hadady in the end, obtained a 
difmif&on, and, returning to Idumta^ made feveral attempts 
to recover his dominions, but without fuccefs, his fubjeds 
being overawed by the garifons, which David had fet over 
them<l. He had a fon by his Egyptian wife, named Genu-' 
bathy who had a princely education in the palace of Pha^- 
raob ; but Hadady failing in his view upon his own king- 
dom, probably eftabliOied himfelf in Syria^ where weHnd 
the royal family bore the name of Hadad, 

In the mean time^ the kingdom Of Edom continued un* 
dcr the houfeof Dan)id till the days of Jehojhaphat^ being 
governed by deputies, or viceroys, appointed by the kings 
of Judah^ And though we have, in the hiftory of Moti^ 
made mention of a king of Edom^ who affifted 'Jchoram 
king of Ifraely and "J ehoflmpbat king of yudah^ in the rc- 
dutElion of Mtfha king of Moah ; we there fpeak only in 
the freedom of Scripture phrafe : for that kin?, as he is 
called, attended upon Jehofljdpbat as a vafTal, and not as aft 
auxiliary «. However, though the hiftory of that war does 
peculiarly belong to the reigns of Jehofljaphat and yehoram^ 
kings of Ifrael and yudah^ who were the principals in it ; 
yet we have here occafion to repeat, that this chief of 
EdonC% fon is thought to have been the perfon facrificed by 
Mejha^ the king of Moab^Mi'^n the walls of the city, where 
he was blocked up ; though he is believed, by omers, to 
have been the Mcaiite's own fon f . 

We have feen the time wherein EfaU was to be a fer- 
vant to his brother ; and now we come to that wherein he 

^ JosBf H. antiq. 1. viii. c.2. ' See 1 Sings xxii.47. 

<* See before, p. 136. 

Edomite commander^ who now into ChaUea : but this, we ap« 

fled to the PerfUm gulph, and prehend^ is allowing a Uttle too 

firft introduoed the afcful arcs much. 

Vol.* II. M was 


178 ^i>^ Hiftory of Edom. . B, L 

was to fhake ofF the yoke, and be fubje£t to bim no more. 
p'or, finding a fair opportunity to recover their andent li- 
berty, the Edomites embraced it, and fucceeded. Thc^ 
bad already (hewn how ill they were difpofed,even towarn 
yi'hajbapbatj when part of them joined the Atoabites and 
Ammonites in an attempt to furprife him when he was un- 
prepared for die affault ; but they fell intofuch a confufioa, 
that they were all cut off* by the Ammonites and AhaUtiSf 
Year of who afterwards butchered each other f. Butinthedayi 
flood of Jihoramy the fon of Jeho/hapbatj the whole nation of 
1459. ^^^^ arofe, and, aflTaiTinating or expelling their vicen^i 
Bef.Chr. made themfelves a king after their own liking ; and, upoe^ 
889. advice that Jehoram was coming, with a formidable powcTi 
0^v>J to reduce them, they marched towards him, and found 
means to furround him on all fides in the night; but, in the 
end, they were defeated, with great flaughter, and forced to 
take fhelter in their retrenchments. Though this was bat 
an indifferent beginning, yet they could never after bean* 
ncxed again to the houfe of David 6. 
' Thus was the long-wi(h'd-for revolution brought about 
after one hundred and fifty years of oppreffion; but who 
was their chief upon this occafion, or what he did ftrthcTi 
or who fucceeded him, we are no-where told. 

After this, they had no attempts made upon them b? 
the kings of Judah for upwards of fixty years i in mdiiai 
time they muft, in all likelihood, have recovered their an- 
tient fplendor : notwithftanding which, they fufferedalig- 
nal overthrow from Amaziah^ iBng of yudah^ in the ^% 
ef falt^ where ten thoufand of them fell in battle, andii 
many were taken prifoners : after which, their capital, S^ 
lah^ was taken by ftorm, and the ten thouland captiva 
were, by Amaziah^s order, thrown down from the ragged 
precipices which flood about that city, and'dafhed to pieces. 
Selah was now by the conqueror called JoktbeelK 

Whether after or before this, we cannot difcover,die 
Edomites engaged in a war with their neighbours the Mh 
abitesy which proved unfuccefsful ; for their king fell into 
the hands of the enemy, who burnt him, whether deadoc 
alive, we know not, till his bones were reduced to aibes (X). 


' Sec before, p. 136, « 2 Chron. xxi. 8. * a USaff 

XIV, 7. 

(X) It is doubted whether mMe/S^a, k]iM;^of Afoci^ ..^. 
this he not the fame war where* fic^ Im-ovm m^ or the ion oC 


CIV. The l^^bry of Edom: 179 

Thus have we hitherto joined together the incoherent parts 
of this hiftory, in the beft manner we have been able : in 
the mean time, they became fuhjcft to the king of Babylon^ 
to fulfil what fevcrai prophets had threatened ihera with*. 
And when utter deftruftion fell upon the Jtws^ and they 
were carried away captive, then did tljeir fury blaze out, 
fo far as to cut ofF fuch of them as attempted to make 
their efcape^ and, as if they defigned now to take a full 
revenge for what they had fuffered in the days of king Da^ 
vid, they vented their rage on the fad remains of the tem- 
ple, which they confumed with fire, as foon as the Chal" 
dies or Babylonians were withdrawn. They even attempted 
to level the whole city with the ground, infulting the God 
of IJrael-'w'ith horrid blafphemies, butchering the few re- 
nuins, who, by his favour, had efcaped the hands of the 
Babylonians ; and, flattering themfelves with the pleafure of 
feeing, fliortly, an utter end of the Jnuijh nation. For 
this they were threatened, by the propfiets, with a fevere re* 
taliation ; vtz. that, for the devafbtions they had forwarded 
in yudah^ they fhoujd behold their land become defolate, 
when thofeof their now-opprefTed enemies (hould flourifh^. 
Accordingly, theyfcll, foon after, into dreadful con- 
fufion, and violent inteftine commotions and perfecutions i 
infomuch that a great part of them left their own country, 
and fetded in the empty land of Judea, zndy particularly, 
in the fouth-weftern parts'; and it was, perhaps, at this 
time they made an end of the temple of Jerufalem, 
Thofe who flayed behind in Edom, joined the children of 
Nibaiothj and were called Nabateans ever afterwards : fo 
that the antient kingdom of Edom now lofl its name, 
which was transferred to that part of the land of Judea 
which the refugees had pitched in, and which had never 
been any part of their old kingdom, but the lot of the 
tribes of Simeon and Judab. And this is the Idunua^ and 
tfaefe the Idumeam^ mentioned by Pliny^ Ptolemy^ Strabo^ 
and other antient writers* For, becaufe of their wicked 
dealing with their opprefTed brethren, their kingdom was 

i.See I(a. xxi, xxxs. Jer. ix, xxv, xxvii, xlix. Lam. iv. 
Ezck. XXV, xzxii, xxxv, xxxvi. Joel iii. Amos i, ix. ^ See 
Exck. XXV. Joel iii. Aznos i. Obad. i. Se« P&l* cxxxvii, 
^ Strabo, 1. xvi. p. 760. 

the king ot€blt{ of Ed^m(^6), take them to bt one and thQ 
Oar tnnllaton of the Bible lame event, 

M 2 to 

The Hififffy cf Edom. Kt 

to lofe all its glory, and bcoome a defert ; ftrangen fnm 
the fouth o were to fjfefs it ; it was never to rife, imt 
thenceforward to be caSnA tbt hwier §f unciedmejif \ 
though it pleafed God to fpare a remnant of this people, by 
permitting them to feize on a part of their hrethrcnspor* 
tion ; by which means, they came to be wiited into ooe br 
mily with them, as they were defcended from the loiaiof 
one man. 

We have now pointed out the downial of die anticBt 
kingdom of Edom^ and (hall proceed to the interrupt- 
ed affairs of thofe Edomites who fettled in Judca ; coo-' 
cerning which We only know, that a decree was ifliied out 
againft them from Darius HyJfa/peSyComauu[kdiiig them to 
deliver up all they had belonging to the yews 9 ; but wiat 
cScA this had, We find no-wbere recorded. Upon the de- 
cline of the Perfian monarchy, and after the days of jOex' 
andery they were under the power of the Seleucidit^ when 
the antient averfion they had to the Jews being revived, 
they warred againft that nation, under the condud of 6«r« 
giasy ihe'ir govtrnoT for y/tttiocbus Epipbanes : buttiicj 
nothing thereby, but ruin, being confbntly worfted by 
das Maccabeus ; who, at laft, took and fackcd their 
city Hebron '. Their ftrongbolds, wherewith they awed 
the JewSy were forced, by that valorous commander, who 
cut off twenty thoufandof them, in feveral afTaults ; but a 
refidue of ninethoufand fled to two ft rong towers % where 
they were well prepared to fuftain a fiege; whence, by a 
bribe of 70,000 drachms j a good part of them were fuf- 
fered to efcape : but, when the treachery was difcovered by 
the Jewijh general, a ftop was put to this outlet. Thefe 
two ftrong caftles were alfo forced, and no lels than twenty 
thoufand Idumeans again * put to the fword. Thus was 
their zeal againft their brethren rewarded as it deferved, as 
ftiall be more minutely related in the Jewijb hiftory. 

After thefe very troublefome times, we know not 
how it fared with the Edomites in Idumea^ except that they 
feem to have been continually agitated by broils and wars, 
. till they were conquered by yohn Hyrcanus^ who reduced 
them to the fore neceflity of embracing the Jewifi reli- 
^ gion, or of quitting their country. They chofe the for- 
mer, and, fubmitting to be circumcifed, became incorpo- 

Obad. ubi fup. p MalacL i. *» i Efdr. iv. ver. 

50. ^ I Maccab. v. 65, 6S. • Vcr. 4. 5. 2 Maccab. x. 

18, 23. ' Ibid. vcr. 21,23. 


C. IV, ne Hi/t9fy rf Amalek- , t|i 

rated with the Jews u ; and, confidering their defcent, as 
well as their converfion, they were, upon a double account, 
reckoned as natural Jnus : and, accordingly, in the firft 
tentury after Chriji^ the name of Idumean was loA, and 
quite difufed ^ ( Y). We therefore here break oiF, referv- 
ine, what farther relates to this people, to the Jewijb 

The Hijiory of Amalek. 

jjMA LE K was the fiather of this people, and from 
'^^ him were they called Amaleiites^ and their country Their a>h\ 
jfmaleittis. He was the fon of E/att*s iirfiborn Eli-^^ft^r. 
•fba^^A)^ by his concubine Timna. Notwithftanding thje 


« Joseph, antiq. I.xiii. c. 17. ^ Ppideaux's conned, 

of tte old and new teft. book v. p. 307, 308. 


( Y) Yhe name of Edomite is 

not ib wholly lo0, but the Jrws 

make ufe of it llill. '< The 
rabbins fpeak of Edom and 
Edomites long after this; 

'* but thereby they do not mean 

'' IJumeay or the fens ofEdomy 

** but i'^omf , and the Chriftians 

** of the Roman empire. For, 

•* fearing the diipleafure of the 

** Chriflians,among whom they 
live, foravoidiog it, when- 
ever they fpeak any reproach- 

manner, and make him fome 
generations older than Jbra^ 
bamt as follows : 






Amalek (i). 






They fay, alfo, that the y/«i7- 
hkitij, in antient times, poffef- 
ied the country zhovLt Mecca, 
whence they were expelled by 
the Jorbamite kings (2). Some 
fol thing of Chriflians, or of hold, that Ad was the fon of 
their religion, th^y ufually Aws,oiUx, th& ion oi Aram, 

blend it under feigned names ; 
ibmetimes calling us Cuihe- 
ans, i. e. Samaritans , and 
fometimes Epicureans, and 
fometimes Edomites : and this 
laft is the civilefl: appellation 
they give us (51)." 
(A) The Arabians deduce 
his genealogy in a different 



the ion of Shem» the fon of 
Naab. Others, that>^4^ was the 
fon oi Amalek, the fon of Ham 
(3) ; but the contrary is the re- 
ceived opinion. Some com- 
mentators on the Koran (4) tell 
us, that the old Jdites were of 
prodigious ftaturey the largeft 
being an hundred cubits, and the 

($1) Prideaux's conneB. of the Old and New teft, part ii. hook v. p, |o8i 
flf Biuctorfli lexie, rahbin, p. 30, 31, (t) Vtde Reiaild. Fal^H. illujt, f. 

14. (z) Pocock, fpectm. hp. Arab, p* 173. ^3^ D^Heriekt, p, 5 f , 

110* (^) JaUalo'ddin & iamakjharu 

M 3 




l82 The Hiftory of Amalek. • B.1 

fpuriournefs of his birth, he is reckoned among die dukesii 

the land of Edom^ and is faid to have fucceeded Gmkrn^ 

which is all we know, for certain, concernii^ him. 

The early reparation of this family froai that of B^m b 

not without fome great difficulties. It might, indeed^ be 

reafonably enough afcribed either to the fpurioufnefi of 

his birth, or to fome other inteftine broils: but, iirtieft we 

call to mind the previous wars of the AmaUkites with Ck* 

dorlaomer^ hinted at in the laft note ; when we confider 

Balaam calling them the firfi^ or beginning of nations, as «t 

ihall fee anon ; when we refled, that Mofes never, fiiki 

them the brethren of I frail or Edem ; that the latter Mver 

held any confederacy or friendly harmony with them in iB 

their wars, but fuffered them to be invaded and butdNrel 

by Saul^ without lending them any affiftance ; Iaftly,when 

we find them always mentioned with the Amorites^ Pbh 

lijlinesj and other Canaanitljh nations, and with them in* 

volved in the fame curfe ; we can fcarcdy forbear kiob'ng 

upon them rather as a tribe of thofe nations, than s tbe 

defcendants of Efau^ contrary to the received opiniottt 

Of the country they inhabited, wefhall fpeak heraft?. 

T/jiircu" Of their religion, and civil cuftoms, we can knownh 

Jfoms and thing, for certain, fince we are in the dark about their de- 

religion, fcent. If from Efau^ we may fuppofe they ufed dicum- 

ciiion; and that the decree of their total excifion wu o«> 

ing to the outrages they committed on the diffarefled HtmA^ 

ius h ; but if of a Canaanitijh race, their horrid idoutriei 

fubjefled tbem,without all doubt,toone common doom with 

the Canaanitijh nation : if the former, they had, at leafti 

* Gen. xxxvi. 12. i Chron. i. 36. *> Ezod.xvii. 9, 14^ 16. I 

leaft fixty ; which they pretend dorUumer made war on them 

to prove by the authority of under that Dame^which hefup- 

the Koran (5). In fine, it is alfo pofes muft be prolepdctUy a- 

iaid, by the Arabian writers, ken at firft. But, GonfideiiDE 

that Amalek was the fon of that the Amalek here ipoken m 

A%dy the fon of ^bem (6). Le was of the houie of Ejem^ «ndi 

Clert (7) is willing to adopt this whom t)it J/raelites werecom- 

notion fo far as to think, that the ywapfM to be at peace, he 

Amalekites were a great nation changes his mind, and iraaginei 

before the days of Abraham or they had no relation tothiii^M- 

lot i becaufe he 4nds, that Che- /c/M>ut fprang from fomeocbor. 

($) Kbrsn, r 7» (^) ?^ SLobtt^ (7) b Gem, lir. 7. tf . 

J^HV, xxiv. 20, 


CIV. "The Hfftory of kmTltVi: 183 

for fome time, the fame religion with their progenitors, 
Abraham^ Ifaac^ &c. if the latter, they gave, probal^ly, 
into all the abominations of their neighbours. Jofephus ^ 
mentions their idols ; but the Scripture terms them the 
idols of mount Seir \ fo that they feem to have more pro- 
perty belonged to tht Edomites^ than to the Amalekites. 

Their arts, fciences, and trade, we can only pxt^s^XTbtirartfy 
from their fituation : for it is probable, they had the know- &c. 
lege^nd commerce of thofe times pretty much in common 
with their neighbours the £rf^W/^jk^ the Egypt latis^ and 
thofe of the fea-coafts of Judea. And this is the lefs dif- 
putable, as their king is pfaced in fo high a fphere of ma- ■ 
jefty, and themfelves ftiled the iirft of the nations, as we 
ihall fee anon. Much the fame may be faid of their man- 
ners, genius, and policy. 

Concerning their government, thus much appears, Ti^^/V^^. 
that it was monarchical 3 and that the firft, or,atleaft,onevr/*i»e»/ff/, 
of the firft of their kings, was called Agag^ ; as was, alfo, 
their- laft ^ ; from whence it has been imagined, that all 
their intermediate kings bore the fame appellation. 

The Amalekites reduced very early the country which T'i&fiV ^i- 
they feized on, when driven out of the land nf Edomjiory^ 
by the defcendants of Efau : and very remarkable it is, 
that they fuddenly grew up to fuch a height of power 
and fplendor, that their king is fpoken of as far above all 
others: for Balaam^ foretelling the future majefty of the 
7nvijh ftate, exprefles himfelf, that their king Jhiill be 
tigher than A gag ; and ftiles them, the Jirjl of the na^ 
tions " ( ^) ; which feems to countenance the extraordinary 


* Antiq. I. ix. c. lo. ^ See before, p. 169. ^ Num. 

xxiv. 7. "* 1 Sam. xv. 8. " Num. ubi fup. & vcr. 20. 

(£) Their rife muft have been narchy, it could not have been 

fadden ; for their kingdom was of much above forty years ftand- 

not fo old as that of the Edom- ing. The expreflion oiAmalek's 

itejf by whom they were driven being tbefirfiofthe nationsyour 

oat of the land of Edom, The verfion turns otherwife, in the 

kingdom of Edomites commen- margin, tbe firfi of the nations 

€td at the exodus^ as we have that warred againft Ifrael. 

ihewD, in the hiftory of that Much the fame turn does On- 

people ( 16) ; and therefore kelos give it; but if we coro- 

when Balaam expreiTed him-r pare what is faid of Agog him* 

ielf in fo high a (b-ain con- felf but thirteen verfes before, 

ccrning ^^j^, and his mo- we ihall not beat a lofs for the 

(i€JSeekefirr,p, 1-;^, 

M 4 rights 

x94 ^^^ Hiftcry of Amalck. J, I, 

thtitgs xktArahan hiftorians have concerning the u^in«/iei^ 
ites : as that they conquered Egypiy and pofleued tfae tbronc 
of that kingdom for feveral generations? (F). 

But, not to deviate from the authority we muft rely oq, 
it appears that this kingdoip was haughty and infoient in 
its very cradle: they no foqner heard, that the IfraelitesYai^ 
croiTed the Red Sea^ than they refulved to cut them off. 
The Scripture mentions none but jfrnalei-^ upon tbisoca- 
fifin ', which, whether it is fpoken of the king alone, or 
of the whol^ nation, 19 not agreed. Jo/ephus rqlates that 
they had no lefs than {\ve kings, who, confulting togetbefi 
joined forces with this view f (G} : he that as it wul, ^ 
jimalekites fell on the rear of the IfracHtes as they ii^reoq 
full march from Repbiditn to mount Honb, Some havock 
they made ; but it returned feverely upon themfelves, as 
foon as Jojhua could ^et ^e fighting men into order ; bf 
whom, being, in thei^- turn^t ailaulted, a long and bloody 
battle enfued ; but, in the end, the Jimalekites were put to 4 
precipitate flight, with the heavy doom on their head, that| 

P Sep before, p. 116— 119. ^ £xod. xvli. %. r JoiBrE. 
antiq. 1. iii. c. 2. 

righty or, at leaft, natural explii is faid by as of the CmmMmU^ 

cation of the paffiige before us; to have fled into Jifiie (i8)i 

which, doubdefs, means, that and that the AmalekittM were 

they were the greatefl,and moil fometimes coiiiprebeiidc^ under 

noble nation of that time: and the general denominatioii of 

this is the mod generally ap- Tbaenicians^ may be obfervoi 

proved opinion. In LeClere*s hereafter, 
verfion they are filled the frft- (G) VfYiZtJsfephus heic&ys, 

fruits of the nations i by which, need not be fuppofed to implr, 

in his commentary, he under- that the AmaUkites were oivi* 

flands them to have been the ded into many kingdoms. It is 

moft antient and potent nation, po/Iible, and very protable.tbat 

and to have been before any of lome of the petty kings of C«<* 

thofe which proceeded from the naan joined the king of jbui* 

loins of Abraham and Lot. lekitis now, as he did iova^ of 

(F) What the Arabic hiftory the Canaanites afterwards, to 

fays of thcfe AmaUkites^ bears prevent the Ifraelites from en- 

»n affinity with what the Egyp- tcring their borders. This jon- 

tian records report of the Pbae- 6lion may have been pafledorer 

nician (hepherds ; for they were ^yJW^/,who thought it enougb^ i 

at length expelled by the na- that he mentioned the princiml | 

mes [ 1 7), and are fuppofed, as and ring-leader of the aJSaoitr 

(17) Ex lihro Mirt^. Csinatiia: (ihj i^il Reland. Paiafi, t/kp. 


CIV. ^t Hiftcry of AxMltk. j»4 

for this outrage, their name Jb^utd be put out frem undir 
beaven K 

In the mean time, however, itpleafed GoD.tom^ke 
ufe of them, in conjunfiion with feme of the Canaanites^ 
as bis inftruments to punifli the difobedience of the IfraeU 
itesj attempting to enter the Land offromife^ in contra** 
4i^on to the exprefs decree of Goo,that not one of theoi» 
from twenty years and upwards, ibould fet foot in it (4 
The (laughter the Amalekites helped to make of the Ifrael- 
iiis^ upon this occaTion, will be told in the hiftory of Ca-- 

After this, they feem to have mifled no opportunity 
of haraffing the Jewi/b nation, till they were ripe for the 
fxcifion denounced againft them. They confederated with 
JEglon king of Moahy and the Ammonites u, and a^erwarda 
with the Midianitef under Zebah and Zalmunna^ to root 
put the Ifraelites^ and poflefs themfelves of the land, as 
tbey had vainly projeded : but what fuccefs they had in the 
attempt, and how they, in the end, fell by their oiftk 
fwords, and thofe of their friends and allies, we have al^ 
r.eady related at large M^. 

After this, there is a very wide gap in the hiftory of Year.ctf 
this people, which reaches even to the days of Saul, At flood 
this time, their king was a very graceful perfon, and of no- iaj3. 
Ue prefence and addrefs, which flood him in good {lead : Bef.Chr« 
for, on account of thefe perfonal accomplifliments, was his *^9S' 
Ijferpared, itfeems, in the general maflacre of his fubje^'. 
^ut, with all this fpecious outfide, he is upbraided as an in- 
folent and mercileis tyrant; and in his reign the nation was 
grown ripe for the exciiion they had been threatened with 
about four hundred years before : and, as a forerunner of it, 
the Kenites were warned to leave their country, and feek 
ipme other feat, left they ihould be involved in the impend- 
ing calamity ^. As foon as the Kenitt$ had obeyed the 
fummons, the Amalekites vfere invaded by Saulj at the head 
of two hundred and ten thoufand men (H). Not being 

• Exod. ubi fup. 8—16. ' Num. xiv. 29, 30. » See 
before, p. 123. ^ See p. ij6— 161. * Jossph. antiq. L 
in. c. 8. y See before^ p. 157^ 

(ti)yo/epbus makes this arniy ites coal^ hardly efcape, if they 

to have confided of no more attempted to flvany-whm( 19}. 

than 70,000 men, and tells us. But tins is faid 9,t randqmjias we 

that the country was fo poflef- think, 
(ed by them> that the ^nalek- 

(i^J Jfpph, ant if* /, vi, €, 8« 


1 86 The Hiftery of Amalek. B. I.' 

able to make head againft fo numerous an army, they were 
all cut off, except ^tff, and fome who had the good luck 
to make their efc^ipe, or conceal themfelvea in places where 
they were not difcovered : neither mother nor fucking child 
were fpared, and the whole country was laid wafte. ^^m^ 
and the heft of the cattle, only were fuflcred to life. 
However, /!gag did not long enjoy this favour ; fox Samud 
no fooner heard, that he was alive, than he fent for him, 
and, notwithilanding his infinuating addrefs, and the vain 
hopes with which he flattered himfelf, that the bittermfi §f 
death was pajfed^ he hewed him to pieces, or caufed him to 
be hewed by others, in Gi/galj before the Lord *• 

The poor remnant of the jfmalekittSy who efcaped the 
fword of Saul J returned to their defolate country, and lived 
there in peace, it feems, till fuch time as Davidj obliged to 
fue for protection to Achijhy king of the Philifiinesj againft 
the hatred and jealoufy of Saul^ hzd Ziklag allotted tohiAi. 
At this time the jfmaUkites are mentioned as afTocia ted with 
the Gejhurites and Gezerites (I). Tht Amalekius^ thus re- 
covering flrength, were flaughtered, once nrore, by thdr 
new and near neighbour Davidj who thought it, perhajN, 
a duty incumbent on him to complete the work which 
Saul had left uniinifhed. Thus once more were the>£iif" 
lekites^ men and women, butchered and difperfed, their 
country laid wafte, and all the cattle that came in theeiK* 
my*s way driven off «. 

The Amalekites meditated revei^ for this cruel injurfi 

as they, doubtlefs, called it ; and, muftering their ftreng^, 

went up to Ziklagy the abode of Davidj who happened 

then to be abfent with his fmall party, fo that the townwai 

left defencelefs : wherefore they eafily made themfclvo 

Year of matters of the place, and confumed it with fire; but fpaied 

flood the inhabitants ; which, confidering what they had futtcred 

1293. fo lately from Davidy might pafs for a great piece oi mo- 

Bef. Chr. deration, if they had not fome farther views in prefervisg 

^'^^^^'^^ X I Sam. XV. 32, 33. Joseph. 1. vi. c. 9. * i Sam. xxvii-g. 

(I) Who thefcGeJhuriiis and nally of this country ; brtM 

Gezerztes were, is uncertain, nations nvere, of old^ the inka* 

They are taken for reliques of bitants of tbt lami^ as tbtup' 

the Canaanites (20] ; but, by efi /«Shur, iven unto the Inm^f 

the words of the text, it might Egypt (21). 
be imagined, they were origi- 

(20) Vtdt Citric. & Pstrky, upm i Sim. xxvii. (ai) I Sam, xxf S. t 


C TV. "ihe Hiftory of Amalck. 1 87 

them (K). Among their captives were David's two wives, 
Abhtaam the yezreelite^ and Abigail^ who had been wife to 
Nabal the Carmelite* Having thus fucceeded to their wifh, 
-they - refolved to fccure what they had got, by an expedi- 
^tious return homewards, determined not to flop by the way 
till theyfhould reach fome place equally fafeand agreeable. 
Hurrying on with this precipitation, they left behind one of 
their number, an Egyptian by birth, who could not keep 
pace with them. Davids in the mean time, having notice 
of the revenge the Amalekites had taken on him, purfued 
them very eagerly ; gnd, in his way, took this Egyptian^ 
who informed him of the place where they intended to halt. 
The Amalekites arrived at the appointed place, and gave a 
loofe to mirth and jollity, recreating themfelves fcveral 
days together : as they wer(S in this carelefs pofture, they 
were difcovered by David from the neighbouring hills, to^- 
wards the clofe of day ; and,after they had fpent thewhole 
night in debauchery, they were fet upon by him and his 
men, and flaughtered from break of day till funfet; ib 
that not a foul of them efcaped the edge of the fword, ex* 
cept four hundred young men, who rode upon dromedaries, 
and who, leaving all their companions and booty behind 
ihem, were burdened with nothing but the doleful news 
of fo dreadful a misfortune, after fuch uncommon fuccefs 
in their attempt upon Ziklag '. 

Thus by degrees were the Amalekites reduced ; and at 
lafl the fatal blow was given them in the days of He%ekiah^ 
hy the Simeonites \ who, having utterly deftroyed and di- 
fperfed them, poffefled themfelves of their country : fuch 
is the imperfeft account we have of the deftru6tion of the 
Amiilekites : as Balaam had prophefied long before, ^imalek 
was the firft of the nations 5 hut his latter end fliall be, that 
beperijb for ever "". 

' • Sam. XXX. •• Sec i Chrpn. iv. 40—43. • Num. 

pdv. 20. 

(K) It is ^idy they were a iowed a conje£lare of ourowq, 

poor covetous people, who in- they kept their prifoners alive . 

tCDded to fell them for flaves, to fupply the lofs of thofe who., 

and make money of them (22) ; had lately perifhed by the hand 

prwantedfervants for their own of David i and this does not 

ufe, and therefore (hewed this feem to be a very lUmaturaJ 

g^rcy. But if we may be ai- fuppoiition, 

^zi) Sii Patrick an i Sum* XUU 2. & Cleric* 


X 8 8 Tbe Hiftorj of Gmaan J B. I. 

But afterwards a man of Amalekitijh blood had taluo 
ample revenge on the Jews^ had not GoD interpofedf as 
it were, by a miracle ; for Haman is called .an Agagiti or 
J[malekite\ and it is well known how near he was having the 
pleafurc of feeing his bloody defigns againft the yews put in 
execution ; but this fa£l, being traniacbd in another couo- 
txy and period, muft be related elfewhere. However, it 
may be called the laft a£l of the Amakkites'^ and therefixt 
we fhall clofe with it this fedtion. 


^be Hifiory of Canaan. 

WE have already » given the hiftory of the anceftonef 
this nation, and of their origin ; and therefore flial 
not repeat it here. 

Canaan the fon of Ham^ die Ton of Ncah^ had ekvoi 

fons, Sidon or Zidon^ Hethy Jibujij Em0ri or jfmcriy Gir^ 

or Gergajhij Hivi or Hevi^ Arcbi or Arki^ Stmt 

frvadij Zemari^ and Hamathi. Thefe were the fiidien of 

the following tribes or nations ; the Sidonians or Xiiomns^ 

the Hettites or Hittites^ th^jebujitesj the Emoritis or 

jlmoriteSj the Gergajites or Cfergajhites^ the Hivkes or 

HeviteSi the Arkifes or Archites^ the SiniUs, the Arva£ttSy 

the Zemarites and the Hamathites \ Five of thefe are 

known to have dwelt in the land of Canaan^ the Hittitts^ 

the Jebujites^ the Emorttes^ the Gergafitesj and the HivlUs. 

To thefe are added two others, the Perizzites and Cu- 

naanites ; and thefe make up the feven primary nations of 

tiie Canaanites : but how the Perizzites came to be a 

diftindl body, or whence the Canaanites are peculiarly fo 

called, is a difficulty that can, at beft, be only guefled at 

Thefe feven nations laboured in particular under the evil 

influences of the curfe denounced by Noah againft their 

ungodly anceftor Ham^ being doomed in the end to ex- 

pulfion, excifion, or fubjeSiion. Whether the fix other 

nations we have mentioned are to be reckoned among die 

inhabitants of the land of Candan^ by us commonly b 

called, is affirmed by fome, and denied by others, who 

think they were exempt from the ruin which was to light 

on the other feven i being countenanced by the filenoc 

which is obferved concerning them in the wars the other 


■ Sec vol.i, p, 268, 274, 275. ^ Gen. x. 15. 

C. IV. Tie Hijiory $/ Canaan. 189 

Canaanita hzd with Jojbua and his fucceiTors. For therein 
is no mention made of the Stdonians^ the Arkites^ the 
SimteSj the Arvaditesj the Zemaritesy or the HatnathiUs ; 
which is ver^ remarkable, feeing they were primary na- 
tions or families* We therefore are of opinion, that they 
were not included ; elfe fo many petty ftatcs or kingdoms 
could never have been particularized, and they paflcd over. 
We muft therefore feek for thefe fix original tribes elfc- 
where. It cannot well be doubted but the k\Qn nations, 
as they are called, were fubdivided into many little king- 
doms I we fay little, fince we mufl: look for them all with-* 
in the narrow limits of Joft)ud*s conquefts. Within that 
final] compais we have no fewer than the following num- 
ber of Canaanitijh kings, faid to be fubdued by him ^ the 
king of yerichoy the king of Aiy the king of yerufalemy the 
king of llebrony the king of Jarmuthy the king of Lachijb^ 
the king of Eglon^ the king of Gezer^ the king of Dehir^ 
the king of Geder^ the king of Hormahy the king of Arad^ 
&c king of Liifnahy the king of Adullam^ the king of ^^i^- 
kidaby theking of Betb^el J Ae king of Jappuah^ the king 
oi HiphiTy the king of Apheky the king of Lajharon or 
SharQHj the king of Madon^ the king of Haxovy the king of 
Sbimron-meron^ the king of Achjhaphy the king of Taanachy 
the Vingof Megiddoy the king of Kedejby the king of Jonk-- 
mam of Carmel, the king of Dor^ the king of the nations 
of Gilgaly and the king of Tirzahj thirty-one in all c (A) ; 
Who were either all, or moft of them, comprehended under 
the primary denominations of the feven nations, the /iiV- 
titesy the jehufitesy the AmoriteSy the GirgaJhiteSy Hivites^ 
Pirizxitesy or Canaanites (B) properly or peculiarly fo caI-» 

c Joihua xii. 9-*24. 

(A) But we muft not for this received much hurt from 7^ 

fuppoie there were no more fifua. 

than thirty-one in the whole (B) In thefe feven we may 

coantry who bore the royal fuppofe the tea nations com« 

title. Thofe are only men- pnfed that were promifed to 

boned who were conquered by Abraham^ the KmittSy the Kg' . 

y^fiua. The Scripture hiftory nixsdtesy the KadmvmttSy the 

acknowkges, that the Ca- Hittites^ the PerizsuUsy the ' 

suuadtis were never wholly lUphaimt the AmoriteSy the Ca* 

fubdued by him ; whence we maamtest the Girgq/kitesy and 

may infer^ that many had the yebufitts (i). We may 

dtt .ddc.of kingy who never touch on thismatter anon, 

■ * 

(X) Gmf. XT. X9- -ai. 


ipa The Hifiory of Canaan. R !• 

led. Nor were thefe all the branches of the Canaaniusj 
who were poffcfled of the Land ofpromife. But the de- 
fcription of this country, and its feveral di^dftons or can- 
tons, we referve to the general defcription of PaUfiinty 
where we (hall aflign a peculiar place to each, at leaft, of 
the primary nations. 
^heir cw To fpeak here of the cuftoms, manners, arts, fciences, 
ftomSf &c. and language of thefe feveral nations, we may fuppofej that 
in fome points they diflfered widely from eacii other, 
according as their fituation led them into different courfcs 
of life. We need not fay, that the Canaanites on the fca- 
fide were merchants, in which capacity we (hall confider 
them at large, when we come to fpeak of them as Phcpitt' 
dans ; for by that name, it is commonly agreed, they were 
afterwards known to the Greeks : accordingly tfie SeveMj^ 
inftead of the kings of the Canaanites, which were by thijw^ 
have rendered it, the kings of the Phoenicians, on the JtM' 
coafi. And, by the fame, the whole land of Canaan is 
called the country of the Phoenicians y, though thofe only 
were properly fo called who inhabited the fea-coaft : and 
thefe we fhall dwell upon more particularly under thehead 
of antient Phoenicians, The other Canaanites j who had an 
inland fituation, were employed in pafturage partly, and 
partly in tillage, and in the exercife of arms, m whidi dw 
will be feen to have been \^e]l verfed. Thofe who dvwit 
in the walled cities, and fixed abodes, cultivated the land, 
as we may fuppofe ; and thofe who wandered about, a 
particularly the Perizzites feem to have done, grazed cat- 
tle, or carried arms. So that it is eafy to difcern among 
them the feveral diflinft claffes of merchants, and confe- 
quently feamen, of artificers, foldiers, (hepherds, and huf- 
bandmen, if not ftudents. As much as they were divided 
in intercft and ways of life, we fhall perceive by didr 
hiftory, that they were ready to join in the common caufe; 
that they were very well appointed for war, whether dfio^ 
five or defenfive j that their tovims were well fortified^ wd 
themfclves well furniffaed with weapons to fight in'tb 
field ; that they particularly had warlike chariots, fodrefeit^ 
ful among the antients, and which they are thou^ tst 
have borrowed from the Egyptians (F) ; that they >fj^. 

^ Joa. cap. V. com. i, la, 


(F) This iff biihop Cumber^ part of them to Ime-diDda- 
tand's thought^ who fuppofes a two hundred years In Bgyfii 
4 ' aol 

C. IV. Tbe Hifiory of Canaan. 191 

daring, obftinate, and almoft invincible ; and, in the exam- 
ple of the Gibeonites beneath, we fhall fee they wanted not 
. cxaft and policy- The language they fpoke was, it fecms, 
well underilood by Abraham ; for, by what appears, he 
converfed very readily with them, upon all occafions ; but, 
for their manner of writing, whether they had any origi- 
nally of their own, which, confidering all things, cannot 
well be doubted, or whether they had it in common with 
the other nations then fubfifting m that part of the world, 
who all fpoke the fame tongue, or very nearly the fame, 
or whether they borrowed it at firft from the Ifraelitesy 
may be confidercd when we come to fpeak of the Hebrew 
lai^age K 

They retained the pure religion quite down to the days TbiimU' 
{3S Abraham, who acknowleeed ^^/<:^//^^^i to be pricft of^iM. 
|he moft high God; and Melchifedek was indifputably a 
Canaanitej or, at leaft, dwelt there at that time in high 
cfteem and veneration (G). They never offered to moleft 
Abraham ; on the contrary, they were ready to oblige him 
in every tfiing, a noble example of which we have in the 
behaviour and good intentions of Ephron towards him in the 
afiFair of the cave oi Machpelah, To dwell no longer on this 
fubjefi, we muft hence allow, that there was not a general 
corruption of religion among the Canaanites at this day ; muft be granted, that the .very Hittitesy fo feemingly 
commendable in the days of Abraham-^ degenerated apace, 

s See Shucicford*s conned, of the ikcr. and prof. hid. 
fol. L book 2. p. 100. See alfo univ. hiH. vol. i. p. 356. 

and that the Canaanites and the moft likely to give the If- 

Pirizxites, when named toge- raelites trouble (lo). 
ther. mail be underftood of (G) Sir Ifaac Newtoa (ii) 

tkofe mingled tribes of all the concludes, that they perfevefed 

CoMoamteSf who had been en- in the true religion till the 

gaged in fierce wars with the death of Melchifedek ; but that 

EgyfHam ; and farther, that afterwards they fell from it» 

thefe two bodies are particu* and began to embrace idolatry,' 

larly marked down for deftruc- now fpreading, as he thinks^ 

don, as they were the moft from Cbaldea. They are faid 

warlike and skilful in martial to have been given to the fa- 

aflSdn, training up their chil- perftitions of the antlentP/r^ 

cben to the fame difopline, and Jians (12). 

(10^ Sh Cumberland mgin, gtntt anthu* f, 132, 133. (11) Chromi» of 
Mt. tojM T^hw J amendtd;^ 188. {izj Sit'^ckfhrirt X9m:^* offacr^ Mnd 

fnf, bijit VQi% u bwk V, ^0 SZS* ' -••*•■ - ■ y 


^e Hyiory ef Canaan." B. L 

fince they were become the averfion of Ifaac and Rebekab^ 
who could not endure the thoughts of didr fon JacoVs 
marrjring among the daughters ofHetby as their fon EJam 
had done^ to their great grief'. So that about this tune 
we muft date the rife of (H) thofe abominations which fub*- 
je£ted them to the wtzA of G0D5 and made them un* 
worthy of the land which they pofTefled. In the days of 
Afofes they were become incorrigible idolaters ; for he com- 
mands the I/raelites to ieftroy their altars ^ and break down 
their images ^ ftatues or pillars, and cut down their groves (I), 
and burn their graven images with fire. And^ left they 
ihould pervert the Ifraelites^ the latter were ftridly in- 
joined not to rntermarry with them j but to finite them^ 
and utterly dejiroy tbem^ nor Jhew mercy upon them **. By 
this we may form an idea of their abominable errors. 
They are accufed of the cruel cuftom of facrificing men^ 
and are (aid to have pafled their feed through fire to Mo' 
loch ^, The cuftom of facrificing men they are charged 
with, as being the anceftors of the Phoenicians \ and there- 
fore we fhall not repeat what we have already d faid on 
that fubjefl:, nor anticipate what we may have to add in 
our Phoenician hiftory. Their morals were as corrupt as 

• See before, p. 163. ^ Dcut. vii. i-— 5. ^ Levit. 

xviii. 21. See before, p. 140—142. <* See vol. i. p. 


(H) It is the opinion^ how- 6ut» befides that the original 

tver, of bifhop Cumberland [ 13), may as well be rendered, thver^ 

that the Canaanites were ido- // ; a//&. the grove that was 

kters before the congrefs of over the altar; we fhall ihew in 

Me/cbifede^ and Mraiam, which the fequel, that thofe groves 

we know not how to allow. were not only very common^ 

(I) The original word ajba- but defigned to conceal tkeir 

rim^ which we render gropes, impious rites. Sir .^/aac New* 

U by ibme underilood to mean ton remarks upon the whole 

the wooden images of ^izr/^; paftage, that the Canaamtet 

they snflanceG/Viftfff's throwing had no temples. Mofes com* 

down the altar, and cutting manded Ifrael to deftroy the 

down the grove, that was by altars^ images^ high-plaas^ and 

\Ky or« as the Hebretu and LXX groves of the Canaanites 1 but 

have it« upon it ; which they made no mention of tbdr tern* 

urge could not be the grove, ples^ashe^uoouldha'uedone^bai 

but the image upon it (14). there been any in thofe days {i^). 

(i 3) Origin, genu avtiqulf, p, 4^7. (14) Scidm de diit Syritjynttignu &. 
(iSj Cbrttfl. of ant, Hngd/amttuUJ, />. 22X, 


C. IV. ne.H^ary §f Canaan. 193 

their doArine ; adultery^ beftiality pf all forts, profana- 
tion, inccft, and all manner of uncleannefs, are the fins laid 
to their charge, and which brought on the calamities they 
were doomed to ^ : and this may ferve as a fupplement to 
the charaiiSer of this people, after they erred from the right 

Concerning their government thus much may be^-^^y^. 
iaid. That they were comprehended under a great number <j^^,^,„^/. 
of fiates, and under fubje£Uon to limited chiefs or kings, 
as they are called ; and tranfadled all their bufmefs in po- 
pular aflemblies : fo Abraham bowed not down to the king 
of the children of Heth^ but to the children of Httb \ fo 
Ephren fecms to have treated with Abraham with the par- 
ticipation of his whole tribe : fo Hamor kiiig of Shechem^ 
would not conclude upon what anfwer he fhould make to 
fhe propofals of the fons of Jacobs till he had confulted his 
citizens s and throughout all their tranfaclions the fame 
tenor of conduiS): in their princes will be obferved by every 
attentive reader : nor is it likely, that fo many petty king- 
doms ihould have been flanding when Jajhua invaded them, 
had exorbitant ambition and lufl of rule been known 
among them ; but as nature, perhaps, taught them. That 
every man as an individual, and every flate as a colle£live 
body, is free and independent, fo they may thereby have 
been reflrained from invading each other's rights, or elfe 
one or a few mufl have fubdued the refl ; and, though this 
opinion may be combated by the ambitious cruelty oi Ado^ 
muhik c, that one example can have no more force againfl 
diis argument than a fmgle exception has to a general rule : 
that the main body of them thought and a£led upon differ- 
ent principles, af^ears pretty plain. This is as much as 
we need, or can well fay concerning their government, 
laws, and policy. 

We now come to their hiflory, the beginnings of which 72#iV hU 
ar6 too dark and unfettled for us to dwell on them, and tooftorj. 
much incunibered with the hypothefes of the great men, 
who have turned their thoughts towards their antiquities. 
Wherefore, taking Scripture, and the natural lights re- 
lieved from it, iat our principal guides, we fhall }ufl 
toudi upon what the learned have advanced from their 
own ftock* When we confider the fituation and diflance 
of ^ this country t we cannot but think it was at firfl peo« 
pled hj Canaan and his defcendants upon the firfl difper* 

* Lcvit. xviii. 21. « Judg. c. x. vcr. 7, k feq. 

Vol. n. N fion 

1^4 ^^^ Hifiory of Canaan. B. I |( 

fion after the flood (K)« What concerns they originaDj la 
had with Egypt ^ are rather guefled at than confirmed to |? 
us, in refp^ of the time when they were tranfa£tcd ^ bnti 
finding that there was a fettled averfion amoi^ the Efj* 
ptians^ in the days of yacob^ againft fuch as fed cattle, it ii 
thought the Phoenician fhepherds or Canaaniies may have 
warred upon, and opprefled the Egyptians^ before Jbruham 
removed into Canaan ; though this is liable to fome ob- 
jc£tions (L) : therefore we muft here acknowlege, as nt 
did formerly, our great ignorance in this matter, and di& 
tisfa£tion with what the learned have advanced upon it 
AH we can pretend to in this matter, is to mark out the 
times in which the learned pretend to fix what Mandk 
tells us of the Phoenician ftrangers in Egypt. In confomii^ 
to this, it is pretended ^ , that fome of them, upon the ifi- 
creafe of their families, being ftreightened for want of taaa^ 
moved fouthwards, as ^(t/^j intimates, as others did nofdn 
wards, fuch as the Hamathite and Jrvadite\ and that the 
former penetrated far into Egypt ^ or at leaft pofleiled tfaem- 
felves of the Arabian fide of that country, which thcj 
will have was Gojhen. Here, fay they, did thcj fiettk^ 
even under Mizraim himfelf j creded a feparate kuigdoD} 
and, differing from the pure Egyptians in religious m^toi) 
and in way of life, fierce contentions arofe between them, 
which ended in their total cxpulfion in the manner we for- 
merly related in the hiftory of Egypt 3 and this, lay dief, 
happened in the days of Abraham.' 

Thb vale of Siddim^ where Sodom and Gonarrab ftoodi 
was within the bounds of the antient country of CgnaM\ 


^ See Cumberland on Sanchoniatho, p. 351, 352, fifi* 
& Bedford's Scripture chronol. p. 201, 202^ 250^ 251, 25I1 

253> 337- 

(K) There is an old tradi- Shem to their rightful poftf- 

tion which fays otherwife ; for iion (16). 
it tells us, that this country (L) For wethinkitispictqr 

did originally belong to the obvious, that the EgMim 

children of Shm, by virtue of muft have looked on Jirdm 

a diviiion made among the as a Pbcemcian or CanmMm^ 

fons of Noah ; but that the paftor» when he wai annf 

children of Canaan difpoileffed them ; but we do not find, tilt 

them (15) : whence it is ar- they had any averfion to hirt 1^ 

gued, that God did but ftrid on that account: ^econtiaryii ^^ 

juftice in redoring the line of certain (17}. 

(lO Efii>bAareJ. 46. 11.84. (16) Fil JUucJfi pentat. (ij)k frc 

CtM, XU. 


C. IV. Tb€ HifiOry of Cahaitt. 

the (cene of the firft action we find, for certaih» of this 
people. The inhabitants of this vale were invaded by 
ChidarlaomeTy king of Elam^ and reduced to a tribute ( M ), 
which they paid for twelve years fucceffively ; but in the 
thirteenth diey rebelled, and this drew on them a fecond 
war» which we £ball fpeak of anon. 

In the mean time the other parts of the country received Year of" 
Jhraham with great hofpitality and veneration, two or flood 427. 
three years after this invafion ; but, foon aftbr his arrival^ Bef. Chr. 
the whole land was opprefied by famine, and the Cdnaaniu 1921* 
b now expreflv faid to have been in the land (N). The 
dearth drove Abraham into Egyp : whence we learn, that 
the whole country at this time was in great want \ The 
famine was of no long continuance, and Jtrabam, re- 
tumii^ into this country, found that the Pirizzite was 
alio in the land ; whence it is thought, they are fpoken 
of as new comers^ and that they had lately been expelled 
fix>m Egypt^ or, dreading an cxpulfion, had voluntarily for- 
Taken that kingdom \ and the rather becaufe Abraham and 
Lot feem now to have been ftreightened for want of room^ 
which caufed their feparation, as if the country was now 
become more populous than they at firft found it (O). It 

^ Gen. xii. io. Jos&Pk. and^. l.i. c. 9. 

(M) By an old tradition we 
have already mentioned, this 
war upon the inhabitants of 
the vale of SUdim was a very 
jaft one ; for if it be true, that 
the land of Canaan^ of which 
this was nndoubtedly a part, 
originally belonged to the chil- 
dren of Sbem^ from whom it 
was forcibly taken by the chil- 
dren of Htf«(i8), no wonder 
that the kings of the eaft, who 
were of that defcent, laid claim 
to thii coontry in general, and 
to diit moft lovely fpot in par- 
CiCoIar» lor Elam defcended 
from Shim (19). 

(N) Aoeording to what you 
read in the preceding note, this 

means no mote, than that the 
Canaanitis had invaded the 
country before Abraham cam^ 
thither. But we mud remem* 
bet, that this is building a fu- 
perftrudlure upon a very weak 
foundation, a tradition : much 
the fame may be faid upon thei 
paflage afterwards, that theF^- 
rixxites were alio ih the Itod. 

(O) But upon this we may 
ftatt one qu^ion^ which in this 
cafe cannot be readily anfwer- 
ed ; How came fuch a weak 
prince as Hamor king of She- 
cbifti to have ib much ground 
to fpare, as he afterwards talks 
of, when he hoped to make an 
union with Jacob (20) ? 

(18) ^ tbeprtadingfagi^ {K)i 

(19) Gen» z. X2« 

(ac) S(€ 

Goi.XXliv* 21, 

N 2 


^be Hifiory of Canaan. B. 1 

was at this time that the whole land was promifed to Abra* 

r The five kings of the vale of Siddim^ Bera king of 

^.Sodomy Birjha king of Gomorrah^ Sbinab king of Mmahy 

'. Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela or Z^ar^ 

' rebelled in the thirteenth year after they had been fubdued 

J by Chedorlaomer^ as we have already obferved. Wherefore 

Chedorlaomer and his allies marched hither again iH die 

fourteenth year, taking feveral other nations or tribes in 

his way; or rather he fetched a circuit to come at them, 

reducing, among others, the HoriteSy the Amdlekitesj and 

the Jmprites of Jia%e%ontamar. At laft he fell on the five 

kings of Siddhrii who were refolved to difpute their righti 

with him ; but they fell under the preffure of the enemy 

once more ; and all the inhabitants were either flain in 

battle, carried into captivity, or obliged to fly for flidter 

to their cities and mountains. Sodom and Gomorrah^ and 

the reft, were pillaged with the utmoft. rigour. Among 

the prifoners was Lot ; but he was foon refcued by Ahra" 

At this time Melchifedek (P) was king of Salemj and 


* Gen. xiii. 14, & feq. ^ Gen. xiv. 16. 

(P) Thejenvs will have him 
to have been Sbem, unwilling 
to own, that their father (hould 
have had any fuperior among 
the Canaanites ; and they are 
not without their advocates 
among the ChritHan writers, 
and fome of them very emi- 
nent : we will give the words 
of a very learned prelate of oar 
own church upon this point . . 
I am glad that I can cite 
Grotius to abet my opinion 
[That Melchifedek was the 
Shem of Mo/es^ and the juil 
« judge of P/&/V(? Byblius] thus 
far, that he faith in his notes 
on Hebr, vii. i. Melchifedek 
is the man meant by Sydic in 
Philo Byblius, And that 
«« Shem had this title oiMel- 







chifedekf or thejufi ktMg^ as 
Pompey was ordinarily called 
Magnus, and 0<f?iia;iM called 
AugufiuSi is the jadgment of 
the eldeft and leamedeft 
JewSf and of many modern 
learned men in Jewifib anti- 
quity ; to whofe ju<i^;ineBt 
herein I fubfcribe with great 
iatis^dion. And» whereas 
** others think him fome finall 
king of CanaoHt I concor 
thus far with them, that I 
believe he neither had, nor 
fought, any large dominions 
forhimfelf (21) .... This 
then is a favourite opinion, we 
fee; and no doubt the great 
man, whofe words thefe are, 
had perfefUy fatisfied himfelf, 
that the thing muft have been 













(21) Cumberland m Sgncbsriitbo, f* 174* 


rV. 5R&f H0ory of Canaan. 

\ alio of the moft high God (Q^) : and as Abraham 
returning from the war, he prefented him with bread 



Bat as eminent a prelate 
of oar own di&rs fb far 
die fi»rmer» whofe words 
ave given above, that be 
en how any Chriffian can 
tain fach a notion, foevi- 
jrdeftroyedby theapofUe 
tHihrtws (23), where it 
icfly iaid, that Mglchiftdik 
not ytnftKTykfAp^ c^ 
r, his defcent or pedigra 
Mf c9MnUdfrom th$m ^the 
]; which is not true of 
. <' Nor could Shim be 
1 to be trnthout fathtr §r 
thtr, whofe genealogy is 
ident from Mam. Nor 
8 ^i&««i^8 priefthood, if he 
1 any, ofa different order 
im Livi^s, who was in his 
OS, as well as in the loins 
Abraham. And therefore 
cannot be (aid, that Ltvi 
d him tythes in the loins 
Abraham i but it would 
as true, that he received 
iies in the loins of Shsm, 
r, according to this inter* 
station, he was in the loini 
'}k of him that received 
hes, and of him that paid 
an ; and fo the whole ar- 
(Dentation of the apoftle 
is to the ground, fiat, 
ting afide theie, and other 
fifiian reafons, there is 
caofe, that we can difeem, 
\f Mofes fhould call Shim 
iiom he fo often mentions) 
aj^ other name than his 
n : nor is it likely, that 
reigned in the land of 

* Canaan, which now was in 

* the pofTedion of his brocher^s 
' fon. Nor could Abram be 
*' iaid to jtjowm there as in a 

* ftrange country^ if his noble 
' anceltor Shem had been king 
' there (24). Thefe argu- 
ments mull be allowed to be 
\cxy flrong, and it is pretty 
clear, that the notion which ol>- 
tains among ^tje^fi writers, 
is of no very antient date. Jo- 
fepbus exprefly calls Melchifedek 
a potentate if the Canaanites 
(25). The Arabians deduce 
him from Peleg (26). To pafs 
over fome notions of the church , 
and of fome heretics concern- 
ing him, which are wide from 
our preient purpoie; he was 
both a king and a priefl ; which 
offices were antiently joined in 
one per&n, of which feveral 
inilances are obferved in antient 
writers, both Greek and Ra- 

(QJ Salem is by Jofepbus 
[27) called Solymai who alio 
lays, that Melchifedek was the 
£rft founder of it ; that he 
eredcd a temple in it, and offi* 
dated as a prieft, calling it Je* 
rufalemi whereas its former 
name was Solyma. But what 
he (ays in this cafe has no 
weight with the moft accurate 
9pd learned of the Chriflian 
writers, who^ for the OkoSt part, 
have a different notion. There 
is a Salem mentioned in the 
^ew TeiUment (28) ; which 
is fappo(ed jU> have been the 

Set Patrick uptn Gen. Xit. 18. (23) Heb. vii. 6. (24) Idem 

(»5) De beUt Judaic. I. vii. c. 1%. (26) Hotting, fmeg. 

^. SS^, a6o, 306. {2.^) Idim ubi fupr, {2.%) Jibn'm. ^7^ 

N 3 fame 

srtt Hijlory of Canaan. B. I. 

and wine (R) ; that is, gave him an entertainment, and 
received from him tythes of all (S); having blefled him in 
the name of the moft high God, pofleflfor or creator of 
heaven and earth. The kmg of Sodom was at thb remark- 
able interview, and feems to have afted a verv generous 
and modeft part, claiming nothing of all that Abraham ha4 
retaken from the ejiemy,* except the perfons of his fub- 
jefts, leaving the reft to his difcretion : but he met with 
as generous a return from Abraham j who, fo far as in him 
lay, m^de hinn^ ample reftitution of all that belonged ta 
him, whether perfons or goods j but Aner^ EJbcoly and 
Mamre^ his Canaanitijh confederates, who virere all three 
Amorites^ were left to do as they pleafed 1 5 and how far 
they followed Abraham^ % example, is not faid. 
f For fifteen years there is an utter filence as to the 
i.aflfairs of this people; but fome time after a fevere judg- 
r- ment was executed en the inhabitants of the vale of Sid- 
dim. Living in great eafe and affluence, they were grown 
*^ to fuch a height of impiety, that they left no room for 
mercy ; which if it could have been obtained by the 
interceflion of Abraham^ they had been delivered from the 
wrath of God now, a? they had been fornierly refcued by 

^ Cen.xiv. 21, ^fcq, 

fkme where Mehhi/edek reign- meat and drink, which he of- 

ed (29). The Arabians will fered to ^^r^^/r/^y, according to 

have ity that Jerufaiem was the hofpitality of thofe times : 

built by twelve neighbouring eating of bread, in the Scrip- 

kingSy who, touched with a ture phrafe, is feafling. 

deep veneration for Melchife- (S) It is remarked (32), that 

dek, built it in honour of him, the words of the text itfclf are 

or for his convenience; which fo ambiguous, that there would 

when they had done, he called have been no knowing whether 

it Jerufaiem {10). it was ^^r<j/&49M that gave, or 

(R) As he is generally ac- Mekhifedeky had not the apo- 

knowleged to have been a file (33) explained it: whence 

type of Chriil, fo fome have Eupolemus thought Melcbifedek 

discovered, in this bread and had beflowed gifts vpon Abra- 

wine, a near relation to the fa- ham. Of what kind the tythes 

crament of the Lord*s fupper: were that Mdchifedek received 

but this is a pious mifiake ; the from Abram, is not known \ 

words of Mofes mean what but we may enlarge on this in 

Jofephus (31) explains ; it was the life oi Abraham. 
ho more than a refreihment of 

(2,9) See Patrick ubi fupr» (30) Etttycb, amnal, p, 67. (31) Arttif, 

/. i. c. 10, (32) See Patrick ubi [ufr.njtr. I^, (33) Hebrews y'lu 

ver* 2. 


C IV. ne Htfiory of Canaan. zj)9 

his arm out of the hands of their enemies. The fin they 
fufiered for, already well known >», has, from the chief city 
of that vale, Sodomy ever flnce borne the name of Sodomy. 
The particulars of this cataflrophe we have already given 
in fpeaking of Loty and (hall now only fay, that the four 
cities of this fertile and pleafant fpot. Sodomy Gomorrahy Ad^ 
maby and Zeboiimy were deftroyed by a rain of brimftone 
and fire, or by thunder and lightning, and the whole vale 
was confumed Q^ and thenceforward became the Dead or 
Salt'fiay or lake Jfphaltites (T), 7'hus perifhed a branch 
of the Cana(inites with their whole territory ; favingthe city 
oSBekty henceforward called Zoar p. 

The Hittitei after this treated with Ahrahamy who de- 
lired to purchafe the C2ive of Machpelahy for a burial-place; 
and their behaviour towards that patriarch well deferves a 
place here. In a public aflembly they offered him the 
choiceft of their fepulchres to depofit his dead in, and 
that in the moft refpe6Hul ternis. But, when he fignified 
his defire to have a feparate place for his family, and had 
caft his eye upon the cave of Machpelahy belonging to one 
of their tribe, called Ephron the fonof Zohary with whom 
he deiired them to intercede in his behalf; Ephron himfelf, 
whP i&. fuppofed to have prefided in this aflembly, generoufly 
oflEbred to make him a prefent, not only of the cavq he 
wanted to purchafe, but of the grouiyl or field adjoining, 
and prefied him much to accept of the offer : but, by the. 
poble fpirit of Abraham^ he was difappointed fo far as to be 
obliged to fell the field and the cave to him for four hun- 
dred fhekels, which he looked upon as a trifle between 
Abraham and him ; fo great was his defire of retaining th^ 
fiiyour and friendfhip ot that patriarchy 

^ G^. 3iix. 4, U feq. " See before, p. 1 22. ^ Gen. ubi fupr. 
P^i^t. 3(xyc. 23. ' See before, p. 122. q Gen. xxiii. 1 1, & feq. 

(T) How this terrible fab, it^or flaftiing along the furfiice 
Terfion wasefie^ed^ is thus ac- of it, kindled the combufbble 
Gocmted for. The vale being parts ( 3 5 }» whiclji had the dread- 
fall of flime-pits( 3 4), or places faleBedtof turning this once' 
whence naphtha sgod bitumen, inchancingpanadife into a loath-*, 
werecxtraded, it is fuppofed to feme lake. But we (hall fpeak 
have been uQiverfally ixnpreg- of this lake hereafter in the geo- 
nated with igneous matter ; graphy of this country, as it 
and the lightning, darting upon was under the Jews^ 

(34) Gen, xiv. 10. (35) Vidt Cleric, dijfcrtat, de Ssdoma fub-- 

%trj^wij ^.4. 


TbeHifiory ^/Canaan. B.!. 

Nothing occurs after this that we can take notice of 
here for the fpace of about one hundred and twenty-eight 
years. At this time reigned Hamor in Shechem^ a poor and 
weak kingdom ; though Hamor himfelf feems to have been 
worthy of a better dominion, and a better chance, than be- 
,f fel him. He fold a piece of ground to Jacob ^^ and it hap« 
4. pencd that Dinah the daughter of Jacob coming to fee and 
ir. converte with the daughters of the land, fhe was obfenred 
by Shechem the fon of Jlamor^ who, being taken with her 
ij charms, forced and deflowered her ; but, having a real 
paifion for her, and being fenfibly afFeded with the wrong 
he had done her, he womd have pacified and perfuaded her 
to confent to marry him. And, fpeaking alfo to his father 
HamoTf he intreated him to ufe his endeavours, that he 
might have Dinah for his wik. Accordingly Hamor went 
to Jacob to conmiunicate the ardent inclinations his fon 
had for Dinah j and to afk his confent. But the injury and 
aflPront were highly refented by Jacob's (bns, who were 
prefent, as was alfo Shechem himfelf. This laft, finding 
that the others were greatly exafperated at the violence he 
had committed on their fitter, ofiercd all the fitdsiadioQ 
they could wifli for, if they would but forgive him, and 
grant him her in marriage. Shechem thought he had gained 
his point upon the anfwer he received from them ; ^^ch 
was, that if he and all of his tribe or city would amfent to 
be circumcifed, he fhould have his fuit granted. Shechem 
willingly fubmitted to this painful propofal, and fo did his 
father Hamor for his fake ; for he had an efpecial love for 
him above all his other children. Wherefore, returning 
to the cit)^, they aflembied the people in the gate, and be- 
fpoke them to this efie£b ; that feeing Jacob and his family 
dwelt with them in great harmony, and there was full 
room for all, it would be very prudent to unite with 
them by reciprocal marriages ; that, indeed, there was an 
hard condition infifted on ; which was, that they fhould 
all be circumcifed ; but that the pain thereof would be 
amply compenfated by fuch an acccffion of wealth as mull 
flow in upon them by being one people with Jacob. The 
men of the city, partly out of affection to Hamor and She- 
chemj we may fuppofe, :ind partly upon the \sA confider.- 
ation, declared they were ready to be ciicunicifed \ and 
were circumcifed accordingly; but while they laboured 

' Gen, xxxiii. i?, k fcqq. 


C. iV. The Hifiory of Canaan. 2ox 

under the inconveniencles of this compliance (U), upon 
die third day they were all fuddcnly cut ofF by two of 
yac^Vs fons at the head of their fervants ; and their wivesj 
children^ cattle, houlhold-goods, and all belonging to them, 
&U a prey to the fons of Jacobs Simeon and Levt^ the au- 
thors of fo cruel and bloody an attempt upon an helplcfs, 
and, to all appearance, innocent people 9. 
. Hitherto we have been obliged to give the hiftory 
of this people by incoherent pieces, and fo we muft con- 
tinue to do : there is no conne&ion, no fucccffive train of 
events to be expected here. When Mofes drew towards 
die borders of the Promifed landj for the iirft time, the 
Canaanites in the fouth-eaftem parts of the country were 
jpiined by the Amalikites i^, who, we may fuppofe, were 
eager to take their revenge upon the Ifraelites K Thefe, 
miderftanding that fpies had been in the land from Mofes^ 
drew towards the frontiers ; and the Ifraelites^ attempting 
to enter their territory againft the exprefs decree of God, 
were by them repulfed with great (laughter, quite to Hor- 

. Whether before or after this is not precifely known, 
Sihatij king of the /fmoritesy invaded the children oiMoab 
and Ammon^ and dirppfTeflTed them of their country on the 
Other fide Jordan^ and thq Dead Sea u ; this conqueft is 
celebrated by the moft antient poem ^ that is extant among 
piofkne writers. 
Arad (W) was king in thefouth-eaft of Canaan^ whenArad^ 
Itfes had a fecond time reached the borders of the Promifed 

■^ Gen. xxxiv. per tot. ' Num. xiv. 43. * Seehefore, 
p. 1 84. ' Num. abi fiipr. ver. 45. " See before, p. i zg, 143. 
* Numb. xxi. 27. 


(U) (36) " And began to be (W) It is doubted, whether 

a little feverifli : for the this be the name of the king 

^ sreateft pain and anguiih the himfelf» or of his city. There 

" jewj obferved was upon the was a city of this name, and 

*f third day after circumciiiony one of Canaau^s fons was (b 

^ which very much indifpofed called, according to the LXX, 

'* them (37). And indeed, and the Kulgat^ who h tn^nf* 

** Hifpocrates £i/s the fame of late thcBeirenv ofJrvffd; who 

*< all wounds ahd ulcers, that therefore may have given hit 

'* chey are then moft inflamed name to this country,, aiid ihf 

" by a conflux of iharp hu- city may haye been called ainr 

" foouri to them.'* him (38}. 

(16) Patrick upon Gen, xxxiv, ze,. (27) EUez. Pirke, c, ig,^& 

F^jfi, 4tMnef0t. />. 9$. (38) Fide Patrick ^ Clcric\ in Namb, xxi. 1 . 

• : hndi 

TbeHiJiory ^/Canaan. • B.L 

land s and, being informed of their coming by iS^t^way df 
fpies (X), he went out, attacked them, and took fevenu 
of them prifoners ; but, fortune changing, he was vanquifh'd 
by them, and his country utterly deftroyed ». 

SiHON the Amorite foon after this, refiding in the an- 
tient country of the Moqbites and AfhmmiUs^ was intreated 
by meflengers from Mofes for a free paflage through hii^ 
country, in his way to Canaan : but this rcqueft he arro- 
gantly rejcfted ; and, inftead of complying, marched ouf 
againft him ; but it proved a very unfortunate expedition. 
He was defeated at Jaazer with a total overthrow, which 
was attended with the intire lofs of all he had, to Mofn 
and his people. 

Og, king oiBaJhan^ is reckoned a king of the Amorites'fy 

and was of the race of the giants, or Rephaim *, and the 

^ very laft of them. His . iron bedfi-ead, of nine cubits in 

"'length, we have already mentioned. He was a dreadful 

^'^^ enemy *. His whole kingdom took its name from the hill 

of Bajhan^ which is compared to God's hill^, and has 

^fince been called Batanea. In it were no lefs than fixtf 

walled towns, befidcs villages c. This country afforded an 

excellent breed of cattle <), and fhitely oaks ^, In ihort, it 

was a plentiful and populous territory. Of 's refidencc w» 

at Ajhtarotb^ (Y) and at Edreif at or near which place he 

was vanquifhed, as he was efpoufing the caufe of Sihmiy 

. and attempting to flop the progrefs of Mofes and his pecH 

* Ibid. ver. i, 2, 3. ^ Dcut. iii. 8, 1 1. * See 

before, p. 128. ■ Vid. Joseph, antiq. 1. iv. c. 5. *> Pial. 

Ixviii. 15. <^ Deut, iii. 4y 5. Jofh. xiii. 30. Joseph. 

antiq. ubi fupra. ^ Dent, xxxii. 14. Pial.xxii^^ 12. « lia. 
ii. 13. ^ Joih. xii. 4. 

(X) This is fappofed to be a (Y) This city being elfc- 

road, or a way, fo called from where called J/htaroth-kamaim 

the (pies who entered the coun- (39), or the tivo-homedt has 

try formerly, 38 years before, given room to fuppofe it de* 

Some underiland it, that the rived its name from the goddeis 

king heard fpies were coming Aftarte. But, as is oUbnred, 

into his country. The Hebrew it might as well be fuppoied, 

word, here rendred fpies, is that the city was in the fhape 

tanrifein baatbarimi which of an half-moon (40), 
the LXX have retained as the 
name of the place, and call it 

(39) Gen. xiv. $• (40) See Patrick on the alnve pajfage 9fGenefia, 

C. IV. ^bi Hiftcry of Canaan. 203 

pie. He fell in battle, and his whole kingdom was tranf* 
ferred to the IfraeliUs under Mofes 8. 

The news of what Mofes had done on the other fide 
the river Jordan^ to Sihon and Og^ kings of the Amorites^ 
was matter of great furprize, we may fuppofe, to the 
Canaanitis of every denomination ; but when diey alfo 
heard how the viraters of the river had been divided, to give 
the Ifraelifes a pafTage, their furprize was changed into 
terror and confternation. Jericho was die firft p&ce that 
fislt the fury of the approaching ruin, being difinantled by 
the fhouts of the Ifraelites^ the found of feven rams-homsy 
and the carrying the ark of the covenant round it ; no foul 
was fpared but the harlot Rahab and her family, who had 
been inftrumental in faving the fpies that had been lent by 
yoJhvM into this city, which was now reduced to afhes ; 
and the man curfed that fhould ever auempt to rebuild 

Ths news of this foon raifed up the little ftate of ^f. Year of 
^diofe kin^, in the iirft fkirmifh, gained fome fmall advan- flood 897. 
t^ againft Jojhua ; the occafion of which fhall be related Bef. Chr. 
in a more proper place. But he foon perceived, that the 1451- 
war was not to be decided by fo flight a fiivour of fortune 
on his fide ; and therefore fent to the men of Bethel^ who 
were his fubjeds, requiring them to join him againfl the 
Common enemy. It Mras not long ere he had advice, that 
yojhua was moving towards him. In general, he appre- 
hended Jojhua^s intent was to befiege him ; but he was not 
aware of a ftratagem formed to ruin him, anddefboy his city. 
He faw fojhua appear before his walls with no very for-* 
midable force, and at once refolved to engage him : which 
he no fooner offered to do than the Ifraelites faced about 
and fled ; which v4ien he faw, he ordered every man to 
come out of the city, and purfue the enemy that feigned only 
to run from him» By this means his city was left deflitute 
of all defence, which thofe who lay in ambufh no fooner 
knew than they rofe up, feized upon the city, and fet the 
out-fkirts of it on fire. The king of ///', looking back, faw the 
finoke of his city afcending up to heaven ; and, in the midft 
of his confternation, the enemy flopped fliort, fbouted, and 
£iced about. His return to the ci^ was intercepted by 
diofe who had fet it on fire, and were now advancing to 
affifl in cutting him off. The men of ^/, perceiving there- 
fore that their city muft perifh without refource, and that 
they were to be attacked on all fides, were quite difhearten- 

« Numb.xjd. 33-— 3$. ^ Jofli. vi. 26. 

S cd. 

Z04 ^^ Hifiwj of Canaan. B. L 

cdy and all put to the fword, excqpt their king, "vriio was 
taken alive, and led to Jojbua. Axxl, after this daughter of 
their army, their city was entered, and burnt hydie vidon, 
and all who were found in it cut to pieces. There fell in 
the whole about 12,000 fouls ; the city was reduced t» a 
heap of ruins, and continued fo ever after. The captife 
king was hung upon a tree till even-tide, when his body 
was taken down, and buried in one of the gates of the 
city, under an heap of ftones, which was thrown over him >. 
The fad cataftrophe of thefe two alarmed all the neigh- 
bouring kingdoms. Gibeon, a city of the Htvitts^ but 
far ftronger, and more confiderable, thani/i, both for coun- 
iel, and valour of its inhabitants^, was the only one that 
chofe to avert the impending ruin hy ftratagem, rather 
than by joining the united forces of their neighbours. At 
ter confulting what could be done in fo dangerous a coo- 
jundure, they came to the refolution of (encune to Jtfm 
fome embafladors, who flxould be drefled in dd tattered 
garments, with clouted fhoes, with dry mouldy bread, ani 
with fuch a worn-out equipage, as mi^ht maJte them ap- 
pear like men come from fome far diftant country, b 
this guife they fet out for JoJhud*s camp in Gifgai^ wfaeic^ 
being arrived, thev told him, they were come from afiv off 
to fedc his friendmip ; and, being queftioned as to their 6^ 
cerity, they anfwered equivocally ; and, being ftill further 
prefled upon the point, th^ replied with great fubmiffion, 
That they were a£lually of a very far diftant country ^ and 
diat the fame of the Lord God, and what he had done 
for Ifrael in Egypt 9 and fmce then by the deftrufiion of 
Sihon and Og, thdk mighty kings, had been the induce- 
ments which had brought them fo far from home, beiif 
fent by the unanimous vote of all their countxymen* diat 
they might make their homage, and defire to oe acoepted 
into a league with Ifrael ; and as a proof, that, in- aU diej 
had faid, they had confined themfelves to ftrid truA, they 
produced their dry and mouldy bread, which diey averred 
they had taken hot from their houfes the day they fet out: 
Our bottles of wine, faid they, were new, and fee how 
they are rent; our garments and fhoes were fb too^ but 
they are worn out by reafon of our very long journey, hi 
all this they aded then: parts with the utmoft cunning, and 
being too eafily believed, they perfuaded fojhua and Ae 
Jfraelites to make a league with them. Thus did diflf 
over-reach their enemies, and thereby fave their livesi Al 

^ Jofh. vii. viii.. ^ Jolh. iz. Cojnpare ver. 3. vnxk ver. 7* 

/a * JoflL X, a. 

r^ the 

C. XV. fbe IRfi^ry ef Canaan. 105 

the end of tl»ee days the whole artifice was difcovered ; 
but they had already brought the Ifraelites under a folenui 
engagement to proteA them as friends: however, they 
&red not fo well as diey, perhaps, expe£ted, being con<^ 
demned to be hewers of wood, and drawers of water ; that 
is, to be flaves, or little better °>. 

When Jdonizideky king of Jerufalem^ heard how ^^-Adoake- 
rich^ and Ji had been utterly defhoyed, and, what wasdek. 
worfe to the common caufe, that the Gibtonttes had fub* 
nitted to Jo/hua^ he was divided between difdain and fear. 
But, relbmng to make an example of the Gibemites^ thereby 
to ddtxx others from following fo cowardly and dannroua 
a precedent, he called in Hobam kins of Hebron^ Piram 
king of Jarmuth^ Japhia kinz of Lachijh^ and Debit king 
of Egbn^ to join him againft Gibe$n ; and accordinelr 
diey all joined, and befleged it The inhabitants in niis 
difnefs difpatched notice to Jojhua of wtnt was befallen 
them, and begged his fpeedy fuccour to refcue them from 
dieir enraged countrymen. Jojhua came accordingly, and, 
falling upon the confederate lungs, as they were beiiegii^ 
die city, obliged them to retire with the utmoft preemp- 
tion. As thev were flying, and had almoft reached Beth^ 
barWf there fell a dreadful tempeft of hail-ftones, of fuch 
cnonnous fize, that they did more execution than the 
fword of Jojhua. Thus perfecuted by the heavens above, 
and prefTed by the Ifraelites in the rear, they fled, as chance 
direAed them, not knowing whither they were going. In 
fo general a difperiion many might have efcaped, had not 
the fun, at the command of Jojhua^ ftopped his career, 
that the Ifraelites might fee to overtake and ^t&rof the 
fcattered multitude. And now the five kings, feeing no- 
thins but deftrudtion and defoladon before their eyes, made 
the beft of their way to a cave near the city of Makkedah» 
Happily, as they thought, they reached this afylum; but, be^ 
ing dilcovered, and information thereof being carried to 
Jojhua^ they foon faw the mouth of their cave flopped up 
With ^eat ftones : and under diis difmal confinemekit did 
diey remain till the adion of this miraculous day was con* 
diided, when, being dragged out, they were thrown be- 
fore the coi^egatipn of Jlraely the chiefs of whom trod on 
their necks : they were afterwards all five,put to death, and 
their dead bodies hung, each on a tree ; and there they re^ 
maioed till die fetting fun, when diey were taken down, 
Jtad dubwn into the cave ; which was aj^in filled up with 

• JoflLisb 

4 V^ 

The Hiftoty of Canaan. B. I, 

¥eat ftones, as a monument of their fall and unhappy end. 
his was the fate of the five confederate kings, while fome 
of their fubje£b were fo fortunate as to get into the 
fenced cities, and fo efcape for the prefent K 

J A BIN king of Hazor^ when he heard this; and that 
moreover Makkedah^ Libnah^ Lachijh^ Eglon^ Hebron^ and 
Debify had been fubverted, and all dieir inhabitants put 
to the fword ; and again, that Horam king of Gezer^ and 
his whole force, had perifhed in attempting to relieve La- 
chijh ; fuch a croud of calamities together made him r&> 
folve to raife all the tribes of the Canaanites to withftand 
the deftruiStion which alike threatened them all. He fent 
therefore to Jobab king of Madon^ to the king of Shim- 
ron^ to the king oi Achjhaph^ to the kings on the north of 
the mountains, to thofe in the plains fouth of Cinnerothi 
and in the valley, and on the borders of Dor on the weft^ 
and to the Canaanites^ peculiarly fo called, on the eaft and 
weft, and to the AmBrite^ and the Hittite^ and the Periz" 
zitej and the Jebu/tte in the mountains, and to the HiviU 
under Hermon^ in the land of Mizpeh. Thefe all 'confer 
derated together againft Jfraehy they were as the fand on 
the fea-fhore for numbers, and very ftrong in horfe and cha- 
riots (Z) ; a dreadful enemy iox jojhua and his people to 
deal with, who were utterly unprovided with bodii. JBeing 
thus united, they encamped near the waters of Merom^ 
lince called the lake Samachonitis, Here, as they lay con- 
fulting together, they were affaulted by furprize, driven out 
of their camp, and broken into as many diftin£b bodies^ 
perhaps, as diey were tribes, each haftening homewards^ 
But the main body fled towards Zidon the great, weftwardy 
and Mtzrephoth-maim ; while another party took their route 
towards the valley of Mizpeh eaftwards. But they were 
every- where fo clofely purfued, that moft of them fell by 

n Jofh. X. 

(Z) This is all the account 
the text gives us of this nu- 
merous army. Jofephus adds, 
that it confided of 300,000 
foot, 10,000 horfe, and 20,006 
armed chariots ( 1 ). That of 
Jojhua was not only vaftly in- 
ferior in number, but quite 
deflitute of chariots and horfes ; 

k that his (iiccefs was diiefljf 
owing to the fuddenneis with 
which he fell upon them. For 
it is faidy that he came la 
fight of them in five days; 
though Gilgal, whence he fct 
out, was, at lead, 6b iliile^ 
off, and the country vcfy 

(i) yoftj^h, antip /*?. c. It 


CIV. Tie Hiftofy of Caiiaart. 207 

the way. JaUn himfelf had the luck to efcape for the pre- 
fent» but he periihed with his city foon afterwards : it was 
not loiig' before Hazar was taken, her inhabitants all cut 
oS^ and the place burnt down to the ground. It was rec- 
koned the chief of all the cities belonging to the kings of 
this confederacy, and therefore treated with the greater ri« 

Sur ; but the reft of the cities of thefe princes, which alfb 
I into the hands of Jojhua^ were fuffered to ftand, tho' 
ncme of the inhabitants were fpared °. 

No lofles, however great, could for a conflderable while 
break the fpirits of the Canaanitfs \ they flood their ground, 
and kept Jojhua employed fix years ^ : In the end, great 
numbers are fuppofed to have left their country, and, tra- 
velling towards ^r/V, to have fettled there, ereding a mo- 
nument in memory of the calamities which had driven them 
from their native place, and inveighing againfl Jojhua by 
a very injurious appellation, as will be obferved hereafter 
in the hiftory of that continent. In their way thither they 
are fuppofed to have feized on the lower Egypt j where 
dicv ereded a monarchy, which fubfifled under feveral of 
their own kings ; but, being at h& overpowered, they were 
obliged to retire farther weflward into Afric : which hai 
induced fome to think them the Phamician paflors, who 
lorded it fo long over Egypt P. 

After the Canaanites h2Ld been fucceffively defeated, 
and at length difperfed and reduced, ihc Jnakims R {Z),, 
who alfo inhabited lome of the mountains of the land, a 
fierce and barbarous race, and of an origin diftindl from 
the Canaanites^ as is thought, were invaded, and cut off ; 
and thus by degrees the I/raelitis became mafters of the 
greatefl part of the land of Canaan, 

« Jofli. xi. * UssER. annal. ad A. M. 2554. p Sec before, 
p. 40, (C). ^ Joih. ubi fupr. 

(Z) Thefe are held to have whether they were only a more 

been what we call giants^ and numeroas and (lout people, or 

are derived from one Aria, who really men of a larger fizc» has 

ieiaed on the city oi Hebron^ beendifputed; though we think 

tnm whom it was called Kir- without reafon, if we believe 

jmib'Arba^ the city of ^rha. the defcription of thefpies fent 

From Arba deicended Anak by Mofes to view the land (4^). 

(41), who» it feems, had three As for the various etymons of 

Ions, whom we (hall mention their name, they are too an- 

kereafier. From Anak the certain and ^r<fetched to defer vc 

AnaAims derive their name ; but a place here. 

(41) Jojb.xxr, 15. XX. 13, 14. (4*) Numk xi'iu r/er, ult, 


"Thi H^ory df Canaan? B. L 

But ftill the Canaanites of feveral denominations were 
ftroi^ and potent, and held no mean fhare of the country; 
and, for nineteen or twenty vears, the remainder of J9* 
fi)ua^^ days, they were very httle mokfted ; being fufifered 
to breadie, while the important bufineis of dividing their 
country, by the conqueror, could be regulated and ad* 

This dividon being made, the Canaanites were on all 
fides invaded again by the tribes of ifrael^ who wanted 
each to drive them out of their refpenive lots. The Ca* 
naaniu$ and Perizzites in Bezek were accordinzlv invaded 
by the tribes of Simeon and Judahj and there fell of them 
ten thoufand men. Being dius routed in the field, tbqr 
retreated to the city of Bezek^ where jldonibezekj the Jung 
of that place, as his name imports, refided. This king it 
infamous for his Angular cruelty and infolence ; for, bf 
his own confefnon, having taken feventy kings captive, hil 
cut off the thumbs and great toes of each, and obliged 'cm 
to receive their meat under his table, like fo many dogi. 
The city itfelf was now aflaulted and carried ; and all dime 
within the walls were put to the fword. AdonibexekMa!^ 
felf was in the city at this time, though he, it feems, efcap* 
ed : but, being afterwards overtaken in his flight, his thumbi 
and great toes were cut off ; a jufl requital, as he himielf 
acknowleged, for his former cruelty \ but his life was im- 
defervedly fpared, he being carried alive to Jerufalem^ 
where he died ; for that city had been taken ana burnt be- 
fore ; but whether by Jojhua formerly, or the tribe of Jw^ 
dah now »^, is not veiy clear (A). 

' Judg.i. 3—8. 

(A) Jerufalem is mentioned both the fort and the city wfadi 

as taken by Jojhua i bat, as Danjid gave them their frtal 

may be obferved, ^he Canaan^ blow ; and, confidering the 

ites retook feveral places which temper and infolence of t£e 7f 

Jojhuti had torn from them ; bufitis^ it is not likely, tlui^ 

and die fame may have hap- while they poileifiNi the dta- 

pened at Jerufalem: for» tho* del, they would fufier the If' 

it 18 by moft commentators raelites to live quietly in the 

imagined, that the Ifraelites town. Upon the whole, tho* 

held thetowB, and the jif^j^/^j the place may have been re* 

the fbrtrefs of Zion^ ever duced by Jq/bua^ repofieflJBd 

afterwards \ Jo/epbm ( 43 ) by the Jebufiteh and redncoi 

^inly enougli telb us, they had a iecond time by the iribe of 

(43) JoSf^h.Lv\.c.i, 


T. The Hiftory of Canaan. aojj 

If EDI A T E LY after this the Canaanites were invaded 
era! other parts, and particularly in Hebron and De^ 
:wo cities which had formerly been deftroyed by 
r, but were now in the hands of the Canaanites again ; 
ance, among many others, of the refolution of this 
;, and their relu£bmce to quit their pofleffions. And, 
neral the Canaanites in the highlands or mountains 
(educed ; but thofe in the low- country were able to 
iieir ground, becaufe they had chariots of iron. He^ 
in this war, fell into the hands of Calebs who thence 
ed the three fohs oi Anak^ (B). 
[E other tribes made alfo fome vigorous, but fuccefe- 
ttempts againft thofe cities that had fallen to their lot. 
^0/2^ was attended with better fuccefe againft Beth'- 
lich was betrayed to them, and taken by furprize. 

> on the contrary, was fo far from gaining any ad- 
je againft thofe of A echo ^ Zidon^ Ahlab^ Achzibj &c. 
3 fettlement among them feems rather to have been 

* Judg. i. 9—20. 

now, yet it is likely there brother? that is, mjbo is mf 
[ways difpu tea between the equal? £y the name oi S be- 
tes and the IJraelites^ and Jhai\}ckQ fecond, he fuppofes him 
he latter were driven out to him to have been fix cubits 
former a fecond time ; and high, as Goliath is faid to have 
in the days of /)^?i//V, the been, ^almai^ the name of 
tes bad both the city and the third, he derives from ta- 
s in their own hands j as fam^ a furrtyw (45), as if he 
us aiTures as above. It feemed in length equal to the 
babiy on this account, furrow of a field. This is an 
z tells us elfewhere (43), ingenious thought, fome may 
le tribe oijudab did now fay,and (bme may think it a little 
Jtrujalem^ but did not prefumptuous.7tfy2|;^^x'i(46),ashi8 
i in the attempt. cuflom is too frequently, gives 
The names of thefe fons us a fearful account of thefe 
%k are Ahiman, Shejbai^ inhabitants of/Zf^rfl^r; "Among 
'eUmai (44] ; concerning '* the ilain, fays he, were found 
; we (hall only remark " fome gigantic forms, who not 
Bccbart has faniied, as to *' only exceeded the ordinary 
iport of their namet. To ''fizeofmen, but differed al£> 
with their fether, Anak ** from them in afpedt and 

ikes to fqaare with the ** voice Some of their 

same Torquatus ; the '' bones are expofed as a pro* 

► f^r firft of the brother's " digy to this day." 
Abtman, or, nvhi is my 

<'(V> ^v. c. 2, (44) Numb, xiii. 22, (4$) Canaan, 1,1 e. r« 

)L. IL O con' 

aio tbeHytory i>^ Canaan. .B.I 

confined to fuch places as were granted on certain condi- 
tions iqipofed by the old ijihabitants. The Amorites pncflU 
hard upon the children of Dan^ and confined them (o dn 
mountains ; thofe of Aijalon and Shaalbim ftill kqpt tk 
mountain of Heres in their own hands. But the DmAni 
being in time aflifted by the houfe of Jofeph^ brought tben 
at length, under tribute, enlarged theu: own territories, ani 
fixed thoie of their opprelEve neighbours yr^m thigiunif 
to Akrabbimyr^/w the rock^ and upwards ^ (G). 

Thus, upon the divifion of their country, and the at- 
tempts made by the feveral tribes to drive them out, tb 
whole land w^asin a ferment of war, which ended with. W 
great fuccefs on either fide ; and the adverfe parties feecvv^ 
have been pretty equally matched. So that altboug^i 'i^ 
certain, that multitudes of this people were (lain in th^^ ^ 
with Jojhua^ and that, as is very rationally fuppofed, isL 
of them fled the land in queft of more fure and quiet at : -yA 

yet fuch was their remaining number, valour, or fi ipc 

(kill in war, that after all their calamities they feem 
been but little inferior to the Ifraelitis. Nor after 
we mifs one tribe of them, except the Girgafites (D 

The Canaanittiy the Sidomans^ and the 
mount Lebanon^ from Baalhermon to 


I J 

left to prove Ifrael^ to exercife rhrm irUh frinpii „|^j^i| 

t Judg. i. ai — 36*" 

«f . - 

•J41 • 

(C) For want of knowing the 
cxadlfituation of the places here 
mentioned, we are at a loTs to 
underhand whether the Amor- 
ites were left mailers of a ftnall 
or a large territory. Obfcu- 
rities of the fame kind there are 
many ; bat our reader, we 
hope, will/ upon this occafion, 
and all of alike nature, excufe 
our want of prefumption ; or» 
that we do not pretend to ihcw 
him the exa^ iituations of 
places, which* ftiom the heft 
lights we have, can hardly be 
guefled at ; and muft for ever, 
i( is likely, remain a difpute 

f I 

among fuch a« hay&^.ri^^ 
waile, and littlp eUb '^ d^,fi 
think of. '."-3^ u-i 

(D) We arc pofitiin^^ii 
they Hed ni^XQAfrU {s^jr^ 
they ^ed iheir fta^. ^.- .,w 
their being onutted is — _ ^ 
tionalljf accountec|fiu'|r- ^ ^ 
it were difficult ^. ~ 
none |>eionging ta 

tribes aocosipanipj 

trod afteJTwajds i^ 

fteps^. yet may w$. 

dude^that xiitGirga^ 

the^ebipf of .^ ft^^ 

tbis country^ ^mSf^ «^ -^ 

ipeak when w^ cone ^ ^^-^ 

(46) Gm€r% Hiercf(,ljmltt sd tit, Shthitib, c, 6. 

:V. Hi Hift&fy ^ Catiaan^ «li^ 

cry and (In (£), and the more immediately devoted 
11189 the Canaanites^ Hittites^ Amorites^ Perixzites^ 
'ftti^ and Jebuf$USy dwelt, as it were, in common, 
the children of Ifrael in their promifed land. Being 
blended together, they^ in time, wrought fo upon 
inftable mimls of the Ifraelites^ as to perfuade thenl 
termarry With them, and ferve their gods ", thereby 
Vating their minds, as they afterwards did their bodies. 
311 in a very few years, nine or ten, or thereabout, ^^^/;, II. 
» , whom we may reckon the fecond of the name. Year of 
g he reiided at the very fame place with the former, the flood 
employed by Gob to puniih the Ifraelttts^ as the in- 1063. 
nent of his wrath. This prince, it is likely, rebuilt Bef. Chn 
#r(F), which had been deftroyed by Jeflma^ re^a- 1285. 
ed the royal feat there. Was mailer of nine hundred ' 

■ Judges ii. 21— 23. iii. 1 — 7. 

) Here we fee a reniarka- 
liftindion made between 
*>mMmanitis of Jo/hud's con- 
p and thofe who were not 
as if thefe, who were 
their borderers, were more 
\Xt or more likely to tempt 
fraeUtes than thofe who 

aftually inmates with 
. Whence, whether we 
3 conclude, that the ido- 
of the former was more 
nting than that of the 
*^ or their luxary more 
ing; or whether at all, 

was aay real difference 
een them; we leave the 
r to fanfy. Both religious 
political reafons have been 
led for this mercy towards 
*mMsuudteSi Of the former 
liat the Ifratiites might 
;rowfluggi(h for want of 

.to awaKen and ilir up 
odarage^ and to keep up 
nil difapllne among them, 
duit they might always 

a more immediate (late 

) Set Pttritk upon Juifitt uL 2. 
Vi. 22. 

of dependence on God, ot look 
conftantly up to him for fuc- 
cour (47). Of the latter, That 
no part of the country^ which 
was too extend ve to be tho- 
roughly inhabited by thcl/iaei- 
itcsi might lie defolate,. fo as 
to be left for a harbour to wild 
beaftsj which might, by their 
increafe, prove a more dreadful 
and pernicious enemy than thd 
Canaanites (48}. 

(F) We think with thofe, 
whofuppoie xYihJabin to have 
defcended from the other, who 
fell by the hand of Jo^a j 
and that he now feized on the 
fpot where Hazor formerly 
ftood^ and rebuilt that cityi 
which, feeing he was fo power- 
ful a prince, is not at all un- 
likely, though feme quedion 
it. Whether Jahin was an np- 
pellation common to all the 
kings of Ha»or, we cannot af- 
firm from pofitivc authority i 
though it feems to have been 
a common cuflom in thefe pans 

(48) S€e Excd. xxiii. 29. and 

O 2 



The Hijlory of Canaan. B.l 

chariots of iron (G), which, as well as the reft oflw 
hnft-, were under the command of Stfera^ whodWelcii 
Hijjhnreth of the Gentiles (H). yabin therefore rcdiicrf 
the Ifraelites to a ftate of flavery, and cnicHy opprcfly 
them for twenty years. But whether he held them ing^ 
ncral under fuhje^kion, or the northern tribes oniyi b 
uncertain. Be that as it will, his dominion overthm 

for kings to fucceed each other 
under the fame appellation, as 
Pharaoh in Egypt, Agag in 
AniaUkitis, &c. He is in the 
text called king of Canaan ; 
which, whether it . relcrs to 
the CanaaniteSf peculiarly fo 
called, or to the whole body 
of the Canaanites in general, 
we take not on us to lay. 

(G) The number of thefe 
chariots, which are all along 
taken for the fcythed fort, is 
much wondered at by the 
learned. Whether he had fuch 
a multitude of them before he 
waned upon I/rael, or whe- 
ther, by reducing them, he at 
once enlarged his empire, and 
augmented his forces, is not 
faid j though, it is probable, 
he had not fo many before. 

But what fhall we fay to the 
extravagant account, which Ja- 
fephus gives of thefe armies, 
hinted in a late note (49) ? If 
Bochart wonders, as he does, 
at the 900 chariots the Scri- 
pture gives him, obferving, 
that Mithridates had but 100 
in his army, and Darius but 
200 (50) ; what muft he have 
thought of Jofephui\ 3000 ? 
Indeed, not only in the num- 
ber of the chariots, but in that 
alfo of the horfe and foot, he 
is too large to be eafily cre- 
dited ; nor, perhaps, is it al • 


ways fafe to lend an attends 
ear to that hiftonan. And \ 
is to be noted, that notwith'' 
(bLoding he, on this fide^ \!^ 
vadly exceeds what the ^otr 
ptare feems here to^intenk4c^l( 
agrees therewith in the ni^jgh 
of the Ifraelites^ who roi^ a' 
recover their rights, recU^a^ 
them at only io.oo c:r-j 'ti 
What authority he had ^■bir 
very extraordinary exoe^HlsiB 
numbers of the C 
againft the IJraeliies^ 
not : but his vie^ 
been to do hottbUf^ 
ample, as in odi«i 
countrymen and: 
with the Romanss .wWorrijiy 
chiefly in their milxtij 0. 
ploits, and in what th^r&idm 
had done before : ti^em cte 

(H) U Haxor was x^iot .» 
built, then Hajboriti .^J^^ 
Gentiles bids fan* to lutv 
the royal feat. It is a 
the Gentiles^ as k l\ 
from a confluence of 
who came now to pat 
felves mider the _ 
Jabin*s growing qnpiie 
cities were fltuated qn t 
Smachon, Or SissnechoL 
which the JorJoB b]^' 
courfe, and near the pb^ ^ 
Seleucia was fince built ( Ji' 

(49) An'Aj^ lib, v. r. 6, 
♦ '0 Jvf'^^^^ uii fu^ira. 

(<;o) Hierozoie, pMtt i* lik^f*f> 
(52) yid. Eujd. Uc. Heir. 



IV. Tie Hift&ry of Canaan. 2/^ 

UF^ at the end of twenty years, as wc have faid. 
iws.l^as brought to Sifera^ that the Ifraelites had been 
red. up to rebellion \ and that they were a<^ually in arms, 
ifulcing together, how they might ihake ofF his maftcr's 
"Xfim Whereupon he prepared the nine hundred chariots 
irpn, and iflued a proclamation, requiring the men of 
r toaflemble together, to march out againft the Ifrael^ 
', who were but teii thoufand ftrong, with Deborah 
\ Barak at their head. They came to a battle, and 
lira waa routed, and purfued, with great flaughter, quite 
the gates of Hajhoreih of the Gentiles (I). That ge- 
al j apprehending he might fall into the enemies hands, 
tCted his chariot, and, flying on foot, dire6);ed his fteps 
He tent of Heber the Kenite^ who was at amity with 
!6f. He found Jael^ Heber^s wife, in the tent-door, 
69 perceiving the hurry and diforder he was in, in- 
ated him to fiep in, and fear nothing; which he no 
ncr did, than fhe covered him, in order to conceal ^ 

ly or that he might take no harm while he repofed, 
» the fatigue of the battle and flight. He had not lain ' 
2 ere he complained he was thirfly, and begged a 
Mghtof water; inilead whereof his kind hoflefs presented 
• with a bowl of new millc, of which when he had drank, 
I covered him again. Then he called out, and deflred 
^'Iff any one came to inquire if flie had any man within, 
Atitwer no, and to ftand at the tent- door for that pur- 
fc. Now, being greatly fatigued, he fell into a deep 


I) The particulars of the gaged, than there arofe a fu- 

Je are not recorded in the rioas wind^ which drove fuch 

«d text ; but thence it very sl tempeft of hail and rain into 

My appears, that there was the feces of the Canaanites^ as 

lethihg miraculous and ex- flifled and blinded them, and 

ihlibary in this defeat of benumbed their fingers to that 

l|ji*s hoU, thunders, light- decree, that they were, in all 

^« and frightful founds reipeds, difabled from action ; 

lUiDg^ in their ears ; fo that fo that they were eafily broken 

^eavens bad the principal and dlfperfed^ and trampled to 

i m this overthrow. An4 death by the horfe, and torn 

tfius^ that we may not won- to pieces by their own chariots, 

at the riiin of fo mighty a which» together with the exe- 

ttr by fo' contemptible a cation made on them by the' 

dfol of. ifraelites^ tells Ifraelites^ quite diffipated this 

rery drtfumitantially. That mighty multitude, and reduced 

armies were no fooher en- them to nothing (52 j. 

(52) Jopfbus, ubi fs^a% 

O 3 flccpj 

^be Hijiory of Canaan. . B,l, 

fleep ; and JaeU taking one of the tent-nails, an J a bammeri 
trod foftly up to him, drove the nail into his temples, and 
thus killed him. By this time Barak having reached the 
tent in queft of Si/era^ f^^h ^ith a triumphant air, went 
out to him, and invited him to the tight of the nun he 
fought, whom he here faw dead with the nail driven into 
his temples. So fell Stfera ; and with him yabinh-^xj 
and oppreilion, which gave the Ifraelites a forty years 
peaceful refpite ^ (K). 

f Now what the Canaanitis did, or what was done 

d againft them after this, for a long feries of years, we are 
no- where told. Thus much appears, They had been able 

if): to maintain their ground in feveral parts, and particularly 
in Jerufalem^ till the reign of David, Wh^n the J^ 

J bujites^ who held that city, or at lead the fortrefe of 
Z/^/7, faw David a£iually advanced up to them to bcfieg^ 

^ them, they pofied their lame and their blind (L) to defend 

^ Judg. iv. per tot. 

(K) Jofephus gives us the folution of it s and hokbitpift 

particulars of his downfal. difpute, that this was a flpofifli 

^abin met Barak as he was in of thrafpnifm in the Jihitfae^i 

lull march againft f^^ss^r/ and who planted their Janus and 

was encountered by him and their blind, that is, their noft 

flain ; and Hazor, the feat of infirm and unfit people, to de- 

his empire, was laid level with fend them : while Dr. Gregtrj 

the ground ; and thus fell the (56), who has a whole difiota- 

empire of the Jabins in Hazor tion aboi^t it, underflands them 

a fecond time (53), according to have been the gods of this 

to this hiftorian. people, who, as the pfahnift 

(L) Who or what thefe exprelTes it, had tyes, audfim 

lame and blind were, is made not, and feet^ and nvaHted nti 

a doubt; it is difputed, whe- (SJ)'" and this opinion isfap- 

ther we mull, with Jofephus ported by thefe very planfible 

(54), und^rftand them to have arguments j i. How could jPo^ 

been perfons a£lually labouring W difUnguifh the halt, or 

under the infirmities of lame- the lame, or the blind, from. 

nefs and blindnefs, or whether able men, when poiled upon 

fomething elfe is here to be un- lofty walls, iince thofe in£rmi- 

^erflood, as others think. Bo- ties are not difcernible but near 

€hart (55) deems this fo plain at hand ? 2. How can it be 

a cafe, that he wonders how fuppofed there was fuch a niun- 

fbme great men had puzzled her of thefe unfortunate per- 

their brains with finding out a ions in fo fmall a dty as m%ht 

C^S) Idem ibid. (f.^) Ibid, lib, vii, c. 2. {^^ Phalii^hb, iv, 

f. 36. (56) In Patn(X*$ (gmmenfary ujfon tlu faffkge, (57) P/S/. cxv. 

tV. 3le rn/iary if Canaan. 

a^ faying, they were fufficient to keep off to mean 
leader, relyine wholly on the ftrength of their walls 
Situation. They were, however, difappointed, and 
place was carried by ftorm''(M). But the circum- 
X8«of this event are left in the dark. 
HIS, doubtlefs, was a very fevere blow to the Ca^ 
tiff in general, and muft luive perplexed them much : 

to complete their misfortunes, they were invaded in 
r by Pharaoh ; upon what provocation, or whether 

is utterly unknown (N) : their city was burnt, and 

* 2 Sam. V. 6-^9, 


fuch a purpofe ? 3. And 
Ihould David fay, as he 
that bis foul hated them ; 
it would have been bat 
il in him to have com- 
ited their unhappy con- 
? From tkefe aigumentt 
Doluded, that it was not 
me and the blind of the 
whom the Jehufiia re- 
r, but their idols, which, 
P/alme^ are deiicribed in 
Jtaftic^l words we have 
d above, and which they 
i upon their walls, by 
power or influence to 
off the enemy i which 
koped would have been fo 
otts a means of pre- 
; them, that they truiUd 
' would be unable to pre- 
;ainft their fupematural 
ions. And here a pa- 
a(e is drawn in reference 
Palladium^ the city of 
ciog fuppoied to be im- 
bie, while that xenudned 
!lftm I and fome fucht or 
tdt notion mi^.have ob- 
unoog tltityehufif^i QQW. 
up their god or gods 
|>; t^ we ihaU adcl one 
AO^iP^tioa of a Jrwi/k 
upon this event. H^ 

PWlCM^. in a &nii,^.^, ' 

pretends, that when Abraham 
bought the cave of Machpelah 
of the children of Heth^ he 
formally covenanted with them, 
that, when his pofterity ihould 
come to be pofleflbrs of the 
land (which they had a fore- 
i^ght of), they ihould not touch 
the dty of Jebusi and that 
now they engraved this cove- 
nant upon brazen flatues, and 
planted them upon their walls, 
pretending that Da^id could 
not attempt them, but by the 
breach of the covenant his 
forefather Abraham had made 
with them (59). 

(M) We have already ob- 
iervedy that, according to Ja- 
fifhus (60), the Jibufites were 
in Doffeffion both of the dty 
of jerufalem^ and the fortrels 
of Zion i to whi(;h he adds, 
that the lower town was eaUly 
carried by an ailault, with La- 
vid at the head of it i but that 
the cadle or fortrels held out 
till Jcab fucceeded in the im- 
portant fervice of aflaulpi^g it, 

(N) A late commentator, is 
of opinion, that Pharaoh at* 
tacked the Canaanit^r at tivis 
places out of 
Qolomon, who had married his 

($9) Elietu^ Fhh^ t»f^ 36. 

O 4 daughter i 

21 6 The Hijiory of Canaan* B. I. 

they put to the fword. The city was afterwarda rebuilt 
or repaired by Sohmon^ who had it with his wife, Pba-^ 
raoh's daughter y. 
Year of l^HUs opprelled by the Ifraelites on the one hand, and 
the flood by the mighty power of Egypt on the other, the remnant 
1336. of the AmoriteSy Hittites, Perizzites^ HiviteSj and Jthuf- 
Bcf. Chr. ;7^j were reduced, in the reign of Solomon j to a rate of 
1012. flavery ; whence it is gathered, that they were now brought 
^^f^f^^ to fo low an ebb, as to be unable to anfwer the demands 
. of a tribute ; wherefore, being admitted into a covenant, 
mom esy ^ j^ ^^^^ rationally fuppofcd, with klngSolomoriy he would 
^^ * not cut tliem off, but employed them in the heavy labour 
ducedto a^^ carrying on his vaft and fumptuous works* And diis 
ftati of Servility was entailed on their pofterity * ; for, although it 
fla*v§ry. ^^ ^^^7 certain, that they, upon their firft redu£tion, be* 
came profelytes to the Jewijh religion, yet, it is thought, 
they were diflinguifhed from the Jewi^ and reckoned of 
a more ignoble blood, and as born to drudgery. This is 
fuppofed to have been their fate, and thus are they thought 
to have been blended with the Jews ; though it b fiur from 
being pofitively known (O). And now it remains only 
for us to obferve. That among the tribes of the Canaan* 

y I Kings IX. 16. ' See ver. 20, 21. See aUoEzn 

ii. 55, 58. and Nehem. xi. 3. 

daughter ; for, apprehending ter. It is firA iaid, j4nd.attth9 
the Je^ws to be very little ac- people that were left of tht 
quaintcd with the arts of con- Jmorites, Hittites^ Periz,xJtes, 
during a fiege^ he fuppofes Hi'vites and JeBufiies tvkich 
they were not able to mafter were not of the children ^ 
this city of Gexer (61); which, IfraeU their children that lum 
how it came to be fo much left after them in the laai^ 
ilronger than Jerufalemy and njobom the children of Ijroil 
the fortrefs of Zion, and many alfo nvere not able to defirff^ 
other places by them fubdued, upon thofe did Solomon levj « 
is hard to guefs. This Pharaoh tribute of bond- fer^uice unto tUx 
isbyaIearnedchronologer,who </^y? (63). And, at theretom 
takes this to have been the firft from captivity, there is men- 
expedition the Egyptians made tion made of the children %f 

out of their own country, Solomons fer^vants Jbd 

called Ramejfex Miamun (62\ . all the Netbinimsj and the clnlr 

(O) We will give the reader dren of Solomon^ s femjonis^itien 

the mofl obvious texts of Scri- three hundred ninety-t^wo (64). 

pture which relate to this mat- And elfewhere are the NM* 

(61) Vide Ckrie, in 1 Reg, ix. 16. (62) Meirjh, can, chren. edfee* 

'3> '4* (63) 1 Kingi ix, ao, ar^ {64) Enre ii. 55, 5S. 

f. ^he Hiftary of the Philiftines. 21 f 

snumerated above to have been laden with the yoke 
lemon^ xht CanaaniteSy peculiarly fo called, as we 
hitherto fpoken, are omitted : thefe, therefore, we 
conclude, bore none of the burden, but remained 
% and independent in their poffeffions on the fea-coaft, 
ftcr wards to a great height of fame, and, continually 
ving themfelves in navigation, commerce, and the 
arts, were comprifed under the famous appellation 


^e Hijlory of the Philiftines. 

E have already obferved, that this people defcended T'^^^/r ^^ 
from the Cafluhim partly, and partly from the Caph-gin, 
•, both from the loins of Mizraim, the fon of Ham^ 
n of Noah, This is their origin j whence it appears, 
Egypt was their firft feat : nor have we aught to a(fd 
ming the origin of this people, except we acquaint our 

a See vol. i. p. 373, 374. 

mui the children of Solo- math, and made them his tribu- 

(grwantSy mentioned to- taries, they paying their tri- 

(65); and in thefe laft bute in fervile works and la- 

oar tranflators refer us hour ; to which purpofe they 

to the firft, as if they were to furnifh Solomon with a 

the childreh of the Ca- certain number of flaves agreed 

'*i, on whom Solomon im- on, who were to till the ground, 

a tribate of bond-fervice. and go through other forts of 

bere is a difficulty to ac- drudgery ; and over thefe, faya 

£6r the fmalnefs of the he, were fix hundred officers 

5r, fb that commentators appointed to fot them their 

irilling to deduce thefe tasks, and keep them to their ' 

med upon the return work (66) ; afterwards, cnu- 

Mylon, from fome other merating thofe who returned 

. Perhaps we (hall find from Baby Ion y be reckons up 

traces of them in Jofe- fix hundred and fifty, who 

who, with fome varia- pafiTed for I/raelites, but could 

firom Scripture, having not make out their extraction :' 

inted us. That Solomon others of uncertain genealogy 

id a ftubborn remnant of there were five hundred twcnty- 

wmumitesy inhabiting be- five ; and of fervants that at* 

HMQnt Libanus and Ha- tended upon the whole multi- 

5) Ncbm. Xi. 3. (66} Jofepb. antif. lib, yiU, c.%. 


4l8 72>if Hiftory of the Philiftin^s. B. I. 

readers more panicularly than wc hivt already l* with dis 
improbable notiom* as we thtnlc them, of fooie of the 
learned concerning the CaJJuhim and Capitofim {A). 
But wc have, as much as polHble, fofbom td per^Aour 
reader with what can afford no (blid frtirt. A^^we"cas 
further fay with any certainty, is what Mf/n tells' uvdle- 
where < ; viz. that they drove out the jfvim or 4t>itii tna 
to Azxah or Gaxa, and fettled there. When this etpul- 
fion happened, is quite uncertain ; but, upon theMrhotei it 
is plain, that the Cajluhim and Caphtorim, frdm whom 
the Philijiinis arc deiccnded, came originally from Egjp{; 
and, having fettled in this country, gave their name to it. 
But, for the defciiption of this delicious fpoi, we refa 
our readers to the geography of the Land of promift, of 
which it was a chief, if not the belt, part ; arid flial) only 
fpeak here of the government, cuflums, religion, C^c. w 
fo renowned a people. 
7heirgt- Thmr mott antient form of government wsls a^- 
vtmmtni, niftred by kings, who were all honoured with the appdb- 
tuftams, iian oi AbimiUeh ; fuch were the kings of this people, fa- 
*c* ther and fon, who dealt with Ahrahsm and IJaac : but, u 

we have obfcrved concerning the Canaaniiis, ami dS will 
be plainly fecn in 'the following hiftory, theft Uttti&a^ 
were under great limitations. The fceptrc depaiiftl Cltini 
tfiis race very foon ; for, in the days or Mofei^ tTlelf ti»- 
narchy was changed into anariftocracy of five lordj, ivbo 
ieem to have been in part independent of each otliert tto' 
tiiey were alfo, it feems, obliged to aS in concert for flje 
common caufe. After this they had a king over than; 
but how this change was brought about, or whether it ms 
their choice or not, is utterly unknown. This fecOnd race 
of kings are called, fo far as wc know, by the appeUatiMi of 

^ See vol. i, p. 373, 374. • Deut. ii. 25. 

tude,ferenthourand three hun- each 1 and, .moreova-, tku 
died thirty-feven (67]. Thefe multitudes of them remaiiMil 
three numbers making eight behind in the place of .tbeir 
Chou&nd five hundred and captivit/. 
twelve, may, it is likely, have (A) As that the d^uhm 
been Cawanita; but fiill the were the antient Celcbi'^t- 
number is too final], except we fcribed by tftrsJa/a) ; and ihf 
fuppofif, that the &r greateft Cafhiorim, the CaMa/hcitm 

rt of the better fort were in Jfia miiitr ) which, choiitli 
blended with the Jiws, we have rejected a!re<i(iy IM\, 
that there was no diftinguUhing we may have DCcaficn' 19 i,e- 
between the pretenuons of fume hereafter. 

(«7} Id'Bi aid. lit. si. e. 4. {6i) Sn Wi. /■ 37], 374> 

C IV. 5nhf Hiftirj of ibi PhiUftinei. %i^ 

Achijb^ diough they bore likewife the name of AhlnuUch. 
Three of thefe we have fome account of, and their power 
feems to have been circumfcribed within very narrow 
bounds ; they were fubje£i: to the controul of their impe- 
rious nobks, and particularly of the lords, the five, wo 
think, who feem to have fubfifted under thefe kings ; fo 
that thefe princes were, in all likelihood, to a<^ merely a* 
Umpires, and to appear at the head of affairs, cyphers of 
ftate, without any real power. We find little or no men- 
tion of thisfecond race of kings. They held their refidence 
at Gath^ during their befl times ; from whence the royal 
feat was removed to Afcahn^ and from that city to Gaxa. 
\fi a word, we may lay, that the Philifttnes had very flrong 
notions of liberty. They did not circumcife, and, in their 
earliefl times at leaft, held adultery in the greateft abomi- 

After what we have faid, we need not obferve thatTAr/r 
they were a very warlike people ; but we muft add, thztcbaractir^ 
diey diftinguifhed themfelves by their induftry. Their cha- ^•w'f «<sf^^ 
racier muft be confidered at different times ; for we may*''''* ««- 
fay, they were not always the fame people. In the days '^^^^^^^t 
of Abraham and Ifaac they were, without all doubt, a ^^' 
righteous and hofpitable nation ; and fo, in great meafure, 
they may have been under their firfl race of kings : but 
4dterwards a revolution in government, religion, and 
morals, may have enfued. From henceforward they be- 
came like other idolatrous nations, the fame enormities 
crept in, and prevailed among them. They are conflantly 
mentioned in Scripture as ftrangers j and, though poffefTed 
of a moft confiderable part of the Land of promijey yet God 
would never fufFer them to be driven out ; they being Egy^ 
ftians by defcent, and not original natives, whofe land 
only was promifed to Abraham and his feed. Their arro- 
gance and ambition were great, and fo irreconcileable was 
their enmity (E) to the IfraeliteSy that one would bealmofl 


(E) And from a pailage in fenfe we mad take this pafiage 

Chronicles {%)'yx. is gueffed to in. As to the time it was 

have been of very antient date ; tranfafled, moft people allow 

where it is laid, that the. men it to have been while the chil- 

fif Gath Jlrw the children of dren of IJrael were ibjoumera 

Epfaraim, nuho luould ha*ve in ^gypt. It plainly appears 

taken their cattle from them, by the next verfe, that Epbraim 

This incident is no where elfe Mimfelfwas the time. 

to be fbmidy and there are va- The Targum fuppoies hi» chil* 

rioas thoughts concerning the dren mifcompBted the time 

(3) z Cbron. vii. 21, 


2 20 The Hificry of the Philiftiiwu B, t 

tempted to think they were created on purpofe to be a thorn 
in their fide ; for» though the hand of God was evidendy 
againft them feveral times, and particularly when they de- 
tained the>ark, yet they hardened their hearts, and dofed 
their tyts againft convidion, flattering themfelves, that 
they might one day compafs their ends againft the Ifrael- 
ties. They feem to have entertained a very fond venen- 
tion for their deities, in which they perilfted, though they 
were eye-witnefles of the fhame and ignominy which b&- 
fel them in the prefence of the captive ark ; nay, thgr 
were fo biafled in their favour, as to imagine that their ; 
gods might prevail againft him, who had, m fo glaring a 
manner, put them to fhame and difgrace. They were 
much addiiSied to trade, which, confidering their fituation, 
they may have exercifed from the beginning ; but, by t}ie 
acceiEon of the fugitive Edomites in David's time k, thqf 
rofe to fo great a reputation as merchants, that the Greeks^ 
it feems, preferred them to all other nations in that re- 
fpe6t ; and, from them, called all the country borderii^ on 
theirs Palejline J. Their language was not fo different from 
that fpoken by the Hebrews j as to caufe any difficulty for 
them to converfe together, as will be perceived by their 
intercourfe with Abraham and Ifaac\ fo that^ in ^ di^^. 
region, the feveral nations fpoke one and the farne tdng^ 
perhaps with fome variation of disJeft. They hajj, doji^-^ 
le(s, the arts and fciences in common with the mpft leaiiie(L- 
and ingenious apiong their contemporaries ; and, perbags^ 
fome of them in greater perfeftion. They had gjanti 
among them, who, whether they were origmally of the 
breed of the Anakimsy who retired hither when they W€« 
expelled Hebron "», or were fprung from accidental oirths, 
iz not eafily determined. We muft not forget, that the 

k See before, p. 175, 176. ^ See Cumberland mgoi^ 

gent. antiquiiT. p. 37. « See before, p. 207. 

they were to fcrve in Egypt^ fenfc, which feems moft ob- 
and began too early an attempt vious, they may ferve to ic* 
upon their promifed land. Dr. count for the reafon why lihftt 
Lightfoote^i^) makes the men of would not condudl the Ifreuh- 
Gath to have been the aggref- ites by the way of the Pbi^- 
fers, and fuppofes the £^i&rtf/«- Jiines. If this be the ^aie,' it 
ites only ftood up to defend muft have been fome horrid i&^ 
themfelves and tattle. But, jury, or wtxy uncommonly re- 
taking the words in the firft fented. 

(4) Annstatt in Gen* Juh fne% 

4 invention 

C. IV. Sie Hiftory of the Philiftines. 32 1 

invention of the bow and arrow is afcribed to them (F), 
and diat they were particularly (killed in the ufe of them. 

Xhbir religion was different at different times : unAtr Their re- 
dicir firft race of kings they were of one religion with the^'i*^*. 
Hebrews : Abimelech^ in the fin he had like to have com- 
mitted with Sarahj through AbrahanCs timidity, was fa- 
voured with a divine admonition from God ; and, by his 
fpcech and behaviour at that time, it fccmfs as if he had 
been ufed to converfe with God. In after-times they 
erred into endlefs fuperftitions, and different kinds of ido- 
latry J each of the principal, or five cities, feeming to have 
hsul an idol of its own. Marna^ Marnasy or Marnajh o, 
wtoWorfhiped at Gaxa^ and is faid to have migrated into 
Crete (G), and to have become the Cretan Jupiter. Dagon 
was wormiped at Azotu5\ he feems to have been the 
greateft, the moft antient, and moft favourite god they 
had : to which may be added, that he, perhaps, fubfifled 
the longqft of any ^ that did not ftraggle out of the country. 

" HiERONYM. in Efai. 

« See I Mace. x. 

7F ) It 13 fuppofcd ( 5 ) that 
bttbre they removed from Pf- 
hfiuWy where they are thought 
to liave firft inhabited, as we 
Ihkll fliew hereafter, they had 
occafion to annoy the enemies, 
who then infelled them, at a 
diftance ; whereupon they in- 
vented the bow and arrow, 
wherewith they armed their 
ftoutefl men^ whom they palled 
Cherethites (6) ; a name which 
includes this whole nation, as 
will be obferved hereafter. 

(G) The migration of 
this god may be naturally 
enough accounted for, if true 
it be that the Pi//^/»^j planted 
the ifland of Crete \ and it 
feems plain, that the inhabit- 
ant? there were a colony from 
GascA in particular, the pecu- 
liar pUce of his worfhip. The 

Fhllifiines are, in feveral places 
of Scripture, (7) called Chere^ 
t bites: particularly, they arc 
To called by the Egyptian ( 8 ) 
whom Da'oid took when he 
was in purfuit of the Amalek- 
tttSy who had burnt Ziklag\ 
whence we may infer this to 
have been their jSj[^//it» name, 
or the name they were known 
by in. Egypt. The LXX every- 
where tranflate the word Cbe^ 
rethim, or Cherethites, by that 
of Cretans \ as they do that of 
Phiiiftiftes by allophyloi^ftrang" 
ers: and on this foundation 
fome learned men have .built 
their notion of deriving the 
Cretans from the ^Pbilifiinesi 
and from hence they proceea 
farther, and derive the Curetes 
alfo from them ; which we may 
coniider hereafter. 

(5) See Bedftri's Script, cbronoU p. 245. (6J Becbart, Can, /. i. r. is* 

(7) I Sam, ZXX* 14. Mffitlt* XXVt t6« Zffbun, iu S« . (8) x Sam. 

^ Ta 

122 The liijlory of the PKliftinics. R I 

To him they afcribcd the invention of bread*coro, or of 
agriculture, as his name imports P. We cannot enter into 
the common notion of his being reprefented as a monfter, 
halfman, half fifh; or confequently into another,. almoft 
as common, that he is the fame with the Syrian goddefs 
DercetOj who, we are told, was reprefented under (bmc 
fuch mixed form. Our opinion is, that this idol was in 
fhape wholly like a man ; for we read of his head, hk 
hands, and his feet^ (H). He flood in a temple at^svfir;, 
and had priefts of his own, who, it feems, paid a verycon- 
ftant attendance on him r. Next to Dpgon was BaaheM 
the god of Ekron. In the text of the New l>ftamcnt he 
is Beelzebub^ and the prince of devils. His name is rendered, 
lord of flies \ which, by fome, is held to be a mock appd- 



P See vol. i. p. 308, in the notes. 
Fifgah-iighc,bookii. c. 10. J. 32. 

1 See FuLLSiL*s 
'See I Sam. V. 3,4. 

f H ) That he had feet , we 
nnderlland from a Greek pead- 
ing of the LXX in Fuller ( 9 \ 
where mention- is made of Da- 
gpn\ mutilation; which runs 
thus ; ifAt^oTifct^ Tflt l^p / ra 

Here we are told, that the foles 
of his feet were offf that is, his 
feet. In the edition before us, 
which is after the Vatican copy, 
we read rti i^y^ Tm "/(jttfZv, or 
the files of his hands ; which 
(eems abfurd. We have never 
obferved, that the Greek word 
\yy^ is put for the palm of the 
hand. And we the rather re- 
je^ this reading, becaufe a xt- 
ry fenfelefs tautology follows 
at ; for it is faid, that theiurifts 
tf his hands were gone alfo. 
Whence it muft appear, that 
bands, in the firfl place, are 
corruptly placed for feet ; and 
thatZ)^z^off had hands, and head, 
and face, and feet. Sure no 


one, allowing this, will give 
him a fi(h's tail : that wooU 
make him Horace* s monfler in- 
deed. And here we cannot but 
note the fondnefe of the geB^ 
ralityof the learned, rather to 
derive his name firom yy de^^t 
fifh, than from jj^i* bread-con 
(10): it feems no difficult mat- 
ter to chufe which we are to 
flick by. From this laft cty- I 
mology it may be radoDaOy 
enough fuppofed, that they bor- 
rowed their idolatry from Egjft 
( 1 1 }; and that Dagom is aoo- 
py of their IfiSf to whom modi 
the fame invention is attriboteif^ 
Not that they brought it away 
from Egypt i from thence, tbw 
hiflory plainly aflures us, dey 
brought a pure fyflem of idi' 
gion ; and we do not reoiember ^ 
that Mo/es mentions the Efy 
ptians of his time as idolatets, 
once throughout all his wri- 

{9)Pif^ab'Jightyhookn, c. to. % %l* in the margin, (10) Sti^''^* 

f. 308, ttt not^ (11) Sit Shuckford't^ conne^i, ^ tht facr, mnd frrf*^' 
nfcl. i, p, 344, 

< latioa 

C. IV. pe Hifti^ of the PhUiftincs. 223 

lation beftowed on him by the yiws \ but others think him 
{o ftiled by his worfhipers, as Hercults Apomyos^ and 
others, were, from his driviiig thofe infefts awav \ and 
urge, that AhoTaah^ in his ficknefs ', would fcarcely I^ave 
applied to him, if his name had carried any reproach with 
it. But it niuft be remembred, it is the facred hiftorian that 
makes ufe*of that contemptuous term in derifion ; whereas 
the idolatrous monarch, who was one of his votaries, 
might call him by his common name, fuppofed to have 
been Baal-zebacth^ the lord of armieSy or Baal-Jhamim^' lord 
9f htavin^ or fome other bordering on Baal-ztbub, How 
or under what form he was reprefented, is uncertain : foine • 
place him on a throne, and attire him like a king; others 
paint him as a fly ^ ; a very wide difference ! Not to dwell 
on this obfcurity ; it appears, that he h% became an oracle, 
of the higheft repute for omnifcience and veracity ; that he 
had priefts of his own ; and that he, in the middle times at 
leaft, was much fought after by thofe who were anxious 
about futurity, or felicitous concerning other hidden mat- 
ters. Derceto we take certainly to have been the goddefs 
of Jfcalon u ; but, as we are herein only fupported by pro« 
biic authority, without the leaii countenance from Scri- 
,pture> we (hall not infift on it. feemingly the only 
city of all the five unprovided with a deity ; wherefore, as 
the Scripture declares, that AjbtarQth^<i or /IjUrte^ was 
worfliiped by this people, we are ready to place her at 
G^ih 5 and the rather, as this, of all their cities, may have 
had moft communication with ^idon ; but concerning her 
we muft be filent here, feeing we (hall have a more proper 
•opportunity to mention her hereafter. To fpeak in gene- 
ra concerning their religious rit^ and ceremonies, which 
b all we can dp ; they leem to have erecSted very large 
and fpacibus temples, or very wide halls, for the celebra- 
tion of their fdemn feafons and feftivals ^, for fuch they 
furely had \ that their religious ofiices \vere attended with 
muca pomp,, and a great concpurfe from all parts \ and 
that diey prefented their gods with the chief of their fpoil, 
and carried them about to war with them. We do not 
find kfi Scripture that they facriiiced their children ; and 
v^ the Cuntes (I) are faid to be derived fronl them. 
V We 

^ 2 Kings i. 2. ' Procopius Gazevs. • Vide Dioo, 
Sic. l.ii.p. 65. "^ I Sam.xrxi. to. * Judg. xvi. 2^. 

(I) The Curetes did facrifice and, from the fimilitude this 
their chiUrca xp Saturn (12) ; name bears to ChentSitc^f or 


224, The Hijiory of tbeVWrnr^. B.I 

We (hall now proceed to the hiftory of this extraordi- 
nary nation. Thev came dire£Hy out of Egypt (K), but 
upon what motive is not pofitively known, no more than 
the time of their removal ; and, finding the Avims f feated 

y Deut. ii. 23. 

Pbiliftinesy it ha? been advanced, 
that they are the fame peo- 
ple ( 13}; but as we have no 
warrant for faying the Phili- 
ftines pradtifed fo barbarous acd 
unnatural a cuflom, we may 
venture to pronounce, that they 
learned it not from them, hue 
borrowed it elfewhere. 

(K) This we take to have 
been really the cafe, and fo do 
many of great authority ; but 
there is alfo another opinion 
concerning this niatter ; for it 
IS th6ught there is a great affi- 
nity in name between the Ca- 
fiuhim and the Colchi \ whence 
it has been taught, that they 
migrated firil into the country of 
Colchis^ now Mingrelia\ and 
from thence, returning towards 
J^gyp^9 in their way, feized on 
tht country of the A-vims, and 
there fixed their abode. Bochart 
(14) takes this to be plainly 
proved by what is faid of the 
agreement between the Colchi 
and the Egyptians^ in Herodo- 
tus and others; therein for- 
getting, that the Fhilifiines 
did not circumcife ; which He- 
rodotusz^wxG^ us the Colchi^\^, 
Again, nothing can be pofi- 
tively afferted in this matter, 
by what the fame author re- 
lates, who fpeaks of them as 
dwelling in Colchis in his time, 
where they had abode ib long, 
that it yiz& doubtful when they 

fettled there firfl ; fo thatfron 
him no fblid argument can be 
deduced, to prove that the d/- 
chi he fpeaks of were the Cf- 
Jluhim ofMofes, In like man- 
ner the Capbtorim^ from, whott 
alfo the Fhilifiines are derived, 
are placed in Cafpadocim^ a 
country oi Afia ffwVi0/', adjoining 
to the country oi Colchis. Hoc^ 
lay they ( 1 5 ), we find thedtf 
called Side^ and the country 5/* 
dene^ mentioned by Strah: 
and becaufe Jide, in Greek, and 
caphtorj in Hehrenjj, fignify a 
pomegranate, therefore, in iB 
likelihood, the fame conntiy 
was, by the ^^^rrzvj, called Cth 
phtor, and, by the Greeks^ St 
dene. But, to fiiew that no- 
thing can be fixed from fnch a 
manner of arguing, it. may not 
be amifs to add, that the C«« 
phtorim are, on the other hau^ 
fuppofedto have dwelt mAfnt^ 
on the bay ofSyrtiSf which is 
fuppofed to have been cdkd 
•^in C^T chaph'tbor, the rir- 
cularjhore, as it forms a fan!- 
circle ; and that the pomcgn* 
nate was fo called by the Br* 
hrenvs, becaule it came torn 
that part of A/Hc^ coaSaam 
to what Pliny writes conoeniil 
the origin of that firuit ( 16). 
Another judicious aathor kll 
made it much more probabb 
that Caphtor is the ifland flf 
Crete, We refer the readerib 

(13) Bocbart, Cafi/e, See. (14) FhaUg, L iv. c. 3I. (15) BoebMrt. ^fit' 
(16; FJdcCUric, in Cen, X. Z4, 



7. The Hiftory of the PhUiftines: 

pleafant and fruitful land, and themfelves were ftrong 
gh tx) expel theni) they made their attempt and fuc- 
xL We are not much inclined to think them a very 
Tous multitude, when they iirft fettled in this their 
left ; for their king, even in the days of Ifaac^ grew 
IS of that patriarch's power; which is no great fign 
lis own was very coniiderable ; tho' poffibly they may 
been fettled there many years before, ana muft con* 
ntly have been much more numerous than they were 
}. But, fuppoiing this kingdom or ftate to have been 
reak in its beginnings, as moft others were, we pro- 
to the next notice we have of their aiFairs. 
iiMELECH (L), their king mAbraham^s days, wasAbime- 
Jy andjuft perfon, and appears to have had (bme in- lech I. 
urfe* with God. He refided at Gerar^ of which Year of 
he is called king, and had like to have been drawn ^<^ 
I very fatal fnare by the too great caution of Abraham ; ^5 * *. ^ 
coming into his kingdom, to be at a diftance from the ^f thrift 
li Siddimy pretended that Sarah was not his wife, but ' ^'' 

» Gen. XX. 3, & fcq. 

'or his reafons (17}^ as 
IS to what we have al- 

advanced as our opi- 
(18}. It would be in 
for US to touch on the 
f of the PhUiftines before 
emoved out of Egypt ^ or 

the laft place of their 

before they came into 
nd of the Antims \ but 
ill, however, briefly in- 
vhat fbme have been 
id to ^y upon that ve- 
fcure fubjedt. Accord- 
bifhop Cumberland ^ 1 9}* 
ohabited with the Fhtg' 

or CanaaniteSf in Go- 
that is, that fide of E- 
ext to Arabia ; but, find- 
eir country invaded by 
kindred, the other fons 
'xraimj they left it, to 
the miferies of the im- 

pending war between the pa- 
llors and the pure Egyptians ; 
and removed . into the land 
. where Abraham found them. 
(L) One Fhiliftinus^ whom 
Jo/ephus (26) makes a fon of 
Adizraim, is fometimes reck- 
oned their firfl king (21 } ; 
from whom that J^wijh wri- 
ter derives the name of Pale* 
Jline, Whatever truth there 
may be in this^ it is al(b like- 
ly, that either they borrowed 
their name - from PWx^am, or 
Pelufium from them ; for here, 
or hereabouts, did they firlt 
fettle, according to the common 
opinion (22) ; and it will not 
be much out of the way, if wc 
fuppofe they founded that city, 
and dwelt there till force or 
inclination made them remove. 

C«/«ff . dijpsrt, in i Sam, ( 1 8 ) Sit I'oL i. />. 3 74. (^9)0 '- 

r. /». 37a. (zo) Afitif. I. i. f. 7. [z\)ride bin, Jul. /- 

at^ft* (22) 6'w 1/t/. i. ubt fupr, 

)L. II P his 

ne Hifiory of tbe FhiliftuMS R I. 

his fifier. AtimeUch (aw her, was taken wxdi her charms^ 
and, underftandin^ (he was a iingle woman, idbhred to 
take her to his bed : but, ere he had accompiiflied his de* 
fires, he was warned by God to return the Woman to her 
concealed huftand, and that upon pain of deadi. Abtrni" 
lech hereupon excufedhimfelf to the divine vifion, upon the 
initbcence of his intentions ; and, feeming to have frdh in 
mind the terrible overthrow of Sod$m and Gomorraby Ltri^ 
fays he^it'Ut thou alfo flay a righteous nation? as if he would 
take vengeance on his people for a crime he W7& going ig- 
norantly to commit. But he had die comfortable anfwer 
in a vifion or dream, that God knew well, and approved 
his integrity \ that he had withheld him from fuming ; and 
that Abraham fliould, at his requeft, pray for him, and he 
ihould ]ive< Being thus admonifhed, he firft acquainted 
his fervants with what had happened ; vdio were inftandy 
ietzed with great dread : then, calling Abraham^ he afked 
what he had done to him, that he (hould miflead him into 
fo dangerous an error ; or what offence he had ever com- 
mitted againft him, that he fhould tempt him to fuch a fin,' 
as might have proved the ruin, not of himfelfonly, but of 
hfb whole kingdom. Indeed, fays he, you have not ufcd 
me well ; what have you obferved in the morals or beha* 
viour of me and my people, that you fhould imagine we 
would offer any violence to your wife ? The anfwer he re- 
ceived from Abraham was a frank confeffion of the truth, 
he acknowleging, without difguife, that he feared they 
had not been mdued with right notions of God and his 
[^ws, and that he fhould certainly be deprived of his life, 
that they might the more freely enjoy Sarah, He added, 
that, in faying fhe was his fifler, he had fpoken nothing but 
the truth,^ fhe being really fo ; and ended his apology with 
acquainting the king, that, in flrange places, it had always 
been his cuflom to make her pafs for his fitter <mly, for 
fear of the worftr Abimelech^ fatisfied with what he 
heard (in confequence thereof, and in obedience to the di- 
vine command), not only returned Sarah to Abraham^ but 
made him a very handfome prefent in fheep, oxen, and 
fervants, both men and women ; declaring to hiih withal, 
that he was welcome to live in what part of his dominions 
be beft liked. He alfo made a confiderable prefent to 
Sarah, and accompanied it with a fpeech, which ouf;s, and 
inofl verfions, have rendered as a reproof; but was the 
quite contrary, as we fhall fee in the Jeivijh hiflory. In 
this manner did Abimelech comply with the divine admo- 
nition, and, upon the prayers oi Abraham j he and his 


XX W. the iiijiary of the Philiftines. %%7 

whole houfe were reftored to their natural faculties, of 
Whidi they had been deprived for Sarah*sbkc'f the Lord 
having rendered the men impotent, and the women barren 
(M). Ever after this Abinitlech lived in perfect harmony 
with jRraham ; and, that the iame might be tranfmitted 
down to pofteritr, Abimtlech^ with the participation of 
Pbiciol^ the chief captain of his hoft, propofed an oath to 
Abraham^ whereby he (hould bind his pofterity to live in. 
amity with his, and deal by them juft as he had 4ealt bv 
him. This was readily embraced by Abraham ; but firft 
he defired a difpute might be deciaed, concerning a well 
which AbimeUch'^ fervants had forcibly taken from him. 
AbimeUch declared, he never heard of this outrage till that 
moment ; and that nothing of the kind fhould have been 
then to be complained of, had Abraham informed him of 
it. And^ that this matter might be terminated in fuch a 
manner as to admit of no farther difpute, Abrahamy among 
itfae numerous prefents he made him, of (beep and oxen, 
fevered feVen ewe-lambs, ^hich he gave him, to be a ftand- 
in^ teftimony of his having dug, and confcquently of his- 
bemg the right owner of that well. Abimetech accepted 
bf them accordingly^ and the well was, from tlieni, 
called Beerjhebah. After a mutual mtification of their co- 
Voiaht, Abimelechj and Phicholj the chief captain of his 
hoft^ rofe up, and returned from whence they came ^ (N). 

* Gen. ubi fupra, $c xxi. 22—32* 

(M) ^* Or with fuch fwell- cafe from the text. We find 

** ings in the fecrpt parts, that . this whole ftory quite altered by 

*' the men could neither eojoy Jofipbus (24), who (ays, AU- 

^ their wives, or the women- melicb was taken with (o vio« 

^' who were with child be deli- ■ lent a fit of fickneis that his life 

" vered (22).'' They maft was defpaired ofi that, in the 

have been very fenfible of fach midft of it, he had a dream, 

aki alteration as this ; but it is, which admoniihedhim oonoem- 

On the other hand, fappo(ed to. in^ Sarah i that, finding him* 

have been fomething imper^ felf apon the mending ha4id^ he ' 

ceptible, both by the men and called' together hit friends,- and 

women, and a matter not to be difclofed to them his dream, 

difeovered, but by length of and the violence of hispaiffion i 

time $ and thence it is concluded, and that thereupon he made up 

that Abraham andSarah were a the matter with Abraham^ Uzi 

confiderabie time at Abimelech\ (N) In the text it it^ They ri- 

court (23). Nothing can be turned into the land of tbi ^hx* 

pofitively determined in this lifkincs ( 25 ) ; as if they had 

(»») Patrick upon Gen, xx. i8. (23) VidtCkric. in Gen, rx. 27. (24) An* 
-ti], L i. f. 15. (rf) Cen, xxi. 31. 

P z come 

22» rbe Hiftory of the Vla^i^cs. B.I f] 

Abime LECHy the fon of Abmekch^ and therefore caHcd 
the fccond (O) of that nam;, fuccteied his fadier in the j}, 
kingdom of the Philtfiines^ reigned alfo at Gerary had at 
moir the fame tranfadiions with Ifaac as his fother had widi 
Alfrahanij and feems to have been a£tuated by the very 
fame principles as his father, and to have well deferved ta 
be ftiled a juft and pious prince. In his days came Ifaac to 
Girary fore prefled by famine^ and conducing KdeUk 
with him, whom, in imitation of his father,' he madepafi 
for his fitter. Whether Abimelech and his fubje£b had re- 
membrance of that fallkcy before, and what had like there- 
upon to have enfiied, to the detriment of the whole nations 
or whether the morals of this country were ftHl fb pure, and 
chaftity and hofpitality in fuch due and high efteem, that 
they abhorred the thoughts of an impure attempt;^ we kmnr 
not J but it is certain that Rebekah wa&unmoleftedby fuit- 
ors of any fort ; and Ifaac had no occafion to comphm 
upon her account. H[owever> it is pretty evident, dnt 
Abimelech himielf, at leaft, had ' a fibrewd fufpicioa dxj 
were man and wife ; for, looking one day out of his 
window, as it is exprefled, he (aw ifaac caremng RMA 
in fuch a manner as convinced him they were much Beam 
related than they pretended to be. Wherefore he caDel 
Ifaac to him, and afked htm, how he could be fo deceit- 
ful, pretending that (he, who was really his wife, was no 

come oat of it to make a league only ground of fuch a fonBife 
with Abraham^ who was ^11 a It is fuppofed he may have beci 

ibjourner in PaUftine : it can fimamed the HittiU, 

therefore mean no more than from having conquered dnt 

that Abimelech returned to the tribe, or from having cntmd 

place of his own abode ; as if a into a league with them (28): 

dilUndion was now made of that but nothing of this kind is to be 

part of the country occupied by depended upon, or bdieicd. 

Abraham'^ which, by the co- Thisfecond ^/m^/^iftistbeBa- 

VtnaAt made, was now confi- tural fucceffoE of the fDffiiin,4i 

dered as bis own, and no longer appears by his name or appda* 

under the jqrifdidion of the tion, andby theferies of tine'. 

Philiftines, has father was contempoiaiT 

, (O) Some (26), betweea WnYk Abraham^ ashewaawitt 

thefe two AbimeUchs^ place E- Ifaac ; but fo plain a cafe OB 

fhroH the Hittite, who was fa admit of no difpute with tsff 

kind to Abraham ( 27 J, which, but fuch as are fond of nochiai 

perhaps, is the bed, if not the elfe. 

(-:6) rbeopkil. Antioeb. (ty) See before, p, 199^ (,28) ftdthf* 

Jul, tH regit, VaUfi, p, 76. 

. . jsoir 

V. ne Htftofy of the PhUiftines; 229 

than his fifter. To which Ifaac pleaded his father 
ttfin's excufe. Ablmelech replied, it was by no means 
y done of him ; for that, ignorantly, fomc or other 
5 people might have enjoyed her, and thereby involved 
^hole nation in a moft dangerous fin (?\ Which to 
nt, he proclaimed what Ifaac had told him, forbidding 

touch Rebekah or her nufband, upon pain of death, 
ing can well be added to give us a more favourable 
of this upright king, than his behaviour In this cafe : 
deis h^ was no ftranger to what had happened on a 
tccafion to his father ; and having the judgments of 
before his tyos^ believed and dreaded them. And. 
remarkable it is, that, though it might have been ex- 
d that he would have driven out Ifaac from his domi- 

1 as one who, either malicioufly or ignorantly, had 
ed his whole nation to irretrievaolc rum ^ yet he fuf- 
him to abide in the land till his power began to give 
imbrage. Then indeed the PbiliJIines^ beholding the 
jious increafe of Ifaac* z ftorc, envied him, and gave* 
10 fmall difturbance, by filling up his weUs as {z& a& 
rvants diig them, and by other fuch like ill offices. At 
1 Abimelech fent him a pofitivc order to remove. Thisw 
ge was couched, it feems, in fuch civil terms, thatJ 
, who was not confcious to himfelf of any evil dcfiga 

Notwithftanding this A- well knowing the cprruption of 

th makes fo amiable a fi- his own heart, he bejgan te 

n the writings of Mofes^ be afraid of the confequences 

us ( 29 ) reprefents him his inhofpitnble breach might 

;ry ill and corrupt perfon; bring on him and his, and* 

9 mend the matter, tells thought it beft to propofe to 

ry in a very broken man- him the renewal of the cove* 

Pafling over what relates nant which was made between* 

^Aab, and lfaac\ denial him and Abraham ; for he all 

lor his wife,, he fays, that alone takes ^\z Abimelech ^x 

kcb did behave with the mme that converfed with 

outward refpe^ to Ifaac j-.braham^ thereby to blacken 

his 6r(l arrival in his him the more, as a man of -no 

y I but, in time, finding faith or fimplicit}' of intention ; 

> be more in the favour and beiides, thereby makes him 

[> than himielf, he broke abundantly too old,, except he 

am» and> burning with fuppoTes^^^^/rXi^ to have been 

gsive him all the iU-na- but a child, or a mere lad, when 

trauble he could upon all Abraham firft xx^movcd into the 

)n8. Bat in the end, per- land of the fhiliftinei^ 

g the man's increaje,. and ■ 

(29) Antii* /.. i. r. iS. 

• • P 3 • * 5f ..tuft 

ajo ^^ Hifi^y ^'th PhiBflinps. B. I, 

:^ainft him, only removed from one part of his country to 
another. He had not been long come to this canton, voictt 
new broils and contentions aro(e between the Pbilifiitui of 
Gerar and Ifaac's fervants, who, opening the weUs which 

herdfmen claimed as their right ; whence the wells thusdif- 
puted, two in number, were one of them, by Ifaacy csBXeAeftl^ 
or contintion J zndtht othtr ^t?iah, or hatred. By thefeven-. 
tious and obftinate claims, Ifaac was obliged to (hift from 
place to place, till Abimelechj at laft reftiembring, we 0117 
fuppofe, the covenant between his father and Abraham^ an^ 
plainly perceiving that Ifaac was favoured with God's (pe« 
cial Ueffing, dbought it his duty, or his interefl, to renew 
the aforefaid covenant ; and, taking with hixn Abuxxath^ n 
intimate friend, and Phichol (QJ, the chief captain of nil 
ho&x went to Ifaac^ who could not help declanng hisfuT" 
prize in feeing them, after what bad pafTed. To whidi 
thev anfwered, that diey plainly faw God was with him, 
ana that he was rifmz to a high pitch of power and pidbe- 
lity ; and therefore &fired to enter into bonds of fricndmip 
with him, by a new covenant, or by a revival of the old; 
defiriftg no other terms, than that the PhiUJUms^ and their 
{K>fterity, might be ufed and confidered by Ifadc^ and hb 
pofterity, as he and his family had been confidered and ufed 
by AbimeUch and his 'people. They were all three then en* 
tertained by Ifaac \ and die league they defired being mu- 
1;ual!y fworn to next morning, they departed in peace*. 

The hiQiory of the Philijiimsj hitherto clear and cir- 
cumftantial, is all at once involved in an impenetrable mifti 
through which we can only perceive, that the men ofGttk 
fSsll on the children of Ephraimy and flew them, for attempt- 
ing to drive ofF their cattle K When this happened, or the 
particulars of it, or the confequences that enfued, wc 
know not c. 

* Gen xxvu 1 —33. ^ i Chron, vii. 21. « ScebefaiCi 

p, 219, 220, in the notes. 

(01 The chief captain of his cbol to have beea a title of ho- 

£ither*s hoSt, as may be re* nour or dignity ; and tlM^ H 

membred, was alio GiUed Pbi" the king was conilaotly fflWI 

^/(3o); bot, as it is inpof- uf^imi^<^, his chief 

£ble, or very highly improba* pnen^ wad conftantlv oM 
ble at leafl, that this was the PiicJb$l 
&me man, we conclode Pbi- ' 


C. iV. Tke Hifiory of tie PhiUftiriM. 231 

For a very long feries of years we hear nothing of this 
people, and are only left to guefs, that they, in- the meail 
time, diflblved their antient form of government, and con- 
traded an averfion to the Ifraelites ; for, when they are 
next mentioned, they are reprefented under diftindt jurif* 
diflions, and at ftrife with the children of Ifrneh 

We do not read of any war they had with Jojhua ; but, 
after his death, Gaza^ Askelon^ and Ekron (R), were taken 
from them, by the united tribes of Simeon and yudah^ ; 
which, however, we find them, in a fhort time, poffcfled 
of again « ; but whether they recovered them by force of 
arms, or they were reftored to them by the conquerors, is 
|iot faid. 

About 120 years after the reduftion of the three cities 
above-mentioned, the Philiflines held the Ifraelites under 
their yoke, till they were delivered by Shamgarj who flew 
fix hundred of then^ with an ox-goad ^ (S). Nor muft w c Year of 
forget, that the Philiftines fuflered in common with the flood 
Ifraelites ^^ by the mcurfions and ravages of Zebah 9Xtii *043- 
Zalmunna kii\^ of Midian K Bef.Chrift 


^ Judg. i. 18. ejbid. xiv, 10. flhid. iii. 31. V^W^ 

I Sec Judg. vi. 4. *> Sec before, p. 159, 

(K) Here Je/ephus (31) tells offered to explain or Uludrat^ 

US of only Askelon^ and A/bdodt this a6^ion. A paralldl cafe is 

or Avuitus^ z,% fubdued ; and, by found in Horner^ where Lycurgm 

an unpardonable inaccuracy, puts to flight the Bacciuc with 

reckons them to the Canaan' an ox* goad, ^y the Vulgate it 

ites. But for Ga%a and EJ^ou^ h interpreted a plough-fhare, 

or Accaron^ {ays be, they were induced thereto by the LXX. 

in the flat country, veryibong 3ut thofe ( 33 ) feem to think 

in chariots, an4 wel} able to very rationally, who imagine 

make a zopd defence i where- that Shamgar puthimfelf at the 

by they ^ved themfelves froA^ head of a tumultuary maltitude 

the calamities of their neigh- of coimtry-peoplc« who were 

hours. arm?d in their ruflicway, with 

(S) It is worth obferving, tha^ the implements of tillage ; an4 

Jefephus (32^, who is fo fond that ^ hamgar happened to have 

of extraor4inary events, andfo an ox-goad in his hand when 

apt to maiee more of them than, thefe fix hundred of the Fbili" 

ic is likely, he found them, quite Jiinis fell; not that he kille^ 

paflEbs over this. Wf will not thena all himfelf \yixh that ^eie^- 

dwell ojD the niceties ^hich are pon. 

(31) Antiq, I, V. f. 2. (32) Antxq. I, v. c. $* (Sl)^*^ 

icnc, in jkJu, m, 31. 


;a32 ne Hiftory of the Philiftincs. ^X 

A SECOND time they opprefTed the IfraeliUSj in con- 
jundion with the Ammonites^ in the days of yepbtbabK 

A THIRD time they reduced the Ifraelltes^ by the ptf* 
miffion of God, and kept them in fubje&ion 40 yeais. la 
the mean time was Samfon bom, to check their pride fT). 
He, when grown up, fell in love with a damfel or this 
Year of country, who dwelt ztTimnath. At the celebratioa of 
flood the nuptials, ^o young Philijiines were appointed to attenl 
1 21 1, on Samfon (Cf) ; who propofed a riddle to them, concem- 
BefChrifting a lion he had killed, in whofe carcafe, a twdvemondi 
1 1 37- after, he found honey. It was propofed to thefe young 
men by Samfon^ that, if they unraveled his riddle, he 
fhould give them 30 fuits of apparel, one to each ; but if 
they could not anfwer him at the end of the feven days of 
the marriage-feftival, they fhould each of them give him 
the fame. They accepted the offer, defu^d to hear the 
riddle ; but, having in vain perplexed themfelves dierewith 
for three days together, and defpairing to overcome the 
difficulty, they went to their country-woman, Samfiifs 
bride, defiring her to declare the myftery, and threatening, 
if (he did not, to bum her and all her Kindred, as perfixB 
who had on purpofc introduced a ftranger, to plimder 
them of their fubftance. This made a deep impreflka 
on the young woman ; who, by continual intreaties, pre- 
vailed at laft on her hufband to difclofe the ambigui^ to 
her, which ihe communicated to the thirty young men; 
in confequence of which they won the prize. This broudit 
a misfortune upon Askehn ; for Samfon^ to make good nb 
engagements, went thither, and flew 30 men; whofe gv- 
nients he gave to the 30 cxpofitors of his riddle ^^. 

This marriage was the beginning of great mifery upon 
the Philijiines ; for Samfon^s father-in-law, apprehending 
his daughter was not well pofleffed of her hufband's hearty 
gave her away to another, and denied Samfony who had 

* Sec before, p. 143. ^ J^dg. xiv. 1 2— 1 9. 

( T ) Jc/ephus ( 34 ) reckons Samfon^ who was come to narry 

that the Pbiliftines wereftripped among them i but nothing leb 

of their dominion over Ifmel appears by Jofepbus (35}, who 

by Samfon ; but he is plainly writes that thefe young mqi 

miftaken. were fet as a guard upon liiaii 

(Uj This we take to have to prevent his doing any mif- 

been the caftom of the country chiefs when overcome widi 

in caics of a like nature, and an drink. 

ttfoal compliment now paid to 

(J4) Jtntiq, /. ▼. f. 10. (35) Uhifupr^ 



C IV. ne HifUry of the Philifiines. 2 33 

been abient a twelvemonth, all accefs to his wife ; but, 
to pacify his refentment, he would have given him another 
daughter, who, as he faid, was younger and handfomer. 
This did by no means mollify Samfcnj who, in revenge, y^^Qf 
lent out three hundred foxes, with firebrands at their tails, ^^ jh^qJ 
into the corn-fields ; and all the ftanding-corn was thereby 1212. 
confumed, as 'were alfo the other fiiiits of the earth, andfief. Chr. 
the vines, and the olives. The Phili (lines were amazed at 1 1 36. 
fo terrible a difafter ; and, underftanding the motives " 
'which had induced Samfon to ufe them fo cruelly, they looked 
on his father-in-law as the chief incendiary ; and therefore 
went, and burnt him, together with his daughter; who 
alfo may be called the caufc of all this mifchief (W). But 
this they did not with impunity ; they were fmittcn hip and 
diigh by Samfon. They determined then to take their 
revenge on him \ and, underflanding he had retreated to 
the rock Etam^ they went thither to take him ; but he 
was delivered bound to them by the men of fudah^ who 
dreaded their difpleafure. The Philijiines fliouted aloud 
at the fight of Samfon bound ; but riieir joy was foon 
turned into mourning j iovSamfony breaking his cords, found 
the Jaw-bone of an ds at hand, and with it Jdlled a thou- 
land of them ^. 

All this the Philiflines never forgot, and wilhed for 
liothing fo much as an opportunity to be revenged on 
Samfon, The Gazites^ about twenty years after the laft 
llaughter, thought they had him fecure in their city. 
Being informed that he was there with an harlot, they 
vratched him, and made hA their gates, with a defign to 

' Judg. XT. I— 16. 

(W) This (eems to have been may be remembred, when 

inflifted on them by way of they began to defpair, that they- 

retaliation ; for as through fhould ever unfold Sam/hna 

their indircretion they drew riddlet thieacened the bride to 

OD their country fo iifui a re- burn her and her father's 

VfDge by fire, the reft might houfe» if (he did not befriend 

think it but Jaft and natural, them. It is fuppofed they 

that they fliould perilh thereby were taken by furprize, and 

to expiate their crime. Bat, burnt in their houfe ; and it is 

on the odier hand, we find that obferved, that the bride and 

puniihing or revenging by fire her father's houfe fufFered the 

was a notorious pradice in fame calamity ihe fought to 

thofe days with this people i avoid by betraying her huf- 

^or the thirty young men, as band (36). 

(36) Sfi Patrick uptnjudg, XV. 6« 


the Hiflofy of the Philiftinw. B, I, 

kill him the next morning. But their precaution Was to 
no purpofe ; for Samfin^ riiing at midnight, took the citjr 
sates and pofts, and bar», and carried them away towarcu 
xletron^ le^vine an open place behind him. 

The lords of die Philiftines then heard) that Samf0n was 
^amoured of another hiurlot of their nation in the valley 
of Sorek^ whofe name wa$ DeliiaL The five lords came 
to this won^ui) and promifed her, each of them, eleven 
hundred pieces of filver, if ihc would betray Samfon to 
them, by enticing himio tell her where his ftrength lay, 
and how he mi^ht be reduced to the ordinary ftrength of 
another m^n. bo large a bribe corrupted Delilah^s heart, 
luid fhe ufed her beft endeavours to earn it ; thinking Aq 
was acquainted with the fecret, (he fent for the Philijlims to 
execute their pleafure on him ; but fhe was deceived, and 
they difappointed. A fecond time fhe was deceived in like 
mannerj, and a third time ; but the fourth (he v^as fincerc- 
ly informed, that his l^ength lay in his hair, which flie cut 
off, and delivered Samfon an. helplefs prey to the lo^ds of 
the Philijiints^ who gave her the pronufed reward, put 
put SamforC^ eyes, and, binding him with fetters of brafs^ 
carried him to Gaza^ and there made him grind in the 

Tif £ Y then met in a folenui manner to celebrate a feftir 
val to their god Dagon^ and to offer him thanks, and 
praifes, and facrifices. They met together to the number 
of many thoufands, and wer^ all in one place ; whether a 
temple, a theatre, or a palace, is quite unknown ; but the 
fabric was of fuch' extent, that no fewer than three thoufand, 
perfons were on the top of it (X). In the height of their 



(X) We find the generality how eould this roof be coo-^ 

,of the learned moft inclined to trived, fo thatfuch a maltitade 

think this vaft building a thea- might partake o^ the diveriion 

tre, fuch as formerly the Ro- Samfon was roajkine below ? It 

w^w contrived, and which were is anfwered, that Siofe on tb|i^ 

almofl incredibly capacious : roof were the vul^ fort, wnp, 

this may have been the truth had conveniencies o£ looking 

of the matter, and we (hould down into a great haU« lyheir 

moil readily have embraced the the lords and chiefs and better 

fame opinion, did we not per- fort fat in ftate ; which will 

ceive, that this building was ilill make the building more 

roofed, and that fo firmly as extenfive. A roof it had^. 

to bear the weight of three which we fuiHcicntly undcr- 

thoufand perfons upon .its top. fbnd by the two pillars which 

A di^cul^y ilarts up here * , Samfon palled down, and which 

5 fuppoited 

p. iV. fh H^ory of the Phlliffines. 155 

ioUitj thejr fent for the blind Samfon to make fport with 
him ( Y), forzetting his hair was by this time pretty well Year of 
grown again fZ)^ and his ftren^, confequently, returned the flood 
to him. They made y^t diverfidn they pleafed with 1231. 
him, but paid dear for it ; for thev all periiheid by the fall Bef. Chr. 
of the building they vfere in, ¥6hich was broMght down by 1 1 1 7- 
SamfoH. This was a terrible difidler, fmce moft of the ' ^ ^ 
chi^ of the Pbilifiinesy if not ail, perUhed by ^t ; fo that 
the nation muft have been brought to si Iqw conditioni 
fceing d^ftitu^e of governors, commanders, and men of 
wifdom m. 

The Ifrae\iteiy taking advantage of this di&fter^ and the 
Gonfternation attending it, marched agaijift the eneo^ widi« 
put lofs of tim^, and pitched at Eben^zer, The PhtUJiims^ 
notwithftanding the great lofs they had fuftai^ecl, came 
out to meet them, and encamped at Afhik* The (wo 
armies foon came to a£Uon^ ^^d the day turned in £ivour 
<if the Philijiines^ who put ^ enexj^y to a precipitate 

Sht, and, h^vuig flain four dioufand of-diem, drove the 
\ into their camp. The Philijlimsj in the midft of their 
triumph, upon this o^afion, heard 9n uncommm fhout 
of joy from the Hebrew camp ; and, inquiring into the 
caufe of it, were told that the Hebrews had fent for the 
ark of the Lord, and that it was Come into their camp. 
Vpon hearing this, they cried out in the utmoft confter- 

» Judg. xvLpertot. 

(iipporced it. It lience mt^ gather,, that J^ofepbus (59) i^ 

have been a place of a parcicu- right in faying this wis an an- 

iaa coD&raAiony like the Egy noal feaft in nonour of their 

ftian hall in Fitruvius (37), god Dagon, as appears alfo by 

knd nothing like the theatres the text of Scriptare ; where 

of the antient Qreeh or Ra- gf^t thanks are returned to. 

ijums. Dagon for delivering Samfon 

( Y) Jofephus ( 3 8) anderftands into their hands, which was ftili 

that they wanted to fiput and uppermoft in their thoughts, 

jeer him; though alfo they and what they had chiefly de- 

taiay have made him go through iired feveral years paft. From 

a courfe of ridiculous geftures hence we may learn, that the 

and speeches. worfhip of Dagon was not con • 

(Z) Tn the mamn of our fined to AJhdod^ though it may 

verfioD it is. As lAwen he was ' have been his peculiar place, 

fianjen ; or it was grown to and that in thele days he was 

the fiune length it was of when the moft highly revered of any 

Dililab dipt it. Whence we god they had. 

(37) yid^L Ti. €, ^ (38) Ubifupr. (39) Ubifupr. 



236 The Hifiory if ibe PhiUQiMS. B.l 

nation, God is come into the cnemyjs camp ; what will 
become of us ! Such a thing was never known before; 
and greatly did .they bewail their unhappy lot, defpairixf 
to he delivered from thofe mighty gods, as they fpoke, 
who had fo feverely fmitten the Egyptians. They now 
were quite daunted and fpiritlefs, till their chiefi, or fome 
of the more refolute, difpclled their fears, exhorting them 
to be of good chear, and behave like men, left they fhould 
fall under the power of the Hebrews, and become their 
fervants, inftead of being their matters: Behave like men, 
faid they, and fear not. Ti:!> exhortation had its cffeft 
upon the drooping hearts of the Phlliftines, and infpired 
them with frem courage. Thus animated, they came to 
a battle ; and the attack was fo furious, that they flew 
30,000 of the enemy's foot ; and, to crown all, took dw 
ark of God, which, at firft, gave them fo much trouUe, 
and flew Hophni and Phinehas, the priefts who attended it. 
Doubtlefs they called this a moft complete vidory, and 
rejoiced in a moft extraordinary manner, not being aware 
of the evil confequences they were to fuffer in return. In 
high triumph they carried the captive ark to AJhdod, and 
placed it in the temple of their idol Dagon, as an acccfit- 
able offering to him, and as his captive, we may fuppc^ 
The next morning they went into the temple, and, BeboU^ 
Dagon was fallen upon his face to the earth, befon tbe4ri 
of we Lord. They took him up therefore, and fet him in 
his place again, attributing this firft humiliation to fome 
unheeded accident ("A). But on the fecond day, when 
they went in again, they not only faw their god in Ac 
fame humble pofture they beheld him the day before, but 
without head, hands, or feet, which lay on the threfliold; 
nor was any thing left of him but the trunk of his body. 
Hence came a fuperftitious cuftom among his priefts, never 
to tread on the threfliold as they went into his temple (B), 


(A) They might impate it talned for many ages, as xUf 
to fome defefl in the pedellal, be gathered from Zipbmmah 
or imagine the flatue itfelf not (39),where thofe are threatened 
to have been exactly poifed, or, that leap on tbe thrtfiboU, Heoct 
finally, attribute it to fome uu- it appears, that they were woot 
ufual fliock, as of an earth- to leap over the tbzeflioM.' 
quake, and the like. This, no doubt, alludies to tUt 

(B) This fuperftition ob- ridiculous fuperflition (40J. 

;.?9} Zc^h, :. Q» ' (|o) T^dcBcchjr*, bierizs!:, par, i. /, jj. c, 36. 


r. Tbe Hiftcry of the PhiKftmcs. 2^7 

' in remembrance of this mutilation^ or becaufe It had 
hallowed by the touch* of the fcatcered limbs of their 
led deity. But their concern for him was quickly 
red bv a more lively fenfe of then: own real calamities, 
whole country being fmitten with a fudden plague, 
liich many of them died, while tliofe who furvived 
grievoully tormented with emerods. yfjhdod and its 
5 territory labouring under fo dreadful a calamity, 
refqlved to keep the ark no longer among them, 
; too fcnfibly convinced, that they fuffcred on that ae- 
t. But that they might not take an hafty ftep, they 
I an aflembly of all the lords of the Philijiines to deli- 
e upon the means of delivering them from this racing 
and what was beft to be done with the fatal ark. The 
ition they came to was, Tliat the ark fhould be re- 
A to Gath^ apprCfiendfng, as is thought, that Ajhdod 
I place unacceptable to it (C). T^hey carried it thi- 
but the fame plague, and another fort cSenurods (O) 
ved it to Gathy without diftindlion of fniall or gr^'at. , 
men of Gath then fent the ark to Ekron \ but the in- 
ants of that city, knowing what Gath and Ajhdod had 

Jt^s have an idle ftory, is ev'ident enough, that fhii 

the Pbiiiftinesj hencefor- plague was in feme manner al- 

forfaking Dagon himfelf, tercd ; and it being the moll 

tiped the threfhold of his univerfally interpreced in both 

e (41). places, that they were afHiftcJ 

) Juft as ^neas and his by emerods, there is no other 

r ind'iBed their beds itnd way that occurs ro us of ac- 

houfes of the di/nflers that coundng for this alteration, but 

them ; and Cadmus for- that at JJhdod they had the 

>// own aty, ordinary fort, which appear 

iDquamfbrtanalocorum, outwardly, and chat now at 

1 fua fe premeret. - Gath they hsd the h/iffd fort, 

'the ill luek njehieh hunted which are inward. Ihllead of 

had been tbe placets, not^ ^»2fr/?^j,fomc (43) Ipeak of vio- 

wn ; as our Dr. Jackfin lent difordcra in, tiiK inttftines, 

ves out of Onjtdy in his of their rotting alive, and of 

lal of unbelief, chap. 1 8. their wailing away by dyfente- 

rr. 4. (42). Hes and, thereby 

>) kx, AJhdody it is faid, difcharging their loathfomccor- 

wcrc fmitten with emerods ruption. Other opimonci there 

without any addition: are concerning this matter ; but 

now it is iaid, they none fo generally recti ;-td a^ 

fmitten with emerods what we have f iid or the fwt 

eirfecrct parts: whence it reds, 

) Vide Buxtorf, hifi, arc. c. 19. p. int. \A'\) P.'TtLL u%:-. 

; vsr. 8. (41) Jefffi^. unt:^, ;'. u ^.2, 

already fuSered by detaining i^, cried out, tliat the ark ^ 
tj)e God of Ifrael was fent to deftroy them. Their ksa 
V^ere not vain ; for great numbers of them died, and the 
raginc dilkemper, the emerodsy gathered ftrength, as it 
fpread (E.) Therefore they had no fooner received the ari» 
than, all in confufion, they fent to the lords of the Phi^ 
lijiinesto confult with them about the manner of fending. > 
the ark to its place. The refult of this council is not ex- 
prefled \ they feem to have removed the ark isito the coun< 
try (F), and hereby to have only increafed the number of die 

(E) We find their lamenta- had yet been affieftod in ^ 

Cion and afflidtion expreiled in 
deeper terms, upon every re- 
moval ^ which gives room for 

manner of AJbioi^ Gathi and 
Ekroriy where the ark liadbMr 
lodged. It feems that the aik 
being removed into the fields 

(F) Jofipbiu (44) relates^ gave t^th to thofe pcodiriou 
thlt the ark went through all ^arms of mice» which did ett 

the ^ye cities of the Pbilijiines^ 
which we have no warrant to 
ailert from Scripture^ except 
that the five cities being eqoal- 
iy afiiiAed, and theu- gods 
equally peHecuted, as after- 
wards appears^ may be accepted 
for a demonilrative proof thete- 
of t but there is no room to 
fuppofe this, fince we find, that 
the Skronites, convinced of the 
deftrodUon and plague which 
followed the ark^ did not fo 
much as think of procuring it 
to be (ent either to Jikelon, or 
Gaxa ; but only, that it might 
be fent back to its place. Their 
lequeft, it ieems, was no ^- 
ther complied with by the reft 
than the removing it from them 
into the country or the fields, 
for that is the fenfe of the ori« 
ginaiy where it remained feven 
months ; nor is it likely, that 
either of thofe two cities would 
iuve admitted it within their 
gates after a thrice-repeated 
experience of what the confe- 
quence would be, if they did ; 
nor does it appear, that they 

up the country, and that Gmui 
and Asktlon were now fmiaai 
by the plagues alfb, that tht 
whole body of this peopU 
groaning under the fiune Seve- 
rities and diftrefi, there migkl 
be no diflenfion among that 
about difmifilng the ark. kA 
hence, perhaps, we may dUb- 
ver> thit as much as they woi 
divided into five fatrapies or 
lordfhips, they were neverthe^ 
le(s fo linked together, thatooift 
of them could not a& in ao/ 
niatter of public concern with- 
out the concurrence of aD die 
reft; which is no-wherefoevi* 
dent as in this caft of die Ekn^ 
ites, who were fo thoroi^y 
convinced the ark was to U 
fent home» that we cannot con- 
ceive what fhould have prevoB- 
ed them from a6ling according- 
ly, had it not been that they 
were afraid of making a breach 
in their common conftitution; 
or dreaded to be called to an 
account by the reft for prefum- 
ing to ad without their confat. 
in an affair of fuch moment. 

(44) J^i^t^^ oi^'p A vi. f. %n 


C. IV. The Hiftory of tbi Philiftines. 239 

evils that affli£ted them, the country being now laid vifalle 
%j an extraordinary produftion of mice. Finding there- 
fore that their condition became every day worfe, and 
ibeir evils multiplied as often as the ark was removed, they 
called for their priefts and diviners to demand of them 
\vfaat they thought moft e7q)cdient to be d<»ie on this 
mournful occafion ; and in what manner it would be fitteft 
|o remove the caufe of their difaftcrs. Their anfwer. was^ 
That they ought not to fend it away empty, but, by all 
means, with a trefpafs-offering, as an atonement. Being 
Aen afked what this trefpafs^offcring muft be, they re- 
plied, five golden emerodsy and five golden micey according 
to the number of the lords of the Philijiims ; the fam6 
plague having been common to them all. Thgr then di- 
refted them in what manner they were to difmifs the ark ; 
and their directions being pundually complied with, the 
ark returned to the Ifraelites^ as is related at length in holy 
writ ; and the Philijiines were made thoroughly fenlible of 
the hand that had chaftifcd them n. 

Wb have fufficient reafon to conclude, that the P/>/» 
Ufiines^ by difmifling the ark, delivered themfelves from 
ifae evils tney groaned under. But they foon forgot the 
mighty power of the God of Ifraely who had thus aiHi£led 
them. For, not above twenty years after, underftanding 
the Ifraelites were gathered in a oody at Mizpehy they re- 
iblved to difperfe them, apprehending, perhaps, that they 
tiBerc deliberating upon meafures of throwing ofF their yoke. 
They marched therefore towards Mizpehj and the ifraeU 
Hes^ ftruck with terror at their approach, applied to 
Samue/y who was in the midft of them, begging he would 
tot cea/e to cry out to the Lord for them. In the mean 
time the Philijiines purfued their march, unmindfiil of* 
hixaj who was ever ready, when his people turned to 
him, to confound the ftrength and devices of their ene- 
miesi however wife and powerful, as he did on this very 
Dccafion. For while the Philijiines were upon the point 
of falling on the Ifraelites j they were, by a dreadful and 
unexpected ftorm of thunder and lightning (H), broken, 
liifperfed^ and thrown into the utmoft confufion, of which 

" I Sam. iv. v. vi. 

(H) To this J&fefhus (45) k violent, that it was with 
addi, that they were in part mach ado they conld keep oa 
fwiiUowcd by an earthquake, their legs, ^ 

(4S} Autij, /. vi. e, u 


st40 ^e Hifiory of the PhiHftincs: B. t 

the Ifraelites taking advantage, purfued them with grot 
flaughtcr as far as Beth-can This proved a fatal over- 
throw to the Philtftinesy being attended with the lofi of 
the dominion they had excrcifed over the Hebrewsy and 
the many encroachments they had madp on their terri" 
tory o. 

How great foever this lofs was, the Philifiines foon rec<>-» 

vered it ; nay, in a few years, they became more powerful 

Year of than ever. For, being informed that one of their fortrefles, 

the flood called G<?^^, had been lurprifed by Jonathan the fonof&ra^ 

1252. they aflembled 30,000 chariots, 6coo horfe (I), and foot n 

Bef. Chr. the fand of the fea, to fight with, or rather plunder d» 

^^^ , Ifraelites^ who ftill laboured under the ill effe6b of thdr 

**^'*' tyrannical policy, by continuing deftitute of arms: hxb 

long as they held them in fubjeftion, they did not cvcB 

I Sam. vii. 5—13. 

( I ] Sir Ifaac Nekton (46), had on foot at this time ; ui 

from this vail number of cha- partly, deiigned to move of 

riots and horfemen, is tempted the plunder of the whole coob- 

to think the Fbiliftines were try, which they (eem to -hut 

now very powerfully fuccour- grafped at with the moftinth 

ed, and their numbers mightily lent prefumptton : and tfc 

increafed, by the acceflion of upon obferving the method il 

the fhepherds out o^ Egypt ^ which this war was oirnBdoi^ 

who were now expelled that mud have been their d^^ly, 

kinedom : we (hall not con- fuch a number of caAiMi 

tend with him upon fo dark a which, if we reduce to niee 

point, wherein he may as well thoufand, as the number flttdi 

be right as not. But we can- in the Syriac and ArMe O- 

not refrain from noting, that pics, will, as is very jodi^dly 

betakes thcfc thirty thoufand remarked (47), be&rtoomi- 

chariots to be of the warlike ny to fuppofe them to bii 

fort, and defigned for battle, been warlike chariots, 'fin 

wondering at the great excefs Mithridatis had but onehin- 

of the number, when compared dred, Darius but two huildl4 

with thofe that followed Pha- and Antiochus BptpbaXn tat 

raoh^ who perijhcd in the Red three hundred ; and no on^ca 

Bea. Forour part, we cinnot imagine, that the PbiiifmUf 

take thefe chariots to have and whofoever elie may bait 

been any other than carriages, joined them upon this ooG^ 

that were ufed, partly, in car- fion, were able to mnflcr 

rying the baggage of fo great fuch a force in chariots 

an army, as ihey feem to have ther of thofe three montick 

(46) CbroKcl. cf ant, king, amended, p. 167. (47J Patn'tt m 

3 &Btt 


G..IV. The H0ory rf the Philiftines; ^i^ 

fuStt a fmith to dwell among them. This very numerous 
multitude went out, and, encamping in il^iV^m^, occa- 
iioned (b general a confternation, that happy was the 
IfraeUte whQ could conceal himfelf from them^ Michmajb 
was their ftation, whence they fent out three bands, three 
ftveral ways, to fpoil the country ; which they did with- 
out the leaft oppofition, having to deal with an unarmed 

At Aftchmajh they continued, while their parties were Year of 
buiied in ravaging the country : but in the midft of their the flood 
depredations they received a check from Jonathan^ who, 1253. 
hurried on by a divine impulfc, and accompanied only by ^^f- ^hr. 
his armour-bearer, made a confidcrable (laughter of one of '^9>' 
their out-guards; the noife of which fpreading to the 
whole body, they were feized with a fudden panic, which 
occaiioned fo great a tumult among them, that, hyperbo- 
lically fpeaking, the very earth trembled therewith (K). 
In the height of this diforder, they firft fell upon each 
odier with grieat {laughter (L}, aiui then betook themfelves 


(k) Not that there was really (50). It looks vtvy much as if 
in earthquake upon this occa- this great hoft, for fuch it may 
fion. Befides the thirty thou- be juftly iUled, though not, per- 
iod chariotSy and Hx t^ouiand haps, quite (b ilrong as is repre- 
horfemen, mentioned in Seri- {bated to us, had not a mutual 
ptnre, Jofepbus (48) numbers confidence in each ofiher, fo far 
the foot at three hundred thou* as to be certain, that a defefUbxv 
iand. But a late commentator and treachery might not be 
(49), from the alarm given them brought to pafs among them 
by yonathan, and his armour- by the artifices of the enemy.. 
liearer, and the fearful efieds The out-guard routed by Jo* 
of the fame, takes occafion to fiua and his armour-bearer fa- 
think, that the PhiUfiines were voured ftrongly of treachery^ 
Beithef {b numerous as is in Scri- The . bare fame of an attack' 
ptu^ faid, or fo well made by any two pcrfons'on fo 
war as they are ufually deemed: vaft an army, could never, of 
and infers, that the text muffi itfelf, have caufcd fo wild an 
bave been corrupted. uproar; but fomecHine, at the 

(L) This fevours, very much/ fame time, muft have been ad- 

thcci)hje4iure,ofSiri)5ifl.f AVw- dcd thereto., that made them, 

im^ who fuppofes they had, enraged againjfl each other, and 

about this time, an acceffion of fired them with the utmofl fury 

{he (hepherds from £'^//,as we and indigQatrion. Nor does wl^^c 

have already noted froxn him we here infiuuate,by any means 

(4S) J^ntiphvi. c. 7. (49) Ci'iric. in I Sam, xiv. ij, (50) 3ee 

tU preceding paige, in tbt mtes, 

Yoir.n. Q^ derogate" 

t^i Tbt Sifitry of the FhiUftines.; EIJ 

to fi%;kt, ma wjlduprouand fury; which the 7)^««/iV«iis^ 
fooner obferved, tlun they purfucd theiBj with- SmtH[ 
thsir hetd : and if he had not been in too great « hvttfti 
mi fotba hit men to fland- to take a Jitile Tefr«QiaKiHr; 
the loft of the PhiMirut had been much greaterl. Itwtg^ 
however, very conuderablc (M) j for they were purfdedt 
{TtaiMiebtnajh to AijaleHi. ■', ir i 

Though they were thusvifibly defeated by tbe'hlBldl 
of heaven; yet, in a few yean, they revived again, and putj 
bemfelves under arms, once more, to try their Rrea^H 
with the IJraelites ; being, perhaps, induced chereufltd.«|in 
an hearing that Saul was difturbed in his mind. But though; 
tfacy made a great noife and parade, they did not proocvt 
with fuch fury ai formerly, nor did they feeni fo eaget^' 
a battle. They firll rendczvoufed in Shocbohy in tbe^eriiil 
of yujah ; but, advancing thenCe, and finding Saul ratif 
to receive them, they pitched upon a mountain oppoficett 
another, on which ifrael -wa^ encamped. They had in 
their army, at this time, a giant, one Gtliatb of.GalhjVbo 
va> fix cubits and a fpan high, and armed cap-a-p^ wkh 
brafi (N) : the ftafF of his fpcar was like a weaver's bcacS| 
and the head of it weighed fix hundred fliekeb of imj 

' I Sam. xiii. 17— (3, xir. i-rri;. ", '. ,iv' 

. ., .A . ,' , M.-,nivh 
oetogate from the concein the Ihekels of iron, excee4cd cm- 
Almighty had, ID tbii miracii- and -twenty of tbe fame /Wi 
lout deliverance of his people i (52)- Thcweight of [lic<<,acd 
fincc, in cafes of this kind, he the other pans gf his aujioiir 
has fo often a£ted by fecond and arms, whole weight is not 
caufes. fpecified, was not, pixKpi', 

{M) According to Jafipfitu heavy for fo gigantW; it perfen, 
(51), they now loll fixty thoQ- whale ftrengtJi.doubclefi, wis !d 
&id men. proportion to his (latun 

(N| According to the£B^/p!5 yec fome are willing tothiikii 

Aandud, the height of Ga/(WA was too cumbct-folM; and 

was twelve foat eight inchti, therefore chufe to fay, tlvAf- 

and fomewhat better than three kcis emun crated above^andcan- 

ttnths. His coat of mail, alone, monly taken ibr tlie wcijJs*' 

wrfghed five thoufand Ihekeh hiscoat of matt, werfeCbefW 

of brafi, or upwards of one 0511(53); ^bich ^Kminbe 

hundred and eighty-nine of our as much too tittle an th" V"*! 

ftmdt 7rey: and, by the fame as it may appear too UMcfcn 

rore. the head of hi* fpear, the otter. ' l- 

which weighted fix hondred -5- 

I fabta tfantiatt oiu, ovfil'i 

V. Tie mjitry of the PhUiftbea: 24^ 

liefere him went one who bore his fhield. This gigdn* 
srfon feems to have been very fenfible of his firengtb, 
CO have fanfied, that he alone could fupport his coun« 
caufe : accordingly, whether by his own fuggeftions, 
! the fdicitation of his countrymen, we know not, he 

on him to fight any one in the hoft of Ifrael, and, by 
ide combat, to determine which of the two nations 
Id rule, and which obey. With this, he went down 
the valW which parted the two camps, and there chal-* 
id the ifrailites, to find out a man among them who 
i'to encounter hi m (0)» This arrogant challenge was 
Accepted, the Ifrailita being ftruck with terror, and 
^ difinayed at his enormous fize, and menacing 
ik. But, as confident as Goliath was, in his own 
igth, and, in confequence thereof, how ready foever 
'as to fight, the reft of his countrymen feemed to have 
nclination to it ; remembering how terribly it had, 
9 than once, fared with them, in their contentions with 
tL Wherefore, though the firft day's experience con- 
ed them, that none of the Ifraelites vro\x\i enter the 
with Goliath ; yet, having no mind to come to a battle, 

every morning and evening fent him out to repeat his 
challenge,for forty days together. At laft, as the armies 
5 drawing down to each other, in battle-array, Goliath 
inced out of the ranks, as ufual ; and, in the height of 
pretended expedations, that one would come out (for 
sndcd they muft have been, after fo many fruitlefs re- 
gions of the fame defiance), he faw a hahdfome ruddy 
th advancing towards him, from the I fr a elites^ in the 
t and appearance of a fhepherd. The fight fired him 
I indignation ; and, obferving a ftafi^ in his hand, 
Vhat, fays he, am I a dog, that you are come againft 
le withaftaff ? *' and,curfing him oy his gods, *^ Come 
lither, faid he, that I may give your fle& to the fowl.<; 
f the air, and the beafts of the field.'* Having heard 
ag David'$ anfwer, he ftepped forward to punij(h bim 
bis prefumption ; but, before he could reach him, he 
^by a ftone, which David Hung at him, ftruck on the 
head, and laid on the ground. He no fooner fell, than 

1) Jim not 1 a PhilifiiDe^ in that country ; axsd reviles the 

Jbtt mul you fomfanti to ^n/ZrV^j as fervants, or flaves ; 

i? by which words, com- infiooating, that he did them 

itators think, he either re- honour in offering to demean 

entsbimfelf asalordamong himfelf fo far as to contend in 

Pbilifiintsi or,rather,boa(ls fingle combat with any one of 

(lis liberty, as he was bom them. 

Q, 2 Davids 

^ ihe PMIifiif^ .EI. 
David, advancing, fevered, with thcgiain1s>6llm fmotit 
his head from his body, and carried it otF^ with him in firiA 
umph. The Philiftinii no foonerfaw thto:obanK)ion dod^ 
tlian they fled (P), ai if their hopes had aM centred in 
himi aHOv to fudge by their behavionr, it was rally da 
cafe. They fled, leaving theii tents and baggage IkIiM 
tliem, and were purfued by Ssiul, <]uice batnc!-to the ^Uea 
of their own cities, Gatb and Kkron, with great S\aa^aet' 
no doubt {Q_). • ^ . . 

, T'ME fame hand which had dcprivad them ^■^aiulki 
proved fat^ to fome of. them foon after ; for two hvKlrcd 
of (hem were flain by DavrJ, for the. fake of > tlieir fcn- 
fkinsonly, that he might perform tlie condition. ia^Mfedoa 
himby5tw/,befoiehewouJd givchimhisdiiughteEtowi£o^ 
hut the particulars of this flaughter are not Ipecified iaikt 
text of Scripture. Thence, however, it may be gathetedf 
riiat rhi.s was the caufe of a frcOi rupture; andtdiatthi 
princes of the Phil i/iittei undertook to revenge ihe'it^nfi 
but what fucecfs attended them, is not fajd. . ■; ,-' ' ;.n.''. 
Soon af[er this, they were overthrown in battle hf Av 
vid^y and fome great change fteitu, about thb tiine^H 
have been wrought in their government : for, ncvaittk 
t\w- jiliinuUchs they are reprefented under lardvunpcnBt 
16 now we read of a king they had, wht^enOmcivatiiAjiifij 

' rSam.xvii.1— 5;. 'Jbid,xvHi. 32— aSrk \t SMSuXtx^ 

(P) From this llight, com- match for any in the hoAof 

mentaiora are apt to imagine, J/rail, %)i£y were not agitnll 

that what Galiath did jn offer- what be took oa him, aa thtjl 

iog :o decide the fate of each champion ; but tha^ ihey &i,: 

nation by fuigle combat, was mallyagreed toltasd towhatb' 

his own a£l and deed.and with- promifed, is unlikely : fuct^; 

ou[tiieaffentofthePi(///?(«j; cifions, l^ fingle combat, tvsB, 

or clfe, that, if they did bind not to have been the cuftomoE 

themfelvestofubmilto thefkte thefe early times i but the «li^ 

of fuch a battle, they were feems to be the efi«a of gCBt 

feithlefs enough to flight the pride and vanity in the cbun- 

obligaiion. To us it appears, pion, and a mixture of fiQpi- 

that they did, in a y^ty great dity aod cowardice in the reft, 
meafure, depend on Goliath for ( QJ If we hearken to J*- 

fuccefs in this war; that they fephui (54), they^ had tkui| 

prided .themfelves chiefly in thouland killed, jadtwicetbl 

him; and that, flattering them- number wounded, in thii'ip- 

felves be wa« invincible, and,by fuit; which feem to b^ dCfef' ' 

his ftlcrgthaiidaraiour,anover- ingly too many. " 

(54) AMif. I «. e. n. 

ncHiftdry of the Philiftines. i^i 

bo redded at Gath ^ He is cKewhcre called Jbime^- 
the antient appellation, as we have fecn, of the (irft 
of this people* Damd^ to avoid the evil defigns of 
fled to Gath^ and was brought before this kfng ; 
imagining him^ by his behaviour, to be beTidehim- 
ould cs^ke DO farther notice of him, than to older he 
be brouprht no more into his prefence ^. 
E.PhiU/iinci^ who all this time were upon no fettled 
with Saul^ diverted him from laying hold on David 
wildcrnefs of Maon ; but they were again^ it feems, 
ed with biid fuccefs, in their attempts againft him , 
ther fled, or retreated, before SauL 

4ISH, the fon of Maocb (R), after this, received Dor Year of 
lis wives, and all his followers, into his protection ; the Hood 
cated the diftreiTed refugees with great hofpitality : 1288. 
t David* s requefi, that he might have fome place al- ^t;f. Chr. 
Um for bis particular dwelling, he very generouily 1060. 
i^iklag for that purpofe; whence it was, ever after, ^^'W^ 
rd by the kings of Judah. This was, indeed, the 
rffe^ual means of binding David to his intereil, as 
iferved in the laft note ; and Jchifl) had, it feems, in- 
s.over the Philijiines^ to make them facrifice their re- 
sqt for.the wrongs they had received from that i'ugi- 
iace, to. their prefent intereft and iafetyi and to let 

Stt»/xxi. 10. " Pfal. xxxiv. « i Sam. ubi 

Dud. xxi. 14, 15. 

■J A 

•ttom this mention of fears; and may afterwards have 

ilei^titoe»fomeare wil- entertained a correfpondence 

i^tHfak him a different with a perfon of fuch known 

^^fifam' the former: to worth, invited him into his^do- 

'they feem to be partly minions, and aflured him of 

fVy the kind manner in protedlion againft the evil in- 

receivedZ^tfv/VjWhom tentions of Saul; hoping, 

er had defpifcd, as an thereby, to weaken Saul, and 

or a mad-man. But we keiep up a divifion in his king.- 

rekncmber, that David dom, at the fame tinie that he 

^ played that part to Ih-engthened himfelf. Ifnohu- 

S hfe ; and it is no won- manity may be allowed to 

Achifi? did not care to be Achijh, in this cafe, a large 

sd with fo unhappy a fhare of human policy may be 

I,, as Danid then made admitted : nor do we perceive- 

F: but the fame man may any folid ground for fuppofing 

^torned to a better mind this Achijh^ and the former, to 

ning him, when he was be different perfons. . 
:o the fecret of David"^ . . 

fbe Hffiory cf ibe PhiHftincs. B. L 

him live peaceably among them, rather than hazard the 
confequences of his return, and reconciliation with Saul (S). 
Achifh^ who conceived very high thopghts of David^ un- 
derftanding he had been out upon fome expedition, exa* 
mined him concerning it ; and, receiving from him fuch 
an anfwer, as made him imagine he had been plundering his 
own nation, he expreiled great fatisfaf^ion thereat, hc^n^ 
David had done fomediing to make himfelf odious in the 
eyes of his countrymen ; and that now he fhould have him 
a fervant for ever. Preparing, foon after, to war with 
Saul^ he told David, that he expected hin to head hb fol* 
lowers, and march with him ; promifing to recompenfe 
him with fome eminent poll in his fervice. The Philiftines 
firft gathered together at Shunem^ and there encamped ; 
from thence they removed to ^pA^^ : here the feverai bo* 
dies of the Pbiltflines appeared together, in a kind of re- 
view, under their refpe£tive chiefs, and £>i7i;/^/ and hismen 
followed about or after Achijh ; from whence it is gathered, 
that the poft he promifed him was, to be captain of his 
guard. At this the lords and chiefis of the PhiliJHnes take* 
ing offence, expoftulated with Achijh, who in vain endea- 
voured to perfuade them, that David was a faft and tniftjr 
friend. Inftead of being fatisfied with what the king £u(l, 
they were incenfed againft him, and infifted on his imme* 
diately difmifSng David^ and fending him back to Ziklai, 
left he ihould have it in his power to betray them in battle; 
that being the only means of reconciling himfelf with his 
natural lord and mafter. In (hort, they could not imagine 
that David, who was the idol of his people, would forfeit 
his popularity, by fighting againft them. Achifl), unable to 
refift all this clamour, called David to him, and sdTured 
him, that, for his own part, he had the higbeft fenfe of fais 
fmcerity and merit, and had been perfe^y fatisfied with 
his behaviour ever fince he had (heltered him ; but that, 
fmce the krds were far from being difpofed to think fo well 
of him, it were in vain, and imprudent, to contend againft 
them ; and therefore dedred him to return quietly to Zik- 
lag^ David refenting the unkind notions the lords enter- 
)f tained concerning him, and protefiing his readinefs to fight 
)d in his caufe i Acbijh anfwered him, with great eameftnefi, 


^^- (S] It Teems, at leaft, more than either to the extraordinary 

^- reafonable to us, to afcribe their generoiity of that nation, or to 

^ anexpe£led moderation towards the interpofition of providence, 

a man who had fo ill deferved as ibmc have done. 

of them, to fach political views. 


C iV. ^be Hi/hry of the Philiftines: 247 

That he waa folly conyinced of his affedkm j that he bad 
4 .fioguhir veneration tor him \ and thar» in his eyes» he 
was am m^l pf God : but that, feeing the lords were To 
vnreaUoBably bent againft hin, he muft confent to iiet out 
for Ziilag early the next morning. 

I>a^.id: fet out, accordingly, and yfchi/b and tht Phi- 
Jiftiai^ marched againft Saul, who was encamped on mount 
Gilboa» A battle was fought on that fame mount, and the 
BbiUJiines gained a complete vidtory over the Ifratlius^ 
aad drove them before them with great daughter : in par- 
ticular, they purfued clofe after Saul and his fons ; and 
khefe, Jonathan and Jbinadabj and Malchijhua, they (lew« 
They difcharged their arrows, with great cagerneis, after 
Aw/, who was fore wounded by them ; but they had not 
the honour of difpatching him : be fell, ere they reached 
bioi, by his own weapon. Thus the PhiU/iinn^ at lengthy 
. obtained a complete vi^ry ; in confequence of which, 
they pofiefTed themfelves of a great part of the enemy^ 
country. The day after the battle, when they came to 
firip the ilain, they found Saul, kixig of IJraely and his 
three fons, among the reft, in mount Gilbui. They cutoff 
' SauPs head ', ftripped him of his armour, which they dedi- 
, icated in the temple of AJbtaroib ; and his body, and'thofe, 
tS&y, of his fons, they ignominioufly hung upon ■ the waUs 
. of Bithjhan* What (hey did, particularly, with ht3 head, 
IB not related ; but it feems as if they at ndS fent it up and 
down with his armour, to dedicate both in the tjemplesof 
^ their idols, and to feaft the eyes of their people with 
■ fuch grateful obje£b, and undeniable marks' of ti6bry* 
But the bodies of Saul, and his threefons, hung not long 
where the Pbilifiinei expbfed them ; for the brave inhabit- 
ants of Jahi/h-GiUad, whom that monarch had lately faved 
from imminent deftrudion^, took this opportunity of 
ifaewing their gratitude to their late deliverec, and, at the 
peril of their lives, fetched away thofe mangkd remains 
from the enemy, and give them a more honourable burial 
tn their own city y. 

After the battle of Gilboa, David tcmov^ fj^nvZri- 
2r^ CO tkbrM, where he was proclaimed king^ by the great*. 
tft part of the tribes %. As for Achijh^ x\i^M%\\ we read' no > - 
more of him, yet there is reafon to fuppofe, that he con- 
tioued. his good offices to Dan^id tor fomc conficjdrable 
time^ for, during the whole conteft between himi-aml 

.;i . ...»':■ 

■ • - . ; I 

'See beR>pe, p. I44i- - "^ i Sani. xviii^ x^xi^ryAJ ''■''* Ses- 
Sc fc(i. ■ ■ ■"■ ■■■■■ = ■'■■■'- •■ 

0^4 iiJ^hJJ^ctK 

fU Hijtory of ci^.Phififtiiies. • B. !, |< 

f/bbojbetb^ the furnving fon of 5«v/, the Phiilfimes ncvtr 
offered to diihirb him, though they might, at ^t jnndore, 
have cafily cruflied him in the bud. This pacific dti^fition 
can hardly be afcribcd to any thing but the idnd intcrpp- 
fition of Achijh : however, the Philiftifus no foooer under- 
flood, that his rival was dead, and that ail Ijrael^xA'Jndah 
had fubmitted themfelves to him, than they began hoftili- 
ties : but whether this rupture was owing to the lo6of Us 
friend and prote£lor, to the jealoufy the Pbiliftims con- 
ceived of his great power, or to fome other motive, the 
text leaves us quite in the dark. Be that as it will, they 
marched, and encamped in the valley of Repbaim ; ftoQi 
whence they removed to Baal-pera^im^ where they were 
encountered by David^ and by him fo completely over- 
thrown, that, intent upon nothing but faving themfelve«, 
they left their baggage behind them, and even their gods, 
which they carried about with them, in imitation of tbe 

>f Ifraelites^ when they brought their ark againft them. The 

d Philifliius feem to have rallied again, to refcue their cap- 
tive gods. They drew up again, in battalia, in the valley 

^' of Rephaim (T) ; but were defeated anew by David^ m. 
a fudden onfet, and purfued, with great (laughter, from 

^ Geba to ^azer ^, a place, it feems, on their own &oih 
tiers. ' ' 

* 2 Sam. V. 17—25. 

(T) Or the fualley of tbe gi- of all their baggage, and their 
ants, as Jofephus (55) renders gods. Jofepbus is very food of 
it i who fuppofes that they trebling the forces of a van* 
were now unable to raifean ar- quifhed people, as we havebt- 
n>y themfelves, and that they ferved before (56^^ and may 
were joined by the Syrians and have occafion to obferve hcre- 
Fhcenicians: as a proof of after. But why he fhoolfl 
whicl; , he alleges, they returned imagine the Fhiliflims were at 
home uj»on their firft defeat, fo low an ebb, as to be nnablc 
and came back to the charge to make war with Dami of 
with thrice the numbers they themfelves, we do not dearly 
had before, and drew up in the perceive,even though we ihould 
fame place where the former alio w of the great flaughter and 
battle was fought j and that deftruftion he makes of them 
they were agam miraculoufly in fome of the preceding bat- 
defeated with MtTy great eafe, tics (57). 
and put to Hight, with the lofs 

(5O Antiq. I. vij. c, 4. (56) See before, in tbe notti, p. iia. 

(^7, See before J in tbe notes, f* 1/^1, 244, 


7. The Hiftmj of the Philiftincs. 249 

HE war did not end here ; for, a (hort time after, they Year of 
invaded by David y and Mttheg-ammah (U; was (aken the flood 
d»ih *. 1304. 

HB PhiliJIinis had fcveral men of extraordinary ftature ^^f Chr. 
ig them, and all, it feems, of the kindred of GV/- 1044. 
W) : and, though they had experienced the little ufe V->''V^^ 
ich men in an army, yet they feem to have caft their 
upon thefe, now flattering thcmfelveSj that, by their 
, they might retrieve their honour, and take revenge 
yavid. Wherefore, after they had lain quiet fevcral 
!, they broke out into a war again with Ifrael^ and 
eiants marched with them. They came to a battle, 
hich IJhbi'benob (X), a fon of Goliath^ as is thought, 
le David at fome difadvantage, had like to have Sain 

■ 2 Sam. vjii. i^ 

')• Or, as it is in the mar- 
tbe jhridle of Ammsihi or, 
is explained in the Cbroni- 
^8)9 the city of Gatbj and 
uritory thereunto belong* 
There are many, and very 
us,expofitions of this point; 
18 ^he context clears it up 
ally, we (hall p^fs them 
and adhere to that, as moft 
f and juft. Only let it be 
ved, that as Gatb was the 
I feat, it may, on many ac- 
ts, have been called u bri- 
i the reil of the land. As 
landing upon an hill cal- 
^tKmabj as fome commen- 
s teachy they would have 
well, had they produced 
authority : the word^m- 
on the contrary, fignifies 
If r ; which th&Jews thcre- 
foppofe to have ran be- 
\xGatb 4nd Me f beg, a port 
he other fide, which re- 
d new reinforcements from 
3rmer,till David cutoff the 
nunication, by flopping or 
ing thecourfeof thcflream. 

(W) If they were not imme- 
diately his fon?, they may pof- 
fibly have been of the fame fa- 
m ily . To fay nothing of their 
defcent firom the Ana kirns, who 
were expelled from /f^^r^xr, and 
took up their abode at Gatb, 
which is a very obfcure piece of 
hiflory, it is common, in all 
nations, to fee families remark- 
able for their extraordinary ila- 
ture : nor is there any need to 
fuppofe them defcended from 
any antient race of giants. We 
are, indeed, told, that the Jna- 
kirns either fled from Hebron to 
the cities of the Fbiliftines, or 
elfe wereantiently planted there 
( ^9). Bat how it came to pafs, 
that they were fo dwindled away 
there in the days of Davidi 
and how it comes to pafs, that 
we read no-where of them in 
the armies of the Fbiliftines, to 
the days of Saul\ we prefume 
not to conj eft lire. 

(X) Jofephus (60) calls him 

) 1 Cbnn^ xviii. u (s^) Jf^fi* xi. 22, 

(60) AnU(i, /, vii. r. 10. 

him : 

S50 93fe Hifiory *>f t^ Philiftinai. B. I. 

hrm: but, miffing his? aim, befellby theteind<^-ZWfi, 
ailifted by Ah'tjhqi^ although the head of bis ^ar weighed 
three hundred ibekeb of brais ( Y), and be in^ iii>aA;«t- 
,traordmary manner, appointed (Z) for warj ''A iiiONid 
battle was fought near a place cail^ G^hy wherein &^ 
another fon of Goliuth\y was flain by SiSbeci^ thfc Ifijk' 
athiU : and a third at Gob, alfo, when Gp/ztf^b-'s brotheTi ' 
the ftafF of whofe fpear was like a weaver^* beacm, Ui^hj 
the valorous might of Elhanan the fbn of 'Ja^fre-^'egm^ \ 
Bethlehemite. From this laft place the war was transfertd 
into the territory of Gath ; where, in a fourth bfttrie}- an- 
other fon of Goliaih% who had iix fingers upon <€a0 
hand, and fix toes upon each foot, challenged, in imiti- 
tion of hi3 father, the whole army of Ijrafl Co Aol 
out one of their number to fight him ; but he fell bf ie 
hand of Jonathan^ the fon of Shimia^ the brother ot Dih 
vid. The Philtftinesy thus exhaufted of their, eigantic 
brood, or perceiving that their mighty ftature and .ftraig^ 
fiood them in no manner of (lead, refrained from a fiutbcr 
profecution of the war, which, notwithftanding their muif 
lofles, they had hitherto fo ohftinately maintained^ 

From henceforward the affairs of this people are moie 
flightly touclied on ; whence it may be argued, thEat ibeir 
power was greatly weakened : and, accordingly^ 'M 06 
told, that their hsrn was broken a/under by thew UHttm- 
nate wars with David ^, who now made them trilktetoi 
to his throne (A) : though, on the other hand, it'!ihM!lie 
alfo concluded, that having fo often, and to (b litffi'piiif- 

pofe, engaged in bloody and deftruflive wars, they grt* 


«» 2 Sam. XXI. 15—22. « Sec Ecclos xhfii. 8. ■ 

( Y) To judge of him by the Jofefbus (62) fays QiiIy,tkl|dK 
weight of his ^>ear, he was not had his fword by hia fide-Ofdi 

of much above half the (Irength the expofitions we haTefin^iie 
and nature of GoUathy the head approve of that mo^ 

of whofe fpear, as we have no- gueflfes that his fword 

ted (61), weighed fix hundred on purpofe for him (63),t»tt 

&ekelf, or twenty-two of our his llrcngth, which fiufstt 

poundsT;-^; whereas this man's that of an ordinary JBao.j.*.: 1^ 
weighed biit three hundred (he- (A) According to.^^S|/fi[^ ||i 

kds, or eleven of the iame (64.), this was the laA faaik L 

Founds. they had with the Hdnmi i 

[Z) The words of the text never daring to look then li ^ 

are obfcurc: it fays, be ivas the face again ; which mid b 

girded nvitb a fre*io fword—— one of hismiftak^, 

(61) >\y hf-rr, .« the r.:tfi, p. 242. (62) Uh' fuf. C^S)!^ 

Ciii./.v. in -. i'u*a. Jixi. iC. (64) IJbi f:*^^ 

3 wifwi 

C. IV. «f Hiftory of tie Phififtincs. 251 

- viler, and ratber applied thcmfelves to commerce, and the 
\ adtancement of their nation that way (B). And hence it 

JVkay be, that we find their country open to the ifraelites in 
I Hk beginning of Salomon*s reign, Achijb^ thefbn of Maa- 
H Aoby then reigning: at Ctff£; who, whether he is the fame 
\ Jkhifi who was fo Jcind to David, we will not take upon 
^ JOB to determine, commentators being divided aboutjt^ 

probably he was notd. r 

Many ^ears after thefe wars, the Philijiines were ha- Year of 
' ;itfled by hadah^y king of Ifratl, who laid fifge to a city theBood 
\ 4f theirs, called Gihhithon\ which city was again befieged 1395. 
\ hf Elaby king of IfraeVy fome years afterwards ; for it be-Bef. Chr. 
\ longed to their kingdom, though xh^PhiliflineSj finding it 953 
■• 4fe(cxted by the Levitts 8, feized on it, and kept it, in fpite 

<£ the feveral efforts of the kings of Ifrael to tear it from 

them ; that kingdom being then in great diflrafllon. 
But, notwithftanding this their vigorous oppofitlon to 

the kings of Ifrael j they afterwards courted the favour of 

* 1 Kings ii. 39. « Ibid. xv. zj, ^ Ibid. xvi. 15, 

t a Chron. xi. 14.. 

(B) We the rather think af- (67) fuppofes this to have &llen 
ttr this manner; it being pretty oat in the reign of David. 

t, that they had been in- for he oblerves, tha^ in Solo- 

creaiedy fome years ago, by the man's re^, the ZUomansy tho* 

fbgitive Edomites (65)9 who fettled at Tyre^ had not yet lolb 

brought with them their fupe- their Dame. We read, in Ju- 

srior ikill in commercial and fiin (68)9 that Sidou was taken 

nautical affairs: not that the by the Pbiliftines\ though he 

Pbiliftims were wholly ignorant ieems to be miflakeD, in laying 

therein till the Edomitei came it was done by the king of J/- 

^MQong them : but it is now calm ; for we do not read of a 

likely they applied themfelves king of that place any-where 

diereto much more than ever, elfe. Remembrine the ilory 

and that they were greatly im- of the Syrian goddefs Derceto^ 

proved therein. Sir J/aac Nerw- who was metamorphofed here 

*fr (66) reckons, that they took (69), the Greeks and Romans 

Sidon by the advice and affifl- may have coniidered the city of 

anceof the J?i^iV^j; thereby, J/calon as the metropolis of 

it is likely, meaning to extend Palefiine : whence we £nd the 

their trade, which they had now king of Palefiine phced in that 

chiefly at heart, by deflroying city by Trogus, whom yu/lin 

fo dangerous a rival. He alfo epitomizes. 

(65) Ssihepre^ p, 175, 176. (66j Cbronolpf antient kingd, amtndedi p. 
3104,205. {djjUiifop, (68) Z.. xviii. (. 3. (6^) See 

i€fire^ p, aza* , 


952 The H^ryof the PhififtinelA 'B. L 

Jehojhapbat king of Judah^ by a voluntajy.ipaymciiti^f 
the tribute^, which had been, as we ttwy hence condu4% 
impofed on them by their conqueror -Daviui^C)}; ind 
which, it feems, they had negleded to pay^.to baa&vX^Ji^ 
hojhapbafs predecefibrs, as this ftory plainly :eixiagfa/mfr 
nuates, and as will be farther confirmed, by what felkflni, 
Year of For they rebelled againft^/^r^/n the fon of y^aA^/Ai^it^ 

ibe flood broke into his kingdom, rifled his palace of all the wealth th^ 
14^0. found in it, and carried their rage s^ainftbim to fiicht 

Bcf. Chr. height, as to exterminate all his family, except AtbaUai^ 
88S. her fon Maziah^who had the good luck to cfoape theinfoi^ 

\y^v^\JAt this time, we alfo gather, that they carried off. a. grot 
number of captives, fome of whom they fold tothe £iiiih 
itfs'j next to themfelves, the worft enemies the Ifm^A 
had, and fome to the Grecians ^ % thereby fending tfaein:b 
far from home, that they could have but little or nochuND 
of feeing their native country again. .This extraordiouT 
fiiccefe may have been owing, in great meafure, to ihsir 
fiAance they received from the Arabians^ who, at the.CuBB 
time, made war upon the Ifratlites ^ ; but whetbcf icfa* 
rately, or in conjunflion with the Phili/titus^ wriooir 

not. .:. ijlL 

Year of Whbncbsoever their fuccefs arofe, intfae jend.itkon 

the flood ved very unfortunate to them. I'hey were invaded J>^w 

i$4*- xf£}dkingbf Juiah^ who difmantled Gixtk^ -an(di^«My 

Bef. Chr. and >j^^^/, and built cities of ftrength- among i many H 

^^7* avi^ them, and keep them in fubjed;ion <& ;- whichuMi 

^-'''^'''^^^ have r^uced them to a kind of flavcry. -H 

They groaned under this fatal blowall the days of Ur 

%/>^, we may fuppofe, and, perhaps,* of yotbam too; \fLi^ 

in the reign of yZ/je/z, perceiving the crazy ftate of diei^q^ 

dom of Judah^ they took up arms again, and vWiDi 

Year of againft 4ha% with fuch I'uccefs, as made ample amenlElbr 

the flood the lofTes they had fuibained in the time of C/zssfiiMi» 

1608. grandfather: for they reduced the cities of Bethfimfh 

Bef. Chr. Ajalon^ Gedorotb^ Shochoh^ Timnahy ztiiGifnza.^.mLio 

740. feveral territories thereunto belonging, and there baidi 

* Ibid. xvii. it. * Amos i. 6. ■ * Jodiirjl^ 

' 2 Chron. xxi. 16, 17. « Ibid. xxvl. 6. 

(Cj Jofefhus (70) calls it none but Daxnd q6M'\iV% 
their accujftomcd tribute; aud impofed it on then, ."": 

(-^Q) Ami J, I. Yuu f. 9« * 

. th«df 

C. TV. Tieffi/hry of tht Philiftines: 25J 

thereby adding % targe portion of the kingdon .of Judah 
to their own coutitry o^ 

' THUfr'did the Philiftines gain more than they had loft : 
but this £sie acquiittionwas a very ibort time in their hands* 
They were, immediately after, admonifhednot to rejoice, 
became the rod of him that fmote them was broken ifor 
that 9Ut 9f the ferpent^f r^ot Jhould €o/n€ forth a cockatrice 
• • . . . which Jhould dijfohe their whole country o. And this 
was feverely fulfilled by Hezekiah the Ton of Ahaz^ whom y^ar of 
they had conquered : for .He^kiahy as we underhand it, the fJood 
over-ran their whole c9untryo j and, to add to their misfor- 163 j. 
tunes, they were, at the fame time, attacked by thc>f^- Bcf. Chr. 
tiam^ in the reign of Sennacherib^ who fen t his general 713. 
Tartan^ to reduce them. Their city AJhdod was bcfieged ^<>^v*0 
accordingly, and taken by him f ; , and thus were they, at 
length, reduced to the loweft ebb. 

And now the period of their final deftru£lion was come. 
By their fubjedlion to the AJfyriam^ they not only loft their 
liberties, but^ at the fame time, their country became tl^e 
feat of a long and obftinate war. For Pfammitichus king 
of £gypt^ jealous of the growing power of the AJfyrians^ 
and apprehenfive that Egypt might (hare the fate of its 
nei^bours, undertook to drive them out of Palejiine. Year of 
With .this view, he laid (lege to Afl)dod of /fzoios ; . but he the BooJ 
Va& twenty-nine years before that place ere he could reduce 1678. 
it? i durii^ which time, it cannot be doubted but that the Bcf. Chr. 
country fighed under all the calamities ufual in fuch cafcs» 670. 

From henceforward they were tributary to the great 
monarchies, as they fuccecded each other. In the begin- 
ning of this flavery they were piferably harafTed by the 
Egyptians^ who, willing to make tbeir barrier as ftrong as 
podGble, felzed on great part of thcircountry, and, parti- 
ciifarly, on the city of Gaza ^. 

y-i^vwEK thi», we read of a king of Gaza^, concerning 
^bom we have nothing to add ; nor have wc aught to add 
cobceming the Pbilijiines in general. What, . in the end, 
bdcsime ot them, will be belt, learned from the threats of 
the prophets, and, particularly, Zephaniah^ who paints their 
deftru&ion in very lively and natural colours (D) : Gaza 

■ Jhall 

™ 2Chron. xxviii. iS. " Ife. xiv. 29—31. ^2 Kings 
Xviii. 8. f Ifa. XX. i. p-Herodot. 1. ii. c. 157. 

1 Jcrem. xlvii. 1. *■ Zach. ix. 5. * 

(D) Here it is worth ob- as if already deftroyed, as it, 
(crvJng, that Gath is Qmitted, doubtlcfs^ was ; beii^ moft ob- 

"The Hifiorj of the Miwtt Sftiam. B.L 

sut MtAoi at tbi rmn-day^ and Ekron flmll be r§§Ud mp. 
Wo unto tbo inhabitants of the Jea-coafts^ the nation of tbi 
Cheretbites ! the word of the Lord is agoing you : OCa- 
naan, the land of the rhiliftines, I wiU dejlroy tbee^ that 
there Jhall be no inhabitant ; and thefea'-coaftfiaUbedweU* 
ings and cottages for foepherdsj and folds for flocks •• 

C H A P. V. 

7he hijiory of the antient Syrians. 


S E C T. L 

A defcriftion of Syria. 

QTR I a is, in Hebrew^ Aram ; fo named from Aram^ 
43 the youngeft fon of Shem. This Hebrew name is of 
very wide extent, perhaps of little lefs than th6 Greet 
name ^yria ; at Icaft it included what we now call Syrid 
and Mefopotamia^ which is the Aram Naharaim^ or Syria 
of the two rivers *. 

Aram, then, is its firft, and genuine name : as for thit 
of Syria J fome *> derive it from one Syrus^ who fprung 
from the earth (A) ; others c, from Syrus^ the fon of Agt- 


• Zephan. xi. 4— 6. Seealfo, Joeliii. Amosi^ Jerem. xlvii. 
Ezek. XXV. Zach. ubi fup. * See voL i. p. 369. ^ ApftF 

.CftN. apud Syncell. p. 150. • Chronic. Alcxand. p. lor. 

noxious to the enemy, was 
the royal feat of this turbulent 
people, a key to, and a curb 
upon, the whole country (71). 
Hence, therefore, it muft have 
been, that the throne of this 
kingdom was removed to Gaza ; 
but to purfue this point any 
farther, were time loft. We 
muft only acquaint the reader, 
that the Gatb, which Eufebius 
and Jerom mention as ftill 

ftanding in their days (72)9 fna 
different from this metropelis, 
Gath^ in the Hebrew^ figntfiei 
a vine, or oil-prep. Hence it ti 
no wonder we find feveral towns 
of that name, and fome of thesD 
joined to another appellative} 
fuch as Gath'Rimmon, Gatb^ 
Epber, Gath'Shemane, &c. 

(A) Perhaps this fabulous ap* 
count may have taken birtk 
from an antient tradition^whidl 

(71) See he/ore, in tti tnttt, p. a49» 

(72) L9C. Heh. Of uShi, 


G Y. Thi Hift$ry of the antient Syrians. 255[ 

mr. Other opinions are not wanting, on this fubjed ; but 
the moft common, and beft-grounded, is, that Syria is a 
contradion of Ajfyria ^ \ thcfe two names being confounded, 
and indifierently ufed, by the antients (B). , 

Authors are not agreed upon the exa£i: bounds of this 
country, becaufe they confider it at different times, when 
iti naifie was more or lefi famous, and its empire more or 
left ample. But, confining ourfelves to the proper Syria^ 
we may venture to fet bounds to it, and determine its di- 
menfions. It lay between the Mediterranean on the weft, 
the Euphrates on the eaft, mount Taurus on the north, 
and Arabia the defert, Palejixne^ and Phosnice^ on the 
feath ; extending from the 34th to the 38 th degree of 
north latitude. 

Syria, in antient times, has been very variouOy divided, hsdivh 

At firft, it was, without doubt, parcelled out into (cvtt2A fions. 

little kingdoms and jurifdiftions ; in after-times it feems 

to have been divided into four principal ones, Zobah^ Da-- 

tufcuSf Hamath^ and Gejhur ; the reft we find in Scripture, 

fuch as Beth-rehohy Ijhtoby Maacha^ were fubdivifions, as 

(ve*think. Afterwards, the whole country was divided into 

two parts only, ihou^ the Phcenicians^ Idumeans^ yews^ 

Gazs'teSy and jfzotitesy or the whole country of the Pbi" 

iijlines^ were included ; which two parts were, Ccelefyrid 

and Phosnice ^. After the death of Alexander^ Syria ^ in 

the great extent of its name, was thus divided ; Commagene^ 

Sileucis of Syrioy Caelefyria^ Phoenice^ on the fea-coaft, 

and Jtideay'm the midland. This is 5/r/7^o's drvifion ; 

who, neverthelcfs, elfcwhere diftinguiflhes Phoenice from 

Bjria ^ : but Ptolemy fubdividcs thefe, and, in the proper 

ejria only, reckons Commageney Pieria^ Cyrrijiica^ or 

Cyrrbejiica^ SeleuciSy CaJJiotis^ or Cajiotis^ Chalyboniiis^ 

Cbalcidice^ or Chakideney Apamene^ Laodicene^ Phcenicia 

Mediterranean Coelefyria^ and Palmyrene, 

* Vid. Herodot.1. vii. c. 63. Justin: 1. i. c. 2. *Strab. 
L zvi. fub init. ^ Idem ibid. 1. ii. p. 86. 

tOl obtains, in the count ry, as we refer our reader, who would 

^ (hall (hew hereafter, that be thoroughly informed and 

ddmm was created in Syria, convinced thereof. We ihalionly 

(B) Mr. Selden, io his prole- add, that Lucian (8), who was 

r9metm to his Syrian gods^ has himfelf a Syrian of Samojatay 

iweit on this point ; to whom calls himfelf an AJfyrian, 


ne Hiftory of the aniietU Syrian^. B, L | 

To follow the divifion of Ptolemy ; Ccmmagene^ or d' I 
magene^ had, on the weft, mount Jtnanus ; on the nortir, I 
part of mount Taurus ; on the eaftj it Was wafhed by the I 
Euphrates ; but on the fouth, whether it was conterminous I 
with Seleucisj or Cyrrhe/lica, or both, is uncertain : it was 
the north corner of Syria, The chief cities of this pro-* 
vioce were, Samofata upon the Euphrates^ the metropolis, 
Antiochia ad Taurum^ Germanicia *, Singa^ Chaonia^ and 
feveral other cities, once of great note, but long fince ut«- 
terly deftroyed. 

Seleucis contained, according to Strabo^s divifion^ 
Pieria and Cafiotis^ the firft lying to the north, and tbelaft 
to the fouth. Ptolemy divides this traft into Pieria^ Sr- 
leucis^ and Cajiotis ; but the whole is comprifed, by Mela IJ 
and P//«y, under the general name of Antiochene^ anfwcr- j 
ing to Straho\ Seleucis, In this part of Syria flood the - 
following cities 5 Myriandrus on the Sinu% IjficuSy or the 
IJftc gulph, 'Rhofus^ or Rhoffus^ Seleucia^ Pofidonium^ Hf 
raclea^ Laodicea Gabala^ Pabks Balanaa^ and Camiy on 
the borders of Syria and Phctnice. Seleucia was fo ca&ed 
from Seleucus Nicator ^who repaired and imbellifhed it wkb 
many magnificent buildings* It is conftantly ftiled, by the 
antients, Seleucia Pieria, or Seleucia on the coajl ; t6 di-» 
ilinguiih it from the other eight cities, to which Siltuoa 
Nicator gave the fame name ». It borrowed the name of 
Pieria from the province, as the province did from mount 
Pierius, which flood in it, and was fo called^ by the Mt 
cedonians, from its refemblance to the famous mount P/^ 
rius in Greece, Of all the cities bearing the fame name^ 
this, and the Seleucia on the Tigris y were the moft re- 
nowned b. Alexandria isj hy Pt^emy^^ placed in 5yrftf; 
but, by Pliny d, and raoft other geographers, in Cilicia^ and) 
perhaps, more properly ; as it flood without the PyUc SyrUi 
commonly faid to be the boundaries between Syriu and Ci- 
licias Between Seleucia and Pojidonium, was the ifland 
Meliloca, formed by the flagnant waters of the Onntei^ 
and once famous for its fcarlet dye. 

Thus far of the cities on thecoaft. In the inland, or 
Mediterranean Seleucis^ flood the famous Antioeb on the 
Orontesy Seleucia ad Belum, or at the foot of mount Belus^ 
Apamea, Emiffa, or Emefa, Epiphanea, LariJfayArethufety 
&c. Antioch was the metropolis of all Syria^ and the 
ufual refidence of the Macedonian kings. It conlifted of 

^ Flin. 1. V. c. 24. Strab. 1. xvi. p. 516. a Appian. Syriac. 
p. 202. ^ Appian. ibid. ^ PxgjL. 1. v. c, 15. ** L. v. 

C. ZJ. 





IJuVi. The Hi/tory of the nntient Syrians, 257 

fcw parts, or, rather, cities, each feparaced from the reft 
9^tsoi^m wall, and all inclofed by a common one ^. Of 
™^ founders of thefe cities, we fliall have occafion to fpeak 
JJl^ur hiftory of the Seleucida in ^yria. Afamepy fo called 
^^Jlpanuty wife to Sehucus Nicator^ by whom it was 
?J*n(Ied , ftood near the confluence of the rivers Oronies 
2*^ ^arfyas \ and gave the name of Apamene to the adjoin- 
6 cauiitry, Emcja was antiently a city of great note, 
^ ^ie birth-place of the emperor rleliogabalus. It is fup- 
j^/« to have ftood on the fpot where the prefent town of 
^!/2? ftands ; which name fome derive from Emefa, 
J- ^[^KHESTICA lay between 5^/^«n/, Comagene^ and CyrrheiU*' 
' -^^djphrates^ It was fo called from its metropolis Cyr- ca. 
^ 9x1 d Cyrrhus from a city of the fame name in Macedom 
\ ^^tie-r cities in this part of Syria y of moft note, were, 
^^^//Ls^ called, alfo, Bamhyce^ and, by the Syrians^ Ma* 
~^eracle<i^ and Bercta, Zeugma is placed, by Pto* 
this province; but, by Strabo^ 2ind Pliny ^^ in 
•^ Bamhyc£ was the antient name of the city 
iBrft mentioned ^ but 5^/^t;r^^ changed it into that 
^^^olisy or th^ holy city* j probably, on account of 
"^^ip that was there paid to the Syrian goddefs. 
^ eajcs of facred fifhes at Bambyce^ we fuppolc in the 
£asy on which it ftood, that were conftantjy feen 
g in flioals ; one, that fcemed to be their prince, 
-, fwimmiiig before the reft. He adds, that they 
■^ a kind of friendftiip with each other, the goddefs 
; them with a wonderful union and agreement ^ 
fentcity of Aleppo^ or Chalep^ as the Crr^^^ writers 
liddlc ages ftile it, is thought to have fucceedcd in 
a of Berosa, Zeugma was fo called from a famous 
. ^here over the Euphrates^ faid, by Pliny %y Dion 
'^>> the poet Lucan'^^ znd Stepha nut ^ to have been 
' Alexander the Greats on occafion of his crofling that 
"ith his army. But Arrian writes, that Alexander 
h^ Euphrates at Thapfacus^ having firft repaired the 
1^^x. Darius had built there *^.. And, truly, this rout 
^^jcb Ihojtcr, and far more convenient iox Alexander ^ 
as then returning from Egypt to meet Darius march- 
m Babylon, Thapfacus lay in his way, whereas he 

I^^^^^RAB. 1. xvi.c. 516. * Plin. 1. v. c. 23. Strab. 1. 
^^'^ J 1 7, « Idem, 1. xvi, p, 516. ^ Plin^ l.v. c. ^4. 
^^*^ AM. hift. anioial. 1. xii. c. 1 1. ^ Idem ibid. « Plin. 
^ *iv.c. ij. '^ Dig, 1. xl. p. 12S. * Lucan. 1. yiii. 
* ^ 37. fc Arrian. 1. iii. p. 168. 

258 ^be Hijtory of the antient Synans. B, \ 

mufi have fetched a great circuit to pafs the river at Zaj- 
ma^ which it is highly improbable he did, as he bad i bridge 
much nearer, that only wanted a little repair, 
Chalci- Chalcidhne was wholly an i/tlaiid province, being 
dene, bounded by Antiochene^ or Seleucis^ on the weft ; Cyrrhe/Hct^ 
on the north ; Chalybonitisjon the eaft ; and by Jpamem and 
Ceelefyria^ on the fouth. It took the nanie of Chakiim 
from its metropolis Chalets^ the only city of note in tiiii 
province, though commended, by F/i;fy, as the moft ferdk 
of all Syria '. 
Chalybo- Chalybonitis extended from Coelefyria to the -fit- 
iiitis. phrates^ and was fo called from Chalybon^ the only cityit 
contained worthy of notice. Some, fuppofingCAtf/J^ tobc 
an abbreviation of Chalybon^ conclude Aleppo-^ or ChM^ 
and Chalyhon^ to be one and the fame. city : but Chafyhni 
placed, by Ptolemy ^ at the 35 th degree of latitude, and jiff 
of longitude ; and, confequently, a great way fouth ot tk 
prefent Aleppo, 
Palmy- Palmyrene was a fpacious and fertile province in the 
icnc, midft of a frightful defert, having Chalybonitis to the nordi^ 
Co^lefyria to the weft, the Euphrates to the eaft, and Anr 
bia Dcferta to the fouth. The chief cities of this proviare 
were Palmyra and Tl^apfacus. Of Palmyra^ which g»l 
name to the province, and the ruins, that are ftill to be 
fecn in the place where it itood, we fball fpeak anon ; ani 
only obferve here, that the inhabitants having revolted 
fxom the emperor Aureltan^ and adhered to one Antiochn^ 
or Achilles J as Vopifcus calls him, who had aflTumcd the 
purple, their city was, by the emperor's orders, rafcd to 
the ground ""*. Aurelian foon repented of what he had done, 
and ordered it to be rebuilt " : but it never rofc again toiCf 
antient fplendor y nay, in the time of the emperor '^ " 
Kiian^ the far greater part of it ftill lay in ruins o. 
facus is placed, by Ptolemy^ in Arabia Defer ta ; but, by Pi 
ny P and Stephanus^ in Syria. The latter writer telh us^ 
that it was built by Seleucus ; but he was certainly miflakeni 
fmce it is mentioned by Xenophon^ in his account of tbec^ 
pedition of Cyrus S. It could, therefore, be only repainl 
and imbellifhed by Seleucus, In the time of the Mtctih 
nian kings it was known by the Greek n^me jfmphipi&h 
Here Cyrusy with his whole army, forded the EuphratiStA 

' Plin. 1. V. c. 23, ^ Vopisc. in Aurel. c.30. Zoi. 

C.61. n VoPisc.ibid. ^ Procop. dexdi£c. 1.£lli 
P Plin. 1. v. c. 24. *» Xenoph. deCyr. cxpcd. hi. p. ijoi 

' Plin. ibid, 




1 ■• , • 

C. V. ^ Hiftofj of the antient Syrians. 255 

Iboty the water reaching no higher than their breafb*. 
Here Darius croflfed the fame river on a bridge, as he 
^Fched into CiUcia to meet Alexander ; and re-crofTed it, * 
on his return, as he fled from him ^ Straho makes fre- 
quent mention of Thapfacusj and places it at the diftance 
of two thoufand ftadia from Zeugma, It feems, alfo, to be 
mentioned in holy writ: for where Solomon's empire is faid 
to have extended from Thiphfach to Azza, or Gaza u, the 
Greet has Thapfa, and the vulgate Thaphfa \ and the river 
mentioned there, as the boundary of Solomcn^s dominions, 
is, by the Chaldee^ interpreted the Euphrates , and very 
rightly, in the opinion of Bonfrerius and Grotius j fince 
Jjavid extended his empire to the banks of that river : fo 
that it was bounded on the eafl by the £a;^^rtf/^^, on which 
^iapfacus Rood ^ and on the weft by Gaza^ on the confines 
of Egypt. 

CoELESYRiA, properly fo called, lay, according to Ccelefy* 
Straho '^^ whom we chufe to follow, between the twaria, 
mountains Libanus and Antiltbanus ; and was thence called 
Ccelefyriaj or the Hollow Syria. The principal cities in 
this part were, Heliopolis^ Abila^ DamafcuSj and Laodicea 
Cahiofa^ or ad Libanum, Heliopolis^ or the city ofthefun^ 
fo called from the worfhip paid there to that planet, is pla- 
ced, by Pliny *, n?ar the head of the Oronies. Of the 
flately remains of this city, now known by the name of 
Balhekj we (hall fpeak hereafter. Ahila flood, according to 
Ptolemy^ between Heliopotis and Damafcus. That gco^ 
grapher ftilcs it Abila Lyfania^ that is, Abila of Lyfanias ; 
which agrees with St. Luke*s divifion of the tetrarchyX. 
From Abila the neighbouring country took the name of 
Abilene; whence Lyfanias is ftiled, by St. Luie^ tetrarch of 
AUfene. Zofimus places a town, named Aphaca^ half vvay 
between Heliopolis and BybluSy famous for a temple of Ve- 
nms^ and a lake near it ; in which the gifts, that were of- 
fered to the goddefs, however light, funk to the bottom, 
if acceptable ; but floated, however heavy, on the furface 
pf the water, if difpleafing *. Seneca mentions a lake in 
Syria^ no doubt the fame lake, on which even the hear 
vieft bodies floated a : but he takes no notice either of the 
goddefs, or the gifts offered to her. The temple of Venus^ 
at Apbaca^ was a fchool of wickednefs, as Enfebius ftilcs it, 

<XtN^M.ibid. Arrian. I.i. p. 116. ^ Strab.1. zvi. 
p« 513, &c. « I Kings iv. 24, *^ Strab. 1. xvi. p. 520. 
» Plim. I. T. c. 22. y Luke iii, t« ■ Zos. I, i. c. 58. 

* iuvi. q[iueft. nat. l.iii. c 26. 

R % and 



• « 

The Hiftory of the antient SyriaM. B. I. 

and therefore rafed to the ground by Conftantim the Greats 
Damafcus is frequently mentioned^ both by the facred and 
profane hiftorians. ' It was once the metropoUs of Syrk^ 
and, in Strabo^s time, a mod confpicuous city <^. Tbe em- 
peror yulian^ furnamed the apojiate^ ftiles it, the eye of all 
the eajly the facred and moji magnificent Damafcus $ and 
commends it on account of its temples, fountains, nven, 
the richnefs and fertility of its foil, l^c ^, Some of the 
antients fuppofe this city to have been buih by one Ba- 
vjafcus^ whofe name it borrowed ; but the moft generaDy 
received opinion is, that it was founded by TJ%^ Aranti 
cldeft fon ^. Be that as it will, thus muchis certaioi 
that it was in being in Abraham^ time % and confequcntljr 
may be reckoned one of the moft antient cities now cr 
tant. Of the feveral viciflitudes it unlderwent, in antient 
times, under its own and foreign princes, we fhall hive 
occafion to fpeak in the fequel. As to its profcnt flatCi 
we fhall infcrt, in a note, an abftradl of what a hte tn- 
vcller of our own tells us concerning it (A), The dtjr 


^ £us£B« in vit. Conflant. 1. iii. c. 55. « Stkaio, 

1. xvi. p. 520. ^ Jul. imp. 'ep. 24. ad Serapion. * BocHAir 
geog. facr. 1. ii. c. 8. 'Gen. xiv. 15. and xv. 2. 

(A) The city of Damafcus, 
according to Mr. MaundrelPs 
account, is fituated on an even 
plain of fo great extent, that 
one can but juft difcern the 
mountains, which compafs it 
on the farther fide. It (lands 
on the wefl fide of the plain, 
about two miles diflant from 
the head of the river Barrady, 
which waters it. It is of a 
long, ilrait figure, about 
two miles in extent, adorned 
with mofques and ileeples, and 
incompaffed with gardens, ac- 
cording to computation, full 
thirty miles round. The river 
Barradji as foon as it ifTues 
out from between the clefts of 
the Antilibanus into the plain, 
is divided into three flreams, 
whereof the middlemoft and 
biggeft runs direftly to Damaf- 
€usp and is diilributed to all 

the ciilerns and fbi;uitauii of 
the city ; while the other tm^ 
which feem to be the woiicrf 
art, are drawn round, one to ^ 
the right hand, andtheodcr 
to the left, on the bonlen of 
the gardens, into which tbef 
are let by little current^ aM 
fo every-where difjpeded. The 
houfes of the city, jAtk 
ilreets are very narrow, « 
all built, on the outfide^ ci- 
ther with fun-burnt faricki tf 
Flemijh wall ; and yet it i 
no uncommon thing to fa lb 
gates and doors adorned wiA 
marble portals, carved and w 
laid with great beauty andifr 
riety, and within theie poiol 
to find large fquare ooolib 
beautified with fragrant tm% 
and marble fountains, ad 
compaifed round with fpkadid 
apartments. In thefe apvf 



\ Tie Hifiory of the anfieni Syrhns. i6i 

a§dicea^ called by fome Laoiicea Cabiofay but moft 

donly Laodicea ad Libanum •?, to diftinguifti it from a 

if the fame name, which we have mentioned above, on 

mStof Seleucisj flood on thcOronUs^ notfarfrom mount 

tfif to the weft, and near the borders of the proper Caele^ 

to the fouth. From this city the adjoining territory, 

h Ptolemy makes a feparate province, took the name 

aodicene. Of Phoenicia ' Mediurranea hereafter. 

*DER ^dn^ Roman empire, the proper iSyr/^ was iX- Other M-^ 

into Comagena or Etiphratenfis^ Syria Palmyrena^ or*vi/lanj. 
'■ Salutaris^ and Phcenicia Libani, or Libanejia. The 
srtckon Pale/line into Syria on the one hand, and even 
Nion the other, and call it Sham ; and Abulfeda divides 
fholc into five junds or provinces, the Kinnefryne^ the 
fme^ the Damafcene^ the Jordanitic^ and the Palejiine.' 
CH is the fertility of this country, that it may he Fertility. 

a pleafant garden. It abounds with all thmgs, 

fdr the profit and delight of man. It is moftly a plain 
try, covered with a deep rich foil, and yields to no 
Dn earth that lies under the famq happy parallel. 
he rivers of this country that we fhall take notice of Richer f, 

die Orontes (B), the largeft of them all, a turbid, 

* Strabo, 1. xvi. p. 520. Plin. 1. v. c. 23, 

( the delings and traves with whom St. Paul lodged* 
fually richly painted and wherein is an old tomb, the 
ly and their duansy which fuppofed burying-place of Ana- 
last of low Ilages feated nias, which the Turks hold in 
le pleafanteft part of the fuch veneration, that they 
y and elevated about 16 maintain a lamp continually 
inches above the floort burning over it. This is the 
xm iht Turks eat, deep, fubflance of Dr. Maundreir^ 
e, receive vifits, fay their account, to which wc may add, 
m^^c, are floored, and that the fruit-tree called the 
led on the. ildes with va- dama/ceue, and the flower 
of marble mixed in mofkic called the damask-ro/e, were 
I and mazes, fpread with tranfplanted from the gardens 
ti9 and furnifiied all round belonging to this dty ; and that 
bolfters and cuflxions to the fllks and linen, known by 
cry height of luxury. In the name of dasnasksy werd 
d^ is (hewn the church probably the invention of the 
dm thi Baptifiy now con- inhabitants of this dty ( i). 
d into a ^mous mofque, (B) This river, according 
mSt of Ananias y which is to Strabo (2), difappeared at a 
a imali grotto or cellar, place called Charybdisy between 
"ciA n nothing remarka- ^p^^i^a and y^^/W^; and, after 
and die houfe of Judas, having run five miles under- 

See PFilb*s geagrai'bt of the Ntw T^. (2) Sttab, /. vi. p» 27s. 

& 5 ground. 

tbtHifi&ry of the antim Syrians. OB. t. 

rapid ftream, with wateis not fit to drink, and fifli unfit 
to cat ^ ; and the Barrady^ formerly the CbryforrbMSj 
which, milling from Antilihanus down to DamafcuSy if 
there divided into endlefs ftreams for the fuppty and deco« 
ration of that city ; but, uniting again at fome dtfiance 
from it, they lofc themfclves in a bc^S. The Abana and. 
Pharpar muft have been only branches (C) of this rivdr. 

^ See Mavndi.£ll's joarney firom Aleppo tojeruiakm, p. 4« 
* Ibid. p. 1 23. 

groand, appeared again. In and Fhrnrfar ; hot tells us (4) \ 

the fame author (i) aifo there of three rivers that water />< 

is a fabulous tradition concern* nutfcus^ and meet at the a^ 

ing the origin of this river ; as of the town ; one <if wbicii, 

that Typhon^ in his flight, fur* in the chapter fbUowii^ ^ 

rowed up the earthy ami formed calls Baniat. Thfcrt as 

the caoaJ ; that he was thim- footfiep of the naoaes Ai 

der-ftruck at the fountain-head and Pharpar (5) among the ^ 

of this river 1 and that his go- Arabian geographers. AUl^ 

in^ down, was the ciufe of the feia tells us, that the fiream 

foring which rifes there. They which fuppIiesZ)tf«M^#j,comei 

feigned him to be an huge dra- out of a cavern on the weft fide 

gon. This may be acided to of the city, and immediately 

xht. fabulous accounts we have divides ; which is {o exadly 

already given of ^yphonS Dr. Maundrelfs (6) defcriptioa 

death (z). of this water, that diey verf 

(C) RadsuvWe ( 3), the pala- abundantly confirm etch other^ 

tine of Wilna, tells us roundly This iaft travelif r cooki «et ft 

of the rivers Ahana and Pbar- moch as find any memory of 

par^ which watered the city of the names of Aiana and Phar* 

"PamafcMi when he was there, par^ and fiq^ibs they mdt 

which is about one hundred have been blanches c^ this xi« 

and fifty years ago ; and that ver Barrady^ whidh Comes oat 

they were then annavigable, of the rock. And, as he lb 

but full of fi(h, and fireamed nicely agrees widi ^^*/^^ in 

down to it from the mountain the approach of this nrer toi 

Chritcoroa^ which fhould have Bamafcus^ he does the iaaiQ 

been wriuen Chryfyrrboas^ the with 7)&fq;ew/ in its departure 

Greek name of the river which therefrom ; they l»th agree* 

watered Damafcus^ and not of ing, that its divided ftreams 

apy mountain there. Jbe^venot^ meet again on the t>ther fide 

who was fo curious and minute of the town. Dr. MaundreO 

an obierver of twtry thing in then in this cafe may be fafely 

and about Damafcus, never relied on, in what he fays oT" 

once mentions the rivcTS Aiana this remarkable ftream* 

(l) IcUm, I. xn. p. 750» (2) See he/ore, p. 34. (^^ Peregrw^ 

Jfenfa'ym. epift. ii. /». 31. (4) 'Travels to the Levant, part ii. 6cok i, c, 4^ 

(f ) f^ide Alher. Scb'ult. comment, geograpb. in •vlt. Salad, ad 'Votem Jhumafcm* 
J6} journey fro:n. Aleppo t^jcrujalem, ^, 12a. 

4 TlilNGI 

C. V. ^ Hiftory of tie antient SjnzxA. z6$ 

Things more particularly remarkable in this country Natural 
are the two valleys of fait, the one within four hours of raritus. 
jllifpo^^ the other in the neighbourhood of Palmyra ', 
which (boot forth that mineral in furprifing abundance ; 
the foil to a confiderable depth being ftrongly impregnated 
therewith, as is faid of the valley near Aleppo ; und as 
might, doubtleis, have been faid of the other, had trial there- 
of been made. The medicinal waters alfo in and about 
Pfilmyra^ and in feveral other parts of Palmynne ^, might 
claim our attention, were this a proper place. Among 
the remarkable things of this country we may alfo reckon 
the few cedars which are now ftanding upon Lebanon^ or 
Liianus. They are near a Chriftian moi^afiery, called 
CanMne^ about ten hours journey from Tripoli. They 
fiand in the midft of fnow(D), near the higheft part of 
Libflmu. Of the old ones, which are very large, there 
are only fixteen \ but young ones, of a lefler growth, there 
ane in great numbers. One of the largeft of th^ former, 
being meafured, was foimd to be twelve yards fix inches 
in girt, yet perfeSly found, its branches fpreadmg thirty- 
ftven yards in circumference : and about five or fix yards 
from the ground it divided itfelf mto five branches, each 
equal to a great tree >• Another traveller », who was alfo 

. ^ Idem bid. fub finem. ^ Philofoph. tranfad. numb. 217* 

1). 83. ^ Ibid. p. 103, 104. ' Maundrell ubi 

iipra, p. 142. ^ De LA Roqub, voyage de Syric, 

torn. i. p. 88, 

(D) RamJDoJf^ who viiited ways in the midft of foow : 

thde cedars ;dbout midfununer, but we arc aiTured of the con^ 

complains of the rigoar of the trary by another traveller (5), 

cold and the (hows here. Rad- according to whom, the fnows 

zkfilU, who was here in Jtme here begin to melt in Jpri/, and 

about five y.ears after him, talks are no more to be feen after 

pf the fjQOW that never melts July ; nor is, fays he, any at 

away firom thcie mountains, all left, but in fuch clefts of the 

Other travellers talk to the mountains which the fun can* 

fime purpofe ; among whom not come at : that the fnow 

oar Maundrell reprefents the begins not to fall again till D#« 

cedars (landing in the midft of cemher ; and that he himfelf, 

finow ; but he was there in the when he was here, faw no 

9ionth of May. From all this fnow at all : and it is prpba* 

we might have formed a judg- hie, th^t he fpeaks nothing but 

laent, that the cedars ftand sd- the truth. 

(s) De la Ro^ue vtyage de Syn'e, torn, i. /• ^« 

R 4 en 

ne fiijlory of the antim Symiii: B. L 

Ott the fpot, tells us, that the largeft he meafured was^ 
towards the middle of the trunk, feven feet, wanting twd 
inches, round ; at the fame time that he reckons its boughs 
one hundred zn^ twenty ^ttt about. But, either in thisf^ 
or the former account, there muft he a monftrous flip of 
the pen, or error of the prefs ; for the difference between 
feven feet and twelve yards is quite furprifing. But the 
difference between thefe travellers does not end here: 
the latter fays, the largeft of the cedars had not » trunk 
above fix or feven feet high out of the ground, which falls 
moft Unaccountably (hort of what has been juft now faid 
upon that point: and yet this author [De la Roque] talks 
of the enormity of the trunks of thefe trees, and of the pro^ 
digious fize of their branches ; which is throwing away great 
IVords very improperly, if he is not moft egregioufly out 
in the dimeitfions he gives us; which are fo trifling, that 
they cannot deferve 'admiration in any degree. This, tho* 
a digreffion of fuch a kind as is unnt to find pl^/ce in a 
work of this nature, we hope the reader will excufe, as 
we have made it only to obviate what might be pbje^Sed) 
by fome, to the difcredit of a very fincere traveller of our 
ow'^n nation (E). It will not be expefted of us to give aik 
accurate dcfcription of this noble tree ; therefore we fliaH 
only fay, that it bears a narrow leaf, of a^ fad green, to- 
gether with a cone like that of the pine-tree,' but darker, 

(E) We cannot forbear 6b- the cedars fo much. It is sot 

fcrving, that there feems to be his owfn voyage, though* he fet% 

almolt as great a diStrence, jhis name to it, whid^ is fome- 

concerning thefe cedars, be- what odd. He is ho more than 

twecn RauwoI/(6) and Raif- editor of this, as well as of 

tLiviile f;), who vifitcd them other voyages under his name, 

about a century and an half ago. which were really and properly 

Tiie former reckons the largeft Monf. le chevalier '^•-<frv/>«;r'5. 

cedars at feveral fathoms in To prove that it muft be his 

circumference. The latter fays, miftake, we ftiall only recur td 

they were handfome proper the memoirs of the mifltonaries 

trees," v.'ith wide fpreading [^) in the Levant, w\ierQiL]t- 

branches, like the trees the fuit, who mcafured the largeft 

Pofei call Modrzenxji he does of thefe cedars, tells us, it was 

not ralfe the admiration at all. in girt fix fathom, which fquare 

But the truth of it is, Mr. de very well with Maundrel^ 

la Ro^ue muft be excufed, if he twelve yards, 
does deceive us« by leffening 

(6) Ray's colUa. of 'voyages y ubi fupr, (7) Peregrin, Icrofolym,- ubifupr* 
{%) Tom, iv./». 55S» ■ ' ^ 


C. V. ^Cbe Hiji&ry of the antient SyritnsJ 265 

and of a fmoother coat. As thele cedars fpread out ex* 
tremely with a broad flat bead, which is compared to tht 
top of an umbrella, the weight of the fnow that might 
lodge upon them at certain Teafons, would break down 
their branches : but, to prevent this, they are reported to 
have the extraordinary faculty of preparing themfelves 
againft it, by ftretching their branches upwards, till tb^ 
form a cone ; thereby exhibiting the fmalleft furface poN 
fible to the heavens, and, by that means, preferving 
themfelves from ruin *• As thefe cedars of Lebanon make 
fo noble a figure in the Old Teilament, and have been 
antiently the pride of this country, we could not well (ay 
kfi than we have done, concerning the few of them left^ 
which are held in the greateft veneration, by the inhabit"* 

As we have been fo particular in defcribing the Egyptian Artificial 
monuments* of antiquity, we cannot pais over the chiefjn»^/i«/«' 
at leaft, of thofe wliich are found in this country, and may 
fap thought no way inferior to any thing of the kind in 
Egypt, Who founded the noble edifices, of which wc 
iball here defcribe the remains, is quite uncertain ; but 
nothing is more probable, than that they were not ereded 
.under any of the princes in the enfuing hiftory, they being 
in the moft corre£^ Aile of the antient Greeks and Romansm 
.Upon this account we might be taxed with irregularity in 
introducing them into a period, when they had no. being, 
had we not this for our excufe i that being quite in the 
dark, as to the time when they were built, we may a$ 
.M^ell fpeak of them here as any « where elfe* 

« Da LA RoQUE ubi fupr. p. 90, 91, 

•,/l^XWcare told (9), that at. By anoAer it is added; that 

the foot of the largefl of thefe the patriarch ofitciates jpootit- 

cedars are four ilone altars : fically upon this folemn occa« 

.(hat, upon the day ofthetranf- iion ; that they are particular- 

figMtatUn, the patriarch of the ly jaadndful of the blefic4 ^ip> 

Mar»nites'rt^\ts to them, at- gin uf on this day ; becauife the 

-tended by a number of bilhops. Scripture compares her ■ tq th^ 

priefts, and n^onks ; and - fol- cedars of Lebanon ; and that 

K»wed by five or fix thoufand the fame holy father threatens 

of their religion from all parts ; with his church-thunderbolts 

^nd th^ under thefe trees they fuch as (hall prefume to (lo) 

felebrate that feftival, which h4rt thefli« • '. • « 

ihey mifcal the feaft of codars^ ..•.•• 

(9} Ibid. (10) Dc ^ ^iojue uhiffpr, f» 87^ 89* 


7 * 

%H STki Bfi^^f the antitnt SyriaM 1^1^ 

Though therje are nuny oobJe veftiges of the magjoiT 

ficence of Syria^ fcattered up and down th^ country, hockj 

Piagan and Chriftian, we fliall dwell on two only % BalM%i 

finrmerly JHsliopalis, as is commonly fuppofed^ and PWt 

oyrtf or Tadm$r in the wilderneis. 

ntfing Balbei^ or Balbe^k is mentioined by the Arabians as ths 

TMins at wonder of Syria (G) ; and fuch of our European travellers 

tieliopo- as have vifited it, are fo charmed with what they beheld 

lis, now jjacre^ that they are at a lofs how to expreis their admirar 

Sadbek. tjon. On the fouth^wefi of the town, which ftands in a 

delightful plain on the weft foot of jtutilibanus^ is an 

beathen temple, with the remains of fome other edifices } 

^d, among the reft, of a magnificent palace. TheCr 

anticiat ftrudures have been patched and pieced in latar 

times, and converted into a caftle, as it is called. As 

\ . . . you draw near to itheie venerable ruins, you meet with a 

^€ r^tmh, rotunda^ or round pile of building, incirded with pillan 

^- of the Corinthian order^ which fupport a cornice that nms 

all round the ftruSure ; .the whole of great elegMyc* aai 

ftatelineis, but now in a very tottering condition ■>• It is 

moftly of marble, and, though round on the outfide, is as 

o^bagon within ; being, in the infide, adorned with eigfaC 

;archcs, fupported by eight Corinthian <:dkxnms^ each of 

one piece. It is now open at top, but appears to have 

been covered and imbellifiied with the figures of eagles. 

The Greeks i who have converted this round- into I 

cAiurch, have fpoiled the beauty of the infide, by daub^ 

4ng .it over with plafier ^. Leaving (his, you come to I 

large, firm, and J^ery lofty pile of building, through 

which you pafs into a noble arched walk or portico, one 

hundred and |ifty paces long, that leads to the temple. 

n kfAUNDREtL obi fupr. p. 135; • La fip^l 

'ttbiibpr. p. 152. 

(G) The Arabian ksdcogra- ** palaces with marble '€»• 
pher^ cited hySchultenSf m his ** lanuM, fach as in the wh^ 
geogra|>faicalcoininentary(ii)« '< world are no*where elfeta 
at the end of his edition of *< hc{<o&x\,^''ATiAAbu*lfidm:*^h!t 
fihdn Salah^aidin^^ life, fays ; << Baihek are palaces of hewa 
^* Balbek is a city of three << flone with moft lofty to- 
days journey from Damaf- «« lumns; nor is. therein A 
cus, where .are wonderful <« Syria any fh>ne ftrodloft 
fcftindations and magnificent '< more adinirable or m^ni* 
vefiiges of antiquity, and •<« ficent.'* 

(x i) jid voCiin Balbecutru 



£• V. ns Hificry of the antient Syrians. 267 

^ This temple has reiifted the injuries of tinie, and tht7ht great 

fnadnefs of fuperftition, being yet almoft intire. It is an temple^ 

fpblong fquare, in its general form and proportion, exadljr 

like £/» PauPs Covint^Garden ; but, for magnificenoe of 

ftrudure and dimenfion, there is fcarce any comparifon^ 

this temple being almoft as big again every way. Its length 

on the outfide is one hundred ninety-two feet, and it$ 

breadth ninety-fix p ; its length in the infide one hundred 

and twenty feet, and its breadth fixty. The tponaos^ 

or ante->temple, took up fifty-four feet of the hunored and 

ninety, but is now ruined ; and the pillars which fupported 

k^ are broken. The whole body of this temple, as it 

BOW ftands, is furrourided with a noble portico, fupported 

by pillars of the Corinthian order, fix feet three inches in 

diameter, about fifty-four in height (H), and each of 

three flones apiece. Their diilance from each other, and 

firom the wall of the temple, is nine feet. There ar^ 

fourteen of them on each fide of the temple, and eight 

It each end, counting the corner pillar-s in each number. 

The architrave and cornice, which are fupported all round 

by thefe pillars, are exquifttely carved. And, as you 

walk round this temple, between its waH and the piUars 

which go roun<) it^ you have, over-head, a folid arcade 

all the way, of great ftones hollowed out arch-wife \ in 

Ihe centre of each of which is a god, a goddefs, or a hero 

(I^ ftruck out with that life, that is not to be conceived 9, 

and all round the foot of the wall of the teikiple itfelf is 

9 Mavudrell abi fupr. q Idem ibid. 

.■ (H) Theie fifty-four are tor}% the other a conflant ob* 

Tnncb feet, which, according ferver, at we may call them. 

to Mamdrell^ ought to be but Sjb^«8, an this cafe the thing 

&rt/-five Englijb^ which is a fpeaks itfelf i^ for, according to 

very great di^erience. I'he oar mean skill in architefturc^ 

JPri«ri& author viewed this place a Corinthian pillar^ whofc jdia<* 

6tt a fortnight together, where- meter is fix feet, in which they 

' our Engli/h traveller was both agree, will require at leaft 

icarce here a day ; fo that the fifty feet of height, to appear 

firmer may be chiefly relied with any manner of elegance 

on in moil particulars ; and, and delicacy. 
IKOOfdingly, we have adhered (I) An emperor, or an em» 

chiefly to him; though they prefs, fays De la 'Roqut{\2)i 

both agree vtxy well, confider- but in this we choofe to rely 

ipgi that the one w9« a tranfi on MatrndicIPz judgment. 

a doubly 

26S fbi Hiftory of the ant tent Synans.* B. L 

a double border of marble, the loweft part of which is 
a continued bas* relief in miniature, expreffing heathen 
myfteries and ceremonies ; where, without any confufion, 
you fee a furprifing mixture of men and beafts, in the 
^noft happy compofition, and moft agreeable variety r. 

Having thus defcribed the outfide of this temple, we 
proceed to the infide ; but let us firft take a view of the 
entrjince, than which nothing can be more auguft. The 
afcent to it is by thirty fteps, on each fide bounded by a 
Wall^^ that terminates in a pedeftal, on which formerly 
fiood a ftatue, as we may naturally fuppofe. The front 
i$ compofed of eight Corinthian pillars, as we have al- 
ready iaid, fluted, as are all the reft that go round the 
U^mpk, and an ample and nobly proportioned triangular 
pediment. Within thefe eight pillars, at the diftance of 
about-fix feet, are four others, like the former, and two 
pillar^ of three faces each, that terminate the walls of the 
teoipk)*. which come out a good way* from the body of 
the temple itfelf. All thefe form a porch or portico before 
the do<Mr of the temple*, in depth about itwenty-fbur feet, 
lUdd in breadth fixty odd : thro' thefe ipillars appears the 
fipor of the temple, under the vault of the portico ; but 
it tl§ere appears with^reat majefty, and without the leaft 
fj^nfuispn; fo nice are the proportions of the pillars^ 
^eii diftance from each other, and the recefs of the door 
|M^if« .The door-c^fe, or portal, is-fquare, and of marble, 
HP Rrj^Rortion and conftru£lion juft like the great marUe 
portal at the weft end of St. Paulas, but far richer in 
Iculpture, and larger, if we miftake not. The whole 
height of it is about forty feet, and its whole width about' 
tAremy'-eight, with an opening of about twenty feet wide*. 
You arc no fooner under this portal, but, looking up, you 
ftc the bottom of the lintel, enriched with a piece of 
Iculpture, hardly to be equalled. It is a vaft eagle in bas- 
Tcltef, expanding his wings, and carrying a caduceus m 
kis pounce ; and on each fide of him is a Fame « or Cupid ^ 
fupporting one end of a feftoon by a ftring or ribband, the 
other being held ih the eagle's beak ^. 

"As to the infide of the temple; it is divided into three 
ifles, two narrow on the fides, and one broad in the mid- 
dle» after the manner of our churches, being formed by 
two. f6w$ of fluted Cot^inthian pillars, of between three and 
four feet diameter, ^d in height, including the pedefltal, 

' J>B LA RoQUE ufar- fapr. p. 138, 147. * Idem uM 

fopr. p. 136. t Maundrell ubi fupr, » De la 

.RocyjE ubifupr. p. IJ7. ^^ Idem ibid, 


^ y. tbeH06ry of the auiient Syrians^ a% 

jjbibut thirty-fix. Thefe pillars afe twelve in number, fix 
oh a fide, at the didance of about eighteen feet from each 
other, and about twelve from the walls of the temple* 
The walls are adorned with two rows or orders of pilafteis 
one over another, and between each two of the lowermoft 
is a round nich about fifteen feet high. The bottom of 
tihe niches is upon a level with the bafes of the pillars, and 
the wall to that height is wrought in the proportions of a 
Corinthian pededal, and the niches themfelves are Corin^ 
ikian in all their parts, with the ftrideft precifion, and 
niceft delicacy. Over thefe round niches is a row of 
Iquare ones between the pilafters of the upper order : the 
bmaments belonging to them are all marble, and they are 
each crowned with a triangular pediment (K). Towards 
the weft end of the middle ifle you afcend to a choir, as 
it is called, by thirteen fteps, which are the whole breadth 
of this part. This choir is diftinguifhed from the reft 
of the temple by two large fquare columns adorned 
with pilafters, which form a noble entrance, exaSly cor* 
refponding with that of the temple itfelf. Here is a great 
profufion of aftoniftiing fculpture ; but the architedlure is 
the lame here as in the body of the temple, except that 
die pillars have no pedeftals, and the niches ftand upon the 
pavement ^, The two large fquare pillars, which fo re- 
markably diftinguifli this part of the temple, are thought 
to have fupported a canopy ; but nothing of that kind is 
to be feen now. In the bottom of this choir is a vaft mar- 
ble nich, where ftood the principal deity here worfhiped. 
In this choir are feen the moft finely imagined fculptures, 
feftoons, birds, flowers, fruits j and fine bas-reliefs, Nep^ 
tunes J Tritons, fifhes, fca-gods, yfrion and his dolphin, and 
other marine figures >". The cieling or vault of this temple 
is bold, and divided into compartments filled with excel- 
lent carvings. It is open towards the middle ; but whe- 
ther a cupola or lantern ftood there for the admifllon of 
light, or whether it was always open, cannot be judged at 
this diftance of time*. In a word, tfie charming fymme* 
try, the correft tafte, and the height wherewith all the 

* Idem ubi fapr. p. 140—142. 3^ Mavni>r£il ubi 

fupr. D£ LA RoquB ubi fupr. p. 143. ' Idem ubi fup. 

p. 144, 145. 

(K) In the draught Mouh- a£Uy alike, both round: this is 

yr^//(i3) has given us of the a remarkable difference; but 

infide of this temple, the upper which way to reconcile them 

9JQd the lower niches are ex- we know not. 

(13) Jonnuyfrm AU^ t9 Jtruf^ 


The Hiftory of the antient Syrians. B. L 

tarvings are finiflied, even at fuch elevation^, where fo great 
liicenefs is thought unneceflkry, are fuch, that it may bft 
truly faid, the whole pile is without die leaft blemi(L 
The whole ftands upon vaults of fuch excellent architec- 
ture, and fo bold a turn, that it is thought they ferved fo^ 
fomething more than merely the fupport of the fuperin- 
cumbent weight, and may have been a fubterraneous tcro-*- 
pie, applied to fome particular fervice in the Pagan wor- 
ihip. And, though this temple now ftands by itfelf, there 
are evident marks, that it was accompanied by other build- 
ings, no way unworthy of it j among which are reckoned 
four • different afcents to it, one upon each angle, with 
marble fteps fo long that eight or ten perfons may go up 
abreaft *. 

Within the walls of this caftle, as it is now called, 
are alfo great remains of what muft have been a palace 
fcarce inferior to any royal feat that has ever been in the 
world ; but, being by no means in fo perfeft a ftate as the 
temple, we fhall fpeak of it in general terms, and of fuch 
parts only as defer ve oixt greateft attention. But, fifft of 
all, it muft be obferved, that the old wall, which inclofed 
both this and the temple above defcribed, is built of fuch 
monftrous blocks of ttone, as exceed all belief, and have 
given birth to a tradition among the natives, that the whole 
is the work of the devil. There are particularly three, 
which lie end for end with each other, and which togedicr 
extend one hundred eighty-three feet in length, whereof 
one is fixty-three feet long, and the other two fixty apiece. 
Their depth is twelve feet, and their breadth the fame; 
and, what adds to the wonder, thefe ftones are lifted 
twenty feet from the ground. The reft of the ftones of 
this wall are of furprifmg dimenfions, but none quite fo 
large as thefe \ 

Going through the long arched walk, which we have 
already mentioned" as leading to the temple, and which 
looks like a fubterraneous pallage, adorned with manv 
bufts, which for want of liglit cannot well be difcemedf 
the firft objeft which ftrikes the fight is a fpacious hexa- 
gonal building or wall, forming a kind of a fpacioa$ thea- 
tre, which is open at the other end, and prefents you with 
a terrace, to which you afcend by marble fteps. Thil 
aperture admits yoii into a fquare court, larger than the 
firft, round which are magnificent buildings. On cadi 

* Idcmubifup. p. 149, 150. ** Maundrbll ubi fopr. 

p. 138. De la Ro<^s ubifupr. p. 121. 


Gi y. fbe Hifiory of the ant tent Syrians. iyi 

land, you have a double row of pillars, which form por- 
ticoes or galleries of fixty-fix fathom in length, and eight 
in breadth. The bottom of this court Kras taken up by a 
third building, more fumptuous than the reft, and deeper, 
which feems to have been the body of tke palace, fronting 
eaft, as all the fronts in this caftle do. The columns be- 
longing to this part are of fuch fize, that they are com* 
pared with thofe of the hippodrome at Confiantinopli. 
Nine of thefe columns are ftanding (L), and a good piece 
of the entablature, which evince it to have been one of 
Ac wonders pf AJia ; and, to crown all, each of thefe 
nine pillars is but one block. Many confiderable afid di- 
ionGt veftiges of the feVeral parts of this palace are ftill 
extant. The Corinthian order prevails chiefly throughout 
the whole; and fcarce are any- where to be found fuch 
precious remains of architeSure and fculpture. The or- 
naments are various, but without any of the wild extra- 
vagancies of modern architefts. The fine tafte of Greece^ 
and the magnificence of Rome, here meet j ftatues without 
number, bufts of all forts, proud trophies, curioufly- 
wrought niches, walls and cielings inriched with has- 
l^efs, incruftations, and other works of the fineft mar- 
ble ; tiierms and caryatides, judicioufly placed. Under- 
neath the whole are vaft vaults ; where from time to time 
JOU difcover, through the ruins, long flights of marble 
Ibiirs^ near two hundred in a flight. The turn and ele- 
vation of thefe vaults are bold and furprifmg : and in thefq 
lubterraneous parts you find many rooms, halls, rich 
apartments intire, and many marble tombs. The wall$ 
sere alfo are adorned with niches, bas-reliefs^ and infcrip- 
tions in Roman chara<£ters ; but theie infcriptions are quite 
dflBiced by the length of time, and the damps. Some of 
thefe vaults are quite dark, and muft be vifited with lights, 
either becaufe of th^ir great depth, or becaufe the paflages 
which may have given them light are ftopped up by rul>- 
bifli ; but others receive light by great windows, which 
fiand on the level of the ground aoove : and laftly, all thefe 

(L) Maundrell remembers fart of fomi virj auguft pilei 

tkde pillars in the following hut 'what one now fees of it is 

words : About fifty yards diftant kutjuft enough to give a regret, 

/rem thi temfle^ is a row of that there Jhould he no more, of 

CoinxiXh^XXifillarSf very great it remainisig (i^O, He did not 

mtd lofty i with a nuft ftately vifit the palace; not imagining, 

mrcbitrame and cornice at top. we fuppefe, that there had been 

jbiif peaks itjelf to hatte heem any building of tho kin4 there. 

(14) Jwmyfrm AUpfp tojtrujalm^ f'^%7* 


tyz Tie Hijiory of the antient Syrians. B» L v 

edifices are built with ftones of the enormous fize already 
^- mentioned, wthout any vifible morter, cement, or binding 

whatfocverc. The temple and thefe ruins ftand in the 
fame indofure, as we have faid, and may challenge any 
monument of antiquity now extant, either at Athens or 
Rotju^ or even in Egypt. All over and about the ^town 
you, at «very ftep, meet with fome melancholy fragment 
of antiquity. The quarry from whence they had the ftone 
for thefe works is a little way out of the town. It is 
cut out in fteps fomethingJike an amphitheatre, where 
lies one ftone ready hewn, which feems to furpafs all that 
have been already defcribed. A notion prevailed, that it 
was too heavy to be moved ; but, upon a nice examuiation, 
it was found feftened to the rock ^. Such was the city oif 
Balietj and from its furpriling grandeur and magnificence 
we may well conclude it to have been once the moft con^ 
Cderable place in Syria^ and the delight of fome mighty j 
prince, who there chofe to refide (M). 
ne ruins But the magnificent ruins of Palmyra feem equally to 
rf^zX" claim our admiration. We fhall not here examine who 
mynu was the original^ founder of this city, whether Solomon^ or 
fome other before him, nor to whom we are indebted for 
what now fl:ands of "this dcfolate and abandoned towiL 
Such difcuflions will come more naturally in their proper 
places, as they may occur in the body of this work. Thus 
much, however, we may fafely premife, that at Palmyra 

^ Idem ubifup. p, 1 24— 132. ^ Idem ubi fap. ?• ijU 

. i 

(MJ We flatter ourfelves, not fay there is no fimilitade ^ 
that no antiquary will, accord- between the two edifices. This " 
ing to this defcription of Bal- he avers upon an accurate and y 
heky allow Solomon to have had diligent obfervation, as he telb j 
any hand in what we fee there ; us ; and adds as a further proof ; 
Bnd yet prince .^a^«/<i;/7/f ( 1 5 )y of it, that the buildhngs have 
who isy in the main, a very ju- not fufFered any violence, but 
Vicious traveller, thinks it paft are crumblred away and decayed 
difpute, that it is the work of by mere length of time. He ; 
Solomon, He imagines it to be muft have minded thefe ruioi^ ^ 
thehouie he built for Pharaoh*^ in general ; he cannot have de- 
daughter, and that it moft ex- fcended to particulars ; or he < 
adly anfwers the defcri, tion had never been fo egregionfly 
of that palace in the book of miftaken as he ii^ms to hav9 
Kings (16): and indeed we eaU'^ been. 

(15) Pirigrin, Itrofolym, tpifi» %» ^. ;tjr, (i6) I Kkgt vii. f —^jj; 




C. V. ^ie Hiftory $/ the antitnt Syrians* 273 

we fee no remains, or next to none, of Solomon's Tadmor^ 
this city having been more than once facked and demolifhed 
fince his time, as will appear hereafter. 

Palmyra, by the Greeks ^nd Romans i in the Scrips //j ji^^^j 
ture, Tadmnr in the wildernefs 5 by Jofephus^ Palmira and aifj JUiui* 
Tbadamor \ by the feptuagint copies, i'heodmor and Thed-tion. 
mor ; and by the Arabs and Syrians at this day, Tanmor^ 
Tadmur^ and Tatmor ; was once a noble city in the fouth- 
eaftem. parts of Syria. The origin of thefe names is dark 
«nd uncertain (N). It ftood on a fertile iflandj if we may 

(N) The author of the dc- 

fiaiption oi Palmyra (17} calls 

it Fahnira^ which he derives 

ftom the palms about it ; and 

fuppofes it to be the tranflation 

of an Hehrenx) word> importing 

a palm. Halley ( 1 8] derives it 

from iTtih^vif palmys, which 

Heffchius interprets a king or 

I fadier, or from il AKyivim Pal- 

\ mytes^ an Egyptian god> accord- 

t ing to the fame Hejychhs, 

f Seller ( 1 9) is of another mind ; 

he cannot think of deriving ic 

from palmys^ a king or &ther, 

or from Palmytes^ an Egyptian 

god; for what, fays he» had 

.the gods of Egypt to do fo near 

the banks oi Euphrates? He 

derives it therefore from TraiAfin 

falme, sl Perfian fhield, or 

feurmay as the Latins render 

it. This he fupports with 

Ibme authority, and a good 

deal of probability, rejedihg 

the &ntailic etymology of Ma- 

iila (20), who will have it 

called Palmyra^ <^/ce to ttaKai 

Tdt\tei6f becau{e Da*vid flew 
Goliath there ; which few or 
none will be willing to allow. 
The etymology of Tad^or is 

ilill darker, if pofllble ; but^ as 
dark as it is, we cannot for- 
bear acquainting the learned 
and inquifitive reader with the 
thoughts of *Sr^«///«i in his geo* 
graphical commentary (21) 
upon both the names Tadmor 
. and Palmyra. He obferves, 
that in the text it is written 
•)0r ^^'ftor, and in the margin 
"^Oin Tadmor. Tanior he rec- 
kons to have become the ufual 
name of this place, for ioftnefs- 
fake, and to refer to "IDH 
tamar^ the palm ; with which, 
in the next note, this place will 
be feen to have abounded. He 
fuppofes alfoythat originally in 
Arabic they did not fpell it 
Tadmor, but "^CPn Tatmor y 
and thus he accordingly finds 
it in his ^^ahic geographical 
lexicon ; as if you (hould fay 
palmiferous^ or palm-beating, 
the /, for found-fake, being 
changed into d. The ahera • 
tion of this name he afcribes 
wholly to the Romans, who 
upon finding the place called 
Tadmor or Tadmur^ may at firft 
have corrupted it is to Tal* 
mura ; but that foon after, un- 
derdanding the city had itt 

(17) PhiUfipb, tranfaff. numb, 2T7. p* 8f. (18) Ibid, numb, '>.iS. 

p, 161. (19) Hi/i, 6f Palmyra y in the appendix, p. 177. (20) Far. i. 

/. 182. Par,U,p, 153, (21) li ^it, Saljid, advKcmTadmora, 

Vol. II. 



Tbi tlifti^ df thi antient Syriaw. B. 1. 

{6 call it, furrounded on all iides by a thirfty and barren 
xlcfcrt. The firft objeft that now occurs as you approach 
this forlorn place, is a caftle of mean architedure, and 
imcertain foundation, though formerly by fituation impreg- 
nable, about half an hour from the city. Thb caftle (lands 
on the north (ide of the city, and from thence you defcry 
Tadmor^ inclofed on three fides by long ridges of moun- 
tains ; but to the fouth is a vaft plain, which ftretches out 
of fight. The air is exceeding good j but the foil is bar- 
ren (O), affording nothing green but a few palm-trees in 
the gardens, and a few more fcattered up and down. The 
city mufl have been of large extent by the fpace now taken 
up by the ruins ; but there are no veftiges of tiie walls, 
whereby to judge of its antient form. It b now a deplor- 
able fpeflacle to behold, being only inhabited by thirty or 
forty miferable families, who have built poor huts of mud, 
within a fpacious court, which once inclofed a magnificent 
heathen temple. 
*at To begin the defcription here : This court, which flands 
td about the fouth end of the city, is two hundred and twenty 
yards on eiach fide, with an high and (lately wall of large 
Iquare flone, adorned with pilafters within and without, to 
the number, as near as could be judged, of fixty-two on a 
fide. The beautiful cornices have been purpolcly beaten 
down by the Turks^ who have thereby deprived the world 
of one of the fined works of the kind, that, peAaps, was 
ever feen, as here-and-there a fragment, which has efcaped 
their fury, abundantly evinces. The weft fide of this 
court, by which you enter it, is moft of it broken down ; 
and towards the middle of it there are remains of an old 
caille, built by the Mamluksy as is fuppofed, out of part 
of the ruins which are here in fuch abundance. This caftle 
flirouds the remains of an antient fabric of exquifite 
beauty, as appears by what is ftill ftanding of its entrance, 
being two ftones of thirty-five feet in length, carved with 
vines and clufters of grapes, exceeding bold, and to the 

name from its palm-trees, they 
converted Talmura into Pal- 
mura, whence Palmyra. 

(O) Not that it had always 
the fame fleril appearance. 
Abulfeda^ViYio though he calls 
^admor a fmall city in the de- 
fert of Syria, yet places it in 
Jrahia, writes, that Falmyrtm^ 

for the meft part* aboanded in 
fait ; and that the palm and 
olive flourifhed there ; adding, 
that there are many great aw 
noble ruins there to be fcen. 
In him moreover we read,thit 
it had perpetual fprings, and 
yielded fruits and corn. 


■ > . 

C. V. Tie tSMy tf tie untiint Syriani* ft^5 

life. They are both in their right places, and by them it 
appears, that the door or gate was fifteen feet wide. In 
this great court are the remains of two rows of very noble 
marble pillars thirty-feven feet high, with capitals of the 
iineft carved work ; and the cornices muft have been of 
equal beauty, though quite deftroyed by the relentlefs fu- 
perftition of the Mohammedans. Of thefe pillars fifty-eight 
are intire. They muft iiave been many more in number ; 
for, by what appears, they went quite round the court, 
and fupported a mofl fpacious double piazsKa or cloifter. 
'ITie walks on the weft iide of this piazza, which face the 
fixMit of the temple, feem to have been the moft fpacious 
and {lately of all ; and attach end of it are two niches for 
ftatues at their full length, with their pedeftals, borders, 
fupporters, and canopies, carved with the greateft artifice 
and curiofity. The fpace within this once beautiful in- 
dofure is conceived to have been an open court, as we have 
already called it, in the midft of which ffcands the temple^ 
incompafTed with another row of pillars of a different order, 
and far exceeding the former in dimcnfions, being fifty 
feet high. Of thefe, fixteen are now flanding; but there 
muft have been about double that number, which, whether 
they formed an inner court, or fupported the roof of a 
cloifter^ is uncertain. One great ftone lies on the ground, 
ivhich feems to have reached from thefe pillars to the walls 
of the temple ; fo that the latter conjeflurc may naturally 
enough take place. The whole fpace contained within 
thefe pillars is one hundred and feventy-feven feet in length, 
and in breadth^ eighty>-four. In the midft of this fpace is 
the temple, extending ninety*nine feet in length, and in 
breadth, about forty. It has a fumptuous entrance on the 
Weft, eXadly in the middle of the building, and, by what 
remains, it feems to have been one of the moft glorious , 

edifices in the world. You here fee vines and clufters of 
grapes executed to the life ; and over the door you can juft 
trace out a fprcad eagle, as at Balbeky which takes up the 
^riiole width ; with fgme angels or Cupids accompanying it 
on the fame ftone, and feveral eagles are feen upon ftones 
that are fallen down. Nothing of this temple is ftanding 
but the walls, in which it is obfervable, that the windows, 
though not large, are narrower at top than at bottom, but 
mightily enriched with fculpture. It has been aukwardly 
patched up to ferve for a mofque, all but the north end, 
where are very precious reliqucs ; which, whether they 
were in the nature of canopies over altars, or to what uh; 

S 2 die 

«f6 .^[it Hiftory of the amienf Sfnaaa . K'\. 

- eKe tbcy fenrcd, is not cafy to conjedure. They are beau* 
tified with the moft curious fret-work and iculpture ; in the 
midft of which is a dome or cupola^ fix feet diameter, all 
of one piece ; but whether they are hewn out of the folid 
rock, or molded of fine cement or compofition, is made a 
Promi/cu- When you leave this court and temple, a prodinoua 
ous ruins, number of marble pillars prefent themfelves to your fight, 
fcattered up and down for the fpace of near a mile ; but, 
in fuch confufion, that there is no room to guefs for what 
end they were framed. 
Ohelijk Advancing towards the north, as you leave die tem- 
andtnvo pie, you have a tall and flately obelifk or pillar before you, 
pillars, confifling of feven large flones, befides its capital. It ia 
wreathed ; and the fculpture here, as every- where elfe, ex- 
tremely fine. It is above fifty feet in height, twelve feel 
and an half in compafs jufl above the pedeftal, anda flatue 
is conceived to have once flood upon it. On the eafl and 
wefl of this, at die diflance of a quarter of a mile, is a large 
pillar, and a piece of another near to the eaflem pillar, 
which looks as if there had been once a condnued row oi 
them. The height of this eaflern pillar, as taken by a 
quadrant, is above forty feet. Its circumference is pro* 
portionable, and on the body of it is a Greek infcripdon in 
commemoration of two patriots, by an order of the fenatc 
and people, which, with the others of the fame and other 
kinds we may hereafter meet with, we fhall pj^ ov«r for 
the prefent, that we may not break in upon the diread of 
this defcription. The weflern pillar has another infcr^ 
don of the like fort 3 but not quite fo paie<^ as ^ 
ne great PRocEEDrNG on from the obelifk or pillar lafl-mett- 
fiazza. doned, at the dif}:ance of one hundred paces, is a muni- 
ficent entrance, vafMy large and lofty, and for workmaii>- 
fhip nothing inferior to any piece hitherto defcribed ; but 
4inhappily it has fufFered the fame fate with the rtik. This 
entrance leads into a noble piazza, above half a mile long, 
and forty feet broad, formed by two rows of flately mar- 
ble pillars twenty-fix feet high, and eight or nine about 
Of thefe pillars one hundred and twenty-nine are flanding; 
but by a moderate calculation they cannot have been 
fewer at firfl, than five hundred and fixty. Covering ovei 
them there is none remaining, nor pavement beneath, that 
can be feen. Upon moft of thefe pillars are infcriptions 
in Greek and Palmyrene charafters ; fo that this feems ta 

l« 4« ■ • 'V 

C. V. The Hiftory of the antient Syriani a yj 

have been a much frequented and moft confpicuous part of 
the city, and therefore moft proper for the daily and ho- 
nourable commemoration of fuch as had deferred well of 
their fellow-citizens, or friends and relations- And, as if 
infcriptions were not fufficicnt, it feems as if here they 
placed the ftatues alfo of celebrated perfons ; there being 
pedeftals jetting out from thefe pillars, foiiietimes one way, 
and fometimes more, whereon muft have ftood ftatues, 
which have long ago fallen vidims to the furious and bar- 
barous zeal of the Mohammedans ; and upon thefe pede- 
ftals are infcriptions, even when none are on the pillar 
they belong to, and fometimes too when there are. The 
upper end of this fpacious piazza was fliut in by a row of 
pillars, ftanding clofer together than thofe on each fide ; ' 
and perhaps a banqueting-room ftood upon them, though 
no fign of it remains. Bat, on the left-hand, a little far- 
ther, appear the ruins of a very fl^tely pile, which may 
have been of fuch a kind ; of finer marble than is obfer\'ed Banqunt^ 
in the piazza, and with an air of delicacy throughout t)\ti»g-hQk/t, • 
whole, far furpailing what is obferved in the piazza itfelfl 
The pillars which fupported this laft pile arc all of on^ 
ftone, twenty- two feet long, and eight feet nine inches 
round. Among thefe ruins is found the only Latin in- 
fcription that was feen in this place. 

In the weft fide of the above pia^^a are feveral openings, 
fuppofed to have been for gates, whic^h led into the court 
of the palace. Two of thefe gates look as if they h^^Porpfyry : 
b^en the moft magnificent and glorious in the worki, hoxhfiliartamd^i 
for the elegance of the work in general, and for die ftatelyjkz/ar#. 
porphyry pillars, wherewith they were adorned. Each 

fate aid four, not ftanding in a line with thofc of the v^l, 
ut placed by couples in die front of the gate, facing the 
palace, two on the one hand, and two on the other. Of 
thefe porphyry pillars, there are but two inure, and but 
one ftanding in its proper place. They are ^bout thirty 
feet in length, and nine in circumference, and of fo very 
hard a confiftcncc (P), that it is a difficult matter to injure 
them. Thefe, of all the pieces of porphyry here found, 
are the moft beautiful, The palace itfcif is fo completely 
demolifhed, that there is no forming a judgm^it of what 
it has been, either for majcfty or ornaments It plainl}^ 
appears to have been thrown down by violence;, which» 

(P) This our author fays, anardficialcompQiItion,.whic]iit 
fpppofing porphyry to be is difpuced. . 

S '3 together 

Ithe Hi/iory of tHaitfim Syiiate^ B. h 

together with the length of time, has quite defaced this 
oBoa noble pile, there being only broken pieces of its walls 
left ftanding here-and there. But it is very likely, that it 
fronted the famous piazza bef<ire-mentioned, and that it 
was furrounded with rows of -pillars of different orders, 
many of which are ftill ftanding, fome plain, and fome 
wrought and chaneled, as thofe immediately encompaff- 
ing the temple. To thefe pillars alfo there are pedeftak 
with infcriptions. • 

O;^ the eaft fide of the fame piazza is, if the exprcflio^ 
/may be allowed, a wood of marble pillars, fome perfeft, 
fome deprived of their beautiful capitals, but fo fcattered 
and confufed, that there is no reducing them to order, or 
conjefturing to what ufe they formerly ferved. In one 
place are eleven together, forming a fquare in this difpo- 

fition, \ \ paved with broad flat ftone, but without 
« • • 

any manner of roof. 

fi At a little diftance from hence, is a fmall ruined tem- 
ple, which, by what remains of it, appears to have been a 
very curious edifice. The entrance into this temple looks, 
to the fouth, and before it is a piazza of fix pillars, two on 
one fide of the door, and two on the other, and one at 
each end. The pedeftals of thof^ in the front have been 
filled up with infcriptions in Greek and other charafters,^ 
but fcarce intelligible, 

il* But of all the venerable remains of this defolate place, 
none more attraft the admiration of the curious, than their 
coftly fepulchres, which are fquare towers, four or five 
ftories high, ftanding on each fide of a hollow way, to-, 
wards the north end of the city. They extend a mile, 
and may antiently have extended ftirther. At a diftance 
they look like the fteeples of decayed churches, or the 
baftions of a ruined fprtification. Many of them, though 
built of marble, have funk under the weight of years, or 
fubmitted to the malice of violent hands. They are all of 
one form, but of different fize, in proportion to the for- 
tune of the founder. In the ruins of one of them, that 
was intirely marble, were found pieces of two ftatues, the 
one of a man, the other of a woman, in a fitting, or rather 
leaning pofture. By thefe it is difcovered, that their habit 
was very noble, rather agreeing with the European, than 
the prefent eaftern fafliions ; whence they are conjcSured 
to have been Romans, Of all thefe fepulchres, there arc 
two which fcem to be more intire than the rett. They 


C V,.. Tfii Wfiovy. ^tht aniienLSf^mx^' .. 2^9 

, are iquare towers, five ftories high, thefr outfides of com* 
mon llone, but their partitions and floors within, of mar- 
ble. They are beautified vpith \'cry Hvely carvings and 
paintmgs, and Jigures both of men and women, as far aa . 
the bre:!ift and fbouldersy but mifcrably de^ed. Under ' 
them', or on one fide, are Paimyrenian cbarafters, whieh 
are thought to be the names of the perfons there depofited. 
To judge of the conftruAion of the reft of thefe fepulchrcs, 
by what is obferved in one of them ; they had a walk 
quite acrofs from north to fouth, exa£Uy in the middle, by 
which they entered. The vault below was divided in the . 
fame manner, and the divifion on each hand fubdivided by 
thick walls into fix, or more or lefs, partitions, each big 
enough to receive the largeft corpfe, and deep enough to 
contam at leaft fix or feven one upon another. In the 
loweft, fecond, and third ftorieis, thefe partitions were the ^ 
fame, excepting that the fecond had a partition, anfwering . 
to the main entrance, for the convenience of a ftair-cafe, . 
lEgher up this method was difcontinued ; becaufe the 
buuding, growing narrower towards the top, could no longer 
admit of tt. In the two uppermoft rooms it is likely that 
no bodies were depofited, except that of the founder him- 
fclf, whofe ftatue, wrapt up in funeral apparel, and in a 
lying pofture, is placed in a hich, or rather window, in 
tne frpht of the monument, fo as to be vifible both within . 
and without. Here is a Gree^ epitaph ^. 

Such were once the magnificent abodes, and fu«h the 
noble fepulchres,of the Pahnyrenians. From what we have 
laid of both, we may well conclude, that the world never 
faw a more glorious city i a city not more remarkable for 
i^s ftately buildings, than for the extraordinary perfonages 
who once flouriftied in it, among whom the renowned 
Zenobiay and the incomparably Lofiginusj muft for ever be 
rf mcmbred with admiration and regret. 

' Philofophical tranfaftions^ numb. 217, 

$4 sect; 

> ' .' . "'•»«<.' 


250 ' Tbe Hijtory of tie antitnt Syriansi ■ B. I. 


Of the Antiquiiyy Government^ LawSy Religionj 
Guftcmsy JvrtS'i Learningy and Trade of the antient 

lAut'^idty T^HE antient Syrians or Aramtes (A) fcarce fubmitted 
^ ^ ' •*• to any other 'nation under the fun, in point of anti- 
quity,' being the firft that inhabited the fertile and well 
fituated region of their abode after the general deluge, as 
we have already obferved *. But the pofterity of Shem by 
Aram did not poffefs this country wholly to themfelves ; 
their relations of G7»<7^«*s line, being ftreightened for want 
of room in the places where they fettled at firft, encroached 
upon them by degrees, feized on a portion of their lot, 
and kept it, till they were both involved in the fame cap- 
tivity and deftruftion. To ufe many words in proof of 
this twofold defcent of the Syrians^ from the righteous line 
of Sbevty and the unrighteous line of Ham^ is needlefs, 
fince we find a very noted portion of the country of Aram 
or Syria denominated from Hajnathi^ one of the eleven 
fons of Canaan^ who may have fettled here in perfon. The 
fame we might hete fay of the Arkite^ the iinite^ Zemarifey 
and the Arvadite\ though not wi^h the like foundation. 
We can only deliver it as our opinion, that moft of thefe 
Ganaanite families, if not all, fixed their abode in Syria (B). 
But whether the gr^t^r part of the country vras pofTefTed' 
by the Aramites^ or by the Canaanites^ w^ forbear inquiring, 
fmce we have little or no authority to build upon. The 
antient Syrians then were partly defcended from Ham, and 
partly from Sb^my both pf almoft the fame ftanding in this 

• Sec vol. i. p. 369. 

(A) This name was not (B) The Arals have a tra- 

wholly unknown to thcGreeh, dition there were Canaanites 

Strabo calls them Aranuei \ for very antiently in Syria \ for 

thofCy fays he (i), whom we they talk of Dimajhc (2) th^ 

call Syrians^ call themfelves fqn of Canaan^ who built the 

Arameans, Hence the Aram, famous city of Dama/cus (3). 
Arimiy Eremhi, .and the like 

(1} Gtopnafh, ly\.p* 42. (2) yi^ Schulfeni comment. gevgra^k* 

in vit. Salad, ad vocem Damajcuu f^J ScevtL 2. ^« 369. 


V V. The Hiftory of the Mtient Syrians. 281 

3untrv, and very little behind any nation in antiquity ; 
ut, it we believe a tradition current among the prefent 
ihabitants, no country in the world was peopled before 
icirs (C). 

That they were antiently governed by heads of fami- Go<uint> 
es, called kings, and that there were great numbers of ment, 
l\em in the country, is certain -, and no lels certain it is, 
hat they continued under the fame government, in part, 
ven to the days of Saul-, as appears from the kings of 
ifihab ^j and the petty kings in Mefopotamia^ who wMere 
Unmioned to dXXsxiABenhadad in his wars, no fewer than 32. 
Seeing therefore, that this moft iimple and natural form of 
^vernment, obtained among their neighbours in Canaan 
isx the one hand, and in Mefopotamia on the other, and 
liat even we find veftiges of the fame in Syria itfelf, down 
jO the days of Saul^ we cannot doubt, but that they were 
It firft divided into many fmall kingdoms. Not that this was 
jie only form that feems to have taken place; for, as Gibeon 
in Canaan^ in the days of yojhua^ feems to have been a 
:x>mmonwealth among the many kingdoms there \ • fo Da"- 
fhfifcus in Syria feems to have been one in David's time. 
What we have to offer in fupport of this opinion is not in- 
jifputably clear ; but Damafdus is fpok^ of as without 
a chief, ancf as if the power was wholly in the people in 
liavi(ts time. It is faid, that the Syrians of Damafcus\ 
not their king, fent an army, of upwards of 20,000 to thc^ 
relief of Hadadezer king of Zobah 5 which feems to imply, 
that a kind of republican government prevailed among 
them. The foundation and nature of the kingdom of Ze- ' 
bah we pretend not to fpeak of; but that of Damdfcus^ 
which rofc upon its ruins, as Zobah did upon the fubverfion 

*» See I Sara. xiv. 47. * 2 Sam. viii. 5, 6. . » 

■ • 

(C) For here they partica- under-ground, in tedimony of * 

larly pretend that Adam was the innocent Ahel^ as they told ' 

formed (3), and that Cain (lew him ; that the place is held in ' 

Abil ( J.) i both which places great veneration, and indued * 

they (new to travellers that with a miraculous power of 

viiit Damafcui ; for they are healing fuch as labour under > 

in the neighbourhood of that any violent difeafe, if they but 

ci^y Is)* To which Rad- lie down n^ked thereon;. ;Te- 

ZfviiU adds, that hollow iloring them immedtacely '^ta"" 

groans are ibmetimes heard their priiline health. * 

(3) Set Tbtvemt, Maundrell, &c, (4) See v;/. !. ^ I531 in the notes. 

Is) Peregrin* Urttfcljm, efiji* ii. ^. 30. 


2S^ 7%c H^cfry^^ the an$im Sjmm. Bv L 

of the (mailer principalities, ieems to have been of the ty- 
rannical and arbitrary kmd. The kingdom of Danwfais • 
was eftaUiihed by. violence ; whencd we may conclude its 
government to nave anfwered its origin, haughty, uncon- 
' troulable^ and ambitious to fubdue its neighbours ; and, 
in truth, it rofe to the univerial monarchy of all the parts 
on both. (Ides of the Euphrates y under Hazael^ as^ will be 
(hewn in its due place* 
ntir ^ £ ha^® 1^ (yftemof dieir laws, and icarce wherewithal 

iaws, to k/^m any. particular idea of them ; but wo are not (a 

much at a lofa for what concerns their religion. 
Their re- It is certain they had many idols of very great repute 5 
Upon. among. the reft, ^imi»9» (D), whofe temple ftood at Da^ 
maJcHS : he feems. to have been, at leaft, the princip^ god- 
oC Damofcene % which is all we Oiall venture to fay con- 
cerning him. 

Tkis antient god, in time, gave vray to another 3 for 
the Syrians deifyins their king, Ben-hadad 11. under the - 
ftile of Adady or Ader <1, he was co^fidered as their moft 
glorious and aufpicious god (£), This god, and others 


^ Joseph, antiq. 1. ix, c. 2, 

. (P) tliif Baine,. ia the hux- Mesibyt one (8)> nuty theBfitr 

guaeML pf the CMd Teftameat, have beui borrowed. 
VffU&uzpmegraMate : whence (£) Jdadis alfo called Jdt4M • 

this deity, whether god or the iing of the gods (9)9 and 

god()efiy is thought to haye Adad is interpreted one (lo); . 

borne feme relation to Venus, ^nd, where we have this mter**.. 

Seiden (6) is moft inclined to pretaticniir we are told, he w^ 

derive it from an rum^ bigb^ their greateft god.^^^^( 1 1 )and 

or lofty. We forbear to fpeak Ifaac Voffius ( i z) are vtry nice 

pf Gad^ and refer the reader in deducing the true import of 

to this laft author. The Syri- this name ; which we (hall pais 

eins had a deity alfo called Ba» over, becaufe it appears to osa 

£ia,.agodde(s» from whom the that, according to the Scri- 

children and young people were pture orthography, it ought 

called Baiias (7), thought, to be (pelt /f«4/«^/, as is.plaim 

perhaps, to be under her tute- from Jofephus ( 1 3), who, ii^ 

lagei and our EngUJb. word, fpeaking of the Scripture kingp 

(6k^ Vtdt Selien dedih Sjr,fyrttag» il. r. 10. (7) Damafi, vrt,-ffidbr, 

nM fha. c. 14*. 1%) Purchases pilgrim^ k u e. %o. at the mJ, 

(9} Sancbon, apud Eujeh, fr^ipsr, evangel, /. i. f, 38* (|o^ Mmnk* 

SatvmaL i. c. 28. (11) Vti fypr, Jyntag. i. c, 6. (is) De ido/o/atria, ' 

ill. r. 22. [t^)Antiffl,ix,c.2* 

7**1 fSHtafy #/ tbe mient Syrians. 

fiune ftamp, flouriflied as long, we may fuppofe, a$ 
tient Syrians poflefled this dieir feat. But both they 
leir gods, in great meafure, underwent the fame fate» 
Syria was conquered and tranfplanted by Tiglath* 

RE UPON the religion of the cx)untry may be faid to 
:hanged face : a new idolatry was introduced, or many 
Dns to the oM weyc brought in, by the new inhabit- 
ivho were fent hither by the AJfyrians, What changes 
Iterations this fyfl^m lufFerecT under the Babylonians 
the Per/tans afterwards, and laftly, ufider the Seleu^ 
und Romans J we cannot prefume to fay ; but an ac- 
of it, fuch as it was in the fecond century of the chri- 
era, we (hall borrow from Lucian ; who was an eye- 
6 of what hp fays, for the moft part, and the reft he 
from the priefts. 

' Hierapolisi or the holy city^ or Magog j as the Sy^. 
Jiemfelves are faid « to have called it, in the province of 
ejiicay ftqodthe temple of the gre^tS/mngoddefi (F), 

• Plin. hift, nat. 1. v. c. 23. 


i>y calls them Adud^ of 
and particuUirly, wric« 
the great BoM-hadadi the 
I of that name in Scri- 
, he tells ut» he vjas dei- 
or honoured with divine 
ip, as was alio l^is fuc- 
» HazaiL Here we h&ve 
:ft account of their deify - 
f Adadf or, as the Scri- 
ftiles him, Ben-hadadi 
if' we except his fucceiTor 
il, was the grcateft prince 
intienc Syrians can bead 
ind we .are of opinion, 
;fais great god Hudad^ or 
; is no other than the 
1 BiM-ifodadi and from 
e, it appears, that there 
S^'iBiprinces of the name 
£^ before they had any 
b called. By Jdad they 
it the fttn» and pidured 

him wit1| rays darting down* 
wards, to exprefi his benefit 
cence^ and. to ihew» that the 
chief if ifla ence of the heavens 
b in the beam^ of the fun (14). 
This high compliment might 
have fuited better with Hasuul^ 
whofe reign was a oontiaued-. 
feries of profperity, than with. 
Bim-Badad, who was fevera^, 
times unfortunate; but, as 
Jofepbus telb us they were 
both deifted, and as Adad^ or 
Hadady was a name commoq 
to all the kings ofSyria^ as ap- 
pears both by Scripture, and 
Nicolas of Damafeus (15), it 
may have been the Haxjsil of 
ScriptMf% who was fa bighlf 

(F> Who the Syriam goddeft 
was^ it is impoi&Ue pofitivdy 
to determine; but we find a 

jMttrt^. ^itturnsL uh' frfr, (is) Aptdjoj^b, snSif, J, vU. e. 6* 



TbeHiJiory of the antient ^yiisaiat, JB.I; 

upon tm eminence, in the midft of the city, furrounded 
by a double inclofure, or two walls, the one old, the other 
new. At the north iide it bad a court- or porch before it, 
of about five or fix hundred feet in circumference, where 
flood the priapSj 300 fathom, or 300 cubits, high ; for we 
find both thefe meafures ; but both Teem to us exorbitandj 
large. Thefe obfcene images, or rather columns, were * 
but flender, as we (hall (hew" hereafter ; but by whom, or 
to whom, they were erefiled, was the fubjeft of much fa- 
ble. The front of the temple itfelf flood eafl, and before it 
was a tower, raifed upon a terrace, about 12 feet high ; which 
was no fooner mounted than the temple appeared. It was 
built after the manner of the Ionian temples ; the porch wa^ 
adorned with golden doors ; nay, the whole temple glittered 
with gold, and particularly the roof. The air there was 
nothing inferior to the fweeteftof -/^r^7^/<7, and it fo flrongly 
perfumed the garments of all who vifited the temple, that 
they retained the fragrancy for a confiderable time^. 
2» Th is temple was not without its fanftuary, into which no 
:. admiflion was allowed, even to fuch of the priefts as were 
not in an efpecial manner allied to the gods there kept, or 
>e wholly addidled to their fervice and worfhip. Within the 
fanftuary, which was alwajrs open, were the flatues of 
Jupiter and y«w, as the Greeks were pleafed to callthemt' 
uibugh the inhabitants, as our author afTures us, had other 
names for them. But, iince we have not the true names, 
we muft be contented with the Greek. The flatues of 
^upiter and Jt^ were of gold, yuno fat upon lions, and 
^upiter was lupportcd by bulls, hcing, in looks and pcfturc, 
Tike the Jupiter of the Greeks ; but the ftatueof Juno was 
contrived fo as to participate of Minerva^ Venus^ Lvna^ 
Rhea^ Diana^ Nemejis^ and the Dejiiniesy accoi"ding to the 
different points of yiew. In one hand ftie had a fceptre, in 
the other a diftaff ; on her head rays and a tower ; and ihe 
was girt with the cejius^ or girdle, of the celeftial Venus, ^ 
She was adorned with a great variety of gems, which had 
from time to time been prefented to her by Egyptians^ In\ 

^ LuciAN. Syr. dea, c. 28 — 37. 

ftory in Juftin { 1 6), that a king, q ueen, according to Nicolas of 

from whom Damafcus derived Damafiusy was older than 

its name, had a queen called Abraham^ whom he reckons 

Jirathisy whofe fepulchre was among the kings of DamafcMti 

religiouily frequented by the as we fhall have occafion to' 

Syrians^ who efleemed her as obferve hereafter, 
their principal deity : and this 

(x6) JL. xxxvi. c, 2. 


X!« V. fbe Hiji^ of the antient Syrians. 2(5 

dians^ Ethiopians^ Medesj JrmenianSj and Babylonians^ 
Buty of all thefe, the moft remarkable was the lycj^nis fhc 
wore at her fide.. This fione is faid to fliiiie mod by candle- 
light ; and with it ihe illuminated, fays our author, the 
temple by night. In the day-time it had no remarkable 
luftre, but only looked like fire. This ftatue, on what- 
ever fide of it a perfon flood, flill looked at himS. Between 
Jupiter and funo was anotlicr eolden ftatue, but with no 
chanuSteriftics, or peculiar enligns, and only called the 
Sign. It is uncertain who was rcprefented by this ftatue ; 
. but, becaufe it had a golden dove on its head, fome were 
willing to think it was Semiramis. Twice every year it 
was carried in proceftion to the fea-fide^. On the left-hand, 
going into the temple, was the throne of the Sun^ but it had 
no ftatues ; for they held it abfurd to make ftatues of 
the Sun or Moon^ who were fo refplendcntly vifible to mor- . • 
tal eyes ; but reafonable, on the other hand, to form the 
ftatues of fuch as were invifible '• Next after this throne 
was the- ftatue oi Apollo^ not a ftripling, but with a large 
. beard \ for they could not endure the thoughts of addrefting 
. themfelves to any god that was under age ; and moreover, 
they covered this idol with cloaths, which was done to no 
other ^. Next to Apollo flood Atks^ then Mercury ^ then Lu- 
etna I all which made the fide furniture of the temple. On 
the right-hand, in entering the temple, was. ^l2axd Semi •■ 
ramisj pointing tojfuno i for that emprefs had had the arro^ 
gance to place herfelf above, all other deities, not excepting 
even jfunoi whereupon being feverely punilbed by the gods, 
who perfecuted her with difeafes, and various calamities, to 
humble her pride, flie at laft fubmitted to the goddefs; and,, 
for tliis reafon, was figured as pointing to Juno j in perpetual 
acknowlegement of her arrogant error ; and to dire<5l people, 
that the faid goddefs was to be worfhiped, not herfelf. ^fext 
tQ Semiramis was Helen, then Hecuba j Andromache^, Parisy 
JHsiiQry Achilles, Nereus the fon of Aglaia, Philomel and 
Progne, Tereus turned into a bird, another ftatue of Serru^ 
rams, Combabusj Stratenice, a beautiful piece, Alexander 
done after the life, and Sardanapalus, in a peculiar habit 
and attitude. Under this temple they fliewed the cleft 
where the waters drained oflF at Deucalion's flood : on this. 
place, faid they, did Deucalion ere<St an altar to Juno ; 
and this tradition brought on an extraordinary ceremoay^ 
ivhich we fliall mention hereafter. This hole or cleft was 
but fmall when our author faw it K 

s Idem ibid. c. 32. ^ U. ibid. e. 33. ^ Id. ib, c. 34. 
k Ibid. c. 35. » Ibid. c. a« & fe^. . 


flie Hiftory of ibe axTioit Sfmos. B.l« 

Finally, within the inclofures of the taaplt they kept 
oxen, horfes, lions, bears, eagles ; all which were no vnj 
noxious to men, but all facred and tame. 
-ed Close to the temple was a lake, where facred fiflies 
were preferved and attended. Some of the largeft had 
names, and came when called. One of thefe, ouraudior 
particularly obferved, had golden fins. - The lake idelf wii 
deep, two hundred fathom, as the priefts reported ; and} 
in the midfl of it, flood a flone altar, which feemed to fwim, 
as mofl thought it did ; for the pillar, or what elfe fup* 
poited it, was not eafily to be difcerned. This altar wa 
for ever crowned, and reeking with incenfe, and daily fi^ 
quented, as we fhall fee anon. Without the temple fbod 
a large brazen altar, and fbitues of kings and prieils,'aliiK)ft 

The oracle in the temple was quite extraordinary, and 
may (erve to evince how deepl/ thepriefb were verfed mthc 
mjrflrery of their profeffion. Here were images that feemed 
to move, fwcat, and deliver oracles, as if alive ; and noifts 
were often heard in the temple, when it was ihut up. 
Jpolloy as we underfland our audior, was the chief oracik 
Other idols delivered their anfwers by their priefh : tfab 
Syrian JpolU did all himfelf. He, as we have already ob- 
ferved, was the only god that had cloaths; the reafon of 
which was, as we apprehend, that a living perfon mig^ 
the more eafily be concealed under that covering, and afi 
the part of the pretended deity. When he conddfccndcd to 
anfwer thofe who confulted him, he firfl began to movie 
himfelf; upon which, he was immediately lifted upbjf 
the priefts ; for, if they did not run to his affiftance, Ik 
foon fell into violent agonies and convulfions* However,dK 
priefls who came to his afliflance he treated very rouriiif) 
till the high-prieft, coming up to him, propofed his auc^it 
He had the dire£lion of all matters facr^ and civil, bdng 
upon all occafions confulted ; and he always declared die 
time when it was proper to carry the image we have calidd 
the Sign^ in proceffion to the fea. In fine, our audior 
afTures us, that he faw this god walk in the air «. 

The revenues and treafure of this temple were in pro* 
portion to its fplendor, to the great majefly of the goddefs^ 
and to the migh^ power and excellence of her kindred 
deities that attended her. Arabia^ Phosnice^ Bahylma^ 
Cappadociaj Cilicia^ and Syriny paid to her their liberil 
contributions. Here were coflly prefeiits fhewn, in gar- 
ments, and other things, of incftimable value, which were 

* Ibid. c. 35. 
5 carefully 

C. V. 7%r Hifimry nf tie Miim Syrians. ;tY7 

carefully kept ; fo that, in this refpe£i, it was a very 

As for the priefls, they were of difierent ranks or orders, Xicttj •/ 
each a£^ed to particular tafks. Some killed the Sacrifices, /^/m^. 
ibme bore the drink-offerings, fome carried fire, and fome 
•waited at the altar ; and of thefe, above 300, in white ha- 
bits, and with caps or bonnets on their heads, attended the 
lacrifices. Befides them, there were other confecrated or- 
ders ; as of minftrels ikilful in the touch of feveral inftru- 
ments, galli^ or eunuch-priefts, and frantic women. The 
office of high-prieft was annual, he wore purple, and a 
golden mitre. Other forts of holy perfons there ¥rere, of 
the feveral nations, who held the Syrian goddefs in vene-. 
ration, whofe bufinefs it was to inftrudl their countrymen, 
who from time to time reforted hither in pilgrimage, in 
the rules and cuftoms of this holy city. They were called 
matters, or inftru£tors. 

It is remarkable of their eunuch-priefts, that they wen 
emafculated by the voluntary operation of their own hands. 
How this unnatural cuftom came to prevail, is accounted 
for by the following ftory : Stratonice^ who built this tem- 
ple, having for fome time negle&ed the admonitions of the 
goddeis, requiring her to undertake the work, was, in the 
end, by a grievous diftemper, with which the goddefs afflicted 
her, forced to comply 1>. The king, her hufband, readily 
agreed to her obeying the goddefs, but committed the care 
o? her to a beautiful youth, named C»mbabus ; who, no way The ftory 
fond of his commiflion, but dreading the confequences of 0/*Com- 
beine fo much alone x with the beauteous queen, deprived babua. 
himlelf of the marks of his fex, and gave them, carefully 
fisaled up, to the kii^. Being afterwards tempted by the 
^ueen to betray his truft, he acquainted her with the condi- 
tion to which he had voluntarily reduced himfelf. However 
he was, thro' malice or envy, convided of adultery, and con- 
demned to expiate with his death his infidelity to the prince, 
and impiety to the goddefs. As they were leading him to 
the place of execution, he called for the treafure he had 
left with the king ; which being produced, his intended 
puniibment was converted into die moft tender embraces 
in the arms of his prince, who, heaping honours and riches 
em him, granted him leave to finifh the temple ; where he 
paiied^die remainder of his life : and there flood his ftatue 
in bra&, as we have already faid, the work of Heru^^laus 
^ Rhodinn. And becauie it was induftrioufly reported, 
tot fome of his dearefl companions refolvcd to undergo the 

^ Ibid. c. 19. 



The HiftMj of the antieni Sytkm. • B. \\ 

fame calamity for his fake, or that yuno infpired feverd 
with a rage of umnamiing themfelves, that he might not 
be fingle in his misfortune ; many mad zealots, either in 
honour of Combahusy or to pleaue yuno^ performed thfc 
like operation on themfelves every year in the temple, as wc 
fhall hereafter relate. Furthermorej thefe galU^ or devoted 
eunuchs, took on them the habit and offices of women; 
becaufe a ftrange woman had fallen in love with Combabusy 
not knowing the violence he had done to his fex ; which 
to prevent for the future, he put on the outward appear- 
ance of a woman c. Such were the ^tf///, their inftitutidni 
and their patron. 

With refpeft to the facrifices, ceremonies, and .1 

cuftoms peculiar to this holy city ; they facrificed twice 

a day, to Jupiter in iilence, to Juno with great noife 

of minftrels and fingers. Every ipring they celebrated 

an extraordinary facrifice ; for, felling fome great trees, 

in the court of the temple, they garnifhed them with 

goats, flieep, birds, rich veftments, and fine pieces of 

wrought gold and fdver : they then carried the facrcd images 

round thefe decorated trees, and fct fire to them, and all 

was confumed. At this facrifice there was always a great 

concourfe of people from all parts, every one bringing his 

facred images with him, made in imitation of thofe in the 

temple. There was alfo a private facrifice made by everjr 

one that undertook the pilgrimage to the city of Hierapolis, 

The pilgrim killed a flieep, cut it up in joints, and feafled 

on it, fpreading the fleece on the ground, and kneeling upoD 

it. In this pofture, he put the feet and head of the viflim 

upon his own head, and befought the goddefs to accept his 

facrifice, and vowed her a better. To thefe we may addf , 

the offerings made upon the following ^occafion : twice 

a year a man climbing up to the top of one of the prills "Wt 

have mentioned, continued there feven days. He kt 

down a chain, to draw up what was given him ; for manjf 

upon thefe occafions brought their offerings, and declared 

their names, which one below took care to bawl out to the 

man fitting above ; who thereupon began a prayer, ftriking 

a kind of a bell all the time. Finally, they had fometimes 

a way of facrificing which was truly fhocking and barbarous. 

They firfl crowned die vidtims with garlands, and then 

drove them out of the porch or court of the temple, one 

fide of which was a fleep precipice, where they perifhcd. 

Nay, fome were fo mad as to tie up their children in facks, 

and then fliove them down the fame precipice^. 

' Ibid. c. 20--27. *^ Ibid. c. 57. 


C. V. The Hiftory of the antient Syrians. 289 

Some of their feftivals^ if fo they may be called, vrtttFeftivais, 
cbferved in memory of Deucalion^s flood. Twice a year 
they went to the fea-fide, and thence brought water into 
the temple; in which la{x)ur, not only the priefts were 
employed, but alfo all Syria and Arabia^ fays our author* 
Tms water they poured out in the temple^ and it ran ofFby 
the hole or cleft we have already mentioned. This they 
did by a pretended command of Deucalion^ as our author, 
after the Greek manner, calls him. What ceremonies they . 
pradifed at the fea-fide we are not told ; but it feems they 
Vrere very extraordinary. Returning with their vcffels fiiil 
' of water, and fealed up, they cari-ied them firft to a facreq 
perfon, called AUSlryo\ who, receiving them^ examined 
i the feals, and taking his due from each votary for his pains, 
\ untied the firing, took ofF the feal, and returned his bur* 
; den to each ; who carried it into the temple, for the pur- 
pofe before^mentioned. This JU^ryo^ whoever he was,. 
, received a confiderable revenue for holy ufes upon thefe 
folemn days. They had another kind of feftival, when 
their gods paid a vifit to the bottom of the lake we for- 
i; merly .mentioned. Junoy or the Syrian goddefs herfelfj 
I went down firft, for the prefervation of her ravourite fiihes i 
which, had they (eenjupitery would have died. Upon 
thefe occafions, a remarkable &rce was aAed between the 
' laid goddefs and god. He offered to go down firft, but fhe 
interpofed ; and, after much ado, prevailed on him to return 
back. But, of all their holidays, the great burning, as wc 
inay call it, was the moft conliderable. Upon this occa-> 
fion, there came people from all parts, to afiift at the great 
lacrifice we have already defcribed, and the other religious 
duties of the feafon. This feftival was of fome days con- 
tinuance, as we underfland our author ; and at particular 
times, while it lafted, the whole multitude was drawn into 
the temple, while the priefts ftood without ; fome of them 
znangling their bodies, fome ftriking violently each other^ 
while others beat tabrets, or drums, founded mufical in- 
ilruments, fang out aloud, and prophefied. And it was in 
the midft of afl this uproar, the frenfy of caftrating them- 
felves feized on many in the temple, who, crying out with 
^ loud voice, and drawing their fwords, performed the 
operation, and devoted themfelves to the goddefs. 

The religious cuftoms, laws, and traditions of this place^ Mifcelld- 
were as extraordinary as any thing elfe we have hitherto neout mai* 
fcen. Twice a year a man went up to the top oiters, 
one of ihepriapSj as we have faid, and there remained 
feven days. Hij n^ann^r of getting up was thus: he fur- 
VoL. It,' T rounded 

'The Hijiory of the dntient Syrians* B. t 

rounded the pi'lap and himfelf with a chain, and afcended 
by the help of that, and certain pegs, or pins, which ftuck 
out of the fides of the priap for that purpofe, lifting up the 
chain after him at every ftep he mounted. Here we cannot 
help taking notice of an obfervation of our author; viz. 
that they who had feen how they climb up the palm-trees 
in Egypt zx\d Arabia^ might readily underftand hini : whence 
we gather thefe phalli ^ or priapSy fo monftroufly high, to 
have been fo flender that a man might grafp them. Whe- 
ther we reckon the height he gives them at 300 fathom, 
which is monftrous, or even at y>o cubits, which is fome- 
what more credible; they were about as high as our mo- 
nument. How fo flender a body could be reared to fuch 
an height, we leave thofe to examine who are better fkOIed 
in fuch matters than ourfelves. When the perfon had 
reached the top of the priap^ he let down a chain, where- 
with he drew up whatever was neceflary for his mainte- 
nance, or to make himfelf a feat, or kind of neft. It was 
given out, that, during the feven days, he had a more im- 
mediate intercourfc with the great goddefe ; and alfo, that 
this was done in memory of DeUcalion^s flood, when men 
faved themfelves by climbing up mountains and trees. 
During thefe feven days the perfon never flept; and if at 
any time he happened to dofe, a facred fcorpion, faid they, 
went and awaked him. Our author rather thinks, that 
the fear of falling kept him from fleeping «. 

Every day many people fwam to the altar in the midft 
of the lake, tnere to perform their devotions. 

They facrificed oxen, fheep, and the like 5 but fwinc 
they held to be unclean. 

But the facrifice was not performed at the temple. The 
vi6lim was only prefented at the altar. The reft was done 
at home. 

Fish, and doves or pigeons, were accounted holy; the 
former to Derceto^ the latter to Sefniramis ^ 3 in memory 
of their different transformations. 

They fed many doves in and about their houfes ; and, 
if a man had toucned one of them, he was unclean all 4c 
relt of that day ; as holy as they efteemed them. 

As foon as any man had commenced ^tf//«x, or euniich- 
pricft, by difmembring himfelf, he ran about the city with 
the part in his hand ; till at length, throwing it into fomc 
houfe, he thence received a woman's attire, and, from that 
time forward, his life was intirely agreeable to his new drefi. 

*Idem ibid. c. 29—32. '"See before, p. 285. 


C V, tHe Hifiory of the antient Syriapfi; '291 

Th£ eunuch*priefts, however, entertained a pa^ion ibr 
women, X and the women for them; which, far from being 
thou^t fcandalous or portentous, was efteemed puro and 

It was unlawful for any gallusj or cunuch-prieft, to 
enter into the temple. 

Whosoever took on him the pilgrimage to Hierapth- 
Jisj this holy city, firft ihaved his head and eye-brov^ 
then offered up a (hcep, in the manner already mentioned. 
After which, he was not allowed to bathe but in cold wa» 
ter, or to drink of any thing elfe, or lie upon aught but 
die cold ground, till he had reached the city. 

The pilgrims, bei^g arrived, were entertained at the 
public charge, and lodged with people of their refpe£tive 
countries, here called inftru£tors, or mafters ; who were 
paid by the public, for inQru^Ung them in the rites and ce- 
remonies of the place. 

. The pilgrims were, all branded with marks upon the 
neck and wrifts. . 

The young men and boys confecrated the firft-fruits of 
their beards, and heads of hair ; which, being (haved, or 
clipped, in the temple, were dq)oiited in a gold or filver 
box, with the name of the perfon it belonged to, and kept 
in the temple. 

When any of the galli died, their funeral was not per- 
formed in the ordinary manner. Their companions carried 
their dead bodt^ into the fuburbs, where, fetting them 
down, they hurled flones over them, and left them lying 
upon the bier ; there they lay the fpace of feven days, and 
then were conveyed into the temple ; but to have done it 
before had been profane. 

He that had feen a dead perfon was not allowed to enter 
the temple that day : but the next he was abfolved from his 
uncleannefs, if he purified himfelf. 

All the family of any one deceafed were to keep from 
the temple 30 days, and ihave their heads g, 

Thus much we have thought neceflary to fay con* 
ceming the great Syrian eoddefs, and her worfliip ; all 
which is very unhappily di%uifed* in a Greei drefs. We 
cannot doubt, but that here we have great remains both of 
the dodbrines and praftices of the antient Syrians j though 
blended and confounded with many additional fuperflitions* 

For d)e prefent, we ihall add no more concerning the 
religions of Syria. Wc arc not fure that Plutarcb mc^ms 

t LuciAN. ttbi fapra. 

Ta wiii 

t^z Tbi Hifiory of thi antittU SyiUnt. B. I. 

' this Syrian geddefs (for {he was not the onlv idol that fecms 
to have borne the tide), y^en he fays, that (he punifhed 
thofe who eat of two certain forts of fifii, with ukers and 
boyls all over their bodies, and a diflblution of die liver 9. 
They are faid to have expiated this crime, by putting 
themfelves in a fack, and rolling themfelves in the dirt K 
Their tern" We learn from Plutarch^ that the Syrians^ of his time 
per, at leaft, were an effeminate people, prone to tears, and 
very remarkable for their way of mourning for dieir de^ 
ceafed, hiding themfelves from the light of the fim^ in 
caves, or other dark places, many days together. This 
tender and effeminate temper of mind may have always been 
one of the chara£teriftics of the Syrians^ as it ftill is. 
Thfir We can fay nothing particular touching the cuftoms of die 

lemrnifig^ antient Syrians^ or their civil concerns. As to their arts 
^ndarts. and learning; they were bv fome* antiendy joined 
with the Phoenicians^ as the firre inventors of letters ; but, 
however true or felfe this may have been, certain it is, that 
they yielded to no nation that ilounfhed with them, in hu- 
man knowlege, and fkill in the fine arts. They were fo 
happily fituated, that they may, almoft, be (aid to have 
been in the centre of the odd world ; and as, in the fun(h!ne 
of their empire, they were enriched by die fpoils, tribute, 
and commerce, of the nations far and near, they certainly 
;irofe to a great pitch of fplendor and magnificence, thoie 
great encouragers of ingenuity and induftry. The altar at 
Damafcus^ which fo ravi(hed Aha% king of Judah ^^ may 
ferve as a noble fpecimen of the (kill of their artificers. 
TI>i!r /«». Thkir language is one of thofe diale£b we commonly 
guaje. call tjje oriental tongues, and is pretended to have been the 
mother of them all } concerning which, and for our thoughts 
thereon, we muft refer the readers to what we have already 
faid '. It became a diflin^t tongue fo early as the days 
of yacoh ; for what his father-in-law and uncle, Laban of 
Padan-aram^ or Mefopotamiaj calls ^J egar-fahadutha^ is 
hy Jacob himfelf called Galeed^. The Syriac was not only 
the language of Syria, but alfo oi Mejopoiamia^ Chaldea 
(for there is no more difference between the Chaldee and 
Syriac, than between the Englijh and Scotch), Affy^ici^ and, 
after the Babylonijh captivity, of Palejiine. 

s rif^ox J'eiTtJ^ctifj.ovtet^, p. 170. ** Menan. apud Por- 

phyr. n«f/ diro^x^i Ifj.-^.^'/uv 7ra.pitfjLV^vtTiKd< ^§i^ Airoh^J 
p. 1 13. * Clem. Albxandr. ftrom.I. i. p, 307. ^ 2 Kiogt 
xvi, 10. 1 S^e vol.i. p. 347, 348; " See Gencf. xxxi. 47* • 


2 2 

> ^ 

C. V* He Hifiory oftbeantient Syrians. i^j 

There are three diale£b of the Syrian toi^ue : i. Th« 
Armmany or Syriacy properly fo called, which is the moft .. . 
degant of all, and ufed in Atefopotamiay and by the inha* 
bitants oi Roha^ or Edejpij ox Harran^ and the outer 
Syria. 2. The dialefl of Ptf/£/?i>^ fpoken by the inhabit* 
ants of Damajcusy mount Libanus^ and the inner Syria, 
3- The Chalaee^ or Nabath^an dialed, the moft unpolifhed 
of die three, and current in the mountainous parts of /IJJy^ 
riay and in tht villages of /r^i, or Babylonia^. 

The Syriac chara£ter is very antient, and fuppofcd by 
fonie to have been in ufe above 300 years before the birth 
of Christ o. There are two forts of this charader j the 
Ejirangelo (G), which is the more antient and unpolifhed, 
and chiefly found in the titles of books, as capitals with us ; 
and that called the FJhitOy xht fimple or common -dharafter, . 
which is much more expeditious and beautiful. There was 
a proje£l kt on fgot by Paui of Amiochy for adding the 
letters that are wanting in the Syriac alphabet, as the 
fireeks had done ; the execution of which he recoitimended j 
'to James of EdeJpXy who declined it, becaufe he feared 
that the books wrote in the imperfed ch;uraAer> or alpha* . 
bet, might, by fuch an iimovation, be loft P. 

« ' m 

The Syriac alphabet. 

The common charaSfer. The eJlrangeU. 

Ppw;er. Figure. Names. Figure. 

Joined to Joined to Joined to 

the foil, the prec. thefbli. Single* ^ 

and prec only, ^ only. ' 'k- 

.Df a vowel. ■ ^ ■■ \ -^ "* 

B. sif C2L :^ i^ Beth. 

■ Abu'lfarag, 'hift.dynaft. p. II. •Bernard, tab. 

aM. P AssEHfAM, biblioth. orient, tom.i. p. 479. 

(G) This name is generally word, we ihould rather chuft 
derived from the Greek word to take it in Tbeophrafim^t 
rfo>JuA^-, rounds as if it was* fcnfc, who ufcs ^foyyihtt 
a round charadter, whereas it ^wAa (i), for rough unhewn 
is rather Square i wherefore, timber, by reafon of its rudf; 
i/ it m jft be derived from that and unpoliftied form, 

{x)De plant it. ' 

The common cbara£fer. 7be ejfrangib. 

Power. Figure. Names. FigurCi 


Joined to Joined to 
the&lL theprec. 
andprec. .only* 

) Joined to 

the fell. 





CI jh;?. 




o Waw. 




\ Zain. 





Ca» Ubetb. 


Cor Kb. 

































Semcatb.^^ ffH 

ppt.of a vow- 
bat a guttur. 

-F. or P. 





•^ 2 pron. 



a ' 













T, or Tb. 





• The Striae writing, like that of the other eafiem 
tongues, was deftitute of vowels till towards the latter 
end of the eighth century, when tHcy were introduced, as 


C -V, , Sifi i0,ory offU wtknt Syri^^as, .29^ 

is genqrally fuppofed, by T%eophilus of Edejfa^ chief aftro- 
loger to oie khalif al Mohdt^ who borrowed them from 
the Greek alphabet, and firft made ufe of them todiftinguifh 
the Greek pronunciation of the names and patronymics^ in his 
Syriac tranflation of the works of Horner?^ The marks to 
exprefs thefe vowek are ftill nearly in the form of five of the 
Greek vowels ; for they rejeft the epjilon and the omicron ; 
diere being no fhort vowels in their tongue. But James 
of Edejfa^ who flouriihed about a centurv before Theophi- 
ItiSj invented feven new charafters for all the Greek vow- 
els, at the defire of Paul o( jfniiochy to whom he fent them -, 
and they are ftill extant 9. 

The Syriac is faid to have much degenerated, till James 
of EdeJ/a reftored it to its antient purity. He was the firft 
Aat wrote, a grammar in Syriac r. It is an eafy and ele- 

Ent, but not a very copious tongue, and has a great num- 
r of Greek words, which were incorporated with it, in 
the times of the Seleucida, There is a great number of 
looks in the Syriac j very little knovm to the Europeans j of 
which a late writer ^ has given an ample account ; but what 
this tongue is moft to be valued for, are the excellent 
tranflations of the Old and New Teftament ; which equal, 
if they do not furpafs, thofe in any other language. 

Perhaps no nation, of equal antiquity, had a more con- Their 
fiderable trade than the antient Syrians, We cannot doubt tra4^» 
but that they had fhips on the Mediterranean as foon as any 
of their neighbours ; and, by the vicinity of the river £«• 
phrates^ it is paft difpute, that they traded with tfce eaftern 
regions upon diat river very early. They had many valuable 
commodities of their own to carry into other parts. The 
cafy and fafe navigation of the Euphrates^ when compared 
with that of the iea, almofl inclines us to confider them as 
older merchants than the Phoenicians j or even the Edom^- 
ites ; who muft have made very early attempts upon the 
Arabian gulf j in comparifon of which, the Mediterranean 
Was a main ocean. Herodotus ^ reports, that the Phaeni^ 
dans were much older navigators than cither the antient 
Syrians or Egyptians \ faying, that they carried on the 
commerce -of AJfyria and Egypt by their Clipping. Here, 
by the way, is a ftronger proof than any we have hitherto 

P Abu^lfarag. ubi fapr. p. 147. Echellensis in not. ad 
catal. Ebedjefw. p. 180. Asseman. ubi fupr. p. 522. ^ Apud 
Bar. Hebr. (vel Abtt'lfarag.) in libr. fplendor. Vide Asss- 
MAN« ubi fapr. p. 479* ' Idem ibid* t Idem ibid. 

tL^i.c. I. 

T 4 given,. 

^e Hiftory of the antienf Syriittuu R I. 

given, that Syria and JJfyria were confounded -together 
by the antients. For how fhould the Phoenicians have 
failed to the coafts of the proper y^r/tf, an inland country ; 
a country they could not poflibfy have reached, but by 
doubling the cape of Good-hope^ and entering thcP^- 
Jian gulf? A voyage which could have anfwered no end, 
feeing they might have fupplied that country, and have 
been fupplied from thence, at an infinitely cheaper rate, 
by means of their next neighbours, the Syrians^ who 
navigated the Euphrates ; and who, it cannot well be dif- 
puted, were the firft that brought the Perjian and Inim 
commodities into the weft of Afta* Syrid was therefore 
the moft antient magazine for fiich commoditier^ and 
chiefly fupplied all the weftem parts'; nor can we^thini 
otherwife, than that the Mtdianitijh merchants «, who 
bought Jofephy had' loaded their camels m Syria with the 
aroma tics, and other precious things, they were carrying 
into Egyp't. Among which It is not unlikelv that thw haa 
commodities of other countries befid^ thofc of Syria. 

Now, becaufe the Syrians engrofled this lucrative com: 
iTierce, they may in great meafure'have negle6{ed the Me- 
diterranean navigation, chiefly intent upon their caftcm 
trade, which drew merchants from all the weftern parts to 
trafEck in their country, as well for their own growth, a; 
for foreign produdiions ; and particularly the Phamicians^ 
their next and moft induftrious neighbours. So that He- 
rodoim ^ may be in the right, when he talks of the trade 
they antiently carried on for ^Jfy^ia [53r/<7], and Egypt 
We might draw fome natural parallels of this cafe, to ren- 
der it more plain. The Spaniard^ and Portuguefe^ who 
have engrofled all the wealth, as it were, of the tVeJi'In- 
dies^ make little or no ufe of Ihipping, if comjpared with the 
two trading nations, England afid Holland.^ who may 
be faid to drive on the conimerce of the whole world in 
their bottoms. The Syrians then, it is likely, negleded 
fca-affairs, and therein fell much (hort of the Phoenicians. ' 
This was the ftate of the antient Syrian trade and na- 
vigation, which we may fafely fuppbfe increafcd from time 
to time, till their king Haxael^ as will be fecn in his reign, 
grafped' at 'the vvhole trade of both eaft and foiith, by fcizing 
en the famous emporium Elath^ on the Red Sea. The 
Syrians now had a commodious outlet to the fouthemmoft 
parts of Arabia^ Ethiopia^ and the more fouthern fhores 
Of Jfricy not to mention Fgvpt^ which could not be very 

J See before, p. i j 3 , * Ubi fupr. 


' C. V. • TbeHifiory of the antient Syrians. a.97 

fond of her new neighbours, and may have been jealous of 
them, upon very juft grounds. But this Syrian monopoly 
vvas of ihort duration. They had fcarce fettled themfelves 
<m the fhores of the Arabian gulf, when they loft their king 
Hazady and with him Eiath-y which, however, they 
recovered a^m under their laft king Rezin ; but their eiA- 
pire was foon after, extinguifiied : and therefore, though the 
Syrian colony remained afterwards at Elath, we fliall pur- 
fue dieir commerce no further, it being foreign to our 
prefent purpofe ; but we fliall endeavour to confirm what 
.-vwe have here advanced, when we tr^at of the Phtsnician 
>«flSiIrs« In the mean time, let any one confider the ftate 
ei tizAeiatiit Mediterranean^ before the difcovery br re-» 
difcovery, as fome* will have it, of the cape oiGotPd- 
Hopi^ and, perhaps, he will be of our opinion. Diodorus 
Sicnlus numbers the Syrians among the mariners employed 
by Semiramis in her Indian expedition ; but his author, 
ptejiasy is by no means to be relied on. 


.Of the chronology of the antient Syrians. 

IJEFORE we proceed to the little we can fay upon 
■^ this obfcure fubjedl, we will exhibit a feries of the 
races of the antient kings of Syria^ according to different 

The kings of Zobah, or Sophene. 

According to According to Contemporary 

Scripture. Jofephus. with 

Rehob - - - Arach - - «. fiquL 

X Vid. HuET hiftoir. du com. et de la navigat. des anc. c. 8« 

(A) The difference between woider we find this king*t 
tht Htbtenv i ^ and the Hebrew name fpelt thefe two ways ( i^. 
S r is fo little^ that it is no 


The kiDg^ of Demmfcms. 
According to Scripture. Acoording to Nte. DamfL 

♦ ♦*♦♦♦♦ jUmH. - - - . • . 
Jijzm ------ jUadlL - - . - - 

HezifiH ------ jUaJIlL - - - - - 

TabriiMH ----- AdadlN. - - - - - 

BenAhidadl. - - - - JdadW. ----- 

Ben-badadVL - - - . AdadVL - - - . - 

^z^/ .-,... jfiWVII. - . - - . 

^M-i&^i^^in. ^£^WVIIL - - - - .- 

*«»♦».»♦ jUadlSL - - - - * 
JJ«/« ♦ # ♦ ♦ * ^flWX. 

hccoxUxigXD Joffphus. CcHitemporarywitfa 

♦♦♦*♦♦» Z)OTi/. 

Jdad ------ Solomon. 

♦ « » * « # # Reboboam. 
Adad ------ Abijawu 

♦ ♦ » « * ^ * Ma. 

Adad ------ yehojhapbat and ydwam^ 

Hazael ------ Ahaziab and yoq/b. 

Adad ------ Amaziab. 

♦ ♦ * * * ♦ » f/zz/^A. 

J^yjpj or Arafes - - - yotham and >^z« 

The kings of Hamath. 

According to According to Contemporary 

Scripture. Jofepbus. with 

7ir - - - • Tbanus - - - DUvljI* 

yoram or Hado* «v *. * j^ a 

•-.rm 7^w»i - - * ♦ ♦ ♦ • 

r j/w - - - -^ 

m ^ % % . % % % % .^ * % m 

The kings of Gejhur. 

According to Scripture. CcMitcmporary with 

Ammihud ----- S^«/. 
Talmai ------ David. 

p. y. ^ Hi^ofy^ of tbea^knt. Syrians. 2oq 

■ 'We h^ve not miilded the fehicrfityofthcre kingdoms, by 
^cing them either in an exaft collateral, or fucceffive 
orders but have given the iecond place to Damafcus^ be- 
caufe it arofe upon the ruins of Zobah ; though Hamatb 
and Gejhur were kmgdoms before it.' 

Wb cannot pofitively affirpn, that Hobah coalefced un- 
tier one king in the days of Saul^ and, confequently, that 
Rebob was their firft king ; but only conjedure. Their 
kings had been vanquifhed by Saul\ and they thereupon 
may have come to the reiblution of fubmitting to one^ 
perceiving the Ifraelites to profper under their new mo- 
narchy. The PhiUftines feem to have done the like y, 
%t the fame time, and for the. fame reafon. If this be 
granted, none, is fo likely to have been their firft king, 
as Riboby the father of the great Hadadeztr^ who, in 
the days of Daviid^ was fo firmly feated on the newly- 
erefbd throne of Zobah^ that he afpired at the univerfiil 
monarchy of Syriay and, in effeA, was become a very 

Eeat and mighty prince, as will appear in the biftory of 
s reign ; and like wife, that if be was not the fecond^ 
be was certainly the laft, king^f Z^^^; for we hear no 
more of that kingdom. 

The kingdom of Damafcus rofe upon the rujns of the 
kingdom of Zobah. It was founded by Rezon^ probably, 
in the latter part of Selomon*s reign ^, while that prince 
was taken up with his vanities, and had forgot both him** 
felf and his people. 

. TosEPHUs, as may be obferved in the table, makes one 
jjad, king of Damafcus^ contemporary with David ; in 
Avbich he is a &x\8t follower of Nicolas of Damafcus^ 
whom, in the next reign, he drops. That writer >, in- 
Acad of allowing Rezon to have made himfelf king of 
Damafcus^ feems to infinuate, that he made Hadadj the 
MdomiUy king there, or fomewbere elfe in Syria. 

Nicolas of Damafcus feems to agree well enough 
-with the Scripture accounts of the. Dgmafcene kings, and 
forticularly , if we fuppofe his fivA Jdad to have hcenHadad- 
ssur of Zobah ; and that he was, is pretty plain: nor ought 
we to wonder at that writer's making his native city the 
metropolis of a kingdom, by one reign only, more antient 
than it really was. Befides, he may not be altogether 
miflaken, in calling his firft Adad king of Damafcus % 
ibr, as may be obferved hereafter, he certainly was king 
«r chief over that province, though he did not refide 

» I Sam. xhr. 47, ^ Sec before, p. 244, « See 

I Kings xi. z^ f A^tiq. 1. viii. c. Z* 

4 there* 

'joo The H(/hry cf Oe M^ieMi Sjmm. B.I 

there. By calling his firft Jdad the Hadadex£r of ZMf^ 
we reconcile him with the Scripture. 

It is inipoffible to determine the exaft number of jcss 
each king reigned : wherefore we have only placed then 
over-agamft die- princes of David*% line, or the kiap 
oi Judah. 

We have on purpofe avoided a dry difcuffion of dM 
point ; for there is no certainty to be expeded in whit 
concerns the fucceffion of thefe king^, and the length of 
their reigns. 

Th£ kingdom of Hamatb role together with that of 
Zobahy as appears pretty plain by the wars between thea. 
But that %i^ or l%irmis^ as Jofepbus ftilcs him,^was Ac- 
ceeded by his fon Joram^ is only our conjedure. 

The kingdpm of Gijhur feems to have pfen together 
with Zehah and Jdamath. We are not fure, that Ammkd 
preceded his fon Talmai in the kingdom % but it is raj 
}ikcly he did. 


The reigns of the kings of the amwU Syrians. 


lUhob. I^^ HOB we fuppofe to have been the firft fble l^iiV if 
■'^ Zobahy and to have laid the foundations of hi$ &sl% 

Hadade- Hadadezer, or Haderezer^ the (on of Rthob^ 

zer. a great and ambitious prince, and remarkable for Va on^ 

fortunate wars with king David. He bad warred witk 
advantage againft the king of Hamatb ; but, when heopr 
pofed David's progrefs towards the redudion of the bid} 
Which had been promifed to Abraham^ and his feed, quite 
Vear of to the Euphrates ■, his good fortune left him. In tlK 

the flood firft battle he fought with David, he loft one thouftif 
1 304*, chariots, feven thoufand horfe, and twenty thoufand foot 

Bef.Chrift The Syrians of Damafcus then fent their army to rd»^ 
'^44* force him. But, ncyerthelefs, in the fecond battte, be 
loft two-and-twenty thoufand men. The conqucroif 
taking advantage of fo fignal a vidory, pofl'efted bimldf 
of great part of Syria, and, particularly, of Damafam* 
Hadadezer now loft his golden fliiclds ; for fuch he had 
in his treafury, we fuppofe ^ his two cities Betab and B^ 

* See Gcncf. xv. 1 8. 


Cr V. Tie Hifiary of the anttent Syrians. 301 

ftbai^ exceedingly rich in brafs, were plundered ^^ and 

bis kingdom greatly diminifhed. But, it is Jikely> nothing 

perplexed . him more than the defedion of RezoHj after- 

vrards king of Damafcus ; who, leading the forces fent 

him from that province, or Hadadezer^s own, abandoned * 

lum to his adverfe fortune ; and, gathering a band of men 

about him, employed them in die purfuit of his awn am? 

bitious views c. t 

It is not exprefled, that Hadadezir became tributary to 
king Davids nor, indeed, is it likely that he did, at leaft 
on this occafion. For he furnifhied. Hanun^ king of ^ 

, Ammon^ with twenty thoufand men agatnft David \ but 
diey, with the other auxiliaries of that war, were put to 
it ihameful flight by Joab ^. Though he was paid for thefe 
twenty thoufand men, and was by no means a principal 
in thb war, yet, the next year, he feems to have made 
himfelf fo ^. He called in ail the petty kings, that owed 
him homage, on the other fide the Euphrates ; and every- 
^riiere elfe, as far as his power extended, he levied forces. 
By which means, he got together a very confiderable army^ 
which he committed to the condu£l of Shobach, his ge- 
neral, to affifl Hanun againfl David a fecond time ; or . 
rather, to make a defperate effort to retrieve his own 
loflies, or to humble David, But this great" hofl:, too, 
was routed at a place called Hetam ; about 40,000 of the 
Syrians were (lain ; and, among the refl:, Shobach him* 
ftlf. The petty princes, that ferved Hadadezer in this 

' fiital warfare, made their peace with David ^ and became 
Us tributaries ^, as did, in all likelihood, Hadadezer him- 

.:felf; concerning whom, or the kingdom of Zobah^ we 

-.find no further account. 


The kingdom of Zobah being overthrown, that ofReson; 
Damafcus rofe upon the ruins of it. Rezon was the 
firf( king, the fame who deferted from Hadadezer king 
of Zobah. He feized on Damafcus^ founded that king- 
dom, and proved a very troublefome and inveterate enemy 
to Solomon %. 
' HlxioN fucc^ed Rezon ; but whether he was his fon, Hezioi^ 

, '• > 2 Sam. viii. 3—8. • i Kings ad. 23, 24. ** See 

tefeu, p. 146. ^ See before, in the notes, p. 147. ^2 Sam. 
IL 15— 19* * X Kings xi. 23— 2{. 


'30! ^ H0ofy of ibe oHiUni Syim^ RL 

or anjr otberwife related to bim,- we know not (A). He 
Jived at peace and amity with the kings of Ifudab and 
IJraelK ^ 

Tabrimon (B) the fbn of Hmgm. Neither be, nor 

bis father, had any mifunderftanding with the kingi cf 

Judtfh and Ifrael K 

Sen-ha- Bek-madad the ion of Tabrimtn, £mbafladoi3 came 

dad I. to him with large gifts from Jfa king of Jwiah^ by whom 

Year of he was induced to make war upon oaajha king of Ifradi 

the flood ffom whom he took IJ9n^ Dan^ j/bel-beib-maacab^ al 

1408. Cirmeroth^ and the land of Napbtati k. 

Bcf. Chr. Ben- HAD AD, the fon of Ben-hadad. He vigorouflf 

940* profecuted the enmity his father had^fo fuccefsfully b^ua 

^^O^^^againft Ifrael ; but therein was twice very remarkablf 

^^ rr ' baffled by the interpofitjon of heaven. When he fiin 

Year of ^^^^^^ againft Ifrael^ he had no fewer than thirty-two 

the flood ^i'^g' i" ^^^ army ; and, with them, an incredible number 

1447. of horfe, foot, ^d chariots. With this powerful bofi 

Bef. Chr. he fat down before Samaria^ and ftrait fummoned JUt 

goi, the king to acknowlege himfelf his vailal, and deliver 

' up to him all his (liver and gold, and, likcwife, his wivet 

and children (C). To this infolent mefiage the pufil- 

lanimous prince returned a moft fubmiffivc anfwer ; viz* 

That he, and all he had, was at his difpofal i whicfai 

however, did not fatisfy the haughty and infulting enem/i 

For, he immediately acquainted the timorous king, by a 

fecond meifage. That the next day, about the fame timei 

he intended to fend fome of his officers to fearch his pa* 

lace, and the city, and bring away all his wealth, and 

whatever was pleafant in his eyes. To this indignity tbo 

king of Ifraely animated by the elders, refufed to confent; 

* Ibid. XV. 1 8. ' Ibid. * iBid. ver. 20. 

(A) tt is the joint opinion ^yria (5), in this king^s reigfc 
of Sir ^0^» Marjhdm[\\ Sir according to his hypothecs 
Ifaac Newton (2), and archbi- and that his fon Ben-h^dhi 
fhop UJher (3), that Reiion and fliook off the yoke. 
Hezion are different names for (C) . This laft particulaf h 
the fame king. aggravated by fome (6} into a 

(B) Sir If, Nenuten (4) reck- great piece of infolence ni 
ons him to have been fubjed brutality ; as if he feoc to 
to (lie Egyptians^ who, under Ahab for his moft b^atifri 
Sifdc or Shijhaky conquered male children to abule tbtfli. 

(i) Canon cbr'.vic. fecul. 1 3. (2) CbronoU of anty kingd, amiiM, 

f' 221. (3) Ad cnn. mund, 3064. (4) Ubi frpr. (5) S» 

he/ore, ir thf r '-/*•;, ^. 5^. (6) ytde Cleric, in Rejr, xx. 3. 


Cf. V. 3& Hi^otj of the antieia Sytiimi j^ J 

which gave occafion to a third meflage from the haughtV 
SyriaHj which was. That he wifhcd himfclf in a wor(e * 
condition than Jhab^ if he did not bring fuch an army 
before Samaria^ that, every foldier taking but a handful of 
it (D), there {hould be no figns of it left. Jhaby in 
anfwer to this vain menace, advifed him to wait the event 
of things before he reckoned upon them *. 

The Syrian army was now ordered to invefl the city 
of Samaria in form, and get all readv for the aflault. In 
die mean time, Ben-badad, who feems to have been at 
very voluptuous prince, and much given to drink, fol* 
lowed his pleafures, fearlefs of all danger, for he coukl ap- 
prehend none. As he was in the midft of his fecurity 
and caroufals, he was told, that a party was drawing near 
from the city, which at firft caufed a fmall alarm in the 
campi and difturbed Btn-hadad himfelf. But, upon far- 
ther information, he ordered thofe, who were coming, to 
be brought before him alive, whatever their defigns were ; 
and then returned to his pleafures. The party, which 
was coming out of the city, was Ahab and a choice com- 
pany of 132 young men with him ; who, though it was 
noon-day, were encouraged by a prophet to fall upon the 

¥cat hoft of the Syrians^ and promifed certain vi£lory. 
he Syrians^ on the other hand, dreaming of nothing Icfi 
dnn an aflault, thought they (hould have nothing to 

* I Kings XX. I— 21, 

(D) This proud meflage is It much as we do ; that if each 

ireryvarioufly interpreted. The man in his army took bat a 

words of the text itfelf are, handful of the ruins of S^immr 

Tbe gods do fo unto mty and ria, they might carry the 

$H9ri a//b, if tbe duft of $a- whole place away with them. 

mmria P?all fuffice for b€mdfulsf Others (io) again fuppofe his 

for M tbe people that follow meaning to have been, that 

(7) ; or, as it is in the mar* he would return with fuch aa 

gill, are at my feet. This, ac- army, that if each foldier took 

oirding to J^epbus (8), means but a handful of his country, 

BO more, than that he had fo nothing of it ihould be Idt 

momberlefs a multitude with remaining. Take it which- 

him, that each, taking but an way you will, it was a high' 

handful of esuth, could en- vaunt, and paflionately fpoke»' 

compafi Samaria with works to fet ofiF the greatndfs of hir 

that ihould overtop the wall kingdopi* 
of the city. Others (9) take 


tj) I Kims xz. to, (8) Jntiq, /. iw. r* 8. (9] Ckric* i^i 

I teg, ukijupr. (10} FMtritk ttptn t HSf^s zx« X0i 


J04 ^^ HiftoTf of the ofUient Syriani. B. I; 

do. but to condud them to their king. But when Ahah 
and his followers came up, and fell furioufly upon them, 
they fled ; and a panic fear fpreading itfelf all over the 
camp, there wai no one that thought of any thing elfe 
but favtng himfelf ; Ben-hadad mounted his horfe, and 
rode away with the reft, inftead of rallying and confirm- 
ing his people. The flight was general, and the IfraeUus 
purfued them with great flaughter. 

The Syrians were covered wich (hame at fo inglorious 
a flight, and would gladly have found out fome excufeto 
palliate it. They pretended, that the gods of the IJrailitet 
being the gods of the hills, it was no wonder that (uch a mif- 
fortune Kad be&llen them ; and, to comfort their king, 
aiTured him, that if he could but draw out the IfroiliUs 
upon a plain, his gods would prevail in their turn, as they 
prefided over the plains (£). They moreover laid fome 
blame upon the two-and-thirty kings, as not hearty in his 
caufe, or fubmiffive enough to difcipline ; and deiired 
that trufty, skilful oflicers might be fubiiituted inftead of 
them. They then advifed their king to levy juft fuch aa 
army as the former, chariot for chariot, horie for horfcf 
and not to doubt of fucccfs. 

Ben-hadad hearkened to all.this^ and bore his dif- 

honour as uneafily, we may fuppole, as any of his fubjeds. 

The following year, he marched towards the king of 

Ifrael with fuch an army, as if he meant to make gooa 

Year of his menaces againft the city of Samaria. He pitched in 

the flood Jph^k^ in a plain, without doubt, to be under the pro- 

xJf^nu ^^^*°P ^f ^^ °^'^ P^^^^ » ^^^ filled the country ^ as it is ex- 
. ^nr.pj.^^j'^^ Seven days he lay here encamped, ovcr-againfl 

^^' die ^tfpicable numbers. of the Jfra elites {¥). Upon the 

(£) So early was the notion that the Syrians^ confideriog 
of topical deities, and of the the theology of the timet/ 
gods fighting in favour of fliou Id talk after ib wild a rate, 
the men who worfhiped them. (F) It may be very well 
Howe\'er, they maft have asked, why the Syrians, fee- 
known, that the Jewoijb. law ing the advantage of numbets 
was delivered on a hill ; that fo greatly on their iida, lay 
the temple of Jerusalem ftood idle {o lovig f But it may b« 
on a hill. They could not but anfwcred, that the IfraeUM 
know, that the enemy's coun- were encamped on a hill, and 
try was very hilly, and that therefore they would not ven- 
the I/raelites were particularly ture to attack them, chafing 
fond of facrificing and wor- to ftay tiJl they ihottld fhift 
ihiping in high places. Know- their quarters. 

SBg ail thi9> it is no-wonder^ 


t.V: .m Hytaij 9f the MtkHt SyiAs^ |tfjt 

feventh day they came to a battle, in which the Sy^ 
ri^ms loft, oif foot only, one hundred dioufand. The reft 
fled with precipitation to the city of Jphikj which was 
near, where twenty-feven thoufand of tiiem were cruihed 
to death by the city wall, which fell on them (G). 

Bbn-h ADAD now gave all over for loft, and wa(s not a 
litde furprifed, perhaps^ that his gods had failed him. In 
defpair, therefore, he concealed himfelf in the city of 
jtphik ; but his officers,- reminding him that the kings of 
Ijrail had been generous enemies, advifed him to throw 
jiimfdf upon AhaVs mercy, and offered to prepare the 
tonqueror to receive him kindly, by appearing before him 
widi (ackcloth on their loins, and ropes about their necks. 
In this humble difguife they accordingly went and accofted 
^baby and intreated him in behalf of their king. Mab^ 
(nrerjoyed at his vi£tory, was in admirable temper td 
receive them, and, in a kind of tranfport, called Ben- 
badad his brother and declared, he was glad to hear he 
was living. The artful Syrians made the beft ufe they 
could of that kind expreffion for the fervice of their dif- 
confolate king. B^n-hadad then was brought to Ahabj 
who took him into his .chariot ; when the Syrian^ court- 
ing the friendfhip of the conqueror, promifed to deliver 
up all his father had wrefted from Ifrael ; and, moreover, 
to allow Ahab the fame authority in Damafcus^ which his 
own father had enjoyed in Samaria (H), By thefe fair 


(G) Thisisfoextfaorfinary (H) What privilege or au- 

a cafualty, that it may be well thority Ben-hadad promifes 

asked, how it came to pafs ? to ^^^/^^ is very doubtful. What 

It is fuppofedy they ranged privilege or authority ^^«->&^z- 

themfelves round the walls of dad\ rather enjoyed in Soma- 

the city to make a defence ; ria, is a queftion we ihould be 

and that the walls were beaten glad to clear up, were it pofli- 

down upon them by the Ifrael- ble. Jofepbus ( 1 3) has it, that 

iiis, or ihaken down by an Abab fhould have as full li- 

earthquake (11); in a word, berty in Damafcus as his fa- 

that God was immediately ther had in the city of Sama- 

concerned in this deflru^lion ria^ which was built but a few 

(12). It need not be fuppofedy years before by 0/«r/ king of 

they were all deftroyed, but IfraeL It is mofl likely, 

pardy killed, and partly wound- according to theLXX, and the 

ed or difperfed. Vulgate^ that he promifes^i&^^V 

(11) Patrick upon' I Kings XX, 39* (iz) C/^nV. in I Reg, xx. 30* 

(13) jinti^, ubijufr^ 

Yoh. II. P and 

'iheHiftery of tht aaiait SfrmA. B.I.' . 

fpeeches he fo wrought upon die miiKl of j/tak, tJiat he 
was immediately rcftored es hi» liberty, and a peace «at 

How ftridly focver Ben-iir^d adheFrd to hb wonl 
with jfbab in othrr refpefts, he kept poflcffion of' Rsiattb- 
gilrad, v^ich was the fubjed of a frefli war, in whtcfa 
■jfttfi prcTaiW on Jehe^aphetj king of jMdah^ to :join 
htm. The two kings led their forces againft Ramnh- 
gtUad; where they found the Sjriant prepared to receive 
them -, hmMah, having fufficienticafon to feu, tbattfae 
enemy would mark him out for deftru&i<Hi, -dtfeuiM 
himfelf before the battle, while the king of Jud^ put 
on his royal robes. The apprehenfion» erf jfbab were not 
without foundation ; for the king of Syria commanded 
his two-and-thirty capt^ns, who had rule over his chariots, 
to direft their arms only againfl the king of JfreiL 
This had like to have proved fatal to Jehtfha^at ; for ilie 
officers, miHaking Jehejhophal for Jhab, pnrfiied IttiQ 
clofe, and would have Itain him, had they not diftonre^ 
in time, that he was not the pecfon they had in comnuYr 

■■ ■ King! X, 

the Ifretiius Ihould live free in * 

JDaaafcui, with all the liber- ' 

ties chey enjoyed at home ; that ■ 

they Ihoulii have liree tngrefs • 

and egrefs [t^c/^], accord- * 

ing to the former, or build * 

them Areeta to live together, ' 

by their own coiintry laws, ac- ' 

cording to the latter ; and the < 

fame, it feems, had been enjoy- ' 

ed by the Syrians in Samaria: '• 

this is the apparent fenfe of our '■ 

own veriion of this paj&ge, " 

and the moll ftriflly agreeable " 

with the original. " Some " 

" think, by Jlreeii, he means " 

" market-places, where com- " 

" modities were fold, the toll " 

" of whick {hould belong to " 

" Ahah. Others think he " 

" means couiti of judgment, " 

" where he fhould maintain a " 

^- '-34- :: 

'' jaril(]iAionorer^<K-&ajlu^» 
' fubjefb; or. viim vi'tam 
'■' call a piazza,, of.whidi 
' .^^ajlhouldreceivetherentf. 
' But commonly interpreters 
' thinklemeans_/or/yi'cfl/WBj, 
' whereby he might bridle the 
' chief city of the kingdom 
' of Sjria i that they might 
' not makeirtuptions into the 
' land of Ifraet; citadels, as 
' we now fpeak, to keep them 
' in awe, and to be a check la 
' them, if they attempted any. 
■ thing againft the 1/ratliiat 
■■ yet, after all. Golf. Vatlan- 
' dm hath faid a great deal 
to prove, that the Hthrtv 
word figniJies/ii/af^j ; which 
he being allowed to builil, 
was a great .token of fub- 

{i;3Pa(HV»«/wi JD'i^li; 


.C. V* 282* Hifiety iff the antient Syriaas. 307 

-iion to deflroy. But Ahab\ precautious could not £ive Year of 
him J -for one of the Syrians (I)> drawing a bow at^a ven- the flood 
ture, fmotc him betwcn the joints of his harnefs : upon H5'- 
.which he ordered his charioteer to carry him out of the^^- ^^^^ 
field 6l Battle, and died in the evening. The battle was ^ ^7* 
Uoody and obAinate, and ^flcd till nighty under the co- 
vert of which, each fide drew off with equal lofs, and 
doubtful vi£lory ". The general > who, on this occafion, 
had the chief command of the Syrian army, was the ce- 
lebrated Naaman^ who was miraculoudy cured, by the 
prophet Eiijha, of the Icprofy, Avith which he was grievoufly 
aAi<9bBd, as is related at length in holy writ <" (K). As he 


» 1 Kings xxii. 3^-3 J. ® 2 Kings v. per tot. 

(I) The Syrian who drew 
this bow is, by Jofephus^ called 
Aman. . According to the fame 
hiHorian^ Bm^hadad was in 
this battle himfelf; to us it 
feemsy that he did not com- 
mand in perfon, but committed 
the condudt of this war to 

• (K) Elijba ordered him to 
f^fli himfelf feven times in the 
yordan. It is to be obferved, 
that by the laws of Mofes lepers 
were fprinkled feven times ( 1 4) • 
It is f Qppofed, that there was 
fomething peculiarly efficacious 
hi a fevenfdid repetition, as the 
Almighty went through tht 
great and beneficent work of 
creation within feven days (15); 
diat accordingly, it was injoined 
in hononr of God ; and, being 
perforincd, had its proper ef 

This, fays bifhop Patrick 
(16), was the only cure of a 
leprofy we read of, till Christ, 
the great prophet, came into 
the world. It was, and ilill is. 

in thofe parts, as loathfome % 
difeafe, as it is inveterate. It 
differs much from the leprofy 
which is feen among us. It 
defiles the whole furfece of the 
body with a foul fcurf, de- 
forms the joints, particularly 
at the wrifts and ankles, which 
f^^ell out with a gouty fcro- 
phulous fubftance, very loath'^ 
feme to look on ; the legs of 
thofe afHi£led with it look like 
thofe of old battered horfes: 
in (hort, it may pafs for the 
utmoft corruption of the hu- 
man body on this flde the 
grave (17). 

Naaman intreated the pro- 
phet to grant him two mule- 
loads of earth, being refolved 
to facrifice to «f other god^ 
hut unto the Lord ^18^. 

It is not faid in the text, 
that Elijha granted this his re- 
queft; but our tranilators, in 
their argument to the chapter, 
where this whole ilory is found, 
imagine that he did. From 
the words which follow, it ap- 

(14) Le-vit, xiv. 7. (15) Clerk, in 2 Re^. v. (i6) Upon z Kings 

▼#14. (17) M lundrtW I purney from Aleppo to ^^fff- in the append* 

litttr ii. (18) a Kingi v. 17. 

U 2 pears. 

3o8 ^he Hijiory of the antient Syrians. B. 1. 

was fenPible of the miracle, and by what hand it was 
wrought j he returned with great joy to the prophet, and, 
renouncing idolatry, acknowleged, thm there was no goi 
in all tbi earth but in Ifrael p (L). 

Soon after Naamans return to Damafcus^ Ben-badad 
began to execute fome private defigns againfl ^^^^r^m kii^ 
of Ifrael \ whence it may be naturally enough g^there<C 

P Ibid. vcr. 15. 

])ears, that he wanted this 
carch to raife an altar with it ; 
ai pious motive^ though mifta- 

He alfo confulted Elijbay 
whether or no he might attend 
\l\% mailer in the temple of 
Rimmony his oEoe requiring 
kim to fapport his prince at his 
devotions ; fo that he couM 
not avoid bowing down, when 
he bowed. But, with refpedl to 
this (cruple, we have not the 
prophet^s deciiion. The Ic- 
profy which alHided Naaman, 
.was entailed upon Gehazi, and 
his poUerity (18); which is 
laid, but by a mere tradition, 
to have given this generous Sy^ 
irtan an opportunity of difplay- 
ing a noble in fiance of bis ge- 
nero/ity, the good cfFeds of 
which are faid to fubfill to this 
day, m an hofpital, by the 
walls of Damafcusy richly en- 
dowed, for the reception of 
lepers, and faid to have been 
founded by Naaman for Ge- 
hazi (ig). 

(L) A late writer (20) tells 
us, that Naaman loft his great 
office of genera!,, for refufmg 
to worfhip Rimmoui but the 
argument he builds on> feems 
to be but weak. 

The words of the text (ai) 
itfelf are ; nen the king of iSy- 
ria tvarred againft Ifrael, ani 
took counfel wtb his fer*oanti^ 
faying, infucb andfucb a fUee 
fhall be my camp > and, by what 
follows, he ii^oined them IbiA 
fecrecy. From heooe the wri- 
ter {it) we juft now mentioned, 
afirfns, tHax'NaamoH was dil^ 
placed i for which reafon, the 
king of Syria now commanded 
his army in perfon, and, being 
not u(ed to fuch exerpiies^ he 
on all occaiions con(uIted hit 
general officers. 'D'liwitpen' 
badad command his drmy 
twice in perfon before; ones 
at Samaria y and once in the 
fatal day of Aphtha why then 
ihould he not coihmand it a 
third time ? and why mnft he 
be fo ignorant in military af* 
fairs ? if he committed his ai' 
my for once to the condudl of 
another, muft it be thought 
he did it always ? Finally^ 
what wife king was there ever, 
who did not, on all occaiions, 
confult- his -general officers.^ 
It is certainly wrong in an fai- 
ftorian to be poUtive in matters 
of palpable darkneis, to be fond 
of an hypothecs, that is» t^ 
Write by the fpirit. 

(iS) Jhid, ver. 27. (19) The'Vt/u.t*s trsvelt into the tfoant, part H. 

ho'^k i. chap, 4. (ao) Bedford's Script, chron, p, 627. X^O ^ ^"S' 

vu S» ^ {zz) Bedfird ubi fapr, 


G. V. Th Hifiory af the antient Syrians. 509 

that N^aman either died, refigncd, or was difgraced.. But 
tiie king was difappointed in a|] his aims, and thereupo^i 
hepn to fufpeft the fidelity of thofe about him ;. who, to 
remove fo dangerous a fuipicion, told him^ that none but 
^lifia could thus difconcert all his meafures, Jjc being in- 
dued with {fuch a degree of knowlcge, that nothing 
could be concealed from him, tho' done in the greateft pri- 
vacy. Ben'hada4^^^ heard enough concerning that prophet, 
to believe what he was told ; and, therefore, being re- 
folved to feize him, he detached a ftrong party to Dathan^ 
>^hexe he underflood him then to be. They came to that 
cjty in the night, and the next morning were, by the 
prophet, fmitten with blindnefs, and led by him into the 
very heart of the city of Samariay where their eyes were 
opened, that they might behold their fituation. Here, 
iofiead of being made prifoners of war, they were hofpi- 
tably entertained, and generoufly difmifled ; and, making 
their report to Ben-hadad of all that had happened, of 
^ prophet's power, and the king's humanity, a fiop wa^ 
put to the war o (P>. 

This peaceful dilpofition was but (hort-Iived, and Ben* 
hadad marched againft Samaria p once more, and, having 
Bcfieged it with his whole force, reduced it to the greateft 
Areights, and was on the point of taking it by famine j fo 
jrtiat cither the fiege was long and obftinate, or elfe the 
place was poorly ftored. But in the mean time he was 
alarmed in the night, by a noife like that of a great army 
rufliing upon him ; wnereupon, apprehending, that Jo* 
ram had hired the kings of the Hittites (Q^) and Egypt 
to come to his relief, he raifed the fiege with fuch preci- 
pitation, that his army did not fo much as take time to 
mount, but left their horfes and every thing Handing ia 

<> a Kings vi. 13—23. P 2 Ibid. 24—29, 

(P) According to Jofephus the kings of the iflands. That 

{%z\ upon the report they any remnant of the C/7»/7a«i//y>^ 

made to their king, he gave Hittites (hould at this time be 

over his private defigns ; and formidable in any of thefc par ts^ 

ftrait refolved, inftead thereof, is pafl: our underftanding, tho* 

to wage open war with Jeho- feme think they were (24). Wc 

ram, are told, the remnant of them 

CQJ Who thefe kings of the was reduced to the moil abjcdt 

fiittites were, is very uncer- degree of fervitude by Solo* 

tain. Jofepbus (23) calls them mon (25). 

(2z) Antiq, /. ix. f. 2, (23) Ubifupr, (24.) Pstrick upon 

1 Kin^i X. »9i Cleric, in % Reg. vii. 6. (25)^« ^{f^^^j /. 2i6. 

U J th» 

The Hiftory ofth antieni ij^viZ B. I. 

the camp, juft as it Was when they tooK thfe alarm j 
dropping what was, In the leaft cumberfometb ih^iii^iri 
their flight q. ' • • •;. ■ r. 

Ben-had AD muft at this time have been well actvahcfecf 
in years ; and, whether he had contrafted fomeillntfs by 
the fatigue of his flight, and violence of hi^Turjirtie, at! 
whether his fpirits were broken by fuch frequent mfsfof- 
tunes, he took to his bed. As he lay fick, it w^s told 
him, the prophet EUJha was coming to Dafnafcus (RJ ; 
whereupon he fent Hazael with forty camels load of tne 
choiceft produftions (S) of Damafcus^ to confult' the pfo-- 
phet concerning his indlfpofition. Hiizael accofted* him 
in the moft refpc6lful hianner, on the behalf of Ben-hadad. 
But the anfwer he received was, that Ben-hadad might 
recover, but fliould furely die. The prophet, having thus 
cxprefl^ed himfelf, fixed his eyes iiport /fcz^^/, till he put 
him out of countenance (T) ; and fuddenly bdfft into 
tears. Hazael^ amazed at this, and humbly defiring tb 
know, what might be the caufe of it, was told. That he 
was to fucceed Ben-hadad^ and to be a cruel and mercilefl 
perfecutor of the children of Ifrael \ that he would 'fct 
their ftrong holds on fire, flay their young men with the 
fword, da(h their children, and rip up their womeri- with 
child. Hazael profefTed not to underfland what the ^r6- 
phet meant, nor could conceive how fp inconfiderable a 
perfon as himfelf could ever- have it in his power to com-i 
mit fuch outrages (U) : whereupon he was aflured anew 
by the prophet, that he fi^ould be king aver. Aijyria,, He 

^ lb. vii. 6, 7, 

(R) By Jofephus (26), the text. Hazad beheld the pro* 

prophet was not yet arrived at phet with an eye <ii VeDera- 

Daffwfcus, and Hazael was fent tion, and as one infinitely his 

out to meet him. Some (37) fuperior, and therefore was- 

fuppofe he was jail coming into abafhed when Elicit <ixcd l^ 

the city. eyes fo fledfaftly upon him. 

(S) By thelargenefs of this (U) The text runs £ But 

prelent, it is thought EliJ/ja n.vhaty is thy fer^ant ^ dogf . 

was. accompanied by many of that be Jhould do this great 

the fons of the prophets, or thing? Whereby moft have 

that even four camels load had underflood, that he difclaimed 

been fufRcicnt(2S). fuch bart>arity as'the prophet 

(T) This feems to be the foretold of him ; but the rea{ 

moft natural explication of the meaning of this pafiage is. But 

(2.6) I'bi fupr, ^2j) Fdtrid upon 2 vioi. 7. (2S3 Cleric, 

in i Rigf viii. (J, 

C. V. 3ic Hificry of tie antient Syrians; 3 1 i 

then returned to his mafter, and flattered him with hopes 
of recovery; but the next day ftifled him with a thick 
cloth dipped in water \ So ended the reign of the great 
Bift-badadi who, having adorned Damafcus with fine 
ilru^lures, as is faid, and added to the glory of Syria ^ 
was ranked among the gods, and honoured with divine 
worihip* (X). 

.Ha2^£L, having thus murdered his lord, afcended hisHazael. 
throne, to which, by the wife providence of God, he Year of 
had been nominated ibme years before, and the prophet the flood 
Elijah had orders to anoint bim^ He was a fcourge in i4^4*. 
the hand of God, to chaftife the kingdoms of Judab and B«^- thrift 
Ifraely. and under him the Syrian monarchy arofe to its ^ ^4^ 
n^eridian. However, he fcems to have reigned very ' 
peaceably, till he was provoked by Joram king of Ifraeiy 
and Jbaziah king of Judah, who leagued to wreft Ra^ 
nuuh^gilead out of his hands, in imitation of what their 
fathers had attempted in the reign of Ben-hadad* In this 
atteinpt they were attended with fuccefs, though Joram 
was dangeroufly wounded. But Hazael made himfelf 
ample amends, by invading both the kingdoms of Judab 

■\- \ 

.' Xbid..viii. 7 — 17. • Joseph, antiq. 1. ix. c. 2. * 1 Kings 
anx. 15. 

luhat is thy ferntanty a dog ? this Ben-hadad by the names 
Eluding to liis mean condition, oi Adad, Adar^ and Aden 
which would never allow him which difference arifes from 
to commit what only a great the near fimilitude of the Hi* 
prince had power to do (29). brew r and d, as we have al* 
This is confirmed by the pro- ready (30) noted. According 
phet^s anfwer, that he was to to Sir Jfaac Neiuton (31), the 
be king of Syria ; which Damafcus and Aratbes we for'^ 
comes in very naturally. merly mentioned (32), were 
• (X) We are almoft tempted this Ben^badad and his queen^ 
t» think, that Hazael may who were worfluped in their 
have been the chief promoter fepalcres or temples. But, hy- 
of this deiAcationy to cover his this fuppofition, it fhould feem^ 
own guilt. He ikems to have that idolatry was yet in its non- 
been a^kl it (hould be known age among the Syrians, where^, 
lie ^was the. murderer of his zsjofepbus (13) talks of ftatel^ 
itfafter, by his manner of di- temples ereoed by Ben-badmi^ 
ij^tihfng hint. Jo/efbus caUs in his lifis-time (34}. v 

'{%i^)'See Patrick ufn 2 Kinrs fiii. 13. Vii. etiam Ckrit, in % Mtft* vifl. 13. 
Gf y^'fipb, antip ubifitpr, (30) Se$. before in tjiie mtei, ^ ajkj.: , \%\) Short 
chfonol. /). 34. (32) See before^ in (Ite notes, f, 2B4.-" (33) Ubi 

!'*£''* ( 34) ^« ^i'' (T*^^ NewtiP^j fbron. of ant* Kjtigdn 0mndf f* ^^^^ 

U 4 and 

an4 Ifrael^ and purfuing tbfim admoft tQ ddfaruAion. fle 
(legan with.J^^i^ ;kUig.of //ri7</, an4 fixbilued wbatlbever 
belot^ged to the J(ingdom of IJrqely Qn the .other iUe Jor^ 
dan^ the countrias of Gilead ajpd Bajhan^ the tHo tsibe8» 
Reuben and Gi7//, and the half-tribe of Manajfth'^m la 
the profecution of this conqueft, he, no doubt, punAually 
fulfilled, by his cruel»rage, what the prophet had ioxtXsiA 
him, in the remarkable coQverfation they bad together: 

With the fame fury and fucce(9 be wagecl war jupotf 
jehoabazj the fon of Jehuj tiU he had left him but fifty 
horfe, ten chariots, and ten thoufand foot j for the reft 
had periflied in battle againft Hazael^ who, as it is ftrong? 
ly exprelTed, made them like the dufi by threjhing ; and^ 
to conclude, he opprelTed Ifrael all hb days ?. 
)f Hazabl having thus chaftifed Ifrael^ turned hisana^ 
)d againft the kingdom of Judah ; for they had both con- 
• federated againft him ; fo that he bad a fair pretence for 
^'■•attacking both. He crolTed, the Jordan^ therefore; 
and, after feveral fuccefsful attempts upon other places* 
^ as we may fuppofe, made himfclf mafter of the ftrong and 
royal city of Oath y, which had been the feat of the Phi- 
Mine kings, but was now pofleffed by the houfc of 
havid^^. His next thought was to attempt 'feriifalpii, 
itfelf; but, as he was meditating this great enterprize^ 
he was diverted from it by the rich gifts of the weai; 
and apoftate Jehoajh^ who then reigfted at JirufoUm ^ 
and who, dreading the Syrian power, fent Hazael 2M the 
ireafure and rich moveables that had been fet apart and 
dedicated by his father for facred and other ufes, Hazael 
was pacified with fo noble a prefent, and defifted from hi^ 
defigns againft Jerufalem^ for a while. 

But it was not long ere he renewed die war figalnft 
that City, which had not yet been fufficiently punifl^. 
For he detached, towards the end of the fame year, as 
we apprehend, a party to reduce yerufalem. This party 
is exprefly remarked to have been very fmall ; but yet ij 
prevailed againft the great hoft of Jeboajh king of yurfst^ 
facked Jerttfalem^ flew all the princes of the people there, 

w 2 Kings X. 31-- :^3« ^ l^bid. xiii. 3, 7, 22. J Ihid* 

xii. 17. ^ See brfbre> in the notes, p. 249, 253, 254. 

* 2Kingsxii. 17, 18. " •• . 

(Y) Jo/ephusi^s) aflfures us, ever he came, but put all to, 
he did ; that he neither fpared £re and fwcrd, 
man, woman, or child, where- 



T, &0 Mf/^dty df tbi cnfim Syrians. j^t j| 

fisbt tbeir fpoil' to Hazael at Damafcus (Z)« And 
olfe jqpedition did Hazael alfo make himfelf mafter 
Ihtk en th« jRrdf 5r<7, aa appears, and as we (hall en- 
Mir to confirm hereafter, in the hiftory of Rezin the 
king of Syria. Hazael^ having thus fubdued,an4 
imized over the kingdoms of Ifr^el and Judahy died, 
was deified (A). 

B left behind him a Ton and fucceflbr, called Ben-hb- BenJift« 
who fufFered a total reverfe of his father's fortune, dad IIL 
MB had reigned k)ng (B}. Thrice was he defeated by 


',) yofifhus (36) makes but 
expedition of thefe two. 
irdiDg to him, HazaelhtLV' 
aken GatJb^ ftrait befieged 
faJept } whence he wfu pre- 
1 on to depart^ by the 
; bribes mentioned in Scri- 
U But it is impo0ible, 
what is faid of Hazael*s 
with Judah^ as it is re- 
nted in the fecond book 
ings (37)> and in the book 
hranicles (38), fhould have 
otfaerwife than we have 
ifentcd. Nothing is plain- 
han that thofe two books 
; of twp very different 

.) It is no wonder^ con- 
ng the blindnds of the 
y that they deified fo for- 
e and fo great a prince 
^fts^eL He, as well as 
xtAtctSav Ben-badady ad- 
l Damafcus with tern- 
and their flatues were 
sd about in proceflion in 
lays of Jofephus (39), the 
!9> boaftmg their antiquity. 
\ hence there is room to 
ine thefe two to have been 
primary deities, and that 

the temples they are famed 
for building, were no more 
than noble f^ulchres for them- 
felves (40) ; bat we forbear to 
expatiate 6n this fub^ ; acd^ 
having, given the hint, fubmit 
it to better judges. 

(B)Iti$faid(4i), Tht anger 
ofthi\LiQZj> ewas kindlid againfi 
ffraely and he deli'vered them 
int9 the hand of Haviael king 
of Syria, and Ben-hadad the 
fon of Ha%aeh all their days* 
Whence it might be imaginipdy 
that Ben-hadad kept Ifrael un- 
der as long as he lived, fiuc 
the word their is not in the 
priginal ; and, by what follows 
(42), it is evident, that the 
text means no fuch thing, re* 
ferring only to the days pf 
HaxxLel himfelf. To fblve this 
matter, however, it is li^ifi^y, 
that Ben-hadad was taken into 
the government by hi$ £%thcr» 
as his coll(;gue ; and that a9 
long as they reined tpgetber^ 
they U^ft I/rael under- St, 
Jerom (43^ writes, that all 
the fub^iient kings of Syria 
were called Ben-hadad, froQi 
this prince, the third of the 

(37) xii. 17, 18. (38) xxiv, 13, 24. (39) £^^' 

) Jh:d, _ .. . _ 

f , 2. (40) See Sir Ifaac Nnvton's cbron. if ant, Jdngd'amendm 

I. Su hsfore, />. aSz— 284.^ (41) 2 Kings xiii, 3, (42) rer. la, 
4mos i« 


^f^ £te Hifioryof the auient SymtiH^ B. I; 

Year ofjihoafi?^ the Ton of Jehoaba% king of IfratU whereby .he 

the flood Iq;^ all whatever his father h^d wrefted komJfrad ; whkh 

I5I2- ifr.all we luiow of this obfcure ^d. unfonunate reffin.' 

Bef. Chr.^^igv^r^ nothing is more likely, than that: tht^ £<ii<Xi^ 

^3^- 4^ i>ecame tributary to J^rohfamy the fon of J^hoa/h 

^^v^^^ting of i/rfl^/, who kept Syrw in fubje^lion^ during fait. 

reign, which was very long. » ^ 

](^i^ii.,. .. -.TTbc Syrians recovered themfelves again amidft the Jif- 
Ytarfi orders which reigned in the kingdom of Jfrtiel upon ]^4^\ 
the flood r^fm's death $ but not fo perfedly^ as to be quite a fcee- 
1606. people; for, we are apt to think, they were under con* 
Bef. Chr.fiderable acknowlegements to the newly-ere£ted empire of; 
742. Affyria (C). But, not to dweU on this uncertainty, Bjh. 
' zin was their laft king. Towards the latter end of hif- 
reign, he entered into a league with P/AffA king of Ifrady 
againft Aha% king of Judah. They were ftirred up by 
heaven to punifli Jhaz, and their defign was to dethrone 
him, and make room for a ftranger to David's line, 
called Tabeal^, With this intent they befieged ^A^zin 
Jirufalim^ but were obliged to raife the fiege, without 
prevailing in the enterprize. Rezin^ however, that he 

^ Ifa. vii. 1—6,: 

name, according to Sci'ipture. 
This we take notice df, as it 
is apparently a great miflake. 
Th^ prince borrowed the name 
of Ben-badad from the firft 
race of the Damafcem kings, 
to which his father was an alien. 
The names Hadad and Ben- 
hadad were affe^ed, as it feems, 
by all the kings of Syrian from 
HadadexAr of Zohah down- 
wards. Btn-hadadii^x^t^ only 
the fon of Hadad. The fa- 
ther of the firil prince of this 
name is called Tabritnon 1 but, 
by his fon^s name> it may to 
fome appear, that he was alfo 
IHled Hadad (44). Jofepbus 
call him Jldad. 

(C) This is a conje£lure, 
which we apprehend to have 
fcme tolerable foundation. The 


kingdom of Dama/eus h^' 
been weakened by its fabjedlon ' 
to Ifraeli and when Pu^ king 
of Affyrta was ftirred up a- 
gainft Menabemy the third that 
bore the title of king in Ifraet 
after Jerohoamy we cannot con-', 
ceive, but he muft have march -^] 
ed thrbugh Sjrioy and made] 
himfelf ihafter of it in the fit^^ 
place. It is plain, he wa^ bentf- 
upon extending his dominion;, 
and how he could think- of re* 
ducing Ifrael before he had 
fecured Syrtay which lay be- 
tween him and his projeded 
conquell farther wefhvard, i» 
what we cannot conceive. It 
is likely, that Syria fubmitted 
to him, and now firft became 
a province of Afyria, 

(4^) St:heforeyf. 302. 


t. V. fh Hiftory of the antient Syrians. 315 

might not be wholly a fufFcrer by this difappointmcnt, 
inarched his army into Edom^ and made himfelf mafter of 
Eiath on the Red Sea^ which he annexed once more to the 
dominion of Syria (D) ; and there he planted a colony of 
his own (E), which fubfifted many years after the fubvcr- 
fion of the kingdom itfelf of Syria «. 

The next year Rezin and P^i^zA profccuted the war Year of 
againft Jhaz ; and, to diftracl him the ihore, divided their the flood 
forces into three bodies, with a defign to invade him in 1607. 
three different places at once. Rezin^ for his part, fuc^Bef. Chr, 
ceeded well by this divifion ; for he loaded his army with 741. 
fpoils, and led away multitudes of captives, wherewith V 
his avarice being pretty well glutted, he returned to i>4- 
majcui ^. 

!But this acquifition proved fatal to Rezin and his king* 
dom : for Ahaz^t grown defperate, and bent upon'revenge, 

c z Kings xvi. 6. <* See 2 Chron, xxviii. 5. 

(D)Ourverfionfays,he;vr^'/- the text from Cll"liib Laaram^ 

r/i/£lath /0 Syria ; fo, fays the to QHN^ Leedom. It had 

Vulgate ; in tempore illo rejfituit been but Common juftice in 

Jtafin rex Syri<e Ailam Syria. Rezin to have reflored it to its 

Whence we gather, it muft natural lord ; but we cannot 

have been conquered to Syria enter into Le CIcrc*s notion* 

by Hazae/y when he fent part that he did it, becaufe the 

of his army againil 'Jerufalem place was too far out of his , 

{45). Ben-hadad II. his pre- reach to keep. He was ftrong* 

deceiTor, had no war, that we er than the king of Judah^ 

read of, with the king of Ju- and might, upon that account, 

dab ; and, after HazaePs have kept it long enough, had 

death, Syria was unable to he lived, 
make her own caufe good, and (£) Both the LXX and the 

therefore but ill qualified to Vulgate agree, that Rezin hav« 

extend her dominion. Azariah ing fubdued this place, the 

king of Judah reftorcd it to Edomites took po&flion of it. 

Judah (46), and drove ou( the But it is not to be imagined, 

Syrians (47), when they were that Rezin could fo eafily part 

fubdued by Jeroboam king of with fo fine an acquifition. If 

IfraeL Le Clerc, in his ver- any heed may be given to 7»- 

lion, will have it, that he re- /epbus (48), he agrees with our 

flored this noble emporium to reading and tranAation, faying, 

the Edomites, taking on him, that Rezin planted a colon/ 

by a little too much prefump- of Syrians in Elath. 
tion, to alter the reading of 

(4<;) See hfore, ^ 312, (^-S) 2 Kinp xiv. 12, (47) Set 

fiifrifk Hfi.n 2 Kingi xvi, 6. (48) Ubi jitpr» e, 12, 


f^ WJhfyof tbt nntient Syrians. B. E 

f ftnt all he had to Tiglath-pikfar king of Affyria^ there- 
id with to bribe him againft Rezirt. Hence it was (F) that 
. i2/2»« was invaded by Tiglath-pilefar^ who flew him; a^d 
if- carried D^mafcus (G) away captive to Kir^ whither they 
were tranfplanted'*. Thus was the empire of the antienf 
O Syrians aboliflied, according to the prophets; Behold; 

£>amafcu$ is taken away from being a city and ^he 

JUngdam Ihall ceafe from Damafcus^ and the remnant 9f 
Syria '.---/ will fend a fire into the houfe of Hazaei^ 
which Jball devour the palaces of Ben-hadad. f will - - - - 
cut off '^ " him that holdeth the fceptre from the houfe of 
Eden : and the people of Syria fball go into captivity unto 
Kir J faith the Lord %. 


We have but a very fhort and imperfed account of 
thefe kings, both as to their eflablifhment, and their con- 
tinuance ; nay, there is even fome doubt concerning the 
fituation of their city (H). They feem to have drawn 


« 2 Kings libi fupr. ver. 9. * liaL xvii. 1—3. t Amos i. 4f ^ 

{ F) Not for this reafoa only ; 
(here may have been another. 
We apprebend, that RezJft, 
being a tLirbdent enterpriiing 
prince, gave umbrage to Tig* 
iath'ptlffar, to whom he was 
certainly tributary, or under 
ibme other obligation. For 
Ttglath-pile/ar had warred in 
thefe partt before, with great 
fuccefs, againft the Ifraelitijh 
dominions (49]. He may have 
been prompted to defixoy ^^- 
ziff, as he looked on him with 
a jealous eye, as well as to earn 
Abates bribe, who promifed 
heiidcs to become his tri- 

(G) Jo/ephus (50) makes 
bat one 4idion of this and the 

(H) This city was called 
Hamatht and fbrnetiiDCs Hfi* 
math the Great (51) ; whena 
fome have conceived there were 
two Hamaths, or dues (b di- 
(Hnguifhed ; but, for the fame 
reafon, they ought to think, 
there were two Sidons^ which 
were fometimes caUed Sidn, 
and fometimes Sidon the Great 

(52). Je/'^^ (53) places a- 

matb to the north of the laiid 
of Canaan; zndMu'/feda{^^9 
who reigned in Hamath^ and 
who, being fo learned a prinoo 
as he waf, fiiould know, at 
leail as well as any other, 
places Hamath upon the Om- 
tes, between Hems and Afa* 
mea, that river furrounding it 
on the eaft and north. Thers 

(49"\ .W 2 Kr'rtpXV, 29. (50) Ubi fupr, {^l) Amoiv'u 2, 

(^-) y''A xi. 8. (s3) Jnri^. l. ix. c. ii. (54) Vid. ScbuU. cmmtMtn 

gfgr, in v;;. Sd!eJ» ad tfoces Flwjiui Oroares ^ Uamatat 

^be Hi/iety of ibtantim Syrians; ^t^ 

orktn from the Syrians of the Canaaniti/h blood (J)^ 
« Sme time that the Syrians of Zobab^, who, iwe 
9 were Aramtes^ extStxA their kingdom. And this 
did» perhaps, to defend themieWes agakift the tm^ 
19 views of that new monarchy, and to keep tbemr 
in one diftind and intire bod)r. But however this 
for we are intirely in the dark . concerning it ; thus 
certain, tliat 7^i, their firft king we read of, was 
red in an unequal war with Hadaiexfr^ the gre»C 
of Zohah \ the ground of which we can appre- 
to have been nothing eHe bat his refufal to fnbmit 
e power of that ambitious prince, to whom he was 
ibly on the point of fubmitting, when Hadade%er 
ielf yielded to the fuperior might of David ; who, 
humbling the pride of Zohah, was looked upon by Year of 
s his prefent deliverer, and his future proteffcor. In the flood 
: therefore to fecure himfelf on the throne, he fent his 1 304. 
foram with a coftly prefent^ in veflels of gold, filver, Bef. Chr« 
brafs, therei^th to court the favour of the conqueror, 1044. 
ongratulate him on his fuccefTes, and return him 
ks for the deliverance he owed him ^. From dl this 
onclude, that Toi thenceforth became the creatore of 
nd, and tributary to his throne. 
Whoever fucceeded Toi, whether Kis fon Jorefm, or 
'otam^ or any other, it is likely he cultivated a good 
ligence with the kix^s at "Jerufalem, till Rezon, the 
der of the Damafcene kingdom, arofe. At this time^ 
likely^ the king of Hamath fubmitted to a. new mafter» 

^ 2 Sam.viii. 9^ io« 

a country of Hapuui, fur- to whldi we will now add ftom 

id Zobahs which lay to ^s'^^n (57), that this whole 

eafiward of the land of country was called Sbd/Uf be- 

um, dboutP^^yra or Tad' caufe Biany of the ions of Ca^ 

(55} » fo that here may naoM Ta(bdmu travelled to- 

: been another ciQr of the wards the left hand in migrar" 

c, whence, after all, may log thither ; for Syria lies to 

I been derived the diiHn£fc- the left of the Caaba at Mtcca* 

of Hamath the Grtat* This is one way of accounting 

) We have already offered iat the name of Sham ; there 

^ng from the orientals^ in are others, which may bl re^ 

if that fome of Canaan's marked hereafter. t . 

endants fettled mSyria (56); 

j) Sei 2 Cbr*n, >iii, 3,4. i Kings ix. 18. (56) Set hefsrt, in the 

,/f %%Q% (57) ^i^* Scbultt ubi fttfrt ad voicm Syn\ 



^i8 - The Hifi^ of the antient SyHafis. 

or prote£tor. Be that as it will) this kingdom was cer- 
tainly fubjed to the kings of Damafcusy as was the reft of 
Syria y till yeroboathlAivg oijemfalim prevailed z^ainftitl 
Upon die redu£Uon of Damafcusy when the inhabitants of 
that city were carried into captivity, it may have lifted 
up its head a little ^^ ; but the Hamathites were, in their 
turn, conquered and tranfplahted, by Sennacherib and Efar* 
haddon ^ kings of AJfyria. Thus ended the antient king- 
dom of Hamath. 

7be KINGS of Gefliur. 

The kings of G^i^r, if compared with thofe ofZ^ 

taby DamaJcuSy 2nA Hamathy were, it is likely, but petty 

princes (L). Perhaps they were more confiderable for the 

alljance David made with their family, than for the extent 

of their dominion. We take them to have been one of the 

royal families which, in antient times, divided the whole 

country of Syria among them. The firfl: of them wc 

" meet with is called Ammihudy who Was the father of Tal- 

mai^'y and as Talmai is exprefly faid to have been kipg 

pf this part, we venture to give him the fame title. 

T^^ Talmai had a daughter named Maachoy who ym, 

thcflaxl yp^g ^Q David^y and the mother of Ahfahniy whom hp 

1.3 '^' flicltered three years o, when he fled to him for the murder 

''of his brother Amnon. We cannot doubt, but that Gefin/r 

^,^^ ,Bore the Damafcene yoke, till they finally changed it for 

the AJfyriaUy and were tranfplanted \ as were all the othdr 


' 2 Kings xiv. 28. ^^ 2 Kings xviii. 34. xix. 11,13. 

' G)mpare Ezra iv. 2. with 2 Kings xvii. 24. °^ 2 Sam. 
xiji. 37. "Ibid. iii. 3. ^'Ibid. xiii,37, 38. xv. 8. 

(L) Jofephus (59) does not note and figure in the coundy 
allow them to have been where they dwelt, 
kings, but only a &mily of 

(59) Antiq. /. vii. c, 8. 


t C. VI. Sbi Hilary of tU PhoBnkasois; 








The bijiory of the Vhaexivaxn's, 

S E C T. I, 

7be defcription ^/Phoenice.' 

H E traft \re commonly call Phcenicia^ is, more 
vj^ accurately, Phcenice y .which being fufEciently 
' known to the learned, we fhall not multiply worc(| 
abpicrt it, but haften to what is more material. 

Whence it borrowed the name of Phcenice is not de^i\r4Mr« 
terfnined. Some a derive it from one Phoenix : others ?>^ 
froni the Greek word phcenix^ fignifying a palm, or 
date; as if that tree remarkably^ abounded here: fomc* 
again fuppofe, that Phcenice is originally a tranflation of 
Ac Hebrew word Edonty from the Edomites^ who fleet 
himer<i in the days of David. By the cpntraftion of Ca^s 
nagn {iov it was a part of that land) it was alfo callea • 
. ChnaS aiid zntkntly Khabbothiny and Colpitis ^ {A) • Thft 
jfVsrt/i commonly called it Canaan S ; thougji fome part ^> 

•Syncell. p. 152, ^ Chron- Alex. p. 158;. « S^: 

liAAC Newton's chron. of ant. kingd. amended. ^ See bis*, 
fire, p. 175, 176. « See vol. i. p . 3 1 7, in the notes. ^ St e ph«, 
Byz AN. ad vocem ^o/j'Jxw, « Vid. Matt. xv. 22. 

(A) This laft name isa tranf- 
kjdon of the firft.[yin3*» ^^b- 
Utfen is, in Hebrew, a great 
gulf, or bay. From rabhot- 
ftu^ by changing the Hebrew 
if into the Greek /, comes 
rabboteni and, with a little 
variation, rhabbothin, Ko At^-, 
Colposy is Greek alfo for a bay 
or gulf; whence it appears, 
that colpitis, or colpites, is a 
tranflation 0^ rhabbothin. Bo- 
chart [i) therefore is of opi- 
nion, that thefe names did not 
properly belong to the eaftern 

Phcenice, or the country pro- 
perly' fo called, but to thfe 
Phcenician colonies in Africa^ 
whofe principal cities ilpod 
upon great and deep gulfi^ 
or bays. " However, he is not; 
wholly anfWilling to allow, tk^ 
thefe names may have difhn- 
guiflied a part of the proper 
Phcenice y near Libanus, as he 
expreffes himfelf, becaufe it 
had a deep gulf or bay, ao 
cording to Mela, Tripoli Aands 
in the deepeft bay, at prefent^ 
on this coafl. 

(i) Ce9gr^ fact, /. ii. M3. cd. 746, 


the Hiflory of the Phoenidatii. % tl 

it, at leaft, they knew by the name of Syropboenice'^ (B); 
Thefe were the names peculiar to the fmall country before 
lis ; though, of them, Phaenice was (bmetimes extended 
to all the maritime countries of Syria and Judea ; and 
Canaan to the Philijitnes\ and even to rfie AmaUkitit 
(C). Oh the contrary, thefe tWo names, and the refl^ 
were moft generally fwallowed up by thok of Pale/iim^ 
and Syria (D). 

Th e pf oper Pha^niee, fo far as we can gather from dw 
antient geograph^s, lay between the 34th and 36th de- 
grees of north latitude j and was bounded by Syria on the 
north and the eaft, by Judea on the fouth, and by tte 
Mediterranean on the Weft. There is fomc 

hVid.Markvii. 2& *Zcphan. ii. ^. *&• 

telbre, p. 22o» 261. 

(B) Bochart (2) clears up in its largcft exteiftt (7), it 

this matter thus : he fuppofes, fometimes comprehended PiuiN 

that the borderers, both upon nice and dtlejyria. H ii wdi ht 

the Pbanician and Syrian fide, plainly confounds thefe dm 

were called by the common names ; we mean, ufos one H 

maLOit of SyrophceniciansjSLS i^X' the other indifierently. Fiitp 

caking equally ofboCh nations, he (ays, atktPhmnicians^ooaaan 

Some (3] would have it, that into Syria from the RedSm^ 

tti^ Phoenicians of Jfia in ge- fettled in the maritime ptrli 

neral were called Syropbaeni- of Syria^ and that the Pbth 

tians to difHcguiih them from nicians dwelt in Syria (8^. la 

ati^ African Phoenicians, Others the next place,- he (kys, tW^. 

(4) take the Syrophaenicianj Ph^nice waS a part of Pedh 

and Cctlejyrians for the fame ftine ; which, according Iff 

people. him, ftretched along the foi- 

(C) Accordingly Phila (5) fhore, quite to Pehpwm iB 

deludes the -^OT^/^i;Vi?/ under jE"^// {9). Tlurdly,hepllfll 

the denomination of Phani- AJhdod^ or jfxotui^ in 

dant. ^ (10], and AfcaUn in the Pd^ 

(D) Or rather Phoenice, Pa- ftine Syria ; but yet its inll*^ 

hfiiney and Syria^ were pro- bitants he caBs PhcenitimH 

mifcuoufly ufed for each other, (ii). In a word, we coilU 

and particularly the two for- wifh, that the geogrulifi 

mcr. Phcenice and Paleftine^ fincef/^r^^i^/tfi^s time, had beei 

feys Stephanus Byz,antinus (6), lefs confufed than his is lit 

were the fame. As for Syria^ many cafes. 
We have already obferved, that, 

(2) Geogr, faer. p. 349. (3) /Jpud Bcckirty uhi fupr, p. gcjo. (f) ^. 
nnd. ibid, (5) L, i. />. 636. (6) Ad v&cem 'f oxi^. (7) Sn 

ktfore^i^, 155. (8) L. vii. c, 89. (9) Ihd. g /. 2. f. 104. 

(10) ifr/W, f, 157, (11} /. i. , f, ios» 

3 amoj^ 

C 1^1. ?te m/t^ of tbf Phcenidanb: 9a t 

unong aull^6is, - with refped to tKe northern limits of this 
country. For Pulitny makes die river EUutberuf the 
boandaiy kjX Phanice to the north; but P/iifyt, Mek^^ 
Md Stephanuhy place in it the ifland of Aradus^ lying north 
of that river. Straho only fays, that fome wiU have the 
river EUuthtrus to be the boundarv of Seks/at^ on the , . 

fide of Phcenice and Cceiejyria «. On the coaft of Pha^ 
miee^f and fouth of the river Elmthirus^ ftood the follow- 
ii^ cities : Simyra^ Orthojia^ Tripi^lis^ B^trys^ Byhlusj 
PmUehyhlos^ Berytus^ Sidcft^ Safeptay Tyrusy Palatyrus. 
Simyra is mention^ by Pliny % and Mifa b, as flanding at 
ft ffloall diftance from the river EUutherus. Strah calls it 
Taxymera^; which is fuppofed to be a miftake. Next to 
'Simyra Pliny and Mela place MarathoSy which the latter 
calls a city of (bme note ; but neither Ptolemy nor Strabi 
take notice of it. Orth$Jiay of Orthojiasy is mentioned by 
PtoUmyy Straboy Pliny^ and the author of the lirft book 
of the Maccahces K 

Sip ON we may properly enough call the metropolis ofSidon. 
J^haenicfs fince it feems to have been the oldeft city of this 
Mrt^. borrowing its name from Sidofiy the eldeftfon of 
Canaan^ by whom they ^ pretend it to have been. built i 
l^faich is not onlikjcly : though all are notagreed in« 
ijvation of that name (£)• 


^j"PiiN. I.v. €• ao. *> Mela, I. ii. €.7. « Strabo^L xvi. 

f, 518. « FuM. ib. *» Mela';. I. L C.I 2. iSxiiABo, ib. 
Maccab. 11 L c 15. ver. 37, 'Joseph, antiq^ L i. c. 7. 

- \E)Tr9ptt (12) derives the felf, denoting thereby thcA- 

tene from a Pbegmcinn word, tXer oiP the Sidemansi or the 

iMw, fienifyiag a Mtt^ And founder of that dty. what' 

4118 i^«r£tff (-I3>- fives into; foeyer his name was: bat 

ibr f m/, die name of this why the name of the eldeli; 

dty at prefent^ n, as we ma^ fo» (honld be paifed over 

icndcr it» a fifliing-place. The ami the reft Ipedlied, is what 

fime Bwbart ('14} feems to we are not able to conceive, 

doabt whether orno Canaan' % Others (16) again derive the 

fim wi^ called Sidm i for, by name of this city from Sida^ 

that name, HAfes (15) meant, the daughter, as chey pretend, 

acooi^if to Mm, the city it* ^Bt/nt, 

f la) 7«/r. ;. xviii. c.%. (13) G^gr. facr, f. 30a. (14) md. 

(«5}iS«i^<^,f.i88. . {ih) rid. Sand. tr^'O.f. %lo. 

VoL.IL . X This 

.the Hijiory pf the Phceiiiciail& B. I. 

This city was feated on die fea^fide, and is iaid to havt 
had a fummer and winter harbour » (F), or one much more 
land-locked, or incbfed, than the other $ which we take 
to be a miffcikc {G) that may be tolerably accounted for 
(H). It is now called Sevde. 

Tyre, antiently Sor (I), is commonly called the dau^« 
ter of Sidony and flood aUb upon the fea, two hundred 
fiades, or furlongs, to the fouthward of Sidon* Tyre muft 
be diftinguiihed into three different cities in order of time?: 
as Tyn on the continent, or Palatyrus [old Tyre]^ 
Tyre on the ifland, and Tyre on the peninfula, after the 
iiland was joined to the main land (K). It had two ha- 

■ AcHiLL. Tat. apud Reland. Palaeft. illuftr. ^'Wd. 

Palaeft. illufh-. vol. ii. ad vocem Tyrus. 

( F) This we imagine, be- its fplendor ; as appears from 

cau(e we find no mention made the veftiges of the antient dtf 

of a double harbour by any of that ar^ left (19}. 

the moil accurate travellers and (I) From hence this dty 

geographers ; whereas, as we came to be called Sarra^ by 

ihall obferve hereafter, there the Latins, and not from Sar, 

are ftill vifible marks of this a fi(h, as Servius upon Firgd 

ztTyre. This city had a mole, intimates (ap). From hence 

till Faccardine, the emir of the alfo, fay the^, is derived (21) 

Drufesy demoliflied it, to {xe^ Tyre ; it being the Syriam way 

himfelf from the vifits of the to convert the TS, or S^ into 

*IurkiJh galleys ; fo that now 7". So that the Syriams pro- 

the fhipping have no other nounced it T^r, TWr, Tyri and 

fhelt^r, than a fmall ledge of hence the Gr//i/, adding their 

rocks, about a mile diflant termination, formed Ti^, 

from the ihore, on the north in Latin, Tyrus* Some pre- 

lide of the dty (17). tend, that thiscity gave nane 

(G} It is obferved, that Si- to the whole country of Syrith 

donian and Tyrian were fyno- and that Bjria^ iyria, ttd 

nymoufly ufcd (18). Whether JJ}ria, were indi&rently o^ 

or no the Teeming miHake, here furped for each other (za) ; to 

noted, may not have arifen which we cannot aflent. TUs 

from fome fuch ufage, we namefignifiesarock (23); ftr 

leave the reader to judge. it flood upon lyhat may. be 

(H) It is, at this day, pretty called a rock. 
well flocked with Inhabitants, (K) There were ibur difiB^ 

but much flirunk from its an- ent places in Phetnicet which 

tient extent, and more from bore the name of Tyre [2,/^. 

(17) Maundr.purfi, from Aiep^tajeruf. p. 4«j. (18) Vid»Re2, PulJLf, 
$?6. (i^) Maund, ubifufr, (20) Vid, Bocbart. uhi fitpr.p, 735. (n) Kii^ 
Cell, gcqgr. antiq, toJtt. ii. /. m. c. 12. p. 277. (22) S<e Sir jfas€ NntMtt 

tbronol of ant. kingd, amend, {23) Fid. Bochart, ukifttpr^ {24} /7^ 5rt4 
penpl.inmi^jsr, Hudfcn,v:f,U. J r s^j j 

e VI. ^S& Hifi^ry of the PhoehicuUw. 

vens (L)) the one looking tawards Sidon^ the other towar<ls 
Egypt '• This cinr, indudingPeLetyruSj was 10,000 paces 
in circiimference( M) ibut by itfelf was only 22 f urlongs,or not 
quite three of our miles' s which is even allowing it con-^ 
iiderably too much, if our modem accounts may be relied 
on (N). However, it appears, that this famous, emporium 



* Plin. hid. nat. I. v. c. 19. 

old city muft have been by 
much the moft excenfivepart of 
the whole, and elpecially as 
the place appears at this day. 
According to P/ifty (28), the 
iiland was. but 700 paces 
from the continent; ^ Wording 
toStrah, ( 29] tt was.'36ilade6,or 
fomewhat better than three of 
our miles, from Fa/atyrus ; 
andj( according . to the iame 
geographer {30), ^re was 
Wholly an iflscjad, after the 
firme manner as Araiui^ excopt« 
ing the artificial' ifbhmu?, which 
fbrmeditTntbapenifrfda. Noc 
to lofe time cipon ib' obfcore a 
fttbje£t» as whether' 7)^# and 
the old town were joincsj by 
buildings aq^ofs the iflhmus, 
we (hsdU only ll^tax ^hat we 
advanced at m^^ dud which we 
fhall ^iike outia 
the next note,' that .old 7yre 
wais much laiger; thatis,imod 
upon more ground than the 
iiew, if P/r«y's circumference 
be allowed of. 

(N) By them it appears, 
that l^yre itielf was but a finall 
city in extent, though it co^- 
veredthe whole ifland; and the 
fcantineis of their ground was^ 
dottbtlefs, what induced them 


■ Strab. 1. xvl. p. 757. 

(L) Thefe were formed by 
the ifthmuSy which joined, the 
ifland to the main land ; 
and were . called, the one 
Ofiu^ and the other Clofe. The 
former looked towards E^ypt \ 
was the foathifemmoft of- the 
two; and was accordingly 
called ^(t Egyptian port (25). 
The iharif Edryfy fays, tnat 
one of thefe ports had an arch 
over th^'ent/anoe of it, thlr6* 
which the.(hip]^g pstflTed, tad 
that it was fortified with' a 
chain, drawn acrols it (a6). 
Thefe boys, or port ft, are ftill 
pretty large, and, in part, de^ 
•feaded from the ocean, ttx^ 
by a long ridge, refemUkigii 
mole^ ftretching difedljr bat 
on both fides, from the head of 
the ifland ; but whether theib 
lidges are walls, or'rocki,' is 
ancertaia (27) ; it is moft likely, 
however, that they .are waU$. 
' (M) Prom hence it feemi 
plain, that ^yre on the iflandi 
and old 7yr# on the main, were 
coniidered as but one city, al^ 
ter the ifthmus was thrown up 
between them ; and poffibly 
they may have had buildings 
contignoos to each other. If 
/'/fiiprs aumbers are right, the 

.. t 

(*5) $traK uhijufr, f. 757. 
Sj/^Jin. Mdvoctm-*]yrut, 

(16) Fi</. jilhert, Sclult. M, gtep', in^U- 

(27) Sdaund. ubi /*^4* 
(19J L. avi. p. 5x1. . (30} ;A/V. /.sao. 

X 2 to 

1 24 7<^ Hiftory of ibe Phcenicuuis. B. I. 

was never of very great bi|nefs. It could extend its vralb 
no farther than to die borders of die ifland. For this rea- 
fon it muft have been, that they built dicir hoofes very 
lofty, and with more ftorics, as we are told, dian diehoufes 
had at Rome*. 'The buildings of this dtv in general were 
fpacious and magnificent; and, above the reft, appeared 
die temples built by Hiram to Jupiter^ Hercules^ and 
JJlarti^, Its walls were 150 feet high, proportionably 
broad,' aiid- firmly built,' of large blocks of ftone, bound 
together with white plaftcr*. It is now called Stir (O). 
Aradus. Ar adits (P) was not, ffri£My foeaking, a citj' diPha^ 
mce. IfWflcs an Jftand-citv,; like Tyrfy and flood oppofite 
to die fouthem liihits of tne fei-coaft of Syria y. That the 


^ Stuabo, ulu fup. " Mesakd. & Dius apod JoAph. 
antiq. 1. viiL c a. & apudeunfl. Gcmcr. Ap. L iL , ^ Arri ah 
de e;cped, Alex. magn. 1. ii. ^ 6ocHAs.T»pba]fg» i. iv. Ci^d. 

col. 305. . \ 

to raife their biuldings fo high nemt A soodptrt of ibt ifltad 

as they did ;' a piethod tl^ey fMtf .tMi&.ffQmi.{3S)i Mm 

would othcrwife h^v? ^voi4p4i call, iu . . '.. - ^ 

for fear o)rcarthanakes, whiqh 1 £0) ItJn 90ir jiJB^tieJM 

had threattn^ rf^^ with dt^n f^f ^nqken waHs^ P^Hu^ ^^9» 

firuAion (iii/Atprefent, tbie (fcibere bemg no fhdb thiag 

lilaod appears tohave been, in ic^ 49 ope io^ bouft; kft^ Its 

naturalu^te^Qfacircalarfoi-aij prefait inh^bitarics are pnl/s 

hardly Gontaining 40 acres of few poor wretches^ who kur* 

ground ; and the foundations of boor themfelves. ip vaulty, and 

the wall which ftirrounded it, fabfiA cbjefly by ifhing (36). 

are jdiil to.. be ieen at the ut- fP) B§chart (37) tf£» this 

moft maigin of the land (32). Ma that par^ of the coBtiaent 

If then it be true, that di^ oppofite to it^ to be the feat of 

whole circni t of the okl and new ike Canaanit^ in\^ palkd 

^re was 10,000 paces, or 19 ^rtwdites (38} 1 acijii we ait 

Homan miles (33); and that very ranch inclined to fobfeiihe 

they weredifiaat from each tohis judgment upon this bead^ 

9ther but 33 ftades, or three oi The ifland o^Amdm 11 about ao 

the fkme miles, and three quar- fiades. or two It^mdn qulesand 

ters (34) ; it muft be evident, an half, firom the (bore, wd 

that the old city flood upon, ^ut ieven eighths of ft IBrmmp 

much more ground than the mile in circumfarence. TM 

(31) Strabo ubiju^r, (32) Maund, uhi fupr. p, 50. (gO PBn* 

Aj^. nst. I, ▼. f, t^, (34) Strata vbi fufr, p. 75S. (35) MaojuL 

& Dius, apud JofephK A viii. c, 2. (36) Maundr, nhifupr, p. 48, 49. 

D* Bn^tin voy, an Lev, /wps, U. in 4*0. p. 341. . (37) Phaig, /, ]▼. c 36* 

cV» %os. (3S} Stt htf^ipt tSSj 1%^^ andz/Qi, in sbcnQUs, 

5 baildingf 

C yi* . ^^ Hifi^ ^\^ PboeAicmns. j2f 

Pbamicians^ however, reckoned this city as a part 6f their) 
country, is plain from the authors we have quoted abovet. 
There are fome remains of it extant ( Qj. 

TRiPoti, on the fea-Goaft of the continent, derived itiTripoti. 
origin from die joint contribution of the three cities before- 
mentioned^ Sidony iyri^ and Araduu A(;cordIxigly it was 
at firft three diftind cities, a furlong diflant from each, 
other, inhabited by three different dr^ights, or colonies, 
but. all within one common inclofure, or wall y. It is itill 
a confiderable place (R)^ and bears its old name. 

Byblus is reported to have been the firft city built in ByUos. 
this country ^ ; but whether we are here to ur^dcrftand the 
Byhbii ¥rhich flood on the fea, or the old Byhlus {PaUc^ 
hyblus\y which was within the land, would be a needleia 
inouiry (S). 

DERYTUs mx& not have been much inferior ^^-^^^^^^ 
ByUus in antiquity, flnce it is faid to have been ftanding 
in the days of Cronus «. Under the Rotnan emperors, it 
was no leis famous for the fhidy of the the e^&y 
dian Rmu was in the wefl s whence it was flyled, by 
the tm^TotyuJiinian^ the taother and nwrfe of the laws. 
The civil law was there taught in Greeks as it was at 
Rami in Latin. By whom this academy Was founded ia 
not certainly known ; but that it flounfhed long before 
the reign of the emperor DUclefian is manifeft from a de- 

7 DioD. Sic. 1. xvi. c. 41, Plin . ubi fopr. &c. * See vol. i^ 
p. 309^ 'See vol. i. p. 316. 

buildings were, like thofe of (R) And there are feme re-« 

9[yr#, many flories high (39). mains of the .antient city, or 

By the (ame pen we are Km. dties, fiill to be feen, in the 

M ^ ^^cry remarkable tlung, fields near the fhore ; and ma« 

t]&at the Arabiemt^ when be- ny heaps of ruins, and pillars 

fiegfid, couklfby the help of of granite (42). 

long tubes, draw up freih wa^ (S) Byblus was the city and 

tnr £rom the bottom of the fea (eat of the famooi fuperi^tion 

(40)* in memory of Adonu. It is 

(02^ I^feems to the eye to pleafandy fituatedi but at pre- 

be not above two or thxte fur^ fent it is but finall ; thoagh 

tongs in length % and is ^(holly iinall as it is, its handful of in- 

:(Ued up with tall buildings, habitants have rooiQ to ipare 

like cafUes. Jl^ Turk C^U it (4 3). 

(39) ^^^^^ ^ xvi. f* %l^y 7$4|, ire. (40] Hem iM» f^d, $tiem*Pbn* 

hii' not, lAue. 103. /• v. r. 31. (41) Maundr, ubijupr* f^ I9, (42) Idem 
iiid. ^ 3 s. (43) idtm ibid, f% 38. 

X 3 ^re^ 

« « •* ■ • 

gt6 91&^ Hiftory oftht Phoeniciars. B. I. 

tree of that prince «. From this academy the two famous 
civilians Dorotheus and Anatolius were called by Juftitiian^ 
that jointly, with others, they might have a fliare in com- 
.' .''^ poling the ///^>^i; and that prince would allow no other 
academies but thofe of Rome^ Beryfus, and Con/lantinofU^ 
to explain the laws^. It is now bdled BariU oi Be- 
Sarepta. Sarept a, as it is called by St. Luke^^ andbyP//»jf«, or 
Zarpatbj as we read in the Hebrew^ and, in ourverfibn, Za- 
refhath f , where the prophet Elijah dwelt fome dme, and 
raifed the widow's fon % : it ftobd between Sidon and Tyre^ 
but was fubjeft to the former city ; whence it is called a 
city of Sidon K Jofephus writes it Sarepbtha ». The wine 
of Sarepta is commended by feveral writers of the later 
ages k. Between Sarepta and Tyre a river empties itfclf 
into the fea, which the modem geographers call EUutbe* 
rus \ but no river between thcfe two cities, bearing that 
name, was known to the antients. Phosnici Extended, ac- 
cording to Ptolemy^ even beyond mount Carmelut: for 
that geographer places in Phcenice not only EcdtpM and 
Ptolemais^ but oycaminum aiid Dara\ which ftand fouth 
of that mountain. But, as they belonged, properly Q>eak- 
ing^ to PaUftinej we (halt have occafion to mentiob them 
hereafter. - ^ . .:. 

Pbanicia Wg will hot take upon us to mark out the bptufds of the 

Mediter- midland Phcenice. Ptolemy reckons in it the fqOowiog 

ranca. towns ; Aj'ca^ Pdtabyblus [oM' ByUus]^ Gabala^ and Gr- 

Jarea Pania. This province Was confiderably extended 

in the times of Chriflianity j when, being confidcred as a 

• Cod. leg. i. 1, lo. •» JuATiN. prccsm. dige^. <* Lake 
c. iv. ver. 26. « Plin. 1. v, c. ig. ^ i Kings cxvii, 

ver. 9, 10. 8 lb. h jb, i Joseph, antiq. 1. viii. c 7, 
* SiD. xvii. Fulg£nt, mytholog. 1. ii. c. 15, 




(T)« At prcfent it retains no- *< 33 to befecure fromitsover- 

thingof itsantientfelicity,cx- ** flowings, and all other noxi. 

ccpt thcfituation ; and in that « ous and unwholfome efieds 

particular it isi indeed very " of that clement. It has the 

happy. It is feated on the ** benefit of good frcfh fprings^ 

fea-fide, in a foil fertile and •« flowing down to it from th^ 

delightful, raifed only fo " adjacent hills (44)." 
high above the falt-water, 

(44) Um m. 


C VI. • fbe Hificry of the Phoenicians^ 327 

province of Syrian it included not only Damafcus^ but 
Palmyra alfo ^. 

The foil of this country is good, and produdHve ot Soil and 
many neceflaries for food and cloatfaing. The air is whol- cUmatt. 
fome. The climate is of the beft. It is plentifully wa- 
tered by fmall rivers ; which, running down from mount 
Labatmsy are fubje^ to fwell to an immoderate de- 
gree ; either increafed by the melting of the fhows on that 
mountain, or by heavy rains. Upon thcfe occafions they 
overflow, to the great danger and hindrance of the tra- 
veller, and damage of the country. Amon? thefe rivers is 
that of Adonis ; which we (hall have occauon to mention 

The fea on this coaft formerly abounded with fuch fSk Natural 
asV in an extraordinary manner, redounded to the honour c«r/^//>/. 
and profit of Tyre in particular. Therewith they dyed the 
choiceft purple. And on the fliore there was a fand where- 
with the iirft and beft glafs was made (U) ; a ftaple manu- 
fii£hire of this antient country. To thefe we fhall add a 
remarkable property of the river Adonis, At certain fea- 
foiiS) dnd upon certain occafions, it appears bloody. Hence 
was continued, at leaft, the fuperftitious ceremony per- 
foniied in memory of Thammuzy or Adonis^ yearly 
wounded. The caufe of this red face of the river was an- 
tic^tly known $ and, by thofe who were not fo fuperfti- 
tipus as the reft of their contemporaries and countrymen, 
afcribed to a Idnd of minium^ or red earth, whioi this 
river brought away when it (welled to an unufiial height d. 
It is ftill JubjeA to the fame appearance in the time of 
floods (W). 

There are yet fome few remains of the antient fplen- ' 
4ar of this now defolate land. Theuimt ^ teUs us, there 
* are fine antiquities to be beheld at Tyre^ but does not fpe- 
cify them. Sandys^ could difcover nothing there but an 

f \^dc Reland. Palaeft. illuft, p. 217. * Vide Luc. dc 

iite Syr. * Travels into the Lev. part i . book ii. c. 6o. 

"♦L. iii. p. t68» 

.s* . 

(U) There anticntly went a *' nii\ . \ . ftained to a fur- 

Aory, that this (and could be *^ prifing rednefs; a^id . . ob- 

sndted no-where bat at Sidon " ferved . . . // had difcoloured 

(45). " the fea a great way into a 

(W) . . . « We faw . " reddifh hue (46).** 

f' the water [of the river .^1^ 

(45) Str0b9 wH fufr, /• 758, (46) MaunJ, uhi fifr,f,%^. ' 

X 4 keap 

heap of ruins. The moft modern travellers g are more 
particular. They take notice of the ruins of the metropo- 
> nton church there, near which is an extraordinary kind of 

a colunuiy of unufual dimenftons, which onel> reprefenta 
as a triple, another s as a double column only, or two 
joined together* This laft^ informs us, chat it is of gra- 
nite, of one block only, and fou^fcore feet long. Beudes 
this, there are many columns intire, and many broken >• 
But nothing in and about this ruined city demands our at- 
tention more defervedly, than a place the Turks odl Bjh- 
felayne ; where are feen Sohfnon\ ciftems, oz; wells, as 
they are vulgarly called. The current tradition is, that 
they are filled from a fubterrancous river, which that wife 
lung, by his great fagacity, difcovered to run under- 
ground here ; and which made him undertake fo admirable 
a work. The country-people fay, that nobody could 
ever reach the bottom of thele wells, though the tnineha^ 
been attempted with great lengths of line ; and one of our 
travellers pretends to give a reafon for the fruitleflheis of 
thefe attempts, by fuppofing tb^ current, or fpring, to be fo 
very ftrong, at a certain depth, as to pre\'entthe lead finmi 
finking to the bpttom ■". But this is confuted by anoliicr 
traveller °; who fuppofes thefe wells cannot have been 
built before the days of/tiixand^r i becaufe the aquedufb, 
whidi copvey3 the water from theip to 73^rc,:ii'carrieci 
over the ifthmus, formed by that conquefor, v^en he 
made himfelf mafler of Tyre : and, as thefe cifhms cannot 
be fuppofed to be antienter than the aquedu<^ fb we may 
be fure, iays he, that the aquedu£l is not <4der than the 
ground it ftands upon. Of thefe ciftems there arc three 
intire at this day ^ one about a furlong and an half diftant 
from the fea, the other two a litide farther. The firft 
is an o^bgon in form, 20 yards in diameter. On the Ibuth 
fide it is elevated nine yard$ above the ground, ^nd en the 
north but fix ; and, as unfathomable as it is reputed to be, 
ten yards of line confuted that opinion. Its wall is only of 
gravel and pebbles, butfo firmly confplidated with a flrong 
cement, that it feems to be an intire piece of rock-^ Upon 
the briiik there is a walk round it, eight feet in breadth ; 

< Db Brvyn voy. an Lev. torn. ii. 4to. p. 338, 339, &c. Dg 
th RoquB voy. de Syr. Se M. Lib. torn. i. p. 17, 18, &c 

Maundrbll's jouro. from Aleppo to Jeruf. p. 48, 49, &c. 
* De Bruyn ubi fupr. ^ De ia B.0^1 obi fapr- ■ Ibid. 

' Db Bruyn ubi fupr. » liaa ibicL ^^Maukdkklv 

ubi fupr. 


from whence, defcending by one flep on the ibuth fidei 
^d by two on the north, you land on another walk, 31 
fieet broad. All this ftrudnire, though b very bixnd at 
top, ia hollow, Co that the water conies in underneath ths 
walks ; nor could the extremity of the cavity be reached 
with a long rod. The whole veflelxrontains a V2& body 
of excellent water ; and is fo plenti&dly fupplied, that, 
though there iifues from it a brook which drives four mills, 
it is always brim-full. On the odlfide of this ciflem was 
the antient outlet of the water, by an aquedud, xaifed 
about fix yards from llie ground, and containing a dianel 
one vard wide. This aqueduA (now dry) is carried eaft* 
' ward about 120 paces, and thep approaches the two other 
ciftems, which are of a quadnla^ral figure, the one I2, 
the other 20 yards fquare. Thefe have each of them a 
Chanel, which communicates with the aquedu^ ; and the 
water of thefe two excellent fpringi, being thus joined, 
flowed together to Tyre. The aqu«lu£t is now decayed, 
but may eafily be traced out. It ftretches northward 
about an hour's journey, and then, turning to the weft, 
extends over the iftfamus into the city. 
- Some footfteps of what Sidon once was, are to be (een 
among the gardens without the walls of the prefent cityo; 
fuch as beautiful columns, and other fragments of that 
kind. Here they pretend to (hew a monument of great 
antiquity, no lefs than the tomb of Zebulun^ (landing widi* 
in a fmall diapel in a garden P, andhi^hly revered by die 
Jews 9. This tomb is made of two ftones only; the one 
fuppofed to be at the head, and the other at the feet, of 
the deceafed. Their diftance is better than 10 of our feet; 
yrhich they give out to have been the ftature of this pa- 
* triarch r. 

. At ByUtts alfo aremanv heaps of ruins^ and fine pillars, 
(cattered up and down m the gardens near the prefent 
Cown s. Finally, on the continent, a little fouthward of 
the ifle of Aradus^ whereon the city of that name antient- 
ly flood, are feveral antiquities ot a very extraordinary 
Jjcind. The firft is a dike, 30 yards over at top, cut into 
the firm rock. Its fides go doping down, widi ftairs cut 
out of the rock, and ddcending gradually from top to 
))ottom. This dike ftretches in a direA line, eaft and 
weft, more than a furlong, bearing continually the fame 

i * Uem iUd. p. 44. Sabdts trav. 1. iii. p. 1 64. ' Idem 

ibid. Theven. voy. aa Lev. part ii. 1. i. c. 3. ^ Sandys 

obi fupr. f Tbivbn. obi fupr. * Maund. obi fygt. p. ^3. 


fbi Hifiwy of the PhaemcaM. \k I. 

figure of flairs, running in ridit lines all along its fides. It 
breaks ofFat buft at a flat maiuiy ground, extending about 
two furlongs between it and the fea. Our obferver thinks 
it hard to imagine, that the water erer flowed up thus 
bieh ; and harder, without fuppofing diat, to de%'ife why 
alTthb pains was taken in cutting the rock after fuch a 
fafhion. Secondly, A little to the fouthward of this dikei 
there is a court 0/55 yards fquare, cut alfo into the natu- 
ral rock ; the fides of the rock ftanding round it are 
about three yards hi^, and fupply the place of walls. 
On three fides it is thus incompaflfed ; but to the northward 
it lieslopen. In the centre of this area a fquare partofthe 
rock is left ftanding, being dure yards hish, anil five and 
an half fquare. Jliis ferves for a pedeftal to a throne J 
ere£led upon it. The throne is compofed of four \xM 
fiones ; two at the fides', one at the back, and one at m 
top, in the manner of a tribunal, or canopy. This whok 
ftru^rc is about twenty feet high, and fiices towards die 
open fide of the court. The ftone that forms the canopy 
is five yards and three quarters fquare, and adorned with an 
handfome cornice. At the two innermoft angles of die 
court, and likewife at the open fide, are left piUars of the I 
natural rock, three at each of the former, and two at the ' 
latter. : 

About half a mile to the fouthward of diis court, and 
this throne, are two towers, fuppofed to be fepulcrd 
monuments; for they ftand over an antient burying* 
place. They are about 10 yards diftant ftom each other. 
The one is, m form, a cylinder, crowned by a multilateral 
pyramid, and 33 feet high, including the pedeflal, which 
is 10 feet high, and 15 fquare. 1 he other is a long cone, 
difcontinued at about the third part of its height \ and, in- . 
ftead of ending in a point, is wrought into an hemifpherical 
form. It ftands upon a pedeftal, fix feet hieh, and i#«« 
feet fix inches fquare, adorned at each angle with Ae figure 
of a lion in a fitting pofture, pretty much defaced ; thoug|i ' 
the fculpturc appears to have been but bad. TTiis is all 
that is vifible of thefe fepulcres, as well as of a Aird, 
and others near, above-ground. But under-ground there 
are fquare chambers, of convenient height for a man, and 
long cells branching out from them, varioufly difpofed^ 
and of different lengths, wherein the dead bodies were de- . 
pofited. Thefc fubterraneous chambers and cells are all 
cut out of the hard rock > : but, as a bare defi:ription 

* Mavkdr. journey from Aleppo to Jeniialen. 

1 WpuM 

C VL fbe Hiftory of the Phaenidaris. 

would give but an imperfect idea of them, on account of 
the variety and irregularity of their dlfpofition, we rsferthe 
reader to the draught before hiiD. 



Of the antiquity^ government^ laws, religion ^ cuftoms^ 
ortSy learnings and trade of the antient Phoenicians. 

IT is univerfally allowed, that ihe Phoenicians vftrt Ca'Anttjuiij. 
naanites (A) by defcent j nothing is plainer, or lefe con- 
tefted ; and therefore it were time loft to prove it. Wc 
ihall only add, that their blood muft have been mixed with 
that of foreigners, in procefs of time, as happens in all tra- 
ding places ; and that many ftrange families muft have fet« 
ded among them, who could confequently lay no claim to 
diis remote origin, how much foever they may have been 
called Phoenicians^ and reckoned of the fame defcent with 
Ae antient proprietors. 

The Phoenicians were governed by kings, and their ttr- Govern^ 
ritory, as fmall a flip as it was, included feveral kingdoms, i»«8/. 
as thofe of Sidon, fyre^ Aradusy Berytusy and Byblus. In 
ii this they imitated and adhered to the primitive government 
of their forefathers, who, like the other Canaanitcs, were 
under many petty princes, to whom they allowed die fo- 
veiieign dignity, reserving to themfelves the natural rights 
mi, liberties of mankind K It may appear plain by dieir 
hiftory, that even the kines of Siden and Tyre^ when in ' 
' their zenith, were far from being uncontroulable. 

We have no particular fjdlem of their civil laws, and 
ihall therefore pafs to their religion. 


* Seebe&re« p. 193. 

» (A) Bpcbart (1) iniinaates, 
that the Canaanites were a* 
ihamed of their name, on ac- 
count of the ctirie denounced 
on their progenitor, and terri- 
fied by the wars fo vigoroufly 
and fuccefsfully waged on them 
by the Ifraelites, parely be- 
caofe they were Canadnitesi 
aod that therefore^ to avoid the 


(t) Pbfiltg^ /. iv. f. 34. (9i, 301. 
5. *. /. 491. 

ignominy of the onc» and tha 
danger of the ' other, they ab- 
jar^ their old name, and 
changed it for Pbcenicians^ Sy* 
riaiUy SyrophofMicianSfZad Affy^ 
rians, Heidegger (2) conje- 
dures alio, that they were 
afhamedof their anceflor C#^ 


(2 J Hijf, patriarch, exere, 23. 


^^Z fbe Hifiory of the Phoenidan^ B. I. 

Religiw- '^H E Phcenicians^ being originally Canaonites^ muft once) 
as well as die reft of their kindred, have had a knowlcge 
of the true God, whom they, as is moft likely^ called, 
Biial or lord *>. But by degrees degenerating to tfie deifi- 
cation and worlhip of fuch as were once mortals like 
themfelves, they became perverfe and blind idolaters. Tha 
chief of their deities, in order, as we find them in their own 
I'ecords, are diefe : Beelfamen^ which, in Phoenician^ is 
hfd of heaven^ thereby meaning the fun « j Cronus or 
Baal^y Mdio is likely to have been the Baalberith^ or the 
Cronus antiently worfhiped at Berytus « ; Jftarte ^ ; Cronus 
or Baal the fecond; Zeus Belus or Baal{li) j Apollo 5 Meli- 
£arthus^ Melcarius^ or Hercules S. Thefe are the gods we 
fliall chiefly take notice of here ; the reft we have fpoken 
of at lengtn in the antiquities and mytholo^ of this people. 
We will only add one obfervation ; which is. That it is 
almoft certam the Phoenician idolatry and fuperftition is 
not all their own ; and that their fiiDJcftion to the AJfj- 
riansy Babylonians^ PerJians^Tcad Greeks^ made great alter- 
ations in the whole fyftem of their religbn. We need 
only look back to what happened in Siria ^ upon its 
being fubdued, to be fully convinced of this. 

How iar they retained, or loft, a due fenfc and. notion 
of the true God in this their multifarious idolatry, is hard 
to determine. It is reported of the EgjtiianSj 4uit, amidfl 
, their endle(s polytheifm, they ftiU acknowlcged one (u- 
preme Gonk : and ftnce, as we fhall fee, the religion of 
the old Phoenicians was in fubftance hardly different from 
that of xht Egyptians (C), as has been formerly obferved 'j 


^ Vid. Seld. de di. Syr. fyntag. ii. c. 7. « Sec vol. i, 

p. 183. d Ibid. 3^56, (H). * Ibid. f Ibid. p. 

3"o»3i3» 3H- * Ibid, vol.i. p. 312. »» Ibid.p. 

182 189, 303— —317. * Sec before, p. 382, 283. 

* See vol. i. p. 480. » Ibid, p. 1 87, (H). 

(B) Here we have no lefs nician god Baal^ in general, to 

than three Baals^ who are laid reprefent the fun (3). 

to have been once mortal men ; (C) BiAiop Cumberiand (4) 

which might fairly induce one draws the following parallel 

to think, that the learned are between them, tofliew hev 

suftakeninfoppofingthePi&^- nearly they were related. 

(^) ^tde Seld, dt df\ Sjr, fifntag. u. r, 7. ^ Bocbart.geogr.facr. (^) 
waSambtf, 107* 

C. VI. Tbd mhry ef Oe 

k IS very probable, that their theory and dodrine agreed 
togccher, as wetl as their praftice and traditions. 

How they reprefented S«/^0M»¥r&no-wh«re.iind;.we 
are of opinion, that they did not reprefent him at all : fof^ 
n^sankig by him, in a more efpecial mam>er, the fun, whom 
they had (o daily before their e^es in all his glory^ it is 
likely they made their addrefles immediately to him,, ac- 
cordmg to the antient rite K There were matr^ Baals >\ 
Hie Baalof Sidan was called TialaffiuSy-or tH^ $ui Baal^ 
There was Baal-berith (D), and others, eadi reprefented. 




Ibid. p. 183. 

Cbnviii. 5. 

• Hbiycit. 

f* i.Phaiarch (c) makes Ofrts 
^ Ae fea efRiifat a wire of 
^ 'Cramu : fa our author ^att- 
H cJhomatio] owAB Rh^ Mr^ 

Ml makeif Ifa to Ahd, iLtSyhim^^ 
•« - « bfeg called U^kMnitr^ and 
« tkat-Muae a plainly delved 
^ £poil» the H^rfvi^ MiUc or 

^^^t^^ ihMMiinn appmpriafetd 
^ twuneM ly lo JCtmus or Ham 
«: in o|d dmes. 5. Tli(e<pi«in 
«t JlJ^iWikJfis tfoniid at; ^X^^^» 
ft PAii#i«r^ (Clls 08 is i^ Ibme 
«• called; Jljimu {jbt ^J^te, 
^-itLsitn in the ^nek^i^whAck 
i' Is the name of one of' Cro» 
^'tiu\mvf€s \n StmcbBniatiw^ 
^ 4. PHitarck makes ITfphik % 
'■ OMemporary With- Cronus 
^ and his children } fo ddt& 
^ S^mcifMafhor When the 
wbtAe k weighed on tadi'&de, 
it m\A be allowed, that the 
aMittt Ibythdiogy of both was 
dttlved from the &me'fo«roe; 
falitvriiether thtPbtmicHin gods 
#HV ^ anckxit as tk^ fop- 
fDlbd Aem, and as -diey' ere 
commonly thought to be, is 
wkat we iha^ examine here- 

(D) lliis is a fiuther proof 
with us, that all the Bsaltof 
XhtPhatmcianiv/tTt not intend- 
ed for tfakfon: we here fee one 
denoffiinaitd from' the fca ; a 
lord cf the fea, as well as a 
lord of heaven I which Ibene 
to diiinguifk them into twd 
very diffisrent deities. We can- 
«ot' liilpr'thLdikingy'that they 
had dilfeftRt geiwalogiea fiiiV 
Md Iradkions of all dieir Ane^^ 
This appeHA froai what iwt 
kave oranred in the note above 
the laft* We fee th^ were 
procreated fiiobeffively from fa* 
ther to foni and it is hard to 
fuppofe^ that they had the fame 
ilories of, and the fame de-^ 
pendenCe on them all: how*^ 
ever, tlpo will not aafwer for 
aU the iDconiiftencies that may 
have CMpt iato the minds of 
the idolatroas Pbemicians, nor 
examine into the pretences that 
the partilaiisof each idol may 
have broached in favour of its 
antiquity or pre-eminence. Af^ 
ter all, chey ftiay have each laid 
claim to the firt honour^ ^d^, 
confequently, they may have 
each tranfbted their Baal into 
the fun, or biigbt god of liear 

C'jJ Su ic/frtg p. 47, 


33+ 7*^^ Hificry of the Phoenicians. B. L 

as wc may fuppofe, under their proper attributes ; but ive 
1^0 w nothing particular (£) of their idols. Baal is called 
fometimes a god, and fometimes a goddefs ; and, on the 
otherhand, Jjiarte is fometimes termed a goddeis, and 
fometimes a god (F) : but, by the Phcenician mythcJogyt 
{he was indifputably a goddefs ; for there we find her men- 
tioned as the mother of many children o. She is particu- 
larly called the goddefs of the Sidomans^ and, in Hebrew^ 
JJbtarotb (G}. Some P will have it, (be was fo called, be- 


• See vol. i. p. 310. 
Syx, fyntag. ii. c. 2. 

Ten; fo that all their (iiperfli- 
tion may, indeed, have centred 
in him. We are very much 
inclined to think the fan and 
moon were the two neat ob- 
je& of their worlhips and 
thefe we uke moft g^rally 
to have been ftiledAsn/ and 

(E) Full^ (6) ventures to 
fiidL\ixe Baal in general as a 
xoyal hero, with armour and t 
mantle on his body, a diadem 
on his head, and a. fword in 
kis hand, in ad to ftrike. 

(F) This arofe from theH^- 
hre^*s knowing no difHndion 
of fex in the gods. There are 
xnany infiances co prove this ; 
but we (hall only produce one*, 
where in one varic only, with 
reference to Baal^ he is both 
mafculine and feminine. Kct/ 

a iKhMfA-^Av yorv t» B*<iA., 

durS {7). In oAer copies 
bowever it is r^haUA- but the 
lame in other places make the 

R. EiMCH. apud Seld. dedL 

name feminine. JB«r£«r#.(8) 
will have Baal-beritb to have 
been a goddefs, becaufe &• 
rttb in Hibriw is femininei 
but, as it is moft likely, 
that thereby is meant no 
more than the fiaal of Bi* 
rytm (^), we look npoa 
this conjedure as groandie& 
Afiartt was calleda god bythi 
Hibnms, they haying no mmi 
in their tongue ffipr a gpd^ 

(G) AJtiarth, wJiich 4gBi- 
fies flocks of iheep or goats. It 
is conjedured, that men in aa- 
tient times, being chiefly ad- 
dided to a pafloral life, and 
delighting chiefly therein, diew 
their moft favourite fimilies of 
beauty from thence. . This it 
fuppoled to have bem the let- 
fon why AJhtaroth^ or A^artu 
was fo called ( 1 1> Itwasfirf 
ftarted by biOiop Cambirlmd 
(12), that her firft namewsi 
Naamab, His lonUhip tdh 
us, that he conid not think of 
Pbaarcb^s Nfmamis, Crmnfl 
vinfe, but Naamab came iatt 

re; Pifgab^jigbt. 

C.I7. C0/.775. (^) 

Vtde Bocb, ubi fupr, 
fizj Ubifu^r. 

(T) Reg. xix. 18. 
yide Cumbirland onSmnebon, ^i 151. ^ (w) 

.151. (10) 

(11 J Vide Bed ftrd'sfcript. cbran. /.ajf 


I. fbe Hiftary of the Phoenicians. 

ihe was repreiented in the form of a (beep. But this 
sded as a groundlefs notion. She was certainly re- 
ited as Ifis was 4, with cows horns on her head r (H), 


< Sec vol. i. p. 470. r Ibid. p. 314. 


ind. A late author has 
up thi$, and pufhed it as 

it can poffibly go. He 
that Naamab fignifies the 
M#. He finds alfo, that 
as the wife of Ham : that 
arrying her about with 
** changed her name to 
^ that, in another Ian- 
ige, had the fame fignifi- 
ion^and called \AxAfiarte^ 
it is in the Gnek^ or Jfi^ 
'^tb, in the Hebnw i 
lich word fignifies, in the 
ter language, flocks of 
:tle, fheep, or goats.*' 
rding to thefe interpreta- 
, we do not perceive the 

fonilitude of thefe two 
S, Naamab and Afiartt. 
e is an alli)£ve one, if you 
Kfidr woman was a beauti- 
objed, fo was Sijlo^k of cat- 
antient days; trgo Naamab 
4ftarte are tranflations of 
other. However, our au- 
brings us back again to his 
vu ; for Lucian in his ac* 
t of the Syrian goddefs, 
ening to fay a prie'il afTu- 
dm, that ^t'arte was Ew 

theflfUr ofC^flTifi; it is 
icnt for him to believe 

really were but one ; 
thus he returns to Naamab 
air-faced one : for, Bocbart 
ihing after the etymology 
mrofa, finds that blSi^-nin 

nr-afpay in the Pbaniciam 
tongue, is in Greek MvKOTfo^ 
fff^ov^ which may be aptly 
enough rendered fair of face ; 
therefore our author calls 
Bocbart in to his aid, and dif- 
covers felf-evidently, that£«- 
rota is Jfiarte, and Jftarte 
Naamab. J^ E, D. How 
forced and uncertain fuch de* 
dudtions are, is too glaring for us 
to animadvert upon them ; nor 
(hould we have taken notice, of 
this pretended di&overy, had it 
not been delivered as from the 
tripos. As fome of the Jews 
abfurdly. derive her jn^e from 
her. being reprefented under the 
form of a i(heep(i4),others(i5) 
derive it from the numbers of 
vi&ims offered up to her i' as if 
they facr.l6rcd to hjcr by whok 
flocks at a time. 

(H):4^5r/r, weare told(i6}, 
put on a buli*s head, a^ the. 
mark of her fbvereignty ; but 
Mercury daps on a. bull's or 
ox^s hoad upon Ifis^ to fupfdy 
the place of her diadem, which 
the enraged (Snu had torn off 
(17). We may fee, by:. both 
thefe fibries, that the ox's head 
was eileemed an eniign of ftt« 
pfem'edignity s and i^t-JJifirii 
and Ifis were names for one 
jperfon. Bocbart ( 1 8) obferves, 
that the word AJhtarotbrnBy be 
extended to herds in general. 

1) Bedfgrd't fcript, cbron, ubifuf, (i^) Vide Sel4. dtdi. Syr, 

l» ii« tf« I* (15) StaUg, apud turd, (i6) Stt Wi i. 

h (17) Sti iifirt, p, 35. (iB) Canaan, /.U. <. a. 


' "and 

336 Sii Hiji^ tf fh Pbbemdmi. B.I. 

and for the fame reafon; that is, to reprefent die moon'i 
increafe and decreafe ; for fhe was undoubtedly confe- $ 
crated into that planet <, and adored under the ftile of 
fUifn ofheavin (I). She was alfo the Phoenician Aphro* 
dite or Vitms (K). 


• Ibid. 

and II not confined to the fmal- 
ler cattle only ; and infinaatesy 
that (he may be the Grecian 
b^ turned into a cow. It is 
alfe held, Aat ibe was the great 
yuH9^ as- we (hall (ee anon. 
Whence, by the way, we may 
accotmt for the t^whttHon^t 
fb c^en- foefbws upon yuna^ 
BoiiTTt^ ''Hfr, the ox-eyed yuno. 
Doctor CktrA^ iii his notes apoii 
Hemer( 1 9), thinks that nothing 
particular is alluded to there- 
by I that this epithet is ulbi 
•nly to exprefs the maje(ty of 
her countenance ; and cites Li- 
^Mittf, who (ays as mnchy 

w/?" d'jriip tKdKt^' which 
is, thsLtHmfr only nnderflood 
ihe had a large, fine eye. 

(1) ThFs appears fufixciently 
from her horned front. Lucian 
(20) took her for the moon. 
Nerodgan(2i), miftakcninhcr 
name, calling her Jflroarche, 
lays, that thcPAmV/Vwj would 
have her to be the moon. Se/- 
den (2z) thmks it indubitable, 
that (he was the Balifama^ cor- 
wpted homBaietb-famain, the 
fueen ofbeanfen, as alfo Baaltis, 
S)Ome;23)fay, on the contrary, 
that (he was worihiped in the 
ilar called Lucifer ; but the 
(ame confider her under the 

name of Aphroditi^ or Venutf 
which alfo (he bore; fo that 
her attribute may have been 
altered or varied in this cafe, 
as well as her name. We (hall 
have occafion to refume this 
fubjedl anon. 

(K) Cicero (24) is v^ ex- 
plicit upon this. Ennmeradng 
the feveral Venus*s^ the fourth, 
(ays he, was a Syrian of Tjrt 
called Afiarie 1 who, as the 
tradition goes, married Aiemt, 
That (he was a Venus^ we nn- 
der(bnd from (everal other 


writers ; but, for thtf pre(ent, 
(hall content ouHelves with this 
one very plain teltinumy ; upon 
which we beg leave Co aninud^ 
vert a little. Cicn% places hef 
the fourth in order, which we 
apprehend he does, as fuppofii^j 
the three that precede her in 
his account to be dder thad 
(he. Again, (he marries Ado- 
nis, who is univtrfally allow- 
ed to bean 4Z^i7^iff bydefoent 
What are we to tondode from 
hence ? Why, it feems appa- 
rent enough, that the fvLptr- 
fiition in honour of Adonis was 
introduced by die AJTyrimm^ 
when they conquered Fkenia^ 
and that Aftarie was his eon- 
temporary. This feems to take 
offconfiderably from her great 
antiquity. Sir ^aac Nfwim 
(25) reckons, that the Baalim 

4 j Dt nat, eeer, /. lu. 


C. VI* The Hiftory of tbe Phaenidans. 

As diete were many Baals j fo alfo there were many 
jtftartes (L)k She went under different names, and was 
tfoubdefs very varioufly reprefented (M). She is faid to 



and AJbtihroth came origihally 
fix)m the banks of tbe Tjgris, 
whence they migrated into 
Phofnici, Hence he derives 
all the fuperllition and idolatry 
of the Phoenicians and Syrians : 
the Tjrian^ Syrian^iLadjfffyrian 
BtUUf bys he( 2 5 ), were all one. 
If we might be allowed to de- 
dare car fentiments on this 
fa^adyjK^ woaldadd^ that the 
greaCeft part of what we know 
of the Piatnician religion is of 
Jffjrian origin, and that it was 
impofed on them together with 
the jj^Ms yoke. This will 
bring down the antiquity of 
thefe febulous deities very low. 
We know how the Syrians 
boafted the antiquity of their 
great Adod or Jdad^ the king 
of ^QA9^^%Sanchoniatbo{z6) in 
his Phixnician antiquities ftiles 
him : we know alfo how vainly 
they did it, and how falfly ( 27). 
If then there be fuch a flaw to 
be found in the pretended age of 
jidad^ the fame muft a^fedl Cro- 
rnu and jfftarte, bis contempo- 
raries (28). They are certainly 
oflatedate^ in compariibn of 
what the learned have generally 
thoQght them. 

(L) This we have fufficxentl^ 
infinuated already. For we 
have ieen her Venus^ Juno^ and 
theiUpMr. The LXX more 
than oBce mention her in the 
plazal number. A ftther of 

the church (29) obferves, that 
Juno was undoubtedly the 
Aftarti of the Petniy and con- 
fequently of the Phoenicians \ 
and that fhe was mentioned in 
the plural with regard had to . 
the many ibtues of her \ and 
that as each fbtue was called a 
Junoy thence came many 7«»9/, 
or Aftartes. To this we will add» 
that Afiarte was pofitively the 
Grecian lo (30}. 

(M) We cannot doubt but 
(he was pillared as varioufly 
as the charafiers (he bore, and 
the attributes beilowed on her, 
required. As much a Fsnus as 
(he was, it feems fhe was pidiur- 
ed with arms, as the goddefs of 
war (31). She was far other- 
wife reprefented in her temple, 
on mount Libanus, where (he 
was mourning her loft Adonis : 
her head was mufRed up in a 
veil i her left-hand, which was 
under her mantle, fupported 
her head ; and floods of tears 
dreamed down her cheeks (32). 
It mufl have been, we think, 
an Afiarte that tucian faw 
crowned with a tower, and 
with a fifh-um in her hand, and 
fupported by lions ; but we 
cannot difcover from him in 
what temple, or where, he faw 
this idol. It cannot be the Sy- 
rian goddefs, as he calls her, of 
whom he gives a difFerent de- 
fcription(33). This laft idol 

(25) Ihid. p. »79. (a6) Sie tioL i. />. 313. (a:)"^''' ^- 

firey tM tbe notes, jfr. 282, 283. (z8) Seivtl, i. /». ^13. (29) --%■. 

mdjud. il. qn^ft, 67. (30) Eurtp. apud. i^eld, uhifapn (31) 

Vtde Bccbart, Cottaan, 1 1. c, a*. coL 664. (3a) Macrob, Saturn^ 

hi, c. 27. (33) 5« before, p, 284, 285. 

Vol. II. Y refem- 

.m Hificrj ^ fht 

and for the fame reaTon; that is, to tvp*^^T\^ gr^ 

incre^ and dccrcaie ; for flic was imdc*"^- ^^^'f^- 
crated into that planet •, and adored uinl* j^ _ ^ jf/'f 
^tfti ef heeeven (I). She was alfo the /'*' ^ p=^ ./*- '--" 
£te or Vmut (K). 

• Ibid. 

audit am confined to the final- 
kr cattle only i and mfinoatcs; 
that flte taay be the Gricie* 
b, turned into a cow. It ii »l'K%' 



•Kb held, diatlbenai the great ^fi^zr': 
yuna, as we Ihall fee anon.- 1 *'? •' i T 
Whence, by the way, we ro» |^Pj i S 
acconntfbr the tptiKtSmiftll ^ - ■ 
fc (^len- beftowi Hpon"jj/j^:f 
B«i»(s'Hfr, theMr-*7f^^/j J " 
Doftor C^i, hi hkoo*'.,' ' - f *■ 
ifaw#r[i9),thhrkitkr! ..'' 

particular li alhufe'r-' 
by I tbat riiis ci^(,- ^ 
•idy toexpit&tjtf' 



■■■ , "«ndiiuii(jg) 

/ So oiled frMi'^ 

/^ «(,, which AfA<^,(„<'Jj; 

.,. pofe. to be 7>.,. ffij 

.what JVrK.rwr (to rejeft»thii notion 

jar,wLich and rather derives hii namt 

.ave carried to from his liaving been the foon- 

1 of im' ■»*? - der, or governor, or prince of 

I, be would read the city of Cartiia in Staa, 

irn vti x-^o-mw Hifychius (42) feya, that the 

acquainting us Amathttfiam called HertMUi b» 

(U3 s« w. i. p. +70. 

g . Arifietlt, that there was a the name ofMaJie. P&nUx] 

\ jdof eagle calleda/ma; he calli him, corruptly, Jlfi4^-, 

. ^ald therefore have it a bird, tut. He was a great nan- 

,'nllead of a (tar. But by what gator, and the £rft that 

precedes, ii i^ moH ]ik.ely that brought lead from the CaS- 

it was really a Aar they meant, teridei, or iflands of Britaa 

The praaice fquares very nice- According to others {44), he in^ 

ly with the dofliine, as does vented tlie fliell-pnrpler hru 

alfo the ftory of the liar that accidental remark of a iogH 

was wont to fall from the top mouth fiained therewith. 


4^ of the Fhoeniciani.- 

His temple had no images init^ 

Ue inftance of his ^-eat antiqui- 

_^ derated afterwards m>m this lau- 

XX appear when we come to die reign of. 

^"^^te Aeir gods we may alfo place j^donisy 

>^^hich you will (S) ; nor muft we 



K'^. -:••• 



jptian or 

, for both 

^ in this fame 

^iC informs us : there 

jiAy two plain brazen 

^8 credlcd to the Egyptian 

Ogreules. But though the gods 

- •ere unreprefcnted, their tem- 

f^ Se wasadorn'd with the twelve 

c&L^urs tS Hircules (as they 

>^^ commonly called) finely 

^grrooght ; the by^a^ and Z)/- 

Jm^^ hbrfe. In this temple 

> We have already given 
ilogy in the Phcenician 
•r-. (48). The£^:^//. 

* their Hircules to 
thoufand years 
.iieir king Amafis 
ae Syrians were more 
iiy and only reckon their 
arcules to be as old. as 
their city, which was two 
thoufand three hundred years 
(50). The Syrians paid as 
great a veneration to their hero 
as the Egyptians could do to 
theirs (51); but whether both 
their Hircules* s were in reality 
one and the fame, is what we 
pretend not to decide. Cicero 
(52) reckons the Tyrian Her- 
cules the fourth of thofe he enu- 
merates, and calls him the fon 
oi Jupiter and Afteria^ the filler 
o{ Latona^ and the father of 
Carthage, Lucian (53) fays. 

,^cre kept the golden belt of that the Syrian Hercules was 

fgti£gr and the golden olive of not the Hercules celebrated by 

pmagfg/icni, bearing fmaragdint the Greeks y but another, far 

]^^!of wonderous workman- •"'"— ^"^•-'"•^ «,k^.„«e « cr^^i^^ 

flupl47)- By.^is may be 
Ian Htrcules was the Tyrian 

MelcartMs ; for we need not fay Whence the people oiAmathusy 
^t PygmaHon was king of an aotient city ofC^/jr/z^jform- 
jy^^, ed lYitxx Adonojiris (54), which 

(45) Uid. : (46) Stt W. i. f, 312, 31 J. (T). (47) Pbiitji. in 

mu Ap^U T^^"- '• ^* ^'1' P' *7'- ., . , (4S) 5« '!!^^;}'P' y^' , (49) 

more antient,whowa$ a Tyrian 

(S) They were certainly but 
one, or meant the fame objed. 

Utr^d^l ii. c. 43' (?=) ^*« '*'*''• ^•44- ( S 1 ) ^'^ 

j^j^ (52) Denattdeor, (s,-},) De d:a Syr, 

^tepk* Bjxatit. dturh. d^ popuL ad v:cem 'Afta6u(> 

• ' " Y 2 

(54) r^u 

Tbe Hiftcfj of the Vhcevaani. B. I. 

have confecratcd T)r/, by dqxjfidng a fallen ftar there ^ (N). 
We have Htdc or nothing to fav df dicir Afclh (O). He * 
b taken for the Pi^w/ of M^fts^ and Psrf % whence the. 
Pyihius ^ of the Greeks. Hercules or Milcarius (P) was 
die great and anrient god of Tyre. They antientlj rcprc- 

* SuiD. ad voccm 'Artf fT*** " See vol. i. p. 312, (R)" 

^ Vide BocH AK.T. gcogr. iacr. L L c. 3. col. 11. 

refembles, in fome particoiars, 
certain images of -^^ (34) ; bat 
to trace her out through all her 
form.?, is a task we are onequal 
Xo^ for want of proper lights. 

f N; Hence it was, we fupr 
pofe, that (he was worfhiped 
as a ftar (35) ; and hence the 
notion of the ibr, or globe of 
light, which at certain times 
darted down from the top of 
mount Lihanus near her temple 
at Aphacy and plunged itfelf in- 
to the river Adonis below, and 
was thought to be Venus ( 36). 
Bochart (37) knows not what 
to make of this fallen ihr,wh:ch 
AJiarte is faid to have carried to 
Tyre. Inflead of S'^isv tffp - 
'TTi'TYi a$-^fa, he would read 

tf ? sp/fitK, jElian acquainting us 
from Arijiotle, that there was a 
kind of eagle csWtA ajieria : he 
v/ould therefore have it a bird, 
in/lead of a ftar. But by what 
precedes, it is moft likely that 
it was really a ftar they meant. 
The pradlice fquares very nice- 
ly with the do^tiine, as does 
alfo the ilory of the Har that 
was wont to fall from the top 

of Liheaau into the river be- 

(O) We only know, €kai k 
was in great lepuic snoig 
them ; and that the Tyruna^ 
when befieged by jSltxmaier^ 
were fo much afraid^ that Ik 
(hoald leave them, and go ofw 
to the enemy, that thcf ckun- 
ed him with golden dudat (58) 
to the altar of Hercmhs (39). 

(P) So called bom. "PD 
fiin^P miUc-ceurtba^tbtlm^f 
iht cityy ¥^ch&ri&^zrf (4o)nip- 
poies to be Tyre. Sh Ifut 
Newton (4.1 ) rejeds this nottOD, 
and rather derives his name 
from his having been the foun- 
der, or governor, or prince of 
the city of Carteia in SpMt. 
Hefychius (42) {ays, that the 
Amathufians called Herewies bj 
the name of Malic, PUsiy (43) 
calls him, corruptly, MHacn" 
tus. He was a great navi- 
gator, and the firft that 
brought lead from the Ca§r 
teridesj or iHands of Srii4i», 
According to others (44)9 he in- 
vented the (hell-purple^ byaa 
accidental remark of a dog*9 
mouth Ihined therewith. 

(35} See before, p. 336,»o.'r (I). (jd) 
• If 

{n,j^) See 'vol.u p. ^-O, 
Vidf Py.chart. ubi fupr. cc/.r^g, " (3-) Ubi 'fupr ^ col, 709.' ' (}^ 

Died. Sic. I. xvii. p. f 84. (39) Plutarch, in vit. Alex,. {40) 

Csir.aaK uiifupra, col. 709. (41) Chron. of ant. kin^d. ammM,p, 

I ' ^ n 2. (42} Jtud Bochart. ubi fupr, (43) UhfVuU 

b^* (44^ Inityfus upud Huid, advuem. 


1^4 fie Hijtoty of fbe Phomicmt- 

d him in no form. His temple had no images in it ^ 
» a feeming undeniable inftance of his great antiqui- 
l). However, they deviated afterwards from this lau- 
i cuftom, as will appear when we come to the reign of. 
Hiram. Among their gods we may alfo place y^donis^ 
moiXy or Ofirisy which you will (S) ; nor muft we 


« Sec vol. i. p. 312, 31 3» (P)- 


) This is in part contra- 
i by Pbilofiratus, in his 
^^polionius ofTyanay who 
»krly dwells on the tern- 
'Gmiira^ or G^i^<fj, which 
j;) &id to have had no 
Sly and to have conti- 
inthat£mple fiate to the 
^iSilius Italictts [j^d). In 
9rmtus we find, indeed, 
here were nofiatues ered- 
ither to the Egyptian or 
m Hercules ; for both 
wqrfhiped in this fame 
£» a$ he informs us : there 
only two plain brazen 
> ere£led to the Egyptian 
ties. But though the gods 
unreprefented, their tem- 
as adorned with the twelve 
rs of Hercules (as they 
:ommonly called) finely 
ght ; the hydray and Z>/- 
9 hbrfe. In this temple 
kept the golden belt of 
r, and the golden olive of 
laUony bearing fmaragdine 
of wonderous workman- 
47). fiy.^is may be 
ed, that, at leafl, the T^he- 
Hercules was the lyrian 
irtus ; for we need not fay 
Fygmalion was king of 

(R) We have already given 
his genealogy in the Pheenician 
antiquities (48). The Egypti- 
ans reckoned their Hercules to 
be feventeen thoufand years 
older than their king Amafis 
(49). The Syrians were more 
modefl, and only reckon their 
Hercules to be as old. as 
their city, which was two 
thoufand three hundred years 
(50). The Syrians paid as 
great a veneration to their hero 
as the Egyptians could do to 
theirs (51); but whether both 
their nerculei*s were in reality 
one and the fame, is what we 
pretend not to decide. Cicero 
(52) reckons the Tyrian Her- 
cules the fourth of thofe he enu- 
merates, and calls him the fon 
o^ Jupiter and Jperia^ the filler 
oi Latona^ and the father of 
Carthage. Lucian (53) fays,- 
that the Tyrian Hercules was 
not the Hercules celebrated by 
the Greeks, but another, far 
more antient,whowa$ a Tyrian 

(S) They were certainly but 
one, or meant the fame objedl. 
Whence the people oiAmathuSy 
an aotient city of C^/r/zj, form- 
ed their Adonofiris (54), which 

) Bid. 

(46) See W. i. ^. 312, 313. (T). 

fp0il, Tyan, /. v. c» l. p. 211. (48) See t/ol. i. />. 3 u. (49) 

, /. ii. c. 43. (50) Idem ibid. c. 44. ( s 1) ^'de Macrob. Sawn. 

(52) De fiat, dear, (s,';^) De d:a Syr. 

Byxatit, d$ urb. & popuU ad v^cem 'Afta6u^< 

Y 2 IS 

{^l)Pbil:Jl. in 

(54) r.u 

Tie Hiftory of the Phoenicians. B. I. 

forget the Pataci (T) they carried about in the prows of 
their {hips *. Other deities they had, which we know no- 
thing of. The Cabiri will have their turn in the Grecum^ 

Wf do not read, that ihePbesnicianSjhovrneuij fiieircr 
they may have agreed with the Egyptians in the main points 
of their fuperftition, ever extended their woxihip, like 
them, to the inanimate creation : but fince thefe was fuch 
an harmony between them in other refpcds, it is by no 
means unlikely, that they were tainted with fome of the 
meanefl:, and moft unaccountable, fuperftitions of that 

* Herod. l.iii. c. 37. 
p. 306. 

13 a compound of both the 
names, Adonis and Ofirit ; for 
the Phxnicians and Egyptians 
laid equal claim to him (55) 
under different appellations, 
though he was certainly an 
Egyptian (56). So then tht 
beautiful Adonis^ begotten by 
Cinyras an AJfyrian (57), is in 
reality the Egyptian OJiris, The 
ceremonies performed in their 
honour were almofl the fame 
(58) : they had both their 
a^AU(rfj2(y dif appearance y or 
death ; they both had their 
^inncTi^f or their fearch after 
them with mourning ; and they 
both had their 61/^^0-/^, or in- 
'vention, with joy and gladnefs. 
In reality they were but one. 
Both the nations in this cafe 
meant no other than the fun j 
concerning whofe approach and 
departure they framed iUch fa- 
bles as might beft take with 

* See vol. i. in the mCh^ 

the people. The month of 
Jtme was the feafon when aU 
this fuperilities was tnxASti 
both by the PbcanesMs wtA 
Egyptians (59). 

(T) They were fmall ia- 
tues. Herodotus (60) compufl 
them to pygmies. Hifycbht 
(6 1 ) and Suidas will have tboi 
to have been placed in tb? 
poops of the fhips. The h- 
fhion was, no doubt, -cbangrf 
in the great length of time be- 
tween them and HerMhtm. 
They were the tutelar gods 0^ 
feafaring men (62), and car- 
ried about for prote^Uon frooi 
difaflers of the fea. Thus die 
Spaniards at this day carry 10 
fea with them little imag^ of 
the iaintSy that they may ftaal 
their friends in difh-efs (63). 
Thefe are Chriflian PaiaH, 
Why ihould we wonder at tbf 
blind Phcenicians ? 

(5S) Videeund. ibid. (56) Vide eund, ibid. (57) VidkJIfd. 

hibl. l. iii. c. 13. and Cyril, in If. /. jj. torn. iif. p, 274. (58) PUt 

Marjh. can. chron.fecu/. 1. p. 31. (59) Videwnd, ibid. (60) 

L. iij. c. 37. (61) Ad'vocem n^raKo;. (62) Vide Stld. d* £» 

Syr.fyntag. ii. c. 16. Bochart. Canaan, /.ii. c. 3. coL 714, 713. (63) 

&ee FriKier's voyage to the South-fea, p, 143, of the T^ng, tranj. in 4/*, 


C, VI. ne Hiftory of the Phoenicians. 541 

Beblsamen we underftand, as we have hrntcd above, 7]&ri> 
to have been, in an efpecial manner, the fun himfelf ^ \pri€fts^ fi- 
juA to him thev addrefTed themfelves with their armsAs^^*^* 
&etched out c. What clfe was pra^lifed, when they madc^^Mv^^t &c. 
tiicir addrefles to the fun only, we np- where find. 

Baal bad his prophets, and his pri>fts, in great numbers. 
We read of four hundred and fifty of them,which were fed 
«tf JezebePj table only <i. They were wont to offer burnt* 
offerings and facrifices to this god ^, and to dance about 
die altar, with violent gefticulations (U) ; and, having 
worked themfelves to the height of phrenfy, by this exer-> 
cife, and a violent flraining of their voices, they began to 
cut their bodies with knives and lancets : then they betook 
themfelves to prophecy ^, as it is called, or, rather, raved^ 
as if po&fTed. by fome invifible power S : fuch was their 
barbarous v^y of worfhip ( W). Nor need we wonder at 
it, confidering their more tsarbarous cuflom, in earlier days, 
of facrificing even fuch perfons as were moft deai to them, 
to appeaf^ or reconcile their falfe gods, when they laboured 
under aiiy public calamities. This is charged very homt 
' upon them, not only by the teftimony of other&i»y but by 
their own confeffion ^ : fo barbarous a pradice they had Itk 
common with the Egyptians ^. But it was diicontinued 
here, as well as in Egypt ^ pretty early ; at what time> 
and upon what motives, we are not told. 

Many priefts, or prophets, attended, 2X^0^ on Afiarte. 

Jezebel had no fewer than four hundred of them to her 
are *• Our verfion caUs them prophets ef the groves .* 
,^ut Mr. Selden has proved, by comparing many paflages of 

* Sec befbre, p. 332. • See vol A, p. 1S3. * i Kings 
xviii. 19. ^ 2 Kings x. 24. ^ 1 Kings ubi 

ftp. 8 Vide Patkicic in loc. ^ PoRyxYR. Tipi 

tfTojf Sf<, 1, ii. §. 56, &c. * See vol. i. p. 3 14. ^ See 

vol. i. p. 483. 1 v Kings obi iiip. ver. 1 9. 

(U) It k aacertain, whether (W) Though all this was 

■they danced round the altar, ef pra^ifed upon a particalar pc- 

leaped upon it, or jumped over cafion, or when they took on 

It, or how this was. Abarbanel them to perform a miracle ; . 

thinks, '< this leaping or dan- wc are perfuadeci, there is no* 

^ cing was a rite ufed in the thing new in it. They are faid 

** worihip of the fun ; which to have wounded their bodi«& 

** puts ail things in xnotiDn a^i their ufual manner (64). 

'' (63).^ 

^3) Pairiik vj^oa I Kfngi XvUt 26. {6j^J I Kings xviii. 2S. 

* Y 3 ■ Scripture 

fie Hiftory of the PhcenidattS. B,I, 

Scripture together ^y that they were the priefts cfAftarU\ 
and fome », who know not how to conteft thb interpret- 
ation, believe, thatgoddefs was worlhiped in agrore, wtiA 
is very likely ; fuch places being, for the rnoft part, ac- 
counted facred, in the firft times o. There b no room to 
doubt but (he was ferved with much form, pomp^ and my* 
fiery ; and women, particularly, are (aid to have bcen-em- 
ployed to weave hangings or tabernacles for her P. When 
{be was adored as the queen of heaven^ or the moon itiUf, 
they offered up cakes to her, which were prepared £or that 
fervice with great ceremony : The children gathered the 
woody and the fathers kindled the fire^ and tbt womeu 
kneaded the doughy to make cakes for the queen of beavtn^. 
They alfo burned incenfe, and poured out <lriiikroflFeriif;s 
to her r. This Aflarte^ queen of heaven^ was, as we have 
faid, the moon itfelf ' : for, as they paid their homage im- 
mediately to the fun, the fame, we may fuppofe, they did 
to the moon. It was an antient cuftom* Xhofe great -i 
lights were always confidered together; The inimkable 
*Joh fays «, If / beheld the fun when it jhined^ or the wmm 
walking in hrighinefsy and my heart hath been fecretfy enticeij 
or my mouth hath kijfedmy hand i this alf6wer£ aninifdlf 
to be punijhed by the judges. Some u fanfy, that her cakes 
were flamped with a crefcent. At Byblus (he was worfliipeil 
in a particular manner ; for there flie had a temple as the 
Venus of Adonis w .- and there, fuch women as would not 
conform to the cuilom of (having their heads, at the an- 
nual time of lamenting ^i^0;z/V, were bound to proiUtute 
their bodies, one intire day, for hire; and the money, thtii 
earned, was prefented to the goddefs *. Her temple at 
'Aphacy on mount Zr/^^««j, was a perfe£l fink of lewdnefs; 
a fchool of the moft fhameful luft. The men there funk 
into the moft degenerate effeminacy, to comfort the mourn- 
ful goddefs y. The moft fhameful commerce between die 
fexes was allowed, within thofe profane walls : and this was 
permitted, and pradifed, as fome ^ conjefture, becaufe, in 
this place, Venus firft rufhed into the arms of Adonis ; or, 
as others a fay, becaufe this was either the firft, or the laft 

^ Patrick in loc. " Cleric, in loc. cit. ®See 

before, in the notes, p. 142. p 2 Kings xxiii. 7. ^ Jer. 

vii. 18. r Idem, xliv. 17, 18. s Sec before, p. 336. 

^ Job xxxi. 26, 27,28. " See Fuller's Pifgah-fight. 

^ LuciAN. dedeaSyr. ^ Idem ibid. y-$eebeR)re, 

in the notes, p. 337. z Bochart. Canaan, 1. ii. c. if 

coi. 740. « Etymol. magn. apud eund. ibid. 


.CVI. .The Hiftory of the Fhcenkians. 343 

{dace, where they enjoyed each other. Other temples fhe, 
doubtlefs, had, and other rites, which it were in vain for 
us fo attempt either to diiftnguifh, or enumerate. What 
dfe may be faid of her, or her worfhip, we may have oc- 
cafion to refume hereafter. Though ffae is called thegod- 
«defs of the SidanianSi her principal temple feems to have 
been that at Tyre built by Hiram *>. 

Aft ER what manner they worfliiped their Apollo^ is un- 
certain ; but to their Hercules they are faid to have paid 

Eeat honour. His worfliip was performed with great fo- 
ouiity : the affiftants were all clad alike, in Egyptian \v- 
neoi They, offered incenfe to him with a loofe flowing 
garment ; the prieftly veft was adorned with broad ftreaks, 
cr ftr^>es, «of purple ; their feet were bare ; their heads 
fliaven ; they were pure from any pollution, as it was 
thought, contraded from the other fex ; and the fire of 
the altjur never went out. Women were not allowed to 
enter into the temple, and fwine were carefully kept from 
approaching it<: : fuch were the ceremonies ufed, and cu- 
; ftoms obferved, in the worfliip of the Tyrian Hercules. 

We fliall now clofe up this account of their religious 
pradices, cufioms, and ceremonies, with what they did in 
commemoration oi Adonis ^ox OJiris^ or Adonofiris^ oxTham" 
muz : for, as we have already obferved d, all thefe names 
centred in one objedl. His father, they pretend, was one 
Cinyrasj an AJ/yrian, who founded the city of Pathos in 
the ifland of Cyprus <^, Some fay, his name was Gingrisy 
or Gingras^j among the Phoenicians i but whatever his 
name was, it is agreed, he was a moil beautiful youth. 
On the one hand 8, it is reported, that Venus was enamoured 
•of him from bis infancy, and committed the care of bis 
education to Proferpine ; that,when Venus came to demand 
him of her, (he refufed to deliver him ; and that hence a 
difpute arofe between them, which was decided by Jupiter^ 
who decreed, that the youth fliould be one third of the 
year with Proferpine^ another with Venus ^ and the laft 
third he fhould difpofe of himfelf, as he beft liked : that, 
in confequenqe of this, Adonis^ taken with the charms of 
VenuSy fpent two thirds of his time with that goddefs ; 
whereat Diana taking offence, fent a wild boar to put an 
end to his life. On the other hand '', it is reported, that 

^ Mf NANP. & Dius apad Jofeph. antiq. 1. viii. c. z, . « Si- 
nus Ital. l.iii. ^ See before, p. 339. ® Apollod. 
l^ibliQth. ubi fup. ^ Jul. Pol; 1. ii. c. 4. 1. iy. c' 14.-: * Apol- 
lod, biblidtK. ubifup, *» Cyril, in If, uW&p. .• - 

Y 4 Adonh 

244 ^^^ Hiftory of the Phoenicians. B. L 

AdonU was the offspring of an inceftuous embrace : that be 
was begot by his father Cinyras on his own daughter My^ 
rha : that, to hide the guilt of fo unlawful a commerce 
from the eyes of the world,, he was expofed on tbemoim* 
tains, where he was nurfed by the nymphs, and became t 
great fportfman : that Venus., feeing him at his manly fport, 
^11 in love with him, and admitted him to great intimacy 
With her : and that Mars^ conceiving a violent jealouly 
thereat, turned himfelf into a wild boar, and flew the beau- 
teous youth : that Fenus, being unfpeakably grieved at the 
fad news, followed him to the (hades, to demand him j 
but that Proferpine^ at iirft, refufing to deliver him, was, at 
length, brought to this agreement, that he (bould be half 
the year with her, and half the year with /^/ii»x; whore* 
turned, with joy, to the earth again, acquainted her foUow- 
cr^ with the fuccefs of her defcent, and ordained a feftival 
to be celebrated in commemoration thereof. Whoever 
compares this with what is related of Ifes and Oferis \ will 
find it to be the very fame ftory, in a different dre&. In 
confequence of this myfterious tradition, there was mat 
grief among the women, at Byblus efpecially, for thedeith 
of Adonis \ which was fucceeded by as great joy for hb xe« 

But the Jiwijh writers have apK)ng them another ftory 
concerning the origin of the rites of Thammuz^ otJdmus. 
Maimonides ^ relates, that the antient Zabii held Thammmi 
to have been an idolatrous prophet, who, preaching to a 
certain king the do£lrine of worshiping die fevcn planets, 
and the twelve figns ; the king ordered him to be put to a 
cruel death : that, on the very night of his death, sdl die 
idols, from the uttermoft parts of the earth, met together 
in the temple of the, golden Jiatue, or the fun^ at Babylon ; 
and that he acquainted them with the tragical end of Tham- 
» muz : that, hereupon, the images wept and lamented all 
night for Thammuz ; and that, as foon as morn appeared, 
they all flew back to theu: places. Hence, fays he, was 
derived the cuflom of mourning over Thammuz. FinaUji 
it is faid, he was the fon of an heathen king, whofe image 
the Jewijh women adored with flliedding tears,and even of- 
fering facrifices to it ^ 

Whoever he was, the fuperilition of mourning over 
him was univerfally praftifed by the women in thofe parts. 
They began their lamentadons at a fbted time : they fet 

See be£)fe, p. 3 1 ^3 j. k in more nevodvim. ' P»i- 
1A5T. apnd SeU. de di. Syr. f/ntagm. ii. c 1 u 


C VI. fii Hijiory of fbe Phoenicians. 345 

up their outcries as foon as they perceived the river Adonis 
to appear of a bloody hue ^^ as at certain times it did ». 
The lamentations of a mother for the lofs of her only fon 
couM not be more loud, or tender ^ : they then proceeded 
to their facrifices of the dead, having firft difcipiined tfaem- 
(elves with whipping ; and, the nttt day, pretending him 
to be revived, and afcended through the air to the upper 
regions, they fliaved their heads, as the Egyptians did for 
the lofs of Jpis ; and, at Byhlusy at leaft, thofe who would 
not comply, were bound to proftitute themfelves in the 
manner, and for the purpofes, above fpecifiedp. Some 4 
relate, that, on a certain night, while this folemnity lafted, 
diey laid an image in a bed, and, having gone through tL, 
bead*roll of lamentations over it, light was brought in, and 
the prieft, anointing the mouths of the affiftants, whifpered 
'to them, that falvation was come — that deliverance was 
brought to pafs ; upon which, their forrow was turned into 
joy, and the image taken, as it were, out of its fepulchre : 
or, as others fay ^ , the priefis of OJiris^ in Egypt , wrote to 
the women of Byblus\ fignifying to them, that they had 
fimnd that god. They fent this letter in an earthen pot, as 
ibflfie fay, or in a fmall ark, or head, as it is called % made 
of the papyrus, which came by fea, of itfelf, to Byblus. 
This voyage it performed in fcven days « ; and it no fooncr 
appeared in the port, but the women danced, feafted, and 
rejoiced, as extravagantly as they had before wept,mourned9 
•and lamented u. This cuftom has made fo lading an im- 
preffion on the women of thofe parts, that fome traces of 
• it are kept up by them of Aleppo to this day ^. 

There are different ways of explaining away all this mj^- 
ftery. Adonis was the fun ; the upper hemifphere of the 
earth, or that which we think fo, was antiently called Vo^ 
mis ; the under, Proftrpine : therefore, when the fun was 
in the fix inferior figns, they faid, he was with Proferpine ; 
when he was in the fix fuperior, with Venus. By the boar . 
that flew Adonis y they underftood winter : for the boar they 
made, and not unaptly, the emblem of that rigid feafon '• 
Or by Adonis they meant the fruits of the earth ; which 
are, for one while, j)uried ; but, at length, appear flourlfh* 

* LxrciAN. de dea Syr. ^ See before, p. 327. ^ AmMp 
Marcell. 1. xix. P Seebefbre, p. 342. ^ Jul. 

FxKM. apod Puich. pilgr. 1. i. c. 17. p^ 90. ' Procop. & 

Cyril, in I&.XYiii. « Lucian. nbifup. ^ Idem 

ibid. ^ Procop, &Cyriu ubifup. '*^ SeeSiLLFR*s 

hillory of Faltnyniy in die preface. , ^ Macrob. Saturn. 

1.1. C. £1. 

^6 The Hifiory of the Phoenicians. B.I; 

ing to the fight. When, therefore, the feed was throim 
into the ground, they faid Adonis was gone to Proferpimi 
but when it fprouted up, they faid, he had revihtcd the 
light, and Venus. And hence, probably, it was, that they 
fowed corn, and made gardens for Adonis ; for fuch a cur 
ftom they alfo had y. We may well fuppofe, there was no 
fmall variation among thofe who received this piece of fu- 
perflition, when they talked of what it meant, and why it 
was praSifed. Finally, Plutarch ^ takes Adonis to be Bac 
chus : OJiris was both the fun » and Adonis^ as we have feen^ 
It was alfo faid, that OJiris was buried at Byblus c. The 
. word Adonis imports lord, and (6 does the word Baal^. 

Plutarch alfo informs us <^, that Ifis had a temple at 

Byblus, where they worfhiped the heath which bad coo- 

cealed OJiris's coffin. This Byblian Ifis muft certainly have 

. been Ajiarte ; fo that we end with the Baalim znd Ajtantb 

as we have begun. 

Herodotus ^ fuppofes the Phoenicians to hzvehetn 
circumcifed ; but Jofephus aflerts 8, that none of the na- 
tions, included under the vague naihes of Pale/line. zndSy- 
riay ufed that rite, the Jews excepted : fo that if the Pbo' 
• nicians had antiently that cuftom, they came, in tiRie, to 
negledl it, and, at length, wholly laid it afide. They abs- 
tained from the flefli of fwine *». 
neir arts MucH is faid of the PhaenicianSy their arts, fcienceS) 
and learnr^nd manufadures ^ but as what we find, concerningtbeP) 
ing^ is couched in general terms only, we cannot expatiate on 

■ particulars. The Sidonians, under which denomination wc 
comprehend the Phoenicians in general, as was antiently 
ufual *, were of a moft happy genius, and frame of miiui i. 
Arithmetic and aftronomy either took rife ^mong them^ 
or were brought, by them, to great perfeflion : from them 
. thofe excellent fciences flowed into Greece^, together with 
their letters «i. They were, from the beginning, as it were, 
addifted to philofophical exercifes of the mind ; infomuch 
that a Sidonian, . by name Mofchus, taught the doctrine of 
atoms before the Trojan war " j and Abdomenus^ of Tyre^i 

y VideVos. de idololat. 1. if. c. t;. p. 167, * Sympof. 

1. iv. p. 671. * See vol. i. p. 467. ^ *> Seebeforc, 

.P- 339- / ^uc- ^^ ^^ ^yr- '^ See before, p. 332. *Dc 
'ifid. & Ofirid. ^ L.ii. c. 104. s Contr. Ap. 1. i. ''Hb- 
RODiAN. 1. V. ♦ Vide BocHART, phaleg, 1. iv. c. 37. col. 

301. ' Idem ibid. col. 303. '^ Strabq, l.xvi. p. 757. 

Mdem ibid. » Herodot. l.v. c. 58. " Posidonius apM 
Strab. ubi fup. Men and. &:DitJs apud Jofcph. l.viii, 

c.a. &c6nt. Ap.Li, " • • . 


"C VL ^be Hifiory tf the Phoenicians. , 347 

-challenged. 5«i^m0», though the wifeft king on earth, by 
.the fubtle qqefiions he propofed to him. Phaenia conti- 
nued to be one of the feats of learning, and both Tyre and 
Sidon ^ produced their philofophers of later ages ; Boethus 
«nd Diodatus of Sidofiy Antipater of Tyre^ and Jpollonius 
of the fame place ; who gave an account of the writings 
and difciples of ZenoV. Their dodlrine concerning the 
-origin of the world, and the formation of things, we have 
rftlready mentioned 9. 

Th jiiR language was, at loaft, a dialed of the Hebrew : neir hm" 
It was that of the antient Canaamies, Their letters, or ch^-guage. 
rafters, were either the fame with, or very like to the 5^7^^- 
ritan charafters. 

How great foever they were for the fciences, and for T^/i> jbm- 
jdifcoveries and improrements in point of learning, it is far««Ai- 
from being improbable, that they excelled much more in the^^'*^'- 
labours ot the hand, than in thofe of the head '. The glafs 
.of Sidou^ the purple of Tyrey and the exceeding fine linen 
ithey wove, were the produft of their own country, and 
i^their own inventions^ : and for their extraordinary fkill in 
working of metals, in hewing of timber and flone, in a word, 
:fbr their perfeft knowlege of what was folid, and great, and 
ornaihental, in architefture, we need only put the reader 
in mind of the large (hare they had in erefting and deco- 
rating of the temple at Jerufalem under their king Hiram i 
{than which, nothing can more redound to their honour, or 
infmuate a clearer or greater idea of what their own build- 
ings mufl have been. Their fame was fuch for their juft 
tafte, fine defign, and ingenious invention, that whatever 
was elegant, great, or pJeafing, whether in apparel, vef^ 
fels, or toys, was diflinguifhed, by way of excellence, with 
the epithet of Sidonian ^ 

Thus far we have confidered them as learned men, and Their 
artificers, improving thcmfelves, and cultivating their minds /r^^/p «»/ 
•iedately at home. It remains that we mention them as w^**;'!^^- 
merchants, navigatorsy and planters of endlefs colonies m^ion. 
foreign parts. As they were merchants, they may be faid 
to have ingrofTed all the commerce of the weflern world, 
•at leafl : as navigators, they were the boldefl, the mofl ex- 
perienced, and greatefl difcoverers, of the antient times : 
they had, for many ages, no rivals. And as they were 
•planters of colonies, they did fo much that way, that, when 

; o SxRABOy ubifup. P Idem ibid. S See vol. i. p. 23 — 25. 
' Vide BocHART. phaleg, 1. iv. c. 35. col. 393. • Vide cund. 
ibid, t Vide eund. ibid. . 


^btHifiory of the Phcenicians, . B. L 

it is remembred, that their country was, probably, little 
more than the flip of ground between mount Libamu and 
the fea, it is furprifing how they could fumifb Aich fiip- 
plies of people, and not wholly depopulate their native 
country. They were the mofl induftrious, nuxft entcr- 
.prifing people, that can well be conceived. 

We have ftarted a conjedure, that the PhoenictMns were 
induced to deal in foreign commodities, by their neighbour- 
hood with the Syrians^ whom we have confidered as the 
moft antient of thofe who carried on a confiderable and re- 
gular trade with the more eaftern r^ions u : and we fee no 
reafon to depart from this conjedure. For their own ter- 
ritory was but fmall, and little able to afford any confider- 
able exports, if we except manufaftures ; but that their 
jnanufa^res were any ways confiderable, till they begaa 
to turn all the chanels of trade into their own country, is 
hard to believe. In Syria^ which was a large country, 
they found ftore of 'produdions of the natural growdi of 
that country ; and many choice and ufeful oMnmoditio 
brought from the eaft. Hereupon, having a fafe coaft, aal 
convenient harbours, on the one fide, and excellent nxM- 
rials for fhip-buildii^, upon the mountains, on the odier^ 
and perceiving, by degrees, how acceptable many comnxh 
dities, that Syria furnifhed them with, would be in fortiga 
parts ; and being, at the fame time, perhaps, {hewn the way 
by the Syrians tbemfelves, who may have navigated tKe 
Mediterranean y they turned all their thoughts to trade and 
navigation ; and,by an uncommon aj^lication thereto, foon 
eclipfed the Syrians thcmfelves on the Mediterranean Sed. 
Nature herfelf pointed out to them their advantages \ and 
daily experience, joined to a laudable ambition, may have 
prompted them to chat which brought them to be confidered 
as the firft of the earth for riches and fplcndw, if riot for 

It were in vain to talk of the Edcinites^ who fled hither 
in David's time w ; or to inquire why Herodotus fuppofei 
the Phoenicians to have come from the Red Sea * ; their ori- 
gin we have already feenV. That fome of the Edomitn 
fled into this country in the days of David^ and that they 
were a trading people, we have elfewhere (hewn * : what 
improvements they brought with them into Phcemee^ is han} 
to fay : and, by the way, it is as hard to fpeak of their 

" See before, p. 292. ^ See before, p. 175. * See 

before, in the notes, p. 1 76. ^ See before, p.'33 1 . ^ * Sec 

keforc, p. 16 8, 


C. VI. The Hiftory of tbi Phoenicians. 143 

nuQibers, or to fity how it could be poflible for a parcel of 
refugees to communicate their own name to the antient 
proprietors, as is pretended «: it feems to be plain, that 
they brought with them a knowlege of the Red Sea^ and 
of the fouth parts of Arabia^ ^gyph ^nd Ethiopia ; and 
that, by their inftrudUons and lights, they made the Pha^-' 
nicians acquainted with thofe coafts, which before were 
unknown to them ; and,, by that means, enabled tbem to 
undertake the voyages they did, in thofe parts, for Solomon^ 
and for Pharaoh Nechoy king of Egypt* But we will dwell 
no longer on thefe particulars, fo hard to be afcertained. 
We fhall only add, that, in our opinion, the Phoenicians 
Were both younger merchants and navigators than the Sy- 
riansy and reaped confiderable advantages by the accefs of 
the fugitive Edomites that fought for ihelter among them in 
David*s time. 

Th e ir whole thoughts were how to advance their trade* . 
They afFe6led no empire but that of the fea, fought to en- 
large oo other dominion, and feem to have aimed at no- 
thing but {he peaceable enjoyment of their commerce. 
Tliey traded to all the known parts they could reach ; to 
the Britijh ifles, commonly underftood by the CaJJiterides 5 
to Spaiuy and other places in the ocean, both to the north 
and fouth of the freights mouth; and, in general, to all 
the ports of the Mediterranean^ the Black Sea^ and the 
lake Maotis *». In all thefe parts they had fettlements and 
correfpondents, from which they drew what was ufeful to 
tbemfelves, or might be fo to others ; and thus they exer«» 
cifed the three great branches of trade, as it is commonly 
divided into importation, exportation, and tranfportationj 
in full latitude i fuch was the extent of their fea*trade : as 
for that which they carried on by land, in Syria^ Mefopo-^ 
tamia, Ajfyria^ Babyloniay Perjuiy Arabia^ and even in 
India^ it was of no lefs extent ; and may give us an idea 
of What this people once was, how rich, and how deferv- 
edly their merchants are mentioned in Scripture as equal to 
princes ^. Their country was, at that time, the great virarcr 
houfe, where every thing, that might either adminifter to 
the neceffities or luxury of mankind, was to be found; 
which they diftributed as they judged would be beft for tiieir 
own interefl. It would be in vain for us to undertake a de- 
tail of what they brought by fea, 0/ what was fent them 
over land from each particular place, or of what they ient 

« See before, p. 391. *» Vide Hvit. hift, cosn. * 

de la navig. des anc. p. 58« * Ifa. xxiii. 8. 

3 t» 


J JO The Hiftory of the Phoenicians. BAi 

to" the fevcral countries they dealt with : we (ball have oc- 
cafion to rpecify the particulars, when wc come to mention 
the anticnt trade of each country. Their own principal 
commodities were, the purple of Tyn^ the glafs of Siimy 
and the exceeding fine linen made in this country ^ : thefe^ 
and other fine pieces of art, in metals and wood, feem ta 
have been the chief, and almoft only commodities of Phop" 
nice itfelf. Their country was fo fmall, that it is not to be 
imagined they pould afford to export any of their own 
growth : it is more likely, that they rather wanted, than 
abounded with the fruits of the earth. 

Having thus fpoken, in general terms, of their trade^ 
wc fliall now juft touch upon their {hipping, and fome 
things remarkable in their navigation. Their larger im- 
barkations were of two forts : they divided them into 
round fhips, or gauli'y and long (hips, galleys, or triremes^'*. 
When they drew up in line of battle, the gauli were at a 
fmall diftance off^ each other in the wings, or in the van 
and the rear ; their triremes were contracted together in 
the centre ^. If, at any time, their (hips, bound on a voy-* 
age, obferved that a flranger kept them company, or fot. 
lowed them in their track, they were fure to get rid o( 
him, if they could, or deceive him, if polHble ; in which- 
they went fo far, as to venture the lofs of their (hips, and 
even their lives, fo that they could but deftroy or difap* 
point him 8 ; fo jealous were they of foreigners, and Co tc- 
nacioufly bent on keeping all to themfelves. And, to adcf 
to the dangers of the fca, and to difcourage other nations 
from expofmg themfelves to them, they aiFefted piracy ^ ; 
or pretended to be at war with fuch as they met when they 
thought themfelves ftrongeft. This was but a natural 
ftroke of policy, in a people who grafped at the whok 
commerce of the then known world. We muft not forgtt 
here the famous fi(hery of Tyre^ which fo remarkably en- 
riched that city, in particular. The fi(h they fought after 
were thofe wherewith they dyed purple, the richeft dye in 
the world ; they were always careful to take them alive. 
An antient author i attributes the diffblutenefs of Tyre to 
the number of the dyers there : from whence we may ga- 
ther, they were a rich and numerous body of people, proud 
and extravagant, vain and debauched. This Rlh is hoW 

«* See before, p. 347. « VideBocHART.Canaan, I.if. 

c. II. col. 739. f Poly JEN. 8 VideSxRAB. 

I. iii. p. 175. * HuET. ubi fup. c. 16. p. 70. * Idem, 



ex VI. Tie Hiftcry of the Phoenicians. 

either loft (X), or thofe on that coafi, at prefent, know not* 
how to catch it. 

We might here fpeak of the Phoenician voyages, in the 
fervke of Solomon^ had we not a more proper place in 
view to expatiate on that fubjed. The long voyage fome 
of them undertook in the fervice of Necho king of Egypt^ 
round Afric^ going out of the Red Sea^ and returning by 
the way of the ftreights mouth, ought not to be pafled over : 
in this voyage, they employed three years (Y). The 



(X) We are aflurcd, by an 
cye-witriefs, who is too modeft 
to alIo^y us the life of his name, 
that they have a kind of fifh 
en the rocks, on the coa(i, a 
little to the weftward of Pa- 
namtty with which the Indians 
dye a red purple; that they 
carry their yarn dowB to the 
iea-fide; that they bring it back 
dyed ; and that their hands are 
always difcoloured> like thofe 
of our dyers. 

(Y) Hence it would follow, 
that tkePortugme/e were only the 
re-difcoverers of the cape of Good 
Hope, Here we will beg leave 
to animadvert a little upon a 
celebrated author (65), who 
will have it,that t\it Phoenicians 
made it a common practice to 
trade with Indiay by the way of 
tlH( cape of Good Hope, from 
the times of Solomon ; which, 
to uSjieems incredib!e,on many 
aocoonts. i. The Phoenicians 
iiad no fuch temptation to un« 
dertake fo long and dangerous 
a voyage, as we have : the voy- 
age, to them, muft have been 
much longer than it is, at pre- 
(ent, to lis. 2. They are not 
above half fo far from India as 
4ve are. 3. It is incredible, 
that the Aru^ture and rigging 

of their (hips were rightly ad- 
apted for fo unfavourable a na- 
vigation : nor is it likely, that 
they could, at once, furnifh 
themfelves with (lores and pro* 
viiions fufEcient for their ufe 
and necelTities, and, at the fame 
time, have any great cargo of 
goods on board. ^, Thefedif-' 
advantages confidered, it mu(k 
appear, that they might have 
been fupplied with all the ead- 
ern commodities in genera1,at a 
much cheaper rate, from the 
Egyptians and Edomites on the 
Arabian gulf, and from Syria 
on the Euphrates: and this, 
certainly, was a part of the 
trade they drove with Syria 
and Egypt \66). 5. It is not 
to be imagined, if the contrary 
pradice had been ufual, that all 
memory of it would have been 
loft ; that the Romans , in 0<vid'% 
time, would have talked of the 
torrid zone as uninhabitable ; 
and that Herodotus would have 
reckoned it as fo noble a tranf- 
z&ionoi Nechus\ reigr,that he 
fent the moft expert Phcenicians, 
he could procure,to explore the 
(hores of Afric (67) ; or that 
the fame, in other refpe6tf,mofl 
knowing hiftorian v,'ould have 
difputcd the credibility of what 

(^%) Huet, b'Jioire du com, fif deia narjig, des anc, c, 8i 
fi^'i P." ^9*» (^7 J Sf* ^fire, /. 84, 

(66) See hi- 


ne Hi/iory of the FhaauoaaL %tf 

reader, we hope, will not be difpleafed, that we htvedwd( 
fo long on this extraordinary people : he wiO perceive» W«[ 
might have faid a great deal more ; and that it was uqpQC* 
fible for us to fay left of them than we have (aid, eithpr la. 
refrefli l^is memory, or give him information. Thorax 
lonies and fettlem^nts will be particularly remarked, ia tim 
order they may occur. « 

SECT. m. 

The Chronology ef the Phcenicians. 

IT were labour tn vain to dwell on this fubjeflr. In ge* 
neral we may fay, that the hiftory*of the Phcemciam is 
no other than a continuation of ^at ofi^anaaftj as is, oi 
all hands, allowed (A). Their particular epochs it is im* 
poflible to difcover. Their records, once fo faithfully keptS 
are now no more. We will not, therefore, enter, ^^rofeStHj^ 
upon fo dark a matter ; but ihali content ourfelves wm ;| 
touching thereon occafionally, hereafter. It- is dbiiervcd^^ 
that they boafted an exceflive antiquity, no lefi than iXSlg 
^thoufand years ; in which, however, they were £arfl 
reafonablethan fome others, who certainly could ciauft 
little or nothing beyond them, in that particular. Toj 
here to the method we have laid down, we fhall futgoiD 
feries of the kings of the different kingdoms of this c< 
try, fo far as we can colIe£t them. 

• Vid. Joseph, cent. Ap. l.i. 
p, 17. 

^ African, apod Syno4r 


the failors reported,on their re- 
tarn, that they had the fun on 
thdr right-hand (68) ; it be- 
ing the antient cuilora, to 
fet the face to the weftward; 
in which pofture, the fun muft 
be on the right-hand of him 
who is to the fouthward of its 
courie ; which they muft have 
often been, who doubled the 
cape of GooJ Hope, In Ihort, 
the Indian commerce, by that 
courfe, could have anfwercd no 
manner of end to the Phani- 

eiansi nor ooald they 
been tempted to frequent it, if ^ 
tuated, as they were, betmt'- 
Egypt and Syria, thetw^^dt 
magazines of whatever tbe Ml 
afforded. \ • " 

(A) Wc have already JiW/. 
feveral proofs to evince tkiL* 
We (hall add, that the am 
piler of the AlexamUi^m^m^ 
nicle(i), fpeaking of the 
naanites driven out by JVKi^l 
calls them, in part, fh$ri^ 

(68) L. iv. C.4Z. 

(1) P. 283. 1. 



- Kings df Sidon« * 



• - 


- - JgenoVy 



An anonymous king^ 




Tetramne^uSf - 

4 «' « « * « # ^«' 



BalhnymuSj Ahdahtnimiy Ahd^lomiut^ 
' ox Jiynomus. 


and Judges According fo ilf^- According to TiJ^- 
of Tyrei nandi £phe/l ophiL Jntioc, 

jtbiialy ovAbetmali 
.Uiraniy Hiirbm^ 

Hieromen^Iront , 

Chiraniy or. Sii* 


Ba^rius^or^ 7 yea- ^ - - ^ - -17)'-* 

•Jhdiaftartusy g---- ---J2 


murderers ofCi2---- --- 

* Jbdafiartusy 3 
- AjiartuSy 12---- •--; 

:/*«|A|r7/)KaeryOr>/- ^ 

\^- iSatymusy f, 9. -.---• 

*tPheUeSy or HeUes^ 8 months r • - 

\L Mjuthobat, ^ 32 years . . ^ 12 

^ Badezor^oxBazor^ 6 ---.-.•--7 
• ^adezor*s fon, 

JMettinus^ 9--., ••-ig 

■jfot. H. . 1^ Kings 



• • • 


thi Iliftory of /^^.Phoemdatu. ' B. £ 

Kings and judges According to Mt^ According toTZr- 
oiTyre. nand. Ephef. ' ^bil. Mti§c* 

Pygmalion^ 40 years - - - . - 

• « 4it 4it 4it « «t 

ElulauSy 36---- --. 

^^» ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 


Baalj 10 ------- 

r Eehnlbaly - 2 months - - - 

M I Chelbis^ -"--.-••- --- 

3 1 high-prieft, 3 ^ " 
\ Myttonus 2XiAl ^ 

BalatOTj --I ---- •-- 

Merbalj --4---- --- 

Tr^/w, ---20---- --- 



4ifc « « « « « « 

^ 1^ ^ ^ IF tF * 

,7!5^ /f/«^J o/Arddy or Aradus. 

« « « 41 # 4t « 


We need only refer the reader to the very unaccomiti 
ble difference between Menander the Ephejtan^ and ?l«f 
philus of Antioch; in their reigns of the Tyrian princes, tD 
judge of the impoflibility of fixing on any thing certain in 
the chronology of even the beft and cleareft times of th 
Phoenicians in general. 


C VL ^i Hifiory ef the Phoenicians. 35^ 

S E C T. IV. 

?2tf Phoenician Idngs^ from the antient fabulous 

biftory of the Greeks. 

11 E FO R E we enter upon the hiftory of the Phcvnictan Agenor, 
^^ kings, we are, in fome manner, obliged to infcrt the 
following dark and fabulous account of the family oi Age^ 
•w, the firft king of Phcenia mentioned by the Greeks^ 

AgengH and Bdus were, according to Apollodorus «, 
the fons of Neptune by Libya j daughter of Epaphusy who 
way kihg of a part of Egypt. Belus rftigncd in Egypt ^ and 
aaxiied Anchinoe d^u^tcr of NiiuSj by whom he had\^^^'- 
ptus and Danaus. Agenor pafled from Egypt into Phcrnice^ 
where he fettled, and became the father of a numerous 
race. He married Telephaffa (Stephanus caUs her Telcphe)^ 
by whom he had Europa^ CadmuSy Phcenix^ Cillx b, and, 
according to Paufanias^ EleSfra c, and ^hafus d. Phcre- 
cydis^ as quoted by the fcholiaft of Apollonius^ gives him 
two wives, the one named Damno^ by whom he had Phce^ 
nixy Ifaoy and Melia ; the other called Argiope^ who was 
mother to Cadmus and Europa. Plutarch mentions a 
fourth wife, called Diorippey who brought forth Sipylus « ; 
Antonius Liber alts a fifth, named Cajfiopea^ v/ho bore him 
a daughter, by name Carina ; and Cedrenus a fixth, whom 
he calls Tyrus^ pretending that the city of Tyre borrowed 
its name from her. Europa (whom fome writers will have 
to be the daughter of Phoenix^ and not of Agenor) was 
ftolenrby Jupiter transformed into a bull, that is, in a 
(hip named the buU^ or bearing the figure of a bull in her 
ttem; and carried into Crete'. Agenor^ being extremely 
grieved for the lofs of his daughter, fent his (on Cadmus^ 
with a great fum of money, in queft of her : but he, not 
finding her, nor daring to return home without her, re- 
vived to go and fettle elfewhere. With this defign, hav- 
uifi; fitted out a fmall fleet, he put to fea, and landed in 
Torace^ where he had the good luck to difcover a gold 
mine, ip the mount Pangaus. Being enriched with that 
metal, and in a condition to p.urfue his deiign, be was ad- 
Vifed by the oracle of Delphos to leave Thrace^ and pafs 
into Bceotiay which he did accordingly ; and, having driven 
out the Hyantesj who oppofcd him, and allowed the Aones^ 

.«.L. ii. *» Idem, 1. iii. *^ Pausan. iji Baot; 

**Hem, in Eliac. * PtuTAjicK. dc fluviis. 

Z 2 who 


^e Hifiory of the Phcmcians. B«1« 

who voluntarily fubmitted to him, to live in the countzy 
mixed with his PhosnicianSy he founded a new kingdom, 
and built a city; which, in derivation from his own name, he 
called Cadmea, That city was afterwards embellifhed, and 
Inlarged by Jmphion and Zethus^ the two fons of Antiofi 
(for they invaded the throne, during the minority of £«itfi 
the Ton oiLabdacus^ Cadmus^s grandron),and by diemcalU 
7hebei^ in honour of Thebe their aunt, by the modwr^i 
fide f (A). 

' Pausan. in Boeot. 

(A) We £nd fuch a difa- plain, if we follow Jt^^ 

greement among authors, in (wbofeapthorit/,astotiuspi^ 

the accounts they give of ^r- ticular, is far preferable to tbt 

nor^ and his defcendants, that of the Greeks)^ that th^ tm 

it is impoflible to come at cities were not built by 0119 ail 

the truth ; and therefore the fame perfon. Tjrt mu^ 

not worth our while to at- without doubt, a colony of tk 

tempt the unravelling of fo Sidonians^ it being calkd ift 

perplexed and intricate a fub- Scripture tht daugbttr 9/ Sf 

je£l. What mod authors feem don (2). And Juftin Xi&iAmf 

to agree upon, is, i. Th^tj^ge- in exprefs terms, that the Of 

jior was by birth an Egyptian ; of Tyrg was built before tk 

that from Egypt he pafled (on taking of Troy, by the Siduh 

what occafion we know not) ans, who, being driven cot of . 

into Phcenicij where he fettled, their own country by the knt 

and became the father of a nu- of the Afealmiansy werefinon 

merous race. 2. All the Gr^^i to feek new feats (3). 3. Itii 

writers agree him to have been agreed upon, by moft <^thr 

the firil king of Fhcenicey and antients, that Europa, Cadtm^ 

the founder of the cities of Si- Phoenix, and Cilix^ weretk 

don and Tyre. But in the fuccef- children oi Agenor ; and tbit 

£on of the kings, fome of theL/7 - with them a great many FA** 

iins place Belus the elder before nicians and Syrians went iil0 

him ; and moft of the moderns, AJta Minor, Crete, GreecitVA 

upon the authority of Jo/epbus Libya ; and there. introdnOBl 

( 1 ), make Sidon, the eldeft fon of letters, muiic, poetry, and othir 

C ana any founder of the city of arts, fciences, and cufloms cf 

Sidoiiy which was fo called from the Fhmnicians, It is pretend- 

him. And as to the city of ed, that Europa being carrirf 

Tyre, the {^tat Jo/epbus tells us^ away by Taurus king oiCrtti, 

that it was founded 240 years y^^^^r fent her brother in quel 

before the building of Solomon* s of her ; who, on that occaiioa^ 

temple : from whence it is as they were injoioed not to »• 

U) Jofepb, ant:<i, /. ii. c. 6. (2) Ijd, xxv, la. (3)7^*' 

/. xviii. r. 3. •' 


7t. . '^btHift^fy bf //t^ Phoenicians. 35;jf 

^isA and Mtlia^ Agen$r's two daughters, married 
Uus and Danaus^ their couim-germans. CUix is fald, 


vithout her^ founded fe- are told l^ NtmHus^^)^ many 

P&mV/«ff colonies in ^1(7 walled towns. Their leader 

'y Greecty and Libyat was alfo there called Cadmus 

I we (hall have occafion (wliich imports ^ man come 

ak of hereafter. But Sir from the ea(l)yand his wife ^<- 

Ara;/0/r is of opinion, that thwis, z Sidoniau. Sir I/aac 

Phcemcians went not to adds, that fome of the Sidoni" 

Im-opa^ but new feats, be- ans^ who were driven out b/ 

riven out oiSidou by the the Edomites flying from .Da-* 

lits, whom Da*vid had <z/2V, laid the £rft foundations of 

lered and difperfed. For, the cities' of Tyre and jfrad^ ancL 

Img to his computation, made Ahlhalus^ their leader, 

oqaeft of the land tAEdom king of Tyre. So that, accord* 

tvfV, the coming oSCad' ing to his computation, TyrJt 

ito Greece^ and the found- was built in the time of Davids 

f Tbehes in B^otia^ and and about the i6th year of his 

Fbemician colonies in reign (5). But this is plainly 

puts, happened much contradided hyjefepbtis^ who 

the fame time. The tells us, that J^/v was built two. 

itesj fays he, not being hundred and forty years before 

3 withfland Da<uid^ aban- the building of Solomon'^ tern- 

Edom^ and fled, fome in- pie (6) } which work Solomort 

rr^/, with their young king undertook in the eleventh year 

i I others to the Perjiun of the reign of Hiranty fon and 

with their commander fuccefTor to Ahihal king of 

w; and fome from the Tyre, It is therefore plain,, 

V/7, to the coafl of the both from JofepbuSt and the 

'^rr/?»^^», where they for- Tyrian annals,, which he 

izotb againfi David i and, quotes, that Abibal was not the- 

^ out the ^/Vim/^»/, made founder of 7)^^, and that that 

elves mailers of their city was built long before Da^ 

it being very convenient a?i^s time. 
be merchants, who fled Neither was Alibal the firfi 

the Red Sea. The Sido- king of Tyre^ though he is the 

being thus expelled, went firfl: we find mentioned in hifto- 

at numbers, under Cad- ty ; as appears from the fame 

md his brother?, into Ci- [fofepbus^ who, in fpeaking of 

Afia Mittor, and Greece ; Me«ander\ hiflory,, tells us, 

others fled, under other that Menandery after having 

rs, to feek new feats in Li* given an account of the reigns 

where they built, as we of the other kings oiPbaenke^ 

DhnyfiaH^L xiii. (5) Sir Jfaac Neivton <brtn» of ant. kitt^J. 

(6) y'>fc^b» tntif. It viii. r. 2* (7} Idem iltJ-^ 

*L 3 comc5 


9%e Hiflorj of the Phoenicians. R L 

by yfpolhdorus 8, to have fettled in Cilicia^ and given his 
name to that country. That author adds, that Thafia 
built the city of Thajos in Thrace^ which is confirmed by 
Paufanias^, All we know of Elelfra is, that one of the 
gates of Thebes borrowed its name from her «. Of Sipf' 
lus we read in Plutarch ^^ that mount Sipylus was (b called 
from him. We fliall have occafion to relate more at lengthi 
what wp read oi Cadmus in the antient Greek writers, when 
we come to write the hiftory of the Theban kings. 

Phoenix is fuppofed by the Greeks to have fucceeded 
his father in the kingdom of Phcenicey or rather of Sidm \ 
which city, as likewife that oiTyre^ they pretend to have 
been built by /f^enor ; wherein they are followed, among 
tlie Latins^ by .^. Curtius ^ That country, according to 
them, borrowing its name from Phoenix ^ was called Piflr- 
«/tY, and the inhabitants, Phaenicians, Eufebius adds^, 
that lie was the firft who found out the (carlet colour, 
which was therefore called at firft Phamiciusy and after- 
wards, with a fmall alteration, Puniceus color ^ 

The next king oiSidon we meet with in hiftory isP&r* 
//y, who flouriftied in the time of the Trojan war« He 
proved a faithful ally to the Greeks ^ and'ufed his utmoft 
endeavours, though in vain, to draw Sarpedon^ king of 
Lycioy over to their fide ". He is mentioned by Horner^ 
and honoured with the title of moft illuflrious o. 

These are the kings of Sidon we find mentioned in the 
antient Greek writers ; but as their accounts are no ways 
to be depended upon, being interwpven and darkened with 
a thoufand fables, we have thought fit .to treat of than 
apart, left we fhould feein to confound what is iabulous 
with v/hat is truly hiftorical. 

« Apolloo. 1. iii. *» Pausan. in Eliac. ' Idem 

in BoBot. 1' Plutarch, de fluviis. > (^ 

Cltrtius, 1. iv. c. 4. " Prajpar. cvangj. i. c. 5. " Dictys 
1. i. * OdyiT, iv. 627. 

comes at laft to Himm^ who Jo/ephus and Menander)^ thit 

was aflumed to the throne upon Abihal was preceded by ieveial 

the death of his father Abibal other kings, whofe reigns and 

(8). From which paffage it is adlions Menander had defcri* 

nianifell (if we give credit to bed, 

(8) 'Jf^feph,, Afion. /. u 



C. VI. SfJf H0ory of tie Phoeniciani.' 3 5P 



^e reigns of the kings of Phoenicc. 

pHOE NICE J as wc have faid, was divided into fe- 
^^ veral fmall kingdoms ; for, befides the kings of Sidon 
and ^rfy mentioned in Scripture, we read in hiftory of 
Mlbafus king of Beryius^ ta whom Sanchontatho^ accord* 
ing to Eufebim^^ dedicated his hiftory, of Erylus king of 
Bybbis \ and of other Phcenician kings «, whofe dominions 
were confined within the narrow bounds of o^ie city, and 
its territory. Of all the kings of Phoenice^ thofe of Sidon^ 
Tyre^ and jfrad, feem to have been the moft powerful and 
wealthy, and make the beft figure in hiftory. But their 

• fucceifions, and the years of their refpcftiye reigns, are 
ovcrcaft with fuch a mift, and interrupted with fo many 
chafms, that it is no cafy matter to give any tolerable ac- 
count of them. However, we ftiall here produce what oc- 
curs in hiftory relating thereto, and feems chiefly to be de- 
pended upon ; beginning with Sidon^ the moft antient city 

• q{ Phcenice, 

The kings of Sidon. 

SiDON, the eldeft fon of Canaan^ was, according tosidon. 

■ yefephus <*, the founder, and, very likely, the firft king of 
this city, or at leaft, the father of the people. But, as to 

. his actions, or the years of his reign, we are left quite in the 
dark. Neither arc we better acquainted with the kings 
who fucceeded him 5 for though the Sidonians are men- 
tioned in the hiftories of Mofes^ Jojhua^ and the Judges^ Yezx of 
yet we find not, in holy writ, exprefs mention made of flooj 
their kings, till the time of the prophet yeremiah^ who 1750. 
ipeaks of embafladors fent by the klngof 5/W«7i to propbfeBcf. Chr. 
to Zedekiah a league againft Nebuchadne%zar king of Ba^ 598. 
bylon «. i.^v%w^ 

■ The next king we find mentioned in hiftory, is STifrtf-Tctra- 
mne/iuSy who affifted Xerxes in his expedition againft Greece^^^^^^' 
vrith 300 galleys, and is counted by Herodotus ^ among the ^^ ? 
chief commanders of the Pcrfian navy. o^ 

Tennes appears next: it is uncertain whom he fuc- ^^ ^ ^; 
ceeded. In his reign the SidonianSi and other Pheeni dans j 'g 

a EujEB. praepar. evang. 1. i. c. 6. *> Arrian, K ii. <f^„gj 

* Strabo 1. xvi. p.520. "^ Joseph, antiq.l.i, c. 7. ^Jerem. 
c. xxvii. vcr. 3. ^ Herqpot. 1, vii. c. 98. 

Z 4 not 

1 69 fie Hiftory of the Phoenidims." • B, t 

not being able to bear the haughty behaviour, and tyran- ■ 
nical proceedings, of thofe whom Darius Ochus king of 
Perfta had fet over them, entered into a confederacy with 
Ne^anebus kin^ of Egypt (9, and rofe up in arms, with dc- 
iign to fhake oft the Perftan yoke, and recover their antient ; 
liberty, As the Per/tans were then making. vaft prcpaiir ' 
tions to reclaim Egypt-, which they could not well approach 
but by marching through Phoenice^ this revolt happened 
very opportunely for NecfanebuSf Therefore, to encoun^ 
the Phoenicians to ftand out in it, he fent a body of fear 
thoufand Greek mercenaries, under the command of Mm^ 
Ur the Rhodian^ to their affiftance, hoping, thereby to make 
Phcenice a kind of barrier to Egypt^ and carry on the 
war at a di(lance. On the other iide, Tennes kir^of SU 
4on (which city then exceeded all the others of Phcam 
in wealth), having fitted out, with great expedition, a pow^ 
crful fleet, and raifed a confiderable army in his own domi-* 
nions, took the field ; and, being flrengthened by the Grai 
auxiliaries, engaged and routed the governors of Syria and 
Cili'cia^ whom Ochus had fent to reduce him ; and drove 
the Perftans quite out of Phoenice. The SidonianSj oq 
their firft taking up arms, had laid wafte a delicious gar- 
den belonging to the kings of Perfia., cutting down all dw 
trees wherein they took great delight ; feized and bunit 
all the forage which the Perftan governor had laid up hi 
the fubfiflencc of his cavalry ; and, what is ftil} worfe, pu-« 
nifhed with the utmofl feverity fuch of their Perftan ojh 
preflbrs as fell into their hands. Ochus vtras provoked to 
fuch a degree at thefe proceedings of the Sidoniansy efpeci* 
cially after ne^'s was brought him of his lieutenant's being 
defeated, and the Per fans driven out of Pboenice^ that now 
he breathed nothing but revenge, threatening total deftnic- 
tion not only to the Sidonians^ but to all the inhabitants of 
Phcentce. Being thus bent upon revenge, he drew together 
all the forces he could ; and, having muftered them at Ba- 
iy/ff«,* marched from thence into Phaenice^ at the hjead(^ 
an army of three hundred thoufand foot, and thirty tiiou- 
fand horfe. Mentor ^ who was then in Sidon^ being terri- 
fied at the approach of fo powerful an army, fent privately 
a trufly fervant of his own, called Thejfalion^ to rfie king of 
Perfta^ offering not only to put him m pofTeilion of Sidon^ 
but likewife to aflift him in the reducing of Egypt ; where, 
as he was well acquainted with the country, he was capa- 
i)fc cf doing him good fervicc. Ocbusy glad of this ofFcr^ 

« Sec before, p. 105, 


C VI. J'he Hiflory $f the Phoenicians- 361 

fpared no prbmifes to engage Mentor in his fervice ; who^ 
having received fuch alTurances from the king of Perfia as 
he denred, found means to draw Ttnnes king of Sidon into 
the fiime treafon. In the mean time, the Sidonians^ not 
puflrufting Mentor^ and much lefs their own king, were 
preparing for a vigorous defence. The city was furniflied 
with arms, and provifions of all forts, to hold out a long 
fiege ; and the citizens had drawn a triple trench, and an 
high wall, round them. B^fides the mercenaries, the place 
was garifoped with a brave body of tall, handfome, and 
ftout Sidofiians^ all well exercifed, and trained up in mar- 
tial difcipline ; and the fea-coaft was guarded with a fleet 
of an hundred large galleys. But all was to no purpofe ; 
for Tennes ^o fooner heard that the Perfian army was draw^ 
ine near, but, feigning to go to the general afiiembly of the 
Phoenicians^ he marched out with a body of five hundred 
pien, and, taking along wjth him an hundred of the chief 
citizens to be created fenators, as he pretended, went ftrait 
to the enemy's camp, and delivered them up to Ochus^ 
who received him as a friend, but caufed all the citizens, 
as authors of the rebellion, to be immediately put to death* 
This feverity of OrA«j, joined with the treachery oiTennes^ 
ftnick fuch terror into the SidonianSj that five hundred 
more of the citizens, all men of rank, went out to throw 
tbemfelves at their enemy's feet, and implore his mercy, 
with all the refpe6t and fubmiflion imaginable. Ochusy on 
feeing them, a(ked Tennes^ whether it was in his power to 
put him in pofiefHon of the city ; for he was unwilling to 
take it upon treaty, being b^t on the utter ruin of the 5/- 
(ioniansy in hopes that fuch an inftance of feverity would 
piake the other Phoenicians voluntarily fubmit. Tennes 
afTured him, he could deliver the city into his hands when- 
ever he plcafed : whereupon Ochus caufed the five hundred 
dtizens, though they were come out with olive-branches 
|n their hands, as badges of fubmiflion, to be (hot with 
dafts upon the fpot. After this, Ochus and Tennes marched 
at the head of the Perfian army towards the city ; and were 
admitted without the leaft oppofition, by Mentor and the 
Greek mercenaries, to whom Tennes^ in leaving the city, 
had delivered up one of the gates for that end. The Sido'- 
niansy on the approach of Ochus*s army, had defignedly -• ^ 
burnt all their ihips, to prevent any one's withdrawing n ' ? 
himfelf from the defence of his country. And therefore, j 
finding themfelves thus betrayed, and the enemy within the Bcf . Chr 
walls, without any means left them to make their eftapc, -\,, ' 
cither by fea or land, they (hut themfelves up with their 


• The Hiflary of the Phoeniciansr B* l 

wives and children in their houfes, and, fetting fire to them,. 
confumed themfelves, to the number of forty thouiand, and 
the moft valuable things they had, in the flames. Tetnus 
met with no better fate than his fubje£ts ; for Ochusj feeing 
he could do him no further fervice, and detefting in his 
heart the treachery of the man, caufed his throat to be cut^ 
left he fhould outlive the ruin which he himfelf had brought 
upon his country. As Sidon was, at that time, in a very 
flourifhing condition, and the moft wealthy city ofPheenice; 
a vaft quantity of gold and fdver was melted down by the 
flames, and found in the afhcs, which Ochus fold for great 
fums of money. The ruin, and total deftru£lion, ofSiJiB 
terrified the other cities oiPhcenia tofuch a degree, that 
they all voluntarily fubmitted to the conqueror, each of 
them making peace with the king upon the beft terms thcjr 
could. Neither was Ochus unwilling to compound with 
them, that he might be no longer retarded from putting in 
execution the delign he had upon Egypt • And thus all 
Phcenice was again broucrht under ^t Per/tan yoke^ ; and 
the prophecies of If at ah i, feremiah k, Ezekiei*y and Zf* 
chiiriah "*, touching the deftruition oiSidoriy fulfilled. . 

After Tennes^ reigned Strata \ for fiich of the 5/ii- 
nlans^ as, by being abfent on traflick at fea, or on other 
occafions, had efcaped the mafTacre, returning home after 
Ochus was gone back into Perfia^ rebuilt the city ; but ever 
afterwards bore an immortal averfion to the Perfian name. 
No wonder then, if, a few years after, they fo readily fub- 
mitted to Alexander the Greats and fo greedily embraced 
that opportunity of (baking off the yoke they groaned un- 
der. For the Sidcnians are counted among the firft in 
thofe parts, who fent embafl'adors to Alexander^ as he 
marched through Pha^mce, to make their fubnniffion to 
him. Strata^ it fcems, did not approve of this refolution, 
but could not prevent it, the citizens being obftinately bent 

f againft the Pcrfians, For we arc told, that Mexanaer de- 
prived him of the crown, becaufe he fubmitted at the in- 
ftigation of the citizens, and not of his own accord ". 7l^ 

r» opompusy as quoted by Athenaus o, gives him the charaSer 
of a moft lewd and voluptuous prince ; and tells us in 

■^ particular, that, in order to afTcmble the women, and have 
thereby an opportunity of choofing the moft beautiful for 

*" DioD. Sic. I. xvi. p. 551—533. * Ifa. xxiii. ^ Jeren. 
xlvii. 1 Ezck. xxviii. and xxxii. » Zcch. ix. 

n Curt. I.iv. c. 2. Justik. l.xi. c. 10. & DiOD. Sic, l.xvii. 
• AiHE.N.l. xii. c. 13. 

CVL Tie Hijiory cf fbe VhasniosM. ^Sj 

his own ufe, he inftituted publick fports for them, confift- 
ing chiefly in dancing and Tinging, wherein fuch as excelled 
the others were amply rewarded. £Uan P fays, he died an 
unnatural death. Of one Strata^ king of Sidon^ St. Jerom^, 
relates, that, having adhered to the king of Egypt againft 
the Perjians^ and finding himfelf in danger of falling into 
the hands of an enemy, from whom he had no reafon to 
exped any favour, he refolved to prevent the impending 
calamity, by laying violent hands on himfelf; but, fainting 
in the execution of his defign, his wife, who was prefent, 
fnatching, with a manly refolution, the fword out of his 
hand, freed him from that perplexity, by putting firft him, 
and dien hcrfelf, to death, without fliewing the leaft con- 
cern. But d^e circumfVances of this king's death, if true, 
pl^nly fliew, that he was not the fame perfon whom Jlex- 
ander the Great ftript of his dominions, on account of his 
attachment to the Perfian intcreft. This Strato^ king of 
Sidoriy is alfo mentioned by Maximus Tyrius r, 

Str ATo was fucceeded by Ballonymus^ of whofe afTum- Ballony- 
ption to the throne we have the following account fromn^us- 
■ Diodorus '. Alexander^ having depofed StratOy gave /£r- 
phaftio power to beftow the crown of Sidon upon which 
of his friends he pleafed. Whereupon Hephajiio named 
to the royal dignity one of the chief citizens, in whofe 
houfe he then lodged, and was fplendidly entertained ; de- 
firing him to accept of it as a pledge of his friendfhip, and 
an acknowlegement of the many favours he had received in 
his houfe. The citizen, not at all dazled at the fight of a 
crown, returned his generous gueft a thoufand thanks \ but 
at the fame time earneflly begged, he would excufc him 
from aiTuming a dignity to which he had no title, as not 
being of the royal family. Hephajiio was not a little fur- 
prifed at this anfwer ; but, finding the Sidonian to be in 
earnefl, defired he would name fome one of the royal race 
to be invefled with the dignity himfelf had refufed. Upon 
this he named Ballonymus^ a man of an unblcmifhed cha- 
racter, but fo poor, that he was reduced to live in a very 
obfcure condition, and to maintain himfelf with his daily 
labour. However, his poverty, and mean condition, were 
no objcftion to Hephajiio^ who immediately difpatched a 
mefTcnger to him with the royal robes, and tidings of his 
elevation to the throne. The melFenger found him all in 
rags, and working in a garden as a common labourer. He 

' ^LiAK. var. bift. 1. vii. c. 2. ^ Hier. contra 

Jovian. Ir^l. >^ Ma:)c.Tyr. ferm, iy; * Ubifupr, 


Sle Hifiory of the Phoenicians. B. I. 

was aAually employed in drawing water out of a well, 
when the mefleneer acquainted him with his aflixmptioii 
to the throne, and cloathed him with the royal robes. He 
accepted, without more ado, the new dignity ; and, pro- 
ceeding with the meflenger towards the city, was there re- 
ceived by Hiphaftioy with all the marks of diftin£lion due 
to his character, and by him introduced into the forum^ 
where, among the joyful fhouts of the people who were 
extremely pleafed with this eledion, he was proclaimed 
king oi Sidon^. The fai*ie occurrence is related, with 
fome fmall variation of circumftances, by Plutarch^, CuT' 
tius u, and Juftln *. Plutarch calls this king jflynomuu 
Curtius Abdolomius ; and ytijiin Abdalominus, Plutarch 
makes him king of Paphus ^ and Diodorus^ both him 
and his predeceflbr, kings of Tyre. But, in this par- 
ticular, we have abandoned him, to follow the current of 
moft writers, who place both Strato and Balbnymus (as 
Diodorus calls him) among the kings of Sidon. All we 
know of his reign is, that, to the laft, he proved fkidh 
ful to the Macedonians^ to whom he was indebted for hb 
crown. And now, that we have brought the kings of 
Sidon down to the conqueft of Phoenice by Xh^ Macedonians^ 
let us turn back to the kings of Tyre. 

Kings of Tyre. 

We are left quite in the dark as to the feries of the 
kings who reigned at Tyre before Abibal^ with whom 7#- 
fephus and Theophilus Antiochenus begin the fucceffion they 
have furniflied us with from Menander the Ephejian^ and 
Diusy both authors, as Jofephus calls them 7, of unqueftion- 
able credit. Dius^ who was by birth a Phoenician, wrote 
the hiftory of Tyre, extraSed from the public records, 
which were carefully prefcrved in that city. And Me- 
nander compiled the lives and aftions of princes, both Greet 
^Jii Barbarian^ as the fame Jofephus tells us*, from the pub- 
lic archives of the places he treats of. 

The firft king of Tyre^ mentioned by thefe hiftorians, 

as quoted by Jofephus and Theophilus^ is Abibal, as Jofepbm 

f calls him a, or AbeimaU as he is named by Theophilus b. As 

d to his adions, and years of his reign, we are left quite in 

the dark. He was contemporary with David, and pro- 

r. bably joined with the neighbouring nations againft him, 

^ DicD. Sic. ibid. '^ Plutarch de fortuna Alexandri. 

-^i. ii. » Curtius,!. iv. c. 2. ^ Justin. 1. xi. 

c. lo. y JosEPif, contra Apion. I. i. » Idem 

ibid. a Jdeni ibid. "• Theopiiil. A)»tioch. 1. 3» 

3 fuwc 

CVI. The Hifidry of the ?hosmasiis. 365 

fince David counts the inhabitants of Tyre among his ene- 
mies ^ 

Abibal was fucceeded by his fon Hiram^ whom The-Hinm^ 
tphilus calls fometimes Hieromus^ and fometimea Hierome- y ^^ 
nus ; Jofephus^ Hiram and Irom i Tatian and Zonaras^ Chi-" ^^^ 
ramus. This prince maintained a ftri£l friendfhip with i^oz. 
king Davidy to whom he fent embaffadors, probably, to g^^ q^^^ 
congratulate him upon his viftory over the Jebufitesy whom j 046. 
he had juft then driven from the ftronghold of Zion^ and ^ 
to conclude an alliance with him. He prefented him with 
cedar-trees, and fent (kilful workmen to build him a palace 
in yerufalem •. And hence he is (aid in Scripture to have, 
been ever a lover of David^ ; which fhews, that he was 
not only a faithful ally, but a fincere friend of David's. 
Upon the death of Davidy and the fucceffion of Solomon to 
the throne, the affection Hiram had ever maintained for 
the father, prompted him to fend a gratulatory embafly 
to the fon, upon the news of his acceffion to the govern- 
ment, expreffing great joy to fee it continued in the family. 
Upon the return of theie embaffadors, Solomon embraced 
the occafion, and wrote a letter to Hiram^ in thefe terms : 

King Solomon to king Hi ram j greeting. 

Be it kno%vn to thee, O kingy that my father David had it 
€ long time in his mindy to ereff a temple ta the Lord ; butf. 
being perpetually in war^ and under a necejjity of clearing 
his hands of his enemies^ and making them all his tributa- 
rieSy before he could attend this great and holy worky he hath 
left it to mcy in time of peace ^ both to hcgin^ and to finifl) it^ 
according to the direlfiony as well as the prediSIiony of AL- 
MIGHTY God, BleJJedbe his great name^ for the pre^ 
fent tranquillity of my dominions I a7id by his gracious afftfl' 
ancCy I Jhall now dedicate the bejl improvements of this liberty 
and leifure to his honour and worjlnp. Wherefore I make 
it my requefty That you will let fome of your people ^o along 
with fome fervants of mine ^ to mount Libanus, to ajjiji them 
in cutting down materials towards thh building j for the SI* 
donians under/land it much better than we do. As for the 
V}orkmens reward^ or wages y whatever you thifik reafonai>ii 
Jhall be pwiSfually paid them, 

Hiram was much pleafed with Solomuns letter, and 
returned him the follow anfwer : 

** Pfal. Ixxxiii. 7. * 2 Sam. v. xi. and i Chr. xiv. 1. 

f I Kings V. I. 

356 The Hiftory of the Phoenicians. B. L 

King Hiram to king Solomon* 

Nothing could have been more welcome to me^ than to wr- 
derjland^ that the government of your hlejfed father is di-' 
volvedy by GocTs providence^ into the hands offi excellent^ fi 
wifsy ondfo virtuous a fucceffor : His holy natne be praijed 
for it ! That which you write for Jhall be done with all cart 
and good will : for 1 will give order to go down^ and export 
fuch quantities of the fairejl cedar s^ ana cyprefs-trees, asytu 
Jhall have occajionfor. My people jhall bring them to the 
fea- fide for you^ and from thence Jhip them away to what 
part you pleafe^ where they may lie ready for your own men to 
tranjport them to Jerufalem. It would be a great obli^a- 
tiony after all thisy to allow us fuch a provifion of corn in 
exchange^ as may Jland with your convenience ; for that is 
the commodity we iflandcrs want mojl g. . . 

JosEPHUs aflures us, that the originals of thefe letter* 
were extant in his time, both in the yewi/h and Tyrian 
records ** (B). And they are intirely agreeable with what 
is delivered in Scripture upon the fame fubje£l *. Solomon 
was highly pleafed with Hiram's anfwer, and, in return 
for his generous offers, ordered him a yearly prefent of 
twenty thoufand meafures of wheat, and twenty meafures 
of pure oil ^. Befides the cedar-wood, and other materiab 
for the building of the temple, Hiram fent to Solomon a 
man, who was very famous in Tyre^ for working in gold,, 
filver, and other metals, to aflift and dircft him in that great 
undertaking '. Neither did Hiram's friendfliip and kind- 
Dcfs towards Solo?non ftop here ; for he not only fumiihed 
him with the choiceft wood from mount Libanusy and able 
archited^s and workmen, but moreover advanced him I20 

t Joseph. 1. viil. c. 2. ^ Idem ibid. ' i Kiogi 

V. 2, & feqq. ^ i Kings v. 1 1. ^ i Chron. ii. 13, 

(B) But it is pretty odd, that nicians and Tyrians .... That 

Eufibius [ I ), who calls this king the archited he fent him was a 

Surortf (hould give us this letter Tyrian by birth ; but that by 

with fo much variation from the mother's iide he was de* 

Jofephus as he does. He there- fcended of the tribe of David i 

in fpecifies, that he had fent to and the like. 

SQktnon eighty thoufand Fbce^ 

' ( i) Prapttr* n/ang, I. ix. p. 449, 


C. VI. ^he H^fiofy of the Phoenicians.' 367 

talents of gold, for the finifliing of the fabric »». And S9^ 
Jomon was not behindhand wm him, in his acknowlege* 
ments and prefents ; for, befides the yearly fupply of wheat 
and oil above-mentioned, he beftowed upon him twenty 
cities in the land of Galilei «, not far from Tyre ; which 
Siramy upon a view of them (they not being much to his 
Uking), fairly declined, with a refpe£lful excufe to Solomoity 
ihat he had no need of thofe cities. From this refi^fal, that 
part of the country was called Cabul^ that is, difpkajing^. 

Hiram proved no lefs ferviceable to Solomon in the 
Liiilding of his fleet, than in perfecting the grand work 
of the temple. For he no fooner heard that Solomon de* 
figned to build a fleet at EUth and Ezion-geber (two fca- 
port towns on the Red Sea) in order to carry on a trade 
fiom thence to Ophiry but he generoufly fumifhed him with 
as many builders and (hipwrights as he had occafton for : 
and, after having thus affifled him in building, fitting, and 
rigging out of his navy, he fent him expert pilots, and flcil- 
fuimariners, to conduct his fleets to the land of Ophtr ; the 
Syrians being in thofe days, and for many ages after, the 
moft experienced of all men in fea affairs P. 

Dius, as quoted by Jofepbus% tells us, that the love of 
wifdom was the chief inducement to that tendernefs of 
friendfhip betwixt Solomon and Hiram ; that they inter- 
•changed certain riddles to be unfolded, upon condition, 
ihat he who felled of the folution, fhould incur a forfeiture ; 
and that Hiram^ finding the queflion too hard for him, 
paid the penalty. But one Abdemonus^ a Tyriany refolved 
the faid quefllon, and propofed new ones to SolomoH^ upon 
the penalty of paying fo much to Hiramy if he did not un- 
cypher them. 

The kingdom ofTyre was in a very flourlfhing condi- 
tion under this prince. He repaired and improved divers 
cities in the eafrern parts of his dominions ; inlarged Tyre^ 
and, by the help of a dam, joined it to the temple of the 
Olympian yupiter, flanding in an ifland. In this temple h© 
-dedicated a golden pillar to Jupiter. He built two temples, 
one to Herculesy another to J/larte ; and beautified them 
with rich donatives. To Hercules he alfo eredled a flatue, 
and is faid to have repaired the temples of other gods, and 
enriched them with offerings to a very great value r. i/;- 

^ I Kings ix. 14. » i Kings ix, 11. and Joseph, ubi 

fupra. <> I Kings ix. 13. and Josiph. ubi fupra. P i Kings 
ix. 27. and 2 Chron. viii. 18. and Joseph, ubi fupra. ' Jo- 
seph, ubi fupra, &1. i. contra Apion. ' Menand. Ephet; 
k Divs, apud Joseph, ubi fupra. 

X ram^ 


l6S fie Hi^oty df the PhoeAieblte. B. t 

r€itnj it feems, was rather a religious, than a wariike prince; 
for the only militanr expedition we read of, during hi» 
reign, is that which ne andertook againft the Efceansj wfao 
refofed to pay him a certain tribute that was doe to hiniy 
but were reduced iti a very (hort tiifie^ • 

It is related bv Tatian^ bom ThetrdatttSy HjJUraies^ and 

Mochus^ diree Phoenician hiftoHans, tfiat kifig Hiram ^tve 

his daughter in marriage to Sebmon: he adds, that by her 

Solomon was induced to worihip AJhteroth^ the goddefs of 

the '-i^oniansK Hiram Ihred 53 year^^ and reigrfed 34*. 

Saleazar. He was fucceeded by his foil BalemiAr, Baua/larhts or 

Year of Bazor, as Theophilus calls him, who reigned fcren years,* 

flood accorcting tojofephusi arid fevcntecn^ according to Tbeofbi' 

'33^- lus y and died in the forty-third year of Iris age ^. . 

Bef. Chr. Abdastartus, the ton oi Bdleazar^ fucceededt his fe- 

■^' ^' ther; and died, according to Jofephusi in the twentieth year 

V|OC^ of his life, and the ninth of his reign* Theophilus fays, he 

. ' died at the age of fifty-four^ after having refgned tweht 

years. This prince was murdered by his nurfe's fbtir fons, 

and the eldeft of them ufurped the kingdom^ and governed 

twelve years- 

Aftartas. Astartus, the brother o{ Abdaftartusy recovered the 

tbmne to his family, Hired fixty-fix years, and reigned 


Aftarimus After him came his brother Aftarimnsi wlio lived, if 

we believe JofephuSy fifty- four years, and reigAed twelve. 

Theophilus calls him Atharymusy and fays that he lived fifty- 

cieht years. He was murdered by his brother PA^/frj", 

who took the government upon him in the fiftieth ycarrf 

his age. 

Phelles. Phelles^ or^ Z9 Theophilus t2&% Vimy HelleSy did noC 

long enjoy the throne he had ufurped, by fo bafe and 

wicked an aft, being murdered in die eighth month of his 

reign ^ by 

Ithobal. Ithobal^ whom Theophilus mmes J tithohal^ fon fe 

Year of Aftariniusy and chief-prieft of the goddefs AJlarte ; Which 

flood dignity was next to that of the king. Ithobal lived to dw 

1052. age of fixty-eight years, and ruled thirty-two, fays ^'tf/*-. 

Bef. Chr. phus : but if we credit Theophtlusy he lived but forty years, 

^ 1296. and reigned but twelve. He is called in Scripture Eth' 

' baaly and filled king of the Sidonians *. ^ofephus p\'CS 

^ Tatian. orat. contra Graecos. t Thboph. Aktioc* 

1. iii. o Joseph. 1. i. contra Apion. Josbph, SiThbopH. 

ubi fupra. x | Kings xvi. 31. 

C VL the Hijiory vf the Phoenicians. 369 

him the title of king of Tyre and SidonY. Whence it is- 
blsun, diat in PtMaaFs time^ Sid^n was fubjeft to Tyre. 
When l^t fubje£tion Began, is uncertain; for, even in king 
KranCi dme^ the Tyrians were^ in all probability, mafters 
of Sidon ; fince Solomon^ in the beginning of his reign, ap^ 
plied to IjSram for workmen of Sidon^ who were famous 
for their fldll in hewing of timber ^. Ithobal built Botrys 
m Pbaenice^ and Auzatei in AfricK Jezebel^ king Jha^s 
wife (wKom we (hall have occafion to mention hereafter}, 
was daughter to this prince. Menandery as quoted by Jo- 
Jethusj tells us, that in the thne e/'Eth-baal king of lyrcy 
there was an extreme drought for want ofrain^ that lofted 
from the month Hyperberetaeus, //// the fame month next 
year* There were prayers indeed^ fays he, put up for the 
averting of the judgment^ which were' followed by mighty 
tlaps of thunder^. This was undoubtedly the drought un- 
der Ahal'y for it was in hi^ reign that Eth-baal was king of 

After him his fcm Badezor (who is called by Theopbi* Bade2or« 
./kt, Bakor) reigned, according to Jofephusj fix years, and 
lived forty-*five. Theophilus fays, he reigned feven. 

His {onJkfeitinus fucceeded him ; and reigned nine years, Mettinus. 
fkys Jofephus ; twenty-nine, (ays Theophilus. He died in 
the thirty-fecpnd year of his age, leaving behind him two 
Ions, Pygmalion and Barca^ and as many daughters, Eli fa 
and 4^na. 

Pygmalion afcehded the throne on the death of hispygmali- 
f&ther Mettinusy being at that time, as we ate told by on. 
Jtiftin c, very young j that is, fixteen^ according to the 
computation of Jofephus^ who fuppofes him to have lived 
fifty-fix years, and reigned forty <J. It was in the feventh 
year of his reign that his fifter kUfa^ called alfo Dido^ fly- 
ing from Tyre^ built Carthage in Jfric. The occafion of 
her flight is commonly related thus : Pygmalion^ covet- 
ing the immenfe riches of his uncle Sichaus^ who was a 
pheft of Hercules^ and had married his fifter Elifa^ deter* 
n^ined, by foihe means or other, to make them his own. 
£ut as that could not be efie£ted fo long as Sichaus was 
alive, he invited him one day to hunt with him ; and while 
thofe who attended him were engaged in the purfuit of a 
wild boar, ran him through with his fpear ; and then throw. 

y Joseph, antiq. 1. viii. c. 7. & 1» ix. c. 6. * 1 Kings 

V. 6. a Menand. £ph£s. apud Joseph, antiq. 1. viii. 

c. 7. •> Idem ubi fupra. ^ Justin, hb.xviii. 

* Joseph, contra Ap, 1. i. 

Vol. IL a ^ ijig 

9T;t Hijiorj cf the Phomknns. i. t 

ing him down a prccipker, give out, that the faD had 1)eea 
the occafion of his death, jojlin and Vlrpl &y, that Af^ 
malion barbaroufly murdered nis unde at the anar^. K^ 
however that be, he reaped no fruit from his wklEed at- 
tempt, being difappointcd when he Icafl expected it, by 
the prudent and artfiil condud of his Hiler EUJd ; idio^ at 
ihe was a woman of great (agacity and penetration, wid 
knew what had prompted him to the murder <Sf hsx hut 
band ; but at the fame time concealing her thmi^ts wtdi 
an artful diflimulation, fhewed.the fame kindnefs and efteem 
for him, as though fhe had not entertained the leaft fufpi- 
cion of him. In the mean while, having formed a defign 
of leaving T^re^ and (aving both herfelf and the treafures 
of her deceafed hufband, from the cruel avarice of Pygma- 
lion ; under pretence of retiring to Charta or Chartaca^ a 
final! city between B'tdon and Tyrcy as if to live tfiere with 
her brother Barca^ fhe defired Qie king to fumifli her with 
men and (hipf to convey thither her efFe6b. The cx>vetous 
prince looked upon this as a fair opportunity of fe^iK at 
laft what he had for fo long a time eamefUjr de&ed, 
though always in vain ; becaufe SUhausy who was dio* 
roughly acquainted with his nephew's avaritious tiemper, 
had taken care to conceal his riches under-ground. With 
this view Pygmalion willingly granted Elija her demands > 
which he foon repented ; for, as fhe was affifled by her* 
brother S^rc^, and feveral fenators, who were priVy to her 
true defign, and engaged to follow her at all adventures; 
her treafures were put on fhip-board, and the fleet out of 
fight, before Pygmalion was apprifed of her refolutlon. We 
are told, that, feeing himfelf thus deluded by a woman, and 
the vaft riches which he deemed already fecured in his own. 
coffers, fnatched, by fuch a cunning device, out of hk 
hands, he ordered a fleet to be fitted out witfi all poffibfe 
expedition, in order to purfue the fugitives ; but was pre* 
vented by the tears of his mother, and the threats of an 
oracle. The firft place our adventurers put into was the 
ifle of Cyprusy from whence they carried off a great tium- 
ber of young women, a commodity they wanted moft of 
all, fmce their defign was to plant a new colony. P>om 
Cyprus they fteercd their courfe for the coafls of JfriCf 
Where they put an end to their voyage; and being kindly 
entertained by the inhabitants of Uticay a Tyrian colonel 
laid the foundations of Carthage ; a city, which, in after- 
ages, became fo powerful, both by fea and land, as to con- 

« Justin. 1. xviii. C..4. ViRC. i iEneid. vcr. 348—350^ 
3 tend 


C. VI. SHe Wfiory ef the Phcenkians. 371 

tend with Rome for the empire of the world K From Barca 
fprang the illuftrioiis family of the Barca in Afric^ which 
produced manv celebrated heroes, and among others the 
great HatmibaL But of the Carthaginian afiairs hereafter : 
fct us now return to Phcenice, Pygmalion is faid by ^te^ 
fhanus to have built the city of Carpajia in the ifland of 
Cyprus. He fent to the temple of Arcules^ ftanding in 
the ifland of Gades^ a rich donative, being die figure of an 
olive-tree, of maffive gold, and of moft exquiflte and curi- 
ous workmanfliip ; its berries, which were of emerald, 
bearii^ a wonderous refemblance with the natural fruit of 
that tree 8. 

The next king of Tyre we find/mentioned in hiftory, isElulseus. 
£luLeuSj who reigned in the time of Shalmanefer king; of 
jfffyria. This prmce, feeing the Philijiines brought low 
by the war, which Hezikiah had made upon them, laid 
hold of the opportunity of reducing Gath^ which had fome 
time before revolted from the Tyrians. Whereupon the 
Gittitety applying to Sbalmane/ery engaged him in their caufe ; 
fo that he marched at the head of a powerful army into 
Phoenice'i but, upon the conclufion of a^peace between him 
and ElulauSy he withdrew his troops, and retired. Not 
long after Sidon^ Arce^ Palatyrm^ and feveral other ma- 
ritime towns of Photnice^ revolting from the Tyrians^ pro- 
claimed Shalmanefer their king. Upon this, a new war be- Year of 
ing kindled between the Tyrians and AJJyrians^ Shalmanefer^ i)^^ flood 
highly provoked againft the 73'^'^^^> the only people in 1631. 
Phaenice thatdifputed his power and authority, refolved toBef. Chr. 
ufc his utmoft endeavours towards the reducing of their 717. 
city : and therefore, befides his land-forces, he ordered a V^V'vJ 
fleet of fixty fail to be fitted out againfl them. But the 
fleet was encountered and difperfed by the Tyrians with 
only twelve veflels, and five hundred of the rowers were 
taken prifoners. This vidlory gained the Tyrians fuch a 
reputation for naval affairs, that Shalmanefer^ dreading to 
engage them a fecond time at fea, turned the wax* into a 
iiegc, and, leaving the army to block up the city, returned 
into Ajfyria. The forces he left behind him reduced the 
place to great flreights, by flopping the aquedufts, placing 
guards by the fprings, and cutting ci^ all the conveyances 


vol. ii. Orosius, 1. iv. c. 2. Appianui de bell. Pun. \a\\. 

decad. iv. 1. iv. Servius in lib. iv. i£neid. Joseph, ubi • 

fupra, &c. i Philostrat. in vita Apollonii, 1. v. c. i. 

A a 2 >of 

. * . 

37* ^e Hipry df the VhaenKktis. B,L 

of water. However, by digging of wells within the city, 
they found fome relief in their diftrefs, which enabled them 
to hold out for the fp2u;e of five years ; at the end of which,^ 
Shalmanefer dying, the fiege was raifed K Elulaus reigned 
thirty years. 
Ithoballl. It hob al Ii» reigned in the time oiNebuchadnexzar king 
Year of ^^ Babylon^ who laid fiege to the city of Tyre<^ ijrfiich kept 
the flood ^^ migftty monarch, that king of kings^ as the prophet 
I -5- ^ Ezeklel ftiles him >, employed for thirteen years together ^ : 
Bcf. Chr.'^*^'^ was the power of die Tyrians at that time. We have 
^ 8 J . the defcripdon of the fiege in E%eklel 1, who mendons a fort 
^^"Vv^ raifed againft the place, a moimt caft up, and engines of 
war creftcd to batter down its walls. At lafl Nebuchad- 
nezzar ^ zSt'^ii a fiege of thirteen years continuance, made 
himfclf mafter of the city ^ but as moft part of the citizens 
had retired, with all their efFe£h, elfewhere, before he en- 
tered the city, he had nothing but an empty town for his 
pains, as is plain from the Scripture, where it is faid, Nt- 
Yaar of buehadnezzar king of Babylon caufedhis army to ferve a great 
the ^Qod fervice agatnji Tyrus , ... yet had he no wages j nor Ins 
1776. army ^ for Tyrus. Therefore, finding himfelf thus difap- 
Bcf. CJir. pointed, he vented his rage upon the buil(Ungs, and the few 
57^- • ^ inhabitants who Were left, rafmg the town to the ground, 
* and putting all he found in it to the fword. To this deplora^ 
ble condition was Tyre reduced by the Babylonians j and the 
fe\'ere prophecies, foretelling the overthrow of that city, 
plainly fulfilled ». Ithobal^ in whofe reign happened the 
deftruftion of Tyre^ was, according to the charader the 
prophet gives hirti ", a moft proud, arrogant, and affuming 
prince J pretended to know all fecrets, to be as wife as 
Daniel^ and even went fo far as to rank himfelf among the 
gods ; which brought that heavy judgment upon him. Be- 
caufe thou hajl fet thine heart as the heart of Gou ; beholdy 
therefore, I will bring Jiraztgers upon thee — they /hall bring 
thee down to the pit, and thou /halt die the death of then 
that are /lain in the midjl of thefeas ^. From whence we may 
conclude, that in this war he was flain by the Jj/yrians, 

As it is plain from Scripture, that Nebuchadnezzar ut- 
terly deftroyed the city of Tyre, which he found empty ; 
and as, on the other hand, we are told by the Phoenician 

^ Joseph, andq. I. ix. c. 14, ^ Ezek. xxvi. 7. *Phi* 
tosTRATus apod Jofeph. andc[. 1. x. c. 1 1. & l.Lcontr. ApioD. • 
' Ezek. xxvi. 8, & (eq. ^ Jerem. xxix. 22. xxvii. 3. 

xlvii. 4: Ezek. xxvi. 3. Amosi. 9, 10. Joeliii.4. ^ Ezek. 
xxviii. 3, 4. Idem ibid. ver. 6, 7, 8. 


C. VL ^be Hijlory of tbi Phoenicians. 373 

hiftorians, that Ithobal was fucceeded in the kingdom of 

Tyre by Baal^ and Baal by feveral temporary magiiftrates o ; 

it is very probable, that the inhabitants ot Tyre retreated 

with their cffefts, before Nebuchadnezzar got poffefHon 

of the city, to an ifland about half a mile dittant from the 

Ihore, where they built themfetves i^ new city ; which, 

after the deftru£tion of the old town, fubmitted to Nebu^ 

€hadnezzar^ who thereupon appointed Baal to be kiilgBaal. 

under him ; but, upon BaaFh dead), in order to make the 

government more dependent on the Affyriansy changed the 

royaj dignity into that of temporary magiftratcs, called 

fuffetes (C), ox judges \ a name well known among the 

Carthaginians y who were originally Tyrianty and whofc 

chief magiftratcs were cdXiti Juffetes P. 

Baal reigned ten years, anoupon his death the follow- Tyre go- 

mg judges had the government of thfe city, viz. Ecmbal^ tverned by 

the fon of Basbech^ two months; ChelbeSy the fon of judges. 

AhdauSy ten months; the high-prieft Abbar^ three months ; Year bf 

A^tgonus or Myitonus and GeraftuSy the fons oi Abdelimusy the flood 

iix years *J. After Tyre had been thus governed for fome ^1^^- 

years by judges, the i'oyal dignity was reftored, and ^^ ^^- 

* Balator created king; but both heand his fucceffors 5^^* 

'were intirely dependent of, and tributaries to the Afyrians^ pO^**^ 

for the fpace of feventy years ; which being expired, they ^7^^^ 

^ recovered, according to the prophecy of Ifaiah '^, their y^ /. 

antient liberty, and former privileges; of which in its pro- ^^^ g^. 

per place. Balator reigned but one year. j. 

Upon his death the Tyrians invited Merbal from Baby- gcf. Chr 

^/7, who reigned four years/ -^5 

Merbal was fucceeded by his brother Jr$my who o-W> 

reigned twenty years In the fourteenth year of /r<7///8 Merbal. 

I^eign, CyruSy according to the Phoenician annals, made Irom. 

k'mfelf mafter of the Perfian empire «. Year of 

Several years after Irom reigned Marten the fon of the flood 

' Sirom. He ferved in Xerxes's navy againft the Greeks; .'797- 

;ind with the other commanders, advifed him to engage the ^^^* ^^^^• 


^ Vide Joseph. 1. i. contra Apion. ' Liv. 1. xxviii. xxx. ^^''""^^ 
xxxiv. ^ Joseph, ib, >rl{a. jgdii. 15, 17. »Joseph. 1, i. Ycarof 

contra Apion. ^^^ ^^^^4 


(C) " Suffefes had its '• whereby the chief govemori ^^^- ^^^' 

V derivation from the Hebrenji; " of Ifraelvitv^ caRed for fen 4^^- 

<'• vford/hophetimy i.e. judges; <* vera! generations,befofe they ^^^J""^'"'^'^^ 

«< v^hich was the ytry name ** had kii^s (i).'* Marten. 

A 9. 3 GyfikJi 


Tbi Hijlory of the PhoenSdafis. B. I. 

Grecian fleet at Sdlamis \ l^he Tyriansj as JweXL as the 
other Phcenuiansy were, at this time, as may be gathered 
from Herodotus J tributaries to the Perjians^ though under 
a king of their own ; being greatly favoured by th6 Perfian 
monarchs^ in confideration of the feivices they rendered 
them in their naval ex:peditions. 

About this time reigned Strata ^ whofe accefEon to the 
throne is related hyyujiin u thus : The (laves, who were then 
v^y numerous at Tyre^ having fcrmed a confpiracy againil 
their mafters, miirdered them all in one n^ht (except 
Strata^ whom his flave fecretly fayed) ; and, taking poflcf- 
fion of the city, married their miftrefles, and put all the 
others to the fword, who were not of their own race. 
Having thus not only recovered their liberty, but made 
themfelves abfolute lords of tie ftate, they refolve to create 
a king out of theif own body ; and unanimoufly agree, that 
he Ihould be raifed to that dignity, a$ being the xpoft ac* 
ceptable to the gods, who Ae next morning (hould firft 
fee the rifm^ fun. In purfuance of this refolution and 
agreement, they appointed to meet about midnight in ai 
open field, lying on the eaft fide of the city, and there, 
with one accord, beftow the crown upon die perfon to 
whom the fun fhould {hew himfelf firft. In the meaa 
time. Strata^ flave, havfaig imparted the whole matter to 
his matter, whom he kept carefiiUy concealed, was by him 
inftrufted to turn himfelf, not to the eaft, as th^ others 
would probably do ; but to the weft, and there keep his 
eyes fixed on the top of the higheft tower of the city- The 
flave obeyed his maftef's dire<Stions, and was therefore 
looked upon by the whole multitude as no better than a 
mad-man; it feeming to them very ftrar^ge, that a man 
ftiould look for the rifing fun in the weft. But diey were 
foon made fenfible of their error ; for while the others flood 
gazing towards the eaft, in expeftation of feeing the fun 
appear. Strata's flave fliewed them the high edifices of 4c 
city already illuminated with his rays : whereupon he w« 
highly applauded by his companions, and eagerly prefled 
to name the perfon to whom he was indebted for fuch a 
wife thought -, which they could not afcrihe to him, or 
any other flave. He refufed at firft to gratify their curio* 
fity ; but at laft, upon promife of impunity for himfelf and 
the perfon he fhould name, he owned, that, out of com- 
paf&on and gratitude toward his mafter, who had always 

« Herod. I. vi. c. 98. Sc L viii. c. 67. • Justus 

h xviii. c. 3. 


C VI;" ^e Hilary of ibe PhcenioMis. 3 75 

trea^ted him with great humanity aiid kindnefs, he had 
laved both him and his fon in the common nufiacre, and 
a<^ed in the aiFair th^ were fo inquiiitive about, accordji^ 
to his dii^d^ons. 7 he multitude, hearing this, not only 
pardoned the ^ve, but, looking upon the mailer as one 
preferved bj a particular providence of the gods, imme- 
diately proclaimed him their king. This is all we know 
of Strata. 

Upon his death, his fon was placed on the throne ; zrA 
the kingdom of Tyre was enjoyed by his defcendants ^, 
among whom, the only one we find mentioned in hiftory 
is Axtlmic^ in whofe reign happened the memorable fi^eAzdrnJc. 
and reduiStion of that city by Alexander the Great y. We 
may judse of its flouriflung condition at that time, from A 

the ftancT it made againft that victorious prince, ilnce it 
flopped the courfe of his whole army full feven months. 
As die conqueror approached the territories of Tyre^ thp 
Syrians fent out embafladors to meet him (amongft w]join 
was the king's own fon) with prefents for himfelf, and pro^ 
vifions for his army : but when he defired to enter the 
city, under pretence of offering facrifice to Hercules^ thejr 
reiufed him admittance ; which provoked Alexander •y now 
flufhed with fo many viftories, to fuch a degree, that he 
refolved to ftorm the city, and enter it by force. On the 
oriaer hand, the Tyriani^ not at all terrified by Alexander^ % Tyre Ar* 
threats, detentiined to ftand it out to the lafl. What ^v^'fi^g'd hy 
couraged^hem to this refolution was the ftrength of the ^'^^^^^^^ 
place, and the confidence they had in the Carthaginians^ Year of 
their allies. The city then ftood on an ifland half a mile the flood 
diftant from the fljore; was furrounded with a ftrong wall 2^15,. 
an hundred and fifty feet high, and was ftored with great JBcf. Chr. 
plenty of provifions, and all forts of warlike machine : 333. 
befides, the Carthaginians^ who were a powerful ftate, 
and then mailers of the feas, had promifed to fend them 
fuccours during the war. What animated the Tyrians to 
ftand a fiege, gave Alexander jao fmall uneafinefe in the 
undertaking and carrying it on. For be could no other* 
wife make his approaches to it, than bv carrying a mole or 
caufey from the continent to tlie.iilana on y^ich the city 
ftood. This grand work he undertook; and, as he waa^ 
refolved at any rate to reduce the city, he accomplifhed it 
at laft, maugre the innumerable, and almoft infurmount'^ 
able difficulties he met with bojid an attempt. He 
was ^fted in raifmg the JX\ole (which was two hundred 

> Idem ibid. . ^ Arrianvs^ 1« xu 

A^ 4 fict 

The Hijlory of the Phoenician^ ' %\ 

feet in breadth) by the inhabitants of the ne^bouring 
cities, who were ail called in on this occafiotr; a^dfuj^ 
plied with ftones from the ruins of old Tyrt^ gnd wrai 
timber from mount Lihanus. T^h^Tyrians at ftrft looked 
upon this undertaking as a rafli and- de(per&te attempt, 
which could never be.^tended with any fuccefe: and 
therefore, from their ihips, laughing at the king, aiked 
him, whether he believed himfelf to be gfe^ter dSn Ne^ 
tune ? But, feeing the mole, contrary to their cjqpcdation, 
beginning to appear above water, they refplve<f, for fear 
of the worft, to fend their wives and children, and fiicha^ 
were not fit for fervice, to Carthage ; but were prevented 
by the arrival of Alexander*^ fleet from Cyprus. Neither 
could the Carthaginians afEft them with the promifed fuc- 
cours, being detained at home by domeftic troubles. 
However, the Tyrians fainted not jin the refolution of fiand- 
ing to their defence ; firft from their fhips, and aftervardsi 
as the mole was brought nearer the city, from the walk, 
withfliowers of arrows, darts, ftones, 6fr. wherewith Acy 
made a moft dreadful havock of die Macedonians^ who 
were employed in the work, and expofed wthout any de- 
fence. But what moft of all difheartened the MacedMianSj 
was a violent ftorm, which, ariting all on a fudden^ carrie<) 
away, in great part, the caufey, after it hs^ beei^ widi 
unwearied labour, and great lofs of men, brought near ^ 
walls of the city. This unlucky accident perplexed Ale*- 
ander to iwcii a degree, that he began 'to repent he had 
undertaken the fiege; and would have fent embailadors to 
the Tyrians with terms of peace, had he believed they 
would have hearkened to them. But as they had thrown 
headlong into the fea the embafl!adors, wno before tbe 
fiege had , in his name, fummoned them to furrender ; he 
was afraid thofe he (hould fend now, might meet with ftich 
like, or more fevere treatment. B«ing therefore diverted, 
by this apprehenfion, from all thoughts of making up mat* 
ters, by way of treaty 5 and fully apprifed, that his reputa- 
tion, and the future progrefs of his arms, intirely depended 
on the fuccef$ of the prefent undertaking ; he reamimed, 
with feeming chearfulnefs, the work ; repaired, with in- 
credible expedition, the breach which the fea had made in 
the mole ; and, having brought it again almoft home to Ac 
city, began to- batter it with all forts^ of warlike engines; 
while the archers and flingers haraflTed, without inter- 
ruption, thofe who defended it, in order to drive them 
from their pofts. But the Tyrians flood their ground^ and, 
by means, of a new contrivance of wheels with many 


C. VI. fbe Hifiiny tf tbi Phoenicians. 3 77 

fepkesy ^ich, being whirled about with an engine, etth^r 
inattered in pieces the enemy's darts and arrows, or broke 
idieir force, covered themfelvqs againll die 2lggr^R>rs, and 
killed great numbers of diem, without fufiering any con- 
iideraUe lols on dieir own Ude. But,in the mean time, thp 
■wall began to yield to the violence of the rams that battered 
' jt night and day without interruption. Whereupon th^ 
befieged, ietting all hands to work, raifed, in a very (hort 
time, z new w^, t^en cubits broad, and five cubits diftant 
frmm the former ; and, by fi}lihg up the empty fpace be- 
;tween the two walls with earth and ftones, kept the A//7rf- 
donians a long while employed, ere they could make, with 
all their engines, the leaft impreilion on this new piece c^ 
fortification. However, Alexander^ having joined many of 
his fhips together, and mounted upon them a vafl number 
•of battering engines, befides thofe he had already placed 
\on the mole,''fucceeded at lafl in the attempt, and made a 
breach an hundred feet wide. But when he came to the 
afTault, in hopes of breaking into the city over the ruins, 
the Macedonians^ though encouraged with the prefence of 
their king, were forced to give ground, and retire with 
great lofs to their fhips. jflexqnder defigned to renew the 
attack next morning ; but the breach having been repaired 
■by the Tyriansj during the night, he perceived himfelf no 
further advanced than when he firfl began to batter the 
"Walls. Hereupon the Macedonian refolved to change his 
meafures ; ana,having firfl of all brought the mole home to 
the wall, caufed feveral towers to be built equal in height 
to the battlements. Thefe towers he filled with the moft 
|>rave and refolute men of his army, who, purfuant to his 
<lire£tions, having formed a bridge, ^ith large planks, refl- 
ing with one ei\4 on the towers, and with the other on the 
top of the ramparts, endeavoured, fword in hand, to gain 
the wall ; but could not prevail, being oppofed by the Ty- 
rians with unparalleled bravery, and weapons, which the 
Macedonians we^e altogether unacquainted with. Thefe 
were three-forked hooks, fattened with a cord (one end 
whereof they held themfelves), which, being thrown at a 
little diftance, fluck in the enemies targets, andgavis the 
Syrians an opportunity, either of plucking their targets out 
of their hands, and by that means eypofing them, without 
defence, t% fhowers of darts and arrows \ or, if they were 
unwilling to part with their fhields, of pulling them head** 
long out of the towers : fome,1)y throwing a kind of fifh- 
ing-nets upon the Macedonians that were engaged on the 
bridges, entangled their band^, <b that they could neither 


defend thcmfelves, or o£Fend the enemy : others, with loi|g 
poles, armed with iron hooks, drew them « off the brid|ges, 
and da&ed their hraias out agaioft the wall, ^r qd die 
caufey. In the xnean time, a ^reat maay eaginfls, placed 
on the walls, played, incefiantly, upon the aggretflbrs, wilh 
maily pieces of red-hot iron, which fwept away in.^fe 
ranks at once. But what moft of all diiheartened the AA^ 
udonianSy in the attack, and forced them, at laft^togixreit. 
over, was, the (corching fand, which the Tyrians^ by a new 
eontrivaiice, ihowered upon them : for this (and (which 
was thrown in red-hot mields of iron, or brafs), gettii^ 
within their breaftplates, and coats of maU, tormented 
them to fuch a decree, that many, finding no other relief, 
threw thcmfelves headlong into the iea ; and pthers, dying 
in the anguifh of inexpreffible torments, ftruck, widi their 
defperate cries, a terror into all thoie who heard them. 
This occafioned unfpeakable confiiiion among the aggref> 
fors, which gave new courage to the Tyrians i who, nov 
leaving the walls, charged the enemy hand to hand, on his 
own bridges, with fuch refolution, that Alexander^ feeing 
his men give ground, thought fit to found the retreat, and, 
by that means, fave, in fome degree, the reputation ^ \m 
Macedonians. Such defperate attacks were frequently re* 
newed by the aggrefTors, and always fuftained with tbe 
fame unbroken and undaunted courage, by the befiegoL 
And now Alexander began to entertain fbme thoughts of 
abandoning the enterprize, and continuing his mardi into 
Egypt : but, again confidering the dangerous conCequences 
that muft unavoidably attend fuch a refolution, he iieter^ 
mined to goon with the fiege, at all adventures, though, of 
all his captains, none was found, but Amyntas^ whoap^ 
proved of that determination. Having, therefore, exhortei 
the diflieartened Macedonians to ftand by him, and infu£e(f 
into them all the courage he could, he furrounded thecit£ 
with his fleet, and began to batter it on all fides : in the 
mean time, a fancy taking the Tyrians, upon a dream (bme 
of them had, that ^d//9 defigned to forfake them, and go 
over to Alexander, they fattened his ftatue, with golden 
chains, to the altar of Hercules, This flatue, or colofitis 
(for it was of an extraordinary fize), belonged formerly to 
the city of Gela in Sicily, and was fent from thence by the 
Carthaginians, when they took Gela, to Tyre, their mother 
city *. In this Apollo the Tyrians greatly confided ; and 
therefore, upon the rumour that he was to abandon them^ 

* Dioo. Sic. 1. xiii. j>. 390. 

C. VI. ne Hifiory ^ tU PhcBnidans. 3 ^^ 

they bad recourfe even to chains, in order to prevent his de- 
parture : but their utter ruin being already decreed by the 
true God, and foretold by his prophets ^, the confidence 
they placed in their idols could not avert the impendiug 
judgment. .They were deftined to deftru£lion, and deftru- 
&xoxi was their fate : for AUxanitr ^mn^^^ at laft, battered 
down the walls, and taken the town by ftorm, after feven 
months iiege, fully ^ecuted the fentence, which the 7y- 
rians had, by their pride, and other vices, drawn down upon 
themfelves and their country. The city was burnt down Tyre /tf** 
to the ground, and the inhabitants (excepting thofe whomi^v, tini 
the Sidonians fecrctly conveyed away in thtir fhip^) '^ixtdefiroyid. 
cither deftroyed, or enflaved by the conqueror, who, upon Yttrof 
4)is iirft entering the city, put eight thoufand to the (word, ^ flood 
caufed two thoufand of thofe he took prifoncrs to be crucc- *^6» 
iied, and fold the reft, to the number of thirty thoufand^ Brf^OWk 
£iys^r«a», for flaves. His cruelty towards the two thou^ ^ M^ 
fand that were crucified, was highly unbecoming a generous ^ 
conqueror. Alexander treated them thus, for no other rea- 
son, than becaufe they had fouglu with fuch bravery and 
refdution in defence of their country ; but, to palhate the 
true caufe of fo bafe an a£tion, he gave out, that he did it 
to revenge, upon the prefent Tyriansy the crime which their 
forefathers committed, when they murdered their mafters, 
as we have related above ; and that, being flaves by origin, 
crucifixion was the punifliment due to them. To make 
this look the more plaufibte, be faved all the defcendants 
of Straio^ as not being involved in fihat guilt ; and^ among 
them, king Azelmicy who,^in the beginning of thefiege, 
was out with his fleet upon a naval expedition, in coi^un- 
dlion with AutaphradaUs^ the Perfian admiral, bat haid haft- 
cned home, as foon as he was acquainted with the danger 
J|^is country. After the city was reduced, he took fan^tuary 
' «£ in the temple of Hefcules^ and was not only fpared by the 
conqueror, but reftored to the throne, ^Sttx AUjutnder ha4 
re-peopled the place. For, having thus cleared it of its for* 
mer inhabitants, he planted it anew, with colonies drawn 
from the neighbouring places j and thenceforth filled hini- 
fclf the founder of ^fyre^ a city which he had moft unge- 
jieroufly deftroyed. Upon taking the city, he unchained 
jfpQlloj returning him thanks for his intention of coming 
Qvcr to the Macedonians i offered fatrrfice to Hercules i and, 

* I^, xxiii. Ezek. xxvi. xxvii. xxviii. 



3«o ^: rbe Hijiory of df Jews B; I; 

tr performiDe niany other fuperftitious follies, coittinued 
inarch into ^gypt K 

How Marion came to rule over Tyre^ will be more re- 
gularly toU hereafter. 

Thi kings of Arad. ; 

Arad, or Aradus^ had its kings, as well as ^ii/iny 

Tyre^ and, perhaps, moft other cities of Phcenice : but we 

find three of them only mentioned in hiftory ; viz. Arhal^ 

his fon Narbaly who ferved uruler Xerxes^ in his great expc-. 

Year of *'*''^^ *> ^^^ Geroftratusy who reigned many years after. 

the flood ^^ fcrved D^r/^^j againft Alexander^ joining the Perfiai^ 

20 1 c. ^^^> ^ other Phoenician and Cypriof princes did, till, hear- 

BeC Ur. ''^S ^^^ ^9 5/r^7/0 had put a crown of gold upon the heai 

332. of Alexander^ and eiven up to him the ifland-city of Aradus^ 

a^ city of Marathusy on the main land, over-againft it,as^ 

a^fo, the city of Afariammia^ or Miuriame^ and whatever 

elfe belonged to the Aradian dominion ; he thought it mfift 

for his intereft to approve, feemingly, at leaft, of what hii 

Ton had doae^ and to make his fubmiilion to AUxandtr^ 



^e bijiory of the Jews, from the birth of 
Abraham to the Babylonifti captivity. - 

Jhbnof \[ 71 iT ^ have, in the fecond chapter of the preceding 
tbtscbap^ VV volume «, carried on the hiftory of the world, and, 
fir, ^ ^ particularly, of the defcendants of &hem^ ftgm 

the flood to the birth of Abraham : and are now to continuft : 
it in the family of that celebrated patriarch, from that ve- 
markabie epoch in which he was call^, by the divine pro- 
vidence, out of his native country, into the Promijedlani^ • 
%o that fatal one in which his defcendents were^ by the fame 
divine appointment, expelled out of it, and configned to a 
fcvere feventy years captivity in Babyhn^for their horrid in- 
gratitude, obftinate difobedience, and other crying fins 

^ Diop. Sic. ad Olymp. iiz. ann. i. Bi^iilrARCH. ia 
Alexandro. Q^ Curtius, 1. iv. c. 5,6, ii>i5. A1.RIAN. 

i. ii. p. 49. Justin 1. xi. c. 40. & 1. ;^viii. c. 34. Joseph. 
antiq. 1. xi. cap. ultim. * Herodot. I. vii. c. 98, 

<* Arrian. de expcd. Alex. Magn. 1. ii pi 1 19. & Curt. l.iv. 

C.J, * P. 252, ^fc^. 

• and 

C.VIi. to ihe Bibyloniih CaptivH^ . r $8i 

and rebellions. And tlK>ugh neither he, nor bis pofterity^ 
got into the adual pofieffion of this land, till fome gencrr 
rations, or even centuries, after bis death, and onl/ wan4 
dered through it, like ftrangers and pilgrims, till jacoV% 
(Jefcent into Egypt^ of which we (ball (peak more fully in 
the fequel ; yet, as this whole territory was given ioMrg'* 
bmn himfelf by promife, and the boundaries a(figned to it 
hj God* ; we (ball, accordingly^ purfue the method. Wo 
have prefcribed to ou'rfelves, of beginning every hiftory 
with the, defcription^ of the country. But as this chapter 
tontains a very confiderable period of time, and is fraught 
Vith. a multiplicity and variety of material tranfadions ; 
other fubje6h, not only curious and inftru£tive, but of a re- 
ligious and important nature ; fuch as the choice of the 
jewijh nation to be Qod's peculiar people, his paternal 
and miraculous care over them, their iignal deliverai}ce out 
o£ the Egyptian bondage, and forty years wandering in the 
wildernefs ; their paifage through oie Rid Sea, and con* 
quefi of the Promijed kifd \ their receiving the divine law 
on mount Sinai ; their frequent rebellions, puni(h(pents, 
and deliverances, under their judges, prophets, and kings, 
^c. all which are well'worthy ofour panicular attention 
Sind regard, and will, confequently, draw it to a propor- 
rionable length ; we ftall, for the convenience of our read* 
Krs, and the clearer diftinf^ion of the feveral parts and epo- - 
^has it compr^ends, divide it, as we have already done • 
that of Egypf, into fo many different feftions. We begin 
Birith the defcription of the land. 

S E C T. ' I. 

. . fhe geography of Pale(line, or Holy Land. 

^Tp tl 1 S once happy and fertile fpot, -^nd the peculiar ob- Land of 

^ jed of the divine providence, was firft called the hnd promife 

A Canaan^ or Chanaan^ /rom A/i^A's grand fon, hy vfhomde/criM. 

It was peopled ^ : but it has been flnce more difiinguifhed , 

by other names ; fuch as the land of projnife^ the land of 

God, the land of Ifraelj the holy landy and fometimes, hyVarUut 

way of pre-eminence, /^^ land. It hath again been Q^Xi^names. 

Taiejiine, frq^i Xhe Paiejiinesy or Phi It/fines, who polTeffcd a 

• * • 


• Gen. 3^1. 6, 7. xiii.fi4, ftfeq. ** Sec vol. i.%p. 268, 

574, 275.. Vol. ii. p. 1 88, & feqq. 


3t4 fbiUifiofyofibi}cm% iLt 

tkher As to the other names by which proSme anthon Imi 

tailed it, fuch as Syria^ PaUsftina fjAm^ CStfjrim^ Idwm^ 
Idumea^ and Pbagnkia^ or Phgmce $ it was otaj dooe out oi 
contempt to the Jiwifif nation, wboAi they did not ac- 
count worthy to be dffimgiiilbed by tOf but die moft con- 
ihon names of thofe noted provinces that were about tfaem, 
and of which they looked upon thedi only as an oblbm 
and inconfiderable part. We find it even called Idmmmi 
on no other account^ ^ we can fe^ biit beranfe the JUb- 
means feized on (oMe parts of it durhig the BaijUni/b cap- 
tivity ; though they were, fome time after the cetotni dn^ 
ven from it by the brave Maccabtes^ and even conqoeid 
by them, as we have feen in their hiftory, p. i8o ^fm 
How yudea came to be called alio Pbaemcii or Pbcemcui. 
we have alresldy fhewn, in the hiftory of that natioii 
Sminow P- 3^0 ^^ ^^ notes* At prefent, th6 name of Pale/tine i 
Ytktssyt^ ^hat which has moft prevailed among die Cbrifiian doflon, 
Mobammedan atid other writers'*. And thus mudi^l 
for the various liames of this country. 
tkuation. As to its fituation, the Jews^ from a particular ¥€06 
ration for fo celebrated a fpot, as well, as from foroe miftt 
ken pafl'ages in one or two of the prophets, in which Ji* 
rufalem is faid to have been feated, by the Almighty, in th 
midft, or, as the Hebrew figuratively terms it, the navd 
of the earth, Vc. hat.e takc^ a notion that it ftands juftii 
Believed the very heart of all the nations, and the centre of die 
tbe centre World ; which Was the more exciifable, confidering the ut« 
bf ehe XJtx ignorance mankit)cf, and tbe ^ews^ above all the reft, 
mjorld. had of every thing that related to geography , and even of the 
figure, extent, and motion, of the earth ; efpecially, fucc 
we find, that the very Atbenians and Delpbians^ and even 
the n^ore polite Cbinefe^ have run into the (ame notioii, 
with regard to their own countries. Upon what accourU 
thefe. did it, will be beft feen, when we come to treat d 
them: however, leaving thefe fond dreams, vreihallno* 
defcribe its true boundaries, on all fides ; which are asfo)' 
* , low : It was inclofed, on the weft, by the MediterramaL\ 
wn a- 2i^^^Q^ the eaft, by the lake Afphaltites^ the yordan^ aik 
the fea of Tiberias^ or of Galilee^ and the Samacbinii 
lake ; to the north it had thd mountains of Libanus^ OT; 

^ Sec Rbland. Palasftin. ilkftrat. c. ;^. 

rabbinic whimfies ; and have ad- place in a woris: of this natiuc 
ded many other abfurd notions and flill pay a deep veneratioi 
concerning the holinefs of this to it, as we fhall have occafia 
land, which are not worth a to fhew in the fequel. 


^. VIL to fh Babyfoi}«(k Captivity. 3 S5 

rather, of JmUH^musi or the; province of Phaenida ; and^ 
to the fouth, that of Edom, or Idumea ; from which ft was 
Itkewife parted by anodier rjd||e of high mountains. It 
muft be here obferved, that we Aave confined ourfelves to 
that part which is properly called the land of promife: as 
Ibr the other part, viz* that which belonged to two tribeis ' 
and an half, on the other (\it Jordan^ and which was cal- 
led Peraa ; and the land, or Kingdoms of Og^ Sihofty &c. 
their boundaries are more difficult to be fixed (D), as well 
as thofc of the conquefis and acquifitions which they after- 
wards made, under the reigns of their profperous kings; 
which laft will be beft feen in the fequel : and as to their 
fituation, with refpe£t to the nations round about them, we 
Ihall, additional to what hath been already hinted, under 
their refpeftire hiilories, fubjoin a brief account of them, 
at the clofe of this fe£Hon. The extent of it is likewife£;r/«r/; 
varioufly fettled by geographers j fome giving it no more 
than about 170 or 180 miles in length, from north to fouth; 
and about 140 in breadth, froip eaft to weft, where broad- 
eft, as it is towards the fouth ; and but about 70, where 
narroweft, as it is towards the north. But, from thelateft 
and moft accurate maps, it appears to extend near 20Q 
miles in length, and about 80 in breadth, about the 
liiiddle; and 10 or 15, moreorli^s, where it widens or. 
flirinks. It reaches from 31 deg. 30 min. to 33 deg. 20 
ihin. of north latitude ; and from 34 deg. 50 min. to 37 
deg. 15 min'. of eaft longitude ^ ; and is under the 4th and 

* Comp. fyft. geogr. vol. il. p. lo^. 

(D) All that we can iay of rare, uii fluvium JEgypH^ '■ 

tbexn, with any tolerable pro- l^ Euphratem, (^ Mare 

bability, is, that the river Ar- Magnum ; licet in - codia 

IM« was the firH northern bound- Hehraorutn aliorum locorum, 

ary pn that fide j and, with re- in Jinlhus fitoruMy fiat mentio. 

SjIfcSi to thofe on this fide Jar- Contextus Hebraus ita habet : 

deiHy we cannot forbear taking Termini Canaan funt a Sidone 

notice of a confiderable differ- Gerarum ufque Gaxam^ qua itur 

ence obfervedlong ago by the SodomantyGomorrhamyAdumam, 

Accurate ^^/tfir^, with regard to Zeboimyufque ad Lefcha, Sama" 

the boundaries affigned to it by, ritanushoc comma ita exbibet — • 

the Hebrew and Samaritan Etfuit terminusCanan^orum a 

lienmteuch. Hiswoxdsare thcfe JJwvio JEgyptiy ufque ad fiumen 

( f ) : Quodeulterminas Palaftin^ magnum Euphratemyi^ ufque ad 

dttinet defcriptos Genef. x. lo. MarePofteriusyi.e, Occidental'e. 

gft obfer*vsUu di^ntaa pentateucb- Fides infignem: differentiamyquit 

um Hebriti'Sofriaritanum nm inter Hebraum^ Samaritanum 

mfi duoe trefve extremos mtmo- codicem inter^enit^ 

Vol. II. Bb 5* 

gS6 The Hifiory ff the Jev& t.l 

5th climates : fo that its longcft day is about 14 hours, ij 

These limits, however, have appeared, kt beA, foTcr; 
narrow, coitfidering that die country b Itkewife iotcrfeded 
with many a ridge of high mountains, barren woods, de- 
ferts, i^c, that many learned men have bcco induced to 
queftion what we read of its richncf&and populoufoeTs is the 
facred books ; efpectally of its being able not only tomain- 
jtain fo many millions of ibuU, as it contained, with plenty 
^^^^,^^, of corn, wine, oil, fleih, fifh, and fowl, and all otfact IK- 
tiliif, ^elTaries and delicacies of life ; but, lilcewife, to fupp^ lb 
•uibtnet. m^uy other countries with them. And it muA-bec^ned, 
that, were we to judge of its aotient and fiourilhing fiaie, 
when it was cultivated with the utmoft diligence, hy men 
well acquainted with every branch of agricultpre. Aid) ts 
.• .. its antient inhabitants appear to have been i andasttvas 
afterwards improved, under the influence of ths Divine 
Providence } with what it hath been, fincc the total extir- 
pation of tiie.^'U't out of it ; and, more particularly, fincc 
it haib fo feverely groaned under the yoke of ^urkijhfa- 
very, which hath reduced both it, and all the onc^-fcnile 
Prt/mt and opulent countries round it, into mere deferts; the thing 
barrta- would appear abfolutelyimpoffible. We (hall have occafion, 
nifi. hy-and-byi to mention (bme of the manifeft caufes of this 
great and melancholy change: in thcmeaniimejet us take 
■ a view of It In its antient, and more blcfled Hate. 

So rich and fruitful doth it appear to have been, eveo be- 
fore the IfratUus got into the pdffeffion of it, that Mtjti 
Za«i/,i5*w<'cfcribes it ih thefe eifiphattcal terms * : A land thar fiow- 
defiribid etb with millc and honey; a land of broolcs^ and water], 
by Mofes. of fountains and depths, that fpring out of the valleystod 
hills; a land of wheat and barley ; of vines, figs, and poiD- 
granates ; of oil, olives, and honey: a land where is W 
lack or fcarcity of any thing j whofc Hones (or roc]»}iK 
iron; and out of whole mountains thoumaycftdigupbnlii 
Wf . all which the Ifraelitts found literally true, as it plalulf 
appears, even from the account which the pufillanimousfpis 
gave of it, after their return ; and from the fruit tbef 
^^;/,jj. brought from thence, as a fpecimenof the reflf. Itemi 
tided exceeded, in many particulars, the fo much celebratsd liol 
Egypt. °f ^SyP^i .efpecially in the vaft numbers of noble cittl^ 
great and fmall, which it bred ^ in the quantity anda-^ 

^ Dent. via. 7, & feq. ^ Nun. ziu. S3, U ftq. 


C Vn. to ihi BibylohiBi Capivtiy. 387 

cellence of its oil, wine, and other fruits (£}. Sl^veral cir* 

cumftances contributed to this wonderful fecundity ; fuch 

as the excellent temperature of the air, which was ntytrSeremair. 

rubje£tto exceffive heats or cokb ; the regularity of its fca- 

ibns, efpecially the former and latter rain ; the natural fat- 

riefs and fertility of its foil, which re(;uired neither dung- RicbfiiL 

ing or manuring, and could be ploughed with a fingle yoke 

of o>^n-, and a fmall kind of plough : fo^ the foil was, and 

is fKll,' fo fhailow, that, to have gone deep into it, would 

rather endanger, than improve the crop (F). Withrcfpeft 

to the ejccellency of its corn, we are told, that the bread oiBxciUgni 

Jtrufalem was preferred above all other ; and we (hall fee,rprar* 

m the fequel, that the tribe of Aflitr produced the heft of 

both, and in greater quantity, than any other tribe : and 

fuch plenty was there of it, that, befides what fufficed the 

inhabitants, who made it their chief fuftenance ; Sohmdn^ 

we read, could aiFord to fend 20000 cors, or meafures^ of 

(E) With refpcft to the two 

laft particalars, it is plain, that 

the olives and oil of Canaan 

Exceeded thofe of Egypt ^ in fine 

nefi ; fince the ttibes lent them 

thither from hence : and as for 

vines, the Egyptians^ Herodotus 

lells us (6), hud none at all, but 

(applied the want of their juice 

^th a liquor made of barley. 

The preiehts which good old 

'^yacob fent to his ion Jofeph,i)\t 

•wppofed furly lord of Egypt , of 

• honey, fpices, myrrh, almonds, 

^nd other fruits of PaUfiine^ 

Ihew, that they muft have been 

much better here, than there 

(^), kabjhakeh made no fcru* 

pie, accordingly, to Hile this 

country a land of corn aAd wine, 

of bread and vineyards, of oil, 

6livcs> h6hey, Gfr (8). And, to 

conclude with Retand^ who 

knows not,that the wine of Ga- 

fca^ jf/caUft, and Sarepta, was 

fsLsncd, among the molt remote 

- (6) L. ii. ff. 77. (7) Gm. xliii. IT. See a!f>, Bocbart. pba/eg 

(8) z Kings xvWu ^,1, \s) 74'^b.antiq '•"* t/^r.- -:.. _ 

(rl) Theopbra/i^ bift, plant, /.xi. c. %. 
Jsrif, €.11, 

nations? though it is allowed, 
alfo, that that which was made 
at and in the neighbourhood of 
Bethlibem^ in great quantities, 
was equal, at lealt, if not fupe* 
,rior, to any (9) of the others; 
and that of Libanus, mentioned 
by the prophet, was too lefs ce-* 
lebrated for its excdleYit flavour 


(F) This needs 00 proof; 
fince the heat reverberated from 
the ilohy bottom would foon 
dry up the clods, and parch the 
feed. For this reafon, we are 
told (t I ), thatfin all thefe coun- 
tries, they made ufe only of 
fmall and (hallow ploughs, 
which is farther confirmed by a 
modef n eye-witnefs ; who tells 
us, that it is ftill pradlifed in the 
fame manner,and only with two 
oxen : and adds, that the land is 
ftill fo rich and fertile, as to re* 
quire no &rther manure ( 1 2), 

Bb % 

(10) Hojea xiv. 7. 
(11) Br»cb0rd* dijcr, term 


2 8 8 ^e Hifiory of the Jews B. I. 

it, and as many of oU, yearly, to Hiram king of Tyri^\ 
befides what th^y exported into other countries* And we 
£nd, even fo late as king /£?r«^,furiiamedi^//>^» the 
countries of Tyn and Sidon received moft of their fufle? 
nance from his tetrarchy «. 
GrapeSf As to their fruits, the grapes were delieious, finely fla;* 
/r«///> devoured, and very large. The palm-tree, and ita dates, 
were in no lefs requeit ; and the plain of Jericho^ among 
other places, was ^med for the great plenty and excelleBce 
of that fruit ; infomuch that the metropolis of that territory 
was emphatically ili^ed, tbt city of palm-trees^ as we ftall 
fee in the fequel. But what both this plain, and other 
parts of Palejline^ were moft celebrated for, was,tbe baUam 
Balm. ihrub, whofe balm was efteemed fo precious a.drug, amoD| 
the Greeks^ Romans^ Egyptians^ and other nations, and k 
ftill, to this day, under the name of balm of GiUad{Q). 

^ I Kings V. II. * AOsxU. so*- 

{G)The9phrafiusS^^e3kmg€^{ antient authors, fuch as l^/iii;, 

this valuable fhrub, only iays,in Diofcorides^ and even yofefhus^ 

general, that it grew in fome mention it as the peculiar prO' 

valley of Syria (13). But both dud of it ; and Diodoruf Siadm 

Juftittf JofephttSt Strain, an4 (15)9 and others, add, that it 

others, do plainly fey, it grew, grew no-wherein Ae world but 

in Judea; and the former of about the territory of J?ji||^/i4 

them exprefly names the valley and ibme other places abodt di^ 

or plain of Hiericbo- (14) : anc( Dead Sea. Jofephus adds (16)9 

adds, that it is furrounded with that the country whence that 

mountains, as with a wall; queen brought it, had, k(ig 

and extends about 200 acres, iince, ceaied to produce it. Bs^ 

^^A/u^«j infinuates^ as if ithad fays Reland^ Pro/per Jlfitus, 

been brought thither by the and P. Bel/omui, will have it, 

queen of Sbeia, among other that they are all miftaken ; be- 

valuable preients, to king ^0^- cauie thofe that grow in JudiM 

mon : but, by what we read of are no- where to be found but in 

thofe which Jacob fent into gardens, and require a grof 

Egypt ^ among which this pre- deal of care and attendansef 

cious balm is proved, by the whereas baliam, of evihy bttt 

learned hocbaitt^ Le Scene, and comes from ^rjrter,a9fromitt 

others, to have Wen one ; it own native foil, and is thence 

mull have been of much earlier exported into other 'imtioiu. 

date here, if it was not really But, continues oa^ author, I 

of the natural growth of the am of opinion, that Jofepbut 

country. And, indeed, feveral and D/^/r^iVr/ fpoke troth; 

(1 3) Ubi (itp. U ix, f . ^, (14) L, xxxvii. C«5) /- ii. *. 4>« 


to the Babylonifh Captiviiy. Jt^ 

^, likewife, the greateft variety of other fruit-trees 
"^ft perfedion, and which might be, in foine 
n>etual, becaufe they were not only covered 

•erdure, but becaufe the new buds always Confiant 
• boughs before the old fruit was ripe j 'verdun. 
^. which were in too great quanti- 
'v maturity, they gathered enough 

^L pickles and iweetmeats, efpecialiy 

^ -nges, and apples of paradife, which Orangag 

.jg by hundreds in a clufter, and as big as &<^> 
. of an excellent tafte and ^vour. Their 
^ grapes twice, and fometimes three times, a Vims. 
4. quantities of which were dried up, and prelerved 
., as well as their figs, plums, and other fruits, 
lad plenty of honey ; the very trees diftilied it; and Hmej. 
:ks yielded it in great quantities : but whether that 
latter kind were there depoiited by the induftrious 
>r produced ibme other way, is much difputed by 
Ts and naturalifis (Hj. They likewife cultivated 


it is no reafoD why 
that flourifhed 1700 
|;o» in one country, may 
un)gdi of time, be pro- 
1 others,^ dif^t from 
7). Bat whatever be 
ifiui of it, it muH be 
that there is bat little 
daced now in PaleJHui ; 
I ArmUa, and even E^ 
It efpecialiy the former, 
:, in great abundance, 
merchants that bring it 
EfCftf, ^and other parti, 
lund out (b many ways 
crating, and even coon- 
igity that it is no won- 
uulifank fi> much in its 
itputatioD, and value, 
parifbn with that which 
y grew in (his fertile 

This wild honey, which 
t calls [Ai^iiyfiw, and 

tells us the baptift made part of 
his food (18], and which was 
in fuch plenty in this country, 
that it dropt fixmi the trees 
upon the ground (19), the 
learned Beehart thinks to have 
been gathered, by the bees, in 
the fame manner as the com- 
mon fort, which Rilandcaoi by 
no means agree toi quoting 
Dicdoru^ and P/ity^ who fpeak 
of another kind, which dropt 
from the trees in Nahatea, Sj^ 
ria, 8cc, and which they>drank 
mixed with water: and thence 
concludes this wild one of Pa- 
itfiifu to have been of that fort» 
and to -be that which gave the 
air that delightful fragrancy of 
honey which lAxMaundrtlloh' 
ferved in the maritime parts of 
this country (20). Which of 
the two is right, we will not de- 
cide : however,it is well known. 

^Imud, ukifitp. 


Bb 3 

(19) X Saau xiy. 15, 16. 








Tijb, in 



Tbc Bpry of tbd Jt^ \ . B.t 

fugar-canes in great abundance ; and the cotton^ bcrap, anj 
fl^x, were moftly of their own growth and manu&^iirci 
except fome, of a finer fort, that were brought to them from 
Egypty and worn by thofe of the higher rank. Thdf 
vicinity to Libanus ma4e the cedars, cyprefles, and oCfacp 
ftately and fragrant trees, ve^y common in moft parts o{ 
the land, but, more efpecially, in 'Jirufalem. Catde,botb 
large and fmall, they fj^d in yaft quantities ; and the hilljt 
countries not only afforded th^m variety and plenty of pftx 
fture, bu( s^lfo of wa^er, which defcpnded thence into th^ 
valleys ai>d lowlands, and ferti)izeci them to the degree we 
have feen^ befides feveral other rivers and brooks, fome of 
the moft remarkaUte of which we (ball fpeak of in thdc 
proper places. But the moft fertile pafture- grounds were 
thofe on each fide the river 'Jordan^ befides thofe of Sbarm^ 
or Sarona^ the plains of Lydda^ yajfinia^ and fome otheoi 
then juftly famed for their fecundity (I). A^ for fiib, the 

that both here, and in (bveral 
other parts of J^ia^ as well as 
in Euroft and Africa^ where 
bees are very nuinerous,becaa(e 
they don^t deftroy them there, 
as we do here, for their honey, 
they will depoilt their combs, 
not only in hollow trees,but be- 
tween their bi'^pches, in tlie 
cracks of rooks, and other fuch 
convenient places ; and that this 
kind of honey is commonly 
ftiled wild, in oppofition to that 
which is gathered from the 
hives. And this will, perhaps, 
much better account for the 
fragrant odour lately men- 
tioned. For the bees, which 
gather it in thefe kind of places, 
are obferved to be moil bufy on 
the wild thyinc,fagc,rofcmary, 
marjoram, hyffop, and other 
odoriferous plants; which muft, 
doub^lefs, give their honey a 
much more fweet and aromatic 
pdour than can be fuppofed to be 

in the liquor that drops fiw 
any of thofe trees. 

(I) There are ieveral plioei 
mentioned in holy writ fy dc 
name of Sharon ^ or Sotomm^ p 
famed for their extraordinaij 
fruitfulnefs : and the prophet 
accordingly, makes ufc of iHat 
word (? I ) to fignify it ; w. i, 
The territory lying betiraci 
mount Tahor and the fiaof fr* 
ieriaj(Z2). 2. Thatbetwcci 
Cif/area-Pa/ifiiw, a|id Jm 
(23;; and, 3. ThecantoAlKr 
vond Jordan, that was 10 tk 
Kingdom of Ba/an, and HI to 
the lot of the tribe of Gnd{2j(i. 
This laft is oppofed by Rdai, 
though with no folid grounds} 
there being no likelihood, tint 
that tribe ihould come fo fiiras 
the neighbourhood oiP 7(^i 
de/area, and Lydda, which k 
takes to be the Sharon that 
meant, to feed their flodu. 
We find a fourth Sharon meo- 

(2 ) Ifa. xxxiii. 9. XXXV. 2. (22; Mufeh. fif Hreroft, he, JW^. fit 

vctf (23) Hicr.»H. in JJa, xxxiii. 65 • ^H) » Cbron, v. J 6. 

C- VIL to the Babylonifli Captivity. 391 ^ 

rivers above-mentionedjthe lake of Tiberias^ and the iWrrf/- 
ttrraneanSia^ afforded, as they do to this day, great plenty 
and variety. Vaft quantities were brought to "Jerufalem^ 
on which the inhabitants moftly fubfifted ; and hence one 
of the gates of that metropolis was, according to St. Jerom^ 
€sd\td^ the Jljlh-gate K The lake Afphaltites yielded fait '\nSab* 
abundance, wherewith to feafon and preferve their fifh, 
which Gakn aiErmstohave been preferable to anv other, 
for wholfomenefs, digeflion, and extenuation. To con- 
clude this article, the Scripture is fo pregnant with proofs 
of the extraordinary richnefs and fecundity of this once 
happy land, and the vaft number of people that lived in it, 
almoft wholly upon its produS(K),t6 (ay nothingof the vaft 
exports of its corn, wine, oil, raifins, and other fruits, 
&r. that a man muft have taken a ftrange warp to infidelity, 
that can call it in queftion, merely on account of the me- 
lancholy and quite oppofite figure it now makes, under its 
prefent tyrannical government. 

But it ought to be confidered, that it was then inhabited Jgricul" 
by an induftrious people, who knew how to improve every turt ncou- 
kich of their land, and had made even the moft defert and ragid. 
/Karren places to jrield fome kind of produfiions, by pro- 
per care and manure ; fo that the very rocks, whicn now 
appear quite bare and naked, were made to produce com, 
pulie, or pafture ; being, by the induftry of the old inha- 

. ^ Vid. Rbland. ubi fup. I. i. c 57. 

tfoiied fince hy travellers, fo of Canaan (27). By fighting 

called on the £une account} men are meant men found in 

nfi». the fertile pldn between health and limbs, from twenty 

Mfdipon zxiA Ptolemais, We tofixty'years of age, cxdufive 

might add a fifth mentioned in of all the rdli who, with 

liMi (25), or, as thuHehriw the vaft multitude.of ftrangers, 

vd^itf La SbarQm the king of flaves, and fervants, of both 

which was defeated by that fexes, that followed them oat 

Hehrrtx) general: and a fixtb, of £^/, amoanted, in a mode- 

by St. I»if (26), in the neigh- rate computation; to aimoft 

•l)OurhoodofI;^/</«;allofthem double that number. And in 

cclebratedon the fame account, the muftcr-roU ■ whtch Joah 

' (K) Wic need not a more brought to i)iw^i/ (28), the 

tnr^^ht proof of their popa- amount isiaid to have been, of 

ioufnefs, than theit mutter- the I/rae/itis, 8ep,ooo fij^t- 

roUs; according to which, we ing men; aAd, tf the bare tribe 

find no lefi than 600,000 figjit- of Jndab, 500,00©. 
ing men entering into the bad 


*5) 7*fi>" «ii. (a6) Jifft ix. 35. (a;) SxotL xii. 37, 

Bb 4 bitants 

3^ The Uifiory pf the Jew.s . B. I 

bitants, covered with mould, which, through the lazinefs 
of the fuccoeding proprietors, has been iince wa(hed off 
h thi ^ith rains and ftorms. We may add, that the kii^ thean- 
khzs ; ielves were not above encouraging all kind of agnculture, 
both by precept and example i and, above all, that they had 
the divine blei£ng promifed to their honeft endeavours and 
induflry ; whereas it is now, and hath been long iince, 
and now inhabited by a poor, lazy, indolent people, groaning under 
neglt^id. an intolerable fervitude, and all manner of difcourage* 
ments ; by which, their averfion to labour and agricul- 
ture, farther than what barely ferves to fupply their pro- 
ient wants, is become, in a manner, natural and invind- 
bU. We may ferther obferve, after the judicious Mr. 
Maundreil^ that there h no forming an Idea of its antient 
fiourilhing ftate, when under the influence of heaven, 
from what it is now, under a vifiWe curfew. And, ifw 
had not feveral concurring teftimonies from profane au- 
thors, who have extolled the fecundity of PaJeJline^ that 
fmgle one of Julian the apoftate, a fwofn enemy to 
Jew$ and Chriftians, as well as to all the facred writings 
would be more than fufficient to prove it ; who &- 
quently makes mention^ in his epiftles, of the perpetuity, tt 
well as excellence, and great abundance, of its fruits saA 
produdl. The vifiWe effe£fe of God's anger, .which tim 
country has felt, not only under Titus Vefpafian (whdl 
myriads of inhabitants were either flain, or perlfhed by the 
moft fevere famine, peftilence, and other calamities ; and 
fha !reft fold for flaves, into all lands ; and new coloniei 
(ent to re-people it ; who found it in iiich a defolate ftate^ 
as quite difcouraged them from reftoring it to its priftinp 
iruitfulneis); but much more fmce that emperor's time, in 
the inundations of the northern barbarians, of ^ SartKWx 
and of the more cruel and deftruftive Chrifl^s>, during the 
holy wzx (L) y and in the cruel opprefEons it now feet un-» 

' Journey from Aleppo to Jerufalcm, p. 65. 

(L)Theremutaal horrid deva- of this once happy countrjs 
Rations between the Chriflians as they have given occaiioo to 
and Mohammedans^ wherein the wild ^/*«6/iy and other wani 
the former feem to have been dering tribes, to feize on thofe 
a£Ud with fuch a blind and depopulatedplacesyand fix their 
bloody zeal againfl the latter, abode in them, who now live al- 
and fuch jealouiies and perfidy together upon plunder, and aH 
againft each other, as refle6t kinds of depredations, notoolf 
an indcleble diihonour upon on the caravans, and all tra- 
them, and their religion, have vellcrs, that fkll into thcit 
helped to complete the x^ifery hands, but likewife on villages 


C VII. t A 4he BabyhniQi Captivity. 39g 

dcr the Turkift) yoke, may be eafily owned to be more 
thsm fufficient to have wrought the difmal change we are 
4>eaking of, aad to have reduced the far greater part into 

NfVERTHsrE^s, if we may credit thofe who have 
viewed it in this doleful condition, they will tell us, there 97/ Ai«i 
areftill fuch viiible figns of its natural richnefs and fertility,/