Skip to main content

Full text of "Appletons' annual cyclopædia and register of important events of the year .."

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 



\ \^ 



■\ ' \ ' 



■) : r  '  'v i 



« ^ • 



n 



\ 



APPLETONS' 



ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA 



AND 



REGISTER OF IMPORTANT EVENTS 



07 THB TKAR 



1801 



EMBRACING POLITIOAL, MILITARY, AND ECCLESIASTICAL AFFAIRS; PUBLIC 
DOCUMENTS; BIOGRAPHY, STATISTICS, COMMERCE, FINANCE, LITERA- 
TURE, SCIENCE, AGRICULTURE, AND MECHANICAL INDUSTRY. 



NEW 8EKIES, VOL. XVI. 





WHOLE SERIES, VOL. XXXL 


• - - 
• - a - 




liEW YORK: 


w - • 


D. 


APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

1, 8, AND 6 BOND STBEET. 

1S92. 


«o 



"1/ 



COPTKIOBT, 1892, 

By D. APTLETON AND COMPANY 



I.-.. ••••• 
- ••• 

* • • • • 



» • • • 
• • • 



PREFACE. 



♦♦• 



Perhaps for American readers the most interesting article in this volume is 
that on the " Navy of the United States," written by a naval officer. It is sup- 
plementary to the similar article in the "Annual Cyclopaedia" for 1888, and 
comes down to date with a complete description of our naval force, actual and 
building. In the articles on Chili and the United States the reader may see how 
near we came to having use for a powerful navy in the year 1891. The 'cen- 
sus article of 1890 is supplemented by another in this volume, showing the 
results of the latest compilations at the Census Office ; and the articles on such 
States of the Union as have any considerable colored population contain tables 
showing census by races. 

The Canadian articles are illustrated with a double-page colored map of the 
Northwest Provinces, which with the map of the Maritime Provinces in the vol- 
ume for 1889, and that of Ontario in the volume for 1890, covers all of British 
North America except the province of Quebec. 

The article " Cities, American, Recent Growth of," describes sixty-four 
cities, some, of which have sprung up in the wilderness within two or three 
years. An article on the " Earth, Area and Population of," gives the latest 
computations of the geographers. 

The approaching anniversary of the discovery of the continent is noted by 
an interesting illustrated article on " Columbus's First Landfall," as well as by 
tlie description, under " United States," of the preparations at Chicago for the 
great World's Fair. How the question of participating in that enterprise was 
debated in some of the States, and what has been done by each, may be read in 
the State articles. 

The recent advances in photography are set forth by Alexander Black, an 
enthusiastic photographer and student of the art. Ballooning as it is to-day 
is described by Prof. Samuel A. King, the most experienced of American 
aeronauts, who has made three hundred ascensions. The efforts to produce rain 
by artificial means are detailed under that title by Col. Charles L. Norton ; and 
many things in the way of material improvements will be found under the title 
of " Patents." 

In the way of moral reform much, it is hoped, has been done by the legisla- 
tion in many States requiring temperance education in the public schools ; and 
a history of the movement is contributed to this volume by the Rev. Joseph 
Cook, the well-known lecturer. The student of literature will find much to 



ll-L-L-K 



iy PREFACE. 

interest him not only in the regular literature articles, but in the special articles 
on Lowell, Lytton, and Melville, the discussion of " New Dictionaries," by Prof. 
March, and the description of Oahspe, the Spiritualist bible ; and the student of 
art will, of course, turn to " Fine Arts in 1891." 

Among the regular articles of interest and importance are : In science, 
"Astronomy," "Chemistry," "Physiology," "Physics," "Metallurgy," "Na- 
tional Academy of Science," and the account of meetings of the several "Associa- 
tions for the Advancement of Science " ; in religion, those showing the year's 
growth in the various churches ; in finance and commerce, the " Financial Re- 
view of 1891,"*" United States Finances," " Commerce and Navigation of the 
United States," and the treasury and debt statement in articles on various 
countries. 

Among the special articles not already mentioned, "Archaeology," " Farmers' 
Congress," " Hudson River, Improvements in," and " Manual Training " are 
noteworthy. The personal articles include, besides the three authors mentioned 
above, one on Speaker Crisp, of the United States House of Representatives, 
one on Gen. Sherman, one on Gen. Johnston, one on Jules Grevy, one on Gen. 
Von Moltke, one on Sir John A. Macdonald, one on Meissonier, the painter, and 
an unusually large group of sketches — under the title " Obituaries " — of eminent 
men who passed away during the year. The dead of the year 1891 include 
Carl I, of Wiirtemberg, Kalakaua I, of Hawaii, Pedro II, of Brazil, and Tama- 
sese, of Samoa — besides the two ex-Presidents, Balmaceda, of Chili, and Gr6vy, 
of France ; the princes Baudouin and the two Bonapartes ; the statesmen, Par- 
nell, Eari Granville, Bradlaugh, W. H. Smith, Windthorst, Sir John Macdonald, 
Madhava Rao, Hannibal Hamlin, Windora, and J. E. McDonald ; the clergy- 
men, Freppel, Magee, Rotelle, Simon, Crosby, Gilmour, Loughlin, Preston, and 
Wadhams ; the authors, Kinglake, Lytton, Boisgobey, the two Lowells, Lossing, 
and Parton ; the inventors, Lebel, Ilobbs, and Maynard ; the soldiers, Sherman, 
Johnston, Moltke, Boulanger, Connor, and Sibley; the naval officers. Porter, 
Carter, Pattison, and Ingraham ; the players, Barrett, Florence, Sullivan, Fisher, 
Edwards, Emmet, Emma Abbott, and Mrs. Forrest ; the artists, Meissonier and 
McEntee ; the scientists, Leidy, Le Conte, Winchell, Hilgard, and Ferrel ; the 
philanthropists, Pratt, Mrs. Stuart, and the Duke of Devonshire. Other inter- 
esting characters, in themselves or in their circumstances, here sketched are P. 
T. Bamum, Mrs. Hopkins-Searles, Mrs. Polk, Madame Blavatsky, Albert Pike, 
Charles Devens, Thomas J. Conant, and Samuel D. Burchard. 

The illustrations are more numerous than in any other volume of the series. 
They include two colored plates, besides the large map, three fine engravings on 
steel, and an unusual mmiber of vignette portraits in the text. Pains have been 
taken to profit by the suggestions of those who habitually use this series for ref- 
erence to improve the regular articles in some details, and it is hoped that the 
present volume will exhibit an advance in keeping with tlie time. 

New Yoek, April 19, 1892. 



CONTRIBUTORS. 



Among the Contributors to this Volume of the ^'Annual Oyclopadia " are the foUowing : 



Oscar Eay Adama. 

PoTBsaGiLL, Jessie, 
Houghton. Geoboe W. W., 
Lefkoy^ Edward C, 
Ix^wELL, Robebt T. S., 
Plcxftbe, Edward H. 

Xn. Florence E. Angela. 
Xylophone. 

Oeorge N. Babbitt. 
New Bbuxswick. 

F. XT. Bfliinia» 
Meaoville, Pa. 

Xarcua Benjaxnuiy Ph. B. 

Associations for Advancement of Science, 
Columbus's First Landfall, 
Lk Coste, John, 
Leidt, Joseph, 

National Acadebct of Sciences, 
New York City, 
Souvenir Spoons. 
and other articles. 

Alezaader Black, 

Of Brooklyn Times. 

Photography, Recent Imfrotements in, 

« • H. A. BoGtiai 

Of Cleveland Plaindealer. 
Omo. 

Arthur E. Boatwick, Ph. D. 

Physics. 

Charlea B. Boyle. 
Binocular Vision (in Patents). 

ILCalTerty 

Secretarj of La Crowe Board of Trade. 
La Crosse. 

Thomaa Gampbell-CopelaacL 

UxnBD States Census. 

lames P. Carey, 

Financial Editor of Jonmal of Commerce. 
Financial Rktiew of 1801. 



John B. Champlin, Jr., 

Editor of " Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings." 
Fine Arts in 1891. 

Hon. Bexxjamin F. Clayton. 
Farmers* Congress. 

P. Brainerd Cogswell, 

Of Concord Monitor. 

Concord, N. H. 

Bev. Joseph Cook. 

Temperance Instruction. 

Austin E. Ford, 

Editor of Freeman^s Jonmal. 

Roman Catholic Church. 
Prof. C. W. Foss, 

Of Angnstana College. 

Hasselquist, Tuve N. 

Bev. William E. Qriffls, B. B., 

Author of " The Mikado's Empire.*' 
COREA, 

Japan. 
George J. Hagar, 

Of New Jersey Historical Society. 

Obituaries, American. 
CoL Pierce S. Hamilton, 

Of Canadian Censa>t Offlce. 

Dominion of Canada, 
Macdonald, Sir John A., 
Manitoba, 
Ontario, 
Quebec, 
and other Canadian articles. 

Bev. Hoses Harvey, 

Authorof " Text-Book of Newfoundland History.** 
Newfoundland. 

Bipley Hitchcock, 

Author of " Etching in America,** etc. 
Meissonier, J. L. E. 

Bev. George T. Houck, 

Secretary of Diocese of Cleveland. 

GiLMOUR, Robert. 



VI 



CONTRIBUTORS. 



Frank Huntington, Ph. D. 

Afghanistan, 
Belgium, 
Brazil, 
Cape Colony, 
China, 
Earth, 
France, 
Great Britain, 
Russia, 
and other articles. 

Laurence Hutton, 

Author of " Plays and Playew." 
Barrett, Lawrence, 
Florence, William J. 

Dr. Abram B. Isaacs, 

Editor of Jewish Messenger. 

Jews. 

Mrs. Helen Kendrick Johnson. 

Lowell, James Russell, 
Lytton, Earl of. 

Julius B. Johnson, 

Editor of Kokomo Tribone. 
KOKOMO. 

Prof. Samuel A. King, 

Who has made three hnndred ascensions. 
Ballooning. 

William H. Larrabee. 

Archeology, 
Baptists, 

Christian Endeavor, 
Methodists, 
Salvation Army, 
and other articles. 

Prof. Francis A. March, LL. B., 

Author of *' Philological Study of the English 
Language.'^ 

Dictionaries, New. 

Frederick Q. Mather. 

Hudson River, Improvement of, 
Human Freedom League. 

Miss Bessie B. Nicholls. 

Cities, American, Recent Growth of, 
Literature, American, 
Literature, British, 
and other articles. 

CoL Charles L. Norton. 

Patents, 

Rain. Artificial, 
and other articles. 

Bev. Solomon E. Ochsenford. 

Lutherans. 



Mrs. Evangeline M. O'Connor. 

Missouri, 
Montana, 
North Dakota, 
South Dakota, 
Vermont, 
and other articles. 

George & Parker, 

Superintendent of Schools, Chippewa Ealls. 
Chippewa Falls. 

William O. Pratt, 

Of Pratt Institute, Brooklyn. 

Pratt, Charles. 

Thomas B. Preston. 

Parnell, Charles Stewart, 
Preston, Thomas Scott, 
Wadhams, Edgar Philip, 
and other articles. 



Helen Ainslie Smith, 

Author of " Wonderful Cities of the World." 
Manual Training. 

William Christopher Smith. 

Alabama, 
California, 
Florida, 
Illinois, 
Massachusetts, 
Nebraska, 
New Hampshire, 
Utah, 
and other articles. 

Bev. Jesse A. Spencer, D. D. 

Literature, Continental, 
Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Arthur Stedman, 

Editor of reissue of Melville's works. 
Melville, Herman. 

Thomas H. Stevens, 

Rear Admiral (retired) U. S. N. 
Porter, David Dixon. 

Lewis Swift, LL. B., 

Director of Warner Observatory. 
Astronomical Progress in 1801. 

J. Kendrick Upton, 

Of United States Census Office. 
United States, Finances of the. 



S. Van Duzer, XT. S. N. 
Navy of the United States. 

William J. Yonmans, H. B., 

Editor of Popular Science Monthly. 

Chemistry, 

Metallurgy, 

Physiology. 



ILLUSTEATIONS. 



♦■» 



Portraits on Steel. 

■HORAym FAOB 

JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL A. B. Hall . Frontispiece 

RELMUTH VON MOLTKE A, B, Hall . . .536 

WILLUM TECUMSEH SHERMAN C. ScMecht ... 791 



Portraits in the Text. 



DRAWN BY JACQUES REICH. 



PAOB 

Lawrence Barrett 605 

AxxB C. L. BoTTA 608 

Charles Bradlauoh 666 

Abraham Coles 613 

Charles F. Crisp 242 

Howard Crosby 616 

Stepbex B. Elkiks 881 

WiLUAM Febrell 620 

Willum J. Florence . . . .621 

Charles Foster 830 

Richard Gilxour 624 

Eael Graktille 672 

Hanxibal Hamlin 626 

Julius K Hilgard 628 

WiLLLUI HUGGINS 42 

Joseph E. Johnston . . . • . 396 

Kalakaua I 675 

JoHx H. B. Latrobe 634 

Johx Lb Comte 635 



Joseph Leidy 636 

Earl of Lytton 470 

Joseph E. McDonald .... 639 

Jervis McEntee 640 

George H. Mackenzie .... 641 

Jean L. E. Meissonier .... 500 

Herman Melville . . . 504 
Prince Napoleon Joseph Charles Paul 

Jerome Bonaparte .... 679 

Charles S. Parnell 680 

James Parton 646 

Albert Pike ...... 647 

Sarah C. Polk 648 

David Dixon Porter .... 744 

Charles Pratt 649 

Albert B. Prescott 33 

Isaac F. Quinby 660 

William Windom 662 

Ludwig Windthorst 688 



Full- PAGE Illustrations, 

COLOEKD PlATRS — 

Northwestern Canada (map) 480 

Administration Buildino, Columbian Exposition 838 

Castle Gate, Utah 854 

Washington Irving (head of statue) 300 

Belize, British Honduras 347 

PiOBLEMs ur Manual Training 482 

ItoscLAD " Indiana ** 548 

Navy of the United States (Ave pages) 553-557 

Tou^ERAircE Map of Unttsd States 815 



Vlll 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Illustrations in the Text, 



PAGE 

Paueoliths 14 

Articles discovered at Silchester . 15 

Roman Tile 16 

Old Roman Walls 17 

Roman Altar 18 

Roman Doll, etc 19 

Gold Cup from Vapheio .... 20 

Fac-simile, Aristotle's Treatise . . 21 

Figures discovered at Thebes . . 22 

Balloon Pattern 72 

Balloon Valve 74 

Balloon Car 75 

Balloon brought down by Snow . . 76 

Balloon on the Ocean .... 77 
Balloon anchored . . . . .78 

Balloon wrecked 79 

Balloon in a Forest .... 80 
Government Building in Concord, New 

Hampshire 152 

Map showing Columbus's First Voyage . 181 

Map of Watling Island .... 182 

Monument on Watling Island . . 183 

Alcaldes of Upper Guatemala . . 352 

Elmwood, Residence ok J. R. Lowell . 449 

Fac-simile of Sonnet by Lowell . . 463 

City Hall. Winnipeg .... 479 

Soldiers* Monument, Winnipeg . . 480 
Entrance of Chicago -Manual Training 

School 484 

Forge-shop, Baltimore School . 485 

Wood-working Shop, Westchester . 491 



Reg LA Falls, Mexico 

Chihuahua Cathedral 

Polk Place, Nashville 

Folding Boat (two views) 

Elliptic Propeller 

Can-opener . 

Cloth ES-LiNE Prop 

Elastic Chain 

Foot-bath . 

Bath Lift . 

Rein Grip . 

Cattle Guard 

Curtain Rings 

Cooking Utensil 

Spoon-holder 

Screw-driver 

Book-protector 

Book-holder 

Calf-feeder 

Rope-clamp . 

Ensilage Stack 

Storm Apron 

Fish-line Guide 

Drag Anchor 

Tintometer . 

Flexible Metallic Tube 

Rotary Snow-plow . 

Ship Windlass (two views) 

Binocular Telescope (two views) 

Ilopango Volcano, Salvador 

Souvenir Spoon . 



PAGB 

521 

523 

648 

704 

704 

705 

705 

705 

705 

706 

706 

707 

707 

707 

708 

708 

708 

708 

708 

709 

709 

709 

710 

710 

711 

711 

711 

712 

713 

786 

802 



THE 



ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA. 



•♦• 



A 

ABYSSINIA, an empire in eastern Africa, people are pastoral, raising large herds of cattle. 

The present sovereign, called the Negas, is Men- besides sheep and goats. Among the vegetable 

eiek 11, formerly Kme of Shoa, who proclaimed products are indigo, which grows wild, coffee, 

himself Emperor of Kthiopia on the death of cotton, dates, sugar-cane, and grapes. The chief 

Johannes, who was killed in a battle with the exports are gums, skins, mules, ivory, and but- 

Soadanese dervishes in 1880. The country is ter. What external trade there is passes through 

ruled by feudal chiefs, who pay taxes and owe Massowah. 

military service to the Emperor. There is an The Italian Protectorate. — In return for 

ancient code of law which sets limits to the arms and other aid given by the Italians to 

rojal prerogative. The Negus maintains a mer- Menelek while he was contending against rival 

cenarv arm^ independent of the retainers of his claimant-s for the throne, he made a treaty on 

vassals, which he nas armed with modern rifles. May 2, 1889. which was construed on the part of 

Area and Population. — The area of the Em- the Italian Government as giving a protectorate 
pire of Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, is estimated at over the country. After the Kegus had con- 
244.000 square miles, embracing the kingdoms quered Tigr6 and was established on the throne 
of Tigr6. Lasta, Amhara, and Gojam, forming he sent an envoy to Italv, Degiac Makonen, who 
Aby^inia proper, the Kingdom of Shoa, the confirmed and strengtnenea the compact by 
coak lands of Danakil, the territory of the Issa signing a treat v for mutual protection m Octo- 
and other tributary Somali tribes, and the de- ber, 1§89. When Count Salimbeni, who was 
pendencies of the Bogos, Mensa, Habab, Beni- appointed Italian minister resident at the Abys- 
Amer, and other subject tribes in the north, smian court, arrived at Ankober the Emperor 
T!ie total population is estimated at 7,300.000. Menelek denied that he had accepted an Italian 
The inhabitants of Tigr^. Amhara, and Shoa, protectorate or bound himself to make the Ital- 
who are the conquering and ruling element, are lan Government his intermediary in all dealings 
the Ethiopians, of Semitic origin, emigrants in with other powers and to give the preference to 
early times from Arabia. They were converted Italians if he wished to make commercial or in- 
to Christianity in the fourth century, and still dustrial concessions to foreigners. Count An- 
practice the rites of the Alexandrian Church, tonelli, who had negotiated the original treaty. 
The abuna. or head of the national Church, re- was sent out in October, 1890, as a special envoy 
mves investiture from the Coptic Patriarch of to bring about a settlement of the question. lie 
Alexandria. The name Abyssinia is derived was unable to induce Menelek to change his atti- 
from the Arabic designation of the people, Jla- tiide, and on Feb. 11, 1891, he broke off negotia- 
b(uh ("mixed"), indicating the various inter- tions and returned with Count Salimbeni to the 
mixtures of Arabian. Hamitic, and negro blood coast, bringing away also all the Italian residents 
that are found in different parts of the country, in Shoa and Harrar. The Emperor Menelek, 

Education is in the hands of the clergy, wllo who had contracted a loan of 2,000.000 francs in 

instruct a limited number of children in choral Italy, sent gold to pay the installments as they 

^inpng, recitations from the Bible, grammar, fell due. The feud between the chief Debeb and 

and poetry. The ceremonial of the Abyssinian the other rival claimants ior the throne who 

Ohurch combines Christian observances with were defeated by King Menelek ended in a com- 

many rites borrowed from Judaism. The He- bined attack of Mangascia and Ras Alula and 

brew Sabbath and the Christian Sunday are held their retainers on the camp of Debeb on Sept. 29. 

equally sacred; circumcision is practiced, and 1891, and the rout of the last-named, who was 

Jewish ceremonies and restrictions regarding killed, 

food are enforced. , A Rnssian Expedition. — The Russian For- 

There are numerous towns, the largest of eign Office has watched with keen interest the 

which, Ankober, capital of Shoa, has 7,000 in- successes and setbacks of the Italians in Abys- 

habitants. sinia. The Atchinoff expedition was furthered 

Prodnetions and Commerce. — Although the by only two or three members of the Russian 

country is fertile, there is little tillage. The ministry, and was not approved by the Minister 

▼ou XXXI. — 1 A 



2 ABYSSINIA. AFGHANISTAN. 

of Foreign Affairs or the Minister of War, who replied that the Russian Government recognized 
had no confidence in the " Hetinan of the Free Abyssinia as an independent kingdom, and as- 
Cossacks." The Minister of War, Gen. Vannoff- sumed that the Negus had a right to receive 
sky, arranged with a more trustworthy agent, whomever he will, and could nut therefore ac- 
Lieut. Mashkoff, a native of the Caucasus who knowledge Ihf right of any foreign government 
had served in the army there. With a compan- to demand explanations regarding Mashkoffs 
ion, a Montenegrin named Zlatytshanin, Mash- mission so long as it did not con^itute a clear 
koff went to Abyssinia, taking presents for the violation of existing treaties, but that, in a friend- 
Negus and some of the chiefs, was received as a Iv way, he could assure Baron Marochetti that 
military representative of the Czar, visited An- the primary object of the expedition was scien- 
toto, Ankober, and other cities, gathered much tific. 

information about the country, and returned to Anglo-Italian Delimitation Treaty.— Pro- 
Russia in the beginning of 1890. The Negus tocols signed at Rome on March 24 and April 15, 
complained to the Russian officer of the Italians, 1891, demarkate the respective spheres of influ- 
accusing them of bad faith, and appealed for ence of England and Italy in eastern Africa, 
the assistance of the Czar to enable him to main- The line of demarkation, starting at the mouth 
tain his independence. This was the beginning of the Juba, follows the channel of the river up 
of a secret intercourse between the Russians and to 6° of north latitude, leaving Kismayu and its 
Menelek, which Atchinoff, who preceded Mash- territory in the English sphere. It follows the 
koff, was unable to establish because his ci*edcn- sixth parallel as far as 35^ east of Greenwich, and 
tials were unsatisfactory, and he was therefore then runs along that meridian up to the Blue Nile, 
warned to leave the country. The sphere of influence reserved to Italy is bound- 

The ground for the special interest of Russia ed on the north and on the west by a line drawn 

in Abyssinia is the affinity between the orthodox from Ras Kasar on the Red Sea to the point of 

and the Coptic forms of Christianity, both being intersection of the seventeenth parallel, north, 

offshoots from the Alexandrian Church. About with the thirty-seventh meridian, east. The line, 

the time when the Italians established themselves having followed that meridian to 16" 30' of north 

on the Red Sea coast and revealed the intention of latitude, is drawn from that point in a straight 

bringing Abyssinia into their sphere of influence, 1 ine to Sabderat, and thence southward to a point 

the Russian Government began to assume the on the Gash 20 English miles above Kassala, 

rdle of religious protector of the Copts, similar and rejoins the Atbara at 14' 52' of north lati- 

to that of^the French Government in relation to tude. The line ascends the Atbara to the con- 

the Syrian Christians. For four years past a fluence of the Kor Kakamot, whence it follows 

mass has been celebrated in the Coptic catnedral a westerly direction till it meets the Kor Lem- 

at Cairo by the patriarch, decked in Muscovite sen, which it descends to its confluence with the 

orders, on each birthday of the Czar. The French Rahad. Having followed the Rahad as far as 

at Obock and in Egypt, while their officials have the intersection of 35"" of east longitude, the line 

observed toward the Italians a correct though identifies itself in a southerly direction withihat 

not sympathetic attitude, have privately assisted meridian, until it meets the Blue Nile, saving 

the efforts of the Russians to establish intimate ulterior amendment of details, according to the 

relations with Abyssinia. After conferring with hydrographic and orographic conditions of the 

the Russian ministers and with the Czar, Lieut, country. The Italian Government shall be at 

Mashkoff set out in the summer of 1891 on an- liberty, in case of being obliged to do so by the 

other expedition to Abyssinia, not ostensibly po- necessities of the military situation, to occupy 

litical, but scientific, under the auspices of the Kassala and the adjoining country as far as tnc 

Geographical Society of St. Petersburg. He was Atbara. Such occupation shall not abrogate the 

accompanied by Zlatytshanin, a Russian monk rights of the Egyptian Government over the ter- 

named Tikhon, a sacristan, and a son of Gov. ritory, which shall only remain in suspense until 

Vsevoloshsky, of Tamboff. His int-ention was to the Egyptian Government shall be in a position 

arrive in Abyssinia in the rainy season, push on to retx^cupy the district. 

to Ankober, and thence to Antoto, where the AFGHANISTAN, a monarchy in central 
king holds his court, and from there make ex- Asia, dividing the British Empire in India from 
cursions to various districts of the kingdom, to the Russian possessions in Turkistan. The 
the Galla country, and perhaps to the region of reigning sovereign is the Ameer Abdurrahman 
the Blue Nile and the Soudan. The monk Tik- Khan, who was placed on the throne by the Brit- 
hon is said to have a letter from the patriarch at ish, who invaded the country in 1879 and de- 
Cairo authorizing him to officiate in the Abys- posed Yakub Khan in consequence of the massa- 
sinian churches. The leader of the expedition ere of their envoy and his followers. They had 
expects to make a commercial treaty and acquire in the previous year captured Cabul, the capital, 
territorial and raining concessions that will lead and put to flight Yakub's father and predeces- 
to the industrial employment of Russian capital sor, Shere All, and afterward withdrawn thoir 
and to an active exchange of Russian cotton forces. In 1880 the British troops were again 
goods, rifles, spirits, and salted meats for gold, withdrawn beyond the Khaibar Pass, and from 
which is abnormally abundant in Abyssinia and Candahar to Quetta, a treaty of alliance having 
the Galla districts, ivory, of which great quanti- been made with Abdurrahman by which he was 
ties are stored, and the gums and other comraer- allowed a subsidy of $50,000 a month from the 
cial products of the region. Indian treasury and engaged in his relations 

Before the departure of the expedition Baron with foreign powers to follow the advice of the 

Marochetti, the Italian ambassador at St. Pe- Governor-General of India. The Indian Govem- 

tersburg. questioned M. do Giers as to its pur- ment supplies him with the munitions of war, 

pose. The Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs and he has lately organized an army, independ- 



AFGHANISTAN. 3 

ent of the tribal levies. The regular infantry is subservience to Russia, is governed by the fear 

said to number 8,000, and the entire military that his northern neighbors may at any timed is- 

force 50,000 men. rupt the empire that he has struggled hard to 

Arem and Population.— The country is di- establish with the aid of more than £1,000,000 

vided into the four provinces of Cabul, Afghan of English money. The Indian Government does 

Tarkistan, Herat, and Candahar, and the dis- not venture to tax him with disloyalty, or even 

tricts of Shignan and Badakhshan. The popula- to demand permission to extend the Pishin Kail- 

tton is about 4,000,000, the Ghilzais numbering road to Candahar, where an English armv could 

al)oat 1,000.000, the next most numerous tribe flank a force seeking to invade India through 

being the Tadjiks, who are found in various Afghanistan. The railroad terminates now at 

parts of the country following agriculture and the outlet of the Kojak tunnel, in "a hole in the 

industrial trades, after which come the Duranis, wall," as it has been described, whence it is im- 

the Aimaks and Hazaras, who are of Tartar de- possible to extend it 70 miles to Candahar with- 

scent, and the Uzbecks. out provoking a fresh war with Afghanistan. 

Productions and Commerce.— The soil in which would throw the Afghans into the arms ' 
most pans of Afghanistan is irrigated, and pro- of Russia. Such an eventuality was anticipated 
duces a summer crop of wheat, barley, or leg- when the scientific frontier of northwestern 
umes, and an autumn crop of rice, millet, or India was determined on, to complete which 
maize. The country abounds in asafoetida, which Candahar will be necessary. This system of de- 
is largelj^ exported* to India, in madder, and the fense. that was adopted as the alternative of a 
castor-oil plant, and in many kinds of fruit of strong and friendly Afghanistan which should 
excellent quality, on which many of the inhabi- serve as a bulwark against Russia, entailed an in- 
tants mainly subsist, and which in a preserved crease of £4,000,000 in the annual military ex- 
state is exported in large quantities. The min- penditures of India, and the increase has now 
eral products are copper, lead, iron, gold, and risen to £6,000,000, exceeding the cost of the 
precious stones. The chief manufactures are Afghan war. The Ameer, who would consider 
carpets, felt, silk, and sheepskin postins. The an English advance to Candahar a more serious 
imports from India in 1889-'90 were £813,450, menace to his power than a Russian occupation 
and the exports to India £346,214, showing a of the conquered province of Herat, protested 
marked improvement in trade, which was due to vigorously when the terminus of the British line 
the cessation of internal disturbances. Transit was established at Chaman, asserting that it lay 
dues imposed by the Ameer prevent the importa- within his territory. 

tion of English or Indian goods into the popu- The Russian Transcaspian line, the starting- 
lous parts of the country north of Cabul. The point of which is to be transferred from Uzun 
duties on Russian Imports are relatively much Ada on the Ca<!pian to Krasnovodsk, which is 
lighter. The Ameer is making efforts to estab- a superior port farther to the north, runs tor 400 
lish manufactures in his country. Trade with miles in a southeasterly direction parallel to the 
Russia and Bokhara fell off in consequence of mountain range that forms the boundary of 
the late depression in Afghanistan; out still Persia to Dushak, and then turns in a north- 
commercial relations with Kussia are becoming easterly direction and crosses the sand desert to 
closer, and at the last fair in Nijni-Nov^orod Merv and the Oxus, and terminates at Sa mar- 
Afghan merchants and goods were seen for the cand, its total length being 900 miles. The oasis 
first time. of Merv is being made by irrigation as fruitful 

Political Situation.— After suppressing the as it was in ancient times. At Dushak the Rus- 
rebelHoD of Isak Khan in 1888, Abdurrahman sian railroad is in closest proximity to Meshed, 
remained till the autumn of 1890 mostly at the capital of the rich Persian province of Kho- 
Mezar, the chief place of Afghan Turkistan, for rassan. as well as to the famous Afghan fortress 
the purpose of orsanizin^ the administration of Herat, and a branch line is being constructed 
and crushing out the hostile elements, which he in the direction of Sarakhs, which is only 100 
did with relentless cruelty. Yet without the miles from Meshed and 170 miles from Herat, 
friendly offices of the Russian authorities, who Some Anglo-Indian military critics deprecate 
gave Isak Khan a sumptuous asylum at Samar- the abandonment of the plan ol having a friendly 
cand, but afterward removed him to Tashkend Afghanistauasabnfferagainst Russian invasion, 
in order to check his intrigues, and who co-oper- because there are some hundreds of passes 
ated with the Ameer in his efforts to replace pil- through the mountains into India, to fortify and 
lage and violence with commerce and peaceful garrison all of which would transcend the re- 
industry, the Afghan mler would not have sue- sources of the Indian Empire. Both Russian 
ceeded In gaining the ^ood-will of the Uzbecks and British military explorers have recently 
of Khulm Atshe, Shiborgan, Maimene, and visited the Pamir and Ivashcrar and attempted 
Andkhoi, and in permanently holding in check reconnoissances in Tibet. The Indian Goveni- 
the adherents of Isak. In requital for their ment has sought to gain the friendship of the 
amicable support the Russians received impor- predatory inhabitants of Kundjut by paying 
tant trade concessions. Caravans from Merv and them a subsidy. Capt. Younghusband, leading 
Samarcand were granted free ingress into Herat, a so-called scientific expedition to the Pamir and 
Mezar, and Maimene, although no English mer- Kashgar, was warned by the Russians not to en- 
chant is permitted to visit Candahar or Cabul ter the Little Pamir, which borders on ('hinese 
for trading' purposes. The Uzbecks, Turcomans, Turkistan. He found, in August, 1891, that a 
Tadjiks, Kizilbashe^, and Aimaks, who inhabit Russian outpost was established in that region, 
the region north of the Hindu-Kush. look upon which the British assert to be a part of Afghan- 
the Russians as their protectors against the Af- istan, while the Russians claim that the Ameer 
ghan oppressors; and the Ameer of Cabul, in his never held effective dominion over the Pamirs, 



4 AFGHANISTAN. ALABAMA. 

On information sent by him to Gilgit, a force of noitre after the arrival of the Russians, were for- 

Qoorkhas outnumbering the Russian guard was mally prohibited from entering the region claimed 

sent into'the Pamir, and the Rxissians withdrew by Russia. The Russians dispute the right of 

to avoid a collision China to the posts of Enghen, Irkistam, and 

The Alichur, or Great Pamir, and the Little Ulukchat, and all the passes west of Kash^r, 

Pamir are bleak and desolate table-lands, 10,000 insisting on the frontier conceded by YaEub 

to 14,000 feet above the level of the sea, bounded Khan in his negotiations with Prince Kuro- 

on the north by Russian territory, on the east patkin. 

by Kashgaria, a Chinese province, on the west ALABAMA, a Southern State, admitted to the 
by Afghanistan, and on the south by Chitral, Union Dec. 14, 1819 ; area, 52.250 square miles. 
Gilgit, and Jassin, Himalayan states under Brit- The population, according to each decennial cen- 
ish protection. The boundary between the Brit- sus since admission was 127,901 in 1820 ; 809,527 
ish and the Russian spheres of influence has not in 1880 ; 590,750 in 1840; 771,628 in 1850 ; 964,- 
been marked out in this region, as it has before 201 in 1860; 996,992 in 1870; 1,262,505 in 1880 ; 
the gates of Herat on the northwestern frontier and 1,518,017 in 1890. Capital, Montgomery, 
of Afghanistan Since the delimitation in the Government. — ^The following were the State 
west the British have extended their dominion officers during the year : Governor, Thomas G. 
over Cashmere and the frontier Hill states bor- Jones, Democrat ; Secretary of State, J. D. Bar- 
dering on the Pamir, an English military agent ron ; Treasurer, John L. Cobbs ; Auditor, Cyrus 
has l^n stationed at Kashgar with the assent D.Ho^ue; Attorney-General, William L. Martin ; 
of the Chinese Government, the Chinese have Superintendent of Public Instruction, John B. 
laid claim to sovereign rights over parts of the Harris ; Commissioner of Agriculture, Reuben 
Pamir, and the Ameer has reduced semi-inde- F. Kolb, succeeded in September by Hector D. 
pendent tribes in the east of his dominions and Lane ; Railroad Commissioners, Henry R. Short- 
conquered districts outside his former boundaries- er, Levi W. Lawier, W. C. Tunstall; Chief Jus- 
His rapprochement toward Russia is said to have tice of the Supreme Court, George W. Stone ; 
resulted in the renunciation of his rights over Associate Justices, David Clopton, Thomas N. 
the khanate of Wakhand and of all claims to McCleilan, Thomas W. Coleman, and R. W. 
the Pamir steppes. The Russians have sent out Walker, who was appointed by the Governor in 
so-called scientific expeditions, sometimes at- May, pursuant to the act of Feb. 12, 1891, pro- 
tended with Cossack guards, which have ex- vidmg for an additional justice of this court, 
plored the Alichur and the Little Pamir up to Finances. — The balance in the State treasoiry 
the British frontier. Col. Gromtchevski in 1889 on Oct. 1, 1890, was $332,561.17. For the fiscal 
overpowered an Afghan detachment that was year 1890-'91 the State tax rate of four mills 
sent to arrest him, and by means of presents in- produced revenue insufficient to meet the cur- 
duced the officers of a Chinese outpost at the rent State expenses, and the balance on Oct. 1 
confluence of the Aksu and the Istigh to let him of this year was therefore slightly reduced from 
proceed to Kashgar. He found the Kilik Pass the figures above given. In 1891-'92 the rate 
over the Hindu- Rush mountains exceedingly will be four mills for re^lar State expenses, and 
easy, and received a friendly welcome in the Hill one half-mill additional to raise money for Con- 
state of Hanza-Nagyr Afghan outposts turned federate pensions, pursuant to the act passed this 
him back at the Baroghil Pass, and Col. Nisbet, year. 

English resident in Cashmere, warned him away Railroads. — The valuation of railroad prop- 

from Ladak. The Russian Government has sev- erty for 1891, as fixed by the State Board of 

eral times invited the English Government to Assessment, was $46,797,928.26, an increase of 

demarkate the frontier in the Pamir region. $3,459,146.79 over 1890. There were 3,177 miles 

The Russians claim the greater part of the of railroad reported for assessment, an increase 

Pamir by reason of an agreement made between of 110 miles over 1890. 

Prince GortchakofF and Lord Clarendon in 1872 Banks. — The thirty national banks of the 
and restated in the delimitation treaty, which State held, on May 4, resources amounting to 
makes the Oxus the boundary between the $14,766,442, of winch loans and discounts were 
spheres of infiuence of the two countries up to $8,765,694. Their combined capital stock 
its source. Notwithstanding this agreement, amounted to $4,329,000 ; their surplus fund to 
the Russian authorities have recogfnized Shignan $1,029,657 ; their undivided profits to $742,493 ; 
and other tracts over which the Ameer was their issue of bank notes to $1,094,330; and in- 
found to exercise effective sovereignty north of dividual deposits to $6,260,527. 
the Oxus as Afghan territory. The English CoaL — The coals of Alabama embrace all the 
have assumed that the river flowing from Lake bituminous varieties, such as gas, coking, block, 
Victoria in the Alichur plateau is the principal splint, and cannel. Mining of coal was begun in 
head-stream of the Oxus. This the Russians this State about 1853, but the total output did 
hold to be a mistake, because the Aksu, rising in not reach 100,000 tons until 1876. The produc- 
a lake in the Little Pamir, is much longer and tion for the census year 1880 was 323,972 tons, 
carries a greater volume of water. The geo- valued, at $476,911 at the mines. The product 
graphical expeditions of Gromtchevski, Greshi- for the calendar year 1889 was 8,378,484 tons, 
mailo, and others were followed in 1891 by one valued at $3,707,426. The average number of 
of a more plainly political character, led by persons employed during the year, including 
Prince Galitzin and accompanied by a strong superintendents, engineers, mechanics, and cler- 
Cossack escort, which started from Osh, in the ieal force, was 6,762, and the amount of wages 
Russian province of Ferghana, formerly the paid was $31,175,356. 

khanate of Khokand. Capt. Younghusband Popnlatlon by Races. — The following table 

and Lieut. Davison, who attempted to recon- shows the white and colored population of the 



ALABAMA. 



5 



several connties in 1880 and in 1800, according 
to the Federal census. 



OOUNTIES. 



TheStOe. 

AauagB.... 
Baklwlii.... 
Barboar.... 

Bibb 

BlooBt 

Halloek .... 

Builer 

Calhoan 

(IttJDben . . 
Cherokee... 

CfaBtUHL 

Cboctaw 

elarke 

Ck? 

Ck^me ... 

Coffee 

Colbert. 

rontsctth.... 

COOM 

i'ovington... 
CY««slia«r . . , 

CuDnuD 

DtJe , 

Iialbii 

DeKAlb 

Elanore 

Eacainbii.... 
Etowah . . . . , 

F«y«'tte 

Fraakiio . . . . 

Genera. 

tireeaie 

IlaJe 

Ilesry 

J«ck84>B 

JeffenoD . . . . 

Lanur 

L&oderdafo., 
LAwrenee. . . . 

Lee 

Limeatooe... 
I/iwndes.... 

UaeoB 

U»ason 

Mtreogo. 

Marlon 

ManbAlL. .. 

Mobile 

Monroe 

Mootfooiery, 
Morean 

Perrj' 

Pickeiu 

Pike 

Sandolpb 

KasMir 

StCbir 

^heIb]r 

Stnnttf 

TailadegB.... 
Tatlaponax . . 
Tnscakwea... 

WwUofftao . 

Wibox 

Wiflstoo..... 



WBITK. 



1890. 



880,796 



4.T42 

\9,9il 

9,044 
20,1 to 

e,06« 
11,968 
28.891 
12,244 
17,625 
11,488 

8,110 

9,629 
14,US6 
12,896 
10,183 
12.240 

7,956 
10,486 

6,718 
11,';82 
18,894 
18,8W 

7,906 
19,S81 
11,829 

&,674 
16s097 
11.062 

9,;^ 

9,(M8 
8,198 

1^889 

24.132 

66,958 

1I,88S 

1 6.^64 

12.546 

12,149 

12,075 

4,466 

4,148 

19,228 

7,814 

10.786 

17.552 

28,186 

8327 

14,580 

17,908 

6.806 

9.286 

15,688 

18,984 

5.792 

14.285 

14,2S1 

5.919 

15,848 

16.%54 

18,318 

11,409 

4,716 

6,C4S 

6,520 



1880. 



OOLOKKD. 



662,155 



4,897 

4,890 

13,091 

5,887 

14,210 

6,944 

10,6S4 

14,184 

11,864 

16,418 

8,651 

7,5390 

7,718 

ll,diO 

10.808 

6,881 

9,203 

6,224 

10.050 

4,968 

9,118 

6,812 

10,558 

8,425 

11,968 

8,747 

4,106 

12.896 

8,878 

8,079 

8,829 

8,765 

4.908 

11,994 

21,074 

18,219 

9.967 

14,178 

12,642 

12,217 

11,687 

5.645 

4,587 

1&591 

7,277 

8,S41 

18.084 

27.187 

7,780 

18,4ft7 

11,758 

7,150 

9,182 

14,868 

18.155 

6,182 

11,021 

12,258 

6,451 

10.856 

16,108 

l.%216 

8,978 

2.807 

6.711 

4,286 



1890. 


1880. 


681.481 


600.108 



8,487 

8 806 

21,576 

4,78u 

1,812 

20,996 

10,278 

9,941 

14,076 

2,884 

8,116 

9,412 

12,996 

1,679 

822 

1,987 

7,949 

6,688 

5,420 

828 

8,€92 

46 

8,870 

41,487 

1,223 

10,408 

2,bl6 

8,829 

1.761 

1,181 

1.047 

18,815 

22,448 

8,998 

8,887 

81,581 

2,849 

7,178 

8.189 

16JM5 

9,125 

87.084 

14.290 

18,886 

25,261 

C61 

1,881 

28,046 

10.660 

41.686 

61?8 

22,524 

18,184 

8,780 

8,286 

18,801 

8,061 

6.606 

28.655 

14.008 

8^606 

18,188 

1,669 

8,219 

24,168 

88 



8,710 
8,675 

20,884 
8,600 
1,159 

82,119 

8,905 
5.457 
12,075 
2,690 
2,142 
8,-^41 

iaos6 

1.108 

668 

1,2SS 

6.050 

6,880 

6,059 

671 

2,608 

48 

8,122 

40,007 

688 

8,755 

1.590 

8,508 

1,262 

1,076 

518 

18,166 

21.650 

6,767 

4,088 

5,058 

2,178 

6,860 

8,750 

15,041 

9.968 

85,628 

12,784 

19.084 

88,618 

520 

1,496 

21,448 

9,284 

8t^.899 

4,670 

28,591 

12,847 

6,272 

8.420 

1^665 

2,884 

4.988 

22,271 

12,504 

7,298 

9,741 

501 

1,729 

85,117 

17 



The population of the State in 1890 also in- 
cluded 40 Chinese and 750 Indians. 

Iron Ore. — ^The following statistics respect- 
ing the iron-mining industry of Alabama for 
the year 1889 are reported by the Federal Census 
Bureau : Number of mines reporting, 48 ; num- 
ber producing, 45; amount of ore produced, 
1,570,319 long tons; value of product, $1,511,- 
611; total shipments from the mines, 1,526,982 
long tons; value of shipments, $1,457,814; cap- 
ital invested in iron mining, $5,244,902 (of which 
the value of land is $4,258,645) ; total number of 



employes, 3,081; total wages paid, $995,222; 
total cost of producing one long ton of iron 
ore, 82 cents. In the amount of iron ore 

Produced Alabama stands second among the 
tates, while the cost of production is lower 
than in any other State. Since 1880 the 
total product has increased from 171,139 long 
tons to 1,570,319 long tons, or about 817 per 
cent., and the capital invested from $586,442 to 
$5,244,902. 

Legislative Session.— The General Assem- 
bly, which convened at Montgomery on Nov. 11, 
1890, completed its sessions on Feb. 18, 1891, hav- 
ing taken a month's recess over the Christmas 
holidays. Early in the session a contest arose 
between rival Democratic candidates for the 
seat in the United States Senate held by James 
L. Pugh. Senator Pugh sought a re-election, 
his competitors being Commissioner of Agri- 
culture Keuben F. Kolb, ex-Gov. Thomas Seay, 
and ex-Gov. Thomas H. Watts. On the first 
ballot in the Democratic caucus, on Nov. 18, 
Pugh received 42 votes, Kolb 42, Seay 82, and 
Watts 11. Thirty-one caucus ballots were taken 
without a choice, the last standing Pugh 52, 
Kolb 34, Seay 24, and Watts 11, after which the 
contest was transferred to the General As.sembly. 
In that body, on Nov. 28, Senator Pugh secured 
a re-election on the second joint ballot, receiving 
90 votes to 39 for ex-Gov, Watts. Among the 
noteworthy laws of the session is an act re- 
quiring all railroads, other than street railroads, 
to provide equal but separate accommodations 
for the white and colored races, by furnishing 
two or more passenger care for each train, or by 
dividing each car by a partition. A new pension 
law authorizes the annual levy for six yeare of a 
State tax of one half-mill on each dollar of taxa- 
ble property, the proceeds to be divided, pureuant 
to tne provisions of the act, among maimed and 
needy Confederate soldiere and sailore and the 
widows of their deceased comrades, no applicant 
receiving more than $50 annually. An act for 
the improvement of the convict system provides 
for a commission, consisting of the Governor, 
the Board of Inspectore of Convicts, and one 
other person to be appointed by the Governor, 
which shall purchase laud, erect buildings, and 
procure machinery, live stock, and other appli- 
ances, to furnish employment for convicts not 
leased or worked unaer contract, provided not 
more than $10,000 be expended under this act 
before Oct. 1, 1892. The commission is also di- 
rected to investigate the subject of working all 
convicts on State account at all such industries 
as it may think desirable, and shall prepare a bill 
for the next General Assembly creating a new 
and complete convict system, providing for the 
employment of all convicts on State account as 
soon as practicable, and providing also for a 
reformatory prison for juvenile convicts, if the 
latter institution shall seem desirable. The same 
commission is authorized to sell the tract of land 
known as the State farm and to turn the pro- 
ceeds into the treasury. An act to regulate the 
mining industry establishes a board of examiners, 
consisting of an inspector of mines and two min- 
ing engineers to be appointed by the Governor for 
two years, which shall examine and give certifi- 
cates of fitness and service to mine bosses. After 
one year from the passage of the act, no person 



6 ALABAMA. 

other than those already acting as mine bosses pital, whereon some of the inmates may be em- 
shall be employed as sucli, unless he have a certifi- ployed; and $10,000 was G;iyen to the Medical 
cate from the board. The Inspector of Mines is Uollege of Alabama at Mobile for remodeling^ 
further re(}uired to visit all underground mines at the buildings and purchasing apparatus. For 
least once m three months, to examine them, and each of the years 1891 and 1892 the expenditure 
order such changes as are needed to secure the of $13,500 on an encampment of the State troops 
health and safety of miners. His orders may be was authorized. 

enforced by the courts. The act applies only to Other acts of the session were as follow : 
mines where more than 20 persons are employed. _. ^^..j.a -^ i... 

The ovster industry was regulated by an act y,^'"'^'^'^^ ^^ Confederate Awociation of Ala- 

that forbids the toking of oysters by non-resi- 'ro'incorporate the cities of Giraid, Ozark, Ashe- 

dents of the State, prohibits the export of oys- yille, and Bridgeport. 




cents a barrel on all ovstere Uken in the State. . To estogish new charters for tlio cities of Binning- 

Provision was made to establish the Quaran- '^T«'^«.ii?K^S'; ..u fti«,;«i,?«« n. «i^«« t^ .^^ 

tine Board of Mobile Bay which is autLr^ed ^^il^or^^^V^^^^^ 

to take land and erect at the entrance of Mobile b»sjco, or cigarette paper, or anv substitute therefor. 

Bay the buildings, wharves, and other structures Authorizing the issue of $460,000 in bonds by the 

necessary for a quarantine station. It shall make city of Birmingham for internal improvements, 

quarantine regulations, and shall cause every in- Authorizing the issue of $400,000 in bonds by tlio 

coming vessel to be inspected by its officers, city of Montgomery for constructing water works. 

The sum of $26,000 was appropriated on condi- . ™^l?'j?^ ^A""^^"!. u^r^^Jllr^iSf^lS^.r 

♦;r.». ♦!,«* iu^k;i» n»..»f» ilL+-fu«*« *u« -^«»«:« husband or widow or children, or their descendanta, 

tion that Mobile County contribute the remain- ^^^ ^^^ ^ or parents^ his or her property 

der of the total amount needed to complete the ghall pass to both parents in equal portions, or ifonlv 

necessary buildings, and further undertake to one parent is alive, half shall go to him or her aiui 

pay the cost of maintaining the station above half to the brothers and sisters and their descendant; 

the income derived from quarantine fees. provided that, if there be no such relatives, the whole 

The State was red istrictod for members of both shall go to the surviving parent 

branches of the General Assembly, and the fol- , Imposing upon each peddlerofclocks a State Ucen*^ 

i^«»;«,» .,«™ ^»»,»Aoo;^s.^«i ^;.f..://a «,«•« »cf..u tax of $500, and a county license t«x of $2o0 for each 

owing new congressional districts were estab- eounty in which such b^^iness is carried on. 

lished : First District, counties of Marengo, Choc- To provide for the teaching in the public schools of 

taw, Clarke, Monroe, Washington, and Mobile ; physiology and hygiene, with special reference to the 

Second District, Montgomery, Pike, Crenshaw, effects of alcoholic drinks, stimulants, and narcotics 

Covington, Butler, Conecuh, Escambia, Baldwin, upon the human system. 

and Wilcox; Third District, Lee, Russell, Bui- Extending Uie scope of the geological survey of the 

lock, Barbour, Dale, Henry, Coffee, and Geneva; ^^' .j i. .i. _^ * r ^i. i. i 

Fourth District, Dalton, Chilton, Shelbv, Talla^ . ^S*^"!^'^^ •^**'" ^^® apportionment of the school 

1 ^*^«''» »*'•', x^cMvvii, v>.iiiw.i, ik^ti^wT, xoiin^ ^jjjjj ^ ^lj^ vanous townships and school distncts ac- 

dega, Calhoun, and Cleburne ; Fifth District, cording to the entire numfcr of children of scliool 

Lowndes, Autauga, Tallapoosa, Elmore, Macon, a^e. 

Coosa, Chambers, Randolph, and Clay ; Sixth Increasing the amount of time which the Governor 

District, Sumter, Pickens, Greene, T/iscaloosa, may deduct for good behavior from the sentence of 

Lamar, Fayette, Marion, and Walker : Seventh prisoners. . « , , 

District, De Kalb, Marshall, Etowah, C:ullman, St. To provide for ttie legal examination of dead bodies 

Clair, Wilson, Cherokee, and Franklin; Eighth ''^rK'^iJltel'Tf ^^^^ ^f ,i„:.„. 

TM *_!• 4. T 1 TUT J' T • 4. \r Ao prohibit the payment or allowance oi claims 

District Jackson, Madison Limestone Morgan, ^^^inst the estates of decedents, which have been 

Lauderdale, Lawrence, and Colbert ; Ninth Dis- barred by the statute of limitations in tlie life of such 

trict, Jefferson, Bibb, Hale, Perry, and Blount. decedent 

The State Supreme Court was enlarged from To prevent justices of the peace and notaries public 

four to five members. The oflHce of Coinmis- from sentencing defendants to hard labor for costs, 

sioner of Agriculture, heretofore filled by ap- To nunish persons who keep cock-pits, or who pub- 

pointment of the Governor, was declared elect- ^^'^oX^^^ lands bid in by the State for taxes. 

1 onS*"^^ provision was made for an election in ^o est5^ the legal weights of agricultural prod- 

1892 and every second year thereafter to choose ucts. -o -© -o 

an incumbent Following the precedent set by To prohibit pools, trusts, or combines to regulate or 

the General Assembly of 1889^ the legislators oontrw the prices or products, goods, wares, and mer- 

appropriated $350,000 annually for the public chandise, and imposing penalties for violations of the 

schools in 1891 and 1892. A school for deaf, a<^. . ^ . ^ 

dumb, and blind children of the negro race, _^VY»^» ^o every mechanic, fii^^ 

««ii«^ f k« A i«u»r»« c^Ur.^1 #^« XT««»^ Tk^# M..4.^i poration, or other person who shall work on or furnish 

called the Alabama School for Ne^ro Deaf Mutes Material, fixtures, Engine, boiler, or machinery for any 

and Blind, was established at lalladega, on a building, article, improvement, or utility on land, or 

site given to the State, and |12,000 were appro- for altering, repairinj^. or beautifying the same, a lien 

priated for buildings. The Ladies* Memorial therefor on such building, article, imprevement, or 

Association of Montgomery secured 1 10,000 utility, and on the lot ofland on which the same ia 

from the State to aid in completing a monu- situated, and also a lien for coste, including a reason- 

ment to the Confederato soldier, after b^ing re- ^tsShl^^ a^Spri^^^^^^^^ t^hool of industrial 

fused by the preceding General Assembly. An ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ for thelestitute children of Confed- 

appropnation of f 12,500 was granted for the erate soldiers and sailora, known as the Confederate 

purchase of land and the erection of buildings Children's Industrial School, to be under State con- 

lor farm purposes near the Alabama Insane Hos- trol, but supported by private funds. 



ALABAMA. 



Providing that not fewer than fifty State or oounty 
convicts shall be hired to one person, or kept at one 
prtaon.eicept at the coal mines, where not fewer than 
one hundred shall bo kept at one prison and worked 
at one place, women being in all cases separated from 
men. 

Edneatlon.— For the year endine Sept. 80, 
ISifO, the State Superintendent of Eoucation re- 
ports the following public-school statistics for 
ten of the thirteen separate school districts iu 
the State, and for the counties outside of the 
se(iante districts : 



rrEMs. 



Popfls ouWIed, wMte 

Pupils cBRriled, eolorad 

Avenge* tttendaooe, white 

Avenge atteiMUDoe, onlored. 

Namwr of irUto tcbools 

Namber of colured lehooia 

iLaie tMcbera, white schools. 

MAle teachon, eulored schools 

Femsle tcachen, white schools 

Female teachers, colored schools. 

ATenge mnuthly pay, white teachers. . . 
Average monthqr pay, colored teachers.. 
Avenge school year in days 



CcNWtlM. 



180,495 

111,648 

lUd.66l 

60,5U7 

4,184 

8,174 

8,M6 

1,887 

688 
$28 04 
$21 U5 



Oiftricls. 



8,891 
S,4M 

8,799 
l,t44 



The total receipts of the State school fund 
during the year were $495,164.84, from which 
the sum of $455,658.01 was apportioned to the 
sereral counties and school districts, the remain- 
der being devoted to the normal schools and 
expenses of superintendence. An enumeration 
of the school population at the beginning of the 
school year snowed 295,766 white children and 
226,925' colored; total, 522.691. A similar enu- 
meration in 1891 showed 307,653 white and 239,- 
H93 colored ; total, 547,546. 

The numbers of pupils enrolled at the normal 
schools during the year 1889-*90 were as follows : 
State Normal College, Florence — normal depart- 
ment, 231; training school, 105. Livingston 
Xormal School, 120. Troy Normal College, 282. 
Jacksonville Normal School, 183. Huntsville 
Normal and Industrial School, 258. Tuskeegee 
Normal and Industrial Institute — normal depart- 
ment, 447; training school, 110. Montgomery 
Normal School — normal deJMurttaient, 371; pre- 
paratory department. 457. 

World's Fair Conveiitioii.— No appropria- 
tion was made by the General Assembly of 1890- 
*91 to {secure a representation of the State at the 
World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. The 
legislators resentfully refused to take any ac- 
tion upon this subject so long as the Republicans 
ia Con^^ress continued to press the bill for the 
regulation of congressional elections. After 
that bUl had been defeated in Congress, a meas- 
ure appropriating $30,000 for the exposition, 
which was introduced and passed in the Senate, 
was defeated in the lower nouse. Under these 
circumstances a convention was called, under 
private auspices, to meet in Montgomery in the 
latter part of May, and to provide means for se- 
curing a fund for a suitable State exhibit. At 
thici convention it was decide^ to incorporate a 
company, known as The Alabama World's Pair 
Association, with a capital stock of $25,000, which 
(^ald be increased to $100,000, and to invite popu- 
lar subscriptions at the rate of $1 a share. The 
officers of this company were authorized to ex- 
pend the money so collected in procuring a 
proper exhibition of the resources of the State at 



the exposition. A committee of women was 
appointed and authorized to call a convention of 
women not later than Dec. 1, at which provision 
should be made to obtain an exhibit of the in- 
dustries of Alabama women. It was further 
resolved 

That this convention request the Commissioner of 
Agriculture of this State, by and with the approval of 
tlie Governor, to expend not exoeedinff $10,000 of the 
fund in the treasury of the State to tne credit of the 
Department of A^nculture not otherwise appropriated 
in accordance with the code, to illustrate the resources 
of this State at the Columbian Expofdtion. 

Besolvedy further^ That not less than $50,000 shall 
be raised by private subscription or otherwise for the 
same purpose. 

PolltlCAl. — Although there was no general 
election this year, the political history of the 
State was not without interest. A serious breach 
had been made in the Democratic ranks as a re- 
sult of the contest of 1890. On one side were 
the supporters of Reuben F. Kolb, Commissioner 
of Agriculture, a leader of the Farmers' Alliance, 
who had lost the gubernatorial nomination in 
1890 by only a few votes, and who later was de- 
feated as a candidate for United States Senator. 
On the other side were the old Democratic lead- 
ers, who opposed the efforts of Kolb to obtain 
control of the party by the aid of the Farmers' 
Alliance. The Democratic State Committee met 
early in July and appointed a committee, which 
later in the month issued an address to the people 
urging the formation of local Democratic clubs 
and the necessity of loyal support to the party. 
Later in the year spealcers were sent out to com- 
bat the Alliance doctrines. The sub-treasury 
scheme, advocated by the Alliance, was specially 
denounced. Soon after his inauguration Gov. 
Jones ordered an investigation into the official 
conduct of Commissioner Kolb. In April he 
received a report from the examiner declaring 
that the accounts of the office were loosely kept, 
and that evidence had been found to show that 
the commissioner and his clerks had charged the 
State for railroad fares when they actually rode 
on free passes. No action was taken on this re- 
port, and it seems not to have injured the popu- 
larity of Kolb with the Alliance. But when, on 
Sept. 1, his term of office expired, he was not 
reappointed by the Governor, who named Hec- 
tor D. Lane as his successor. Kolb then re- 
fused to vacate the office, claiming that the 
General Assembly had deprived the Governor of 
his appointive power over the office by the act of 
this year making it elective, and providing for 
the election of an incumbent at the general elec- 
tion in 1892. A suit against him was at once 
brought- by Lane in the probate court of Mont- 
gomery County, in which the judge decided that 
the appointment of I^ane was void. An appeal 
was taken to the State Supreme Court, where ar- 
guments were made on Sept. 23. On Oct. 5 a 
majority of the court rendered a decision over- 
ruling the lower court and declaring the ap- 
pointment of Lane to be valid, on the ground 
that the act by its terms did not take enect till 
the next general election in 1892, and that, 
meanwhile, the Governor, acting under the old 
law, had power to appoint a successor to Kolb 
at the end of his term. The minority opin- 
ion, signed by two judges, held that the act took 
effect at once npon its passage, taking away the 



8 ANGLICAN CHURCHES, 

power of appointment by the Governor ; that to them, and defines conditions on which those 

kolb was thereby ousted from office as soon as who enter them, being not less than thirty years 

the act was passed, and that a special election of age, may undertake life-long engagements to 

should have been called to fill the vacancy. In their work, but prescribes against any interfer- 

cither case the decision was adverse to Kolb, and ence with the freedom of individual sisters to 

Commissioner Lane, in accordance with the ma- dispose of their property as they may see fit. 

jority opinion, proceeded to discharge the duties The resolutions concernmg deaconesses declare 

of the office. that " deaconesses having, according to the best 

ANGLICAN CHURCHES;^ Property and authorities, formed an onler of ministry in the 
ReTenaes of the Church of England. — A early Church, and having t)roved their efficiency 
return has been published of the property and in the Anglican Church, it is desirable to en- 
revenues of the Cnurch of England as presented courage the formation of deaconesses* institu- 
to Parliament by the Ecclesiastical Commission- tions and the ^ork of deaconesses in our dio- 
ers. It shows that the aggregate annual income ceses and parishes," and provides that deacon- 
of the Church amounts to £5,753,557, of which esses shall )je admitted in solemn form by the 
£5,469,171 are derived from ancient endowments, bishop with benediction by laying on of hands; 
and £284,386 from private benefactions since that there shall be an adequate term of prepara- 
1703. The lands, titne rent-charges, and other tion and probation ; that thev may be released 
sources of income held by the occupants of archi- from their obligations by the bishop of the dio- 
episcopal and episcopal sees have produced a cese in which they were admitted ; that license 
gross total of £87,827 from ancient endowments to serve in any parish may be given by the btsh- 
and £11,081 from private benefactions since op at the request of the incumbent to any dea- 
1703. Cathedral and collegiate churches are coness emploved therein ; that their dress should 
credited with property to tne yearly value of be simple and distinctive ; that they should not 
£192,460, the whole of it from ancient endow- pass from one diocese to another without the 
ments. The holders of ecclesiastical benefices written permission of both bishofK;; and that 
receive from various enumerated sources a gross special care should be taken to provide for every 
income of £3,941,057 from ancient endowments deaconess sufficient time and opportunity for 
and £272,605 from private benefactions since the strengthening of her own spiritual life. 
1703. The total gross Church income in the Resolutions were also passed declanng that the 
hands of the Ecclesiastical! Commissioners is time had come '^ when the Church can with ad- 
£1,247,827, subject to deductions for outgoings vantage avail herself of the voluntary self-devo- 
to an unstated amount, and subject furtner to tion of brotherhoods, both clerical and lay, the 
permanent charges in favor of bishops, chapters, members of which are willing to labor in the 
archdeacons, and incumbents, amounting, " with service of the Church without appealing for 
other liabilities," to more than £950,000 a year, funds to any form of public support.** The 
Of this sum, £597,000 are paid to incumbents as - house further advised that a wide elasticity was 
augmentation grants, and the rest to bishops desirable in the rules and systems of such broth- 
chapters, and archdeacons. The governors of erhoods; that they should work in subordination 
Queen Anne*s Bounty hold a capital sum of to the authority of the bishop of the diocese, and 
£4,456,124, the income from which has been in- should be employed only under the sanction of 
eluded in the return of incomes received by the the incumbent or curate in charge in each par- 
holders of ecclesiastical benefices. They also ish; that members of them, after an adequate 
hold certain lands in the county of Lancaster term of probation, might undertake life-long 
producing a gross rental of about £700 a year, engagements, subject to release, for cause shown. 
To these sums must be added, as property belong- by the bishop ; and that the statutes of the com- 
ing to the Church, the archbishops* and bishops* munity should be under the sanction of the 
residences, with a total ratable value of £11,151 : bishop. The lower house adopted a resolution 
the residence houses attached to cathedral and asking the upper house to take steps for ad- 
collegiate churches, £18,928; and 11,667 parson- lusting the differences between the Anglican 
age houses, rated at £518,054. Of the cost of the bishop in Jenisalem and the Church Missionary 
last, more than two thirds may be r^;arded as Society, and for " strengthening the catholic relA- 
derived from private benefactions and from pay- tions of the Church of England with the ortho- 
ments made by the clergy out of their incomes! dox churches of the East, and rendering renewed 

ConTOcation of Canterbury. — The Convo- and vigorous support to the mission among the 

cation of Canterbury met for the dispatch of Mohammedans of Palestine.*' The differences 

business at Westminster, Feb. 4 The upper referred to as existing at Jerusalem grew out of 

house considered a draft of a proposed bill for charges published by the bishop in Jerusalem 

the amendment of the Marriage Act, and sent it that some of the Church missions in Palestine 

to the lower house and the House of Laymen, were prosecuted by methods at variance with ec- 

The bill is intended to meet the existing difficul- clesiastical principles and usage, and likely to 

ties in the definition of the residence of parties hinder the growtn of closer union between the 

publishing banns of marriage, and in other ways English ana Orthodox Eastern Churches ; to 

to facilitate marriage. Under it the clergy will which the Church Missionary Society replied, 

be relieved from the duty of inquiring as to resi- affirming and maintaining its methods, 

donee. A form for admitting converts from the The Houses of Convocation met, for the Fccond 

Church of Rome and for restoring those who time in the year, April 28. In the upper house 

have relapsed was approved. A report on sis- the resolutions on education adopted bv the lower 

terhoods and deaconesses was aflopted. It rec- house in 1890 were concurred in. ^he lower 

ognizes their value and importance, assumes that house resolved that if clause 2 of the Church 

the Church should extend its care and guidance Discipline bill should be adopted unaltered, Her 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 9 

Majesty be prayed to grant Convocation power 17 ; in North America, 216 ; in the West Indies, 

to frame a canon which should enable the Cnurch 84; and in Europe, 82. Of these, 127 were na- 

authorities to deprive criminous clerks of their tives laboring in Asia and 20 in Africa. There 

ecclesiastical preferments. The House of Lay- were also in the various missions about 2,800 lay 

men approved of the Clergy Discipline bill, but teachers. 2,600 students in the society's colleges, 

suggested that it be amend^ so that the sentence and 38.000 children in the mission schools in Asia 

of deprivation should be the act of the Church and Africa. 

rather than of the state ; discussed the subject The ninety-second annual meeting of the 
of relig-ious instruction in the schools; asserted Church Missionary Society was held May 5. Sir 
the need of better religious provision for work- J. H. Eennaway, if. P., presided. The total re- 
houses; and directed inquiry into the methods ceipts for the year, including those for special 
by which Christians of all denominations may funds, had been £247,787. The expenditures had 
co-operate in that work, "so as to bring the been £289.208. of which £15,656 were covered by 
whole power of Christianity to bear upon the the Nyanza. Soudan, extension, and other special 
social improvement of the people." funds applicable to the society's general work. 

Convocation met again June 80. A petition The report showed that 79 missionaries had been 

was presented and received in the upper house added to the roll, and referred, among other 

tor a committee to consider the desirability of matters, to the Anglo-Oerman agreement^ which 

altering the amended Act of Uniformity so as to had definitely committed Uganda. Usoga, and 

extend its provisions to the Sunday services, or other fields to British infiuence; to the progress 

to permit the same elasticity in ritual on Sunday of the Imperial British East Africa Company in 

that is allowed other days of the week. Thereby opening up the country ; to a readiness displayed 

the requirements might be met of parishes where by manj Mohammedans to hear the Word of (iod 

the balk of the population is estranged from the in Persia. Mesopotamia, and Palestine, and to the 

Church. A motion according to the terms of this diflBculties which had arisen in connection with 

petition was rejected in the lower house. The work in Palestine ; to the fact that at the recent 

resolations adopted by the lower house in May, National Congress in India 40 members were 

1880, on the subject of education were taken up. Christians ; to the plans for a new mission in the ' 

and such of them as were still timely were con- remote western province of Sz-chuen, to be be- 

curred in. They welcome the code of 1890 con- gun by a pioneer partjr under Rev. J. H. Hors- 

sidered as a whole, particularly in view of the rec- burgh ; to the presence in the new Japanese Par- 

ognition it gives to the importance of children's liament of 14 Christians, and the election of one 

moral training and discipline, the method of its of them to the presidency of the lower house, 

distribution of parliamentary grants to a school, The complete report shows that the society oc- 

its provisions for improvement in the character cupied 827 stations — viz., 44 in West Africa, 13 

of the instruction given, and the arrangements in eastern eouatorial Africa, 1 in Eg^pt and 

for increasing the efiiciency of small inland Arabia, 11 in Palestine, 2 in Persia, 109 m India, 

schools ; declare that the new code must fail of 17 in Ceylon, 8 in Mauritius, 28 in China, 11 in 

its purpose unless an act is obtained to provide Japan, 8(5 in New Zealand, 48 in northwest Amer- 

for an enlargement of the lis. 6d. limit, and for ica. and 9 in the north Pacific. It employed 

the exemption of public elementary schools from 4,858 missionaries, pastors, teachers, etc., of 

local rates; and seek further information regard- whom 655 were Europeans, 80 Eurasians, etc., 

ing the moral and religious training of day stu- and 8,678 natives. The whole number of native 

dents. Satisfaction was expressed that the bill Christian adherents was 195,468, of whom 50i005 

pat no new restriction on religious teaching, and were communicants, and 10.491 persons had been 

aid not interfere with the management of Church baptized during the year. There were also 1,720 

schools; and the power of the house was piledged schools, with a total of 70.811 native pupils, 

to secure adequacy of the grants given by the Curates' Angmentation Fnnd.— According 

Ftate in lieu of school fees. The report of the to the report made at its annual meeting. June 

joint committee on the Free Education bill, com- 18, the receipts of this fund for the year had been 

prising recommendations concerning details rela- £8,724. or nearly £600 more than those of the 

live to the Oovemment allowances to schools and preceding year. The sum of £6,808 had been 

to the payment of fees, was presented and con- paid in advance to 150 curates, whose average 

sidere^ The bill was also discussed in the lower service was twenty-eight years and whose average 

house and the House of Ijaymen. stipend was £126 a year. The object of the fund 

MfsflloBmry Societies. — The one hundred was to give to licensed curates who had been in 
and ninetieth annual meeting of the Society for active work for upward of fifteen years grants of 
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts £50 in augmentation of their stipend, to be con- 
was held April 80. The Archbishop of Canter- tinued as long as they remained curates. Jhe 
bury presided. The society had received during number of curates who had served the Church 
the year from all sources £164,882, or £26,000 for that j)eriod was about 1,200. The fund was 
more than in any previous year of its history, unable with its present grants to give aid to 
and by itscnlargea means it fiad been enabled to more than 125. The average stipend of curates 
extend its operations very widely. The first bish- who had been twenty-five years in holy orders 
op had been consecrated for Chota Nagpur, In- was £118. The report, asserted that this fund 
dia; the mission in New Guinea had been begun; was the only society in England that provided a 
the Bishop of Corea with a staff of missionaries fixed and certain income for the unbeneficed 
had begun their work in that country. The num- clergy, and it was the only one that directly 
lier of ordained missionaries, including eight bish- helped the older curates and the Church and of- 
ODS, on the society's lists was 660. viz., in Asia, fered a better prospect to those entering the 
«0; in Africa, 1^ ; in Australia and the Pacific, ministry. 



10 ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 

Liberation Societ j. — The annual meeting might compel her faithful members to seek other 

of the Society for the Liberation of Religion channels and agencies than her own for the 

from State Patronage and Control was held in preaching of the Gospel as a witness unto all 

London, May 6. Sir G. Trevelyan, M. P., pre- nations." 

sided, and made an address yindicatin^ the ne- The Church Union. — The thirty-second an- 

cesstty of the society taking part in political ac- nual meeting of the English Church Union was 

tivity. He mentioned as the chief matter in held in London, June 9. Viscount Halifax pre- 

which the society was now immediately inter- sided, and considered in his address the likenes^s 

ested the contemplated institution of free edu- between the conditions under which the union 

cation, and he urged his hearers to be watch- met now and those under which the leaders of 

ful to secure a real exemption from fees in all the Oxford movement took counsel just fifty 

the grades of the public scnooU, and to have the years before. They welcomed the decision of 

elementary schools, in the villages as well as in the Archbishop of Canterbury in the case of the 

the ^reat cities, placed under a real and not a Bishop of Lincoln, because, for the first time 

nommal popular control. since those matters had been made the subject 

Tlie Cnnrch Honse. — ^The foundation-stone of legal proceedings, they had had a judgment 
of the Church House was laid June 24 by the which had recognized the fact of the continuous 
Duke of Connau^htf with the assistance of the existence of the Church of England. The report 
Duke of Westminster, the Archbishop-desig- showed that 4,082 communicants had joined the 
nate of York, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and union in 1890, making the present number of 
the Bishops of London and Carlisle. The Duke members 32,975. Re«>lution8 were passed re- 
of Westmmstar, in presenting the building, said gretting the adoption of free education, ** as cal- 
that the corporation looked forward to the time culated to widen still further the sacr^ tie be- 
when it would be regarded as a central institu- tween parent and child, and to injure, if not to 
tion of supreme value to the Church at home destroy, the position of voluntary schools " ; giv- 
and to all English-speaking churches through- ing to the Rev. J. Bell Cox assurance of s^mpa- 
out the world. The Bishop of London antici- thy and support ; and pledging the union to 
pated that it would become a center of communi- work for the repeal of the law which compels the 
cation between all the different branches of the clergy to allow the use of their churches for the 
Church ; and the Bishop of Carlisle that it would marnage of divorced persons, 
do more than anything else to bring together all The Case of the Bishop of Lincoln. — The 
the clergy and laity of all sections of the Angli- court of the Archbishop of Canterbury gave its 
can Church, including the American Church. decision, Jan. 21, in the case of the prosecution 

The Church Association. — The twenty- ap^ainst the Bishop of Lincoln for offenses in 
sixth annual meeting of the Church Association ritual. The complaints against the defendant 
was held in London, May 3. The report noticed included charges that when celebrating the holy 
as among the events of the ^ear bearing upon communion, on certain specified occasions, he 
the objects of the association, the faculties had allowed two lighted candles to stand upon 
granted by the Chancellors of Hereford and (or apparently upon) the communion table ; nad 
Gloucester for the removal of ** altar" crosses and added water to the wine and administered it so 
candlesticks where the clergy and parishioners mixed ; had before the consecration prayer stood 
concurred in desiring it ; me confirmation by in what is called the eastward position ; nad dur- 
the Chancellor of Chichester of the ruling of ing the consecration prayer stood so that certain 
Chancellor Kempe that what are called " side " manual acts " could not be seen : had allowed 
altars " are now illegal in the Church of Eng- the hymn " O Lamb of God " to be sung after the 
land, and that no faculty could lawfully issue consecration ; had made the sign of the cross at 
for their erection ; the opinion given at the re- the absolution and benediction ; and had taken 
Quest of the Bishop of Gloucester by Chancellor part in what is referred to in the articles as the 
Jeune, that a bishop had no power to forbid " ceremony of ablution " — which acts, it was al- 
the removal of the Lord's table at service time ; leged, were all and each of them contrary to the 
the institution of a second suit in order to bring law. The bishop pleaded that the acts which 
before the House of Lords the fact that idola- were done by him or with his sanction were not 
trous worship had been publicly paid before the any of them illegal ; that he had no wish or in- 
graven images set up at St. Pauls; and the prose- tention to prevent the communicants present 
cution of the Bishop of Lincoln. But notwith- from seeing him break the bread and take the 
standing certain admissions, the judgment of cup into his hands. 

the archbishop's court in this case, as a whole, Concerning the charge of mixing water with 

seemed so utterly at variance with the decisions the wine, the court decided that mixing in and 

of the Privy Council in previous suits that an as part of the service is against the law of the 

appeal was at once seen to be inevitable. A Church, but found no g7t)und for pronouncing 

resolution was passed deploring ** the episcopal the use of a cup mixed beforehand to be an ec- 

pressure put upon Englisn missionaries labonng clesiasticai offense. To the charge of ablution, 

m foreign lands to prevent their witnessing the bishop had answered that, in the disposition 

against the departures from the faith by the of the elements which he had made after admin- 

Easteni and other churches which are recognized istering them to the communicants, "the re- 

as corruptives in the XlXth of the XXXIX Arti- mains of that which was consecrated were com- 

cles of keligion to which all missionaries have pletely and reverently eaten and drunken in ac- 

solemnly subscribed," and urging the commit- cordaiice with the rubric '* The court was not 

tees of all evangelical missionary societies in able to hold that any minister who, after the 

connection with the Church of England "strenu- service was ended and the benediction given, in 

ously to resist every kind of interference which order that no part of the consecrated elements 



ANGLICAN CHURCHES. 11 

should be carried out of the church, cleansed that not all that is lawful is expedient, that the 
the vessels of all remnants in a reverent wa^ with- feeling of the fiock of Christ is tne substance and 
out ceremony or prayers before finally leaving the evidence of expediency, and, according to St. 
holy table, would have subjected himself to penal Paul's example, to limit choice by expediency, 
consequences by so doing. In this case it would and to abstain not only from the parade of their 
have been illegal to vary the service by mak- convictions, but "from the verj' use of them when 
ing the "ceremony of ablution ** charged in the surrounded by eyes that would be pained and 
articles, or the like, appear to be part of it. but spirits that would suffer at sight of what seemed 
the evidence did not show that this was done, their dangerous advance.'* lie had no fear that 
The charge of standing in the eastward posi- men were in danger of being led to the Church 
tion in the first part of the communion service of Rome. Each of the conclusions of the court, 
was dismissed, on grounds developed in review- the archbishop added, relies on the whole chain 
ing the legislation on the subject. Respecting of the historv of each observance, and the dogma 
the charge of standing with his back to tne peo- that the English Church is a true, faithful branch 
pie while breaking the bread for the commun- of the Church Catholic. The conclusions reached 
I'm, the court decided that 'Mn the mind of a were "simply the decision that such or such an 
minister there ought to be a wish and intention act is or is not, expressly or by implication, for- 
to do what has to be done, not merely no wish bidden by the law of our Church, or is or is not, 
or inteution not to do it ; that in this case he in immediate or ultimate consequence, actually 
must not hide the acts by doing what must hide penal by the law as it now stands. It is evident 
them; that he must not be so indifferent as to that decisions of this character are far from throw- 
what the result of what he does may be as to do ing the weight of the court's authority upon the 
that which is certain to make them invisible." sideof any act which it does not find to be illegal." 
The court ruled, therefore, that the bishop had The case was carried by the promoters of the 
mistaken the true interpretation of the oraer of suit on appeal to the judicial committee of the 
the holy communion in this particular, and that Privy Council, and came up in that court June 
the manual acts must be performed in such 10. The appellants sought the reversal of such 
wu« as to be visible to the communicants prop- parts of the judgment of the archbishop's court 
eriy placed. The singing of the anthem " O as were in favor of the bishop, and the pronounc- 
Lainb of God " was held to be on a par with the ing of such sentence of monition against the 
siQcnng of any other hymn that might be selected bishop as the ecclesiastical law provided, and 
and allowed at that part of the service, and they also applied for an order as to costs. They 
therefore not to be an illegal addition to it. As contended that the offenses alleged against the 
to the use of lighted candles, the court did not bishop were contrary to the acts of uniformity 
find sufficient warrant for declaring that the law and the laws ecclesiastical, and infringed the 
is broken when they are standing on the holy statutes of Edward VI, etc., still unrepealed, be- 
table continuously through the service, " noth- sides having been held to be illegal by the judi- 
in;: having been performed or done which comes cial committees in the cases of " Westcrton vs. 
under the definition of a ceremony by the pres- Liddell," " Martin vs. Maekonochie," ** Hibbert 
ence of two still lights alight before it begins t«. Purchas," "Clifton vs. Ridsdale," and others; 
and after it ends." Finally, the court found and they asserted, on the authority of those 
that there was no justification either in direction judgments, that the mixing of water with the 
or usage for making the sign of the cross in giv- sacramental wine and the administration of the 
ing the final benediction ; that the action was a mixed chalice, the ceremony of ablution, the east- 
distinct ceremony, not "retained," since it had ward position, the singing of the "Agnus Dei," 
not previously existed ; and that therefore it was and the burning of candles on the communion 
a ceremony addition^ to the ceremonies of the table when not required for light were illegal, and 
Church "according to the usage of the Church had, as such, been condemned, and that in these 
of England." " This ceremony," the court de- respects the archbishop's judgment was erro- 
cUred, "is also an innovation which must be neons. 

discontinued." In some observations on the case The St. Paul's Reredos. — In the case of the 
after the conclusion of the judgment, the court Queen vs. the Bishop of London, in the Queen's 
said that it had not only felt deeply the incon- Bench Division, a mandamus was applied for to 
gniity of minute questionings and disputations command the Bishop of London to allow a see- 
on grtttt and sacred subjects, but desired to ex- ond representation to be prosecuted, under the 
press its sense that time and attention were di- Public Worship Regitlation Act of 1874, against 
verted thereby from the Church's real contest the reredos in St. Paul's, while an application 
with evil and building up of good both by those was already pending on appeal before the House 
who gave and by those who took offense unad- of Lords. The two complaints or representations 
vbedly in such matters. were different, in that in the first one it was al- 
The archbishop afterward, Dec. 6, addressed a leged that the "sculptured images " in the rere- 
letter to the archdeacons and rural deans of the dos tended to encourage superstitious reverence, 
province, explaining, according to the wishes of and in the second ojie it was alleged that they 
certain of the clergy, the bearing of the decision had in fact encouraged and led to such super- 
Qpon their own services. He asked them, first, to stitious reverence, and that acts of superstitious 
consider the disproportion between those points of reverence had, in many instances, been actually 
ritual which had been contested and the grand committed. The judgment of the court, which 
characteristics in which all agree of the English was given Nov. 14, 1890, turned upon the ques- 
eocharistic service ; to consider the vital impor- tion whether the two representations were or 
tanoe of peace, charity, and unity; and to consider were not substantially identical. On this the 
therulingprincipleof St. Paul's life and counsel, judges were divided, and the application for a 



12 ANGLICAN CHURCHES. ARCHEOLOGY. (American.) 

mandamus therefore failing, the practical result ure, and the Church's Gains thereby in the Con- 
was favorable to the bishop. The case was car- firmation of her Witness," Prof. J. J. Lias ; 
ried up to the Court of Appeal, where a decision *• Juster Statement of Truth," Rev. Prof. Ryle ; 
was given, Dec. 2, against the applicants for a " Confronting New Problems," Archdeacon \Vil- 
mandamus and in favor of the oishop. Lord- son; and "The Historical Accuracy of the 
Justice Esher defined the question in tne case to Bible/* Theo. G. Pinches ; " Foreign Missions : 
be whether the judgment in the former case. Qualification of Missionary Agents, and the Best 
which had been carried to the House of Lords, Means of obtaining them/ Mr. Athelston Riley ; 
governed the present The allegations in that " Reflex Benefits on the Church at Home," Bisliop 
case, it was true, were different, but the reasons Blythe, of Jerusalem ; and " The Society System 
of the judgment governed the present. It had and its Improvement," Rev. W. R. Churton ; 
been decided that to obtain a mandamus to the *' Church Education : its Present State, and how 
bishop it must be shown that he had declined to improve it in Universities and Public Schools," 

i'urisaiction or had acted in excess of it. This Rev. J. H. Maude, of Hartford College, Oxfoni, 
tad not been shown in the present case. The and Prof. Rendall, of University College, Liver- 
other judges, Lord-Justice Lopes and Lord-Jus- pool ; ** Intermediate and Grammar Schools,** 
tice Kay, concurred in this opinion, holding that Archdeacon Edmonds, of St. David*s College, 
the question here was whether the bishop had and Principal Gent, of St. Mark's College ; "Ele- 
honestly and fairly considered all the matters in mentary Schools" and "Church Training Col- 
the case. It appeared to him that the bishop leges. Residential and Day,** Principal Reichcl, of 
had attended to all the circumstances, to every- the University College of North Wales. Papers 
thing he ought to consider. The case was car- on church music, English and Welsh, were read, 
ried upon appeal to the House of Lords, where, with illustrative examples, by the Rev. Owen 
involvmg substantially the same points, it was Jones, the Rev. C. R. Stewart, and Mr. E. Grif- 
ar^ued together with the original appeal referred fith. The subject of " The Divine Personalitv,and 
to in the proceedings related above. A decision the Bearing of the Same on the Individual Life." 
was given by the Lord Chancellor representing was discussed by the Rev. J. H. Bernard. Canon 
this tribunal. Lord Bramwell and Lord lierscheli Moberly, and Sir George Stokes. On the last 
concurring, July 20, affirming the decision of the day's sessions of the Congress the subject of 
Court of Appeal in favor of the Bishop of Lon- " Aids to the Life of Godliness, their Place and 
don, and dismissing the appeal, with costs. The Use," was discussed under the headings of 
decision does not touch the merits of the reredos, " Prayer," bv Archdeacon Howell ; ** Meditation,'* 
but simply affirms the discretion of the bishop by the Re v. Principal Chavasse;" Fasting," bv the 
and sustains the use he made of it. iCev. W. Lock ; *' Almsgiving,*' by Mr. T. LI. Mur- 
The Church Cougress.— The Church Con- ray; and " Holy Communion," by the Rev. C. J. 
gress met at Rhyl, Wales, Oct. 5, under the presi- Ridgeway. The second subject was the " Paro- 
dency of the Bishop of St Asaph's. Discussions chial System," under three headings: " Deficien- 
opposing the movement for the disestablish- cies, and how to meet them," by tne Rev. Cecil 
ment of the Church in Wales were a prominent Hook ; "Its Relation to the Diocese," by the Dean 
feature in the proceedings. The address of the of Manchester; and '*Its Relation to Church 
presiding bishop was largely devoted to this Societies," by the Rev. the Hon. C. J. Littleton, 
subject. He had questioned statements by Mr. ARCHEOLOGY. American. Who were 
Gladstone that the Church in Wales was the the Mound - Builders i — The thesis that the 
Church of the few and the rich, and the non- mound-builders were Indians is sustained by Mr. 
conformists were not contented, and had received Gerard Fowke, who argues that the civilization 
a reply from that gentleman corroborating his attributed to them is exaggerated, and that they 
assertions. The Archbishop of Canterbury un- had few, if any, resources not possessed by moil- 
dertook to show that the Cnurch in Wales was em Indians, aiid were really no further advanced 
not an alien body forced upon the people by a than the most intelligent of the trib^ ; and, on 
conauering nation, but was a lineal descendant the other hand, that many of the Indian tribes 
of the Church originally established in Wales, were settled and organizea agricultural peoples, 
The first two topics of the stated discussion also living in similar conditions to those which it 
bore on the same subjects They were: "Church is assumed must have surrounded the mound- 
Revival in Wales: its Rise, Progress, and Future builders. The author also cites traditions ex- 
Prospects." discussed by Canon Be van, the Dean isting among the Indians of tribes who built 
of St. Asaph's, Sir Robert Cunliffe, and the Bish- mounds. His views were controverted in the 
ops of Chester, Ripon, Llandaff, and Bedford, * American Antiquarian," which, while it admit- 
and " The Church in Relation to Nonconformists : ted that the Indians built mounds, held that there 
the Points of Agreement and Difference, and the were other and more extensive mound-builders 
Possibilities of Co-oporation, " by the Rev. H. before them. Dr. Cyrus Thomas has shown, from 
A. James, Earl Nelson, the Rev. J. Morgan, surveys of the circular, souare, and octn^nal 
Mr. G. Harwood, and the Archbishop of York, earthworks of Ohio, that the geometrical accu- 
The other subjects considered in the Congress, racy of those structures has been exaggerated, 
with the persons who made the opening addresses While some of the square and circular works 
upon them, were : " The Work of the Church in closely approximate regularity, none of them are 
the Poorest Quarters of our Cities," by the perfect, and the octagons are less regular. There 
Bishop of Bedford; "In Industrial and Mining is nothing in them or connected with them con- 
Districts," the Bishop of Wakefield ; "Arid how tradictory to the theory of their Indian origin, 
to extend her Work in Connection with i^tate except that a few of them nearly approached true 
Agencies and Voluntary Organizations," the geometrical figures. It is admitted that Indians 
Rev. A. H. Bayne ; " Criticism of Holy Script- can lay out true circles of moderate size, and 



ARCH-aSOLOGY. (American.) 13 

that they are less able now to perforin many discerned, the style of which suggests Mexican 

things which necessity formerly compelled them and Central American work. One of them, from 

to practice. the MacMahon mound, Sevierville, represents 

The Bains of Fort Anelent. — A description two human figures in combat, and is regarded as 
of Fort Ancient, on the Little Miami river, the highest example of aboriginal art ever found 
in Warren County, Ohio, which is asserted to north of Mexico. A unique stone in the coliec- 
be the greatest of all prehistoric earthworks in tion of the Tennessee Historical Society has en- ^ 
the Mississippi valley, has been published by graved upon it the representation of a group' 
Mr. Warren K. Moorehead, based upon surveys of mouna-builders, with their banners, weapons, 
made by himself with Mr. Gerard Fowke and costumes, and manner of dressing the hair fully 
Mr. Clinton Cowen. The fort is situated on a shown. The relics afford evidence of a trade that 
plateau close to the river bank, at a height of was perhaps coextensive with the continent. 
269 feet above low water and about 900 feet The author's study of the ancient houses sug- 
above the level of the sea. Its irregular contour gests comparison with those of the Mandans. 
is 18,712 feet in length, but a diameter drawn PalflBOlithic Implements in America. — In 
from north to south is onlv 4,993 feet long. The Prof. Otis T. Mason's survey of the archsrol- 
structure consists of two large inclosures, called ogy of the Potomac region, stone implements 
the old and new forts, connected by a narrow are represented as found in profusion in the 
passageway, at the southern end of which, where fresh- water portion of the lower Chesapeake 
It is narrowest, is the " Great Gateway." Oppo- drainage. But while polished axes are found 
site this, at about one third the length of the here and there, the polished implement is the 
passage, is the " Crescent Gateway." The space exception, not the rule, especially on the higher 
Detween these gateways is called the "Middle ground. The chipped implements have also a 
Fort,*' and appears to have been the strongest ruder appearance than those from regions where 
part of the work. Manv graves, skeletons, and finer varieties of stones are accessible. Mr. 
remains of human work were found in and Thomas Wilson has found evidence of two pe- 
around the fortifications, and evidences of an riods of occupation of the region — the one palte- 
ancient village site in the vallev. The whole olithic and ancient, the other neolithic and mod- 
convinces the author that the work was built for ern. The camp sites along the water courses 
defense, and that it was a rallying point for a vield many chipped arrow heads, spear heads, 
large population inhabiting a district of consid- knives, polished implements, soaustone vessels, 
eiable extent, and was often the scene or witness and pottery : while the hills back irom the river, 
of fierce battles. A high opinion is expressed of wanting in these, furnish coarser, flaked arte- 
the ability of the constmctors^of their patience facta, mixed with broken implements and spalls, 
in carrying, with their imperfect machinery, so Mr. Wilson describes the palseolitliic instruments 
large a work to completion ; of their judgment of the District of Columbia and the United 
in selecting the site, " the best for the purpose States generally as always chipped, never pol- 
vhich the Ohio valley offers " ; of the skill with ished, almond-shaped, oval, or sometimes ap- 
which the walls are'carried around the entire proaching a circle; having their cutting edges 
inclosure; of the care with which weak and ex- at or toward the smaller end, while neolithic 
posed points were strengthened; and of other stones have them toward the broad end: as fre- 
teatures of tb-jir engineering. Their skulls also quently made of pebbles with the original sur- 
indicate the possession of a higher intelligence lace sometimes un worked in places; and as ex- 
than the majority of the tribes whom the settlers ceedingly thick when compared with their width, 
of western Ohio' found there. Mr. Moorehead Thejfewere usually made of quartz, quartzite, or 
belieres that they were Mandans. The site of argillite, while the neolithic man used any ma- 
Fort Ancient hais been bought by the State of terial that could be ground to a smooth surface. 
Ohio, and will be preserved as a public park. They are not known to have been used by the 

The Monnds of Tennessee. — The name American Indians, who when found by Euro- 
'' stone-grave men" is applied by Mr. John P. peans were in the neolithic stage. Not one of 
Thruston, of the Tennessee Historical Society, the Indian monuments that have been explored 
to a race whose dead were placed in box-shaped has yielded palaeolithic implements. The articles 
graves made of stnne slabs, often constructed with found in the District of Columbia are of the same 
much care. A hundred or more of these graves type as palapolithic implements found in the 
are occasionally found, arranged in tiers or layers, Trenton gravels at Little Falls, Minn., in Jack- 
in a single burial mound, with utensils and treas- son County, Ind., at Claymont, Del., and at Love- 
ures deposited in them which tell much of the land, Ohio ; and all together contribute to prove 
conditions of their domestic life. The remains that a palieolithic period existed in the United 
of forts, villages, and settlements of the same States. 

people have b^n discovered in considerable num- Man in the Glacial Age. — Some important 

wrs. The inscribed stones, idols, images, totems, facts are adduced by Prof. G. Frederick Wright 

potteries, pipes — of chipped stone, smooth stone, as having come to light during the past two years 

copper, bone, and shell — betoken an artistic taste bearing upon the connection of man with the ice 

and technical skill beyond those of our Indians age in North America. One of these is the dis- 

and of the monnd-buUders of the States farther covery of the clay image that was found in a 

north, and are .more on the level of the best New well at Nam pa, Idaho, described in the "Annual 

Mexican work. Some finely finished large fiints. Cyclopaedia" (1889. page 18). Another is the 

dfsignated as scepters, and ceremonial imple- finding, by W. C. Mills, of a flint implement of 

ments are remarkable. The most remarkable ar- paleolithic type in the gravels of the Tusca- 

ticlei*. however, are shell gorgets, carved with in- rawas river at Ncwcomerstown, Ohio, fifteen feet 

tricate figures in which the numan form may be below the surface of the glacial terrace border- 



14 



AHCH^OLOGT. (Ahsucan.) 



tng the valley at that place. The implement ha« 
iipoD it the puIiDB chamcl^ristic of the genuine 
fiint implements of great sge in the vallev of the 
Somme, and is reco^ized as having all the feat- 
ures of a true palieolith. It is repre^nt«d id the 
engraving (one fourth the real diameter) by the 




side (if a paleeolith from the vfilley of the Somme, 
of which it iii an exact counterpart. The third 
fact is the discovery, by 0. WeTftmahan and 
J. H. Neal, respeciively — one a surveyor, the 
other a mining superintendent — ot two morlani 
of ?tnne in the undisturlied gravel under the lava 
uf Table mountain, Cal.. the same formation in 
which the Calaveras skull was found. The mor- 
tar found by Mr. McTamalian nas about one 
hundred feet below the surface. Other obiecls 
of human manufacture were found by Mr. Neal 
in the same gravel, and a pestle by Clarence 
King about twenty yenra aeo. 

Ancient Xintng Works.— Writing of the 
antiquity of the aboriginal mining works in 
Nc)rth America, Prof. John S. Ncwl>erry says 
that the ancient copper mines on Liakc Supe- 
rior were abandoneH not less than four hun- 
dred years ago, for the heaps of rubl>ish around 
the pits wore covered with forest trees of the 
largest size. The old ivipper mines of North 



Carolina, and the quarnes of serpentin 



1 the 



AUeghanies, show like evidence of antiquity. 
Pits olMerved in the ground around Titusville. 
Pa., proved to be relies of the excavations of 
primeval oil gatherers, and in one of them an 
old well was hiund which had been cribbed up 
with timber, and contained a ladder like those 
which have been found in tbe 
old copper mines of Lake Su- 
perior, Traces ol a Minilsr 
well have Ijeen observed at Kn- 
niskillen, Canada, and depres- 
sions in the surface like those 
on Oil Creek have been noticed 
at Mecca and Grafton, Ohio. 
Uuins of sn ancient lead mine 
exist on the Morgan farm, near 
Lexington, Ky., in the form, 
where they have not been dis- 
turtied, of an open cut from 
t) to 10 feet wide, of unknown 
depth, now nearly filled with 
rubbish. On either side of thi!: 
trench the material thrown otit 
forms ridges several feet in 
height, and these are over- 
grown with large trees. 

A CnrloDB Earthwork. — 
An earthwork at Foster's Sta- 
tion, on the Little Miami river. 
described by Prof, P. W. Put- 
nam, is remarkable for a ridge, 
more than half a mile long, 
from go to 50 feet wide, and 
from 8 to 10 feet deep, of well- 
tiurned clay, and including 
ruGBses of burned liinestoniN 
(linkers, charred logs, am) 
heaps of ashes of from 1 to 4() 
bushels. To have burned all 
this clay must have required a 
heat like that of a Bessemer 
furnace. The rim of burned 
stuff is backed by an escarp- 
ment of well-laid stone wall, 
which prnbubly once extended 
down to the water. 

Hoandx In Dakota.— Thir- 
Iv-nine mounds in North 
Dakota, examined by Henry 
Montgomery. ' consist of 1 beacon mound, 80 
burial mounds, and 2 mounds designated as art i- 
flcial. The burial monnds were of two kinds: 
The ordinary, consisting of a circular, roundeil, 
or conical heap of earth, clothed with grass, and 
rising generally to a height of several feet above 
the surrounding level and containing one or 
more vaults symmetrically disposed. The skele- 
ton was generally found in a crouching posture, 
with its oack against the wall and face toward 
the center. Charred poles were encountered in 
digging for the vaults. The second kind had no 
wood and no burial chamliers, and the bones in 
them were broken and scattered. A third kind 
of mound, hardly distinct enough for separiite 
classification, contained a layer of clay that 
seemed to overlie many human skeletons. 

Mftnnds In Manitoba. — The Winnipeg 
mound region. Mauitolia, includes a district 
400 miles long from east to west, and running 
from the international boundary north to at 
least latitude 50°. About 60 ot the mounds 



ABCH^OLOGT. (Bhol*sd.) 



16 



h»ye been senn ftnd 10 opened by Prot. Qeorge gion of the forum were a basilica, a hall 280 
B^les, o{ Manitoba College. Numerous skele- feet long, having an ap»e at one end and an ai^te 
ions were exhumed, with large quantities of clearly marked by the site ol nillitrs; three great 
charcoal, red and jellow ocbre. and birch-bark chambers on tlie yieet side of it ; on the east side 
charcoal 1 and of manufactured articles, stone the forum wlthits publicoffice: andon the south 
implements, scrapers, gouges, chisels, azea, mauls, and the noilh rows of shops. A perfect ground 
conjurer's tubts, gaming stones; breast orna- planof a vjllawaslaid lure. Itembraced aclois- 
mpnts, ohistles, beads, etc, of bone ; articles of ter built round three sides of a quadrangle, the 
shell and bom ; fish spcare. pottery, copperimple- fourth side remaining open, with a small garden 
meats ; and near one skeleton two lumps of ar- inclosed, while a larger garden lay outride. Be- 
senical pyrites. All mounds weiv circular, and hind the cloister vere large rooms tor summer 
all on prominent headlands, and the majority and winter use, of whicli the letter were warmed 
contained skeletons. Some of them were thought by hot-air pipes connected with underground 
lodate..rom the beginning of their central parte, stoves, which conld be seen. Behind these cham- 
fuur hundred years back. bers was another cloister, and at the back were 

EBKlud. ExeaTatloiu at SllcheBter.— thedomesticoflices. The wall, the whole of which 
Tbe Or^t discovery of truces of the rcinains of is nearly complete, is S.BTO vards lung, and in- 
Koman occnpation at Silchester, tjie Roniaa Cal- closes a polygonal areaof 106acrcs. It was built 
km Attrebiituin, near Read 
ia^. were made in 1833, when 
a f^hes of baths were discov- 
ered and relics were recovered 
rrp resenting the whole period 
otthe Koman domination from 
Ibe time of Cali^la till the 
evacuation of the island in the 
rtiga ot Arcadius. Excava- 
tions were nest begun in 1864, 
hj the Bcv. J. Gerald Joyce, 
vhich revealed the forma of 
NMneof the Rnman houses. A 
more thorough system of eica- 
vations was begun in June, 
1K90. nn the estate of the Duke 
of Wellington. Besides the 
plans of bouses and lines of 
streets, large putches of mos.iic 
Boots were found, rooms heat- 
ed by hypocausts of various 
tonstraction ; fragments of 
painted wall plaster, showing 
that the rooms were richly 
decorated with color; a series 
of shallow refuse pits which 
tielded dry rubbish, with pot- 
sherds, bones, etc. occasional 
coins, objects of bronze, and 
fragments of glass vessels. In 
oQr pit were about 50 objects 
in iron, with a perfect scale- 
beam ot bronze. The Iran arti- 
cles famished, with one excep- 
tioQ. the lament series of t4Xil8 
.'et found in Britain, including 
chisels, axes, hammers, gouges, 
anvils, files, a rasp, a carpen- 
ter's large plane, a pair ot 
iiUi'ksDiitn'e tongs, a pair of 
pincers, plow-coulters, a curi- 
nuslr shaped shoe of the kind 
iL'ually called a hippo-sandal, 
iid several objects of doubtful 

iL*,ail in a good state of ores- DBcovrFi™ *t hicbhveb i;.ou«d 

frration, with the edges of the ,_ ,^,^ „, , ^„„ . ^ iji,.„„ . g^ „,^^„ ^oard. from a well-curb ; 

cntting - tools still sharp. A t. anvil ; a, hipixmandal ; B, tent-pre ; 7, lamp, 

well was lined throughout wii h 

oak boarding, ingeniously dove-tailed together, without tiles, and was composed of alternate lay- 
anil fragments of the wooden blicket and a curi- ere of bonding stones, mortar, flints, etc. Tde 
OQs metal vessel at the bottom. One of the most gates were recessed. The excavations were con- 
inleresting objects was a gridiron, or portable tinned during the seasoiiof 1891, with discoveries 
choking stove, unique in England. In the re- ofotlierobjects,incliiding bronze bucket handles. 




16 



ARCn^OLOGY. (Ron 



abmnze Muoepan, abronws figure of a goat: tho 
remftins of buildinga that setin to have been con- 
structed round an open square or garden; and 
facts which, as a whole, give valuable additions 
to otir knowledge of Romano-British building, 
and show the differences between the town houses 
of Silehester and the country houses or villas; 
while txith differ in a remarkable wa^ from the 
tvpical Roman house as seen in Italy. 
' The Altar of TiBOTla.~The Roman site 
called Binchester. on the banks of the river Wear, 
near Bishop Auckland. Durham, represents the 
ancient Vinoria. Some interesting discoveries 




were mode there a few years ago by Mr. John 
Pond. Inthe last year an altar has been un- 
earthed in a stale of excellent preservation. It 
is 4 feet 3 inches hirh by 1 foot %i inches long, 
and 1 toot i inch oroad, and has sculptured 
on its sides the four principal sacrificial implo- 
mcnls. the "recuris, or axe, the "culter, or 
knife, the " patera," or dish, and the " [inefericu- 
lura," or jug. It also bears an inscription which 
has been made by expanding the abbreviated 
words to read— Jovi Optimo Masiino,Bt Matribua 
Ollotolis, sine Transmarinis, Potnponius Lonatus, 
Benefloiarius Consulis. Pro Salute sua et suo- 
nera, Votura solvit libenti animo. From the 
titles given to the mother goddesses, who were 
favorite objects of worship at Vinovia, it is con- 
ceived that tho consular beiieflclaries and others 
who erected the altar came from Olot, in the 
northeast of fjpain, near tho Mediterranean Sea 
and the frontier of France. 

Rome and Ital;. A Memorial of Horace. 
— A flattened column or oblong slab was uncov- 
ered during the excavations for the Tiber eni- 
Irankmont, on which is inscribed the otBciaJ rec- 
ord of Ihe public gantes celebrated by .Augustus 
in the year 17 b. c. The decree of the Senate and 
the regulations enforced bv the eiecntivo com- 
mittee are followed by a list of the necessary 
prayers and sacriflces and tho order of contests. 
TheLi comes an annonncemcnt that a choir of 
twenty-seven youths, and as many maidens, will 
sing the "^ Carmen Seculare," written by (jujntua 
Horatius Flacciis. 

In the earae locftlit; the workmen have dis- 



covered twenty-ft»e additional fr^ments of the 

preat map of the old city which formerly stood 
in the forum of Augustus. When this map was 
destroyed by Qre or earthquake many of the 
pieces were thrown into a heap of broken build- 
ing materials, and finally found their way into 
the walls of the old Alfleri palace, which have 
now been unearthed. The Minister of Public 
Instruetion has ordered excavations to 1>e made 
in search of further fragments of the map. 

Remains of PabUo Works,— Portions of the 
viaduct (on Ihe line of the road now called Ihe 
Lungaretta) traced hy .Ji^milius Paulus, in Ihe 
sixth century of the city, across the lowlands of 
the Trastavere, in correspondence with the bridge 
of J<^milius Lenidus (the Ponte Kotto, or Ponte di 
Santa Maria, destroyed in 18H6), have been dis- 
□overed under the Piazza di San Crisogono. The 
structure rests on piers 6 metres wide, 2'2Q metres 
thick, and the arches are a little more than 3 
metres in diameter. It is built of blocks of red 
tufa, well squared and joined without cement. 
A pier or landing-place some five hundred feel 
above the bridge of St. Angelo, discovered in the 
prosecution of works for widening the Tiber, is 
Bupposed to have been constructed for a landing- 
place for the marbles used in the buildings of the 
Campus Martins and of the Pincian and Quiri- 
ral llills. It is a raised cau-ieway, huilt of blocks 
of tufa, laid cross wise without cement, and coateil 
with an outside facing of travertine. On each 
side of the causeway are landings nearly level 
with the water, of concrete, faced with a palisade 
of oaken beams, the [lali.iade being faced on the 
inner side with sheet.'* of lead. 

A Gronp of Stotnarjr.- A colossal head of 
archaic workmanship, found in the gardens of 
Sallust and kept in the Ludovici museum, and 
heretofore described as a " head of Juno, in the 
old stylo," has lieen identitled by Profs. Petersen 
and Benndorf as having been probablv the statue 
that was worshiped in the temple of Venus Ery- 
cina (foundeii a. u. c. 512). It is connected 6y 
them with a " parapet " of Parian marble found 
in the same neighborhood in 1887. on which arc 
the three bas-reliefs, (a) a veiled female figure in 
theactof burning incense, (£)a naked female fig- 
ure In the act of playing the double flute, both 
silting on a pillow or small mattress, and (c) a 
young female figure emerging from the wator 
with the help of two female attendants. Thtt 
piece was explained by Petersen as belonging to 
the throne on which the statue of Venus Eryeinn 
or Sallustiana was seated. Petei'sen supposed Ihe 
central bas-relief (e) to represent the birth of 
Venus, and the side pieces as personifying (o) Ihe 
sa<'red and <6) the profane love. He has caused 
a restoration to be made in plaster of the figure 
and of the throne, and the two fit together per- 

A 'Roman Bride'fl TreaBnreB.— In the tomb 

of Crepercia Tryphionniv. near tho ancient gar- 
[Icns of Home, the occupant of which was indi- 
cated by the wreath of myrtle leaves in thecoflin 
to have been a bride, was found a doll of oak 
woo<l. about a foot long, well jointed, and having 
a body carved with unusual care and fidelity to 
nature. It wore a head-dress of the style that 
prevailed in the age of the Antimines and like 
that of the first Empress Faustina. Various or- 
naments and remaitis of articles of clothing wei« 



AllCU-SOLOGY. (GaEECc) 



17 



»l"n in the coffin, inelTiding Ihe myrtle wreatli, 
nhich had bet'n preserved bj the water that filled 
thecrareuidhad acquired nearly the eonsbt«ncy 
ind hardness of pari-hment ; aclnspof silver, very 
much oiidixed, and decorated with a ver rain pa£- 
t»m ; and several gold rings, one of which had a 
bezfl of smooth dark gloss, a second with an 
nnci setting bearing the name Feiletus in relief, 
«iil Ihe third an intaglio of red JHsper on which 
«fre engraved two hands clasped and holding 
(firs of wheals symbol of niarringe. To a gold 
ring in tho left hand of the doll is soldered an 
elfcant miniature key, while in its right hand 
is another pair of rtn'^ A clasp is Ket with an 
aniFlhyst engraved with a design of a winged 

SilSn pursuing a doe — symbols of ApoUo and 
luia — and to it arc appended two delicate chains 
with ivy-leat pendants. There were also an am- 
biT hair-pin, two small combs, earrings, a neck- 
Lure, and two mirrors. 

The TDiDb§ of Sjracnge. — The excavations 
nisile bjr the Italian Government in the Hellenic 
anil prehistoric necropolises in the neighliorhood 
of Ijyncuse have brought to light a large num- 
ber of tombs, with omBmentcd pottery of most 
Srimitivefonns, bronzes, among which are swords 
agger-shaped like those of Micene and bone 
ornaments ot a peculiar character Some tombs 
were found with the entrance or dramas closed 
by a stone slab with omamentati >n sculptur d 
in relict in a strange eiotic style perhaps Phm 
ni'-ian. The finding of earthworks and objects 
presenting the genuine Mvceniean 
tvpe is evidence o( the extension of I 
Tdveenran culture to this L land 

Greece. ArchRologlcal Schools 
at Athens.— The oldest of the estab- 
lished institutions for (he pra>iecution 
i.r arch»ological research in Uellenic 
lands is that of Prance the Rcote 
Fran^ise at Athens which wa.i found 
ed in 1846. It belongs to the trench 
tioTerninent and i supported bj it 
and L^ under the directKn of di tm 
gni$hed scholars The Impenal Ger 
man Archtmlogical Inslitute found 
ed twenty-three jear^ after that of 
Prance, is supported by the German 
Government. It has been the agincy 
thnmgh which some of the moitvaht 
aWe discoveries m the hi torr of 
(Jreek archieologieal re^areh nave 
h-cn made, the most important of 
•hich are tho«e at Ohmpia. Tho 
-American School of Classical studies 
was fonnded br Ihe Amencan Arch 
riitogical Institute and was openinl 
under the auspices of some of the 
Imiling Amencan colleges m l'*8'' 
Ii i; intended to afford a center for 
The final higher study bv graduates 
<>f American college of classical an 
'iqiiity, and to be a directory for the 
'■iplnrstion of aneunt ite^i It aims 
t<i help artists and architects who re- 
wirt to Greece f)r study and make proMSton 
f"r special students. It occupies a hand>«me 
hiitldingon the southern lope ot Mount Liia 
hHtus, which was procured and fnmi hed by the 
wntributions of friends in the United btate 
liulruction is afforded gratuitously. The school 
TOi- isxi.— 3 A 



was at flrst presided over by a director chosen for 
one year from the various colleges In the United 
States associated with the school ; but in 1868 the 
plan was modified, and, while an annual director 
continued to be appointed, the ofDce of chiet or 
permanent director was established, and Dr. 
Charles Waldatein. then director of the Filzwill- 
iam Museum and Professor of Archawlogy in the 
University of Cambridge, England, was chosen to 
fill it. Previous" to ISUO the school had carried 
on excavations at eight sites in Greece, with im- 
portant results ; while previous to this the Ameri- 
can A rchwii logical Institute had madesome inter- 
esting and important excavations at Assos.in Asia 
Winor, The British School of ArdiEology was 
founded In 1686, and had twelve students in at- 
tendance at its lost session. It is supported bv 
subscriptions, and gives courses of lectures anil 
conducts excavations. In past years it has ex- 
plored the antiquities of the island of Cvpnis. 
The chiet objective point of its researches in 
1890-'91 was the site of Megalopolis, in western 
Arcadia, the Atj founded by Epaminondas. 

Tbe Templ« at Delpbi.— The Archsological 
Institute ot America and the American School 
at Athena negotiated during 1690 with the 
Greek Government for the concession of the site 
of Delphi and the privilege of excavating there 
The concession was made conditional on the paj 
roent of $80000 as an indemnification for the 
expropriation of the village of CaRtn nhich 
stand upon (he site and would have to be re- 




moved Delay was incurreil m obtaining the 
subscriptions to this fund but the amount was 
made up and the fnends of the fccheme believed 
in No\eml>er 18B0 they had setured the con 
ee^ion when it was given to the French 
schooL 



18 



ARCH^ULOGT. (Greece.) 



Relics at Flktsa. — In the work of the Aroeri- 
van School at Platraa, which was completed in 
April, ]tJ90,theBitewm thoroughly surveyed; the 
walls, which are more than two and a half miles 
ill circumference, were measured, and a paper < 
the topography r' " ' ■—■''- "-'-• -• '" — 



f the battle-Seld of I'lattea vaa 





fi2^ 




k 


m 


■=* 


m 


m 



prepared, to be illustrated by a new map. Ei- 
ca nations were carried on at several points within 
and without the city walls; but neither of the 
three important temples of Athene. Here, and 
Ucmetri was discovered. Among the interest- 
ing inscripticinsi brought to light was a slab con- 
taining a part of the famous edict of Diocletian, 
'■ De Pretiis Rerura Venalium," a part of the 
preamble of which, in I^atin, had been found in 
the previous year. The present part, which waa 
of the body of the edict, was in Greek. It con- 
cerns the price of teitiles, and gives prices that 
had been hitherto unknown. Another inscription 
records dedications on the part of women to a 
gwldess, and contains many female names. 

The Tombs at Eretrla. — The American 
School gave ita attention, in 1891, to the ex- 
ploration of Erctria in (be island of EiibcEa, 
a city mentioned hy Homer, destroyed by Da- 
rius in the Persian war. h. r. 490, and subse- 
iguently rebuilt; after which it became the neat 
of an important school of philosophy, under 
Mencdcmus, a pupil of Aristotle. The theatre 
was found to have a stage approximately nine 
feet hifch, with five rooms in the rear of it. It 
waa between fifty and sixty feet long, and about 
seven feet wide. In front of the stage building 
was a low. narrow platform, with an arch throug'h 
the middle extending to the third of the five 
rooms ;' while a smaller arch ran from the center 



of the orchestra circle toward the stage. The 
survey of the walls proved that the new city oc- 
cupied the fAme ground as the old. The tuinbs 
in the cemetery were of all epochs. In some 
cases as many as tour were founa made one upon 
another, the succeediug ones having been built 
without regard to their predecessors. In the 
Hyzantine graves the articles found, which had 
been deposited with the bodies. were_potteries nf 
coarse material and workmanship. The Bunian 
tombs were built of slabs of stone, were well t'on- 
stnicted, and contained, besides vases of gla^s 
and clay of not great value, golden rin^ ear- 
rings, necklaces, bracelets, and silver trinkets. 
The Grecian graves contained vases, terra-cot ta 
figures and masks, and gold and silver orna- 
ments; and the lowest, or arebalo graves, con- 
tained onlv archaic vases. In one grave, of a 
group of six, were found lying upon the breast 
of the skeleton a mass of two ounces of gold cut 
into two hundred leaves of ivy and oak, on which 
the veins of the natural leaf were plainly repre- 
sented. Besides this were found in the same 
group, which seemed to constitute a family tomb. 
Grecian vases; a terra-cottamaskof thegod Pan; 
t«rra-cotta statuettes ; seven crowns of gold ; two 
specimens of the stylus; a gold ring with a lion 
rampant as a seal; earrings composed of doves 
swinging in a hoop of gold, with eyes of precious 
stones, feathers of granulated gold work, precious 
stones set in the wmgs and the breasts, and the 
feathers of the tail so arranged as to move with 
the swinging of the pendant; and a number o( 
white vases, or hkyliwi, of the kind hitherto re- 
garded as peculiar to Athens. An inscription on 
one of the graves gave the name of the occupant 
as rB^IOTH [AjPIlTOTEAOr, or Biote, danghlcr 
of Aristotle. The gold pen in tbe grave next to 
this, and belonging to the same faniily, might 
bo regarded as denoting that its occupant's pro- 
fession had been literarr. The question arose 
whether this familv was that of thegreat philoso- 
pher Aristotle, "f he fact« make this seem pos- 
sible, but do not afford clear evidence. Aristotle 
died at Caleb is, the adjoining city to Eretria; and 
a terra-cotta statuette found in the tomb agrees 
with the description ^ivon by Christodurus of a 
statue of Aristotle which he saw in a gvmnasium 
at Constantinople, " standing with its hands 
folded together." There is, however, no evi- 
dence that Aristotle was buried at Eretria instead 
of Calchis, although the graves run almost con- 
tinuously between the two cities. There were. 
moreover, several Aristolles in antiquity, and 
the name Biote is not historically known as that 
of any member of Aristotle's familv. The daugh- 
ter named bv Aristotle in his will was Pythias, 
child of his wife Pythias. But there is no evi- 
dence that he had not such a daughter. Dr. 
Waldstein believes that the tomb is that of the 
philosopher. 

Rnlntt of Megalopolis. — The principal work 
of the British School during 18Q0 and 1601 was 
performed in Megalopolis. In addition to the 
discovery of a stoawitli a triple line of columns, 
and an attar adjoining it, a large theatre in good 
preservation was partially dug out, the front row 
of seats or 9p6m of which bore inscriptions of 
the classical period. These seats were lonp 
benches, nine m nnmber. one corresponding lo 
each KipKit or wedge of the auditorium. Each 



ARCHEOLOGY. (Qbekcb.) 



19 



vas pn>fid«d with an arm at either end; and 
Ihey oad high backs, slightly curved, and flttinp 
itiiuIortBbljr t« the back ol the sitter. The 
U-nches were separated bj eieht gangways lead- 
ing to the axl^wni above, while there was also 
 nxiftal at either end. Belnw the beDchea was a 
ttiannel to carry off the water, and beyond that 
* raised stoDe border tiounding the orchestra. 
The discoTery of steps leading up from the or- 
chestra was at first regarded as indicating that 
Ihe theatre had a raised sla|^; but these stepa 
Here ^fterward found to have formed no part of 
the on);inal plan, and the idea of a raised stage 
has been abandoned. But it is believed that a 
raided stage was added at a later date. Another 
building which haa been cleared is supposed to 
have inclosed the l«nip]e of Zeua S6t£r. 
The Tomb at Ts^hlo.— The village of Vor 

fhio, near the Ilomenc towns of Amyclra and 
baris. southeast of Sparia, is marked bv a tumu- 
lu5 resembling in eitomat appearance the struct- 
ures called the treasuries of Hycenn. This lomb 
■«a explored in 1889 by Mr. Tsoundas, under 
the direction of the Greek Archieological Office. 
A high interest is attached to the tomb, because 
iu date can not be later than the eighth century 
bl c. and it ia supposed to be one or two hun- 
ilreil years older. In it were found a collection 
lit funeral offerings, consisting of vases of metal 
and cUj. ornaments of gold and silver, bronze 
urn?, domestic utensils, and stones engraved in 
an archaic style. The chief objects of interest 
are two gold cups, ornamented witb cattle de- 
^icn^ in rrpoutti work, in a style which was 
Rr^t observed in vessels found at HycenFe, but 
"ith an excellence of conception and a fidelity to 
nature not previously remarked iu any work of 
arehaie Greek art. The design on one of the cops 
portrays a hunting scene in a hilly and rough 
country, where men clothed in drawers and high 
shoes are hunting wild bulla. One of the bulls 
has been caught in a large net attached to two 
trees, and is lifting up his head in his struggles 
to extricate himself. On the left a bull is dash- 
ms furiously away from the scene, overthrowing 
two of the hunters in his fury; while on the 
ri^t a third ball is galloping away, with his 
beels thrown high up into the air. On the other 
tup is a representation of tamo cattle. A man 
holds in bisliand a rope which is passed around 
the leg of a captive bull, while farther on are 
three bolls standing quietly in their pasture. 
The drawing in both designs is spirited and in- 
spired bj a high artistic sense, but is marked by 
ilevices to represent distance tn the al>sence of 
perspective, and by exaggerations in the atti- 
lufles of the aninials, that stamp it as of an 
«nhaic period. 

Th« ScalptnrM at Lreoiinra.— The labors 
'''t the Grecian Office of Excavations, under the 
rtim-tory of M. Kavvadias, at Lycosura, in Ar- 
'■iiiia. were rewarded by the discovery, in the 
I'mple of Despcena. of the remains of what seem 
lo be the works described by Pausanias as con- 
'lilnting the group of seated flgiires of Demeter 
»"'! Despainn seated, with Artemis and Anvtus 
"Unding hoside them, by the artist Damnphon, 
fif Me««ene — a contemporary of Scopas, Praxit- 
<'le<, and Lysippiis — of whom no work was known 
In be extant. The pieces discovereii include a 
female bead of colossal size ; another female head 



and a male bearded head (of the type of Posei- 
don), also colossal, but rather smaller; various 
fragments of colossal statues, including hands 
holding the attributes (a torch, a snake) described 
by Pausanias; a large fragment of drapery with 
figures in relief, representing female and male 
forms changed into different animals (a ram. an 
ass, a horse, etc.); a Nereid on a sea monster: 
winged forms, one of which holds a torch; dol- 
phins, eagles, and other birds ; fragments of the 
feet of a marble throne ; and four female forms 
terminating in double tails of snakes or fishes, 
apparently the supports of a throne or table. 

Secovered Greek Works. — A number of 
literary works of great interest have been re-, 
covered through the examination of papyri in the 
British Museum. One of the most important of 
these is a copy, nearly complete, eicept as to the 
beginning and the last chapter, of the work on 
the Constitution of Athens, which was ascribed 
by ancient authors to Aristotle. It is written on 
the verao or wrong side of a papyms, the rreto 
or right side of which is occupied with a private 
current account of the eleventh year of the Ro- 
man Emperor Vespasian, which, together with 
the style of the writing, fixes the date of the 
copy as not very far from that time. The trea- 




tJ!a3 on the constitution of Athens is one of IS8 
works containing accounts of the constitutions 
of various states which were drawn up by Aris- 
totle, or under his direction, as materials for 
studies in constitutional history. It consists of 



ARCHEOLOGY. (Eoypt.) 



63 short chapters, 41 of which contain a chroDo- 

logicftl sketch cif the development of tho Athe- 
nian constitution, while the others are occupied 
with the account of the official duties of the 
maigiEtrates and public bodies that existed in the 
time of the author. The existing teit casts 
light on the obscure period o( the kiii^ and 
the legislation of Draco and Solon and their suc- 
cessors, and continues to the restoration of the 
democracy after the rei^n of the thirty tyrants, 
in B. c. 4(^. The genuineness of the work ap- 
pears to be satisfactorily established. It has 
been published in the Greek test and in fae 
simile, and has been subjected to critical exami- 
nations. 

Among other classical Greek documents found 
among the papyri are considerable fragments ot 
the Antiope of Euripides, parts o( another copy 
of Plato's Phiedo, and fragments o( the writings 
of the poet Ilerodas, or Herondus, which had 
not been known before. 



Tided for the appointment ot European inspect- 
ors to secure the preservation of the monumental, 
and has promulgated regulations concerning the 
making of excavations and the disposition of the 
relics found. 



_ __of the 

id of Medum. made and completed during 
the early months of 1091, have proved it to be 
the structure of Scnefru, of Ihe third dynasty, 
and therefore the oldest dated pvramid. With 
it is connected, still in good conaition, the oiilv 
pyramid temple yet found entire, also pronounced 
by Mr. Petrie t^e oldest dated building in llie 
world. It was reached by digging to tho depth 
of from 40 to GO feet in the rubbish whicb bad 
accumulated around the pyramid. It is joined 
to the east face of the pvramid, and has a front 
about SIO feet wide and D feet high, with a door 
in the south end of tho face. A passage, parallel 
to the front and 20 feet long, leads to the chaiu- 




Egypt. Protection of ^yptlan Monn- 

menfe.— Anxious attention has been given to the 
danger ot destruction to which many of the 
Egyptian monuraenta are exposed, either from 
the action of the weather or tlie washings of the 
Nile, or from the depredations of native specu- 
lators in relics. The foundations ot the temple 
ot Luxor are threatened by the stream ot the 
Nile, the temple ot Karnak is in danger, and 
some of the tombs^and other structures liave 
licen robbed of paintings and sculptures. A 
memorial was addressed to the Egj'ptian Govern- 
ment towanl the end of 1800 on behalf of the 
Society for the Preservation of Egyptian Monu- 
ments, and signed by 650 persons, asking the ap- 
pointment of an official inspector to wnom the 
care ot the ruins should bo intrusted. The re- 
port of the society, made July 14, IStll. related 
certain steps that had been taken in these mat- 
ters. In consequence of these and other repre- 
sentations, the Egyptian Government has pro- 



ber, which measures 20 feet by 7 feet. Hence a 
wide doorway leads into the open air conrl, 
which is built against the face of the pyvauiiil. 
The altar of offerings, which is plain, stands in 
the middle of the court, with an obelisk 13 feet 
high, rounded at Ihe top and uiiinscribed. on 
either side ot it. The walls of the temple, whicli 
is itiielt plain and uninscribcd, are marked with 
the ijraffili of visitors who came to it during the 
twelfth and eighteenth dynasties. The base of 
a statuette was found which hod been deilicated 
to the gods ot a town. Tat-snefru, by a woman 
named Snefru-khati. The structure of the pyra- 
mid was examined. It consists of a small stone 
maslaba. heightened and built around rcpeated- 



is ot C( 



Ove 



all these a continuous slope of casing was added. 
so that the pyramid appeared with one long face 
from the top to the ground. The tombs had 
been plundered in ancient times, evidently by 
persons who understood their plans and ar- 



AS^^W«'V-fci/'<f>''«*-^«* 



*ji •>'■ v^V" -f *^<r^i<;'w*5}* 



ARCH-OOLOGY. (Egypt.) 21 

nuigements ; but from some tombs, containing ink, and the name written in hieratic. On tlie 

only bodies which hud not been disturbed, a site of the citv proper, besides remains of Roman 

dozen complete skeletons were collected for study buildings and Coptic churches, a structure was 

and for comparison of the types of Egyptians found which seems to be the remains of the vesti- 

^upposed to be of the earliest historic^ reign bule of one of the side entrances of the Egyptian 

with those of later ages. Instead of being buried temple. They consist of six columns, 17 feet 

full length, as all the later Egyptians appear to high— one of them complete — with sculptures 

have been, these bodies were crouched, many of representing Rameses II making offerings, and 

them with the knees up to the chin. Crouched the name of Menephthah in the intervals, while 
bodies in large earthen jars 
are said also to have been L^ 
foand at Gizeh, but to have 
been all destroyed. The 
bodies were always on the 

t^i* t^w^ the eLt a^d V^^^>^2^CKAI^ ^C V/^^ J'^fO ^^^^^ 

nithout the ac^m^ni- OMt 1^^ ^)^ C^ifi'''^^ K"^^^ ^^^ 

ments of funeral vessels or ■^^l/' # ^ ' " %} mm.^ 
head- rests; but a few fi'T^^^y^^^Plft^^y^^J^^tCCiC^SjK 

scraps of charcoal were '»| * 

found about the body. - '■^ ^'^* -f-^^ #---^.*« ^ 

Full-length burial seems 
to have been practiced, too, 

at the same period, with fac-bimile fbom fibst page of aribtotlb^s trbatibs on the cokstitutign 
funeral vessels of diorite of athbns. 
and alabaster and head- 
rests. Mr. Petrie suggests that the two methods the architraves supported by the columns were 
may mark distinct races — the aborigines and the cut in a building with the cartouches of User- 
coDouerors— not yet fused together. The pottery tesen II, of the twelfth dynasty. The vestibule 
of the fourth dynasty, of which a considerable was open on the water side. A few remaining 
quantity was found, differs from that of all later layers of stones on the other sides bore an in- 
periods. and the discovery completes our historic scription recording the dedication of the build- 
knowledge of the pottery of Egypt The survey ing by Rameses to Hershefi, or Arsaphes (a form 
of the place and the exact measurement of the of Osiris), whose figure is sculptured on two of 
pyramid are regarded by Mr. Petrie as showing the columns. A sitting statue of Rameses II, of 
that in this structure, as in the pyramid of Khu- heroic size, in red limestone painted red, with 
fa, the proportions of the radius to the circle, or blue and yellow striped head-dress, and dedicated 
7 to 22, prevail in the relations of height tocir- to Arsaphes ; a red granite statue, of natural size, 
cuit The mode employed for laying out build- without any name : a group of much-weathered 
ings was discovered in the course of the work, kneeling figures; and a headless statue of Rameses 
To found a mastabawith sloping sides on un- II, symmetrical with the former one, but broken, 
even ground, a wall (L shape) was built outside in the opposite comer to it, were also found, 
of each comer. Levels on that were drawn a Bases of columns more than 4 feet in diameter 
cubit apart ; red vertical lines on the walls de- were seen in aitu, and a few stray blocks bearing 
fined the width of the building at the ground hieroglyphic signs were found. Otherwise, the 
level; and black lines, drawn sloping down out- whole temple had been destroyed. This temple 
ward from the red at ground level, defined the apparently corresponds with the one described 
planes of the faces. From this arrangement it in the Harris papvms as one of the chief temples 
was easy to start the work, no matter how un- of Egypt, to which Rameses II gave slaves, 
even the foundation. A Collection of Priestly Mummies.— In 
Exeayations at Heraeleopolis Magna. — excavating to the eastward of the temple of 
The exploration of Heraeleopolis Magna, on the Queen Hatasu, at Deir-el Bahari« a pit was found 
^ite now known as Hanassieh, composed M. containing 168 mummies, which, like the royal 
Naville*8 work for the spring season of 1891. mummies discovered in 1881, appeared to have 
The results were disappointing, in that no works been removed from their tombs and concealed 
were found attributable to the period of the three here — it is supposed, as in the case of the royal 
dynasties — the eighth, ninth, and tenth — when mummies — during the twenty-second dynasty, 
the citjwas the capital of the empire. In thene- about 966 B. c. The coffins were of the twenty- 
cropolis the tombs had been plundered, and re- first dynasty, and contained mummies of the 
used in later times for interments of bodies be- priests'of Ra-Amun and their families. They 
longing to the poorer classes. Here and there were deposited in a corridor some 10 or 12 feet 
were a few relics of former occupants, such as a high and 250 feet long, which was reached by a 
piece of the handsome funerary cloth on which shaft 45 feet deep. Ij^e bodies were usually laid 
the weighing of the soul was painted, fragments in triple coffins, some of which had been gilded, 
of papyri, and pieces of limestone hieroglyphic and were piled upon one another with a con- 
tatJets which were assigned to the eighteenth fusion that indicated haste. With them were 
and nineteenth dynasties. Numerous wooden baskets of flowers, funeral offerings, and seventy- 
and terra-cotta tablets were found, and coarse five wooden statuettes inclosing papyri. Tlie 
«<Aa6/i«, some of which were simply little sticks hope that was entertained at first, that these 
on which nose and eyes had been indicated with papyri might furnish valuable information, was 



ARCH-ffiOLOGT. (P*uwtine.) 



tntoined little else than 

Two wooden statues ot Isis and NephthJs were 
found in the galleries. They were 38* inches 
high, and alilie except in the feAtures of the 
face; were carved with correct anatomical ap- 




preciation and artistic feeling, sjinmetrically 
proportioned, and in expressive attitudes. The 
wood was covered with a coating of color, the 
flesh beinfc painted with a light-yellow ochre; 
the head coverinps and robes white, with dark- 
red fillets and nbbon ornaments; the necklets, 
amulets, and bracelets two different greens ; and 
the borders of the robes, near the feet, red and 
blue. The evebrows and lids were dark blue, 
the eyeballs black, and the outlines of the nostrils, 
lips, and ears were delicately shown in red. 

Elgyptian Dom.— In a paper on the dogs of 
ancient Egypt, Mr. Haspero speaks ot cemeteries 
ot do^ and their mummies at Syout. Sheikh- 
Fadl, Fcshn, and Sakkarah, and describes one 
of the mummies, which has recently been opened 
by the Oerman Herr Beckmann. It was a har- 
rier, about eighteen months old, ot which only 
the skin and bones were left, with remains of 
muscular tissue reduced to dust. Over the wrap- 
pings ot bitumentzed linen had been placed a 
thin mat of dried reeds, l>ound with cords ot 
twisted grass. Over the part of the bundle thus 
made up which answered to the body was cast 
a network of One cloth, so arranged as to deline- 
ate parallel rows of superposed squares along its 
length. T^e head was covered by a pa.«teb<ianl 
mask, reproducing the physiognomy of the ani- 
mal as f&r as possible. It was painted cinrk 
brown, except around the eyes, lips, and nostrils, 
which were white. The half-opened Tnouth 
showed the points of the teeth, and the ears 
rose above the head. Mr. Maspero suggests that 
it is desirable to study tliese dog mummies he- 
tore they are destroyed, in onler to determine 
their species and learn their anatomical struct- 
ure, and what changes, it any, it has nndergonc. 



MlMellanmnB.— An inN^ription called the 
Minaan inscription— No. B35 in Haldvy's list — 
recording' a battle between the south Egyptian 
people Madoy, and the Egyptians (Misr), or rul- 
ers and inhabitants of the Delta, is interpreted 
by Dr, Edward Glaser, from some of its allusions, 
aBa(»nt«mporaiy record pointing to the i^esence 
of the Hebrews in the Delta during the Biblical 
period of their sojourn in Eeypt. 

In a stone discovered by Mr. Wilbom at Luxor 
mention is made of seven years of want ill conse- 

Sience ot the failure of the inundations of the 
ile and of the attempt ot the sorcerer Chit-net 
to overcome the calamity. This record is treated 
by Herr Brugsch as evidence of the existence ot 
a tradition of a famine corresponding with the 
one described in Genesis in connection with tlte 
slory of Joseph, The st«ne is of late date. 

A picture of Ramesee II dedicating the edifice 
to Amun Ka, found on one of the walls of his 
temple at Luxor, furnishes a representation of 
the completed building. Both the great obelisks 
are shown, and the tour masis with their flags 
dLiplayed, and six colossi— two seated and four 
standing — outside of the pylons. 

Palestine. The KIde of Salem.— Prom the 
study of tablets from Tel-el-Amama relating to 
the affairs of southern Palestine Prof. A. H. 
Sayce has found that the local name of the deity 
worshiped "in the mountain of Jerusalem," ac- 
cording U> Ebed-tob, the governor ot the city in 
the time ot the eighteenth dynasty in Egypt, was 
Salim. This reveals the origin of the name of 
Jerusalem itself. A cuneiform tablet has already 
informed us that uru signifies cily, the Assyrian 
alu ; unt-Saiim, or Jerusalem, must therefore t>o 
"the city ot Salem," the ffod of peace. We can 
thus understand why Helchizedek, the royal 

Sriest, is called " King ot Salem " rather than of 
erusalem ; and we may see in the title " Prinee 
ot Peace," oonferrrd by Isaiah on the expected 
Saviour, a reference to the early history of the 
city. In the letters sent by Ebed-tob to Egypt, 
he says that he had succeeded to bis royal dig- 
nity not by right of inheritance, nor by the ap- 
pointment of the Egyptian king, but by virtue 
of an oracle ot the god who is called in Genesis 
El EIy6n. A comparison is suggested bv this 
account of his priestly- royal tenure, with the 
characterization of Melchizedek in Hebrews Tit, 
8. At the same time he was a tributary and 
"vassal" ot Egypt, and the district of which 
Jerusalem was the capital, which extended on 
the west to Mount Seir and Rabbah. and on the 
south to Keilah and Carmel, was the "country 
of the king" ot Egypt, who had established his 
name in it " forever. 

Babjlonla. DlBcoTerles by Dr. Peters at 
Nlffer. — Dr, Peters, ot the American expedition 
to Babylonia, has communicated to Mr. Theodore 
G. Pinches the discovery at Niffer of two slamps 
of Narara-Sin and two of his father, Sargon I : 
three door sockets with votive inscriptions of 
Sargon ot Agade; and several inscriptionsof an- 
other king, apparently of about the same uce 
with Sargon I (B. f. 3800). who seems to be un- 
known. In this inscription Mr. Pinches reads 
the name Erimus or Uruinus. The same name 
occurs on some fragments from Sippara (or Abii- 
hnbbah). which Dr. Jensen has copied. These 
discoveries prove that the city of Niffor was one 



ARCn^OLOQY. (Africa,) ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 23 

of the oldest in Babylonia — a fact which is cor- and put together without the use of a single atom 

roborated in the new Akkadian story of the crea- of cement. This strange inclosure is entered on its 

tion, where Niffer is the first city mentioned by eastern side by what at first sight appears to be 

name. Among the finds from the temple of Bel a mere gap in the wall, but whicn closer examina- 

are a number of votive inscriptions on lapis- tion reveals to be what was once evidently a well- 

l&zoli, agate, and a chalk-like white stone, so soft defined narrow entrance, as shown clearly bv the 

that it had to be covered with a kind of enamel, rounded-off courses. Inside the building itself 

They were all found in one room, in a series of (which is most difilcult to examine thoroughly, 

booths or shops before the temple ; had all been owing both to the dense undergrowth and tHe 

contained in one box ; and were in various stages presence of quantities of trees hundreds of years 

of completion, showing that this was the shop of old, which conceal traces of, seemingly, a series 

a vender or manufacturer of objects of this kmd. of further circular or elliptical walls), and close 

The inscriptions on the bulk of these belong to to the entrance and outer wall, here dO feet high, 

Knrigaizu, son of Bumaburiash, but the largest stands a conical-shaped tower or turret. 85 feet 

and moi^ important of the series bears the name in height and 18 feet in diameter at the base, 

of a king of Babylon, which >fr. Pinches reads built of the same granite blocks and consisting 

Kadasman-Turgu. Another similar name, Kadas- of solid masonry, ijastly, . . . on the southeast 

man-Bel, occurs on an agate tablet of the same front of the wall and 20 feet fit>m its base runs a 

series. These give us the names of two Kassite zigzag scroll, one third of the distance round, 

kings, one whofly, the other partially, new. composed of the same-sized granite blocks placed 

AkJ^Adian Aecount of the Creation.—- A in diagonal positions." 
tablet found by Mr. Pinches among those col- The ruins were visited in 1891 by Mr. Theo- 

lected by Mr. Hormuzd Rassam at Konyunjik, dore Bent, who found the remains of a temple 

containing on the reverse an incantation for the adorned with phallic emblems, a phallic altar, 

punfication of the great temple tower E-Zida, and fragments of blue and green pottery, 
or Birs Nimrud, has on the obverse an account BibHogrspliyr-Geraixi Fowke, "Some Popular Er- 

of the creation. The text, according to Mr. rore in regw^ to Mound-buildere and IndTana" (in 

Pinches, may be divided roughly into sections of the " Ohio Arehieoloffical and HiBtorical Quarterly," 

about ten lines each. The first section describes 1S89) ; " The Manufacture and Use of Aboriginal 

the time when nothing was, neither the "glori- Stone Implements." W. K. Moorehead, "Fort An- 

ous house of the gods,^' neither plants nor cities, JJ^nt, the Great Prehistoric Earth-work of Wairen 

nor houses, and not even the abyss (Hades) nor Suiti^' of ¥enn^ '^ f aicTin^tiTT F^d'' 

Erida (probably a tyf)e of paradise) existed. The erick Wright, "Man and the Glacial Period," supl 

second section describes the making of Hindu, plementary note to a new edition of "The Ice Age in 

with its temple £-sagila, which had been founded riorth America and ita Bearing upon the Antiquity 

within the abyss. Ihen were* made Babvlon, the of Man " (New York). Marquis do Nadaillac, " Pre- 

pKls. the spirits, the land, the abode of the gods, historic America" (New York). Henrv A. Shep- 

and mankind. The third section treats of the herd, "The Antiquities of the State of Ohio" (Cin- 

creation of animals, plants, and trees, the Tims f JJ^cS^i) C^^'H^^^-Th^T^^^fa Sl^o^iI^dJ^. 
and Euphrates, eUs. ; and the fourth and last ^^d irmnv'othcr papere orsubjecla ofNorth Ameri- 
rtmaining section records the building of cities can arehwology (Washington). " Reports of the Pea- 
and houses. Merodach figures as the principal body Museum of Amencan Archaeology and Eth- 
creator and constructor of all things. nology" (Cambridge, Mass.)- Beports of the Smith- 
AMca. BuIdS of Zlmbabye. — The cyclo- sonian Institution, of the United States National 
pean rains of Zimbabve, in Mashonaland, South Museum, and of the United States Bureau of Eth- 
5^rica, were discovered and visited several years ^^'^l' j,^^^,^!^^^^ ^TMoi^^^^^^^^ 
ago hv the German traveler Mauch, and are illus- Vishiugton ; Otis T. Masin, Washington. Reports 
trated, from his notes, in Barnes s works on " The and publications of the Archoological Institute of 
Gold Fields of South Africa." They were visited America. Dr. C. Schuchhart. " Schliemann^s Exca- 
again, and are described by a correspondent of vations" (New York). "Bibiia," monthly, Charles 
the London •* Times," a member of the British 8. Davis (Meriden, Conn.). "Oriental and Baby- 
Sonth Africa Company's exiiedition, in the sum- Ionian Record" ^London). Publications of the So- 
me r of 1890. They are situited close to the edge J^j^Hnfti^^'F^^t f.'^w 
of the Mashonalana plateau, at the base of a pre- *^^"« ^^^^ ^^^ Exploration Fund (London). 

cipitous granite '* kopie," or knoll, which is in- ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, a federal repub- 
habited by one of the Mashona tribes. They are lie in South America, having a Constitution mod- 
surrounded by an outer wall, running apparently eled after that of the United States, The Presi- 
round the entire kopje, which could not be traced dent is elected for six years. The Congress con- 
for more than half a mile on account of the high sists of a Senate of 28 members, two from each 
grass and jungle. Next, are indications of a sec- province, and a House of Representatives con- 
ond and inner wall, which also could not be traced taining 86 members voted for directlv by the 
for any great length. Then, amid the remains people and serving four years. One half of the 
of many small circular buildings, and 300 yards Ilouse is renewed every two years, and one third 
««uthwest of the base of the kopje, is " a high of the Senate every three yeai-s. Every member 
wall of circular shape, from 30 to 35 feet high, of either house draws a salary of |8,400 per 
forming a complete inclosure of an area 80 yards annum. The Vice-President presides over the 
in diameter. This wall (about 10 feet in thicfeness Senate, and succeeds to the presidency in case of 
at the base, and tapering to about 7 or 8 feet at a vacancy. On the resignation of President 
the top) is built of small granite blocks, about Juarez Celman, on Au^. 6, 1890, Dr. Carlos Pel- 
tfTi'ce the size of an ordinary brick, beautifully logrini, then Vice-President, assumed the oflBce 
hewed and dressed, laid in perfectly even courses, for the remaihder of the term, which expires 



24 ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

« 
Oct 12, 1892. Each province elects its Gov- total exports of aniraal products were $89,282,715 
ernor and Legislature, and can levy taxes and in value; of agricultural products, $16,980,547; 
contract debts and legislate on all matters not of manufactured products, $11,946,806; of m in- 
reserved to Congress by the Constitution. The end products, $1,629,100; of forest products. 
Cabinet in the l^ginning of 1891 was composed $798,257; of other products. $2,228,012: total 
of the following members : Minister of Foreign merchandise exports in 1889, $122,815,057. The 
Affairs, E. Costa ; Minister of Finance, Vicente imports of textile goods and apparel were $32,- 
Fidel Lopez ; Minister of Education and Minis- 229,422 in value ; of iron manufactures, $24,- 
ter of Justice, Juan Carballido ; Minister of War, 727,118 ; of railroad and telegraph supplies, $24,- 
N. Levalle; Minister of the Interior, Gen. Roca 178,749; of food substances, $18,850,9(>4 ; of bev- 
Area and Popalation.— The ai-ea of the erages, $15,801,607; of timber, $12,106,858; of 
self-governed provmces is 515,700 square miles, coal and oil, $7,598,810; of glass and pottery, 
and their population is estimated at 3,916,492. $6,658,646 ; of chemicals, $4,756,797; of all other 
The territories have an area of about 609.386 articles, $18,670,978 : total merchandise imports, 
square miles, and 170,000 inhabitants. Buenos $164,569,884. 

Ayres. the capital, with its suburbs, had in The exports to the United States, mainly hides 
July, 1890, a population of 556,160, more than and wool, in 1890 were $5,401,697, compared 
one quarter bemg foreigners. The immigration with $5,454,618 in 1889 ; the imports from the 
in the past six years has been nearly 1,200,000. United States, consisting chiefly of railroad ma- 
About three fourths of the settlers are of Ital- terial, agricultural implements, machinery, lum- 
ian nationality, one tenth are Spaniards, one ber, petroleum, and cotton, were $8,887,000 in 
twelfth are French, and the rest of various na- 1890, against $9,298,008 in 1889. 
tionalities. The financial disturbance of 1890 caused a 
Finance. — The revenue for 1890 was esti- large diminution in the volume of imiK)rts, 
mated at $74,370,000, namely, $48,000,000 from chiefly in luxuries, while the exports have re- 
customs, $8,950,000 from municipal taxes, $7,- mained steady. The decrease of imports is part- 
700,000 from banks, $6,050,000 from stamps and ly due to the protective tariff and tne growth of 
the post-office, and $8,670,000 from other sources native industries. 

The total expenditui*es were estimated at $67,- Railroadfiu-^The Argentine Republic has the 
881,884, apportioned as follow ; Interior, $16,- completest system of railroad communications of 
237,406; finance administration, $25,989,893; anv South American country. There were 5,798 
instruction, $9,517,026; military expenditure, miles in operation and 4.840 miles building in 
$9,507,839 ; the navy, $4,029,440 ; foreign af- 1890. The cost of the completed lines was $249,- 
fairs, $2,600,280. The actual expenditures ex- 907,796. The receipts for 1889 were $85,250,- 
ceeded the revenue by $31,000,000, and in 1891 907 and the expenses $24,420,152. The panic 
a deficit of $22,000,000 was looked for, to avoid of 1890 caused railroad construction to fail olf 
which the President issued a decree reducing greatly ; but many of the lines were already coin- 
salaries in the civil departments and in the army pleted or nearly completed. The extension of 
and navy, which was approved by Congress. the Buenos Ayres and Rosario line to Tucuman 
The Army and NaTir. — There is a standing connects the capital with one of the most pro- 
army of 5,585 men and officers. Able-bodied men ductive of the provinces. The Transandine line 
under forty-five are enrolled in the militia, which to connect the Ars^entine system with the Chil- 
numbers 286,000. ian is expected to be finished before 1894, though 
The naval forces in 1890 comprised 1 ironclad several long tunnels will have to be cut through 
frigate, 2 deck-protected cruisers, 2 monitors, 7 hard rock. 

gunboats, 2 transports, 7 dispatch boats, 1 tor- Financial Crisis. — During the Celman rS- 
pedo school ship, and 8 torpedo boats, of which oim«, which ended in the financial crash followed 
4 are armed with spar torpedoes. The " Almi- by the revolution of July, 1890, the national 
rante Brown " is plated with 9 inches of steel- treasury was robbed of $500,000,000. The Na- 
faced armor, and mounts six 11^-ton breech-load- tional and Provincial banks were left insolvent, 
ing Armstrongs in her central battery, 1 in the having lent the money of their depositors on 
bow, and 1 in the stem. A deck-armored cniiser unsul:»tantial security to politicians and their 
of 3,200 tons, completed in England in 1891, friends. For three years before the economical 
showed in her trials a mean speed with natural collapse London banking houses, and Continental 
draught of 2H knots, with 9,000 horse-power de- houses to a smaller extent, found profit in rais- 
veloped by two vertical 4-cylinder engines work- ing money from investors in Europe to start 
ing independent screws. She is named the '' 25 all kinds of new undertakings in Argentina, and 
de Mayo." Her armament consists of two 8-inch even dealt largely in cedulcis, which were secured 
breech-loading guns, eight 5-inch quick-firing loosely on real estate. The vast quantity of Eu- 
guns, twenty-four quick-firing guns of smaller ropean gold that was poured into the country 
calibers, and three 18-inch torpedo guns. was an incentive to wild speculation and a temp- 
Commerce. — The breeding of cattle and sheep tation to political jobbery. President Pelle^ini 
is the most important industry. Agriculture is and the Lnion Civica were supported in their ef- 
carried on extensively, about 6,000,000 acres be- forts to retrieve the financial disaster by the best 
ing under cultivation, yielding a product valued classes of the people. For this it was necessary 
in 1890 at $100,000,0()0, the exports for the first not only to make the public income and expendi- 
six months amounting to $81,865,000. The wheat ture balance by economy and fresh taxation, but 
area in 1889 was 2,580,000 acres. The exports to rehabilitate the bankrupt public banks. An 
of wool in 1889 were of the value of $56,709,- extraoniinarv session of Congress was called to- 
774 ; of hides and skins, $27,852.949 ; of wheat, ward the end of 1890. Measures proposed by the 
$1,596,446; of Indian com. Ill2.-977,721. The Government were a 10-per-cent. tax on the prof- 



ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 25 

it? of private banks and 2 per cent, on their dc- were payable on April 1. Congress was opened 
p<>sits; 7 per cent, on the profit-s of all undertiik- on May 9 with a message from President relle- 
ings supported by foreign capital, railroads and grini, giving reasons against a new issue of paper, 
meat-freezing companies excepted ; and a tax of and recommending a silver instead of a gold 
20 per cent on the interest of eedulas. The last- basis for the currency. Gov. Costa, of Buenos 
named tax was proposed by the provincial gov- Ayres, having refused to accede to the proposed 
emment in lieu of a conversion scheme which the fusion of the two state banks, the Government 
foreign and native holders of eedtilas would not brought in a bill for the creation of a new na- 
acoept. The taxing of private banks would have tionai bank with a capital of $50,000,000, of 
the effect of giving the Government the use of which $30,000,000 should be in paper and $20,- 
cash for current needs, even if it drove the for- 000,000 in gold. Authority was asked to assume 
eign banks out of business, since people would the notes of provincial banks on their giving up 
then be compelled to deposit in the stat« banks, their guarantee bonds and specie reserves. 
The foreign, and especially the English, bankers The indefinite extension on June 1 of the sus- 
were jpopularly blamed for precipitating the pension of the state banks was the cause of a 
financial catastrophe. The foreign bank man- panic, and this gave occasion for a concerted run 
agers resisted the special tux on depK>sits. To on the private banks. Gold leaped up to 450. 
thetaxon the profits of foreign enterprises, which The Bank of Italy paid $13,000,000 over its 
affected Amencan insurance companies, the Unit- counter in two days, and then closed its doors, 
ed States objected on the ground that it was a The French Bank of the River Plate, the new 
violation of international obligations. Italian Bank, the Commercial Bank, and the 
Deposits withdrawn from the Provincial Bank Spanish Bank suspended. The London and 
of Buenos Ayres left it on March 5 with no River Plate Bank nad drawn from Rio de Ja- 
money in its vaultjs. Determined to save the neiro and Montevideo reserves sufficient to meet 
state banks. Dr. Pellegrini applied to the foreign all demands. On June 11 both houses of Con- 
banks, but they refu^ assistance. The Minis- gress passed over the President's veto a bill 
ter of Finance then proposed a new emission of granting a moratorium or general suspension of 
paper money, two dollars to be issued a^inst a all debS and obligations to pay money on de- 
gold reserve of one dollar. This suggestion and mand or at fixed dates, with the exception of 
the knowledge of the critical condition of the taxes, for six months. Two days later the period 
lianks caused gold, which had fiuctuated between was reduced to three months, and on Aug. 12 
250 and 300, to leap to 387. It was no longer the moratorium was repealed, after the Senate 
officially quoted in terms of paper money. On had voted a bill creating the new Bank of the 
Nov. 24, 1890, when it had risen to 845 and bull Argentine Nation to liquidate the old National 
speculators offered 350, the Bolsa or hall of ex- Bank and take over its privileges, for which pur- 
enange was broken up by the crowd and the pose a new issue of $50,000,0% was authonzed. 
police closed its doors. After they were again The redemption of the coupons on National eedu- 
opened for business the Government decreed that las was postponed for a year. An agreement 
quotations should henceforth be posted, accord- was made with the European creditors through 
ing to the plan adopted in Chili and Brazil, in a number of their representatives, called the 
shillings, francs, or marks, at the rates of foreign Rothschild committee, whereby the Argentine 
exchange. The dangers of trifling further with Government is relieved from the immediate pay- 
the currency were so apparent that bankers, ment of the debt charges falling due in the next 
capitalists, and merchants proposed the altema- three years, the interest being funded and added 
tive plan of an internal loan, which the Govern- to the principal of the debt, which will increase 
ment willingly accepted. To prevent the formal the annual interest by $4,000,000 when the pay- 
failure of the Provincial Bank, the 6th of March ment of interest is resumed. A proposal to issue 
and the succeeding day were flfeclared public $45,000,000 of forced paper currency for the 
holidays, and the suspension was prolonged by foundation of the National Argentine Bank was 
new decrees till the 14th. The private banks agreed to by the House of Deputies, but on Oct. 
came to the assistance of the Government on the 14 the bill was defeated in the Senate, 
condition that the taxes on foreign capital should Political Disturbances. — The friends of the 
be removed. The proposed new loan of $100,- deposed Administration, who were disposed to 
OOO.OOO, bearing 6 per cent, interest, with 2 per lay the blame for the financial distress upon Eu- 
cent, sinking fund, was offered at 75. The ropean financiers, and who charged the President 
friends of the late Government denounced the and the Union Civica with accepting extortion- 
plan and called for a fresh issue of bank notes, ate terms and truckling to the foreign creditors. 
Consequently only $41,000,000 was subscribed, still formed an active political organization, and 
$23,000,000 by Argentinians and $18,000,000 by were very numerous in Cordova and the dis- 
the foreign banking houses. The suspension of tricts that had supported the late President Cel- 
payments of the Provincial Bank and the Na- man. The question as to who should succeed 
tionai Bank was ordered till the 1st of June, the Dr. Pellegrini in the presidency agitated the 
Government assumin|f their liabilities, depositors country, as the elections were to be held in the 
being allowed the option of taking internal bonds following year. Gen. Roca and the other leaders 
for their deposits. The ministers elaborated a of the Union Civica fixed on Gen. Mitre as their 
plan for the fusion of them both into a new in- candidate, and he came from Europe in March, 
stitution to be called the Bank of the Republic. 1891, to plan the canvass and advise with the 
TJje Government stopped work on harbor im- men in power on the political and financial situa- 
provements and state railroad construction in tion. Political disturbances had already broken 
consequence of its financial difficulties. Interest out. On Feb. 14 a conspiracy was discovered in 
was defaulted on eedtUas of which the coupons the city of Buenos Ayres which was said to have 



26 ARIZONA. 

for its object the assassination of members of Flnanees. — The total bonded debt of the Ter- 
the Government Officers who had sided with ritory on Jan. 1 was $621,000, and the floating 
Oelman in the revolution of 1890 were ordered to debt, represented by unpaid warrants, $124«442.- 
the frontier, and forty of them left the country. 19, making the total indebtedness $745,442.19. 
On Feb. 19 a boy attempted to kill Gen. Roca, On Sept. 12 the bonded debt had been reduced 
grazing his nock with a bullet as he rode in his to $606,000, while the floating debt had incre&<ed 
carriage. On the day following a stete of sie^ to $190,030.58, making a total of $796,030.53. 
was declared in the capital. A riot occurred m Although a tax of 71 cents for Territorial pur- 
Cordova, in which the troops took part. The poses was levied this year on each $100 of valu- 
movement was begun at Santa Rosa, and spread ation, its proceeds were insufficient to defray 
to Jalumbra, Rio Cuarto, and the capital of the current Territorial expenses, pay interest on the 
province, the whole of which was placed under debt, and meet such of the pnncipal as matured, 
martial law. In elections for deputies in Buenos A constant increase of unpaid warrants thei^ 
Ayres the Government gained several seats. The fore results. 

siege was raised on March 15, before the elections In addition to the Territorial debt, there is a 

were over. A conspiracy among the police of the county debt, bonded and floating, of $2,175,604.- 

capital was promptly put down. The navy and a 74, and a city debt, bonded and floating, of $182,- 

part of the army were opposed to the Mitre-Roca 987.80. 

coalition, and the hope that Gen. Mitre would The total assessed valuation of the Territory 

harmonize the parties was found to be ground- for 1891 was $28,270,466.28, an increase of $220,- 

less. 231.55 over the valuation for 1890. Included in 

On Mav 1 Gen. Roca resigned his post as Min- the assessment were 3,364,868 acres of land, val- 

ister of the Interior, and was succeeded by Jos6 ued at $4,602,121 ; improvements thereon, valued 

Zapata. On May 22 a new insurrection occurred at $2,302,214.20 ; city and town lots, valued at 

in Cordova, which was suppressed by the troops $1,972,252 ; improvements thereon, valued at $2,- 

after a street fight of eleven hours, during which 347,424.50 ; 720,940 cAttle, valued at $5,970,597.- 

25 persons were killed. Minister ZapaU declared 35 : 288,727 sheep, valued at $320,597.28 ; 47,912 

in Congress that this revolt was a part of a horses, valued at $1.188,168.45 ; 1,757 mules val- 

general plot to convulse the republic. In June ued at $58,973 ; 1,083 miles of railroad, valued at 

the Province of Catamarca was the scene of an $6,145,008.02. 

insurrection which was mainly due to local causes LegislatiYe Session. — The sixteenth Territo- 

and was successful, the provincial authorities rial Legislature began its regular session on Jan. 

being supplanted by a provisional j?ovemment. 19, and adjourned on March 19. Both branches 

A few days later Gov. Rojas, of Santiago del Es- were controlled by Democrats, the Council stand- 

tero, who was accused of nepotism, was deposed ing 8 Democrats, 4 Republicans, and the House 

by a popular rising, and Gorostiaga, the former 17 Democrats, 7 Republicans. An act was passed 

Governor, was reinstated. The troops interfered providing for an election of delegates, on the 

in both provinces and restored the legitimate second Tuesday of May, to a cotistitutional 

authorities. Owing to dissensions between the convention, which should meet at Phenix on the 

Liberal and the Radical sections of the Union first Monday of September following and pre- 

Civica Gen. Mitre in the autumn renounced his pare a constitution for the proposed State of 

candidature for the presidency, and he and Gen. Arizona. The number of delegates was limited 

Roca formally withdrew from active political to twenty-twa The constitution so prepared 

life. During the elections in October rioting and must be submitted to a vote of the people, 

loss of life occurred in the cities of Tucuman A ballot-reform act provides that all ballots 

and Cordova. cast in elections for public office shall be printed 

ARIZONA, a Territory of the United States, and distributed at county expense, except that 

orpranized Feb. 24, 1863; area, 118,020 square ballots in local elections shall be printed and 

miles. The population, according to each decen- distributed at the expense of the city, town, or 

nial census, was 9,658 in 1870: 40,440 in 1880; village. Nominationsof candidates for office may 

and 59,620 in 1890. Capital, Phenix. be made by the convention or caucus of any po- 

GoYernment. — The following were the Terri- litical party that polled at the last election for 

torial officers during the year : Governor, John Territorial or county officers at least 1 per 

N. Irwin, Republican ; Secretary, Nathan 0. cent, of the entire vote cast in the Territory or 

Murphy ; Treasurer, John V. T. Smith, succeeded county, or bv nomination papers signed by voters 

by William Christy ; Auditor, Thomas Hughes ; residing within the district for which the norai- 

Attorney-General, Clark Churchill, succeeded by nation is made equal in number to at least 1 per 

William Herring ; Superintendent of Public In- cent, of the total vote cast in such district at the 

struction, George W. Cheyney; Commissioner last preceding election. The ballots shall be 

of Immigration (until the abolition of the office printed on wnite paper, and shall contain the 

in February, by act of the Legislature), John A. names of all candiaates duly nominated. Each 

Black ; Railroad Commissioners, appointed in ballot shall be indorsed with the words ** Official 

June, pursuant to an act of the sixteenth Legis- ballot," which shall bo followed by the name of 

lature. H. B. Li^hthizer, E. B. Gage, G. W. the district or precinct in which the ballots are 

Beecher, and J. S. 0*Brien ; Chief Justice of the to be used and the date of election. Each bal- 

Supreme Court, Henry C. Gooding ; Associate lot shall also have on its back the fac simile, of 

Justices, Joseph H. Kibbey, Richard E. Sloan, the signature of the chairman of the Board of 

and Edward W. Wells. Judge Wells was ap- Supervisors, with his official title. Each polling 

pointed early in the year, pursuant to the act of place shall be furnished with a sufficient num- 

Congress approved Oct. 1, 1890, providing for a W of voting booths, containing shelves on 

fourth justice for the Territorial court. which the voters may mark their ballots screened 



ARIZONA. 



27 



from obsenration. A guard rail shall be so con- 
stracted that only persons inside can approach 
within six feet of the booths or the ballot-boxes, 
bat neither of these shall be hidden from the view 
of persons jnst outside the rail. Voting shall be 
done br marking a cross opposite the name of 
the candidate to be Toted for, or by writing in a 
name and marking a cross opposite thereto. The 
Toter, after marking his ballot in the booth, shall 
fold it so as to conceal his choice, and hand it to 
the election officer. The top of each ballot shall 
be partially separated from the remainder by a 
perforated line, and on this top or stub the elec- 
tion clerk shall write his name and the number 
of the voter in the order in which he voted, 
which number shall also be entered on the check- 
hsL 

llie act does not apply to school elections, 
nor are its provisions enforceable until the first 
Monday in June, 1892. 

An act limiting railroad fares prevents rail- 
road companies from charging^ passengers over 
six cents lor each mile or fhu^tion thereof which 
they are carried, except that in no case shall the 
minimum fare be less than twenty-five cents. 
The rate chargeable for children under ten vears 
shall not exceed three cents for each mile or 
fraction thereof. Baggage up to 150 pounds in 
weight shall be carried free for each passenger. 
An act to encourage railroad construction ex- 
empts from taxation for twenty years the prop- 
erty of all railroads hereafter 6uilt without sub- 
sidies, provided actual construction begins with- 
m one year after the pass^e of the act, and pro- 
ceeds at the rate of fifty miles of track each year, 
and provided other requirements of the act are 
complied with. 

Another act provides for the appointment of 
four railroad ctommissioners, two from each 
party, holding office for two years, who shall 
make an annual report to the Governor. 

The Governor was given power to remove any 
Territorial officer appointea by him or his prede- 
cessor, whether witn or without the consent of 
the Legislative Council, whenever in his judg- 
ment the best interest of the public service 
will be promoted. Provision was made for or- 
ganizing, for the protection of the southern 
irontier, a company of anned horsemen, consist- 
ing of three officers and twenty men, to be 
known as the Arizona Rangers, a special part of 
whose doty it shall be to pursue and punish 
marauding Indians and other malefactors. An 
annual Territorial tax of six cents on each $100 
is to be levied to provide money for the equip- 
ment and support of these troops. 

The new funding law for theTerritory, passed 
by Congress in June, 1890, was re-enactea, with 
additional provisions necessarv to carry it into 
full effect. The annual tax to be levied for com- 
pleting the buildings for the Territorial Univer- 
^itr, at Tucson, was reduced from three fourths 
i') one half of a mill annually. A department 
fo/ the education of the deaf, dumb, and blind 
was added to the institution, to be organized 
whe lever tire persons who are admissible 
^halJ apply for instruction. Subject to the ap- 
pmial of Congress, an act was passed creating a 
wfd of World's Fair Managers for Arizona, 
ani appropriating^ $30,000 for their use in secur- 
i'jg a proper exhibit of the resources of the Ter- 



ritory at Chicago in 1893, the sum to be bor- 
rowed at 5 per cent, for twenty years. 

The offices of Commissioner of Immigration 
and of Territorial Geologist were abolished. 
The county of Coconino was created out of 
the northerly and easterly portions of Tavapai 
County. 

Amendments were made to the jury law, so 
that in civil cases and in misdemeanor trials 
where twelve persons form the jury a verdict 
may be given bv the concurrence of three fourths. 
Other aces of the session were as follow : 

Changing the time of meeting of the Legislature to 
the second Monday of February in 1898, and every 
second year thereafter. 

To provide for the establishment of a board of 
horticultural commissioners in any county on peti- 
tion of residents thereof, and to empower such board 
to protect the county against tiie imj^rtation, propa- 
gation, and spreading of insects ii^unous to fruit and 
vines. 

Limiting the time within which executions may 
issue to five years after rendition of judgment 

Authorizing incorporated cities, towns, and villages 
to dispose of vacant land. 

Consolidating ofiices and reducing expenses in 
cities which cast a total vote of less than 500 at the 
November election in 1890. 

Revising the mechanics^ lien law. 

Detaching certain lands from Yavapai County and 
annexing them to Gila County. 

To prevent the sale of flrc-anns, ammunition, and 
liouors to Indians. 

To prohibit the licensing of gambling at nnyjiestd, 
or in any park, or on any race track or fair ground, 
or adjacent thereto, or in any public place iVequcntcd 
by women or minors. 

Making the Friday following the first day of Feb- 
ruary in each year a holiday, to be known as Labor 
Dav. 

Authorizing school dintricta to issue bonds for the 
purpose of bmlding school-houses and of liquidating 
outstanding indebtedness. 

Amending the act of 1889 so that precinct and dis- 
trict ofiices in the Territory may be held by persons 
who can not read and write in the English language. 
Territorial and county ofiices can not be held by such. 

Exempting from taxation for ten years all sugar- 
beet factories built within one year. 

Repealing the close-herd law. 

To prohibit the sale of intoxicants to minors and 
drunkards, and to prohibit the sale of cigarettes to 
children under sixteen years of age. 

Providing for the appointment of live-stock inspect- 
ors, who shall inspect all stock about to be killed for 
sale or to bo shipped or driven from the Territory, 
and to make sure that such stock is not stolen. 

Providing a new law regulating the care of the 
indigent sick by the severafcounties. 

Giving to persons who cut or cord wood, cut, saw, 
or skid logs, cut, saw, hew, or pile ties, a lien thereon 
for labor. 

Education. — The following table shows the 
educational progress of the Territory for the 
past eight years : 



TKAB. 


lUedpla. 


Ksptodl- 
tan*. 


School.. 9^- 
ami. 


•ttend- 


Tradi- 
cn. 


1888.... 
1SW4.... 
ISW.... 
1SH6.... 
IS**?.... 
18.HS. . . . 
18^0.... 
1890 .. 


1101.890 02 j $77,997 W 
2(UV01 28 ] 161,861 57 
1S6,66« 12 ' 18S.164 88 
159,956 14 185.0R0 89 
120,044 P8 117,(K« 74 
157.707 08 18<»,212 14 
179,7^2 85 150,(M8 41 

i 201.2^8 70 177,488 .^8 


104 9,860 
121 , 9,860 
187 1 10,219 
150 10,219 
169 10,8(>8 
1H4 10.HC8 
197 12.5HK 
219 12.882 


2.554 
8,287 
8,226 
8,507 
8,602 
8,849 
4,293 
4,702 


98 
14S 
181 
160 
175 
191 
1P9 
240 



28 ARIZONA. 

In 1890, 93 men and 147 women teachers were of members of the House of Representatives bo less 

employed, their respective monthly salaries being than twice, nor greater than three times, the numlxir 

^2 45 and 474 45 of members of the Senate. The Senate and House of 

*"The« is {No-rmal School at Phonix supported ^^^^^^^ "^"^^^^ JX^Zftwe^iy-W 

by the Terntory, at which 42 students were en- membere respectively. 

rolled on the first day of this year. Building No legislative session after the first shall exceed 

for a Territorial University at Tucson are in sixty days. The Legislature shall meet biennially on 

process of erection. the second Tuesday of January next succeeding the 

Indians.— The Indian population of the Ter- election of its members. ^ . ., . 

ritory on June 30, 1890, was as follows: Col- , No appropriation shall be made for charitable, in- 

orado River Aopncv Moiavea 640- Pima and dustrial, educational, or benevolent purposes to any 

oraao iiiver Agency, MOjaves, 04U, rima ana pereon, corporation, or community not under the abs<>- 

Mancopa Reservation, Pimas, 641 ; Pima Keser- fu^ control of the State, nor to any denominaUonal 

vation on Gila River, Pimas, 3,823; Maricopa or sectarian institution or association. 
Reservation, Maricopas, 315; Pa{)ago Reserva- The city of Phenix shall be the seat of ^vcm* 

tion and roaming Indians, Papagos, 5,1(J3; San ment: but the people may by vote change Uio seat 

Carlos Agency (Cayotero, San Carlos, Tonto, and not ot\encr than once in ten yeaw. 

White Mountain Apache), Apaches, 2,121; Mo- ^ight hours shall constitute a day's labor on all 
jave Reservation, Mojaves, 551 ; Yuma Reserva- ^11 Xml streams and lakes within the boundaries 

tion, Mojaves, 240; White Mountam Apache of this State capable of being used for the purpoi^es 

Reservation, Apache, 1,920 ; living outside of the of navigation or irrigation are declared to be the 

reservations, 1,326; total, 16,740. property of tlie State. 

Irrigation. — The total area in Arizona on Tlio common-law doctrine of riparian water rights 

which crops were raised by irrigation in the shall never be applied in this State, 

census year ending June 30, 1890, was 65,821 , Th« nght of individuals or corporations to oon- 

«^«^« «i ifto.Q „«.,„«« «,;i,l i«„o ♦kn^ V>«« struct reservoirs and impound and appropriate Uio 
acres, or 102-8 square miles, less than one ,^ ^j ^^ watenTfor sale, rental, ^domestic, 

tenth of 1 per cent, of the entire area of the gt^ck, or any beneficial purpose, shall never be do- 
Territory. The aggregate number of farms was nied. 
1,448, and of these, 1,075, or 74 per cent., de- 
pended upon irrigation, the remaining 26 per ProWsion was made for submitting this con- 
cent, being stock ranches, or farms high in the stitution to a vote of the people on the first day 
mountains, where crops can be raised by what is of December of this year. 

known as '* dry farming." The average size of Tlie Lost Laws. — Under this term are included 
irrigated farms, or rather of the irrigated por- eleven acts of the fifteenth Territorial Legisla- 
tions of farms on which irrigation was practiced, ture, which for more than a year were supposed 
was 61 acres. to be lost, and the validity of which is not yet fully 
Taking all the counties in the Territory, with established. The fifteenth Legislature having 
their varying conditions, the average cost of continued in session more than sixty consecutive 
water right was $7.07 an acre. days after the day of it« first session, a question 
The agricultural and irrigable land of Arizona at once arose whether its sessions after the sixty- 
is in the southwestern half of the Territory. consecutive days were legal ; or, in other words. 
The acreage at present under irrigation may whether the law of Congress limiting legislative 
be regarded as approaching the maximum pos- sessions to sixty days meant sixty consecutive or 
si ble with the present supply of water and me th- sixty legislative days. Gov. Zulick, to whom 
ods of using it. these eleven acts were transmitted for approval 
Constitutional Conrention. — Pursuant to on March 21, 1889, which was the sixtieth con- 
the act of March 19, Gov. Irwin issued his secutive day of the session, taking the view that 
proclamation calling a general election for the the legal session must expire on that day, dc- 
second Tuesday of May, at which delegates cided neither to approve nor return them, but 
should be chosen to a constitutional convention to allow them to tail through the expiration of 
appointed to meet at Phenix on the first Monday the session. lie accordingly deposited them in a 
of September. At this election 17 Democrats desk in the executive ofiice,'ana a few days later 
and 5 Republicans were chosen. The conven- turned over all official papers and the office to 
tion met at the appointed time and continued in his successor. Gov. Wolfley. The acts remained 
session through Oct. 2, on which day a complete unnoticed in the Governor's office until Nov. 9, 
constitution was adopted and signed. This in- 1890, when a demand was made upon the acting 
strument contains no test oath or other provision Governor for a copy of one of these laws alleged 
to prevent Mormons in the Territory irom vot- to be in his possession, and on examination of 
ing, but declares bigamy and polygamy to be the records of the office the eleven were found, 
felonies, and provides for their punishment as Meanwhile, the validity of the action of the 
such. Other important provisions are as follow : Legislature after the expiration of the^ixty con- 
No lottery shall ever be permitted. ?^"^VL^ ^»^s ^^ been brought in question be- 
The riifht of way over mountain pnHBos and through (?^® ^'^^ «Ji®^'***i^"P. Supreme Court, and in 
canons is granted to all ujwn such teniis and regula- March, 1890, a decision had been rendered dc- 
tions iLH may be prescribed by law. daring the session to be legal until sixty days of 
The railroads are declared to be public highways. actual legislative session had expired. Under 
The legislative power shall be ve8te<l in a Senate this decision the entire session of the fifteenth 
and House of Representative.^ which nliall be desig- Legislature (which did not adjourn till April 10) 

"*^l±l^^n K^?i5ti]}^f^^^^^^ n.,.r. was legal; and as the Governor had held these 

Senators shall be elected for lour yeaiM, and Kepre- ^ #^ -j** j i.-* —ui^i, 4.u 

sentatives for two years. ^*w^ ^°^ * period of ten days, dunng which the 

Each countv shall have at least one Senator and Legislature was legally in session, they became 

one Representative, but at no time shall the number laws without his approval. They were there- 



ARKANSAS. 



29 



fore printed by the Territorial Secretary and 
published for the first time in 1891, with the 
laws of the sixteenth Legislature. Steps have 
been taken to bring the question of their validity, 
and therefore the validity of the later action of 
the fifteenth Legislature, before the final tri- 
bunal, the United States Supreme Court. Until 
its decision is rendered they remain in foree by 
virtue of the decision of the Territorial Court. 
The more important of these laws are the fol- 
lowing : 

Amendiiv^ the law in relation to jurors and juries. 

To establish a compulsory Bchool law in and for 
the Territorv. 

To provide for the further erection and mainte- 
nance of the University of Arizona. 

Prohibiting the carrying on of certain business 
within the liniits of incorporated cities on Sunday. 

Providing for attachments on real estate and per- 
sonal property. 

ARKANSAS, a Southern State, admitted to 
the Union June 15, 1836; area, 58,850 square 
miles. The population, according to each decen- 
nial census since admission, was 97,574 in 1840 ; 
209,897 in 1850; 435,450 in 1860; 484,471 in 
18T0; 802,525 in 1880; and 1,128,179 in 1890. 
Capital, Little Rock. 

GoTemmeiit. — The following were the State 
oflBcers during the year: Governor, James P. 
Eagle^ Democrat; Secretary of State, B. B. 
Chism; Auditor, W. S. Dunlop; Treasurer, 
Robert B. Morrow ; Attorney-General, William 
E. Atkinson ; Superintendent of Public Instnic- 
tion, Josiah IT. Shinn ; State Land Commission- 
er. C. B. Myers; Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court, Sterling R. Cockrill ; Associate Justices, 
Burrill B. Rattle, Simon P. Hughes, William E. 
Hemingway, and, W. W. Mansfield, who was 
elected on Jan. 26 to fill the vacancy caused by 
death of Justice M. H. Sandels, Nov. 12, 1890. 

Edaeation. — The following public-school sta- 
tistics for the years ending June 30, 1889, and 
June 30, 1890, are reported by the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction : 



Popnlatlon by Races.— The following table 
shows the white and colored population of the 
several counties in 1880 and in 1890, according 
to the Federal census : 



COUXTIES. 



ITEMS. 


1889. 


1890. 


Children of school age, white 

Children of school aee, colored — 
Nomber 6nroll«^. white 


297,605 

10C.714 

15\770 

4^6,382 

4.1 OS 

1,S37 

|S50,OiO 76 

289 

f967,608 60 


207.904 
107,083 
lM,2fi9 


Ncmber enrol led, colorvd 

Teachers employed, male 

Teaehen employed, female 

Wjffea Daid teachers 


61,003 
No report. 
No report 
♦S69,by9 m 

274 

11,016,776 26 


New M:bool-hou9C9 erectod 

Total expenditures for school par- 
poses 





Charities.— On Nov. 30, 1888, there were in 
the State Lunatic Asylum 411 patients, of whom 
161 were white males, 168 white females, 40 col- 
orwl males, and 42 colored females. During 
the rear succeeding, 95 patients were admitted 
and 96 discharged, while during the year begin- 
ning Nov. 30, 1889, 88 were admitted and 88 
ili^*narged, leaving 410 remaining on Nov. 30, 
l!^, of whom 160 were white males, 167 white 
females, 44 colored males, and 39 colored fe- 
males. Additional accommodations at this in- 
stitution were provided for by the General As- 
^mblv this vear. At the State School for the 
Blind' the total enrollment in 1888-'89 was 144 
pupils, and in 1889-'90, 165. At the Deaf Mute 
institute 143 pupils were enrolled for the two 
years ending June 30, 1890. 



Arkansas 

Ashley 

Baxter 

Benton 

Boone 

Bradley 

Calhoun 

Carroll 

Chicot 

Clark 

Clav 

Clebarne 

Cleveland ♦. . . 

i'olurabia 

Conway 

Craighead 

Crawford 

Crittenden 

Cross 

Dallas 

Desha 

Drew 

Faulkner 

Franklin 

Fulton 

Garland 

Grant 

Greene 

Hempstead... 
Hot spring... 

Howard 

Independence. 

Izard. 

Jackson 

JefTerson 

Johnson 

Lafayette 

Lawrence .... 

TiCe 

Lincoln 

Little River . . 

].ofir&n 

Lonoke 

Madison.... . 

Marion 

Miller 

Mississippi ... 
Monroe. . . . . . 

Montgomery. . 

Nevada. 

Newton 

Ouachita 

Perry 

Phillips 

Pike 

Poinsett 

Polk 

Pope 

Prairie 

Pulaski 

Randolph 

8t. Francis . . . 

Saline 

8c«)tt 

Searcy 

Sebastian 

Sevier 

Sharp 

Stone 

Union 

Van Bnren .. 
Washington . . 

White 

W oodruff 

Yell 



WIATZ. 


COLO 


1890. 


1880. 


1890. 


816,517 


601.581 


811,227 


7.861 


4,971 


8,571 


6,824 


5.026 


6,971 


8,511 


6.959 


16 


27,C01 


2^,167 


108 


15,724 


12,058 


92 


b^m 


4,075 


2,926 


4,i>15 


8,688 


2,722 


17,20() 


18,272 


82 


1.808 


1,568 


10,112 


14,275 


10,567 


6,709 


12,162 


7,191 


87 


7,882 




49 


ao66 


6,r4i 


8,296 


12,507 


8,587 


7,865 


11.742 


9.646 


7,717 


11,4S5 


6,776 


540 


1U,8C2 


18,882 


2,804 


2,015 


1,699 


11,925 


4,765 


8,261 


2,987 


6,008 


4,299 


8,288 


2.049 


2,462 


&,267 


7,506 


6,472 


9,841 


14,970 


11.868 


8,872 


19,289 


14,4f5 


694 


10,899 


6,684 


84 


12,618 


7,467 


8,802 


6,789 


fi,629 


1,046 


12,748 


7,406 


160 


11.717 


9.598 


11,069 


10,868 


7,080 


1,285 


10,605 


7,409 


8,089 


20,857 


16,708 


1,688 


12,772 


10,686 


266 


10.881 


6,118 


4,847 


10,788 


6,881 


80.068 


16.188 


11,078 


625 


8,095 


2,116 


4,604 


12.122 


8,816 


802 


4,660 


4,188 


14,818 


8,763 


4.212 


6,492 


4,854 


8,064 


4.049 


19.082 


18,901 


1,184 


11,170 


8,148 


8,092 


17.845 


11.831 


67 


10,859 


7,864 


81 


8,095 


6.324 


6,617 


6,659 


4.671 


6,918 


e,im 


4,865 


9,248 


7,015 


6.471 


808 


10,442 


9.286 


4,889 


9.944 


6,115 


6 


7.971 


6,504 


9,069 


4,W6 


8,072 


942 


6,(i04 


6.444 


19,781 


8,052 


5.951 


4^5 


8,651 


1,902 


621 


9,237 


6.792 


46 


17,815 


13,418 


1.643 


6,977 


5,691 


4,8r6 


25,219 


17,667 


22,(!40 


18,8*« 


11.097 


tJ02 


5.47:^ 


4,921 


8.069 


9,942 


7.5S6 


1,3C.9 


12,503 


9.0S5 


M 


9,638 


7,262 


26 


29,397 


17,970 


8,741 


8,r.00 


5.0^S 


1,4CS 


10,242 


8,K71 


17G 


6,!>80 


4,rb4 


118 


8,572 


6,9S5 


6,405 


8,408 


9.447 


1C4 


81.005 


22.S94 


1,017 


20.262 


15,701 


2,*k^4 


6.4^^8 


4.168 


7.r>70 


16,000 


12,788 


1,415 



1880. 

210,666 



8,067 
^1^0 

45 
128 

88 
2,210 
2,068 

60 
8,495 
6,203 

29 

• • • * • « 

2.829 
^508 
8,206 

261 
1,892 
7,616 
1.7b9 
2,206 
6,514 
6,769 
1,4IS 

498 

86 

l,6t2 

E66 

76 

9,421 

746 
2,608 
l,3t2 

222 

8,763 

17,011 

491 
8,614 

467 
9,150 
6,040 
8,885 

984 
4,008 

124 

48 

4,695 

2,654 

6,209 

258 

8,722 

6 

6,2:8 

800 
15.809 

392 

2iH) 
CI 

909 

2.734 

14,921 

027 
8,4C7 
l,:>t6 
t'8 
IG 
1,541 
l,ri6 

176 

99 

6,484 

118 

944 
2,032 
4,4^8 
1,118 



 Formerly Dorsey County. 

The State also contained, in 1890, 131 Chinese 
and 304 Indians. 



30 ARKANSAS. 

Finances. — The following figures are taken convention or caucus or anv organized political 
from the latest report of the Stat« Auditor : party may nominate candidates, or they may be 
General revenue fund, balance on Oct. 1, 1888, nominated by certificates signed by not fewer 
$778,937.91; total receipts for the two years than te.n nor more than fifty electors, if the nom- 
succeeding, $909,747.93 ; total expenditures, $1,- ination is made for any township or ward of a 
261,114.54; balance on Oct. 1, 1890, $427,571.30. city or town, and by not less than fifty nor over 
Common-school fund, balance on Oct. 1, 1888, one thousand electors in other cases. At each 
$439,766.24: total receipts for the two years, $625,- polling place there shall be provided one booth 
858.82 ; total expenditures, $802,441.02 ; balance or oomp^tment for each one hundred electors, 
on Oct. 1, 1890, $263,183.54. Permanent school or fraction of one hundred, voting thereat in 
fund, balance on Oct. 1, 1888, $266,368.38 ; total the last preceding election. Each booth shall 
receipts for the two years, $14,127.42 ; total pay- be fitted with a table, shelf, or desk for the con- 
men ts, $6,293.98; balance on Oct. 1, 1890, $274.- venienoe of electors, and its walls shall be of 
201.82. Sinking fund, balance on Oct. 1, 1888, wood, so constructed as to enable each elector to 
$2,924,501.72; total receipts for the two years, enter and prepare his ballot free from the inter- 
$113,514.12; total pavments, $102,733.09; bal- ference of any person. The booths shall be 
ance on Oct. 1, 1890, $2,935,282.75. Special placed at least five feet apart. Ko person shall 
sinking fund, balance on Oct. 1, 1888, $136,830.' be permitted under any pretext to come nearer 
23; total receipts for the two years, $312,172.- than fifty feet of any door or window of any poll- 
21 ; total payments, $3,227.31 ; balance on Oct. ing room, except as provided in the act. flach 
1, 1890, $445,775.13. The balance in all funds elector upon entering the polling room shall be 
in the treasury on Oct 1, 1890, aggregated $4,- given one ballot, on the back of which at least 
799,733.46. For 1890 the State tax rate was two one of the election judges shall write his name or 
mills for the general fund, two mills for schools, initials. On receiving his ballot the elector shall 
and one mill for the sinking fund, a total of five forthwith, without leaving the polling room, re- 
mlUs ; for 1891 the rate was two and one fourth tire alone to one of the booths and prepare his 
mi lis for the general revenue fund, two mills for ballot by scratching off, erasing, or crossing out 
schools, one half mill for the sinking fund, and the names of all candidates except those for 
one fourth mill for pensions. whom he may wish to vote, writing m any name 
The bonded State debt on Oct. 1, 1890, con- that is not printed where he would have it, or 
sisted of principal, $2,092,100 ; overdue inter- that is not printed on the ballot at alL In the 
est, $2,884,897.50 ; total, $4,976,997.50. This is case of a constitutional amendment or other 
an increase of $114,982.50 over the total for question, as, for instance, "For License" or 
Oct. 1, 1888, notwithstanding the fact that the ** Against license," the elector shall cross out 
State has meanwhile redeemed $395,415 of its parts of his ballot in such manner that the re- 
debt. The discrepancy is explained by the fact maining parts shall express his vote, 
that the State authorities have recently discov- After preparing his ballot the elector shall 
ered the existence of $3,000 5-per-cent. bank fold it so as to conceal the face thereof, and so 
bonds and $252,000 6-per-cent. funding bonds as to show the name or initials of the judge on 
of the series of 1870, both of which were sup- the back, and shall hand it to the receiving 
posed to have been long since redeemed and can- judge. The latter shall call out the name of the 
celed. as stated in memoranda in the Treasurer's elector and the number of the ballot, shall write 
ofiice. It appears, however, that these securities the number on the ballot, and shall deposit it in 
have always been held by the United States as the box in the sight of the elector, who shall 
valid demands against the State, and are so re- immediately leave the room and go beyond the 
ported by the Secretary of the Treasury. Large fifty-foot limit. No ballot shall be received from 
arrears of interest are due thereon, making the any elector, or deposited in the ballot-box, which 
total discovered liability of the State about $500,- does not have the name or initials of at least 
000. In addition to the bonded debt there is one of the judges indorsed on it. No officer of 
a floating indebtedness of $27,959.13 in the election shall do any electioneering on election 
form of certificates of indebtedness issued under day. No person shall do any electioneering in 
section 3167 of Mansfield's " Digest," for redemp- any pollinff room, or within one hundred feet 
tion of which no provision has been made. of any polung room, on election day. 

Leglslatlye Session. — The twenty-ninth No elector shall be allowed to occupy a booth 
General Assembly met on Jan. 12, and adioumed or compartment for the purpose of voting for a 
on April 4. Early in the session United States longer time than five minutes. 
Senator James K. Jones was re-elected for the Another act requires all railroad companies to 
full senatorial term by the following vote : Senate, provide equal but separate and sufficient accom- 
Jones 26, D. E. Barker 2; House, Jones 80, modations for the white and African race^, by 
Jacob Trieber 12, Barker 2, J. F. Sellers 1. A se- furnishing two or more passenger coaches for 
cret-ballot law was enacted at this session. It each train, and to provide separate waiting rooms 
provides that all ballots used in any presidential, for each race of equal and sufficient accommoda- 
congressional, State, district, county, township, tions at all passenger stations. On all lines less 
or raunicinal election, either general or special, than 25 miles long, separation of the races by 
shall be furnished at the county expense by a dividing each car by a partition may be allowed, 
board of county election commissioners, ex- Persons in whom there is a visible and distinct 
cept that ballots used exclusively in municipal admixture of African blood shall, for the pur- 
elections shall be. furnished by this board at mu- poses of this act, be deemed to belong to the 
nicinal expense. The ballots shall all be alike, African race; all others, to the white race, 
shall he printed in plain type, and shall contain An act to pension disabled Confederate soldiers 
the names of all candidates duly nominated. A and sailors, and the widows of their deceased com- 



* 



ARKANSAS. 31 

rades who were killed in the service, aathorizes Provision was made for appropriating from 
the annual payment of $100 to totally disabled the sinking fund during the next two years 
veterans, and various sums down to $25 to others, $800,000 for the purchase of State bonds, 
scoording to the extent of their disability, wid- The sum of $85,000 was appropriated for ad- 
ows receiving the last-mentioned sum. l^o raise ditional buildings at the State Insane Asylum 
money for these claims, a tax of one fourth of a sufficient to accommodate 800 patients, 
mill OD the dollar is to be levied annually for the Action upon a bill appropriating $100,000 to 
next two years, from the proceeds of which $10,- secure representation of the State at the World's 
000 shall be annually deducted and applied to Columbian Exposition was postponed till final 
the erection and maintenance of a home for ex- action upon the Lodge bill by Congress, and 
Confederate soldiers. If after this deduction the after that event the sum to be appropriated was 
fQud derived from this tax shall be insufficient to reduced to $25,000, and the bill was finally de- 
meet the claims presented, a pro-rata distribu- feated. 
tioD of the sum available shall be made among Other acts of the session were as follow : 

eciaunants. To prohibit gaming with minors. 

An act m the interest of public eduction an- Declaring that the lien of a mortgage or other in- 

thonzes the State Superintendent of Public In- ciimbrance shall not extend to the increase or off- 

stniction to establish six district normal schools spring of an animal subject to such lien, 

for white teachers, one in each congressional Reciuiring insurance companies before doin^ busi- 

district, and two normal schools for colored o®«* i^^ the State to execute a bond with sureties in a 

teachers, to appoint a principal for each school, sufficient sum, on which persons having claims against 

and to armngi a suitable cou^ of study. Each "^chSSCtTe StT for ?SbW to°imnrisonment 

jchool shall hold annually a session of three eon- fo^ not Ic^ tha^ three nor more^tlian twenty-one 

-eeutive months of twenty days each, to which years. 

only teachers and intending teachers shall be ad- Legalizint^ all marriages heretofore solemnized by 

mitted. The sum of $2,000 was appropriated for any regularly ordained minister or priest 

each of the next two years, to be used only in Establishing the Arkansas State Board of Phar- 

paving the salaries of instructors. ™m^' , . j n .i 

the State w«s redtetricted for members of .aJ^^rt^^^ of r"irr when tfc^c^r 

Congress as follows : toxicating liouore in C. 0. D. packages, and to make 

Fird DisiriH — Sharo, Randolph, Clay, Lawrence, the place of aelivery the place of sale. 

Grfen, Craighead, Mississippi, roinsett, Jackson. Providing a new law with reference to quieting 

WiKidniff, Cross, Crittenden, 8t Francis, Lee, and titles. 

Phillips — 15. To punish persons who engage in prize fights 

Second Di^rict — Drew, Bradlejr, Cleveland, Jcffer- either with or without gloves, or who act as second or 

«'^n. Grant, Dallas, Hot Spring, Lincoln, Saline, Gar- referee, or othent'ise participate in such fights, 

land, Monteomery, Polk, Scot^ and Sebastian — 14. Fixing the number of members of the State House 

Third /Sj^rKi^— Desha. Chicot, Ashley, Calhoun, of Representatives, and apportioning them. 

TnioD, Ouachita, Columoia, Nevada, Clark, Pike, Denning the line between Uie counties of Yell and 

Ht^roDsttead, Lafayette, Miller, Little River, Sevier, Perry, 

uid Howard — 16. Accepting the act of Congress of 1890, appropriate 

Fourth District — Pulaski, Perry, Conway, Pope, ing money for the support of colleges of agriculture 

Tvll. Lotnm, Johnson, Franklin — 8. and mechanic arts in the several States, and appor- 

Fifih District — Crawford, Washington, Benton, Car- tioning eight elevenths of the money so appropnated 

roll* Madison, Newton, Boone, Searcy, Van Buren, to the Arkansas Industrial University at Fayetteville 

Faulkner— 10. (for whites), and three elevenths to tne Branch Kor- 

Siztk (new) DistriH — ^Marion, Baxter, Fulton, Izard, mal College at Pine Bluff (for colored). 

Stone, Independence, Cleburne, White, Lonoke, Prai- To incorporate the Ex-Confederate Association of 

lie, Monroe, Arkansas — 12 Arkansas. 

Provision was made for submitting to the Lo'^Li'^C^tiel'* boundary lines between Yell and 

people at the next general election an amend- "if rautS^zfihe redemption of lands sold for taxes 

ment to the State Constitution, reoumng the fol- after they have been deeded to the State. 

lowingqualifications for voting: First, the pay- To establish chancery courts in the counties of 

ment of a poll tax within the year preceding tne Drew, Arkansas, Ashley, Desha, imd Chicot 

election ; Second, residence in the State twelve Appropriating $6,000 for additional buildings at 

months, in the county six months, and in the the Arkansas Sch(x>l for the Blind. , . , 

p^^t or ward one month next preceding any ^^^^Y^^^.X^^^t^'^^^t. 

^ o •* *• . . ^1 Arkansas Industrial Univereity. 

The Penitentiary commissioners were requested Requiriug all railroad and express companies to 

to procure all available information respecting provide all trains with stage planks not less than 

the management of State prisons in the several eight feet in length, to be used In unloading baggage 

States, and to report to the next General Assem- from said trains, and prohibiting the employe's of 

I'lv with suggestions as to the future manage- «"ch companies fVom tumbling baggage from the car 

ment of the State Penitentiary. ?*^™ ^^ otherwise roughly handling the same so as 

A resolution was adopted favoring the election ^ ^^^« ^^'^^^^ ""' ^°J^^- 

"f United States Senators by popular vote. The Politically the members of each House were 

anniuil State tax upon liquor dealers was in- divided as follow: Senate, Democrats 28, Union 

creased from $200 to $300. Labor and Republicans 3; House, Democrats 77, 

An increase was made in the State tax for Union Labor and Republicans 12. 

ppnerai purposes from 2 t^) 2J mills, the tax for Penitentiary. — For the year ending Jan. 1, 

schools remaining at 2 mills, while the tax to be 1890, the population of the State Penitentiary 

leried for the sinking fund was teduced from 1 shows the following changes : Convicts on Jan. 1, 

mill to imilL 1889, 577; received or recaptured during the 



32 ARKANSAS. 

year, 803 ; discharged, died, or escaped, 205 ; re- ties on April 23, and, going back to a period 
maining on Dec 31, 1889, 675. The report for prior to the ex-Treasurer's term, proceeaed to 
the year ending Jan. 1, 1891, is as follows: make an exhaustive examination of all the 
Convicts on Jan. 1, 1890, 675 ; received or transactions of the office. In this investigation 
recaptui'efl during the year, 349 ; discharged, the ex-Treasurer was represented by J. L, Bay, 
died, or escaped, 334; remaining on Dec. 31, an expert, who attended nearly all the delibera- 
1890, 690. Of the number remaining on the tions of the board, and who from time to time, 
last date all but 90 were employed outside of in order to make lip any deficiencies, tendered to 
the Penitentiary walls, 310 being engaged at the board securities which the ex-Treasurer hud 
farming, 140 at farming and cutting wood, 75 still retained in his hands. On Aug. 17, while 
at cutting wood, and 75 in railroad building, the board were still engaged in its work. State 
They were stationed at nine different localities. Treasurer Morrow caused the arrest of Bay on 
The present convict lease expires on May 7, the charge that he had abstracted certain scrip 
1893, out although there is great dissatisfaction and other securities to the amount of $100,000 
with the lease system, the General Assembly did from the custody of the Treasurer, to be used 
nothing this year toward its abolition, except to to offset the indebtedness of Woodruff to the 
appoint a committee to investigate the subject State. The foundation of this charge proved to 
of prison management. Any change from the be tliat Baj had taken these securities from a 
lease system will involve the construction of a box belonging to the State and placed them in 
new Penitentiary building. another box in the same vault. A trial of the 
The Woodruff Defalcation. — Late in 1890 case resulted in the discharge of the prisoner on 
rumors were current that the retiring State Sept. 17. On Sept. 30 the State Debt Board 
Treasurer, William E. Woodruff, had been using published its final report, in which the shortage 
the public funds for private purposes, and would m securities was found to be as follows : State 
not be able in January to turn over to his sue* scrip, $20,526.57; bond scrip, $5,011.34; 6-per- 
cessor the full amount with which he was charge- cent, funding bonds, $24.19 ; 6-per-cent. fund- 
able. Gov. Eagle, in his message to the General ing bond coupons, $11,150.86; county scnp, 
Assembly on JaiL 13, recommended that a joint $314.02; State scrip (contingent), $101,780.01. 
investigating committee of both Houses be ap- Total shortage, $138,789.95. 
pointed. A resolution providing for such a The ex-Treasurer, through his agent, Mr. Bay, 
committee, consisting of two members from the had tendered to the board scrip and other securi- 
Senate and three from the House, was promptly ties of a face value largely in excess of this 
passed, and the investigation was begun on Jan. shortage, but they were not accepted as a proper 
24. Treasurer-elect Morrow had taken control of tender. The courts must pass upon the legality 
the office one week before the latter date. The of these tendered securities before the exact 
joint committee made its first report to the Gen- amount of the shortage can be known, 
eral Assembly on Feb. 12, in which it said that Late in June an indictment against the ex- 
Woodruff could not produce nor account for Treasurer was found by the grand jury of Pu- 
$63,740.57 due from him to the general revenue laski County, but his trial was postponed to 
fund of the State, and recommended that legal await the findings of the investigating board. 

f)roceedings be taken against him. Six days It began on Oct. 19, and after a long and some- 

ater his bondsmen came to his assistance atid what dramatic course ended late in the month in 

paid over the full amount of the shortage. The a disagreement of the jury. 

General Assembly, however, acting upon the To protect the State against further defalca- 

recommendation of the committee, passed a tions, the General Assembly this year passed an 

resolution directing the (Governor to suggest to act requiring the Governor to appoint secretly, 

the proper officers the necessity of beginning at least once each year, one or two expert ac- 

criramal proceedings against the delinquent countant«, whose duty it shall be to examine and 

official, and on Feb. 27 he was arrested. Bail report the condition of the Treasurer's office, 

was furnished for his appearance at the next They shall be sworn to keep their appointment 

term of the court. Meanwhile, in addition to secret until they appear in the office to begin 

the joint investigating committee, a joint stand- the examination. 

ing committee on Treasurer's and Auditor's ac- World's Fair Convention. — The General 
counts, which is regularly appointed at ea<'h Assembly of this year having adjourned with- 
session, had been examining the condition of the out providing for representation of the State at 
Treasurer's office with the aid of experts, and the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893. 
about March 15 it made a report to the General Gov. Eagle issued a proclamation on May 20, 
Assembly, in which it claimed to find a further calling a convention of delegates from the sev- 
shortage of $69,288. On April 4, just before eral counties to meet at Little Rock on Aug. 5 
the close of t;he session, the joint investigating and devise means of raising money to secure a 
committee made its final report, in which it creditable exhibit of the State at the exposition, 
placed the additional shortage of Woodniff at At this convention forty counties were repre- 
only $25,724.06. As neither committee had sented by over 200 delegates. A resolution re- 
made an exhaustive investigation, an act was questing the Governor to call an extra session of 
passed on the same day authorizing the State the General Assembly, for the purpose of passing 
Debt Board to take up the investigation, and a World's Fair appropriation bill, was voted 
complete the work in a thorough manner. This down. It was then (iecide<l to incorporate a eoni- 
board consisted of the (rovernor. Auditor, and pany, called " The Arkansas World s Fair Asso- 
Secretary of State, but the last named, being a elation." with a capital stock of $100,000, di- 
boudsman of the ex-Treasurer, declined to serve, vidcd into 50,000 shares of $2 each, to which 
The other two members entered upon their du- popular subscriptions should be invited. The 



welcomed to theCoIumbian Universitr by its pres- 
ident, JameeC. Welling. Both of these addresses 
were appropriately responded to by President 
Prescott. The permaneDt secretary then made 



ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE. (Ai 

officers of rhb company were authorized to pro- 
Tide Tor the erection of suitable buildings at the 
eipt>»itian and to saperintend the exhibit of the 
Slate therein, being assisted by a board of lady 
Buugers. The company is empowered to b^n 
operstiona whenever #10,000 of its stocli has 
UfQ sabscribed. 

ElectloB.— To fill the vacancy on the Su- 
pKmt Court bench caused by the death of Jus- 
tice H. H. Sandels in November, 1890, Oot. 
Eagle issaed a call late in December for a special 
elmtion to be held on Jan. 26 following. The 
Democrats, in SUt« convention at Littfe Rock, 
CD Jan. 8, nominated W. W. Mans&eld after tak- 
ing over thirty ballots, his competitors being 
M. T. Sanders, R. H. Powell, B. T. Du Val, and 
E. G. Bunn. No other party ventured to nom- 
insle an opposition candidate. The election, 
therefore, evoked no popular interest, only 86,- 
M vot« being cast, of which HansDda ro- 
rthtd 25.067. 

ASSOCIATIONS FOE THE ADTANCE- 
■ENT OF SCIENCE. American.— The for- 
iKth meeting of the American Association was 




t U. Kedde, of Agricultural College, Mich. . 
D. Thomas Gray, of Torre Haute, Ind. ; E, John 
J. Stevenson, of New York ; F, John M. Coulter, 
of Bloomington, Ind. ; H. Joseph Jastrow, of 
M«dison, Wis. ; I, Edmund J. James, of Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Permanent Secretary, Frederick 
W, Putnam, of Cambridge, Mass. Qeneral Sec- 
rtlary, "Harvey W. Wiley, of Washington. D. C. 
Set-retarv of the Council, Amos W. Butler, of 
Rmokville, Ind. Secretaries of the sections: A, 
Frank H. Bigelow, of Washington, D. C; B, 
Aleunder MacFarUne, of Austin, Texas; C, 
Thomas H. Norton, of Cincinnati. Ohio ; D, Will- 
Ism Kent, of New York city : E, W J McQee, 
of Washington, D. C. ; P, Albert J. Cook, of 
A^cultnr&l College, Mich.; H, William H. 
Holmes, of Washington, D. C; I, Bemhard E. 
Femow. of Washington, D. C. Treasurer, Will- 



in Lillv. of Mauch Chunk, Pa. 
Open I u Proceedings,— 

•" - ' • " elect*. 

ISC. at a meeting of the council held on Aug. 
IT, 99 members were added to the list, and again, 
U 1 council meeting held on Aug. 18, 9 more 
e added, bringing the total member- 



tuioas papers to be presented before the sec- 
lions, and in other ways to arrange the pro- 
Framme for the week. The opening exercises 
•ere held in the law-lecture room of Columbian 
fniversity, and the gathered scientists were 
rallied to order on the morning of Aug. 19 by 
President Goodale, who then introduced Presi- 
dent Prescott The new presiding otBoer briefly 
teknowledged the high honor conferred on him, 
uid then presented Edwin WlUita, the assistant 
Secretary of Agricnlture, who made welcome 
tli« issoclation to Washington with an eloquent 
address. The association was then more specially 
VOL. XXXI. — 3 A 



several formal announcements, and presented bis 
flnancjal statement for the year ending Aug. 1, 
showing the total receipts to have been 97,443.- 
08. There was a balance left, after deducting 
eipenditures of the year, of H.040.02. The haT- 
ance of the Research fund is $5,304.37. Of this 
the association has the right to appropriate 
the interest to any current work of research. 
The general secretary announced that the coun- 
cil recoratoended that the sections meet Wed- 
nesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, from 
10 to 12 1. H. and from 3 to 5 p. h. Also, that 
the oonnoil recommended that the amendment 



the ofBce of vice-president until one year after 
his term of office as secretory — do nut pass. The 
report was adopted. The council reported ad- 
versely on three other proposed amendments, 
respectively : that no person should be eligible to 
electfon to fellowship at the same meeting at 
which he is elected a member; that no fellow 
should be eligible to election to council until o 



irovedofbytheassociation, Thecouncil reported 
favorably on an amendment providing for " for- 
eign associates," only it struck out the words 
"foreign associates" nnd substituted the term 
" corresponding members." The amendment pro- 
vides for fifty such members, to be designated by 
the council from scientists not residing in Amer- 
ica. After some discussion the proposed amend- 
ment as reported by the council was adopted. 

An invitation from tlio Southern Interstate 
Immigration Bureau to attend the Southern Ex- 
position at Haleigh, N. C, in Octi^ber, was read. 

Address of the Retiring President.— Dr. 
George L, Goodale's subject was "The Possi- 
bilities of Economic Botany." and he illustrated 
it by examples of the useful plants which man- 
kind may hope to employ in the near future. 
Speculation te rife as to the coming man ; tbere- 



34 ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE. (American.) 

fore we hav^e a right to make conjectures as to secretaries of the sections report to the general 
the plants he will probably use. The cereal secretary, who then prepares with the sectional 
grains will probably remain with comparatively committees the programmes for the ensuing st}s- 
little change, except in the direction of better sions. After the recess on the first day the read- 
varieties for milling. To show how well under- ing of the vice-presidential addresses takes place, 
stood are the methods of improving plants. Dr. Sections. — A. Mathematics and Astronomy. — 
(Joodale said that if all the present cereals were This section was presided over by Prof. Edward 
swept out of existence our experiment stations W. Hyde, of the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, 
coufd probably replace them by other grasses who chose " The Evolution of Algebra " as the 
within half a century. The methods are selec- subject of his address. He gave a concise pres- 
tion and hybridization. New vegetables may be entation of the history of algebra, extending 
reasonably expected from Japan, that country from before the Christian era to the present time, 
which has already sent us many choice plants in and foretelling the future of the science. The 
all departments, and it is likely that some of earliest traces of algebraic knowledge, he said, 
the present vegetables which are much neg- were in ancient Egvptian manuscripts. Records 
lectea will come into greater favor and be im- of an almost prehistoric Egyptian mathema- 
proved. The fruits of the future will tend more tioian named Anmes, who lived and figured and 
and more toward becoming seedless, just as pine- died some hundred years before Christ, were 
apples, bananas, and some oranges are now. referred to as showing that this pioneer in alge- 
'Aere is no good reason why we should not have bra had left behind him evidence that he had 
seedless raspberries, strawberries, and blackber- performed geometrical and some algebraical 
ries, and also raise, by cutting, plums, cherries, problems. Scarcely anything is known of the 
and peaches free from stones. The useful cabi- mathematics of ancient Egypt. Among the 
net woods and timbers, the fibers, tanning ma- early Greeks, before the Christian era, geometry 
terials, gums, rubbers, and other economic prod- was cultivated extensively, but very little in the 
ucts from plants were taken up in order, and way of algebra was done till about 400 a. d. 
the possible improvements were described. There Then the foundation of the algebraic science was 
is little doubt tnat synthetical chemistry will add laid by Diophantus of Alexandria. Algebra has 
to its triumphs many more products to those been classified by Nesselmann as rhetorical, syn- 
formed by plants, and this will diminish the copated, and symbolical. In the first stage *al- 
zeal with which some of our economic plants will gebraic work was purely by reasoning in words, 
be cultivated. The coming fashions m fiorists' In the syncopatic method abbreviations were 
plants are to be in the direction of flowering introduced and used instead of words. The sym- 
branches and dwarfed plants, such as dwarfed bolical stage is the present one. Arbitrary char- 
cherries and magnolias. The old favorites will actcrs show what was once represented by spoken 
largely keep their places. Forage plants for our words and later by abbreviations of written 
deserts were discussed, and reference was made words. Most of the work of the early algebraists 
to the danger of introducing pests from foreign was in the rhetorical stage. Diophantus used 
countries. An example of this danger is afforded particular characters for unknown quantities, a 
by sweetbrier in Australasia, which runs wild character for " minus," and represented addition 
over much arable land in certain districts. The by juxtaposition. The square and cube of the 
study of improvement in plants is now carried unknown quantity were represented by contrac- 
on in a judicious manner by the Agricultural tions of the words "power" and "cube." Dio- 
Department and by the experiment stations. But phantus was greatly hampered by having but 
there is also needed a senes of gardens in differ- one character to represent tne unknown quantity, 
ent parts of our country where experiments can though he accomplished remarkable results by 
be carried on in a thorough manner in hybridiz- his ingenuity and the skill with which he made 
ing and selection. The Arnold arboretun) and the necessary combinations. Algebra was early 
the Shaw garden were spoken of as good illus- cultivated in India. The first Indian methods 
trations of what is needed, but the aesirability of which modems know were those of Arya 
of establishing an institution on a scale com- Bhatta, who lived six centuries before Christ, 
mensurate with the wants of our country was He wrote works on arithmetic, algebra, geometry, 
pointed out, and the hope was expressed that trigonometry, and astronomy, stating his rules 
such an establishment should not be govern- and propositions in verse. His work was purely 
mental or academic. of the rnetorical style. The only other ancient 
Proceedings of the Sections. — ^There are Indian mathematician of 'whom modems know 
eight sections, each of which is presided over by was Brahma Gupta, whose period was about a. d. 
a vice-president. Immediately after the adjourn- 700. He also figured in verse, the name of his 
ment of the first general session the members work, Englishec^ being "The System of Brahma 
of the different sections meet in the rooms as- in Astronomy." These Indian writings are in- 
signed to them and organize. Their next duty teresting as being the source whence the Arabs 
is the election of one fellow to the council, fol- derived their first knowledge of algebra. They 
lowed by the election of three fellows, who, with absorbed from the Greeks, throueh the trans- 
the vice-president and the secretary, form the lations of Euclid and others, a knowledge of 
sectional committee ; the election of a member or geometry, mechanics, and astronomy, but there 
fellow to the nominating committee; the election seems to have been no translation of the works 
of three members or fellows to act with the vice- of Diophantus till after they themselves had 
president and secretary as the sub-committee to already made considerable progress. It was from 
recommend to the nominating committee the the Arabs that western Europe derived its first 
vice-president and secretary of the next meet- knowledge of mathematics. Concerning the 
ing. These duties having been performed, the future of algebra, he said : " We have now traced 



ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. (American.) 35 

the deTelopment of our subject from its efirliest medium, and that therefore it was admissible. It 

begriuning, then along the ancient period when was also shown at once by Thomson, WiUard 

it was in the rhetorical stage, approaching at in- Gibbs, and Fitzgerald that this new suggestion 

t*rvals here and there the ^ncopated, then on placed the elastic and electric theories on the 

to the reriral of learning after the dark ages, same logical basis if the ether was considered 

We haTe seen the comparatively rapid progress incompressible in the electric theory and to have 

through the syncopated stage to the purely a rigidity zero for a compression wave in the 

symbolical stage, where it was at last in a shape elastic theory. The showing of light in space 

suitable for the astounding progress of the last occupied by matter shows that the ether within 

two hundred years. Finally, in the present cent- must be less elastic than that in free space. It 

ary, we have noted the approach of multiple is certainly difficult to understand what there 

algebra from different and independent sources, can be in the molecules of matter which can in- 

wDose value is the glorious future." crease the density of an incompressible medium. 

The following-named papers were read before The beautiful experiment of Michelson and 

the section : Morley shows apparently that the ether at the 

«Oii a Digest of the Literature of the Mathematical ^^*^ ^' ^^« ^^^ T'^^^^^m j^'^ It is dragged 

Sdences," by Alexander S. Christie; "Latitude of ^^^S ^ « it were a liquid. The field of a steel 

the Sayre Oteervatorr," by C. L. Doolittle ; " The ma^et is, however, a rotational phenomenon. 

S^^ular Variation of Terrestrial Latitudes," by It is a spin which is maintained permanently 

Georw C. ComAtock ; " Groups of Stars, Binary and without the expenditure of energy. It seems, 

Multiple," by Geoige W. Holley; "Description of therefore, that the resistance to shear which shows 

the breat Specbx*(»pe and Spectrograph ^nstructed i^if j^ the adhesion of the ether to the moving 

Kir the Ualstead Obaervatory, Pnnceton, N. J.," and „«^u ^.,«4. i^v „ «:«; ii*„ j ^ • i. ® 

-Not« on Some Recent PhJtogmphs of 'the Reveraal f?*^^ ™^«* ^ * ".^^^^V" ^i*?,'"u^™® ^*? ^? '?'^ 

or the Hydrogen Lines of Solar Prominences," by ^lon. Other expenments of Michelson and Morley 

John A. Brashear ; ** On a Modifled Form of Zenith on the motion of light in moving columns of water 

Telt^.'ope for determining Standard DeclinationB," have been taken as proof that the ether in water 

iDii *0n the Application of the * Photoch Ponograph ' is condensed to nine sixteenths of its volume in 

to the Automatic Keoprd of Stellar Occultations. par- air. The ether in water certainly behaves as if 

ti.uUrlvJpark-limb Lmewiona " by David P 'f odd ; jt were more dense, but it is another matter to 

*-Thf Zodiacal Light as related to Terrestnal Tem- --^ fu^f ,-f ,•„ ^^ tV ic «.f;ii « »^«4^>l»r»«f;^„1 a^ 

ii^mture Variation,^ by Orrav T. Sherman ; « On the f?^ **^t . t ^ ^' ^^ ^ • * mathematical flc- 

W-period Temw in the ilotion of Hypirian," by ^^^ ^hich covers a gap in our knowledge of the 

Omiond Stone; ** Standardizing Photographic Film ether. He thought that the experiment should 

without the Use of a StandardLi^ht" and '^£xhibi- be repeated with water at rest within a tube 

tioo and Description of a New Scientific Instrument, which should be mounted on elastic supports in 

•Ji«r Aurora-Inclinometer" by Frank U. Bigelow; a moving railway car. The water tube and the 

- The Tabulation ofLight-curves : Description Ex- obsen-'er^s seat should be rigidly connected, and 

^tt'^Fi^Tct'uii^^i)?^^^^^ r^fd^^dt,Tt?if.i™ 'rt '""^ 

Jitars; Investigation of ita Fi^iuency," by Henry M. ^P,*^^ ^^es of the car. The question to be set- 
Ptrkhuret; "On Certain Space and Surface Inte- tied is whether the ether or any part of it is at 
«Tal*." by Thomas 8. Fiske; ^The Fundamental Law rest in space, and does it sweep through the in- 
of Electromagnetiaraj" by James Loudon; ^Method terior of bodies which move through it, as wind 
of Controlling a Drivmg Clock," bv Francis P. Leav- sweeps through the leaves and branches of a 
wmJ^'^^t? the Bitangential of the Quintic," bv tree. This form of the experiment is the one 
f!^lf^ % ^l^'' "Parallax of a Leonis," by Jef- contemplated by Eisenlohr's analysis leading to 
fewon E. Keishner; also, m joint session of Sections tji»«„„^i^ #^»,„„i« „„^ a. :„ «„,x„vi« «# ««««* JL^ 
A and B, « Principlk of the Algebra of Physics," by ^^^^nel s formula, and it is capable of great van- 
Alexander Macfariane ^ 7 ^ ations in the conditions of expenment. What- 
. ever its results may be, it promises to add greatly 

B. /%y«<w.--The presiding officer of this sec- to our knowledge of the physics of the ether. 
tion was Prof. Francis E. Nipher, of Washington The following-named papers were then read 

Iniversity, St. Liouis, Mo. He discussed the before the section : 
" Functions and Nature of the Ether of Space." 

In former days the reasons given for the ex- "On the Logarithmic Mean Distance between Paire 

fetence of ether do not seem conclusive now. 2^^tS*°^JV^ J""^ Lines," by ^lUiam Hoover; 

For year., it was taught that li.ht. was an elas- 1^^/- S'^^^ST-^M^lX^^^^^^ 

tic pulsation m an mcoinpressible leUy-like me- Expan/ion of Jessup's Steel V a New Method," by 

aium. Some of the mathematical deductions of Edward W. Moriey and William A. Rogers ; " State- 

Oreen he could only reconcile with the observed ment of the General Law determining the Fusing 

phenomena bv making the ether incompressible, and Boiling Point of any Compound under anj 

In 1865 Maxwell proposed his theory that light Pressure as Simple Function of the Chemical Consti- 

wasan electric displacement in a plane at right JV^j^^, ^f the Sanie " b^ GustAvus Ilinrichs- « The 

MMr\aa *^ ♦!,« M^^ /x# n*^no«*«f;^ "U«^,««ii»o Calculation of the Boiling Point of a Liquid under 
SS i? f -.1? . / propagation. Maxwell s p^^^^ „ „ DetenrSation of the Discontinuity 

theory met with ereat favor, and afiforded simple of the Fusing Points of Paraffins by Meunn of Analvt- 

and natural explanations for phenomena which ical Mechanics"; **A Scheme for a Science of Color," 

M<1 previously been clouded by rather strained by William Orr : ^* Note on Magnetic Measurements 

■ssiimptions. In 1888 Sir William Thomson at Ohio State University " and " Notes on Rotating 

brought a powerful re-enforcement to the elastic Contact Methods of Measurement of Variable Electric 




ir^fi.,*- mv •# J i.u ^ ^i_- .' J. A.C Tangent Galvanometer as a Voltmeter," by .». 

mnnity. Thomson found that this assumption m. Stine; »*Do Tomadoc« whirif" and "Artificial 
<lia not involve an unstable condition of the Rain," by Henry A. Hazen ; " Observations with a 



36 ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. (American.) 

New Photometer," by Nelson H. Genung and Freder- really elements, but compounds, which in time 

ick J. Rogers; "Magnesium as a Source of Light," ^e shall be able to separate into their const it u- 

by Frederick J. Rogers ; " Note on the Measurement ^nts and to reproduce by combining other sul>- 

of Resistances by Alternating CuirenW* "The Ni^ure ^^^^068. Among the heavy elements-and hence 

of Counter-electromotive Force," and " What should , , . », v e^^^^d to vield to the 

be our Fundamental Units?" by Brown Ayrea; "Be- ^^^^. ^^^l ^^ u • f^V^^^,,^ J?®^^ ^*J P^ 

haviorof Silver Emulsions under Long fixpoeureto attacks of the chemi8t--is gold. It is not ira- 

Light" and '1 Color Photography by Lippmann's Pro- probable that in tune it will become possible to 

cessj" by Charles B. Thwiri^; "On the Nomenclature make gold in large quantities — an event which 

for Physical Units, by Alexander Macfarlane ; and would throw it out of use as a standard of value, 

" Some Experiments in Atmospheric Electricity," by g^ fJ^,. ^s it derives its own value from its rarity/' 

Alexander McAdie. rpj^^ statement that didymium is a compound 

C. Chemistry, — This section was presided over metal is of great interest to the chemist. But 

by Prof. Robert C. Kedzie, who fills the chair of the fact that the reunion of these metals will 

Chemistry at the Michigan State Agricultural form the old metal or alloy is not so surprising. 

College. His subject was ** Alchemy. but is what anv chemist would expect. But how 

Alchemy is often called the forerunner of ^o such facts snow the probability, or even possi- 

chemistry, and out of its broken columns there bility, of making any given metal out of hetero- 

has been built up the enduring temple of chem- geneous materials t if the combination of cerium 

ical science, ifo science has a firmer basis of and samarium would form didymium, then a 

known facts than chemistry, the basic princi- nlausible case would be made out. But if praseo- 

ples upon which it is built can be examined dymium and neodymium are required to make 

without fear that the foundation stones will didymium, how are we nearer the manufacture 

turn to dust upon the touch of investigation, of this last metal by such discovery t We must 

The results of the labors and discoveries of the still have the two new metals to make the old 

alchemists have been of great value to the world, metal. Suppose that gold can be split into two 

even though the direct objects they sought for- ©r ten new metals the reunion of which will 

ever eluded their grasp and left disappointment form gold, does this bring us one whit nearer the 

and despair to their votaries. The objective new age of gold t If it takes gold to make gold, 

points of the alchemists were the elixir of life, what part or lot have baser metals in such trans- 

the alcahest or universal solvent, and the phi- formations f 

losopher's stone. In conclusion, he said that " the hypothesis of 

Tne indestructibility of matter, and the pos- the evolution of the chemical atoms by aggrega- 

sibility of recovering a given substance notwith- tion or polymerization of one-matter substance 

standing all its disguises by combination with challenges scientific thought. Based upon broad 

other bodies — the persistence of matter and the assumptions and sustained entirely by analog, 

immanence of its properties — were grand dis- jt will hardly disturb the relative coinage value 

ooveries in material science. They marked the ©f the metals by holding out hopes of alchemic 

transition from alchemy to chemistry. The rec- transmutation. The advice of William Crookes, 

ognition of the indestructibility of force was to treat it simply as a provisional hypothesis, la 

the second great step, the crowning discovery of conservative and wise." 

modern physics. In the words of Faraday, " It xhe following-named papers were then read : 
is the highest law in physical science which our 

faculties permit us to perceive." " Preliminary Notes on the Influence of Swamp 

Shall we teke a third step, and proclaim the J^at«™^n the Foimation of the Phosphate Nodules of 
««^J«o„«n«^ «f fnroa hiif thft flftstriiptihiHtv of South Carolina," by Charles L. Reese : " Land and 
permanence of force ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ River Phosphate Pebbles or Nodules o^ Florida," by 
matter; that the atom may have a life, grow old, g^^^^ j. Cox : " A Latent Characteristic of Alu- 
and die or pass back mto primitive nothingness, minium," by Alfred Springer; "The Influence of 
or become the ether of which we talk so much Negative Atoms and Groups of Atoms on Organic 
and know so little t Shall we assume that ra- Compounds," by Paul C. Freer ; " Gabbro Phonom«,'* 
diant force may be changed into matter and fall by Edward Goldsmith ; " Raphides the Cause of the 
under the law of gravitation t No single thought Acridity of Certain PJante," by Henry A. Weber ; 
K«o «^,,f..ih»fn/1 en miinh ijn irivft fnrm and iS^r- The Calculation of the Boiling Pomt of a Parathn 
has contributed so much to f^^e form ana per Pressure," « The Calculation of the Boiling 
manence to chemical science as the atom of Dal- p^.^^^ ^^ isomeric^ from their Moment of Inertia^ 
ton. An atomic theory was indeed held by the ^^ « Detennination of the True Position of the Car- 
Greeks in regard to the constitution of matter, yyQ^ Atoms in Organic Compounds by Means of Ana- 
but it relatea chiefly to the question of the con- lytical Mechanics," by Gustavus Hinrichs ; " Distn- 
tinuity or discontinuity of matter in mass, and bution of Titanic Oxide on the Earth's Surface," by 
considered the question of the limited or unlim- Frf^^^ ?• Dunnington ; " The Precipitation of Fish 
i^^A ^JvioiKilifv /^f mtiiijPT "Rnt th« f»hemioAl Oil m Linseed Oil, when used as an Adulterant, by 
ited divisibility of raatte^^^ «,nLn\nc^th^^ Silver Nitrate Solution," and "The Scnaration and 
atom, with its application m explaining the law precipitation of Oleic Acid from LinseeS Oil by Sil- 
of definite and of multiple proportions by weight ^^^ Nitrate," by Thomas Taylor ; " Biolo^cal Func- 
in chemical combinations, was the gift of the ^on of the Lecitliins," by Walter Maxwell ; " Svn- 
Quaker schoolmaster of Birmingham. thesis of Weighed Quantities of Water from Weighed 

The question has been seriously raised by an Quantities of Oxygen and Hydrogen," by Edward W. 

American chemist whether gold *can be manu- Morley- "Purification of Worcester Sewage by 

#o«ft,\.I^ On tViA affirmAf ivft sidft of this ones- Chemical Precipitation," and " Fire-clay from Mount 

faotured. On the f^^'^^^J^^® ^«>^® ^^^ Savage," by Leonard P. Kinnicutt : " Dl-Nitro-Sulfo- 

tion he points to the fact that didymium has pheTol'," by Edwaid Hart; "An inouiry relative to 

been split into two metals, and by recombining ^^j^^ Causes leading to the Formation of Ore Deposits," 

these two new metals the old didymium was w W. A. Chapman; "Delicacy of the Tests for 



again formed. " These facts make it probable phenol," bv John G. Spenzer ; " An Aceto AcetiA 
that the so-called chemical elements are not Ether," by'J. U. Nef ; "On Plattnerite from Idaho,** 



ASSOCIATIONS FOB THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. (Ameeican.) 87 

by William S. Yeates ; " The Chemistry of Some sidn Steam Calorimetcre,^ " Tests of Electric Railway 

Disease OermS*^ and ^ ^ ^^nnvonianfr. a rrancrAm<inf. Planf^* ttnA ^^ C\n tVta Prturai* oKarvi>KA/l in 4-Via r^n^^in/* 

ioT a Pasteur 
bvEmil 

oil the Chemical Com^ition of Muck Soil from Uuivereal Calorimeter,*' and "Kelative Economy ua 

Florida,'' and ** Composition of Crystalliiie Artificial Carbonic Acid as the Working Fluid of Refrigerat- 

,'^ by Harvey W. Wiley; " Meat ing Machines," by D. S. Jacobus: " On the Efflcien- 




(.'alolum Phosphate,' 



Pn-atrrvatives," by J. Thomas Davis ; " Determina- cv of the Steam Jackets of the Pawtucket Pumping 

tion of Phosphoric Acid in Presence of Iron and Engine," and '*0n the Opportunity for Mcchauicm 

AIuminA," by William H. King ; " Continuous-feed Research at the Worid's Fair," by William Kent 

~>^C^l "^^^^ "br^i^^Spf^e™ j E 6^«,fo,y andGeoi;ravky-Ti.is section was 

*• Imitation Coffees" by Guilford L. Spencer and presided over bv Prof. John J. Stevenson, of the 

Ervin E, Ewell : « The Composition of Floridite," by University of the City of Njew York, who spoke 

Harvey W. Wiley and William H. Kin^ ; " Tri-nitro on " The Relations of the Chemung and Catskill 

Toluene, a SubeUtute for Musk," by William H. Sea- on the Eastern Side of the Appalachian Basin." 

^^'^ He prefaced his address with some historical 

A report of the Committee on the Spelling and notes respecting early studies of these ^ups, 

Pronunciation of Chemical Terms was presented especially referring to the surveys of Virginia, 

before this section. Pennsylvania, and New York, which were con- 

D. MeehaniecU Science atid Engineering,-^ ducted during the years 1837 to 1841. He traced 
The presiding officer of this section was Prof, the groups along the eastern outcrop from Ten- 
Thomas Oray, who fills the chair of Dynamic En- nessee into New York, across southern and west- 
flneering in the Rose Polytechnic Institute in em Pennsylvania and eastward through north- 
erre Haute, IndL His address was a carefully em Pennsylvania again into New York. In this 
prepared and valuable discourse on " Problems way the continuity of the section was shown, and 
m Mathematical Science." It was quite tech- the insignificance of the variations was insisted 
nical in character, and dealt with the teachings upon strongly. An area in southeastern New 
of mathematics and physics in their application x ork and northeastern Pennsylvania in which 
to engineering. He discussed the instruction in the Chemung group is almost without trace of 
manual-training schools, trade schools, and tech- animal or vegetable life through the jrreater 
nical schools, and the objects sought to be at- part of the thickness was described. The ab- 
tained by training in such schools. Good re- sence of life was thought to be due not to fresh 
suits followed the adoption of manual training water, but to turbidity of the water in a shallow 
for boys and girls, but the idea of teaching a basin near the land. The facts that the hori- 
trade in a trade school was deprecated. It could zons of fish remains are much lower in the col- 
be far better done in a workshop, where the act- unin than had been supposed, and that the plant 
ual practice oould be had by the leamer. The remains come in like manner from the nome 
old idea of apprenticeship is better in every way. group, were thought to be of especial interest 
flp spoke warmly of the good results that have and importance, 
followed higher education of every sort in tech- His conclusions were: 

noloeical coUeges, and outlined the g^reat bene- 1. That the series, fVom the be^jrinning of the Port- 
fits tnat will accrue to mechanical science from ace to the end of the Catskill, form but one period, 
this source. The teachings of a more practical "ie Chemung, which Bhould be divided into three 

character, both in mathematics and theoretical «1^^V ?l? ^S^^' ^^^ Chemung, and the CatokiU. 

j,^ • * «.^«« «^«.,^„4.«^ «« j^«:^ui» #^. f A^i« 2. That the disappearanoe of animal and vegetable 

drnamics, were advocated as desirable for tech- ^.^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^ 2t of this area toward the close of 

meal colleges and similar institutions, bome of ^ho period was due simply to gradual extension of 
the directions in which technical research should conditions existing, perhaps, as early as the Hamilton 
be pushed, especially in the technical schools, re- period in southeastern New York, 
ferring chiefly to the properties of steam and its 8. That the deposits were not made in a closed sea- 
behavior in steam engines, were indicated. Great but that the influx of great rivers, with their load of 
rraults from the direct combustion of fuel in the ^^^ made conditions m the shallow basin such 
o«<^-«^ ^«.i:..^^. ;♦««!* «#♦«>• *i,« ^<.«»»» ;« ».i.;^k that amraal life could not exist 
engine cylinder itself, ^ter the mwiner m which ^ r^^^ j^ ^.^e present state of our knowledge we 

It is accomplished in the gas engine, were pre- a^ not justified in including the Chemung penod in 

dieted by him. In closing, the very great devel- the carboniferous age. 

opment of electrical en^eeringj^ referred t«, ^he following-named papers were read before 

especially m its apnlication to street and other ^y^ ^.^ ^ *~^ 

motors and to the distnbution of power. ,, „ ^ ^ , . x . i ^ mr j- i ^r 

The foUowiBg papen, were read before the J^^Tby /oh^!!''^.rp^fu"W"^''M^^^^^ I^n 

*^**^° • fVom Arizona containing Diamonds," by A. E. Foote : 

•* E<*on<Hny produced by the Use of Water iinected ** Post-glacis Anticlin^ Ridges near Ripley and 

to a Fine Sprav into Air Compressors." " On a Meth- Caledonia, New York," by Grove K. Gilbert; " Pur- 

'j<i of holding Samples of Wood and Brick for Deter- poses of Mountain Building and their Relationship 

minadon of Tensue Strength," "Note on the Effi- to the Earth^s Construction," by Warren Upham: 

eiencv of the Screw PropeUer^ and " Relative Econo- " Notes on an Extinct Volcano at Montreal, Canada^" 

my o? Compound and Triple Expansion Engines," by by Henry Lampard : " On a New Horizon of Fossil 

James E. Denton 5** On Experimental Results ol>- Bishes," and " On the Cranial Characters of Equus 

tained with a New Form of Direct- Action Propeller," Excelsus Leidy," by Edward D. Cope ; " On Prob- 

bv David P. Todd; " The Government Timber lematic Organisms and the Preservation of Algae as 

Testo," by Bemhard E. Femow; "The United States Fossils" and " On the Age of the Mount Pleasant, 

T»fc» of American Woods, made at the Washington Ohio, Beds," by Joseph F. James ; " Preliminary Re- 

tniventitv Testing Laboratory," by John B. John- port of Observations at the Deep Well near Wheeling, 

*>n: -On the Crushing of Short Pnsms of Homoge- W. Va.," by William Hallock: "The Eureka Shale 

Deou!» Material," by Charles L. Bouton ; " On Expan- of Northern Arkansas," by Thomas C. Hopkins ; 



38 ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE. (Ambrican.) 

"■ The Attitude of the Eastern and Central Portions ot I. Collection and Description ofFianis. — ^Many 

the United States during the Glacial Period," by things besides the mere sporadic collection and 

Thomas C. Chamberiin ; " N wcene and Pleistocene recording of species should be included as legiti- 

Continent Movements " by W J McGee ; "Fossil ^^^^ gelongSTg to this line of research. A 

Tracks in the Tnassio of York County, Pa.," by ^i„„^"'. 4.,^ 7L#f«„ „ f^^* „,'fk^«f ««„ «^«f«^«- 

Atreus Wanner; "New Footprints of the Coniecti- Pl*"^. ^, ^oo often a text without any context, 

cut Valley" by M. N. Mitievier; "The Plant-Bear- and is thus robbed of much of its ^ignificanoe. 

ing Deposits of the American Trias," and ** Princi- Nothing seems more unsystematic than field 

pies and Methods of Geologic Correlation by means work in systematic botany. AH information 

of Fossil Plants," by Lester F. Ward; "A %ply to that can be obteined in the field concerning 



leas Area in the Mississippi Basin," by RoUin D. unpublished note of Prof. Asa Wray, m which 

Salisbury ; " The Cincinnati Ice Dam," by Frank that distinguished botanist lamented the work 

Leverett ; " The Structure of the Ouachita Uplift ot of those who were incompetent, was read. The 

Arkansas," by Leon S. Griswold ; ^ The Relations of opinion that the exclusive use of gross organs in 

the Archean and the Algonkian m the Northwest," the description of higher plants would be given 

by Charles R. Van Hise ; « Results of a Well Bonng ^ ^h^^ the more stable, minute charwiters 

at Rochester, N. Y.," by Henuan L. Fairchild; "On „^I* ij -.«^„^ ««i„„ki« ^iA^ {,. l^^^A^^^ ai^.^.^;^ 

a Deep Bore near Akron, Ohio," by Edward W.'ciay- "^^^^ P">^e J^^^u^^ u ^^. ^^y^^« diagnosis, 

E)le ; ^ A Study ot the Fossil Avifauna of the Silver ^as expressed. The character of a species is an 

ake Region, Oregon," by R. W. Shufeldt; "The extremely composite affair, and it must stand 

Peninsula and Volcano Cosignina," and " The Geo- or fall by the sum total of its peculiarities, and 

loffical Survey of Nioaraf ua," by John Crawford ; not by a single one. 

V ^^^ J?'^^^^ ^^^ !¥X® ^^^^ Tc^^f ^^"^ Uland.^ II. study of Life Histories.— The work of 
by F B ^jiylor ; and " Stn« and Shckensides at Al- searching for the affinities of great groups is the 
ton Illinois," by James E. Todd. ^^.^^ ^^ ^^ systematic botany toniay. The 
, %; ^."^(^^^y-TJ^^ section was presided over danger of magnifying the importance of certain 
bv Prof. John M. Coulter, President of Indiana periods or organs in indicating affinities, was 
University. He chose for the topic of his ad- gummed up as follows : " I have thus spoken of 
dress "The Future of Systematic Botony." The the study of life histories to indicate that its 
ancient history of systematic botany is too well chjef function lies in the field of systematic 
known to need even brief repetition, but the one botany : to suggest that it take into account de- 
desire which runs with increasing force through velopinent at every period and of every organ, 
it all is to reach eventually a natural system of ^nd so obtain a mass of cumulative evidence 
classification. At first, from necessity, plants for safe generalization ; and to urge upon those 
were simply systematically pigeon-holed for fut- not thoroughly equipped great caution in pubU- 
ure reference, and those who could thus dispose cation " 

of plants were known as ** systematic botenists." m. ' Construction of a Natural System,-^The 

an appellation proper enough, but one unfortu- necessity of constructing a natural system with 

nately not having sufficiently outgrown its ori^- easy advance in the knowledge of affinities, as a 

inal application. The deplorable result of this convenient summary of information, to tell of 

early necessitv of so rigidly systematizing facts, progress and to direct future effort, was advo- 

and thus rendering them accessible, was to make cated. His concluding summary was : ** The 

the pigeon-holes as permanent as the facts they points presented in this consideration of the 

were intended temporarily to contain, third phase of systematic botany are that the 

^ Systematic botany has probably done all that j^gt and highest expression of systematic work 

It could, unaided, in the natural arran^ment of ^ the construction of a natural system, based 

plants. But it was not left without aid, and a upon the accumulations of those who collect 

group of new departments was made possible by and describe and those who study life histories : 

the microscope and the unexampled progress of that this work involves the completest command 

powers and manipulation. The study of the cell of literature and the highest powers of general- 

and of nascent and mature organs, and the rec- ization ; that it is essential to progress for a nat- 

ognition of plants as living things that are the nral system to be attempted with every advance 

resultant of the interplay of internal and exter- in knowledge ; and that all the known facts of 

nal forces, have revivified the ancient mummy affinity thus brought within reach should be 

called botany, and have made it a living thing, expressed in all systematic literature." 

capable of endless development. The real sys- The following-named papers were read before 

tematic botany is to sum up and utilize the re- this section : 

suits of all other departments, and its work is ." ^^ , ,,v . , . 1 , « ^ 1 r^t. 

well-nigh all in the future. The systematic hot- . " ,^^^» on the Phvsiological and Structural Changes 

any wSch deals with generic cLracters and Crt^fTerSn^^ZF^^^^^^^^^^^ I^flTdet'?'^: 

recognizes the fact that every plant is a living Transformation of the Vermilion Spotted Newt." by 

thin^, with a history and all degrees of oonsan- Simon H. Gage ; " On the Kinds of Motion of the 

guinity, and that the final form of every natural Ultimate Units of Contractile Living Matter," by 
classification must ~ 
der of descent, 

^rf^f K«^ !I;,^^"vt^^f tf,^ rli^n«f"rin«r«f"«AX " Cn tho Structurc and Dimorphism of Hypocrea Tu- 

ure there must be three distinct hnes of work, i^rfformis," bv George F. Atktnson ; " AnoSier Chap^ 

related to each other m natural sequence m the ter in the History of the Venus Fly-Trap,'' by John 

order presented, and each turning over its com- m. Macfarlane ; " On the Prothallium and Embryo of 

pleted product to the next. Osmunda Claytoniana and O. Cinnamomea,^* by Doug- 




ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. (American.) g9 

]§» H. Campbell ; " A Now Nectaia," " Notes upon trated. He said that an abundant field of illus- 

Bacteria of Cucurbita," and "Notes upon an Anthrac- tration was found in the popular superstitions, 

tt>*r by Byron D. Halst^ad ; " The Coraposito col- f^^^ i^re, and customs that have survived from 

Ful^o^S^^Lt^d " W * l"'^®^ ^ * ^^^^"^ °"^*^^' The modern dream- 

ot the Fennentation Tube in BaetTrioloiy^witk Bern- book, household medicinal practices, chiu-ms, 

otLstiationa," by Theobald Smith ; " The Forarainif- and, m the more elaborate system of details of 

era, with a New Device for the Exhibition of Speci- astrology, the doctrine of sympathies and kin- 

roena," by James M. Flint ; ** A Monograph or the dred pseudo-sciences, were the fields from which 

Carolina Paroquet," by Edwin M. Hasbrouck ; he took his illustrations. From this, progressive 

"TnuispuHtion, or the Lo^ of Water in Plants '^ by scientific thought had reached its present place 

L^SJ^^f^lSTrtla^'i^y^ ^^^ ^^'l^f^i^lt" ur^T^ 

- Absorption of Fluids by Planti," by L. H. Pammel : \^^^,, ^JF^^^TK"^^ analogy. He concluded 

-(Jases in Plants," bv J. C. Arthur; " Origin and ^tn : That which was senous reasonmg to our 

Development of Pansitio Habit in Mallopha^a and forefathers, now takes its place as a proper in- 

PodicuUdfi," by Herbert Osbom ; "• The Origin and strument for amusement and lies at the basis 

Develo{Mnent^of Parasitism &mon|y|^ the Saroogtid®," of a joke. This offspring of our race is also 




trypida," . 

the Chalcicndse, uv utsiawj. \j. xiuwiuu ^ x uiuoibiDiJu % .% 

in Coleoptera, in Biptera, in Braoonid®, and Ichneu- oy-pains 



monidi,'' and - Micro-organisms as Insecticides," by grown forms of culture among which it ongi- 

Charles V. Kiley ; " Enemies of the Honey-Bee," and nated." 

* Abnormal Bees," by Albert J. Cook ; ** Notes on The following are the titles of the papers read 

the Homology of the Hemipterous Moth,*^ ^^ Enipha- before the section : 

nnx and Hypophaiynx of Odonata," and " The Mouth 




Oi Ule Eje^tionf BlSd fS>m thTe e/^ of H^ome;! ^^P^. ^^ Polyn^iana," by^Walter Hou^ ; « A 

Tm^- aii -On the Turtles of the \>enu8 Malac- I'^^i^^S i^''^ T^2^f.^^''^!iLt^ anH 'V.T 

letny^^by O. P. Hay; "The Present Condition of f T! L • ^. ^^?S??^nS^o H^""- ''''*i?'' r ^-t^ 

the Stud V of the Deep-^ Fishes," bv G. Brown Sl^/^'^"?*' i*?!? ^°^^^™"i?^"{? '.?J*'L^.'''*H 

G«>de; "-On the Impoi£^ of a Tatle at the Naples ^^^ ^^^^-^.^r."^,^^.^^^ 




ioi'' by George Vasey ; ^ Results from Recent In- a Collection ot Stone Pip^ from Vermont and "On 

verti^jaaons oPpear Bliiht," by M. B. Waite ; " The Bone Copper, and Slate Implements found in Ver- 

Spec^cope in Boton^ Studies," by John A. S^^fi*:!^^ Jlf T •"* ^^^^'^ ' ^^^ ^'T'f^^^fS'^ 

B^^hear; - The PeniUtence and Relation of Faumd SJ^S^^vf £"J?S'*frF^'S^^^^^ l^l^^X^J 

K*.alm.»," and « The New Zealand Fish Fauna," by M^^fJJ- ^?®1^^." ^5 M^l™ """^ 'iti^T?^.1l; 

Theodore Gill; -A Case of the Loss of Sen^ oY C^" *^V^^nf.a^n?" Kv^^^^ 

Smell « and «A Novel Color Illusion, and a New S!fX«.? Ini^ P^M.?L« ^^^^^ 

Methii of Color Mixture," by Joseph Jastrow: Srl^^S'^L*^! £!,^^^^^ 

•Modification of Habit in Pax^r-maklng Wasps/^ Moree;" The Nez Perce Country," by A hceC.Fletch- 

by Manr E. Murtfeldt; and «*he Fate of the Kr S'jJ^t^^t^^.^f i^^^J^^ 

cL.1 :« A,»^«:^.n \xr.«-^l. w u„ ii7:ni„«„ i>o1»^a* lerrace to the Moraines ot the Ice-bhcet," by rrank 

Seal in American Waters," by Wilham Pahner. Leverett ; " Utility of Psvchical Study of fchifd Life," 

H. AfUhropology.—This section was presided ^r h''u"'R\I^^V l.f?^''!^^^ ^T^ Chautau- 

Afo- K« T>-«#'nrl«-«k Ttto4-«»«r —k^ Alio A»« ^iioiV qua," by Albert Gatschet; '* Outlines of Zuiii Crea- 

OTer by Prof. Joseph Jastrow, who fills the chair g^J ^^ Migration Mythi considered in their Rela- 

of F^penmental and Corapara-tive Psychology ^ion ^ the Ka-ka and other Drama** or So-called 

m the University of Wisconsin. Hls address Dances," by Frank H. Cuahin^? ; " An Ancient Hu- 

▼as entitled " The Natural History of Analogy." man Cranium from Southern Mexico," by Frederick 




»mblanoe. The various types of agreement forations'in Stone from the Susquehanna River," by 

aitfenng slightly from the standard were also Atreus Wanner ; " Geographical Arrangement of Pre- 

treated- In almost all savage customs and be- historic Objects in the United StatesNational Muse- 

liefs, he said, abundant instances of reasoning uni " " Cunous Forms of Chipped Stone Implements. 

bT analogy were to be found. In magical prac- found in Italv, Honduras, and the United States," '' In- 

ti'ces, in interpretations of omens and dreams, in vention^of Antiquity," and " Evidenjces of the High 

medicinal practices and social and tribal cus- Antiquity of Man in America," by Thomas W ilson : 

 -T*! r . ~ «wx.*€»* www, %,LAK,aA ^ u. Some Archffiolofirical Contraventions," bv Gerard 

tonis, striking instances of analogous argiiment Yovrke : ** On theliistribution of Stone Implements 

abounded. The Zulu who chews a bit of wood i^ the Tide- water Province," and " Aboriginal Nova- 

10 soften the heart of the man he wants to buy culite Quarries in Arkansas," by William H. Holmes r 

Ml ox from , the fetich determining by whether " Study of Automatic Motion," by Joseph Jastrow ; 

a stick stands or falls whether a war shall be " Race'Survivals and Race Mixture ii Great Britain,'* 

kept up or allowed to stop ; the medicine-man ^X ^- ^^- Babcock. 

who performs incantations over some personal I. Economic Science and Statistics. — The 

belonging of his victim or by the use of out-of- presiding officer of this section was Prof. Kd- 

the-way drugs — cdl these were instanced as the inund J. James, who holds the chair of Public 

results of analogjr or a feeling of analogy. Simi- Finance and Administration in the Wharton 

lar traits in children were described and ill us- School of Finance and Economy of the Univer- 



40 ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE. (Amewcak.) 

sity of Pennsylvania. His theme was ** The worse one. Along what line does improvement 

American Farmer, his Present Economic Con- lie f In the first place, of course, in the direc- 

dition and Future Prospects." The condition tion of altering the influences above referred to. 

of the farming class is at present exciting keen Railway policy must be altered at many points — 

attention in nearly every civilized country. The at some of them fundamentally. The system of 

politics and economics of the United States, taxation must be readjusted and the farmer 

England, France, Germany, Austria, and even relieved of unjust burdens. The tariff must be 

Russia, are busied to-day with the farmer as improved; the banking and ^neral monetary 

they never were before. The farmer question, policy of the country c&tnged m many respects, 

therefore, is no lon^^er a local question, no lon^r The forces which are crowding the American 

confined to the United States, but is world-wide farmer to the wall are world-wide, and not 

in its importance, and must be considered to merely national forces. He is going to the wall 

some extent in its international aspects. The because he is trying to compete with farmers of 

remarkable phenomena occurring in connection a low grade of intelligence and civilization in 

with the Farmers' Alliance movemente show at the production of crops where intelligence and 

once how deeply the iron has entered into the civilization count for comparatively little, 

soulof the American farmer, and how thoroughly The American farmer must seek new crops 

he has become aware that for some reason or where intelligence and skill count for more than 

other he is not keeping pace in his material, in- mere fertility of soil or juxtaposition to market, 

tellectual, and social progress with other classes and where, having once established himself, he 

in the community. It is not surprising that in may bid defiance to the ignorance and ineffi- 

this awakening he should not at first perceive ciencv of the foreign peasant. This calls for a 

the true source of his ills, and that he should broad and liberal policy toward agriculture in 

attribute many of the disadvantages under all its relations. 

which he labors to the machinations of other If our farmers' alliances, grangers' associa- 
social classes. It is natural that he should see tions, homy-handed sons of toil conventions, 
in the railroads, in the gold buss of Wall Street, ete., would, with all their getting, get under- 
in the tariff on imports, in the banks and bank- standing, would, after securing— :or Mtter, while 
ers, and in the monetary policy of the Gk>vem- securing — needed reforms in the railway, tax, 
ment, the bitter enemies of his prosperity, tariff, and monetary policy of the country, 
Nothing will bo gained for us, either from an go to the very root of the matter, viz., remedy 
economic or political point of view, by belittling the indolence, ignorance, conservatism of the 
or deriding tne views of Western farmers on the farming classes themselves in all that pertains 
money question, on the tariff, on the railroad to agriculture, no American could have cause 
policy, on taxation, and other similar topics, to fear even the wildest propositions of the fiat- 
The American farmer has a grievance wnich money anti-corporation aemagogue. 
must be carefully studied by studente of eco- The following-named papers were read : 
nomics and statistics, to ascertain, if possible^ .^he Necessity for State Supervision of Railway 
how far it is justified, and whether it can be Extension," by Bemamin W. Snow: ** The Economic 
remedied, and, if so, by what means. Value of Cooking-Schools in the District of Colum- 
The wealth of the United States is flowing bia," by Laura O. Talbott; "The Code of Inherit- 
away from its farms into its factories and rail- ance," by Richard T. Colbum ; ^ Numerical Belations 
roads ; from the country into the city ; from the between Amount and Value of United States Potato 
rural into the urban districts. The policy of ^«>P ^^ ^"JP,^^^ of Importations." and "Umted 
^.,« .«;i»/^o^ y>rv.»«..«i^„ k«« K^«»A k.«^ «»x^« fu^ States Mercantile Manne and Duty Rates," by Henry 
our railroad companies has borne hard upon the YRTquhar ; " The Muck Soils of the Florida Penin- 
individual farmer and upon the farmer as a class, ^^i^y w Rarvey W.Wiley ; " The Artesian Wells 
It has altered all the conditions of a^culture in and Undenrround Waters of Central Texas" by 
many sections of the country, and m nearly all Robert T. Hill ; *^ Enei^y as a Factor in Rural Econ- 
of them in such a way as needlessly to burden omy," bv Manly Miles ; " World^s Columbian Expo- 
and embarrass the farmer. The Granger legisla- sition," by Alexander D. Alexander ; " Free Coinage : 

tion of the Western Stetes was a perfectly lusti- J^ - ^li^^'^^^v ^«^\TSi T?% Coinage 

floku .ffA*»*>4- f^ ^v^.^h' fu« »onf/%.*, »».,^«r^» ^# Ratio in our Silver Policy," by Edward T. Peters: 

fiable attempt to check the wanton aggression of ^ The Eleventh Census an^^tetfstics of Manufacture," 

many railroad managers upon the fundamental ^^ "Permanent Census Bureau," by Georee A. 

nghts of the rural classes, and, though it was at Priest; " Tabulation Errore of Census," by Mrs. M, 

many pointe unsuccessful, it was the first dis- C.Baker; ^^ The Locust or Grasshopper Outlook," by 




systei 

ui)on ine larmer. ,,.-_-_ ., _ Measure ofthe Reliability ofCensus Enumeration," by 

Nor is there any doubt that the financial ool- Alexander S. Christie ; "A National University : ite 

icy of the country, using that term m the broadest character and Purposes," and " The Science and Art 

sense, as including the whole system of monetary of Government," by Lester F. Ward ; " The Southern 

transactions built up by the combination of gov- Old Fields," by W J MoGee ; *; A^culture by Irri- 




the tariff policy of the country has been managed, ^y Charles R. Dodge, 
at least directly, with an eye as much to the 
farmer's interest as to that of other classes. Popular Features of the Proceeding's. — 

It is no wonder, then, that the American On the evening of Aug. 19 a reception was eiven 

farmer is in a bad way, and likely to be in a to the association by the Boara of Trade of 



ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE. (Amekican.) 41 

Washington, in the parlor of the Arlington, at After the meeting of the association the 6eo- 
which namerous addresses were made, including logical Society of America held its summer meet- 
one b^ Secretai^ Foster. A musical entertain- ing, on Aug. 24 and 26 ; and, finally, the Inter- 
ment m the pnvate e^unds of the Executive national Congress of Geologists began its meet- 
Mansion, at wnich the United States Marine Band ings on Aug. 26, and continued them with daily 
played, was ejven to the association, by direction sessions until Sept. 1. 

of Uie Prsident, on Aug. 20. A lecture compli- Final Sessions. — The final general meeting 
meotary to the citizens of Washin^on was de- was held on the evening of Aug. 25, at which 
livered,on the evening of Aug. 21, in the United time the list of officers given below was elected, 
Slates National Museum, by Dr. John M. Macfar- and the place of the next meeting decided on. 
lane, on ^ Illustrations of Heredity in Plant A proposition to increase the research funds was 
Hybrids,*^ subsequent to which the museum was advocated by John A. Brashear, who fixed the 
thrown open to the members for inspection of limit at $100,000, and a committee was appointed, 
the collections. On Aug, 24 an excursion to of which he was made chairman. 
Baltimore, by special train, was provided for. The Committee on Forestry reported that its 
Cpon arriTal at Locust Point the steamer ** La- efforts had, in part, at least, caused a change in 
trobe" met the party and proceeded across the the laws regulating public lands, which autnor- 
bay to the Maryland Steel Company's works izes the President to use his discretion in the 
at Sparrow's Point, where the blast furnaces, disposal of public timber lands. The report 
Bessemer steel converter, and steel rolling mills showed that the American Forestry Association 
were inspected. After luncheon on the steam- had prepared a memorisJ, in which reservations, 
er, a visit was paid to the Baltimore Suffar Re- comprising several million acres will- be asked 
finery. The steamer then returned to the city, in Minnesota, Montana, Idaho, Colorado, New 
and the party visited the Johns Hopkins Hospital Mexico, and California, and in the enlarged 
and the Johns Hopkins University. A oompli- boundaries of the Yellowstone Park. The com- 
mentary excursion to Mount Vernon was tendered mittee was continued to enable it to carry on 
on Aug. 25 to the association by the scientific the work of securing the enactment of such 
societies of Washington. Three general ex- laws as will protect and provide for the adminis- 
cnrsions were arranged for, as follow : (1) To tration of the lands thus reserved. Action was 
Harper's Ferry and Lurav, visitin^^ the famous also taken upon a recommendation from the sec- 
cavems ; (2) to Atlantic City, visitmg the light- tion on biology, favoring the petitioning of Con- 
house and life-savinff station ; and (3) to Old gress for the establishing in the District of 
Point Comfort, Norfolk, and Virginia Beach, Columbia of an arboretum, under the direction 
visiting Fort Monroe, Hampton, the Soldiers* of the Department of Agriculture. A resolution 
Home, Normal School, ana other features, was also adopted calling the attention of the 
Throughout the meeting, through the courtesy Secretary of A^culture to the advisability of 
of the department chiefe, the various GK)vern- utilizing the Weather Bureau, the various agri- 
ment bureaus were opened to the members of cultural experiment stations, and institutions of 
the association, and on the afternoon and even- a similar character, for the purpose of forming a 
ing of Aug. 24 the Corcoran Gallery was opened service of water statistics and making a careful 
to the visiting scientists. survey of the condition of water supplies, which 
Amilated OrsTAi^lzations. — Prior to the may servo as a basis for the application of proper 
meeting of the association the American Micro- principles of water management. Agreeably to 
^copicaJ Society was convened on Aug. 11 and a communication from the Australasian Associa- 
12. The Association of American Agricultural tion for tho Advancement of Science, a committee 
Colleges and Experiment Stations held daily ses- was ai)pointed to form part of an international 
sions on Aug. 13, 14, and 15. Under the terms committee to make a imiiorm system of biological 
of the trust which endows in perpetuity the nomenclature, that committee being Simon H. 
agricultural work of Lawes and Gilbert at Roth- Gage. Charles T. Minot, John M. Coulter, Theo- 
amsted, England, a representative of this place dore Gill, and George L. Goodale. The meeting 
is to visit America everv three years as an ex- as a whole was a most successful one ; 291 papers 
ponent of its work. The first of these visits were read before the sections, against 259 for last 
occurred during the Washington meeting, and year. There were 658 members in attendance, in 
Robert Warrin^on, F. C. S., the chemist at Roth- comparison with 864 last year ; and subsequent 
imsted, was the representative. The Association to Aug. 18, 91 new names were added to the list, 
of Official Agricultural Chemists met on Aug. making a total of 871 members elected since the 
1-3. and held sessions for two days. The Societv meetine last year. 

for the Promotion of Agricultural Science held Nexf Meeting. — In 1892 the association will 

its meetings on Aug. 17 and 18. A conference meet in Rochester, N. Y., and the time appointed 

of American chemists, under the auspices of the is the third Wednesday in August. The follow- 

American Chemical Society and the Washington ing officers were chosen : President, Joseph Le 

Chemical Society, met on Aug. 17 and 18. The Conte, Berkeley, Cal. Vice-Presidents : A, John 

Association of Economic Entomologists convened R. Eastman, Washington, D. C. ; B, Benjamin 

on Aug. 18 and 19. J. A. Idntner, of Albany, F. Thomas, Columbus, Ohio ; C, Alfred Spnnger. 

X. Y., was chosen president of this body. The Cincinnati, Ohio ; D, John B. Johnson, St. Louis, 

Botanical Club of the association held regular Mo. ; E, Henry S. Williams, Ithaca, N. Y. ; F, 

meetings on Aug. 20, 21, and 22. Prior to the Simon F. Gage, Ithaca, N. Y. ; H, William H. 

regular meetings of the association William M. Holmes, Washington, D. C. ; I, S. Dana Horton, 

Canby was its president. Similarly the Entomo- Pomeroy, Ohio. Permanent Secretary, Frederick 

logical Club of the aasociation met daily during W. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass. General Secre- 

the meeting. tary, Amos W. Putnam, BrookviUe, Ind. Secre- 



4S 



ASSOCIATIONS FOE THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCK (Bw 






tar7 of the Council, Thomas 11. Norton, Cincin 
nati, Ohio. Seeretaries of Sections : A, Winslow 
Upton, Providence, R. 1. ; B, Brown Ayres, New 
Orleans, La. ; C, James L, Howe, Louisville, Ky. ; 
D, Olin n. Landreth, Nashville, Tenn.; K, 
Rollin D. Salisbury, Madison, Wis.; F, Byron D. 
Ealstead, New Brunswick, N, J. ; H. Anthropol- 
ogy, Stewart Culiii, Philadelphia, Pa. ; I. Lester 
P: Ward, Washington, D. C. Treasurer, William 
Lilly, Mauch Chunk, Pa, 

British.— The sixty-first annual meeting of 
the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science was held in Cardiff during the week be- 
ginning; Aug. 19. The officers of the association 
were : PresideDt, Dr. William Euggins. Section 




Presidents : A, Mathematics and Physics, Oliver 
J, Lodge ; B. Chemistry, W. C. Roberts- Austen ; 
C, Oeologj, T. Ellpert Jones; D. Biology, Fran- 
cis Darwin; E, (Jeography, E. G. Boweustein; 
F, Economic Science and Statistics, W. Cunning- 
ham ; U, Mechanical Science, T. Forster Brown ; 
H, Anthropology, Max MQUer. General Treas- 
urer. Ari,hur BUcker. General Secretaries : Sir 
Douglas Galton and Vernon Harcourt; and 
Thomas Forster Brown. Chairman of the Local 
Executive Committee. 

Cieneral Meetlng.^The first general meeting 
was held on Aue, 19, with Sir Frederick A. Abel 
in the chair. The address of welcocne was made 
by the Marqi[is of Bute, who wb.s chairman of 
the Local Committ«e and Mayor of Cardiff. The 
report of the General Comcuitt^'e was presented 
and accepted, subsequent to which the incoming 
president. Dr. William Huggins, was called to 
the chair. His address was delivered in the 
evening in Park Hall. 

Address of the President— Since 1851. 
when Sir George Airj, and 1860, when I^ord 
Wrottesley, were presidents of the association, 
no representative of astronomy had been chosen 
to that office. It was therefore natural that Dr. 
Huggins should select as the subject of his dis- 
course the history of the discoveries that have 
taken place in his chosen science during the past 
thirty years. He told how spectroscopic astron- 
omy had become a distinct and acknowledged 
branch of that seieni*. Within the last year or 
two improvements had been made in the spec- 



troscope itself by Lord Rayleigh, and by Prot 
Henry A. Rowland in the construction of con- 
rave gratings. Although up to the present time 

Angstrom's map of the solar spectrum has been 
accepted as the standard of reference, still, in the 
near future, that of Rowland wiU be adopted, and 
itsgreateraccuracy is due chiefly to the introduc- 
tion by him of concave gratings and of a method 
for their use bv which llie problem of the deter- 

measures of coincidences of the linre in different 
spectra by a micrometer. The recent attempts 
to distinguish the lines which are due to our at- 
mosphere from those whluh are truly solar were 
described. Concerning the nature of the heav- 
Mily bodies, all that can be positively asserted 
is, that the spectroscope reveals to us the waves 
which were set up in the ether, filling all inter- 
stellar space, yeare or hundreds of years ago, by 
the motions of the molecules of the celestial eut>- 
stances. Great caution must be otiserved when 
attempts are made to reason by the aid of labora- 
tory experiments as to the temperature of the 
heavenly bodies. Of recent researches in this di- 
rection, the claim of Stas that electric spectra are 
to be regarded as distinct from flame spectra waa 
mentioned, but it must not be forgotten that the 
light from the heavenly bodies may consist of 
the combined radiations of different layers of 
gas at different temperatures, and possibly be 
further complicated to an unknown extent by 
the absorption of cooler portions of gas outside. 

As yet the spectroscofe has failed to interpret 
for us the remarkable spectrum of the aurora 
borealis. Undoubtedly in this phenomenon por- 
tions of our atmosphere are lighted np by elec- 
tric dLscharges: we should expect, therefore, to 
recognize the spectra of the gases known to lie 
present in it. Especially we do not know the 
origin of the principal line in the ereen. Re- 
cently the suggestion has been made that the 
aurora is a phenomenon produced by the dust of 
meteors and fallinc stars, and that near positions 
of certain auroral Tines or flutingsof manganese, 
lead, barium, thallium, iron, etc, are sufficient to 
justify us in regarding meteoric dust in the at- 
mosphere as the origin of the auroral spectrum. 

Reference was made to the work on the " Spec- 
tra of the Comets," by Prof. Hubert A. Newton 
and Prot. Schiapareili. Concerning the consti- 
tution of the sun, a very great advance has been 
made by the recent work at the Johns Hopkins 
University, by means of photography and con- 
cave gratings, in comparing the solar spectrum 
directly with the spectra of the terrestrial ele- 
ments. Prof. Rowland has shown that the lines 
of thirty-six terrestrial elements at least are cer- 
tainly present in the solar spectrum, while eight 
others are doubtfuL Of those not found, matiy 
are so classed because they have few strong lines, 
or none at all. in the limit of the solar spectmm 
as compared by him with the are. Rowland has 
not found any lines common to several elements, 
and. in the case of some accidental coincidences, 
more accurate investigation reveals some slight 
difference of wave length or a common impurity. 
Stas, in a recent paper, gives the final results of 
eleven years of research on the chemical elements 



ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE. (British.) 43 

ciam, strontium, lithium, magnesium, silver, so- the nebulas gave place to that which regarded 

dium. and thallium show that these substances them as external galaxies, cosmical *' sand 

retain their individuality under all conditions, heaps," too remote to be resolved into separate 

and are unalterable by any forces that we can stars. 

bring to bear upon them. Prof. Rowland looks Then, discussing the various theories'advanced 
to the solar lines which are unaccounted for as a concerning their constitution, he said : *' On 
means of enabling him to discover such new ter- account of the large extent of the nebulte, a 
re^triai elements as still lurk in rare minerals and comparatively small number of luminous mole- 
earths, bv confronting their spectra directly with cules or atoms would probably be sufficient to 
that of the sun. He has alreaidy resolved yttrium make the nebalas as bright as they appear to us. 
spectrofioopically into three components, and act- On such an assumption the average temperature 
uallr into two. It is worthy of remark that, as may be low, but tne individual particles, which 
oar Knowledge of the spectrum of hydrogen in its by their encounters are luminous, must have 
complete form came to us from tne stars, it is motions corresponding to a very high tempera- 
now from the sun that chemistry is probably ture, and in this sense be extremely hot.*' Hence, 
about to be enriched by the discovery of new ** it may well be that in the very early stages con- 
elements, densing masses are subject to very mfferent con- 
Passing to the sun's corona, recent investiga- ditions, and that condensation may not always 
tioDs were cited, including those of Prof. Schae- begin at one or two centers, but sometimes sets 
berle,of Lick Observatory; but, still, of its chem« in at a large number of points, and proceeds in 
ical and physical nature we know very little, the different cases along different lines of evo- 
The behavior of gaseotis matter during conden- lution." By the spectroscope motions of ap- 
sation and the probable resulting constitution proach or of recession of the stars can be de- 
of the heavenly bodies was then taken up. The tected and measured, so that under favorable 
fiew has been put forth that the diversified spec- circumstances the speed can be determined to 
tn of the stars do not represent the stages of an within a mile a second. Of the application of 
eTolutional progress, but are due for the most photography to this branch of astronomical work 
part to differences of original constitution. But mention was made, and the brilliant results 
the sun and stars are generally regarded as con- obtained at Lick Observatory bv Keeler cited, 
sisting of glowing vapors suirounded by a pho- This spectroscopic method of determining ce- 
tosphere where condensation is taking place, lestial motions in the line of sight has recently 
the temperature of the photospheric layer from become fruitful in a new but not altogether un- 
which the greater part of the radiation comes foreseen direction, for it has, so to speak, given 
being constantly renewed from the hotter mat- us a separating power far beyond that of any 
ter within. telescope the glassmaker and the optician could 
As to the life of a star, he said : construct, and so enabled us to penetrate into 
n.,,, 1.1JAJ ji 1 mysteries hidden in stars apparently single, and 
J^g^^^:t:^:^.^A^7l:t^. ^^8^*- unsuspected of & binW systems. 
Fmtare gradient so far as it was determined by ex- From other directions mfonnation is accumu- 
uaDston, and convection currents of less violence pro- lating — from photographs of clusters and parts 
UDcini^ leas interference with the proportional (juanti- of the Milky Way, oy Roberts, in this country, 
tits of gises due to their vapor densities, while the Barnard, at the Lick Observatory, and Russell, at 
effects of eruptions would be more extensive. At last Sydney ; from the counting of stars and the de- 
we might oome to a state of tilings in which, if ^e taction of their configurations by Holden and 




cifDtly 

duvt; a i . ^ .^ „ .^ «« ^ . . _ _ _ 

pr« tected, mdmigft wntiW to be relatTvely too hot of the spectra of stars by Pickering at Harvard 

lor their lines to appear ver^dark upon the continuous and in Peru; and from the exact portraiture of 

pptctnun; besides, their lines mi^ht be possibly to the heavens in the great international star chart 

Mxne extent effaced by the coming m under such con- which begins this year 

^ns in the vapors themselves of a continuous spec- rphere are many other problems which might 

claim our attention, llie researches of the ISbltI 

In connection with the temperature of stars, of Rosse on lunar radiation, and the work on the 

be told how Samuel P. Langley, of Washington, same subject and on the sun by Langley ; ob- 

D. C showed that through the whole range of servations of lunar heat with an instrument of 

temperature on which we can experiment, and his own invention by Boys, and observations of 

pn^umably at temperatures beyond, the maxi- the variation of the moon's heat with its phase 

mum of radiation power in solid bodies gradu- by Very ; the discovery of the ultra-violet part 

aUv shifts upward in the spectrum from the or the "hydrogen spectrum, not in the laoorar 

infia-red through the red ana orange, and that tory, but from the stars : the confirmation of 

in the sun it has reached the blue. AH the heav- this spectrum by terrestrial hydrogen in part 

enly bodies are seen by us through the tinted me- by Vogel. and in its all but complete form by 

dium of our atmosphere. Acconling to Langley, Comu, who found similar series in the ultra- vio- 

the solar stage of stars is not really yellow, out, let spectra of aluminium and thallium ; the dis- 

eren as ^u^d by our imperfect eyes, would ap- covery of a simple formula for the hydrogen 

p<4kr bluish white if we could free ourselves from series by Balmer ; the important question as to 

the deceptive influences of our surroundings, the numerical spectral relationship of different 

Of the nebula he told how the elder Herschel substances, especially in connection with their 

saw portions of the flery mist or " shining fluid " chemical properties ; and the further question 

OQt of which the heavens and the earth had as to the origin of the harmonic and other rela- 

been slowly ^bioned. For a time this view of tions between the lines and the groupings of lines 



44 ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. (British.) 

of spectra ; the lemarkable emploTment of in- Then, discussing the means of attacking this 

terference phenomena by Albert A. Michelson problem, he said : 

for the fl«t«'''«|°*^|i«^^^^^ fK?N!i?^^?nS: A vulnerable spot on our side seems to be the 
tion of light withm them, of the miages of ol> connection between Ufe and energy. The relation of 
jects which when viewed in» a telescope subtend jifg to energy is not understood. Life is not energy, 
an angle less than that subtended by the light- and the death of an animal affects the amount of en- 
wave of a distance equal to the diameter of the ergy no whit; yet a live animal exerts control over 

1 • x* A 1 A.I- _ _U_._ 1a___._ ^l...^^ 1>»A wk««4 t^vttxwvm^r wmrVkinVt a y^Aa/l mwxdx Aavi vtrtit T.i4^ ia a mili^iriiT 




^ -- , . « -. _. ^1 ,. i,^^^i physics. The transfer of energy "» »wwuuw3« *«* w.» 

ments, by greater refinement of analysis, knowl- fhe performance of work: the guidance of eneniv 
edge has been increased, especially in precision ne^ds no work, but demands force only. What is* 
and minute exactness. Then he closed with : force ? and how can living beings exert it in the wav 
" Since the time of Newton our knowledge of they do ? In some way matter can be moved, guidea, 
the phenomena of Nature has wonderfully in- disturbed, by the agency of living beings; in some 
creased, but man asks, perhaps more earnestly way there U a control, a directing agency, active, and 
*u :-. u:- j«„J tiru«r .•„ ♦i,^ »i4^:.,«afl events are caused at its choice and will that would 




departments also At present we nang 

which we have been playing t Does not the whole regions of inquiry and say they are not for ua. 

ocean of ultimate reality and truth lie beyond f " A few we are beginning to grapple with. The nature 

A. Mathematical and I^yHcal Science,— The of disease is yielding to scrutiny with fruitful result : 

presiding officer of this section. Prof. Oliver J. ^e mental aberrations and abnormities of hypnotism. 




system of measurement which has done so much and other matters relating to life and conduct, are 

for the unification of phvsical science), the dis- beginning to show a vulnerable front o\ei which the 

oovery in America of a binary system of stars, forces of science may pour. Facts so strange that 

and the practical discovery of a physical method they have been called miraculous are now no longer 

for color photographv. After commenting on ^^^^ "* vt^'^'t^^ """"^^h ^"^ "^^^^^t 

Vi s - ^ 4.? \X Jl««««^ *^ i.u« ^ j«»,,»»;^ ^t seem reasonable when contemolated from the n^rht 

these four events, he passed tj) the discussion of .^^^ ^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^ fclieved in which ^in 

the desirability or necessity of a permanent gov- ^^^^ essence are still quite marvelous. The possibil- 

emraent physical laboratory. Such a laboratory ities of the universe are as infinite as is its physical 

would be the natural custodian of our standards, extent I seem to myself to catch glimpses of clews to 

in a state fit for use and for comparison with many of these old questions, and 1 urge that we should 

copies sent to be certified. trust consciousness, which has led us thus far ; should 

JL, • * ^ V 1. ^ shrink from no problem when the time seems ripe 

There are many expenmente which can not poe- ^^ ^ ^^^^ upon it ; and should not hesitate to pr^w 

•sibly be conducted by an ^dividual, beca^ forty or investigation £d ascertain the laws of even the mo8t 

fifty years is not long enough for them. Secular ex- recondite problems of life and mind, 
penments on the properties of matenals — the elastic- "^ 

itv of metals, for instance ; the effect of time on molec- ^mong the papers read before this section 

ular arrangement; the influence of long exposure to „«^4.i,/Vr.ii^«;V!r^44ri Tk ~r "t" ""r" ^Si * 

light, or to heat, or to mechanical vrEratiSnT or to ^^^ ^J*« 'S^!£^,?^ ' ^? ^^^ Action of a Planet 

other physical agents. "P^*^. Small Bodies passing near the Planet with 

Does the permeability of soft iron decay with age Special Reference to the Action of Jupiter on 

by reason of the gradual cessation of its Amp^rian such Small Bodies," by Hubert A. Newton, of 

currents ? Do ffases cool themselves when adiabati- Yale College ; " The Absorption of Heat by the 

cally preserved bv reason of imperfect elasticity or too Solar Atmosphere," by W. E. Wilson; "The 

many degrees of freedom of their molecules? Do Ultrarviolet Lines of Solar Prominences," by 

thermo-eiectnc properties alter with time? And a n«^-«« i? rr«i- ^* nv.* <. -d -lu -o i "^ 

multitude of other experiments which appeal specially Y-^^S^ ^ Hale, of Chicago ;*• Researches Rela- 

applicable to substances in the solid state— a state. **^^^*^"® Second Law of Thermo-Dynamics," 

which is more complicated and has been less investi-" by G. H. Bryan and J. Larmar ; " Researches on 

gated than either the liquid or the gaseous — a state the Surface Tension of Ether at Different Tem- 

m which time and past history play an important peratures," by Prof. Ramsay ; " Probable Nature 

part Whichever of these long researches requires to of the Bright Streaks on the Moon," by R. 

h^S.^^nn^'t'l^i^fmJw'?^^ ^J^T Copclaud ; "The Causes of Variation of Clark 

X apS?o^riate Zr^^ ^^^ ^ Stitndartl Cells," by J. Swinburne; "A New 

mu *• u i-u 'i. X. i. L ^ i_ Form of Polarizer," and " Some Points Con- 

1- u}^ question whether it h^ not been estab- ^ected with Measurement of Lenses," by S. P. 

hshed by direct experiment that a method of Thompson ; " On the Periodic Time of T^ninR- 

communication exists between mmd and mmd porks maintained in Vibration Electrically." bv 

irrespective of the ordinary channels of con- j. Viriamu Jones and T. Harrison; "Magnetii 

sciousneas and the known organs of sense, and. Experiments made in Connection with the Deter- 

if so, what is the process t mination of the Rate of Propagation of Magneti- 

It OMi hardly be through some unknown sense zatiou in Iron," by F. T. Trouton ; and " The 
organ, but it may be by some direct phvsical influ- Connection between the Crystal Form and the 
ence on the ether, or it may be in some still more sub- pUowiirtoi n^,^,^^^uir^'^ ^* xiLic^-w u^ \sr d«« 
tie manner. Heiiid: Of the process I as yet know C^^emical Composition of Bodies,'' by W. Bar- 
nothing. For brevity it may be styled "thought- ^^^- Besides the foregoing reports of various 
transference " though the name may turn out to be committees were read and discussed, including 
an unsuitable one after ftirther investigation. Fur- one " On Electric Standards " ; also, in joint ses- 
ther investigation is just what is wantecL sion with the section on Mechanical Science, the 



ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. (Beitish.) 45 

report of the committee on '* Units and their difficulty experienced in obtaining so large a 

Nomenclature " was discussed. quantity of mild steel of perfectly uniform com- 

B. Chemical Science. — This section was pre- position. Prof. Langlev stated that it was im- 
sided over by Prof. W. C. Roberts- Austen, chem- possible to make crucible steel sufficiently low in 
ist and assayer to the Royal Mint, who dis- carbon in the plumbago crucibles of the United 
cussed the relation between theory and practice States. The matter was under consideration, and 
in metallurgy, with special reference to the in- it was hoped the standard would be completed 
debtedness of the practical man to the scientific shortly. The report of the Committee on the 
investigator. This subject was treated from Action of Light upon Dyed Colors was then 
three standpoints, namely : 1. Certain facts con- considered. The primary object of this cora- 
nected with *' oxidation *' and " reduction," upon mittee is to determine accurately the relative 
which depend operations of special importance fastness to light of all the various colors at pres- 
to the metallurgist. 2. The influence in metal- ent employed by the dyer of textile faorics. 
lurgical practice of reactions which are eithei: The work will necessarily proceed very slowly, 
limited or reversible. 8. The means by which and will extend over some years. During the 
progress in the metallurgic art may be effected, past year the work of purifying and dyin^ with 
and the special need for studving the molecular red coloring matters has been begun and is now 
constitution of metals and allovs. in progress. 

These were discussed quite elaborately, and, in The following-named papers were presented 

dosing, the great importance was indicated of before the section : " Certain Pyrometric Meas- 

extending the use of tne less known metals. At- urements and Methods of recording them," by 

tention is at present concentrated on the produc- W. C. Roberts- Austen ; " The Existence of a 

lion of aluminium, and reference has alreadv Compound in Alloys of Gold and Tin," by A. P. 

been made to the various processes now useo. Laune ; " The Relation between the Composition 

Incidental reference should oe made to the grow- of a Double Salt and the Composition and Tem- 

ing importance of sodium not onlv in cheapen- perature of the Liquid in which it is formed," by 

ing the production of aluminium, but as a pow- F. W. Humphrey ; ** Some Experiments on the 

erfnl weapon of research. In 1849, when John Molecular Refraction of Dissolved Electrolytes,'* 

Percy was president of this section, magnesium by J. H. Gladstone ; "A Simple Apparatus for 

was a curiosity ; now its production constitutes Storing Dry Gases," by W. Sjrmons ; "An Ap- 

a considerable industry. paratus'for Testing the Sensitiveness of Safety 

We may confidently 
and calcium prodi 

utilitT has been dc.»w.^«..i,w~ ... .^^.^^^ — .- * »▼ i y^t'v . i ' tt 

rontaining molybdenum are not rare ; and the metal " The Action of Nitrosyl Chloride on Unsaturated 

e(.uld probably be produced as cheaply as tin if a use Carbon Compounds," by J. J. Sudborough ; " For- 

wt-re to be found for it The quantities of vanadium mation of Peaty Coloring Matters in Sewage 





vKt indeed, for it must be remembered that valuable Electrolysis of Alloys, by H. C. Jenkins. Sev- 

qualities may be conferred on a mass of metal by a eral reports of various committees were read and 

v«rv small quantity of another element The useful discussed, among which those mentioned pre- 

qualitiee imparted to platinum by iridium are well viously are important. 

known. A small quantity of tellurium obliterates the q &eo/<wy.— The president of this section was 

crrstaUine structure of bumuth ; but we have lost an p^^^ t. Rupert Jones, who delivered an address 

ancient art which enabled brittle antimony to be «^„„- *.• „ r^n« ^i.v^JLf^ ««/i /«»tn»A,^/i{/x»a onm 

cart into uaeftil veesels. Two-tenths per cent of zir- consisting of an elaborate and compendious sum- 

coaium increases the strength of gold enoiroously, mary, methodically arranged, of facts, figures, 

vhile the same amount of bismuth reduces the tenac- estimates, and opinions relating to coal. He 

ity to a ver}' low point Chromium, cobalt, tungsten, mentioned the books in which the history of coal 

titanium, cadmium, zirconium, and lithium are al- is treated of, described the coal field of South 

T^wij well known in the arts, and the valuable prop- Wales, the origin of coal, the area of the coal 

micft which metallic chromium and ^gsten confer growth, the varieties of coal, the constituents of 

rjSl^^ta^SwI^no'^CluJle^TS t^ coa measures and of coal, and the extent of 

the development of the rarer metals to be left to other the coal measures under the south of HiUgland. 

countries ? Means for the prosecution of research are His closing remarks were : 

f'Tihoominfir, and a rich reward awaits the labors of Light, heat, motion, fragrance, and color are all now 
pbfcmiiita who could bring themselves to divert their obtamablo from coal. What more could the sun him- 
•ttention, for even a brief period, from the investiga- gelf do for us ? It is as if the sunshine that cherished 
tion of oivanic compounds, in order to raise alloys ^he luxuriant jungles of the past had been preserved 
frwn the onscurity in which they are at present left. in the coaly mass of the buried trees. Indeed, the 
on- _x * xi- />. 'i-x • *• s^x^ light and heat of former davs, expended in thus Con- 
ine report of the Committee, consisting or W. verting carbonic acid and water into coal, are here 
C. Roberts-Austen, Sir Frederick Abel, John W. stored up for man. By converting coal into carbonic 
Luiffley, William A. Tilden, Edward Riley, John acid and water he can again evolve that heat and 
Spilkr, G. J. Shelves, and Thomas Turner, on li^ht, and use them in a thousand ways beneficial to 
the EsUblishment of an International Standard h^s race--nay, essential to his very existence as a 
-J » I . M w _^i Ox. 1 ij J ftivilized hfiinflr. Neverthelesa. a irreat 



pletion of the work has been deferred. The fifth and the geographical and hydromphical conditions, 
stuidard has not been prepared, owing to the At all events, we know that all uieir strata have been 



46 ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE. (British.) 

arranged in order, have been buried under circum- o^ further: just as growth curvature is the continu* 

Btanees favorable to production of the various coaly ance or exaggeration of a nutation in a definite di- 

fuela, and then turned up in orderly disorder, ready rection, so when the rider curves in his coun^e he 

to the hand of man, and well adapted for his use in does so by willful exaggeration of a " wobble." It 

this passage stage of his civilization and development, may be said that circumnutation is here reduced to 

helping hiiu, when intelligent, active, careful, and the rank of an accidental deviation from a right line, 

persevering, to higher ends. But this docs not seem necessarily the case. A bicy- 

. -I V * cl© <^*^ 'lot be ridden at all unless it can ** wobble.'' 

The loUowmg-named papers were read before in the same wav it is possible that some degree of 
the section : " The Discovery of the Olenellus circumnutation is correlated with growth in the man- 
Zone in the Northwest Highlands," and "Some ner suggested above, owing to the need of .regular 
Recent Work of the Geological Survey on the pauses m growth. Rectipetality would thus be a 
Archean Gneiss of the Northwest Highlands," power by Kv-hich irregularities, inherent in growth, 
K^ a«^i,;k«i^ n^;L.;«.. i» r\^ fi,« nonoA r^9 nSr^nr^M *** reduced to order and made subservient to recti- 
by Archibald Geikie; - On the Cause of Monocli- linear igrowth. Circumnutation would be the out- 
nal Flexure," by A. J. Jukes-Brown ; " On the ^^rd did visible sign of the process. 
Continuity of the Kellaways Beds over Extended * 

Areas near Bedford," by A. C. G. Cameron ; " On Among the papers presented before this section 
Colohodu8^ a Mesozoic Fish," by Montague the following may be mentioned : " Description 
Brown ; " On the Discovery of the Southeastern of an Apparatus for the Cultivation of Small 
Coal Field," by Bovd Dawkins ; " The Cause of Organisms in Hane^ing Drops under the Micro- 
an Ice Age," by Robert Ball ; " Recent Discover- scope," by Marshall Ward ; ** Non-sexual Forma- 
tes on the Relation of the Glacial Period in North tion of Spores in the Desmidiie," by A. W. Ben- 
America to the Antiquity of Man," and " On Re- nett ; '* Investigations on the Natural History of 
cent Discoveries (human ima^s) in the Pleisto- the Friendly Islands," by J. J. Lister ; ** Hybrid 
cene Lava Beds of California and Idaho," by Ferns* and Crossed Vaneties," by E. J. Lowe ; 
George F. Wright, of Oberiin College ; " On Gla- '* Floating Leaves," by L. C. Miall ; and " The 
cial Action in Pembrokeshire," by H. Hicks ; and Artificial Production of Rhythm in Plants," by 
** The Occurrence of Pachvtheca Sphaerica and Francis Darwin and Dorothea F. M. Pertz. 
Nematophycus in the Wenlock Beds at Tymawr E. Geography, — The president of this section 
Quarry, Rumney," by John Storrie. was E. G. Ravenstein, who spoke on the " Field 

D. Biology, — Francis Darwin, of Christ's Col- of Geography." He first described the develop- 

lege, Cambridge, presided over this section. His ment of cartography, which he illustrated by 

address was as follows : an interesting collection of maps, and afterward 

A seedling plant in a state of nature grows straight P^sed to the influence of geographical features 
up, while its main root goes straight down. When it ^P<>^ ^^^ destinies of the human race, and the 
is artificially displaced, both rwt and stem execute changes effected by man's conquests over na- 
certain curvatures by which they reach die vertical ture. These larger considerations, he contend- 
once more. Such curvatures, whether executed in ed, came legitimately within the " field of geog- 
relation to light, cavitation, or other influenc^ may raphy," as well as the mapping and description 
be^ grouped together as growth curvatures. I shafl ^f ^^iQ earth's surface. He iaid : 
pnncipally deal with geotropio curvatures, or those 

executed in relation to gravitation, but the phenom- Perhaps one of the most instructive illustrations of 

ena in question form a natural ^roup, and it will be the complex human agencies which tend to modifv 

necessary to refer to heliotropism, and, indeed^ to the relative importance of geographical conditions is 

other growth curvatures. The history of the subject presented to us by the Mediterranean. The time when 

divides into two branches, which will be considered this inland sea was the center of civilization and of 

separately. When a displaced apogeotropic organ the world's commerce, while the shores of wesU^m 

curves so as to become once more vertical, two ouos- Europe were only occasionally visited by venturesome 

tions arise, which may be expressed thus : 1. How navigatore or conquering Roman hosts, docs not lie so 

doee the plant recognize the vertical line ? how does verv far behind us. England at that period turned 

it know where the center of the earth is I 2. In what her face toward Continental Europe, of which it was 




Italy ^^ ^ 

Sachs has pointed out that these two questions have of being tiio great distributor of the products of the 

been confused. Thev should be kept as distinct as East, which found their way across the Alps into Ger- 

the questions, How, by what nervous apparatus, does many, and through the gates of Gibraltar to the exte- 

an animal peroeive changes in the external world ? nor ocean. But a change was brought about, partly 

and How. by what muscular machinery, does it move in through the closing of tiie old Oriental trade rout<M 

relation to such changes I consequent ui)on the conquests of the Turks, partly 

Hfl dAAlt «»nftrafplv with «* irritAhilitv " and through the discovery of a New Worid and of a mari- 

tie dealt separately witfi imtability and time highway to India. When Columbus rctumcl 

"mechanism,'' and then treated of "circumnu- from tiie WJst Indies in 1498, and Vasco da Gania 

tation, expressmg his continued belief in the brought the first cargo of spices from India, in 1499, 

views put forward in the " Power of Movement the star of Italy began to fadxj. And while the spices 

in Plants," that circumnutation is a widely of the Indies and the gold of Guinea pounil wealth 

spread phenomenon, even though it may not be ijto the lap of Portugal, and Spain grew opulent on 

so widely spread as he and his father had sup- ^? f^X;^^ ^^''^!^ ^1 ^^x\lh^ and Peru, Venice was 

posed, in'conclusionhesaid: ^ ^^AtT A^I^'^ ll^^^^^^ 

The relation between rectipetality and circunmu- had passed from Italy to Spain and Portugal, and 

tation may be exemplified oy an illustration. A later to the Dutch and English. But mark how 

skillful bicycle rider runs very straight ; the devia- the great areographical discoveries of Uiat age afl'ect- 

tions from the desired course are small ; whereas ed the relative geographical jKwition of England, 

a beginner deviates much. But the deviations are England no longer lay on the skirts of the hab- 

of the same nature ; both are s^'mptoms of the regu- itiible world; it nad become its very center. And 

lating power of the rider. We may carry the anal- this natural advantage was enhanced by the colo- 



ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OP SCIENCE. (British.) 47 

Dial policies of Spain and Portugal, who exhau8t«d science which deals with the relations between eco- 

their »trenffth in a task far beyond their powers, took nomic units of all kinds and as an instrument for in- 

poveskiion of tropical countries only, ana abandoned vesti^atin^ actual facts and understandinj^ them betr- 

:m England the less attractive, but in reality far more ter, we must be careful to see that our hvt>othese8 are 

valuable, regions of North America. England was appropriate to the actual conditions of life, and most 

thu* enaoled to become the founder of real colonies, anxious in our endeavor to state fully the conditions 

the mother of nations, and her langua^re, customs, we assnmfl. 
and Political institutions found a home in a new 

iroriA And now, when the old highway throujjrh The following were among the more impor- 
the Red bea has been reopened, when the wealth f-n*. n-nprs tmA hpfnr« thi« baM inn • «*T.aKr.t. 
flowing through the Canal of Suez is beginning to ]^J^}' /?*P!f?" It P w T>1^1- «^' ^iT a 1 
revivify the immense of Italy, England may ^m- f°^ ^^'SJi?^' ^^ 9* ^; Perkms; «0n the Al- 
i-rt henwlf with theUiought that inhcr owncolonies, leged Differences in the Wages paid to Men 
and in the states which have sprung up across the and Women for Similar Work," by Sidney Webb ; 
Atlantic, she may find compensation for any possi- *^The Taxation of Inventors," by Louis Ed* 
ble loss that may accrue to her through geographical munds ; " Recent Material Progress in Indian 
advantages being once more allowed to have ftill play. Agriculture," by C. L. Tupper : « Indian Rail- 

Among the papers read before this section, the way Communication," by W. Pumivall ; " The 
following are worthy of mention : " The Art of Data available for determining the Best Limit 
Observing," by John Coles ; " Geographical Edu- (Physically) for Hours of Labor," by Dr. Arlidge ; 
cation," by J. S. Keltic; "The Treeless Charac- "The Cure of Consumption in its Economic As- 
ter of Prairies," by Miller Christie ; "^he Homol- pects," by G. W. Hambleton ; " The Increase of 
ogy of Continents," by H. R. Mill; "The Com- Pood and Population," by W. E. Axon; "Le 
^ative Value of African Lands," by A. S. Play's Method of Systematic Observation," by 
White ; " Suggestions for the Revision and Im- P. Aubertin ; and " Recent Changes in the Dis- 
^rovement of Large Scale Maps of the Ordnance tribution of Population in England and Wales," 
barvey," by Henry T. Crook ; " Antarctic Explo- by E. Cannon. 

ration," by Delmar Morgan ; " Photography ap- G. Mec?UM%cal Science. — The address before 
nlied to fixploration," by John Thompson • " A this section was delivered by T. Porster Brown, 
Journey in the Lake-Ngimi Region, by H. D. who referred to the progress which had been 
Buckle ; " A Visit to Kilima-lQaro and Lake made in connection with locomotive and marine 
Chala," by Mrs. Prench Sheldon ; " The Geog- engines in such works as the Severn Tunnel, the 
raphy of Southwest Africa," by Henry Schlich- Forth and Tay bridges, and the Manchester ship 
ter; and "The Physical Aspects of the Him- canal. In mining, the progress had been slow, 
alayas and Notices of the Inhabitants," by J. and it was a remarkable fact that, with the ex- 
Tanner, ception of pumping, the machinery in use in con- 

P. Economic Science and Staiieiics. — This nection with mining operations in Great Britain 

section was presided over by W. Cunningham, had not, in regard to economy, advanced so rap- 

who delivered an address on " Nationalism and idly as had been the case in our manufactures and 

Cosmopolitanifsm in Economics," consisting es- marine. This was probably due, in metalliferous 

sentially of considerations on present-day prob- mining, to the uncertain nature of the mineral 

lems gathered from the experience of past times, deposits not affording any adequate security to 

He endeavored to show that nations and national adventurers that the mcreased cost of adapting 

distinctions are not such important elements in improved appliances would be reimbursed ; while 

actual commercial life as they used to be, and in coal mining the cheapness of fuel, the large 

that this gradual change, as it proceeds further proportion which manual labor bore to the total 

«Qd further, will necessitate modifications in cur- cost of producing coal, and the necessity for 

rent economic doctrine. He said : producing large outputs with the simplest ap- 

Society ia too freouently regarded as an aggregate pli^nceS; explained in some measure the reluc- 

ofnimilar individuals whose actions can all be repre- tance with which high-pressure steam compound 

ieoted with sutUclent accuracy by the Benthamite engines and other modes embracing the most 

analvsii! of motives. Such a conception of society is modem and approved types of economizing 

«rtly out of date to-day. In the family there is a power had been adopted. In the raising of coal 

iS!!fJir^jiSSf w^^ p« T^ which was of much and placing it on bSard ship there was a vast 

actual importance before £nglish municipalities arose, «.«^„V.* ^# iL^^u.-.*^ i '^ j v * l -l^ 

«yi before English nationaflife asserted Wlf inW ^'"^^"^ of machinery employed, much of which 

L..mic affaire. The family is a natural unit, which is ^^ °°.^ 9^ an obsolete type. When, however, 

•Kr*tin«i to survive even if our national industry and '^ow winnings had been made, or where in old 

«-'<nmeree are more and more merged in cosmopolitan mines it had been found necessary to replace the 

in.i 'mt«mational progress. Economists ma^ com- old machinery by new, the question of efficiency, 

plain that they are misunderetood ; but a historian and at the same time economy, had of late years 

^f i^ii?.?iinrli^«^l^* ^,*i: >T ^"^^ "^^"^^ received serious attention. Electricity had made 

a&ii institutions change so much, it IS most important -«,^:^ o4^«m,^ „„ „ ^ *: ^ j *.i. 

IK« our hypotheses^gaiding tLem should be stated '^P"^ ^^'^^, ^ * '"pt^^ t POwer and there was 

JuJIy and clearly. CarelessnSs had been shown by ^^ ^^ubt that, m conjunction with a better type 

*in.* economists among whom the doctrine of a wages of machinery for the compression of air, it would 

!iind jrruw up. They did not define it as fixed, but eventually become the principal agent in under- 

ihey thought and argued about it as though it was ground operations. Many large electrical in- 

l*^J*Tu"^ ^ ^?' ^V^^^ circumstancM of their times, stallations had alrea<iy been in use for a consid- 



t«cau!ie tnes« times have changed, and it is no longer "^^ ^^ general use, especially m gaseous mines ; 
fir) applicable to ours. If we are to preserve and de- and these improvements must embrace a certain 
veb/p economics on all its sides, both as a formal means of rendering sparking absolutely hann- 



48 ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. (British.) 

less under all conditions, for this inyolved not World Myths and the Customs of the Navajo 
only the increased efficiency of one class of ma- Myth called the * Mountain Chant/ " by Miss 
chinery over another, but also the protection A. W. Buckland ; " The Formation of a feecord 
of human life. The following were among the of Prehistoric Remains in Glamorganshire," by 
papers read before the section : " The London Edwin Seward ; " Anthropometry applied to 
and Paris Telephone," by W. H. Preece ; " Recent the Purpose of Personal Identification," by J. 
Progress in the Use of Electric Motors," by G. G. Garson ; " Instinctive Criminality : its True 
Forbes ; " Electric Lighting in Trains," by J. A. Character and Rational Treatment," by S. A. K. 
Timmis ; Electric Parcels Exchange System," Stranahan ; *^ Recent Hittite Discoveries," by J. 
by A. R. Bennett ; and ** On a New System of S. Phen^ ; ** The Similkameen Indians of Brit- 
Screw Propulsion with Non-reversible Engines," ish Columbia," by Mrs. S. S. Allison ; " On the 
and " Internal and External Work of Evapora- Pottery made and used by the Nicobar Indians,'' 
tion," by W. Worry Beaumont. by E. H. Man ; and " Notes on the History and 

H. Anthropoloay, — The presiding officer of Ethnology of Welsh Fairies," by Leyson Rhys, 

this section was Prof. F. Max MliUer. His ad- It is interesting to add that the president. Prof, 

dress began with a retrospect of his connection MtUler, said ne felt it his duty to express 

with the British Association, and he referred the gratitude of every anthropologist to Major 

to the meeting of 1847, when he was present, John W. Powell for the work he ha3 done during 

and then he took up the history of the devel- the last ten years. As director of the United 

opment of anthropology subsequent to the for- States Ethnological Bureau he had contributed 

mation of the section in 1884. He then discussed many useful works on anthropological subjects, 

the advantages which anthropology has derived The work of the bureau reflected the highest 

from language, and also the disadvantages credit not only upon Major Powell, but upon 

which have accrued to anthropology from al- the Government of the United States, who were 

lowing itself too implicitly to be guided by the doing their utmost to preserve records of an 

science of language. Concerning this branch of ancient world which were dying out before their 

his subject he said : eves. He wished he coula iinpre^ upon the 

I Buppose I need Bay no more to show how indis- ^^olonial Office of her Majesty's Government the 

pensabl^ a study of language is to every student of necessity of taking similar action. He succeeded 

anthropology. If anthropology is to malnUun its hig^h some years ago in persuading Earl Granville to 

position as a real science, its alliance with linguistic encourage the publication of colonial records, 

studies can not be too close. Its weakest points have There was no country which might be in pos- 
al ways been those where it trusted to the atatements j ^^ „ j^ ^^^ information in regard to the 

of authorities ignorant of language and of the science ^„.i„ j„„„ ^4 .«„«i,;„^ „„ i?«„i„«^ k«? ,•«- ^^^^.^ 

of language. Iti greatest trimSph? have been achieved ^^^J ^.^X^ of mankind as England, but it seemed 

by menwho have combined the minute accuracy of w> o® impossible to impress upon the Govern- 

the scholar with the comprehensive grasp of the an- ment their responsibility in this matter. There 

thropologist, and were thus enabled to use the key of was an old world disappearing before their very 

language to unlock the perplexities of savage customs, eyes, and the time would come when ihe present 

savage laws and legends and particularly, of savage generation would be held responsible for not col- 

rehgionsand mythologies. If this alliance between fecting information which was within their reach. 

S^oSyf LT^^^^^^^ « in tlie time of Ciceroand Cjesar somebody had 

ftdfllled, tiiat anthropology wiU become the highest written down the Hitruscan language, what an 

branch of that science for which this British Associa- immense amount of time and labor might have 

tion is instituted. been saved. 

Again referring to the address delivered in 1847 ^ Final Sessions,— The last meeting of the 

by Bunsen, he closed with : General Committee was held on Aug. 25, when 

Much 
these hopes 

Bunsen. Ft.. . rn aoA n ^ m 

own prophecies, but they leave disciples whose duty realizing a sum of £1,664. Grants 01 money^ 

it is to keep their memory alive, and thus to preserve amounting in all to £1,018, were appropriated 

that vital continuity of human knowledge which to scientific purposes by the General Committee 

alone enables us to see in the advancement of all at the Cardiff meeting. August, 1891, ana the 

science the historical evolution of eternal truth. announcement of the specific amounts was made. 

The following are among the more important The concluding general session of the associa^ 

papers read before this section : " The Social tion followed, when resolutions of thanks to the 

and Religious Ideas of the Chinese as illustrated Mayor of Cardiff, the executive committees, and 

by the Ideographic Characters of the Language," to the local secretaries and treasurers were 

by R. K. Douglas ; *' On Recent Progress in the adopted and acknowledged. Subsequently the as- 

Analysis of Vowel Sounds," by R. T. Lloyd; sociationadjoumed to meet in Edinburgh on Au^. 

"Family Life of the Haidas (Queen Charlotte 3, 1892, under the presidency of Sir Archibald Gei- 

Islands)," by C. Harrison ; " The Barbaric Ele- kie, the eminent geologist. The Lord Provost of 

ment in Ancient Greece and Italy," by G. Hart- Edinburgh, the Marquis of Lothian, the Earl of 

well Jones ; " The Worship of Meteorites," by Rosebery, Lord Kingsburgh, Sir William Muir, 

Hubert A. Newton, of Yale University; **Com'- Prof. Sir Douglas Maclagan, Sir Willian Turner, 

g arisen of Ancient Welsh Customs, Devices, and Prof. P. Guthrie Tait, and Prof. Alexander Crum 

bmmeroe with those of Contemporary Nations," Brown were elected vice-presidents for the Edin- 

by J. S. Phen6 ; " The First Salt-sea Wander- burgh meeting. Prof. G. F. Armstrong, F. Grant 

ings of the English Race," by W. M. Adams ; Ogilvie, and John Harrison were elected local 

"Bast Central African Customs," by James secretaries for the meeting at Edinburgh, and 

Maodonald ; " Points of Contact between Old A. Gillies Smith, local treasurer. The mayor and 




ASSOCIATIONS FOB THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. (Fbevch.) 49 

town aathorities extended an inyitation to the special name for the sea between New Zealand 

association to meet in Nottingham in 1893. and Australia, a recommendation was adopted 

PopnUr Features.— On Uie evening of Aug. that the Lords of the Admiralty be reqnesteid to 

20 a amveratuione was given in Park Hall, at name this sea the Tasman Sea. The committee 

which the Marqnis of Bute, as the chairman of also recommended the appointment, bj the 

the local committee, and the Marchioness of Bate British and American associations, of a conjoint 

received the members. As usual, there were sev- committee to define the terms of general impor- 

eral discourses delivered to the association. On tance in biology ; and that Little Barrier Island, 

Aur. 21 Louis C. Miall lectured on ** Some Dif- north of New Zealand, and Resolution Island, 

ficiuties in the Life of Aquatic Insects " ; on in Dusky Sound, be set apart as reserves, where 

Aug. 24 Arthur RQcker spoke on ** Electric the native fauna and flora of New Zealand may 

Stress " ; and on Aug. 25 Svlvanus P. Thompson be preserved from destruction, 

delivered an address on ** Electricity in Mining." Entertainments. — Three evening lectures 

Tventy excursions were arranged lor, twelve of were given before the association, as follow : On 

which were planned for Aug. 22 and eight for Jan. 16, ** The Glaciers of the Tasman Valley,'* by 

Aag. 27, at the close of the meeting. Several G. E. Mannering ; on Jan. 19, " Oysters and Oyster 

receptions were tendered to the memters by resi- Culture in Australasia," by W. Saville Kent, 

dents of Cardiff, and in general interest the Queensland Commissioner of Fisheries ; and on 

meeting was fully up to the average gathering Jan. 20, '* A Short History of Vocal Music," by 

of the asaociation. G. F. Tendall. Garden parties were given by Sir 

Attstralian.— The third meeting of this asso- James Hector, Leonard Haiper, and the Bishop 

dation was held in Christchurch, l>few Zealand, of Christchurch ; while, on Jan. 22, Spohr's ora- 

doring the week beginning with Jan. 15, 1891. torio of the '* Last Judgment" was given in the 

The offloets of the meeting were : President, Sir cathedral by its choir. 

Junes Hector. Vice-presidents : Sir R. G. C. Excarsions, during the meeting:, were made, 

Hamilton, A. Lebius, W. C. Kemot, W. Saville on Jan. 19, to the Christchurch drainage works ; 

Kent, and Thomas Blackburn. General Treas- on Jan. 20, to the Addington workshoM ; on 

orer. Henry C. RusselL Permanent Secretary, Jan. 21, to Kaiapoi woolen factory and Belfast 

Archibald Liversid^ Presidents of the Sec- freezing works ; and on Jan. 22, to the Lincoln 

tions : A, Mathematics, Physics, and Mechanics, Agricultural College. After the meeting, ezcur- 

T. R. Lyle ; B, Chemistry and Mineralogy, Orme sions were made on Jan. 24, from Palmerston 

Has8on; C, Geology and Palaeontolo^, Reginald South to the mouth of the Shag river; on Jan. 

A. F. Murray ; D, Biolc^, W. A. HasweTl ; E, 26, from Napier to Ruapehu and Tongariro ; and 

Geoj^pfaj, G. S. GriffiUuB; F, .Economic and on Jan. 28, from Fort Chalmers to the West 

Social Science and Statistics, G. W. Cotton ; G, Coast Sounds. 

Anthropology. Alfred W. Howitt ; H, Sanitary The meeting was considered a successful one, 

Science and tiygiene, Allan Campbell; I, Litera- and the attendance was about 470. Among the 

tare and Fine Arts, R. H. Roe ; J, Architecture visitors was Prof. George L. Goodale, past pree- 

and Ene;ineering, John Sulman. ident of the American Association for the Ad- 

MeetlBgs. — -The different sections met in vancement of Science, who went to the meeting 

rooms in Canterbury College that were placed as the official representative of the sister asso- 

at their disposal by the college authorities. The elation in the United States, 

first general meeting was held in the old Pro- Next Meeting. — The next meeting will be 

vincial Council Chamber on the evening of Jan. held at Hobart, Tasmania, with Sir Robert 

15. when Baron Ferdinand von Mueller resigned Hamilton, Governor of the colony, as president 

the chair to Sir James Hector, the director 01 the French. — The twentieth annual meeting of 

New Zealand Geological Survey, who delivered the French Association for the Advancement of 

ao inaugural address on assuming the presidency Science was held in Marseilles during the week 

of the association. On the following morning beginning Sept 17. The president was P. P. Do- 

the different sections met, and their presiding h^rain, a member of the scientific section of the 

officers delivered addresses, as follow : C, ** The French Institute, who delivered an address *' On 

Put and Future of Mining in Victoria," by the Relations of Chemistry and Physiolosry to 

Robert A. Murray ; D, ** Recent Biologic&L Agriculture." The opening session was heia on 

Theories*" br W. A. Haswell ; E, ^ Antarctic the afternoon of Sept. 17, when M. Baret the 

Exploration, bv G. S. Griffiths ; F, *' A State Mayor of Marseilles, welcomed the gathering in 

Bank of Issue.*^ by G. W. Cotton : G, *' Cere- a short address, in which he spoke of the honor 

monies of Initiation in Australian Tribes," by A. that his city felt in receiving the distinguished 

W. Howitt ; H, ** The Advancement of Sanita- scientists ; and, after referring to the history of 

tioQ among the People," bv Allan Campbell ; I, Marseilles— a city of 400,000 inhabitants, and 

'^ Literature in Education^" bv R. H. Roe, and J, one that had been in existence for more than 

'*The Architecture of Towns," by John Sulman. twenty-five centuries — he told of what it had 

The sections continued to meet until Jan. 21, and done to advance the cause of science, citing the 

daring the mean while 74 papera were read and various industries and technical works which 

dl4cu^«d« would be opened for inspection during the neet- 

Heports. — A revised code of laws was adopted ing of the association. 

for confirmation at the next meeting. Ten re- President's Address. — ^After referring to the 

wanch committees were appointed to report on different places at which the association had 

different subjects to the next meeting, and a grant met in previous years, and especially to the 

of £25 was made toward measuring the rate of meeting of 1800, when the unveiling of the 

motion of the Kew Zealand glaciers. As great statue of Gay Lussac, in Limoges, was deferred 

inoonvenience is often felt from the want of a until the arrival of the association, ha an- 

Tou XXXI.— 4 A 



60 ASTRONOMY, PROGRESS OF, IN 1801. 

noonoed that, in aocordanoe with the oostom of ASTBONOMT, PROGRESS OF, IN 199L 

his predecessors, who chose as the subject of Although considerable advance has been made 
their addresses a discussion of that branch of since the close of the preceding report, it can not 
science with which they were most familiar, so be claimed that the present year has been char- 
he would attemot to discuss the progress of acterized by important disooyeries, such as re- 
agriculture as anected by recent dLscoyeries in warded the labors of astronomers during 1890. 
chemistry and physiology. At the close of the The San. — ^This year ushers in the beginning 
last century the orudeness of the methods of of another sun-spot maximum period, which ap- 
chemical analysis were such that it was impossi- pears to be too early, reckoning from the date of 
ble to arrive at a positive knowledge of the com- its last occurrence, which was nearly three years 
position of plants. It was Be Saussure who, in too late, to accord with the received interim of 
1804, wrote : ** I have found phosphate of lime in about eleven years from maximum to maximum, 
the ashes of all the plants that I have examined, Thus far during 1891 there has been hardly a 
and hence assume it to be a constant constituent day on which spots and extensive fields of f^culs 
of all vegetable life." This naturally led to the have not been observed. 

artificial application of chemicals to the soil to On June 17, at lO** 16", Paris mean time, M. 
replace those taken up by the plant. The first Trouvelot, an assistant at the Meudon Observa- 
of these appears to have been none ash, and it tory, near Paris, saw a luminous outburst on the 
was not until 1843 that the Duke of Bedford sun of apparently the same character, he says, as 
demonstrated the real cause of its efficiency, that seen by Carrington and Hodgson on Sept. 
Liebig*s experiments, tending to show that by 1, 1859. The spot was of a yellowish color and 
treating bones with sulphuric acid they became near the western limb of the sun. Soon afterward 
changed into superphosphates, was a distinct ad- another manifested itself a little to the north, 
vance in the knowledge of the subject The from both of which what appeared to be volcanic 
discoveries of phosphate rock and the great work bombs were projected. The same phenomena 
in England at Rothamsted brin^ us down to were observed the next day, though with less ao> 
modem times. Thus, by analyzmg the ash of tivity, and ceased to be noticeable soon after 
plants, chemistry has shown what ingredients noon. These seem not to have been noticed else- 
are necessary to restore the soil to its normal where. 

composition. The condition of nitrogen in the In No. 85 of the Johns Hopkins University 
soil and its influence upon vegetation was next Circular, Prof. Henry A. Rowland enumerates 
taken up. The able researches of G^rge Ville, the following elements as certainly existing in 
in France, followed by those in England of the sun by comparison with the solar spectrum 
Lawes and Gilbert, were referred to, and final- from the extreme violet down to D : Calcium, 
1^ the more recent work by Berthelot was men- iron, hydrogen, sodium, nickel, magnedom, co- 
tioned. In other w&ys chemistry had rendered bait, silicon, aluminum, titanium, chromium, 
great service to agriculture. Tne terrible dis- manganese, strontium, vanadium, barium, car- 
ease that threatened to exterminate the vines of bon, scandium, yttrium, zirconium, mol^^bdenum, 
France was discussed, and how one means after lanthanum, niobium, palladium, neodymium,cop- 
another was suggested by chemists, until carbon per, zinc, cadmium, cerium, glucinium, germani- 
disulphide, proposed by Thenard, and the sulpho- um. rhodium, silver, tin, lead, erbium, potassium, 
carbonates recommended by Dumas proved effl- The doubtful elements are : Iridium, osmium, 
cacious. He closed with a brilliant description platinum, ruthenium, tantidum, thorium, tong- 
of the agricultural resources of France, and es- sten, and uranium. 

Siciallv those of the section of France of which Those not found in the solar spectrum are : 

arseilles was the chief ci^. Antimony, arsenic, bismuth, boron, nitrogen, 

Treasarer'g Report. — ^The total receipts dur- caosium, gold, iridium, mercury, phosphorus, ru- 
ing the year, as reported by Emile Galante, were bidium, selenium, sulphur, thallium, and prseso- 
$19,611, and the total expenditures were $18,825, d^rmium. Strangely enough, oxygen, whicn oon- 
of which sum $3,160 were grants made to vari- stitutes one half the earth, is not found in any 
ons scientists engaged in original researches. By one of the three lists. 

various amounts the capital of the association had Transit of Mercury. — ^The transit of Mer- 

been increased, until it had now reached the sum cury. May 9, 1891, occurred, on this continent, 

of $170,430. He also announced that the coun- save for the observatories on the Pacific coast, 

cil were studying means by which this twentieth when the sun was too low to be well observed, 

meeting might be made memorable by reducing Even in that locality the sun had set before the 

the annual dues required of members. In 187S third and fourth contacts took place. At the Lick 

the capital of the association amounted to only Observatory, Prof. E. E. Barnard observed the 

$20,000, but now, thanks to the skillful care of first two contacts as follow : Mt. Hamilton mean 

its officers, it had reached the sum of $170,000, time, first contact, 9" 46™ 82*7*. Second contact, 

and in the mean while the sum of $45,000 had 8^ 51°^ 19*9*. Though carefully looked for, no 

been distributed. trace of the planet could be detected before first 

Excarsions and Entertainments. — Two contact, nor was that portion of the planet out- 
evening lectures were given, one on Sept. 18 side of the sun's disk between the two contacts 
and the other on Sept. 21. A reception was held visible. The luminous rin^ encircling the planet, 
at the Hotel de Ville on the evening of Sept 17. which some observers claim to have seen both 
The afternoons were largely devoted to visiting during this and the preceding transit, was not 
scientific and industrial works. Excursions were seen. This aureola, as it is called, was, at the 
made to Aries and to Aix during the meeting, last transit, clearly observed at at least two sta- 
and at its close two days were spent in an exten- tions in India, while at another point in that 
sive trip aloQg^the Mediterranean coast country it was not visible even to eager search- 



ASTRONOMY, PROGRESS OF, IN 1891. 51 

ers. At Madras the halo conld not be seen, though not rest on obserrations of one nebtda only, bat 

the central white spot, observed at several pre- of several, and with a dispersion often equivalent 

vious transits, was plainly seen by the late Prof, to that of 24 prisms of 60**, as the fourth spec- 

Pogson and an assistant. trum of a Rowland grating of 14438 lines to the 

That mysterious phenomenon, the "Black inch was often employed. The whole matter 
Drop," usually seen at transits of Venus, also turns on an almost inappreciable difference of 
was generally visible. It appears as a black liga- the wave lengths of the two, that of the nebular 
ment connecting at ingress and egress the limbs line being 6005*68 tenth metres and that of the 
of the planet and the sun, growing narrower and magnesium fluting 5006*13. The amount of dis- 
narrowerastheplanet progresses; when the rupt- placement of the lines being very small, it is 
uie occurs, especially at mgress, the planet is barely possible that it is due to the relative mo- 
found to have advanced considerably, wnich ren- tion of the earth toward the apex of the sun's 
ders it impossible to determine accurately the way, or of the nebube in the line of sight, or to 
precise instant of contact. As to the cause of both causes. The conclusion arrived at by Dr. 
these appearances astronomers are not agreed. and Mrs. Huggins and Profs. lievin^, Dewar, 

Transits of Mercury will, for ages, occur in the and Keeler enectuallv consigns to oblivion the 

montlis of November and May, Uie next falling celebrated meteoric tneory of Lockyer. 

due Not. 10, 1894. Celestial PhotographT. — The following 

Prof. Simon Newcomb, who has reviewed the ouotation from Prof. E. K. Ramard, of the Lick 

tmnsit of Venus observations of the years 1761 Observatory, California, whose fine photographs 

and 1769, from which Enoke deduced a parallax have attracted wide attention, will oe instruct- 

of 8*571" and the earth's distance from the sun ive to those who wish to photograph celestial 

to be about 95^ million miles, computes the par- objects with a telescope : " The actinic image 

allax to be 8*79", which agrees almost exactly is totally invisible on tne ground glass, and we 

▼ith that obtained from the transits of 1874 and have to grope for it, as it were. Its position can 

1883, and makes the sun's distance in round num- easily be found by experiment. A suitable at- 

bers 92,500,000 miles. tachment is made to carry the eround glass and 

Speetmnt Analysis. — Spectrum analysis, as plate holder ; this takes the place of the eye- 
applied to astronomical investigation and the piece, and is supposed to be aajusted for chang- 
interpretation of the solar, astiSl, and nebular mg the focus, if the telescope is adjusted to a 
lines, isstiU the absorbing theme amon^ astrono- star and allowed to remain stationary, the star 
mers» and through the &bors of suc^ mvestiga- will pass across the field of view by the rotation 
tors as Huggins, Voj^l, Rowland, Pickering, of the earth. Focus the image carefully on the 
Young, De la Rue, Draper, Janssen, Langley, ground glass. It should appear as a tiny point 
Keeler, and scores of others equally well known, of light. Record this position of the tube. Sub- 
it has become a distinct branch of science. Many stitute now the sensitive plate, and adjust the in- 
observatories have separate appliances for the strument so that the st^ shall cross the field ; 
prosecution of this work, and the discovery of give an exposure of, say, half a minute, the tele- 
the i^tin drv plate has lent invaluable aia by scope remaining stationary. Draw the tube out 
making possible the photographing of their spec- now about 0-05 of an inch, and repeat the ex- 
tra, and thus securing an imperishable record for posure; continue this for a number of times, 
future comparison. taking care after each exposure to shift the tele- 

As we have seen, the spectroscope has shown scope in altitude, so that successive trials shall 
that terrestrial matter is not confined to the earth, not fall on each other. When the plate is de- 
but exists also in the sun and in every visible star veloped it will contain a series of lines or trails 
as well as in comets and the nebuUe. produced by the light of the star as it crossed 

The task of analyzing the stars and nebulsB, the plate. Some of these will be blurred, but 

savs Prof. Huggins, "is one of great difficulty it will be seen that they successively b»3ome 

wfien we have to deal with spectra differing from sharper until one is found that is perfectl]^ sharp, 

the solar type. We are thrown back upon the i. e., if the experiment has been carried far 

laboratory for the information necessary to en- enough. This will have been made at the chemi- 

able us to interpret the indications of the spec- cal focus. The record for this trail, compared 

ko9cope as to the chemical nature, the density with the reading when the image was in focus 

and pressure, and the temperature of the celes- on the ground ^lass, will be the correction to the 

tial spaces." visual to obtain the chemical focus. Hence, 

The Nebular Line. — The vexed (question, when a photograph is to be made, the image is 
whether the principal nebular line is coincident sharply focus^ on the ground glass, the tele- 
with the magnesium flutine, which has so agi- scope is then adp'usted to the chemical focus, and 
tated the spectroscopists has been, it would the resulting picture should be sharp. I have 
^m, settled by botn Dr. Huggins and Prof, thus experimented with four different telescopes, 
Keller. The latter fixes with great accuracy the and found that they all gave very satisfactory 
position of the former, and makes it 0*48 tenth photographs at the chemical focus. ' Prof. Bar- 
metre more refrangible than the lower edge of nard found the chemical focus of each of the four 
the magnesium fluting. The nebular line, he telescopes to be ouiside of the visual, 0*17, 0*10, 
declares, has no resemblance to a fluting. Flut- 0*12, and 0*24 of an inch respectively. The last 
in^ and lines of magnesium, which could not three were telescopes of the Lick Observatory, 
fail to appear with the fluting at wave length The task of photographing the planets is one 
5006-36^ are entirely absent in nebular spectra, of ^reat difficulty, inasmuch as the faint ness of 
His conclusion that the principal nebular line is their light does not admit of instantaneous ex- 
Dot coincident with the magnesium fluting must posures, as is the case in photographing the sun, 
be regarded as conclusive. And this proof does moon, and the brightest stans. Besides, the 



52 ASTRONOMY, PROORESS OF, IN 1891. 

rapid rotation of Jupiter and Saturn on their liminaries made necessary by want of experience, 

axes prevents prolonged exposures. So great is The conference demands a great photographic 

this latter hindrance that as yet no photo- chart of the heavens with exposures of forty 

graphs of these two great planets have been fe- minutes, with which it is expected to reach stars 

cured that equal the delineations made by skilled down to the fourteenth magnitude ; and, as each 

draughtsmen. In photographing the nebulie, plate is to be limited to four square degrees, and, 

however, the exposures may last for hours if de- as each star, to avoid errors, is to appear on two 

sii^d, and, in extent and depth of structural de- plates, over 22,055 photop;raphs will be reouired. 

tail, the photographs far echpse all visual revela- Besides the plates requisite for the great cnart, a 

tions even when assisted by mammoth telescopes, second set to form a catalogue is to be made, with 

All attempts to photograph the solar corona shorter exposures, and to include stars onlv to the 

without an eclipKse nave thus far been futile, as eleventh magnitude. The plates are to oe i)re- 

the sky luminosity so fogs the negative plates pared by photographing upon them very faint, 

as to obliterate every coronal imprint Com- delicate lines, callea hj the French reaeaux, five 

menting on this matter, Mr. Burnham, in his millimetres apart, which will greatly facilitate 

** Cayenne Eclipse Report," says : " Those who the tedious process of measuring and cataloguing 

have given long exposures, or advocated doing so, several million stars. 

with the object ol getting the greatest possible The following are the observatories taking 

extension of corona on the plate, must have over- part in this work, with the number of plates ne- 

looked the fact that the background of the sky cessary to complete each zone: 
is luminous, and would soon fog a sensitive plate 



if all other light vere excluded. The problem, Greenwich ^^3 

photographically considered, has nothing to do Borne i ,040 

with the matter of photographing a nebula on h^"5ij^ J'JJI 

the black ground of the sky at night There the potadiS^.'.' !**.!!".!!!! 1I282 

only light which reaches the plate comes from Oxford...'.'".!....!..!! I'lso 

the object to be photographed, and the exposure ^JjJ ]'^ 

can be indefinitely prolonged, with the result of TootouSf. !!!!!!!!!!!!! 1I08O 



Cape of Good Hope.... 1,519 
Sydo 

_ . Tonlmuii i:OM 11 

constantly increasing the impression made by 



No. of I 

Aigien. i^eeo 

San Fernando 1,260 

Taenbaya 1,260 

Santiago 1.260 

La Plata 1,90) 

Bio da Janeiro 1,87< 



Sydnej 1,400 

MalboaziM 1,149 



the fainter nebulous light Undoubtedly the In giving a sufficiently long exposure to secure 

coronal light would act on the plate in the same vorv faint stars, the brighter are overexposed 

manner ifall other light could be excluded, and ana their images enlarged, though to just what 

we should have a picture in extent and detail far extent is difficult to determine. Again, stars of 

beyond the most wonderful display ever seen different colors require longer or shorter time to 

with the naked eye." impress themselves on the gelatin film, and the 

It is the opinion of physicists that, above our ever-changing conditions of the atmosphere at 

atmosphere, the sky by d.av, even in the neigh- different times and stations impose great diffi- 

borhood of the sun, would be intensely bl^k, culties, which it seems impossible to obviate, 

under which conditions the corona could be Tariable Stan. — Prof. Seth C. Chandler, an 

photographed as well as the brightest nebula bj authority on variables, makes the statement that 

night. Were it possible to attain to this, it is two thousand variable stars are visible with an 

highly probable that during a total solar eclipse opera-glass, while hundreds of thousands are re- 

a single photographic expert would give more vealed by the lai^gest telescopes. Their periods 

instruction than the combined results of a large range from 7^ 4^ 48", the shortest known, to 

and expensive expedition. But no such conai- several years in length. The shortest is known 

tion can ever be realized at ordinary heights, as S. Antliie, No. 8,407 of Chandler's Cata- 

though an appreciable step toward it may be logue, right ascension a. d. 1900*0, 0^ 27^ 54*, 

reached by working from elevations of 15,000 or declination south 28° 12'. A photograph of its 

20,000 feet above tae sea. In pursuance of this spectrum, made at Harvard College Observatory 

idea, M. Janssen has proposed the building of in April, 1800, indicated by the widening of 

an observatory on Mont Blanc, providing rock some of the lines and the narrowing of others 

could be reached at a reasonable depth ; but as that it belongs to an intermediate class between 

borings have been made through the ice cap to a variable stars of first and second type, 

depth of thirty feet, and, horizontally, to a dis- Spectroseopie Binaries. — ^The number of 

tance of ninety feet without finding the desired double stars now known, many of which are bi- 

rockv foundation, the project has been postponed naries, amounts to several thousand, and the list 

until another season, at least, and, perhaps, per- is constantly being augmented bv further dis- 

manently abandoned. coveries. These are visually double by the aid 

PhotogTaphic Chart of the Sk}[.— The last of the telescope, though some are so close as to 

reunion of the International Committee on the suffer only a slight elongation under the highest 

photographic chart of the entire sky was re- powers our greatest telescopes will bear. It is 

cently held. Of the eighteen observatories as- not these we wish to consider, but a new class of 

signca to the task, all are ready, and some have binaries, which, while known to be such, are not 

already secured a numbet of satisfactory trial thus seen even in the most powerful telescopes, 

plates. Many delicate and difficult questions They are called spectroscopic binaries, and num- 

arose, which can not be discussed here, most of ber only about a aozen, including a few suspects ; 

which, it is hoped, have been solved, though but in the near future, because of the increase 

doubtless others will present themselves as the in the number and efficiency of spectroscopes in 

work progresses. About three years have been the hands of zealous astronomers, this roll must 

occupied in constructing the photographic tele- be greatly extended, 

scopes, Ia organizing, and in settling many pre- Dr. Vogel has examined early photographs 



ASTBONOMT, PROGBBSS OF, IK 1891. 53 

taken at Potsdun of the spectra of Beta Auriga may be found in Dr. Drejer's New General Cata- 

and of Zeta Urse Majoris, and, in the case of logue, published by the Royal Astronomical So- 

tbe former, finds the doublinff of the lines well ciety of England as Vol. aLIX, Part I, of its 

marked on many of those talen from Noy. 14, ** Memoirs." 

1888, onward. No particular attention was paid Prol Barnard has recently discoyered a new 

to this fact at the time, and hence one of the Merope nebula in the Pleiades. The old one, 

greatest diaooyeries of modem times was then found seyeral years ago by Tempel, has, from its 

missed. supposed yariableness, been the cause of much 

ChMmge i& the Motion of Sirliu. — ^For sey- discussion among astronomers, many of whom 

era! years the motion of this star (the Do? Star) doubted even its existence. While easily seen 

has been one of recession, at one epoch it baying with glasses as small as 8 inches, it is inyisible 

been at the rate of 20 miles a second, but lately in large telescopes, which anomaly is explained 

it has changed to one of approach, with a speea, by the fact that small telescopes, haying large 

according to Prof. Yogel, of nearly two miles a fields of yiew, eiye the benefit of contrast with a 

second, the spectra of iron and of hydrogen dark sky, which the contracted fields of great in- 

pr'mg 1-96 and 1*78 mile respectiyely. The re- struments do not afford. For this reason the 

Tersal of its motion is doubtless due, it being a tail of Donati's comet could be followed farther 

binary double, to a change in its orbital motion, by the naked eye than with the largest telescope. 

As it reyolyea around the center of ^yity of the This is true also of the auroral streamers and of 

sTstem, its direction of motion will always be the zodiacal light. 

clanging. Besides its orbital motion, it has also Since the publication of his ninth catalogue, 

one of translation through space. Dr. Swift has added 67 to his preyious number 

The companion of this star, which for many of newl^ discoyered nebuln. 

Tears has been yisible in telescopes of medium M. Biffourdan, assistant to the Paris Obserya- 

kze, is now beyond the capacity of eyen the Lick tory, calliB attention to the supposed yariability 

telescope, witn a power of 8,800. Heretofore of the nebula (New General Catalogue, 118(^ 

Mr. Bnmham has expressed the opinion that he situated near the yariable star Algfol. It was 

▼oold be able to follow it during its pjeri-astral discoyered by Sir William Herschel in 1785, and 

passage, but he now thinks that it will not be in 1881 obsenred by Sir John Herschel, since 

again seen for seyeral years Its present distance which time there is no record of its haying been 

is less than 4*0". seen until lately, though searched for. 

Jni^ter'B Satellites. — On Sept. 8, 1890, Mr. Bumham has examined the yicinity of 
Prot^mard obsenred that the first satellite. Hind's yariable nebula in Taurus, and found, 
while crossing the disk of Jupiter, appeared with the 86-inch telescope of the Lick Obsenra- 
double. It was thus seen also by Mr. Bumham, tory, a yery small, condensed nebula surround- 
the distinguished obseryer of aouble stars, and ing the double star T Tauri. But Mr. Roberts 
be does not hesitate to say that it appeared as has photographed the region, and the plate 
perfectly duplex as any double star he had eyer showed no neoula, nor nebulous star, nor any 
seen. The obseryation was made with the 12- nebulosity, though the exposure was three hours 
inch telescope at the Lick Obeenratory. Its du- lons^. In this instance photography has increased 
pUcity was yiewed with different powers, so that rather than diminished the mysteiy attaching to 
no deception could be ascribed to the eye-pieces the body. It may be that the nebula is deficient 
employed. The obseryation was strange and in yiolet rays, and therefore non-photograph- 
unheard-of, and can not fail soon to be confirmed able. Are there not two nebulie here, one bemg 
or disproyed. If not double, the only possible Hind's yariable, seen by Otto Struye, D' Arrest, 
explaxuition of the phenomenon is that the satel- Tempel, and others, an^ the other that seen by 
lite b surrounded by a luminous belt parallel to Mr. bumham, as aboye t 
tboee of the planet. For seyeral years Isaac Boberts has made 

Rotatloii of Merenry and Tenas. — ^Thesup- photographic study of the Andromeda nebula, 

posed discoyery of Schiaparelli, that these planets out the majority of his plates, eyen as late as 

complete one rotation only while making a reyo- October, 1890, do not show any trace of a stellar 

lation round the sun, is not accepted by idl as- nucleus, while others secured in Noyember and 

tronomersL Apropos to this, MM. Niestenr and December rei)resent the nucleus as distinctly 

Stuyraert, of the Royal Obseryatory of Belgium, stellar. He is therefore of the opinion that 

▼ho haye studied Venus for ten years, haye con- the nucleus is yariable, though further experi- 

cluded that Cassini's period of the rotation of ments may be necessary to corroborate this, 

that planet (twenty-three hours) is correct The sudden appearance and disappearance in 

Nebaln. — The quest for nebulas is now 8y»* 188S of a star near the center of the nebula lends 
temattcally prosecuted by only fiye astronomers, additional confirmation to the theory of the ya- 
rn. : Bigouraan, of France ; Denning, of Eng- riableness of at least portions of the central part 
land ; Barnard, of the Lick Obseryatonr ; Stone, of this interesting nebula, which the spectro- 
of the Obserratory of the Uniyersity of Virginia; scope decUres to be a cluster on a scale of yast- 
and Swift, of the Warner Obseryatory. This ness equaling, perhaps surpassing, our Milky 
field of work is not now popular, because large War, tne shape of which it greatly resembles, 
telescopes are rt«nired to achieye success, inas- Meteors. — The Porseid meteors which belong 
much as all of Sir William HerschePs Class I to the meteoric shower of Aug. 10 were this ^ear 
and II, and nearly all so faint as his Class III, more numerous than has been obseryed since 
hare been discoyered either by him or his sue- 1871. As seen at the Warner Obseryatory, and 
ceseors, predecessors of the present searchers for at seyeral widely separated places both in this 
these bodies. The places and magnitudes, with country and in Europe, the number was so great 
descriptiye remarks of all known ao?m to 1888^ as to attract general attention. Unlike the 14th 



54 ASTBONOMT, PROGRESS OF, IN 1891. 

of November shower, it returns with unfailing 1887. Its aphelion distance is smaller than 

regularity and is prolonged for several days, Encke's, or less than that of any known comet, 

while all the others last but a few hours, llie Comet a 1891 was discovered by Prot K £. 

first meteors were seen at its last return on Aug. Barnard, at the Lick Observatory, on March 29, 

2, and they were observed in greater or less num- and by W. F. Denning, of Bristol, England, on 

bers on every morning until Aug. 12. A satis- the succeeding night The annexed parabolic 

factory explanation oi such a prolongation has elements have been calculated : Perihelion pas- 

never oeen given. Its radiant is in Perseus, and, sage, 1891, April 27*55900, Berlin mean time ; 

instead of being a point, extends, according to noae to perihelion = 178° 48' 24*8" ; longitude 

observations of the writer, continued through of node = 193'' 55' 36'5" ; inclination = 120" 81' 

several years, over an elliptical area whose axes 27" ; log. perihelion distance = 9*599332. 

are about 10" bv 5^ No well-authenticated ao- Comet 6 1801. This is a return of Wolfs pe- 

count of stone tails has been announced. riodic of 1884, and was detected on May 1 oy 

Meteorites. — A paper on this subject was read Spitaler, and on May 4 by Barnard. On Sept. 

at the recent meeting in Washington of the 4 it passed nearly over the center of the Pleiades, 

American Association for the Advancement of treating astronomers to a sight no human eye 

Science by Prof. A, E. Foot, of Philadelphia, had ever seen. 

He says thi&t in Crater Mountain, 185 miles north Comet c 1891 is an apparition of Encke*s 
of Tucson, Arizona, he found small meteoric comet which has the shortest period of any 
fragments scattered over an area a third of a known = 3*3 years. It was first seen on Aug. 1 
mue in length by 120 feet in width, extending by Barnard. The principal interest attaching to 
from northwest to southeast. Exactly in line it is the progressive diminution of its periodic 
with it but outside the crater, about 2 miles dis^ time, evidencmg, as many suppose, the retarding 
tant, were two meteoric stones, weighing 154 and effect of the hypothetical, all-pervading ether. 
201 pounds respectively, and 131 smaller frag- Astronomers are not agreed, however, as to the 
ments ranging from one sixteenth of an ounce correctness of this conclusion, 
to 6 pounds lO oimces. A section of a mass of Comet d 1891 was discovered, on Sept 28, by 
40 pounds, of extreme hardness, was exhibited Barnard, in right ascension 20^ 69^ 45", declina- 
at the meeting, ^' which revealed cavities con- tion. south 1° 23'. This is a return of Swift's 
taining small, black objects, one fiftieth of an periodic comet, discovered in 1880, and adds 
inch in diameter, with which polished corundum another to the rapidly increasing list of short- 
was cut as easily as a knife might cut gypsum," period comets. Though it was previously found 
and suggested the idea of diamonds. But the by Tempel in 1869, its periodicity was not then 
published statement that all the j^logists pres- predicted or even suspected. Hence, conforming 
ent were agreed that they were diamonds is erro- to a rule adopted by astronomers in the case of 
neous, and the writer has the assurance of one Winnecke's, Tuttle's, and Biela's comets, all of 
of our most celebrated meteorologists, who exam- which had been detected previously bv others, 
ined them, that they certainly are not those gems, this should be called Swift's comet, out it is 

Comets.— Since Oct. 6, 1890, the date of the usually denominated Tempel-Swift. The follow- 
last discovery of a comet given in our last vol- ing elements, which differ but little from those 
ume, the following comets nave been discovered, of 1869~'80, have been computed for it, but the 
numbered in the order of their finding rather comet at discovery was nearly five degrees from 
than their perihelion passage : Comet e, by its calculated place : Time of perihelion passage. 
Prof. Zona, of Palermo, Italy. These are the Nov. 14*958, Paris mean time; longitude of peri- 
computed parabolic elements: Perihelion pas- helion = 43° 14' 15*7"; longitude of node = 296° 
sage = 1890, July 27*713, Berlin mean time ; from 31' 14*8" ; inclination = 5° 23' 13*8" ; logarithm 
n(3e to perihelion = 328° 53' ; longitude of node of perihelion distance = 0*036071. Motion direct. 
= 86° 28' ; inclination = 155° 2' ; log. q. = 0*314 Comet e 1891 bv Barnard, on Oct. 2, in right 

Comet / 1890 was detected by M. Spitaler ascension 7^ 31" 24*, declination south 27° 54'. 
at Vienna on Nov. 16. At receipt of the news From observations made at the Lick Observatory 
in Vienna of the discovery of Zona's comet, the on Oct. 3, 4, and 5, Prof. Campbell has computed 
day after its finding, Spitaler directed the 27- the following elements : Perihelion passage, Nov. 
inch refractor to the indicated place, and saw at 8*75, Greenwich mean time ; from node to peri- 
once a very faint object in the field, but, as it helion = 262° 6' : lonntude of node = 215° 38' ; 
was much fetinter than the telegram asserted, he inclination = 75° &j; perihelion dbtance = 
sought farther, and found the Zona comet. Be- 1*0166. It had a rapid motion southeast, and 
turning to his first object, he saw that it had was soon lost to northern observatories, 
moved, and that he had abhieved a most extraor- Catal<Mrae8. — The AaironomMcJie Kaehrich- 
dinary and entirely unprecedented event in as- ten. No. 3,047, has published a list of 70 new 
tronomy^-'viz.. the having in almost the same double stars discovered in 1890 by S. W. Bum- 
field of the telescope two comets moving in dif- ham, of the Lick Observatory staff, with the 36- 
ferent directions. The following elliptic ele- inch telescope. It is the seventeenth catalogue 
ments have been computed : Perihelion passage, of double stars published by him. From their 
1890, Oct. 26*60123, Berlin mean time ; longi- closeness they are very difficult objects, and re- 
tude of perihelion = 58° 25' 58*2' ; longitude of quire the larc^est telescopes for their examination, 
node = 45° 5' 61*7' ; inclination = 12° 60' 44*5' ; Thirty-nine have distances less than 1*0", while 
log. of a r= 0*537582 ; period = 6*4 years. the average distance of all is 0*45". Twenty-five 

The discoverer has reasons for supposing this are at a distance of 0*33". They cover a wide 

to be its first appearance in its present orbit, range of magnitudes, the following being naked- 

which, he thinks, was changed into this form by e^e stars : B. A. C, No. 230, 199 Ceti, 95 Pis* 

a near approach to Jupiter in the latter part of cium, Chi Persei, 48 Cephei (H), 34 Persei, B. A. 



ASTRONOMY, PROGRESS OF, IN 1801. 66 

C. 1143, 848 Taarif 5 Gamelopardalis, Nu Gemino- telescopes of the nsaal form.'' The time to pho- 

rum, 85 Geminomm, Tan Herciilis, 24 and Psi tograpn the entire sky, without after enlarge- 

1 Aqnarii Seren of the list previously known ment, will be reduced in the same proportion. 

IS doubles were found to be triples. The total With such a doublet, each hemisphere could be 

namber of double stars found uy him is 1^)24 covered in one year with 800 plates. 

Regarding the cambering of our catalogues of The building for the great equatorial Coud6, 

double stars with uninteresting pairs, he sa^s : at Paris, is completed. Instruments of this kind 

''If mr purpose had been to make an imposing — ^ elbowed telescopes "—-are findins^much favor 

catalogue of discoveries by finding as many new in other countries besides France. This at Paris 

pairs as possible vrithout reference to their char- has an objective 24 inches in diameter, and two 

icier, the number in my lists, down to this time, plane mirrors of, respectively, 29 and 84 inches in 

ooald easily have been made man^ times larger diameter. A photographic oblective, iJso of 24 

without exceeding the Struve limits of magni- inches aperture, is provided, and the change from 

tildes and distance ; but at this time there would one to tne other can be easily and quickly made, 

seem no good reason for incumbering a double- Photographs of the moon 11 inches in diameter 

Etar catalogue with that kind of material We can be taken without subsequent enlargement, 

now know that they can have no interest as The 16*2-inch telescope for Gk)odsell Observa- 

doable stars in the proper sense of the term, tory, Northfield, Minn., is finished, and Prof. W. 

With large telescopes, pairs of 5" or 6" distance W. Payne, its director, speaks highly of its per- 

in the lower magnitudes of the Durchmuatervng formance on difficult test objects. The crown 

can be found by the score on any night when disk was obtained from Mantois, of Paris, and 

the seeine is too poor for ordinary micrometrical the flint from Jena, of Germanv. The computa- 

work, ana with tne 12-inch it would be eas^ to tions for the curves were made by Dr. C. S. Hast- 

make a large list in a comparatively short time, ings, of Yale University, on a new plan, and this 

I have not allowed myself to find new pairs of is the largest objective ever made on this formula, 

the kind recorded here any faster than they could The per cent, of merit for color correction and 

be thorou^ly measured. It may be many years blaclmess of field is 2*11, while if made of the 

before some of these are reobeerved, and it is usual curves it would be but 1*61. J. A. Bra- 

desiiable to have a careful set of measures at this shear, of Pittsburg, ground and polished the 

time with which to compare future measures." lenses, and Warner and Swasey, of Cleveland, 

Speaking of the double component of Gamma Ohio, constructed the mounting and dome. The 

Aiiarometut, he says the elongation is doubtful total weight of the telescope and its accessories 

with powers, on the 86-inch, of 1,000 and 8,800, is 12,700 pounds, 

and he thinks the distance much less than 0*1". Prizes and Benefaotioiis.-^Of the gift of 

Mr. Bumham has, from measures of his own $6,000 from Miss Catharine Bruce, for the pro- 
continued from the date of discovery, ascertained motion of original astronomical research, the en- 
that the close companion to Kappa regasi makes tire sum has been distributed by Prof. Pickering 
a revolution rouna the principal star in the as- in accordance with the donor's wishes. Among 
toni^hingly short time of a little over eleven the recipients were the following Americans : 
jears, making it the shortest-period binary visu- Prof. W. W. Payne, Editor of the '* Sidereal Mes- 
allj known. In the monthly notices of the Roy- sencper " ; Prof. £. S. Holden, Director of the 
al Astronomical Society for March, 1891, is given LicK Observatory ; Prof. Simon Newcomb, Su- 
a diagram of its drbit. He has derived the fol- perintendent of uie American Nautical Almanac 
lowing elements : Major axis, 0*636" ; minor axis. Office ; Prof. Henry A. Rowland, of Johns Hop- 
0*187 ; maximum distance, 0*82" ; minimum dis- kins University ; and Prof. Lewis Swift, Director 
tance, 0H)8" ; position angle major axis, 125*4" ; of the Warner Observatorv. 
period, 11*18 years. The Lalande prize of tne French Academy of 

Teleseopes. — ^The number of telescopes annu- Sciences, of the value of 540 francs, has been 
alljmanuuctured in the United States by Al van awarded to Prof. Schiaparelli, of Milan, Italy, 
Clark's Sons, of Cambrideeport, Mass., and by for, chieflj, his observations tending to prove the 
John A. Brashear, of Allegheny, Pa., besides other svnchronization of the rotational and revolution- 
makers of lesser note, indicates a wondeziul ad- ai periods of Mercury and Venus. 
Tance of astronomy in this country. The Valz prize has been adjudged to Prof. S. 

Because of the great difficulty of castine per- Glasenapp, Director of the Observatory of the 

feet disks, only one has been secured for the 40- University of St. Petersburg, Russia, for his in- 

inch telescope of the Observatory of Southern vestigations of the orbits of the double stars in 

California, and not two, as was reported last year, the Pulkowa Catalogue. 

unless one was returned, and consequently no Prof. C. A. Young, Director of the Halstead 

progress has been made. Observatorj^, Princeton, N. J., has received the 

For the Bruce Photographic telescope neither Janssen prize for his spectroscopic discoveries. 

disk has been received, but the Clarks have near- The Danish Academy of Sciences has given a 

Ir completed the great prism — ^25 inches square gold medal to Baron E. v. Haerdtl, of Innspruck, 

^to be attached to the front of its 24-inch ob- Austria-Hungary, for his memoir on the problem 

jectire. Great results are looked for by astrono- of three bodies, proposed by the Academy in 1889. 

mers from this instrument, which Prof. Pickering The Copley medal of the Royal Society of Lon- 

calls a ** photographic doublet," being only 11 don was awarded to Prof. Simon Newcomb for 

M focus. It is, in fact, a photographic camera, his contributions to gravitational astronomy. 

I* With it," be says, *'a portion of the sky cover- Dr. Franklin was its first recipient in 1758, and 

ing twenty-five square degrees can be photo- it has been conferred annually ever since. 

|nphed with good definition, while only three or The Donohoe comet medal, via the Astronomi- 

umr degrees can be covered equally well with cal Society of the Pacific, has been presented to 



56 



ASTRONOMY, PEOGRKSS OF, IN 1801. 



Prof. Zona, of Palermo, Italy ; to Dr. J. Si>italer, 
of Vienna, Austria ; to Prof. P. W. Denning, of 
Bristol, England; to M. Cocrgia, of Marseilles, 
France ; and three times to Prof. E. E. Barnard, 
of Mount Hamilton, California. 

No gold medal was awarded by the Royal As- 
tronomical Society of England. 



Asteroids. — Since the compilation of last 
Tear's report, twenty-two of these small planets 
nave been discoTerea, eight of which have received 
names. As no complete list has appeared, and 
those of the text-books are erroneous in several 
respects, a catalogue recognijsed by astronomers 
as correct and complete to date is here given : 



Me. 

~ 

S. 

8. 

4. 

G. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
IS. 
18. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
IT. 
18. 
19. 
90. 
91. 
99. 
98. 
94. 
95. 
90. 
9T. 
98. 
99. 
80. 
81. 
89. 
88. 
84. 
80. 
86. 
87. 
8d. 
89. 
40. 
41. 
49. 
48. 
44. 
45. 
46« 
47. 
48. 
49. 
00. 
61. 
59. 
68. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
66. 
60. 
00. 
61. 
69. 
68 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 



70. 
71. 
79. 
78. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
19. 



OerM 

pBlLia 

Jiino 

Vest* 

Astnaa 

Hebe 

Irii 

Flora. 

Metis 

Hyg«la 

Futhanope 

Vtetoria 

Egeiia 

Irane 

Enoomla 

PBjrehe 

Thetla 

Melpomene..... 

FortnoA 

MmsUU 

Latetia. 

CaUiope 

ThaBa 

Themla 

PhooBa. 

Proeerpioa 

Euterpe 

Benona. 

Amphitrlte 

Urania 

Enphrosyne.... 

Pomona 

Pollyhymnla. . . . 

Qrce 

Leoootbea 

Atofamta. 

Fldea 

Leda 

Laetltia. 

HamionJa.. 

Daphne 

IriTT. 

Ariadne 

Njr«a 

Eogenia. 

Heeda 

Aglala. 

Doria 

Files 

Vhylnla 

Kemsnsa 

Enropa. 

Cfefypao 

Alexandra 

Pandora. 

Melete 

Mnemoavne .... 

Concordia 

Elpla 

Edbo 

DanaS. 

Erato 

Aoaonla 

Angelina 

Cybele 

Mala 

Ada 

Leto 

Heaperla 

Panopca 

Nlobe 

Feronla 

OlytU 

Oalatea 

Eurydloe 

FWia. 

FrigK* 

Plana . 

Eiuynome. 

HingM^ , 



Olben. 

Harding. 

Olbera. 

Hencke. 

Heneke. 

Hind. 

Hind. 

Graham. 

lieOasparlt. 

DeGaaparto. 

Hind. 

DeGaapatla. 

Hind. 

DeGaaparls. 

DeOasparia. 

Lather. 

Hind. 

Hind. 

DeOasparia. 

Gokleohfflldt. 

Hind. 

Hind. 

DeGaaparla. 

Chaooraao. 

Lnther. 

Hind. 

Luther. 

Marth. 

Hind. 

Ferffueon. 

Goldachmldt 

Cbacornac 

Chacornae. 

Lather. 

Goldsehmidt 

Lather. 

Chacornae. 

ChacomaoL 

Goldachmldt 

OoUachmUt 

Pogaon. 

POffHon. 

Goldaefamldt 

Goldachmldt 

Pogaon 

Lather. 

Goldachmldt 

Goldaohmidt 

Feiguaon. 

Lanrent 

Goldachmldt. 

Lather. 

GoMachmidt 

Bearle 

Goldachmldt 

Lather. 

Lather. 

Chacornae. 

Fergoaon. 

Goldachmldt 

FOrater. 

DeGaaparla. 

TempeC 

Tcmpel 

Tattle. 

Pogaon. 

Lather. 

Schlaparelll. 

Goldachmldt 

Lather. 

Peters. 

Tattle. 

TempeL 

Petera. 

D* Arrest 

Ptotera. 

Lother. 

Wataon. 

PogaoD. 



No. 



61. 

89. 

68. 

84. 

86. 

86. 

87. 

88. 

89. 

90 

91. 

92. 

18. 

94. 

95. 

96. 

97. 

98. 

99. 
100. 
101. 
109. 
108. 
104. 
105. 
106. 
107. 
108. 
109. 
110. 
111. 
119. 
118. 
114. 
115. 
116. 
117. 
116. 
119. 
190. 
121. 
129. 
198. 
194. 
125. 
126. 
127. 
128. 
199. 
180. 
181. 
182. 
188. 
184. 
185. 
186. 
187. 
183. 
189. 
140. 
141. 
142. 
148. 
144. 
145. 
146. 
147. 
148. 
149. 
150. 
161. 
152. 
166. 
154. 
155. 
166. 
167. 
166. 
169. 
160. 



Ni 



Terpaldiora . . . . 

Alcmene 

Beatrix. 

Clio 

lo 

Bemele 

SvivU 

llitobe 

JaHa 

Antiope 

.£glna 

Undlna. 

Blinenra. 

Aurora 

Arethaaa 

^le 

Clotho 

lanthe 

Dike 

Hecate 

Helena 

Miriam 

Uera 

Clymene 

Artemia 

Dione 

Camilla 

Hecuha 

Felldtaa 

Lydia 

Ate 

Iphlgenla 

Amalthea 

Cassandra 

Thyra 

Blrona. 

Lomla. 

Peitho 

Althaa 

Lacheala. 

Hermione 

Gerda 

BrunhUda 

Alceste 

LIberatriz 

Velleda 

Johanna. 

Nemesis. 

Antigone 

Eleotra 

VaUi 

^thra 

Cjrrene 

Sophroeyne 

Hertha 

Aoatrla 

MeUboa 

Toloaa 

Juewa 

Biwa 

Lumen 

Polana 

Adria 

ViblUa 

Adeona 

Lodna 

Protogenla 

Gattia 

Meduaa 

Nuwa 

Abondantia..... 

Atala 

HUda 

Bertha 

Scylla 

Xantippe 

Dejonlra. 

Coronis 

iBmilla. 

Una 



TempeL 

Lather. 

DeGaaparii. 

Lather. 

Peters. 

Tle^n. 

Pogson. 

Peters. 

Stephan. 

Lather. 

Stephan. 

Peters. 

Watson. 

Wataon. 

Lather. 

Coggia. 

TempeL 

Peters. 

Borelly. 

Watson. 

Wataon. 

Peters. 

Wataon. 

Wataon. 

Watson. 

Watson. 

Pogson. 

Lutiier. 

Peters. 

BoroUy. 

Peters. 

Peters. 

Lather. 

Peters. 

Watson. 

Peters. 

BoreOy. 

Lather. 

Wstson. 

Borel^y. 

Watson. 

Peters. 

Peten. 

Peters. 

Pkoaper Heniy. 

Psal Henry. 

Prosper Henry. 

Watson. 

Fdtera. 

PetezB. 

Peters. 

Watson. 

Wataon. 

Lather. 

Petera. 

Paliaa. 

Paliaa. 

Perotin. 

Watson. 

PsMsa. 

Paul Henry. 

Palfsa. 

Paliaa. 

Peters. 

Peters. 

Borelly. 

BhulhoC 

Prosper Heniy. 

Perotin. 

Wataon. 

Pallsa. 

Pan] Henry. 

Pallsa. 

Prosper Henry. 

Pattaa. 

Paliaa. 

Borelly. 

KnorrCb 

Paul Heuy. 

Peten. 



No. 



161. 
162. 
168. 
164. 
166. 
166. 
167. 
168. 
169. 

no. 

171. 

179. 
178. 
174. 
176. 
176. 
17r 
178. 
179. 
180. 
181. 
182. 
188. 
184. 
185. 
186. 
187. 
188. 
189. 
190. 
191. 
199. 
198. 
194. 
195. 
196. 
197. 
198. 
199. 
900. 
901. 
902. 
908. 
204. 
205. 
206. 
207. 
206. 
209. 
210. 
211. 
212. 
218. 
214. 
215. 
216. 
217. 
918. 
219. 
220. 
291. 
992. 
928. 
224. 
225. 
226. 
227. 
228. 
229. 
280. 
231. 
282. 
18B. 
284. 
285. 
286. 
287. 
288. 



Athor. 



240. 



Eilgone 

Lorel^ 

Bhodope 

Urda. 

Sibylla 

Zelia 

Maria 

Ophelia. 

Bauda 

Ino 

Phndra 

Andromache.... 

Idunna. 

Irma 

BeUsana.. 

Qytsmnestra. . . 

Ganimna 

Eocharis 

Elaa 

Istria 

Delopeia 

Eunike. 

Cehita. 

Lamberta 

Monnippe 

Phthia 

Ismene 

Colga 

Kansicaa 

Ambrosia 

Procne 

Eurycleia. 

Philomela 

Arete 

AmpeDa 

Byblia 

Dynamene ..... 

Penetope 

Chryaeis. 

Pompela 

CalUato. 

Martha. 

Herailla 

Hedda 

Laerimoaa. 

Dido 

laabella 

Ia61da 

Medea 

Lilaaa 

Aachera. 

(Enone 

Cleop«bra. 

Eodora. 

Bianca 

Thuraelda. 

Stephania 

Eoa 

Lnda 

Rosa 

Oceana 

Henrietta 

Weringia 

Phlloaophla 

Agathe 

Adelina 

Athamantla .... 

Vindubona 

Koasia 

Aaterope 

Barbaiy 

Carolina 

Honoria 

Celeatina 

Hypatia 

Andrsatea 

Yanadia 



Watfloo. 

Prosper Henry. 

Perotin. 

Pant Henry. 

Peten. 

Peters. 

Peten. 

Waiaon. 

Pro^MT Henry. 

Perotin. 

Borelfy. 

Borel^. 

Borelfy^. 

Wataon. 

Watson. 

Peters. 

Psul Henry. 

Pallsa. 

Watson. 

Perodn. 

Cottenot 

PaUaa. 

Pallsa. 

Pahaa. 

Peters. 

Prosper Henzy. 

Coirgia. 

Peters. 

Petera. 

Peters. 

Peters. 

Pallsa. 

Coggla. 

Peters. 

Pallsa. 

Peten. 

Paliaa. 

Borelly. 

Peters. 

Peters. 

PaUaa. 

Peters. 

Peters. 

Pallsa. 

Paliaa. 

Peters. 

Paliaa. 

Psllsa. 

Peters. 

Pallsa. 

Pallsa. 

Paliaa. 

Peters. 

PaUaa. 

Knom. 

Pallsa. 

CoKgla. 

PaHaa. 

PaHaa. 

Paliaa. 

PsUaa. 

Pallsa. 

PaHaa. 

Pallsa. 

Paul Henry. 

Paliaa. 

Paliaa. 

L deBaO. 

Pallsa. 

PaHaA. 

Borelly. 

Peters. 

Pallsa. 

PaUaa. 

Paliaa. 

Knom. 

PaHaa. 

Borsllj. 



AUSTRALASIA. 




Anwnl. 

SS!^:::::: 

aS^m'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 


ESS. 


it;:;:;::: 








^^= 


PUIw. 

Sir 














g^n":::: 


P«w». 


^"^ 


Chijriota. 






FflHrl. 


ClurWi. 



MlJkslertcb. 

PiHu. 

ClurMi. 

MUkHlerieh. 



ArSTRALASlA, a dirision of the globe em- 
btBciaz the continent of Australia and the isl- 
indi □[ the South Sea and Western Paci&c, moat 
of which are under British dominioii. The Eta- 
&ti<9 of popnlation for the British AuetralMian 
colooiM tea 1S8B are given in the (oUowing table : 



™,™l 


b>. 


^. 


■--IX-Uu 






1,TM 


14,TOlM.m!..^ 






w««a««iu:::;: 


5,00- wij*! -" 



COU>Nltt. 


Impm 


E.p«k 










s 










•Sffi 









The censns taken in 1881 shows a remarkable 
htcrease in the population of the cities. Mel- 
bourne, which now contains nearly one holt of 
the total population of Victoria, has increased 
7i per cent., while the other parts of the colon; 
show an increase of only 11 per cent in ten 
;tan. The present population of Sydney, the 
tapital of Hew South Walea, is 380,000, showing 
■n increase of 70 per cent, during the decade. 
The population of the whole colony is returned 
IS 1.134,000, excloaive of Chinese. Adelaide, the 
capital of Sontb Australia, has 133,000 inhabit- 
*Di!, or 29,000 more than a decade ago. 

Floanee. — The revenue, eipenditaie, and 
dtbl of each of the colonies are as follow : 



. Xe.naa,!!*! £>.Sta.t71 1 
aSll.lH 8,T(W,SM 

. ■.ni.:» fi,NS.Tis 

TM.Mt C§I,«T4 



CoBBeree asd Prodaction.— The foreign 
tnde of the several colonies in 1889 is shown in 
the fdlowiog table : 



Most of the Mttted portions of Australia are 
within the temperate zone. The raising of 
sheep and mining are the [principal industries. 
For agriculture the climate is too dry, and arti- 
ficial irrigation is yet in the experimental stage. 
In New South Wales oulv 1,164,476 acres were 
under cultivation in 1800. There were 8,670.- 
835 buehels of wheat produced, and 5,804,827 
bushels of com. Other grains are grown, as 
well as hay and fodder in large qnantities, sngar 
cane, of which the product in 1890 was 168,869 
es, and the vine, of which the yield 



15 gallon 



and 3,702 of brandy. 
.880 was 60.106,768; 
; of horses, 430,777. 
Tuged in agriculture 



The number of sheep in 
of homed cattle, 1,741,56 
The number of persons e 
and pastoral pursuits ws ., .. __ _. 
the forests are owned by the state and all a_ _ 
under state control, owners paving a royalty on 
all timber cut, which was 185,031,000 feet in 
1880, valued at £617,000. Gold is found every- 
where, but the rich deposits have been exhausted. 
In the four years 1886-'89 the gold coined and 
exported was £1,483,330, about one quarter aa 
much aa daring a like period in the first twenty 
years of gold mining. Silver-lead ore, silver, 
and lead were produced in 1889 to the araouot 
of £1.809,197 ; copper product, £133,444 ; tin, 
£307,670 ; coal, £1,633,840. ManufRcturing in- 
dustries in New South Wales employ 44.080 
persons. The wool export in 1880 was 366,329,- 
029 pounds. 

Victoria, aided by a protective tariff and hav- 
ing a limited area of pasturage, has become the 
leading manufacturing colony. The number of 
bands employed in 1889 was 60,181. Qold min- 
ing has declined in the past twenty years to the 



58 



AUSTRALASIA. 



same extent as in New South Wales, though for 
several years the decline has been slow. In 1889 
the amount of gold mined was valued at £2,459,- 
856, the number of miners at work being 24,047. 
About one half the area suitable for agriculture 
Or pastoral purposes has been alienated, viz., 
22,^2,300 acres. The product of wheat in 1889 
was 11,496,000 bushels; of oats, 5,645,000 bush- 
els; of barley, 1,831,000 bushels. Vineyards 
cover 15,662 acres, about double the area de- 
voted to wine in New South Wales. The num- 
ber of sheep in 1890 was 10,882,231 ; of cattle, 
1,394,209 ; of horses, 329,335. The wool export- 
ed in 1889 was 135,607,870 pounds, more than 
half being the product of other colonies. 

Queensland, lying in its northern parts under 
the tropics, is a sugar-growing colony. Only 
9,919,692 acres, about 2 per cent of the area of 
the colony, have been alienated by the Govern- 
ment. About half the country is covered with 
forests, and little has yet been done to utilize 
this wealth. The leased sheep and cattle runs, 
6,547 in number, occupy 289,706,747 acres. The 
number of sheep in 18^ was 14,470,095 ; of cat- 
tle, 4,872,416; of horses, 852,364 There were 
232,648 acres under grain crops, mostly Indian 
com, and 49,741 acres under sugar cane in 1889. 
The gold product is increasing, amounting in 
1889 to £2,586,000. The value of tin mined was 
£156,406 ; of silver and lead, £61,500. Wool 
was exported in 1889 to the amount of £2,680,- 
184; sugar, £443,668; hides, £127,000; pre- 
served meats, £83,168. 

South Australia raises large quantities of 
wheat for export. The area under this crop in 
1889-'90 was 1,842,961 acres, producing 14,577,- 
858 bushels. It is also the chief wine-^wing 
colony, producing from 7,352 acres of vineyards 
1,052,086 gaUons of wine in 1889. The live 
stock numbered 6,386,617 sheep, 824,412 cattle, 
and 170,515 horses. The output of copper, sil- 
ver, and other minerals was valued at Jb349,430. 
Exports of wool in 1889 were valued at £2,194,- 
701 ; wheat and flour, £928,675, of which £691,- 
777 represent flour. 

Western Australia is a new colony which has 
recently been admitted to the ranks of self-gov- 
erning states, having a variety of soil and cli- 
mate, vast areas suitable for pasturage and agri- 
culture, and mineral resources of unknown ex- 
tent. Of a total area of 678,400,000 acres, only 
117,833 were cultivated in 1889. The total area 
of public lands sold up to the end of 1889 was 
8,815,905 acres, of which 1,416,747 acres were 
alienated during that year. The area sown to 
wheat in 1889 was 35,517 acres. The average 
yield of wheat is 14 bushels to the acre; of 
barley, 17 bushels ; of wine of good quality, 189 
gallons. There were 1,088 acres planted to 
vines in 1889. Oold, silver, lead, tin, and coal 
have been found in the colony. The exports 
of wool in 1889 were £395,904 in value; of 
shells, £104.450; of timber, £63,080; of sandal- 
wood, £57,465. 

Tasmania exports considerable quantities of 
fruit in the fresh and preserved states. This 
export was valued in 1889 at £128,822; hops, 
£23,115 ; timber and bark, £150,409. The wool 
export was valued at £283,237. A more impor- 
tant product is tin, which was exported to the 
value of £345,407, and gold to the value of £123,- 



486. There are rich deposits of galena ore, and 
lam beds of ooaL 

In New Zealand about two thirds of the soil 
is capable of being made productive. The 
wheat acreage in 18w) was 385,861 acres, yielding 
8,448,000 bushels, an average of 25 bushels to 
the acre. The oat crop was 18,673,000 bushels 
Of live stock, the colony in 1886 had 187,382 
horses, 858,858 cattle, and 16,580,388 sheep. In 
sheep there has been a large increase in recent 
years. Butter and cheese making are important 
industries, and frozen meat is one of the staples 
of the export trade. The export in 1889 was 656,- 
822 hundred-weight of the value of £783,387. 
The export of wool was 102,227,354 pounds, hav- 
ing nearly doubled in ten years. Woolen mills on 
the islands worked up 8,556,000 pounds. Of 
grain, 6,027,201 bushels were exported. The ex- 
port of Kauri gum was 7,519 tons, valued at 
£329,590. Timber has recently become an ex- 
port article of some importance, the shipments 
in 1889 amountinfl^ to ^,568,000 feet The ex- 
ports of butter and cheese were valued at £218,- 
945; hides and skins, £208,104; tallow, £159.- 
460; grain and flour, £1,128,955. The gold 
mined in 1889 was £808,549 in value, not one 
third as much as in 1868, the year of greatest 
production. 

Fiji in 1889 exported 18,178 tons of sugar, of 
the value of £268,558; copra of the value of 
£41,548 ; and bananas of the value of £42,605. 

Navigation. — ^The following table gives the 
number of vessels and the tonnage entered and 
cleared at the ports of the colonies in 1889 : 



OOLONIXBi 



New South Wales.... 

VJctorta 

QaeenBland 

Boatta AoBtraUa 

Western AostnUft ^ . . 

TssnuDis. 

NewZeaJand 

F<|l 



BMTKBSD. 



IlBfl&MV. 


TooBaga. 


XfBDlMV. 


xoBSftfiit 


8.254 


8,682,081 


8,229 


2,683,098 


i,8fifi 


8,270,827 


2,886 


8,82a851 


760 


606,780 


778 


4»4,229 


1,066 


078^» 


1,046 


9S0.810 


840 


497,288 


846 


607,586 


848 


466,247 


819 


458,999 


781 


60-2,684 


768 


698,858 


89 


61,828 


• • • • 





• 188a 

Commnnicatioiifik — The Australian colonies 
have the greatest railroad mileage of any coun- 
try in proportion to the number of inhabitants, 
unless Canada still holds that distinction ; but 
in proportion to the extent of its territory Aus- 
tralia IS the most scantily provided with rail 
communications of all countries. The capital to 
build the lines, which are state property man- 
aged by the colonial governments, was raised in 
England bv means of public loans, and these 
form the bulk of the debts of the colonies. 
Following are the statistics of mileage, capital, 
cost, gross earnings, and expenditure of the 
Australasian railroads for 1889 : 



ooLoims. 


Mlhi 

eoa- 

plttod. 


Oiplul 
tsiMBdltan. 


lUedpth 


,_ 


New Bouth Wales 
Victoria 


2,182 
8.841 
8,064 
1,756 
600 
874 
1,809 


£2)0,866.128 
89,126.880 
18,882,046 


£2,688,086 

8,110,140 

79«,844 

1,09^569 


£t,66.'S.8S5 

l,945,s87 

594,M9 


Queeosland 

South Aastralte. . 


Western AastraUa 






Tasmania. 

New Zealand. 


i6,'QKB6,666 


'6Si787 



AUSTRALASIA. 



69 



The postal traffic of the oolonies in 1889 was as follows: 



OOLONHa. 



Nev South Walts.. 
Tfetotto 



fiooth Australia..... 
Western Anstxttttst 



HswZstkiid. 



68,971,800 
48,007,268 
18,070,068 
16,888,607 
2,268,814 
4,708,884 
42,90i;tt8 



86,580,800 

20,662,782 

10,987,889 

9,066,714 

1,188,006 

^424,657 

16,721,016 



7,869,400 

6,810.288 

1,914,495 

918,122 

156,698 

651,706 

0^1,498 



£396,564 

•516,186 

188,460 



89,586 
222,978 



£898.606 

• 618.796 

209,404 



44,288 
154,101 



• TndB^ltng tetagrsph aerrlea. 



tl867. 



An the Aastralian colonies in 1891 signified 
their accession to the Postal Union, securing 
thereby the uniform letter-po49tage rate of 2i a. 
to all the principal commercial nations. By a 
telegraph oonrention they also obtained a rednc- 
ti<Mi in the rates for cablegrams to Europe. 

The length of telegraphs in the several col- 
onies, and the extent of the traffic in 1889, can be 
seen in the following table : 



ooLoiais. 


MflMafwiM. 


M«^^ 


N«tf«V«BMb 


K«ir Sooth Wa]«s 

Yktoris 


22,606 
8,060 

16,981 

ll,6n 
8,545 
2,690 

11,827 


8,488.692 
2,885,919 
1,488,898 

" 97,687 

280,559 

1,802,967 


£186.868 
127,720 


Qm^mlsnd 


•24,278 


Booth Anstrsflft 


Wcstrra Attstfallft 

Tuiiuai1a< 


10.165 
•1348 


T^f * ZfdbiMt 


6,029 







•NetkMS. 

FederatloiL — A federal council was empow- 
ered by an act of the British Parliament passed 
in 1885 to legislate on matters connected with 
the relations of Australasia and the islands of 
the Pacific, fisheries outside territorial limits, 
ciA'il jurisdiction and the enforcement of judg- 
ments beyond the limits of the several colonies, 
and common measures pertaining to defense, 
quarantine, copyright, patent rignts, commer- 
cisl law, marriage and divorce, naturalization, 
tod other matters in which uniformity or com- 
munity of action might be desirable. The Fed- 
eral Council met in 1886, 1888, and 1889. New 
South Wales and New Zealand declined to enter 
the union of which this body was the organ, and 
South Australia first joined in 1889. In 1890, 
instead of a meetine of the council, a conference 
of representatives of all the self-governing col- 
onies met in Melbourne, in February, to consider 
a plan of confederation and a scheme of defense. 
This conference decided in favor of a national 
Aastraiasian convention, composed of not more 
than seven delegates from each self-governing 
colony and four from each Crown colony, to 
meet early in 1801, at the invitation of the Pre- 
mier of Victoria, for the purpose of framing a 
Federal ooostitution. The New Zealand dele- 
gates could not promise that their colony would 
enter the propcMed federation, and at his in- 
stance the resolution moved by Sir Henry Parkcs, 
the Premier of New South Wales, declaring it to 
be the opinion of the conference that *' the best 
interests and the future prosperity of the colonies 
vill be promoted by an early union under the 
Cmwn, was confined to the continent of Aus- 
tnUia, with a proviso that the remoter colonies 
of Australasia should be entitled to admission at 
SQoh times and under such conditions as might 
be agreed upon. The main resolution expressed 
leoognltion of the services of the convention of 



1883, which founded the Federal Council, but 
set forth that subsequent years had developed 
the national life of Australia in population, in 
wealth, in the discovery of resources, and in self- 
governing capacity, to an extent which justified 
" the higher act, at all times contemplated, of the 
union of these colonies under one legislative and 
executive government" The New Zealanders 
held aloof, not only on account of their remote- 
ness from the center of government of the future 
confederation and their unwillingness to share in 
the expense of a system of defense that could not 
give them the same degree of protection as the 
other colonies, but for the reason that they 
feared that a political union of the Australian 
colonies would pave the way for national inde- 

Smdence ; for tne sentiment of loyalty to the 
ritish Crown, which is dying out in Australia, 
and is supplanted among the native Australians 
by a national spirit hostile to the British connec- 
tion, is still strong in the more recently colonized 
New Zealand. In view of the prospect that New 
Zealand might join the federation in the future, 
its delegates in the conference voted for Sir 
Henry Parkes's resolution, and the colonial Legis- 
lature, after a spirited debate, voted to send rep- 
resentatives to the Federation Convention. In 
the Australian colonies the federation proposals 
met with the opposition of the high Protection- 
ists in Victoria and of some of the leading Free 
Traders in New South Wales. The legislative 
assemblies finallv agreed to them, and selected 
as dele^tes the leaders of the Qovemment and 
of the Opposition and eminent jurists from each 
colonv. Only James Service, the originator of 
the Federal Council, predicted the failure of Sir 
Henrv Parkes's scheme of complete federation, 
and declined to serve as a delegate from Victoria. 
The Federal Council met at Hobart, Tasmania, 
on Jan. 20, 1801, only Victoria, Queensland, and 
Tasmania bein^ represented. South Australia 
had formally withdrawn. The Council passed a 
bill declaring an order of lunacy issued by the 
Supreme Court of one colony valid in the others, 
and adoi)ted an address to the Queen respecting 
the acquisition of land in the New Hebriaes, and 
praying that restrictions on trade with the na- 
tives should apply equally to all nationalities. 

The Federation Convention was convened at 
Svdney, New South Wales, on March 2. Sir 
Henry Parkes was elected president. There was 
a general agreement that the Federal Govern- 
ment shonld be carried on by a governor-gen- 
eral, a responsible ministry, and two legislative 
houses, a senate in which each colony should 
have equal representation, and a lower house 
elected on the oasis of population ; and in re^rd 
to intercolonial free trade, a Federal judiciary, 
and the necessity of federating for defense, there 



60 AUSTBALASLL 

was practical agreement. With respect to the compelled to offer themselveB for re-election on «p- 

powers to be accorded to the legislative houses, I^SJ™®?**,. * ^ *v r^ i*u «;n x. - 

♦i^^ <i*».ii<^* yw>i^n{<><i »A«A A^i^-^na ftf malrincy fhtk The Parliament of the Commonwealth will nave 

the smjUler colonies were ^^^^^^"^{^ power to make laws on any of the foUowing aubject* : 

authority of the upper house as hurg^ as poKi- ^^^^ ^he regulation of trade and comSereo with 

ble; m regurd to the tariff to be maintainea by other countriee and among the States; (2) customs^ 

the federation against the world, Victoria wished excise, and bonntlee ; (8) the raisins of numej by any 

the rates fixed high, to protect its industries, other mode or system of taxation, But taxation niufet 

while New South Wales was in favor of a low be unifonn throughout the Commonwealth ; (4) the 




toria and New Zealand' would preserve this link Sne-'ciO^flwferies^Tll) censS^and 'sutistiw ; ^12) 
binding them to the mother country, which the currency, coinage, and legal tender; (18) banking. 




theories on which the United Stetes are oonsti- ^a S\lS^%?AcSl^of"^^^ 

tuted was the main subject of difference, and this ^^ ^^^ ^^h^^ Australia; ^20) Carriage and 

was practically decided when it was agreed that divoroe : (21) the service and execution of civil pro- 

the name of the confederation should be, not the cess, ana the judgments of the courts of one State in 

*' Dominion/* but the Commonwealth of Aus- the oUier States ; (22) the recognition of the lawsi, rec- 

tralia, by 26 votes to 18, this title indicating fur- ords, and judicial proceedings of the various States : 

thermore the prevalent aspirations for national («?) immigratipn and emigration; (24) the influx of 

independence." gL' S^TrSrJi'l^L^^^/^^^^ XJ^i/^l^C^m^nS^^^rSS^^^^^^ 

New Z^and, who has formerly been governor p^^jj^^. . ^37) nver navigation witii respect to the 

under the Crown or various colonies, moved that common puiposes of two or more States ; (28) the 

the eovemor-^neral should be elected by the ooutrol of railwavs with respect to transport for the 

people ; but this proposition, which the Imperial purposes of the Commonwealth ; ^29) matters referred 



Government would be certain to reject, was neg- to it by the Parliament of any State, but such law 

atived by the majority of 85 to 8. The draSt only to extend to tiie SUte or States by whom the 

constitution was amended in minor particulars {^l^^JJ^'Sf^^iSi nTwui^r^^^^'^itS^iii 

only during its discussion by the coiS^ittee of [- ', i^r^ffdroTA^ultJa"^^^^^^ 

the whole. It was adopted by a unanimous vote exercised only by the Imperial Parliament or the 

on April 9. After agreeing to a motion recom- Federal Council of Australia; (81) the manufacture 

mending the parliaments 01 the individual colo- of munitions of war; (82) matters necessary for carry- 

nies to call special conventions for the ratifica- ing into execution the foreffoing powera. 

tion of the Constitution as framed, and to one ^P^liament will also, subject to the provisions of 

requesting the Imperial Government, as soon as S.^^.^^^Sf^^Ln^^'Inv!!^^ wIS SSSSSfS 

Pj three^colonies should adopt the Constitution, {^'e^oV^^r^t^S^lf Th^^ ^^e' ^f 

to take the necessary steps to establish it m thwe ^jy ^ce regarding whom it la deemed ne^sakry to 

colonies, the convention dissolved. When the make speciu laws not applicable to the general com* 

act establishing the Commonwealth of Australia munitv, but this power is not extended to the aborig- 

comes into force, which will be six months after ines of Australia or the Maoris of New Zealand ; (2) 

its adoption by the Imperial Pariiament, the |h« government of any territory surrendered by any 

govemore of the individual colonies wiU no State for tiie seat of govenmaent or other du^^ 

KLger be nominated by the Imperial Govern- (^'"^Fe^i^-^S^r^E^^fW^^^^^ 

naent, but will be appointed m such manner as wealtiL Laws appropriating revenue or imposing 

the Parliament of each state of the Common- taxation must be sent down by message of the Gov- 

wealth shall direct The Federal Council will emor-Gencral to the House of Representatives. The 

cease to exist. The main provisions of the bill powers of the Senate will be co-onUuate with those 

adopted by the Federation Convention are as fol- ?/ the Lower House, except with rMpard to appropria- 

lows * ^^^ '^^ taxation bills, which the Senate may amrm 

or reject, but not amend. Laws imposing taxation 

The colonies will be called Stetes. The Le^slature shall deal with taxation only, and, with the exception 

will consist of the Queen, a Senate, and a House of of customs and tariffs, with only one subject Money 

Bcpresentetivcs. The Governor-General will be ap- bills of a general character must not be tacked on to 

pointed by the Queen at a salary of not loss than £10,- appropriation bills ; and in the case of bills which 

000 a year. tne Senate may not amend, it may return the same to 

The Senate will consist of eight memben from each the Lower House with a message requesting it to omit 

Stete, chosen b]r the Parliamente of each State for six or amend any item ; and the Lower House mav, on re- 

Jears, half retiring every three years, and the Presi- ceiving such message, if it thinks fit, make such 

ont of the Senate will be chosen by the Senate itself, omissions or amendments. The Govemor-GenenU^s 

He will have a vote on every measure, and when assent is required for all measures, and he will have 

there is a tie vote the measure is lost the power of reserving any measures for the Quecn^s 

The House of Reprcsentetive? will be elected every apnroval. Her Majesty in Council may disallow any 

three years hj the people of the several Stetes in pro- bill within two years after its receipt *The executive 

portion to their population on a basis of one member power vested in the Queen will be exercised by the 

For every 80,000 mnabitante, the minimum number of Qovemor-General, advised by a Council of seven 

members for each Stete to be four. The Speaker will ministers, who may sit in either house ; £15,000 to be 

be chosen by the House, and will have the casting set a^art for the payment of the ministers, who will 

vote when the votes are equal. constitute tiie Federal Executive Council and be the 

The memben of both houses will receive £500 each Queen^s ministers of stete for the Commonwealth, 

per annum. No member can bold an oiHce of profit The Governor-General will be the oommander-in- 

or trust under the Crown, but ministers will not be chief of the military and naval forces. The Exeou- 



AUSTRALASIA. 61 

live Ooremment, u soon as formed, will take over Vice-President of the Ck>aDcil without portfolio, 

the control of cuatoins, excise, poet and telegrophe, WilUam Henry Suttor. 

iSh^Snl^ nX!i>.f^ S!S' n^.^f;^"*' *'''°^'^ For the session which opened on May 19, 1891, 

^t's^fc^jA^f"^^^^ of a the Government offered iSiislative n^posals of 

chief joitioe and not fewer than four otherjudges, to nioment aside from the question of federation, 

be aopointed by Parliament, and to hold omce donnff The programme embraced a local government 

irood behavior, and will be the final court of appeS bill, and the abolition of plural voting and divis- 

for Aiutralia; bat the Queen may, in all cases where ion of the colony into single electoral districts, 

pablic inteperta are involved, grant leave to appeal to together with minor measures relating to the 

telSte^r^^hHch""^^^^^ SS^'ldon^^c^tlj^^^^ 

PirUament will have the sole power of imposing ^^^^ option, and courts of conciliation to ar- 

c»toms and excise; but the pre£ttt duties wiU rJ ^^^^ ^^*de disputes. The financial record of 

main in foroe until a uniform tariff has been passed, the Government was excellent, showing an in- 

when free tiade will prevul between the States of the crease of revenue for the first six months of the 

CommMiwealth. The revenue collected will be ap- year amounting to £420,000 as compared with 

plied, in the first instance, to defray the expenses of the corresponding period of 1890, being an ex- 

Sr.?r^?» ^t '"^^"* ^ ^"^ pP? '^ '? such man- ^esa of £820,000 overthe estimate. Yet the po- 

ner^«id for such purposes as Parliament may deter- ^j^.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ 1^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^ ^ 

Parliament may make provision for the consolida- not strong. The Government had offended the 

tion of the whole or part of the debts of the States, working men by its course of action during the 

The States will retun all the powen they at present great strike of sheep-shearers and their sympa- 

IMKseas, except those expressly delected to the Com- thizers on the railroads and docks, it having 

monwealth. When a btate law U mconsistent with been accused of unduly favoring the employers. 

TMv^jS2'S?r/Si& S?/lS'!;^riLPtS'Ki ^r. Dlbbs, the leader of the Opposition. aWked 

rJ^:^;^^^t^^l'^i.^\^ ir4fe«nc'i the federation scheme of Sir He^n^ Parkes, which 

to the Queen must be made through the Govemoi^ would be only a precursor of imperial federa- 

GeneraL tion, not of national independence as desired by 

The Constitutions ofthe States will remain as they the younger Australians. The Protectionists, 

sre, unless altered by the States themselves. An^r of who have grown into a strong party in New 

the cMstinff colonies, on adopting the Constitution, South Wales, were anxious to oust the Premier, 

StL't.-T!!"^ '?J5ii^'' ^Commonwealth New ^^^ ^ ^he chief exponent of the free-trade idea 

States may be admitted under such conditions as . 4„„f-^i;o -«^ fil^«<ri»f fi,«f *i,*»« «^«i^ ^„«4. 

Parliament may see fit to impose. The seat of gov- ^ Australia, and thought that they could count 

emment of the Commonwealth shall be determined ^ ^^® united support of the working men. The 

by Parliament, and, until so determined, the place of admirable programme of the Government was 

meeting of^^arliament shall be fixed by a nugority of not allowed to come under discussion. Sir Henry 

the goYemors of the States. Any amendment of the Parkes announced that the questions of district 

Constitution can only be effected in the following government and one man one vote should take 

nminer : Any hiw for the alteration of the Constitji- precedence of the federation bill ; but Mr. Dibbs 

's^Sa^^^e^l^Si'o^f ^^:^l^^^ It attacked the federation pi.po«U^^ declaring that 

npon be submitted to conventions elected by electors i^s author had lost sight of the true inter^ts of 

or the several States qualified to vote for the election New South Wales, at the same time discrediting 

of membeiB of the House of Representatives. Such the financial statement of Mr. McMillan and the 

conventions shall be held as the Parliament of the conduct of the Administration. On a vote of 

Commonwealth prescribes. If the proposed amend- ^ant of confidence the Government was sus- 

ment be approved by tiio convenUons of a majority Gained only by the casting vote of the Speaker. 

l^n\^S/o^^%?1K: 3?7t?e"'c?Xr. The tie voie/f gSonboth^sidesw^ accjredas 

wealth, it ahall b<iome law, wBject, however, to the a defea^ and Parliament was dissolved. The 

QoeenHi power of disallowance ; but an amendment result of the elections, which took place m the 

by whicn the proportionate representation of any middle of June, surprised the politicians and dis- 

State in either House of the Paraament of the Com- concerted all their plans. After the ending of 

monwealth U diminished, shall not become law with- the prolonged and disastrous labor struggle the 

out tiie consent of tiie convention of that State. je^ders of the working men had promised that 

A proposition for the assumption by the Com- there should be no more strikes, saying that 
monwealth of the public debts of all the colonies labor would defend its interests henceforth in 
on the basis of £40 per head of population, those Parliament and find legislative redress for its 
whose debts are heavier having to pay the differ- wrongs. A Labor party was organized and dis- 
ence, and those owing less to be compensated, ciplined, with the result that, when the returns 
was deferred, to be acted upon by the Federal were all in, it was found that the Loyal and Free- 
Parliament. Trade partv of the "Grand Old M!an" of New 

New 8oath Wales.— The Governor is the South Wales was able to obuin only 51 seats, 
Barl of Jersey, appointed in October, 1800. The whereas the Native Australian, Protectionist, 
ministrT at the beginning of 1891 consisted of and Separatist forces, led by Mr. Dibbs and Mr. 
the following members : Premier and Colonial Barton, had 57 ; while, instead of sending four 
Secretary, Sir Henry Parkes; Colonial Treasurer, spokesmen to serve in a humble advisory ca- 
William McMillan ; Attorney-General, George pacity, as in the last Parliament, the Labor party 
Bowen Simpson; Secretary for Lands, James came with a strong phalanx of 26 representa- 
Nixon Brunker; Secretary for Public Works, tives, and there were besides 8 Independents 
Brace Smith ; Minister of Public Instruction, affiliated with the Labor party. The Labor rep- 
Joseph Hector Carruthers ; Minister of Justice, resentatives were Protectionists, and were known 
Albert John Gould ; Postmaster-General, Daniel to be anti-British and even Republican and op- 
O'Connor ; Secretary for Mines, Sydney Smith ; posed to the federation scheme. Therefore they 



62 AUSTRALASIA. 

were expected to ally themselves with the party cause of so heavy and adverse a vote on the ac- 

of Mr. Dibbs. It was a sarprise to many that tion of the Government in putting down picket- 

the ministry cared to retain their portfolios till ing and intimidation. Mr. Monro, who ted the 

Parliament met on July 15, and a coalition attack, an Independent Liberal who had been 

between Sir Henry and Mr. Dibbs against the Minister of Instruction under Sir Graham Berry 

new and, to both, dangerous element was con- in 1875, was asked to form a Cabinet, which was 

sidered probable. The vote of want of confidence constituted on Nov. 4 as follows : Ftemier and 

moved dv Mr. Dibbs disappointed this expecta- Treasurer, James Monro ; Attomev-General and 

tion; and when the ministrv was sustained by Minister of Railway, William Shiels; Chief 

the solid vote of the 29 Labor representatives, Secretary and Commissioner of Trade and Cus- 

Mr. Black, their leader, declaring that they would toms, G. D. Langridgo ; Commissioner of Crown 

support the Government '* as far as it suits their Lands, Allan McLean ; Commissioner of Public 

purposes," speculation was rife regarding the Works, James Wheeler; Minister of Water Sup- 

Srice to be paid, and the eyes of the world were ply, George Graham ; Postmaster-General, John 
rawn to a Legislature in which an organized Gavan Duffy ; Minister of Mines, A. B. Outtram ; 
Labor party can dictate measures. In the open- Minister of Defense and of Education, Lieuten- 
ing speech the electoral reform bill, extenaing ant-Colonel Sir Frederick T. Sareood ; Minister 
the franchise, abolishing plural voting, establish- Of Justice, J. M. Davies. It is, like all Victorian 
ing single districts, doin^ away with the condi- Cabinets of the past eight vears, a coalition min- 
tion of a mone^ deposit by candidates, and istry composed of Liberals and Conservatives, 
making registration the only condition of suf- the old party distinctions having been in a great 
frage, was explained. A resolution in favor of measure obliterated, and in it the Conservative 
woman suffrage was promised. In other respects element predominates. The retiring Treasurer, 
the Government proposals were the same as were who had expended $18,000,000 of borrowed 
offered in the last message. The Postmaster- money while be was in ofilce, left an empty ex- 
General, Daniel O'Connor, though one of the chequer and heavy liabilities to meet imme- 
most popular members of the Government, had diately. He had been accused of building useless 
lost his seat in the elections, but was not allowed railroads and granting bonuses to farmers and 
to resign. The conflict between the Sheep-shear- money for prospecting to gold-mining companies 
ers' Union and the Pastoralists, who had formed simply for the purpose of retaining his post, 
a counter-organization, broke out afresh during The strike, which involved various trades and 
the year, engaging the attention of the ministers was directed against imported labor, was prae- 
and Parliament. There was no dispute about tically ended before the end of 1890. The new 
hours, nor about wages, which were 18 <. a day. Cabinet attempted to bridge over the financial 
but only about the employment of unionists and difficulties by means of a new loan, but could 
non-unionists together, sir Henry Parkes pro- not float it. A committee of public accounts 
posed a conference, which the shearers had orig- was instituted. Parliament was opened on June 
inally rejected, but to which the employers now 28. Both parties were in favor of the federation 
refused to accede unless the right of free con- bill. Negotiations for offering it simultane- 
tract was admitted. Ou this basis the contest- ously and in the same manner in Victoria, New 
ing parties finally came together, the Secretary South Wales, and South Australia, in order that 
for Lands presiding over the meeting ; and the the three colonies might establish federation as 
shearers, who had recently driven non-unionists soon as possible, had broken down, and each 
from their work bv force and defied the public colony was left to follow its separate method of 
authorities, formally conceded freedom of con- procedure. A bill to abolish plural voting was 
tract, and the strike was declared at an end in prominent in t^e Government programme, and, 
the beginning of August The motion of Sir as in New South Wales, the ministry pro- 
Henry Parkes in favor of woman suffrage was posed to extend the principle of one man one 
lost by 57 votes against 34. At the end of July vote, so as to include women among the electors. 
William McMillan retired from the ministry, The ministry asked Parliament to do awav with 
which was reconstructed, Bruce Smith becoming the Railway Commission, the creation of their 
Colon ial Treasurer ; E. Barton, Secretary for Pul> predecessors. Among the other measures aa- 
lie Works ; W. H. Suttor, Postmaster-General ; nounced were the amendment of the local gor- 
and D. O'Connor, Vice-President of the Execu- emment acts, the setting apart of public lands 
tive CounciL for the endowment of Stote education, and min- 
Tictoria. — The Governor is the Earl of Hope- ing, water conservancy, and irrigation bills. In 
toun, who was installed on Nov. 28, 1889. On the debate on the Federation bill the Assembly 
Oct. 81 the coalition Cabinet of Duncan Gillies struck out the word ^ Commonwealth," and sub- 
and Alfred Deakin, which had governed for four stituted ** Federated States.*' The financial state- 
years, was overturned by a vote of 55 to 85. ment of Mr. Monro showed that the year ending 
The refusal of the ministers to go to London for June 80, 1801, closed with a deficiency of £707,- 
a large new loan for the satisfaction of constitu- 000. Although the colony was suffering from 
encies wanting railroads, their financial mis- commercial depression, increased taxation would 
takes, and their unpopular attitude in relation be necessary to meet an excess of expenditures 
to the dock strike tnat was about to collapse, led over revenue for the coming year that was esti- 
to the falling away of their supporters and their mated on the basis of existing souroes at about 
sudden defeat in a parliament that followed £1,000,000. 

them obseq^uiously and was without an organ- Queensland. — The Governor is General Sir 

ized Opposition a month or two before. The Henry Wylie Norman, who was transferred from 

defection of about 25 representatives of labor Jamaica m December, 1888. The Cabinet in 

constituencies in and around Melbourne was the 1891 was composed of the following officers : 



AUSTRALASIA. 63 

Premier, Chief Secretary, Attorney-General, and and advance material well-being. A naval de- 
Vice-President of the Executive Council, Sir fense bill for the establishment and maintenance 
Samuel W. Griffith ; Minister for Lands and of an additional squadron, in accordance with 
Agriculture, S. Cowley ; Minister for Railways the agreement of 1887 that had been ratified by 
and Postmaster-General, T. Unmack ; Secretary the parliaments of Great Britain and the other 
for Mines and Minister for Public Instruction, colonies, was passed without opposition. New 
W. 0. Hodgkinson ; Colonial Secretary and Sec- land legislation was proposed to facilitate settle- 
retary for I^iblic Works, H. Tozer ; Solicitor- ment The budeet statement showed an elastic 
General, T. J. Bymes ; Colonial Treasurer^ir revenue, the yield for 1891 -'92 from taxation 
Thomas McDwraith ; without pK)rtfolio, H. Wil- being estimated at £1,642,000, an increase of 7^ 
SOD. The question of the division of North and per cent, on the previous year. The gross reve- 
South Queensl^ad, which has agitated the colony nue was estimated at £8,675,200, and the ex- 
for a dozen years, has become more pressing penditure at £8,647,693. The ministry was cha^ 
since mining enterprise has developed the north- seined at not being able to raise a fresh loan in 
em and central districts. The inhabitants of London, in conseauence of which all new public 
this northern section have uiged the home Gov- works, except sucn as will be immediately pro- 
emment to make an independent colony, on the ductive, have been discontinued. The labor dis- 
groand that they are taxed for the benefit of the turbances that convulsed Australia in 1890 and 
south. The chief objection advanced by the 1801 began with a strike of the sheep-shearers of 
southerners was that the sugar planters and Queensland. The labor leaders assert that the 
mineoperatorsof the north, if thej were allowed employers began the struggle, and that their 
a free nand, would defy Australian opinion in object was to crush unionism ; and, further, that 
respect to the iniportation of black and coolie the governments, under the pretense of preserv- 
i&bor. In 18B7 Lord Knutsford replied to a ing order, aided the capitalists and enabled them 
deputation of North Queenslanders, that it would to secure the victory. The Queensland Shearers' 
be difficult and undesirable to divide a colony Union was at first successful in compelling the 
having the privile^s of responsible government British India Shipping Company to accept only 
unless the colomal Legislature requested it. union wool. The Amalgamated Shearers Union, 
That body had recently sijpified its sense of the covering New South Wales. Victoria, and South 
proposition by a vote of 3o to 9 against separa- Australia, were unable to block the shipment of 
tion, corresponding to the representation of the non-union wool from the southern Australian 
two sections in the Legislative Assembly. The ports. The Trades and Labor Council, which 
movement in favor of separation had made such took up the contest, was confronted by an asso- 
progress in October, 1890, that the vote had elation of employers. Attempts at mediation 
changed to 26 for separation to 82 against. A failed, and a temper was provoked on both sides 
petition in favor of immediate separation had that led in Queensland to violence. In and 
Deen forwarded to the Colonial Office in London, around Rockhampton bloody collisions occurred, 
signed by 31 members of the Legislature. The and the Governor called out the troops to put an 
home Government still held that it was a mat- end to the disturbances. Leaders oi the strike 
ter to be decided by the colony or reserved for were prosecuted, and were sentenced to two or 
the action of the future Parliament of the three years' imprisonment. The struggle he- 
Australian States. A proposition to divide the tween the unions of shearers and pastor^ists in 
colony into Northern, Central, and Southern Queensland was ended in June, 1891, when 
Queensland received fewer votes than that for unionists returned to work, signing the agi-ee- 
di vision into two colonies by a line running from ments exacted by the squatters, the whole point 
Cape Palmerston. The evils complained of at issue being whether men should be free to 
formerly by the North Queenslanders have not contract for work on terms prescribed bv the 
been remedied, for decentralization bills that masters, or should conform to tne rules laid aown 
have been proposed have not been carried, and by the union. In drawing up the contracts that 
local revenues and customs on goods consumed they required the men to sign, the employers 
in the north are not applied for the benefit of intentionalljr made them very liberal, differing 
that section. Sir Samuel Griffiths proposed an only in insignificant details from the union 
Alternative scheme, that would reconcile the re- regulations. 

quirements of the different sections while pre- South Australia. — ^The Governor is the Earl 
serving the integrity of the colony. This was of Eintore, who assumed the government on 
8ubdi\ision, for administrative purposes and April 11, 1889. The ministrv consisted in 1801 
local self-government, into three provinces, each of the following members : Premier and Treas- 
having its Parliament with control of certain urer, T. Playford ; Chief Secretarv, Sir J. C. 
specified funds, while the central Parliament Bray; Attorney-General, R. Homburg; Com- 
vould decide on matters of common and general missioner of Crown Lands, W. Copley; Com- 
Aastralasian interest. This proposal failed to missioner of Public Works, W. B. Kounsevell; 
obtain the approval of parliament in 1890, and Minister of Education, D. Bews. At the meet- 
was submittela again in the session that opened ing of Parliament on June 4, 1891, the Govern- 
on Jane SO, 1891, when the draft of the Federal ment was sustained on a motion of want of con- 
Constitution would also have to be discussed, fide nee b^ a majoritv of 7. The revenue for the 
the ratification of which would make division vear ending June 80 exceeded the expenditure 
into autonomous provinces more advantageous, by over £50,000. Important coal fields have 
The Federal Union was approved in the Gov- been discovered recently. The settlers of north- 
trnofs speech, with a reservation as to amend- em Australia, like those in the tropical parts of 
nients that might be necessary to give encourage- Queensland, complain of the general Australian 
meot and enlightened sense to local patriotism sentiment in regard to colored and Chinese 



64 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

labor, the conseqaence of which is that cotton . of New Zealand produce increased from £6,7079- 
must be left to spoil in the field, sugar planta- 805 in 1888 to £9,428,022 in 1801. The frozen- 
tions have been abandoned, and rich tin, silver, meat trade has nearly trebled in these vears. 
and gold mines remain unworked. The profits of the foreign trade in wool and 
Western Australia, — The Imperial Parlia- mutton have caused a great quantity of land to 
ment conferred responsible government on West- be taken up for sheep urming. Still the people 
em Australia, the only one of the colonies on continue to emigrate to other colonies. Amon^ 
the continent that still remained under the par- the bills proposed to Parliament, which was 
tial control of the Crown, by the enabling act of opened on June 11, was one for the repurchase 
1890 embodying the new Constitution. The oi private estates for the purpose of settlement. 
e;ovemment is vested in the Governor, a Legis- The Premier promised also to introduce a bill to 
Gitive Council of 15 members nominated in the deal with the labor question. The prospects of 
first place by the Governor, but in the future to labor legislation and of restrictions to be im- 
be elected, and a Legislative Assembly of 80 posed on capital cause even more concern to the 
members, elected from as many districts. The conservative and wealthv classes in New Zealand 
qualification for voting is the ownership of real than in other parts of Australasia. About one 
property worth £500 or the Da:^ment of £10 rent third of the members of Parliament owe their 
per annum. A member of either house must election to the labor vote, and their course in 
DC the owner or occupant of property of five reference to labor measures is closely watched bj 
times such value. Power is reserved to the dele^tes of the trade unions. Employers' asso- 
Crown to divide the country into two or more ciations in like manner exercise a control over 
colonies, but the exclusive management and representatives who are expected to serve their 
control of the waste lands of the Crown are interests. The measures proposed by the Labor 
vested in the colonial Legislature. The Gov- party, and adopted in part by the National Lib- 
emor is Sir William C. F. Robinson, who held eral Association, are strotij^ly socialistic, 
the same office in 1874 and in 1880, and was re- AUSTBIA-HUNGABT, a dual monarchy in 
appointed in 1889. The first Cabinet of West- central Europe, composed of the Empire of Au&- 
em Australia was constituted as follows : Pre- tria and the Kingdom of Hungary, which have 
mier and Treasurer, John Forrest ; Chief Secre- been politically independent, except in regard to 
retary, Mr. Strenton ; Attorney-General, Mr. common affairs, since the restitution of the an- 
Burt ; Commissioner of Lands, Mr. Marinon ; cient Hungarian Constitution after the war of 
Minister of Public Works, Mr. Venn. 1866. The head of the house of Hapsburg is 
Tasmania. — The Governor of the colony is Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. 
Sir Robert G. C. Hamilton, who was apnointed The standing army, the navy, the customs, for- 
in January, 1887. The Cabinet in 1891 was eign affairs, and other matters of common in- 
composed of the following members : Premier terest are administered by a common ministry, 
and Chief Secretary, Philip Oakley Fysh ; Trees- and supplies are voted by delefi;ations from tHe 
urer, Bolton Stafford Bird ; Attorney-General, parliaments of the two monarcnies. The reign- 
Andrew Inglis Clark ; Minister of Ijands and mg Emperor-King is Franz Josef I, bom Au^. 
Public Woncs, Alfred Pillinger. Parliament 18, 1830, who succeeded to the throne Dec % 
was dissolved on May 1, and the elections were 1848, after the abdication of his uncle Ferdinand 
fixed for May 22. The new Parliament was I. his father having renounced the crown in his 
opened on July 8. The accounts for 1890 indi- favor. The heir-presninptive is the Emperor*s 
cated that the period of depression was over, brother, the Archduke Karl Ludwig, bom July 
Instead of a dencit, there was a surplus at the 80, 1833, whose son, the Archduke Franz, bom 
close of the year of £35,000, showing an increase Dec. 18, 1863, is next in succession. The Minister 
of £76,000 as compared with 1889. New rail- of Foreign Affairs and of the Imperial Household 
ways had been opened, and others were in prog- for the Whole Monarchy is Count G. Kalnoky, 
ress. The discovery and opening of silver who succeeded Count Andrassy in 1881. Tfie 
mines added a new product to the resources of Minister of War for the Whole Monarchy is 
the island figuring for £17,000 in the exports. Field-Marshal Baron Ferdinand Bauer, appoint- 
New Zealand. — ^The Governor is the Earl of ed in 1888. The common Minister of Finance 
Onslow, formerly parliamentary Under Secre- is Benjamin de Kallav, appointed in 1882. 
tary for the Colonies, and afterward President of Area and Popnlailon. — The area of the vari- 
the Board of Trade, who was appointed to his ous provinces of the monarchy and their popu- 
present post in November, 1888. A new minis- lation, according to estimates made for Dec. 81, 
tnr came into office on Jan. 24, 1891, composed 1889, in Austria, and for a twelvemonth before 
of the following members : Premier, Colonial in regard to the Hungarian dominions, are given 
Treasurer, and Minister of Native Affairs, J. in the table at the head of the next page. 
Ballance ; Attorney-General and Colonial Secre- The Ottoman provinces of Bosnia and Herze* 
tary. P. A. Buckley ; Minister of Agriculture govina, occupied and administered by the Aus- 
and Lands, Mr. Mackenzie ; Minister of Mines tro-Hungarian Government in accordance with 
and Defense, R. J. Seddon ; Minister of Educa* the Treaty of Berlin, had in the beginning of 1888 
tion and Justice, R. Reeves ; Speaker of the a total population of 1,404,000 souls. 
House of Representatives, Major Stewart. The The number of marriages registered in Austria 
colony is rapidly recovering from the long peri- in 1889 was 177,771 ; the number of births was 
od of depression that followed the failure of the 924,690 ; of deaths (exduding 26,340 still-bom), 
City of Glasgow Bank, which was the result of 646.787; surplus of births over deaths, 251,563. 
inordinate land speculation, and threatened to In Hungary, Croatia-Slavonia, and Fiume the 
bring about the forced sale of a large number of number of marriages in 1888 was 158,881 ; of 
the private estates on the islands. The exports births, 759,662, of which 14,026 were still-bora ; of 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



65 



raomfcas. 



AmmiA: 

Lover Aiucrla 

Cppcr Austria 

^Atzbviy 

t^t3rrfaL 

Canothia. 

Camipto 

Cmtt land* 

TTrol aad Yoimrlbcnr. 

Kiifaecnia 

Moraiift. 

^ilfftls 

Gulcfci. 

Bokowlitt. 



Toul Austria.. 



Hni«AST : 
Haimr>- (with TVarBjivonU) 

Croatia and SlaToniiii 

Fhune 



Total Iliiogarj... 
Aostria'Huiigaiy . 



7.654 

4.681 

2,T6T 

a«70 

4,GO0 

8,h66 

8,084 

11,824 

2(l,0<t0 

8,588 

1,987 

80,807 

4,080 

4,940 



]1^908 



108.286 

16,778 

8 



12&,088 



240,942 



2,666,646 
7S4.168 
178,962 

1,288,289 
864.684 
604,047 
708,726 
929,971 

fi.851,812 

8,290,886 
602,297 

6,689,8ti8 
661,006 
629,860 



28,99^888 



1SJ»0,806 

2,127,829 

22,S86 



17,1804^71 



41.076,804 



denths (excluding still-bom), 544,478; surplus of 
births over deaths, 215,184. 

The emigrants from Austria-Hungary in 1888 
were returned as 48,567, of which numlxer 41,665 
were destined for the United States and 2,388 for 
A^ntina. 

The population of the chief cities of Austria 
was estimated at the end of 1888 as follows: 
Vienna, 1,350,000 : Prajrae, 304,000; Trieste, 160,- 
000; Lemberg, 122,000; Gratz, 106,000. Bnda- 
Pesth, the Hungarian capital, had 465,600 inhab- 
itants in 1890. 

Comineree. — The general commerce of Aus- 
tria-Hungry for 1889 amounted to 578,000,000 
florins of imports and 747,200,000 florins of ex- 
ports, not including specie, as compared with 
533.100,000 florins of imports and 728,800,000 
florins of exports in 1888. The followine were 
the largest imports in 1888 : Ck>tton, 52,300,000 
florins : wool, 37,900,000 florins ; coffee, 32,800,- 
000 florins : coa), 17,000,000 florins: woolen yams. 
16,500,000 florins; silk, 15,800,000 florins ; leaf 
tobacco, 15,100,000 florins ; hides, skins, and pel- 
try, 14,500,000floriiis ; machinery, 14,200,000 flor- 
in9: manufactured tobacco, 14,100,000 florins; 
cotton yams. 14,100,000 florins; leather, 13,500,- 
OOOflonnsp : silk goods, 10,400,000 florins ; books, 
10.300,000florins; hardware and docks, 10,100,000 
florins ; colors and tanning materials, 10,000,000 
florins: woolen goods, 9,900,000 florins; cattle, 
8.600.000 florins; grain, 5,200,000 florins. The 
chief exports in 1^8 were of the following val- 
uft$: Grain, 95,500,000 florins ; timber, 58,300,000 
florins; sugar, 50,700,000 florins ; hardware, 30,- 
900.000 florins : flour, 29,500.000 florins ; woolen 
goods, 24,900.000 florins; coal, 23,900,000 florins ; 
wines, 21,600,000 florins; cattle, 19,300.000 flor- 
ins : wool, 18,900,000 florins ; glass and glassware, 
17.000,000 florins: wood manufactures, 15,400,- 
000 florins ; paper mannfacturers, 14,100,000 flor- 
ins; feathers, 12,300,000 florins ; poultry, 12,100,- 
000 florins: gloves, 11,900,000 florins; iron manu- 
factures. 11,500,000 florins; leather manufactures, 
10,500,000 florins; silk manufactures, 9,100,000 
florins ; minerals, 8,900,000 florins ; linen yams, 
{j.000,000 florins. 
The imports of precious metals in 1888 were 

YOU XXXI. — 5 A 



27,100,000 florins; and the exports, 12,200,000 
florins. 

The imports into Hunnuy from Austria and 
all other countries in 18^ were 446,681,000 flor- 
ins, and the exports of Hungary were 444,383,- 
000 florins, in total value. Cereals were exported 
in 1889 to the amount of 152,771,000 florins; 
cattle for 75,296.000 florins; and wines and 
liquors for 27,069,000 florins; the total value of 
exports for that year being 460,568,000, and that 
of imports 459,478,000 florins. The free cities of 
Trieste and Fiume, in which, under their ancient 
franchises, no duties were collected, except on 
theGovemment monopolies of tobacco, salt, and 
^npowder, on July 1, 1891, were incorporated 
m the customs territory of the monarchy. 

NaTlgation.— During 1888 there were 68,749 
vessels, of 8,361,526 tons, entered and 68,634, of 
8,357,598 tons, cleared at Austrian ports and 10,- 
185, of 994,095 tons, entered and 10.150, of 997,- 
167 tons, cleared at the ports of Hungary. Of 
the total tonnage about 82 per cent, was Austrian. 
The merchant marine of Austria-Hungary on 
Jan. 1, 1890, comprised 69 ocean steamers, of 81,- 
870 tons ; 102 coasting steamers, of 14,522 tons, 
and 9,851 sailing vessels of all sizes, of 160.709 
tons. The Austro-Hnngarian Lloyd Steamship 
Company, having become flnancially embar- 
rassed, was in 1^1 taken under the Austrian 
Government, which will appoint the president 
and be represented in the board of directors. 
By an agreement with the Hungarian Govern- 
ment, which has ceased all connection with the 
Lloyd Company, its steamers will monopolize 
the service to the Levant, India, and China, and 
the Hungarian Adriatic Company will have 
America for its fleld, except Brazil, which is 
open to both lines. 

Railroads. — On Jan. 1, 1890, the Austrian 
Govemment owned 6,869 kilometres of railroads, 
but operated only 5,024 kilometres, while com- 
panies owned 7,814 kilometres and worked 9,659 
Kilometres. In Hungary the state owned 4,327 kil- 
ometres which it worked, and 4,117 kilometres 
which were leased to companies, while 2,256 
kilometres were both ownea and managed by 
private capital. The length of railroads in Aus- 
tria was 14,683 kilometres, or 9,177 miles, and in 
Hungary 10,700 kilometres, or 6,700 miles. The 
total mileage increased from 11,206 in 1877 to 
14,499 in iSB5, and the capital expenditure from 
2,761,152,000 to 3,475,203,000 florins. In 1890 
the mileage was 15,877, not counting 342 miles 
in Bosnia and Herzegovina. 

Posts and Telegraphs.— The number of let- 
ters carried in the Austrian mails during 1880 
was 504,333,000; postal cards, 90,527,400; sam- 
ples, circulars, etc., 60,195,500 ; newspapers^ 93.- 
000,000. The Hungarian post-oflHce handled 
135,739,000 letters, 87.207,000 postal cards, and 
19,072,000 pattems. circulars, etc. The post- 
office in Bosnia and Herzegovina forwarded 6,- 
793,000, letters and postal cards, 341,400 samples 
and circulars, and 876,400 newspapers. 

The telegraphs in Austria liaa in 1889 a total 
length of 26,677 kilometres of line, with 73,003 
kilometres of wire; in Hungary the length of 
line was 18,693 kilometres, with 47,919 kilo- 
metres of wire ; in Bosnia and Herzegovina there 
were 2,806 kilometres of line, and 5,869 kilo- 
metres of wire. The messages for that year num- 



66 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 



bered : In Austria, 8,786,109 ; in Hanjniry, 4,211,- 
141 ; in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 219,829. 

The receipts from posts and telegraphs in 
Austria for 1889 were 29,530,886 and expenses 
25,187,886 florins; in Hungary, in 1888 the re- 
ceipts were 12,803,559 and the expenses 8,618,1 14 
florins. 

Common Finances. — The budget for com- 
mon affairs in 1891 called for 117,290,284 florins 
for the army (including 14,450,489 florins of ex- 
traordinary expenditure), 11,844,588 florins for 
the navy (including 1,860,500 florins for extraor- 
dinary purposes), 4,861,100 florins for foreign 
affairs, 2,011,610 florins for the Ministry of Fi- 
nance, and 126,710 florins for the Board of Comp- 
trol, making a total of 185,634,287 florins. The 
net proceeds of customs were reckoned at 40,- 
660,500 florins, and receipts from the various 
ministries at 2,708,852 florins. In accordance 
with the last Aiugleieh^ Hungary pays 2 per 
cent, of the expenses after deducting the re- 
ceipts, and what remains is apportioned — 70 per 
cent, to Austria and 80 per cent, to Hungary. 
Hungary's 2 per cent, for 1891 is 1,845,127 florins, 
her quota of the remainder 27,128,877, and Aus- 
tria's contribution 68,287,881 florins. The cost 
of administering the occupied Ottoman prov- 
inces for 1891 was estimated at 10.136.149 flor- 
ins, which is covered by 10,187,450 florins of 
revenue, but does not ineinde military expenses, 
for which the sum of 4,282,000 florins is allowed. 

The general debt of the empire, owed in com- 
mon by the two monarchies, amounted in 1890 
to 8,122,010,000 florins, besides floating obliga* 
tions represented bv treasury notes to the amount 
of 411,994,644 florins, of which 828,140,194 flor- 
ins are paper curreney. 

The Army. — The whole monarchy is divided 
into 106 muitar}' districts, 1 for each of the 
102 infantry regiments, 1 for the Tyrolese 
Ji^^er, and 8 on the coast for the marine. 
Bosnia and Herzegovina are divided into 4 re- 
cruiting districts. The two Landwehrs. which 
have independent administrations under the 
direction of the Ministers of Defense of the two 
halves of the monarchy, recruit their 184 bat- 
talions of infantry and 16 regiments of cavalry 
from the same territorial districts as the regular 
army. Every regiment has four battiuions, 
making 408 battalions of the line. Besides 12 
battalions of Tyrolese rifles, forming the regi- 
ment furnished by Tyrol and Vorarlberg, there 
are 80 battalions of Jftger. There are 21 bri- 
gades of cavalry, of 2 regiments each : 14 re^- 
ments of field artillery, comprising 158 battenes 
of heavy and 28 of light artillery, 16 of mounted 
artillery, and 12 with mountain guns; 12 bat- 
talions of fortress Artillery, of 6 companies each ; 
2 regiments of engineers, forming 52 companies 
in time of war ; 1 regiment, forming 25 com[)a- 
nies, of pioneers ; and 1 regiment of 8 companies 
of railroad and telegraph troops. 

The Landwehrs on the peace footing main- 
tained 15,580 infantry and 11.892 cavalry, and 
for war can muster 407,684 infantrv and 26,645 
cavalry, and enrolled in the Landsturm were 
441,122 men, making the total force of trained 
troops 1,449,488 infantry, 100,600 cavalry, 109,- 
490 artillery, and 158,840 technical and other 
troops. The number of guns in peace time is 
856, in war 2,006; the number of horses, 66,880 



in peace and 274,060 in war. More than 4,000,- 
000 men can be summoned into the Landsturm 
in case of war. 

The strength of the regular army in 1891 w&s 
as follows : 



TBoors. 



latkntiy 

C»y»liT 

ArUUexy 

Engioeen 

Twin 

BAolUiy trw^ 

BtaHetfl 

EftUbliBhiiMiitk, «tc. 



ToUl 




War 



eno.677 
4?,eo9 

48,917 

0.514 

20,962 

89,818 

942,988 



The NaTT. — ^The armor-clad navy consists of 
11 battle shiM, of which the *' Stephanie " and 
" Eronprinz Kudolf," launched in 1887, carried 
respectively two and three 48-ton guns, mounted 
en barbette, and the rest are central-battery 
ships, except one old broadside frigate. The 
steel ram cniiser " Kaiser Franz,'* steaming 18^ 
knots, will be excelled in speed by her sister 
ship, the ** Kaiserin Elisabetn," and is already 
by some of the twelve now sea-going torpedo 
cruisers. The torpedo flotilla consists of 57 
boats carrying macnine guns, with which all the 
vessels of the navy are abundantly provided. 
There are 2 river monitors, 8 avisos, 4 training 
ships, 19 station and service ships, harbor and 
coast-service ships, 9 school and barrack ships, 
and 4 hulks. The crews are recruited from the 
districts of Trieste, Fiume, and Zara. 

Anstrio.— The Reichsrath, consisting of the 
Herrenhaus and Abgeordnetenhaus, legislates 
for the whole Cisleithan monarchy, conjointly 
with the Emperor, except in such matters con- 
nected with municipalities, taxation, agriculture, 
education, worship, charity, and public works as 
are reserved for the exclusive or concurrent leg- 
islation of the provincial diets or Landtag,. 
The Austrian Cabinet is composed of the follow- 
ing ministers : Premier and Minister of the In- 
terior, Count Edward Taaffe, appointed Aug. 19 
1879 ; Minister of Education and Ecclesiastical 
Affairs, Dr. Paul Gautsch von Frankenthum ; 
Minisfer of Finance, Dr. J. Dunajewski; Minis- 
ter of Agriculture, Count Julius Falkenhayn ; 
Minister of Commerce and National Economy, 
Marouis von Bacquehem ; Minister of Defense, 
Fiela-Marshal Counts, von Welsersheimb; Min- 
ister of Justice, Count Friedrich von Schoen- 
bom ; without portfolios, Baron von Prazak and 
Ritter von Zaleski 

Finance.— The receipts of the Austrian Gov- 
ernment for 1890 were estimated as follows : 

SOURCES OF RKVKNUK. FlerftM. 

Conodl of Miniatera 7]CV,Q00 

Ministry of t)ie Interior. 1,180,201 

MInifttxy of Defenm S64L156 

Mtnlfltry of Worship and Education 6.900,204 

Finanoe administration 8.159,910 

L»n<ltax ^ 85,810,000 

House tax 81,472,000 

Industrial tax 11.108,000 

Income tax 85.)tS4.000 

Customs 87,291 ,000 

Excise 102.8«),600 

gnJt « «0.«T9,800 

Tobacco 82,J»1.8<)0 

Stamps 18.800,000 

Jadicial fees 88,770,000 

lottery 21,500,000 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 67 

iouwM or REV SM UK. r?*^t^ Deputies and ordering new elections to take 

SSTiiSSSS^.*^::::;::::::;:::::::::::::;: ^^ &^u^ }J''> beginning of March on j«n. 

hwt-oAcc and teic«Ti4>ha 80^77,800 23, when the new uroc^ramme was settled at:.a 

«««"«»• 48,660,660 Cabinet council, M. de Dunaiewski, the most 

?2S^do2iS?***^'''^"°^*'~ imijS prominent Nationalist, or home ruler, in the 

ViBcc ..*!!.'!!'..*!!.!!!'.!!!*.".!!'.*.!.* T*mlB60 ministry, tendered his resignation, and on Feb. 

Other Nceipu of MinUtry of Agricaitiire.... '.'.'.'. 678,666 4, on Lis insisting on immediate retiremeiiit, 

5}J™7oU"^ JJJ;jy2 it was accepted, and Dr. Emil Steinbaeh, pre- 

_ viously Chief Secretary of the Ministry of 

Ordliuiy reTeoiM 680,606,966 Justice, was appointed Minister of Finance in 

i;xi»oi^i»y nswnue i8,2i2,o6i fajs place. The selection of a man who had 

Totelnvenoe. . 648,820006 taken no part in party politics, and who, by a 

The estimates of expenditure" 'for 'the same recent lecture directed acwnst individualism im^ 

year were of the following amounts : capitalism, had acquired the reputation of a So- 

HEADS or KZPENDirmts. Fi«H». cialist, showed Count TaafiPe s desire to make the 

iDpotei bomehoid * l^eSjm Cabinet independent of parties, and to combat 

impeivi ChuoMy.. I *!.'!.'..*.'.'l!i.'! !!!!!. '.!!.'.'.' 74,978 revolutionary Socialism with a programme of 

f^^'Jr-- Tijjg Socialistic legislation. The Social Democrats 

(>wS of MiBtotert!.\\* .'!.*.' .'.*.* .*.'.'.'.*.'.'.*.*.'*.'." .*.'.'.' i,oS!487 ^^^^ ^^^ t^® electoral campaign for the first 

MiaMiyofthe intarior* '.'.*.'.''.'.*.*'.*.*.'/.'.'.'.'.'.''.'.'. 16^606,266 time with a platform ofjprinciples and a regular 

S"!"2!f£*'***ff*^'^i**;; ^!'t?I'?J5 party organization. The Anti-Semites were 

iSSfl^p'?^?.'!^^^^ iwioo join^ by Prince Alois Liechtenstein, the Chri». 

£d«atkHi .*.' .'.".... 18,852,048 tian Socialist, who dropped his Clerical platform 

MtatoofApfcolture 12,068,958 and appealed for the support of all the Anti- 

MiDtotxrofFliiftnoe 84,18^878 SpmitecrounR. 

KtntatiyofJiistioe SO 887 900 oC™»»« grO"P»» 

XiaiitiT of Camame, .'.!!.!]!!.'.'.'!'.'.'.!!!!!!!'. 68,670^420 The EleetloiiB. — The result of the elections 

B<Mrd of Onivcroi 167,700 disappointed the expectation that anew policy 

iSS^.SiTd'Sr!^."''.":";:::.::::::::; '"-M of «M,mpromi»o couiFbe camed ont by rcoi 

FtankuM tod doucioiu 18,798,180 lition With the Qerman Liberals, who had for 

Qooca of comaioD ezpeoditore '.'.[',., 96,7€9,719 twelve Years formed the bulk of the Opix>sition. 

OtdhMTT exDend«tnre 497 780978 ^^^ defeat of the Old Czechs, who lost 86 seats 

£xtn!otdl^«zpeoditara !'.'.!!'.'.!! '.'.!'.!!;; 48*,&48|o62 ^ ^^^ Young Czechs, and were reduced to 10, 

broke up the former majority, and Count Taaffe 

Totol expeDditure 646,806,086 continued his ne^tiations with the German Lib- 
Austria's special debt, contracted since 1868, erals, but their diminished strength did not war- 
which amounted to 332,244,000 florins in 1875, rant the Minister-President in giving them the 
had grown to 681,009,000 florins in 1885, and in influence they expected. They held 110 seats in 
faster progression since to 1,128,483,000 florins a House of 858, having lost 16 to the German 
in 1890. Nationalists and 15 to the Anti-Semites, and of 
Politleal Crisis. — Count Taaife's attempt to the latter 7 were in Vienna, their old stronghold. 
leooDcile the Germans and the Czechs on the The classification of the new Chamber, accord- 
Wis of the formal compact, or AusgUicK ar- ing to parties and national groups, was as fol- 
rived at in JanuaiT, 1890, was brought to naught lows: Grerman Left, 110; German Nationalists, 
by the agitation of the Toung Czechs, who won or Democrats, 16; Anti-Semites, 15; Poles, 67; 
over to their camp the entire Czech nation, leav- Ruthenians, 8 ; Young Czechs, 36 ; Old Czechs, 
in^ powerless the Old Czechs, who were to carry 10 ; Independent Czechs, 3 ; Left Center, 8 ; Cler- 
fmt the agreement. In the autumn session of icals, 31 ; Slovenians and Croats, 23 ; Bohemian 
the Bohemian Diet the question of the official Feudal Conservatives, 18 ; Moravian Czechs, 6 ; 
language was brought into the debate with such Italians, 9 ; German Conservatives, 2. Except 
effect that a fresh defection of Old Czech depu- in Bohemia and German Austria, Conservative 
ties left the Government without the sufficient principles had been victorious, and the complex- 
majority to carry the clauses in the AiiagUieh ion of the new Reichsrath indicated the reten- 
relating to the division of the Diet into national tion of Count Taafe at the head of the Govern- 
sections, or euricBj which was the most important ment and the continued exclusion of the German 
part of the compromise. Not even the law to Liberals from the control of the Government's 
divide the Agricultural Council into national policy, for even the radical Young Czechs would 
groups conld be carried. The impossibility of give their support to any ministry rather than 
reconciling the German and Czechish extremists, one that threatened to revive the centralistic 
the pretension of the Clericals to arrogate to the features of the Liberal propamme. The Poles, 
Church the entire control over education, and who contain Liberals as well as Conservatives in 
the desirability of granting a fair degree of rec- their ranks, but who vote in a solid group, were 
ofn^ition to the Ruthenian, Italian, and other willing to coalesce with the German Liberals if 
smaller nationalities impelled Count TaafiFe to Count Hohenwart*s Federal Conservatives were 
end his relations with his former political allies taken into the league, but these, and the old feud 
and look for a new combination of the moderate between these and the German party, could not 
men of all groups in another Reichstag. The be composed. 

old one had not long to run, the legislative Session of the Reichsrath.— Count Taaffe, 

period ending in June, 1891, and the majority who, as Prime Minister, is responsible to the 

showed signs of . disorganization. On Jan. Emperor, and not to Parliament, was compelled 

25. 1891, ail the parties were surprised by the to meet a Chamber in which he had no pledged 

publication of a decree dissoMng the House of supporters besides the small group of Moderate 



68 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

Gonseryatires. When Parliament opened there Vienna and elsewhere, at which an eight-hour 
was no precedent of procedure for a situation so law, univer:^al suffrage, and a free press were de- 
anomalous. A fierce and protracted debate over manded. Strikes had broken out in the ooal 
the addresses in reply to the speech from the mines of Silesia, which were followed in a few 
Throne was in prospect, when Dr. Smolka, the days by riots that were suppressed by the troops. 
President, left ttie cnair to convey to the House On June 9 the exceptional law of 1884, authonz- 
Count Taaffe's plain admission that he had no ing the Government to make domiciliaiy searches, 
majority, and to beg that controversial matters confiscate letters, dissolve meetings, and order 
be waived and the address confined tu a simple arrests without judicial warrant in Vienna and 
expression of thanks to the Throne. This pro- the suburbs of Wiener Neustadt and Kronen- 
posal was unanimously agreed to, the Toung burg was abrogated by imperial decree, though 
Czechs alone reserving the right to bring for- the right of trying persons accused of revolu- 
ward their special grievances on some future oc- tionary offenses bv special tribunals without a 
casion. Notwithstanding this, they were taunted jury was continued in force, 
by the Old Czechs, who are as strongly Nation- Hnngarv. — The Hungarian Parliament legis- 
aiistic as themselves, but are Conservatives in- lates for all the dominions of the crown of St. 
stead of Democrats. The speech with which the Stephen and for Croatia-Slavonia except in mat- 
Emperor had formally opened the Reichsrath on ters reserved for the Provincial Diet. It is corn- 
April 11 contained a copious list of legislative posed of the House of Magnates, reformed in 
proposals. Vienna was promised a metropolitan i885, and the House of Representatives, consist- 
railroad. Notice was given of the purchase of ing of 453 deputies elected for Hungarian dis- 
several private railroads by the Government tncts and municipalities by direct suffrage, and 
Credits were required for the embankment of 40 delegates for Croatia ana Slavonia- The min- 
rivers to prevent fioods. A project for the com- istry, wnich is responsible to Parliament, is com- 

Sulsory insurance of dwelling houses against posed of the following members : President of 

re was mentioned. The reduction of freight the Council, Count Jufius Szapary, who assumed 

rates on state railroads was recommended. The office on March 7, 1890, as the successor of Kolo- 

oodification of the criminal laws and reforms in man Tisza; Minister of Finance. Dr. Alexander 

civil procedure were declared to be urgent. The Wekerle, appointed April 9, 1889 ; Minister of 

establishment of a medical faculty in the Uni- National Defense, or Honved Minister, Baron 

versity of Lemberg was announced. The lapsing Geza Fejervary ; Minister ad latiis, or near the 

treaties of commerce the Government aimed to King's person, Ladislaus de Sz5g)renimarich, ap- 

renew simultaneously and for a long term of pointed in December, 1890 ; Minister of the In- 

years. An appeal was made to the parties to terior, Count Julius Szapary, appointed in April, 

co-operate harmoniously. The international 1890; Minister of Education and Public Wor- 

situation was said to justify belief in the wish ship. Count Albin Szaky ; Minister of Justice, 

of all European states to live in peace one with Desiderius de Szilagyi, appointed April 9, 1889: 

another. Before the general discussion of the Minister of Industry ana Commerce. Gabriel de 

budget, which took the place of the debate on Baross, appointed Dec. 21, 1886 ; Minister of 

the address, was concluded, Count Taaffe sue- Agriculture, Count Andreas Bethlen, appointed 

ceeded in welding together a working majority, in April, 1889; Minister for Croatia and Sla- 

consisting of the Poles, the German Left, and vonia, Emerich de Josipovich, appointed Ang. 

about 30 Moderate Conservatives. No change 28, 1889. 

in the Cabinet was made during the summer Finance. — The budget estimates for 1891 give 

session, which ended on July 16. One of the re- the revenue from the different branches of t^e 

forms in criminal procedure proposed was to give Administration as follows : 

the courts power to try cases of extortion with ^^^^ ^, ^^^^^^ ^^ 

closed doors, in order that victims of blackmailers gtate debts 4,491^79 

may not be deterred by the dread of publicity Accoantant-Gonenl's office. .'.'....' i .9»5 

from making complaints. The question of in- Ministry JJ* {;'<««•• •••. •» 

demnifving persons uniustly condemned was MinisSy of Finimee"^; ;:::;;:::::::::;:::;::: JtoItSiVs 

made tne subject of a del)ate. The system of MiniBtxyorCommeit^ e9.8M.os« 

civil procedure in Austria has long been ad- M!"}*l!y**I4'"^<i?'*"";vv u; •* ^^SS*!!? 

mitted by every one to be faulty. Sit lawyen. KSJ ;f7n^.': "I!' '"^•*!^:;:::: :::::: ''?«:»S 

cannot agree on the best system to be adopted. Ministry of Defense 8l^900 

The Minister of Justice introduced bills to re- ^_, oao^^^^o 

move some glaring defects in the existing laws. ^SlSS^ry^rerae i:::!^^ ^^^ 

The prospect of the admission of German Lib- 

erals into tne councils of the Government inten- Tot*lreTenue 860,008,668 

sified the irritation of the Young Czwhs, who ^he expenditure under various heads for 

embraced the occasion of the National Bohemian ^qq^ ^^ estimated as follows : 

Exhibition, held during the summer at Prague, 

to organize Panslavist demonstrations. The ciXtet ^' **^*^^™'^*' Ssoooo 

Germans of Bohemia had already attached a cabinet Chsncery '.'.'. *.'.'. '.".*.*.!*.!* !'.'.;!*.'. '.*.*. '.'.'.!'.*. tKsm 

political character to this exhibition of Bohe- Parlitment i,S6W»io 

mian products by ostentatiously abstaining from Qaou of common expenditure ^SSSS 

• 1 . f^ J. ^ renslons fi,To8,2Ci6 

takmgpart ,«,. ^ . i- .• i Natlonaldebt 119,R24,751 

The Labor Question. — The Socialistic work- Ouannteed railroad debts 10,778^818 

ing-men's party polled very few votes in the gen- ?;»"°*t!?J"'*^ "A' " ;; I'SSJ'SSS 

erfi oiectiSS. 'fhe 1st of May i»ssed without 5^?„'LrG?n"/™S-r«c.;:::::::::::;:::::::: *1^ 

disorder, though many meetmgs were held in Minister- Presidency 88e,i60 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 69 

HiASB Of- KXPDf DiTUVK. "•Sf^ftA brought a long distance from their homes some 

MtatoSJfcJSSSui::::::::::::::: *: wS accommodation shouW be given. Theblll.which 

iitatotry of tha inttriot. !!*..*!!!.".!'..'.!!.'..*'!.'.' .' 11,898.210 Hins for eight years, contains a clau se, intended 

MfDistiT of Fiuoce fl0,67e,fi54 to check the growth of the Socialist and An ti-Se- 

llSS^JfSSSurre:::::::::::::::::::::::: SoSUo mitjcmoyement,whichdisquaiifiesamemberw^^^^ 

liintotiy of worahip and Instraction 7,«H0&5 withm three months previous to his election shall 

Mtetetirof jfoMiee iS,6»i,BM in Speech or print have excited to hatred against 

MiJiMiy 0/ Defense .... 11,008,015 nationalities or creeds or denounced the insti- 

Ofdinary ezpeoditiiro 842,671,190 titions of marriage or property, or promised a 

TTMfitory ezpendUnra 8,180,672 general distribution of public property or private 

iBTeMmeoti. 11,781,787 wealth. To influence tte debate. Deputy Ueron, 

Eztnofdiiitty eommon expenditure QfiSXim of the Extreme Left, quoted what he said was 

Total ezpenditwe. 860004,548 ^**® secret oath taken by Hungarian Cabinet 

* ministers, an antique fonnula pledging absolute 

Hungary's special debt has grown from 719,- obedience and devotion to the monarch. There 

544,000 florins in 1876 to 1,582,259,000 florins in was no hope of passing the 278 clauses of the 

1890. Administrative Reform bill, and when the princi- 

Parliamentary Session.— The time of Par- pie of the bill had been approved by a vote of 

liament was largely taken up in the session of 188 to 88, the ministry resorted to an unusual 

1891 with a determined struggle over a Govern- expedient. On Aug. 4 Count Szapary announced 

ment bill to reform the administration of coun- the withdrawal of the original bill and the sub- 

tiesw The bill was approved by the great land stitution of another, consisting of two clauses-— 

owners, although it curtailed their pri^ileees, the first empowering the Government to ap)K)int 

and by many of the champions of popular rignts, certain classes of county officials, and the second 

becaose it was designed to reform gross abuses authorizing the Government to adopt such regu- 

iD the local administrations and in the electoral lations in regard to the details of the new coun- 

mtem. Under the feudal arrangements that tv government as in its discretion seem best. 

hare obtained hitherto, the landed gentry, large Oount Albert Apponyi and the Moderate Oppo- 

ind small, have had full control of the local sition pronouncea tliis device unconstitutional ; 

goTernment in their districts, the selection of the but Count Szapary persisted, and succeeded in 

oonnty officials, nominally elective, and a decisive carrying the substitute bill bv the vote of the 

influence in national elections. The Govern- Liberal majority on Aug. 9. 'the other business 

ment proposed to make the chief county officers of the session was got through with, and on 

and the magistrates nominees of the Crown. Au^. 17 the Parliament was prorogued, to meet 

The responsible leader of the Opposition sup- again on Oct. 8, prejparatory to the assembling of 

ported the principle of the bill, but the extreme the delegations m Vienna. 
Opposition, composed largely of the petty nobil- Postal Congress. — The fourth congress of 

itr. whose prerogatives were at stake, denounced the Universal Postal Union met at Vienna on 

the measure as an attempt to destroy the electoral May 20, 1891, and dissolved 6n July 4. The 

franchise by giving the Government power to treaty arrangements between the members of the 

pQt electioneering agents in the chief local of- Union respecting rates of postage and charges 

fioe^ and also as the abrogation of ancient rights for forwarding mails by snip or land convey- 

«f local self-government. Count Szapary gave ance, were revised and consolidated in a new 

a public promise that as soon as the bill was convention that will go into operation on July 

pa5i$ed be would introduce another to secure full 1, 1892. To secure the entrance into the Union 

insedom of voting. Count Apponyi expressed of the Australasian colonies, the Congress offered 

himself as satisfira with this pledge. The ex- to accord to them the position of separate states, 

trpme Opposition declared that they would not which wa8 already en joyed by the Indian Empire 

let the bill pass without the insertion of electoral and the Dominion of Canada. On their account 

safeguards. One of their demands was that dis- also the question of reducing both letter rates 

poteii elections should be decided by the law and transit charges was put aside to be consid- 

coorts, and not by the Parliament ; and the ered by the next congress. In regard to this 

Prime Minister promised to bring in a bill to question some of the plenipotentiaries expressed 

accomplish this, and to establish a tribunal for themselves in favor oi abolishing all charges for 

the settlement of disputes between the authori- forwarding mails between countries belonging 

ties and private persons. The Administrative to the Union by the sea or land service of a 

Reform bill was introduced before the close of third country and of establishing a single uni- 

May. A week was consumed in discussing its form rate of international postage. An innova- 

title. several weeks were spent in debating its tion in international rates and arrangements 

principle, and three more were g^ven up to the was the rule adopted that every country of the 

fir^t clause. Ten substitute bills were offered by Union shall henceforward supply the public 

members of the Opposition for the mere purpose with post cards with prepaid replies. It was 

"f obstruction, wnich was continued after the further decreed that recipients of underpaid 

OoTemment had redeemed its promises by offer- letters must not be charged more than the full 

ing bills to remove the trial of electoral petitions rate of postage. Another rule was laid down 

to the Supreme Court, and to forbid official ac- that when countries charge a higher rate than 5 

tivity in elections and insure the freedom of the cents a half-ounce for letters sent over the sea, 

p'ipular vote. The latter measure disqualifies they must make the rate uniform for all dcsti- 

<»ndidates and disfranchises electoral districts nations that are reached under equal conditions. 

for bribery, but allows a certain liberty in treat- This will affect Great Britain, from which the 

iiig, on the plea that to rural voters who are postage to British colonics has been 2^ (/., but to 



70 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY. 

foreigrn countries similarly situated 4 d. Aregnla- convention binds the goYemments of countries 
tion that benefits Great Britain more than other of toe Union to introduce such a law if they 
nations legalizes the practice, that has existed have not one already in force. Reciprocity was 
only by international courtesy, of forwarding also arranged for, after a long discussion, in re- 
closed mail bags to ships of war on foreign sta- gard to the detection and punishment of frauds 
tions. Postal cards of one country posted in on the postal revenue by means of counterfeit or 
another will not, as heretofore, be suppressed, cleaned stamps. The plenipotentaries undertook 
but will be forwarded and delivered to the in behalf of their Governments to have a meas- 
addressee as unpaid letters, on which letter ure for the punishment of forgery of foreign 
postage is to be collected. Hereafter letters can stamps presented to their respective legisla- 
be posted on board mail packets by affixing tures. The Congress discussed details of internal 
stamps of the country to which the ship belongs, postal administration, and revised and elaborated 
unless she is in port, in which case it must oe the former agreements relative to the intema- 
the stamp of the country to which the post be- tional parcel post, money orders, registered let- 
longs The post-office in East India and some ters, the collection of bills and drafts, subscrip- 
other countries not only forwards consignments tion to newsf^pers and periodicals, and certin- 
of merchandise in suitable packages, but the cates of identity for travelers. The rate of pay- 
price payable on delivery may be collected by ment for international money orders was fixed 
the letter carrier and remitted through the post- at 1 per cent., and for small sums the minimum 
office to the consignor. The international mail charge was reduced from 40 to 20 pfennigs — that 
service has now been made available for this is, 10 cents. The limit was raised from 500 to 
purpose to countries that have adopted or shall 1,000 francs. A clearing-house scheme for the 
adopt this custom. The practice of stamping adjustment of balances of postal accounts 
the name and address of the sender on the ad-> through the medium of the International Bureau 
dress side of a postal card gains space for a at Bern was adopted at the suggestion of the 
longer communication on the blank side. By German Postmaster-GeneraL Mr. Wanamaker*s 
a new rogulation the signature and address may idea of an international postage stamp, offered 
be written. Till now correspondence in transit without preliminary notice and without the 
to countries outside the Union has been charged elaboration of a working scheme, was regarded 
so much per letter ; but by the new treaty the as impracticable, in view of the difficulties aris- 
Union countries agree to transmit mails to ing from differences in currency and varia^ 
non-Union countries at an average rate for tions in the rates of exchange. One of the 
sea transit, to be fixed at triennial periods advantages would be that it would enable a 
on the basis of the statistics of traffic, a& writer to inclose a stamp in his letter, and 
in the case with Union correspondence. This thus insure a reply without putting a foreign 
change will enable the countries of the Union correspondent to expense for postage. The 
to establish moderate uniform rates of post- Britisn and the Indian delegates suggested 
age to all places outside the Union. The maxi- plans for furthering this feature of the 
mum dimensioils of packets of merchandise, scheme bj means of prepaid reply stamps on 
samples, patterns, specimens, etc., admissable to the principle of return post cards, and the Brit^ 
the mails have by a former rule of the Union ish aelegate moved to refer these proposals and 
been 20 centimetres in length, 10 in width, and the American scheme, in so far as it related to 
5 in thickness, or approximately 8 by 4 by 2 prepaying the answer to a letter, to the Inter- 
inches. By a special arrangement between the national Bureau for examination. The chief 
United States, France, Great Britain, Italy, Bel- of the German postal administration. Dr. von 
gium, Switzerland, Portugal, Greece, Luxem- Stephan, being opposed to the least step toward 
burg, Argentina, and Japan samples could pass removing the sentimental barriers between na- 
between those countries in packages not exceed- tions, argued strongly against this motion, which 
ing 80 by 20 by 10 centimetres, or 12 inches in was "teject^d. It is not unlikely that a reply- 
length, 6 in width, and 4 in thickness, and of the paid postage stamp may be instituted in the 
maximum weight of 12 ounces. These larger postal intercourse oetween the United States, 
limits of size have been adopted for the whole of the United Kingdom, the British colonies, and 
the Union, though the conventional limit of India. Throughout the session of the congress 
weight remains 8 ounces. The representatives the delegations from the United States and 
of countries in which wine, oils, indigo, madder. Great Britain generally approved and worked 
and other dye stuffs and substances that might for the same objects, and were supported by the 
escape and damage letters were unsucessful. as representatives from India and Canada, and. in 
they had been at the previous congress at Lis- most cases, by the Egyptian delegate, although 
bon in 1885, in securing the admission to the it had been suspected in the beginning that the 
letter mails of samples of such articles, which refusal of England to organize sorting offices on 
must continue to be sent by parcel post to coun- mail steamships, such os have been instituted 
tries that exclude them from their letter mail for the convenience of the American postal an- 
bags. In some countries the law makes the thorities on the German packets, might lead the 
postage on unpaid or insufficiently prepaid mail American delegates, William Potter and Capt. 
matter, when it has not been collected from the Brooks, to favor Germany's side in contentious 
addressee, recoverable from the sender. The questions. 



BALLOONING, MODERN. 71 



B 

BALLOONING* MODERN. Practical bal- found useful in determining the size of the bal- 

loonine comprises both the manufacture and the loon required. To obtain the number of cubic 

use of balloons. There are two kinds of balloon feet in a sphere, multiply the surface by one 

—the hydrogen or gas balloon, and the Mont- sixth of the diameter. To determine the num- 

golfier or hot-air balloon. The former is the ber of square feet in the surface of a sphere, 

roost important, and claims the greater part of multiply the diameter in feet by the number of 

oar attention here. feet in the circumference. 

A complete hydrogen balloon consists of the The Pattern. — For a pattern use manilla roll 
^ envelope ana valve, netting and ropes, wicker paper of sufficient lengtn and width. At one 
car, concentrating ring, and anchor, to which end of the paper write '* tip," and at the other 
ma? be added a drag rope and a collapsine cord. " neck " : then draw the following lines : First 
For inflation pure hydrogen gas is used, also one running from end to end, an inch from one 
carbureted hyarogen or coal gas, and sometimes of the edges. Measure from tip to neck the 
water ga& Sand Imgs are reouired to retain the exact length of the gore as previously calculated, 
balloon in position during innation, and more or and add three inches for loss by seams. Divide, 
less sand is usnally carri^ in the car as ballast, with a pair of compasses or other convenient 
Every a^nmant should be capable of making his instrument, the whole length into thirty-six 
own balloon, but, in the almost total absence of equal parts, and draw lines across the paper at 
practical information, most of them beoome old the points of division. Then take a strip of 
befoiip learning all that is necessary on the sub- paper or wood one inch wide and one inch less in 
J€Ct Silk^ linen, or cotton, or combinations of length than the width of the paper or the cloth, 
these, are the fabrics we have to deal with for and with a pencil make a measure by dividing 
the manufacture of the envelope or gas holder, the strip into ten equal parts ; subilivide these 
The best of these is silk, of which there are each into ten parts ; and, lastly, divide these sub- 
many kinds that answer equally well. Linen, divisions each into ten parts. Thus we shall 
at first sight, would seem to be the next best obtain a scale of one thousand parts. For con- 
material for balloon construction, but expe- yenience we shall call the divisions on the scale 
rience has proTed otherwise ; the fabric is ** marks," counting from 1 to 1,000. With this 
heavy, and becomes hard and brittle when var- measure we can determine the points through 
Dished, and a balloon made of it is continually which the curve line of the pattern must pass, 
breaking into holes. Cotton, of various weights Place the end of the scale or measure at the line 
and makes, is most in use, because it is cheap, first drawn, one inch from the edge of the paper, 
will last as long as the oil varnish, and answers near the tip end and beside line No. 1. The 
erery purpose in ordinary ballooning. Strength length of this line to the point through which 
is obtained by using the heavier qualities, and the curve passes will be 87 marks ; with a pencil 
almost any degree of lightness may be had by make a cross at the point, and proceed to line 
using the 'finer grades. The best heavy cotton No. 2, which will be 178 marks in length, and 
for this purpose is the bleached Wamsutta so on, connecting afterward the points thus 
sheeting. It is a common error to suppose that marked by a curve line. If the balloon is to be 
anbleached cotton is mora suitable for the pur- made pei^ectly round, with a cylindrical neck 
pose than bleached. It is possible that a half- attached, the pattern must be pointed at both 
oleached cloth might be stronger, but the spongt- ends ; but if it is to be slightly elongated at the 
ness of unbleached goods is detrimental to their bottom, with a gradual development of the neck, 
Qse. Wamsutta, however, on account of its the pattern is extended in length and the curve 
weight, is suitable only for very large balloons, graaually turned outward, as in the diagram. 
Lonsdale sheeting is lighter and better adapted The pattern must be cut along the curve line, 
to medium sizes. Lonsdale cambric is still Lay out the cloth on a long table, and cut into 
lighter, and may be used for balloons of twenty- lengths of a little over two thirds that of the 
five or thirty thousand cubic feet capacity. The pattern, or exactly eight inches below line 24, 
proper shape of balloons for economy in mate- and call the end the " butts." Lay the pieces 
rial, weight, and gas, as well as for facility in successively one upoQ another until all are down, 
tnanagement, is globular, and consequently we taking care that t ne edgedi on one side are kept 
shall consider no other. even. On the cloth thus arranged lay the pat- 
The first thing in order is to ascertain the tern even with the butts, ana after putting 
ciaantity of cloth required, which may be done weights upon it proceed to cut, with a knife and 
in the following manner : To determine the straight-edge, through all the layers at once, con- 
number of breadths, divide the circumference in tinuing from point to point along the curve. 
inches by the number of inches in width of ma- After cutting it will be necessary, for the guid- 
terial, deducting one inch for each seam. The ance of the sewers, to mark with a pencil each 
length of the gores will be equal to half the cir- layer of the cloth, on both edges, at the ends of 
cnmference. Multiply the number of breadths the cross lines from 1 to 24. The pieces cut 
b? the number of yards in the length of a gore ; from the tip to the equator are to be readjusted 
deduct one fourth of the product, and the result with the broad ends evenly matched and their 
'ill be the total quantity in yards required to edges arranged as before. Reverse the pattern 
nzake the balloon. The following rules will be and place line 12 at the butt«, and with the 



72 



BALLOONING, MODERN. 



87 
178 
S58 

402 
600 

678 
MS 
707 
706 
810 
866 
006 
060 
065 
004 
006 
1000 
006 
084 
066 
080 
006 



\ 
U 



\ 



1 

2 

8 

4 

6 

6 

7 

8 



10 

11 

18 

18 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

10 

80 

81 



94 

5 



/ 



knife trim ofiF the surplus, 
lea vine: the curve already 
lorroed in the cloth to 
serve for the neck, or al- 
tering it to suit the taste. 
Mark this portion for the 
sewers the same as the 
upper part. Before the 
pieces are lifted from 
their places the^r must all 
be marked with cross 
lines at double the dis- 
tance of those on the pat- 
tern, beginning at the 
center (line 18) and work- 
ing each way, using the 
marks on the edges as 
guides. Along these cross 
nnes are to be sewed the 
stays, which give addi- 
tional strengtn to the 
balloon. After marking 
half of the layers from 
tip to neck, the remain- 
der must be turned over 
and marked on the re- 
verse side. 

The breadths are now 
ready for sewing into 
gores, each gore being 
two breadths in width. 
The cross lines represent 
the interior of the bal- 
loon, and a breadth taken 
from the first and another 
from the second set of 
markings are matched, 
when their straight edges 
are to be sewed together 
with the cross lines inside 
facing each other. The 
seam is made by first 
sewing through the two 
thicknesses alMut half an 
inch from the edge, then 
the breadths are opened, 
the seam laid over to 
the right, tucked in, and 
hemmed down. The sew- 
ing must always be done 
from the tip downward. 

Having joined all the 
pairs of the upper set by 
sewing their selvages to- 
gether, do the same by 
the lower set ; but in this 
case begin the sewing al- 
ways at the broad end, 
working toward the neck. 
The gores may then be 
sewed together by adding 
one gore after another, 
until half of them have 
been joined, then put the 
others together m the 
same way, always begin- 
ning at the tip end for 
the upper part, and at the 
broaa end of the lower 
part. This will result in 
two upper and two lower 



parts. The sewinf on of stays and collapsing 
cord are next in order. The stays are made from 
strips of the balloon material folded to three 
thicknesses, forming a tape about half an inch in 
width. These tapes are sewed along the marks 
prepared for them ; but care must l^ taken not 
to vary the relative position of the balloon while 
sewing, otherwise the ends of the stays will nut 
match on the opposite sides. Keep the tip of the 
top parts to the right hand, and the broad or 
butt end of the lower parts to the ri^ht. The 
** collapsing cord," or " rip line," is made by sew- 
ing a strong cotton cord about one eighth of an 
inch thick to a strip of the balloon material about 
4 inches wide and several yards in length, ac- 
cording to the size of the balloon. About 7 
yards will answer for a balloon of 25,000 cubic 
feet capacity. The cord is sewed along the mid- 
dle of the strip to within an inch or two of 
either end, the surplus cord remaining attached. 
The sewing of the cord to the strip should be 
made with No. 8 cotton, well waxed, doubled, 
and back-stitched on, for this stitching is de- 
pended upon for tearing the strip when occasion 
requires. The strip is to cover the cord and to 
be sewed on the outside of the balloon, beginning 
at the butts and running upward along the side 
of one of the straight seams. Both edges and 
the two ends of the strip are to be sewea down ; 
but before the upper end is closed the surplus 
cord must be passed through a hole to be made 
for the purpose, to the inner side of the balloon. 
A portion of the surplus cord is sewed zigzag in 
a bag or pocket 6 inches wide and 3 feet long, 
which is to be stitched on the inside of the 
balloon just above the hole made to admit the 
cord. The cord, suspended from this bag, can 
hang loosely or be slightlv tacked along one of 
the seams down through the neck of the balloon. 
The zigzag cord in the bag diminishes the dan- 
ger of any accidental jerk tearing the balloon, 
as the Gord must tear entirely from the bag be- 
fore a rupture takes place. 

Both the stays and the collapsing cord may 
be dispensed with by those who choose to take 
the risk, for they are not in general use ; but 
the stays prevent any accidental tear extending 
the whole length of the balloon, while the col- 
lapsing cord, tnough seldom needed, is a remark- 
ably good thing when the necessity for its use 
occurs. 

If ornamentation is intended, this is next in 
order. Letters, stripes, scrolls, festoons, pictui*es 
— anything — may be painted on without the least 
injury to tne fabric, and any kind of ornamenta- 
tion is far more agreeable to the eye than the 
naked cloth. The colors should be well selected, 
and may consist of stains or finely ground pig- 
ments. Carmine makes the finest crimson, and 
should be dissolved in water with the addition 
of a little ammonia. Soluble blue gives light or 
dark shades. Ultramarine blue is a very bright 
color, and mixed with other pigments is useful, 
particularly in forming a stable purple with In- 
dian red. Chrome yellow, chrome green, raw 
and burnt sienna, lam(>-black, and well-powdered 
bone-black, may all be used to produce the 
tints required ; but care must be taKen never to 
use vermilion, on account of its decomposing 
action upon the oil varnish. Umber should be 
used veiy sparingly, if at all, as it becomes hard 



BALLOONING, MODERN. 73 

and liable to crack. These colors should be is kept stirred, but this substaoce redissolves, 

mixed with starch of about the consistency of and need cause no uneasiness. No addition to 

that used in the laundry, and the combination the oil seems to be of the slightest advantage, 

is best made while the starch is hot. The and the purer it is kept from all contamination 

colors may be applied with broad, flat brushes, the better it is. A slight addition of sulphur 

though almost any kind of painter's brush will prevents foaming and allows the raising of the 

answer, and where the same figure is to be re- neat to a greater degree, but the addition of sul- 

peated many time^ stencils cut from oiled or phur would be likely to cause a corrosive action 

Tarnished paper may be used. on the fiber of the balloon. 

The ornamentation completed, all the parts The thick oil varnish is to be thinned down 
are to be joined together. First the lower ones when wanted for use by the addition of benzine 
are to be sewed to the upper portions by a cross until it will sprinkle freely through a watering 
seam at the battings, taxing care to match all pot with a tolerably fine rose, 
the seams to one another perfectly. This done. The balloon is now stretched out at full length, 
the two halves only remain forclosing. Heretofore and folded one breadth upon another. When 
all the seams have parsed over the sewing ma- this has been accomplishea, take the watering 
chine in a continuous way from front to back, pot and sprinkle the top layer, using judgment 
while the closing seams are done by bringing as to the quantity required to give the first coat- 
forward small portions at a time from behina ing. When this is done, turn over the first layer, 
the machine. Begin by sewing at the tip on treating the subsequent ones in like manner, un- 
the first row, but only 2 yards before turning til all nave been sprinkled. Then, while it is 
o?er and sewing down the reverse side, join t<H still wet with the mixture of benzine and oil, 
gether such stays as have been included, con- begin at the tip end and roll the balloon up 
tinue the sewing, reversing and joining the tigntly. Give it an occasional turn over, so that 
stars 2 yards at a time all the way down, and the diluted oil may permeate every part. These 
then treat the last seam in like manner, begin- operations must not take place in the sun, or it 
ning at the tip and sewing downward. The top will not be safe to roll up tne balloon, for fear of 
of the balloon should be lined with an extra spontaneous combustion. After the lapse of 
thickness, 6 to 8 feet across. At the junction several hours the balloon may be unrolled and 
of the seams a round hole is to be cut to admit opened, when the oil will be found well soaked 
the valve. A disk of leather having an upright through the entire fabric. If any bare places 
collar attached, and resembling a broad-brim hat show themselves, they are readily covered. Dry- 
without a crown, is stitched on around the open- ing in the shade i^to be preferred when time is 
in^, ready for the introduction of the valve. no object ; but when it is, the sun accelerates the 

The YamislL — The balloon must be coated process. The first coating should have time, if 
with some suitable material for closing the in- possible, to season in the shade after it has been 
terstices of the fabric, to give it gas-retaining dried in the sun, as spontaneous combustion is 
qualities. A nearly perfect skin, or film, is less likely to occur when the first coat has had 
aimed at, and this may be obtained in various time to harden. The subsequent coats may be 
wars, but the onl^ materials that seem practi- put on in the same manner as the first, or the 
calif suited to this purpose are linseed oil and work may be hastened by two men following the 
India rubber. The former is by far the easiest sprinkler with soft brooms, for the purpose of 
of application, while the latter makes much the distributing the oil equally to every part. As 
lightest weight balloon. Linseed oil is broup^ht many as four coats will be required to make the 
to the right consistency for forming a flexible balloon sufficiently gas tight. 
Tarnish of quick-drying properties by prolonged Spontaneous Conibn8tion.~It should be un- 
heat or long exposure and frequent stirring in derstood that oil varnishes, when applied to 
the open air. Fine, limpid oil, made from Cal- fabrics of anv kind, are liable to spontaneous 
cutta seed, gives the best results. A copper combustion, the tendency being increased when 
kettle must be used for the process, as iron is the drying has been done by artificial heat, or in 
liable to oxidation, which ruins the varnish. The the sun. This liability passes awav in a few 
kettle must not be filled bv at least one fifth of weeks, but until the seasoning has taken place, it 
its capacity, as the oil swells with the heat and is extremely unsafe to remove the balloon any 
is liable at certain stages to foam. The kettle considerable distance, even when it is packed 
may be permanently fixed and the fire made loosely, unless steps have been taken to counter- 
movable, or the kettle may be movable and the act the difficulty. There is no danger of heating 
fire a fixture, but one or the other is necessary, when the balloon is extended at full len^^th in 
The heating should be governed bv the aid of a the shade. But when it is rolled up tightlv, 
thermometer, and mnst never be allowed to rise even if left in the open air, charring will surely 
\o .^* F., as it is liable to burst out into flame; take place in a few hours. Where shipment is 
hut it may be allowed to rise to 400'' with safety, necessary, it has been found that sprinkline the 
and if run at this heat for twenty-four hours will balloon over with some of the lignter proaucts 
be sufficiently done to answer the purpose. When of petroleum, as, for instance, kerosene, or a mixt- 
cool it will be as stiff as the thickest molasses in ure of this with benzine, is a sure preventive of 
cold weather, and quite stringy when tried be- spontaneous combustion. After seasoning has 
tween the thumb and finger. Constant stirring taken place, which may be determined by rolling 
while over the fire is beneficial, and the oil should up tigntly and carefully observing the result, 
never be covered except to raise the heat to the the balloon may be packed away with safety, 
nsqaired degree. At 212" the water contained in Rnbber-coated Balloons. — Balloons made 
the oil boils off, and later, as the heat rises, a impermeable by India-rubber may consist of one 
Hrer-like substance is formed in the oil, unless it or more thicknesses of silk or cotton, and the 



74 BALLOONING, MODERN. 

stren^h of malerial and imperviousness maj valve opened by an aocumulation o( nin. It is 
thus M increased to anjr desinnl extent—tor thit well to hnve the clappers of this style of vaXie 
reason, rubber is the only EUitable substance for vorked up into a bulging form, from the groove 
coating balloons of extraordinary dimensions. Co the center, in order that they may be som^ 
The great UifFard balloon of the Paris Eiposi- what stiffened. The sharp edge, which is fltte>d 
tion was made of aeveral layers of cambric and into the groove of the clapper, wilt be placed, in 
rubber cemented togetbur. To prepare the rul>- this valve, at the upper edge of the rim, but bent 
ber solution, sheets of the elastic material are downward to meet the CToove. Staples are no 
suspended in barrelH or cans containing benzine, the under side of the Uppers, to which cords 
and a few hours will sufUce U> soften the gum so are attached, forming a loop or loope for con- 
that it mav be stirred into a pasty miiture. To necting the valve cordiwhich passes down through 
this is adiled, from time to time, minute doses the neck of the balloon into the oar. 
of bichloride of sulphur in beniine, taking sev- To insert the valve, we hava simplv to draw 
erol days for the operation, at the end of which the leather collar in tlie top of the balloon over 
time the proper coagulation mar have taken the lower flange and around the rim, securely 
place. This rubber solution is applied, by means lashing it in its place. The upper edge of the 
of a spreading- machine, to the cloth before cut- collar is then turned down, and another lashing 
ting. Each coat is slightly dusted with steatite, is made over it, to which are tied eight cords, 
to give more body, and when enough coats have arranged at equal distances, apart, forming the 
been laid on, it may be taken from the machine net attachments. 

and rolled up. If it is to be used singly, it is The Net.— This is not so difBcult to make as 

ready to be made into a t>alloon ; but it it is re- is generally thouehL It is begun at the top or 

quired to be doubled, the surface is left in a center, continuea downward, and at the lower 

sticky state and the faces of two pieces are pressed edge merges into tabs, to which are attached the 

together. The cost of rubber coating exceeds ropes proceeding to the concentrating ring. A 

that of oil varnishing ; but some advantage is net must not only be strong enough to bear the 

gained in lightness and lasting qualities. load that the gas will lift, but must be eqnaJ to 

The Talve. — The imperfection of the balloon the strain brought upon it by the wind during 

valve seems to have been a considerable source inflation. It is of especial importance that the 

of annoyance, even to the French aSronauts, who net should be strong enough at the top, near the 

frequently mention the "cataplasm," or poul- vulve. where the meshes must bo small, mi that 

tice with which if a break occurs in one it would not extend eas- 

ihey are in the hab- ily to the rest The top is really the weak part 

it of stuffing their cl the net, particularly for captive balloons. 

wooden TBl\eB to Several m'tances are known of balloons passing 

make them gas through their nets from meshes breaking at the 

tisht. This seems center but fortunately no captive balloon ho.'i 

abarbarous mode ever met with tbb accident while in the air. 

of procedure, which although it is liable to occur at any time if due 

IS indeed unneces- care is not taken Cotton twine makes the best 

sary fnravnlvecan net silk would of course be light, strong, and 

be made of metal soft, but its costliness puts it out of the question, 

which will be per except for special cases. Flax or hempen cord, 

fectly free from though strong at first, soon weakens, and when 

leakage without any wet with rain will shrink several feetl mining a 

such outward appi I- close- fitting net too small for tlie balloon, while 

cation, and it may under similar circumstances, cotton shows little 

t>e as large as three or no change. The strength of twine reqiiired 

feet in diameter, if must be determined by the size of the balloon. 

required. The fiest metal for the purpose is cop- For the smaller ones, a mesh should not break 

er,and oneof the worstis brass. The latterwill with a weight of seventy-five pounds, and for 
corroded by (tontact with the gas, while the the largest it should bear two hundred pounds. 
former will not. The size of the valve must bear At a convenient height suspend a hoop, and 
someproportlontotiiatof the balloon.from twelve tie on it, say, one hundred loops, each about 
totwenty-fonrinchesdiameterbeingsnillcientfor three inches long. Begin bv knitting the first 
ordinary ones. A valve twelve inches in diuro- row to these loops, and on tne succeeding rows 
eter is large enough tor a balloon of 23,000 cubic enlarge the number, by adding tor the first few 
feet capacity. The smallest of these need not rounds four meshes, then three, two, and Anally 
weigh more than three pounds. They are mode one mesh, until the number is sufficient to en- 
of rolled sheet copper, and consist of a U-shaped circle the largest part of the balloon, after 
rira, a cross bar, two clappers, abridge, and a set which the knitting will continue to the end 
of rubber springs. The clappersof the valve are without further increase of the number. The 
covcrod with soft leather, and a projecting edge meshes may be frequently enlarged also, accord- 
on the rim and cross piece presses the leather Ing to judgment. At the distance of eight or 
into a groove near the edges of the clappers, ten feet from the lower edge the net divides into 
The largest valves would ^ther so much water twenty or more parts, which are knitted sepa- 
in case of rain that it ia recommended to have the rately, and form the tabs to which the net ropes 
clappers as nearly flush as possible with the upper are to be attached. If two hundred meshes are 
pai^ of the rim instead of the lower, an arrange- on the last round, and twenty attachments nre 
ment that adds somewhat to the cost of its con- wanted, we begin the tab by knitting on to tpn 
structioD, but obviates the danger of having Ihe meshes, then return, first making a loop or halt- 




BALLOONING, MODERN. 



76 



moll, on the nde of the tab. When the other 
point from vbich we started haa been reached 
tgain, wBm«ke the last meeb on the ride b; includ- 




in? 1 cord th&t was lelt hanginR at the be^nning- 
ot [he tab. Thus knitting right and left, adding 
the half-mesh on one side and the loose cord on 
the other, we at last complete the tab bj gath- 
ering and tyinK the lower meshes together, 
Ropea of nuuiilta hemp serve for the attach- 
ments to the concentrating ring. The top of 
the net is finished hj cutting awaj the loops on 
■hith the first ronnd was made, and then knit- 
ling with a double cord to the one hundred 
meshes, taking up two meshes at a time. A 
nrcle formed oy passing a small rope through 
Ihe last meshes completes the work. The net 
"Till rords. when stretched at full length, should 
kc tao or three feet longer than the Dalloon. 

The Concentrattn; Ring.— This may be of 
wood or metal. A largo mast-hoop, smoothly 
Pressed down, answetB the purpose Terv well. 
Itihoold bo strong enough to resist *ny slrain 
rh« may be brought to bear upon it. Tivo 
W>ps of manilla rope have their ends spliced to 
l)ie hoop at eqnal distances apart, and hang 
Anwn a fool or more. To these loops the 
titehor rope and drag rope are attached. Neither 
ai the roi>es should ever be fastened directly 
tn the hoop, aa the latter may be broken by so 

The Wicker Car.— The car shonld be made 
. nf willow, as this is the lightest matorial that 
can be used for the purpose, and gires an un- 
eqnaled decree of elasticity. Kattan is often 
nsnl, althouf-h it is much heavier. It wears 
^11, and mar sometimes bo added with adran- 
t»?e to the willow car. Tho shape of the car is 
B asiiet o( tasto. A closely woven basket of an 



oval pattern is generally preferred. Sis or 

eight strong ropes are woven into the willow, 
passing through the bottom and sides of the car 
and making from twelve to sixteen attachments 
to the concentrating ring. A convenient car to 
seat twelve or more persons is made with the 
addition of extended sides, which may be perma- 
nent or detachable, by having the parts made 
separately and attaching by rope laces. The ex- 
tension forms the seats, and has another set ot 
ropes to be fastened to an extra . hoop, larger 
than the concentrating ring. 

Floats.— Around the sides of the car, either 
within or without, may be lashed one or more 
floats. A contrivance that is light and always 
attainable consists, according to the size of the 
car, of from fifty to one hundred hermetically 
sealed fruit cans in a long, stent canvas hose just 
lar^e enough for the cans to slip in. This forms 
a life-preserver in the water, and no one need 
fear drowning, though cut loose from the bal- 
loon. BO long as he stays by the car. Those who 
are cognizant of the many disasters that have 
happened to aErial voyagers for want of some 
means of keeping afloat when falling into the 
water will fully appreciate the value of this sim- 
ple device. 

The Drag Rone.— This useful appendage is 
nsnallv about 850 feet long, is simply a stout 
manilla rope, of a weight proportioned to the 
balloon. The lower end is pointed, and the 
strands are well sewed together to prevent ravel- 
ing. It has come into use within the past thiriy 
Stars, though it was suggested by Green, the 
nglish aSmnaut. long before as a good appli- 
ance for preventing an erratic descent into the 
water. Some practice is required to reconcile 
the aSronaut to its use; for while it has many 
good points, it has some bad ones also, the worst 
of which is its liability to entanglement in tree- 
tops. The balloon is checked in its downward 
course when the rope begins to rest on land, 
water, or forest, and with the means of tempora- 
rily escaping woods or wat«r the aeronaut is 
pretty sure of finding a good landing-piace- 
Fjnally, the drag mpe will help him to a safe 
descent by its frictional. hold-back qualities. 

The Anchor. — An ordinary boat anchor will 
answer the purpose. Some use flvc-pronged 
grapnel hooks, which are most eflective when 
the prongs are straight and three-sided like bay- 
onet A thin, diamond- shaped steel plate on 
the end of each gives a better hold in soft ground. 
Large balloons should have two ancbois attachi^ 
to the same rope, one a little in advance of the 
other. A boat anchor and a straight-pronged 
grapnel are very effective. 

Size of Balloons.— A balloon of 7,000 enbic 
feet capacity may be made light enough, when 
filled with hydrogen gas. to carry a man of 180 
pounds and some balWt. A conacitj' of about 
12,000 cubic feet of coal gas will bo required for 
one man. But neither of these balloons can 
carry much extra weight, and experienced ai^ro- 
nauts will not consent to such n limit. The sizes 
in genera! use range between 13.000 and 100,000 
cubic feet. A party of 9 perw)ns ascended with 
a balloon of 1)2.000 cubic feet capacity from the 
Centennial grounds in Philadelphia, carrying 
with them a Inr^o quantity of ballast. They were 
nineteen hours in the air, and landed near Perth 



BALLOONING, MODERN. 



Aroboj, N. J., coceidenbly less tbaa 100 milas 
from the sUrting point. 

The balloon ia capable of muah j^reater devel- 
opment than is dreamed of at present. It is 
possible to make one that could sail around the 
globe ; but until there cornea a demand for such 
a wonder it is not likel; to make its appearance. 

The C»re of Balloons. — Oil-vamished bal- 
loons are constantl;r changing in appearance, 
weight, strength, and condition of the oil film. 
At first the varnish scarcely discolors the cloth, 
but it soon begins to jellow, and in 
time darkens to a brownish hue. If 
too much exposed to air it will d y 
hard, and if kept an undue time from 
the air it will become soft and s ky 
Fresh coatings have to be given f om 
time to time until the accnmu a on 
of weight impairs its carrying powers. 
The "lite" of a balloon may be 
doubled by simply sprinkling it o or 
with kerosene oil after each ascens on y 

Mont§rolfler or Hot-air Bal 
loons. — Unbleached domestic cotton 
is mostly in use for hot-air bal oon 
and the rule already given (o cut- 
ting may be applied in this case ex 
cept that the neck has an open nr of 
from 8 to 13 feeL Stays are stitched 
at intervals across the cloth, and a 
wooden hoop is usually attached lo 
the neck. The fabric is improved with 
a little filling. Flour paste, paste and 
whiting, !(luB size and ochre, are all 
in use, but the best, perhaps, isa thick 
solution of soap and whiting, which 
is first laid on and afterward sprinkled with 
 strong alum water. No net is required; sU 
weight to be carried is suspended from the 
wooden hoop or neck of the balloon. No valve 
is needed, but the balloon is suspended by on 
iron ring during the early part of the inflation. 

The Parachute. — Linen or cotton cloth is 
the material for parachutes. They are umbrella- 
ahaped when in the air. but haTe no frame work. 
They are cut in a similar manner to the upper 
third of a balloon, and should be well stayed. 
Strong cords are pendant from the edge or are 
sewed along tlie seams, and are of sufficient 
length to prevent violent swaying in the descent. 
The cords are concentrated to a point or small 
hoop, from which a basket or other contrivance 
may be suspended. At the top of the parachute 
is a knife so arranfred that on pulling a cord it 
cuts the rope attaching the parachute to the bal- 
loon. Sometimes a hoop is suspendwl inside to 
facilitate the opening oc the folds wlien the rope 
has t)een cut. No parachute should be less than 
80 feet in diameter, to insure easy lighting. 

InBatlon.'^The Montgolfier depends entirely 
on heated air for its buoyancy. A long, wiile. 
and deep trench isdug.in which the lire is made. 
and the neat conveyed to the balloon. The trench 
is covered with iron plates, or logs of wood with 
earth upon them, and a fhort, cylindrical chim- 
ney is built upon one end \ this, with a broad, 
wooden cover tor the chimney, completes the ar- 
rangement. Two tall poles, with pulleys at the 
top, stand at a convenient distance, one on each 
sioe of the trench. Through iho pulleys and 
through the ring at the top of the balloon runs 



a strong rope, by whioh the head of the balloon 
is hoisted after its neck and folda have been 
carefully arranged around the chimney. Sereral 
men seize the cloth and steady it, to prevent con- 
tact with the fire. The outer end of the trench 
is filled with light, dry wood; a cupful of alt'O- 
hol, benzine, or kerosene is thrown over the 
wood, and Che fire is started. A man stationei) 
within the balloon stands by the chimney, with 
the wooden cover, ready to damp the fire, and 
has a pail of water at hand from which he can 




sprinkle the balloon if sparks find a lodgmeot 
anywhere. The helpera stand upon the folds of 
cloth to prevent cold air from entering. From 
ten lo twenty minutes, with a brisk ffre, serves 
for the complete distention of the globe. The 
parachute, previously attached to cross ropes on 
the hoop, lies at one side. The gymnast takes 
his place beneath on the trapese or other con- 
trivance, the cover is put on the chimney, all let 
go, and, with a rush, the ascension takes place. 
As the heated air soon cools, not man^ minutes 
are lost in selecting a place for alighting. The 
parachutist then pulls the knife com, which cuts 
the rope connection, and instantly he is seen t9 
drop, at first like an arrow, but in a moment the 

Sarachute catches the air, and then sails steadily 
own, alia'htini; generally much easier than if he 
had continued on with the balloon. 

CBrbur«t«d Hydrogen (las. — Gaa from coal 
is a practical substitute for hydrngt;n, although 
its buoyancy is much less, being only 35 to 40 
pounds per thousand feet. But its use is more 
general, because of its comparative cheapness. 
The necessity for erecting temporary apparatus, 
the cost of materials and labor, all tend to make 
hydrogen ten times more expensive than coal gas. 
Much of the gas now made for illuminating is 
coal gai" adulterated with water gas and petro- 
leum oil, or consists entirely of the latter. Oil 
gas is too heavy for balloons, and hence any 
of these mixtures mar be considered useless. 
Water gas of itself will answer very well, as it 
is nearly as buoyant as coal gas ; but it must be 
taken for infiation at the gas works, and be 
made expressly for the purpose. The inflation 



BALLOONINO, MODERN. 



wRh cool gas is nude from an opening in sn^ 
ibett main that is large enough ib gire a sulB- 
rient flow in the deeired length of time. Smalt 
nuuos. or those at considerable distance from 
the workf. will, as a rule, dellTer the gas too 
slo«l;. To settle anjr question regarding time 
m^oired for obtaining a given qoautity at anj 
point, make a teat with a small balloon, of 500 
cubic feet owacitjr, noting the time required to 
fill it, and caJcnlato accorajnglr. 

H jdro^n Inflation. — Hydrogen gas for bal- 
loon inflation is made by the decomposition of 
water with the aid of sulphuric acid and fine 
iron. Large wooden tanks, hogsheads, or bar- 
rels are ased for the process, into which the iron 
and water are first introduced, and when the acid 
isadded the generation immediat«lT begins. Two 
handred and fifty pounds of acid, the same quan- 
(itj of fine iron, and 1,000 pounds ot water are 
required for each thousand cubic feet. The gas 
nsses throneh pipes to a washer, and is made Co 
babble up through lima water, after which it 
passea through a flexible conductor to the bal- 
loon. Hydrogen gas will lift, according to its 
parity, from 60 to 70 pounds for each thousand 
cubic feet. • 

The bfilloon is prepared for inflation by exten' 
sion al fall length, folding the breadths one upon 
another, and then equally dividing the leaves 
90 that they shall he in fan-like fashion two 
iHeadtha wide. With the neck of the balloon 
toward the gas apparatus, it is to be covered with 
canvas two thirds of the way from the neck to 
the valve, and on this canvas, close to the bal- 
loon, sand bags are arranged to prevent the folds 
eipanding with the gas, except at the upper end. 
As the inflation progresses, the bags nearest to 
the filled portion are removed one by one. The 
net is spread over the top,' and fastened round 
the valve, and than the gas is allowed to flow 
through to the valve end. A large bnlb soon 
forms, the head ot the balloon rises, the net is 
ailjusted. and sand bags are hooked on to keep 
all in place, chang- 
ing them to lower 
positions as the work 
progresses. until 
Anally the globe is 
completely distend- 
ed. In the mean 
time the car may be 
attached by tying 
the net cords to the 
concentrating ring; 
faae sand baza may 
be put into the car, 
those on the netting 
allowed tost ide along 
the net ropes, and on 
reaching the connn- 
t rating ring ropefl 
nay be removed al- 
together. The anch- 
or and drag rope 
ino<<t be neatly coiled 

»nii hnngnn the side of the car, while their ends 
Mt to he fastened to the cross loops overhead. 
The anchor shonld be bang by its flukes to the 
tide of the csr, and may be lashed to its place 
Dntil needed. Extra clothing, water, and provis- 
ions an next in order, and then the aeronaut is 



ready to be off. Sand bags are removed one at 
a time until the car floats and is held by a single 
rope. This is then cast oS, and the voyage be- 
gins. 



The Toyage. — A sufllcient buoyancy must be 
given to clear all projections. The g^ expands 

ai- it rises in an atmosphere of increasing rarity, 
and soon begins to be ejected from the open neck 
of the balloon. The loss, under a cloudy sky, 
may stop the ascent, but in bright sunshine the 
balloon, floating in a relative calm, will become 
heated to the extent of gaining many additional 
pounds of ascensive power, and, in spite of the 
continued loss, will keep rising until there is no 
further gain in heat ; then a descent occurs, which 
can only be overcome by the discharge of bal- 
last. A voyage in the dav-tirae usually consists 
of a seriea of ascents and descents, because of the 
alternate overflow of gsa and discharge of bal- 
last ; but at night this is all changed ; for a good 
gas-tight balloon may be suspended at one con- 
stant Height all night long. The reason ot this 
is that there is a decrease of temperature at the 
.rate of one degree for every four hundred feet, 
and as cold condenses gas, making it heavier, it 
finally reaches a height at which its impulsive 
force meets with a counterpoise, and between the 
two the balloon finds its level. 

The wind's speed may be nothing, or it may ex- 
ceed seventv miles an hour. A dead calm often 
leaves the balloon in queer places, fmm which 
extrication is not difllcult, for a boy may walk 
away with it, or a Mtl can carry it to the shore. 
It is different in high winds ; then we have- a 
monster to handle, which at times can only be 
conquered by ripping open its gas-eipanded 
sides. Thunder-storms are to be avoided, and 
the aSronaut must be wary, or he may be drawn 
into them very unexpectedly. Do not run high, 
but rather keep as low as possible. Ordinary 
rain-storms are unpleasant, for the water courses 
down the sides of the silken globe, falling in 
from its neck into the car ; yet the moist- 




ure does not affect the voyage in any great de- 
gree, But beware of snow clouds, for the little 
crystals may gather in such quantity on the 
broad root above your head that a sudden de- 
scent will bring yon to the ground in spite of 
all your efforts. 



78 



BALLOONINQ, HODEBN. 



Long voyages are beset with mBnv difficulties, 
particularly from loreats aod large Dodies of vf^ 
ter, over which a greater sense ol security is 

Eined by the possession of a drag rope. Lake 
ie is crossed or ruo its whole length with the 
drag rope moreeasily than a dozen miles of Liong 
Island Souud without. 

The open sea is the most tbreateoing in its as- 
pect, for no ordinary balloon could reach its far- 
ther shore, and if caught within its domain, the 
aeronaut will be glad that he has a drag rope f- 
lieep him out of tie wet There is one ' * 




on record where two voyaeers were brought back 

to the land by a yacht, wiiich gave steerage way 
to the balloon while the latter towed the boat 
with a wind blowing parallel to the shore. All 
aeronants agree that after hours spent over a 
watery waste no more welcome sight could be 
imagined than to see the land once more beneath 
their feet. Forest wilds produce an intensely 
lonesome feeling, and one wonders what would 
become of him if the wind should fail or the gas 
give out. Under such circumstances he clings 
tenaciously to the ballast as his only salvation, 
and the drag rope is made to do duty in climb- 
ing the mountains before him. This is easy 
enough, though he runs the risk of the rope'j 
becoming entangled in the tree-tops, yet he al- 
ways has the satisfaction of knowing that the 
rope can be cut loose, if necessity should arise. 
Such a release would send him al>ove the highest 
peaks and perhaps into the still more solitary 
clouds. But forced landings sometimes occur, 
and the voyagers have to make the best of it. 
It happens, however, that some of the most un- 
promising descents turn out to be the best, fur- 
nishing another chapter of adventure in descend- 
ing mountain streams, camping under primitive 
forest trees, sighting the startled game, and 
finally sharing the lumberman's rude cabin just 
once before looking upon civilized lite uwn. 
Occasional calls may be made by means of an 
oboror drag rope, particularly where '"- 



welcome. 

But if ynu ore traveling through the South it 
is best to be on the lookout for "Johnny anil his 
gun." Be may mistake your intentions, for be 
seldom sees a balloon, and when he does, if you 
take him by surprise, be wilt shoot tietore be in- 
Quires into your motives. While visiting, or at 
the end of vour journey, you can amuse yourself 
and the innabitants by making a few captive as- 
cension& Thiscon bedone,when theair iscatm. 
by paying out the drag 
rope car^ully, baud over 
band ; but if the men let 
the rope slip, it may get 
so much momentam as to 
lift them off their feet, 
and cause them to let go. 
In case of wind, a land- 
ing may l>e effected with 
' difficulty unless cats be 

taken to choose a sheltered 
place. Cross a mounUiin 
at the rate of forty miles 
on hour, drop into the val' 
ley on its farther side, and 
the air will be found as 
still as when the flags hug 
their masts. Any depres- 
sion is an advantage, and 
a sate harbor will usually 
be found behind a piece 

In landing, look out for 
dead trees ; every one is a 
balloon trap. If you 
should strike one, lose no 
time in getting out of it, 
for the limbs may break 
and drop their load, to your serious injury. If 
you find yourself upon a strip of sandy beacb, 
with the open sea before you and your passen- 
gers beginning to tumble out, that is one of the 
best pUces to use the collapsing cord, and finish 
by treading upon the sand rather than in the 

Ordinary ascensions, such as are made for the 
entertainment of the public, do not usually ex- 
ceed the height of one to two miles. As gener- 
ally expressed, Iciw sailing — say, within the range 
of 1,000 feet— is the pleasantest. We see all ob- 
jects more plainly, can talk with the inhabitants 
as we pass along, and realize something of that 
sense of superiority which wings give to the 
feathered tribe. 

Preference is given to the afternoon for ascen- 
sions for several reasons, but principally because 
of the preparations requiring considerable time, 
and also that with a declining sun the wind gen- 
erally falls, making a descent about sunset much 
safer, as a rule, than at any other time of day. 
Pleasant weather is, of course, the Lieet, although 
cloudv days are the most favorable for variety, 
the cloud scenery being intensely attractive to 
most persons. Aeronauts seem to have little 
petiehartt for carrying instruments; it is the 
passenger or the investigator of scientific ques- 
tions tnat requires their use. The aeronaut is 
satisfied with his barometer or without it ; he 
has learned the appearance of objects from oer- 



BALLOONING, MODEBN. 



79 



tain heights, iind he feels almost intuitivelj tbe 
risiiig or fsllius of the balloon. But a scrap of 

eper thrown from the car solves aor doubt, 
.tra clothing should always be carried for ex- 
Icnded Toj'agts, and proTisions also, for nothing 
can be more uncertain than the landing-place 
afler a prolonged Bight in the air. 

Amcrioa i», perhaps, the best country in the 
world fur long antl interestinic vovageB ; the 
grr*,t varietj of scenery, particularly east of 
the Mississippi, the one general language, and 
the intelligence of the people, all favor this 
above other countries; but for short aSrial voy- 
»efs the best place is, no doubt, to be found m 
France or Englaud. 

The raoet remarkable ascensions in this conn- 
try, since that ot La Mountain, are the toUow- 
JDg: Lowe sailed from Cincinnati to Columbia, 
S. C, about 300 miles, in six hours. 

Two experienced voyagers rose from Plym- 
oilth, N. H^ in 1872. and, having crossed the 
White monntains, found themselres at nightfall 
in tbe wilds of Maine. After alighting among 
tbe tree-tops on the lee side of a mountain, 
where they consulted for half an hour on the 
possibilitj of escape from their dilemma, they 
detemuned on a continuation of the voyage, 
Thronghont the night they floated on over the 
Maine and Canada wilderness, and toward morn- 
ing were carried ont over the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence. Their ears caught the sound of the surf 
beatingon the shore while they wer? passing out 
over tne water. They made a careful dosc-ent, 
availing themselves of the advantages of the drag 
TOp^ when by good fortune a counter-current 
«afi«d them back to the shore. Daylight com- 
ing on, they discovered a road — the only one in 
hundreds of miles — and effected a safe landing 
near the little French settiement called Sayabec, 
iSO miles below Quebec. 

A company of five persons rose from the city 
otBufFalo, and, takingasoutherly course, passed 
into the State of Pennsylvania. Crossing the 
Allegheny mountains, they reached Havre de 
Grtce. Md.. where, ascending to a great height 
on account of the heat of tiie rising sun. they 
encountered a current from the west, which car- 
tied them over the State of Delaware and landed 
them in southern New Jersey. They were about 
thirteen hours in making the joumer. 

Sevea persona rose from ClcTeland at 11 
o'clock A. M., on a September day, and were im- 
mediately swept out from the shore. Their 
course lay down the lake for a hundred and 
Ihirtr or forty milee, when they came down for 
a sail on the water by the aid of the drag rope. 
In doing so they doubled back on their former 
course, but with a tt'ndency toward the Canada 
■bore. They repassed Erie and Cleveland, and 
at 7 p. X., after eight hours over the lake, they 
left it at Point an Pele, on the Canada side. 
Approaching Lake St. Clair, they were seeking 
(or a landing-place, when, in passing over a 
piece of woods, the drag rope fouled among the 
trees. Sand was thrown out to force it loose, 
and after three heavy bags had been disposed of 
the balloon was freed and rose rapidly to the 
cloQjg. Lake St. Clair was crossed in the dark- 
The tinkle of an occasional 



lights otasteameron Lake Huron. Pott Huron 
was at their feet, but they were hurried away 
from it by a lake breeze met in the depcent, and 
a landing was effected at midnight, eleven miles 
from tbe town. 
Two voyagers ascended from Chicw), who, 
.„. .. _» .;_ hundred miles, after 



dense wilderness. _ , 

food before a habitation was found, 'and three 
days more in reaching Chippewa Foils, Where 
tber could telegraph to their friends. 

The " Daily Graphic " Company, of New York, 
announced that they would send a balloon across 
the Atlantic Donaldson and Wise were to be 
the aeronauts, and a balloon of 4SO,(>00 cubic 




feet capacity was oonstmcled of domestic cotton 
and coated with oil varnish. The materials em- 
ployed were too cheap and primitive for such a 
great underlaking. and coal gas was deemed 
Bufticient for a vojage of thousands of miles. 
ided, and saw the The parties qnorreled when the day for the in- 



80 



BALLOONING, HODllRN. 



flAtion anired, and poor DoDaldson, with the about one hunilred mile* » deecent, which tbe? 
eiperience of scarceljr a dozeu ascensions in a oould not govern, brought them io contact wita 
little one-man balloon, found himself in sole objects on the ground. Becoming demoralized, 
oontrol of the imraeose aSrostat In his efforts tbe7 abandoned the ship. The landiog wu 
to Oil it, all control was lost, and the bag itself effeotod at East Camutn, Conn. 
was saved odIj by a jndicious use of the knife. Loner TojBgM. — The longest Toyage ever 

made in this country was that 
of John La Mountain, from ^t. 
Ixniistothe vicinity of Water- 
town, N. ¥., July 1 and a, 18SS. 
The distance, as measured on 
various maps, is from 825 to 
eSfi miles in a direct line. The 
■Eronaut had with him as pas- 
sengent Mr. 0. A. Gager, of 
Now York, Mr. Hifde. a jour- 
nalist of SL LouiF. and the 
well-known aeronaut, John 
Wise, of LancaaUr, Pa. The 
balloon was of oil«l ?ilk and 
had a capacity of about 90,000 
cubic feet. The voyage was 
made in about siiteen hours. 

Paul Holier, one of the im- 
prompta aeronauts of the 
siege of Paris, and a sharp- 
shooter named Deschamps. as- 
cended together in a b«]loon 
of 70,400 cubic feet capacity, 
and landed in Norway, it 'is 
said. 000 miles north of Chris- 
tiania. the capital of that coun- 
try. It thisiacorrect, it would 
appear to be the longest voy- 
age on record. The voyagers 
during the night descended 
over the sea, and. their drag 
rope being insufScient, thej 
were daehed into the waves; 
but.by throwing out some Gov- 
ernment dJBpatches they rose 
again, finally effecting a land- 
ing in a forest where the snow 
was knee-deep. They were 
fourteen hours and forty min- 
utes on their journey, suffer- 
ing much from cold. They 
slept alternately till the follow- 
ing morning, menaced by the 
vicinity of wolves. They found 
a cabin and some Norwegians 
next day, and soon reached a 
neighboring village, whence 
thev were carried on sledges, 
and Anally by rail reached 
Christianis. They were not in- 
cumbered with theii 
for, in their haste ti 
balloon, with a portio 
dispatches, escaped, 
down again many miles away 
and frightening the inhabit- 
ants. 

The New York " Wortd " re- 
Anoiher aBronaut.of more experience, was sent cantly undertook to break the record of long 
for, with no better results; but at last one was voyageswith a halloonof 180.000cubic feetcapa- 
found who succeeded in starting Donaldson and city, and employed an amateur to do the work, 
his two companions on their journey. Fortu- The undertaking was loo great for a person of 
nately, they did not go directlv out to sea, limited e»perienc«. An older aeronaut sent the 
thoiigh Brooklyn WAS their pomt of departure; balloon and party aloft, but, with everything 
biit they kept inshore, and at the distance of favoring  long and eventful voyage, the inex- 




r balloon, 
] land, the 

coming 



BALLOONING, MODERN. BAPTISTS. 81 

perienoed one failed to keep afloat, reaching the together with the intention of rising to the 

ground fifty-three miles from the starting point, greatest possible height. They carried ba£;s of 

St. Louis. oxygen to supply them with its life-sustaming 

Other voyages have attracted general atten- properties, and after the^^ had risen to the height 

tion, particularly the final ones of Donaldson of five miles, being reinvigorated by its inhala- 

and Wise. The former rose from the lake front tion, one of their number suddenly seized three 

of Chicago, taking with him young Grimwood, bags of sand, one after another, and discharged 

a reporter. They floated off at a ten-mile gait their contents over the side of the car. Almost 

directly up the lake, and were at last lost to instantly the three men became asphyxiated, and 

view. A terrific storm arose that night, and no only one of them recovered after reaching the 

reliable news was had of them for weeks, when earth. The death of the two aeronauts was sup- 

tbe body of Grimwood was found in the sand on posed to have been caused by the increased rarity 

the distant shore of the lake. The finding of of the air ; but it seems more probable that the 

the body, with a torn life-preserver arouna it, gas descending upon their heaos as it was forced 

told all that will ever be known of their fate. It ou.t of the mouth of the balloon from the rapid 

is probable that Donaldson remained in the car expansion caused by the injudicious discharge 

and sank with the balloon. of oallast, produced the effect. 

Wise arose from St. Louis, having a reporter Professional aSronauts are very few in America, 
with him named Burr. The wind was high and though there are numbers who follow some other 
faTorable for a very long voyage ; and, besides, occupation and make occasional ascents. It is 
a landing in such a wind would have been dan- safe to say that not more than half a dozen 
gerous. They continued into the night, but the names could be mentioned of persons who de- 
pie did not abate. The balloon was not very vote themselves exclusively to tnis pursuit. In 
large, and was incapable of remaining up a great England there are as many as hero, while in 
whUe. Three hundred miles in a straight line France they are more numerous, because of the 
they went for Lake Michigan, and after reaching more frequent opportunities for ascension, no 
it were swamped in its cold embrace, as Donald- fite day lacking its balloon attraction. The 
son and Grimwood had been. Burr was washed whole number of professional aeronauts in the 
ashore and his body was found, but Wise prob- world is not more than fifty ; but parachute 
ably sank in his car. jumpers and hot-air balloonistis are not included, 

Aighest A8eent8.~The highest ascent is for they can be counted by hundreds in every 

claimed by Cogswell, the English aeronaut, and qivilized country. 

Glaisher, the meteorologist, who ascended to- * The dangers of ballooning are of ten magnified, 
gether from Wolverhampton, England, Sept. 5, but it can not be denied that for him who fol- 
1862. Glaisher, in his account of the ascension, lows it for a life-time there is more or less of peril, 
published in his '* Travels in the Air,'' claims to Many narrow escapes occur and sometimes a life 
hare made an instrumental record of 6 miles, is lost, as in the case of Thurston, Donaldson, 
and would like to have it believed that they rose and Wise. Stiner died from the effects of ex- 
another mile after their exertions had ceased, posure in a descent near San Francisco, where 
He said his eyes failed him, and he called on Mr. be was compelled to wade for hours through 
Cogswell to Help him read the instruments; but water, sometimes up to his neck, in seeking to 
**in consequence of the rotatory motion of the extricate himself from an isolated position. The 
balloon, wiiich had continued without ceasing accidents to balloons are frequent. It is rare, 
since leaving the earth, the valve line had be- indeed, that twenty ascensions can be made 
come entangled, and Cogswell had to moimt without three or four wrecking experiences, 
into the ring to readjust it.*' The statement is Trees are ordinarily the cause of these mishaps, 
rather unscientific, and' it will always be a The oiled fabno t^ars easily, and through fail- 
conundrum bow the cord could become entangled ure to obtain anchorage, and high winds, an aero- 
in that way. Had the scientist dealt with plain naut frequently loses more in a single descent 
facts, more credence would be given to his story, than his earnings for half a dozen ascensions; 
but be attempted the sensational by telling how but, with all these drawbacks, there is no more 
Cogswell lost control of his hands after climbing fascinating enjoyment. 

mto the hoop, and, without saying how he man- BAPTISTS. I. Regular Baptists in the 
aged to sustain himself in such a position, tells United 8tate8.~The following is a summary 
us that he took the valve cord between his teeth of the statistics of the Baptist churches in the 
and let off gas enough to send the balloon down. United States as they are presented in the Ameri- 
Here is another riddle for the practical aSronaut can Baptist Year-Book for 1891 : Number of as- 
Why did he want to open the valve at all, when sociations, 1,382 ; of ordained ministers. 22,703 ; 
a simple cessation of his labors from pushing the of churches, 34,780; of members, 3,164,227; of 
balloon to a greater height would have accom- Sunday schools, 18,555, with 131,880 ofiScers and 
plished the same object f Though he opened the teachers and 1,280.663 pupils; increase by bap- 
Talve at 6 miles, Mr. Glaisher was so anxious tism during the year, 140,058 ; value of church 
for the greatest-height record that he would fain property, |61,646,377. Amount of contributions : 
stretch it to 7 miles. He has ^ven us his re- For salaries and expenses. $7,186,532 ; for mis- 
markable storv of the ascent with a heavy cot- sions, |1,045,371 ; for education, $374,030 ; mis- 
ton balloon of 90.000 cubic feet capacity, filled cellaneous contributions, $2,609,637. The num- 
with coal gas, and has made it well-nigh impos- bers for the rest of North America are : British 
sibie for the lightest balloon filled with the Provinces, 795 churches, 517 ministers, and 77,832 
purest hydrogen to compete with him. It is members ; Mexico, 1,161 members : Cuba, Hayti, 
certain tnat coal gas will never do it again. Jamaica, and other islands, 42.910 members. 

A few years since three Frenchmen ascended Total for North America, 35,817 churches, 23,344 

VOL. XXXI. — 6 A 



83 BAPTISTS. 

ministers, 8,286,030 members. In BrazU, 8 in the maintenance of 26 established schools for 

churches, 8 ministers, and 812 members. In the colored people, Indians, and Mexicans; 8 day 

Europe, 3,871 churches, 8,081 ministers, and schools fortne Chinese in California, 2 in Oregon, 

408,742 members, of which 2,802 churches, 2,974 and 1 in Montana ; and 2 schools in Utah, 2 in 

ministers, 320, 163 members are in Great Britain the Indian Territory, and 3 in Mexico. The mis- 

and Ireland, 20,990 members in Germany, and sionaries represented 18 nationalities or peoples^ 

83,521 members in Sweden. In Asia, 696 churches, viz., Americans, Germans, French, Swedes. Danes'. 

470 ministers, and 79,468 members. In Africa, 47 Norwegians,' Indians, negroes, Chinese, Mexicant:, 

churches, 74 ministers, and 2,958 members. In Bohemians, Poles, and Finns. Other items of 

Australasia, 192 churches, 124 ministers, and the work are: Churches and out-stations supplied, 

15.568 members. Total for all countries, 40,631 1,828 ; members received by baptism, 4,523 ; 

churches, 27,101 ministers, and 8.793,078 mem- churches organized, 199 ; total church member 

bers, showing an increase from the {irevious ship, 41,785 ; Sunday schools under the care of 

year's reports of 941 churches, 1,755 ministers, missionaries, 948 ; attendance on Sunday schools, 

and 91,696 members. The whole number of bap- 64,191 ; benevolent contributions reported, $43,- 

tisms returned in 1890 was 155,494. 627. During the fifty-nine years of the society's 

The educational institutions in the United existence 117,103 persons had been baptized and 
States comprise 7 theological institutions, with 4,226 churches organized bv its agents. In twelve 
67 instructors and 657 pupils ; 34 universities years the increase of missionaries to the colore<l 
and colleges, with 422 instructors and 6,537 people had been twofold and of teachers more 
pupils ; 38 seminaries for female instruction ex- than fourfold ; of missionaries to the Chinese, 
clusively, with 405 instructors and 4,886 pupils ; twofold ; to the Indians, twofold ; to the Mexi- 
45 seminaries and academies for youn^ men and cans, from none to 15 ; to the French, threefold ; 
for persons of both sexes, with 281 mstructors to the Germans, about twofold ; to the Scandina- 
and 5,578 pupils ; and 26 institutions for the vians, nearly fivefold ; and to the American pop- 
colored race and Indians, with 198 instructors ulation, nearly twofold. In the church-service 
and 4,780 pupils. Of the 16,895 pupils in the department, 88 churches had been aided by gifts 
universities and colleges, seminaries and acade- or loans, or both, to the amount of $42,499. The 
mies, and freedmen*s and Indians' schools, 1,575 Loan fund amounted to $118,874. The receipts 
were preparing for the ministry, making with the for the year on its account had been $6,200. The 
students in the theological seminaries, 2,282 per* receipts for the Benevolent fund had been $22,- 
sons studying with that end in view. 689. 

The Baptist African Missionary Convention Publication Society. — The annual meeting 
of the Western States and Territories reported in of the American Baptist Publication Society was 
1890 a year's receipt of $418, and was supporting held in Cincinnati, May 22. The Rev. Thomas 
two missionaries on the Congo river in Africa, Armita^e, D.D., presided. The society had re- 
while two more were on the way thei-e ; and ceived m its three departments, $647,884. The 
the Women's Convention in Kansas co-operates sales in the book department had amounted to 
with it in the support of another missionary. $529,596, or $25,948 more than in the previous 
The Baptist Foreign Missionary Convention of year ; the receipts of the missionary department 
the United States (colored) has, since its organ- had been $95,493, or $80,000 less than in the prc- 
ization in 1880, collected about $25,000 ; sent out vious year ; and the Bible department, $22,729. 
11 missionaries, who have labored at 8 stations There had been contributed from the book depart- 
and 5 out-stations, and received 800 converts, ment to the missionary department, $128,437. of 
Its receipts for 1890 were $4,135. which $46,880 were in cash, and the remainder in 

The American National Baptist Convention books and tracts. The missionary work of the 

(colored) reports 17 State conventions, 12 schools society was represented by 122 missionaries, who 

owned and managed by the Home Mission So- returned 44 churches constituted, 500 Sunday 

ciety, and 44 owned and managed by colored schools organized, and 317 pastors, ministers, an^ 

Baptists themselves. students aided with grants for their libraries. An 

Home Mission Society.— The fifty-ninth an- unfavorable report was made of the condition of 

nual meeting of the American Baptist Home the mission which had been begun in Armenia 

Mission Society was held in Cincinnati, Ohio, eight years before, the results of which had not 

beginning May 20. The Hon. C. W. Kingsley been successful and the prospects of which were 

presided. The receipts for the year, including not encouraging : and the meeting resolved that, 

conditional and trust funds, but not including after reasonable notice to the present agents on 

church-edifice loans repaid, had been $405,153. the field, the society should discontinue appro- 

Of this sum, $15,341 had been contributed priations to it. There had been much difference 

through the woman's societies of Boston, Con- of opinion among Baptists as to the expediency 

necticut, Michigan, and Chicago. The expendi- of sustaining this mission, which was working in 

tures, not including loans to churches, haa been fields already occupied by the American Boanl, 

$408,497. The society's labors had been conduct- with embarrassment to some of that society's 

ed in 49 States and Territories, and in Ontario, churches. 

Manitoba, British Columbia, Alaska, and six Missionary Union. — The seventy - seventh 

States of Mexico, and had engaged the services annual meeting of the American Baptist Mis- 

of 948 missionaries. Of these, 209 had labored sionary Union was held in Cincinnati, May 25. 

among foreign populations, 286 among the col- The Kev. G. W. Northrop, D. D., presided. ' The 

ored people," Indians, and Mexicans, and 443 total receipts of the treasurer from all sources 

among Americans. One hundred and five new for all purposes had been $492,275, of which 

mission stations had been taken up, 38 of them $121,690 had been contributed by the two Wom- 

amoug foreign populations. The society aided an's Foreign Missionary Societies ; the exjKsnd- 



BAPTISTS. 83 

itares or liabilities had been $553,869, showing eration of the aims, spirit, and methods of future 
a balance against the treasury of $61,594. From missionary operations. The features of the meet- 
the missions to the heathen there were I'etumed ing included the reading of papers on those sub- 
68 stations and 1,322 out-stations. Including 98 jests and discussions of them, 
mb^ionaries who were now absent from their Baptist Tonnff People's Union. — A Young 
fields, there were 378 missionaries, of whom 14 People's Baptist Union of America was organized 
were physicians, 13 laymen, 107 single women, and at a convention held in Chicago, 111., July 7. Its 
119 wives of missionaries. The European mis- objects were declared in the constitution adopted 
sions returned 065 preachers, 734 churches, 76,039 to be : '* The unification of Baptist youne people ; 
members, and 6,354 persons baptized in 1890. In their increased spirituality ; tneir stimulation in 
all the missions there were 378 missionaries, 1,823 Christian service ; edification in Scripture knowl- 
preochers, 1,415 churches, 152,642 members, 15,- edge; their instruction in Baptist history and 
062 baptized in 1890, and 71,950 pupils in Sun- doctrine; and their enlistment in all missionary 
day schools. The contributions from the mission activity through existing denominational organ- 
churches had been : From the heathen missions, izations.*' Mr. John H. Chapman, of Chicago, 
fol.038; from the European missions, $186,158. was chosen president. Forms were adopted for 
The heathen missions were the Burman, Karen, constitutions of State, associational, and local 
Shan, Chin, Kachin, Telu^u and Tamil, Assa- organizations. 

mese. Garo, Naga, Kohl. Chinese, Japanese, and Southern Baptist Conyentlon. — The South- 
Congo missions. The European missions were em Baptist Convention met in Birmingham, 
in Sweden, Germany, Russia, Denmark, France, Ala., May 8. The Hon. Jonathan Haralson 
and Spain. The most conspicuous events of the presided. The report of the Foreign Mission 
missionary work of the ^ear had been the visit of Board showed that it had received from the 
the Rev. Henry C. Mabie, one of the correspond- churches $118,322, and was indebted |4,206. 
ing secretaries to the missions in Asia, and the The missions were in China. Japan, Africa, Italy, 
great revival in the Telugu mission. The growth Brazil, and Mexico, and returned 38 main sta- 
of that mission since its beginning has l^n re- tions, 147 out-stations, 86 American missionaries, 
markable. In 1866 there were 1 station and 38 23 ordained and 53 unordained native assistants, 
members. A second station was then founded, 67 organized churches, 2,377 members, 361 bap- 
and a rapid growth begun. At the end of 1877 tisms during the year, and 22 schools, with 823 
there were 4,517 members. In 1878 there were pupils. The mission in Japan had been estab- 
10,601 baptisms, of which 2,222 were on July 2. lisned during the year. The Home Mission 
In the report for 1890 the number of members was Board had received $67,188 ; in addition to 
given as 33,838. The complete statistics for the which the State Conventions and District Asso- 
past year gave the number of baptisms as more ciations raised not less than $100,000 for State 
than 6,000, and the whole number of church mem- and district missions. The board had employed 
bers as more than 40,000. A good account was 406 missionaries, against 371 in the previous 
given of the character and st^dfastness of the year : of whom 81 had labored among foreign 
converts. The plan for the celebration of the cen- populations, including Indians, 22 in Cuba, and 
tennial. in 18SK2, of Protestant foreign missions, or 51 among the negroes. The work of the board 
the one hondnedth anniversary of the beginning among tne Indians was confined to the Indian 
of that work by William Carey, reported by the Territory. The Baptists of the South had been 
committee and adopted by the meeting, oontem- at work among these people for half a century, 
plates services to be continued through the year, and this convention for nearly forty years ; and 
and includes a commemorative discourse and oth- « the success attending efforts to evangelize them 
er «>pecial services at the annual meeting of the had been remarkable. There were now in the 
Union, in Philadelphia, in May ; efforts to send five civilized tribes as many baptized believers 
oat one hundred new missionaries and raise a and as many churches and native preachers, in 
memorial fund of one million dollars for the proportion to the population, as m any com- 
universal work of the Union ; general meetings munity on the globe. The Levering school would 
to observe the four memorial days of the Carey after the present session be no longer under the 
movement, to be held in different parts of the control of the board, the Creek nation, possess- 
country under the supervision of the Centennial ing a very large school fund, having resolved to 
Committee ; and at least one memorial service to terminate all existing educational contracts with 
be held in each church or group of churches in mission boards, and assume the entire respon- 
commemoration of the instrumentality of Bap- sibility of educating its people. The work among 
ti«t9 in promoting world-wide evangelization. the colored people had not reached the impor- 

Woman's Home Mission Societies. — The tance it demanded, and the report of the board 

Woman*s Baptist Home Mission Societies held a dwelt upon the need of enlarging it. The work 

joint meeting in connection with the anniver- in Cuba continued with unabated interest. A 

saries of the three preceding societies. The re- large church had been dedicated in Havana on 

ceipts of the Western society (Chica^^o) had been Feb. 15. Mr. Diaz, the missionary, reported that 

157,085 : expenditures, $484309, leaving a balance there were 7 churches, with 1,017 members and 

of 18.876. The Eastern society (Boston) had re- 210 baptisms during the year ; 7 Sunday schools, 

ceived $43,000, and supported 47 teachers, chiefly with an average attendance of 679 pupils ; and 

among the negroes. 3 church buildings. 

An autumnal missionary conference was held The Woman's Missionary Union, which is 

in Buffalo, N. Y., Nov. 17, 18, and 19, the first of auxiliary to the convention^ had received $88,- 

a series of conferences projected by the Mission- 980. Besides assisting in the maintenance of the 

ary Union to be held apart from the anniversa- home missions and sending supplies to them, it 

ries, when more time can be given to the consid- had contributed to the support of twenty-five girls 



84 BAPTISTS. 

in a Cuban college for young women and in the parcels of real estate bequeathed to this fund, 

support of missionaries in the foreign field, and the value of which was not yet estimated, 

had this year collected a Christmas offering of The Education Society ha^ received $1,795 on 

$4,320 for the North China Mission. The pres- interest account, and $2,600 on account of prin- 

ent was the third annual meeting of the Union, cipal ; the endowment funds and securities to 

American Baptist Education Societr. — its credit amounted to $45,088. It presented 
The third annual meeting of the American Bap- reports from Salem College, Virginia, Albion 
tist Education Society was held at Birmingham, Academy, Wisconsin, Milton College, Wisconsin, 
Ala., in connection with the meeting of the and Alfred University, New York. The last in- 
Southern Baptist Convention. Its report showed stitution had an endowment fund of $51,514. 
that there were 140 Baptist institutions of learn- The Tract Society had received $7,267. It 
ing in the United States, into whose necessities had a Hebrew Paper fund of $779, and a perma- 
the executive bofurd had carefully looked. Dur- nent fund of $8,047. A minute adopted at a 
ing the past three years the society had aided meeting of the society declared that the argn- 
institutions in securing endowments to the extent ments set forth to sustain the observance of 
of £209,850. This sum, conditionally given, had Sunday " tend to destrov confidence in the di- 
brought to the institutions aided an aggregate vine authority of the Word of God and to do 
of $1,165,000. If the present assets of the Chicago away with the sense of the obligation to observe 
university ($2,250,000) were added, the work of any Sabbath at all," and that the Seventh-Day 
three vears would be represented by the total people can hope to present effectually their dis- 
sura or $3,415,000. tinctive principles only among those " who rec- 

II. Free-Will Baptist Cliareli.— The Free- ognize tne necessity of a Sabbath based upon 

Will Baptist Annual Register and Year-Book for the Scriptures." 

1891 gives as the totals of the statistics of the Free- The receipts of the Missionary Society, not in- 
Will Baptist churches: Number of yearly meet- eluding receipts in the China field, had been 
ings and single associations, 54, with 8 quarterly $11,939. The mission at Shanghai, China, re- 
meetings and 14 churches not connected with turned 4 foreign workers and 8 native preachers, 
any yearly meeting ; of quarterly meetings. 201 ; with 82 church members, 42 pupils in day 
of churches, 1,630; of ordained ministers, 1,398; schools, and 4 additions to the Church during 
of licensed preachers, 218 ; of members, 86,405. the year, and 3,283 patients had been treated in 

The Education Society received $3,078 during the dispensary. The mission church in Haarlem 

1890, and returned $10,198 as the total amount Holland, returned 31 members. Although no 

of invested funds in its hands on Aug. 31 of Jewish mission had been established, a contribu- 

that year. Thirteen institutions of academic tion to that work had been sent to a missionary 

and collegiate grade are sustained by the denom- in Austria. Reports were made from many 

inatiou. home mission stations. The Woman*s Board, 

The receipts of the Home Mission Society for co-operating with this society, had received 

1890 were $110,759; and the amount of iU in- $3,051. 

vested funds was returned at $14,075. The General Conference met at Westerly, TL I., 

The Foreign Mission Society returned receipts Aug. 19, under the presidency of Mr. Oiorge B. 




the native Christian community, with 2,721 pupils character of the sessions and presented a copy of 
in Sunday schools and 3,520 in the day and gen- the proceedings. As a representative body the 
eral schools. There are also connected with the council surpassed any former gathering of the 
denomination a Woman's Mission Society, a people of the Church. Delegates attended from 
Temperance Union, a Sunday-school Union, a the General Conference, from the benevolent so- 
Youn^ People's Social and Literary Guild, and cleties and boards, and from 79 churches. The 
a United Society of Advocates of Christian Committee on Denominational History reported 
Fidelity. that historical and biographical articles and pa- 
III. Seyentli • Day • Baptist Church. — The pers on missionary history had been published 
whole number of members returned in this in the denominational journals, and urged that 
Church for 1891 is 8,748. Of this number 1,796 the series should be completed and published in 
are non - residents. The statistical secretary collected form. Resolutions were adopted urg- 
called especial attention in his report to this ing the demand for increased aggressiveness and 
class of members — persons scattered over the activity in promoting the movement for " Sab- 
land and trying to observe the principles of bath reform," with which the denomination is 
their creed in a state of isolation from their fel- identified ; expressing joy and approval over the 
low - members. There are, he said, probably increasing interest in missions and in the higher 
many more little groups of Seventh-Day- Bap- education ; reiterating the opposition of the con- 
tist families than there are organized churches, ference to the use and sale of intoxicating 
The Sabbath-school Board had reports from 75 liquors ; condemning distinctions in reganl to 
schools, in which were 5,395 members, of whom immigrants based upon prejudice, race, or color 
822 were officers and teachers. The trustees of insteiS of other characteristics ; commending 
the Memorial fund returned an income for the the study of the issues presented by the " High- 
yeai of $6,495, and the total amount of endow- er Criticism " in Bible study : and approving the 
ment funds realized as $116,748. The treasurers Christian Endeavor work of the young people, 
of different institutions had received $14,422 for IV. Baptists in Great Britain. — ^The Bap- 
notes paid direct to them and accounted part of tist Union of Great Britain and Ireland met in 
the Memorial fund. There were besides four London, April 27. Col. James Theodore GriflRn 



BAPTISTS. 86 

presided The report of the council showed churches to their own resources, the principle 
that there were connected with the Union 2.802 being stated that the funds of the society ^' weie 




and 1.874 pastors in charge ; and that £54,605 society with the General Baptist Missionary So- 
had been expended on new chapels, £88,591 on ciety was agreed to, and now only awaited the 
improTements, and £67,388 toward reduction of ratification of that body at its coming meeting, 
debt. An incorporation had been secured in The receipts for the Zenana Mission had been 
Older to enable the Union to hold securities and £7,592, and the expenditures £105 more than that 
other property of the Annuity fund. The estab- sum. A boat was employed carrying the ladies 
li^hment of a publication department and a de- of the mission up and down the rivers of Beneal. 
nominational book room had been considered. The receipts of the Bible Translation Society 
The securities of the Annuity fund were valued had been £1,230, or £130 less than in the year 
at £143,590 ; the additions during the year had preceding. The capital of the Baptist Builaing 
hten £8,452, besides which the stock had largely fund was returned at £43,098, and the whole 
increased in value. The receipts for the Aug- amount of loans was £196,595. More loans had 
mentation fund had been £10,034; and for the been granted in the past year than in any pre- 
UnioQ itself, £1,729. The Home Mission Society ceding one. 

made report of 81 mission churches with 34 de- Clenerai Baptist Conference. — The General 

pendent stations and 8,538 Sunday-school chil- Baptist Conference met at Burnley, June 23. The 

dren. Its income was only £2,500, £700 of which Rev. Dr. Clifford presided. Resolutions wei*e 

▼ere raised by the churches in co-operation with adopted confirming the plan of union with the 

the society. The aided churches had raised more Baptists. After expressing gratification at ob- 

tban£7,0b0during the year for yarious purposes, serving numerous signs of union among the 

including £319 for foreign missions. R^lutions churches, and at the spread of the principles 

were adopted by the Union condemning the taught by the founders of the denomination till 

opiam traffic in India as indefensible on moral they ** are now the operative faith of the churches 

grounds, an offense against God, and a terrible of Christendom,'' the resolutions recite 

wrong to the people of that land ; and approv- ^hat in reviewing the last few yea« of our hintory 

mg a measure for free education that should we grateftillyrememberthemeasage which came from 

provide for the abolition of fees in the higher the chair of the Baptist Union in 1886, Inviting m to 

oif well as in the lower standards, place every consider the dcsiraDility of terminating the division 

school receiving grants in lieu of fees under the of Baptists into ** General " and " Particular," as at 

control of a board of representative managers, once inaccurate, mUleading, and injurious ; the hearty 

and provide for at least one board school within ^^ "^TT^ I'^^.^i ^® ^"^^^T "^""^^ "^''': 

.^f J:# ZlJ^4^^;\7i^ i-\.^ hir.r,A^„* tions and of the Baptist Union in favor of the perfect 

itach of every family in the kingdom. f^i^^ ^^ ^^ Baptdsta of England -and the coiSrteous 

The Baptist Missionary Society had received and grace-filled endeavore of the Baptist Missionary 

during the year £68,123, and had expended £78,- Society and the Baptist Union to facilitate such a 

Qi^ The present annual expenditure was some Aision. 

€10,000 in excess of the current normal receipts. That while many of us have felt reluctant to break 

This was chiefly attributable to the rapid exten- our Msociations with a religious past that in its newer 

«on of the work on the Congo and in China. ^^^^l^J?^?* f*^ back to 1770 and m another fonn 

V* t,«« .^. 1 \uJ^ J^-«^ ^«w a «,«« to 1612, yet when we remember the practical umon of 

Ten years previouslv there were onlf 6 mi^ Baptiste which has been recognized in our churches 
sionanes connected with the Congo Mission, and j^ elections to the pastorate for the last thirty years, 
the annual expenditure was only £1,500. In the the unanimity of tEe votes of our churches in favor 
la^t year there were 28 missionaries, and the ex- of amalgamation, the steps already taken by our 
penditure was £14,592. The staff of 8 mis- churches to share the work of the county associa- 
sionaries in China ten years ago, costing less than tio?^ th® action of this awociation in favor of union 
£•2.000, had been increased to 21 missionaries, '"^ 1861-'62, the promise of even greater efficiency in 
-ri.i. 1 ^w.«^ :*►.,-« ^# finoovi A« ♦Vi^o^ t™^ owe foreign and home mission work, the other ad- 
wilh an expenditure of £10,034. On th^ two vantages of real Christian unity, we ^joice to accept 
fields alone, therefore, the expenditure had m- the invitation ottered us. •^» ^ ^ 
creased by £21,000, while the general contribu- 
tions of the churches had increased by only A resolution offered as an amendment, to the 
£13,000. The plan of associating missionaries effect that while agreeing to the union of the de- 
into a sort of brotherhood, or forming communi- nominational institutions the association should 
ties of unmarried men living together and en- be perpetuated by retaining the name of Oeneral 
gaging in ac:tiye evangelistio work, had been Baptist and continuing the General Conference, 
successful, and was favorably reported upon, was lost by a vote of 4 to 1. A protest which 
On the report of the executive committee, the was offered, against the action for union was aft- 
society decided to concentrate its work in certain erward withdrawn. 

fields by reducing the number of stations and Autumnal Meeting of the Union, — ^The 
the extent of territory to be covered. In pursu- autumnal meeting of the Union was held in 
ance of this plan, the missionaries will withdraw Manchester, beginning Oct. 5. The proceedings 
from a number of stations in India already well consisted of meetings and discussions in the in- 
oreupied by other societies, and confederate the terest of the Home and Foreign Missionary So- 
remaining stations, working them together in cieties, the Zenana Mission, and the colleges, 
p^ups. Five puch groups nave been arranged without the transaction of business. A resolu- 
for in India. It was also decided to withdraw tion was passed recognizing with gratitude the 
the missionaries of the society from the service consummation of the Union with the General 
of Anglo-Indian churches, and leave those Baptist Association. Expressions in favor of 



86 



BELGIUM. 



closer relations with the Congregational ists and 
with the free churches generally were received 
with much mterest. A resolution was passed 
calling on the Liberal party to place the disestab- 
lishment and disendowment of the ecclesiastical 
establishment in Wales among the first acts of 
justice which the new Parliament is to perform. 
Another resolution was passed, renewing a previ- 
ous resolve to protest and agitate the question 
of free education till all parish schools are placed 
under the control of the rate payers, and are 
made thoroughly unsectarian, alike in govern- 
ment and instruction. 

BELGIUM, a constitutional monarchy in 
western Europe which seceded from the King- 
dom of the Netherlands in 1880. Prince Leo- 
pold, of Saxe-Cobure, was elected King of the 
Netherlands by the National Congress, and as- 
cended the throne on July 21, 1881. The inde- 
pendence of Belgium was recognized by Austria, 
Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia in the treatv 
signed at London on April 19, 1830, whicn 
pledges those powers to aefend the neutrality 
and inviolability of Belgian territory. Leopold 
II, bom April 0, 1885, son of the first kii^gf came 
to the throne on the death of his father, Dec. 10. 
1865. The King has three daughters by Queen 
Marie Henriette, daughter of Archduke Joseph, 
of Austria; but under the Bel^an Constitution 
they are precluded from succeedmg to the throne. 
By the death in 1801 of the heir-presumptive, 
Prince Baldwin, the eldest son of the King^s 
brother Philippe, Count of Flanders (see Obit- 
uaries, Foreign), the succession passes to the 
latter's younger son, Albert, bom April 8, 1875. 

The Chamber of Representatives consists of 
188 members, 1 to every 40,000 of population, 
elected for four years by the direct suffra^ of 
tax payers pairing 42 francs a year in direct 
taxes, a qualification which limits the fran- 
chise to about 1 in 50 persons. The Senate is 
elected, in the same way, for eight years, and 
has half the number of members. Half the Sen- 
ate is renewed at the quadrennial elections. 

The Cabinet, constituted Oct. 26, 1884, is com- 
posed of the following ministers : President of 
the Council and Ministet of Finance, A. Beer- 
naert ; Minister of Justice, L. Lejeune ; Minister 
of the Interior and of Public Instruction, J. 
Devolder ; Minister of War, General C. Pontus ; 
Minister of Agriculture, Industry, and Public 
Works, L. Debrayn ; Minister of Railroads, Posts, 
and Telegraphs, J. fl. P. Vandeupeereboom ; 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Prince Cnimay. 

Area and Popalation.r-The kingdom has 
an area of 29,45o square kilometres, or 11,873 
square miles. The population was estimated on 
Dec. 81, 1890, at 6,147,041. The number of 
marriages registered in 1889 was 48,759; the 
number of births, excluding still-births, 177,542; 
the number of deaths, 119,726 ; excess of births 
over deaths, 57,816. The number of immigrants 
in 1889 was 28,190, and the number or emigrants 
was 22,150. The population of the chief cities 
on Dec. 81, 1889, was as follows : Bmssels, with 
suburbs, 477,398; Antwerp, 221,860 ; Ghent, 152,- 
391 ; Liege, 146,162. 

Commerce. — The value of the general com- 
merce, which includes re-exports, was 3,106,848,- 
078 francs for imports and 8,01 1,026,216 francs for 
exports in 1889. The imports by sea were 1,327,- 



867,876 francs, and the exports by sea 1,320,292,- 
468 francs in value. The total value of the im- 
ports for home consumption was 1,556,400,000 
francs, and of the exports of Bele:ian products 
1,458,500,000 francs. The values of the principal 
classes of special imports in 1839 were as follow : 
Cereals, 250,863,000 francs; textile materials, 
195,291,000 francs ; vegetables : 98,205,000 francs ; 
timber, 65,001,000 francs; live animals, 53,648,- 
000 francs ; mineral substances, 70,652,000 francs; 
gums and resins, 61,698,000 francs ; hides and 
skins, 65,500,000 francs; textile manufactures, 
51,070,000 francs ; metals, 54,424,000 francs ; cof- 
fee, 47,565,000 francs; butter and eggs, 87.481,- 
000 francs ; meat, 20,105,000 francs ; other ani- 
mal products, 84,804,000 francs; textile yams, 
26,270,000 francs ; wine, 22,898,000 francs ; oils, 
17,749,000 francs; fish, 12,914,000 francs; rice, 
14,551,000 francs ; waste and manure, 25,235,000 
francs. The leading exports of domestic prod- 
uce and manufacture in 1889 were of the fol- 
lowing values : Yams, 147,507,000 francs ; ma- 
chinery, etc., 98,069,000 francs; raw textiles, 
92,844,000 francs; coal, 90,998.000 francs: iron, 
74,981,000 francs ; sugar, 73,349,000 francs ; grain, 
72,874,000 francs ; textile manufactures, 68,344,- 
000 francs ; hides and skins, 60,408,000 francs ; 
stone, 58,078,000 francs; vegetables, 56,975,000 
francs ; glass, 46,340,000 francs ; various animal 
substances, 84,175,000 francs; zinc, 81,720,000 
francs; steel, 31,442,000 francs; chemicals, 81,- 
198,000 francs; meat, 27,501,000 francs; various 
mineral substances, 23,688,000 francs ; live ani- 
mals, 20,761,000 francs; fire-arms, 18,098,000 
francs ; paper, 14,890,000 francs. The share of 
each of the principal commercial countries in 
the Belgian special commerce in 1889 is shown 
in the following table, giving the imports and 
exports from and to each country in francs : 



COUNTRIES. 

France 

Oreftt Britain 

Netherlands 

Qeraumy 

United SUtes 

Bassla 

Ronmania 

Aryrentine RepnbHo. . . . 
Sweden and Norway... 

Italy 

India 

BraxU 

Spain 

Pern 

Switzerland 

ITrujniay 

Portngal 

Tarkey 



UDpOlll. 



88S,747,0(K) 

li»a.499,U00 

«0ft,487,0(X) 

172,751,000 

11&24e,000 

lia,466i,0O0 

96.798,000 

66.887,000 

42.619,000 

19,757,000 

64,866.000 

20,092.000 

15,607,000 

8^107,000 

i5,'^6o6 



Kxporti. 



852,794,000 

299.89S.000 

216,984,010 

2&\872,«10O 

48,299,000 

10,767,000 

7,247,000 

41,796.0'K) 

10,044,000 

45,158.000 

Ss968,000 

14,252,001^ 

22,868,000 

29.*7iBi5,66(l 

i5.481.o66 
15,409,000 



The total trade compared with that of the 
previous year shows an increase of 4 per cent. 
The imports from France increased 12 per cent, 
and the exports to France 8 per cent. The ex- 
ports to Germany increased 47 per cent. Those 
to the United States showed a decline of 17 per 
cent., while to the other parts of America they 
increased 16 per cent. The imports from Eng- 
land increased 9 per cent., and the exports to 
England 17 per cent. The total imports for 
domestic consumption showed an increase of 1 
per cent, over the value in 1888, and the exports 
of Belgian poods increased 17 per cent. There 
was a marked increase in the imports of wood, 



BELGIUM. 87 

grain, potatoes, fish, minerals, iron, lead, chemi- The total amount of the consolidated debt in 

cais« oil cake, oil seeds, beet root, resin and petro- 1801 was 1,785,185,007 francs, in addition to 

leum, and in the exports of arms, vegetables, which there were annuities amounting to about 

linen thr&ad, cast steel, glass, wrought iron, re- 80,000,000 francs, and a floating debt of 20,000,- 

fined sugar, and stones. 000 francs. The debt was incurred mainly for 

Narigation.— During 1889 there were 7,010 the construction of railroads and other producl- 
vtessels, of 5,158,436 tons, entered, and 6,094, of ive works. During 1890 the debt was increased 
5,145,595 tons, cleared, at Belgian ports. The by 33,500,000 francs to provide for the new 
lu^t share, 1,307,804 tons entered and 1,489,- fortifications on the Meuse. The expense of 
264 cleared, belonged to Great Britain, the United these fortifications was originally estimated by 
States coming next, with 474,104 tons entered General Brialmont at 24,0(^,000 francs, but by 
and 431,779 cleared. The commercial navy on the middle of 1891 there had already b^n ex- 
Jan. 1, 1890, numbered 42 steamers, of 65,951 pended 72,000,000 francs, and additional credits 
tons, and 9 sailing vessels, of 4,271 tons. were voted for completing the line of forts. 

£ailroad8« Posts, and Telegraphs. — On The Army. — l^e strength of the Belgian 

Jan. 1, 1890, there were 3,209 kilometres of rail- army on the peace footing, according to the mU- 

roods in Belgium under the management of the itary budget for 1890, is as follows : 

Goremment, and 1,261 kilometres worked by 

private companies, making a total length of troops. oflem Ma. Tot»L 
1471) kilometres, or 2,793 miles. The number 



of passengers on the state lines in 1889 was 59,- [i^i^;;::::::::;::;:::;;;:; ^'m ^^ *2:o48 

»57,199, The gross receipts for that year were Aitiilery.'..*!!!."!!.'.'!!!!!'.!'.!! 609 T.'sfls s^n 

136,919,693 francs on the state lines and 40,223,- ?!|«*?««"i; S I'S? W» 

562 francs on the companies' lines, and the ex- ^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^ ^ 

penses for the state were 75,235,052 francs, and Total 8,929 44,642 47,670 

for the companies 19,858,345. The capital expend- 

eii on the state system was 1,301,452,773 francs. This enumeration does not include the gen- 

The number of letters carried in the mails dur- eral staff, numbering 474. The Gendarmerie, of 

ing 1889 was 95,467,361, besides 17,021,382 of- whom there are 2,449, form a part of the regular 

cial letters ; the number of post cards, 34,331,- army in time of war. The number of horses 

674; of printed inclosures, 68,457,974; of news- maintained in time of peace is 7,200, besides 1,- 

{lapers, 91,546,377; receipts, 16,135,714 francs; 636 for the Gendarmerie. The artillery has 200 

expenses, 9,320,296 francs. guns in peace and 240 in war time. The avail- 

The total number of dispatches transmitted able strength of the army for war is 154,780 men, 
by the telegraphs during 1889 was 7,737,353. not including the Civic Guard, or volunteers, who 
The length of telegraph lines in operation at the numbered 42,827 in 1889. 
eod of that year was 4,054 miles, with 19,332 The Suffk*age Question.— The Moderate Lib- 
miles of wire.' The receipts for the same year erals, who were in power before 1884, with their 
were 3,336,203, and the expenses 8,992,340 francs, chief, Frere-Orban, as Prime Minister, and who 

Finances. — The budget for 1891 states the carried through the scheme of state education 

total amount of the ordinaiy revenue of the Gov- that has been partly annulled by their successors, 

eroment as 346,612,721 francs, of which 24,333,- were unwilling to enlarge the franchise, because 

000 francs are derived from property taxes, 19,340- the new voters would add sufficiently to the 

000 francs from personal taxes, 6,680,000 francs strength of their opponents to drive themselves 

from trade licenses, 600,000 francs from min- from power. Since the accession of the Conser- 

in? royalties, 27,923,331 francs from customs, vative or Clerical party the conflict over secular 

40^iLo04 francs from excise duties, 19,010,000 education has been cast into the shade by the 

francs from probate duties. 24,970.000 francs labor question and the agitation for electoral re- 

fpom registry fees, etc., 5,900,000 francs from form. A strong Radical party has grown up 

stamps, 1.458.000 francs from various indirect among the intelligent middle classes, whose 

taxes. 139.000,000 francs from railroads, 3,900,- watchword is universal suffrage, and in this de- 

000 francs from telegraphs, 10,380,000 francs mand it is supported by the Socialistic Labor 

from the post-office, 2,505,000 francs from nav- party, which, though deprived of the ballot to a 

igation and pilot dues, 1.280.000 francs from great extent, has made its power felt in Belgium 

domains ana forests, 15,098,000 francs from by sharp and protrartted labor struggles and 

fnnds ands securities, and 3,300,786 francs from clamorous political agitation. Frightened by 

repayments. The total ordinary expenditure these new political elements, the Cleriqals have 

was 'estimated at 838,381,503 francs, of which been averse to offering a moderate scheme of re- 

102,096.726 francs are allocated to interest vision that, if it should pass, would only open the 

and sinking fund of the debt, 4,686,155 francs door for a wider extension of the suffrage. The 

to the civil list and dotations, 17,111,075 francs Moderate Liberals were equally reluctant to 

to the Ministry of Justice, 2,482.655 francs to share the voting privilege with the masses. The 

the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 22,965,915 apathy of the ruling classes incensed the people, 

francs to the Ministry of the Interior and of and gave such impetus to the agitation that it 

Public Instruction, 17,016,597 francs to the Min- could no longer oe ignored. The question of 

istrrof Public Works, 104,094,123 francs to the national defense, which has become argent since 

Mini:?try of Railroads, Posts, and Telegraphs, the virtual repudiation by England of her pledge 

46.588,462 francs to the Ministry of War, 15,523.- to defend Belgium from invasion, complicated 

^•^J francs to the Ministry of Finance, 4,267,400 the matter; for not only the Radicals but emi- 

francs to the Gendarmerie service, and 1,548,500 nent military men declared that compulsory mili- 

francs to repayments, etc tary service, without which Belgium can not have 



88 BELGIUM. 

an efficient arm3r, will never be carried as long vincial and oommunal councils. It was also 
as the franchise is restricted to the class that is proposed to transfer the right of electing Sena- 
interested in preserving its immunity from per- tors from the people to the provincial councils^ 
sonal service. In November, 1890, when the and to give the King an absolute veto on all legis- 
Cbamber met, it had placed before it a proposi- lation. This scheme was denounced as a propo- 
tion to amend Article XL VII of the Constitution sal, not to increase, out to curtail the polical 
by extending the franchise to all householders, power of the people. The cotomittee of the Cham- 
which was referred to a committee. The pas- ber discussed a proposition to make the age of 
sage of a proposal to revise any part of the Con- twenty-five and the payment of ten francs a year 
stitution by a majority vote necessitates a dis- in direct taxes qualifications for the parliament- 
solution, of Parliament and the convocation of a ary franchise, but continued to delay its report 
new one, in which a two-third vote is required in The members of the Labor party grew incensed 
each Chamber before the amendment can become at the slowness of the Cabinet and its supporters 
a law. The dilatory proceedings of the minis- in the Chamber. The Ist of Mav passed without 
ters and Chamber in the matter caused the eham- the general strike being declared, and it was an- 
pions of popular suffrage to suspect that the in- nounced that the General Council of the Labor 
tention was to postpone the question indefinitely, party were opposed to it ; but on the following 
Before the reassembling of the Chamber the day men began to leave their work. In the 
Liberal Association, representing the middle Charleroi coal district 30,000 went out^ They 
class in Brssscls, arranged for monster meetings, were followed by the miners and foundry- 
to be followed by a street demonstration on the men of Liege, the operatives of Monccau and 
day that the Chamber reopened, Jan. 20. The Marchienne, and the carpenters and other 
burgomaster having declmed to prohibit the trades of the capital. On Ma^ 6 the Labor 
demonstration, the ministry called out two Council and the Miners' Federation consented to 
classes of the reserve to prevent disorder. The support a general strike in all four coal basins, 
men were all in camp within forty-eight hours, Dynamite cartridges were exploded by strikers in 
showing that mobilization is well prepared; but it vengeance on men who continued at work. In 
seemed doubtful whether the army, recruited the provinces, collisions took place between strik- 
f rom the class demanding the right to suffrage, ers and the authorities. The Labor Council, 
could be depended on to repress the popular ex- compelled to take the lead in a movement that 
citement. in the Chamber, where the Moderate it was unable to rqsist, ordered a strike of dock 
Liberals and Radicals, forming the united Oppo- laborers at Ghent, Antwerp, and Ostend, to pre- 
sition, held onlv one third of the seats, M. Jan-' vent the landing of imported coal, and called 
son, the Radical leader, offered a bill to secure out the metal workers of Brussels and the me- 
universal suffrage. The Moderate Liberals, un- chanics in all the large cities. At Seraing, Her- 
der M. Frere-Orban and M. Bara, expressed loz, and other places rioters were wounded 
themselves in favor of a considerable extension, in fights with the gendarmes. Although indus- 
based upon educational and other qualifications, triafdemands were put forward by the miners, 
M. Janson*s plan was referred to the committee, the declared object of the great strike was to en- 
but only for the purpose of being shelved. The force the demand for unrestricted suffrage. It 
Workmen's party made the right to vote their abated when the parliamentary committee hast- 
sole demand, and, while holding themselves inde- ened to make their report and the ministers 
pendent of all other political bodies, appealed to pledged themselves to electoral reform. In a few 
the sympathies and fears in turn of the Liberals weeks the strike was over, having accomplished 
and Conservatives. They sent a petition asking none of its objects. The final recommenaations 
the King to intervene, and another to the bish- of the committee were announced at the last 
ops, wherein they declared it to be '* a monstrous sitting of the Chamber, on Aug. 16. The pe|>ort 
iniouit^, carried out in utter disregard of the condemned universal suffrage and commended 
Catnolid faith, which permits 130,000 Belgians, a franchise based on occupancy, as in England, 
who are no better than their fellow-citizens, to and proposed the postponement of revision till 
be absolute masters." They announced before- the parties could agree on a communal and pro- 
hand a general strike of all the working people vincial electoral system. 

in the country as a demonstration in favor of Diplomatic Relations. — An international 
universal suffrage, and many of their employers office for the publication of the customs tariffs 
called on the Government to grant their demand of all countries in the five principal European 
and avert such a calamity. To prepare for the languages began its work on April 1, 1891, at 
strike, they not only saved up tneir wages, but Brussels. The French Government having de- 
obtained assistance from outside by means of a nounced the commercial treaty with Belgium, 
subscription fund. Every sympathizer who con- which lapses on Jan. 81, 18&2, the Belgian 
tributea a penny to this fund received a little Government retaliated by a notification that the 
^reen ticket as a receipt and a badge of his opin- convention of navigation between the two coun- 
lons. This strike fund was swelled by contribu- tries and the convention for the guarantee of 
tious from abroad. In March, M. Beernaert pre- property in literary and artistic works, models, 
sented a scheme of revision, to which the Gov- designs, and trade marks would expire on the 
ernment would agree if the Liberals would ac- same date. A convention was concluded with 
cept it, that would enlarge the electorate so as Bulgaria containing the same provisions as the 
to embrace about 600,000 persons by granting new Anglo - Bulgarian commercial treaty. All 
the right of voting to all persons who rent an the powers, excepting the United States, France, 
unfurnished lodging. Coupled with this was a and Portugal, ratified the general act and dec- 
proposal for proportional representation of par- laration of the Brussels Anti-Slavery Conference 
ties in elections to the Chamber and to the pro- of 1800. The American Government, which was 



BELGIUM. 89 

snstaiaed by France in its objections to the ri^ht the Brussels congress, but insist when they eot 
of search, obtained an extension of the penod there that the rules laid down by the Possibiust 
allowed for ratification. Separate conventions congress should be carried out. Previous to 
made by France and Portugal and the Congo that, and before the negotiations for a union with 
State regulate the rates of duties in the Congo the Marxists were made known, the annual Con- 
basin (see Congo Free State). gross of British Trade Unions at Liverpool had 
Socialist Labor Congress. — The first regu- voted to take part in the Brussels congress, and 
larly convened International Trade Union Con- instructed the Parliamentary Committee to take 
(Tress, open to all nations, was held at the Paris every means in its newer to make the congress a 
Labor Exchange in 1886. It had been preceded success. When fully informed of the change in 
by a conference of labor representatives from the purpose and organization of the congress, 
France, Italy, Spain, and England, where the the Parliamentary Committee met and agreed 
project of holding a congress was discussed and that under the altered circumstances they were 
approved. In 1§88 the second congress took not bound by the Liverpool vote to send repre- 
place in London, and it was there decided to sentatives to' Brussels, and that they would ab- 
meet again in the following year at Paris during stain. The very name of the congress was cal- 
the Worid^s Fair. This third congress was or- culated to keep away English trade unionists, 
ganixed by- the French Possibilists, and was except, the New Unionists, who have imbibed 
attended bv the English Trade Unionists and Socialistic principles; for it was no longer the 
the Englisn Socialists. A heated discussion International Working-men's Congress, but the 
aroste on the question of fusing with the Marxist International Socialist Working-men's Congress. 
Socialists, who had organized a separate inter- Moreover, the date was changed from Au^. 18 to 
national labor congress, in which 88 German Sunday, Auk. 16, which was 'inconvenient to 
Socialists, including several members of the Englishmen, oecause they would have to lose a 
Reichstag, took part The main feature of the part of the previous week's work, and objection- 
PossibUist congresses had been the harmony and able to many of them for religious reasons. The 
oo-operation of Socialists with Trade Unionists following list of subjects was announced as the 
and other non-Socialistic bodies. Anxious to agenda of the Congress : 

preserve this alliance, the Possibilists had en- (i) The present condition of the laws protecting 

acted rules that were designed to prevent the workkiB from the national and international point of 

congresses from being swamped by delegates view, and the means to be employed to render such 

from a multitude of. Socialist bodies and com- laws more effective. , . _, 

mitted to principles unacceptoble to the numer- . (2) The nght of coalition, how is it secured I The 

Tr''''^^:^\ ^iT"^ in Gn«t Britain iSl^rrntrillnf '"^^^^ '^'^''''''' ""' ^^ 

that are opposed to bocialism. Ihe rules were (a) what is the position and duty of the working 

these : (1) ^ o society can be represented at any classes with respect to militariBm I 

of the congresses unless it has been in existence (4) The attitude which the organized workers of 

for a full year previous ; (2) the delegates of all countries should assume with regard to the Jewish 

each nationality shall judge of the bona fide question. (Proposed by the American Union of 

character of th^ societL oT their own county ^^t^oT^^l^e^S^^rJ^^^^ suffra^ 

seeking to be represented and pass upon the ere- ^ ^^e utilfzed to the advantage of the Socialist 

dentials of their countrymen; (3) vote m the workere' cause. The tactics which should be em- 

conere^ shall be taken by nations, the majority ployed so as to bring about the emancipation of the 

of delegates from each country deciding what workers, and the means by which this can be realized, 

its vote shall be on each motion ; (4) all questions (Dutch proposal.) « ,. 

to be discussed shall be communicated to the (^J^^ the alliance of workmen's Socialist parties 

organizing committee in time to be printed and ''%^^!,?i!flf;^^^(PS.^^^^^^ 

^J^^ ^_®j . „ii Au - • .• ^'^ i.' ' (•) On the suppression of piece work. 

sent around to aU the societies participating m ^g) The 1st of &ay intemitional celebration to be 

the congress at least six weeks before it assem- consecrated to the principle of the eight-hour work- 

bles. It was the refusal of the Marxists to assent in^ day and the international regulation of labor, to- 

to th^e rules that prevented the two congresses gcther with the universal affirmation to be made by 

from uniting in 1889. The Belgian delegates S^e proletariat in favor of the maintenance of peace 

gave an inviUtion to the Possibilists to hold *™?^^*^^ ^5**^°^ , , -r ^ • *• 

{hfau"nS«"^^B^W^^^ "^'h^^ to^i^i^dita^^^TthlirbS^^^^^ 
the auspices of the Belgian Labor party. This Central Kevolutionary Committee of Paris proposes 
mvitation was accepted, and the Belgian organi- «The International Socialist Partv," The J3eVian 
ration undertook to act as a correspondence workmen's party proposes " The International Social- 
bureau to unite all parties during the intervening ist Workmen's Party.") 

two vears. The Marxists arranged to hold a (1^) Serious and practical organization: (a) Inter- 
congress in 1891 in Switzerland national correspondence between workmen | (b) uni- 
Withont the consent or knowledge of the Eng- Y"^^ working-class statistics ; (c) international un- 

i«i. ♦-.j^ u.^:^ «.i,« ij«i«i ^ T;*.* ^ *! derstanding between workers of all trades, to be 

h*h trade bodies, the Belgian committee resumed secured by the creation in each nation of a svndical 
negotiations for a fusion with the Marxists, and committee and of an international syndical (or trade- 
persuaded the Swiss committee to give up the union) committee ; (d) by tlie regular communication 
plan of organizing a separate congress; but to ofdifferent information, and by means of an intema- 
obtain this result it was necessary to abandon tional Socialist almanac, translated into several lan- 
the four rules. The English Labor Electoral «^^^ "^^ appearing winually; (€) by Socialist 

Association, representing a large number of the P'?P,Tt?'^!J;?? ?^^V?'li'' *"" «>'}'»J'-u's. 
ttr«n« ^w.A\^lirr^ *^A^ .^**i^^« r.4 i?««i„«^ „♦ (1^) Proposal to hold the next International Con- 
.^trong and active trade unions of England at grJ.„8'in dicago in lbl»3,and an international dem- 
it* annual conrention unanimously adopted a onstration in that town. Designation of the next 
motion that the societies present should go to International Socialist Workmen's Congress. 



90 BELGIUM. BOLIVIA. 

The congress met on the date set at the vaila the emancipation of the working daascB will be 

Maison du Peuple, the hall of the Belifian Labor impoafiible, declares that the laws enacted and the 

party in Brus^ls. Every country Tn Europe frmatiZall^oVr^Tel^^^^^^^ 

was rejpresented exc^Dtine Russia and Portugal. ^ ^^^ the ^Sspfrations of the'workere. That 

In addition to the 188 Belgian delegates, 77 pre- flUbough the Berlin conference, as admitted by those 

sen ted themselves from Prance, 42 from Ger- who Semselves initiated it, met under the pressure 

many, 29 from Great Britain, 11 from Austria, exerted by the international labor congrossess and 

9 from Holland, 6 from the United States, 6 may therefore be regarded as an imix>rtant concession 

from Switzerland, 5 from Poland, 5 from Rou- to public opinion, the results have demonstrated that 

mania, 3 from Sweden and Norway, 3 from Den- ^^f ^ing govemmente f^J^^tJ^^^^^^o «ff^^^ 

•«o«i, o *^^ T*«i«^ o 4^^^ i:iiin,«.V« .n/1 1 f^^wY, refoniis; and that, on the other hand, the ret»olutioDs 

mark, 2 from Italjr, 2 from Hungary, and 1 from ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ conference have been used aa a pretert 

Spam. The Marxists, Blanquists, and Possibihsts ^y certain manufacturing countries to arreat tie de- 

of France were all strongly represented. Among velopment of labor-protective legislation by invoking 

the German delegates were the Social-Democratic the decisions of the Berlin conference and pointing 

leaders Bebel, Liebknecht, and Singer. From to the defects in Uie legislation of competing countries. 

England came prominent Socialistic agitators Moreover, Uiis conmss affirms that in cases in w^^ 

and also representatives of trades councils and Jegi«lation w not dfefecUve, its apphcation is allowed 

unions Tte American delegates were pro- "^F^^^"^::: this congress r^ upon the 

nounced Socialists. Anarchists and Revolution- workere of all countries to agitate for 3ie realization 

ary parties were excluded. The speeches, limited ©f the programme laid down by the Paris congresses, 

to ten minutes, were translated immediately after if only to make it clear to the workers that the gov- 

delivery for the benefit of all sections, and the emiuj? and exploiting classes are hostile to legislation 

voting was by nationalities. The sessions ex- effectively protecting the interests of labor, 

tended over a week. The Marxists were in the , Whereas it is neces8ary to give to the international 

m.4^,M'4-«. K«f f v»o« a\^r^rw,aA a ^aoi'.^ frk ft^^^ f v.« labor movement a common impulse, especially in the 

majority, but they showed a desire to frame the direction of protective labor legislatioCther^fore be 

resolutions in such a way as to be acceptable to ^ resolved by this congress : 

the British trade unionists, at whose suggestion (i) To organize in every countiy a pemianent com- 

these international congresses were inaugurated, mission of inquiry concerning the conditions of labor 

Mr. Sanial, delegate of the Central Labor Union in its relation to working-class legislation, 

of New York and of American Socialists gen- (2) To collect, collate, and exchange all necessary 

erallv, who described America as a country in "^^^rmation. with a view to the development and um- 

whicli misery is incr^ing so fast that it is.be- *^(rThl^^^^^^ the wage worker 

coming a hell for working men, urged the claims <>f \^e ^yiole world to unite their efforts igidnst the 

of Chicago as the meetmg-place for the next domination of capital, and, wherever they ei\jqy po- 

congress ; but Switzerland was selected by the litical rights, to exereise them with the object ofgain- 

committee for the next regular congress, which ing their emancipation fVom wagedom. 
will be held in the first week of August, 1803. 

In deference to the non - Socialistic English Declarations in condemnation of piece work 
unions, it was decided to leave the title of the and of the subcontract system 'were approved, 
congress to be determined by that body. A Mr. Kazan was unable to obtain a clear declara- 
proposition that no person should be permitted tion from the congress on the Jewish question, 
to attend as a delegate whose expenses were not The committee recommended a resolution " con- 
borne by the organization that he represented demning the anti-Semitic agitation as a device 
was taken into favorable consideration. The of the capitalist class and of reactionary govem- 
intention was announced of sending some dele- ments to divert the Socialist movement from its 
gates from the Continent to the separate Socialist course, and to sow division among the workers, 
congress that is to be held in Chicago in 1893. and affinning that the only wav to achieve the 
It was resolved to or^nize a genera] interna- emancipation of the Jewish working classes was 
tional demonstration m favor of an eight-hour to effect the amalgamation of the Socialist parties 
day, to take place on May 1, 1892. A resolution in the respective countries." This was altered 
inviting: the Socialist and Labor parties of all on the motion of British delegates to read " the 
countries "to affirm in their programmes the amalgamation of the Socialist and Labor parties," 
complete equality of the two sexes and to do- and at the suggestion of M. A rgyriades, a French 
mand the concession to women of the same po- delegate, who denounced Jewisn banks and Jew- 
litical and civil rights as are enjoyed by men, ish financiers as oppressore of labor, an amend- 
and the repeal of all laws placing women outside ment was accepted to the effect that the con- 
public rights," was passed, with only three dis- gross " condemns both anti-Semitic and philo- 
senting votes. The resolution in regard to labor- Semitic agitation." The resolution regarding 
protecting legislation brought out the differ- militarism was a sweeping one in favor of uni- 
ences of opinion between the Continental work- versal disarmament and peace, condemning wars 
men and the British delegates. Mr. Kazan, who and the maintenance of standing armies as a 
represented the Hebrew trade unions of the device to bolster up the power of capitalism. 
United States, said : " We are not going to cringe BOLIVIA, a republic in South America, 
and fawn for legislation, but will extort it from The legislative power is vested in a Congress, 
the capitalist class, and abolish the wage sys- consisting in a Senate and a House of £&pre- 
tem." The British members objected to amend- sentatives, and the executive power in a Presi- 
ment^ embodying particular Socialistic demands, dent, elected for four years. Don Aniceto Arce 
and the congress finally adopted unanimously was made President in 1888. The country is 
the following resolution : divided into 8 departments, each under the ad- 
This congress, recojfnizing the existence of a class ministrative and military authority of a prefect 
struggle, and convinced that as long as class rule pre- appointed by the President. 



BOLIVIA. BRAZIL. 91 

Area and Population. — The area, which be- project for the improvement of the tributaries 
fore 1880 was 842,000 square miles, has been re- of the Amazon and La Plata to afford water 
dnced, bj the cession of the sea-coast province communication with the Atlantic is regarded as 
of Antofaeasta to Chili, to 772,548 square miles, feasible, and likely to be carried out. 
The popuUtion is about 2,800,000, one fourth of Finance. — Bolivia is financially better off 
whom are whites, one fourth mestizos, and one than any other South American state. The for- 
half Indians. La Paz, which is the seat of Gov- eign debt is being rapidly paid off ; it had been 
emment, has about 60,000 inhabitants. reduced to $622,121 m 1890, while the internal 
Commeree and Prodnetion.~The foreijE^ debt was only $4,450,000. About one third of 
commerce of Bolivia is large, and has greatly in- the revenue is derived from customs and one 
creased in recent years. The amount is not third from a tribute collected from the aborig- 
known, the estimates being based on statistics inal tribes. The receipts of the treasury for the 
furnished by Chili, Peru, and the Argentine Re- financial year 1800 were estimated at $8,624,200, 
public The esi)orts in 1886 amounted to $9,- and the expenditures at $8,784,814. About one 
800,000, and the imports to $7,000,000. In 1890 third of the expenditure goes to support a mili- 
the exports had increased to abotit $20,000,000, tar? force of 124 officers and 900 solaiers. 
vhile the imports were $15,000,000 in value. Relations witli Chill.— Bolivia was the first 
The foreign trade is mostly with England, Ger- country in either hemisphere to reco^ize the 
many, and France. The share of the United belligerent rights of the Junta de Gobiemo (see 
States is verv small. The direct shipments from Chili), which was done by proclamation on June 
the United States to Bolivia in 1890 were $11,- 80, 1891. While this act was advantageous to 
002; but this does not represent the extent of the Bolivia's commerce, as the Congressional party 
trade, for considerable quantities of dry-goods, held the northern provinces of Chili bordering 
drillings, kerosene, hardware, and machinerv re- on Bolivia and could deny her access to the sea- 
ported as sent to Peru, or the other republics ports, yet it involved the risk of a war with Bal- 
bordering on Bolivia, are consumed in thac maceda in the event of his success in the civil 
country, and many of the imports that are cred- war. It strengthened the position of the Junta, 
it«d in' the trade reports of the Treasury Depart- both in Chili and in its relations with foreign 
ment to those neiffhooring countries are the prod- countries; and in return the Bolivian Govem- 
uce of Bolivia. The silver mines of Bolivia are ment is said to have obtained .a treaty of com- 
sapposed to be the richest in the world. Those mercial reciprocity, whereb;^ no'trensit duties are 
at Potosi from the time of the Spanish conquest levied on goods imported into Bolivia through 
have yielded over $8,000,000,000. Other rich Antofagasta or other Chilian ports; and Bolivia, 
deposits are found at Oruro, AuUaga, and in on her part, acknowledges the perpetnal sover- 
otner places. In 1881 the export of &livian sil- eignty of Chili over the annexea provinces, and 
ver through Buenos Ayres was valued at $17,000,- agrees to admit C hilian products tree of duty. 
000. and in 1882 at $21,000,000. In 1888 they BRAZIL, a republic m South America, pro- 
vere $17,064,218; in 1889, $12,145,645. There claimed on Nov. 15, 1889, when Dom Pedro II, 
ire valuable deposits also of tin, lead, bismuth, the Emperor, was dethroned by a popular rising 
mercury, copper, platinum, zinc, magnetic and and exiled with his family. A Provisional Gov- 
other iron ores, alum, salt, magnesia, and other emment was instituted, which framed and pub- 
minerals, and a large variety of precious and lished a new Constitution, that was ratified by 
semi-precious stones. The export of copper ore the first National Congress, convened on Nov. 
and regulus amounts to about $240,000 a year. 15, 1890. By this instrument the Brazilian na- 
Vegetable products of both the temperate and tion constituted itself into a federal republic, 
tropical zones thrive in Bolivia. Enough wheat under the name of the United States of Brazil, 
is grown for domestic consumption, and a con- Each of the old provinces was declared a self- 
sidenble surplus is exported. The coffee pro- goveniing State, to be administered under a re- 
duced in Bolivia is of superior quality. Next to publican form of government, with power to im- 
silver, the largest export is coooa, the'product of pose taxes, and subject to no interrerence from 
which in 1885 was valued at $1,718,820. After the Central Government, except for purposes 
this comes India-rubber, which is of a very high of national defense or the preservation of inter- 
grade, and exists in inexhaustible quantities. An- nal order or for the execution of Federal laws, 
other valuable product is cinchona bark ; the Leeislation relating to customs, paper currency, 
namber of trees nas been estimated at 5,000,000, and postal communications is reserved to the 
and the annuaJ output at 200,000 pounds. Federal Government. The right of suffrage is 
GommnnlcAtlons.— Bolivian commerce has secured to all male citizens over twenty-one 
been retarded by lack of transport to the coast, years old, with the exception of be|cgars, persons 
There is now railroad communication with the ignorant of the alphabet, soldiers m actual serv- 
Chilian port of Antofagasta by means of a line ice, and persons under monastic vows, registra- 
that crosses the frontier at Ascotan, and has tion being the only prerequisite. The executive 
been extended for 400 miles on Bolivian territorv, authorit}[ is vested in the President, who must 
nearly to Oruro in the center of the plateau. It be a native of Brazil over thirty-five years of 
will 6e continued to the agricultural district of age. He is elected by the people directly for the 
Cochabamba, and a branch will connect it with term of six years, and is not eligible for the suc- 
Potosi. The Peruvian railroad that has been oeeding term. In all the States the election 
built from MoUendo, on the coast, to Puno, on takes place on Mareh 1 of the last year of the 
lAke Titicaca, is to be joined by a line from La presidential period. The votes are counted at 
Paz. Communication with the Atlantic Ocean the State capitals, and the candidate receiving 
is facilitated by the extension of one of the Ar- the absolute majority of the popular votes is 
gentine railroads to the frontier of Bolivia. A declared elected by Congress at the opening ses- 



92 BRAZIL. 

sion, and is inaugarated on the 15th of Novem- receives a two-thirds vote after three discussions 
ber following. With the Vice-President it is the in each Chamber. No proposition shall ever be 
same. The President may be removed by the admitted to consideration wnich tends to abolish 
Senate, sitting as a tribunal under the presiaency the federative republican form of government or 
of the chief justice, on articles of impeachment the equal representation of the States in the 
presented by the Chamber of Deputies. The Senate. The original draft declared clergymen. 
President has power to appoint ana remove the magistrates, police and army officers, and Fede- 
members of his Cabinet and make all Federal ral office holders incapable of sitting in either 
civil appointments, and can appoint diplomatic House of Congress, but all restrictions were re- 
representatives and Federal judges with the con- moved by the Constituent Assembly, except that 
sent of the Senate. He is commander-in-chief candidates must be registered as voters, and 
of the army and navy. He has power to make must have been citizens four years to become 
war or peace only on the authorization of Con- members of the Chamber and six years to be 

fress. Jdinisters address their reports to the eligible for the Senate. It is declared that no 
^resident, and can only communicate with the sect or church shall receive aid from the National 
Chambers by letter or m conference with com- or State governments, and that no Brazilian 
missions, "the Vice-President of the Republic shall be deoarred from exercising civil and polit- 
is President of the Senate. Senators are elected ical rights or exempt from civic duty on account 
by the Legislatures of the States for nine years, of religiousb elief or duty. The clauses forbid- 
three from each State, one retiring and his sue- ding the establishment of new convents or mo- 
cessor being chosen every three years. Sena- nastic orders and proscribing the Jesuits were 
tors and Deputies receive e<]ual salaries. The expunged. The protests of Cardinal da Costa, 
Chamber of Deputies has the initiative in all laws the primate of Brazil, against the civil marriage 
relating to taxation. Deputies are elected for clause, the secularization of cemeteries, and the 
three years by direct popular vote in the propor- exclusion of religious teaching from public 
tion of one to every 70,000 inhabitants. Con- schools, failed to impress the Congress, and, 
gress assembles on May 3 of each year, and re- while all religious disabilities were removed, 
mains in session four months. The President these clauses were left standing, 
can call an extraordinary session. The present Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, the head of the 
Chamber has 202 members, the State of Minas- Provisional Government, was confirmed in the 
Geraes sending S"?; Bahia and Sflo Paulo, each presidencv by the Constitutional Congress, and 
22 ; Rio de Janeiro and Pemambuco, 17 each ; Rio General ^loriano Peixoto was elected Vice-presi- 
Grande do Sul,16 ; Ceariand the Federal District, dent. Their term of office expires in 1894. The 
lOeach; Pari andMaranhflo,7each; AlagGas, 0; Cabinet first appointed by President Fonseca 
Parahyba, 5 ; Rio Grande do Norte, Piauny, Ser- consisted of the following officers : Aristides da 
gipe, Parand, and Santa Catharina, each 4 ; Goyaz, Silveira Lobo, Minister of the Interior; Dr. 
3 ; and Matto Grasso and Esperito Santo, 2 each. Ruy Barbosa, Minister of Finance ; Benjamin 
According to the Federal Constitution, the exec- Constant Botelho dei Ma^lhSes* Minister of 
utive, legislative, and judicial authorities of each War; Admiral Eduardo Wandelkolk, Minister 
State must be separate and independent ; the of Marine ; Quintano Bocayuva, Minister of For- 
Governor and members of the Legislature must eign Affairs ; Dr. Demetrio Nunez Ribeiro, Min- 
be elective ; and judges must not be elective nor ister of Commerce and Agriculture ; F. de Cam- 
removable from office except on impeachment pos-Salles, Minister of Justice. They still held 
and judicial sentence. . The Federal District-, or office at the be^nning of 1891, with' the excep- 
Municipio JSletitro^ consisting of the city of Rio tion of the Ministers of Agriculture and the In- 
and its environs, an area of 538 square miles, is terior, who were succeeded by Dr. Francisco 
administered by the Federal Government At Glyoerio and Dr.Cesarede Faria Alvin. Mean- 
some future time the Capitol is to be removed to while B.C. Bothelho dei MagalhSes was appointed 
a district of 14,400 square kilometres, about 75 Minister of Public Instruction, Posts, and Tele- 
miles s(|uare, reserved as the property of the graphs, resigningthe charge of the War Depart- 
Union in the center of the republic The pres- ment to Gen. F. Peixoto. Early in the year this 
ent Federal District will then be constituted as statesman — ^familiarly known as Benjamin Con- 
a State. , By vote of the Legislatures in two con- stant, revered by the Republicans as their intel- 
secutive sessions and with the consent of Con- lectual leader and the chief organizer of the 
gress, States can divide themselves or amalga- revolution— died in office, and by one of the 
mate with other States. The States alone can temporary provisions of the new Constitution, 
levy taxes on exports of their own products, following the article granting a pension to the 
land, inheritances, and industries. Amendments ex-£mperor " sufficient to guarantee him a de- 
to the Federal Constitution may be presented by cent subsistence," it was decreed that Dr. Benja- 
one fourth of the members of either House of min Constant's house should be preserved as a 
Congress, and if they are passed to a third read- national monument. 

ing by a two-thirds vote in both Chambers, they Area and Population. — The area of Brazil 

will be considered again in the following year, is 3,209.878 square miles, and the population was 

when they must be passed a second time in officially estimated in 1888 at 14,CK)2,835, indi- 

three readings by a two-thirds majority of both eating an increase of 41 per cent., or 2*56 per 

Houses before they become law. Or if an cent, per aiMum, since the census of 1872 ; but 

amendment is askea for by two thirds of the as that ccMAs was incomplete, the rate of growth 

States after having been proposed and sanctioned has probably been less. According to its returns, 

by a majority vote given by their respective there were at that time 3,787,280 whites, 3,801,- 

Legislatures within the same year, then it must 787 mestizos, 1,954.452 negroes, and 886,955 In- 

be proposed in Congress, and is adopted when it dians. In the northern provinces there is a large 



BRAZIL. 93 

Indian element, and in the States of Rio de Ja- point is coffee, of which 4,526,906 bags of 60 
neiro, Bahia, Minas-Geraes, and Pernambuco kilos were shipped from Rio, Santos, and Vic- 
negroes predominate in numbers. In 1850 the toria in 1889-90. During the same fiscal year 
number of slaves held in Brazil was estimated at 104,536 tons of sugar were exported from rer- 
3.500,000. An official enumeration in 1887 gave nambuco. The export of rubber from Pard and 
the number of negroes still held in slavery as Manaos in 1889 was 18,682 tons, and the number 
728,419. By a measure passed in the following of hides exported from Rio Grande do Sul was 
year all were declared free, and compensation to 749,301. Cotton of the value of 15,000,000 mil- 
the owners was refused. The present number of reis. tobacco for 5,000,000 milreis, and Paraguay 
wild Indians is estimated to be about 600,000. tea for 3,500,000 milreis, were exported in 1887. 
The city of Rio had 357,332 inhabitants in 1885. During 1889 the number of vessels entered at 
The immigration, which was 131,268 in 1888, fell the port of Rio de Janeiro was 1,375 ; the ton- 
away to 65,161 in 1889, and 21,088 in the first six nage, 1,759,911 ; the number cleared, 1,181 ; ton- 
months of 1890, owing to yellow fever and to nage, 1,587,011. The merchant marine in 1890 
complaints of hardships endured by immigrants, numbered 506 vessels, with an aggregate capa- 
which were investigated by the Italian Govern- city of 149.066 tons, of which 121 were steamers 
ment. Of the immigrants in 1889, 34,920 were of 67,707 tons. 

Italians. 15,240 Portuguese, 8,662 Spaniards, Gommniileations. — The length of completed 
K903 Germans, 584 French, 470 Austrians, 387 railroads in May, 1889, was 5,331 miles. Nearly 
Belgians^ 126 Swedes, 76 British, and 2.793 from all are single-track lines of one-metre ^auge. The 
other countries. During 1890 the Provisional state owns 2,091 miles. Most of the Imes belong- 
Goremment granted concessions of public lands ing to companies have a guarantee, usually of 6 or 
e^ual to the British Islands in area, with the 7 per cent interest, either from the General Gov- 
Tiew of promoting immigration, and Senhor emment or from the States through which the 
Glycerio, the Minister of Agriculture, contracted lines run. A complete national system of rail- 
for the introduction of over a million families, roads, giving an outlet to all the productive sec- 
agreeine to pay the shipping company $25 for tions of the country, is one of the projects of the 
every adult immigrant, and a subsidy of $20,000 new Government. A scheme embracing the con- 
to companies bringing at least 10,000 settlers in struction of 20,000 kilometres, or 12,500 miles, 
a year. For six months after their arrival, im- has been approved, and the outlay for one fifth 
migrants are under the special protection of the of the whole appears in the budget for 1802. 
state, which will support them when necessary. The telegraph lines, which belong to the Gov- 
They are promised farms at from $12 to $25 emment, had a total length in 1^9 of 10,720 
an acre, with houses ready for occupancy and kilometres, with 18,489 kilometres of wire. 
seed and implements thrown in, and ten years The number of letters passing through the 
are given them to pay off the debt. These ex- post-office in 1888 was 14,875,522 ; of news- 
traordinary inducements stimulated immigration papers, 16,149,092 ; receipts for eighteen months, 
peatly. Fortn^nese, Spaniards, Italians, Rus- 2,210,000 milreis ; expenses, 2.760,000 milreis. 
sians. and British and Irish came in such num- The Armj and IVavy.— The peace effective 
bers that many suffered hardships from over- of the armj m 1890 was 1,600 officers and 28,400 
crowding in the barracks provided by the Gov- men, formmg 36 battalions of infantry, 1 trans- 
emment. A great number sickened from change port company, 1 depot company for instruction, 
of climate and food, and a large proportion 12 regiments of cavalry, 5 regiments of field and 
failed from inability to till the land. 5 battalions of foot artillery, and 2 battalions of 
Commerce and* Prodnetlon. — Coffee and pioneers. The Gendarmerie number 10,000 men, 
sugar are the chief commercial products of the of whom 2,000 are quartered in the capital, 
country. Cotton is cultivated also, and numer- The National Guard is to be reorganized, 
oas cotton mills have been established. The The navy in 1890 consisted of 58 vessels, of 
state has offered a guarantee of interest to sugar which 10 are ironclad, mounting 232 guns all 
factories, and in 1890 many new ones were told. There were 5 cruisers, 17 gunboats, 2 
started, concessions being granted for 58,650,000 steamers, 5 schoolships, 13 auxiliary vessels, 2 
milieisof capital in the first nine months. The propellers, and 14 torpedo boats. The crews 
number of cattle in Brazil is about 17,000,000, numbered 5,984 men, including officers. A fast 
and hides are exported largely from the southern protected cruiser of 4,500 tons is not yet fin- 
province. In the swamps of the Amazon vallev ished. 

ereat quantities of rubber are gathered. High Finances.— The budget for 1890 made the 

duties are paid on imports, and on several of the total revenue 142,989.500 milreis, of which 87,- 

chief products of the country export duties are 000,000 milreis were the estimated receipts from 

collected. Of the imports, which consist mainly import duties, 2,590.000 milreis from port dues, 

of cotton and woolen fabrics, preserved meat 15,030,000 milreis from export duties, 18,440,- 

and fish, wines and spirits, breadstuffs, coal, iron 000 milreis from railroads, 3,000,000 milreis 

and steel, and linen cloth, Great Britain sup- from posts and telegraphs, 19,120,000 milreis 

plies about 45 per cent, of the total value, from stamps, succession auties, and registration, 

France 17 per cent, and Germany 14 per cent, and 2,809,000 milreis from other sources. The 

Of the exports, about one third go to the United revised estimate made the total receipts 147,200,- 

States, one third to Great Britain, one tenth to 000 milreis. The expenditure for 1890 was es- 

France, and an equal proportion to Germany, timated at 151,219,720 milreis, 9,226,528 milreis 

The value of the exports from Rio in 1889 was being assigned to the Interior Department, 805,- 

104,611,321 milreis (the value of the milreis va- 707 milreis to foreign affairs, 7,816,575 milreis to 

ries from 35 to 55 cents, according to the rate of justice, 11,495,000 milreis to the nav^r, 14,994,492 

exchange). Almost the sole export from that milreis to the army, 44,779,248 milreis to public 



94 BRAZIL. 

works, and 62,102,166 to the Department of Fi- and the United States was concluded at Washing- 
nance. In 1B80 the revenue was estimated at ton on Feb. 7, 1891, by virtue of which sugar, 
139,340,000, and the expenditure at 153,147,844 molasses, coffee, and hides, the produce of Brazil, 
milreis. This does not include 20,266,965 milreis are exempt from duty on importation into the 
of extraordinary expenditure, toward which there United States. In reciprocitv for and in con- 
was an extraordinary revenue of 7.780,000 mil- sideration of the exemption from duty of these 
reis. For 1890 the extraordinary expenditure articles by an act of Congress approved in Octo- 
was reckoned at 25,456,830 milreis. ber, 1890, the Government of Brazil by legal 
The expenses on account of the debt were es- enactment authorized the admission into Brazil, 
ti mated for 1890 at 47,201,503 milreis. The in- free of all duty, whether national. State, or 
ternal funded debt, amounting in December, 1889, municipal, of certain articles produced or mann- 
to 543,555,300 milreis, consists mainly of 5-per- factured in the United States and of another list 
cent. bond& The foreign loans amount to 270,- of articles with a reduction of 25 per cent, from 
895,556 milreis, or £30,419,500 sterling, about the tariff now in force, or any future tariff. The 
two thirds paying 4 per cent, and the rest 4^ Brazilian act went into force on April 1, 1891. 
per cent, interest. A smkine fund of 1 per cent. The following is the schedule of articles admitted 
IS provided, with which the bonds are to be paid free into Brazil : Wheat, flour, com, maize, and 
on by lot if they stand above par; but if they are the manufactures thereof, including commeal 
below par, it is to be applied to purchases in the and starch, rve, rye flour, buckwheat flour, bar- 
open market. ley, potatoes, beans, pease, hav, oats, pork (stilted). 
Change of Ministry. — A difference arose be- including pickled pork and oacon, except hams, 
tween the Minister of Agricultufe and the Presi- flsh (salted, dried, and pickled), cotton-seed oil, 
dent in regard to the construction of a harbor coal (anthracite and bituminous), resin, tar, pitch, 
for the State of Rio Grande do SuL Improve- turpentine, agricultural tools and implements, 
ments in the Rio Grande harbor and an attempt machinery, including stationary and portable 
to build a railroad to Santa Catharina in the engines, all machinery for manufacturing and 
northern part of the State had proved unsuooess- industrial purposes (except sewing machines), 
ful ; and the President, who was accused bv his instruments and books for use in the arts and 
enemies of favoritism and connivance in jobbery, sciences, and railway construction material and 
insisted in granting a concession and guarantee equipment. Of these, the average imports for 
to projected harbor works in the roadstead at the last three years have been $20,003,937 in 
Torres, and a railroad leading thither, with the annual value, and of this the United States have 
view of making that the port of the province, contributed only $3,394,633, while other countries 
Dr. Glycerio disapproved, and on Jan. 6 tendered have furnished $16,609,304. The schedule of 
his resignation. The refusal of the Congress to articles that Brazil admits with a reduction of 
vote indemnity for the acts of the Provisional duty of 25 per cent, is as follows: Lard and the 
Government was resented by the President, and, substitutes therefor, bacon, hams, cheese, canned 
taking the occasion when the Constitution passed and preserved meats, fish, fruits and vegetables, 
its first reading, the remaining ministers re- manufactures of cotton (including cotton cloth- 
signed their portfolios together on Jan. 20, 1891. ing), manufactures of iron and steel not included 
On Jan. 22 a new Cabmet was organized as in the foregoing free schedule, leather and the 
follows : Baron de Lucena, Minister of Agri- manufactures thereof (except boots and shoes), 
culture. Commerce, and Public Works ; Dr. JoSo lumber and timber and tne manufactures of 
Barbalhao Uchoa (Javalcante, Minister of the In- wood (including cooperage, furniture, and all 
terior and Public Instruction ; Tristeo de Alancar kinds of wagons, carts, and carriages), and the 
Araripe, Minister of Finance; Dr Justo Leite manufactures of rubber. Of these, the average 
Pereira Chermont, Minister of Foreign Affairs; value of the importations for three years has 
Rear-Admiral Fortunate Foster Vidal, Minister been $38,631,242, of which the United States 
of Marine; Major-General Antonio Nicolao Fal- furnished only $2,035,899, while other countries 
cao da Frota, Minister of War ; Assis Brazil, Min- furnished $36,595,343. 

ister of Justice. On Feb. 23 the Ck>nstitution was An American steamship company has been 
adopted in its amended form, and on Feb. 25 organized, with A. J. Dittenhoefer and Henry L. 
Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca was elected Presi- James, of New York, as president and vice-presi- 
dent by a majority of 23, Prudente de Moraes dent, to build orbuvsix steamers andei^ht fast- 
being the opposing candidate. General Peixoto sailing vessels for the purpose of establishing a 
was chosen vice-president by a majority of 47 mail packet and commercial line between New 
votes. The Congress then separated to begin its York and the ports of Brazil. The United States 
regular session on June 15. The Cabinet was and Brazilian governments may give subsidies 
remodelecl on May 23, Americo Bmziliense be- for regular semi-monthly mails, and the Bra- 
coming Minister of Finance in the place of zilian Government has guaranteed interest on 
Senhor Araripe, who was transferred to the the capital raised by $3,000,000 of bonds. The 
Ministry of the Interior, and Senhor Cavalcante voyage between New York and Rio will be made 
made Minister of Posts and Telegraphs, while in fourteen days. 

Alfonso Carvalho entered the Cabinet as Min- A Dictatorship proclaimed. — Differences 
ister of Justice. The new Minister of Finance arose between the President and Congress, at first 
was unable to cope with the growing difficulties over financial measures passed by the Chambers 
of the situation, and on July 5 he retired and and vetoed bv the President and schemes recora- 
was succeeded by Baron Lucena. whose former mended by tfie President that were voted down 
duties were assumed by Senhor Cavalcante. by Congress. A coiip d'etat leading to a dicta- 
Reciprocity with tlie United States. — A torship or the restoration of royalty was feared 
treaty to secure reciprocal trade between Brazil by the opponents of Fonseca, who introduced a 



BRAZIL. 95 

bill fixing the procedure for the impeachment manifesto in which he threatened to march on 
of the President. When President da Fonseca to Eio Janeiro to depose the Dictator, then 
vetoed it, the Chamber pa6se<l a motion to over- Baron Lucena telegraphed to the revolutionary 
ride the veto, whereupon the President dis- Junta that he would recognize an^ local govem- 
5olved Congress by a decree published on Nov. 8. ment that the people of the province preferred. 
Armed force was used to close the Chambers, on the sole condition that peace and tranquillity 
Martial law was proclaimed in the Federal Dis- should be restored. The Junta, at the head of 
trict. The rupture was preceded by riotous which stood Dr. Assis Brazil, one of the chief 
disturbances in Rio on Oct. 8, and was attended originators of the republican movement, replied 
by street fighting on Nov. 4. President Deodoro that his forces would not disarm until Fonseca 
da Fonseca proclaimed himself Dictator on the should resign the presidency and the Congress 
invitation of officers of the army, announcing be reassembled in Rio Janeiro. On Nov. 21 
that he would fix a date later for the election of the President issued a proclamation appointing 
representatives of the nation. The army and a Feb. 29 as the date for the general election and 
part of the navy supported him in his course of May 8 for the assembling of the next Congress, 
action, which he declared, in a manifesto, to be He recommended that the Constitution should 
doe to irregular proceedings of Congress and be amended to secure the independence of the 
tbe efforts of the Promoters of a restoration of judiciary and the Executive by introducing safe- 
the monarchy. He convoked a new Congress guards to uphold the President's veto, by en- 
charged with the revision of the Constitution, larging the powers of the Executive and limiting 
which is to meet in January, 1892. The min- those of Congress, and by r^ucing the number 
isters, with the exception of Baron de Lucena, of representatives. He adnsed also the legal 
who. like Gen. Deoaoro, was formerly an Im- recognition of existing decorations and titles of 
perialist, all resigned their portfolios. The sus- distinction. Fonseca became alarmed when he 
pension of the Constitution caused much popular discovered that a large part of the army could 
dissatisfaction in many of the States, most of all not be depended on to fi^ht for him. The forces 
in Rio Grande do Sul, where the local Govern- were rapidly augmented oy recruits attracted by 
ment ordered the National Guard under arms, liberal pay. When signs of indifference and 
and the authority of the Dictator was repu- even of hostility began to be manifested among 
diated. President da Fonseca ordered troops the naval commanders, the Dictator perceived 
to Rio Grande to prevent the State authorities that success was very doubtful. The State of 
fram carrying their declaration of independence Pard refused to furnish aid to the Dictator, and 
into effect. On Nov. 10, the State of Grffo Par& the municipal authorities of the capital city 
likewise declared its independence. A decree compelled tne Government troops to aeliver up 
was published making expulsion from Brazil the their arms. In the city and tne State of Rio 
penalty for resisting the Dictatorship. The re- Janeiro there was strong sympathy with the re- 
volt against the Central Government in Rio volt A military force was sent to Santa Catha- 
Grande do Sul, which began on the night of rina after the return of the unsuccessful expe- 
Xov. 9, spread rapidly. The Government troops dition to the Rio Grande, for the purpose of 
St Yugaraon and m two other garrisons went over entering the insurgent State by land ana meet- 
to the rebels, who were led by Gen. Fernandez. ing the revolutionary army, which had set out 
The Government had about 6,000 troops, half on its northward march. Admiral Wandelkolk, 
the army, in Rio Grande do Sul. Of these, five ex-Minister of Marine, and other chiefs of the 
infantry regiments and one of cavalry deserted navy and eminent military oflScers, consulted on 
to the insurgents as soon as the revolt was pro- the situation, and decidea to end the crisis and 
claimed. Large bodies of volunteers were raised, prevent a collision with the insurgent army, 
with the intention of gaining possession of the which was rapidly approaching the border of 
whole province before the naval and military re- Santa Catharina, by a militav profiunciamienio 
enforcements arrived. Of the towns, only Porto a^inst Fonseca. On Nov. 28 the demonstra- 
Alegre, the capital, Tugaraon, and Sinta Vic- tion, backed by the army and the fleet, took 
toria supported the dictatorship. Gen. Feman- place in Rio, and Marshal Fonseca was given 
dez advanced on the capital, capturing Santa 24 hours in which to abdicate. The squadron 
Anna to the north of it, which offered Tittle re- fired several shots into the city, injuring some 
5i*tance. The revolution, though caused by the of the churches, in sign of the earnestness of its 
differences between the President and Congress, demand. Fonseca hesitated only long enough 
started on Oct. 7 in a row at an opera in Rio to convince himself that the navy and three 
Janeiro between students and the police, which quarters of the army had declared against him. 
was followed by street fighting for two days, at He presented his resignation to his Prime Min- 
the end of which the police were replaced by ister and friend, Baron Lucena, and issued a 
^Idiers. Fonseca and nis Cabinet assumed, for manifesto announcing his retirement and stat- 
politic reasons, that the chief trouble in Rio ing that his motive was to avoid bloodshed. 
Grande was due to the strife between the two Floriano Peixoto was immediately installed by 
contending parties, and would end with the the revolutionary committee as President in 
triumph of tne party hostile to the administra- his stead. The new President appointed a Cab- 
tion. When the Government transports were inet in which Rodriguez Alves was made Min- 
unable to land troops to engage the insurgents ister of Finance ; Faria, Minister of Agriculture ; 
by reason of obstructions placed in the channel, Pereira, Minister of Justice ; and temporarily of 
when Porto Alegre was in their hands, when the Interior and of Education ;Mello. Minister of 
they had raised an army by the middle of No- Marine ; Oliveira, Minister of War ; and Pullita. 
vember of 50,000 men, and when Gen. Ossorio, Minister of Foreign Affairs. As soon as Fon- 
who was made commander-in-chief, issued a seca's abdication was known, the insurgent army 



96 BULGARIA. 

in Rio Graixle do Sul began to disband. The debt, 18,078.618 francs ; for financial administra- 
state of siege proclaimed by Fonseca was raised, tion, 18,820,732 francs ; for the Ministry of the 
On Nov. 25 Gen. Peixoto issued a call fori the Interior, 8,885,480 francs ; for public works, 7,- 
reassemblingon Dec. 18 of the Congress dissolved 722,243 francs ; for public instruction, 5,140,985 
by Fonseca. The same Congress reassembled, francs. Of the revenue, 89,952,000 francs are 
and all the States were represented. Though raised by direct taxation, and 15,898,500 francs 
the secession movement in Rio Grande do Sul by custom-house and internal duties, 
did not entirely subside at once. Gen. Floriano The debt to the Russian Government on ac- 
Peixoto appeased this thriving and populous count of the occupation, of which 15,893,500 
state, with 650,000 inhabitants, of whom 200,000 francs remain to be paid, is to b»e extinguished 
are Germans, by choosing the majority of the in 1896. A loan of 50,000,000 francs was eon- 
ministers from among its Deputies. The Minis- tracted in 1887, and another of 80,000,000 francs, 
try of Finance was given to Senhor de Paula The Government has assumed the annual tribute 
Rodriguez Alves, who had a high reputation for of £118,000 Turkish owed to the Sultan by East- 
ability. The crisis had been caused principally em Roumelia, and arrears of £21,000 Turkish, 
by the financial proceedings of Fonseca and his The powers have not yet acted on the clause of 
Cabinet, who found, on assuming power, a for- the Berlin Treaty requiring them to assess the 
eign debt of $154,000,000, an internal debt still tribute Bulgaria shall pay. 
larger, and $114,000,000 of railroad bonds in The Army.— The army, service in which is 
which interest was guaranteed, while only one obligatory both in Bulgaria and Eastern Rou- 
line, the SSo Paulo, capitalized at $9,000,000, melia, has a peace strength of 1,604 officers and 
earned the amount of the guarantee. The Gov- 84,208 soldiers, and a war strength of 2,304 offi- 
ernment launched out in new undertaking to cers and 122,708 men. It is organized in 8 divis- 

g lease politicians and their localities, and the ions, of 2 brigades each, composed of 24 regiments 

nancial stress became great. The state of the of infantry, of 2 battalions and 1 depot battalion ; 

treasury grew alarming when it was discovered 4 cavalry regiments of 4 squadrons, besides the 

that the expected deficit of $14,000,000 would be troop of the guards ; 6 regiments of field artillerr. 

surpassed bjr $5,000,000. Foreign trade and pro- each having 4 batteries, of 4 pieces in peace and 

ductive activity went on during the crisis. The 8 in war, and a mountain battery with 2 guns ; 2 

President's dispositions reduced the deficit for depot batteries and 1 battery of sieee artillery; 1 

1890 to $8,000,000 in gold, and the country soon regiment of engineers, of 2 battuions ; and 1 

settled down under the new Government. disciplinary company. 

BULGARIA, a principality in southeastern The fleet, consisting of 1 yacht, 8 steamers, 7 
Europe, tributary to Turkey. The Constitution steam sloops, and 2 torpedo boats, is manned by 
of 1879 vests the legislative authority in a single 12 officers and 884 men. 
Chamber, called the Sobranje, the members of Commerce and Production. — The people 
which are elected by universal suffrage for three are employed mostly in agriculture, and the main 
years, in the proportion of 1 to every 10,000 of article of export is wheat. In 1889 the value of 
population. Eastern Roumelia, which was creat- the grain exports was 45,841,000 leii or francs, 
ed an autonomous province of Turkey by the Liveanimalswereexportedof the value of 6.000,- 
Treaty of Berlin, was united to Bulgaria by the 000 francs. Other exports are wool, tallow, but- 
revolution of September, 1885, and the Prince of ter, cheese, hides, flax, and timber. The value 
Bulgaria was commissioned as Governor-General of the imports in 1889 was 72,869,245 francs, 
by the Sultan in April, 1886. The reigning of which 22,492,177 francs came from Austria- 
Prince is Ferdinand, born Feb. 26, 1861, the Hungary, 21,193,874 francs from Great Britain, 
youngest son of the late Prince August, Duke of 9,778,456 francs from Turkey, 4,582,297 francs 
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, and of Princess Clementine, from Russia, and the rest from Germanv. France, 
daughter of Louis Philippe, King of the French. Roumania, and other countries ; the direct im- 
He was elected by the great Sobranje on July 7, ports from the United States being 59,554 francs, 
1887, to succeed Prince Alexander of Battenberg, while there were no exports to this country. The 
who abdicated on Sept. 7, 1886 ; but his election chief imports are cotton and other textile manu- 
has never received the formal assent of the Porte factures, iron and other metals, and coal. The 
and the signatory powers, as required by the total value of the exports in 1889 was 80,581,076 
Treaty of Berlin, francs, of which 80,555,910 francs were invoiced 

Area and Population.— The area of Bulgaria to Turkey, 18,890,817 francs to France, 12,595.444 

proper is 24,860, and of Eastern Roumelia, or francs to England, 8,558,284 francs to Austria, 

South Bulgaria, 18,500 square miles ; total area, between 1,000,000 and 2,000,000 francs each to 

87,860 square miles. The total population was Italy Roumania, Germany, Belgium, and Greece, 

found by a census taken Jan. 1, 1888, to be 8,- and only 84,669 francs to' Russia. With Senia 

154,375 persons, of whom 960,441 inhabited the commercial intercourse amounted to 962,547 

South Bulgaria. The population was divided as francs of imports and 358,184 of exports, 

to sex into 1,605,389 males and 1,548,986 females. Political Complications,— The election in 

The race statistics give 2,326,250 Bulgars, 607,- August, 1890, of a large majoritv to sustain in 

319 Turks, 58,338 Greeks, 50,291 gypsies, 23,546 the Sobranje the national or anti-Russian policv 

Jews, 2,245 Germans, 2,142 Serbs, 2,557 other of the dictatorial Prime Minister, Stambuloff, 

Slavs, 1,069 Russians, 544 French, and 80,074 of was an index of the feeling of 'the countr>'. 

other nationalities. Among the uneducated farming class the senti- 

Finance. — The budget for 1891 estimates the ments of gratitude toward Russia and of ven- 

revenue at 80,470,000 leii or francs, and the ex- eration for the orthodox Czar have little force, 

nenditure at 79,299,233 francs. For the army, and whatever pro-Russian feeling exists is born 

20,617,435 francs are required ; for the public of fear of Russian vengeant^e. The masses of 



\ 



BULGARIA. . 97 

the people take little interest in politics, and only the intended victim, escaped. Among the hun- 
ask their Goremment to avoid war, to make the dreds of persons who were arrested in the next 
bardenof taxation light, and to exercise its police few days were Karaveloff and other political 
poweisas little as possible. The political rest- opponents of Starobuloff. Many were released, 
tes^ness in Bulgaria is confined to the numerous but several of the leaders of the Kussophil party 
class of professional politicians who depend on were detained in custody. Bulgarian refugees 
public office for their livelihood, and who are and hired Montenegrins" and Macedonians had 
viliing to become the tools of Panslavist intrigues, been armed with revolvers and Berdan rifles, and 
and to foment agitation against the men in were ready, on the assassination of the Prime 
pover in the hopo of succeeding them. All the Minister, to cross the Servian frontier and begin 
leaders have been Nationalists when in office, a guerilla war. Two secret deposits of arms and 
Z&nkoff, the originator of the policy of Bulga- many documents, pointing to a widely ramified 
ria for the Bulgarians, allied himself with Rus- conspiracv, were discovered by the police in 
sian conspirators and planned the abduction of Sofia. The murdered minister was succeeded by 
Prince Alexander in order to oust Karaveloff. Katchevich, a distinguished financier. When 
The latter, to avoid an open rupture with Russia, the time came for the Porte to appoint a gov- 
scheraed to get rid of Alexanaer while keeping emor of Eastern Roumelia, it let the date pass 
the reins of power in his own hand. Stambulofi without making a sign, thereby tacitly accepting 
then took the lead in the Nationidist cause, and the union of the two Bulgarias and the perma- 
successf ally carried through a counter-revolution, nent rule of the Prince over the autonomous 
The Zankovists, the revolutionary Russophil province. The rejjuest of the Turkish agent 
party, were proscribed, and the active agents in m Sofia for an audience with Prince Ferdinand, 
the kidnappmg and other military conspiracies and the reception of Dr. Vulkovich and M. 
became pensioners on the Russian Slav Com- Natchevich by the Sultan, were clear manifes- 
mittee, ready to engage in fresh insurrectionary tations of the friendly disposition of the Turkish 
plot<. Karaveloff and his followers were toler- Government and a recognition of the loyal 
ated. but suspected, by Stambuloff and the party attitude of the Bulgarian authorities in regard 
in power. From Stambuloff's party branched to Macedonian disturbances. In August, the 
off a new opposition party, callea the Radoslav- Turkish authorities in Macedonia were instructed 
istis from tneir leader, Re^oslavof, who are in to allow the Bulgarians in Macedonia to exercise 
accord with the Stambulovists in wishing to freely their religious ceremonies and manage 
maintain Bulgarian independence, but condemn the tuition in their schools without reference to 
the tyrannical and unconstitutional methods em- the Greek patriarchate. The refusal of the Ser- 
plowed by the Prime Minister to crush his adver- vian Government to deliver up Rizof, a Bulgarian 
sanes. After the general election, in which the journalist suspected of having insti«ited the 
Zankovists and otner opposition parties were Beltcheff munler, who was anerward allowed 
prerented by official intcrxerence from manifest- free passage through Roumania into Russia, and 
ing their actual strength, the countrv enjoyed the continued presence of dangerous characters 
many months of tranquillity. Shortly before the on the frontier, caused the Bulgarian Govem- 
beginningof 1891, a yoimg but emment finan- mentto push on the fortifications at Slivnitza 
cier, Beltcheff, waa appomtcd to the vacant and the Dragoman Pass, to call out reserve regi- 
Ministry of Finance. Tne Russian Government ments, and to concentrate troops on the frontier, 
having complained, through the German consul- The Servians responded by massing troops on 
zenerS, of the hospitality given in Bulgaria to their side, and prepared to manoeuvre o5,000 
Russian refugees and Nihuists, the Bulgarian men along the frontier in the autumn. This 
Government expelled a number of persons, caused the Turkish Government to urge Servia 
among whom were some that were known to be to withdraw her troops, and in conseouence of 
Russian spies, who, to conceal their purposes, this invitation both tne Servian and tne Bul^- 
had pretended to be Nihilists. In the case of rian governments desisted from the threatening 
ivo suspicious individuals who were expelled, demonstrations. When the new Turkish Cabinet, 
the St Petersburg Cabinet raised a protest, by objecting to the emission of silver coins bear- 
Threats of venfi;eance a^inst Stambuloff for ing Prince Ferdinand's effigy, and to the con- 
the execution of Major Panitza, and incipient struction of the Uskub-Kustendil stratenc rail- 
plots against the life of Prince Ferdinand were road, showed Russophil tendencies, the British, 
conceafed from the public. About a month Austrian, and Italian governments instructed 
before the expiration of the Prince's commission their diplomatic agents at Sofia to be less re- 
« GoTemor of Eastern Roumelia, the appoint- served in their intercourse with Prince Ferdinand. 
ment of his predecessor, to whose rightslie was Dissensions arose between the Prime Minister 
Ueitlr allowed to succeed, having been for the and the Minister of Justice, owing to illegal 
(t>nfititational period of five years, dating from methods pursued by officials in investigating 
April 6, 1886, rumors were heard of an intended the Beltcheff murder and the interference of M. 
insurrection on the borders of Servia and Rou- Stambuloff with judicial proceedings against 
mania. Major Bendereff and Capt Qrueff, the one of his partisans. On Oct 2, M. Tontchefl 
kidnappers of Prince Alexander, were seen in resigned, and M. Grekoff, the Minister of Foreicp 
Bucharest and Servian towns in the company of Affairs, added the portfolio of Justice to his 
Hitical fugitives and adventurers. On March own. The latter minister, on going to Constan- 
<7 three political assassins fired at the Prime tinople to present anew a request for the formal 
Minister and his friend. Minister Beltcheff, as recognition of Prince Ferdinand, instead of re- 
they were walking together on the street, and ceiving from the Sultan the usual temporizing 
Uke latter was killed, while his chief, who was reply, met with a decided rebuff. 

▼OL. zxzi—- 7 A 



98 



CALIFOUNIA. 



\ ' 



c 



CALIFORNIA, a Pacific coast State, ad- 
mitted to the Union Sept. 9, 1850; area, 158,360 
square miles. The population, according to each 
decennial census since admission, was 92,597 in 
1850; 379,994 in 1860 ; 560,247 in 1870 ; 864,694 
in 1880 ; and 1,208,130 in 1890. Capital, Sacra- 
mento. 

GoTernmeiit. — The following were the State 
officers during the year : Governor, H. H. Mark- 
ham, Republican ; Lieutenant-Governor, J. B. 
Reddick ; Secretary of State, Edward G. Waite ; 
Treasurer, J. R. McDonald : Comptroller, Edwin 
P. Colgan ; Attomev-General, W. U. H. Hart ; 
Surveyor-General, Theodore Reichert ; Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, James W. Ander- 
son ; Railroad Commissioners, William Beckman, 
J. M. Litchfield, and James W. Rea; Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court, W. H. Beatty ; Asso- 



ciate Justices, J. R. Sharpstein, T. B. McFarland, 
A. Van R. Paterson, C. H. Garoutte, Ralph C. 
Harrison, J. J. De Haven. 

Population by Baees.— The t^ble below pre- 
sents the population of the State by races in 
1880 and 1890. 

Finances. — The State Treasurer renorted a 
balance in the treasury on July 1, 1888, of $1,546,- 
434.25 ; the total receipts for the year ensuing 
were $7,554,526.68, and the total expenditures 
$7,035,189.50, leaving a balance on Julv 1, 1889, 
of $2,065,771.43. For the year next following 
the total receipts were $9,999,663.62, and the to- 
tal expenditures $8,500,175.69, leaving a balance 
of $3,565,259.36 on July 1, 1890. These figures 
include all the various funds held by the State 
Treasurer. The separate receipts and expendi- 
tures of the more important of these funds were 



oouimxs. 



Alameda........ 

Alpine 

Amador 

Botte 

Calarezac 

Ooluaa. 

Contra CoBta.... 

Del Norte 

El Dorado 

Fresno 

Humboldt 

Inyo 

Kern 

Lassen 

Los Angeles 

Marin 

Marlposr 

Mendocino 

Merced 

Modoo. 

Mono 

Monterey 

Napa 

Hmda. 

Orange 

Placer 

Plamas 

Bacramento 

San Benito 

San Bernardino . 

San "Diego 

San Francisco. . . 

San Joaquin 

San Luis Obiepo 

Ban Mateo 

Santa Barbara . . 

SanUClan 

Santa Cruz 

ShasU 

Sierra 

Sislciyon 

Solano 

Sonoma 

Htanislaus 

Butter 

Tehama 

Trinity 

Tulare 

Tuolumne 

Yentura 

Yolo 

Yuba. 

The State... 



WHIT& 


COLORKD. 


OH 


1890. 


1880. 


1890. 


1880. 


189a 


89,615 


57,785 


812 


686 


8,231 


440 


521 


8 


1 


6 


9,907 


9,924 


26 


78 


817 


15,888 


14,270 


227 


186 


1,504 


8,874 


7,832 


85 


56 


888 


18,258 


11,698 


140 


97 


946 


12,978 


11,712 


57 


88 


468 


2,20d 


1,781 


8 


8 


7 


8.868 


8,$69 


192 


182 


685 


23,457 


7,891 


486 


40 


2,748 


21,900 


18,818 


55 


28 


19 


2.561 


2,197 


21 


4 


86 


8,219 


4,568 


118 


4 


1,060 


6,297 


5,889 


S3 


14 


200 


8,855 


2.958 


8 


2 


89 


94.972 


81,707 


1,874 


188 


4,406 


11,872 


9,791 


197 


87 


887 


8,878 


8,895 


69 


68 


138 


16,657 


11,185 


88 


4 


855 


7,801 


5,015 


54 


00 


696 


4464 


8,955 


16 


88 


28 


1,476 


7,082 


8 


19 


148 


16,821 


10,648 


105 


60 


1,658 


l.\588 


12,160 


81 


104 


782 


16^ 


17,567 


106 


150 


1,040 


18,400 


• « •  > 


21 


• • • • 


168 


18,685 


11,882 


85 


69 


1,849 


4,178 


4,761 


6 


9 


856 


85.567 


28.928 


468 


560 


4,217 


6,228 


5,255 


54 


6 


85 


24,108 


6,988 


298 


17 


638 


&V26 


6,674 


860 


18 


899 


270,626 


210,496 


1,898 


1,628 


25,870 


26,635 


21,990 


859 


828 


1,619 


1^175 


8.788 


488 


28 


878 


9.562 


8,081 


59 


84 


455 


15.070 


9.185 


81 


68 


567 


44,261 


82,110 


1,005 


161 


2,696 


18,416 


12,085 


58 


68 


767 


10,781) 


7,066 


227 


54 


850 


4,555 


5,887 


18 


22 


474 


10,169 


6,461 


127 


88 


1,142 


19,822 


17387 


100 


72 


1,4S6 


81,188 


24,628 


42 


60 


1,178 


9,554 


8,186 


60 


20 


415 


5,119 


4,845 


88 


85 


817 


8,656 


8,218 


262 


142 


889 


2,921 


2,780 


88 


7 


555 


28,282 


1H,757 


200 


80 


951 


5,576 


6,612 


50 


84 


241 


9,404 


4.849 


115 


15 


*37 


11,974 


11.015 


118 


102 


647 


8,418 


6,824 


220 


247 


950 


1,111,558 


767,181 


11,487 


6,018 


71,681 



1880. 



4,886 

17 

1,115 

8,798 

1,087 

970 

732 

484 

1,4S4 

758 

241 

90 

702 

469 

50 

1.169 

1,827 

697 

846 

676 

17 

868 

878 

905 

8,008 

V • • •  

8,190 

sn 

4.898 

242 

128 

229 

21,745 

1,997 
188 
506 
227 

2,695 
528 

1,884 

1,252 

1,568 
998 
904 
518 
266 
774 

1,951 
824 
805 
129 
608 

2,146 



jrAPAMUB. 



1890. 



75,182 



179 

t •  • 

I • • • 

8 
8 

5 
8 
1 
2 
9 

I  • • 
I • • • 

6 



85 

28 

• • • 

• • « 



1 
7 

4 

» • a . 

6 

• • • • 

48 

9 • • • 

2 

18 

576 

4 

2 
11 

5 
25 
16 

1 



28 
74 

• • • • 

• • • • 

• « •  



1880. 



8 

1 



1,099 



16 

•  • V 

• • • • 



IVDIAKB. 



1890. 



1 
7 



8 
8 



1 
1 



40 



• • • • 

• • • • 

• eve 

• • • • 



8 



86 



87 

219 

70 
817 

82 
296 
4 
873 
140 
881 
1,495 
856 
891 
566 
842 
167 

8S 
162 
662 

84 
488 
875 

57 

58 

153 

6 

76 



1880. 



89 
60 

406 

5S0 
82 
12 
84 
7 
81 
18 
18 

775 


725 
16 

294 
12 

a  • • 

100 
810 
191 
215 
115 
42 
83 



108 



278 
528 
169 
853 

47 

411 

198 

794 

1,985 

631 

88*3 

774 

889 

816 

168 

184 

1,265 

T 

404 

8^ 
888 

64 
101 

"n 

588 
14 
81 

668 

1,7H8 

45 

84 

153 

8 

83 

78 

131 

1,087 

18 

498 
21 

889 
27 
13 

167 

2G1 

lis 

847 
60 
47 
6T 



12,855 16,271 



CALIFORNIA. 99 

IS follow : Genera] fand, balance on Jnly 1, 1888, at this session. It provides that all ballots cast 

|4^«^12.80; receipts for year ensuing, $8,065,- in elections for public oflBcers shall be printed and 

185.13 ; expenditures, $8,0(30,515.62 ; Sdance on distributed at county expense, except that ballots 

July 1,1889, $504,483.81 ; receipts for year end- for municipal oflBcers shall be printed and distrib- 

iD^'July 1, 1^0, $5,081,484.01; expenditures, $8,- uted at the expense of the city or town. Candi- 

755,330.07; balance on July 1, 18^, $1,880,686.- dates whose names are entitled to appear on the 

So. School fund, balance on July 1, 1888, $277,- oflScial ballots must be nominated either by the 

941.d5 ; receipts for year ensuing, $2,582,- convention of a political party that polled at the 

013.51 ; expenditures, $2,501,108.39 ; balance on last preceding election 3 per cent, at least of the 

July 1, 1889, $358,847.07 ; receipts for year entire vote cast in the State or other political di- 

ending July 1, 1890, $2,719,748.71 ; expenditures, vision for which the nomination is made, or by 

$2,658,430.14; balance on July 1, lo90, $420,- nomination papers signed by electors equal in 

160.64. Interest and sinking fund, balance on number to at least 5 per cent of the entire vote 

July 1, 1888, $243,605.49 ; receipts for year cast in the last preceding election in the State or 

ensuing, $204,738.15; expenditures, $212,680 ; other political division for which the nomination 

balance on July 1, 1889, $235,563.&4; receipts ismaae. The duty of preparing the ballots for 

for Tear ending July 1, 1890, $205,464.03 ; ex- city and town elections is imposed on the town 

Denditures, $246,900.83; balance on July 1, 1890, or city clerk, and for all other elections on the 

1194,126.84. State School Land fund, balance county clerk. Tinted blank paper for the bal- 

OD July 1, 1888, $115,970.52; receipts for year lots shall be furnished to these officers by the 

ensnine, $275,976.07 ; expenditures, $139,609.- Secretary of the Stiite on payment of the cost. 

99 ; balance on July 1, 1889, $252,156.60 ; re- Such paper shall be water marked with a design 

ceipts for year ending July 1, 1890, $255,602.- to be furnished by the Secretary of State, so that 

68; expenditures, $459,619.11 ; balance on July it shall be plainly discernible on the outside of 

1, 1890, $48,140.17. the ballot when folded. Such design shall be 

The bonded State debt amounts to $2,642,- kept secret until the election, and shall be 

000, all except $5,000 of which is represented changed for each general election. The paper 

by the funded-debt bonds of 1873. These bonds for ballots for municipal officers shall lie of a 

are held as follow: By individuals, $278,000; by different tint from the paper used for other bal- 

the State School fund, $1,541,500 ; by the Uni- lots. The names of all candidates for city or 

Tersity fund, $817,500. town officers shall be placed on the municipal 

The high rate of State taxation during the ballots and the names of all other candidates on 

past few years has provoked freouent com- the general ballots. They shall be arranged un- 

plaints, and the subject of taxation became one der the designation of the office in alphabetical 

of the most important local topics discussed in order according to surname, except that the 

the canvass of 1890. Both of tne leading parties names of candidates for presidential and vice- 

promi^ to keep the rate below 50 cents on each presidential electors shall oe arranged in groups 

1 100 of valuation. As a result, the rate fixed as presented in the several certificates of nomi- 

by the State Board of Equalization this year was nation, and the elector may vote for the whole of 

23.4 cents for the general fund and 17.6 cents such group by making a mark after such group. 

for the School fund, a total of 41 cents, as against There shall be added to the names of all candi- 

a total of 58 cents in 1890 and 72.2 cents in dates their party or political designation. Blank 

1889. spaces shall be left in which tne elector may 

L^slatire Session. — The twenty-ninth ses- write the names of other candidates. At the 

sion of the Legislature began on Jan. 5, and head of each ballot shall be printed the names 

ended on March 25. On Jan. 13, United States of all political parties that have filed certificates 

Senator Leland Stanford, who was the unani- of nomination, and the elector, by placing a 

moos choice of the Republican caucus, was re- mark opposite the party name shall be consid- 

elected for the full senatorial term by the fol- ered to nave voted for all the party candidates, 

lowing vote : Senate, Stanford 27, Stephen M. but a ballot so marked shall not be counted if 

White, the Democratic nominee, 12 ; Assembly, marked in any other place, except to indicate a 

Stanford 59, White 18, Benjamin Morgan 1, vote on any question submitted on the ballot. 

On Feb. 28, Senator Stanford's colleague. United At each polling place a sufficient number of 

States Senator Qeorge Hearst, died in Washing- booths or compartments shall be provided in 

too, and numerous Republican candidates for which voters may conveniently mark their bal- 

the office appeared. Without an attempt at lots screened from observation. Each elector 

settlement in the Republican caucus, the con- shaJl receive but one general ticket and but one 

test between them was carried directly into the municipal ticket from the ballot clerk, who shall 

l^egislature. On the first ballot in each House, note the number on the ticket and write it in 

on March 10, the following vote was cast : Senate his register opposite the name of the elector. 

— M. M. Estee 12, M. H. De Young4, Charles N. The marking shall be done only with a sUmp 

Felton 7. George G.Blanchard 3, William John- furnished for that purpose. On election days 

rton 2, D. A. Ostrom (Democrat) 10, scattering 2, employ^ shall be allowed two hours without loss 

Assembly— Estee 13, De Young 18, Felton 8, of pay for the purpose of voting. The act took 

Blanchara 9, Johnston 4, Ostrom 15, scattering effect on July 1, 1891. 

II. Eight ballots were taken, Estee leading in An act to prevent Chinese immigration pro- 
all except the last. The eighth ballot, on March hibits any Chinese person, except certain officials 
19. resulted in the election of Charles N. Felton, of the Chinese Government and their retinue, 
by the following vote : Felton TO, Estee 15, from coming to or within, or landing at or re- 
Stephen M. White (Democrat) 28, scattering 2. maining in, any port or place within the State, 

An Australian or secret-ballot law was enacted whether for the purpose of transit only or oth- 



100 CALIFORNIA. 

erwise. The maf^ter or agent of any ressel qualification for suffrage ought to be required, 

bringing such prohibited persons into the State and upon the question whether United States 

is subjected to a heavy fine. Every Chinese per- Senators ought to be elected by a direct vote of 

son resident in the State at the time of the pas- the people. 

sage of this act is required, within one year To provide for representation of the State at 
thereafter, to apply to tne State Bureau of La- the World's Fair in 18ft3 a board of seven com- 
bor Statistics for a certificate of residence, which missioners were created, with authority to pro- 
shall state the name of the person and various vide buildings and superintend the exhibit at the 
facts regarding his personal appearance, place of fair. The sum of $800,000 was placed at their 
residence, etc., and upon it snail be pnnted or disposal for this purpose. 

pasted a well-taken pnotograph of the applicant, An act was passed, to be submitted to the 

including all facial marks or features that will people at the next general election, authorizing 

facilitate identification. Such certificate shall the State Treasurer to issue and sell not over 

be recorded with the county clerk within the |600,000 in bonds of the State, bearing 4 per 

year, and any Chinese person within the State cent, interest and payable in nineteen years, the 

at the time of the passage of the act who shall proceeds of such sale to be used in building a 

not comply with these provisions shall be ad- general railroad, passenger, and ferry depot at 

judged by the court to be unlawfully within or near the foot of Market Street in San Fran- 

the State and shall be subject to the penalties cisco. To meet the interest on these bonds and 

hereinafter provided. Every agent of any trans- to provide a sinking fund for their payment at 

portation company or line or vessel, before sell- maturity, the State Harbor Commissioners are 

mg a ticket or passage to any Chinese person, required to raise a sufficient sum by increasing 

shall require him to produce his certificate of the fees for dockage, wharfage, tolls, rents, and 

residence, and shall insert the number of said cranage payable to them, and to pay over such 

certificate in the ticket. If such certificate is sum to the State. 

not produced the agent is required to cause the Another act, to be submitted to the people, 

arrest of such person, and to file a complaint authorizes a board of loan commissioners to 

against him for being unlawfully in the State, refund the State debt into 4-per-cent. bonds, 

iSo Chinese person shall be permitted to enter payable in twenty years, the amount of such re- 

the State by land or water without first produc* lundlng issue to oe not over $2,528,500. 

ing the certificate in this act required of Chinese The State was redistricted for members of the 

persons resident in the State. The burden of Legislature and for members of Congress. Seven 

establishing citizenship shall rest upon the de- congressional districts were formed, of which 

fendant. Any Chinese person adjudged guilty the city of San Francisco comprises nearly two. 

of being unlawfully within the State shall be Congress was memorialized to enact a law 

punished by being deported from the State to whereby farmers may borrow money of the 

nis or her own country, or by a fine of not Government up to 60 per cent, of the value of 

less than $500 nor more than $1,000 and depor- their farms, paying 2 per cent, interest and giv- 

tation from the State to his or her own country, ing the Government a mortgage thereon as se- 

or by imprisonment in the State Prison for a curitv. 

term not less than one year nor more than five Other acts of the session were as follow : 

years, and on termination of said imprisonment Providing for the acquisition of the Sutter's Fort 

by deportation to his or her own country. Any property by a board of trustees to be appointed by 

person who shall knowingly bring into or cause the Governor, and appropriating |20,000 tor prescn- 

to be brought into the State, by land or other- injc, protecting, and improving the same 

wise, or who shall aid or abet the same, or aid Authorizing the appointment of women as notaries 

or abet the landing in the State from any vessel ^ V'istablish a State Boa«l of Arbitmtion for the 

or otherwise of any Chinese person not lawfully gcttloment of differences between emplovers and em- 

entitled to enter the State, shall be deemed ployfo. ' 

guilty of a felony, and shall, on conviction there- Froviding that the Superintendent of State Print- 

of, be fined a sum not exceeding $1,000 and im- ing shall hereafter be elected by the people, 

prisoned in the State Prison for a term not ex- To punish persons selling or furnishing tobacco in 

ceeding one year, and, if a Chinese person, shall *ny /bnn to minors under sixteen years without the 

be sentenced to deportetion as in ot^r cases. "" c^a^ii^TsLito ?!^aiS oWamrv* 

An act in the inter^t of working men requires To punfsh pcreoas selling or jrivTng intoxicating 

corporations to pay their mechanics and labor- drink to minors under eighteen years, and to puniiih 

ers weekly or monthly on regular days, and in proprietors or managers of places where liquor is 

default of such payment the latter shall have a sold who permit such minors to vuitsuch places for 

lien for their wages on all the property of the purposes of earning. 

corporation prior to all other liens, except duly Creating the county of Glenn out of the northern 

recorded mortgages and deeds of trust. portion ot Colusa County, provided the people of tlie 

i^iu^ «ui/ii,^i»5^ »inA wx^o w* i^^uob. proposed new county shall vote tor such separation 

Provision was made for submitting to the ^tiiodection to be field in Mut,1891. ^ 

people at the next general election a proposed Providing a nbw law for the* formation of agricult- 

amendmcnt to the Stete Constitution limiting ural districts and of agricultural associations therein, 

the pay of members of the Legislature to one Providing for the incorporation of mutual building 

hundred day^ and providing that no bill shall and loon associations. 

be introduced after sixty days of the session Appropnating $r,,(XH) for the purpo«) of sending an 

have expired, except by consent of two thirds of f^^'! ^ Australia,^ New Zealand and adjacent coun- 

••« V wA^ii«7u, Kj^v^^M wj wii cwi; * « ■" " X ill tries to collect and import into the State parasites 

the members. It was also enacted that at the ^mj predacious insects. 

same election the sen.se of the people should be Making it a misdemeanor to advertise to obtain a 

taken upon the question whether an educational divorce. 



CALIFORNIA. 



CAPE COLONY. 



101 



To panish tho crime of train wrecking with death 
or imprisonment for life. 

Appropriating $5,000 for each of the years 1891 and 
WJ'ij to be expended in the encouragement of ramie 
culture, both oy the purchase of ramie roots for free 
distribution to famierB and in tlie payment of a 
bounty for merchantable ramie fiber grown in tho 
State. 

Giving to honorably dischaiged Union soldiers and 
sailors a preference in employment in the public serv- 
ice and upon public works. 

To provide for the establishment of a law library 
In each county. 

Aisacnting to the act of Congress, approved Aug. 
Zi\ 1890, in aid of agricultural colleges in the various 
Statea. 

Approjpriating $121,400 for improvements at tho 
Bcform bchool at Whittier. 

Appropriating $125,000 for additional buildings at 
the Home for Feeble-minded Children at Glenn £llen, 
Sonoma County. 

Appropriating $25,000 for completing the building 
for tlie State Normal School at Cnico. 

Appropriating $05,000 for additions and repairs at 
the rolsom State Prison. 

Appropriating $55,000 for improvements at the 
Southern California In&ane Hospital. 

Appropriating $37,000 for additional buildings at 
the normal school at San Jose. 

Edncatlon. — The following public-school sta- 
tistics for the years endine June 30, 1889, and 
June 30, 1890, are contained in the last report of 
the Superintendent of Public Instruction : 



meafs. 


1889. 


1890. 


Children between 5 an4 17 yean. . 
Number attendloj;^ public school.. 
Nnoiber sttemlinfr private Bcbool. 
Number not atten<llDg any school. 
Cfaiirlren of all ages enrolled in 
paMic sehools 


976,802 

195.229 

21,044 

50,089 

215.905 

143,788 

1,151 

4,104 

$12,081,278 


280,882 

198,900 

21,460 

60,4(12 

221,756 


Avenge daily attei^ance 

Male teariiers 


140,589 
1<162 


Female teachers 


4^272 


Total valne of school proper^. . . . 


112,746,408 



The securities held in trust by the State Treas- 
urer for the School fund amounted on June 30, 
1890. to $3,368,350, of which the sum of |1,541,- 
500 was in State bonds and $1,726,850 in county 
bondsw The Superintendent reports that the 
present compulsory school law can not be en- 
forced efFectuallr without further legislation. 

Charities. — At the Napa Insane Asylum there 
were 1,378 patients on Nov. 15, 1890, or over 300 
beyond the proper capacity of the institution. 
At the Stockton Insane Asylum the number of 
patients at the close of the fiscal year 1890 was 
1,588. To relieve the crowded conclition of these 
institutions the Legislature of 1889 provided for 
the establishment of two new asylums at San 
Bernardino and at Ukiah, Mendocino County. 
The comer-st-one of the asylum at Ukiah was 
laid on Dec. 9, 1890, of that at San Bernardino 
one week later, and the work of construction has 
continued through this year. In addition, the 
Insane Asylum at Agnews, originally intended 
exclusively for incurable patients, has been 
opened to all classes of the insane, and consider- 
aole numbers have been transferred to it from 
the Napa and Stockton asylums. 

Prisons. — The numlter of prisoners at the 
San Qnentin prison on June 30, 1889. was 1,373, 
and at the Folsom prison 549. On June 30, 
1890, the number at both prisons had consider- 



ably increased. At the San Quentin prison, since 
188^ tho labor of convicts has b^n devoted 
solely to the manufacture of jute goods. The 
jute Dags manufactured are sold at a low figure, 
and the farmers, who use them in sacking their 
crops, have been relieved from the high prices 
heretofore exacted by tl)e combination of indi- 
vidual dealers in imported bagp^ing. 

Goal. — Although coal deposits have been dis- 
covered in many of the counties of the State west 
of the Sierras, no mining operations on a com- 
mercial scale have been prosecuted, except in 
Amador and Contra Costa counties. Coal was 
discovered in the Mount Diablo district in 1852, 
but productive mining was not prosecuted until 
after the year 1860. This district now furnishes 
the major portion of the product of the State. 
The coals of California so far as at present known 
are all lignitic, ceuerally inferior to the coals of 
Washington and Oregon, and can not compete 
with the better coals supplied bv sea from Brit- 
ish Columbia and Australia. The total product 
of coal in California during the calendar year 
1889 was 121,820 short tons, valued at $288,232, 
showing an average price of $2.31 per ton at the 
mines. The average number of persons em- 
ployed during the year was 283, and the total 
wages paid $169,649. 

Lumber. — The output of mills in California 
during 1890 was as follows : Humboldt and Del 
Norte counties, 180,744,142 feet; Mendocino and 
Sonoma, 165.775,261 ; Santa Cruz, Santa Clara, 
San Mateo, 96,850,000 ; Sierra, Yuba, El Dorado, 
Placer, 91,500,000; Nevada, 86,500,000; Colusa, 
Tehama, Butte, Lake, 73,500,000 ; Trinity, Shas- 
ta, Siskiyou, 68,500,000; Inyo, Tulare, Fresno, 
Mariposa, 31,575,000 ; Amador, Tuolumne, Cala- 
veras, Mono, 27,222,027 ; San Diego, San Bernar- 
dino, Kern, 27,000,000 ; Plumas, Modoc, Lassen, 
15,750,000. Totel, 864,916,430 feet. 

Industrial.— For 1890 the area of the State 
devoted to wheat raising was only about 3,000,- 
000 acres, or 900,000 acres less than in 1889. The 
crop produced was about 1,000,000 tons, or 400,- 
000 tons less than in 1889. The heavy rains of 
the winter of 1889-90 so flooded the low lands 
that the crop was almost entirely grown on the 
high lands. Fully 70 per cent, of it was raised 
in the southern counties. The wool product 
for 1890 is estimated at 36,000,000 pounds, 
against 34,008,370 pounds for 1889. The vintage 
of 1890 is estimated at 17,500,000 gallons, dis- 
tributed among the counties as follows: Napa, 
4,500.000; Sonoma, 3,000,000; Alameda, 1,750,- 
000; Santa Clara and Santa Cruz, 3,000,000; 
Fresno, 1,500,000 ; Los Angeles and other south- 
em counties, 1.500,000 ; Sacramento and north- 
em counties, 1,250,000 ; all other districts. 1,000,- 
000. In addition, about 1,000,000 gallons of 
brandy were made, consuming about 5,000,000 
gallons of wine. The estimate for the raisin 
product of 1890 is 1,400,000 twenty-pound boxes. 

CANADA, DOMINION OF. See Dominion 
OF Canada. 

CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 
The Cape of Good Hope is a British colon v in 
South Africa possessing self-government, ^he 
Governor is Sir Henry Brougham Loch, who was 
transferred from Victoria in 1889. The Prime 
Minister in the beginning of 1891 was Cecil 
Rhodes, 



102 CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 

Area and Population.— The area of Cape 818, of 1,881,268 tons. The coasting tonnage 

Colony, with the Transkei and Walfisch Bay, is entered was 2,894,946; cleared, 2,390,077. 

233,430 square miles. By the incorporation in Communications. — The Government rail- 

the territory of native territories, the dispropor* roads in the beginning of 1890 had a total 

tion between the colored and the white popula- length of 1,608 miles. All except 63 miles have 

tion has been increasing, and it is predicted that been built since 1878, The capital expenditure 

in ten years the natives will outnumber the has been £14,318,502, or £8,905 per mile. There 

whites ten to one. In 1865 the native population were 3,259,590 passengers and 541,671 tons of 

was one and a half times larger than the white, goods conveyed in 1889, and during that year 

and in 1891 the proportion was three to one. In the receipts were £1,759,832 and the expenses 

the old colony the whites have increased 42*32 £937,703. 

per cent, since the census of 1875, and the ab- The number of letters posted in 1889 was 13,- 

original natives only 18*35 per cent The two 597,243 : of newspapers, 6,879,457. 

classes there are nearly equal in number, the The telegraph lines, all of which were erected 

preliminary returns of the census of 1891 giv- bv the Government, had a total length in 1889 

mg : White population, 337,000 ; aboriginal na- of 4,510 mUes. The messages sent in that year 

tives, 340,405: other colored people, 277,879; numbered 1,375,929. The receipts were £94,- 

total, 955,284. The population of Griqualand 929 ; expenses, £67,232. 

West in 1891 was 88,115, of whom 29,469 were Polines.— The roost important act of legis- 

whites and 53,646 colored. In that district also lation in 1891 was the creation of banks of issue 

the proportion of whites has increased, being on the model of the national bcnks of the 

35*4(5 per cent, as compared with 27*33 per cent. United States. Their notes are protected by a 

in the census of 1877. In the native territories deposit of Government securities, and will be 

annexed since 1875 there were 262,705 inhabit* redeemed in gold by the treasury in case the 

ants, of whom only 2,561 were whites. In 1891 banks fail to pay them. Provision is made for 

there were 10,343 whites in a total population of an official investigation of any bank on applica- 

487,340. The grand total for the whole colony tion. Mr. Hof meyr, leader of the Dutch party, 

is 1,525,739, as compared with 1,082,966 at the who dictates the policy followed by the Premier, 

last preceding enumerations. The average den- has proposed a measure that is intended to 

sity nas increased from 2*52 to 6*89 persons to curtail tne voting power of the natives, not by 

the square mile. There are 99*03 females to 100 taking away the franchise from any who now 

males, a larger proportion than formerly, owing possess it, but by giving a double vote to persons 

to the annexation of native territories. owning a certain amount of real property. This 

Finance. — The colonial revenue in 1889 suggestion is approved by Mr. Rhodes, although 

amounted to £4,338,114, of which £1,595,458 the political predominance of the Dutch race 

were derived from taxation, £1,885,492 from would be increased, since a larffe proportion of 

railroads and other services, £299,833 from pub- English mechanics, miners, and traders would 

lie lands, £55,330 from fines and other sources, not be qualified to exercise the additional vote, 

and £502,000 were raised by loans. The total Mr. Rhodes looks forward to a united and har- 

expenditure was £3,524,858, of which £1,049,295 monious South African nation stretching up to 

represented the service of the public debt, £839,- the Zambesi, in which there will be no jealousy 

794 were for the railroad service. £142,633 for or divergence of interests between citizens of 

defense, £194,893 for police, £117,931 for the British and those of Afrikander descent in 

civil establishment, ana £110,506 for extraordi- which Cape Colony will maintain the primacy 

'nary expenditure. The revenue for 1890 was and lead, and which will not desire to sever the 

£4,430,050. and for 1891 it was £4,147,736, a de- connection with Great Britain. As a means of 

crease of £282,314. strengthening the national sentiment, he has 

The debt of the colony in the beginning of purchased a tract near Cape Town, on which 

1890 was £21,120,784. will be built a South African university. In 

Production and Commerce.~In 1890 Cape the Transvaal, President Kruger was not in- 
Colony and its dependencies produced 1,983,108 clined to sanction the immediate entrance of the 
bushels of wheat, 3.107,571 of Indian corn, 4,- Republic into the proposed South African cus- 
484,665 gallons of wine, 1,115,306 of brandy, and toms union, and Gen. Joubert favored a com- 
4,090,376 pounds of tobacco. There were 18,- mercial league with Natal against Cape Colony 
202,779 sheep, 4,767,921 goats, 313,747 horses, on condition that Zululand should be thrown 
and 1,524,219 homed cattle in the colony in open to Boer settlement. The customs union 
1890; The total value of imports in 1889 was proposed by the Cape Government was joined 
£10,841,454. The imports of merchandise were only by the Orange Free State, but in the Swazi- 
£7,942,506, and the exports of colonial produce land convention of 1890 the Transvaal Govem- 
£9,405,955 in value. The principal exports and ment had bound itself to enter the union within 
their values were as follow : Diamonds, £4,325,- three years. The Boers complained because the 
137; wool, £2,251,375; copper ore, £696,918; British Government withheld the reasonable eon- 
hides and skins, £430,02i5 ; ostrich plumes, £365,- cessions that they desired in Swaziland. 
884; Angora goat hair, £351,544; wine, £23,120 ; Pondoland. — The native district of Pondo- 
grain, £10.042. The wine and brandy exports land, which forms a part of the territory of Cape 
fell off from £529,000 gallons in 1889-*90 to Colony, has a population of 200,000, ruled by 
851,000 in 1890-'91. Exports of wool and agri- their own chiefs under the supervision of a com- 
cultural produce have also declined since 1889. missioner of the Cape Government. The coun- 

The number of vessels entered in 1889 was try was ravaged in the early part of 1891 by a 

835, of 1,401,900 tons. Of these, 588, of 1,196,- war between the rival chiefs Sigcau and Um- 

420 tons, were British. The number cleared was hlangaso, who destroyed the crops and burned 



CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 103 

down the huts in all directions. The Colonial tralia, under the control of a native protection 

Government abstained from interfering, except board. The colonial representatives changed 

with admonitions. Sigcau was victorious. the language of the clauses, but not the meaning, 

Natal. — The colony of Natal, which was sep- in such a way as to meet the objections of the 
arated from Cape Colony in 1B56, is ne^tiating Colonial Office, and the remodeled bill, approved 
the basis of a parliamentary constitution with by the Legislative Council in July, was pro- 
the home Government The Governor, Sir nounced unsatisfactory by the Imperial Govern- 
Charles B. H. Mitchell, succeeded Sir A. £. ment A code of native law enacted by the 
Uavelock in 1889. The area of the colony is Legislative Council in 1890 was vetoed by the 
estimated at 21,150 square miles, and the popu- Governor on the p^und that it would interfere 
Ution in 1889 at 5^,158, comprising 87,890 with the prerogative of the Imperial Government 
Europeans, who are mainly English. 38,480 na- to make laws for the natives, 
tives of India, and 459,288 Caffres. The increase, Bechnanaland.— The Crown colony of Brit- 
over 50 per cent, on the total for 1879, has been ish Bechnanaland has an area of 43,000 sguare 
little greater in the European than in the native miles, and a population estimated in 1885 at 
population. In 1878-^84 there were 4,526 as- 44,135. Sir Sidney G. A. Shippard, the Admin- 
5isted immigrants brought into the colony, and istrator, is also Resident Commissioner for the 
in 1889, when assisted immigration was resumed, British Protectorate of Bechuanaland, which ex- 
759 European colonists were introduced. The tends northward to the Zambezi, having Mata- 
revenue of the colony in 1889 was £1,327,105, beleland on the east, and westward over the 
against £990,014 in 1888 and £600,177 in 1886. Kalaharie Desert to the border of the German 
The expenditure in 1889 was £1,146,079. The Protectorate in Southwest Africa. In May, 1891, 
customs duties collected in 1890 were £829.000. the tract called Bastards* country, lying between 

The revenue from railroads in 1889 was £458,- the twenty-first meridian, the former boundary 

698 ; customs, £869,460 ; excise, £23,471 ; land of Bechuanaland, and the twentieth meridian, 

sales, £84,613 ; posts, £44,965 ; telegraphs, £28,- the conventional limit of the German Protecto- 

413 ; and £76,004 from the native hut tax. rate of Namaqualand, was annexed by procla^ 

The chief expenditures were £512,698 for rail- mation. The reason given for the annexation 

roads, £76,195 for public works, £54,018 for de- was that peace was endangered by a trek of 

fense, and £24,678 for education. There was Boers and Damaras. When Mr. Rhodes was in 

a loan expenditure of £790,370, and the debt England, during the Anglo-Portuguese negotia- 

at the end of the year amounted to £5,035.126. tions in the spring of 1891, he obtained for the 

The value of the imports in 1889 was £4,527,015. Cape the right to annex Bechuanaland. 

and of the exports £1,656,318. The exports of German Southwest Africa.— In 1885, in the 

wool, amounting to £752,182, of gold, amount- early days of German colonial enterprise, Herr 

in^ to £584,938, of hides, of the value of £55,- LUoeritz, a German merchant, secured from 

829, and of skins. Angora hair, and other prod- native chiefs coast lands at Angra PequeQa, in 

acts, come largely from the neighboring Boer Damaraland, and on the opposite side of the 

republics. The exports of Katal products continent at St. Lucia Bay, in Zulu^nd, with 

amounted to £957,182, the chief articles being the expectation of planting German colonies, 

raw sugar and rum. The number of vessels en- opening up communications with the Trans- 

tered in 1889 was 555, of 513,360 tons. vaal, extending German trade into the Zam- 

The Legislative Council, under the present besi region, and establishing a zone of Ger- 
Constitution. consists of 24 elected and 7 nomi- man influence reaching from shore to shore 
nated members. A bill to provide for the estab- north of the regions to which British activity 
lishment of responsible government was sub- was at that time confined. The Gladstone 
mitted to the Colonial Office in April, 1891. It Government was spurred to action by the pro- 
proposed that the Legislative Council should tests of Cape Colonists. A gunboat was sent 
consist of 87 elective members, but had no pro- from Cape Town, which planted the British flag 
vision for an upper chamber. As in former at St. Lucia Bay only a few days before the Ger- 
negotiations the colonists have insisted on the man gunboat arrived. An official expedition 
control over native afiFairs, so in this draft it was was conveyed to Damaraland by a German man- 
provided that the authority of the Goveinor, as of-war, and though Dr. Kachtigal, its head, was 
paramount native chief, should be exercised by unable to make a treaty of protection with 
the Governor in Council. The London authori- Kamahehero, the paramount chief. Dr. Gdring, 
ties refused to assent to this, and to a clause set- some months later, induced him to sign one 
ting apart an annual sum of £20,000 for native which he has since desired to repudiate. Though 
purposes, but giving the control of the items of the British Government refused to inter- 
expenditure to the Legislative Council. Lord fere with the German designs on the south- 
Knutsford was firm in reserving to the Gov- west coast, the Cape Colonists made efforts to 
emor, as the representative of the Crown, free defeat them. They prevailed on the Imperial 
from the influence of the colonial ministers, the Government to reoccupy Walfisch Bay, the 
political administration over the native commu- chief harbor and source of water supply. Robert 
nities and the command and disposition of British Lewis, who had long resided among the Da- 
troops, and in keeping under the direction of the maras, procured from Kamaherero a concession 
home Government all action affecting imperial of mining rights, of the right to build railroads, 
interests or governing the fulfillment of interna- and of other commercial privileges, about a 
tional obligations. Whatever sum was stipu- month before the German treaty was signed. 
Uted in the compact as a minimum appropria- The German Colonial Com pan jr for Southwest 
tioii for the welfare and education of the natives, Africa, to which Ilerr Lndentz assigned his 
he proposed to have placed, as in Western Aus- rights, found itself hampered by the intrigues of 



104 CAPB COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 

the Cape Colonists, who got the natiyes to hinder the region between that and the German bdUnd- 
the Germans in their enterprises. Lewis was ary, and, in fact, all parts of Sonth Africa within 
prevented from making use of his mining privi- the sphere of British influence and not hitherto 
leges by a code of regulations drawn up by the administered by British officers up to or bevond 
German officials. After he and two Enfflisnmeu the ZsanhesL Lobengula, King of the Mata- 
named Ford and Bam were banished from Da- beles, a tribe numbering 200,000 souls, has an 
maraland for political plotting in 1800, the £ng- army of about 15,000 men, armed with modem 
lish Government intervened diplomatically to rifles obtained from the English, and has been 
urge his claim before the Berlin authorities. The accustomed to raid and pilUge the country of 
Anglo-German African agreement destroyed the the Mashonas, the Makalakas, and other sur 
hopes of profitable trading or pastoral operations, rounding tribes. During the first year of its 
and left nothing but the mineral resources of existence the chartered comoany built an exten- 
the country for the Germans to fall back upon, sion of the railroad from tne Cape to the dia- 
The capital of the Colonial Company was eX- mond fields of Griqualand West, continuing it 
haustea, and it was decided to organize a new northward from Kimoerley to Vrybui^g, 126 miles, 
company, with offices in Hamburg, and appeal This section, which was opened Dec. 8. 1890, 
to the London market for a part of the capital, was sold to the Cape Government for £700,000, 
The German Reichstag in February, 1891, voted and the compafl}[ went to work on a further 
100,000 marks to continue for one year longer a extension of v8 miles to Mafekins;. 
staff of officials and a force of 40 or 50 police in The climate of the plateau of Mashonaland, 
Damaraland. On April 6 the Colonial Depart- which is 4,500 or 5,000 feet above the sea. and of 
raent of the German Foreign Office declared Matabeleland, a hilly country of forests, streams, 
Lewis's general mining concession of Sept. 9, and pastures, is said to be healthful for Euro- 
1885, null and void, on the ground that it was peans. The nights are cool in summer, and the 
obtained with the political object of withdrawing long winter is invigorating. There is plenty of 
Damaraland from German infiuence and bring- good soil easy of cultivation. English enter- 
ing it under the rule of a foreign power, and prise was attracted to this country by the gold- 
could not, therefore, be regarded as a private Dearinff reefs that were known to exist there 
contract or serve as a basis for private rights, more tnan twenty years ago. The claims raised 
Dr. Golding, the Imperial Commissary, retired by Portugal to the valley of the Zambesi im- 
in April, and was succeeded by Capt. Von Fran- pelled Cecil Rhodes and his associates to organ- 
9ois, who had previously commanded the police ize the British South Africa Company for the 
force. The new German company expects to purpose of securing for England all the high 
build a railroad across the country. Lewis and healthful regions and the auriferous lands, 
transferred rights to 50,000,000 acres near Wal- Mining concessions had already been ^ranted by 
fisch Bajr and gold fields on the Orange river to the Portuguese authorities to British subjects, 
an English company that was organiz^ in Lon- but the holders were bought out or given shares 
don in February^ 1891. in the chartered company. Alluvial gold is 

Ngamiland. — The country around Lake found in all the stream beds, but seldom in 

Ngami, to which Germany and Great Britain paying Quantities. The quartz in the reefs dis- 

both laid claim, was abandoned to Great Britain covered uy Thomas Baines in 1870 at the junc- 

by the Anglo-German settlement of 1890. The tion of the Umfuli and Simbo rivers assays 3 or 

African and General Exploring Company was 4 ounces to the ton. Attempts to work the Tati 

organized to investigate the mineral and' com- mines without proper raacninery have failed, 

mercial resources of this region South of the The Jumbo reef, near Fort Salisbury, has many 

lake a large number of quartz reefs have been old shafts. Four gold fields were opened, besides 

discovered. The death of Morcmi, head chief the Manica district, and mining commissioners 

of the Towana nation, on Nov. 4, 1890, left the and claim inspectors were appointed in the early 

country in a disorganized and unsettled con- part of 1891. These were tne Umfuli and Hart- 

dition. The next heir is a youth named Sec- ley Ilill, Lo Magondi, Mazoe, and the Kaiser 

home, half-brother of Moremi and nephew of Wilhelm or Matoko districts. No prospecting 

Khama, the Bechuana king, and during his mi- has been done in Matabeleland for fear of rous- 

nority an unpopular chief named Dithapo acts ing the hostility of Lobengula. As soon as the 

as regent. The Towanas are only one of several Chartered Company was formed, a police force of 

tribes settled in the country, but under Moremi 600 men was raised to take possession of Zani- 

they held the others in subjection, except the besia. A telegraph was completed to Palapwe, 

invading Namaquas, who disputed with them in Khama*s country, 815 miles from Mafeking, 

the soveoeignty over the country. From the in British Bechuanaland, by Oct. 14, 1890. Tlie 

latter the Germans obtained their title. pioneer expedition of 180 picked men, escorted 

British Zam besia. — The country reserved to by a part of the police force, advanced from tlie 

Great Britain in the Anglo-German and Anglo- Macloutse river, where the rest of the police 

Portuguese agreements of 1890, lying north of remained to keep open communications ana pro- 

Bechuanaland and the South African Republic, tect the base. Crossing the river on June 25, 

is under the administration of the British South 1890, they built a road as they marched, and in 

Africa Company, which was created by a royal ten weeks arrived at Mount Hampden, Mashona- 

charter signed Oct.^, 1889. The sphere of the land, 800 miles from the Macloutse, with their 

company's activity ii present comprises Ma- ox wagons, machine guns, a steam engine, and 

shonaland, VlatabeUland, and Manica. It is em- other material. A fort was erected at the Tuli 

powered to teke over *otlier districts, subject to drift, one at Fort Victoria, on the edge of the 

the approval of the Government, including Mashona plateau, and later Fort Charter was 

Northern BechuaoAiaiiil or Khama's country, built, and Fort Salisbury, near Mount Hampden, 



CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 106 

whicfi was made the headquarters of the admin- river, to Mount Hampden the distance is only 
istratioQ. The company, which has a paid-up 880 miles, of which 120 miles can be made in 
capital of £1,000,000, derives its revenue from small steamers on the river. When the English 
trading licenses, repstration fees, and mining learned of this route, over which the Portuguese 
concessions, which it has the power to tax to expected to build a railroad to their mines in 
the extent of 50 per cent of the output of gold. Manica, the railroad that had been begun be- 
lt agreed to eive a subsidy of £9,000 a year to tween Vrvbur^ and Maf eking was abandoned, 
the African Hakes Company, with a view to the On Dec. o Major Forbes took formal possession 
eventual amalgamation of the two. The local of the whole country between Manica and the sea, 
administration was placed in charge of A. R. lying between the rungwe and the Bus! rivers. 
Colquhoun and Dr. Jameson. The former went On Jan. 8, 1891, Lieut. Freire went to Massikcssi 
secretly into Manica, to conclude treaties and as the bearer of an official message to the British 
obtain concessions that could be set up as coun- officer in charge informing him of the modus vi- 
terc'Iaims to defeat the Portuguese title. On vendi. The English officer refused to receive the 
Sept. 14 he made a treaty with Umtasa, the notice, and placed the messenger under arrest, 
local chief of Manica, who is said to be inde- An expeditionary force of volunteers who had 
pendent of Gungunhama and free from all obli- arrivea from Portugal set out for Massikessi and 
gations to the Portuguese. The Portuguese Manica, but^ were kept back bjr orders sent from 
claimed sovereignty over the independent Ma- Lisbon, and'employed in workmg in the harbors, 
shonas, and through their vassal Gungunhama, The violation of the agreed boundary and the 
King of Gazalana, over Manica. The British abduction of Portuguese officials in Manica after 
asserted that all Mashonaland and the Barotse the modus vivendi was concluded, seemed likely 
country north of the Zambesi were tributary to to result in a collision between the forces of 
Lobengula, whom thev claimed as a vassal. The the Chartered Company and the bands of young 
draft agreement of Aug. 20, 1890, which fixed Portuguese who volunteered to defend their 
the eastern boundary of the English sphere at coun try *s rights in Africa, and possibly in a 
the Sabi river was rejected by the Portuguese native war between the English and the forces 
Cortes. Seven weeks after the treatv of protec- of Gungunhama or Lobengula. Sir Henry Loch 
tion was made with Umtasa, Col. Paiva d'An- and Mr. Rhodes hastened to England to ward 
drade and the half-cast Gouveia, otherwise known off a catastrophe by bringing about a settlement 
as Gen. Manuel de Souza, who was the official of the dispute with Portugal. The Mozambique 
administrator or CapitSo Mor of the district. Company reorganized with the aid of French 
arrived at Umtasa's kraal engaged on a survev capital, obtain^ a regular charter conferring the 
for a railroad. They were met there by Englisn power to administer and exploit these regions 
officers who announced the British annexation of Africa, to levy taxes and impose import du- 
of the country. Major Forbes, who had a force ties, to make treaties with native chiefs, and to 
of police within cful, at a public meeting, at carry on or grant concessions for mining and 
vhich Umtasa formally acknowledged that he other undertakings. The companv engaged 
had ceded his country to the Portuguese twenty within a specified time to build a railroad from 
years before, put a sudden end to the parley by Beira, at the mouth of the Pungwe, to Massi- 
seizing Col. d*Andrade, Baron Rezende, and kessi, on the borders of the Manica territory. 
Gouveia in the presence of the chief and his The country handed over to the jurisdiction of 
indunas and English and American prospectors the company was that bounded on the north by 
who were working under licenses issued by the the Zambesi down to its mouth, on the north- 
Mozambique Company. The English fiag was west by the district of Tete, on the west by the 
again hoisted, Massikessi was occupied and gar- boundary of the province of Mozambique, on 
rjsoned, and the Portuguese officers were carried the soutn by the Sabi or Save river, and on the 
prisoners to Fort Salisbury. At various places east by the ocean. These limits included about 
m Mashonaland where the Portuguese fiag was 9,500 square miles that were in dispute, includ- 
flying the chiefs submitted to the British occu- in^ Manica and the gold fields there, to which 
pation after the seizure of Gouveia. Moloko, miners were flocking from all countries. An 
the paramount chief of the country north of Anglo-American company had been formed for 
Manica, changed his allegiance by making a the purpose of establishing a service of river 
treaty with P. C. Selous, an agent of the Char- steamers and wagons by the Pungwe route, 
tered Company. Negotiations were be^n with Several Englishmen who attempted to import 
Gungunhama to make him transfer his allegi- arms or who refused to acknowledge Portuguese 
ance to England. authority on this river were stopped. The 

Before these events were known in Europe a " Countess of Carnarvon," which haa gone up 

modus vivendi was signed in London, on Nov. the Limpopo with a cargo of arms, was seized 

H, 1890, by which the British and Portuguese by a Portuguese gunboat on Feb. 28, 1891. Dr. 

governments agreed to preserve the status quo^ Jameson and other officials of the British South 

ftnd each to respect the possessions actually held Africa Company were on board the English 

by the other pending the adjustment of disputes steamer, which had made a previous voyage on 

by a treaty oi delimitation. The temporary ar- the Limpopo, and found it navigable as far as 

ran^ment was valid for six months. the junction of the Nuanetsi, at the boundary 

The wagon route of 900 miles from Vryburg line of the territory claimed by the South Africa 
▼as not adapted for the transport of crushing Company. The arras (1,000 rifles with 20,000 
machinery and miners' supplies, and therefore rounds of ammunition) had been landed on the 
the English desired to obtain possession of the banks of the Limpopo to enable, it was sup- 
rood from the east coast by way of the Pungwe posed, native chiefs in the district of Inhambane 
river. From Beira, the port of the Pungwe to rebel against Portugal. The Governor-Gen- 



106 CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 

eral of Mozambique declared a state of siege in miles north of the Zambesi, thus abandoning the 
Sofala and Manica, because agents of the South cherished idea of continuous communication un- 
Africa Company went about inciting the natives der British jurisdiction through noithem Zam- 
to revolt. The* Portuguese authorities at Beira, besia and NyassaLand, Lake Tanganyika, and 
while leaving the route open on condition of the Uganda, up to the Soudan. The draft of a new 
payment of 3 per cent, transit dues, insisted treaty was completed in London on May 14, the 
on the recognition of Portuguese sovereignty, day on which the modus vivendi expired. In- 
The mails had to pass through the Portuguese stead of the narrow triangle of land north of the 
post-office, and when Gen. W illou^hby, at the Zambesi, bounded by that river and the Shire on 
nead of an armed expedition, sailed up the one side and by a line drawn from opposite the 
Pungwe in the " Alice, flying the British flag, Ruo to near Tete on the other, the new treaty 
the vessel was stopped and the Portup^ese flag gives to Portugal the whole north bank between 
hoisted. While negotiations were gomg on be- the Shire and the Loangwe. The boundary 
tween the two governments, Gungunhama, starts from the Shire just below its junction 
whose indunaa had signed a treaty accepting a with the Shiwanga, proceeds by an irregular line 
Portuguese protectorate at Lisbon in lw5, was in a northwesterly airection to the intersection 
persuwied to send an embassy to London to pray of the fourteenth parallel of latitude with longi- 
for a British protectorate. The Portuguese col- tude 83* SC, and thence in a southwesterly direc- 
lected an army of 10,000 natives at Sena in prep- tion to where the fifteenth parallel intersects the 
aration for the hostilities threatened by the Loangwe river, and follows the channel of the 
South Africa Company. Natives who were sub- river down to the Zambesi at Zumbo. In Cen- 
ject to Gouveia*s rule revolted, and were with tral Africa the English sphere is made coexten- 
difficulty reduced to submission. sive with the Barotse kmgdom, which is sup- 
Sir tfohn Willoughby*s party, which was posed to reach far beyond the sources of the 
stopped at the mouth of the Pungwe, was only Zambesi, the limit laid down in the former 
the advance guard of a large body of immigrants treaty, and approach the Portuguese settlements 
that the agents of the South Africa Company had on the Angola coast. South of the Zambesi the 
recruited in order to force the route open and territory fulotted to the British South Africa 
flood Manica with adherents of the company. Company is enlarged, but yet the Portuguese re- 
Major Johnston, who had been the leader of the tain a slice of Manicaland. Along the south 
pioneers into Mashonaland, followed with several bank of the Zambesi, Portugal has tht^ ten-mile 
hundred well-armed miners. Whom he conducted strip at Zumbo allowed in the former treaty, 
across Portuguese territory from the coast. After a few miles the line in latitude 18° sb* 
When they had almost reached Massikessi they turns sharply to the southeast and strikes the 
were met on May 11 by the soldiers of the Por- Mazoe at at)out 33" of east longitude, and thence 
tu^uese outpost, part blacks and part the student the limit of the British South Africa Company's 
volunteers from Lisbon, and, after fighting sev- territory is drawn directly southward to witKin 
eral hours, killing seven Portuguese and losing a few miles of the Limpopo, where it turns to 
some of their own men, the English won the bat- the southwest, leaving the mouth of that river 
tie. The Portuguese force, commanded by Ma- in the possession and control of Portugal. The 
jor Caldas Xavier, was returning from an un- frontier proposed before ran south from the Ma- 
successful attack on the fortified post of Chovaa, koe along the thirty-third meridian for about a 
held by the British South Africa Company's po- degree, and then turned westward and followed 
lice, four miles west of Massikessi. the course of the Sabi river, giving the whole of 
Anglo - Portuguese Agreement.— To pre- Manica to Portugal. In the new frontier a di- 
pare the way for a settlement of the South iour is made near Massikessi, where substantia 
African controversies, it was necessary for the Portuguese houses and large stores of trade 
officers of the South Africa Company to satisfy goods existed at the time when it was seized by 
the claims of the promoters of the Mozambique the English, in possession of the Portuguese, 
Company. Arrangements were made by which with a patch in the neighboring highlands to 
individual interests were secured, and English which Portuguese officers can repair in hot 
capital was raised to enable the Portuguese com- weather. Umtasa is left to the English, and the 
pany to work in the profitable field that was as- line in Manica is drawn along the eastern slope 
signed to it. Lord Salisbury offered terms that of the plateau, it being understood that all terri- 
were more favorable than those contained in the tory east of longitude 33" will be Portuguese 
abortive treaty of Aug. 20, 1890, and the Portu- and all west of 32° 30' will belong to Great Brit- 
guese Cabinet, knowing that a refusal of these ain. The exact line of demarkation is to be set- 
would result in the loss of all their South Afri- tied by a joint survey. 

can possessions, hesitated only through fear of In Central Africa the dividing line between 
popular dissatisfaction that would again defeat the British and the Portuguese spheres of influ- 
the treaty and drive them from office, and pos- ence is formed by the middle of the channel of 
sibly result in the overthrow of the monarchy, the Zambesi from the Katima cataracts north- 
The principle followed was to reserve to England ward to the Barotse country, and then follows 
all the healthful highland country adapted for the western boundary of that territory. The de- 
European settlement and to concede to Portugal limit'ation will be made by an Anglo-Portuguese 
all the low-lying territory that can be inhabited boundary commission, and any disputes that 
and cultivated only by colored races. To carry may arise will be referred to arbitration. In case 
out this idea and to gain Manica, the only im- either country desires to alienate any part of 
mediately attractive gold district since Matabe- the territory south of the Zambesi, the other 
leland was closed, the English Government made shall have a pre-emptive option. Portugal guar- 
an important concession — that of 50,000 square antees religious freedom in all her possessions of 



CAPE COLONY AND SOUTH AFRICA. 107 

East and Central Africa. For twenty-fire years missioner, who will reside alternately at Louren- 
the transit dues across Portuguese territories co Marques and Mozambique. A railroad is to 
shall be 3 per cent., unless in the course of five be built from Quilimane to the Shire river. The 
years the British Government commutes the territory in the Zambesi valley will be handed 
dues and secures perpetual freedom of transit over to chartered companies, 
by wing to Portugal the capitalized value of Gan^nuhama's Embassy.— The intrigues of 
£30fi60 per annum at 8 per cent interest — that the British South Africa Company to acquire 
IS, a lump sum of about £1,000,000. Precious the Portuguese sea-coast were not countenanced 
metals and specie are exemot from duty. In by the Marquis of Salisbury, who was prepared 
the districts north of the Zamoesi above the con- to abate the British pretensions and malce sacn- 
fluence of the Shire and south of the Zambezi fices after the highhanded acts of the English 
above the Luenha, British merchandise is not in Manica and on the Pungwe and their treach- 
subject to duty, and the same exemption is se- erous incitement to rebellion of the black sub- 
cured for Portuguese merchandise in its transit jects of Portugal, lest a Portuguese revolution 
across British territory in Nyassaland. Each and war in Europe should result. The coming 
power has the right to construct railroads, roads, of Gungunhama's envoys did not shake his de- 
er telegraphs across the territory of the other in cision. By a treaty made in 1817, and in fuller 
the same regions, subject to local laws and regu- terms in the treaty of 1847, the Gaza country — 
lations. £ach power shall respect all rights of that is, the whole Mozambique littoral from the 
private property and mining concessions granted Zambesi to Delagoa Bay — was recognized by 
Dv the other in the territories hitherto in dispute Great Britain as belonging to Portugal. Lord 
and now divided. Disputed titles to claims Salisbury declared, to the chagrin of the man- 
within thirty miles of the frontier shall be re- agers of the South Africa Company, that he 
ferred to arbitration. Navigation on the Zam- would have nothing to do with Gungunhama. 
besi and the Shire shall be free to the ships and The monarch of the Gaza Zulus is a grandson of 
flags of all nations on the terms laid down for a rebellious vassel of King Chaka who fied with 
international African rivers in the General Act his followers from Zululand and conquered the 
of the Congo. The Limpopo is not made an in- country north of the Limnopo in the early part of 
temational rirer ; but, except on the Pungwe, the century. Another rebel chief migratea west- 
the Portugese Government enstiges to allow ward and founded the Matabele Kingdom. Gun- 
and to facilitate transport. It also promises to gunhama, when visited by the emissaries of the 
construct a railroad from the coast to the bor- British Company, denied that he owed allegiance 
ders of the South Africa Company's territory, to the Portuguese. Though he ha<l raised their 
either along the Pungwe or in the valley of the flae over his kraal ever since his succession, he 
Bust. The surve3rs for the railroad must be com- said it was merely a token of friendship ; that 
pleted in six months from the conclusion of the Gouveia paid him tribute for the country that 
treaty, and the date by which the line must be he occupied ; and that the Portuguese governor, 
finished was then to he agreed upon by the two in sending him presents at regular intervals, ac- 

fovemments. If the Portuguese Government knowledged him as over-lord. Eight years be- 

oes not carry out the agreement, it must allow fore he had petitioned the Natal authorities for 

a company to be chartered by some neutral British protection. Now he sent Huluhulu, his 

power to build the railroad. It promises to con- ambassador on that occasion, and Umfeti to the 

struct a line of telegraph and to keep open a ** Great White Oueen " with the message, ** I 

highroad from the Pungwe to the British front- want her to hold me up and be my shield.'* 

ier. Outside the treaty an agreement was en- Whilethese messengers were on the way to Eng- 

tered into whereby a British company can estab- land, the faithless King sent another embassy to 

luth wharves and warehouses on tne uhinde, and Lourengo Marques with a message declaring his 

a Portuguese company shall have the same privi- vassalage and fidelity to Portugal, and offering 

leee on the southwest shore of Lake Nyassa. to fight for the Portuguese with all his forces if 

The bases of the new treaty were si^ed in any one should attack their dominions. 

London on May 28. Lord Salisbury stipulated The Boer Trek. — While the British pioneers 

that the treaty should be ratified by the Cortes were pushing their conquests into Portuguese 

before being signed by the British Government, territory, they had to protect their allotted do- 

The modus vivendi was continued by agreement main from the long-tnreatened Boer invasion, 

for another month. The treaty was approved, By virtue of a treaty made by the Banyai chief 

with only six dissentient voices in the Chamber, Chibe with Commandant Potyaieter and another 

on June 6, and by an equally large majority of concession secured by one Adendorf, the Trans- 

the Senate, and on June 11 was signed at Lisbon, vaal Boers claimed Banyailand, the most fertile 

Senhor Ennes and Major Leverson, the Portu- part of Mashonaland, and many were willing to 

guc5e and English boundary commissioners, went join an expedition, under the lead of Vorster, 

to Manica to begin the delimitation in July. Adendorf, and Col. Ferreira, for the purpose of 

After the removal of the differences with Eng- taking forcible possession of that region and es- 

land, the Portuguese Government relieved itself tablisning a republic. Sir Henry Loch sent 

of the expenses connected with the administra- troops from the Cape to relieve the Bechuana- 

tion of Mozambique, estimated at £155,000 a land police, and the latter took the place of the 

year, by separating it from the province of Lou- British South Africa Company's police, enabling 

ren^ Maroues and delegating all its sovereign the company's officers to place a .strong guard at 

rights soutn of the Zambesi to the Mozambique every crossing of the Limpopo. President Kru- 

Company, which has come partly into the con- ^er issued a vigorous proclamation, in conform- 

trol of Englishmen. The head of the local ad- ity with the omigations imposed by the conven- 

ministration on the coast will be a royal com- tion of August, 1800, and ne was sustained by 



108 CAPE COLONY. CHEMISTRY. 

the Volksraad, which, on April 25, decreed the CHEMISTRY. Chemical Theory.— In his 

penalty of £500 fine or a year's imprisonment address on assuming the chair of President of 

with hard labor. The leader of the Afrikander the American Chemical Society for 1891, Prof. 

Bond, Mr. Hofmeyr, obtained from the British George F. Barker spoke of the discovery of the 

Government a promise that it would allow a peric^ic law as marking an important epoch in 

Boer republic to be set up in Swaziland. This the progress of the physics of chemistry as well 

and the offer of free farms of 3,000 acres in as of pure chemistry. For not only does that 

Mashonaland to any Boer who would accept the law assert that the purely chemical properties of 

jurisdiction and conform to the statutes of the the elements are periodic functions of the masses 

British South Africa Company, removed the rea- of their atoms, but it asserts also that their phys- 

son for a hostile invasion, which was imminent ical properties are like functions. New researches 

in spite of the military preparations of the Brit- were undertaken by the chemist to fix more pre- 

ish and the co-operation of the authorities of the cisely these atomic masses, new calculations were 

South African Republic Several thousand trek- made upon data already accumulated, and new 

kers came from the Orange Free State and en- relations were experimentally established going 

camperl near Pretoria in May. Having gained to show the position of the doubtful elements in 

without fighting the right that the English Gov- the periodic series ; and the most elaborate ex- 

emment has hitnerto denied of free settlement in periments were begun also by the physicist upon 

the country north of the Limpopo, the trekkers the phenomena of solution, of density, of spe- 

disbanded. Col. Ferreira still wished to make a cific heat, of refraction, of electric conductivity, 

demonstration. With a party of about 200 he and the like, in order to connect these physical 

crossed the Limpopo on June 24, at the Main properties with the mass of the atom, and thus 

Drift. The main body on the opposite bank of to establish the predominant infiuence of the 

the river prepared to make a forcible entry. Dr. atom, even in molecular physics. The address 

Jameson crossed over and explained that they was devoted to outlining some of the important 

could all have farms, whereupon many expressed relations existing between chemistry and physics 

a willingness to take land from the companv, and and to indicating the directions of investigation 

no further hostile manifestation occurred. Many in this borderland between the two sciences. At- 

Boers afterward entered Banyailand and selected tention was called to the importance of making 

farms, although the leaders of the trek had insist- the terminology of the two more in harmony and 

ed that the titles that they held from the local more accurate, particularly of observing the dis- 

chiefs were a valid conveyance, whereas the com- tinctions in the use of the terms atom and mole- 




grant of lands Hon between gases 

in any part of his dominions, but only mining application of the kinetic theory to solutions; 

rights, to the individuals who had assigned their oi the study of electrolysis and of spectrum 

concessions to the British South Africa Company, anal^^sis and' the later theories of the origin and 

DeTelopment of Mashonaland. — ^After the relations of the elements. The facts thus far 
settlement of the Anglo-Portuguese dispute, a brought out in the investigations of these sub- 
part of the military police force was disbanded, jects indicate " a tendency toward a true statics 
and the members took up mining claims. Up to and dynamics of atoms ; toward a condition of 
July 15 there had been issued 1,557 prospecting exact science which will confer upon chemistry 
and' 67 trading licenses, representing as many the power of prediction." 

individual settlers. Of mining claims there were Of the two methods which the technologist 
at that date 5,967 in force, bedsides 2,872 proteo- may pursue in acquiring his art, that which be- 
tion certificates. The bulk of these claims were gins with learning the scientific principles that 
situated near Fort Tuli and in the Umfuli dis- lie at its base and proceeds to the application of 
trict. In addition, 200 claims for silver and tin them is called by Prof. Meldola the synthetical 
found in the Man ica district had been registered, method, while tliat in which he first seeks pro- 
A gold claim includes 150 feet in the direction ficiency in practice, to become familiar with the 
of the reef and 200 feet on either side, and to science afterward, is called the analytical mcth- 
make it valid the miner must sink a shaft 60 od. Of the relative merits of these two courses 
feet. The mining operations were placed under in application to arts dependent on chemistry, 
the direction of Mr. Rolker, an American engi- Prof. Meldola says that the analytical method is 
neer. The settlers suffered much from fever and too cumbrous and too circuitous to be of any real 
dearth of food during the rainy season. From practical use. It is possible to lead an iiitelli- 
lack of tools they were delayed in their work, gent mechanic from nis every-day occupation to 
The tall grass anil the tzetze flv are serious hin- a knowledge of the higher principles of mechan- 
d ranees to transport. A road was built from ical science by making use of his experience of 
Fort Salisbury to the Kaiser Wilhelm field, 180 phenomena which are constantly coming under 
miles. This is the only district, except in Mani- nis notice. But " no person engaged in chemical 
ca, where placer mining promises well. For a industry in any capacity, whether workman, fore- 
long period Portuguese traders have visited it to man, manager, or proprietor, can be taught the 
buy gold from the natives. principles of chemical science out of his own in- 

'the Mozambique Companv has arranged with dustry unless he has some considerable knowl- 

Prench engineers for the building of a railroad edge of general principles to start with. No 

from Bcira to Massikessi, a telegraph line, and person who is not grounded in such broad prin- 

docks. The capital of the company is £1,000,- ciples can properly appreciate the explanation 

000. The Portuguese Government gets the rail- of the phenomena with which his daily experi- 

rood for nothing at the end of thirty years. ence brings him into contact, and if his previous 



CHEMISTRT. 109 

tnininfl^ is insutBdent to enable him to under- matter, and of the forms of energy which by 
stand the natare of the changes which occur in their mutual reactions constitute the universe as 
the course of his operations, he can not deriye it is manifest to our five senses. Working as a 
any advantage from technical instruction. These chemist in the laboratory, the author had found 
neiiiarks will. I hope, serve to emphasize a dis- the induction spark often of great service in dis- 
tinction which exists between tecnnical chem- criminating one element from another, as well 
istryandothertechnical subjects . . . The reason as in indicating the presence of hitherto un- 
for this difference in the mode of treatment of known elements in other bodies in quantities far 
chemical subjects is not difficult to find. The too minute to be recognized by any other means, 
chemical technologist — the man who is engaged In this way chemists have discovered thallium, 
in the manufacture of useful products out of gallium, germanium, and numerous other ele- 
certain raw materials — is, so far as the purely ments. On the other hand, in the examination 
scientific principles are concerned, already at a of electrical reactions in high vacua various rare 
very advanced stage, although he may not real- chemical elements become in turn tests for recog- 
ize this to be the case. The chemistry of manu- nizing the intensity and character of electric 
lecturing operations, even when these are of an energy. Electricity, positive and negative, effect 
apparently simple kind, is of a very high order respcKBtively different movements and luminosi- 
of complexity. There are many branches of ties. Hence the behavior of the substances ui>on 
chemical industry in which the nature of the which electricity acts may indicate with which 
chemical changes undergone by the materials is of these two kinds we have to deal. In other 
very imperfectly understood ; tnere is no branch physical researches both electricity and chemistry 
of chemical industry of which the pure science come into play simply as means of exploration, 
can be said to be thoroughly known. For these Chemical Physics. — A laboratory of low 
reasons I believe that I am justified in saying temperatures has been established by Prof. Pictet 
that the chemical technologist is working at a at ^rlin by the aid of which new conditions 
high level, so far as the science of his subject is for investigating the properties of matter are 
concerned, and this explains why he can not be realized, and new facts have been brou&:ht to 
dealt with by the analytical method." li^ht in various branches of science. The re- 
MM. Lecoq de Boisbaudran and A. de Lap- fngerating machinery is designed to withdraw 
parent claim priority in the discovery of the pe- heat from the objects under observation, and to 
riodic law of the chemical elements for M. B^^- keep them as long as may be reouired at any de- 
yer de Chancourtois, Chief Engineer and Assist- sired temperature between — 20^ and — 200^ C. 
ant Professor of Geology in the School of Mines, Of the refri|^rating processes at the command 
who, on April 7, 1862, presented to the Academy a of the experimenter, that by the evaporation of 
paper ** On a Natural Classification of the Simple liquids is preferred. The apparatus is adapted 
or Kadical Bodies entitled* The Telluric Screw,*" to the production of three stages of low teni- 
and followed it with other communications. The perature, for each of which special machinery 
telluric screw was a device for graphically repre- is provided. For the first stage the Pictet 
senting the relations of the atomic weights, from lii^uid — a mixture of sulphurous and carbonic 
the examination of which it appeared that those acids — is used ; for the second, laughing gas ; for 
relations corresponded for the most part to real the third stage, liquefied atmospheric air, the 
analogies in the properties of the corresponding evaporation of which causes (he tnermometer to 
elements. Mr. ^hn Newland's first publication fall below — 200" C. Under the experiments with 
on the subject was made, July 80, 18&4, the pub- these apparatus a remarkable difference was 
lioations of Profs. Mendeleef and Lothar Meyer noticed m the radiation of heat Material eon- 
of their independent and simultaneous discov- sidered as non-conducting does not appear to 
err of the same truth were made later. affect much the passage of heat into a body cooled 
Yhose compounds are called tautomeric by down to below — 100* ; or, as Prof. Pictet ex- 
L«ar which apparently react in a manner indi- presses it, " the slow oscillations of matter which 
cated by two constitutional formulie differing constitute the lowest degrees of heat pass more 
from one another. It is assumed that in such readily through the obstruction of a so-called non- 
bodies the atoms oscillate between two different conductor than those corresponding to a higher 
portions of equilibrium. This interpretation temperature, just as the less intense undulations 
does not permit the use of the term constitutional of the red light are better able to penetrate 
formula in its proper sense which would permit clouds of dust or vapor than those of tne blue." 
onlyoneof those positions recognized from allied It is mentioned, as an example of the methods 
reactions) to be considered correcK The other which the refrigerating machine permits the in- 
position would not belong to the substance per vestigator to employ, that, in oraer to measure 
«, because the reactions according to which it the elasticity of mercury, Prof. Paalzow had the 
has been derived have caused a change of posi- metal cast into the shape of a tuning-fork and 
tion of the atoms within the moleciile. Incor- frozen hard enough for the purpose in view. On 
rpct formulation of the chemical equations for this occasion it appeared that quicksilver can be 
these reactions may be the reason for the appar- shown in a crystallized state in fern-like crystals, 
ent contradiction of the principles of structural The most important application of the refriger- 
chemistry which these phenomena of change ating machinery is in the purification of chloro- 
within the molecule offer. form, by which that exceedingly unstable sub- 
In his presidential address before the Institu- stance becomes a practically unchangeable liquid, 
tion of Electrical Engineers, Dr. William Crookes Sulphurous ether is also produced in a hitherto 
spoke of electricity as a tool by the judicious use unknown degree of purity, 
of which we may gain some addition to our Liquid oxygen has been hitherto described as 
scanty knowledge of the atoms and molecules of colorless, and so it appears to he in thin layers ; 



110 CHEMISTRY. 

bat M. Olszewski, in the coarse of his investiga- of pyrites contained in the coaL The heat 

tion of the absorption spectram, has obtained a given off b^ the combustion of pyrites would 

sufficient Quantity of the liquid 30 millimetres not be sufficient to raise the temperature of the 

thick, and nas discovered that it possesses a blue adjacent coal to the ignition pomt. The cause 

color like that of the sky. The direct experi- of spontaneous ignition is to be found, on the 

ments on its absorption spectrum show that this other hand, rather in its power — especially when 

color is exactly what one would expect from its finely divided— of absorbing oxygen, which causes 

nature. The author suggests that the blue color the slow combustion of some of the hydrocarbon 

of the sky may be simply due to the atmospheric constituents even at ordinary temperature. The 

oxygen, which' in gaseous layers of such extent action may increase under favorable conditions 

may exhibit the same color as when compressed until ignition of the coal results. The risk is 

into a few centimetres of liauid. Apart from greatest with large masses of coal and with the 

the discussion of this debatable subject, the fact ordinary air supply on board ships. The oxida- 

is of interest to chemists that ordinary oxygen tion increases rapidly with the ignition temper- 

and its condensation eJlotrope, ozone, when com- ature of the coal, so that coal fires are found to 

pressed into the liquid state, are thus related as occur most often on ships frequenting tropical 

to color, the former possessing a light-blue and climates. It may be rouehly estimated that the 

the latter a deep-blue tint. absorbing; power of a coal for oxygen is propor- 

The results oi an examination of the proper- tional to its power of taking up moisture. Frot. 

ties of liquid chlorine have been publisned by Bedsen said, in the discussion of Prof. Lewes's 

Dr. Knictsch, of Ludwi^rshafen, in Liebig*s "An- paper, that in heating coal dust at various tem- 

nalen." The work included the determination of peratures up to 140** G. he had noticed that in 

the vapor density of liquid chlorine at tempera- some cases combustible gases were given off by 

tures from — 88° C. to +146*" 0. (its cntical the coal. 

point), a complete examination of its behavior Cumulative evidence has been gathered by Sir 
near the critical point, and the determination of Henry Roscoe and Mr. Scudder of the deposi- 
its specific gravity and coefficient of exoansion tion of iron by burning water gas (which con- 
for a range of temperature between — 80** and sists of carbon monoxide and hydrogen) upon 
+ 80**. Liquid chlorine generallv appears to the appurtenances of the burners and upon 
possess a yellow color. When, however, the whatever objects or substances it comes in con- 
color of a long column is examined it is found to tact with. The amount of the deposit appears 
have a distinctly orange tint The absorption to increase with the time the gas has been 
spectrum does not exhibit any characteristic stored in an iron cylinder, till at length the 
bands, but the blue and violet portions of the gas becomes smoky on burning. Upon passing 
spectrum are completely absorbea, and the trans- some of this gas through a tube cooled with ice 
m it ted spectrum thus consists of the red, orange, a few drops of a turbid liquid were obtained, 
yellow, and green. The pressure is given for which consisted chiefly of iron carbonyl. The 
every five degrees up to w" C, and thence for turbidity disappeared on the addition oi hydro- 
every ten degrees up to the critical point, 3*66 chloric acid. It is thus evident that iron car- 
atmospheres at 0*", 5*75 atmospheres at 15**, 11*5 bonyl is produced in the cold by the action of 
atmospheres at 40", and 93*5 atmospheres at the carbon monoxide contained in the water gas 
the cntical point, 146**. Some very interesting upon the iron of the containing cvlinder A 
results were obtained in determining the critical similar deposit of metallic iron has been found 

goint, the yellowish-green color of chlorine per- on the steatite burners from which ordinary coal 

aps assisting in rendering the appearance of pa is burned, and this points to the existence of 

what has sometimes been termed the fourth state iron carbonyl in our common illuminating gas. 

of matter between the liquid and the gaseous This conclusion is strengthened by the fact 

more distinct than usual. At 140° C. extremelv mentioned by Dr. Thome that coal gas which 

small bubbles began to be developed through has been compressed in iron cylinders and al- 

the mass of the liquid, at t44° the hitherto sharp lowed to stand for some time is unfit for lantern 

meniscus began to disappear, and at 145** the projection on account of the deep stain of iron 

presence of a liauid was evident only by the that is found upon the lime cvlinders. 
more intense yellow color and the higher re- Dr. William Crookes described at the meeting 

fractive power of the lower portion of the tube, of the British Association his experiments on the 

At 146** the contents of the tube were homogene- electrical evaporation of metals and alloys. Films 

ous throughout, the critical point being attained of ^old, silver, and platinum were thus obtained 

and the liquid converted into a gas. On cool- whichcouldbepeeledoff from the glass on which 

ing, the condensation always began below 146**, they were deposited and were nomogeneous. 

with the fbrmation of a cloud and a fine rain of Different metals treated thus evaporate at dif- 

minute yellow spheres of liquid chlorine. Liquid ferent rates. A few, including aluminum and 

chlorine is proved to be a very expansible sub- magnesium, seem to be non-volatile. It is thu.< 

stance. The coefficient of expansion at 80° C. is possible, in the case of the gold aluminum alloy 

already 0<)0346, nearly eq^ual to that of gaseous discovered by Prof. Roberts-Austen, to separate 

chlorine, and is rapidly increasing, so that be- a large portion of the gold from the aluminum 

fore the critical temperature of 1&* is attained by electrical evaporation, 
the coefficient of expansion will be considerably C. T. Heycock and E, H. Neville record the 

higher than that of the gas. results of experiments in the application of 

The experiments of Prof. Vivian fi. Lewes on Raoult's theorem — that the solution of any sub- 

the spontaneous ignition of coal led him to re- stance in any solvent lowers the freezing point 

ject the explanation of Berzelius, which at- of the solvent in a fixed degree — to the dissolu- 

tributes spontaneous ignition to the oxidation tion of metals in metala Making tin the 



CHEMISTRY, 111 

solrent, they found the law the same as in of hydrogen, and the peroxide then combined 
IUoaIt*8 experiments with other substances, viz., with the whole of the hydrochloric acid to form 
that the fall in temperature of the solidifying a definite ** solution compound," represented by 
point is directly proportional to the weight the formula 2HClHtOt. It is interesting to ch- 
added, and that the fall in temperature is in- serve that suitably decomposed chlorine water 
Tersely as the atomic (or molecular f) weight of or, in its stead, a mixture of CHC1+HC10+ 
tbe metal added. The experiments were tried HClOi in a proper {}roportion of water has the 
with zinc, copper, silver, caamium, lead, mercury, property of absorbing energy by exposure to 
alaminum, and antimony dissolved in tin. The light, very much like that possessed by the green 
temperature rose with antimony, while alaminum leaves of plants. 

produced a fall only half as great as the other New Sabstances. — A new antiseptic, said to 
elements. possess certain decided advantages over those 
The resalts of experiments on the crvstalliza- nitherto in use, has been brought to the atten- 
tion of liquid films are published by Prof. Tito tion of the French Academy of Medicine by 
Martini, oi Venice. He nnds that a strong sola- Prof. Berlioz, of Grenoble. It is called micro- 
tion of sodium sulphate, when cooled to near its cidine, and is a compound of naphthol and soda, 
saturation point, possesses a viscous character It is neither poisonous nor irritant, is twenty 
that enables it to form a thin film on a metallic times as active as boric acid, and is much more 
ring. On rapid evaporation, such a film crystal- soluble than thymol or carbolic acid. It is a gray- 
lizes to an open lattice-work of minute crystals, ish-white powder. A solution of three grammes 
which preserve their transparencv for some time to the litre of water is slightly colored, but it 
and then effloresce and crumble to powder, does not soil the hands or bandages. On ac- 
Evea more satisfactory results were ohtained count of its safety and strength it is claimed to 
with a transparent film of liquid sulphur ; while be especially adapted to family use. 
experiments with ammonium chloride and sodi- A new compound of iron and carbon monox- 
um hyposulphite were unsuccessful. ide, analogous to a nickel compound previously 
The glow of phosphorus is ascribed by T. E. described by Messrs. Mond, Langer,ana Quincke, 
Thorpe to the " depaded combustion " of phos- has been obtained by Mr. Berthelot. To prepare 
pborous oxide, which is formed whenever phos- it, carbon monoxide is led over iron in a very 
phorus is exposed to the air. When phosphorus finely divided state, free from admixed oxide, at 
IS placed in oxygen, or in an atmosphere con- a temperature of 45^ C. when it issues in the 
taining oxygen, under such conditions that it form of a gas. It is anticipated that by the aid 
volatilizes. Uie phosphorus oxidizes, partly into of this volatile compound some furnace reactions, 
phosphoric oxide and partly into pnosphorous as yet little understood, may be elucidated. M. 
oxide. Ozone is formed, and this reacts upon Berthelot is of the opinion that it majr help to 
the residual phosphorous vapor and the phos- explain the formation of bubble flaws in manu- 
phorons oxide, with the production of the lumin- facturcd iron, which have f reouently led to un- 
cus effect to which the element owes its name, fortunate results. M. Berthelot also describes 
The glow itself is nothing but a slowly burning several new reactions of nickel-carbonyl — a 
flame, having an extremely low temperature, liquid boiling at 46** C, which is so volatile that 
caused by the chemical union of oxygen with its vapor tension at 16" C. is given as a quarter 
the vapors of phosphorus and phosphorous oxide, of an atmosphere. A drop placed upon a glass 
By suitable means this glow can be gradually plate rapidly volatilizes, the portion last to dis- 
augmented till it passes by regular gradations appear being for a few moments cooled down by 
into the active vigorous combustion which we the evaporation of the first portion to such an 
ordinarilj associate with fiame. Many sub- extent as to form beautiful little crystals. When 
stances, m fact, may be caused to phosphoresce suddenly heated to 70*" C, it detonates, the de- 
in the same way. Prof, Thorpe and A. E. Sut- tonating reaction being expressed by the equation 
ton. in a later paper, give a more minute descrip- Ni(C0)4 = 2C0t -I- 2C -i- Ni, When mixed with 
tion of phosphorous oxide, and show that it has oxygen, simple agitation over mercury of the 
a well-marked physiological effect. It is possible tube containing it brings about detonation, 
that the action attributed to phosphorus, espe- When oxygen is given . slow access to the liquid 
cially as r^ards its influence on the glycogenic oxide a solid substance is formed, which is green 
functions of the liver and on tissue cnange, is if the oxygen is moist and brownish yellow if it 
really due to this substance. is dry. In contact with oil of vitriol the liquid 
A research earned on by Dr. G. Gore with the compound, after appearing unaffected for a few 
aid of the voltaic balance shows that the decom- moments, suddenly explodes with production of 
position of chlorine water b^ light may be flame. With nitrous oxide, bright-blue fumes 
divided into two essentially different parts, or arc produced which fill the vessel and eventually 
periods, of chemical change. During the first subside, forming a blue solid, 
period a very great and gradual loss of voltaic The tannin of chestnut wood has been stud- 
energy occurs, attended by formation of hydro- ied from specimens prepared by himself from 
chloric, hydrochlorous, and chloric acids. During the beginning by Prof. Henry Tnmble and found 
the second period a moderate and slow increase closely to resemble gallotannic acid in phys- 
of voltaic energy takes place, accompanied by ical and chemical properties. It decomposes at 
decomposition of the hydrochlorous and chloric 200* C. intopyrogallic and metagallic acids, giv- 
acids, a further formation of hydrochloric acid, ing an abundant crop of crystals of the former sub- 
and the production of peroxide of hydrogen, stance. Each of the three fractions in which it 
Cnder the influence of prolonged sunlight the was obtained was estimated for sugar. The first 
whole of the oxygen of the hydrochlorous and was found to contain 10*48, the second 7*08, and 
chloric acids united with water to form peroxide the third 6*18 per cent, of glucose. An acetyl 



112 CHEMISTRY. 

derivative was prepared which in many respects by Traube, of Berlin, is obtained when solations 
resembled pentacetyl tannin. of sulphuric acid containing at least 40 per cent. 

Some very interesting properties and reactions of acid are subjected to electrolysis as a crystal- 
of the chlorides of selenium are described by M. line deposit upon the anode. It' is not the anhy- 
Chabri^. Treating the telrachloride as prepared dride of an acid, but a neutral oxide of a sioii- 
by Berzelius for determination of vapor density, lar character to hydrogen peroxide. In wat«r it 
two molecules of the substance were dissociated parts with its oxygen readily and is reduced to 
at 360^ C. into one molecule of SetCU and three ordinary sulphuric acid. It is stable in a mod- 
molecules of chlorine. The subchloride, SesCU, erately concentrated solution of sulphuric acid, 
is a much more stable body, and may be distilled It is but a weak oxidizing agent, but under cer- 
unchanged at 860^ C. Determinations of the tain circumstances acts as a powerful reducing 
density of its vapor yield values closely approxi- agent. 

mating to 7*95, tne theoretical density of a mole- Two gaseous fluorides of carbon, the tetrafluor- 

cule of the formula SesCU. Other interesting ide, CF4, and the difluoride, CsF4, have been 

reactions were observed between selenium tetra- isolated by M. Moisson and M. Chabri^. Fluor- 

chloride and benzine. When the two substances ine directly attacks carbon with varying degrees 

are brought together for reaction, the selenium of energy, according to the form in which the 

tetrachloride is decomposed as when it is heated carbon is presented. Pure lampblack instantly 

to SOO"* C, the liberated chlorine reacting with becomes incandescent throughout. The action 

the benzine to form several chlorbenzines, and on the other forms of carbon is slower in propor- 

all the selenium remaining in the form of Ses- tion to their density, and in the harder varieties 

CU. When the benzine and ScCU are brought has to be assisted at first by the application of 

together in the presence of aluminum chloride, heat The products of combination are gener- 

on treating the mixture with water, separating ally ^seous mixtures of the two fluorides. The 

and distilling the oil obtained, three distinct f rac- t«tranuoride is a colorless gas that liauefles un- 

tions may be collected. The first is monochlor- der a pressure of five atmospheres at 10" C, is ab- 

benzine : the second, at 227^-228'* C. under a re- sorbea and decomposed by an alcoholic solution 

duced pressure, consists of phenyl selenide, a vel- of potash into potassium fluoride and carbonate, 

low oil of specific gravity 1*45 at 19'6° C. I'he and is slightly soluble in water and more readily 

third fraction, boiling between 245** and 250** C, so in car^n tetrachloride, alcohol, and benzine, 

consists of another new compound, Ses(CtHft)a- The most convenient way of preparing it depends 

CeHiCl. It is a red oil, of specific gravity 1*55 on the reaction of silver fluoride ana the vapor 

at lO-O** C. On allowing it to stand, it deposits of carbon tetrachloride. A gas obtained by al- 

yellow crystals of a compound of powerful odor, lowing fluorine to stream through red-hot car- 

which may be obtained rccrystallized from alco- bon appears to be the C1F4 described by M. 

hoi 111 long rhombic prisms. This substance is se- Chabne. 

leno-phenol, CeH»SeII, analogous to thiophenol Fluoride of methyl, CHiF, obtained by MM. 

and mercaptan, and in alcoholic solution readily Moisson and Merlaus by the action of methyl 

reacts with salts of mercury and silver. iodide on fluoride of silver, is a gas that liquefies 

A new gaseous compound of nitrogen and hy- at ordinary temperatures under a pressure of 

drogen has been discovered by Dr Theodore Curt- 32 atmospheres, is slightly soluble in water, and 

ius, having the composition HN|, and has been more reaaily so in methyl iodide or methyl alco- 

called by him, after its derivation, azoimide. The hoi, is very stable, and saponifies with great dif- 

gas dissolves in wat«r with great avidity, forming ficulty. It is also obtained, but of inferior puri- 

a solution which possesses strong acid properties, ty, by the action of pentafluoride of phosphorus 

and dissolves many metals, such as zinc, copper, on methyl alcohol. 

and iron, with evolution of hydrogen gas and Another fiuoride of methyl, isobutyl fiuoride, 

formation of nitrides, the metal taking the place C4H9F. prepared by the action of isobutyl iodide 

of the liberated hydrogen. In view of this prop- upon silver fiuoride, is colorless, and in the liquid 

ertv, the name azoimide is regarded as not condition mobile, and boils at 16* 0. The gas 

sufhciently descriptive, hence Prof. Curtius bums on ignition with deposition of carbon and 

proposes instead StxekstoffwassersioJfHdure^ for the formation of clouds of hydrofiuoric acid, 

which the nearest English equivalent would be It does not attack glass. M. Moisson has pre- 

hyrazoic acid. HNi possesses a fearfully pene- pared by means of the reaction of silver fluoride 

tniting odor, produces violent catarrh, and re- with the iodides of the corresponding organic 

sembles hydrochloric acid in its affinity for water, radicles the fluorides of methyl, ethyl, propyl, 

Having isolated the new substance. Prof. Cur- and butyl, and finds them in each case more 

tius and Herr Radenhausen have found it to be stable than the analogous chlorine compounds, 
a clear, colorless, and very mobile liquid of phe- Methylene fiuoride, CH9F9, prepared by M. 

nomenally explosive nature. The liquid pos- Chabri^, is a gas obtained by heating methylene 

sesses the intolerable odor of the gas and the chloride with silver fluoride, has a densitv as 

aqueous solution. It mixes readily with water compared with air of 1*82, and is absorbed bv 

and alcohol. It boils — when the operator is so alcoholic potash. It completes a series of which 

fortunate as to carry out a distillation in safety the chlorine, bromine, ana iodine members have 

— without decomposition at 87** C. But it ex- long been known. M. Chabrid has found that 

plodes with extraordinary violence when sud- haid Bohemian glass tubes may be used in these 

denly heated or when touched with a hot bofly, reactions with silver fluorides, for with them the 

and also sometimes without apparent provoca- corrosion is so insignificant that for practical 

tion at the ordinary temperature, with produc- purposes it need not be regarded, 
tion of a vivid blue flame. Boron iodide, Bfi, is prepared by M. Moisson 

The new peroxide of sulphur, SO4, discovered by three methods, the most convenient of which 



CHEMISTB7. 113 

is by the action of hjdriodic aoid on amorphous also be obtained by immersing heated articles in 

boron. It appears in cnrstals, colored reddish a solution of nickel-<iarbon-ozide in such solvents 

parple bj a small taint of free iodine, but, when as benzol, petroleum, tar oils, etc., or by apply- 

ponfied, colorless, transparent, and somewhat ing such solution to the heated articles with tibe 

nacreous. Exposed to light, they emit iodine, brush or otherwise. 

They melt at 43** C. into a liquid which boils un- Repeating the work of Messrs. Mond, Langer, 
decomposed at 210^ G. They are exceedingly and Quincke on the remarkable compound of 
hrgrosoopic, and are decomposed by the moisture nickel and carbon monoxide, Ni(C0)4, M. Han- 
they attract, and are instantaneously decom- riot has found it a highly poisonous substance, 
posed in contact with water. Boron iodide bums far more deadly than caroon monoxide itself. 
readily when heated in air or oxygen. Blood poisoned by means of it exhibits the char- 
When boron iodide is acted upon by phos- acteristic absorption spectrum of blood contain- 
§ horns, boron phospho-di-iodide BPIt, is pro- ing carbon monoxide. The oxygen of the air 
uced. It is a deep red amorphous powaer ; diminishes somewhat the poisonous action of the 
melts between 190° and 200° C. ; when heated in compound, inasmuch as it promotes dissociation 
a vacuum begins to volatilize about 170°, the into metallic nickel and carbon monoxide, 
vapor condensing in the cooler part of the tube Mr. Waldron Shapleigh exhibited at a recent 
in red crystals : is very hygroscopic and rapidly meeting of the Franklin Institute, Philadelphia, 
decomposed by water; bums spontaneously in some forty specimens of salts of what are called 
chlorine ; and mflames when slightly warmed in the rare earths, with minerals from which they 
oxygen. are obtained, viz., samarskite, zircon crystals, 
A second phospho-iodide of boron is repre- and monazite sand from North Carolina, mona- 
sented bv the formula BPI, and is formed by the zite sand from Brazil, gadolinite from Texas, 
action ox sodium or magnesium on a solution of and allanite from Virginia. This was the first 
the di-iodide just descnbed, or by heating that time the salts of praseodymium and neodymium 
subbtance to 160° C. in a current of hydrogen, have been shown and probably separated m this 
It is obtained as a bright-red powder, somewhat coiintry ; the separation of these elements is long 
hygroscopic It volatilizes in a vacuum without and teaious. The specimens shown had under- 
f asion at about 210* C, and the vapor condenses gone nearly 400 fractional distillations, and had 
when cooled into omnge-colored crystals. Heat^i been in a state of constant preparation since 
to redness, it decomposes into free iodine and early in 1888. Tons of cerite and monazite sand 
phosphide of boron, BP. Bv the continued action had been used, and tons of the salts of cerium and 
of diy hydrogen upon the heated compound, the lanthanum obtained, but the yield of praaeo- 
iodide and a portion of the phosphoms are re- dymium was only a few kilogrammes. Tne per- 
moved and a new phosphide of boron, BtPi, is centage of neodymium was much higher. Zir- 
obtained. conium, lanthanum, and cerium should no longer 
A specimen of iron-carbon-oxide was exhibited be classed among rare earths, as hundreds of 
at the British Association, obtained by Messrs. tons of ores from which they are obtained have 
"Mond and Ijanger as an amber-colored liquid, been located in North Carolina, and there seems 
which, on standing, deposits tabular crystals of no end to the deposits of monazite sand, one of 
a darker color and solidifies below — 21° C. to a the richest ores, and containing most of the rare 
mass of needle-shaped crystals. It boils at 102° earths. In Brazil it does not nave to be mined, 
C but leaves a small quantity of green-colored as it is in the form of river sand. In North 
oil behind. Several analyses and vapor-density Carolina it is found in washing for gold, 
determinations have been made, but it is not yet A new crystalline carbohydrate, of the com- 
certain whether a pure substance has been ob- position CisHasOie, called stachyose, has been 
tained or a mixture of several iron carbonyls. extracted by Drs. Von Planta and Schulze from 
Specimens of nickel-carbon-oxide and metallic the bulbs of JStachys iuberifera. The crystals 
nickel obtained from it were exhibited by Ludwig and their aqueous solution possess a faint, sweet, 
Mond at the meeting of the British Association, sugar-like taste, and the solution in water, which 
and an account was given of the discovery and is of neutral reaction, rotates the plane of polarl- 
properties of the compound. Chemically, nickel zation strongly to the right. From its proper- 
carbonyl is very inactive, and experiments made to ties it is assigned to the group of carbohydrates 
introduce the carbon vl group by its means into or- called by Prof. Tollens crystallizable polysaocha- 
ganic substances had Men uniformly unsuccess- rides, in which are included raffinose or mellitose, 
luL Experiments were described that had for gentianose, and lactosine. Stachjrose resembles 
their object the direct extraction of nickel from lactosine very closely, especially in the forma- 
its ores by means of carbon monoxide. As long tion of galactose on inversion, but is distinguished 
as the nickel was combined with arsenic or sul- from it by its lower dextro-rotatory power, 
phar thejprocess was successful on a laboratory An important series of new compounds — ^the 
scale. The ore, matte, or speiss was calcined, ketazines— has been obtained by Prof. Curtius, 
reduced by water gas at 450°, cooled down to a resulting from the action of hydrazine hydrate 
suitable temperature, and treated with carbon upon ketones. The simplest of these, which is 
monoxide in a suitable apparatus. On exposing obtained by the action of hydrazine hydrate 
a heated surface to the gas containing nickef upon acetone, is a clear liouid possessing a 
carbon-oxide, it is possible to produce direct from sharp odor somewhat resembling that of alka- 
such gas articles of solid nicKel or goods jplated loid coniine. By employing other ketones, a 
with nickel, resembling in every way those ob- large number of the Ketazines have been pre- 
tained by galvanic deposition of metals, and re- pared. Those containing fatty radicles are 
producing with the same exactitude and fineness liquids, and those containing aromatic groups 
any design upon such articles. This result can are solids. The lowest members only dissolve in 

TOL. XXXI. — 8 A 



114 CHEMISTBT. 

water, with a solubility rapidly decreasing with strontium, chlorate, Tanadiam chloride, red and 

increase of carbon atoms. Acids decompose black oxides of manganese, and bismuth chlo- 

them in the cold, with assimilation of water, ride destroyed the rubber; ferrous nitrate, sodi- 

into their constituents, but they are compara- um nitrite, uranium nitrate, and ammoDium 

tively stable toward alkalies. Light exerts a vanadate considerably damaged its elasticity; 

decomposing action upon them ; specimens lead chromate, ferrous sulphate, zinc acetate and 

f>laced in bright sunshine rapidly become yel- chloride, tin peroxides and perchloride, chromic 

ow. Reducing agents are witnout action upon acid, and lead borate only sliehtly damaged it. 

them, and they appear further to be incapable Copper salts were found to damage it even in 

of reducing either Fehling*s solution or (except minute quantities and in proportion to the quan* 

after long ooiling) ammoniacal solutions of sil- tity of copper present. EIxperiiAents on the 

▼er salts. action of different cloths and cloths of different 

New Processes. — India-rubber is usually vnl- colors likewise demonstrated the injurious effect 

canized by heating it with sulphur until chemical of copper. Of acids of a strength to neutralize 

combination takes place. A different method is equal parts of a lO-per-cent solution of anhy- 

pursued in mfjcing cloth for waterproof garments, drous sodium carbonate, nitric acid was de- 

The cloth is washed with a solution of chloride structive, while hydrochloric, sulphuric, chromic, 

of sulphur in bisulphide of carbon, when the fa- citric, and tartaric acids were not ; but rubber 

brie is heated to evaporate away the excess of those soaked in the strongest sulphuric-acid solution 

substances. The chemical action in the process containing 10 per cent of acid was destroyed on 

is supposed to be represented by a combination being heated to 212° F. Peroxide of hydrogen 

of the sulphur with the India-rubber, producing appeared to be neutral in effect, while ozone 

vulcanization, and of the chlorine with the hy- had been previously found to be destructive, 

drogen to produce hydrochloric acid. This re- The opinion of manufacturers that over-masti- 

action, Mr. William Thomson believes, is not cation of India-rubber is injurious was not borne 

the correct one, while the reverse is probably out by the experiments. 

more in accordance with the facts, viz., that the Having found that gold can be completely 
chlorine of the sulphur chloride combines with precipitated by the electric current from its 
the India-rubber to produce vulcanization, while double cyanides, Edgar F. Smith and F. Muir 
the sulphur is left free or onlv partially in com- attemptea to decide what metals can be sepa- 
bination with the rubber. Mr. Thomson sup- rated from gold in this manner. Their experi- 
ports this view by citing certain results of his ments were satisfactorily successful in the sepa- 
own experiments. A suostitute for India-rub- ration of gold from copper, from cobalt, from 
ber which is much used is produced bv acting nickel, from zinc, and from platinum, and of 
on vegetable oils with the solution of chloride of silver and mercury from platinum. With cad- 
sulphur in bisulphide of carbon. The oil be- mium the precipitate was never free from plat- 
comes converted into a solid substance some- inum. The electrolytic separation of zinc irom 
what resembling India-rubber, but more brittle, mercury, cadmium, and silver in a solution of ^ 
Mr. Thomson's analyses of this substance have potassium cyanide was effected without diffl-* 
invariably shown it to contain a much greater culty. 

proportion of chlorine than of sulphur. The To detect contamination of water with sew- 
process is therefore probably a vulcanization by a£;e, Peter Griess dilutes paradia - benzol sul- 
chlorine rather than by sulphur. The substi* pnuric acid with 100 parts of water and adds a 
tutes contain considerable quantities of oily mat- little soda lye in excess. The solution roust be 
ters soluble in water, which have also been found used when freslL as it soon becomes colored 
to be chlorine and sulphur compounds of the spontaneously. If when it is introduced into 
oils. These oily matters are supposed by some the water no change of color takes place within 
manufacturers to be injurious to tne rubber, but five minutes, the total absence of oiganic secre- 
the author has found that it rather acts as a tions or products of decomposition may be in- 
preservative of it. Copper salts exert an injuri- f erred. A yellow color shows the presence of 
ous effect on India-rubber, and cloth that has such matter in proportions corresponding with 
been dyed with them is destructive to a coating its tone. With this test the author has made 
which may be placed upon it very delicate detorminations. 

The authors William Thomson and Frederick A method of making phosphorous oxide by 
Liewis continued their experiments on the action burning phosphorus in the air is described by Prof, 
of copper and other metals and their salts on T. E. Thorpe and A. E. Tutton. Pure phosphor- 
India-rubber. A sheet of India-rubber was us oxide crystallizes in thin monoclinic prisms, 
spread on paper and vulcanized. The sub- melts at 23*5% solidifies at 21^, and boils uncnanged 
stances — filings of metals or solutions of salts— in an atmosphere of nitrogen or carbon dioxide 
were placed upon small squares of the rubber at 173^ When heated at 800** it decomposes, and 
and exposed to a heat of i40° F. for ton days, is converted into phosphorus and phosphorous 
when the rubber on each square was tosted. tetroxide. It is readily acted on by light and in 
Copper was found to have a destructive effect bright sunshine turns yellow and eventually dark 
far beyond that of the other metals. The fol- red. Cold wator, contrary to the usual statement 
lowing metals were destructive in the order in of the toxt-books, has very little action upon it. 
which they are mentioned: Platinum, palladi- Hot water acts on it with explosive violence, 
nm, aluminum, and lead. Magnesium, zinc, cad- and the red sub-oxide, phospnoric acid, and 
mium, cobalt, nickel, iron, chromium, tin, ar^ phosphoretted hydrogen result. On exposure to 
senic, antimony, bismuth, silver, and gold had the air or oxygen it spontaneously oxidizes to 
no effect upon the rubber. Of salts, besides phosphorous pentoxtde. with a faint luminous 
those of copper, arsenic iodide, silver nitrate, glow if the pressure is diminished. It has well- 



CHEMISTRY. 115 

marked physiological effects, and some of the weight of osminm hare heen completed, and give 

action heretofore attributed to phosphorus is a final mean value of 190*3. The settlement of 

probablj due to it. So also is the smell that this question is regarded as very important, in- 

usually accompanies phosphorus, whose vapor as asmuch as it removes the last outstanding exoep- 

sach is believed by SchSnbein to be odorless. tion to the periodic generalization. On the sup- 

A process for extracting oil patented by W. position that the chemical and physical proper- 

T. Forbes consists in treating oleaginous ma- ties of the elements are functions of the atomic 

terial with a solvent, then expelling the dissolved weight, the atomic weights of the four metals of 

oil and solvent from the mass by centrifugal the gold-platinum group should increase from 

force ; introducing steam to vaporize any of the that of osmium up to that of gold. The accepted 

solvent remaining in the residuum ; and drying atomic weights of these metals previous to 1878 

the same by applying centrifugal force. Au stood, however, in the reverse order. At that 

the different steps of the process are applied time Seubert took up the problem. The ato- 

while the material operated upon is contained in mic weights of the several suDstances were giad- 

tbe revolving chamber of a centrifugal machine, ually corrected, and they now stand : Osmium, 

In his coiorimetric method for determining 190*3 ; iridium, 192*5 ; platinum, 194*3 ; and gold, 

tannin in barks, S. J. Hinsdale prepares a ferric 196*7 — ^an order fullv m accord with the grada- 

lioaor by adding solution of ferric chloride to tion of chemical ana physical properties of the 

solution of potassium ferrocyanide. A tannic substances. 

solution is then made. The substance in which The atomic weight of rhodium has been rede- 
tbe tannin Ls to be determined is brought in con- termined by Prof. Seubert and Dr. Kobb^, of the 
tact TTith a little boiling water, and the solution University of TUbingen, with an accuracy which 
is diluted with cold water. Six fiat-bottomed is reg^arded as leaving no doubt that the value 
glasses are set upon white paper, and in the first of this constant has been arrived at within the 
are put 5 drops of the solution to be titrated ; ordinary limits of inevitable experimental error, 
into the others are put, respectively, 4, 5, 6, 7, The experiment was made by reaucing the heated 
and 8 drops of the solution of tannin. To each ammoniacal salt Khs(NHt)i«Clc in a current of 
are then added 5 o. c. of the ferric liquor. After pure hydrogen to metallic rhodium. The mean 
the lapse of 3 minutes the experimenter observes of ten experiments gave = 15*96, Rh 102*7 ; or 
the tint of the tannin solution which corresponds = 16*103. Rhodium therefore retains the place 
most closely with the solution under examination, in the periodical system marked out for it by its 
For the rapid estimation of arsenic in ores, F. chemical behavior, between ruthenium, 101*4, 
W. Boam uses a modific^ktion of the *' Uranium and palladium, 106*3, and in the same vertical 
acetate method,'* which is applicable to all ores group as its analogue iridium, 
containing arsenic, and whicn are attacked by Prof. F. P. Venable advocates making = 16 
HXO4. The author has tested it against other the standard of reference for the atomic weights, 
methods, and finds it superior to all for rapidity Hydro^n, although its small atomic weight 
and accuracy. makes it the most convenient unit, does not fur- 
Atomic vfeirhts. — ^The Committee of Re- nish a convenient standard, because the ratio of 
vision and Publication of the Pharmacopoeia of the atomic weight of only a few of the elements 
the United States has published a table of ato- can be compared directly with it. While the 
roic weights, prepared, at its request, by Prof. F. exact ratio of oxygen to hydrogen (usually 
W. ClarKe, upon the basis of the most recent written 0=15*96) would furnish the most suitable 
data and his latest computations. The com- standard were it fixedly determined, its selection 
mittee regards it as highly desirable for this would not be wise, because it is still liable to 
table to be adopted- and uniformly followed by correction. Since extreme exactness is unattain- 
ehemists in j^eneral, at least for practical pur- able and a compromise is necessary, the selection 
poses, till it IS superseded bv a revised edition; suggested offers the solution freest from objection, 
and it requests that all calculations and analyti- *' The atomic weights are but relative numbera 
cal data which are to be given for its use or cog- To be in any respect constants, thev must be rel- 
ntzance be based upon Uie values in the table, ative to but one single element. With but few 
The basis to which all the atomic weights in the exceptions, the ratio to oxygen can be deter- 
table are referred is O = 16. mined. In revision of atomic weights, then, 

In their estimation of the atomic weight of this should receive the chief attention.*' 

magnesium, W. M. Burton and L. D. Vorce em- The determination of the atomic weight of 

ployed, in order to obtain magnesium of excep- lanthanum by Dr. Brauner, of Prague, is con- 

tional purity, a method similar to that described tradictory to Winkler's hypothesis that the ele- 

bv Dr. H. N. Morse for the preparation of pure ment should be regarded as tetravalent, with an 

zi'nc by distillation. Weighed portions of this atomic weight of 180, instead of being, as has 

pure metal were converted into the nitrate, and hitherto been accepted, trivalent, with an atomic 

this was ignited to the oxide. Thus the errors weight of 138*5. Dr. Brauner reasoned, from 

arising from the presence of impurities and the determinations of the specific heat of Ian- 

those involved in determining the impurities and thanum, that the old figure was correct, and then 

correcting them are believea by the authors to proceeded to redetermine the atomic weight. His 

have been avoided. The atomic weight given by experimental method consisted in converting 

this process was 24*211. Perfect crystals of known weights of the oxide into sulphate. His 

magnesium were obtained during the experiments value obtained for the atomic weight of the ele- 

and made objects of study, .^rom them mag- ment is 138*2, which keeps it in its old place in 

nesiam appears to be more closely related to the trivalent group of the periodic system marked 

benrllium in its crystal form than to zinc. off for it by its basic properties. 

Prof. Seubert*8 determinations of the atomic The atomic weight of beryllium has been de- 



116 CHEMISTRY. 

termined by Drs. ErOss and Moraht by means bol. In cotton seed the proportion of lecithin 

of what is probably the purest oxide ever pre- to the total fatty bodies is very small, yet about 

pared. The value obtained, 9'05, is rery nearly 50 per cent of tnose substituted glycendes were 

a whole number, being nearer to than any left in the material after extraction with ether 

Yalue ever previously obtained. It therefore ap- for & period of fifteen hours. In certain other 

pears that the whole number 9 is more nearlv varieties of seeds, such as the legumes, beans, 

approached the purer the materials are with peas, vetches, etc., the total ether and alcohol 

which the experiment is performed — ^a result extracts were composed of lecithins varying 

that has an important bearing in favor of Prout's from 25 to 45 per cent 

hypothesis. The method of J. Weirich for detecting col- 

The atomic weight of copper has been deter- oring matters fraudulently added to wine is 

mined by T. W. Richards from the analysis of founded on the action of air and light upon the 

cuprio bromide, and found — ^that of silver being coloring matters of wine spread out in an ex- 

10§— to be 68*644. tremely thin layer. The wine is applied with a 

Relations have been detected bv M. Prud'- brush upon a piece of paper of good quality 
horn me between the shades obtained by the use which is not pervious. It is kept for an instant 
of mordants in dyeing and the atomic weights in contact with the paper, which is then drained 
of the substances. The shades appear to under- off and let dry. The coloring matters of wine 
gp continuous variations, which appear very dis- give the paper a different tone from those of 
tinct by the side of Mendeleefs classification of the coloring matters — vegetable, animal, or arti- 
the elements in natural groups and periodic se- tificial — which serve for the sophistication of 
ries. From numerous experiments made with wines. The natural colors of wine and veget&- 
some thirty-six elements, the author concludes ble colors are transformed upon paper, each ac- 
that in each of Mendeleefs groups, if we con- cording to its nature. The artificial colors are 
sider the terms of the periods of the even or odd transformed either very slightly or not at all. 
rank, there is a continuous variation in a deter- The process of A. Pagnoul depends on the prop- 
mined direction from blue to red or from red to erty of soap lyes to destroy the natural coloring 
blue. The author continues his paper with more matter of wines without giving them the green- 
specific accounts of the variations. ish tint communicated by other alkaline solu- 

Chemlcal Analysis. — Prof. Roberts- Austen tions and without affecting strange colors. For- 
expressed an apprehension in his address at the eign coloring matters which are not decomposed 
chemical section of the British Association that by alkalies at an ordinaij temperature (like sa- 
the wide range of study upon which a metallur- f ran in, eosin, etc.), or which they turn to a vio- 
gical student is rightly expected to enter may let (like the tropeolins and cochineal), are de- 
lead to diminution in the time devoted to ana- tected by L. Sostigni's method by shaking the 
lytical chemistrv, and this most serious question, wine for five minutes with a solution of potassa 
he said, should ()e pressed upon the attention of one tenth its volume, and pouring the liquid 
all who are responsible for the training of our into a filter of parchment paper in contact ex- 
future chemists. There can be no Question that temally with water. After some hours a yellow 
sufficient importance is not attachea to the esti- liquid containing the oxidation products of the 
mation of ** traces,*' an analysis being considered tannin is diffused. The coloring matters foreign 
satisfkctory if the constituents found add up to to wine are fixed upon the parchment paper 
09'9. although a knowledge as to what elements with their own colors. Natural wines color the 
represent the missing O'l may be more useful in paper yellow. 

affording an explanation of the defects in a ma- The reaction with nitric solution of ammo- 

t^rial than all the rest of the analysis. This nium molybdate is applied bv G. Deniges for 

matter is of growing interest to practical men, distinguisliing arsenical spots from those of an- 

and may explain their marked preference for timony. The suspected spots are mixed with a 

chemists who have been trained in works to few drops of nitric acid ; they dissolve instantly, 

those who have been educated in a college lab- whether they^ consist of antimony or arsenic, 

oratory. Heat is applied for a few moments and a few 

It has been found by Prof. E. Shulze, of Zu- drops of ammonium molybdate in a nitric solu- 
rich, and W. Maxwell, of Harvard College, that tion are applied. When arsenic is present, even 
in the estimation of fatty matters in vegetable if only in traces, a vellow precipiUte soon ap- 
organisms the substituted glycerides do not be- pears, showing the forms of crystals — fine yel- 
come wholly separated by extraction with ether low stars with triangular branches, generally six 
even in a great duration of time. If the mate- in number, arrang^ in rectangular planes ae- 
rials which had been already extracted with cording to the axes of a cube— characteristic of 
ether were still further extracted with absolute ammonium arsenio-molybdate. Antimony gives 
alcohol, another portion of substituted glycer- nothing analogous. 

ides was obtained, which in most instances was G. 'N^rtmann shows that in the determination 
greater than the amount separated by the ether, of metals by electrolysis of their solutions it is 
The process of the alcohol extraction consisted essential, first, that the metal be separated out 
in merely extracting the material already treated quantitatively, as such or in the state of a known 
with ether and evaporating off the alcohol, and compound; and, second, that the precipitate de- 
re-extracting the alcohol extract residue with tained forms a imiform coating on the platinum 
ether. The reason for taking up the lecithins capsule used as an electrode and adheres so firmly 
out of the alcohol extract was that it had been that no loss takes place on rinsing with water 
observed that those lecithins which were orig- and alcohol, and that it undergoes no change 
inally insoluble in ether became soluble in that during drying. Among the metals that have 
menstruum when previously acted upon by alco- been hitherto determined electrolytically, iron. 



CHEMISTRY. 117 

cobalt, nickel, zinc, cadminm, bismuth, copper, it as potassinm carbonate, as is nsnally done, 

mercurj, silver, gold, tin, platinum, and anti- This simplifies the operation, allows the analysis 

moDT bare been separated as metals, and manga- to be quickly performed, and admits of greater 

nese and lead as peroxides. Some of these metals accuracy when working with small samples, 
present difficulties in electrolysis, because they For the complete separation of copper from 

form a uniform adhesive stratum only if present bismuth, instead of the inconvenient process of 

in small Quantities. A uniform adhesive coating fusion with bismuth sulphide, Edwara Matthey 

may be obtained by adding such metals as are recommends as an effective method to fuse the 

apt* to be deposited as a spongy mass, for which alloy, and at a temperature a little above its 

purpose mercury is convenient. By this method melting point to add a small proportion of 

Vortmann has made a series of very interesting sodium monosulnhide. 

electrolyses, which are described in detail in his Hydriodic acia has been found by P. A. Gooch 

paper in the Beriehte of the Deutsche Chemiwhe and E. W. Danner a satisfactory 'substitute in 

(jtMUtthaft the separation of antimony from arsenic for the 

The asbestos method of milk analysis as de- ferrous chloride of Fischers original method and 

Grribed by Thomas Macfarlane to the Royal So- for the ferrous sulphate of the modification of 

cietT of Canada, in May, 1887, has proved so Classen and Ludwig. In these methods the chlo- 

satisfactory at the Canada Experimental Farm, rides are reduced by means of ferrous chloride or 

both as to accuracy and rapidity, that it has ferrous sulphate and ammonio-ferrous sulphate, 

been adopted in the laboratory of the farm. Mr. and the arsenic is volatiliased by repeated dis- 

Frank T. Shutt gives accounts of experiments, tillations of the mixture with hyarochloric acid, 
contrasting this process with others in which the Chemieal Synthesis. — An effort toward the 

total solids are estimated by evaporation in plati- solution of the complex problem of the synthesis 

num dishes, and in which the fat is determined of the proteids has been made b^ P. SchQtzen. 

bj wei^hin^ in flasks after exhaustion of the The autnor had determined in previous researches 

milk solids m a Soxhlet tube. In the former ex- the terms resulting from the decomposition of 

penments the solids obtained were higher by the the proteic matters by hydratation under the in- 

platinum method, but are believed to have been fluence of bases. The question arose whether, in 

too hi|;h. It is observed that while the milk the inverse problem, the amides and amido-com- 

solids m the asbestos method are always white, pounds of a relatively simple constitution pro- 

those in the platinum method are more or less duced in the decomposition could be recombmed 

brown, showing that a change takes place in the so as to form complex bodies approaching the 

latter process which does not ensue by the asbes- proteic matters in constitution and the totality 

tos method. In the second series of experiments of their chemical characters. The author solved 

the results obtained by direct weighing were this question in the affirmative, and succeeded, 

slightly the higher of the two. If it be granted by eliminating water and combining the ulti- 

that the total solids and fat can be accurately mate and crysudlizable products derived from the 

determined by this method, Mr. Shutt's tables decomposition of albumen and fibrin under the 

fhow that the results are not variable, and that influence of baryta, in forming a nitrogenous 

Then duplicates are performed no large differ- compound presenting great analogy with the 

enc(^ will have to be averaged in order to arrive peptones, which may rank in the class of the 

at the truth. proteic compounda 

It is remarked by Mr. T. W. Hogg that the The mineral hornblende has been artificially 

method of determining iron in its alloys by de- reproduced in well-formed crystals by M. Kron- 

composing with dilute hydrochloric or sulphuric tschoff. His process essentially consists in di- 

acid, and oxidizing by means of a standara solu- gesting together in the presence of water, for a 

tion of bichromate of potash, is liable to error long period of time, in a vacuum, the various 

vben copper is present. In such case the author oxides contained in natural hornblende amphi- 

advi^cs solntion in dilute hydrocloric acid, add- boles. These ingredients were aaueous solutions 

ing potassic chlorate, and boiling to expel chlorine of silica, alumina, ferric oxide (all dialyzed), pure 

compounds. The iron may then be reduced by ferrous hydrate, lime water, hydrate of magnesia, 

means of a solution of sodium sulphite, and, and caustic soda and potash, in suitable propor- 

after boiling away the excess of sodium sulphite, tions. The mixture, which presented tne ap- 

adding the bichromate in the usual manner. pearance of a gelatinous mud, was heated in ex- 

For detecting metallic silver in the presence tiansted and sealed flasks to a temperature of 

of lead. Alexander Johnstone suggests boiling 550" C. for three months. At the end of this 

the product obtained by heating the mineral time the mud had become inuch darker in color, 

with fusion mixture in nitric acid ; neutraliz- with numerous brilliant little crystals, almost 

jug the solution with sodium carbonate, but leav- black, distributed through it. These, on exam- 

ing it slightly acid ; and inserting in the pre- ination, were found to consist of flattened prisms 

pared solution a strip of copper and one of zinc, identical in character with hornblende. 
The lead of the solution is deposited on the zinc. The compound 3Ti|N,+TiCyt, which is oft- 

and most of the silver on the copper. This is en found in iron furnaces on smelting titanifer- 

thcn tested. If no silver is present in the solu- ous ores, may be formed* according to C. Lude- 

tion. the copper foil when placed in it is hardly king, of St Louis, in the inner flame of a Bunsen 

coated. burner, which is made slightly luminous by a 

The novelty in Herr J. Wiborgh's volumetric proper regulation of the supply of air. On ac- 

method of e^imating carbon in iron consists in count of the characteristic appearance of this 

the direct measurement of the caibonic acid pro- compound, very small quantities of titanic acid 

duoed from the oxidation of the carbon in the can De quickly detected. The snbstance in ques- 

sample under investigation instead of weighing tion is dissolved with a little sodium carbonate 



118 CHEMISTRY. 

in the loop of a thin platinum cone, and all the experimental results and with ^neral ideas to 

sodium is volatilized in the inner flame. If ti- suppose that the nodule-bactena fixed free ni- 

tanium is present, the coppery-red compound trogen within the plant, and that the higher 

represented by the formula is found, and may be plant absorbed the nitrogenous compounds pro- 

easily recognized on the platinum wire. In- duced. In other words, there was no evidence 

versely the reaction serves for the detection of that the chlorophvllous plant itself fixed free ni- 

cyano^n in fiames. trogen, or that the fixation takes place within 

Indigocarmine, the commercially important the soil, but it was more probable tnat the lower 

disulphonic acid of indigo, has been syntnetized organisms fix the free nitrogen. If this should 

by UT, Heymann at Elberfeld. The reaction eventually be established, we have to recognize 

consists meVelv in acting with excess of fuming a new power of living organisms — ^that of assimi- 

sulphuric acia upon phenyl ^rlycocoll, the am- lating an elementary substance. But this would 

line derivative of gly collie, acid. The tints ob- onl}rbean extension of the fact that lower or- 

tained with this product are much superior in ganisms are capable of performing assimilation, 

beauty and clearness, because of its greater pu- a work which the higher can not accomplish : 

rity, to those obtained with even the better kinds while it would be a further instance of lower or- 

of commercial indieocarmine. Sixtv per cent of ganisms serving the higher, 

the theoreticalyiela of the process nas been ob- According to the researches of MM. Berthclot 

tained in Dr. Hevmann's experiments. and Andr^, plants take up sulphur incessantly 

The mineral aaubreelite, or schreibersite. has until they flower, the relative proportion of 

been artificially reproduced by M. Stanislas Meu- the element being greater by one third during 

nier by treating at a red heat with sulphuretted the first period of vegetation. The sulphur in 

hydrogen (1) a mixture in the proper propor- the state of organic compounds reaches its maxi- 

tions of ferrous chloride and chromic chlonde ; mum during inflorescence, and then declines. It 

(2) very finely powdered natural chrome iron seems as if the sulphates derived from the soil 

ore ; and (3) an alloy of iron and chromium, were reduced at first and then reipnerated after 

The last method yields the best result flowering in consequence of an internal oxida- 

A. Baur obtains artificial musk by the nitration tion. But this supposes that the sulphur is en- 

of isobutyl toluene. It is a solid substance, crys- tirely derived from the soil in the state of sul- 

tallizing in small white laminie, which have the phates, while a portion may be derived directly 

pure odor of musk in extraordinary intensity, from organic sulphur compounds that exist in 

The process has been patented and sold to cer- plenty in the soil. The latter opinion is supported 

tain perfumers in Mulhouse. by the fact that organic sulphur is found in 

Assuming that methyl alcohol, HtCOH, is the Quantity in the root<s, except at the beginning of 

primordial alcohol, from which the primary, sec- nowering. Toward the end of fiowering it 

ondary, and tertiary alcohols are derived by the abounds at once in the roots and stems, 

respective substitution of carbon radicals CaHz The occasional existence of copper in cereals, 

for one, two, or throe atoms of hydro^ren, Paul peas, beans, etc., as a natural constituent long 

Henry has effected the direct synthesis of the known, has been brought under the attention of 

primary alcohols by the reaction of the organo- Mr. William Johnstone in a manner that necessi- 

zinc compounds upon the simple monoclinic tated the examination of a large number of sam- 

methylic ethers. pies of wheat and barley. Fifteen per cent, of 

Agrlcnltaral Chemistry.— The experiments the samples were found to contain greater or 
at Kothamstead since 1880 on the fixation of free less proportions of copper. The author supposes 
nitrogen by papilionaceous plants have been made that it is derived from the sulphate of copper 
on annual plants and on plants of longer life, with which the ground is dressea for the protec- 
In the first experiments the results at mature tion of the seed from vermin, 
growth, or when the plants were nearly ripe, For the estimation of nitrogen in such fer- 
were observed. It was found that without mi- tilizing substances as dried bloc^, shoddy, flesh- 
crobe seeding of the soil there was neither for- ings, soot, etc., Vincent Edwards recommends as 
mation of nodules on the roots nor assimilation an accurate and reliable method, and yet not too 
of free nitrogen. In another series of experi- costly, a modification of Kjeldahl's process, par- 
ments the roots and nodules were examined at ticularly in the apparatus, 
different stages of growth. The general results Percy T. and (irace G. Frankland have been 
pointed to the conclusion that in the case of the ' engage!! during the last three years in endeavor- 
annual when the seed is formed and the plant ing to isolate the nitrifying or^nisms. Nitri- 
is more or less exhausted both the actual fication having been in the first instance induced 
amount of nitrogen in the nodules and its per- in a particular ammoniacal solution, was carried 
centage in the dry substance are greatly reduced, on through 24 generations. Transferred to gel- 
but that with the plant of longer life, although at in, the organism either failed to grow there, 
the earlier-formed nodules become exhausted, or growing, refused to nitrify after being passed 
others are formed, making provision for future through the medium. Experiments were then 
growth. The facts at command did not favor the made in isolating the organism by the dilution 
conclusion that under the infiuence of the sym- method : and, after a large number of experi- 
biosis the higher plant itself was enabled to fix ments, the authors obtained an attenuation of 
the free nitrogen of the air by its leaves. Nor about one millionth of the original nitrifying 
did the evidence point to the conclusion that the solution employed, which nitrified, but on inoc- 
nodule-bacteria became distributed through the ulation with gelatin-peptone refused to grow, 
soil and there fixed free nitrogen, the compounds and was seen under the microscope to consist of 
of nitrogen so produced being taken up ny the numerous characteristic bacilli hardly longer 
higher plant. It seemed more consistent with than broad, which may be described as bacillo- 



CHEMISTRY. 119 

ooocL Although the bacillo-ooccns obstinately ture of boiling water in order to sterilize it is 
refuses to grow in ^latin when inoculated excessive. Experiments have shown that in the 
from these dilute media, it produces a character- majority of cases the steriJization is complete in 
istic thoDgh slow growth in broth. Nitrification half an hour or less time, 
was also induced in ammoniacal solutions by in- An albumose and a ptomaine have been iso- 
oculatiDR from such broth cultivations. lated by B. A. von Scnweinitz from the prod- 
Chemistry of Foods. — When milk is ster- nets severally of the germs of the hog cholera 
ilized by heating in loosely plugged flasks im- and the swine pla^ie. The names sucholoioxin 
roersed u a steam bath, surface evaporation does and tuehohaihumxn have been given to the sub- 
not oocar, and little or no pellicle is formed on stances derived from the hog-cholera cultures, 
the surface. Dr. A. R. Leeas has found that the and suolagaioxin and auplagoalbumin to those 
differences in the behavior of raw, boiled, and derived from the swine-plague cultures. A subcu- 
Eterilized milk when treated with dilute acid taneous injection of a smallquantity of these sub- 
were not as striking as had been anticipated, stances is sufficient to produce death in guinea- 
But when ordinary raw milk was diluted with 20 pigs in from twenty-four to forty-eight hours, 
times its volume of water and the precipitate If, however, a much smaller quantity is injected 
was filtered oflf, the dilute acid filtrate gave on and the injection is repeated a number of times, 
boiling an additional precipitate. MilE which the animals are protected from the correspond- 
had been heated for an hour (sterilized) or ing disease when communicated by direct mocu- 
boiled for half an hour behaved differently. It lation with the germ. The author and Dr. W. H. 
gave a lar^r amount of precipitate with dilute Gray have also produced great resistance and sub- 
acid, but yielded no further precipitate on boil- sequently immunity from diphtheria in guinea- 
ing the filtrate. Plate cultures of Swiss con- pigs by first treating them with the chemical 
densed milk showed it to be entirely sterile, no piquets obtained from cultures with the germ, 
bacterial colonies appearing in it when the plates Two persons in Mansfield, Ohio, having been 
were kept several days. Polariscopic determina- made sick by eating pie made from canned pump- 
tions were made of the amount of milk-sugar kin, the attending physician pronounced the case 
present after each heating ; the raw milk con- one of lead poisoning. A specimen of the canned 
taSned 4*18 per cent No change could be per- pumpkin was examined by Prof. H. A. Weber, 
ceived till the end of six hours in the steam who found that it contained an amount of stan* 
bath, when the sterilized milk had become nous salts equivalent to 6*4 maximum and 51*4 
strongly brownish yellow, like an infusion of minimum doses of stannous chloride per pound, 
coffee to which a laige amount of milk had been Another can from the same lot contained tin 
added, and the percentage of milk-sugar had salts equivalent to 7 maximum and 66 minimum 
fallen to 3*94. It then st^bdily diminished until doses of stannous chloride per pound. The un- 
st the end of forty-eight hours the milk-sugar had expected large amount of tm salts in such an in- 
disappeared. The process of heating to prepare sipid article as canned pumpkin, and the ill ef- 
the sterilized condensed milks of commerce is fects of the consumption of the viand, suggested 
not carried far enough to lower perceptibly their the advisabilitv of extending' the investigation 
percentage of milk-sugar. This is shown by to other canned goods in common use. A line 
an analysis of both an American and a Swiss of articles was purchased in open market as sold 
preparation, concerning which it is remarked to consumers, no pains being taken to procure 
that the composition of the two milks is sur- old samples. The collection embraced fhiits, 
prisingly simitar when we consider that the cat- vegetables, fish, and condensed milk. Except 
tie fed on the Swiss Alps and in the West the condensed milk,' every ariicle examined was 
em State from which tne American sample contaminated with salts of tin. In most cases 
came were of different breed, and that their the amount present was so large that there could 
feeding, care, etc., were also widely diverse, be no doubt of danger to health from the con- 
Condensed milk* properly prepared is, in fact^ sumption of the food. 

sterilized milk in a concentrated, convenient. The experiments of Dr. J. H. Qarrett as de- 
and portable form. It is important to compare scribed in his book on '* The Action of Water on 
it with sterili^ milk, prepared and sola in Ijead,'* show that if a water is fairly pure it will 
sterilized flasks, but without condensation, act upon lead or dissolve it to a certain extent. 
Samples of a particuhu* brand of sterilized milk even if no acid is present. The author observed 
obtained in midsummer exhibited a separation that distilled waters that are neutral or even veiy 
or fats in masses of considerable size. Bv mod- faintly alkaline can act upon lead. The lead, it 
crate warming and shaking this fat could be par- seems, derives the oxygen necessary for its cor- 
tially diffused through the milk, but not in such rosion, not so much from the free oxygen or any 
a manner as to bring the steriHized milk back to other oxygenous gas existing in solution in the 
the appearance of oidinary milk, or of milk water, as From nitrates and nitrites present. The 
on which the cream has risen on standing and quantity requisite for action, at least in the ab- 
then has been shaken up again with the milk, sence of anv alkaline-earthy carbonates, is ex- 
Samples obtained in DcK^mber did not exhibit tremely small. Its origin may be sought '* in the 
thU appearance, but resembled rich milk ; and decomposition of the organic matter which such 
the separation of the fat in the former case was waters invariably contain." 
probably due to the samples having been kept A new method proposed b^ Raoul Bmll^ for 
for some time in the laboratory. The most detecting olive oil and seed oil in natural butters 
striking feature of the samples was their high and oleomargarine depends on the changes of 
percentage of solids. The author is of the color produced by contact with solution of silver 
opinion that the period of one hour usually nitrate in ethylic alcohol. Olive oils sooner or 
reoommeikted for Keeping milk at the tempera- later take a fine green color, which is lighter la 



120 CHEMISTRY. 

the superior qualities ; pure ootton-seed oil is suboxide or to a corresponding snbsalt, the sil- 
turned black ; oil of eartn-nuts {Arciehia) takes a Ter presents itself in one of its allotropic states, 
red-brown color and finally turns green, losing The facts on which this conclusion is based lead 
its transparency ; oil of sesame takes a deep- to the question whether silver exists in its sub- 
red color and remains reddish ; oil of colza takes salts in the allotropic form. Among the facts 
yellowish-green colors and becomes turbid ; nat- that support this view is the rich and varied 
ural butter preserves its natural color ; oleo- coloration of the subsalts corresponding to the 
margarine becomes a brick red, and this mav be variety of color of allotropic silver, while the 
detected even in samples containing as little as normal salts when formed with colorless acids 
5 per cent, of margarine. are mostly colorless. On the other hand, the 

A discussion in the American Chemical So- greater, activity of allotropic silver and its less 

oiety at its annual meeting for 1801 resulted in specific gravity seem to indicate a simpler molec- 

the conclusion that carbonate of ammonia is the mar constitution than that of normal silver. 

best substance of the kind for use in making To obtain a fuller knowledge of the behavior 

bread and in baking-powders. Ammonia, it of palladium toward the electric current, Eldgar 

was said, makes the gluten of the fiour more F. Smith and Harry F. Keller first experimented 

soluble, to the consequent improvement of the in the electrolysis of the double cyanide in an 

bread in digestibility. Because of its extreme excess of potassium cyanide. Metallic deposi- 

volatility, the salt is completely expelled from tion did not occur until after the expiration 

the bread in the process of hiakinff. Experi- of thirty-six hours, or till the excess of potas- 

ments by Prof. J. W. Mallet show uirther that slum cvanide had been converted into tdkar 

the ammonia serves to neutralize any oiganio line carbonates. The deposition was black, but 

or lactic acid present in the fiour. the precipitation was not at all complete. No 

Vegetable transformations, according to M. deposition of oxide was noticed on the positive 
Em. Bourquelot, go on in mushrooms even after pole. With a feeble current acting on a solution 
they are gathered, and may in a few hours affect of palladious chloride in the presence of a large 
the disappearance of trehalose and the produc- excess of potassium sulpho-cyanide, the deposi- 
tion of mannite. The autJior has therefore taken tion was exceedingly rapid, accompanied with 
the precaution of plunging his mushrooms into noticeable spongy spots, and black. The next 
boihng water immediately after they are gath- attempt was made with palladamonium chloride, 
ered, so as to arrest lUl change. in just sufficient ammonium hydroxide to retain 

A manufactory of spurious coffee has been de- it in solution. The precipitation was incomplete 

tected at Lille, at whicn were used 15 kilogrammes after a night of action, but a deposition at the 

of chickory, 85 kilogrammes of fiour, and 500 positive pole, which first gradually increased in 

grammes of iron sulphate—the last to imitate massand assumed a black color, had disappeared; 

the natural color of the grain. Luster was and in all instances where the ammonium hy- 

given by means of an oil. droxide was in decided excess the precipitation 

Miacellaneons.— Continuing his investiga- of oxide at the positive pole was not observed, 

iions of allotropic' silver, Mr. M. Carey Lea has The palladium thrown out upon the platinum 

found that the gold and copper colored forms on dish m these experiments being very slow in dis- 

the one hand, and the blue, bluish-green, and solving, the platinum dishes were in subsequent 

steel forms stand in close relations to each other, experiments first coated with a layer of silver. 

Both are capable of passing into the yellow in- In these experiments, of which six are described, 

termediate form indifferent to reagents. Blue the precipitations were complete, the differences 

silver can also be converted, through the agency . between the amounts found and the amounts 

of sulphuric acid, into yellow at ordinary tem- calculated coming within the limit of error, and 

S3ratnres, with retention of its active properties, the deposits were bright, metallic, and dense, 

y other experiments the author finds that from without sponginess. 

a single solution, and using one substance only as Continuing his experiments • in electrolytic 

a precipitant, the whole range of different forms separations, Mr. Smith, assisted by Lee ' K. 

of allotropic silver can be obtained, by simplv Frankel, acting iipon the observation made in 

varving tne proportions of the precipitant. A the palladium experiments that the deposition 

well-marked tendency of acids is to give rise of that metal from the solution of its double 

to the yellow product, and of alkalies to the cyanide was not possible so long as any unde- 

blue. Both substances can be obtained from composed potassium cyanide remained in the 

neutral solutions, and slight changes are suffi- solution, attempted the separation of the palla- 

cient to alter the product While the presence of dium from the metals whicn are deposited from 

an organic substance has been found most usually their double cyanide solutions. With solutions 

conducive to the production of the allotropic of mereuric chloride and palladium chloride 

form, this is not essential, and the author has ob- phis potassium cyanide, the separation of meroury 

tained it, transitorily, with hypophosphorous and was satisfactorily effected in sixteen hours. The 

phosphorous acids. Light mis a reversing effect separation of meroury from arsenic likewise pro- 

npon this form of silver, first exalting its sensi- ceeded without difficulty. The separation of 

tiveness, and then destroying it. Thepnenomena cadmium from arsenic was not complete unless 

connected with the reduction of silver, observed the arsenic existed in the solution as the higher 

under a variety of conditions, seem to lead up to oxide. Similar conditions control the separation 

thecondusion'that when the reduction is direct— of silver from arsenic «nd of copper from 

from the condition of the normal salt or oxide arsenic, but in the latter case a stronger current 

to that of the metal — ^the reduced silver alwajrs is necessary. Satisfactory results were obtained 

appears in its ordinary form ; but when the re- in the separation of copper from arsenic in a 

duction is indirect, when the change is first to solution containing an excess of ammonia ; but 



GHILI. 121 

the mediod requires skill and close attention to there are IS^, are chosen by the same electors 
details. Similar experiments, with successful (every Chilian having a vote who can read and 
results, are recorded in the separation of mer- write and is twenty-one years of age), in the pro- 
cury, silver, and cadmium from tungsten and portion of one for every 30,000 inhabitants and 
from molybdenum, and of copper from bismuth, fraction thereof in excess of 16,000 in each de- 
According to investigations by Prof. W. R partment. Jos^ Manuel Balmaceda was elected 
Dunstan and T. S. Dymond of the conditions. President in 1886, to serve till Sept. 18, 1891. 
under which hydrogen peroxide is formed from The ministry constituted on May 80, 1890, con- 
ether, ordinary ether, prepared from methylated sisted of the following members : l^cretarv of 
spirit, yields that compound when it is exposed the Interior, E. S. Saniuentes ; Minister of For- 
for several months to sunlight or the electric eign Affairs, Worship, and Colonization, J. E. 
lights Contrary, however, to the usual state- Mackenna; Minister of Justice and Education, 
roents, pure ether and ordinary ether which has BaQados Espinosa ; Minister of Finance, T. N. 
been purified by treatment with dry chromic acid Gandarillas ; Minister of War and Marine, J. 
donotgiveatraceof hydrogen peroxide when ex- Velasquez; Minister of Industry and Public 
posed to light under similar conditions. Neither Works, J. M. Valdes Carrere. 
water nor dilute sulphuric acid was found to Area and Popnlation. — The area of Chili is 
form hydrogen peroxide when exposed to light 293,970 square miles, including 75.292 square 
in contact with air. The production of the per- miles in Patagonia and Tierra del Fuegos ; the 
oxide from ether was referred by the authors to territory of Antofagasta, that formerly belonged 
the presence of a minute quantity of impurity to Bolivia, of which the area is 60,968 square 
in the ether employed. Hydrogen peroxide is miles, the district of Tarapaca, 19.800 square 
formed when ozone acts on ether in tne presence miles in extent, that was ceded by Peru in the 
of water, and is also produced under certain con- treaty of Oct. 20, 1888 ; and the Tacna province, 
ditions during the slow combustion of ether in with an area of 8,685 square miles, the inhab- 
contact with water. Itants of which are to decide at the end of ten 
The methods in use for the disposal of sewage years whether it shall be Peruvian or Chilian 
are divided by Mr. C. G. Moore into three classes : territory. The population of the 23 provinces 
Lime processes, in which a good effluent is the was estimated in tne beginning of 1890 at 2,715,- 
only tning aimed at, while the sludge is worth- 400, including 2,757 in the territory of Magal- 
W; processes in which lime is not used, the lanes, embracing the Chilian possessions south of 
Ijest known of which is that of precipitation by 47° of south latitude. Santiago, the capital, had 
A mixture of clay, alum, and charcoal with a 200,000 inhabitants in 1885, and Valparaiso, its 
little blood, whereby a sludge of some little value seaport, had 105,000. The next largest towns 
is obtained ; and irrigation, which is objection- are Talca and Concepcion, with 24,000 each, 
able on practical and sanitary grounds. Mr. There were 87,077 foreign residents in Chili in 
Moore proposes a way of distilling ammonia 1885, of whom 57,882 came from Peru, Bolivia, 
from the sludge cake, in which the residue is and the Argentine Republic, 6,808 were Ger- 
made to descend in the furnace to serve as fuel mans, 5,803 British, 4,198 French, 4,114 Italians, 
for the succeeding charge. The furnace was 2,508 Spaniards, 1,275 Swiss, 1,164 Chinese. 924 
kept burning continuously, and fed with sludfre Americans, and the rest from other parts of Eu- 
cake alone. The sludge, although some of it rope and America. The estimates of population 
contained 30 per cent of water, gave ample heat are based on the census of 1885, which is known 
for its own combustion ; and it might be used, to be imperfect. The countir is supposed to 
if desired, to raise steam in the same furnace, have not less than 3,173,000 inhabitants, indud- 
The ammonia comes over with the liquor just as ing 50,000 savage Indians, 
in gas works, together with a quantity of light, Pinance. — Aside from the nitrate duty, which 
buttery tar, which floats on the li(]^uor. The pays one third of the expenses of the state, im- 
cakes are reduced to a fine ash, which, if the port duties constitute the main source of reve- 
temperatnre is raised bv increasing the blast, nue. The total receipts in 1888 were stated to 
can be changed into clinker. A very slight be 71,135.501 pesos, or dollars, and the expendi- 
blast is sufficient to distill with. By this method tures 46,135,501 pesos. The budget for 1890 
the author obtained 80 per cent, of the theoreti- made the revenue 90,645,785 pesos, and expendi- 
cal yield of ammonia. tures 69,387,200 pesos. For 1890 a revenue of 
CHILI, a republic in South America. The 58,000,000 pesos was expected in addition to the 
executive power is exercised by a Presideht, balance of 31,257,526 pesos brought over from 
elected for five years hy the indirect vote of the 1889, and the total ordinary expenditure was es- 
nation, and not re-eligible for the succeeding timated at 67,069,809 pesos. The public debt on 
term. Re is assisted by five Cabinet ministers, Jan. 1, 1890, amounted to 93,617,955 pesos, in- 
in charge of the main departments, and shares eluding 22,487,916 pesos of paper currency. The 
his authority with a Council of State, of which foreign debt was 47,116,460 pesos, and the in- 
five members are nominated by him and six are temal debt 24,013,579 pesos, 
elected by Congress. The members of the Cabi- The Army and Nary.— The military law of 
net are members of the Council of State ex offi- Dec. 30, 1887, fixed the strength of the armv at 
eto. The leg^islative power is vested in the Con- 5,835 men, consisting of 2 regiments of deld 
gress, consisting of toe Senate, the members of artillery, a battalion of coast artillery, 8 battal- 
vhich are elected for six years, and of the ions of infantry, 1 of engineers, and 3 re^ments 
Chamber of Deputies, in which the term is three of caviUry. The National Guard consisted of 
years. The Senators, forty in number, are 48,530 men. The regular army had 5 major-gen- 
elected to represent the provinces by the direct erals, 7 brigadiers, 29 colonels, 76 lieutenant- 
vote of the people, and the Deputies, of whom colonels, and 824 subordinate officers 



123 CHILL 

The navy in January, 1890, comprised 3 iron- 940 pesos for tea, and 798,425 pesos for wine. The 
clad battle ships, 1 deck-protected cruiser, 2 tor- exports of mineral products amounted to 56.- 
pedo cruisers, 3 corvettes, 3 rams, 2 transports, 2 452,089 pesos ; agricultural products, 7,481.479 
gunboat^ and 10 ftrst-class and 2 second-class pesos; specie, 794,017 pesos; manufactures, 52.966 
torpedo boats. The " Almirante Cochrane " and pesos ; various products, 55,453 pesos ; re-exports, 
the " Blanco Encalada '* were built in England, 1,127,097 pesos. The values exported of the staple 
by Sir. E. J. Reed, in 1874 and 1875, and each articles were as follow: Nitre, 36,387,210 pesos, 
had a displacement of 3,500 tons, engines of aeainst 33,866,196 in 1888 and 28,690,970 in 
2,900 horse-power and compound armor 9 inches 1087 ; bar copper, 5,689,329 pesos, against 13,- 
at the water line, and could steam 12 knots an 878,439 in 1888 and 6,993,137 in 1887; silver, 
hour. The armament of the former consisted of 4,906,791 pesos, against 7,723,957 in 1888 and 
6 12Hon guns mounted in a central battery, 8,291,920 in 1887 ; wheat, 2,915,215 pesos, against 
and that of the latter of 4 18-ton and 2 7i-ton 4,548,729 in 1888 and 5,663,333 in 1887. Of the 
guns, in a casemate covered with 8-inch com- total imports in 1889, the port of Valparaiso re- 
pound plates. The third ironclad isthe"Hu- ceived 45,752,290 pesos; Iquique, 5,575,521 pesos; 
ascar," built in 1865, and captured from Peru Talcahuana, 4,974,425 pesos; and the rest passed 
in tiie war of 1879, having 2,000 tons displace- through Coauimbo, Antofagasta, Pisagua, and 
ment, 1,050 horse-power, 4ihinch armor at the Coronel. Of the total exports. Iquique shipped 
water line, and 2 12-ton guns mounted in a tur^ 22,896,805 pesos; Pisagua, 15,536,174 pesos; v al- 
ret, protected by 5i-inch armor, besides 2 40- paraiso, 9,691,920 pesos ; and the other ports be- 
pounders. The protected cruiser " Esmeralda," tween 2,000,000 and 4,000,000 pesos each. The 
built by Armstrong, in 1883, is of 2,810 tons exports to Great Britain amounted to 56.898,407 
displacement, with 1-inch armor on her convex pesos ; to Germany, 4,751,990 pesos ; to France, 
deck running down below the water line, 6,500- 4,295,055 pesos; to the United States, 2,070,304,- 
horse engines, a speed of 18^ knots, a cruising 694 pesos ; to Peru, 2,071,304 pesos. In 188^ the 
radius of 2,200 miles at 10 knots speed, and an imports from Great Britain were 26,351,141 pesos 
armament of 2 25-ton breech-loaders and 6 4-ton in value ; from Germany, 14,046,577 pesos ; from 

funs, besides machine guns and 3 torpedo tubes. France, 6,181,513 pesos ; from the United States, 

he ** Almirante Lynch " and the " Almirante 3,133,173 pesos ; from Peru, 4,345,497 pesos. 

Condell," twin torpedo cruisers of 750 tons, are NaTlgation. — The number of vessels of orer 

reputed to be able to make 21 knots an hour 100 tons in the Chilian commercial marine on 

and to carry coal for a cruise of 2,700 miles. Jan. 1, 1890, was 152, of the aggregate burden 

Besides automatic torpedoes, they carry 3 14- of 102,891 tons, and of these 29, of 30,934 tons, 

pounder and 4 3-pounder rapid-firing guns, were steamers. During 1889 there were 11,109 

The other vessels are of old types, including the vessels, of 9,723,998 tons, entered, and 11,286, of 

" O'Higgins " and the " Chacabuco," wooden ves- 10,174,173 tons, cleared, at all the pOrts. Of these, 

sels of 1,100 tons ; the '' Magallanes " and the about 40 per cent, were Chilian, 30 per cent. Brit- 

** Pilcomayo," of 800 and 600 tons respectively, ish, and 30 per cent, of other nationalities. Eng- 

built of wood and iron ; and the " Abtao," also a lish, French, and German steamers run between 

composite ship, of 1,050 tons, all slow, and Chilian ports and Europe by way of Cape Horn, 

armed with light guns. In 1890 the personnel and English and Chilian lines fdong the Pacific 

of the navy comprised 5 rear-admirals, 59 cap- coast northward. 

tains, 27 lieutenants, 160 other ofilcers, and 1,609 Commimlcations. —The first railroads in 
sailors. There were 90 cadets in the naval South America were built in Chili by American 
academy at Valparaiso. The " Presidente Pinto " engineers. The aggregate mileage open in li^ 
and the " Presidente Errazuriz," steel deck- was 1,700, of which 670 miles, built at a cost of 
protected cruisers of 2,080 tons, with wood and 48,247,398 pesos, were state property. The tele- 
copper sheathing, calculated to steam 19 knots graph system embraced 13,730 miles, the state 
and carry coal for a voyage of 4,500 miles, and owning 8,000 miles, over which 603,628 messages 
each intended to carry 4 6-inch and 2 4i-inch were dispatched in 1889. The postal traffic con- 
Armstrong breech-loaders, 10 rapid-fire and sisted of 17,606,056 letters and 24,715,629 news- 
machine guns, and 3 tubes for Whitehead torpe- papers and circulars. 

does, were then building in France. The " Capt- Constitational Conflict—The Chilian Con- 
tan Pratt," a steel armor-clad of 6,000 tons, de- stitution, adopted in 1833, was copied from that 
signed to steam 17 knots, was in a less advanced of the Unitea States. The social organization 
stage, and another deck-armored cruiser of 4,500 of the country was rather feudalistic than demo- 
tons and two torpedo gunbqats were begun. cratic. The owners of the soil and of the mines. 
Production and Commerce. — The majority descendants of the Spanish conquerors, consti- 
of the population follow agriculture. The tuted an oligarchy which for many years ruled 
wheat crop averages 21,000,000 bushels. The in accordance with its aristocratic predilections 
annual wine product amounts to 24,000,000 and the views of the clergy, under the name of 
gallons. The country is rich in valuable min- the Partido Conservador or Conservative party, 
erals, producing an average of 750,000 tons The clash with modem ideas and rivalrv between 
of nitrates, ^,0^ tons of copper, and consider- leaders led to revolutionary outbreaks in the 
able quantities of silver and gold. The total middle of the century, whicn ended in the tri- 
value of the imports in 1889 was 65,090,013 pesos, umph of a form of Liberalism that was far from 
of which 10,887,636 pesos represent textile man- satisfactory to the Radicals, and a period of 
ufactures, 6,766,985 pesos stand for sugar, 5,083,- quiet process succeeded under the rigorous ad- 
715 pesos for cattl^ 2,992,905 pesos for coal, 2,- ministration of President Montt and his minis- 
895,630 pesos for manufactures of iron, 1,415,246 ter, Varas. The Constitution was revised in 
pesos for bagging, 870,194 pesos for timber, 817,- 1874^ and some belated reforms were introduced 



CHILI. 123 

in tlie w»7 of extension of the voting franchise, supremacy in Congress. He was elected by an 
pablic education, and religious tolerance. Save overwhelming majority, 'and as President en- 
m the one stru^^le in which the parties resorted joyed an unexampled degree of popularity. For 
to arms, the political development of Chili was two or three years the politicians who had been 
free from civil disturbances, and the ruling class his partv associates worked in harmony with his 
was distinguished among the Spanish-American ideas. A thorough system of popular education, 
oatioDs not only for wealth and education, but the separation of church and state, and the de- 
for its talent for government and love of con- velopment of democratic government were the 
stitutional liberty. The republic was called aims he followed with the support of the major- 
**the England of South America," and it was a ity in Congress. A system of normal schools 
common boast that in Chili a ^TTonufieiamten^o or was established, and expensive school-houses 
t revolation was impossible. The spirit of mod- were built in all parts of the country. The cem- 
em Liberalism became more prevalent. The eteries were secularized, a civil-marriaee law was 
Conservative or Clerical party withdrew from passed, religious freedom was decreed, and sec- 
electoral contests, although it still exercised a re- tarian teaching was banished from the schools 
straining influence in political life, being com- and colleges. The Government carried out in- 
posed 01 the wealthiest families and the whole ternal improvements on a grand scale, building 
body of the clergy. The Nationalists, as the railroads, dredging harbors, making dry dock^ 
Monttvaristas came to call themselves, counting wharves, and piers, and the success of the admin- 
intbeirranks many distinguished lawyers, judges, istration was so striking, the progress and pros- 
scholars, and diplomatists, lost ground, and the perity of the country so undeniable, that many 
Advanced Liberals grew in influence and power, of Balmaceda's former enemies came over to his 

As the Liberal party became all-powerful it side. At the flood of the democratic tide he 

split into factions, diviaed by questions of prin- was the most popular man in South America, 

ciple and by struggles for leiadership and office. But when the old territorial families saw the 

Practices have sprung up in the system of gov- seats in Congress and the posts in the civil serv- 

emment, foanded rather on custom than on con- ice that had been their prerogative filled by 

stitational law, by which it is assimilated in new men, and fortunes made by upstarts where 

some respects to the responsible or parliamentr all chances had been at their disposal, then a re- 

ary government of European states, and espe- action set in, comiption was scented, and Mod- 

cially of England. Almost from the beginning erate Liberals, joining hands with the Xational- 

it has been the custom of Presidents to choose as ists and the reviving Conservative party, formed 

ministers representatives of the dominant ele- an opposition of respectable strength. In the 

ments in Congress and to dismiss them after a earlier part of his administration Balmaceda 

vote of oensare. Congress can withhold supplies, had the co-operation of the Nationalists, who 

and has another e£Fective check over the Execu- were represented in the Cabinet. In the last two 

live in the annual bill to fix the forces on land years of his term, when the time drew near for 

and sea, which corresponds exactly to the English selecting his successor, defection and revolt and 

matiny act. These safeguards nave compelled the rivalries of aspirants for the succession threw 

Presidents generally to act in harmony with the the party into disorder and an^red its hitherto 

majority in Congress. The patronage of the unquestioned leader. After the resignation of 

Chilian President is enormous, embracing not the Cabinet in 1888 the Nationalists declined to 

only the general civil service, but local officials, take part in the next one, and their secession 

except in the municipalities, and all appoint- was followed by the breaking up of the admin- 

ments in the army and navy and in the teleeraph istration party into warring factions. When 

uid railroad services and tne giving out of con- coolness arose between him and the leaders of 

tracts. The President has always been able to the party, he sought other advisers, and made 

select his successor, and has exercised this power, the broker Sanfuentes, who had been his busi- 

Qfoally in harmony with the wishes of influen- ness agent, his chief confidant. President Bal- 

tial statesmen, sometimes calling a conference of maceda had appointed one ministry after an- 

P^rty chiefs to decide on a candidate. other, seeking to satisfy the different wings of 

In the course of time the more advanced vring the Liberal party. The ministry of October, 
of the Liberals grew more numerous than the 1889, of which Mariano Sanchez f'ontecilla was 
Moderates. The most radical section had its chief, with whom were associated Isidore Erra- 
nucleus in a Reform Club in Santiago, composed zuriz, Pedro Montt, Juan Costellon, and oth- 
o' young university men, of whom Balmaceda ers chosen from various groups, was designed to 
^as the finest orator. Entering Congress in bring about harmony in the party, as it contained 
1968, he took a leading part in debates. He was the chiefs of five separate lactions of the Lib- 
one of the founders of the new Liberal party eral party, and at first it had a majority in the 
that demanded large changes in the Constitution Chamber of Deputies of 73 to 64. The hostility 
and gained rapidly in strength, particularly when that the Presiaent had aroused in society, to 
the wave of national enthusiasm that followed which the press gave free expression, was very 
the victory over Peru swept over the country, bitter before the opposition m Congress grew 
Ho added greatly to his reputation by his serv- fonnidnble. and he had obtained the power of the 
ices as minister to the Argentine Republic dur- Executive and given grounds for charges of arbi- 
in^ the Peruvian war, and when maae Minister trary conduct that was contrary to precedents, if 
^f Foreign Affairs, by President Santa Maria, in not against the letter of the Constitution, in 
1885, he was the most popular man in the coun- carrying out the important innovations that Con- 
try; but his claim to tne presidential succession gress had sanctioned in the face of obstacles 
vas contested by various other aspirants— older raised by powerful opponents. When the Con- 
politicians and leaders of factions striving for servatives and Monttvaristas united and were 



124 CHILL 

joined bj dissentient Liberals, it was stispected ernora of departments, mtbdelegados of connties, 

that the coalition interided to take advantage of inspectors of police, commanders of the national 

the division in the Liberal party to elect the guard, and chiefs of police stood at the beck of 

head of the Conservative party, Augustin Ed- Balroaceda, ready to act in concert, 

wards, to the presidency and undo the demo- The Congress, when it met in ordinary session 

cratic reforms. The r resident, on the other on June 1, instead of summoning the ministers 

hand, persisting in the policy that had at first before it for explanations, as was usual, carried 

won praise from every quarter, and finding new a vote of censure in both houses, and showed a 

agents when his ola coadjutors stood aloof or firm determination to compel the President to 

went over to the other side, was accused of seek- take his Cabinet officers from the majority and 

ing to form a personal party in order to perpet- remove all officials who were attached to his 

uate his power bv nominating some mere tool to political fortunes. The time was approaching 

succeed him as President. In January, 1890, the for the election of municipal officers. Deputies, 

Opposition were strong enough to place their and Senators. These minor elections would vir- 

candidate in the chair when the House of Rep- tuallpr decide the subsequent election of the 

resentatives organized. The ministry resi&^ned, President. It was a novel thing for the Con- 

and a conflict between the Executive and legis- gress to be in antagonism to the President, and 

lative branches of the Government was openly for it to attempt to secure the nomination and 

begun when the President appointed a Cabinet election of a successor opposed to his policy, 

of his own selection, giving a portfolio to the Yet such a contingency had long been contem- 

obnoxious Sanfuentes, and placing at its head plated by Balmac^a's former party, which had 

Adolfo Ibafiez, who could receive no support adopted the principle of liberty of election as 

from Congress. This ministry had to face an the main plank in its platform, and proposed 

overwhelming majority a^inst the President, schemes for purifying the ballot and taking the 

which treated him as a dictator and began to electoral machinery out of the hands of the Cen- 

pass hostile laws and resolutions that were ve- tral Government. To deprive the President of 

toed, and refused to consider the measures that his power to control the elections and prevent 

he recommended. the election of Sanfuentes, who was already an- 

The ministers were cited before the Chambers nouncedasthe official candidate, a municipal bill 

and questioned about the manner of their ap- was introduced in Congress which would have 

pointment. They either declined to answer, or substituted municipal for Executive influence at 

answered in a way that increased the animosity the polls verv effectually. This bill the Presi- 

of Congress, which flnalljr passed a vote of cen- dent declarea he would never allow to become a 

sure, in obedience to whicn, as was usual, the law, because it was directed a£;ainst himself, and 

Cabinet resigned. Then Balmaceda appointed a was contrary to the spirit of the Constitution, 

ministry in open defiance of Congress, with San- The outcry against Sanf^ientes as a puppet of 

fuentes at its head, the man who was already Balmaceda caused the President to ask him to 

spoken of as his selected candidate for the presi- resign his portfolio and his candidacy. The 

dency. He prepared for the strug&fle that he Congress attempted to force the President to 

invited by removing the chiefs of the adminis- dismiss his personal Cabinet and appoint par- 

tration of the departments and replacing them liamentary ministers, by not passing the con- 

with men devoted to himself and his policy, and tribution bill for the collection of revenne in 

making changes in the police, the militia, and, to the custom house and other branches of the 

some extent, in the army and navy commands, public service. The period of eighteen months 

The press denounced him as a dictator, and in- lor which it had been voted expired when th<e 

dignation meeting were held in every town, session came to an end on Sept. 30. To end 

Bidmaceda and his supporters protended to be the deadlock by a settlement 6f the practical 

not only the champions of the people a^inst question at issue, the President made a prop- 

the aristocracy, but of the principle of Chili for osition that a presidential candidate should be 

the Chilians. The banking house of Edwards, selected by a convention of all the parties. With 

the firm of the Conservative leader, was associ- the object of enabling the Conservatives to take 

ated with Col. North, the Englishman, in the part, he suggested that no political programme 

ownership of vast nitrate deposits in the north, should be drawn up, and in order to insure the 

The Chilians are as jealous of foreign influence election of a candioiate not distasteful to either 

as anv of the South American peoples, and the Nationalists, the Conservatives, the Radicals, 

looked on the growing activity of foreien enter- or the various Liberal groups, he ripquested that 

prise in the country with mistrust. The acqui- a two-third vote of the convention should be 

sition of railroads not already owned by the state necessary to proclaim a candidate. If the ma- 

and the reservation of mining rights for Chilian jority in Congress thought that the President 

citizens formed a part of Balmaceda's declared could influence that proportion, they might 

policy. The presence of European workmen in make it a three-fourth vote, or four-fiftn, or any 

the mines, seaports, and nitrate districts was re- number that they chose. This scheme was at 

sented by the native laborers, and in June a flrst regarded with favor, but on the following 

series of riots broke out in Valparaiso, Coquimbo, day the House decided to reject it, and continue 

Iquique, Arica, and other places. These were the contest with the Executive, 

ascribed by the Opposition to machinations of The Capitol was filled with people from all parts 

the President, whose motives were supposed to of the country, who demanded that Balmaceda 

be to gain a popular following and to produce should make terms with Congress and keep the 

disturbances that would fumisn an excuse for a government on a legal basis or resign the presi- 

dictatorship. The administrative personnel was dency. A committee of influential citizens, rep- 

80 changed that iniendentes of provinces, gov- resenting all parties and classes of society, with 



CHILL 125 

the Archbishop of Chili for their spokesman, ex- summons, and when Congress passed a vote of 
tncted from nim an agreement that, in order censure the chief of the Cabinet announced that 
to avert reyolutionary conditions, he would dis- the ministers were responsible, under the Const!- 
miss his Cabinet and return to the methods tution, to the President, and would retain their 
of responsible government, and would permit places as long as they possessed his confidence, 
presidential candidates to be put forward as The Presidents of both houses sent a note to 
the free choice of party conventions. After sev- President Balmaceda, asking him to order his 
enl conferences with the citizens* committee, a ministers to appear and explain the situation. 
Cabinet was named which gave general satis- His answer was the immediate closure of Con- 
faction, consisting of Belisario Prats, Salustio gress on Oct. 16. He acted promptly in order to 
Hernandez, Gregorio Donoso, Macario Vial, Fe- forestall Congress, which had before it a motion 
derico Errazuriz, and Enrique Focomal. The to impeach the Sanfucntes ministry. Under the 
new ministers, after taking the oath of office. Constitution a ministry can be impeached while 
entered the hall of Congress escorted by a throng in office, or within six months after it has retired, 
of citizens, and the Prime Minister announced on articles adopted by the House of Deputies ; 
the programme that had been agreed on between and while the trial is proceeding in the Senate 
them and the President. There would be no the President has no right to prorogue Congress, 
official candidate for the presidency, and the The Constitution of Chili provides for a pro- 
Eiecutive and all his subordinates would ab- visional chamber called the Comision Conserva- 
stain from interference with the elections. Offi- dora, composed of fourteen members from both 
cials disremrding this rule or molesting any houses, which sits during the recess to supervise 
citizen for having opposed the President would be the acts of the Government, and possesses advis- 
removed. Things ran smoothlv for a short time, ory but no legislative powers. The two parties 
Many bills that had been tabled were passed, and in the constitutional controversy prepared for a 
the President acted in harmony with his minis- crisis. The elections took place in November, 
ters. The legal period of the session passed with- Balmaceda*s party, in districts where it was nat- 
oat the passage of the annual military bill and urally in a minority, either carried the elections, 
the appropriation bilL To have these passed the or, if it lost, contested the results. This caused 
President convoked an extra session. Differences great popular excitement, and led to the inter- 
arose when the ministers proposed to change all vention of members of Congress and questioning 
the ifUendetUes and governors, and when the ma- in the Comision Conservadora, and the appoint- 
jority in Congress and their friends outside began ment of semi-official investigating committees, 
to form committees of elections and canvass the The police began to interfere with freedom of 
provinces, and entered into an electoral cam- assembly and of speech. Without constitutional 
paiffn in which the remnant of the party still authority the President declared Congress dis- 
laithful to Balmaceda were allowed no voice, solved and the elections postponed. The Presi- 
On consultation with his old advisers, the Presi- dent was mobbed when he went to open the new 
dent decided to make no removals, and prepared docks at Talcahuano, at Concepcion on his way 
anew for the contest. The popular agitetion back, and a third time on his return to San- 
against the President was renewed. Political tiago. Processes and prosecutions were insti- 
passions rose to a higher pitoh than before the tutod against army men charged with disaffec- 
truce. In the capital the iniendente and the tion toward the Administration, and a feverish 
chief of police increased the 'police force and activity was observed in the Ministry of War, at 
took measures for the public safety. The Minis- the head of which was Gen. Gana, who had made 
ter of the Interior oraered the iniendente to re- himself very popular among the officers. All 
more the chief of police, and when he refused the ministers were known to be men of action 
appealed to the President, who sustained his and of energy and deeply committed to the Presi- 
subordinate against the minister. The minis- dent's side in the controversy with Congress. The 
ters called on the President in a body, and in President, as commander-in-chief of the militarv 
answer to their demands, he said that appoint- forces, ordered the arms of the National Guar^ 
ments and removals were the prerogative of the to be collected in the arsenals, brought the stand- 
chief of the state ; and that, having appointed ing arin^ to the capital, replacing with militia 
officers in whom he had confidence, he would the garrisons in the provinces, and, on the pre- 
not dismiss them at the dictation of Congress, text of maintaining peace, commanded the nre- 
and would by no means take orders from his arms in the possession of private citizens to be 
secretaries. This decision caused Congress to delivered up to the authorities. The Comision 
shelve the bills recommended by the President, Conservadora, which passed a resolution per- 
pToriding for an increase in the salaries of cus- mitting Senators and Deputies to take part in 
tom-house employes, treasury clerks, employ^ its proceedinsfs, met daily to discuss the situa- 
in the Department of Education and in the tion. According to, the usual procedure, this 
courts, and of army officers, and for a savings commission called on the President to summon 
bank for public servants, water works and sew- an extraordinary session of the Congress for the 
ers m the large towns, railroad construction, and purpose of voting the annual budget and pass- 
other objects. ing the regidar army and navy bilL Balmaceda 
The ministry resigned, and a new one was im- declined to comply, saying that he would find no 
mediately appointed with Claodio Vicufia at its difficulty in carrying on the Government. To 
head as Minister of the Interior. When the notes petitioning him to change his ministers, 
Congress was informed on the following day, and pointing out that after Dec 81, according 
the President of the Senate invited the new min- to the Constitution, no salaries could be legally 
isters before Congress to explain the intentions paid out of the treasury, no public works con- 
of the President. They paid no attention to this tinned, no taxes or duties collected, and that the 



126 CHILL 

legal existence of the army and navy would cease, vainly in the harbor of Valparaiso for a favora- 

the President sent no reply. During November ble response from shore. 

and December, army officers not in sympathy The lack of an army bill was exemplified by 
with the President were removed from com- the opinion of the procurator fiscal, or military 
mand, military men were placed in civil posts, judge, that there was no authority to punish or 
partisans of the President were promoted out of hold a deserter, because the armv haa no legT^l 
turn, and the army was so manipulated that it existence from Dec 81, 1890. ^he procurator 
could be depended upon to defend the Govern- was removed, and one more subservient ap- 
ment if civil war should result Changes were pointed, but the country applauded his firmness 
made in the naval commands more cautiously and courage. The Supreme Court decided that 
becatise the Opposition had many adherents in the President had no power to pay out money 
that branch of the service. Public meetings were without the consent of Con^^ress, the question 
interdicted, and on Dec. 19 the Liberal and the having been raised hj the directors of the Na- 
Conservative Clubs were both closed by the po- tional Bank, who declined to honor Balmaceda's 
lice. Macario Ossa, a young member of the Con- drafts lest they should be held liable. In eonse- 
servative party, in the fray that took place when quence of this decision the judges were removed, 
a meeting at the Conservative Club was sup- The Treasurer of the republic refused to pay 
pressed, was shot by the police. His funeral was out money on the President's order, and was re- 
the occasion of a political demonstration. Diego placed by another man. Balmaceda, who had 
Barros Arana and the other members of the alwavs been noted for his urbane manners and 
commission to delimitate the Argentine frontier gentle disposition rather than for determination 
resigned as a protest against the arbitrary acts of and self-will, hesitated before plunging the coun- 
the Gfovemment. The members of the Montt- try into civil war, and is said to have written out 
oarista, the Conservative, the Independent Lib- his resignation. If he thought of yielding, he 
eral, and the Radical parties united and organ- was dissuaded by Juan Mackenna and other res- 
ized and decided on a plan of action. olute and uncompromising counselors. Officers 

Berolt of Congrress and the Nary. — ^The of the armv who asked to be relieved of their 
year expired without the convocation of Con- commands because they thought the President's 
gress. On Jan. 1 the Opposition members of attitude unconstitutional, were thrown into pris- 
Congress — those of them who were ready to on. Lauro Barros, who retired from the Mmis- 
proceed to extremities — ^held what they called an try of Finance, was succeeded by Antonio Mufloz, 
extraordinary session, although the Constitution a subordinate official, who held the post only a 
provides that CongresSf except in regular ses- few days, giving it up on Jan. 6 to Julio Car- 
sion from June till the end of September, can rero, ex-Minister of Public Works, 
only meet when it is called together bv the Balmaceda's Manifesto. — The President 
President. A solemn act was signed bv all the forestalled the revolutionists by issuing on 
members present, which declared the President Jan. 1 a manifesto assuming a virtual dicta- 
unworthy of his post, and no longer chief of the torship, although disclaiming the name of die- 
state or President of the republic, because he tator, and defending his ac& on constitutional 
had violated the Constitution and was guilty of grounds. His right to choose his Cabinet minis- 
treason. The Congressional party had long been ters was based on the text of the Constitution, 
preparing their prontmeiamienio. They had the which defines among the powers of the President 
lana-holding anstocracy, the wealth, the clergy, that of ^ appointing and removing at will the 
and the foreign element at their back, and haid ministers and the clerks of all the executive de- 
secured the co-operation of the fleet, and still partments." The parliamentary system upheld 
had adherents among the commanders of the oy the coalition against him he declared to oe in- 
armv, who would be able, they supposed, to seize compatible with republican government "* The 
the Moneda or old Spanish mint that serves as parliamentary regimen is monarchical govem- 
the state Capitol, and permit a piopiilar rising to ment with republican ideas. A repubfic with 
achieve a bloodless revolution, Tne 7th of Jan- a parliamentary government is an idea that 
nary was the day selected. The Opposition mem- finds no place within the experience and science 
bers of Congress went on boara the '* Blanco of modem public law. Parliamentary govem- 
Encalada," the commander of the fleet having ment presupposes an irresponsible hereditary 
invited them to hold the session of Congress sovereign. The chief of the executive in sucn 
there, since there was no safety on shore. The a government is practically the minister who 
ships sailed out of the harbor, and on the follow- commands a parliamentary majority, and who 
ing day returned and hoisted the revolutionary governs in its name. The Government of the 
flag that was expected to be the signal for the republic is carried on by a chief and responsible 
overthrow of the Government. ministers with temporary powers, and the Presi- 

The Government had received timely notice dent is elected, like Confess, by the people, 

of the design from some officers of the arm^, The chief of the executive power, practically 

and Godoy and the other ministers and their and by the Constitution, is the President of the 

subordinates acted promptly and with energ^r. republic." Chili is governed under the repre- 

People suspected of sympathy with the Opposi- sentative system, of which the characteristics 

tion were arrested in hundi^ds. The Revolu- are a responsible chief of state, an administra- 

tionary Committee barely escaped with their tive cabinet, and the power to veto laws, not to 

lives — some, in disguise, to the snips, and others dissolve parliament, vested in the elective head of 

across the Andes to the Argentine Republic, the nation. If Congress had of deliberate pur- 

The President proclaimed martin law, and de- pose omitted to enact laws necessary for the 

clared the iniendetUes and governors his sole legal continuance of the public powers, placing 

representatives in the provinces. The fleet waited the President in an irregular position, its mem- 



CHILL 127 

_ « 

bers had failed to discharge their duty as laid Revolntionary Committee was reorganized and 
down in the Constitution, and could not thereby intermittent communication was kept up with 
create a right for any one to appeal to revolution, the navy and the revolutionary leaders. The 
"Even in the event of the cnief of the nation families of Congressionalists emigrated, and 
being liable for the shortcomings of the majority thousands of suspected partisans fied into the 
< t Congress, a revolution can not be proclaimed Andes or across the frontier. The armed police 
i5 a remedy. The Constitution has foreseen force in the capital and its port numbered 2,000. 
the case when the President or his ministers The populace of Santiago and Valparaiso and of 
!Day Tiolate the Constitution and laws, and estab- most of the southern cities and of the farming 
ii'^ed the manner and procedure for making districts in the vallevs of the Andes generally 
effective their responsibility for such action, sympathized with Balmaceda, and regarded him 
vbich, on the part of any one else, is subversive as the champion of the democracy against the 
ijid revolutionary.*' He had refrained from in- land barons, foreign priests, and alien capitalists, 
voking Congress to an extra session because of while the industrial and mining population sup- 
the attitude that the majority might assume, ported Congress. The soldiers were confined m 
He was bound to follow his judgment and exer- the barracks, and the sentiments of the officers 
else his discretionary powers to avert danger to and men were investigated, the less trusty troops 
the public welfare. The Constitution char^ being sent away and replaced by drafts from acri- 
the ^resident with the duty of maintainmg cultural districts. The Congressionalist leaaers 
public order at home and lookmg after the safety were not prepared for the energetic measures of 
of the republic abroad, and declares that he the Admmistration, which prevented any rising 
shall use any means for these objects, alwavs in the capital or in the cities of the south that 
observing the Constitution and causing it to be they counted on. When the banks refused to 
observed. Without the civil service and the pay out money on Balmaceda's orders, they were 
military forces he could not discharge this duty, declared abettors of the revolution, the directors 
The laws to provide for these are not exclu- fled from arrest, and an official examiner took 
sirely in the power of Congress, but reouire the possession. The bank of Edwards was closed by 
concurrent assent of the President ana of the order of the Government, and all the officials 
Coancil of State. The same situation had oc- and clerks were imprisoned. The National Bank 
carred before in his term of office when, durine and the Bank of Valparaiso were unable to pay 
January and a part of Februair, 1887, he haa the 6,000,000 pesos that thev held of Government 
carried on the Government witnout an appro- funds, as depositors had aitiwn out their cash 
priation bill or an army bill, and every President reserves to hoard. The directors were therefore 
since the establishment of the republic had induced to sign a request to the Government to 
governed the country for days and even for issue 12,000,000 pesos of paper, on condition that 
months when Confi:ress had neglected to pass they might use 1,600,000 to tide over their diffi- 
these acts without being treated as a tyrant or culties. The Government resorted also to whole- 
dictator. ^ As a Chilian,*' he said ** as the sale confiscation and attached the bank accounts 
Chief of the State, I could not, with my convic- of all the Congressionalists. 
tions, accept the political position that the par- President mlmaceda increased his army till 
liamentary coalition pretended to impose on he soon had 80,000 men under arms. The pay 
me." He assumed no dictatorship because he of the soldiers was increased to $30 a month, 
declined to submit to the dictatorship of Con- The people in the interior, in the center, and 
gress, and to surrender the reins of government south showed little interest in the struggle, and 
to those who traduced his purposes and sought no active sympathy with Congress. Ignorant 
to deprive him of his constitutional rights. agriculturalists were drawn to the army by boun- 
Prepanitlons for War. — The President had ties, leaving the wheat fields without harvesters, 
the standing army of about 8,500 men and the The public works were stopped, and a large pro- 
funds in the tieasur}^, amounting to several portion of the 25,000 laborers enlisted. Admiral 
million dollars, partly in the banks. The proc- Viel set about completing the fortifications of 
lamation of the Congressionalist leaders was Valparaiso, which was at no time safe from bom- 
answered by one from Balmaceda assuming a barament, except for the reason that the city 
military dictatorship, and declaring the whole was mainly owned bar Congressionalists. The 
country under martial law. All newspapers forces were placed under the supreme command 
were suppressed, except two offlciaJ organs that of the Minister of War. Having all the railroads 
wore ostaolished. Cluos and societies were closed, and some swift transports that could evade the 
and people were forbidden to leave their houses fleet, the Government re-enforced the garrisons at 
after five o'clock. Private houses were watched all the ports, and had a military force in every 
and searched, and men of social position were district. In the vicinity of the capital there 
bastinadoed to compel them to rev^ the hiding- was an army of 16,000 infantry, 1,200 cavalry, 
places of political refugees. The prisons were and six batteries of field artillery, and in other 
choked witn persons prominent in social, pro- parts of the country 14,000 men were earrisoned. 
fessionaU and commercial circles who were iaen- Balmaceda issued proclamations ordering the 
tified with the various parties. The farms and pay of officers and men who fell in battle to be 
states of leading rebels were pillaged, their continued permanently to their families, increas- 
(Tops burned, the houses sacked, and their ing their salaries bv 50 per cent., and offering 
blooded horses and cattle taken to mount and two years* pay to sailors who would desert to the 
feed the troops. Servants, tradesmen, and Government and a free pardon to officers who 
guests acted as spies in every house, and through had joined the insurrection under orders from 
the month of January a reign of terror prevailed their superiors. There was some guerilla fight- 
in Santiago and Valparaiso. Nevertheless, the ing in tne center. Bridges and railroads were 



128 CHILL 

destroyed to cut off the food supply of the capi- firing over their heads, desiring to avoid blood- 

tal. When insurgents appeared in numbers they shed. The " Blanco Encalada " sailed for the 

were driven into the mountains. On Jan. 21 a Strait of Magellan to intercept the corvette 

mutinv broke out in the barracks at Valparaiso, " Abtao " and the two new torpedo cruisers ex- 

and, thoueh it was quelled, many soldiers de- pected from Europe. Officers declaring for the 

serted with their arms. Under Cten. Jos^ Fran- Government were put on shore. The "Aeon- 

cisoo O^ia as commander-in-chief, the army cagua" and other captured vessels of the Chilian 

was organized in seven divisions, the first com- Steamship Company were converted into trans- 

manded by Maj.-Oen. Barbosa, vrith headquar- ports, storeships, or armed cruisers. The trans- 

ters at Santiago; the second by Col. Guitterrez, port '* Amazonas" was taken with a regiment of 

with headquarters at Valparaiso ; the third by Government troops and a large store of provisions 

Col. Wood, with headquarters at Quillota; the bound for the port of Antofagasta. These soldiers 

fourth by Lieut-CoL Jarpa, with headquarters readily enlisted in the Congressional cause. The 

at Talca; the fifth by Col. Ruiz, with head- coast was declared blockaded by the Congres- 

quarters at Chilian ; the sixth by CoL Soto Zal- sional Junta. President Balmaceda, in proclaim- 

vidar, with headquarters at Angol ; and the ing the rebel fleet outlawed and piratical at the 

seventh by Lieut-Col. Garcia, with headquarters outset, had hoped for the intervention of Eu- 

at^oncepcion. ropean nations; but, following the lead of Mr. 

The Congressionalist proclamation, appointing Kennedy, the British minister, the diplomatic 

Capt Jorge Montt commander-in-chief of the corps offered no protest, and their governments 

naval division for the restoration of constitu- decided to i^ore the blockade, since to reco^- 

tional government, was signed by Waldo Silva, nize it would involve the concession of bel- 

Vice-president of the the »Bnate ; Ramon Barros ligerent rights. The blockade was not enforced 

Luco, President of the Chamber ; Pedro Montt, against foreign vessels. The blockade of Val- 

leader of the National party ; Sefior Arana, ex- paraiso began on Jan. 16. The fort opened fire on 

President of the Delimitation Commission ; Gen. the ** Blanco Encalada," and a shell exploded in 




uardo Matta ; and Senator Altamirano. Capi- threatened to shell the fort if it fired again 
talists pUced their fortunes at the disposal of Campaign In the North.— After a few weeks 
the Parliamentary Committee, ladies sacrificed of drilling at Santa Maria^ the nucleus of the 
their jewels, and money and credit were not Congressional army, consisting of a few hundred 
lacking in Europe and the United States, it ardent young men, embarked on the fleet for 
being said that the nitrate speculators were the northern province of Tarapaca. Half the 
ready to give material aid to the revolution, men had no arms except the national cuchiUo 
The admirals in the navy held themselves neutral or dagger. The people in the north were all for 
or sided with the Government, and of the nine Congress. The garrison at Pisagua revolted on 
generals of division the majority kept out of Jan. 19, and the commander of the" Magellanes," 
the contest Gen. Urrutia and Commander which had arrived in the harbor three days 
Canto organized the Congressional Volunteers, before, took possession of the place in the name 
who were encamped on the island of Santa of Congress. Government troops were sent from 
Maria, in the southern province of Arauca Men Iquique to recanture it. Fighting took place at 
were recruited in all the ports. Parties of volun- Zapiga on the 21st, and at the Izpiza Hospicio 
teers went down to the snore, and were taken off in front of the town on the 23d, which resulted 
at night by boats sent from the men-of-war. in the defeat of the Conffressionalists, of whom 
There was an insufficient supply of arms that 100 were killed, but the Iquique troops did not 
had been secretly taken from the Government reoccupy the place till the 25tn, when they came 
stores. Men came on rafts and boats from the in stronj^er force, and marched in at night to 
mainland, and for lack of muskets were trained escape being fired upon bv the three naval vessels 
with sticks of wood in the practice of arms, in the harbor. Another landinfi^ was made, and 
The parliamentaiy party had not anticipated a the Congressionalists were repeUed, but succced- 
war, and were behind the Government m their ed in bringing "^^"^L ^^"^ ^^ ^^ ^o^* Canto's 
preparations. .Gen. Vaquedano took the chief scattered soldiers. The first attempt to gain a 
command of the land forces, and had under him foothold in the nitrate province thus proved a 
Gen. Urrutia, Gen. Saavedra, Gen. Sotomayor failure. A large part of the patriot force was 
Col. Canto, and others. without arms and ammunition, and the squadron 
Movements of the Fleet. — When the fieet was running short of coal and provisions. To 
revolted the squadron at Valparaiso consisted provide these a landing was made in the province 
of the ironclads ** Almirante Cochrane " and of Coquimbo. At the rich commercial port of 
" Blanco Encalada," the latter of which was that name, which is the outlet of a fiourishine 
made Admiral Montt's fiagship, the cruiser mining district, the Congress party were received 
" Esmeralda," the ram ** Magellanes," and a cor- with open arms. The troops of the Government 
vette. The '^Huascar," which was undergoing made only a pretense of resistance. Balmaceda's 
repairs, was afterward cut out by the rebels, who Minister of War made every attempt to recover 
captured the torpedo boats, seized all the tu^ the province, but the first regiment that was 
and launches, took all the stores that were in sent by land from Santiago deserted to the 
the harbor, and carried off the Congressionalists enemy. This province, being connected by rail- 
desiring to reach the fieet who could evade the road with Santiago, could not be held oy the 
Solice and soldiery. Troops lining the esplanade insurgents. The fleet was in constant need of 
red on the boats, and the crews answered by coal, having to depend on the colliers that were 



OHILL 129 

eioght on the sea. There were large quantities was fought on Feb. 15. The Tictory made the 
stored at Coronel, in the province of Arauco, rebels overconfident, as Col. Robles had sue- 
opposite the island of Santa Maria. Before the ceeded in getting away with only 200 men, and, 
rebels estaUished themselves in Tarapaca and after capturing a train of mules left by a party 
removed their milit«ry base from that island, the of cavalry that wandered into their camp by 
fleet captured that town, which is the shipping mistake, and finding the baegage to consist of 
point for the principal coal mines of Chili, and 200 rifles and 200,(^ cartridges, of which they 
carried oft all the stocks at the water side. To were in great need, they determined to fight the 
.prevent this the Government had posted a strone enemy wherever they were encountered. They 
garrison at Coronel. The ** Esmeralda " steamed met them again at Huara and underestimated 
into the harbor and demanded the surrender of their strength, for CV)i. Siiinas had. re-enforced 
the town. When it was refused, grape and Robles with the entire garrison of Iquique, 1,000 
ctnister were poured into the town without pre- regulars and militia. An important reason for 
hminarv wamine to the population, and solid not delaying the battle was the fact that large 
shot followed, which demolished the railroad re-enforcements of Government troops were ad- 
station, burying 67 corpses in the ruins. After vancing by forced marches from the north, the 
that the commandant capitulated. ^ Imperiale " having landed a division in the 

Having supplied themselves with cattle and Peruvian port of Ite and the "Santa Rosa" 
other provisions at Coquimbo and Serena, and another at Arica. The fight began in the after- 
about 200 rifles, the Congressional expedition noon of Feb. 17. The rebels gained ground 
retunied to the northern coast with the in ten- until they had discharged the whole of their 
tion of attacking Iquique. This intention they fort^ rounds of ammunition, and then they 
abandoned wh^i they learned that Col. Robles fled in disorder, with the loss of 800 men, and 
had le-enforced the garrison with 50O regulars, 80 officers, among them Col. Manuel Aguirre, a 
landed at Patiblos. They determined to de- large number of rifles, and the three Gatline 
KTer the first blow at Pisagua, defended by only guns and two cannons that they had captured 
340 men* under Col. Valensuela. The " Coch- at Pisagua and San Francisco, 
rane,*' ^ O'Hlffgins,'* " Magellanes," and ** Cacha- I'he troops had all been withdrawn from Iqui- 
poal " entered the harbor early in the morning que to inflict this severe blow on the land foroe 
of Feb. 6, and the land force was debarked with the idea that the town could easilv be re- 
under cover of the guns. The Congressionalists captured if occupied by the marines. The naval 
succeeded in gaininff the heights and capturing forces took possession of the place on the 16th. 
the artillery planted there to receive the fleet. On the 19th Col. Soto retumea to take possession 
The Government force in the town and forts on of the place, which was garrisoned by only 40 
the plain was between two fires, and, after a sailors, who were ordered on board ; but Merino 
severe infantry engagement and a bombardment, Jarpa, the commander, having heard of the re- 
wbich destroyed the greater part of the town verse at Huara, determined to resist, and shut 
and caused many deaths as the result of ex- himself in the custom house. The fight lasted 
plosions of the oil tanks and nitrate works, from dawn till daiic. The people on the ships 
marines landed and the infantry division exe- did not know the condition of affairs till noon, 
cutod an assault from the other side. After a In order to drive out the little band, Soto*s men 
brief stniggle, the enem^ surrendered. All the set fire to the neighboring buildings, and the 
men and ofl^cers remaining, about 200, were whole of the business quarter of the city was de- 
taken prisoners and four Krupp guns were capt- stroyed. Great damage was done also by the 
nred. The people of the district were eager to firing from the ships to protect the men beseiged 
volunteer, and with the rifies captured from the in the custom house ana cover the landing of a 
enemy a division of 1,200 men was formed in a relieving force. Admiral Hotham, commanding 
few days, including 200 men from the squadron, the British naval force, endeavored to intervene 
This force set out for Iquique by the railroad, to prevent the destruction of pro]:)erty. The 
It was calculated that if the advance was made . bombardment enabled the Congressionalists to 
by land the Government commander would be achieve a complete victory, and on the fol low- 
compelled to divide his forces in order to meet ing day Col. Soto surrendered the city and the 
the column outside the town, and yet leave remnant of his force joined the Congress 
enough to prevent the town from being occupied party. Troops were landed to hold the town and 
by ihd naval forces. The harbor had men block- strengthen the broken ranks of Col. Canto's little 
aded since Jan. 20, The land column had not army. The intention was to bring up troops 
advanced beyond Dolores when it met the ad- from Pisagua and fall upon Col. Robles, who, 
vaooe guard of Col. Robles. The troops of after the loss of Soto's command, had but 500 or 
Congress drew up on the heights, and charged 600 men remaining. On the 21st 1,000 of the 
the regular troops that formed in line on the Congressionalist soldiers arrived ; but the contest 
plain at San Francisco, while the irregulars took was put off because one of the Government di- 
position on the hill bdiind. Col. Robles, who visions joined the enemy at the same time, and 
commanded the body near the railroad, had to on the 24th the other arrived. For this reason 
retreat with all the men he could get away at the Congressionalists camped in the town, pro- 
the first onset. The men on the hill held their tected by the guns of the fleet, until they could 
ground till both commanders, Villagran and organize a larger force. The Congressional navy 
Hequilene, were killed And few of their men left, was now guarding the coast enectually. The 
The Fourth R^ment was reduced to 60 men, last Government re-enforcements were landed 
▼ho joined the Congressionalists. The killed on on Peruvian territor^r, for which due apologies 

the side of Congress numbered about 125. and on were demanded and ^ven. However, it was le- 

the other side four times as many. This battle ported that a third division was advancing across 

VOL. XXXI. — 9 A 



130 CHILI. 

the desert from Antofagasta, and the Congres- Arica and the fertile province of Tacna in the 
sionalists therefore made up their minds to ad- mountains behind Anca. The troops of Con- 
vanoe upon the enemy's position. Col. Canto gress had no difficulty in landing at Arica, and, 
had 1,650 men and Col. Bobles about an equal on April 7, both places were taken without fight- 
number, who were encamped at the junction of ing. Balmaceda s commander had a division of 
the railroads, but retired northward and took up 1,600 men, which broke up on the appearance of 
a position at Pozo Almonte, about SO miles east the rebel forces, a part going over to Congress, 
oflquique. The Congressionalists, who bad to re- while the rest flea into Bolivia. Caldera and 
pair the railroad that was destroyed by dynamite other points south of the desert were occnpied, 
oy the others as they retired, came up to them and thus, in addition to the nitrate fields, the 
on the evening of the 6th of March. The Chilenos rebels possessed two fertile districts from which 
waste hundr^s of cartridges without hitting a they could get supplies, and had full command 
man : but in hand-to-hand conflict, when they of the whole of northern Chili as far south as 
throw down their rifles, disdaining the bayonet, Copiapo. President Balmaceda declared all the 
and draw their knives, the combat is deadly, ports m control of the insurgents to be clrjsed ; 
The Congressionalists advanced to the attack as out this order could have no effect, except in 
soon as it was light in the morning, and when cases like that of a German vessel, which, after 
the shock was over 1,000 men lay dead or help- loading with nitrate, put into a Government port, 
less on the field, and the Government troops were where the cargo was confiscated by Balmaceda*s 
driven back away from the railroad, which was officials. After the period of war, famine, and 
their only line of retreat. They broke and anarchy was over the nitrate works began opera- 
scattered, having lost in killed and wounded tions again, and the export trade revived to a 
700 men and many officers, and 400 taken pris- considerable extent, the duties being paid to the 
oners. On the other side about 400 men and officials of Congress. Caldera, betrayed by the 
officers were killed or disabled. Col. Robles was garrison, fell into the insurgents' han!ls on April 
fatally wounded, and while in an ambulance was 16. Three companies, acoorain^ to a prearranged 
murdered and mutilated by the savage sol- plan, mutinied when drilling m the plaza, and 
dlerv. The conflict assumed early a cruel and lough t flercelv with four other companies and 
vindictive character, the authorities at Santiago the police. Ihe gunners in the fort had been 
having set the example. Robles was believed to won over, and when the "Esmeralda" steamed 
have shot all prisoners and wounded who fell into the port they turned their guns on the Gov- 
into his hands, and to have done so by order of emment tiouse. Upon that the loyal soldiers and 
Balmaceda. The mutinous regiment which de- inhabitants fled, and the place was occupied by 
livered up Pisagua to the navy massacred the the Congressionalists. In the sharp hand-to- 
Balmacedist officers, and when the place was re- hand fight between the rebellious ana the loyal 
taken bv Government troops every captured offl- troops about 200 were killed, 
cor of the Congressionalist garrison was shot. Tne nitrate provinces of Tarapaca and Ataca- 
The last battle left the entire seaboard in the ma afforded tne forces of Congress a safe base 
hands of the Congressionalists. The remaining of operations. Balmaceda*s army was ten times 
forces of the Government retreated to the city of as numerous at that time, but it could not cross 
Tarapaca. On March 9 the " Esmeralda" en- the 150 miles of sand v' desert and impassable ra- 
tered the harbor of Antofagasta, and demanded vines. The loss of tne nitrate revenues, in or- 
the surrender of the town within three davs dinary times $2,600,000 a month, was fatal to 
under a threat of bombardment. One of the the Crovemment at Santiago ; while the greatly 
battalions of the garrison mutinied, killed the reduced receipts would enable the Congressional 
officers, and went on board the ship, and others Junta to maintain its position and support the 
were willing to desert. To prevent the whole fleet and its army of 5,000 or 6,000 men till Bal- 
oommand from going over to the enemy. Col. maceda's term of office expiied. The nitrate 
Camus, taking the rolling stock of the railroad, districts produced no food, but with money they 
retreated to Calama, 180 miles up the line. En- could organize a commissariat and draw sup- 

S'nes were found in the hold of a vessel by Col. plies from the southern provinces or from Peru, 

mto after he had occupied the place, enabling Bolivia, or California as long as they held the 

him to cross the desert to Calama, where the sea. From the ports of Iquique, Pisagua, Toco- 

Congressionalists, after a week or two of prepara- pilla, Antofagasta, and Taltal more than two 

Uon, suddenly appeared in force, causing the Gov- thirds of the exports of the country were sent in 

ernment commander to flee into Bolivia with 1889 and three quarters of the revenue was col- 

his division of 2,450 men, leaving behind a large lected. An attempt was made to gain possession 

quantity of munitions of war and commissariat of the fertile islands of the Chiloe reninsiila. 

stores. Despite the repressive measures of Col. Both parties had earnest partisans there, and in 

Camus, who nad a large number shot who showed connection with naval operations an insurrection 

signs of insubordination, one fourth of the com- was begun. This came to naught, because the 

mand got away and joined the rebels. Government concentrated troops there and for- 

The interior of Tarapaca was cleared of Bal- tifled the seaports and important positions, 
maceda's soldiers. The fleet was augmented by Balmaceda*B Congress. — The elections of 
the transport "Maipo," which was seized by members of Congress and of presidential elector? 
Capt. Valaureso, of the Santiago garrison, who took place on March 29. CNomingo Godoy, the 
deserted with 120 men, and, with the aid of ac- Premier, issued orders that no official pressure 
complices among the officers at Valparaiso, got should be exercised. Nevertheless, the military 
away with the ship and a lar^ quantity of Gat- had charare of the polls. No one voted but mem- 
ling guns, rifles, and ammunition. In the extreme hers of Balmaceda's party, who elected a Con- 
north the Government still held the port of gress entirely Liberal The President -elect. 



CHILI. 131 

Clwidk) Viciilia, who had been put forward in President of the Senate ; R. Barros Luoo, Presi- 

the place of Sanfnentes and had retired from the dent of the Chamber of Deputies; and Jorge 

Cabmet in order to become the official candidate, Montt, Commander of the Squadron. They ap- 

was a man of wealth, well known to the people, pointed a Cabinet consistingof Isidor Errazunz, 

hftTin^ held several Cabinet offices. The Con- Secretary of the Junta for f^oreign AfEairs, Jus- 

gress irregularly elected, when most of the offi- tice, and Education ; Joaauin Walker Martinez, 

oers who should direct and supervise the elec- Secretary of Finance ; ana CoL Holley, Secretary 

tioDs were in prison or proscribed, met on April of War and Marine. 

20, to hear the President's messa^ in which Naral Operations. — The fleet torpedo cruis- 
cfaanges in the Constitution, to deprive Congress ers " Lynch '' and " Condell,'* after a series of 
ol its Dower over the public purse and its con- exciting escapes from the insurgent vessels, were 
trol of the Executive, were recommended. As he brought safelv into port at Valparaiso before the 
vas charged, he said, with the duty of adminis- middle of March. Besides tnese, the Govern- 
tering the state and guarding the internal se- ment possessed three small gunboats and a fast 
curity, the position of Congress, which tended to armed steamer, the " Imperiale," chartered from 
the overthrow of the established order, obli^d the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, which 
him to '* assume all the public powers and brmg had successfully run the blockade nve times to 
together the elements necessary to make trium- convey troops to the north. The " Cousino," 
pl^t the principle of authority in Chili, with- another converted cruiser, after several voyages 
out which nothing durable can exists" Under was captured by the revolutionists, who made an 
these circumstances he found imposed on him the attempt to seize the ** Piloomayo," a new gun- 
** painful duty of reducing the cniefs and promo- vessel that was waiting in the harbor of Monti- 
ters of revolt to impotence by arresting tnem or video, with a full force of sailors and marines, 
driving them away from the scene of their activ- for a favorable opportunity to make the voyage 
ity.*' Among the cruelties credited to Balmace- to Valparaiso without being caught by the Con- 
da and his officers the worst were connected gressional cruisers. A party of armed Chilians 
with the pursuit of supporters of the revolution, went on board with the intention of surprising 
the torture of their friends who refused to reveal the crew ; but the object was detected, and they 
their asylums, and the assassination of the lead- were overpowered after a pitched battle on the 
ers who were arrested. The nominating con- deck. The ** Blanco Encalada " entered Valpa- 
vention chose Claudio Vicufia as the candidate raiso in a dark night with the intention of blow- 
for the presidency b^r 294 votes out of 296. The ing up the " Mary Florence," a tug fitted up as 
Congress passed a bill of indemnity for all the a gunooat, with a fish torpedo, ^is missed its 
acts of President Balmaceda since Jan. 1, and mark and destroyed the dry dock. The ship es- 
another conferring on him extraordinary pow- caned unhurt from the fire of the fort. The 
ers. He was authorized to arrest, imprison, and " Marv Florence " and a torpedo boat that stole 
ponish any person inimical to the Government ; out after her were descried, and destroyed with 
to expend the public revenue according to his their crews' by shells from the ** Blanco " and 
own judgment without being called upon for es- the " O'Higgins," which engaged the batteries at 
timates ; to borrow money on the credit of the long range, and during the battle shells from 
state without the previous authorization of Con- the fort nit the hull and one of the guns of the 
gress ; to suspend the judicial power, dismiss *' O'Higgins." After the arrival of the first of 
judges, and deal with political offenses by execu- the two torpedo catchers, the ** Condell," three 
tive degree; tosuppresstherightsof free speech, rebel agents went into Valparaiso and nearly 
public meeting, and liberty of the press ; to or- succeeded in getting possession of her. The 
ganize military tribunals and define their juris- whole crew and the officer in command were in 
diction and authority ; and to declare any part the plot. The captain from on shore, seeing 
of the territory of the republic to be in a state them starting the engine, got aboard before the 
of siege. Tlie gold and silver reserve held by gunboat began to move, and before he was seized 
the treasury against the paper currency was and bound he gave the alarm ; so that before she 
ordered to be sold by Congress, and a new forced could get x>ut of the harbor the other vessels sur- 
loan of $20,000,000 was authorized. A new rounded her. A revolutionist named Gomez 
ministry was appointed by President Balma- found means to spike the Armstrong guns in 
ceda in June, which was composed as follows : Fort Andes at Valparaiso. The Government at 
Premier and Minister of the Interior, Jules Bar- first hesitated to risk their fiotil la in active oper- 
nabas Espinoza^ Minister of Foreign Affairs and ations, expecting soon to be able to crush the 
Worship, Manual Maria Aldunate ; Minister of rebellion with a superior naval force. The " Er- 
Justice and Education, Francisco Xavier Con- razuriz " and ** Pinto " were ready, except their 
cha: Minister of Finance, Manuel Aristides armament and crews. A severe check to the 
Zanartu; Minister of War and Marine, Jos^Ve- plans of Balmaceda was caused by the refusal 
lasqoez; Minister of Industry and Public Works, of the French Government to let them leave 
Nicanor Agulde Espinoza. On July 25 the France. The embargo, granted on representa- 
eiectoral ooll^g^ unanimously elected Claudio tions of Congressional envoys, was removed in 
Vicufia Presi£nt of the republic for the term June after both sides were heard, but the French 
becinning Sept. 18, 1891. authorities still refused to allow crews to be 
Organization of the Janta«— A Junta de recruited in France. A loan of £1,500,000, that 
Oobiimo, or Provisional Government, was for- had been subscribed in Germany for the con- 
mally constituted at Iquique on April 12, for the struction of railroads, the bankers refused to 
admmistration in the name of Congress of the allow Balmaceda to divert to military objects, 
eight departments held bv the revolutionists. His offers for a Greek war ship, for the crack 
The Junta was composed of Waldo Silva, Vice- new Argentine cniiser, and for fast merchant 



132 CHILL 

steamers, were rejected. Joaquin Godoy was sent harbor at full speed as the forts opened fire, 
to Europe to endeavor to raise a loan and pur- which tiiej dared not do before for fear of de- 
chase snips. Meanwhile people were ffrowin^ stroying tne Oovemment vessels. One shell fell 
tired of tne tyranny and cruelties of the mill- on deck, dismounting the pivot gun. The ** AI- 
tary despotism, and to save the failing cause it mirante Condell " was nearly sunk by her sister 
was necessary to gain some success over the revo- gunboat. On the '* Magellanes " 40 men were 
lutionists, who were protected now from a land Killed, and on the other vessels double that num- 
attack by the Atacama desert. ber. The torpedo boat ** Guacoida " was chased 
The torpedo gunboats were therefore got ready and sunk by the " Magellanes." The " Lynch " 
for an attack on the rebel fleet, aided by the and ** Condell" patrolled the coast and fired at 
torpedo boats, with the " Imperiale " as tender, long range into tne rebel harbors. The officers and 
On April 23 the torpedo cruisers surprised crew ran the torpedo launch "Gude" out of Val- 
the ** Blanco Encalada " at anchor in Caldera paraiso Bay to hand her over to the Congress 
Bay, while she was undergoing repairs and un- party. The " Lynch " overtook and recaptured 
able to bring her guns into position. The ihe launch at Papudo, and the 12 deserters were 
attock was made beiore dawn. The ironclad taken to Santiago and shot. An attempt was 
had no torpedo net, had no picket boats out, and made to blow up both the ^* Lynch " and the 
did not use search lie'bts. Captain Moraga, ap- " Condell ** with dynamite. One of the minor 
proaching unobservea, fired end-on at a distance accomplices in these plots betrayed the instiga- 
of 110 yards the bow torpedo, which missed the tors, wno were a quarter-master, 'who killed him- 
ironclad and sank an English merchantman, self before he could be arrested, and a respecta- 
The torpedo catcher then sneered off, and at 65 ble merchant named Ricardo Cummin^ who 
yards discharged first one and then the other of was shot with the man who betrayed him and 
the port torj^oes, both of which struck the another agent in the conspiracy. 
*' Blanco '* in the bow. When first struck, the Negotiations for Peace.— A large assembly 
ironclad opened a heavy mitrailleuse fire on the of influential citizens who had taken no part in 
** Condell.'' The '* Lynch," following in the politics passed resolutions at Santiago on Feb. 1, 
same course about 60 yards behind her consort, in pursuance of which a committ^ waited on 
likewise sent her bow torpedo ahead of the iron- the President and urged him to change his ad- 
dad, and when broadsiae-on struck her amid- visers and restore peace. One of the committee 
ships. Two minutes later, nine minutes after spoke of the opportunity he had of following 
the firing of the ** Condell's " first torpedo, she tne patriotic example of O'Higp^ns and resi^n- 
foundered. The weapons were self-acting White- ing, on which he closed the interview, saying 
head torpedoes, of which each boat earned five, that he was prepared to'* go on to the end. 
The ** Lynch " was manoeuvred by Capt. Fuen- After the Congrcssionalists had undisputed pos- 
tes, who had been so successful in evading the session of northern Chili the Uruguayan Gov- 
blockade with the " Imperiale." Capt. Goni, of emment offered to mediate, and received the 
the " Blanco Encalada," was rescued with about reply from Balmaoeda that there was no revolu- 
40 others, but 180 of the crew were drowned, tion, but a local revolt that would be suppressed 
The torpedo cruisers, after sinking the iron- in a few weeks. Not long afterward the diplo- 
clad, met and engaged the transport '* Aeon- matic body arranged a conference between &1- 
cagua," which had 1,300 revolutionary soldiers maceda and Congressional delegates to discuss 
on board, as she was entering the harbor, and terms of peace. As commissioners of the insur- 
during a combat lasting an hour and a half the gents, Eulogio Alamarin, Carlos Walker Marti- 
*' Aconcagua," commanded by Merino Jarpa, fired nez, Pedro Montt, Gregorio Donoso, and Belisa- 
190 shots without damaging the torpedo catch- rio Prats went to Santiago. Bombs were thrown 
ers, and finally forced her way into the harbor, into the room during a Cabinet meeting and at 
On the following morning the two torpedo catch- ministers on the street, upon which Balmaceda 
ers and the **Sargoanto Aldea'* attacked the broke off the conference after two days. He 
cruiser "Magellanes" in Chafiaral harbor. The accused the commissioners of having instigated 
smaller craft manoeuvred so that the big guns the bomb-throwing, canceled their sale conducts, 
could not be brought to bear on them, and with and demanded of the foreign ministers, who had 
their quick-firing and machine ^ins damaged guaranteed their safety, that they should be sur- 
one of the battenes and the rigging of the ship rendered for punishment. The ministers received 
and killed 22 of her crew, but they suffered them in the legations, and extended their pro- 
more severely, each of them being nit They tection until they were got on board the United 
could not get within close enough range to use States cruiser ^ Baltimore." The revolutionists 
their torpedoes, and fired only one, which de- supposed that the bomb-throwing was a trick 
stroyed a merchant vessel. On April 28 the planned by Balmaceda or his associates for the 
**' Magellanes " stole into Valparaiso harbor in purpose of putting an end to the conference, 
the night time; poured a broadside into the because it took place immediately after the 
'* Sargeanto Aldea," riddling her and killing or " Blanco Encalada was sunk, 
wounding half the crew ; £ed on the " Almir- The peace proposals first emanated from Bal- 
ante Lynch," receiving a heavy fire in return ; maceda*s Government. While the representa- 
blew out of water a boat with 10 men sent to tiresof England and Germany were treating with 
attack her with a torpedo ; slipped astern out of a the Congressional authorities at Iquique, Bal- 
murderous cross fire of the "Lynch " and " Con- maceda signified his acceptance of the media- 
dell," leaving the Government vessels firing at tion of Brazil, France, and the United States, 
each other in the darkness ; got into position to not wishing the British and German ministers 
rake the " Lynch " vrith a broadside that dis- to take part in the negotiations, notwithstanding 
mantled every gun ; and steamed out of the the fact that they had taken the initiative in the 



CHILI. 133 I 

I 

i 

matter with his knowledge and approyal. The marshal, who left his deputy in charge. The 
representatiyes of Brazil, France, and the United commander of the Chilian steamer steamed out 
States, on accepting the office of mediators, pro- of port when he was ready, with the United 
posed that botn parties should formulate tneir States officer on board. He was afterward put 
proposals and demands, in order that the media- on a pilot boat. . The munitions were truisshipped 
tors could deduce concrete propositions to serve at ni^ht, and the " Itata " put out to sea. The 
as a bads for negotiations. The Provisional question of the duties and responsibilities of the 
Government consented, whereas Balmaceda's United States Government was a matter for the 
minister, Domingo Godoy, refused to present earnest consideration of the authorities at Wash- 
his views in writing until he had seen the con- ington. In the case of the '* Alabama " the 
ditions proposed by his adversaries. At this United States contended, and the arbitration 
stag« negotiations were abruptly terminated. The court at Geneva decided, that a neutral Govem- 
demands of the insurgent commissioners were ment must use due diligence to prevent the 
the resignation and impeachment of Balmaoeda, equipment or fitting out of armed cruisers or the 
di:^bftndmeDt of army and navy, and reassem- use of its ports and waters for the renewal or 
biing of the old Congress penaing the election augmentation of military supplies or arms. In 
of a new one. the State Department it was neld that the Gov- 
On May 27th the Bolivian Government issued emment. ha vmg exercised ordinary vigilance and 
a decree recognizing the belligerent standing exhausted the means at hand to prevent a viola- 
and rights of the Chilian Junta at Iquique. tion of neutral obligations, although it might 
The Itata. — The sinking of the *' Blanco En- have a right to take the vessel in outside waters, 
calada ^ did not end the war in Balmaceda*s was not £K>und by international law to make the 
favor, as he expected it would. The revolution- attempt The Attorney-General and the Secre- 
ists. though disheartened, were morally, finan- tary of State were of the opinion that the pur- 
cially, and strategically stronger than the Gov- suit and capture, if possible, of the escaped vcs- 
erament The position would be reversed when sel, aside from the question of vindicating the 
the ships came over from Europe, or if Balma- insulted authority of the United States Govern- 
eeda*s Government could use tne credit of the ment, belonged among the pacific duties of a 
nation. The naval blockade could not be long neutral and friendly state. Accordingly, the , 
continued, owing to the lack of coal, and to cruiser " Charleston was ordered to give chase, 
fml the force in the north provisions must be She was much faster than the " Itata,*' but the 
brought from distant places. It was necessarjr latter had a long start, and her course and where- 
to strike at Balmaceda in the center of Chili, abouts were unknown. The ** Esmeralda " was 
For this purpose an army must be raised and in Mexican waters, waiting to convoy the trans- 
e<juipped. Tne main want was arms and mu- port, or to take off her cargo. The commander 
nition. All the rifles and cannons, and even of the Chilian cruiser was Capt. Silva Palma, 
the clothes, of the Congressional army had been who had navigated the ** Itata, with an armed 
taken from the enemy. There was no difficulty force in concealment and guns masked, into San 
in rporuiting an army from the best fighting ma- Diego, and carried off the deputy marshal, re- 
terial in Chili. While Balmaceda resorted to joining his vessel, while the ** Itata " took a west- 
the harshest kind of conscription, and forced erlv course to elude pursuit. He made ready to 
Peruvian and Bolivian residents to join his fight the " Charleston *\ as she came up. On 
army, and even drafted into it the convicts in board the American war ship the guns were 
the prisons, the Congressional leaders found two manned, and officers and crew were eager for the 
ea^r volunteers for every rifle they could fur- combat. Such a complication the members of 
nish. In their seven UUtles in Tarapaca their the Junta were anxious to avoid, for it would 
fighting line was usually smaller than the ene- prove a more serious drawback to their cause 
my's ; bat reserves were sent up from the rear than the loss of the munitions. Through their 
to snatch the arms of the men who fell and representatives in Paris, they had already offered 
close up the ranks. To arm a force able to to deliver up the ** Itata " to the American naval 
meet Balmaceda's army, Ricardo Trumbull, the commander at Iquique as soon as she arrived at 
aeent of the Provisional Government, purchased that port, outside which the American cruiser 
inanitions in the United States, some of which ** San Francisco " was waiting with orders to in- 
reached Chili. The largest consignment, con- tercept her. She was met by the " Esmeralda " 
sisting of 10.000 Remin^on rifles and 2,500,000 off the Mexican coast, and was supposed to have 
cartridges, was taken out of San Francisco on transferred a part of her cargo, and on June 4 
the American schooner "Robert and Minnie,'* arrived at Iquioue ahead of the ** Charleston," 
vhioh anchored off the Catalina Islands on and was surrenaered to Rear-Admiral Brown, 
April 25. The Congressional transport " Itata," commander of the American naval forces, in ao- 
one of the steamers chartered to the Provisional cordance with a promise previously made to him 
Government by the Chilian Transportation Com- by the Junta's Minister of Foreign Affairs. When 
panv, was then in San Diego haroor, taking on she was restored to the custody of the United 
a cargo of meat, flour, and other provisions for States district court at San Diego, the trial was 
the army. The collector of customs at Wilming- continued, with the result that the court dis- 
ton asked for instructions, and was told in a tele- missed the libel on the ground that there was no 
gram from Secretary Foster not to interfere with violation of the United States neutrality laws, 
the transfer of the arms to the "Itata," as it inasmuch as the Provisional Government in 
▼onld be no violation of the neutrality laws. Chili had not been recognized as a belligerent 
The Attomey-G«neraI held a different view, and. As this decision was at variance with the prin- 
tokeep the ''Itata" from carrying off the arms, ciples laid down in the ''Alabama" case, the 
■be was seized while in port by the United States 'United States Government appealed from it, in 



134 CHILL 

order that steps may be taken to amend the Fed- at Iquiqne on Jane 27, with 8,000 rifles and 

era! law, if the court's construction of the stat- other war material, and later the ** Esmeralda " 

ute is correct, so as to make it conform with in- returned with a larger supply. Balmaceda's offi- 

temational obligations. cers made ready for a campaign in the Coquimbo 

The New Crmsenu — ^The ** Presidente Pin- province, where tfie revolutionists landed in the 

to '* and " Presidente Errazuriz," built for the latter part of June and occupied the seaport of 

Chilian Government in France, were completed, Huasco. Balmaceda's forcea levies offered no 




enable the President to cope with the naval also when the Congressionalists appeared, and 
forces of Congress. It was therefore a serious immediately afterward was retaken by the strong 
disappointment to him when the French Govern- force of presidential troops that was harried np 
ment, in judicial proceedings taken at the in- from Coquimbo. The insurgents were likewise 
stance of the agents of the Junta, placed an re-enforced by foot and artillery landed from the 
embargo on the two ships, in order to determine ships and cavalry advancing from Copiapo, and 
whether Balmaceda was, in international law, again drove back the enemy. Troops were sent 
the ruler of Chili. The arguments dragged on up to contest the ground, a severe engagement 
till the middle of June, and resulted in the de- took place on June 28, and skirmishing was con- 
cision of the court thit Balmaceda was President tinned for some weeks, the insurgents taking a 
de fcicto until another person should be placed strong position at Villanar that they could main- 
in the seat of power. The' Junta met with the tain against a superior force. The Government 
same response when it appealed to the Grovern- generals deemed it of importance to regain pos- 
ments of Europe and of the United States and session of this point, for from the valley it was 
the sister republics in South America, excepting possible for the rebels to strike Cpquimbo in the 
Bolivia. Financiers to whom Balmaceda applied rear. They had massed their army at three points, 
for aid found his title questionable, and he met holding a force of 6,500 men at Coquimbo and La 
with delays in getting guns and in hiring crews Serena, where the next struggle was expected to 
% and paying the expenses of the cruisers after be, and a smaller division at Concepcion. ready 
they were released. The French Government for an attack or uprising in the south, besides 
prohibited its citizens from taking service, in ac- the main body around Santiago. The rainy sea- 
cordance with its municipal law of neutrality, son made rapid movements oi troops on land im- 
Lieut. Armit and another British naval officer possible. When the fighting began, Balmaceda 
accepted Chilian commissions, and enlisted men sent re-enforcements as fast as he could, and 
who shipped on the '* Errazuriz,** who took her after a while there were from 10,000 to 12,000 of 
to Lisbon. Chilian officers and marines had his soldiers in Coquimbo. The operations on this 
eone across the Atlantic to form the military coast were in reality a feint intended to draw 
force on the war ships. Men who joined the away troops from Santiago and Valparaiso, 
crew were put ashore or placed in irons when Balmaceda and his generals were surprised 
they demanded advanced pay, according to con- when a fleet of twenty ships anchored in Quin- 
tract. Guns, the French contractors being un- teros Bay, north of Valparaiso, on Aug. 20, and 
able to supply them in time, were obtained from could scarcely believe that the rebels intended to 
the Armstrong Arm. The officers had great dif- fight his army of twice their strength, with other 
ficulty in completing the crew in Lisbon, for the forces within call and the command of all the 
Portuguese Government forbade its subjects to roads and strategic positions. There was doubt 

fo, took off Frenchmen at the request of the as to what part of the coast they intended to 
'rench consul, and required every foreign sea- land on. Admiral Brown went down on the 
man who shipped to show a passport properly "San Francisco" to observe, and from the eir- 
vis^ed. The " Presidente Pinto " met with worse cumstance that the Government troops moved 
mishaps. After leaving the French port, prob- down to Valparaiso after his return, the Chilians 
ably through treachery, for the Congressional afterward charged that American sailors must 
agents were fertile in resources, she ran aground, have acquainted Balmaceda's friends with the 
and after being got off again and repaired, she fact of troops debarking at Quinteros, within 
was taken to Genoa and then to Kiel, in the vain 20 miles of Valparaiso, in twelve hours all their 
endeavor to get on board the armament furnished forces were landed, consisting of 8,200 infantry, 
by the Armstrongs, which the neutrality laws 8 batteries of field artillery and a naval battery, 
would not permit to be transshipped from the making 800 artillery, and oOO cavalry. The Sec- 
steamer that brought the guns from England in retary of War, Befiados Espinosa, who was chief 
any European harbor. The " Errazunz *^ was in command under the direction of Balmaceda, 
finally able to start for South America with a had time to place in the first line of defense, in a 
rough crew of many nationalities. This spurred strongly intrenched position at Concon, 12 miles 
the revolutionary leaders to extraordinary efforts south of Quinteros, an anny of over 8,000 men. 
to bring the conflict to an end before the Presi- The Government commanders were Gen. Barbosa 
dent could make use of the new war ship. and Gen. Alzarreca. Contrary to the judgment 
The Final Campaign.— The Congressional and instructions of Balmaceda, who intended 
army was trained in the German manner of fight- that his generals should draw the enemy inland, 
ing by Commandante Kdnier, who had served and not engage unless they could oppose a force 
under Moltke on the Prussian staff. It was well at least half as great again as the invading army, 
supplied with modem repeating rifies, not only Barbosa determined to dispute the passage of the 
Winchesters and Remingtons, but Mannlichers, Aconcagua river, because beyond was the railroad 
and smokeless powder. The ** Maipo " arrived to Santiago, that the revolutionary forces could 



CHILL 135 

cut bj taking the fortified position at ViOa del Mar retreat a part of the forces went off in good or- 

vith the aid of their ships, or by turning it and de- der, but a large part was scattered, and many 

stroring one of the brioges or the tunnel between ran off into the hills and eagerly threw off their 

Qoilpae and Salto. The Congressional army, led uniforms and put on ordinary clothes that citi' 

by Col. Estanislao del Canto as comraander-in- zens gave them. 

chief of the land forces, was divided into three For the second line of defense Balmaceda had 
brigades, of which the first was commanded by Vifla del Mar, where his whole army of 13,000 
Col. Annilial Frias, the second by Col. Salvador men was intrenched in front of forts that com- 
Vergars, and the third by Col. Enrique del Canto, manded both the approach by sea and a part of 
They marched through the night ol Auff. 20, and the land approaches. The Junta's army marched 
took a position in the same order in which they down the south bank of the river over 16 miles 
marched, with the first brigade on the right, the of broken country, driving back the small de- 
second in the center, and the third on the left, tachments that had been posted at favorable 
their front extending for three miles along a places to impede its advance. In the evening of 
ridge of hills facing the enemy, whose line of Aug. 22 Gen. Canto arrived in front of the main 
intrenchments stretched for four miles along line of defense on the beach. The position was 
the opposite bank of the Aconcagua. The battle protected on the north by the estiiary of YiOa 
was opened by the guns of Col. Canto's battery, del Mar, and the intrenchments, on which the 
and was taken up by the artillery along the soldiers had been busy for two davs, were guard- 
vhole line. The '" Esmeralda " and three smaller ed by the heavy guns of Fort Callao. 
vessels in Concon Bay, five miles from the ford, On the morning of Sunday, Aug. 28, Canto as- 
vith heavy batteries and machine guns, kept up sailed this formidable position, and a furious 
a well-directed fire on the enemy's position dur- battle raged during the greater part of the day. 
ing the cannonading, which lasted an hour and The Congressionalists oared not expose their 
a half. A naval battery of 12 Gardner mitrail- ships to tne guns of the fort, and therefore the 
leases and a regiment of sharpshooters effectively navy could only aid them by an ineffective bom- 
sQpported the three brigades from good positions bardment at long range, except on shore, where 
on the north bank. At one o'clock the infantir all the men that could be spcured from the ships 
crossed the swollen river and climbed the hill joined the land forces and did good service with 
under a hot fire, and, after an hour's hard fight- their machine and ouick-firing guns. The losses 
ing, the advanced guard of the Government was on both sides were heavy, ana the combat was a 
driren out, falling back on the strongly in- drawn battle, as Balmaceda, who had come to 
trenched position of the main body on higher the front to take command, was able to hold his 
ground beyond. Supported by the artillery, the forces together and defend the narrow line, in 
Congressional infantry assailed them there, and, front of which there was not room for Canto to 
after two hours more of desperate fighting, the deploy his infantry. Finding that he could not 
President's commander drew off what he could force this position and co-operate with the navy 
save of bis army. He began the fight with a in reducing Fort Callao, the northern defense of 
force nearly equal to the enemy, and held a posi- Valparaiso, Gen. Canto could not continue the 
tioQ that would have been impregnable, despite campaign without parting from the fieet and run- 
the deadly and distracting boml^rdment from ning a great risk of having his retreat cut off. 
the ships, if all his troop had the heart that a On Aug. 24 he drew off his forces, while the **E8- 
krge part of them displayed. Such strenuous meralda " and the " Cochrane " kept up a fire on 
and courageous fighting between two tired armies the forts at Vifia del ]f ar to divert the attention of 
has rarely been seen. The commanders knew bet- the Government troops, and pushed inland. Corn- 
ier than Balmaceda the untrustworthy elements pie ting the obstruction of the railroad at Salto, 
of which his army was largely composed and the they rested for a day at Quilpue,andon the 26th 
dangerous temper of the population, imbittered proceeded to march on Valparaiso by way of Las 
by his barbarities, which he had crowned the day Falmas and Placilla, making a detour around 
before the troops of Congress landed by having the city in order to attack it from the south side, 
shot in relays OO well-connected youths who had where there was the least exposure to the guns 
been caught meeting for some political purpose of the forts. Balmaceda mancBuvred to maintain 
at Los CaAos, an estate near Santiago. Kailroad a defensive position. When the enemy a p- 
communication with Santiago was iSready closed preached Placilla, he took up a strong position 
by friends of the insurgents, who had destroyed on the heights beyond the village, two miles 
the bridges with dynamite. There were enough nearer to Valparaiso. Desertions from Balma- 
troops in the field to overwhelm the Congressional ceda's troops swelled the Congressional army to 
army if the President's soldiers would fight. The about 12,0(K) men. 
events of the battle field at the Aconcagua cross- On the morning of Aug. 28, long before day- 




killed and 700 wounded, their complete victory ground overlooking the Placilla plain. The 

turned the chances of war in their favor. Their Government troops had no cavalry scouts out, 

loss was made good by 1,500 men of the oppos- but held their cavalry in reserve for the end of 

ing army who deserted to them, some of them the battle, which the Balmacedists felt sure of 

^thout breaking their formations. They took winning if they were attacked, for their artillery 

18 field pieces and a large train of ammunition, was posted on hills commanding the village and 

On the Government stele two whole regiments the plain in front and on the right. Under 

«ere annihilated and the killed exceed^ 1,000, cover of the darkness, the woods, and the undu- 

the wounded a much greater number. In the lating ground, the fixst and third brigades of 



136 CHILL 

Cantons army got into place on the two flanks Valparaiso^and Admiral Mont t went ashore, and^ 
nnobserved. About seven o'clock the second at a conference* with the foreign admirals and 
brigade descended the slopes, and the Govern- the trUendente, demanded and was formally tend- 
ment batteries opened fire on them as they ered the unconditional surrender of the city and 
advanced on the double quick over the plain, of all the officers and troops as prisoners of war. 
Thinking them the leading columns, the Gov- The members of the Junta arrived from Iqulque, 
emment forces were concentrated to repel an and were installed at the capital on Sept S. JBe- 
attack in front The wings advanced, and first fore the victors took possession of Santiago, the 
the infantry on the Government right was driven chief members and supporters of Balmaceda's gov. 
back. Soon afterward the Congressional right emment had escaped or hidden, or taken renige 
wing began to advance, and at the end of two in the foreign legations, where the hunted objects 
hours of fighting the weakened left of the Presi- of their vengeance had received protection. The 
dent was nearly outflanked. The artillery in same vindictive fury was now exhibited by their 
the center was turned to this quarter and checked adversaries. The corpses of the dead generals 
the advance. The Tarapaca regiment melted were paraded through the streets of Valparaiso, 
under the destructive fire. K5rner, coming to The wounded on the battle field were murdered 
their support with two regiments, by a long di- by degraded savages, and those who escaped this 
tour turned the enemy's left flank completely, fate were left to suffer for days where tney lay 
In the mean time the Congressional left was gain- by their victors, who neglectea at first to organ- 
ing ground, and the center advanced steadily, ize a hospital service even for their own wounded. 
The artillery ammunition at the front began to The houses of Balmaceda's friends were burned 
run short, and the Grovernment wines had both and their estates ravaged. A ceaseless hunt was 
spent nearly all their cartridges. The Congres- kept up for the fallen President When it was 
sional batteries had advanced sufficiently to cover suppo^ that he had been taken on to the ** San 
a cavalry attack up the hiU from Placula. The Francisco," the lives of Americans were not safe, 
first charge was beaten back with great loss to He left Santiago on Aug. 29, in the hope of cs- 
the insurgents. A second follow^, and the caning on the ** Condell, but returned on Sept 
rifiemen who were advanced to repel it were de- 2, oecause the passes of the Andes were blocked 
ceived by a detachment which gained the brow with snow, and remained concealed in the Argen- 
of the hill where Gen. Barbosa and Gen. Alzar- tine legation, where, on Sept 19, he took his own 
reca were and sabered both the commanders, life (see Obituaries, Foreign). The vengeance 
Meanwhile the Congressional right had gained visited on Balmacedists by the mob was not coun- 
the heij^hts, havinir both fianked and pierced the tenanced by the new Government, which sought 
defendmg line. Tne Government infantry broke to restrain lawless violence. One of the Dic- 
and ran, except such as were eager for a chance tator's ministers, Aldunate, was murdered by his 
to throw down their arms and surrender. The escort at Quillota. The military authorities, after 
gunners still stood to their guns, and the cavalry the capture of Valparaiso, asked for the surrcn- 
came up under fire and charged the Congres- der of the military and civil officers of Balma- 
sional cavalry, to protect the retreating infantry ceda's Government who had escaped to the for- 
as it fled down the road to Valparaiso. By eign vessels, but the American, German, and £ng- 
elc^ven o'clock the battle was over. Of the Gov- lish naval commanders refused, 
emment troops, 8,000 were taken prisoners, 1,000 Bale of the Junta. — When the Provisional 
were killed, and 1,500 were wounded. TheOppo- Government was established in Santia£^> the 
sitibn had 400 killed and nearly 1,000 wounded. United States, Germany, and the other foreign 
All resistance was now at an end, and nothing countries formally recognized it as the de facto 
remained but to take possession of the town. Government, and received its accredited diplomat- 
Admiral Viel, the intenderUe, resided his au- ic representatives. The internal administration 
thority into the hands of the foreign admirals, was got into working order after some disturbance 
who, in conference with Gen. Canto, named Car- in Coronel and other places. Balmaceda's officials 
los Walker Martinez as provisional governor, were dismissed, and many of the old ones rein- 
The victorious army began to enter the citv at stated. One of the first acts was to restore the 
one o'clock, cheered by the entire populace, judges, who had all been removed unconstitution- 
Capt. Alberto Fuontes, of the " Lynch,' fled, but ally by Balmaceda, because they would not give 
left the flag flying, and the boat was fired on legal sanction to his irregularities. The acts of 
from the shore until the colors were lowered, confiscation carried out by the Dictator's officers 
Insufficient guards were placed in the streets, were requited by the confiscation of their proper- 
and at night a drunken and frenzied mob held ty. Balmaceda's issues of paper money, amount- 
possession, firing buildings and terrifying citi- ing to 27,000,000 pesos, held largely by the banks, 
zens by the reckless firing of the discarded arms presented a troublesome problem. To avert a 
of Balmaceda's troops, murdering about 600 financial panic, the Junta decided to recognize 
men, women, and children. The behavior of the certain issues and to assume the forced loans 
victorious army was exemplary, with few excep- raised from the banks by B^maceda, which 
tions. President-elect. VicuSfa, Capt. Fuentes, amounted to 9,000,000 pesos. A general election 
ex-Minister Godoy, and other men who were for Senators, Deputies, municipal officers, and 

Erominent in Balmaceda's Government fled on presidential electors was ordered to be held in 
oard the foreign ships. the middle of October. Two months before his 
Early in the morning of Aug. 29 Balmaceda's fall, Balmaceda had transferred from the treasunr 
representatives at the capital asked for a confer- vaults to the British war vessel ** Espiegle " sil- 
ence with a view to its surrender, and Gen. Baque- ver bars weighing 80 tons, of the vuueof fl,- 
dano was commissioned to act for the Junta. 000,000, which the gunboat conveyed to Monte- 
The Congicssional fleet entered the harbor of video to be consigned to England in payment 



CHILI. 137 

for an Italian Tessel in Montevideo and for the Junta, although supported by the Spanish 

Armstrong guns. As this was the property of and other ministers in Santiago. Special ani- 

the state and part of a snecific reserve created mosity was entertained towanl the American 

br law, the Junta obtained an injunction in the naval officers and sailors, because they were be- 

English courts while it was still on the sea. lieved to have communicated military intelli- 

Tbe Cabinet of the Provisional Government was genoe to Balmaceda's army. The ** Baltimore " 

completed by the accession of Augustin Edwards really performed an important service for Bal- 

ss Minister of Public Works and Manuel Alatta roaceda in assisting agents of the American Cable 

as Minister of Foreign Affairs. This formed a Companv to cut the cable at Iquique, closing 

coalition of all the political parties except the telegrapnio communications with the insurgents 

Balmaoedista. Minister of Justice Errazuriz and opening a connection with Valparaiso, 

issued many orders for the arrest of persons ac- On Oct. 16, when two boats' crews from the 

cused of having participated in acts of pillage, *' Baltimore " and other American sailors were 

in flogging or torturing friends of the Junta, in ashore, an altercation arose between Chilian 

riolating the mails, in the massacre at Los Cafios sailors and some of the '* Baltimore's " men in a 

on Aug. 18, in the shooting of Cummings, and drinking saloon, and one of the Chilians was 

other outrages committed under Balmaceda's knocked down. The Americans were then as- 

Goremment. In the elections in October the saulted with knives and other weapons, and 

Liberals and Radicals, united under the name of when they boarded a street car they were pur- 

the Liberal party, obtained a majority of 21 to sued by a great mob and were dragged from the 

5 m the Senate and of 56 to 88 in the Chamber car. The affair grew into a riot. Cnilian sailors 

of Deputies. The Liberals and Conservatives and police constables interfered to protect the 

vere tne only parties. The new Congress assem- men from the fury of the armed mob, though 

bled on the last dav of that month. Waldo certain members of the police guard were said 

Silva was re-elected Vice-president of the Senate by the sailors and other witnesses to have joined 

and Barros Luco President of the Chamber, in the attack, and to have used their weapons on 

The Council of State having been constituted the unarmed stran^rs. 

without giving representation to the Conserva- Charles W. Riggin, boatswain *s mate, who was 
tire part^. Minister of the Interior Irrarazaval believed to be the man that struck the Chilian, 
and Minister of A^culture Joaquin Walker was shot, and died in the arms of Petty Officer 
Martinez offered their resignations. Afterward Johnson, who thought that the shot was fired by 
arrangements were made for the inclusion of a policeman. More than a hundred armed men 
their party, in conse()uence of which they con- fell upon the sailors when they were dracrged off 
seuted to retain their portfolios. Conventions the car. George Panter, Patrick McWilliams, 
of both parties nominated Admiral Jorge Montt and William Tumbull, coal-heavers, David W. 
to be the next constitutional President^ and he Anderson, painter, John Hamilton, carpenter's 
was elected bv the electoral colle^ in November, mate, John W. Talbot t and Francis D. Williams, 
Pending his formal election and inauguration on apprentices, and John H. Davidson, landsman. 
Bee. 26, he was empowered by Congress to as- were assaulted with clubs, stones, and knives, 
some all the authority of Chief Executive. Anderson, Tumbull, Panter, Davidson, and 
Difficiilties with the United States.— Dur- Hamilton received dangerous stab wounds in 
in^ the civil war the partisans of the Junta con- the back. About fifteen were slightly injured, 
ceived an idea that Patrick E^n, United States Tumbull subsequently died of his injuries, 
minister in Santiago, was hostile to their cause. American sailors not of the party that began the 
and that the Government at Washington acted affray were set upon in various parts of the city, 
in an unfriendlr manner in the ** Itata '' incident The police finally suppressed the riot and ai^ 
and in withholaing the recognition of belligerent restea all who were suspected of having a part 
rights. Animositv toward uie United States has in it. The Chilian disturbers easily concealed 
been felt from the time when Chilian miners themselves, only three being arrested at the time, 
were driven out of California, and was revived by American men-of-war's men, being in uniform 
the attitude of the American Ooverament dur- and having no place to escape to, were arrested 
ing the Peruvian war, when it exerted its influ- wherever seen, thirty-six in all, and while be- 
ence to prevent the annexation of the nitrate ing taken to jail and after they were there they 
provinces. English influences contributed to were subjected to ill treatment Apprentice 
the misconstruction of Minister Egan's pacific Williams said that a mounted policeman placed 
exertions and correctlv neutral conduct The catgut nippers around his wrists and then 
prejudice against Mr. Eganand the country that spurred his horse, throwing the prisoner down, 
be represented afterwara moderated when 'it be- Quiglev, a coal-heaver, while Irving to escape 
came known that throughout the war he had from the mob, was struck by a police officer with 
harbored in his house Augustin Edwards and a sword. Hamilton, dangerously wounded, was 
other hunted chiefs of the Opposition. During dragged to prison, and one of his mates was 
the period of reconstruction, before the passions threatened with a clubbed musket for trying to 
of the war had abated and when the authority relieve him. At the prison the sailors were 
of law was still in abeyance and public order made to sign a paper, and when Khinehardt, one 
constantly disturbed, it was remembered that of the prisoners, asked its meaning, he was told 
Mr. Eean's dispatches to his Oovemment belit- that it was a formal declaration that the signer 
tied tbe rebellion and ma^ified Balmaceda*8 was not engaged in the trouble. Commander 
strength, and the anti- American feeling was in- W. S. Schley, of the ** Baltimore,** ordered an in- 
tensified through his demand for a safe conduct vestigation, the results of which he telegraphed 
for the Balroaoedist fugitives who found an to Washington on Oct. 22. On receipt of his 
ssylum in the legation, which was refused by report, President Harrison consulted with the 



138 CHILI. CHINA. 

Secretaries of State and of the Navy, and on the CHINA, an empire in eastern Asia. The 

day following a dispatch was sent to Minister reigning sovereign, Kwangsn, born in 1871 , was 

Egan, in which he was instructed to demand of proclaimed Emperor on the death of Tungchi, on 

the Chilian Government, which had expressed as Jan. 22, 1875, and assumed the government per- 

yet no regret or purpose to investigate or bring sonally in March, 1887, when he became of age, 

the ^ilty parties to justice, whether it possessed but first took the direction of affairs in Feb- 

q[ualifying evidence or could give any '*explana- nmry, 1889, when he married and the Kinpress 

tion of an event which has deeply pained the Dowa^r, who had acted as Regent during his 

people of the United States, not only by reason minonty, retired. 

that it resulted in the death of one of our sailors Area and Population. — The area of the 
and the pitiless wounding of others, but even eighteen provinces forming China proper is esti- 
more as an apparent expression of unfriendliness mated at 1,297,990 square miles and the popula- 
toward'this Government, which might put in tion at 883,000,000 souls. The outlying aepend- 
peril the maintenance of amicable relations be- encies, exclusive of Corea, are Manchuria, with 
tween the two countries." The dispatch con- an area of 862,810 souare miles and about 12,- 
eluded with a demand for reparation. The at- 000,000 population ; Mongolia, of which the area 
tack on American sailors, which was regarded in is l,288,0(x) square miles and the population 
Washington as a national insult, since they wore 2,000,000; Tibet, having an area of 651,^00 
the uniform of the American navy, occurred at square miles and about 6,000,000 inhabitants ; 
a time when the relations between the two gov- Jungaria, covering 147,950 square miles, with 
emments were already strained through the ao- 600,000 inhabitants ; and eastern Turkestan, oc- 
tion of the Junta with reference to the refugees cupying an area of 431,800 square miles, with a 
sheltered by Minister Egan. The provisional population of 580,000. The Confucian religious 
authorities not only refused to grant safe con- svstem is generally accepted among the Chinese, 
ducts for these men, but demanded their sur- though there are multitudes of Buddhists and 
render on the ground that they were criminals, many adherents of Taoism. The Roman Catho- 
and when the American minister would not give lie Church counted in 1881 1,092,818 converts, 
them up a p^uard was placed near his house and ministered to by 41 bishops, 664 European priests 
persons gomg in and out were arrested, among and 559 native priests. The Protestant Chris- 
them three American citizens. tians were estimated in 1881 at 19,000 and in 
The " Yorktown " and ** Boston " were ordered 1887 at 83,750. The number of foreigners resid- 
to Chili to back up the demand for satisfaction, ing in the open ports on Jan. 1, 1890, was 7,905, 
The reply of the Junta was that the Govern- of whom 8.276 were British subjects, 1,061 
ment of the United States formulated demands Americans, 794 Japanese, 596 Germans, 551 
and advanced threats that were not acceptable. Frenchmen, and 848 Spaniards. About half of 
and could not be accepted in the present case them were resident at ShanghaL 
nor in anv case of like nature ; and that the Finance. — The total receipts of the imperial 
affair would be investigated and dealt with ac- treasury from the land tax, the grain tax, and 
cording to the procedure of the municipal law of duties on salt, customs duties, and other imposts 
Chili, but that the results of the inquiry would are supposed to amount to $125,000,000 annual- 
be communicated to the United States Govern- ly. The land tax, partly payable in silver, fields 
ment, without recognizing, however, any right of about 20,000,000 haikwan taels. (The haikwan 
intervention in the course of justice. Iliis reply, or customs tael is a weight of silver of the value 
couched in terms so offensive that no answer was of $1.17.) This tax varies from 75 cents in the 
returned, coupled with the refusal of Judge of north to $8.25 in the south per acre. The mari- 
Crimes Foster, who conducted the secret pre- time customs, which are unaer European super- 
Hminary examination, to allow American officers vision, amount to 23,200,000 haikwan taels a 
to be present, gave rise to fears of severely year. This includes the likin or internal transit 
strainea relations between the two nations that duty on opium, which can be commuted and 
might end in a diplomatic rupture, possibly in paid in at tne port of entr^ according to the new 
war. Judge Foster subsequently consented to convention witn Great Britain. The rice tribute 
the appearance of an officer of the ** Baltimore " is estimated at 2,800,000 taels a year, the salt tax 
at the secret inquiry, and agreed to furnish the at 9,600,000 taels, the native maritime and inland 
American representatives with copies of all the customs at 6,000,000 taels, transit duties on opium 
depositions. Before taking any action in the andother foreign and native products at 11, 000,- 
matter, the United States Government waited to 000 taels, and license fees at 2,000,000 taels. 
give the Chilian Government time and opportu- The annual expenditure on the army is about 
nity to communicate the results of the judicial $75,000,000. 

investigation and to reply in pertinent and satis- The foreign debts of China are £627.675, bor- 

factory terms to the representations contained in rowed at 8 per cent, in 1874, and £1,604,276, bor- 

the American note relating to the incident. If rowed in 1878 at the same rate of interest, both 

these expectations should be disappointed, or if loans being secured on the customs revenue ; a 

further needless delays should ensue, President silver loan of £1,505,000 raised in 1884 ; loans 

Harrison, in his annual message, announced his amounting to £2,250,000 contracted in 1886 ; and 

purpose to bring the matter to the attention of one of £250,000 obtained in Germany in 1887. 

Congress in a special message. The Procurator The ArmT.—- The Chinese Empire is divided 

found three Chilians guilty of stabbing Ameri- into five military districts, corresponding with 

cans, and Davidson ^ilty of assaulting a Chilian, political divisions, viz. : Manchuria, the eighteen 

After his inauguration and the reconstitution of provinces, Chinese Turkestan, Mongolia, and 

the Cabinet, President Montt directed Minister Tibet. The Manchus or soldiers of the Eight 

Montt to withdraw Matta*8 note. Banners, forming the old imperial army and en- 



CHINA* 139 

dowed with special privileges, number about goods, 8,975,476 taels ; of kerosene oil, 2,876,490 
2s8,00O, of whom only about 90,000, including Uels; of coal, 2,376,777 taels; of timber, 2,854,- 
tfae Pekin garrison of 18,000 men, can be count- 000 taels ; of raw cotton, 1,218,849 taels. The 
ed on for effective service in war, beinp^ drilled quantity of tea exported fell off from 2,167,552 
in the European manner and armed with mod- piculs of 138^ pounds in 1888 to 1,807,808 piculs, 
em firearms. The troops of the eighteen prov- of which 608,1^ went to Great Britain, 296,148 
incest, the Qreen Flag or Chinese army, numbers to the United States, 180,405 to Hong-Kong, 
5:)9,000; but of these not more than 98,000 v«ns 189,628 to Australia, and 586,494 to Russia. The 
or volunteers and 161,000 Ijan^runa are effect- value of the tea exports was 28,257,000 taels, 
ire. The capital province of Pecnili is defended falling a little behind the figure for raw silk, 
bj 99,000 soldiers, all well trained, with 581 can- which was 28,257,000 taels. Silk manufactures 
n'ons, of which 245 are of the patterns now used were exported of the value of 7,760,000 taels ; 
in war. In the province of Kwangsi and on the cotton, 5,045,000 taels; sugar, 2,728,062 taels; 
LMand of Formosa are strong bodies of instruct- straw goods, 2,083,775 taels ; clothing, 1,709,591 
ed and disciplined troops provided with a supe- taels ; paper, 1,422,825 taels ; mats, 1,241,000 
rior armament. taels ; fteworks, 1,215,000 taels ; chinaware, 688,- 
The frontier provinces of eastern Turkestan, 428 taels. Of the total imports, agricultural 
Hi, and Tarbagatai are guarded by 80,000 sol- products made 40 per cent. ; fishery products, 
diers, of whom 8,100 have received military in- 2*8 per cent. ; forest products, 2*5 per cent : 
stmction. Mongolia has its own militia, num- mineral products, 11 per cent. ; and products of 
bering 117,000 men, and Tibet its two bodies of industries, 48*7 per cent Of the exports, 45 per 
militia, numbering 64,000 men, including 14,000 cent, consisted of agricultural, 85*8 of animal, 
cavalry ; but of both bodies only 80,000 men are and 19*2 of industriiu products, 
kept under arms. According to these estimates, The report of the Maritime Customs for 1890 
the total numerical strength of the Chinese army shows an increase of the imports to 127,093,481 
is 1,038,000 men, of which number not more than taels, while exports declined to 87,144,480 taels. 
387,000 oonld perform service in case of war. The decline was due to inundations and the in- 
The Netj. — ^The Chinese Minister of Marine creased competition of India and Ceylon in the 
began the reor^nization of the war fleet on tea trade ; while the increase of 14 per cent, in 
European lines m 1885. The three squadrons-^ the imports was owing to the rise m the gold 
those of Canton, Foochow, and Shanghai — ^were value of silver, which acted also as a deterrent 
then ordered to be combined to form the squad- of exportation. There was a much greater im- 
Ton of the north and that of the south. The port of rice. The import of cotton goods in- 
Northern or Pei-Yang Squadron consists of 8 creased 25 per cent Tne consumntion of Indian 
large ironclads, 2 small ironclads, 2 cruisers, 11 yam expanded in a remarkable aegree, the im- 
pnboats, 4 torpedo cruisers, and 27 torpedo ports rising from 678,558 piculs in 1889 to 1,- 
boats. The Nan-Tang or Southern Squadron is 081,495 piculs. valued at 19,800,000 taels. The 
still in process of formation. There are 9 cruis- export of tea fell off to 1,665,396 piculs, valued 
ers, 3 gunboats, and 9 dispatch boats in the Foo- at 26,663,450 taels. Silk, raw and manufact- 
chow sauadron. The Shanghai flotilla has an ured, declined from 86,401,967 to 80,255,905 
armor-clad frigate, a gunboat, and several wood- taels. The duties collected by th^ Maritime 
en monitors, and the Canton flotilla consists of Customs in 1890 were 21,996,226 taels. 
about a dozen river gunboats. Naylgatlon. — In 1889 there were 20,145 ves- 
Commeree and Production.— The value of sels, of tne aggregate capacity of 28,517,884 tons, 
the imports, as returned by the Bureau of Mari- entered and cleared at the ports of China. Of 
time Customs for 1889, was 110,884,855 haikwan these, 24,604, of 22,684,132 tons, were steamers, 
taels, and the value of the exports 96,947,882 Of the total number 15,768, of 14,903,750 tons, 
taels. The direct imports from Great Britain were British; 9,427, of 6,020,526 tons, Chinese; 
were 21,167,357, and the exports to Great Britain 2,656, of 1,582,648 tons, German : 528, of 441,667 
15.656,907 taels; the imports from Hong-Kong tons, Japanese; 179, of 269,002 tons, French; 
63^371,061, and exports to Hong-Kong 85,186,- and 178, of 75,077 tons, American. 
644 taels; imports direct from India 7,906,579, Communications.— The coal railroad from 
and exports to India 1,089,965 taels ; imports the mines at Kaiping to the head of navigation 
direct from the United States 3,806,664, and ex- on the Petang was continued by wav of Taku to 
ports to the United States 7,084,121 taels; im- Tientsin, the total length being 86 miles. The 
ports from Russia 766,170, and exports to Rus- order to extend it to Tungchow, near Pekin, was 
sia 7J389,322 taels; imports from otner European rescinded, and nothing has yet been done to 
countries 2,205,988, and exports to those coun- carry out the great scheme for a strategic rail- 
tries 17,633,707 taels ; imports from Japan 6,- road from Pekin to Hankow, on the Y angtse- 
^1»S33, and export-s to Japan 6,469,080 taels. Kiang, which was approved by the Emperor in 
These figures include both the imports and ex- 1889. The net of telegraphs connects the capi- 
portsof the open treaty ports and tne junk trade tal with all the ports and the chief centers in 
of Hong-Kon^ and Macao with the south of the interior. 

China, which is declared at the custom houses Anti-Christian Riots. — The enmity of the 

of Kowloon and Lappa. Chinese toward Europeans spring not merely 

The imports of cotton goods in 1889 had a from race antipathy and superstitious prejudice, 

total value of 86,135,596 haikwan taels, of which The natural animosity that is felt in all parts of 

13,019,000 taels represent cotton yams ; imports the world, especially among the ignorant classes, 

of opium, 80,444,^0 taels ; of metals, 6,728,894 against people alien in race and civilization, is 

Ms; of rice, 6,021.000 taels; of beche de mer intensified m China by intelligent motives of 

ftod other sea products, 4,508,987 taels; of woolen self-interest arising from the treaty rights and 



140 CHINA. 

privileges secured to Europeans as the result of the army that put down the rebellion was largely 
victorious wars and enforced by gunboats. The drawn, as is tne Chinese army to-day, from the 
presence of Europeans has caused a great in- rude and truculent peasantry of tUQ Yangtse 
crease in the imperial taxes, and for every out^ country, and particularly from the great prov- 
break of mob violence a^nst the ** foreifi;n ince of Hunan. In Hunan was founded, about 
devils " a heavy indemnity is Exacted from the fifty years ago as a mutual benefit and protective 
offending district. Before the French and Brit- association, a secret order called the Kolao Hui, 
ish governments assumed the protection of mis- which was composed in the beginning entirely of 
sionaries and made their grievances a plea for active and discharged soldiers of the Chinese 
demanding humiliating concessions, the Roman army. This society attained great power among* 
Catholic missionary oraers made thousands of the soldiers engaged on the imperial side during 
converts; since the missionaries were made a the Taiping rebellion. Its chief object was to 
counter in the political and commercial same protect them from the plunder and extortion of 
and, relying on being backed bj armed lorce, the civil officials, who used them, as they do 
assumed offensive airs of authonty, their labors now, to embezzle monev appropriated by the 
have not been fruitful, and they have provoked Central Government for the pay and maintenance 
many riotous attacks, ending usually in the de- of troops. Authorities who lU- treated the sol- 
struction of their churches and mission build- diers incurred the vengeance of this secret soci- 
ings, which have been rebuilt on the demand of ety. Some were assassinated, others had their 
the European diplomatic representatives at the houses or property destroyed, or sometimes their 
cost of the native communitjr. The Christian punishment consisted in sudden and turbulent 
converts are not respected or liked by the China- disorders that were incited in their districts for 
men who cling to toe ideas and civilization of the mere purpose of bringing about their oflScial 
their fathers, and they become an outcast class, disgrace. Oaths and ceremonies characteristic 
and continue so even when they have fallen away of Chinese secret societies were gradually intro- 
from their Christian teachings. The Taiping duced, such as killing a cock and drinking: its 
sect was largely composed of descendants of blood in wine at initiation, and the importation 
Christian converts, ana since the great rebellion of the supernatural by reading the oracles traced 
conservative Chinamen have regaraed with anx- by a pencil suspended from a board and moved 
iety the prospect of a spread of Christianity and involuntarily by superimposed hands. As the 
of European influence and civilization. The society grew in size and came to admit civilians, 
anti-foreign sentiment is strongest in the places as well as soldiers and officers, the scope and 
where Europeans have most recently made their purposes were enlarged, though its original mil- 
appearance, and where a disturbance of the cus- itary objects were not lost sight of ; and it pre- 
tomary channels of trade and the professions by served its secular character, keeping free from 
which people gain their living is anticipated the religious tendencies that distin^ish some of 
from their competition and the introduction of the great secret societies, and thus inclining the 
steamboats and other modem inventions. Ichang more readily to political activity. Like others 
and the other treaty ports on the Yangtse river of these bodies, it entertained a strong hostility 
are the only places in the interior of China in toward foreigners, and has long been known to 
which Europeans other than missionaries are be specially antaiiionistic to Christians and mis- 
permitted to reside and carry on business. The sionaries, probably owing to its traditions in con- 
people of the river towns have been exasperated nection with the Taiping rebellion. The perse- 
lateiy by the persistent demands of the English cutions of the Jesuit priests and their congrega- 
Oovemment to have Chungking, the commercial tions in Yunnan and Szechnan have been attril>- 
capital of the great province of Szechuan, made uted to the machinations of the Kolao Hui. The 
an open treaty port. The Chinese authorities society is supposed to have a membership of 40,- 
resisted this claim for years, denying that the 000,000. Its ramifications extend into all parts 
Chefoo convention required them to open that of northern and central China. It has repre- 
town to trade or the Yangtse to foreign ves- sentatives in all classes, even among high-placed 
sels beyond Ichang. The place was nominally mandarins. Powerful viceroys have endeavored 
opened and a custom house inaugurated at last to crush it out, but it has continued to spread 
on March 1, 1891, though the fear of mobs still and flourish, owin{^ to the corruption and ti- 
prevents the English from taking advantage of midity of local officials. In troubled times it is 
it, for they have obtained no concession of suspected of anarchistic and anti-dynastic plots, 
wharves and building sites and have* agreed not ana then the detection of a ticket oi membership 
to run steamboats in the upper river. The popu- is followed by the immediate execution of the 
lace in the Yangtse valley m 1891 was in a con- holder. Apart from political objects, the associ- 
dition to be easuy excited against the Europeans ation has a criminal character, lor members are 
or against the Government that had shown com- sworn to avenge one another's private wrongs, 
plaisance to foreign demands. The foreign tea When Chinese officials give offense to the peo- 
trade had been taken away from them by the pie, it is a common practice to compel them to 
great planters of Assam and Ceylon, causing an amend their faults by producing riotous disturb- 
mcreasing amount of idleness and distress year ances that have no immediate connection with 
by year, and in this year a drought had pre- the oucstion at issue. Any matter on which the 
vented the farmers from raising crops and de- mina of the mob can be easily inflamed will ac- 
prived farm hands of work. complish the object. The Kolao Hui has recently 
This country, in which these special conditions had a special gnevance in the discontinuance of 
worked together to cause a recrudescence of the a pension of w),000 taels a month that has been 
anti-foreign spirit had been the theatre of some distributed since 1864 among the veterans of the 
of the chief conflicts of the Taiping war, and Taiping war by the Kiangnan viceroy. 



CHINA. 141 

WliAteTer was the inciting cause, a series of dis- ents were said to have gone to the mission and 
torbanoes that could only be due to a wide- there discovered human bones and other evi- 
spread conspiracy occurred in the valley of the dence of the ghastly crimes charged a^inst the 
Yangtse-Kiaiig in 1891. The avowed object was missionaries. Placards were posted in public 
to drive the missionaries out of the country. The places giving circumstantial details and the 
Kolao Hui was suspected both by the Europeans names o{ parents who had lost their children, 
and by the Chinese authorities to be the onlj The converts were said to be bribed to join the 
Agency by which such disorders could be insti- churches, otherwise they would not commit such 
gated in places far apart. The ultimate object a breach of moralitv and custom as to sit, both 
wts supposed to be to drive Europeans away sexes together, in the congregations, 
from Cmiiaand revoke their treaty rights. There A few days before the riot an anonymous let- 
was a suspicion that the conspirators even aimed ter was sent to the priests demanding the sur- 
at the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty, either render of certain children that they were accused 
for the more effectual banishment of the barba- of having stolen, on pain of having their orphan- 
nans, to whom the ruling powers at Pekin were age burned down. They applied to the taotm, 
too deeply committed, or for the accomplish- or local governor, for protection, and he gave 
ment of the designs of ambitious statesmen, or them a guard of soldiers. All that there were 
the realisation of the dream, which has more in the place was 60, although the officials re- 
thsn onoe cropped out in troubled times, of the ceived money for the nay and maintenance of 
restoration of native Chinese rulers. ten times as many. On may 10 two Chinese nuns 

When it is the object of agitators to incite the were arrested on the charge of having drugged 
Chinese mob to attack the Christian missions, it two children, depriving them of the power of 
is only necessary to revive an old slander that is speech. On May 13 a woman presented herself 
readily swallowed by the ignorant, and even by at the gate of the mission and beean scream- 
some who make pretensions to education. It is ing that her child had been murdered. In a 
a common belief that the Catholic fathers pro- short time a mob of 10,000 people gathered about 
care Chinese babies for the purpose of com- 'the mission buildings. The French priests were 
funding a medicine of their eyes and other rouffhly handled, but allowed to escape. The 
parts ol their bodies. That the missionaries re- builaings were sacked and burned. Tnen they 
ceire deserted and sick children into their or- tore up the p^raves in the Christian cemetery in 
phanages is a fact within the knowledge of all. search of evidence of the murderous practices of 
Among these children the mortalitv is necessarily which the priests were suspected. The small 
great, and the fable has arisen from the fact ^ard of soldiers cotild not prevent the destruc- 
that many children have died and never again tion of the new cathedral and all the buildings, 
been seen bj inquiring relatives. The Catholics The iaoiai issued a manifesto warning the people 
seciade their pupils and keep their methods of to disperse, and was answered by a fresh placard 
instruction out of the public view, and this accusmg him and the military commander of 
secrecy gives greater currency to the report, accepting Christian bribes and being in league 
The Irotestants, who have been less successful in with the oarbarians. The mob had acted thus far 
their missionary efforts, sa^ that their rivals res* within the prearranged programme, which they 
cue children from infanticide and neglect not exceeded when they destroyed the dwellings of 
purely from humane motives, but because each the other European residents and attacked the 
child adds one to the list of converts that they custom house, where the Europeans of the town 
can report to their superiors in Europe. had taken refuge. The men stood a siege, 

At tne bottom of all anti-foreign outbreaks in keeping guard with firearms during that and 

China have always been men of the numerous the following da^. At one time they charged 

litemry class, expectant officials who have passed into the crowd with bayonets. The British con- 

the lower examinations and hope by causing the sulate was looted, and the consul and his wife 

displacement of functionaries to obtain offices, escaped with difficulty in disguise. The arrival 

and who hate Christianity because it diminishes of 3 Chinese gunboats that were escorting a 

their influence over the people. viceroy to his province put an end to the uis- 

The flrst outbreak of fanaticism occurred early turbances. The Chinese officer landed 250 ma- 
in Hay, 1891, at Yangchow, where a mob de- rines, who fired blank cartridf;es, scattering the 
stroyed the property of the Boman Catholic mob, and preserved order until a French vessel 
miision. This was followed by a more serious came to relievo them. The i<u>tai issued a proc- 
disturbance on May 12 and 13 at Wuhu, a treaty lamation in which he called upon people who 
port of 100,000 inhabitants on the lower Yangtse, found that the Christian institutions steal chil- 
about 60 miles above Nankin. This is in the dren to lay the matter before the proper judicial 
ecclesiastical province of Kiangnan, covering authorities. Three days after the riot a violent 
243,000 square miles, where the French Jesuits incendiary placard invited the people to rise in 
have 103 missions, with 110 priests and a Catho- their tens of thousands on the 20th and complete 
lie population of 100,000, which is less than 1 to the destruction of all the Catholic and Protes- 
erery 700 inhabitants. In Wuhu the jealousy tant mission property and churches in the dis- 
of the people toward the priests is the livelier trict, and allow none to be rebuilt Before the 
because the latter have acquired much of the end of the month riots occurred at Tanyang, 
best real estate and wharves, for which they col- Wuhsih, Nankin, and other places on the Yangste 
lect high rents. Secret agents started a rumor river, the object in all cases oeing the destruction 
that female kidnappers had been detected in of mission buildings. At Nankin a mob destroyed 
abducting children with the aid of stupefying some of the Catholic buildings on May 25, and 
drags and even of magic and brining them then set fire to the girls* school of the American 
from distant places to the Wuhu mission. Par- Methodist mission. The action of the military 



142 CHINA. 

soon checked the disorder there, although the French and Gennan gunboats arrived at the 
viceroy, Liu Kung-yi, -seems to have taken little places where disturbances had taken place, 
interest in preserving order. The missionaries and by their presence prevented their re- 
had all fled by steamer, having been warned by the currence. The English people had been the first 
authorities. At Wuchen, on Lake Poyang, the to ask for naval protection, but none of their 
property of both the Catholic and the Pcotestant numerous gunboats had been sent to the scene 
communities was destroyed by fire. At Wusih, of the troubles. The French minister sent all 
near Suchow, the French church and orphanage the French men-of-war to the threatened ports, 
were razed to the ground. In a riot at Taka- with orders to make a sufficient display of force, 
tang the troops that were sent to quell the dis- and even to fire if necessary for tne protection 
turbance joined the mob. Riots took place also of the French missions. The outrages put a stop 
at Ngankmg, where the priestis defended them- to nearlv all missionary work in the middle and 
selves succ^sfuUy, and at Wuchow. At Tan- north of China. In the course of a few days the 
yang the old French church that had stood for French fathers had lost many millions of dol- 
two hundred years was burned and the Christian lars* worth of property. The American Baptist 
cemetery dug up. The mandarin when he at- and Presbytenan missionaries in the neig-hbor- 
tempted to stop these proceedings was mal- hood of Shanghai and at Soochow were attacked, 
treated. At Hochow the mob was dispersed by and by the advice of Consul-General J. A« 
soldiers. Not fewer than 10 missionary estab- Leonard they went to Shanghai, where the for- 
lishments in the provinces of Anwhei, Kiangsu, eign residents raised and armed a strong corps 
Hunan, and Szechuan were utterly destroyed, of volunteers to defend their lives and property, 
their churches, orphanages, foundling asvlums, declining a detachment of imperial troops that 
and hospitals burned to the ground, ana their the ttiotai offered to furnish for their protection, 
inmates compelled to flee, all within a few weeks. The local authorities in the be^nning of the dis- 
In none of these attacks was an attempt made turbanoes showed their usual mildness and timid- 
on the lives of the Catholic fathers. On the ity, though a few acted with prompt energy. After 
contrarv, the organizers of the riots seem to the riots, all took measures to prevent a repeti- 
have taken precautions to provide them always tion, posting troops to ^^rd Christian prof>erty. 
with some way of escape, x^or in anv instance The Viceroy of Nankin, within whose jurisdic^ 
were their converts molested. In other places tion the greater part of the destruction took 
about 30 churches, schools, and hospitals were place, asked for powers to deal summarily with 
burned or wrecked. the promoters of riot and sedition, who were, 
On June 5 a more serious outbrieak occurred at he said, members of secret societies and dis- 
Wusueh, 500 miles from the mouth of the Fangtse, banded soldiers. According to his request, the 
situated in the vice-royidty of Chang-Chihtung, local magistrates were authorized to try persons 
who is Govemor-Qeneral of the Hu provinces, accused of murder, incendiarism, and' rioting, 
A man appeared in the streets with four chil- and to the Viceroy the Pekin government dele- 
dren that ne had brought from a neighboring gated the power to order the instant decapitation 
town, and openly told the people that he was car- of anv one found guilty. In Wuhu two rioters 
rying them to the missionary station at Kinkiang were beheaded, and the magistrates were author- 
to 1^ cut up and made into medicine. The ized to deal peremptorily with all who could be 
town in a short time was in high excitement caught. The ministers of the western powers 
People went to the mandarin and asked him to presented a collective note to the Tsungli-Yamen, 
take the children away. This he declined to do, and on June 13 the Emperor issued a decree 
laughing at their story. Soon a mob of 5,000 commanding the governors or viceroys to ar- 
persons collected around the English Wesleyan rest at once, try, and execute leaders in the 
mission premises, and set one of the houses riots, put down with a ht^h hand such acts 
afire. The only male Europeans in the town, a as the printing or posting of incendiary 
young missionary named Argent, and the Eng- placards, and take measures to degrade all 
lish collector of customs, whose name was Green, officials suspected of connivance or remiss in 
ran to the spot to help put out the fire. Mr. their efforts for the protection of Christian mis- 
Argent, who came first, was instantly set upon and sionaries. The French and British representa- 
killed. The same fate was Mr. Green's, who had tives presented claims of indemnity for losses 
served in the British navy, and fought desperately amounting to 6,500,000 taels. France, Great 
until he was pierced ana hacked with more than Britain, the United States, and Germany 
a hundred wounds. One of the mandarins im- strengthened their naval forces in Chinese 
plored the mob to desist, and offered his own waters. The Government at Washington sent 
life as a sacrifice to their vengeance. The women the cruiser "Charleston" and the "Marion," 
and childrQU of the mission escaped to the cus- " Alert," and " Mohican " to join the " Monoo- 
tom house, where they were bravely defended by acy," the •* Palos," and the corvette ** Alliance." 
the Chinese employ&. They haa first sought Incendiary placards were posted in Foochow, 
refuge at the yamen of the head mandarin, who where European houses are scattered and not 
barlwrouslv ejected them. The three ladies, collected in a compound near the water. No 
Mrs. Prothero, Mrs. Warren, and Mrs. Boden, disturbance took place, and the towns on the 
were murderously assaulted after they were Yangtse remained quiet, for they were guarded 
thrown out of the mandarin's house. Two days by 20 foreign war snips. The Chinese fleet re- 
later the premises of the American Presbyterian mained away. At Pekin the British, French, 
mission at Kin-Kiang were attacked, iSut the and German ministers, acting in concert, used 
Chinese mandarin there acted with promptitude, pressure on the Tsungli-Yamen, demanding that 
and placed a guard of soldiers around the mis- secret societies should be extirpated, Hunan 
sion. The American steamer " Palos " and thrown open to foreign commerce, and all man- 



CHINA. 143 

darins implicated in the riots degraded. The were distributed accusing missionaries of shame- 
Gt^vemment could not depend on the local offi- ful misdeeds and the European physicians of 
cUIs nor on the army to carry out a strong pol- criminal malpractice. At Newchang, in Man- 
kj, and was compelled to confess that if the churia, Dr. Oreig, an English missionary, was 
flowers persisted in their demands they would murdered in August, but this act was not sup- 
bring about the fall of the dynasty and general posed to be connected with the machinations of 
anarchy. The Emperor's edict was not sent by secret societies. In Hunan a society was organ- 
telegraph, but by couriers. After a long delay, ized to prevent the extension of the telegraphs 
tva persons were executed for the muraers at and cut down the poles already erected. In the 
Wusaeh. No magistrate was degraded except province of Fukien, at Tehhua, not far from 
the Wusueh mandarin, who tried to stop tne Foochow, a serious riot occurred in October. 
riots, and offered his life as a sacrifice to the About 8,000 insurgents attacked the town and 
fury of the mob. Five, however, were reported held it for several days, until a detachment of 
to the Pekin authorities for negligence. The imperial troops arrived. 

tvo viceroys ruling over the Tang^ districts, When the troubles began to assume the ap- 

&fter Lord Salisbury had made a menacing com- pearance of civil war the provincial authorities 

manication to the Chinese minister at London, proceeded with energy against the Kolao Hui. 

settled all damajsres claimed, without disputing One of the chiefs of the society, Chen Kinlung, 

abont amounts. The foreign ministers in another was arrested in Shanghai, and* by order of the 

collective note demanded complete satisfaction, Kiungu^an viceroy was put to the torture to 

ioolading punishment of the true ringleaders at make him reveal his secrets and accomplices, 

Wohu. but in vain. Among the persons arrested for in- 

Tbe riotous disturbances broke out again on stigating the riot at Chinkiang were 17 Manchu 

Sept. 3, at Ichan^, 600 miles from the fijrst vio- officials. In Hankow two secret printing offices 

lent demonstration. The same marks of a and a quantity of anti-Christian pamphlets were 

deliberate plot were observable. A stranger discovered. 

bioaght an unknown child to the Catholic mis- In November a movement began in Manchuria 
sion. An outcry was raised that it had been and Mongolia similar to that in the Ynngtse val- 
stoien, and a mob of beggars and disbanded ley, but more portentous, because the active troops 
soldiers plundered and burned some of the build- took part in it. Two Belgian priests were massa- 
ings ana those of the American Protestant mis- cred at Taku, the missions were everywhere de- 
sion and others belonging to the few European stroyed. and the missionaries fled to save their 
residents, stHiring only the British consulate, lives. Large numbers of native Christians were 
The mob, which was led by disguised Hunan sol- slaughtered. The local authorities, who did 
diers, after obtaining a rich booty, turned their nothing to check the atrocities, fed and encour- 
attention to the Europeans, of whom twenty aged rands of insurgents and mutinous troops 
escaped, not without injuries, to a steamboat, that marched about the country to join tne 
The civil and military mandarins, although they main body, which grew into an army and ad- 
had a Iare;e force of soldiers within call, did noth- vanced in the direction of Pekin. 
ing to check the outrages, but said they were Secret Societies. — The Hui, or secret broth- 
powerless. No steps were taken afterward to erhoods, in China have always followed revoln- 
arrest the leaders. A force of British sailors tionary aims, and often have assumed the char- 
wis sent on a steamer to protect the remaining acter of a religious sect for the purpose of cloak- 
buildings of the foreign settlement. ing their real objects. Under the Tsing dy- 
The presence of European forces on the nasty open political activity has been repressed 
Yangtse and the measures taken by the Pekin with inexorable rigor. The Tartar conquest was 
authorities, under foreign pressure, to repress the consummated by means of a persecution so mer- 
TnoTeraent suited well with the plans of its secret ciless that patriots had to resort to- a sign Ian- 
authors. The ferment in the Yangtse valley ex- guage to communicate one with another. Soon 
tended, and soon took the form of organized re- after the overthrow of the native Ming dynasty, 
voU« The Chinese Government, when threatened in 1644, the oldest of the existin||p secret socie- 
vith naval action of the powers in the troubled ties, the Kihing, was founded for its restoration. 
districts, which portended nothing less than a Patriots have never ceased to deplore the loss of 
joint or British occupation of the Yangtse ports, the freer national life under the Chinese em- 
protested its ability to preserve order, and or- perors, and no occupant of the throne has been 
dened the North China and Nankin squadrons to exempt from the dread of revolution, or has 
patrol the Tangtse. In Wuchang, the seat of failed to pursue the secret fraternities that have 
the viceroy of Hunan and Hupeh, the neighbor- plotted insurrections, and once or twice have 
ing city of Hankow, one of the largest m the nearly compassed the overthrow of the foreign 
^or\d, and in all the centers of population, a rulers. In peaceful times persecutions have 
r^Iess spirit of sedition was observed. Anti- ceased because they would rekindle the fires of 
^reign placards were posted everywhere. An revolution. In times of political unreet the pos- 
Knglish custom-house official at Shanghai named session of the badge of membership often costs 
Mason was detected in attempting to smuggle the wearer*s life, and often high officials have 
irom Hong-Kong a large number of Winchester suddenly disappeared, doomed to death or life- 
wd Martini rifles and a quantity of dynamite long banishment in Tartary. When a society 
destined for the Kolao Hui in Chinkiang. Six has been nearly exterminated, like that of Pei- 
w Beren other Europeans were arrested on sus- linkoa, or the White Water Lilv, which in the 
pwon of being engaged in a similar business, early part of this century, uncier cover of re- 
Among the candidate for degrees who came to ligious and vegetarian propaganda, organized 
ofaADghai for the annual examinations circulars revolts against the Emperor iCianking, others, 



144 CHINA, 

like the Eolao, have sprung up in its place, ing rebellion was that of the Three Societies. 
These Chinese Nihilists not only plan rebellions, the San hop Hui. The English authorities in 
but give aid and encouragement to revolts not Singapore nave several times attempted to sup- 
connected with their schemes, such as the Mo- press the secret societies there. In that city 
hammedan uprising and the insurrection of the about ten years ago the rules of the White Lily 
Miaotsi mountaineers. Even robbery and brig- Society were discovered, which make death the 
andaspe are cultivated to bring about a state of penalty for refusing to stand by a fellow-mem- 
anarcny that will lead to revolution. In this ber in a quarrel, even against one*s own brother, 
way the societies have sometimes degenerated or betravmg him to the police, or failing to aid 
into gangs of robbers and secret assassins, and him with means to escape the clutches of the 
been joined by people of criminal impulses or authorities and flee from the country, even if 
who have private grudges to wreak on their ene- one's clothing and furniture must be pawned, 
mies, for tne rule that no brother shall be be- The literary class takes a leading part in every 
trayed to the authorities for any cause can only movement against the dynasty, b^use the prin- 
be broken under penalty of death. Formerly ciples of the Tartar rule seem barbarous to the 
the great secret societies encouraged thepropaffa- educated Chinese mind. Two or three of the 
tion of Christianity, looking to Europe lor aid in Manchu emperors fostered letters, and were 
expelling the Manchus. The Emperor Kianking, themselves distinguished writers. The majority 
who was compelled to keep his army constantly have shown themselves apathetic to science and 
under arms by the White Lily Society, conceived literature, and have allowed them to languish, 
a bitter hatred of all religious sects, which he vis- Some have been distinctly hostile, like Kiankine, 
ited most severely on the Roman Catholic Chris- who said that it was more becoming for a noble 
tians, causing many thousands to be put to death, to master archery and horsemanship than to sit 
Under these circumstances a natural sympathy over books. The present rSgime seems to the 
sprang up between the Christians and the Taip- Chinese a system revolting to their habit of 
ing sect, composed partly of survivors of the mind, that of a milit4ury despotism. The sale of 
broken Christian congregations and children of offices, resorted to in recent times to provide 
those who were massacrS. In the earlier period means for wars and armaments against Europe 
of the Taiping rebellion European sympathy was because the Government dared not impose taxes, 
largely with the revolution, but when the gov- has done much to make the dynasty hated, 
ernments came to act it was to crush it and save It is supposed that a revolution to be suocess- 
the dynasty, exacting in return concessions th^t ful must be managed by persons in power. Dur- 
the Chinese consider prejudicial to their inter- ing the present reign Cliinese statesmen in the 
ests and repugnant to their national honor. Since natural course of events have come to the front 
then the secret fraternities have coupled together and prominent Manchu administrators are pass- 
Europe and the Manchu conquerors, and the ing from the stage. The most powerful man in 
next great revolutionary society that sprang up China is the ag^ Viceroy of Pechili, Li-Hung- 
in central and northeni China made the expul- Chang, who has the defense of the throne and 
sion of the Christians a prime article of its creed, of the person of the Emperor in his care, has 
The Roman Catholics are the special object of organized and commands the only efficient naval 
Chinese animositv because of the losses and hu- and military forces, controls to a great extent 
miliation inflicted by the French in the Tonquin the forei^ relations, and has placed his friends 
war. This feeling is strongest in the south of and relatives at the head of the chief provincial 
China. There the Cantonese Triad Society flour- administrations. His policy has been to build 
ishes and but few representatives of the Kolao upon the military traditions of the Tartar rule 
Hui are found, and therefore the present move- and improve the defensive resources of the em- 
ment has not penetrated to that region. The pire, in order to bear the strain of European re- 
organization of a native militia among the Chris- lations and guard the frontiers from aggression, 
tian converts in Tonquin was the cause of an out- The Aadlence Question* — The theory that 
break of national fury and fanaticism in south- China is the Middle Kingdom and the Emperor 
em China in 1884, and again in 1886, when the the rightful lord over all nations is so deeply 
scattered Christian communities were objects of rooted that France was compelled to accept the 
savi^e and murderous persecutions. position of a vassal in respect to Tonquin, and 
After the suppression of the Taiping rebellion Great Britain renders nominal homage in Bur- 
the activity of the Chinese patriotic organ iza- mah and does not even restrain the princes of 
tions was conflned for many years to saving Himalayan states from sending tribute to the 
those of their numbers who fell under suspicion Sun of Heaven. When European troops had 
from the vengeance of the Government, bv pro* possession of Pekin they exacted material ad- 
viding them with means to emigrate. Thus it vantages, but did not venture to disturb the be- 
has come about that the impulse to the anti- lief in the universal suzerainty of the Emperor ; 
dynastic movement originates to a great extent and when the English and French forces assisted 
in Singapore, and the Chinese papers printed in put ting down the native rebels, the Chinese sup- 
there reveal the national aspirations in a way posed it was an act of fllial duty to the paternal 
that is impossible under the strin^nt press su- sovereign of ** all under heaven. The European 
pervision that has been exercised in China ever envoys, after gaining admission to Pekin thirty 
since the Manchus achieved their sanguinary years a^ by the power of the sword, found it 
conquest. In addition to the famous and wide- impossible to communicate their demands and 
spread secret societies, there are a ^reat many representatives to the competent authorities until 
having similar purposes of minor importance, fresh menaces and displays of force brought about 
Every province has one or more of its own. The the development of the' Tsungli-Tanien into a 
organization that liad most to do with the Taip- pi'oper meuium of diplomatic action. They never 



CHRISTIAX ENDEAVOR. CITIES. AMERICAN. 145 

demanded the ri^ht to present their credentials inational, and their agency in promoting the 
to the Emperor in person, as to European sov- spirit of federation and Christian fellowship. AH 
er?ign& Eneland and the other powers have the local societies were advised by resolution to 
f^'und anomaloas relations with Oriental despots adopt what is called the " revised pledge/' con- 
ii practical advantage, for the intemation^ prin- taining the clause, " I will make it the rule of 
cipie of the equality of states would otherwise my life to support my own church in every way, 
[reclude them from forcing the admission of especially in attending all her regular Sunday 
<f ium, dictating a tariff, and exercising extra- and mid-week services, unless prevented by a 
triritorial sovereignty. A so-called audience reason which I can conscientiously give to the 
785 granted to the foreign representatives in 1873, Saviour " ; and the lookout committees were di- 
sbich was more like a review. During the mi- rected to use every effort to promote this, as well 
Dorityofthe Emperor the audience question could as the other requirements in the pledge. To 
cot be pressed, and while Chinese ministers in emphasize this underlying principle, the societies 
iMTOfie were received with ffreat honor, the dip- were advised to submit important measures and 
tomatic corps at Pekin has been humiliated and proposed lists of officers to the pastor and offi- 
redaoed to impotence in the degree in which the cers of the church for their approval. Union 
miiiUiT power of China has been strengthened, with societies not connected with any evangel- 
After the Emperor assumed the Government the ical church was discouraged. In reaffirming the 
European envoys be^n to press to be received at principles of the society, prominence was given 
d'lart, the English minister taking the lead. The to those of the utmost loyalty to their respective 
Emperor was not unwilling, and the Tsungli- denominations on the part of all the societies, 
Tamen arranged the forms and manner of an and steadfast personal love and service for the 
&adfence, exacting in return the right, always local church of each, and a declaration was in- 
refosed before by England, of maintaining con- sei-ted that " Christian Endeavor interposes no 
filirgeneral and other consular representatives barrier to the denominational control of the 
in flong-Kong, Singapore, and other cities of young people," and rejoices when denominations 
the British Empire. The place and ceremonial suggest s{)ecial lines of duty or activity. The 
were diiicussed, and some of the ministers were in- convention sermon was preached by the Kev. Dr. 
dined to draw back, but they finally accepted the 0. H. Tiffany. The president's address presented 
plan proposed by the Tsungli- Yamen. The re- fidelity and fellowship as the two great factors 
leption took place on March 5, 1891. in the tze of the society. Papers were read and discussions 
k-mng ko, or audience hall, in which the Em- held at the several sessions on various topics 
peror receives the envoys of Corea, Annam, and pertaining to the history, work, objects, scope, 
other vassal states, the Chinese ministers having and infiuence of the societies, 
orercome their objections by promising that a CITIES, AMERICAN, RECENT GROWTH 
special edifice for the reception of foreign envoys OF. This subject, begun in the " Annual Cyclo- 
>nould be built without aelay. They were re- piedia *' for 1886, has been continued through 
c^ired in a body, not singly, as they wished, by every succeeding volume. In the six volumes — 
the Emperor, who replied in a set formula to the 1886 to 1891 — the recent progress of 360 cities is 
speech made by Herr von Brandt, the Oerman set forth. 

minister, which was interpreted in lilanchu by Aberdeen, a city of Washington, the largest 
IVince Ch*ing, kneeling before the throne. The on Gray's Harbor, at the apex of that body of 
Chinese envoys in Europe have urged the ad vis- water, 16 miles from the bar, on both sides of 
itnlity of placing diplomatic intercourse at Pe- Chehalis river, about a mile from its mouth. 
kin on the same footing as in Europe as a pre- The northern part of the city is divided by 
bde to demanding a revision of the treaties and Wishkah river, a narrow but deep stream, which 
the equal treatment guaranteed by international affords excellent wharfage for vessels of the 
law. A more important step than the March larg[est tonnage in the heart of the city, and is 
ftodienoewas the reception of the French and navigable 16 miles above its mouth. The Che- 
Russian ambasstMlors in November in the im- halis has a depth at Aberdeen of from 40 to 75 
perialpalaoe. feet, and a width of from 2,000 to 3,000 feet 

CHRISTIAN ENDEAYOR, SOCIETIES The entire water frontage of the city is over 2 

OF. The tenth International Convention of miles, easily approached by two channels leading 

Christian Endeavor Societies met in Minneap- from the entrance of tlie harbor, one on the 

olU, July 9. President Francis E. Clark presided, north and the other on the south. The harbor — 

The report showed that the number of local so- named from Capt. Kot)ert Gray, who first car- 

cieties was 16,274 (against 11,018 in 1890), and ried the United States flag around the world, 

of members 1,008,980 (against 660,000 in 1890). and in 1791 discovered Columbia river, establish- 

The societies had been organized in 80 denom- ing the claim of the United States on Oregon — 

inations. The five churches having the largest is one of the safest and most accessible on the 

number of societies reported were, in their order. Pacific coast. It has an area of 70,000 acres, and 

l^resbfterian, 4,019 societies ; Congregational ist, a depth at low tide on the bar of 22 feet. It is 

3.545 ; Baptist, 2,881 ; Methodist, 2,068 ; and Dis- completely landlocked, and during the past year 

ciples of Christ, 801. Three hundred and seven more than 100 sailing vessels and from 4 to 6 

^^ieties were reported in foreign countries, of steamers a month have crossed the bar without 

^hich 120 were m England, 82 in Australia, 30 accident. It is 350 miles nearer San Francisco 

|n India, 12 in Turkey, and 7 in China. Of jun- than the cities of Puget Sound, and 600 miles 

lor societies, 855 were reported, and the exist- nearer Oriental ports than that city. The busi- 

<'nce of others was known. Stress was laid in ness portion of the city has been built on tide 

the report on the interdenominational character lands reclaimed at great expense, and a short 

of the societies as distinguished from undenom- distance from the harbor the land rises by easy 

VOL. XXXI.— 10 A 



146 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Aksok, Alpena.) 

erades to a height of 50 to 75 feet, spreading out of all the matches made in the United States, 
into level plateaus, wheie the fine residence por- using annually 8,000.000 feet of pine lumber, 70 
tion is being built. The Northern Pacific Kail- tons of brimstone, 17,000 pounds of phosphorus, 
road has division headquarters within the coroo- 85,000 pounds of chlorate of potash, 80,000 
rate limits, owning 22 sections of land. In 1890 pounds of glue, and 50,000 pounds of paraffine 
the road was operating within 10 miles of the wax. Six sewer-pipe factories are supplied from 
city, and there are regular lines of steamers to inexhaustible beds of clar, long one oi the chief 
Portland and San Francisco. A steam ferry contributions to the wealth of the city, which is 
plies between the portions of the city separated vitrified, and thus rendered Impervious to acid, 
oy Chehalis river, and two bridges will shortly steam, or gas. There are also 9 stone-ware works, 
be erected across the Wishkah. Bonds have 7 planing mills, 5 foundries, 2 galvanized-iron 
been deposited for an electric road to connect works, 6 brick and 2 fire-brick works, 4 boiler 
with Hoquiam, to cost $100,000. Six years ago works, 8 breweries, 2 box, 8 soap, 1 chain, 1 
the city was a mere mill site. By the census of church furniture, and 2 barrel factories, 2 of the 
1890 it had a population of 1,688. Increase is largest agricultural-implement works in tlie Unit- 
shown by the post-ofBce receipts, which for the ed States (employing upward of 1,000 men), 2 
quarter ending Jan. 1, 1890, were $450.96, and harness-specialty factories, 4 stone quarries, 2 
for that ending Jan. 1, 1891, $908. The sum marble works, polishing and plating works, fac- 
of $50,000 was expended by the city during the toriesof hard-rubber goods, woolen, leather belt- 
last six months of the year on street improve- ing, wagon-gear, paper^sack, and other factories 
ments. Water works are being erected, at a turning out machine knives, twine and corda^, 
cost of $75,000, the supply being obtained from flour sacks, gymnasium supplies, stoves, files, 
springs within half a mile of the city limits by canal boats, etc. Akron was founded in 1835, 
the Holly principle of direct pressure. For pro- and became the county seat in 1841. The popu- 
tection against fire, water is pumped from the lation in 1870 was 10,006 ; in 1880, 16,512 ; and 
harbor by stationary engines running night and in 1890, 27,601. The assessed valuation is near 
day, and there is a volunteer fire department of $15,000,000 and the tax rate in 1889 was 27*4. 
84 members. Electric lights are in use. The The debt in March, 1891, was $111,281.83. There 
enrollment In the 2 graded public schools, Oct. are 12 miles of street railway (electric, Sprag^e 
80, 1891, was 272 ; a new central school building overhead system), costihc^ $800,000.' Water is 
is to be erected, to cost $25,000, and there is a supplied from springs. The churches number 
Catholic schooL The Catholics also have a hos- 28, and there are a Masonic temple, and 14 other 
pital. There are five churches. The monthly halls, in addition to 2 armories. Five banks, 3 
pay-roll of manufactures aggregates $85,000, the of which are national, have a total capital of 
city having the onlv foundry on the harbor. $575,000, and a surplus of $102,000; 2 savings 
From the ship-yard a large three-masted schooner institutions have a capital of $150,000, and 1 
was launched in Septem^r, 1890. Four saw mills savings and loan association luis a capital of 
have a combined aaily capacity of 800,000 feet, $100,000. One daily paper is publishea, 2 tri- 
the shipment abroad of lumber for 1890 being weeklies, 4 weeklies (1 m German, 1 semi-month- 
83,000,000 feet, and the amount consumed at ly, by the students of Buchtel College), and 2 
home 9,000,000. Three sash, door, and blind monthlies. There are 11 public schools, includ- 
factories, 2 planing mills, 1 shingle mill, a cigar ing the high school, and 99 teachers are em- 
factory, ana an ice factory are in operation ; ployed. The enrollment in the public schools in 
and tne yearly pack of 8 salmon canneries is 188*7-88 was 4,654, and in the private and pa- 
41,000 cases, valued at $78,000. There are 2 rochial schools 957. Of the last class, dare Cath- 
banks (1 national, with an aggregate capital of olic, 1 Oerman Lutheran, and 1 Hebrew. Two 
$550,000), and a building and loan association business colleges and a school of design are flour- 
has been organized. A weekly and a semi- week- ishing; Buchtel College (Universalist), opened 
ly newspaper are published. in 1873, has 14 professors and instructors. The 
Akron, a city of Ohio, county seat of Summit streets are well laid, and the principal ones 
County, in the northern part of the State, at the paved. There are free public libraries, 8 parks, 
junction of the Ohio and Erie and Pennsylvania and 2 theatres. The Ohio Canal was begun July 
and Ohio Canals, 40 miles from Cleveland and 4, 1825, and the first boat for it was builUon the 
246 from CincinnatL It is 400 feet above the lower basin near Lock One, at Akron, 
level of Lake Erie, and is the highest point of Alpena, a city of Michigan, county seat of 
the Ohio and Erie Canal. The rauroads are the Alpena County, 120 miles from Bay City and 
New York, Lake Erie and Western, the Cleve- 250 from Detroit, by water, in the northeastern 
land, Akron and Columbus Valley, the Pitts- part of the State, on Thunder Bay, which is an 
burgh and Western, and the Valley. The sur- inlet of Lake Huron, 10 miles wide at its mouth, 
rounding oountrv is fertile, and wheat is export- and affords one of the safest harbors on the 
ed, together with mineral fire-proof paint from great lakes. There are 8 lines of passeng^er 
deposits in the vicinity of the city. A milling steamers. The city is the terminus of the Detroit, 

Slant established at Akron in 1852 operated the Bay City and Alpena Railroad, and has notable 

rst oatmeal mill in America, in 1856, with ca- manufacturing interests, chief among which 

pacity of 20 barrels a day. In 1890 the total are 14 saw mills, which in 1889 exported 219,- 

product of 5 mills owned 'bv it was 2.500 bar- 915,000 feet of lumber, 58,986,000 laths, 36,610,- 

rels daily. A capital of $10,000,000 is invested 000 shingles, 242,570 railroad ties, 145,000 cedar 

in 800 manufactories, water power being sup- posts, and 1,000 telegraph poles. There are also 

plied (in addition to steam) from the Canal and 2 large engine and machme works, one of the 

Little Cuyahoga river. These include the largest largest sulphite fiber pulp mills in the United 

match factory in the world, producing one fifth States (employing 75 nands), 5 shingle and 4 



CITIES, AMERICAN. (Arkansas Citt, Astoria, Aurora.) 147 

planing miUs, 2 foundries, 1 knitting factory, 2 « 639 ; in 1880, 2,803; and in 1890, 6,184. The 
ci^r factories, and industrial works. The popu- population of the county is 10,016. By the con- 
lation in 1880 was 6,153, and in 1890 (in three struction of the Government jetties at the mouth 
v&rds) 11^383, showing an increase of 83'37 per of the Columbia, a channel has been created of 
cent The first settlement was made in 1856 at ample depth for the largest ships to pass in safe- 
Alpena, and lumbering was begun in 1858. In ty, and, accordingly, ocean steamers call at the 
1964 there were 674 inhabitants. In 1871 it was port. Five or six lines of steamers owned in 
incorporated, and in 1872 was devastated by a Astoria ply daily to and from ports on the rivers 
great fire. In 1879 water works of the Holly and bays in the vicinity, three lines of bar tugs 
system were erected, with a pumping capacity have headquarters here, and lines of steamers 
of 3,000,000 gallons, the crib being placed m the also run to San Francisco and Puget Sound, 
bar, and the wheel (then one of the largest in One line, owned by the Union Pacific Railroad, 
Michigan) the first of its size ever constructed, runs between the city and Portland. Astoria is 
The assessed valuation of the city in 1889 was the headquarters of the salmon fisheries of the 
14,034,900, and the debt was less than $10,000. Columbia. The sum of $1,300,000 is invested in 
The streets are wide, and in 1890 five miles were the industry, the product of which in 1889 was 
paved and five more under way. Gas and eleo- $1,416,177. More than 8,000 fishermen are em- 
tric lighting are in use, and there are 12 churches, ployed, having 1,500 boats and nets; while the 
9 publio-schooi buildings, and 8 private and pa- canneries give occupation to 2,000 persons, the 
roehial schools. Fishing is carried on extensive- majority of whom are Chinese. The water front 
Ir, and there is a United States fish hatchery, of the city measures 6 miles. To reach deep wa- 
Ktablished in 1882, from which 30,000,000 youne ter, docks and warehouses have been constructed 
white fish were shipped in 1883. There are 2 several hundred feet out from the shore, and the 
national banks and an opera house. Three week- business streets are crowded down as close to 
W newspapere are published, and 1 monthly. these as possible. Several streets are built on 
irkansas City, a city of Kansas, in Cowley piles, and blocks of stores, residences, hotels, and 
County, near the Oklahoma border line, on Ar- street railroads are constructed over the water, 
kansas river at the mouth of the Walnut, 250 The buildings are mostly of wood, and where 
miles southwest of Kansas City, the same dis- brick is used the foundations are of stone and 
tance north of Fort Worth, 200 from Fort Scott, cement, placed on piles driven to a great depth 
and 14 from Win field, the county seat. It is in and cut oif below the water line. In this part 
the center of a rich agricultural and stock-rais- of the city no sewers are reouired, the tide carry- 
ing district, and with its 3 great systems of infi^ awa^r all refuse. Resiaences, churehes, and 
railroads — the Atchison, Topeka and Santa F^, other buildings are extending back on the hills, 
the Missouri Pacific, and the St. Louis and San and streets are being graded up steep inclines. 
Francisco— controls almost the entire trade of Clatsop County is about 30 miles square, and 
the Indian agencies, reservations, and militAry contains but one township of open land, the rest 
points in Indian Territory. It is the end of a di- being heavily timbered with Oregon pine, spruce, 
vision of the Santa Fe system, and has a round- (;edar, lareh, hemlock, maple, and cottonwood. 
house and machine shops of that road, employ- Only along the streams are the forests largely 
ins 200 men, in addition to 100 train-men and cut. Three saw mills have a daily aggregate 
other employ^. In 1880 the population was capacity of 150,000 feet, and manufactured lum- 
1,012, ana in 1890 (in four wards) 8.347. Water ber is shipped east. By sea it is sent to Cali- 
power is afforded by a canal 5| miles long, tap- fornia, Mexico, South America, and China. On 
ping Arkansas river 4 miles above the city and Young's river is a pulp mill, with a capacity of 
flowing into the Walnut H mile below, with 1,380 tons annually. A capital of $85,000 is in- 
f&ll of 22 feet. The cost of the canal was $200,- vested in ship-building; $575,000 in manufact- 
000. The manufacturing establishments in 1890 ure of lumber, with output of $700,000 yearly ; 
were 3 large flouring mills, 1 planing mill, 1 and $39,000 in sash and door factories, the annual 
windmill manufactory, a mattress factory, and output of which is $33,000. The capital in foun- 
a chair and car-seat factory. The gas works dries and machine shops is $90,000, with a prod- 
have a capital of $100,000, and there is an elec- net of $125,000 ; in manufacture of beer and ice, 
trie-light plant There are 17 miles of water $25,000, ^earlv product, $75,000. In addition to 
mains, 3 banks (2 national) with aggregate capi- an electnc-liglit plant, there are gas works. Ex- 
tal of $425,000 and surplus of $160,0^, a hotel elusive of the two last and the pulp mill, the an- 
costing $125,000, an opera house worth $75,000, nual product on the total amount of capital in- 
and 5 school-houses. Two daily and 4 weekly vested ($844,000) is $1,018,000. Coal exists in 
newspapers are published. the county, but no mines have been opened. Pot- 
Astoria, a city of Oregon, the county seat of ter*8 clay, iron ore, and jet are its otner mineral 
Clatsop County, on the south shore of Columbia resources. Of 10 church buildinffs in the coun- 
riyer, 12 miles from its mouth, and about 100 ty, 8 are in Astoria — viz.. Methodist, Congrega- 
miles from Portland. It is said to be the largest tional, Presbyterian, Baptist, Episcopal, Roman 
city in the United States without a railroad, but Catholic, and 2 Lutheran. The city has also 
one is now under construction, to connect with 3 large public schools and 1 Episcopal parish 
the transcontinental lines at Portland. It was school. There are 2 daily newspapers, and 4 
founded in 1811, and named in honor of John banks — 2 national, with a capital of $800,000. 
Jacob Astor, chief manager of the American Fur The possession of Astoria was the principal point 
Company. After the war of 1812 it was held by in the claim of the United States to Oregon, 
the Hudson Bav Pur Company until early in the Aurora, a city of Illinois, in Kane County, in 
forties, when the tide of emigration set in from the northeastern part of the State, 37 miles from 
the Eastern States. The population in 1870 was Chicago, on Fox river, which flows with a rapid 



148 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Bat City.) 

current through the heart of the city, and fur- an act was passed by the Legislature of Michigan 
nishes an ample water power. Aurora was enabling the consolidation in 1891 of Bay City 
founded in 1834, and in 1850 had a population proper, West Bay City, and Essexville village. 
of 2,000. In 1857 it was incorporated ; in 1860 The last two, in lo90, had populations respective- 
it had a population of 6,000 ; in 1880 of 11.873 ; ly of 12,981 and 1,545. The total population of 
and in 1890 of 19,688, showing an increase in Bay County in 1890 was 56,412, and in 1891 the 
the decade of 65*82 per cent. Six lines of the assessed valuation of property, real and pecsonal, 
Chicago, Burlington and Quincj Railroad center was $27,000,000. The first settlement of Bay 
here; also the Chicago and >iorth western, and City was made in 1838, and in 1858 the county 
the Belt Line, or Elgin, Joliet and Eastern, was organized and it became the county seat. In 
The city was the first in the West to adopt elec- 1867 the first railroad was built Transportation 
trie lighting, and owns its plant. Gas works is now afforded by 3 lines, and in 1887 the city 
were established in 1868, which in 1H90 owned owned 119 craft, aggregating over 28,732 tons, 
33 miles of mains, and made arrangements for and yalued at $1,500,000. The same year the 
erecting a fuel ^ plant to furnish gas at 40 total value of city property was $780,586.96, and 
cents a thousaniL The water works, erected in its bonded debt was $367,000. The tax rate was 
1885-'86, are valued at $204,446, and in 1890 $1.84. In 1891 there were 30 miles of well-paved 
had 25 miles and 90 feet of mains. Five steel streets and 50 miles of county (macadamized) 
bridges, 2 \;>elonging to the railroads, cross roads. Water works of the Holly system were 
the river, the longest having a total length of erected in 1872, and in 1886 aOaskell compound 
720 feet. In addition to the high school there engine was added, making the total quantity 
are 10 public-school buildings. The school en- pumped during the year 779,761,852 gallons. The 
rollment is 3,358 ; 72 teachers are employed, value of the water works in 1887 was $426,773, 
Jennings Seminary has as adjuncts a normal and there were more than 24 miles of sewers, 
school and a business college. There are also a Two free bridges span Saginaw river. The fire 
parochial school, a Catholic academy, and 2 department property is valued at $57,076, and 
German Evangelical Lutheran schools. Five the electric-light plant at $31,583. The gas coin- 
national l>anks have a capital of $600,000, and pany was organized in 1868. The sum of $63,- 
a surplus of $68,000 ; ana there are 2 building 600 has been invested in public parks. The 
and loan associations. Five daily newspapers school property in 1887 was valued at $177,500 ; 
are published, and 4 weeklies, 1 in German. 3,836 children were enrolled, and 76 teachers em- 
The total valuation of property of 22 churches ployed in 10 public-school buildings. There was 
is $492,600, and the Young Men's Christian As- an enrollment of 230 also in the high school, 
sociation owns its buildings. The sloping banks There is also a commercial college. In Bay City 
of the river furnish excellent drainage. A Driv- proper there are 21 churches, and in West Bay 
ing-park Association was organized m 1889, and City 8. Five banks, 2 of which are national, 
has a fine tract of 26 acres within the city lim- have an aggregate capital of $750,000, and a sur- 
its. The city horse railway was purchased in plus of $240,000. Three daily and 4 weekly 
1890 by an electric company, which adopted the newspapers are published. A handsome opera 
Sprague overhead system. The total value of house was erected in 1886. The depot of the 
city property is $574,205.73. The City Hall is a Michigan Central Railroad includes two build- 
fine Duilding, and Memorial Hall, erected by the ings, and is 286 by 50 feet, and three stories 
Soldiers' Monument Association, contains the high, with a tower 104 feet. ' The Masonic Tem- 

Eublic library. The City Hospital has a new pie, Craoo Block, and Trinity Church, the last 
rick building costing $9,000, and there is an costing $60,000, are notable. There is a court 
orphana^ founded by private benevolence. The house and a public libraiy. The leading indus- 
sum of $75,000 has been appropriated by Con- tries are ship-building, lumber, salt, and fish, 
gress for a Government building. The shops of The first ship-building on Saginaw river began 
the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, in 1848 : and to 1887, 57 propellers had fc^n 
erected in 1855-*56, at a cost of $120,000, ezclu- built, 6 side-wheel steamers, ana 45 tugs, as well 
sive of machinery, embrace locomotive works, as schooners, scows, and barges. Since 1886, by 
car shops, and a chemical and physical labora- report of the United States Census on transpor- 
tory ; 1,500 men are employed, with a monthly tation, a revolution has taken place in the mate- 
pay-roll of $60,000. The other industries include rial and structure of floating e(juipment on the 
iron works, one of the largest factories of wood- Great Lakes, probably more rapid and' complete 
working machinery in the United States, a sil- than any other in the history of marine archi- 
ver-plate company, a sash, door, and blind fac- tecture. The total tonnage of Bay City in 1889 
tory, stove works, cotton mills, a corset factory was 553,219 tons, of which 486,973 were ship- 
employing 600 hands, agricultural - implement ments and 66,246 receipts. The first sawmill 
works, a factory for well-sinking machinery, a was erected in 1832, ana in 1886 the shipment 
foundry and machine shop, a watch factory, a from Bay City and mills south reached 587,855,- 
smelting and refining company, 2 factories of 000 feet of lumber and 118,394,000 shingles. In 
door-hangers, carpet-sweepers, patent oil-cans, 1887, $4,085,000 were invested in the lumber in- 
etc, a carriage factory, road-cart works, and a dustry. In 1860, 2 salt companies were organized, 
la^-wheeled scraper company. and prior to 1869, when the inspection law was 
Bay City, a city of Michigan, the county seat passed, 3,282, 11 7 barrels were manufactured. The 
of Bay County, on Saginaw river near its mouth, total, from 1869 to 1886, was 34,100,468 barrels, 
in Saginaw Bay, 143 miles from Toledo, Ohio, and Bay County in that year had 81 "salt companies, 
121 &m Jackson by rail. The population by the with capacity of 1,300,000 barrels. About 500 
census of 1890 was 27,839 (in 11 wanls), showing men are engaged in fishing on Saginaw Bay, 
an increase of 7,146 over 20,693 in 1880. In 1887 with over 100 sail-boats. In winter, spearing 



CITIES, AMERICAN. (Beatrice, Benton Harbor, Boisfi City.) 149 

fi«h through the ice is largely carried on, and at quarts of berries and 800,000 barrels of apples 

one time over 2,000 persons have camped out on were produced by Berrien County in one season, 

the ice in small shanties. The other industries in adaition to other fruits. Two canning, evap- 

in 1887 included 2 flouring mills in Bay City orating, and cider factories employ 250 persons 

and 2 in West Bay City, 1 brewery, 10 furniture during the season, and by one firm 400,000 cans 

manufactories, 7 planing mills (6 in West Bay of tomatoes are put up yearly. There are also a 

City also), 4 boiler shops, 6 factories of mill ma- cider and vinegar factory and pickle and vine- 

chinenr, 6 foundries, 4 pump factories, 5 brick gar works, manufacturing yearly 500,000 gallons 

works, 3 broom factories, 14 carriage factories, 5 of cider vinegar and 10,000 barrels of pickles, 

cigar and 4 lime factories, wood-pipe works, etc.. Another large plant is under construction, with 

in addition to one of the chief railroad machinery warehouse and ofBce in Chicago. Fruit-packages 

manufactories in the United States. There are are manufactured by several firms. 2,000,000 pack- 

12 miles of street railway. ages having been produced in 1890, exclusive of 




ajnieultural region. Seven railroads center in works, 2 ship-yards, 8 planing mills, 1 flouring 

the citj, 8 from Chicago and 4 from St. Louis mill with a grain elevator, 2 furniture companies 

^nd Kansas City. The streets are paved with with capital of $120,000, a chilled-plow factory, 

brick from factories in the city, the cost of grad- 2 shoe factories, a wt^n and carriage factory, 

in^, paving, etc, to April 11, 1890, beine $159,- and marble works. The Standard Oil Company 

096.W). The cost of sewerage to same date was has invested $5,000 in a disy*ibuting plant, and 

$40,832. The water works, of the Holly system a cold-storage plant has been erected at a cost 

are valued at $85,000, and the fire department at of $15,000. Lumber, received bv boat from 

|3,500. The assessed valuation is $1,100,000, the great lumber centers north, is manufact- 

and the tax levy in 1889 was 18i mills. The ured and shipped inland. One saw mill turned 

total debt, bonded and floating, is $256,160.96. out 1,000,000 feet of lumber, mainly hard-wood, 

There are gas and electric lights, horse and mo- in 1890. The highest grade of wood-working 

tor lines of street railway, 6 banks (4 national), machinery will be produced by machine works 




1 monthly papers. The population in 1880 was Harbor from Detroit. The assessed valuation of 
2.447 ; in 1800 it was 13,886, showing an increa<^ Benton Harbor is $1,200,000. In 1888, $175,000 
of 465-43 per cent. A million and a half dollars were invested in new buildings ; in 1889, $266,- 
are invested in manufactures. During 1890 real- 960 ; and in 1890, $268,600. Two banks (one na- 
wtate transfers numbered 1,774, representing a tional) have a capital of $50,000 each. There is 
value of $2,500,000. The churches number 19, also a building and loan association. Electric 
and there are 9 city schools, 7 of which have lights have been in use for more than two years, 
brick buildings, a private academy, a Roman and the gas works have been enlarged to a ca- 
Catholic school, a business college, and a State pacity of 240,000 feet daily. Water works were 
institute for feeble-minded youth. TheChautau- under construction in 1891, with a capacity of 
qaa Association has a tabernacle, at its grounds 8,000,000 p:allons daily, the source of supply be- 
on the river just beyond the city limits, capable ing a senes of wells 40 feet deep. The popu- 
of seating 10,000 persons. The city has a public lation in 1890 was 8,692. Baptists, Episcopa- 
library and 2 opera houses. Hans, Methodists, Congregational ists, and African 
Benton Harbor, a city of Michigan, in Ber- Methodists have churches, and the Catholics are 
rien County, in the extreme southwestern por- building. Three public schools and a normal 
tion of the State, at the confluence of the St. and collegiate institute afford educational ad- 
Joseph's and Paw Paw rivers, one mile from Lake vantages. One daily and 2 weeklv newspapers 
Michigan, with which it has direct connection are issued. The City Hall, a brick building, con- 
by a ship canal of ample capacity for the largest tains also the flre department and jail. A com- 
lake vessels and steamers, 60 miles from Chicago pany has been organized to develop the water 
by water, and 98 by rail. A steamship line has power of Paw Paw river, by a dam 1,100 long, 
recently been established with daily service to The city has no debt. 

Milwaukee, and there are 2 lines of steamers to Bois^ City, a city and the capital of Idaho, 

Ohicajfo. The Chicago and West Michigan, county seat of Ada County, in the southwestem 

the Cincinnati, Wabash and Michigan, and the part of the State, on the north side of Boise 

Vandalia Railroads, the last with through train river, 50 miles above its confluence with the 

to St. Ijouis, afford additional transportation ad- Snake, in a commanding position both as re- 

Tantages, and 3 other lines are under construe- gards the large and fertile valley in which it lies 

tion to Kalamazoo, Columbus, Ohio, and South and the rich mineral region in the mountains 

Bend, Ind. Twenty-three trains arrive daily, beyond. It had its origin in the establishment 

and there is a street railway to the contiguous of a United States military post in 1863, though 

fity of St. Joseph. Benton Harbor is the chief the name belonged to a fort of the Hudson Bay 

port in Michigan shipping domestic fruits, which Company, 50 miles below the present site, in 

CTow in the surrouna ing country; to great per- 1835. It was incorporated Jan. 11, 1866. The 

f'-H-tion. The annual income of the berry ship- population in 1880 was 1,899, and in 1890, 8,391. 

pers is upward of $600,000, and as many as 16,- Irrigation is carried on in the uplands, and the 

000 half-bushel crates of strawberries have been city is supplied by two canals wnich send little 

loaded at one time on a single steamer ; 5,000,000 rivulets through every street, -^hade-trees arc 



150 CITIES, AMKBICAN. (Buttk City.) 

an attractive feature. Ada County ranks first in silver only ; 75 mines employ 6^302 men, with an 
the State in the yield of fruit and vegetables, aggregate monthly pay-roll of $651,210. The 
second in hay, ana third in grain. The city en- present depth ranges from 80 to 1,500 feet, 
ioTS terminal advantages of the Oregon Short and the capacity of noist from 150 to 3,000 feet. 
Lime lUdlroad, by means of a branch line from In November, 1889, a fire broke out in the 
Nampa, 18| miles long, operated by the Union depths of two of the largest min&s and ra^ed 
Pacific. The business part of the city is of brick for months among the wimemess of timbers in 
and stone, and fire limits have been established, drifts, slo{>es, and levels. The formation is 
There is an organized fire department, and granite, with occasional porphyry, and the 
mountain water is carried through a complete trend of the veins due east and west. Their 
system of water works. There are electric dip is generally south, and the pitch of the ore- 
lights, a telephone exchange, a bank, with capital shoots almost invariably west. The larg^er veins 
of $100,000, fiour, grist, saw, and planing mills, are from 10 to 100 feet, and seem to extend 
2 breweries, a distillery, brick and marble works, through the granite like channels, filled ^with 
and a board of trade. Idaho was the first of argentiferous or cupriferous ores. The ore- 
the Territories to provide itself with a perma- shoots (differing in t-neir permanence from the 
nent Capitol building, which cost $85,000. It is ordinary " pocket **) vary in length from 100 to 
in the center of Capitol Square, and fianked on 1,000 feet, and three compartment shafts are 
one side by the court house, erected at a cost of often sunk 500 feet without cross-cuttings to the 
$68,000, and the school-house, which cost vein. No shaft sunk to the 300-foot station has 
$50,000. The United States Assay Office is of ever been abandoned, nor has a mine worked to 
stone, and cost $81,000. During 1890 gold and that depth ever been worked out. The ore in 
silver to the amouiA of $587,307 were deposited, sight is enough to last for fifty years. The first 
Bois^ City has an altitude of 2.800 feet In smelter, a crude affair, was erected at Batte in 
summer the heat is tempered by mountain 1866, and the first quartz mill in 1868. Prior 
breezes, while the '^ chinooK,'* or warm winds to 1878 the only stamps used were wet crashers, 
from the coast, in winter carry off a snow-fall The difference in the method of treating free 
of from five to eight inches in the valley in and base silver ores is, that the former are 
one day. crushed in water and the pulp placed in the 
Bntie City, a city of Montana, county seat amalgamating pans for treatment directly, and 
of Silver Bow County, the largest mining city in the latter are crushed dry and then roasted with 
the world, on a cluster of hills 200 feet hi^h, in salt to cause ready union with the quicksilver 
an amphitheatre surrounded by the Rocky in the pans. A stamp is a bar of iron weighing 
mountains, in the western part of the State. It from 750 to 900 pounds, set vertically, lifted by 
is named for a towering solitary peak (Bi^ a revolving cam, and allowed to drop upon the 
Butte) half a mile west of the present limits. U ore as it falls beneath. Five stamps compose a 
is the railroad center of the State, having the battery. Five stamp mills in Butte City operate 
Union Pacific, the Montana Central (connecting 800 stamps and crusn more than 500 tons of ore 
with the Manitoba), and the Montana Union, daily ; during 1890 they pounded out $4.000,000 ; 
which last, at Garrison, 52 miles distant, con- 9,175 tons oi Butte ore are smelted daily. The 
nects with the Northern Pacific. The Montana population of Butte City (in 7 wards) in 1890 
Union ships about 1,500 tons of ore a day from was 10,723, against 8,868 in 1880. In 1875 the 
Butte to the smelters of Anaconda. By a cut- city site was removed from Dublin Gulch to its 
off line from Gallatin, Butte City is placed on present location. During 1890 the post-offlce 
the main line of the Northern Pacific, which business of Butte consisted of 2,198,697 letters 
road has also a line from Laurel to the Rocky received and 1,186,784 sent out; five carriers 
Fork coal mines. Quartz mines were discovered are employed. The city has 2 electric-li^ht 
near Butte in May, 1864, and placer gold was plants valued at $40,000, and 1 gas company 
found on Silver Bow Creek in October of the with works worth $30,000, a perfect sewer sys- 
same year. Placer mining was carried on until tem, 8 lines of street railwav (motor, cable, and 
1869 (the greatest excitement being reached in electric) with capitiU of $l60,000 each, 2 daily 
1867), and the total amount of placer gold mined and 1 semi-weekty newspapers, a telephone sys- 
to that date was $8,540,000. In 1874-*75 a re- tem, 2 messenger service companies, 6 banks (2 
vival of the district took place, and the total national) with capital of $100,000 each, 3 fire 
product to 1880 is estimatea at $3,000,000. The companies with electric alarm system, and a 
product of that year was $1,000,000 ; of 1882, good system of water works. In addition to the 
$2,000,000 ; of 1884, $6,720,000 ; of 1886, $18,- public schools, there is a high-school building 
246,500: of 1888, $19,500,000; of 1889, $22,- - and also a parochial school. The churvihea nam- 
005,689 ; and in 1890, by report of the United ber 12. The Catholics have a hospital, and 
States Director of the Mint, tne total product of there is a free public library. Exclusive of 
Silver Bow County was $26,084,504, or more mines and mining, 4.408 persons are employcMi 
than half of the total product of the State — in industries which incluae 2 foundries, yalued 
$40,695,728.77. Of the whole, 25,704 ounces at $150,000, and 8 machine shops, $60,000; 4 
were fine gold, valued at $531,316 ; 7,500,(X)0 lumber companies, aggregating $1.5(X).000, and 
ounces silver, valued at $9.696,750 ; and 112,700,- 8 planing mills, $800,000 ; 8 breweries. $150,000 : 
000 pounds of copper, worth $16,623,250. Ten 6 brick yards, $150,000 ; 28 carpenter and 12 
companies at Butte City are the great producers, blacksmith shops, 1 lime kiln, 1 cigar factory. 
operating about 40 mmes, besides buying and and 1 stone works, 2 bottling works, etc. Three 
reducing the product of many more ; six pro- railroad shops are valued at $800,000. The conrt 
duce copper matte carrving gold and silver (one house cost $140,000. The altitude of Butte City 
producing bar silver also), and 4 turn out bar is 5,758 feet. 



CITIES, AMERICAN. (Cakson Citt, Chippewa Falls, Colfax.) 151 

Canoii Cltj% the capital of Nevada and enamerate the millions of shingles and laths 
cnuntj seat of Ormsby (joaBtr, in the western which are made as by-products. The saw mill Is 
part of the State, in Eagle ralley, a fertile and connected by a steam-motor line with the large 
picturesque region near the foot of the Sierra planing mill and yards, wherein one may see 
Nevada mounUins, on Carson river, 10 miles between $4,000,000 and $5,000,000 worth of 
from Lake Tahoe, 31 from Virginia City, 31 from lumber ready for shipping. The Chippewa 
Reno, and 178 northeast of &n Francisco. It Lumber and* Boom Company, the Mississippi 
has an altitude of 4,660 feet, is regularly laid River Logging Company, the Chippewa River 
one, with abundance of shade-trees, and has a Logging Company, and several other large firms, 
fine water supply. It is the oldest town in the have their headquarters in the city. The first 
State, the first pernuuient settlements in Nevada company above named is controlled by the Wey- 
having been made in Eagle and Washoe valleys erhauser s^dicate, which has several mills in the 
in 1850, and was named for the famous Kit Car- lumber region of Minnesota, and has recently pur- 
son. In 1859 a telegraph line was built from chased several hundred thousand acres of timber 
G^ioa^ and in 1869 connection by rail was estab- in Washington. The Stanley Manufacturing Com- 
li^ed with Virnnia City by means of the Vir- pany, Leinenkugers Brewery, the Flour and 
ginia and Truckee Railroad. The shops of this Milling Company, with 3 large mills and an ele- 
road are at Carson City, and consist of a foundry, vator, a woolen factory, a chair factory, and 
machine shop, and round house in one building, an overall factory, are among the other indus- 
4S7 by 170 feet, of stone and iron, at a cost of tries of the place. The city is lighted with 
1150,000. The principal mining and mill ma- electricity, and has a complete system of water 
chinery of the State is manufactured and re- works and sewerage. Chippewa Falls is one of 
paired here. The railroad owns also the lar^ the most healthful places in the United States, 
v-fihaped flume from the Sierras to the city via largely owing to the pure water. The supply of 
Clear Creek CaOon, through which thousands of water for the city is taken from a spring which 
cords of wood and millions of feet of lumber bubbles up out of the granite rock. Upon anal- 
are landed yearly. The population in 1890 was vsis it was found to be nearly pure, there being 
3,950, showing a decrease from 4,229 in 1880. but a very small fraction of 1 per cent, of for- 
In the United States Mint here 162,509 gold eign matter in it Ex-Lieut.-Gov. T. C. Pound 
pieces were coined during the calendar year 1890, has perfected arrangements by which he ships 
valued at $2Jd68.180, and 2,309,041 silver dollars, this water to Chicago. Several tank cars hold- 
In 18^ stock yards were established. The Capi- in^ 5,000 gallons have been built, and regular 
tol building occupies four blocks in the center of shipments are made. Silver Springs Park, on 
the city, and is surrounded by handsome grounds, the east side of the river, is a beautiful little sub- 
It was erected in 1870 at a cost of $208,^90. The urban resort, which has been laid out for use 
Orphans* Home, erected the same year, cost $26,- during the summer months. There are 8 fine 
000, and occupies 14 acres. The State Prison, school buildings, a new one having be^n corn- 
built in 1864, cost $127,000. There is a State pleted recently, which is claimed to be as fine as 
printing establishment and a United States any in the State. There are 175 pupils in the 
ooilding. Near the prison are Carson Warm high school and 1,500 in the public schools. 
Springs. The average attendance at the public There are several parochial schools, and a busi- 
schook is (560, and 11 teachers are employed, ness college. Eight churches and a Catholic 
For support of the Indian school in Ormsby cathedral provide for the religious wants of the 
County ^10,000 were appropriated by Congress inhabitants. Two daily and 5 weekly newspa- 
in 1890. There are 2 daily newspapers, and 1 pers are published in the city. By the census of 
bank with a capital of $100,000. 1890, Chippewa Falls had 11,222 inhabitants. 

Chippewa Falls, the county seat of Chippe- There are many fine business blocks, hotels, and 
wa County, Wis., on Chippewa river, about 100 private residences, an electric fire - alarm sys- 
miles east of St. Paul ana Minneapolis. It is on tem, and a good fire department. The prosper- 
the main line of the Wisconsin Central Railroad ity of the city has depended upon its lumber in- 
running between Milwaukee and St. Paul, and terests, and it has long stood at the head of the 
thus has connection witi^ the Northern Pacific lumber towns of the State. 
Railroad. Its other railway connections are the Colfax, a town of Washington, county seat 
Chicago, St Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha, a of Whitman County, in the eastern part of the 
branch of the Chicago and Northwestern, and State, at the forks oi Palouse river, on the Union 
the Chicago. Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad. Pacific Railroad, at the junction of two divisions. 
By the former it has connections with the ^ Soo *' It is the commercial center of the extensive and 
line at Cameron Junction, and this line also fertile Palouse oountrjr, and has fine water power, 
brings it within easy distance of Ashland and The heaviest trade is m agricultural implements, 
Superior. The city is beautifully situated on sales being made to farmers throu|:nout the 
both banks of the nver. The falls of the Chip- whole wheat belt north of Snake nver. The 
pewa, from which the city took its name, were volume of business for the year ending Dec. 30, 
originally a series of caso&des over hard granitic 1890, was upward of $2,500,000. The popula- 
trap rock, having a total height of about 25 tion in 1880 was 444 ; in 1800, 1,649. Electric 
feet. This great water power has been utilized lights are in use. Three banks (2 national) have 
for commercial purposes. The lumber interests an ag^gate capital of $800,000. 2 with branches 
are the most important, and they have been in adjoining villages. Two weekly newspapers 
the foundation of the city's prosperity. Chip- are published. There are 2 saw mills, with daily 
pewa Falls has one of the largest saw mills m capacity of 75,000 feet, 2. foundries, 2 planing 
the world. Its capacity during an ordinary sea- mills. 1 machine shop, and a cigar factory. The 
son is about 70,000,000 feet of lumber, not to Baptist College is a four-story building, with 100 



163 



CITIES, AMERICAN. (Concobd.) 



pupils enrolled. There are also 2 large district- 
school buildings. Six denominations own build- 
ings. The court house cost fOO,000. 

Concord, the capital of Nen' Hampshire, sit- 
uated on Merrimack river, 76 miles north-north- 
west of Boston bv rail ; population in 1890, 17,- 
OOl Its growtn haa been steady for many 
jears, the laraieat increase being in the last dec- 
ade. The Merrimack rirer divides the city 
north and south. The main part of iho city is 
on the west side of the river, and comprisas the 
compact part of Concord, the village of West 
Concord, and part of Penacook (formerly called 
Pisherville), on Coutoocook river, 6 miles north 
of the State House. An electric railway, T miles 
long, connects all these sections of the city, in 
addition to sleam railway service on two mads. 
The village of East Concord and nearly all of 



ried. The Abbot-Downing carriage manufactory 
is one of the liirgest and longest establishiHl in 
the country, and its products are found in every 
quarter of the globe. The Page Belting Com'- 
pany has a capital of f 500,000, and sends its prod- 
ucts all over the world. Some of the other larger 
industries are axle works, furniture, flannels 
and worsteds, flouring by roller process, barac^;, 
boots and shoes, and silverware. The granite 
industry is conducted by many companies, the 
largest of which is the New England Oranit« 
Company, which is furnishing tho stone for the 
new Congressional Library building at Washing- 
ton, D. C. The quarries from which hJI the 
Blone is taken are on Rattlesnake Hill, near 
West Concord, and are accessible for milroad 
transportation. The wholesale and retail tmde 
is large, and the city has a great manj fine 




the territory east of Merrimack river are com- 
prised in one ward. Concord is the railway cen- 
ter of the State, and has one of the largest and 
most conveniently arranged passenger stations 
in New England. It possessesa good gravity sys- 
tem of water works, the source of supply being 
Penacook lake, which contains 265 acres, 3j miles 
from the State House. An additional high serv- 
ice is now in process of construction from the 
same source. There are 43-89 miles of main and 
distributing pipes, 10-71 miles of service pipe, 
183 hydrants for fire purposes, and 24 private 
hydrants. There are several miles of sewer in 
the streets of the central part of tlie city con- 
nected with the river. There is a eas and elec- 
tric-light company, which has recently erected a 
commodious station (or arc and incandescent 
lighting. The manufacturing interests are va- 



stores and business blocks. Tlie new Oovem- 
ment building, which cost tSOO.OOO, is of Con- 
cord granite, and is one of the most beautiCul 
and Mat-arranged structures of ita eiie to be 
found in the country. It contains the post- 
offlce. United States Pension Offlce for New 
Hampshire and Vermont, and United States 
Court room, with all necessary apartments for 
olTlcers of the court and jurors. A now Stale 
Library building ia in process of erection near 
the State House and Government building. The 
public-school buildin|!s are unsurpassed by tho.«e 
of any city of its size, the hlgn-school build- 
ing, completed last year, being a model in archi- 
tecture and interior arrangement. There is a 
Roman Catholic parochial school, with 300 pu- 
pils, and an Episcojial school for girls. St. Paul's 
School, a noted institution of learning for boys. 



CITIES, AMERICAN. (Cobsicana, Danbubt.) 153 

2 mQes west of the railway station, has more largely increasing its business. The water 
than 300 pupils and a numerous corps of in- power on Contoocook river has been utilized re- 
structors. A large building has just been erect- cently by the erection of a new woolen mill, 
ed. which makes a valuable addition to the hamlet about a mile west of Penacook, by the Concord 
that has grown up around the school. The new Manufacturing Company of West Concord, and 
chapel, reoentiy completed, is unequaled by the there is still Targe water power unused on the 
chapel of any like institution of learning. The Merrimack river. There are 2 parks in the cen- 
churches of Concord are : 1 Advent, 3 Baptist. 1 tralpart of the city, and another at the outlet 
Free Baptist, 2 Roman Catholic, 4 Congrega- of Fenaoook lake. The fire department com- 
tionai, 3 Episcopal (including the one at St. prises 178 men, 60 of whom belong to 2 hand- 
PauFs School), 3 Methodist, 1 Unitarian, 1 Uni- engine companies in East and West Concord, 
Tei^list, and an Episcopal mission at East Con- and the others to steamer, hose, and hook and 
cord. The charitable institutions are an Or- ladder companies in the central part of the city 
phans* Home, near St Paul's School ; an Odd- and in Penacook. The New Hampshire Asylum 
Fellows' Home, open to members of the frater- for the Insane accommodates 850 patients. The 
nity in the State ; a Home for the A^ed ; and State Prison is a model penal institution, and, to 
the' Margaret Pillsbury General Hospital, just the credit of the State, is only about half filled, 
complete at an expense of $70,000, and given Corsicana, a city of Texas, county seat of 
to toe cit^ bv Hon. George A. Pillsbury, of Navarro Countv, near the center of the State, 60 
Minneapolis, Minn., to commemorate his golden miles from Dallas and Waco, at the intersection 
wedding. It has accommodatiops for 60 patients, of the Houston and Texas Central and the St. 
There are 2 Masonic lodges, 1 chapter, and 1 Louis Southwestern Railroad. The first railroad 
commandery of Knights Templars ; 3 Odd-Fel- reached the city in 1880, from Tyler. Water is 
jows* lodges, 2 encampments, and 1 canton of reached in wells at a depth of from 10 to 40 feet. 
Patriarchs Militant ; 1 Knights of Pvthias lodge ; and there are numerous tanks or artificial lakes, 

3 Grand Army posts ; a Foresters Court ; St 5 of which around Corsicana have a water sur- 
Patrick's Benevolent Society ; French Canadian face of 160 acres, are stocked with fi^h and 
Society ; and other benevolent and fraternal or- visited as resorts. Corsicana has a population, 
pnizations. The Odd Fellows have a fine build- by the census of 1890, of 6,285, an increase of 
iog, reoentiy completed. The Fowler Library 2,012 over 1880. Good county roads enter the 
building, containing the free public library of city. Drainage is natural from north to south, 
16,000 volumes, is a recent gift to the city from and there is a good sewerage system, with sev- 
a son and a daughter of the late Hon. Asa eral miles of mains. Water works have been 
Fowler. It contains a room for the meetings of erected at a cost of $100,000, and there are gas 




is open to the public. The State Library has school. The churches number 11. There are 

OQtgrown its accommodations in the State 8 national banks, one with a capital of $100,000, 

Hou9e|, but in due time will be removed to the and 2 loan agencies, the capital of one of which 

new library building, which will also contain is $400,000. A fire department was organized in 

rooms for the accommodation of the Supreme 1888. One daily and 6 weekly newspapers are 

Court when holding its law terms and special published. There are 5 miles of street railway, 

sessions. The State House Park has bronze The industries include a wheat elevator and 

statues of Daniel Webster and Gen. John Stark, flouring mill, with capacity of 800 barrels daily, 

and one of the late Senator John P. Hale will be a gin factory, iron foundry, bottling works, an 

placed there in 1892. A soldiers' memorial arch ice factory, a soap factory, carriage and wagon 

IS soon to be erected at the entrance. Concord works, a cotton-seed-oil mill, machine shops, and 

has 3 national banks and 4 savings banks, the a cotton compress with capacity of 1,000 bales 

latter having over $8,000,000 of deposits and 18,- daily. The County Court House, of brick and 

284 depoeitors in 1880. The largest and oldest of stone, cost nearly $85,000, and the City Hall $20,- 

the savings banks is the New Hampshire, with 000. The State Orphans' Home consists of two 

13,786,000 deposits, which occupies a fine block large buildings, contains 100 children, and cost 

of its own. All the banks have convenient and $50,000, to which the city contributed 200 acres 

elepnt rooms for the transaction of business, of landL There is also a State Odd-Fellows' 

built or remodeled within the past few years. Home worth $80,000. 

The First National Bank has the best banking Danbnry, a city of Connecticut, one of the 

rooms in the State, just completed. There are capitals of Fairfield County, in the southwestern 

2 daily and 3 weekly newspapers. The building part of the State, 20 miles' from Bridgeport, 28 

recently erected by the Republican Press Asso- from New Haven, and 65 from New York, to 

ciation as a home for the Concord ** Evening which last city there are 14 passenger trains 

Monitor " and " Independent Statesman " is one daily. Direct communication east and west is 

of the best arranged and most complete printing afforded by the New York and New England 

establishments in New England. It is lighted and the Housatonic Railroads. The city is the 

\>y its own electric plant. This association first northern terminus of the Danbury and ^Torwalk 

introduced incandescent lighting in the city six Railroad, and has also the New York City and 

years ago. Electric power is now supplied to Northern. The first settlement was made at 

nin small machinery and printing presses by the Danbury in 1684, and the first church erected in 

Street Railway Electric Car Company. The 1696, the Indian name for the section being Pah- 

eleotrioal railway has been extended about a quioque. During the Revolution it was made a 

mile through the west end of the city, and is depot of supplies, and Gen. Tryon, marching 



154 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Dbcatue.) 

from New York, April 25, 1777, with 2,000 men, ]>ecatar, a city of Illinois, conntf seat of 
deployed, on the following day« a large amount Macon County, in the center of the State, on 
of puolic stores and private property. Gens. Sangamon river, 39 miles east of Springfield^ 
Silliman, Arnold, and Wooster hurried to the 174 miles from Chicago, and 108 from St. Louis, 
relief, and the last named received a mortal It is an important rauroad center, 7 roads reach- 
wound at Ridgefield, and expired at Danbury, ing out in 13 directions, penetrating 62 coun- 
where he was buried. In 1854 his remains were ties of the State. Two hundred trains enter apd 
removed to their present resting-place (Wooster leave the city every day, and $700,000 are re- 
Cemetery), and a fine monument was set up at ceived yearly for freight. Decatur is the prin- 
the expense of the State and his brother Masons, cipal city on the main line of tho Illinois Central 
Danbury was continued as a Gh>vemment depot. Railroad, and the offices, shops, round houses, 
with a garrison, and in 1778 an army hospital and tracks of the Wabash Kailroad here are 
was established. For several weeks Qen, Gates valued at $1,778,005. Three of the general 
camped here with an army of four brigades. In offices of the entire system are in Decatur, as are 
1784 it became a shire town, and in 1822 was also the general offices of the Terre Haute and 
chartered as a borough. In March, 1851, the first Peoria. The city is sixty years old, and in 1880 
railroad was completed. During the civil, war had a population of 9,547; in 1890 it was 16,- 
1.300 citizens, or about one sixth of the popula- 841, showmg an increase of 76*40 per cent. On 
tion, entered the service of the United States, Nov. 6, 1891, it was shown that permanent inl- 
and $154,566 were contributed to the war fund, provements during the year reached the sum of 
The city was incorporated in 1889. The popula- $1,166,088, of which $508,000 were for public 
tion in 1870 was 8,753; in 1880, 11,619; and in and business buildings, $527,300 for private resi- 
1890, 19,473. Danbury is the chief city in the dences, $66,288 for sewers, and $29,500 for pav- 
manufacture of hats in the United States. The ing. For the last item $300,000 had been ex- 
first f^tory in the country was established here pended to June, 1890. The water works have 
in 1780, by Zadnc Benedict, who, with 1 journey- been doubled, and there is a superior fire depart- 
man and 2 apprentices, produced 3 hats daily, ment In addition to the electric-light plant 
In 1801, 20,000 hats (mostly of far) were pro- owned by the city, there is an electric company, 
duced yearly for exportation. In 1891 there were with an investment of $70,000, under the sanae 
30 large factories, employing over 3,000 per- management as the gas company, the works of 
sons, and turning out 6,000,00^ hats a year ; also which were established in 1868. Two electric 
2 mills for the preparation of fur, 3 factories street railways have 12 miles of road. The city 
for wooden hat-cases, and 7 for paper boxes, property, exclusive of parks, amounts to $48G.- 
The other industries include 5 large iron mills 999, and the debt is $60,490, the interest on 
and a silver-plating establishment Water is which is paid, with an excess of $800, by the in- 
supplied from 4 reservoirs, and there are 2 come from the water works. Four banks have 
natural lakes in the city. There is a paid fire an available capital of more than $1,000,000, and 
department with electric alarm, and a line of there are 3 building, loan, and savings associ- 
street railway connecting with the borough of ations. The school property is valued at $150,- 
Bethel on the south, and traversing the princi- 000, and the school debt is $22,317. In addition 

f)al thoroughfares from east to west. Electric to the high school, there are 8 school buildings, 
ighting is in use One daily, 1 weekly, and 1 in which 50 teachers were employed in 1890. 
monthly papers are published. Two national with an attendance of 2,936 pupils. In addition 
banks (one of which has a stone building erected there are 3 private schools, a college of music, 
at a cost of $35,000) have an aggregate capital and a business college. The churches number 
of $577,000, and surplus of $123,000. There are 23. There is a city library, of nearly 10,000 vol- 
also 2 savings banks. Ten religious denomina- umes. Four daily and 5 weekly newspapers at« 
tions are represented, with buildings of their published. The wholesale and jobbing trade of 
own. Robert Sandeman, a native of Scotland, the city is about $6,000,000 yearly. There is a 
the founder of a sect with 400 followers in the board of trade. Decatur is in the center of 
world, 40 of whom are in the United States, died the great coal fields of Illinois: two shafts are 
in Danbury in 1771, and is buried here. The worked within the city. Over $500,000 are in- 
Sandemanian church at Danbury was founded in vested in manufactures, employing 2,500 persons. 
1875, but has been sold. There are 6 public- The products include brass and iron work, agri- 
school buildings, costing $100,000. The attend- cultural implements, special machinery, electric 
ance is 2,100. In addition to private institu- dynamos, motors, etc., artificial stone, vitrified 
tions, there are also Roman Catholic and Ger- paving stone, brick, automatic grain scales, ele- 
man Lutheran parochial schools. The library, vator supplies, gas machines, galvanized-iron 
a gift to the city from the family of E. Moss cornice, carriages, road carts, etc., wire clothes- 
White, occupies a fine building. Prominent lines, furniture, windmills, sash, doors, and 
charitable institutions are the hospital, which blinds, incubators and brooders, trunks, tents, 
cost $15,000, and the Children's Home and Re- cigars, pumps, hose supporters, metallic mats, 
lief Society, the latter incorporated in 1884. oik barrels, and artificial ice. There are linseed- 
The City Hall cost $45,000, and an appropriation oil mills, a brewery, bottling works, lumber eom- 
has been made by Congress for a Federal build- panies, a yam factory, and knitting works. A 
ing. There is a finely equipped club-house, and new court house was constructing during 1891, 
the city has two boards of trade. The business to cost $100,000, and an opera house has been 
streets are paved, and there are miles of good completed, with seating capacity of 1,600, oost- 
sidewalks, shaded by elms, some of which are ing a similar amount. The Woman's Club is 
more than a century old. The Danbury Agri- erecting a building. There are several public 
cultural Society has a membership of 20,000. parks. A trotting association was formed in 



CITIES, AMERICAN. (Faibhatbv, Fabibault, Gainbstille.) 155 

1889-'90, which owns a race track and driving railway cars to vessels, with capacity of 1,000 
p&riL There are several pleasure resorts on the tons daily. A foundry and machine shop are in 
river, which forms nearly a semicircle around the operation, costiner $75,000, and there are 2 shin- 
city, and on which a small excursion steamer gle mills, 2 sash, door, and blind factories, 3 
plies in summer. In consideration that Decatur pressed-brick works with capacity of 15,000,000 
was the birthplace of the Qrand Army of the per annum, 8 stone quarrying and cutting plants, 
Republic the first encampment having been a furniture factory, a galvanized-iron cornice 
organised there April 6, 1866, the twenty-fifth works, a tent and awning factory, carriage works, 
State anniversary encampment was held there potteries, and car and steamship repair shops, 
April, 1891. A large memorial hall is also to be with minor industries. The scener}- of the sur- 
erpcted. The citv is named for Commodore rounding country is picturesque, and there is 
Stephen Decatur. tJ. S. N. abundance of game and fish. 

FAirhATeii,acitvof Washington, in Whatcom Faribault, a city of Minnesota, county seat 
CouBty, on Bellingham Bay, an arm of Puget of Rice County, on Cannon river at its Junction 
Sound, founded in 1889. By the census of 1890 with the Straight, 53 miles south of St. Paul. It 
it had a population of 4,076, and the assessed is built in a valley, and the 6 large school edi- 
val nation was $7,438,300. It is the Pacific coast fices on limestone bluffs overlook the landscape, 
terminus of the Great Northern Railroad, and. The Iowa and Minnesota division of the Chica- 
by the Fairhaven and Southern and the Fair- go, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad and the 
haven and Xew W^estminster Southern, connects Cannon Valley division of the Minneapolis and 
with the Northern Pacific and Canadian Pacific St. Louis enter the town, and seven good water 
systems. The Great Northern Railroad has con* powers afford facilities for manufacturing. The 
structed ocean wharves on the fine harbor at a population in 1870 was 8,045 ; in 1880, 5,415 ; 
cost of $100,000. Steamers ply between it and and in 1890, 6,520. The streets are shaded with 
adjacent cities, and the port is visited by Pacific maples and elms, and the lawns and gardens are 
steamships. A large hotel of stone and brick tastefully kept. It is the business center of one 
was opened September, 1890, which cost $150,- of the most fertile agricultural districts of the 
000, and a laige brick block was constructed State, in which a change from wheat-growing to 
during the year valued at $50,000. Two schools dairying durin^^ the past decade has brought re- 
represent a value of $70,000, and in addition to newed prospenty. There are 8 flouring mills, 2 
more than 200 buildings completed, 100 were in grain elevators, a woolen mill, a furniture fac- 
course of constniction Jan. 1, 1891. Four banks torv, and a manufactory of windmills. Quarries 
(2 national) had a combined capital of $300,000. of limestone afforded the material from which 
There are telegraph, telephone, and express facili- the institutions of learning were erected. These 
lies ; street improvements completed and under are the State institutions for the blind, the deaf 
contract Jan. 1, 1891, were placed at $391,000 ; and dumb, and for feeble-minded children, and 
and a sewerage system was under way, to cost three Protestant Episcopal schools. Shattuck 
$100,000. There is a paid fire department, while School for boys was founded in 1861, to which 
gravity pressure of the water in the hydrants is have been added Shumway Memorial Chapel in 
sufficient protection in the lower portion of the 1872, which cost $30,000, and Shumway Hall, 
city. Water is conducted from Lake Padden, 2 built in 1886-*87 with a portion of a legacy of 
miles from the city, with a fall of 418 feet, and $200,000 left to the school bv Mrs. Shumway, of 
b oondacted through a 12-inch steel pipe. Gas Chicago ; Morgan Hall (1888-*89), the gift, of J. 
and electric lights are in use, and 'an electric S. Morgan, of London, England ; and the Smy- 
street railway is in process of construction. Five ser Memorial (1889) : an armory and gymnasium ; 
churches have been completed, and there is a Whipple Hall ; the Lodge ; and several cottages 
hoiipital erected by the Sisters of Peace, costing occupied by professors. Two hundred pupils are 
$50,000. Eighteen teachers are employed in the trained under military discipline and wear uni- 
public schools. A daily and a tri-weekly news- form. This school is controlled by the Bishop 
paper are published. An opera house is under SeaburyMission, as is the Divinity School, found- 
construction, to cost $100,000, and there are sev- ed in 1859, with 10 professors and instructors 
eral public halls. The city has no debt, and the and 30 students in 1887-88. St. Mary's Ball, 
receipts of the treasurer for 1890 were $168,- for girls, founded bv Bishop Whipple in 1866, is 
736.65 ; disbursements, $144,201.92. In addition a handsome stone edifice, with about 100 pupils, 
to the immense timber resources, the count v con- There is also a Roman Catholic academy and 
tains deposits of coal and iron yet undeveloped, convent. Two national banks have a capital of 
gold and silver, and building stone of fine ouali- $130,000. Four weekly newspapers are published, 
ty, which last is being quarried south ana east GaineSTllle, a city of Texas, county seat of 
of the city. Seattle was almost entirely rebuilt Cooke County, in the northern part of the State, 
of the blue sandstone from the southern extremi- 6 miles south of Red river, the boundary between 
trof Fairhaven town site, and the Portland post- the State and Indian Territory, in a rich agricult- 
office and other buildings of Portland and San ural country. The county has an area of 933 
Francisco have been constructed from it Graph- square miles, or 697,120 acres. Of these, 36,091 
lie and asbestos deposits lie in sight of the city, acres were in cotton in 1890, 40,686 in com, 21,- 
and are being developed. For 2 miles along the 308 in wheat ; oats, barley, millet, and other 
water front streteh 8 saw mills, with total capa- grasses are raised also, and, in addition to stock- 
city of 700,000 feet a day. A $2,000,000 steel raising, the fruit crop is large and increasing 
company was formed in 1890 to erect smelting yearly. About half of the county is timber. In 
works at the city, being engaged in developing 1890, 1,857 farms owned 13,586 horses, 39,240 cat- 
the iron resources on the Skagit river, and coal tie. and 14.699 hogs. The population of Gaines- 
bunkers are being erected to load directly from ville in 1880 was 2,667, and in 1890 6,594, show- 



156 CITIES, AMERICAN. (Great Falls, Habrihak.) 

ing an increase of 147*24 per cent. In 1879 the traceable upon the surface for several miles, 
first railroad reached the city from Denison, and Smelters built and building in Oreat Falls in 
in 1886 the Santa Fd system built through from 1891 will cost $5,000,000, and an iron and brass 
Galveston. This is intersected by the Missouri, foundry and machine shops have been construct- 
Kansas and Texas* absorbing previous corpora- ed. The employment of electricity in treating 
tions, and giving outlets in all directions. The copper matte will be facilitated bj the great 
division headquarters, round house, and machine wat«r power available, and an electric-light com- 
shops of the Santa ¥6 Railroad are here. The pany is already in existence. Water works built 
ass^sed valuation of property in the city in 1891 m 1889 cost $150,000, and there is a perfect sys- 
was $3,561,435. Three national banks have an tem of sewerage. Five miles of electric street 
aggregate capital of $375,000. There are 4 pub- railway were in operation March, 1891, soon to 
lie schools, costing nearly $100,000, in which are be increased to 12. The churches number 6, and 
about 1,200 children. The Presbyterian Synod- there are as many banks, 8 building and loan 
ical College for women was erected in 1890, and associations, a public library building, 2 daily 
the Gainesville College was already in exist- newspapers, ana steel wagon bridges across the 
ence. There are 11 churches for wnites and 8 Missouri and Sun rivers; $5,000 were expended 
for colored persons. The industries embrace 2 during 1890 on parks, and 20,000 shade-trees 
flouring mills, an iron foundry, a planing mill have been planted. The citj^ has a board of 
and machine shops, an ice, a broom, a cigar, and trade and a Younp Men's Chnstian Association, 
a soap factory, bottling works, a cotton com- In addition to ol£>established mills, a saw-mill 
press, and steam brick and marble works, plant, with capacity of 120,000 feet in ten hours. 
Water works of the Holly system represent a is erecting, having a machine shop in connection 
capital of $215,000, the supply being drawn from already built, the capital of which is $1,000,000. 
the Elm Fork of Trinity nver ; and there are 5 One of the smelters, already established, will 
miles of street railway, a telephone exchange, have an output of 5,000 tons of sheet copper and 
gas and electric lights, 8 halls, and several fine electric wire in twenty-four hours. Large stock 
club-rooms, also a public library. The city was ranges are tributary to the city, and 8,400,000 
founded in 1849. The assessed valuation in 1890 pounds of wool were marketed in 1890. Irrigating^ 
was $4,000,000. Gainesville has an altitude of ditches are under construction ; one, 75 miles in 
900 feet, and a mean annual temperature of 66°. length, 30 feet wide at top and 15 at bottom. 4 
Great Falls, a city of Montana, the county feet in depth, to irrigate 800,000 acres in Cho- 
seat of Cascade County, near the center of the teau and C'ascade Counties, and costing $500,000, 
Stat«, on Missouri river, at the confluence of will end on high prairie a little west of the city. 
Sun river, where begin the only series of falls in The altitude of Great Falls is 3,312 feet, and the 
the Missouri in its total length of 4,000 miles, severity of the winter season is tempered by the 
It is on a level prairie, stretching 2 miles along rarity and dryness of the atmosphere, 
the river, which has an average width of 1,200 Harriman, a new city, in Roane County, 
feet, and within a distance of 10 miles has a fall Tcnn., 255 miles south oi Cincinnati, 80 miles 
of over 500 feet, including Black Eagle Falls, north of Chattanooga, 50 miles west of Knox- 
within the city limits, across which a dam has ville, and 125 miles east of Nashville. It is at 
been built, costing more than $200,000, giving Emery Gap, the natural gateway on the east of the 
a water power estimated at 1,000,000 horse power, great Cumoerland plateau, and was founded Feb. 
The site was purchased in 1884-*85 from pub- 26, 1890, by Gen. Clinton B. Fisk and associates, 
lie lands of the Government, and the population One farm-house and a few cabins and shanties 
in 1890 was 4,750. In 1888 the assessea valua- then marked the site. As it was not a corpora- 
tion was $2,400,000; in 1889, $4,311,000; and in tion, but merely part of a large district, when 
1890, $8,646,548, with a tax levy of 12 mills. The the census of 1890 was taken, its population then 
city is the western terminus of the Great North- can not be given. On Oct. 24, i891, a commit- 
em Railway, and the eastern of the Montana tee of visitors made a public report, saying: "The 
Central, by which it is connected with the North- activity in building hues will oe best understood 
em Pacific By the Great Falls and Canada by a statement of the fact, based upon an actual 
Railroad it is joined to the Canadian Pacific, count by two of our number who drove about 
and over the Great Falls, Sand Coulee, and Nei- for the purpose, that in the eighteen months 
hart Railroad, coal is shipped from the Sand since the beginning of building operations 439 
Coulee mines, and ores from the Belt mount- houses have been built, not including 51 in dif- 
ains, 60 miles away. The railway tonnage of ferent stages of construction, also 34 brick stores, 
the city is already greater than that of any other 28 frame stores (besides 8 just burned), 4 churches, 
city in the State, excepting Butte. The Great 2 others in course of construction, 1 exposition 
Falls and Canada Railroad has its shops at building, 1 public hall, a very handsome office 
Gniat Falls, and plans have been drawn for ex- building for the Town Company, 2 hotels, and 3 
tensive establishments of the Great Northern, schools. The number of stores seems out of pro- 
Adjacent coal fields, covering an area of 400 portion to the houses ; but it should be remera- 
square miles, have an average thickness of 10 bered that many families are occupying rooms in 
feet The estimate was made of 5,000 tons daily the store buildings. We believe that these houses 
output before the close of 1891. The mineral to-day must contain over 8,000 people." The 
zone of the Little Belt mountains, extending 25 compiler of a city directory, in Decemoer follow- 
miles along the range, in which are various ins^, reported the population in excess of 4,000. 
mining camps, contains large deposits of lead, The city is at the junction of the Walden's Ridge 
carbonate, and galena ore, carrying 20 to 30 Division of the East Tennessee, Virginia and 
ounces of silver per ton ; and there are also large Georgia Railroad with the Cincinnati Southern 
veins of hematite iron ore, 20 to 30 feet in width. Railroad. It has its own belt-line railway, which 



CITIES, AMERICAN. (Joplin, Kokomo.) 157 

is part of the Harriman Coal and Iron Railroad Galena are the largest mining camps, at equal 
sj^euLt and several other railroads have been distance:^ from the cit}% and one mining company 
surveyed to and through it, including the Ten- alone has produced upwuid of $8,000,000 in ore. 
oessee Midland, now building west of Nashvill