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Irtliafnlngia Caflibtnisis. 


Cnrabrian Irrlntnliigicnl Issoriution. 






ff % 




n. MASON, printbh, high street, tbn by. 


In this Volume one of th^ most valuable series of papers 
will be found in the Account. of, t^^e Earls, Earldom, and 
Castle of Pembroke. This supplies a desideratum in 
the History of Wales, and is deserving of the careful 
attention of Members. 

Another important collection of papers has been 
begun in the Official Accounts of the Excavations on the 
site of Uriconium, which promise to put antiquaries in 
possession of much unexpected information concerning 
the state of Roman Britain. 

Edward Lhwyd's Letters and Papers will be continued 
until the collection is gone through. 

Mr. Westwood's series of Observations on Early 
Inscribed Stones and Crosses will also for a long time 
be gradually conveying to Members a more accurate 
knowledge of the monumental history of our early 
forefathers. New discoveries in this department are 
making every year. 

In other respects the Publishing Sub-Committee hope 
that this Volume will be considered worthy of the 
Association, and they have again to thank Members for 
their co-operation and their kindness. 

Irrlielngia Carabrfttjjii 



No. L. 

It has but seldom happened that those families, in whose 
fevour, in modern times, have been revived the titles of 
the great Norman nobles, could claim any close affinity 
with, or direct descent from, the distinguished warriors 
or statesmen by whom their original lustre was achieved. 
TbvLQ it is with the Oxfords and Mortimers, the Leicesters, 
the Derbys, the Warwicks and Winchesters, the Staffords, 
the Hertfords, the Salisburys, and the Buckinghams. 
The earldoms of Arundel and Surrey, Norfolk and 
Northumberland, are indeed represented in blood, but 
through lines depending on more than one occasion upon 
the distaff for their continuity, while the representatives 
of the houses of Hastings, Nevill and Clinton, rare 
examples of pure male descent, have taken refuge in 
titles either of later creation, or anciently of subordinate 
consideration in their families. Hastings indeed com- 
memorates in the title of Huntingdon an earldom 
originally held by David le Scot, heir of the throne of 
Scotland, whose daughter and heiress married the repre- 
sentative of that family. 

The title of Pembroke belongs to the first of these 
categories, although its owners are not without illustra- 



tions of their own. Those who now bear it are not 
connected, even irregularly, with the feudal earls. 

The old earldom of Pembroke, not itself remarkable 
for wealth or extent, was rendered illustrious by the suc- 
cession of able and powerful nobles who wore its coronet 
during the twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries ; 
and the names of Montgomery, of Clare, of Mareschal, 
of Valence, and of Hastings, than which none were better 
known among the barons of their age, were most dis- 
tinguished in that branch of their families which bore 
successively the title of Pembroke. 

The power of the Lords Marchers of Wales, to which 
body they belonged, was not only considerable, but it was 
in a measure independent of the crown. These lords held 
indeed under the crown, but they had ^^jura regalia," 
rights of high and low justice, of wreck, " Pren a phwU," 
of '^ tree and pit,'' of soc and sac, infangthef and out- 
fangthef, and other barbarous names of yet more barbarous 
privileges. . They had also their chancellor, chancery, and 
seal; their knightly vassals; and, until the reign of Henry 
Vni., the king's writ did not run in their territories. 

Thus, 9 Edward I., Gilbert de Clare claimed to hold 
land in Glamorgan as bis ancestors, by conquest, "sicut 
regale," and declined answering the royal "quo warranto" 
before taking counsel with his peers of England and the 
marchers of Wales, and 18 Edward I., he, the Earl of 
Hereford, and William de Braose, on the death of William 
de Braose, Bishop of Llandaff, claimed to hold his tem- 
poralities in their several marcher lordships. On this 
occasion De Clare asserted his lordship to include the 
whole territory of Glamorgan, (no doubt he excepted 
Gower,) and that he and his ancestors, except when in 
ward to the king, had always held the lands of the see 
during its vacancy. This dispute was settled in com- 
bination with the earl's marriage, by the admission and 
resignation of his rights, and a regrant of them to him 
and his countess for their lives, with reversion to the crown. 
{Bolls. Plac. in Pari. i. 42.) 19 Edward I., in the 
celebrated dispute which arose out of Morlais Castle, the 


same Earls of Essex and Hertford claimed to have their 
disputes laid before their friends at a '* Dies Marchiae'' 
before they brought them into the king's courts. In 
21 Edward I. Fulk Fitz-Warine challenged the same 
right. {Ab. Plac. 201-31.) 30 Edward I. William 
de Braose claimed to be independent of the crown in 
Hereford and Oower, alleging that he had in Gower a 
chancellor, chancery, and seal, and power over life and 
death. {Rot. Cur, Reg. i. xxxi.) The Welsh bishops 
were also marchers. It appears from the Annals of Mar- 
gam that, in 1131, there was a dispute De jure March!- 
arum, between Bernard of St. David's, and Urban of 

The marchers, among other privileges, had the chattels 
of all their tenants who died intestate. When the chattels 
of Sir William de Hastings were so taken, Henry III. 
admitted the right, but disputed its application on the 
ground that Sir William was a tenant in capite. 

The marchers claimed to find silver spears for the 
support of the queen's canopy at a coronation, and did 
so provide them for Eleanor, Queen of Henry III., when 
they claimed, as "Jus Marchiae," to bear the canopy, 
instead of the barons of the Cinque Ports. 

No doubt, under colour of attainders and minorities, 
the crown not unfrequently stepped in and exercised the 
powers of its feudatories ; but some pretext of this nature 
seems always to have been thought necessary. Any illegal 
infraction upon their privileges was always resented by 
the marchers, and by none more zealously, or more sucr 
cessfuUy, than the Earls of Pembroke. 

The celebrated estuary of Milford Haven, running far 
up into the Welsh district of Dyfed, isolates from the 
body of the province a southern portion, which is thus 
converted into a sort of peninsula, accessible everywhere 
from the sea, intersected on the north by various branches 
from the Haven, and possessing a mild but moist climate, 
and a moderately fertile soil. This is the original district 
of Pembroke, a name now extended over a much larger 


space. It is of Welsh origin, ** Pen" designating its bold 

*^ That atmost point into the Iberian deep ;" 

while " Broke," " Bro," or " Braich " has long been a 
bone of contention among Welsh etymologists, far too 
nearly allied to the celebrated Wardour controversy about 
" Pen-yaU' to be approached scathless by an English 
antiquary. The whole tract is contained in the modem 
cantref or hundred of Penryne, and is itself composed of 
the three commotes of Pembroke, Coedrayt, and Manor- 
beer. — (Lei. Itin. v. 19.) 

Of the early history of this remote subdivision of 
Wales very little has been recorded. Whatever may have 
been its aavances in Christianity, or in the poetic literature 
of the Cwmri, fostered as is probable at least as early as 
the fourth century by a close intimacy with Ireland, all 
seems to have been swept away before the eleventh cen- 
tury. The peninsula lay peculiarly exposed to attacks 
from the sea, and appears to have suffered a full share of 
the piratical ravages of the Danes, who, from the middle 
of the eighth century, were frequent and dreaded visitors 
along the shores of the Bristol Channel, invading Dyfed 
under Ubba in 878, appearing occasionally in South Wales 
as late as the eleventh century, (Powel, Carad. p. Ill,) 
and whose traces are probably preserved in the names of 
Skomer, Skokham, and Gateholm, still borne by some of 
the islands which lie scattered along the coasts of Dyfed. 

This district was always a favourite point for commu- 
nication between Wales and Ireland, countries inhabited 
by kindred people, who, after the Celtic manner, took a 
lively interest in each others' internal affairs. 

The completed conquest and partition of England 
brought over a swarm of Normans, who, not having 
taken part in the original venture, and finding therefore 
little share in the spoils, obtained license to extend the 
sway of the Conqueror into Wales. They selected the 
southern and more exposed districts, accessible by sea, 
commencing with Gwent and Glamorgan; and they 


profited largely by the disunion of the natives. As early 
as 1049, Griffith, Frince of North Wales, invited Swevn, 
a son of Earl Godwin, to join in the invasion of West 
Wales ; and in the brief reign of Harold, — much of whose 
early reputation was due to his victories over the Welsh, 
and his erection, it is related, of a palace at Portskewet, in 
Monmouthshire, — Caradoc ap Griffith, to avenge a defeat, 
made overtures to the Saxons, and these, repeated to the 
Normans, brought over in 1069-70 a small force, which 
withdrew only to return augmented about 1072, when 
occurred what was probably the first organized attack by 
the- Normans upon West Wales. 

By 1079 the Conqueror had arranged the defence of 
his own borders, and began to turn his attention upon 
his active and salient neighbours. Several authors affirm 
that, in this year, he entered Wales with an army, 
proceeded as far as St. David's, received homage and 
submission from the Welsh, and, some add, set at liberty 
a number of prisoners. (Jones, History of Wales^ Carte 
i. 434; Ingr. Sax. Chr. 286.) In 1086-7, just before 
his death, William passed a Christmas, as he had occa- 
sionally done before, at Gloucester, upon the Welsh 
frontier." (M. Paris, Flor. Wore, Powel, Hollinshed, 
Lappenberg Ang. Sax.) 

William Rufus pursued his father's policy as regarded 
Wales. In 1091 he is said by William of Malmesbury 
to have led an army thither; and by other authorities, 
though generally unsuccessful to have gained a victory 
near Brecon, and to have slain Rhys, the Welsh leader. 
In 1092 he promoted the conquest of South and North 
Wales, and encouraged a strong league of barons led by 
Roger, Earl of Shrewsbury, Hugh, Earl of Chester, and 
Henry de Newburg, Earl of Warwick, the conqueror of 
Gower, who proposed to themselves the settlement of 
Powis, Cardigan, Ewyas, Dyfed and Gower. Earl Roger, 
head of the house of Montgomery, was their chief He 
was a prudent, and able, and, after the fashion of his age, 
a religious noble. He held with his wife Mabel the great 
possessions of the Norman family of De Talvas, and in 


his own right the town of Chichester, and the earldoms 
of Arundel and Shrewsbury, where he founded the yet 
extant castles, and by means of the latter conquered, and 
held in check, and gave his name to, the town and county 
of Montgomery. He did homage with the rest for their 
future conquest, and entered South Wales by sea in 1092. 

Earl Roger was resisted by Cadogan ap jBleddyn, who 
is said to have repelled some earlier invaders, and to have 
recovered all the strong places except Pembroke and 
Rydcors. He seems to have held Roger in check, and in 
1093 to have gained upon him considerably. In 1094 
the attack was renewed, but still without success. In 
1095 Rufus, returning from Normandy, led the invaders, 
attacking Montgomery in January, and North Wales at 
Michaelmas. {Carte.) Both in this and the following 
year he was unsuccessful, and the castle of Montgomery 
was lost. Earl Roger, left to himself, probably made good 
his ground in Middle Wales, and rebuilt his castle within 
the year ; for, on the 27th August following, he was, with 
other barons, slain by the Welsh between Cardiff and 
Brecknock. There is, however, another version which 
represents him as setting aside the last three days of his 
life to prayer and conference in the abbey of Shrewsbury, 
and there dying in something of the odour of sanctity, 
27th August, 1094. Earl Roger is the reputed founder 
of Kilgerran Castle, said to have been completed by 
Gilbert Strongbow. 

His place in West Wales was filled by Arnulph, a 

founger son, styled by some writers Earl of Pembroke, 
nheriting no land, he applied for and received from 
Rufus license to conquer Dyfed; and he is thought to 
have built the original castle at Pembroke, where he 
placed Gerald de Windsor as castellan. 

Whether Arnulph built or rebuilt any part of the 
present castle is uncertain ; but that he left a fortress 
there on a large scale is evident, from his gift, in 1098, 
of *^ the church of St. Nicholas, within his castle of Pem- 
broke, and twenty carucates of land," to the Norman 
abbey of St. Martin, at Sayes, founded by his father. 


(MonasL and Tanner.) This he did for the weal of his 
own soul, that of his father, and that of his brother Hugh, 
surnamed by the Welsh ** Goch," from the red colour of 
his hair, and recently (1098) slain. In consequence, a 
Benedictine priory, a cell to St. Martin's, and dedicated to 
St. Nicholas and St. John the Evangelist, was established 
at Pembroke, where the ruins are still known as Monk- 
ton. In 1097 Rufus was again in Wales, from Mid- 
summer to August, and with great loss. He passed his 
last Christmas, 1100, at Gloucester. 

Upon the king's death, in 1100, Amulph strengthened 
his position, and with him 

" Came Robert de Belesme through his overweening, 
And passed hither over the sea, and into Wales went," 

where the two brothers took a prominent place among 
the turbulent nobility who adhered to Duke Robert, and 
defended in 1 102 Bridgenorth, Shrewsbury, and Arundel 
Castles against the king. Peter of Langtoft continues, — 

" Within days thirty taken was he through spy 
And led to King Henry ; done had he felony, 
And his brother Arnold " 

Some accounts place the exile of the two brothers in 
1 102, others state that after the banishment of Robert de 
Belesme, Arnulph, still supporting Curthose and his own 
brother's interests, strengtnened Pembroke Castle, and 
made overtures to the Welsh. Finally, however, he fled 
to Ireland, and married Lafracoth, daughter of King 
Morcar. (Oder. Vital.) 

Henry speedily detached the Welsh from his cause, and 
cut off his return to Wales. In 1 103 he appears as assis- 
ting the Irish to beat off a piratical attack from Magnus 
of Norway, but he finally fled to Normandy, where he 
took part in the battle of Alen^on in 1118. Meantime, 
Henry placed Saber, one of his knights, at Pembroke ; but 
in 1102 he restored the charge to Gerald the former 
castellan. The castle must therefore be regarded at this 
period as vested in the crown. 

Gerald was third son of Walter Fitz-Other, castellan 


of Windsor, founder of the great families of Fitz-Gerald 
in Ireland, and Carew and Windsor in England and Ire- 
land. He became the third husband of Nest, daughter 
of Rhys ap Twdwr, and sister of Griffith ap Rhys, Princes 
of South Wales. By her he was father of William, 
Maurice, and Griffith Fitz-Gerald, and Walter, Bishop of 
St. David's. (Hollinshed, 109.) Nest had been mistress 
to Henry I., and by him was mother of Henry, and of 
Robert Earl of Gloucester. One of Gerald's grand- 
children, the son either of his son Gerald, or of his 
daughter Angharad, for the matter is doubtful, was the 
celebrated historian Giraldus Cambrensis, or De Barri, 
whose family may possibly have given name to the Gla- 
morganshire island of Barry, but most certainly did not, 
as has been supposed, derive it from thence. 

Gerald is reputed to have rebuilt Pembroke Castle; but 
this more probably relates to Carew, a corruption of the 
Welsh " Caerau," " Castra," a neighbouring stronghold, 
whence one of his sons, Ido or Odo de Carrio, derived 
his name. Both Carews and Windsors long remained in 
the district. As late as 8 Richard II. Sir William de 
Windsor appears by an inquisition to hold the lordship of 
Manorbeer, and the castle and manor of Penally. {Inq. 
p. m. iii. 69.) 

Soon after Gerald was installed, Owen ap Cadogan ap 
Bleddyn entered Pembroke Castle by a peculiarly dirty 
piece of treachery, and stole thence Nest, and Gerald's two 
sons, and took them to Powis. Gerald drove Owen into 
Ireland, and recovered first the children, and finally their 
mother. Owen, assisted by the Irish, returned to Wales, 
and carried on for many years a desultory war against 
Gerald and the men of Pembroke. 

Pembroke about 1111 received a colony of Flemings. 
Men of this nation were not unknown in England. 
Several had come over with, and been encouraged by, the 
Conqueror, and others were in favour with Henry's son- 
in-law the emperor, and with Henry himself, whose 
mother Maud was daughter to Baldwin, Earl of Flanders. 
In consequence of an inundation in their own country, a 


considerable number emigrated about this time to Eng- 
land, and were kindly received by Henry, and sent to 
settle themselves in Pembroke, as a barrier, says Malmes- 
bury, against the Welsh. They speedily colonized and 
defended the peninsula, and are describea by Giraldus as 
a brave and contented people. 

A little before this time, about 1 107, Henry, irritated 
by the murder of a Flemish bishop then travelling in 
West Wales, and much engaged in the contest for the 
investitures with Archbishop Anselm and Pope Paschal 
U., and having in view an expedition to Normandy, called 
in the aid of Gilbert de Clare, a nobleman well known in 
Normandy, England, and Wales, and whose uncle Walter 
was the conqueror of North Gwent. To him Henry 
oflfered the dangerous permission to conquer Cardigan, 
the inheritance of Cadogan ap Bleddyn. 

Gilbert de Clare was the descendant and ancestor of a 
strong-blooded and powerful race of barons, who left 
their mark upon almost every great transaction of the 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries in Normandy and 
England, and latterly in Wales and Ireland. He was 
descended from Richard, Duke of Normandy, whose 
natural son, Geoffrey, Count of Eu, was father to Gisle- 
bert, surnamed '* Crispin," Count of Brionne and Eu, 
a man of violence, who was put to death by a family he 
had injured. He was father, some say by Arlotta the 
Conqueror's mother, to Richard and Baldwin, who as- 
sisted in the conquest of England. 

Baldwin, styled indifferently " de Molis," " Meules," 
"de Sap," "de Exeter," and " Le Viscomte," the two latter 
titles relating to his office of sheriff of Devon, stood high in 
Duke William's confidence. He resided at Okehampton, 
and at the close of the western rebellion, in 1068, when 
Gytha, Harold's mother, fled to Steepholm, and Exeter, 
after a fourteen to eighteen days' siege, surrendered to the 
Conqueror, he received from that prince twenty houses 
in the town, and 159 manors in the district, and was left 
with a strong garrison to construct a casde. How well 
he did his work is evident from the remains still extant. 



The earthworks are the most formidable in England, 
and surpass even those at Wallingford. Baldwin died 
before 1091, having married Emma, daughter of an aunt 
of the Conqueror, probably Adelaide, wife of Renaud 
de Bourgoyne. They had issue, Robert, Richard, and 

Robert regained the alienated inheritance of Brionne 
in 1090 from Duke Robert, on the rebellion of Robert, 
Earl of Meulan, and afterwards when called upon to yield 
it up he refused, and stood an assault, of which a very 
spirited account is given by Odericus Vitalis. Brionne 
occupied an island between Montreuil and St. Evrault, 
and the manor of Sap was near it. Robert died in 1 135. 
Of William nothing is recorded. 

Richard Frrz-QiLBERT, called from his Norman manor, 
or as some untruly say from Benefield, in Northampton- 
shire, ^*de Bienfaite," and sometimes '^de Clare," and 
*^ de Tonbridge," from his principal English possessions, 
was one of the most considerable and most richly rewarded 
of the Norman adventurers. In Normandy he had Bien- 
faite and Orbec. In England, besides Tonbridge, he 
received in Surrey thirty -eight lordships, in Essex thirty- 
five, in Cambridgeshire three, and in Suffolk, including 
Clare, ninety-five, in all 171 lordships. (Foss. Judges, 
i. 30.) 

The Leuca or Lowy of Tonbridge he is said to have 
obtained with the manor of Homet, in Normandy, from 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, in exchange for Brionne. 
It is related that a thong being extended round Brionne 
was transferred to England and laid out at Tonbridge, so 
as to include an equal area. This ordinary story, though 
very generally received, is scarcely consistent with the 
figure of the Lowy, which is well known and preserved. 
It is very irregular. A part, tolerably compact, is on 
the east bank of the Medway, including the castle, town, 
and suburbs, and part is on the west bank, forming two 
peninsulas, one of which includes the Somerhill domain, 
and extends almost to Tonbridge Wells. The franchise is 
probably of Saxon date. It is entered in Domesday as 


belonging to Earl Richard. 42 and 43 Henry III. it is 
called the " Baleuca/' and the " Leucata de Tonbridge." 
Its present name is the Lewy. (Hasted, Kentf ii. 308 ; 
CaL Hot. Pat. 30, 1.) 

This Lewy of Tonbridge was claimed by Becket as a 
fief of his see, and the earl's refusal, under the king's 
order, to do homage, was one of the grievances brought 
forward by the prelate. The homage then withheld was 
afterwards conceded to Archbishop Walter Hubert. 

In 1073 Earl Richard was joint chief justice of Eng- 
land with William de Warreue, and in that capacity he 
assisted the Regent Odo to put down Waltheof s con- 

On the death of William, the earl at first supported 
Duke Robert, whom he joined in inviting to England. 
In 1088 he was besieged for two days, {Carte^) wounded, 
and taken in Tonbridge Castle, by William Rufus, to 
whom he then swore allegiance. 

In 1091, while fighting for Rufus at the siege of 
Coney, he was taken by Curthose ; and in 1095 he was 
a sharer in Mowbray's conspiracy, when he is called " de 
Tonbridge." Soon after this his warlike tastes led him 
into South Wales, where he made an inroad into Cardigan, 
in returning from which he was waylaid and slain by the 
Welsh, under lorwerth, brother of the lord of Carleon, 
near Llanthony. 

Richard was buried at Emulphsbury, or St. Neot's, 
CO. Hunts, a manor inherited by his wife; and he is 
reputed to have given lands at Tooting to the monks of 
Bee, who established a priory there. 

He married Rohaise, sister of Walter Giffard, Earl of 
Buckingham, and eventually heiress of his vast estates in 
England and Normandy. Of their five children, — 

1. Roger de Bienfaite, -called by Lappenberg the 
second son, supported Duke Robert against his father in 
1080, and in 1109 accompanied Maud, daughter of 
Henry I. to Germany, and was present at her marriage 
with the Emperor Henry. He was distinguished in 
arms under Henry I., whom in 1119 he encouraged to 


fight with Louis of France, and shared in the battle and 
the victory. He is recorded to have slain Robert, son of 
Humphry de Bellomont. He died childless, and be- 
queathed his possessions to his nephew, Gilbert, son of 
his brother of the same name. 

2. Gilbert, who carried on the succession. 

3. Walter, conqueror of Nether Gwent, who also be- 
queathed his possessions to his nephew, Gilbert. 

4. Robert, died 1135. He married a daughter of 
Waltheof, Earl of Huntingdon, and was ancestor of the 
great baronial house of Fitz-Walter. 

5. Richard, a monk of Bee, was Abbot of Ely. There 
were also two daughters, one of whom married Raoul de 
Tillieres, or Telgus. 

Rohaise, the widow, remarried Eudo Dapifer. She 
attached St. Neot's to the abbey of Bee. 

GisLBBERT, or GiLBERT DE Glarb, wbs, from his resi- 
dence in Gwent, often, though irregularly, called Earl of 
Striguil. Striguil was probably founded by William 
Fitz-Osbem, Earl of Hereford, and is one of the three 
Monmouthshire castles mentioned in Domesday. 

In 1095 he joined Robert de Mowbray in the northern 
rebellion against Rufus; but seeing the king about to fall 
personally into an ambush, he warned him of the danger. 
Three years later, 12 William II., while in rebellion with 
Robert, Earl of Moreton, he was besieged and taken by 
the king in Ton bridge Castle. About 1107, summoned 
by Henry L, he entered West Wales. Shortly afterwards 
he invaded Cardigan by sea, reduced it to submission 
from the Teivi to the Ystwyth, and founded the castles 
of Aberystwyth, Aberteivi or Cardigan, and re-edified 
that of Kilgerran. By this means he forced Owen ap 
Caradoc to make terms with Gerald, then in charge of 
Pembroke Castle. Gilbert died about 1115, Hasted 
says 1111, of consumption, to the great joy of his Welsh 
neighbours. (Powel, 151.) 

Uilbert endowed richly the abbey of Bee, annexing to 
it the church of St. John at Clare, with seven stalls 
founded by the Confessor, and adding to this other lands 


for the repose of his own soul, and those of his father, 
mother, and his brother Godfrey, not elsewhere mentioned, 
perhaps not legitimate, buried in the church -yard of 
Clare. He was also a liberal contributor to the monks of 
Thomey, Lewes, and Gloucester. (Dugd. Baron. 207.) 
He noarried Adeliza, daughter of the Count of Cler- 
mont, and by her had four sons, and a daughter, Rohaise. 
Adeliza seems to have founded the commandery of 
Melchboum, co. Beds. (Tanner.) 

Geo. T, Clark. 

Dowlab, January, 1850. 

(To he continued.) 




No. IL 

(Concluded from p. 882, Vol IV.) 


Ivy Tower. Tenby 9. August 1810 
Dear Sir 

First thanking you from my heart for your kind 
present which arrived after I had sent you my Primitive History; 
the carriage of which I was so unpolite as not to defray ; not 
indeed thro a niggardly turn, but because letters and parcels hence 
postpaid have not been received; — I am astonished at what 
curious intelligence your Celtic friend has superadded to Bryant. 
I wish Mr Davies in quoting that author had set down the 
chapter and verse of each writer from whom Mr Bryant has 
respectively deduced his conclusions. For our English mytholo- 

S'st, as to what he says mostly from his own conjectures, merits 
r his motto, — Quod vult, vcdde vult. Not but I ever deemed 
the 8 Arkites the primitive general Cabiri. But Ham's family 
deified 8 persons of that peculiar family namely 

1. Noah, the parent of the pagan Gods Oceanus; Ogen, 
whence old men were termed Ogenides. Muth (or Pluto or 




Serapis) according to Varro — Nilus I. — Proteus I. — Nereus 
Grandeevus — From him Ham was termed Barmoth — Noah 
is the Fish Notius in Hyginus Astron. 2. 30 & 41. 

2. Tethysy Noah's consort. 

3. Ham, Chamos; Opus, Cham ob; Phtha; Anak; old 
Prometheus: Cronos; Belus; Sol; Mamas; Taran; Thor; 
Ka/i-i;^ic ; Volian of Gaul ; Thamuz or Thaumus, or Genitor 
Mavors: Zamolxis, or Zam-ol Zeus; Ham the mighty 
God. Plutarch's Armyn (and see Sanchoniatho). Cam- 
Eses or Hizzus — Mars Adonis — Ababas — Gabirus. Zeth 

4. Ham's wife, Thebe; Latona, see Herodot. 2. 166. The 
ancient Venus Mother of the (Egyptian) Gods: Athyr; 
Beros: Maya: Cabeira; Astarte: Anaitis; Diana: Atar- 
gatis Derceto: Baaltis: Alilat; Myiitta; Ceres Anti- 
quissima Minerva. 

5. Misor: Menes, Mendes or Pan, (see Herodot 2. 46). 
OsiriS;^ — antiqyissimum .^Jgypti nwnen in Tacitus: — Isiris 
Cadmillus, Priapus — Agathodaemon — Ogmeony — Dionysius 
— Hermes I. Aroueris, an old God, in Plutarch. 

6. Misor's wife Isis, Chamyna, Phoronis, Bona Dea. 

7. Thwth Hermogenes (see Eratosthenes) Hermanubis; Tris- 
megistus. He is deemed an ancient God by Plato. 

8. Apis or EpiuSy Ismunus. 

So much for your Celtic friend's " Ogdoad.** 
The Titans (some 7 centuries afterwards) affected the names of 
these primitive Gods. Altho Druidical rites prevailed in Samo- 
thrace, and Circe's cauldron and that of Diana at Tauris were 
Druidical, yet Tuitho, or Teutat sometimes named Tat, Ham's 
Great Grandson, who came into Europe, probably expelled by 
the Hycsi pastors, and died in Spain ; brought the Arkite rites 
among the Celts : but when Joshua expelled Canaanites, after 
the Trojan war, (3. 6. Pomponius Mela) they brought additional 
rites, disliked at first in Britain. Thus Sarum had its name from 
Saron, Phenician for an oak : Ambermount signifies Sacred 
Mount; Beli-Sama Holy Queen: Sadwrn, Patent &c. Trojans 
also brought Phrygian rites (after the example of Pius £neas) 
to Britain : for their arrival here is not an antient tale. 

Mr Davies seems not to have perused Lucian De Dea Syritim 
In her temple was a hole through which it was feigned that the 
flood sunk away. But Lucian says the names of the Gods were 
first known in Egypt — See Herodotus 250. t 62. — 

Menw (page 13) was the first Egyptian Menes, Ham's son 
Misor, the primitive Mercury, and Hamberades. I admire the 
Astronomical Truth (page 55-6) 


The ancients counted 3 floods ; — Deucalion's ; that of Ogyges ; 
but they say not in whose time the first was, page 97. N£v, 
Heaven, is the Russian Nebo, the Assyrian Deity. As Tacitus 
wrote that Mona's altars were polluted with blood of Captives 
and events were predicted from their entrails. This account 
resembles the magical rites of Persia, in a poem among the 
Catalecta Poetarum; — 

Fata per humanas solitus prcenoscere fibras, 

Impius infanda religione sapor ; 
Pectoris ingenui salientia viscera flammis 

Imposuit ; magico carmine rupit humum ; 
Ausus ab Elysiis Pompeium ducere campis &c. 

Compare what P. Fugiens quotes from R. Simeon ; and Strabo, 
of the Gauls : Q. Curtius 4. Diodorus Siculus 20 : Justin 23 : 
PlatOy in Minois; with the burnt offerings of the Druids in 
Wicker idols: also see Deuteronomy 12. 31. — 2 Kings 17. 21. — 
Psalm 106. 37. 38.— Jeremy 7. 31 : & 19. 6.— Ezek. 16. 20; & 
23. 39 :— Solomon's Wisdom, 14. 23. 

As Sanchoniatho has recorded that the Phenician Agroueris 
" was drawn from place to place in a shrine by a yoke of oxen/' 
so Tacitus says, ** In an Oceanic isle stood a sacred grove ; the 
Goddess Demeter, covered with a vest was paraded about in a 
vehicle drawn by cows," like Ammon in Q. Curtius. Moloch's 
Tabernacle is mentioned Act. 7. 43. The Carthaginians carried 
about in covered chariots, termed by Eustathius (II. 1.) portable 
temples, idols borne by oxen. Thus Sulpitius Severus says, ** the 
Gauls made a procession about their farms with their Gods 
covered with a white veil. Tacitus adds the Goddess was after- 
wards bathed in a rivulet; this resembles the Brahmans (in 
Bartolomeo) laving the Goddess Bhagavani in a holy tank: 
also the Roman rite as to Ceres, 6. Kal. April, according to 
Ammian: when as Herodian writes, they paraded with Pluto; 
as still done by our Morrice Dancers, so termed from Mawr 
RhySj Great King (Sol) the Marichus of Alex, ab Alex. b. 4. — 
At Herodotus 2. 63, we read that the Egyptians carried about 
wooden idols in small temples, on four wheeled cars. Theodoret 
(Serm. 4) says the loulos was sung to Ceres : It was the tropical 

As to Caer Sida; Sida in Arabic is a Lady. But St^i;, like 
Rimmon, is a Pomegranate : Its strong shell including a muK 
titude of seeds, it was deemed a fit emblem of the ark. 

373. Loegrians, Lloech Gwr, Silvestres, — Gwynedd, Veneti, 
Fair Tribe. 

374. Owrtheirn, Lord of the Toum, or Moet; hence Attorney. 
Sir, Bom in Tenby, I have only learnt some Welsh nouns. 


Therefore am no good critic^ as to your extraordinary present 
Did I know how safely to send him a copy of my primitiTe 
history, he should be welcome to it. Many passages in it may 
confirm many assertions in his book — But I would recommend it 
to him to publish an Edition of Nenmius. It cannot be well 
done but by a learned Cambrian, who would annex to erery 
Latin name its British. I could send in a little help. I remain 
Sir your obliged senrant m. 

W. Williams. 

Theophilus Jones, Esquire 


Ivy Tower Tenby ; 15 Augft. 1810 
My good Sir 

Very entertaining has been your favour this 
morning : I was particularly delighted to find that after all your 
labours to gratify the public will find information as well as {sic) 
arising from your particular duties. You can for amusement 
write so perfectly at your ease. You doubtless conceive that what 
I wrote of Celtic Lore was with a wish it should be communicated 
to the excellent Rector of Bishopstone. Some 4 days ago I 
noted what has pleased me wonderfully ; for it has confirmed me 
in the belief that Noah not only finally settled somewhere east- 
ward of the Indus : but that he debarked from the ark there- 
abouts. Mount Masis in Armenia could not have been the scene 
of disembarkation. Elephants bufialoes camels Horses Asses 
tec could never have safely descended thence. And, confined 
between the Euxina and Baltic it was not a site whence men k 
animals could expand themselves commodiously over the old 
world. I conclude that Noah grounded and landed on exceeding 
high land with a long gradual descent toward lower regions. A 
vast country of this description is between Balk and Thibet: 
And as the genuine Berosus wrote that Noah's family went roundy 
to go to Shinar, I take it to mean taking a circuit round the 
heads of the Indus : & that therefore the ark rested eastward of 
that river, on the Bol-Ur hills, having Cashmere on the south 
and Cashgar on the north. The vast height of that region is 
proved by great rivers running thence every way ; as the ancient 
river Oxus westward into the Aral Lake ; — ^the Indus, Ganges, 
and the Burrampooter southward; the vast yellow river runs 
eastward to and thro all China : the Irtish runs northward into 
the Oby, & both united into the Icy Sea. Consulting Forster's 
.Map of Tartary I was agreeably surprized to find a Province 


S.E. of the above hills, named KUaUy a name of Noah : — See 
The Draid Rites p. 257. I think <' Chethem " akin to Chittim, 
latinized into Cetii, not meaning as Bochart and others deem 
** Latent/' whence Latin ; but from Ketos, a name of the ark. 
p. 159 & 122. The custom of bidding to weddings prevailed 
even in the East, as we learn from our Saviour, Mat. 22. Here 
in Pembrokeshire the orator on such occasions is named a Uafer 
(see p. 270). The sounding and ringing bridge stone at St 
David's, over which Henry 2 was warned not to pass was named 
Llech laver. But now occurs to me your Maen Lia. This shows 
that many old Gomerian words had been superseded by adven- 
titious terms. Thus Dwr water is v^o^/d, which Plato deemed a 
Phrygian word; — Water in old Cymbraeg (sic) is Au: hence 
Aberddau ; — Llyd-au, watershore — Glau, rain. Owing to this 
innovation of terms illiterate persons have united the old and 
new names together. Thus, near me a natural cam has been 
named Cam Rock ; at Tenby a rock near S. Catherine's Islet is 
named Scnr rock : but scur, scar, tor, tar, all signify a rock as 
Tzor, Tyre does. Many are the oriental terms crept into the 
Celtic, as Caer, Llan, Maen. Now your stone, Maen Llia, is 
literally Stone stone; for the famous regal stone, now in West- 
minster Abbey was named Lia Fail, the Fatal stone. Greek is 
composed much of the 3 primitive tongues. The Celtic or 
Japhetan ; — the Syriac, or Shemite, Gothic Tartarian ; — and the 
Plxsnician, or Chaldee, Ham's language. A stone, Lapis, is in 
Greek \i66c ; both the Greek k Latin names are from our Ida ; 
for these people were apt to interpose, or prefix, consonants to 
give strength to their language. Thus from the Greek, who have 
immemorially lost their 6^ letter or numeral, comes the Latin 
Fibius ; and their Sol is from the Celtic. Cambrians pronounce 
their F like the Hebrew Vau; and each is the 6^ letter in their 
respective alphabets. The ancient Tuscans had tlie digamma 
F : — See Swinton. 

At p. 23. Gwron seems to be Gwr on, viz Solis ; solar priest. 

At p. 13 (& 262). Menw seems the first Menes, Ham's son 

At p. 435-436. Pharaon seems Pharao On. 

At p. 438. The cat is Bubastis, the emblem of the Egyptian 
Diana, as the owl was of Minerva; both names respect Luna, 
Empress of Night when cats and owls are vigilant. 

At. p. 212. The circle of glass, reminds me of the sacred sea 
of glass. 

At p. 94. I rejoiced to find that Hebrew was used in Druidical 
lore & (138) an ox represented a Druidical God^ as well as an 



Somewhat of minor note I might add : but I must attend to 
the letter I am now favoured with. Our good Bp. far transcends 
my praise. But never shall I see H — west again ! I can scarcely 
crawl along my parlour. Had the weather proved genial I would 
have presumed to invite you hither and to have sent a good horse ; 
but to see a person (who till 60 years old, active and blest with 
spirits) lame languid, and debilitated and void of appetite would 
be unpleasant altho my spirits at sight of an agreeable visitor 
return some hours. But an Oceanic atmosphere quite over- 
whelms me, as well as my Hay. 

The transfer of property in Wales can only be touched in a 
summary way and in a few rare instances. Ludlow decisions 
and combinations bestowed estates at will, as the Herald's 0£Bce 
confers coat armour. The Maxima Est Veritas must be lost sight 
of, and I have long since ceased to venerate Tomb stones. One 
is in Laughame on Penoir and one is in Tenby on a quondam 
blacksmith ! ! 

Of Churches the small one of Eglwys Cymmun, between 
Laughame and Tavern Spite seems very ancient & a model of 
one of the most ancient in Kent. I know not that I have seen 
Llangadwm Church ; it is an antiquarian name ! I remain Sir 
very truly your obliged humble Servant 

Wm. Williams. 

Theophilus Jones Esquire Brecon. 


Ivtf Tower. 90. Augt 1810. 

Dear Sir 

While you are tracing pedigrees which you deem 
ancient, I have lately been examining one more ancient: and 
find that St Matthew gives us the tables of the Royal succession 
while Luke has recorded Christ's parental descent. Matthew 
omits 3 because Jehu was permitted to be their Lord paramount, 
and the Jeconias which begins his 3^ class was junior to him in 
the 2^ class. Some in Mathew no more begjeit their respective 
successors than Queen Elizabeth begat King James. 

But to your last favour. " Canton " you put into Coventry ; 
I will try to fetch it out by the help of some learned English 
writers. Johnson says '^ It is a small parcel or division of land '' 
without setting it at the Land's End. He quotes Sir John Da vies 
on Ireland whose words were '' only that little canton of land 
called the English pale containing 4 shires." On the verb 
** canton " he quotes Locke, who says ** Families shall canton his 
empire into less governments for themselves;" — also '^to have 


bis territories cantoned out into parcels/' Swift. And Addison 
says '^ to have all the mighty monarchies of the world cantoned 
out into petty states." Berne and other cantons of the Swiss are 
not squeezed into a comer. I shall therefore hold to my cantons ; 
which my great grandsire W" Williams who was great grandson 
of Bp. Ferrar, displayed on his Father's monument quartered 
with the arms as I sent you. For the Rudd's arms the copper 
table was divided into 2 parts; and perhaps my ancestor W"" 
W™* complimented the Archdeacon Rudd with the former part of 
the Table : and a distinct scutcheon of the Boars' heads was set 
over it. In the other half is the mention of Bp Ferrar and his 
descendants, as I have sent you, set forth in 1666; and his arms 

Suartered with W°^ being the arms of Rob. Wms. Grandson of 
lob. Ferrar in a distinct shield and place from Rudd's shield. 
The stone work of the monument was repaired ▲.d. 1767. But 
the stone cutter instead of renewing the two distinct scutcheons 
of Rudd & W°*% joined them together, and in his window set 
Rudd's on the side next to the inscription on Rudd, whose Boars' 
heads U. Gwynne of Garth placed m his arms for Lady Rudd. 
I have seen this coat marshalled in the arms of Sir John Price, 
and it was Lord Carbury's, — see the Peerage. Near 70 years 
ago the Rev*^. Edw. Yardiey took out a scutcheon for my father, 
just as you have received the arms from me. But the scutcheon 
you have sent contains the arms borne by the Ferrars (or Farrers) 
of Enwood Halifax. But I cannot agree with Wright or Halifax 
that the Bp. was born at Enwood; tho' I believe the Ferrars 
there were akin to him. The Rev^ John Watson, on Halifax, 4^ 
treats of Bp. Ferrar ; and only says as to his birth that Thoresby 
(p. 196) ''seems to think" that he belonged to the family settled 
at Enwood. I hope if you mention Browne Willis & Ant. Wood 
it will be to contradict and censure them, as they truly deserve. 
Of these two calumniators Watson says thus ; '' Willis in his 
survey says 'The Bp. became a most miserable dilapidator.'" 
But Watson adds " this writer I think treats his character too 
severely; as likewise does A. Wood." — Watson might in plain 
terms have said, they have both cruelly belied him. His perse- 
cutors (who trumped up 66 articles all false and most of them 
ridiculously frivolous) charged him not with being a dilapidator. 
No; the Bp made such dilapidators his foes by proceeding 
against them. Watson says p. 469 " It is no great wonder indeed 
that malice should shew itself on this occasion : two of the chief 
managers of the prosecution, D° Young and D*" Merrick had 
been removed from their offices by this Bp., as he writes to the 
Lord Chancellor "for their covetous respect to lucre." These 
two fled, cowardly ; yet afterwards assumed merit, and became 


Prelates! I As to Bp. Godwin he was himself a fawning time 
server and shrunk from the stem steadiness of Bp. Ferrar. 
Watson says at p 470, *' Among the Harleian M8S (see No 42C 
of the Catalogue) are several papers touching the Bp's trial not 
in Fox ; the book is called the 6^ vol. of Fox's papers bought 
of Strype. Burnet 2-215 seems led away by the bp's malicious 
accusations. Watson (p. 244,) says that Thoresby drew up a 
pedigree of the Ferrars of Enwood; but jaltews not the Bp's 
parentage. Watson p 245 gives the arms* of Henry Ferrar of 
Enwood, ** on a Bend engrailed sable 3 horse shoes argent." This 
is no reason I should admit these arms to be Bp. Ferraris, against 
the testimony of my great grandsire. Nor can I admit some of his, 
mentioned by you, against the Bp's own written testimony. As 
to the arms you have sent me for those of Lewis Williams, it is 
(according to my documents) false heraldry. For his wife carried 
the Bp's estate m Abergwilly to her husband and their issue ; & 
her arms should be on a small shield in the centre of his ! 

When Q. Elizabeth established the Reformation, any sumamed 
Ferrar affected descent from the Bp (Finis !) so now R 

F (more last words) but what signifies a degraded Bp to so 

great a man as one who boasted of " his ancestors the Princes of 

Wales;" pox take him. ** F " is not (3eltio, it sounds plaguy 

Gothic ! As to Pennant's name, if Gom'r Aey, I need not tell 
you that it be pronounced Pen-nant. 

I am Sir your sincere tc obliged 

Wm. Williams. 

Bp. Ferrar himself has written his name repeated Ferrar, not 
Farrer, as the family of Enwood Halifax. 

Having (after much preparation & expense) begun this summer 
to translate the New Testament, which is wanted, altho of late 
years several new translations have come abroad, I have com- 
pleated S. Matthew ; but from decayed constitution at 74 years 
old and avocations I much fear that I shall not finish it, exceed- 
ingly requisite as it is ! 

Theophilus Jones Esquire 

In a different hand — f Jones' ?) 

Rice Rudd of Aberglasney 276*** Bart created Dec. 8 

1628. Az a Lion rampant and Canton or 

Wm Wms. Ivy Tower 
Augt 1810 
* Ab* it t ab' it 


No. XXI. 


Llandagfan Church. 

Thb church fn this parish is, in its older portions, of the 
beginning of the fifteenth century, though many additions 
and alterations have been effected during the present. It 
consisted originally of a nave and chancel, but two chapels 
have been added, giving it the appearance of a cross- 
church. The southern chapel has been enlarged, and 
the plan has been rendered by it so anomalous that the 
chancel has become one of the most inconsiderable fea- 
tures in the building. At the west end stands a tower, 
erected by Lord Bulkeley in 18 II. Very few architectural 
details of any interest remain. The original font of the 


church is (1848) in the garden of Nant Howel, and a 
stoup on a tall pedestal, of rather doubtful design, serves 
for it on the north side of the nave. Against the east 
wall of the chancel is affixed a monument, with the half 
effigy of a gentleman of the guard, in a red doublet 
slashed with black, and the Royal arms on the breast, the 
whole in an oval frame ; a death's head crowned above, 
and two small badges of three feathers, in labels bearing 
"/cA Dim'' below. On a tablet in the base is the fol- 
lowing inscription : — 


This is the mother church of Beaumaris, and is dedi- 
cated to St. Tegfan, a saint of the sixth century, of whom 
Professor Rees {Welsh Saints^ p. 238) says, — 

" About this period (a.d. 500 to a.d. 542) lived Tegfan, the 
SOD of Cardudwys, of the line of Cadrod Calchfynydd ; and 
though the number of generations between him and his ancestor 
exceeds the usual allowance for the interval of time, it does not 
exceed the bounds of probability. He was the brother of Gallgu 
Rhieddog, and is said to have been the founder of Llandegfan, 

The church-yard is a spot of quiet beauty, and con- 
tains among other tombs one belonging to two infant 
daughters of the author of this paper. 



The church consists of a nave and chancel, with a small 
chapel at the north-east corner of the fonner. The in- 
ternal dimeosions of the nave are 38 feet by 22 feet ; of 
the chancel, 30 feet by 20 feet. It is moat probably of 
the beginning of the fifteenth century, and has replaced 
a much older building, small fragments of which, parts 
of Norman chevron- mouldings, are worked up in the 
outer walls. The nave has two entrances, north and 
south, the latter under a porch, and has only two lateral 
windows, one being of two lights, square -headed, and 
trifoliated ; but in the west gable is a window of three 
lights, of which an engraving is given. This west end 
carries a small gable for two bells. The mouldings are 
plain chamfers throughout, and the masonry carefully 
finished. The font is a plain octagonal basin without a 
shaft, standing on three steps ; it has no doubt, as in otiier 

Weat Window, Nive. £ut Window, Cbancel. 

Anglesey churches, replaced a much older one, now 
destroyed. In the chapel on the north side of the nave 
is a low tomb in the north wall, nearly at the level of the 
ground, with a slab so plain that it might almost be sus- 
pected to have served for an Easter sepulchre ; it is under 
a four-centred arch of the fifteenth century, the upper 


curves of which run soon after their origin into straight 
lines, bearing a finial on the vertex, while from the ends 
of the hood-moulding run up plain shafts, terminating 
in finials at the same level with that in the centre. The 
workmanship is not careful, and the sections of the 
mouldings show this arch to be somewhat later than the 
other portions of the building. The chancel arch, of two 
orders, plainly chamfered, rises from piers chamfered with 
caps under square abaci. In the south wall are two 
windows, square-headed, similar to those in the nave, a 
priest's door, and a sedile under a plain pointed arch, 
with a reclining back of rather unusual design. The 
piscina is in the wall towards the east of this. In the 
north wall is a window similar to the two others, and a 
doorway now blocked up. The east window is of three 
lights, and is here engraved. 

In the middle of the chancel formerly stood a magni- 
ficent altar-tomb of alabaster, bearing recumbent figures 
of a knight and lady ; but this was, in 1848, removed for 
greater safety to the chapel in the nave, where it is pro- 
tected from further injury by a railing. Tradition states 
that the tomb was brought hither from the Friary of 
Llanvaes at the Dissolution, and that it belonged to some 
member of the Tudor family. There is nothing but 
tradition for the ground of this statement ; it was, how- 
ever, considered sufficiently authentic to induce her pre- 
sent Majesty to give £50 for the removal and reparation 
of this fine monument, not before it was time, for the 
parishioners had long been accustomed to chip off por- 
tions of the alabaster, and grind them into powder for 
medicinal purposes. The body of the tomb consists of 
slabs divided into a series of niches and pannelled com- 
partments, bearing shields. No figures now remain under 
the canopies, and the armorial bearings on the shields 
have been so completely obliterated that only in one or 
two cases can a chevron be faintly traced. There is no 
inscription, nor any other indication whereby to discover 
the family of the personages whose eflBgies have been so 
elaborately and beautifully carved. They lie on separate 



slabs, placed side by side; they are probably portraits, 
from the pecaliarities of the featifres ; and they have been 
executed with the utmost care. All the ornaments are 
admirably detailed, and the whole constitutes a good 
specimen of art at the end of the fourteenth century. In 
the engraving the recumbent figures are given, and the 
injuries they have sustained will be easily perceived. 

Against the east wall of the chancel, over a projecting 
stone serving probably as a credence table, is a stone 
slab commemorating one of the connections of the Tudor 
family. It has a shield of arms, with these bearings, 
viz., rer pale, — 1. A chevron between 3 Saracens' heads, 
(to dexter,) 2 and 1 ; crest, a. Saracen's head. 2. Three 
conies, 2 and 1 ; crest, a coney ; and this inscription, — 












OBYT «6 FEB. A^ DIN 1707 
JBTAT. 60. 

Incnisted in one of the walls is a shield, bearing a 
chevron between three objects so much defaced as to 
render them impossible to be deciphered. They may re- 
present the Saracen's heads of the shields just mentioned. 

Gredifael was a saint who flourished in the sixth cen- 
tary, and under his invocation this church is erected. 
We find the following account of him in Professor Rees' 
Welsh Saints, p. 222 :— 

'' Gredifael and Fflewyn, sons of Itbel Hael, were appointed 
superintendents of the monasteries of Paulinas at Ty gwyn ar 



D^if, Carmarthenshire ( Whitland ?) Gredifael, whose festival is 
Nov. 13, may be considered the founder of Penmynydd, Angle- 
sey ; and Fflewyn is the saint of Llanfflewyn, a chapel subject to 
Llanrhyddlad, in the same county/' 

The orientation of the building is nearly due East. 

In the church-yard, on the northern side of the chancel, 
there was dug up some years ago a considerable quantity 
of water-worn, roundish, white stones of amorphous 
quartz. These had no doubt been brought here on 
occasion of interments, when, as was usual in some parts 
of Wales during the middle ages, each mourner brought 
and deposited a white stone on or near the grave of the 

Not far from the church, towards the north-west, is 
Plas Penmynydd. This house, of the Elizabethan and 
Jacobean periods, has replaced one of older date, some- 
times called Castell Penmynydd, supposed to have stood 
a little nearer the church. This is said to have been one 
of the original seats of the Tudor family, and like Tre- 
gamedd, near Beaumaris, its possession may be traced 
back long before the Tudors came to the throne. There 
are no features of architectural importance remaining in 
this house, though all about it testifies to its date. On a 
stone in the wall towards the garden is the following : — 


commemorating Richard Owen Tudor. 

Over a doorway in the back premises is a stone thus 
inscribed, — 


Above one of the windows is 


Inside the stable occurs a stone bearing the date 



and over the stable door and window another with 

II 1660 

There is a large beam inside one of the outhouses, 
apparently much charred. It bears an inscription hardly 
decipherable, and it was probably once used in the great 
hall of the mansion. 

According to tradition this village was the spot whence 
issued the young man who married Catherine of France, 
Queen Dowager of England. There is little reasonable 
doubt that this was one of the cradles of the Tudor family ; 
and hence it is more than usually interesting to the Welsh 
and English antiquary. 

H. L. J. 


I MUCH regret that various causes of delay have prevented 
my making an earlier reply to Mr. Wright's observa- 
tions in the last volume of the Archceologia Cambrensis.^ 
Although I am quite unwilling to work the controversy 
until it becomes threadbare, I feel that it is one which lies 
so completely at the foundation of our national history, 
that it ought not to be abandoned so long as there remains 
a possibility of throwing further light upon it. But before 
re-opening the question, I must plead " Not Guilty " to 
two indictments of Mr. Wright's. After the most careful 
examination of my paper read at Monmouth, I cannot 
find a single instance in which I have interchanged the 
relative position of " facts and theories ; " * neither am I 
conscious of any tendency to "chop logic"* beyond the 
(as it appears to me) very legitimate inclination to cross- 
examine Mr. Wright's evidence, and to consider how far 
his facts are really capable of supporting his conclusions. 

> Archseologia Cambrensis for 1868, p. 289. 
s See pp. 289, 294. ' p. 294. 


However, upon these points, as upon all others, let the 
reader judge between us. 

It may be as well to remind those who have followed 
the controversy from the beginning, that Mr. Wright and 
myself are at issue upon two principal points: I have 
attacked his hypothesis of the origin of the Welsh nation ; 
and he has made reprisals upon my own theory of the 
origin of the Welsh name. It is absolutely necessary to 
keep these questions distinct from each other, and, fol- 
lowing the order of my former paper, I will treat of the 
latter point first, and of the former one subsequently, 
concluding with the discussion of certain collateral and 
subordinate questions, which have arisen in the course of 
the controversy. 

In reference to my view of the connection of the word 
Welshf with the names Gaely Gaul, &c., as Mr. Wright 
has touched upon it very lightly, I will not spend much 
time in defending it. It is by no means a " new hypo- 
thesis," as Mr. Wright appears to suppose, for I observe 
that it has already been promulgated by M. Amedee 
Thierry, in his Histoire des Gaulois. Perhaps I may be 
allowed to add, that I was not aware that this was the case 
when my former paper was printed, so that I arrived at 
the conclusion by an independent process.* Mr. Wright 
doubts ** whether the Teutonic WtBlsch, and the name 
Gaul or Gallic, have any relation whatever to each 
other."* To Mr. Wright's doubts I can only answer 
that I have no doubt on the subject. However, that I 
may not appear to reduce the question to a mere balance 
of authorities, I will add that the last three letters of the 
Teutonic word are merely an adjectival termination, and 
that the true root is Wal, which in accordance with an 
etymological law with which Mr. Wright must be familiar, 
is simply the same thing as GaL It is no mere resem- 
blance, but an absolute identity.^ Whether the identity 

^ Indeed, the view, as I have since found, is as old as Ventegan. 

» p. 293. ^ Ibid. 


may not be an accidental one is a totally distinct question. 
I have already laid before the reader what appear to me 
to be the probabilities on either side of the question, and 
have intimated the conclusion which in my opinion in- 
volves the fewest difficulties/ But I will observe, before 
I quit the subject, that my theory does not, as Mr. Wright 
asserts, rest upon the assumption that the ancient Germans 
" were profoundly learned in the science of ethnology." 
When it is remembered that by far the majority of those 
who occupied the German frontiers of the Roman empire, 
and all those who were separated from the Germans by 
the comparatively slight barrier of the Rhine, were not 
merely of one race, but were recognized as such, not by 
ethnologists, but popularly, it certainly seems to be no 
very extravagant supposition, if we conceive that the 
Germans called those Wcshch whom the Romans called 
GauU^ and afterwards extended the term to other provin- 
cials to whom they stood in a similar relation. I admit 
that ** people in the condition to which these arguments 
refer" did not always *'call other people by the names 
which those people bore among themselves, or among still 
other people," but that they never did so, would be an 
assertion somewhat difficult of proof, and I doubt if we 
have evidence enough before us to show whether they 
'* generally" did so, or not. I now quit this part of the 
subject, and hasten on to a more important question. 

Mr. Wright's theory (if he will permit me so to desig- 
nate it) rests upon two assumptions ; first, that the Welsh 
and Breton languages resemble each other more nearly 
than could be the case if they had been separated as far 
back as the date of the Roman conquest of Britain ; and 
secondly, that the phenomena of the two countries are such 
as to make it more likely that the Welsh are a colony of 
Armoricans, than that the Bretons are a colony of insular 
Britons. As regards the former assumption, Mr. Wright 
appears to acquiesce in my rejection of it, and then, in the 

T pp. 139—133. 


very same paragraph, to argae as if I had admitted it/ 
Moreover Mr. Wright has quietly ignored one of my 
main arguments, referring to this part of the subject.' 
If the Welsh, who speak a language which, even in the 
thirteenth century, differed widely from that of the Bretons, 
were a colonv from the Armoricans in the fifth century, 
when does Mr. Wright consider that Cornwall was colo- 
nized, the inhabitants of which, even in the last century, 
spoke a language nearly identical with that of the modem 
Armoricans ? 

But allowing, for the sake of argument, that we are 
reduced to Mr. Wright's dilemma, and that ** either the 
Webh went over to Uaul and became the Armoricans, or 
the Armoricans came over into Britain and became the 
Welsh,'* I can only repeat that it is a dilemma the tra- 
ditional solution of which is, to my mind, far more pro- 
bable than that which is offered by Mr. Wright. Before 
I proceed to examine the arguments by which the latter 
is supported, I must take the liberty of reminding Mr. 
Wright, that he has taken no notice of a fact upon which 
I have laid considerable stress,^ and which seems to me to 
be utterly subversive to his theory. I allude to the first 
appearance of the Britons^ under that name, in Armorica, 
just about the era to which he assigns his supposed 
migration from Armorica into Britain. I must also call 
his attention to a fact of which he can scarcely be ignorant, 
that the Breton language is actually spoken in a very 
small portion only of the ancient Armorica,* and that the 
very name of Armorican, when applied to the modern 
Breton, is, in fact, one of those ** old words " which, as 
Mr. Wright says very truly, are often used " technically " 
at the present day. I mention this, merely in order to 
show that we are not to assume, before we have proved 
it, the identity of the modern Bretons with the ancient 
Armoricans. ^ 

8 See pp. 293, 294. 9 See p. 142. ^ See p. 140. 

* In this sense it may be true that there are '' remains of an Armo- 
rican language distinct from the Breton," (see p. 295,) yisE., the French 
of Haute-Bretagne, Normandy, &c. 


Having premised so much, I must re-state Mr. Wright's 
argument. I cannot do it better than in his own words, 
and I will do so even at the risk of occupying more space 
than I am fairly entitled to. 

"He asks on what grounds I draw 'a distinction between the 
condition of the two countries/ t. e., Armorica and Wales. I 
thought that I had sufficiently stated this in the paper which has 
given rise to this, I hope not unimportant, controversy. Anyone 
who has really studied the Roman antiouities of Wales must know 
that it was traversed in every direction by a multiplicity of Roman 
roads, which penetrated even into its wildest recesses ; that it was 
covered in all parts with towns, and stations, and posts, and villas, 
and mining establishments, which were entirely incompatible with 
the existence at the same time of any considerable number of an 
older population in the slightest degree of independence. Now we 
know that the population of Armorica, long before the supposed 
migration either way could have taken place, was living in a state of 
independence, and even of turbulence, and that it was formidable 
in numbers and strength. The Armoricans were almost the heart 
and nerve of that formidable ' Ba^auderie ' which threatened the 
safety of the Roman government in Gaul almost before the inva- 
sions of the Teutons became seriously dangerous. An attention 
to dates will put this part of the question more clearly before the 
reader. The great and apparently final assertion of independence, 
or revolt from the Roman government, of the Armoricans, which 
Mr. Basil Jones quotes from Zosimus, occurred in the year 406 ; 
Honorious acknowledged the independence of the towns of Britain 
in 410; and I need hardly add that what is understood by the 
Anglo-Saxon invasion of Britain occurred many years subse- 

Suently. During this period, when' the towns of Britain must 
ave been rejoicmg in tneir independence, it is, I think, not pro- 
bable that the people of this island would have migrated mto 
Britanny in such numbers as in a short time to supersede the Armo- 
ricans themselves, for I am not aware that there are any remains 
of an Armorican language in Britanny distinct from the Breton* 
The subsequent history becomes obscure from the want of records; 
but I venture to assert that it is evident, from the few historical 
notices we have, (I throw aside altogether the fabulous legends of 
a later date,) that the Armoricans were at this time a numerous 
and warlike people, that when the Saxon pirates entered the Loire 
they sometimes joined them in attacking the Ghuils, (as the people 
of the Roman province were called,) and sometimes resisted 
them ; that they were evidently no less piratical than the Saxons 
themselves, ana in all probability possessed numerous shipping ; 


that they did make war upon the Roman province^ jast about the 
time that the Saxons were beginning to settle in Britain, and that 
they were driven back into their own territory by the governors 
of Gaul. Now I think there is nothinj? very extravagant in the 
supposition that the warlike energy of the Armoricans, having 
been repressed on the side of the continent, should have sought 
an outlet on the side of the sea, and that many adventurous 
chiefs may have collected their followers, taken to their ships, 
and, tempted by the known success of the Saxons, passed over 
into that part of Britain which the Teutonic invaders had not 
reached. I think, then, that the distinction which I have drawn 
between the condition of Wales and Armorica, at the time when 
the migration from one to the other is supposed to have taken 
place, IS very plainly stated, and very fairly accounted for."' 

I have extracted this passage at length in order that 
the reader may have it before his eyes, while I comment 
upon it in detail. It is to be observed that Mr. Wright 
has not given a single reference to any original authority 
in support of his views, so that I am unable to say whether 
they are founded upon passages which have not come 
under my notice, or upon a different interpretation of 
those which have. For instance I can find no evidence 
that the population of Armorica was *' living in a state 
of independence," *^ long before the supposed migration 
either way could have taken place." So far from being 
able to discover that ^*the Armoricans were almost the 
heart and nerve" of the insurrection of the Bagaudse, 
I do not even find that the Bagaudae were in any way 
connected with Armorica. In fact the scanty accounts 
of the Bagaudae which have reached us, seem to connect 
them principally with other parts of Gaul.* Mr. Wright's 
account of the defection of Britain and Armorica respec- 
tively is singularly inaccurate, especially in the matter 
of chronology, a point upon which he appears especially 
to rely. I trust 1 shall not be thought tedious, if I go 
again over ground which has been so frequently trodden. 
The general invasion of Gaul by the barbarians, which 
occurred in the winter of 406, appears to have alarmed 

> pp. 294-296. 

* Mmmxm, vi. 2* life of St. Babolinus (vakai quantum)- 


the legions of Britaii], as it had virtually cut them off from 
Italy, the centre of the imperial power. Accordingly 
they raised to the throne in rapid succession Marcus, 
Gratianus, and Constantine, the last of whom appears to 
have deserved their favour the least, as he retained it 
the longest. In the year 407 Constantine crossed over 
iuto Gaal, and occupied himself in strengthening the 
frontiers of the empire against the barbarians. He forced 
Sams, who had been sent against him to assist the rights 
of Honorius, to retire into Italy. In 408 he sent his son 
Constans, whom he had raised to the dignity of Cssar, 
into the Spanish peninsula, to secure himself against the 
kinsmen and supporters of Honorius. The jealousv of 
Gerontius, a Briton, whom Constans afterwards left in 
command in Spain, led him to intrigue with the bar- 
barians, who made a second general invasion of Gaul in 
the same year. The same alarm which two years before 
had induced the legionaries in Britain to revolt from the 
existing authority of Honorius, now forced the inhabitants 
of the country to throw off all allegiance to the Roman 
empire.* The example set in Britain was speedily fol- 
lowed in the whole of Armorica, and in other provinces 
of Gaul. Nothing can be more clearly stated than that 
the independence of Britain preceded that of Armorica.^ 
The supposed acknowledgment of that independence by 
Honorius in the year 410, when fairly examined, shrinks 
into a very small matter, if it does not vanish altogether. 
All that Zosimus tells us, and he is our only auUiority 
for the fact, is that ^' Honorius wrote to the cities (or 
states) in Britain, and advised them to be on the look 
out," an event which scarcely amounts to an acknowledg- 
ment of independence.^ But in fact it is more than 

^ It IB evident from the langaage of Zosimus that this second revolt 
was the act, not of the soldiers, but of the people. 

^ Zosimus, yi. 2-6. Oljmpiodorus, apud Photium. Sozomen, 
ix. 11. Orosius, vii. 40. 

7 'OviitfUov le ypofifxaai irpog rag kv Bperraviif, ytnayiivov ir($Xeic 
^vXiiTTtoBai ff'opayycXXovfft, ^vpccuc Tt d/icti/^a/iivov rove tn^nCyraQ he 
tAv irapa 'HpacXeidvov irefn^imav XP^'f^^^^'i ^ f^^ 'Ovttpioc ^y Iv 


doubtful whether there is any allusion to Britain in the 
passage. The context in which it occurs has no reference 
to that country, but is chiefly occupied with the history 
of Alaric in Italy. Have we any authority for connecting 
the name of Alaric with that of Britain ? Yes. Olym- 

Eiodorus, as reported by Photius, informs us /^ that 
Lhegium is the chief town of Britain, from which Alaric 
desired to cross over into Sicily, but was detained."' In 
the latter passage, the editors have not hesitated to alter 
the text, so as to make it say what it obviously means, 
not Britain, but Bruttium. I feel assured that anyone 
who reads the sixth book of the history of 2k>simus, with 
any degree of attention to the connection and progress of 
events, will be convinced that the passage which is sup- 
posed to mark the final severance of Britain from the 
empire, requires a similar emendation, which, indeed, has 
been already proposed. The revolt of Britain, then, 
preceded that of Armorica, instead of following it, as 
asserted by Mr. Wright, after a lapse of four years. 

Mr. Wright admits that we possess very scanty data 
for the history of Armorica between 410 and 450 ; but he 
has arrived at certain conclusions, from such evidence as 
we have, to which I cannot tell how &r I am able to 
follow him, because I do not know what his evidence is 
worth. Before attempting to form any opinion on the 
subject I should be glad to have his evidences for the 
condition of Armorica during this period laid before me.^ 
It is true that it was subdued by the Romans^ about the 
time that the Saxons were beginning to settle in Britain, 

^a9r&y^ ir&ffn r^v r&v iiiravra\ov VTfHiruar&y iwunraodfieroc €tyoiav» — 
ZoBimuBf vi. 10. 

' "Ore TO 'P^yiov firfrpAKoXlc tori r^c Bpcira Wac, c( oZ t^rialy 6 ivropucoQ 
*AXapi')(pp iirl 2iiceX/av ^ov\6yLtvoy irepauitdilyai exitrxediiyai. — Oljmpio- 
doros, apud Photium. Lege Bperriaviyc, or Bpcrrlac* 

It does not seem to me that the lines 

'' Quin et Aremoricus piratam Saxona tractos 
** Sperabat " &;c. 
necessarily prove an alliance between the Armoricans and the Saxons. 
Bee Sidonius ApollinariS| Pamegyricui «n Amtum. 



and it is also true that an aimy of Britons (whatever we 
are to understand by the expression) menaced the Yisi- 
Goths, occupied Bourges, and were subsequently forced 
to fall back upon Armorica.^ Allowing, however, what 
I am not able to deny, that there is sufficient evidence 
that the Armoricans were "a numerous and warlike 
people" at this period, it must be remembered that, little 
as we know of them, we know absolutely nothing of the 
state of Wales at the same era, and can therefore have no 
grounds for drawing any distinction between the relative 
condition of the two countries in this respect. Moreover, 
the pressure which was felt in Armorica on the side of 
the Roman provinces had its parallel in Britain, in the 
attacks of the northern and Teutonic invaders. Accor- 
dingly, in order to be able to draw a distinction between 
the state of Wales and that of Armorica, we are forced 
back upon Mr. Wright's original position, viz., that 
Wales, at the close of what is called the Roman period, 
was thoroughly Romanized, while Armorica was still 

I must therefore proceed to examine the evidence upon 
which this position is founded. It is simply this : Wales 
was "traversed in every direction by a multiplicity of 
Roman roads," and "covered in all parts with towns, and 
stations, and posts, and villas.'' ' Strangely enough Mr. 
Wright never appears to have inquired into the Roman 
antiquities of Armorica. Attaching so much weight as 
he does to the mute evidence of monuments, it is sur- 
prizing that he should not have asked to what extent 
the two countries agree or differ in this respect. But it 
appears that Armorica bears traces of Roman occupation 
in all its parts.^ Moreover, it is very remarkable that the 

^ Compare Jornandes de Mebb, Oett, c. xlv. with Sidonias Apolli- 
naris, Ejnst, iii. 9, and Greg. Taron., n. 18. Ad ingenioas theory 
concerning Rhiothimus has been developed in Arch. Camh. for 1850| 
p. 208. I Bee no supposition altogether clear of difficulties. 

' Arch. Camb. for 1858, p. 204. 

^ It appears from M. de Fr^minville's Ant%quiti» de la BrStagne, 
that no RomaA remains had been discovered m the district of [Leon 


phenomenon which first led Mr. Wright to frame the 
theory of an Armorican emigration into Wales, exists in 
Armorica, that is to say in Basse-Bretagne, no less than 
in Wales.* Who destroyed the Roman towns in Ar- 
morica? If invaders, why may they not have been 
settlers from Britain ? If the inhabitants of the country, 
why may not the same have happened in Wales ? I do 
not see, after all, how Mr. Wright is to escape from the 
factU retorqueri potest, 

Mr. Wright and myself are to a certain extent at issue 
upon the previous question, how far Britain generally had 
adopted the language of Rome. One of Mr. Wright's 
main arguments in support of his view is based upon the 
name applied by the Teutonic invaders to the inhabitants 
of the country. He says, — 

''We find that the Teutons bad a word [Wakchj &c.] in their 
own language which they appear to have applied especially to 
those who spoke the language of Rome. " ^ 

** We know that the Anglo-Saxon writers often speak of the 
inhabitants of this island, whom the Romans conquered, by the 
name of Britons, because they had learned that name from the 
Roman writers; but we also find that the term they especially 
applied to them in their own language was this same leu tonic 
word, WaluCf or WasUc. I think it perfectly fair to argue upon 
this, that the Teutons who came into Britain applied the word in 
no difierent sense to that in which it was used by the rest of their 
race, and that they therefore found the people talking the language 
of the Romans."^ 

What then is the evidence that the continental Teutons, 
at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion^ applied the term 
in question '' especially to those who spoke the language 
of RomeV^ The statement is supported by an induction 
of instances, which I have myself anticipated, and which 
only go to prove that the continental Teutons in the 
middle ages applied the term to those who spoke Ian- 
guages derived from that of Rome. Even at the risk of 

when be wrote; but it seems from the letter of '^A Breton Member/' 
in the last volume of the Archaologia CambrensUf that they have 
been found at various points in that district. — p. 420. 
A p. 294. 6 p. 291. 7 p. 292. 


inflicting upon Mr. Wright another facilh retorgueri 
potest^ I will beg the reader to compare his mode of 
reasoning with the admirable canon which he has himself 
laid down : — 

" 1 would particularly insist on the necessity, in discussions of 
this kindy with regard to words especially, of keeping perfectly 
distinct the ideas attached to them at diiFerent periods, and under 
different circumstances ; as for instance, during the Roman period, 
daring the middle ages, and in modern times, when old words are 
often applied technically." ® 

" The objections to this [i. e. his own] view of the case," 
says Mr. Wright, " are mere assumptions. What right 
have people to say ^ it is very probable that Britain was 
much less Romanized than Gaul,' or * I think' that such 
was the case?"^ Because Gaul was first conquered. 
Because Gaul was nearer to the source of civilization. 
Because Gaul oflfered a more attractive territory under a 
more genial sky. Because the Britons are spoken of 
almost to the end as penitus toto divisos orbe^ while Gaul 
possessed its schools of Roman rhetoric, and contributed 
its share to the stock of Roman literature. Because Gaul 
has still its Aries and Treves to show, its Maison CarrSe 
and its Palais Gallien. But even in Gaul, it is by no 
means certain that the Celtic language had died out in 
remote districts by the fifth century. Not to mention 
Armorica, in which it may have been preserved, upon 
roy view, and must have been upon Mr. Wright's, — or 
Oascony, in a part of which it seems probable that the 
old Aquitanian speech is still living,* — there is a certain 
amount of evidence that the original languages were 
spoken in various parts of Gaul down to a period not far 
distant from the times of which we are speaking. The 
following facts, the first two of which have been frequently 
brought forward, appear to prove the existence of a Celtic 

•p. 289. 9 p. 292. 

* Of course the Aquitanian was not Celtic in one sense, and if it is, 
^ I here suppose it to be, represented by the Basque, it was not Celtic 
io any sense of the word. But if it was able to resist the influence of 
l^tin, the Celtic language may have done the same. 


language in three different parts of the country at a 
comparatively late date.* 

Firstj St. Jerome states very distinctly, that a language 
differing but slightly from that which was still spoken by 
the Galatians, existed in the neighbourhood of Treves.* 
We must not forget that Jerome had lived at Treves. 

Secondly, Sulpicius Severus, in one of his Dialogues, 
represents an Aquitanian as anxious to hear the history of 
St. Martin in whatever language the narrator may prefer 
to relate it. " Speak even Celtic, or Gallic, if you prefer 
it, so long as you speak of Martin." ' 

Thirdly^ Sidonius ApoUinaris tells Ecdicius that it is 
owing to him that the nobles of Auvergne have "rubbed off 
the rust of their Celtic language,"^ and I find it difficult 
to interpret the last two instances, and impossible to in- 
terpret the first, in any other way than according to their 
obvious and literal meaning. As regards the force of 
Mr. Wright's argument in pp. 291, 292, we must re- 
member that during the four or five centuries in which 
the Roman tongue was mastering that of the Franks, it 
would not be difficult for it to absorb that of the Celts. 

But the inscriptions which have been found in Britain 
" are all purely Latin, without any trace of Celtic lan- 
guage, or Celtic people," and that "not only on the 
borders of Wales, but in the very heart of that moun- 

* Hieronym. Prolog, ad Comm. in Oalat. lib. ii. 

' Sulp. Sever. Dialog, i. 20. From compariiig this passage with 
the first chapter of the second Dialogue, I feel no doubt that Qallic^ 
means the corrupt Latin of northern Gaul, the origin of the Langue d* 
oilj and that Celtic^ means bondjide Celtic. We must remember that 
the Aquitanian is speaking hyperbolically, and we must not therefore 
suppose that he necessarilj understood the Celtic language. If this 
view be true, then I do not see how we are to avoid giving a similar 
interpretation to the passage quoted below from Sidonius ApoUinaris. 

^ Epist. III. 3. '' Mitto istic ob gratiam puentisB tuee undique 
gentium confluzisse studia literarum,tu8eque personse quondam debitum 
quod sermonis Celtici squamam depositura nobilitas nunc oratorio stilo, 
nunc etiam carminalibus modis, imbuebatur. lUud, in te affectum 
principaliter uiiiversitatis accendit, quod quos olim Latinos fieri exe- 
geras, deinceps esse barbaros vetuisti." The last clause of all refers 
to his defence of Auvergne against the Goths. 


tainous country,"* Granted. What follows from this ? 
That the Celtic language was obliterated " in the very 
heart of that mountainous country/' because we find no 
Celtic inscriptions there ? If so, by parity of reasoning 
it ought to have been obliterated in Armorica also, 
where, to the best of my knowledge, no Celtic inscriptions 
have ever been discovered. But in point of fact the 
early monumental inscriptions in Wales and Cornwall, 
which date from a time when Mr. Wright would allow 
that the language of those countries was Celtic, and which 
contain proper names of unmistakably Celtic character, 
are, with hardly an exception, in Latin. But I am quite 
prepared to admit that during the Roman occupation of 
the country, the sort of people who would put up in- 
scriptions, or have them put up in their honour, would 
speak Latin ; so that it is not so much to be wondered 
that there should be no ^' trace of Celtic language, or 
Celtic people." 

I ought to express my obligation to Mr. Wright for at 
length stating the evidence for the destruction of the 
Roman towns in Wales, and for the period of that des- 
truction.^ Assuming that the examinations which have 
already been made are sufficient to set at rest all doubt 
as to the class of objects which are or are not to be found 
upon the sites of those towns, I still do not feel that the 
absence of later coins is an evidence of their destruction 
at the so-called close of the Roman period. I do not 
think it has yet been made out what sort of money was 
current in Wales during the succeeding ages, or, in fact, 
whether generally speaking any metallic coinage was in 
use. Further, the instances alleged by Mr. Wright of 
large Roman towns in that country are, after all, only 
four, — Wroxeter, Kentchester, Caerleon, and Caerwent. 
The first of these scarcely comes within the prescribed 
limits, and has not yet been thoroughly investigated.^ 

« Arch. Camb. for 1858, p. 292. 
^ See p. S04, note. 

7 So far from it, indeed, that I understand that Mr. Wright is going 
toniperintend further excavations there. 


The second is, to say the least, on debateable ground. 
Caerleon, as is admitted" by Mr. Wright himself, presents 
doubtful appearances. Both Caerleon and Caerwent are 
near the coast, and might have easily have been des- 
troyed during the general confusion foUoiving the with- 
drawal of the Roman military power, without supposing 
that the Cymry were the destroyers. In the main, how- 
ever, it is true, for all that Mr. Wright has shown to the 
contrary, in this case as in others, that 'Mike causes produce 
like effects." As geographical position, physical diffi- 
culties of approach, and the natural sterility of a country 
are immutable causes, it is not probable that we shall ever 
find any very great variation in the results. The ex- 
ceptions urged by Mr. Wright only prove the rule, as 
they have their modern parallels. 

I will now turn to one or two minor points, of which I 
feel that I ought to take notice before I quit the subject. 
I am convinced that Mr. Wright does not mean (as his 
words might lead us to conceive)," either that he sup- 
poses that all the so-called *^ Romans " in the provinces, 
or indeed in Rome itself, were in any intelligible sense 
of the word " of Roman race," — or that he is ignorant 
of the fact, that the conquered inhabitants of Gaul are 
invariably styled *' Romans " in the laws of their barba- 
rian conquerors ; that the first victory of Clovis was over 
a so-called '* rex Romanorum ;" and that at the opposite 
extremity of the empire, not only those who speak a lan- 
guage corrupted from that of ancient Rome, but those 
also who speak a language scarcely less corrupted from 
that of ancient Greece, boast that they are " Romans," 
except where (in the latter instance) they may have aban- 
doned the designation, under the influence of an absurd 
revivalism. It is true that, " during the mediaeval period, 
the term Roman was no longer applied to race, but to 
language," so that ** the French language was Roman, 
the Spanish was Roman, the Italian was Roman."' But 

6 See p. 290. 9 Ihid. 


why were these languages called Roman ? Not because 
they were derived from the language of Rome, which 
was never known by that name, but because they were 
the languages of the " Romans/' that is to say of the 
Romanized inhabitants of Oaul, Spain, and Italy, as 
distinguished from the Franks, Burgundians, Goths, or 
Lombards. In like manner the modem Greek is called 
Roman, obviously not because it was the language of 
Rome, but because it is the language spoken by those 
who represent the subjects of the Eastern Empire. How- 
ever, to say the truth, I do not tliink that this point very 
seriously affects the argument, in the present state of our 
knowledge of the history of Britain. 

I must request Mr. Wright to take notice, that my 
allusion to Gildas was entirely ex abundantly and was 
made only in order to save myself from the charge of 
having omitted to observe that his testimony, whatever it 
may be worth, bears on the point at issue. I had not as 
yet met with any historian of note, who had refused to 
accept and make use of the evidence of the work com- 
monly attributed to him. I conceive therefore that I was 
justified in using the expression which has elicited an 
indignant protest from Mr. Wright, and which was very 
far from being intended to ** decide the question of the 
authority of Gildas." I was so far from being aware 
that Mr. Wright had *^ started the objections to Gildas," 
that I did not even know that he entertained them, 
although I judged (as it appears, rightly) that his 
historical views were inconsistent with a belief in the 
genuineness of the work.^ 

1 It is beside mj purpose to open the qaestion of the decree to which 
Britain was Christiantzed durinj^ the Roman period ; hot I need hardly 
say that the absence of Christian monuments from the rains of the 
Roman towns is not sufficient to prove that Christianity had not spread 
among them. What Christian memorials have we in Gaul, or how 
many have we even in Italy, belonging to the period now referred 
to? With regard to Gaul, the temple of Dea Sequafut only proves, 
what we know perfectly well from other sources, that heathenism was 
not extinct in Gaul in the time of Maximus. But when we recollect 
the tamuUaous proeeedings of St. Martin, about the same time, it strikes 



I must beg to observe, that the accuracy of the com* 
parison, and the soundness of the logic involved in a 
sentence quoted from my paper in p. 301,^ depends 
entirely upon the question whether (jumberland is so 
called as being the land of the Cumbri,or whether the 
Cumbri are so called as being the inhabitants of Cumber- 
land. I confess that I had assumed the former solution 
of the question, and Mr. Wright has assumed the latter. 
Accordinglv, with somewhat less than his usual amount 
of caution, lie charges me with having ** quoted the Sazon 
Chronicle very incorrectly." This indeed is a charge 
which, for once, facile retorqueri non potest ; since Mr. 
Wright, so far from having quoted any of his authorities 
incorrectly, has not taken the trouble to quote them at all. 
But although the charge cannot be retorted, it can be 
denied. I have not quoted the Sazon Chronicle incor- 
rectly, since I have given the exact words in a foot-note.' 
It is true that I may have misinterpreted the words, but 
the truth or falsehood of my interpretation depends upon 
the truth or falsehood of my assumption above stated. 
But I must request Mr. Wright to observe, that I did not 

Zuote the words against him, or in order to prove that 
Cumberland was at that time in possession of the Cymry,^ 
but (assuming that it was in their possession) in order to 
mark the earliest mention of them under that name by 
other than Welsh writers. When Mr. Wright says that 

me as not impoeBible that the temple of the goddess may have been 
overthrown, not bj an armj of barbarian invaders, but by a mob of 
Christian iconoclasts. I maj be permitted to add, in reference to the 
inscription quoted bj Mr. Wright in p. 299, that neither cremation, nor 
the formula D.M., are necessarily proofs of Paganism. See Merivale, 
Hiitory of the Romans under the Empire, vi. p. 275. 

< '' It is no more evident that the Brigantes of Ireland and the 
Bri^ntes of Britain were kindred tribes, than that the Cumbri of 
the r^orth and the Cvmrj of Wales were so." Mr. Wright adds : — 
*' I b^ to observe that this is a very inaccurate comparison, and not 
very sound logic." 

s o. 144. 

^ If Mr. Wright will take the trouble to read the first sentence of 
mv P.S. (p. 1&) he will see that when I cited the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, he had not raised the question about Cnmb^tfland. 


" this word [Cumbra-land] is always considered to have 
had in the mouth of an Anglo-Saxon a simple meaning, 
the land ofvalliesj^ he uses an expression which I cannot 
describe otherwise than as hyperbolical ; as I confess that 
I never heard of this derivation before, whereas that 
which I have taken for granted, has been, I think, very 
generally accepted and recognized/ 

I do not wish, however, to enter at present into any 
further consideration of the etymology of Cumberlandf, 
as it would lead the controversy away from the main 

r^int, with which it is only secondarily connected. But 
think it right to say, before concluding, that although 
I have considerable doubts about Mr. Wright's etymology 
for the word caery^ and although his instances alleged to 
prove that it may be Gaelic, are only pertinent upon the 
supposition that Uaelic was ever spoken in the districts in 
which Carvoran and Caerlaverock are situated (a fact 
not yet proved), I withdraw my denial that caer is Gaelic, 
as I believe the Irish word cathair would be so pro- 
nounced.^ On the other hand I cannot quit the subject 
without observing that Mr. Wright's rendering of Bede 
is remarkably inaccurate. Bede does not tell us that the 
Angles corrupted Luguhalia into Luel, but that Luel was 
the corrupted form of the name by which they designated 
the place.^ And I must observe at the same time that if 
caer is a corruption of castrum^ it has, to say the least, a 
peculiarly Celtic physiognomy, and is to the best of my 
knowledge without parallel in any of the Romance lan- 

^ Upon second thoughts, I am doubtful whether Mr. Wright means 
that this is ** always considered " to be the derivation of the name, or 
merely that as the name is '^ always considered" (an odd way of 
putting it, if that is all he means) to be capable of bearing this inter* 
pretation, so this is probably the true etymology. 

^ The Breton form of the word, ker, enters into the names of many 
more places than can be supposed to have been Roman stations. 

f Arch. Camb. for 1858, p. 303. 

B The foct that Bede calls the place Lud without the Caer, is no 
evidence that it was not so called by a Celtic tribe immediately sur- 
rounding it. Caer, being an appellative, might easily be prefixed or 
not, even bv the same sp^J^er on different occasions. The same sort 
of thing takes place every day in the case of local names. 


guages. I say this, because I presume that Mr. Wright 
supposes his ^^ previous population" who lived intermixed 
with the Angles in Northumberland to have talked cor* 
rupted Latin, and not Celtic. Otherwise his whole argu- 
ment falls to the ground. 

In conclusion, I will remark that two problems have 
arisen out of this controversy, each of which has an in- 
dependent value, while both of them are more or less 
involved in the question between Mr. Wright and myself. 

Firsts When and how did the inhabitants of that part 
of the Armorican peninsula, in which the Celtic language 
still survives, first acquire the name of Britons ? 

Secondly^ Who and what were the race who appear 
under the same name, as well as other names, in the north 
of England and south of Scotland, and who appear on 
different occasions to be clearly distinguished ifrom the 
English, the Scots, and the Picts respectively? 

These are two questions which are well worthy the 
attention of the Association, but which I refrain from 
touching on now, feeling that it is desirable to keep the 
present controversy within as narrow limits as possible. 
And as regards the controversy itself, whenever it is 
brought to a close, I shall request members to get rid 
as far as possible of preconceived opinions, and to form 
a judgment upon the whole. Any one of the papers 
which have been contributed to it, can only give a very 
partial view of the merits of the question. They should 
all be read connectedly, and in order. Neither party 
must be surprized to find himself driven out of more than 
one position, which he had previously assumed or main- 
tained, in his own opinion, on sufiBcient ground. This 
is only the common law of polemics of every kind : — 

*' Ceedimus ; inque vicem prcBbemus crura sagittis : 
" Vivitur hoc pacto : sic novimus." 

W. Basil Jones. 

Univenitj Ck>liege, December 11, 1868. 



It has been remarked by an eminent individual, that the 
history of England is yet to be written ; with how much 
greater force would the observation apply to the history 
of Wales during the middle ages; for the researches of 
Thierry, the historian of the Conquest of England by 
the Normans, show what rich materials are to be found 
among the archives of France to elucidate the annals of 
our Principality. Doubtless, historical treasures of equal 
importance are buried at the present moment in the 
presses of the Vatican and public libraries of Italy, as 
well as in those of Spain, where Welshmen fought in 
the fourteenth century on the side of Henry Transtamare 
against Pedro the Cruel, and assisted in expelling the 
English from the latter country. To exhume most im- 
portant documents there needs only the indefatigable 
industry of some future Thierry. 

Political motives induced our English rulers to destroy 
almost every record and seal connected with the dominion 
of the native princes of Wales, and this can alone account 
for their absence among the public records in England ; 
but in the Imperial Library, and in the Treasury of Public 
Archives at Paris, may be found what we cannot produce 
in this country — invaluable parchments with the seals of 
the original princes of Wales, and of their disinherited 
descendants. Among the latter may be instanced Evain 
of Wales, better known as Evain de Galles, a great com- 
mander by sea and land, on the side of France, in the 
wars against Edward III., and who also went on an 
embassy from the French king to the court of Spain ; 
Jchan Wyn, his relative and brother in arms, (the famous 
Poursuivant d'Amours,) so renowned in the pages of 
Froissart ; * and lastly, Owen Glyndwr, the heir and re- 

* Prince Evain of Wales and the Poarsuivant each commanded a 
bodj of men-at-arms, all Welshmen, in the service of France, whose 
names may be seen on the original muster rolls, in the Imperial 


presentative of Evain, for he claimed the aHiance of the 
French king in right of his kindred, and actually bore 
the arms of Evain de Galles. These documents are for 
the most part in a fine state of preservation, thanks to 
the care of the French record keepers, and I throw out a 
suggestion that the sooner they are photographed the 
better, for fear of some irreparable accident. 

In the Tresor des Archives, 14. J. 665, may be found a 
letter addressed by Llewelyn (ap Grifiith) to Philip (the 
Hardy) King of France, with the fragment of the great 
seal attached ; the document is on vellum, and though 
nearly six hundred years old, the skin is perfectly white, 
and the ink jet black ; the writing so beautiful, and the 
specimen altogether so striking, that some one in old 
times, judging from the indorsement in ancient court- 
hand of a much ruder character, marked it with the word 
*' pulchra ;" thus stamping upon the skin admiration of its 
beauty — no mean compliment to the civilized state of the 
administration of the prince from whose court it emanated. 

My present object is, however, to draw attention to two 
letters describing not only a painful episode in the history 
of Wales, but proving very clearly that there existed a 
body of clergy in the Principality in Llewelyn's reign 
who, if they did not question the supremacy of the Pope, 
at all events disputed the right of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury to issue interdicts into Wales, and who dared 
to perform the sacred offices of their religion to an excom- 
municated prince and people, — an act of courageous inde- 
pendence perhaps unexampled in Europe in those days. 

I have made copies of these documents, and they will 
find an appropriate place in our Journal, so that we may 
have a clear and intelligible translation ; for, strange to 
say, they have been misunderstood, and the persons who 
figure in them confounded by every writer who has com- 
mented upon the final struggle of Llewelyn for the inde- 
pendence of Wales. 

Library. It may perhaps be annecessary to explain that the names 
80 frequently repeated in the master rolls of a Welsh militia regiment 
in the present day are not to be foand among them. 


The first letter, in ancient Norman-French, is written 
by John Peckham, Archbishop of Canterbury, to Edward 
I., who was then resident at Rhuddlan Castle ; it is dated 
at Pembridge, in Herefordshire, on Tuesday after the 
feast of St. Lucy, 1282. The second letter, in Latin, was 
written at the same period by the archbishop to the Bishop 
of Bath and Wells, the king's chief minister, or almoner, 
then also at Rhuddlan, and upon the same subject. 

The letter addressed to the king commences by ac-* 
quainting the monarch that there were found upon the 
body of Llewelyn when he fell, among other things care- 
fuU}' concealed upon his person, a treasonable letter, refer- 
ring to certain individuals under disguised or fictitious 
names, and intimating that this treasonable letter, together 
with Llewelyn's privy-seal, also found on his person, were 
then in the possession of Edmund de Mortimer, who 
kept them awaiting the king's pleasure; and, the arch- 
bidiop tells the king that he had sent a transcript of the 
treasonable letter to the Bishop of Ba. (Bath and Wells), 
but he prayed that no one (of the traitors) should be put 
to death, or suffer mahung or maihem (violently depriving 
another of the defensive members of his body) on account 
of his report, which he had forwarded merely for the 
king's curiosity or information. 

The primate then proceeds to state that *' Dame Maude 
Lungespeye had besought him by letters to absolve 
Llewelyn, so that his body might be buried in consecrated 
ground ; but he had told her he could do nothing unless 
it could be proved that Llewelyn had shown signs of true 
repentance before he expired." 

" Edmund de Mortemer," he goes on to state, " had 
told him that he had heard from his vallets (foot soldiers) 
who were present at the death, that he (Llewelyn) had 
called for a priest before his death." " But without right 
certainty," wrote the primate, " we could do nothing" to 
absolve him. 

There was no proof that the call had been responded 
to ; the dying prince asked for a priest in the moment of 
his dissolution, and he asked in vain; if it could have been 


shown that an ecclesiastic had obeyed the summons, there 
would have been proof that the last offices of the church 
had been performed over the body of the dying penitent, 
and the archbishop's scruples might have been removed. 

Then we come to another paragraph altogether uncon- 
nected with the one just quoted, and it evidently refers to 
another period of time. 

" With that (information) know that the same day that 
he was killed, a white monk sang a mass to him, and Sir 
Roger de Mortemer supplied the vestments;" that is to 
say, the priest's vestments to enable the wandering white 
monk to perform, not the prayers for the dying, but a 
mass in an earlier portion of the day, and perhaps before 
the prince set out on his hazardous expedition. 

" Avec so, sachez ke le jur meymes ke il fat ocis, un muygne 
blaunc li chaunzo messe, e Messire Roger de Mortemer ad les 

The word ad has been carelessly rendered had by some 
translator, and all subsequent writers have blindly followed 
each other in copying it, and to reconcile a contradiction 
have treated Edmund de Mortimer and Sir Roger de 
Mortimer as one and the same person. 

The white monk was, perhaps, one of the clerics referred 
to in the latter portion of the letter, following the foot- 
steps of the prince without the regular vestments of an 
officiating priest at the altar; or he might have been a 
member of some religious establishment in the neigh- 
bourhood ; the vestments were absolutely necessary to 
enable the mass to be said ; and Sir Roger de Mortimer, 
who was Llewelyn's cousin, and most probably one of 
the magnates named in the treasonable letter, supplied 
them from his own chapel ; for in the middle ages to die 
out of the pale of the church, and unassoiled, was the 
most dreadful prospect to a Christian, and in his imagi- 
nation subjected his soul to eternal damnation. 

Most writers have treated the two Mortimers referred 
to in this letter as one person ; they were different 
individuals, each impelled by distinct political feelings. 
Edmund Mortimer, with John Qiffard, was at the head of 


the Herefordshire men in pursuit of Llewelyn, who was 
known to be in the Marches of South Wales, endeavour- 
ing to excite the disaffected borderers to unite with him 
against King Edward ; it was Edmund Mortimer's force 
that surprized Llewelyn, and they were his foot-soldiers 
who were present at his death and searched his person. 

There is no mention of Sir Roger de Mortimer save 
in the paragraph referring to the white monk ; he was, 
as before stated, closely related to Llewelyn ; he owned 
large estates in the Marches of Herefordshire, among 
them Ewyas Lacy ; and Llewelyn's object in proceeding 
to Builth was to induce Roger Mortimer and other mag- 
nates, either Welsh or English, to join his standard, or to 
remain neuter in the struggle. 

There is a significant item in the roll of expenses of 
King Edward L, at Rhuddlan, in 1282, under the head 
of "Wardrobe Expenses," — 

Tuesday, on the feast of the Nativity of the Blessed^ 
Mary, paid for six ells of Web Cloth, and six ells off q |q ^ 
strong fine linen, bought for pennons and Welsh 
Stanoards of Ewyas, and for making of the same. 

Why were these pennons and Welsh standards of Ewyas 
made at Rhuddlan ? Were they Roger Mortimer's ensign 
in the field ? If so, is it not reasonable to conclude that 
they were intended for some ruse or strategetic movement 
against the Welsh prince ? 

*' Master R. Giffard " had under his command upwards 
of one thousand archers at Rhuddlan, in 1282. John 
Giffard is stated to have acted with Edmund de Mortimer 
when Llewelyn was surprized at Aberedwy ; is it not 
probable that Llewelyn mistook the force for a friendly 
one by reason of the Welsh standards of Ewyas thus 
manumctured under Edward's own eye at Rhuddlan ? 

These crude suggestions are tendered with diffidence ; 
but it is hoped they may, like a ray of light thrown into 
a vault, excite closer examination into ancient records 
bearing upon our national historv. Should they be 
favourably entertained, I may hereaiter draw attention to 
the interesting memorials of the gallant Evan of Wales, 



and of his companions in arms, John Wyn, and other 
Welshmen, who fought in the French armies during the 
great struggle against Edward IIL, towards the close of 
the fourteenth century. 

Wm. Hughes. 


Letter from Archbishop Pechham to King Edward I. 

A Trechir Seyner Ed"^ Deu grace Rey de Engleterre Seynior d 
Irelande Due d Aqutam, frere Jan par la soffrance Deu 
Ercevesque de Canterbir Primat de tut Engleterre saluz en 
graunt Reverence. 

Sire, — Sachez ke ceus, ke furent a la mort Lewelin tru- 
verent au plus priv6 lu de son cors mdime, choses ke nus avoms 
veues; entre les autres choses ili ont une lettre disguisee par faus 
nuns de traysun. 

E pur CO ke vus seyez, nus enveyum le transcrit de la lettre a 
le Evesk de Ba; e la lettre meymes tient Eadmund de Mortemor^ 
e le prive Seel Lewellin a ses choses vus purrez aver a votre 
pleysir; e co nus maundam pur vus sarnir, e nun pas pur ce ke 
nul en seyt greve, e vus priums ke nuT ne sent mort; ne mayhun 
par nostre maundement^ e ke see ke nus vus maundums seyt fete. 

Ovekes co, sire sachez, ke dame Mafaaud Lungespeye nus 
pria par lettres ke nus vosissimus asoudre Lewelin ke il peust 
entre enselevi en lu dedie; e nus li maundames ke nus ne frums 
riens si len ne poet prouver ke il mustra Seigne de Verraye re- 
pentaunce avant sa mort. 

E si me dist Edmund de Mortemer ke il aveyt entenda par 
ses valies ke furent a la mort ke il avet demaunde le Prestre 
devaunt sa mort. 

Mes sauntz dreyte certeynete nous nen frems riens. 

Ovec CO sachez ke le jur meymes ke il fut ocis, un Muyene 
blaunc li chaunzo messe e Messire Roger de Mortemer ad le 

Ovec so sire, nus vus requerums ke piete vus prenge de Clers 
ke vus ne suffrez pas ke len les ocie, ne ke len lers face mau de 

E Sachez Sire Dieus vus defende de mal, si vus ne le destnrbez 
a votre poer, vus cheez en sentence, kar suffrir ce ke len pent 
disturber vaut consentement. 

E pur ce sire vus priums ke il vus pleyse ke il Clers, qui sunt 
in Snaudone, sen puissent issir e quereler mieuz, one lur biens en 
Fraunce, ou ayllurs; kar pur co ke nus creums ke Snaudone 
serra vostre se il avient ke en conqueraunt, ou apres len fiice mal 


as Clers, Dieus la rettera a vus, e voire bon renun en serra blesmi, 
e nus ensemims tenuz pur lasches. 

E de ces choses Sire si il vust plest maunder nus vostre pleysir, 
kar nus i mettrum le conseyl ke nus purrums, ou par aler la, ou 
par outre voye. 

£ Sachez Sire ke si vas ne fetes nosU'e priere vus nus mettrez 
en tristur, dunt vus iustrum ja en ceste vie mortale. 

Sire Dieus gard vus, e kaunt a vus apent 

Cette lettre fu escrite a Pembrugg le jeodi apres la Seynte 
Lucie. — Rymer^ voL ii. p. 224. 

Letter from Archbishop Pechham to the Bishop of Bath and WeUs. 

De Cedula, infra Femoralia Lewelini quondam Principis WallisB 
inventa multorum nomina Magnatum continente. 

Prater J. permissione divin& Cantuar? Eccl** minister humilis 
totius Angliae Primas Venerabili in Chris** Patri D** B Dei gra? 
Bathonem & Wellen Epis^ Salutem k fratemse dilectionis in Dom^ 
continuum incrementum. 

Quia quae in Dom^ nos^ Regis Dapn*" & periculum vergere 
dinoscuntur, detegere debet fidelis quiiibet k ea sibi nullatenus 
occultare; nosque inter alios ipsius honorem & magnificentiam 
ab inimicorum insidiis esse tutam intime affectantes, mittimus 
vobis quandam cedulam preesentibus interclusam obscuram qui- 
dem verbis & fictis nominibus conceptam cujus transcriptum 

!uod habet dominus Ede Mortuo mari inventum fuit in bracali 
ewelini quondam principis WallisBy una cum sigillo suo parvo 
quod sub salva teneri facimus custodia Domino Regi, si placuerit 

Ex qua quidem cedula satis conjicere potestis quod quidam 
magnates vicini Wallensibus siv^ Marchienses sive alii non satis 
sunt Domini Regis beneplacitis uniformes circa quod Dominium 
nobis k vobis est nullum periculum proveniat corporale et de hoc 
solicite caveatis. 

Ad haec intelleximus quod non nulli Clerici apud Rothelan in 
opprobium Cleri k Eccl'* contemptum inter preedones & male- 
factores alios cotidie capitali sententia puniuntur; quod ne de 
caetero fiat vestrsB solicitudinis studium apponatis. 

Et certe dolemus valde de Clericis iiiis, qui maneant in Snau- 
donia desolati, quod libenter nobiscum adduxissimus ad propria, 
dum in partibus illis extitimus si hoc clementise Regies placuisset; 
nee potent se Dominus Rex excusare saltem de favore, si de eis, 
quoa avertat Deus, male contingat: unde si quid pro eis sciveritis 
aut obtinere potestis, quod ad eorum libertatem k securitateni 
possit nostro ministerio expedire, scribatis nobis k nos parati 


erimus pro eis ab instantibus pericolis eraendis ad faonorem Dei 
quantam poterimus etiam corporaliter laborare. 

Praeterea sunt quidam Dei & Eccles* iniroici, qnos nnper iD 
Exon Dioc. visitantes, jurisdictioni nostrsB !c processibus nostris 
invenimus multipliciter adversantes maDdata nostra & Eccl* 
dampnabiliter contempnendo ; propter quod meruerunt a nobis 

lata tempore maioris excommunicationis 

sententia exigente justitia innodari ne igitur se miiitiee suae in 
contemptum Ecclesiasticae disciplinee valeant gloriari aut alios suis 
perniciosis exemplis infieiant pro captione eorumdem excommu- 
nicatorum, prout per nost*"* patentam litteram petimus, rescribatis 
si placet. 

De Benivolentia autem vestra quam ad nos geritis, continue 
negotia nost^ feliciter Fraternit^ vestrae quantas valemus gratiarum 
actiones rependimus ; parati semper vestris benepiacitis quantum 
secundum Deum possumus favorabiliter assentire. 

Valeat vestra Fraternitas in Ch^ semper & virgine gloriosa; 
nobis si quid apud nos volueritis, cum fiducia rescribentes. 

Si Dom' Rex velit habere transcript^ illud, quod inventum fuit 
in bracali Lewelini, poterit ipsum habere a Dom® Eadmundo de 
Mortuo Mari qui custodit illud cum Sigillo privato ejusdem cum 

iuibusdam aliis in eodem loco inventis; nee est periculum hoc 
^om® Regi insinuare, quod ad ejus prsemunitionem tantum 
agimus ; raciat tamen ulterius quod sibi viderit expedire. 

Domino R Bathon et Wellen Episcopo. — JRt/mer, vol. ii. p. 

[We hope at some future period to lay accurate copies 
of the MS3. and seals mentioned in this paper before the 
Association. The proper steps have been taken for this 
purpose. — Ed. Arch. Cams.] 



The two early inscribed stones, of which engravings are 
now given for the first time to the public, have been 
preserved by the care of one of our members, Charles 
Wynne, Esq., of Pentrevoelas, on the lawn of whose 
house, at Cein Amwlch, Caernarvonshire, they are now 

Mr. Wynne states that they were brought from a small 
farm on his estate, called Gors, between Cefn Amwlch 
and Aberdaron, and that they stood in what is supposed 
to have been the burial-ground of an old church, the site 
of which is still discernible. About fifteen years ago the 
tenant was going to bring the spot into cultivation, and 
the stones were then removed, for safety, to their present 
resting-place. Mr. Wynne conjectures that this church 
may not improbably have been one of the chain of similar 
buildings which were erected along the ancient route to 
Bardsev from Bangor, through Caernarvon, Clynnog, 
Llanaelhaiam, &c. This supposition appears well founded, 
for either the stones may have been primarily erected and 
inscribed there, or they may have been brought thither 
from Bardsey itself after the dissolution of the monastery. 
The line of road for pilgrims to the Isle of Saints went 
most probably through Nevin and Tudweiliog; but 
whether it thence proceeded through Meyllteym, Bryn- 
croes, and Aberdaron, to the eastward of Mynydd Cefn 
Amwlch and Rhos Hirwaen, or else to the westward of 
those hills, by the sea-coast, through Llangwnadl and 
Bodferin to Eglwys Fair, at the extreme point of the 
promontory, is not quite certain. The farm of Gors 
[guerj/j Glan-y-Gors?) lies near Bodwrdda and Ffynnon 
Ddurdan, described in Arch. Camb.^ First Series, iv. p. 
208, and is near the former of these two lines of road. 

The stones themselves are almost cylindrical in form, 
with rounded pear-shaped ends, very smooth in surface, 
and seem to be water-worn boulders, brought perhaps 
from the 6ea*shore. 


r r E Ft / 

The accompanying illustrations are made from rub- 
bings kindly sent by Mr, C. Wynne, and will give an 



HIC ?• 



'\ ''t 


idea of the general appearance of the stones and their 
inscriptions, which, it will at once be seen, are of a cha- 
racter quite unlike that of any of the inscriptions hitherto 
published, not only as regards the form of the letters, but 


also the style of the inscriptions themselves. It is evident 
that they are cotemporary, and I should be inclined to 
regard them as of the tenth or eleventh century, that is, 
some time before the introduction of the angulated Gothic, 
or rounded Lombardic (as they are miscalled) letters. 
They record the sepulture of ecclesiastics ; the first stone 
showing them to have been members of a fraternity. 
The records of the locality will probably afford a clue to 
the history of this establishment. The first and most 
important of these stones is evidently to be read, 







FRE ET... 

The long thin form of the entirely Roman capitals of 
this inscription will attract attention, as well as the mode of 
contraction of the word presbyter, and the extraordinary 
conjunction of most of the letters of the fourth and fiftn 
lines. The false Latinity of the word multitudinem is 
almost surprising. The lower part of the stone is much 

rubbed, and the letters FRE ET ( fratre et 

?) are almost defaced. 

Unless it were to record the burial of the superior of 
the community, and a number of his companions, perhaps 
slaughtered at one time, the formula is certainly a curious 
one. The second stone is easily to be read, 





Except in the conjunction of the first and second 
letters, the ill-shaped third letter R, (the bottom stroke of 
which should join the first of the following A,) and the 
equally ill-shaped B in the second line, this inscriptiaa 


does not offer any observation of note. The length of 
the first of these stones is 3 feet 6 inches, and its diameter 
varying from 6 to 18 inches ; and the length of the second 
stone is 3 feet, and its width varying from 6 to 12 inches. 
The letters vary from 2^ to 3^ inches in length. 

The engravings have been reduced by camera lucida 
from the rubbings. 

J. O. Wbstwood, M.A. 

Oxford, December, 1858. 


St. Germanus, or Garmon, belongs to the ** debatable 
ground " between history and legend. Hence a critical 
account of him would require much sifting of authorities. 
Yet he was so largely concerned in an eventful crisis of 
the fortunes of the British Church, that some sketch of 
his biography, even without much care to distinguish its 
more fanciful features, may be thought not unworthy of 

Of the saint's early days we find the following story : — 
He possessed a large estate, and found amusement in 
hunting. After each day's sport he used to hang the heads 
of the beasts he had slain on a pine-tree in the town of 
Auxerre, until Amator, bishop of that see, caused this 
tree to be cut down. Garmon vowed revenge ; but, before 
he put his threat into execution, the bishop was warned in 
a vision that his death was nigh, and that he who threat- 
ened him would succeed him in his bishopric. Accordingly 
he seized Garmon, and ordained him deacon. When Gar- 
mon recovered from his astonishment,. " God who had 
directed the whole affair, so touched his heart, that upon 
the death of Amator, a few days afterwards, he was chosen 
to succeed him, and made his life a model of the episcopal 
character." In allusion to this legend St. Garmon is 


58 ST. GERMAN us. 

represented as a bishop, with dead or hunted beasts lying 
around him.^ 

St. Garmon had been bishop ten years, when, about 
420, the Pelagian heresy disturbed the church in Britain; 
and, according to Constantius of Lyons, a deputation was 
sent from thence to solicit the aid of the Gallican bishops. 
A synod was convened, at which it was determined to 
send over Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre, and Lupus, 
Bishop of Troyes.* The account given by Prosper Aqui- 
tanus,^ that the mission was sent by Pope Celestine, at 
the instigation of Palladius Diaconus, seems improbable, 
as the Pope was then unfriendly to the Gallican Church, 
which he accused of semi-Pelagianism, and therefore 
would hardly send deputies from thence. 

St. Garmon is called son of Rhedyw, or Ridigius, an 
Armorican prince, and uncle of Emyr Llydaw. He and 
his companion Lupus are represented as braving the sea 
at an inclement season.^ During their voyage a fearful 
storm arose ; billow after billow dashed over the frail bark 
until it well nigh sank; St. Garmon slept, the tempestuous 
gale rocking him in gentle slumber; but on the sailors 
awakening him, the bishop rose and called all to join him 
in prayer, when immediately the thunders ceased, the 
winds were hushed, and the waves lulled into calm. 
Having landed in Britain, the bishops held a conference 
at St. Alban's with the Pelagian doctors, which Fuller 
tells us, ** by God's blessing was marvellously powerful 
to establish and convert the people." A small chapel at 
St. Alban's was afterwards dedicated in the name of St. 

According to Matthew of Westminster, Germanus and 
Lupus arrived in Britain a.d. 446, and, two years after- 

1 Compare Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art, Introd. 
p. 28. 

< Lapus, or in Welsh Bleiddian, was brother to Vinoentios Lirinensis, 
and husband of Pimeniola, the sifter of Hilary, Archbishop of Aries. 

' Mon. Hist. Brit. p. Ixxxii. i. ; and Rees, Welsh Saints, pp. 119| 

« Bede^ Hist. Eccl. i. p. 17. 


wards, they were present at that victory which is still 
commemorated by a pyramidal stone on Maes Gannon, 
or the field of Germanus. In Rymer's Fcedera^ i. 443, 
the battle is said to have taken place about the year 447. 
Although the Saxons are not here mentioned as engaged 
in the battle, and their introduction by Vortigem is dated 
in 449, there is some reason to think, with Archbishop 
Ussher, that the invaders, termed by Fuller " straggling 
volunteers," may have been Saxons, who, before the invi- 
tation of Vortigern, made inroads on the coasts. We learn 
from Ammianus Marcellinus^ and other writers, that they 
were in the habit of making frequent incursions into the 
island ; and, even before the Romans resigned their sway 
in this country, they found it necessary to appoint an 
especial ofiicer to watch the motions of the Saxons, who 
was called " comes littoris Saxonici per Britannias/' 

By Nennius the reign of Vortigem is placed about 
the year 440,^ the legendary Hengist and Horsa in the 
year 447, and the mission of St. Garmon about that 
period. According to the cursory account given by 
bede, the arrival of the bishops took place some years 
before that of the Saxons,^ probably in 429, and the arrival 
of the Saxons in 450.^ He alludes to the defeat of the 
" Saxones Pictique junctis viribus." 

Constantius of Lyons, who wrote the life of St. Garmon 
within thirty- two years of the saint's death, gives the date 
of the Victoria AUeluiatica as a.d. 420, and he further 
says that the battle was fought between the Britons and 
" a crowd of pagan Picts and Saxons." Probably it was 
on this authority that the date of 420 was inscribed on the 
monument erected by Mr. Nehemiah Griffith, of Rhiial. 

^ Lib. xxyi. c. 4 ; Mon. Hist. Brit. p. Ixxxiii. 
« Hist. Brit, xxviii. ^ Eccl. Hist. i. 17. 

8 EccL Hist. i. 15. So Florence of Worcester begins bis Chronicle 
with this event in the year 450, but building upon Bede. 


Ad Annum 

CO c c X X 

Saxonea Picti^. bellum adversus 
Britones junctis viribos susceperant 
In hac regione, hodieq. Maes-garmon 
Appellati: cum in preelium descenditur, 
Apostolicis Britonum ducibus Germana 
Et LupOy Cbristus militabat in castris : 
Alleluia tertio repetitum exclamabant ; 
Hostile agmen terrore proeternitur ; 

Hostibus fusis sine sanguine ; 
Palm& Fide non Viribus obtent&. 

M. ?• 
In VictorisB Alleluiaticss memoriam 



If we may trust our Bede, he describes minutely (book 
i. ch. 20) the Lenten season of humiliation as over, the 
solemnities of the paschal festival as duly celebrated in a 
church formed of interwoven branches of trees (" frondi- 
bus contexta") and flowers of the forest. The Britons 
had both sought the charm of the presence of the Gallican 
bishops, and many of them had seized the opportunity of 
being baptized. The stream of the Alyn is flowing past, 
and the army halts on its banks. The spot where the 
sacred rite was administered may be imagined as near 
Rliual; and the more so, if we accept the conjectural 
etymology of the opposite mansion-house, Gwysaney, as 
a corruption of Hosannah. Fuller at least, following 
Ussher, says, ** the good bishop chose a place of advan- 
tage near the village called at this day by the English 
Mold, by the British Guid-cruc, in Flintshire, where the 
field at this day retains the name of Maes Garmon."^ 

The Christians, clad in the snow-white robes worn by 
the newly baptized soldiers of Christ, {recens de lavacro 
exercitusy says the good Bede,) filed up the hill over- 
looking the lovely vale of Mold. Information arrived 

9 Fuller, Church History, i. p. 30. A well on the spot called 
Ffynnon Gwaed (or Bloody Well) is mentioned in the Cambnh 
Briton for August, 1820, p. 140. 


that the foe was approaching, having been on the watch 
for an unguarded moment. There was still time for the 
bishop to summon the Christian army to '^ a place of ad- 
vantage." Just sworn soldiers of a heavenly king, — their 
bodies still sparkling from the bright baptismal stream, 
— who can wonder at the glorious victory achieved over 
their pagan enemies ? 

St. Gannon instructed his men to take up the words 
he should utter, and at a given signal the triumphant 
shout of "Hallelujah" echoed through the vale. The 
cry was taken up from the opposite heights, and the effect 
of this Hallelujah, uttered by many voices, was such a 
panic, that the enemy fled without striking a blow. In 
the confusion which followed, many were drowned in the 
river Alyn, " lately the Christians' font, now the pagans' 

The church of Llanarmon, in lal, Denbighshire, is 
believed to commemorate the spot where the Easter 
festival was solemnized by the bishop in the wattled 
fabric. In Leland's days pilgrimages were made to this 
spot on the vigil of St. Egidius, and costly gifts offered.^ 

The first mission of St. Garmon lasted about two years. 
It is worthy of note that the ecclesiastical discipline of 
the church in Britain underwent some important changes 
during this mission of St. Garmon. Very few, if any, 
churches in Wales are traceable to a higher date than his 
first visit; till that period the clergy resided chiefly in 
towns with their bishop, and from thence visited their 
flocks. As, however, a decree had been made at the 
Council of Vaison, in Gaul, a.d. 442, " that country 
parishes should have presbyters to preach in them as well 
as the city churches," it was natural that the Gallican 
bishop should introduce the change into Britain. Ussher 
mentions that, in an anonymous treatise written in the 
eighth century, St. Garmon is said to have introduced 
the Gallican liturgy into this country.^ 

We do not wish to detract from the good deeds of 
this saint, when we gravely view the unlikelihood of 

1 Pennant'u Tour in Wales, i. p. 380. 
< Collier, Eccl. Hist i. p. 112. 


his having been the founder of the monastic institutions 
of Llancarvan and Caerworgorn. The inconsistency of 
statements bearing on this point, as narrated in Ackau 
y Saint^ leave little choice as to a conclusion. He is 
said in one place to have appointed Ututus principal, 
and Lupus (or Bleiddian) bishop, of the college of Caer- 
worgorn. Genealogies prove that Iltutus was too young 
at that time, and he may rather be said to have lived 
some eighty years afterwards. He was a soldier, not an 
ecclesiastic, in his early youth. The Book of Llandaff 
states that Iltutus received his appointment from St. 
Dubricius,^ who lived in an age succeeding that of Ger* 
manus. Therefore, unless we imagine an appointment of 
Dubricius by St. Garmon to the see of Llandaff, we must 
consider the Welsh records on this point incorrect. 

According to Constant! us, Germanus visited Britain a 
second time, a.d. 449, accompanied by Severus, Bishop 
of Triers. Archbishop Ussher calculates that this second 
mission took place a.d. 447. In allusion to this event 
we may quote from an ancient poet : — 

" Tu que O, cui toto discretes Britannos 
Bis penetrare datum, bis intima cernere magni 
Monstra maris :"^ 

We are told that great success attended this mission of 
St. Garmon, and that the strength of the Pelagian heresy 
was so diminished that it never rose to power again. 

Among the legendary traditions recorded by Nennius, 
and others, connected with his second visit, (although 
Ussher attributes it to his first mission,^) is the follow- 
ing : — 

Benlli ab BenlH Gawr, a chieftain, refused hospitality 
to the bishop; but Ketelus, or Cadell Deymllug, his 
swineherd, killed his only calf, with which he kindly 

' " A Dabricio Landavensi episcopo in loco, qui ab illo Lan-iltut, 
id est Ecclesia Iltuti, accepit nomeo, est constitutus." — Ussher from 
the MegiUum Landaveme, Note in Rees' Welsh Sainii, p. 123. 
See the arguments there. 

^ Ericus Antissiodensis in Vita S. Germani, i?. 3, ^ 118. Acta 8S. 
die 21 Julii, T. vii. p. 343, ed. BoUand. 

^ De Primordiis, cap. xi. 


entertained the bishop and his companions. The legend 
adds that the next morning the calf was found restored 
to life by the side of its mother. Also, that Benlli was 
deposed by the bishop, and the swineherd succeeded to 
his territories, which afterwards passed to his descen- 
dants. Such a story can gain but little from the supposed 
corroboration that one of the hills in the Clwydian range 
is called still Moel Fenlli, or Benlli's hill, remarkable as 
a strong British encampment. In this district, which 
might have been part of the possessions of either Cadell 
or Benlli, there is a church called Llanarmon Dyffryn 
Ceiriog, also a chapel, subject to the church of an ad* 
joining parish, called Llanarmon Fach. 

Far more striking than the above is the pretty story 
g^ven by Nennius, — (§ 39, ed. Stephenson,) of the guilty 
Vortigem's being denounced and excommunicated by 
St- Garmon and all the clergy (" Regem corripere venit 
cum omni clero Britannico'*). Considering the crime 
ascribed to Vortigern, we here see that the influence of 
the clergy, even in its most arbitrary acts, was used on 
the side of morality and Christian virtue. It is also 
pleasing to notice that when the old king fled to lay his 
"grey discrowned head,*' first in the recesses of North, 
and then of South Wales, the persevering saint is repre- 
sented as following him into both his wild retreats, and 
exhorting him to a tardy repentance, — " Solito more 
S. Gemianns eum secutus estj et ibi jejunus cum omni 
Clero tribus diebus totidemque noctibus mansitf^ and it is 
only on the continued obduracy of the old king, who had 
apparently returned to druidical superstitions, that the 
fire from heaven is represented as falling and consuming 
the tyrant and traitor, with his faithless wives, and un- 
hallowed race. — (Nennius, § 47.) 

Having settled Britain in good order, St. Garmon re- 
turned to his own country, when his aid was called for by 
the inhabitants of Britanny, to avert a great danger. The 
renowned general Aetius had ordered Eoctor, king of Ihe 
savage tribe of the Alani, to punish the people of this 
province on account of a rebellion. The holy bishop fears 
no danger, but shielded only by his grey hairs and his 


sanctitVy he passes safely through the pagan host, and 
stands before their king. Eoctor was going to ride on, 
but Germanus held him back. Such boldness astonishes 
the barbarian — he pauses, and promises to spare the pro- 
vince until the bishop can obtain paixlon for the people 
from the imperial government. Germanus hastened to 
Italy to gain this forgiveness. On his way he joined a 
company of artizans who had been labouring in foreign 
countries. A lame old man, heavily laden, was too weak 
to cross a stream with the rest of the party, so- the bishop, 
having first conveyed the baggage over, returned and 
carried the old man himself. 

When the bishop was coming out of Milan, where he 
had been preaching, alms were begged of him by the 
poor. Turning to the deacon who accompanied him, he 
inquired what sum they had remaining. He was answered, 
" only three gold pieces." " Then give the whole sum." 
" Whence shall we get food to day," inquired the deacon ? 
The bishop repeated his wish, replying that "God will 
feed his own poor." The deacon, with worldly prudence, 
kept back a piece secretly. As they journeyed on, two 
horsemen overtook them to crave a visit from Germanus, 
in the name of a great landowner, who with his family 
were in affliction. His companions entreated the bishop 
not to turn out of his way, but he made answer, " the 
first thing with me is, to do the will of my God." When 
the messenger understood that the bishop was going with 
them, they gave him the sum of two hundred solidi (a 
gold coin in those days worth 17s. 8d.) which had been 
sent for the use of the bishop. Turning to the deacon 
he said, " take this, and understand that you have with- 
drawn a hundred such pieces from the poor, for had you 
given the three gold pieces, the rewarder would have 
given us to-day three hundred solidi." 

At the imperial court of Ravenna, Germanus received 
universal respect, and easily gained the request which was 
the object of his visit. The Empress Placidia sent the 
bishop at his lodgings a silver vessel of costly provisions, 
in return for which he sent her a wooden dish containing 
such coarse bread as he was accustomed to eat. The 


empress valued it as a precious memorial, aud had the 
platter enchased in gold. The bishop divided the pro- 
visions sent him among his attendants, but retained the 
silver dish that he might use it for the benefit of the poor. 

During his stay at Ravenna, while discoursing with the 
bishops on religious topics, he said, ^* Brethren, I give you 
notice of my departure from this world. The Lord ap- 
peared to me last night in a dream, and gave me money for 
travelling. When I inquired the object of the journey, he 
answered, ' Fear not ; I am not sending thee to a foreign 
country, but to thy fatherland, where thou wilt find 
eternal rest.* '' He would not listen to the interpretation 
which the bishops tried to give, for he said, ** I know 
what fatherland the Lord promises his servants." To this 
fatherland he was soon removed, on July 31st, a.d. 448.^ 

The following churches in England and Wales are 
dedicated in the name of this saint : — 

lianarmon in lal, Denbighshire ; Llanarmon DyfFryn 
Ceiriog, ditto; St. Harmon's Radnorshire; and Llan- 
fechan, Montgomeryshire. The chapels are the follow- 
ing : — Llanarmon under Llangybi, Caernarvonshire; 
Bettws Garmon under Llanfair Isgaer, ditto ; Capel Oar- 
mon under Llanrwst, Denbighshire; and Llanarmon- Fach 
under Llandegfan, ditto. The ancient Cathedral of the 
Cornish Britons, as well the Cathedral in the Isle of Man, 
were dedicated in his name: Germansweek, Devon; Selby 
Abbey, in the joint names of SS. Mary and Germanus. 

It may be worth adding, that there is not the slightest 
authority for Mr. Algernon Herbert's strange opinion, 
ascribing to St. Garmon an esoteric Druidism under the 
veil of Christianity. On the contrary, his denunciations, 
both of the Pelagian doctrines and of Vortigern, place 
him in the strongest opposition to whatever traces of 
Druidism may have survived in Britain in his age. And 
although he would not, as a Gallican, have favoured the 
pretensions of Augustine in a later age, he comes down 

^ St. Germanus died at Ravenna, on a mission to Aetias in behalf 
of the people of Britanny. — Bede, Ecd. Hist* i. 21. Compare 
Neander's Chriitian Memorials, p. 344, ed. Bohn. 



to U8 as a fair representative of the ecclesiastical sentiment 
of his time, and as having lived in the fullest communion 
with the Catholic Church. He is not mentioned by Gildas 
or his biographer ; so that the stories in Nennius are the 
earliest native insular accounts of him. Upon these, and 
upon the broken narrative in Bede, with the aid of his 
Gallican biographer Constantius, and the brief, but sus- 
picious, notice in Prosper Aquitanus, all the later autho- 
rities have built whatever history or legend attaches to 
this celebrated name. We may deduct what we please 
on the score of legendary imagination ; but the churches 
dedicated in the saint's name remain as a memorial of 
the important part which he played, although a Gallican 
bishop, in the ecclesiastical history of Great Britain. 

Emily Octavia Williams. 

Rhiial Isa, Jaiy, 18S8. 


SiNCB the publication of our last Number, another of the oldest 
friends of the Association has been taken away from us, through 
the decease of Archdeacon Williams, of Cardigan. We owe 
it to bis memory to say that be was one of the earliest promoters 
of the Cambrian ArchoBological Association, and that he often 
took an active, always a cheerful, part in the proceedings of our 
Annual Meetings. His contributions to the memoirs of our 
Society are well Known to members; and though they have given 
rise to much controversy, yet at least they testify to his hearty 
good will towards the promoting Welsh archaeological studies. 
The Archdeacon was one of the few remaining members of a 
school of antiquaries intermediate between such as Davies, of 
the Celtic Megearches, and the archaeologists of the present day ; 
and it is no small testimony to the activity of his mind, that he 
always kept up in his reading with the current of modem re- 
searches, though his early training did not allow him at all times 
thoroughly to appreciate it We hope that a detailed account of 
his long literary life will be given to the world by some of his 
friends ; but we cannot miss this opportunity of expressing our 


Batisfaciion at the circumatancey that the good sense and learning 
of the Archdeacon did not allow him to fall into all those wild 
extravagances in Celtic literature and history, with which some 
writers still ignorantly disgrace our country. The Archdeacon 
lived amidst much controversy ; indeed, he never so thoroughly 
enjoyed himself as when wielding his pen against some literary 
antagonist. But he had this admiraole quality, that however 
high controversy might run, — however much he might himself 
suffer in the war of words, — he never lost his temper, — ^he never 
bore malice. Without making pretence to the shallow name of 
a patriot, — a word prostituted to the most sordid of purposes, — 
he was a real and earnest lover of his country, always ready 
and anxious to labour for its welfare, and doing no little to 
promote its intellectual advancement. We shall often miss the 
Archdeacon ; — we shall always think of him, and the ** days of 
anld langsyne,'' with regret; — still, there will remain a feeling 
of pleasure whenever his memory comes to mind ; for we cannot 
forget bis cheerfulness, nor the honest heartiness with which he 
would put his vigorous shoulder to the wheel, and help our 
Association up the hill. He was sure to infuse life and spirit 
into our Annual Meetings whenever he attended them ; and 
although many members might dispute his opinions, all the 
Society will be sorry to learn the decease of their good old friend 
and fellow archaeologist. 

An excellent portrait-bust of the Archdeacon has been taken 
by Mr. Edwards, of 40, Robert Street, Hampstead Road, one 
of the most promising sculptors that have come forth from the 

Sir Joseph Bailbt, one of our former Presidents, has also 
passed away from among us. His kindness will not be forgotten 
by those members who were present at the Brecon Meeting of 
our Association. Sir Joseph had the merit of setting an excel- 
lent example to landowners, in the care he took of the various 
antiquarian remains extant upon his extensive possessions. He 
knew their value, and he never willingly allowed them to be 
injured. We can only express the hope that his heir will follow 
the same laudable course of action, and that other gentlemen 
with large landed estates in Wales will take effectual measures 
for handing down unimpaired to future generations the archeeo- 
logical treasures which they possess in these our own days. 














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To the Editor of th$ Archwologia CamhrentU* 

Sir, — I have read the accoant of Carreg Cynhen Castle, by the 
VeDerable Archdeacon Williams, inserted in the October Number of 
1857, at page 335 of the Journal, with which I was much gratified \ 
but haying myself made some notes upon the subject as far back as 
the year 1806, or 7, when upon an excursion to visit that remarkable 
fortress, I am induced, on a reference to those memoranda, to differ upon 
some points with the learned author. 

I feel convinced that the orthography of the name as Carreg Centken 
is erroneous ; it should be as the peasantry of that quarter pronounce 
it, Carreg Cynhen, t. «., the rock of strife or contention, which would 
render the etymology purely Britbh, and quite appropriate, without 
having recourse to the Gaelic Cen^ or any such informal term to eluci- 
date the meaning ; for I perfectly agree with the archdeacon that the 
Gael, or his invading and predatory associates, the Norsemen and 
Danes, were never the first settlers in this part of the island, and that 
in their incursions they rarely penetrated so far inland. I have in a 
former Number of the Arch€Bologia Cambrenm given my reason for 
thinking that the term Owyddel is not to be taken invariably as a proof 
of the advent of the Grael in such localities, but, more generally, as a 
designation of places abounding in wild brushwood ; — not as to the 
inhabitants, who were only described under a similar term, to distin- 
guish them from their neighbours of more open situations. 

It also strikes me that thb stronghold of Carreg Cynhen existed 
long before the period of any written records, and was occupied by the 
Cymry, and fortified, as was then invariably the fashion of that pre- 
historic time, by ramparts of uncemented stone of megalithic structure, 
which served, at a later date of the Romanized Britons, to build the 
castle, the dilapidated remains of which now crown the rock, and I 
imagine that it was then that the term CaateU was added to the original 
name of Carreg Cynhen. 

We likewise find, particularly along the coast of Pembrokeshire, 
where the names of places give evidence of the invasion of Graelic, or 
Irish Celtic tribes, that the fortifications they made for protection 
differed from such structures erected by the Britons as a repelling 
force, by being constructed invariably of earthen ramparts, instead of 
the Cydopean stone defences of the natives. Along this section of the 
coast most of such Irish remains are nearly destroyed bv the incursion 
of the sea, clearly proving that, at a very early perioa, there was an 
extensive tract of flat lana which afforded easy means of landing an 
invading force. The centre of all these earthworks, without a solitary 
exception, is gone, leaving only in some a section of the formidable 


aggers thrown up on the land side, which eyinoe considerable skill on 
the part of these invaders. 

An inspection and an account of these coast camps would form an 
interesting paper for the future pages of the Journal, and I wish some 
of our archseological associatesi possessed of more means and better 
health than I now can boast of, would undertake the task. 

The name of CaermartheUi given as Maridunum, from the Latin 
mare, does not seem so appropriate as that of Jfcfuridunumy which is 
frequently met with in old documents, and, if I recollect rightly, also 
in tne Itinerary of Antoninus ; this is exactly in accordance with the 
old Welsh name of Caer Murddin, t. e., the encampment of the walled 
town ; it does not appear that it was situated in the marsh below it^ 
which, had that been the case, might have given it the addition of 
mare, but upon the hill above the site of the present town ; there is 
reason therefore to think that, originally, it was a caer only, or 
encampment of some extent, probably surrounded by an agger bristling 
with wooden stakes, long before the murdduUf or walled fortress was 
erected. To have placed it in the marsh below the present town of 
Caermarthen would have been the most ineligible spot possible, in 
short, unwholesome, and at all times subject to sudden floods and high 
tides ; therefore, the probability is, that it was never chosen for habi- 
table purposes, nor are there any remains now extant, or found in the 
mud-deposit of that swamp, to prove to the contrary. — I remain, &c., 

John Fbnton. 

Bodm6r, near Olyn-y-m^I, 
October 29, 1858. 

To the Editor of the Archtsologia CambreHtit. 

Sir, — Do the Roman roads in the Principality, to which the name 
of Sam Elen is popularly assigned, belong to a single line of road, or 
is the term applied indiscriminately ? I observe that the name is 
given to nearly the whole line of road connecting Conovium in the 
north, with Nidum in the south. Does it exbt in other parts of the 
Principality ? — I remain, &c., 

W, B. J. 

University College, December, 1858. 


To the Editor of the Archmologia Canibrensie. 

Sir, — I have just received the last Number of the Archmologia 
Cambrensis, and having read your paper on St. Briavel's Castle, I 
take the liberty of directing your attention to an error into which yon» 
and most others since the days of Camden, have fallen, respecting the 
history of that place. Camden spells the place Breulais, on what 
authority I should like to know ; he then quotes Giraldos Cambrensis, 


wad asBerts him to state that " Mahel, sod of Milo Fitz- Walter, was 
killed there by a stone felling on his head/' Sec. Now Giraldus does 
not speak of St. BriaTel's at all ; he is writing about Breconshire, and 
narrates what happened at what he calls Brendlais Castle, which is 
Brynlljs Castle, in Breconshire, pronounced BruntlySj or as nearly 
as possible as he spells the name. Camden, clearly on account of his 
way of spelling, confuses the two names, and every writer since his 
time has followed in his track without consulting the original authority. 
Sir R. Hoare, in his edition of Oiraldus, points out the error, but all 
the county historians and topographers have copied one another with- 
out examining as to the correctness of the statement, and thus the error 
has been widely spread and perpetuated. Would it not be as well to 
notice this, and correct the error, if possible. — I remain, &c., 

OcTAvius Morgan. 
The Friars, November 6, 1858. 


To the Editor of the Archmologia Cambrensis. 

Sir, — In the last Number of your Journal, ** An Antiquary " has 
given a copy of an inscription on a slab in Myddfai Church, Caer- 
marthenshire, wherein is stated that Dr. Morgan Owen, Bishop of 
Llandaff, *' Departed this Life the 6th day of March in the year of 
Our Lord 1644." 

By the memoir of the celebrated Rhys Prichard, vicar of Llan- 
dovery, appended to the new edition of the CanmyUy Cymry, published 
this year, it will seem that Bishop Morgan Owen was alive tne 2nd of 
December, 1644, when he was appointed one of the executors of the 
will of his intimate friend the vicar; and on the 14th of the same 
month. Bishop Owen made his own will, which was proved the 12th 
of December, 1645. 

It is stated by Wood, in his Athefue Oxonienses, that Bishop Owen 
died at Glasallt very suddenly, on hearing of the beheading of his 
friend and patron Archbishop Land ; and it is traditionally recorded 
that he was sitting in the kitchen at Glasallt when some one brought 
in the news that the archbishop was actually put to death, which in- 
telligence affected him to that degree that he rose up from his chair 
and dropped down dead. As Archbishop Laud was executed on the 
10th of January, 1645, the date given on the slab as March 5, 1644, 
is evidently incorrect, unless the date was intended to be March 5, 
1644-5, and the stone-cutter neglected to carve the latter figure. But 
even with all the want of communication between Wales and the 
English metropolis in those days, it can scarcely be credited that the 
bad news could have been nearly two months travelling from London 
to Caermarthenshire. 

The above slab was not set up until 1728, after the death of Henry 
Owen, Esq., ten years previous to which Browne Willis published his 
** Survey of the Cathedral Church of Llandaff," in which it is stated 


that Bishop Owen died in Janaary, 1644-0, and was bnried ia 
Myddfai Churchy ''on the north-side of the high altar, having erected 
over him an altar monument without any inscriptianf now very 
ruinonsy abo?e which were painted his arms against the wall, which 
are also defaced." — I remain, &c., 
Tonn, November 3, 1858. W. Rbes. 

To the Editor of the Arch^Bologia Cambreneie. 

Sir, — It is stated in the last volume of your Journal, (p. 426) that 
the church of Christ College is to be restored, being intended for the 
chapel of the new Grammar School to be erected by the Governors. 
I smcerely hope that any design for the Grammar School, will 
involve the preservation and restoration of the decanal residence, now 
degraded into a tannery. The refectory of the Dominicans, which 
forms a portion of the edifice, and is now divided horizontally bv 
one or two floors, would make an excellent school-room, dining-hall, 
or library. I think it becomes the Cambrian Archseological Associa- 
tion, which numbers among its patrons and ofiicers more than one of 
the Governors of Christ College, to interpose in order to prevent the 
destruction of the building in question. — 1 remain, kCf 

W. Basil Jones. 

University College, December 8, 1858. 


To the Editor of the Archmohgia Cambrensis. 

Sir, — In a work published in the last century, the writer, a 
Welshman, describing his progress through Monmouthshire and Gla- 
morganshire, says: — ''At Swansea we met with some French Bretons. 
We could understand something of their language. We found they 
were very passionate amongst themselves.'' Can any of your readers 
inform me whether the Welsh and Bretons can understand each other, 
as it is a point I have long been curious to find out ? — I remain, &;c., 

S. S. 



To the Editor of the Archwologia Cambrentie. 

Sir, — I shall consider it a very great favour if you can assist me to 
any reliable information on the following subject. 

In the year 1718, Adam, Bishop of St. David's, certified the value 
of livings ** not in charge" in his diocese. Among others, I find 
Llanddewy Istradenny certified at JB14 per annum ; and Uanfihangel- 
rid-Ithen similarly certified at JB14 per annum. 


Tlie bisbop'fi certificate, unfortunately, does not state the source of 
these sums, and more unfortunately, they are in abeyance, as I haye 
not been able hitherto to trace them. 

I have ventured to trouble you on the subject, thinking it just 
possible that some book may pass through your hands likely to assist 
me to the information T am seeking. Is there anything in Dugdale's 
Manasticon 7 If so, it would be probably under Llanbister, l^cause 
the livings are in the patronage of the Chancellor of the Collegiate 
Church of Christ at Brecon, and the stall of the chancellor is that 
of ** Llanbister," who, or his lessee, takes the rectorial tithe of Llan- 
bister, and the whole tithe of the churches appurtenant to his stall of 
Llanbister. Apologizing for this trouble, — I remain, &x$., 

Edward Pools, 
Incumbent of Llandewi and LlanfUiangeL 

Goidva House, Pen-y-bont, Kington, Radnorshire, 
27th November, 1858. 

[We recommend our correspondent to peruse Williams' History of 
Radnorshire, just published by the Association. — Ed. Akoh. Camb.] 

To the JEditor of the Archwohgia Canibrensis. 

Sir, — In No. IX. of your Journal for 1857, p. 77, you notice 
the proposed work of the Rev. J. 6. Cumming, on ** The Runic and 
other Monumental Remuns of the Isle of Man.*' At p. of that 
work, which has since been published, it is stated that *' about six 
years ago, when the church of St. John the Baptist was pulled down, 
three, if not four, of these monuments (Runic) were found in the 
old walls, of which only one has been preserved." As this state- 
ment will be likely to mislead other writers on this subject, and cause 
regret to the antiquary that such relics should be totally lost, I bee 
through the medium of your Journal to correct the error which 
Mr. Cumming has fallen into, for want of due inquiry in that quarter 
where the fact could have been ascertained. I was present at the 
taking down of the old chapel, and gave orders to the foreman of the 
works to be very careful to preserve any relics that might be found, 
either in the old walls or in the foundations. This was accordingly 
done, and the only Runic stone found was the one figured in Mr. 
Cumming's work, and which is now standing on the south side of 
the tower of the present new chapel. From mv constant attendance 
during the time of removing the old, and rebuilding the new chapel, 
it was not possible that these relics, if they had turned up, should 
have escaped my notice, and I felt some little disappointment that no 
more remains were found. — I remain, &c., 

William Harrisoit. 

Rock Mount, St. John's, Isle of Man, 
26th October, 1868. 




To the Editor of the ArchcBologia Carnbrensis. 

Sir,— There is an aatobiograpby, entitled, ** An Account of the 
Convincement, Exercises, Services, and Travels of that ancient serrant 
of the Lord, Richard Davies, (the Quaker of Welshpool,) with some 
relation of Ancient Friends, and of the spreading of Truth in North 
Wales," which is rerj interesting, and though six editions of the 
little volume have been printed, it seems scarce, and I take the liberty 
of making an extract therefrom, and placing the same at your 
service. — ^I remain, &c., 


In page 182, he (Richard Davies) says : — 

^ In the b^inning of the vear 1682, my dear fHend^ Charles Lloyd, and I 
went to visit Imends in Herefordshire, Worcestershire, &c., and came through 
their meetings to London, before the Yearly-Meeting. I acquidnted my 
fiiends, George Whitehead and William Penn that I intended to go to Lord 
Hide, to acknowledge his kindness for his letter on my behalf to Bishop 
Lloyd. George Whitehead said there was some service to be done for our 
sufiering Friends in Bristol ; and it was thought convenient that three of the 
City and three of the Country should eo wi& the said sufferings, and desire 
^ the kindness of Lord Hide, to present them to the King. The three Friends 
for the Country, were Charles Lloyd, Thomas Wynne, and myself; for the 
City, Greorge Whitehead, Alexander Parker, and one more. Our Friend, 
G. Whitehead, told me that our countryman. Sir Lionel Jenkins, Secretair of 
State, was so cross and ill-humoured, that when the king was inclined to 
moderation and tenderness to suffering Friends, He often stopped and hindered 
the relief intended them. When ^\^ went to WhitdiaU, We waited a long 
time before We could speak with them, they being upon a Committee a con- 
siderable time; but We had sent in by the Doorkeeper to acquaint Lord 
Hide that We were there, and in time They sent for us in ; the Secretary 
looked grim upon us. I went to Lord Hide and acknowledged his kindness 
for his ktter on my behalf to the Bishop. He told me that I should tell the 
Bishop there would be liberty of Conscience in England. I told him I did 
say BO, and did believe it would be so in God*s time. Secretary Jenkins 
spoke m a scornful manner, and asked me what was Welch for a Quaker ; 
I answered him Crynwr Crynwyr, it being the sii^ular and plural number ; 
but the Secretaiy said We had no Welch for it, for there were no Quakers 
in the Romanes days. My Friend, Charles Lloyd, answered, If thou didst 
ask my friend the question aright. He hath answered thee right ; for there is 
English, Welch, Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, for a Quaker. So the Secretary 
said, — Sir, I understand Welch pretty well, and English, and Latin, and 
Greek ; but if you go to your Hebrew, I know not T^iat to say to you. I 
left my friend Charles Lloyd to engage with this peevish countxyman, and 
presented Lord Hide with a long list of the names of Men, Women, and 
Children, in their several prisons at Bristol I desired him to be so kind as to 
present their sufferings to the King, which He said He would, and our friend 
George Whitehead, spoke farther to him ; then I turned to the Secretaiy, 
who directed his words to me, and spoke to him thus in Welch : — ^ Mae yn 
ddrwg eennif fod un o hiliogaeth yr hen Fruttaniaid, yr rhai y dderbiniodd y 
Crefydd Cristiano^l yn gyntaf yn Loeger, yn erbyn yr rhai sydd gwem 
derbyn y wir Cristianogol Crefydd yr awr hon.' The English being thus, — 
I am sorry that one of the stock of the Ancient Britons, who first received 


tka Cbfistuui fittth in England, should be against ihose who have received the 
true Chriftian faith in this day. lie replied lie was not against oar Friends, 
but He said our Friends ^ve their votes for the election of Pariiament men 
that were against the King's interest. I told him it was our birthright, as 
We were fi^eholdcrs and burgesses, to elect men qualified to serve both the 
King and Country; but how they were corrupted when they came within 
these walls I knew not. The Secretary would have engaged farther with me 
in a dispute about Reli^on. I told him He was an ancient man, and that 
they had been a long tune then upon their business, and if He would be 
pissed to dismiss us then, and appoint what time We should some morning 
wait upon him. We would, if He pleased, spend an hour or two with him in 
discourse about Reli^on ; upon which. He took off his hat and thanked me 
vey kindly for my avilitjr; but We heard no more of him about the dispute. 
Upon the whole, 6. Whitehead told me He was more moderate to Friends 
afterwards than He had been before.** 

litftsnlDgtcsl jSotts aii (Siuxin. 

Note 40, vol. ill. Third Series, p. 215. — Circle, Wat's Dyke.— 
The stones near Wat's Dyke, which *' An Antiquary" mentions, do 
not appear to be the dUjecta membra of a cromlech, bat are the 
remains of a large circle, two stones only of which remain. Thej 
are on the property of Mr. Eyton, of Leeswood Hall, who has very 
properly forbid their removal. They give the name of Oarreglwyd 
to the farm on the other side of the road. A Member* 

N. 41. — Inner Trench, Wat's Dyke. — In the portion of Wat's 
Dyke near the Padeswood station, on the Mold line, an inner trench 
on the western side of the Dyke is visible. Being densely planted, 
it is not easy to ascertain how far the trench extends. No such 
remains of a trench on either side exists in the portion of the Dyke 
that runs through Garreglwyd farm. It is, I believe, well known 
that this part of Wat's Dyke is universallj bj the peasants called 
that of OSbl. M. a. 

Q^erff 81. — Llan and Cil. — It has been stated that the Welsh 
'^Llao," and the Irish *'Kil" are identical, and that no place in 
Wales which has ^* Kil" for the first syllable of its name, as '' Cilcen," 
&c., ever has the term " Llan " also. What the proper meaning of 
** Cil'' (WalUce) is I do not know, unless it means a cell, hollow, &c* 
If so, is there any identity between this term and the Irish '^Kil?" 
Is " Llan " ever used except before the name of a saint ? 


Q, 82. — Ancient Parsonages in Wales. — Can any plan be 
set on foot to ascertain what primitive parsonages remain in Wales, 
especially North Wales? One, so called '' the rarsonage," exists in 


Efeneoht parish ; another, now a kind of back-kitchen or ont^house of 
the modem parsonage, remains at Bettws Gwerful Goch. Can anj 
of oar clerical members give us any information on this point 

A Member. 

Atufver to Q^ery46f yol. ii. Third Series, p. 75. — Name of Great 
Britain.— <jreat Britain was so called for the first time in the second 
year of James I., when an indenture was executed, November 11, 
1604, for a coinage, wherein the king's new titles were to be adopted, 
M AQ. BRIT, being substituted for ano. sco. M. A. 

^ifulhntus JIntttts. 

Cabrnaryon Castle. — The works of reparation and excaration 
in this building are continuing steadily, under the superintendence of 
John Morgan, Esq., the deputy constable. Sufficient funds for these 
purposes are raised by the fixed payment of fourpence for all strangers 
at tne castle gate ; and the subject is of such im portance, in its bearing 
on the question of practically maintaining edifices of this kind, that 
we shall revert to it on a future occasion. 

Denbigh Castle. — We wish that we could hear of the mayor 
and corporation of Denbigh, who, we believe, now rent the castle and 
its precincts from the Woods and Forests, or from the lessee under the 
crown, having determined on repairing and propping up those portions 
which threaten ruin. We have been given to understand with regret 
that this fine old building is likely to be made subservient to the 
purposes of an eisteddfod next summer. 

Croes Erqain, Rhuddlan. — It gives us great pleasure to state 
that Mr. Shipley Conwy has given oraers that this ancient cross and 
tumulus shall be protected for the future from further damage. The 
tenant former, not knowing its value, had begun to cart away part of 
the tumulus for agricultural purposes ; but on the circumstance being 
made known to his landlord, immediate steps were taken to prevent 
the process of desecration and needless destruction. This is an excel- 
lent example, and ought to be made known widely. It does Mr. 
Shipley Conwy very great crediL We hope on a future occasion to 
furnish members with an engraving, and some account of the cross 
and tumulus. 



EthnoqIinib Oauloise. By Rooet, Baron de Belloguet. 1 voL 
8yo. PariB, 1868. Part L 

We welcome the appearance of this first portion of a learned work; 
it is one that comes right home to the heart of the Cambrian Archseo* 
legist, for it is composed not only of critical memoirs on the Cimmerii, 
the Yarions populations of ancient Italy, — Umbri, Ligures, &;c., as well 
as of Gauly — aelwBd, Celts, kc. ; but it also contains what the author 
calls a Gaulish Glossary ; and in this, to our mind, consists its chief 
▼alue. It is one of those books that should be classed and read along 
with similar productious of German writers, such as Zeuss ; but its 
appearance is another slap on the cheek for Celtic scholars in Wales, 
inasmuch as it shows them the way along a path wherein many of 
themselves might have led. It is, however, a valuable contribution 
to the common stock of early European archaeology, and confers great 
credit on the learning and diligence of its author. 

M. de Belloguet, in his Introduction, thus enunciates three primary 
propositions, which he considers sufficiently proved to serve as points 
of departure for his further researches : — 

^ 1«^ — ^The Indo-European origin of the languages commonly called Celtic, 
and still spoken at the present day ; — that is to say, the Gauhsh or Cymric, 
of which tne Bas-Breton or Armorican is a dialect ; and the Gaelic, divided 
into Irish, Erse, or IIjj?hland Scotch, and the Manks, or proyincial dialect of 
the Isle of Man. The Cornish, or Cymric dialect or English ComwaU, 
became extinct during the last century. 

^^ ^ndif, — ^The dose relationship of these two languages, the Cymric and 
the Gaehc, testifying to the common stock fix>m which they have sprung. 

^^ Srd/y, — ^The identity, if not absolute, at least original, of one or the other 
of these knguages with the Gaulish or Breton, spoken at the time of the 
Roman Conquest.*^ 

He adds that he considers these three circumstances as establishing 
philologically the oriental origin of the Celts, the unity of race, and 
direct affiliation of the people who spoke, and who have preserved, 
the British and Gaulish idioms. He then reviews the opinions of 
modern German critics upon these points, adverts to Latham to oppose 
him, and especially disputes the conclusions of Holtzmann and xdone 
upon the Celtic question. We do not propose to give even a summary 
of the author's discussions on this part of his subject; they turn 
altogether upon details, and nothing but a perusal of the original 
pages will suffice to put our readers in possession of the facts ; but 
bis description of the general state of the controversy is sufficiently 
amusing to justify us in translating the following passage : — 

^* French, Belgian, German, English and Irish writers have entered the 
9rena ; some of Uiem taking up the name of the Celts as a title of honour ; 
others repelling it with contempt ; — ^the enthusiasts wishing to prove that the 


whole of Europe, Rome, and Greece herself, owed their primitive populations, 
and even the gods they worshipped, to this race alone ; — the excluGdves, on 
the other han^ refusing to acknowledge as brethren neighbours whose lan- 
guage, institutions, and remote traditions, attested thdr close affinity with 
those who repudiated them. From Camden and Cluvier, down to Amedee 
Thierry, without speaking of Pezron, PeUoutier, and Spener, I have been 
tossed about in my researches from Joseph Scaliger to Pontanus; from 
Freret to Sharon Turner ; from Dom. J^Iartm to Schsepflin ; from £. Davies 
to Betham ; and from Betham to Chalmers ; fi*om Mone to Holtzmann, and 
from him again to Brandes and Gluck, — all in the midst of an ardent, 
obstinate, hand-to-hand fight, in which I have met with the great Leibnitz, 
Niebuhr, and Schafarik ; geographers, such as Mannert, Bitter, and Ukert; 
or philologists, such as Adelung, J. Grimm, Pott, and Bopp. If our Celto- 
maniacs have wished to make all Europe speak Bas-Breton, other writers, 
carried towards the opposite extreme, nave resolutely contested with this 
idiom, and its brethren of England and Ireland, their Celtic origin, and have 
changed into old Teutonic the languages of Brennus and Yercingetorix. The 
exaggerations of the former had at least some excuse before the discovery of 
Sanscrit, and the explanation of the astonishing relationship which they had 
so correctly observeo, fit)m the time of Edward Lhwyd, as existing between 
the relics of Gaulish and other Indo-European languages, German, Greek, 
Latin, &c. At length, however, the Natural History of Man called up this 
inuncnse suit before its own tribunal ; and the science of Prichard, of Edwards, 
of Nott, and of Gliddon, mingled its decrees with those which had already 
been pronounced in the names of History and Philology. Piercing through 
the Celtic epoch, Science has given us, upon the ancient territories of we 
Gauls and oi Caledonia, at a distance where the vision of historical critidsm 
fails, glimpses of people anterior to the Gaels, who had hitherto been con- 
sidered the earliest inhabitants of the West. These Pre-Celtic populations 
of Wilson, and Boucher de Perthes, these Kymbo-Cephalic and Brachy- 
Cephalic races have not yet come out from the arcana of Geology, — and 
we will leave them there, since we have enough to occupy us on the domain 
of Historical Sciences.** 

M. de Bellognet divides his Oaulish Glossary into two classes: 
(1.) Words which ancient writers have banded down, with their 
significations. (2.) Ditto, ditto, without significations. He arranges 
the first of these classes in chronological sections, such as words ex- 
pressly given as Gaulish by Greek and Latin writers, from the earliest 
periocls to the eighth century ,^words not expressly mentioned as 
Gaulish, but probably intended as such by similar writers; words 
supposed to be Gaulish for other reasons; the Malbergic Glosses, 
and the Barbaric words of Virgil the Grammarian. The second class 
is subdivided into words, other than proper names; characteristic 
elements of the names of men, people and places ; proper names 
explained by curious circumstances; and notes on the Formulae of 
Marculfus of Bordeaux. He comments upon each word at some 
length, quoting the author, and bringing in the aid of comparative 
philology. We give an example of the author's mode of treating 
words from each class : — 

Class I — ^^ (Plin. Hist. Nat xxii. 2.) Gkutum, woad, or pastel, a |Jant, 
the juice of which gave a black dye : — Vitrum gave a blue cdoar, — (Ctts, 


T. 14.) It was with this juice that ihe Britons tattooed themselves. Apuleius 
gives this word as merely a Latin word with the various reading GltUam, or 
aluta — (Cap. 69, Edit. 1788.) In Cymric and Armorican, Glas, blue, 
glanootts-blue : in Irish, pale green, or pale-coloured : in Highland Scotch 
or Erse, Glasdhaid, greyish. Compare Cymric Glaslys^ Gweddlyg^ pastel; and 
in ComLsh, Glestn," 

^* Class n Camulus : a surname of Mars in several inscriptions,^ 

(Orell. 1977, 1978,) and used as his only name in an inscription on a 
monument where Arduinna (Diana) is represented with Jupiter, Mercurv, 
Hercules and Camulns, or Mars. — (Dom. Martin, Rel. des Gatd, i. 486.) tt 
has been erroneously supposed that this term is of Sabine origin, whereas one 
of these inscriptions is Remish, and the other of some citizens of Reims, in 
honour of Tiberius. It is also a decidedly Gaulish element of the name 
Camulogenus, and of others discovered in inscriptions, such as Andecamulos^ 
Andecamulefises, Camidia, Camulognata^ &c. The word Cam^ curved, which 
is common to five languages, as Zeuss informs us, is not satisfactory as far as 
signification is concerned: but we have in Irish Camj brave, powerful, quarrel, 
duel; in Erse, Cama, brave; in Cymric, Cam, bad, and Camu; in Armorican, 
CamnuL, to bend (the bow). Mone composes Camidus of the Irish Cam and 
Ullt grand, proud. — {Celt. F. 214.) In ancient Britain we find Camulo, or 
Cammodonum, and Camulossesa of the Ravenna Geographer.** 

This Glossary comprises in all 321 words^ and an excellent con- 
spectus of the whole is afforded by the arranging of them in two 
tables of parallel columns, where they are entered according to the 
dialects to which they are supposed to belong. The author informs 
us that out of all these 321 words, there are only twenty-one which 
cannot be connected with others in modem Celtic dialects, directly or 
indirectly ; and he concludes by expressing his conviction that he has 
proved the identity of Cymric or Gaelic with ancient Gaulish. These 
tables are particularly valuable for reference ; and M. de Belloguet, 
who quotes our recent best book on Cymric literature, Nash's Ta/tenn, 
shows by them, and indeed by the whole work, how thoroughly he 
has inquired into the subject of which he treats. We add some of 
his final words : — 

" To give a summary of my opinion, I think that the ancient Gaulish, with 
its varieties, or, if it is preferred, its dialects, still floating about in the state 
o£ primitive prormscuousness described by Renan, (Semitic Languages, i. p. 90,) 
formed one and the same language, which was related at the same time to 
both the Cymric and the Gaelic of the modem Celtic, — more nearly to the 
former by its vocabulary, to the latter by the endings, or inflexions, which it 
possessed in common with its Indo-European sisters. This language, there- 
fore, was positively Celtic, and not Teutonic. Such is the two-fold conclusion 
to which we have come from the philological researches collected in this first 
portion of our work." 

We shall look out for the second portion with considerable im- 


Memoir on a "Cromlech-Tumulus" in Wiltshire, By J. 
Thurnam, Esq., M.D., F.S.A. 

We have been yerj tardy in noticing an interesting paper by Dr. 
Thumam, on a '' Cromlech-Tumalos/' near Littleton Drew, North 
Wilts, originally published in the Wiltshire Archmological Magazine. 
Immense pressure of matter in our portfolio is our only excuse, and 
we are now glad of an opportunity to call the attention of members 
to this subject ; for it may throw light on similar tumuli in Wales, 
and may so far aid the study of comparative archseology. This 
tumulus, mainly composed of loose stones, which was known as long 
aso as Aubrey's time, but has, within the last few years, been com- 
pletely excavated by Mr. Poulett Scrope, forms one, it appears, of 
many of the same class, scattered over that part of the country. It 
is ovoidal in shape, about 180 feet long, by 90 in greatest breadth, 
and was formerly nine or more feet high, it has been found to con- 
tain a central interment, in a cist on the level of the ground, or floor 
of the tumulus, midway between two walls of loose stones running 
athwart it ; a single skeleton of a young man, with a small flint arrow 
head, a lancet^ at it has been conjectured, lay within. Four other 
large cists, about ten feet long by four feet wide, and two in depth, 
have been found round the southern curve of the tumulus, containing 
from seven to ten skeletons each, those of women and children 
generally by themselves. On the surface of the tumulus, near the 
eastern end, stand two upright stones, with a third, once on their top, 
but now fallen off and lying against them — a dolmen in fact — which 
the author infers to have been not used as a sepulchral chamber, but 
as an altar. The ground underneath this dolmen has been found to 
contain fragments of black Roman pottery, some fragments of animal's 
bones, and one or two rude flakes of flint. The tumulus stands about 
100 yards from the great Roman road, called the Fosseway, extending 
from Devonshire to Lincolnshire. Such is the tumulus, such its 
contents ; the account of them will serve (1.) as a basis of comparison 
with other long barrows, or ovoidal tumuli, in Wales, and there are 
many such; (2.) as leading to a suspicion that the construction of 
this tumulus, and the erection of the dolmen, with the use of flint 
flakes, &;c., was posterior ^ or at least, not anterior ^ to the Roman 
period — a point of no small importance. Dr. Thurnam argues rather 
on the contrary side, and thinks the Roman pottery to be of later 
date than the tumulus ; but there is nothing to show thw, and we are 
rather inclined to accept its presence, even near the surface of the 
tumulu8| as a proof of contemporaneous deposition. 

IrrjiffnlBgia Canilirfiisii 

— --f- 



No. II. 

(Continued Ji'om p. 18.) 

Of the sons, — 

1. Richard, Earl of Hertford, who Rncceeded to the 
honour of Glare before 1 131, when he rendered an account 
to the Exchequer for £43 68. 7d., and who was slain hy 
the Welsh in 1136, was aiH^estor of the Earls of Glou- 
cester and Hertford, whose chief Welsh seat was Cardiff. 

3. Gilbert, Earl' of Pembroke. 

3. Walter, the reputed founder of Tintem Abbey, 
though Tintem, or Dindyrn, was not unknown in British 
history. It was the retreat of Tewdric, King of Mor- 
gannwg, whence, a.d. 610, he sallied forth to lead his 
people against the invading Ceolwulph, and by his fall 
and burial gave name to Merthyr-Tewdric, or Mathern. 

4. Baldwin, whose liberal ecclesiastical donations are 
recorded in Normandy^ and who is said by some autho- 
rities to have died childless, but by Dugdale to have left 
three sons and a daughter. 

I. — Gilbert de Clare, sumamed " Strongbow," Earl 
of Pembroke, and so called of Striguil, by reason, says 
Dugdale, that be had his chief residence at Striguil Castle, 
near Chepstow. (Dugd. Baron.) 

As early as 1113, though a younger son, he was a 



considerable proprietor in West Wales, probably having 
inherited from his father his West Wales lordships, a 
property of little value, exposed to perpetual attacks 
from the Welsh, and requiring constant attention. In 
this year he commanded the van of the very considerable 
army levied by the king for the invasion of North Wales, 
then in insurrection under Griffith Gwynedd, and Owen, 
Prince of Powis. Probably while thus engaged he ne- 
glected his other interests, for in 1114 Griffith ap Rhys, 
who had returned secretly from Ireland, and was residing 
with his brother-in-law Gerald at Pembroke, broke away 
with his brother Owen, invaded Caermarthen, and ravaged 
Kidwelly and Gower. This attack provoked King Henry, 
who in 1114 marched to the relief of Pembroke, taking 
with him Robert, Earl of Gloucester, his natural son. 
Possibly it was to prevent a repetition of these excesses 
that about this time Earl Gilbert completed, as is said, 
the settlement of West Wales, by the construction or 
reconstruction of the two castles of Aberystwyth and 
Abertievi, or Cardigan. In 1116 Griffith ap Rhys was 
again in arms, but Henry did not return to Wales until 
1 122, when, while riding through a defile, a Welsh arrow 
struck his mail, and so alarmed him that he retired. It 
was during these disturbances, probably in 1114, that 
Gerald met with and slew his ancient enemy. Owen ap 

In 1134, the year of the death of Duke Robert at 
Cardiff, the Welsh again rose. Henry was in Normandy, 
but was preparing to return and put them down, when, 
December, 1 136, he died, leaving Wales on the verge of a 
general rising, which took place in the following year, on 
the appearance of Stephen in England. Gilbert now 
transferred his allegiance to Stephen, whom he supported 
against Maud and the Plantagenets, and who gave him 
Pevensey, which he strengthened, but afterwards forfeited. 
The sons of Gerald, with the men of South and West 
Wales, by degrees espoused the same side, opposed how- 
ever by Robert, Earl of Gloucester, brother to Maud. 

In January, 1136, the Welsh, emboldened by King 


Henry's death, and the consequent dissensions, burst into 
Gower with more than usual ferocity, and were in conse- 
quence attacked by Richard, Earl of Hertford, Gilbert's 
elder brother, who was at that time in opposition to 
Stephen, and who was supposed to have negociated for 
the support of the Welsh, by whom he was both feared 
and esteemed. However, he met them in the field, and 
was slain, 15th April, about the time of the death of 
Griffith ap Rhys. The Welsh then overran Cardigan, and 
besieged Earl Richard's widow in the castle. Baldwin 
his brother failed to advance beyond Brecon; but the 
castle was relieved, according to some rather questionable 
accounts, by Milo Fitz- Walter, though not in time to 
prevent the district of Ros, which included Haverford 
and the peninsula of Pembroke, from being ravaged. 

A few years later Gilbert inherited Nether Gwent, and 
probably the honour of Striguil, and the other Welsh 
possessions of his uncles Roger and Walter ; and in 1 138, 
the year of the battle of the Standard, and during the 
struggle between Stephen and Maud, he was created by 
the former Earl of Pembroke, an honour which did not 
prevent him from verging on rebellion when refused the 
custody of the castles of his nephew Gilbert, Earl of 
Hertford or Clare, then under age. 

In March, 1141, he fought on Stephen's side at the 
battle of Lincoln, but on Stephen being taken prisoner 
by Robert, Earl of Gloucester, he fled. In 1144 he built, 
or rebuilt, the castle of Caermarthen, which, however, 
with his castles of Dynevor and Llanstephan, were taken 
shortly afterwards by Cadelh, son of the late Prince 
Griffith ap Rhys, and held by him some time in defiance 
of the earl. 

The year 1147 was celebrated in South Wales by the 
foundation, or perhaps the renovation, of Margam Abbey, 
the death-bed work of piety or alarm of Robert, Earl of 
Gloucester, and one which tended powerfully to civilize 
and settle the vale of Glamorgan. 

In the height of the quarrel between Stephen and 
Henry II., 6th January, 1148, Earl Gilbert died, having 


latterly opposed Stephen. He was buried, and had an 
" obit," at Tintern. 

He married Elizabeth, reputed to have been mistress to 
Henry I., sister of Waleran, Earl of Mellent, or Meulan, 
an ancient and powerful family in Normandy, {Art de 
Ver. les dates^ ii.,) and by her had two sons, Richard, 
his successor, and Baldwin, who distinguished himself at 
Lincoln in 1141, and harangued the troops before the 
battle in the place of Stephen, who was hoarse. Earl 
Gilbert left also a daughter, Basilea, who married Ray- 
mond le Gros. (Sir J. Ware, i. 190.) 

II. — Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, sumamed 
Strongbow, was also occasionally designated as of Striguil, 
where he resided. In a charter to Vivian de Cursun, of 
Rathkerry, near Dublin, he styles himself ^^ Richard, son 
of Earl Gislebert." Miiles {Catalogue of Honour^ 420) 
speaks of his being styled in a charter of Henry II. '^Earl 
of Buckingham," probably from his large share of the 
Giffard inheritance. His principal fame is derived from 
his conquest of Ireland. 

At his accession to the earldom, in 1 149, Cadelh and 
his brother still held Kidwelly and their recent spoils, but 
in the following year Cadelh was waylaid and disabled 
by the men of Tenby, in revenge for which act his 
brothers Meredith and Rhys in 1152 took Tenby Castle, 
then held by William Fitz-Gerald. In the year 1153, a 
year memorable in Christendom for the death of St. 
Bernard, Earl Richard and his kinsman Roger de Clare 
witnessed the treaty between Henry and Stephen, under 
which Henry's succession was secured. (Hollinshed.) 

On becoming king, Henry was opposed by Hugh Mor- 
timer, a Lord Marcher, and in consequence he seized, 
1155, upon the castles of Gloucester, Wigmore, and 
Bridgenorth. In the second year of his reign, Henry 
seems to have contemplated an expedition into South 
Wales and Ireland, for the royal " corrody " was con- 
veyed '* in one ship " to Pembroke, for the hire of 
which Roger the Constable had £4. {Pipe Roll^ 108.) 
According to Powel, the peninsula was about the same 


time, 1155, re-inforced by a new colony of Flemings, to 
whom Henry refused refuge in England. 

In 1156 Henry visited Anjou to put down his brother 
Geoffrey. He returned in the following year, and at once 
entered North Wales with a strong army, restored Basing- 
werk Castle, and forced Prince Owen to sue for peace. 
Meantime, Roger, Earl of Clare, attacked the Welsh in 
Cardigan and the western counties, and in the year 
following, 1158, appeared at Caermarthen. The Welsh, 
however, headed by the celebrated Glamorganshire hero 
Ivor Bach, made a movement in his rear, and took Cardiff 
Castle, and in it the Earl of Gloucester and his countess, 
Hawisia. (^Ann. de Margam,) The earl had been active 
against the Welsh a short time before, and had as- 
sisted the Earl of Clare, and Cadwallader, his brother-in- 
law, in raising the siege of Caermarthen, when attacked 
by Prince Rhys. 

It was during Henry's Welsh campaign of 1 157 that 
occured the celebrated act of treachery or cowardice, of 
Henry de Essex, hereditary standard-bearer of England, 
who threw down the royal banner in the face of the 
Welsh, and fled ; an oflence which, after being vanquished 
in single combat on the meads of Reading, he expiated 
as a monk in that abbey. 

In 1162-3 Henry was in Brecknockshire, and soon 
afterwards received homage from Prince Rhys, who never- 
theless speedily burst into Cardigan and Pembroke, and 
prepared the way for a general rising which occurred in 
North Wales in 1 164, and enabled Rhys to take the castles 
of Cardigan and Kilgerran, then commanded bv Robert 
Fitz-Stephen, the constable, who had married ^fest, the 
widow of Gerald de Windsor. Notwithstanding this, it 
appears from M. Paris that in 1165, Carte says 1162, 
Rhys did homage to Henry at Woodstock. No doubt 
the extreme diflBculty of holding so remote a part of Wales 
would dispose Henry to be content with a formal sub- 
mission. The Welsh wars were only carried on in summer. 
In winter the natives recovered their losses. Langtoft 
spoke the general opinion when he said, — 


'' In Wales it is full strong to war in winter tide, 
For winter there is long, when summer is here in pride." 

Possibly it was during one of these visits to England, 
while he held Cardigan, that Prince Rhys dined with 
Bishop de Yere, a kinsman of the de Clares, at Hereford, 
in company with Walter, son of Robert de Clare, and 
Giraldus, who relates the story. Rhys was sitting be- 
tween the two Normans, on which Giraldus congratulated 
him on sitting between two members of a family whose 
lands he possessed. On this questionable speech, the 
bishop observed courteously, " since we were to lose those 
lands, we are much pleased that so noble and loyal a 
prince as Rhys should hold them." It was in 1165 that 
Thomas a Becket called in vain upon Roger de Clare to 
do homage for Ton bridge. 

During all these disturbances in West Wales, Earl 
Richard seems to have interfered personally but little, 
living in a sort of retirement in his castle of Striguil. 
Circumstances were now to awaken his dormant ambition. 

The settlement of South Wales had always been re- 
garded as the main step towards the conquest of Ireland. 
William the Conqueror and Henry I. had contemplated 
this enterprize, and Henry II., on his accession, had 
obtained from Pope Adrian Breakspeare a bull, and a ring 
of investiture of its sovereignty, on confirmation of certain 
ecclesiastical arrangements carried out by the legate some 
years before in 1 150 at the synod of Drogheda. 

Henry, however, though he made some progress to- 
wards raising an army in 1 152, was otherwise engaged, 
and permitted the project to slumber, until in 1169, 
Dermot M*Murrough, or M'Carty-more, king of Lein- 
ster, ejected from his kingdom by a neighbour, requested 
permission to seek the aid of some of Henry's English 
barons. The king, then in Aquitaine, assented, and 
Dermot applied to Earl Richard, a popular, powerful, 
but needy man. The guerdon was to be Eva, Dermot's 
daughter, and the reversion of the kingdom if recovered. 
The earl's support was at first passive. He allowed 
Dermot to canvass his Welsh dependents ; and thus was 


secured the active aid of David, Bishop of St. David's, 
Maurice Fitz- Gerald his brother, and Robert Fitz- 
Stephen, constable of Kilgerran, their uterine half-brother. 
In May, 1170, Fitz-Stephen landed with sixty men-at- 
arms, and took Wexford, and thus paved the way for the 
earl, who then applied in person to the king for a formal 
permission. Henry, very jealous of so powerful a sub- 
ject, did not assent, though he did not positively refuse. 
The earl, in May, 1171, sent over Raymond le Gros, and 
Hervey M'Morres, and followed in person in mid- August, 
with 200 knights and 1200 infantry, thus completing the 
five Norman leaders in the conquest of Ireland, alluded 
to in the old Welsh verses, translated in the excellent and 
critical work of Mr. Stephens, — 

"it was necessary to pray, 

For fear of five chiefs from Normandy ; 
And the fifth going across the salt sea, 
To conquer Ireland of gentle towns." 

They landed at and stormed Waterford, marched to 
Dublin and Meath; and the earl, without the usual per- 
mission from his feudal lord, married Eva. (Milles Cat. 
of Hon.) All Ireland became alarmed at the invasion, 
and to avert the divine vengeance, the people, moved by 
the clergy in synod at Armagh, decided to abolish the 
practice of purchasing English children as slaves. 

Henry's jealousy was now fully excited. He pro- 
hibited all supplies, and recalled the earl's followers upon 
their allegiance. This, known in Ireland, raised the 
natives and unsettled the earl's troops. His position 
became critical. To pacify the king, he dispatched 
Kaymond le Gros, charged, says HoUinshed, with the 
following letter: — 

** My right honourable lord, 
'' I came into this land, with your leave and favour, as I 
remember, for the aiding and helping of your servant Dermot 
M'Murrough, and whatsoever I have gotten and purchased, 
either by him or by any others, as I confess and acknowledge 
the same from and by means of your gracious goodness, so 
shall the same still rest and remain at your devotion and com- 


The king detained the messenger a considerable time, 
and finally dismissed him without any definite answer. 
No doubt he wished the earl's position to become more 
dangerous ; and in fact had it not been for the gallant 
defence of Milo Cogan, one of the earl's Anglo-Welsh 
retainers, probably from Glamorgan, where a parish still 
bears the name, the whole army would have been extir- 
pated by the Irish. 

In the following year King Dermot died, and the earl 
succeeded to his territory. Henry now began in earnest 
to take up Pope Adrian's authority, and determined to 
visit Ireland. His first step was to recall the earl, who 
obeyed the summons, and met the king at the head of 
his army, at Newnham, near Gloucester. 

The meeting was at first stormy, but the earl formally 
surrendered his own and his wife's Irish possessions, and 
accepted a regrant of the greater part of them. Dublin, 
and the maritime castles, were retained by the crown; 
the rest was to be held by the earl, by the service of 100 
knights' fees. The crown also reserved the "jura re- 
galia," and the right of appointing bishops. No copy 
of the royal charter has been preserved, but it was con- 
firmed by John to a later earl. 

The earl and the king proceeded with the appea- 
rance of amity to Pembroke, where the royal army was 
mustered. Here Prince Rhys presented Henry with 
thirty-six horses. He visited St. David's, was banqueted 
by the Bishop David Fitz-Gerald, a younger son of 
Gerald de Windsor, and no doubt procured a cast of the 
falcons for which St. David's Head and the adjacent 
island of Ramsey were then celebrated, and which Henry, 
a great proficient in falconry, is known to have esteemed. 
Camden relates that, seeing on a clear day Ireland from 
this promontory, the king said, — "1 with my ships am 
able to make a bridge thither, if it be no further ;" which 
speech being reported to the Irish claimant of Leinster, 
he said, — "did he not add, *with the grace of God?' 
then do I fear him less which trusteth more in him- 
self than in the help of God." The bishop, however, 


offered up prayers for the success of the expedition. 
Among Henry's attendants was a certain Robert Fitz- 
Bemard, who may possibly have given to the round 
tower of Pembroke its name of " Bernard's tower." 

Henry sailed from Milford, and landed at Waterford 
on St. Luke's Day, October, 1172, 17 Henry H., with 400 
knights, and 4000 men-at-arms, in 240 ships. The earl 
did homage on his landing, and Henry received also the 
allegiance of the native princes, and visited Cork, Lis- 
more, and Cashel, where he held a synod. He was 
detained in Ireland the whole winter by the unusually 
boisterous weather; and it was not until Monday in 
Easter week that, on the news of his son's rebellion, he 
sailed from Wexford for South Wales, leaving the earl 
as lord steward, or seneschal, (Patent^ 1172, 18 Henry 
H.,) but limiting his power as much as possible by the 
creation of a number of fees, held directly under the 

On his way home Henry heard of a prophecy of Merlin, 
that when a chief returned from the conquest of Ireland, 
wounded by a man with a red hand, he should expire 
upon a certain stone called Lechlavar, in the church-yard 
of St. David's. As Henry stood by the stone, a woman 
cried out in Welsh, — ** Deliver us, Lechlavar, deliver the 
world and the nation from this man." Henry paused, 
looked at the stone, and walked over it, saying, '^ who will 
now believe that liar Merlin ? " Merlin, however, might 
have retorted, that it was for Strongbow, rather than 
King Henry, to beware of the fated stone. — (Camden, 
BHt. ii. 620.) 

From St. David's and Pembroke, Henry visited Cardiff, 
where he saw his celebrated vision in tne chapel of St. 
Piran, and plunged at once into the affairs of England, 
which allowed him to pay little attention to those of 

The earl did not return with the king. He married 
his sister to Robert de Quiney, standard-bearer of Lein- 
ster, and busied himself in settling his new possessions. 
Very shortly afterwards, he was, however, called away to 



assist Henry in his war with France, and appears as 
governor of Gisors, leaving M'Morres and Le Gros in 
charge of Ireland. He recovered the honour of Orbec, 
which his family had lost, and he imprisoned his uncle, 
the Earl of Meulan, in the castle there. 

The earl, however, soon returned to Ireland in the 
king's confidence. He quelled a rising revolt, reconciled 
M'Morres and Le Gros, who had quarrelled, and gave 
the latter his sister Basilea to wife. He also liberally 
rewarded M'Morres, Robert de Birmingham, and two 
Pembrokeshire knights, Maurice de Prendergast, and 
Warine Fitz-Gerald. Nevertheless, the country remained 
in a very disturbed state. 

The earl now fell sick, and after a lingering illness died 
in the latter part of May, 1176, of a mortification in the 
foot. His death was kept secret, and his sister Basilea 
wrote of it thus enigmatically to her husband, — 

** Know ye my dear lord that my great cheek-tooth which was 
wont to ache so much is now fallen out, wherefore if you have 
any care or regard for me, or of yourself, come away with all 

The earl was buried by Raymond in the church of the 
Trinity, in Dublin, Archbishop Lawrence performing his 
obsequies. A tomb was erected over his remains, which 
was restored long afterwards by Sir Henry Sydney when 
lord-deputy. Other accounts state that his corpse was 
removed to the chapter-house at Gloucester, where was 
an inscription to his memory. An effigy, said to be that 
of Strongbow, was discovered a century ago at Tintern. 

The conqueror of Ireland was a man, says Giraldus, 

'' Sanguine conspicuus, et Clarensium clara de stirpe progenitus: 
Vir quidem plus nominis, quam bominis: plus senii, quam ingenii: 
plus successionis, quam possessionis." 

The same author also describes him more at length, and 
is thus rendered by HoUinshed : — 

''This earl was somewhat ruddy and of sanguine complexion 
and freckled-faced, bis eyes grey, his face feminine, his voice 
small, and his neck little, but somewhat of high stature ; he was 
very liberal, courteous^ and gentle; what he could not compass 


and bring to pass in deed, he would win by good words and 
gentle speeches. In time of peace he was more ready to yield 
and obey than to rule and bear sway. Out of the camp he was 
more like to a soldier's companion than to a captain or ruler ; but 
in the camp and the wars he carried with him the state and coun- 
tenance of a valiant captain. Of himself he would not adventure 
anything ; but being advised and set on, he refused no attempts ; 
for of himself he would not rashly adventure or presumptuously 
take anything in hand. In the fi^ht and battle he was a most 
assured token and sign to the whole company either to stand 
valiantly to the fight, or for policy to retire. In all chances of 
war he was still one and the same manner of man, being neither 
dismayed with adversity nor puffed up with prosperity." — {Hibem. 
Expug. cc. ii. and xxvi., and Hollinshed.) 

Also his arms were so long that he was able, standing 
upright, to touch his knees. (Milles, Cat. of Hon.) 

Earl Richard married Eva, daughter and heiress of 
Dermot M*Murrough, King of Leinster, and had by her 
one daughter and heiress, Isabel, who was born about 
1 170, and consequently was a mere infant at her father's 
death. The earldom of Pembroke became extinct, but 
the estates and a claim to its revival passed to Isabel, and 
was successfully advocated by her husband, William 
Mareschal. The wardship of the heiress and of her 
property were in the crown. 

Some accounts speak of a daughter of the earl by a 
former wife, married to a youth of the house of Fitz- 
Gerald, but for this there is slight authority. 

The lordship of Leinster, won by Earl Richard, was 
composed of the subordinate seigniories of Weishford, 
Kildare, Kilkenny, Ossory and Catherlogh, which were 
afterwards divided among his descendants. 

The armorial bearings attributed by later heralds to 
Earl Richard are, " on a chief 3 crosses patee fitchee ;" 
and to his wife Eva, " sable, 3 garbs argent, banded or." 

The history of the house of Mareschal forms the next 
step in the descent of the earldom of Pembroke. 

Geo. T. Clark. 

Dowlais, January, 1859. 

(To he continued.) 



The following letter has been communicated to us by 
Thomas Wright, Esq., F.S.A., who has in his possession 
a nearly contemporary copy of it, for an equally old 
hand, though quite different from that of the body of the 
letter, has written on it, "A Coppy of Mr. Meredith 
Owen's Letter to Dr. Plot." It is sufficiently curious to 
deserve a place here, although, as we need handly remark, 
the philology of the languages to which it relates has 
been greatly developed since the time of Meredydd Owen. 

The orthography of the original is here strictly pre- 
served, but it will not present any difficulty to the Welsh 

To those who are acquainted with Nant Francon, {Nant 
yr avancwn^) it will not appear surprizing that the natives 
of that sublime mountain district should reach the great 
ages mentioned by Mr. Owen, though we have not heard 
of any centenarians there at the present day. It would 
be worth while, however, to inquire after any who may 
have outlived three generations of men in this or any 
other part of Snowdonia ; and, in fact, the recording all 
such extreme instances of longevity is not beneath the 
notice of the historical antiquary. 

The pearls mentioned in this letter still have their 
representatives in the Conwy, and, we believe, other 
Welsh and Irish rivers, though they are now found only 
of small size. A fishery of the mussels, for the sake of 
the pearls, is still carried on at Ck>nwy ; but the pearls are 
used for industrial rather than for ornamental purposes, 
and are, we understand, sent into England to make 
certain fine kinds of jeweller's cement. 

This letter will have its own special value in the eyes 
of all who are acquainted with Edward Lhwyd's ArcMB- 
ologia Britannica. 

Nant Phrdnkon, May 20, 1690. 
Hon*'. S', 
I returne you my humble thankes for y' obligeing letter, & 
shall not fail to use my best endeavours of giveing you some 
satisfaction in your enquires by y* next return of y' carrier. 


As for y* age of y* inhabitants of this mountanous tract, they 
generally live about fore-score years, and frequently exceed y^ 
age. One Mredydth ab Evan ab Enion liveing now in y* parish 
of Kylynog is in y* hundred & thirty-forth year of his age. One 
Rh^s ab Owen of y* valley of Lhan Berys in my neighbourhood 
is aged one hundred and two : & this summer was 3 year I have 
seen him mow hay grass in y^ same valley. To see men & women 
strong & active at seventy is no rarity : it being not unusall w*^ 
such to persue y* sheep & goats to y" steepest rocks, & highest 
mountains ; but of this more perticlarly hereafter, if you desire it. 

As for y* pearls found in these mountainous rivers, they are 
very plentifull, & commonly large: though few of them well 
coloured: they are found in a large black muscle, peculiar to 
such rivers. Several ladyes of this county & Denbig^h-shire have 
collections of good pearle, found cheifly in y* river Conwy. One 
M'' Wynne of Bodyskalhen (a gentleman in severall respects very 
curious & ingenious) hath a stool- pearle out of y* river as big as 
y* kemell of a iield-berd, much of y* colour of a common blew 
agat, but w^^ two white circles: one at y* basis (if I well remember) 
and y* other about the midst of it. Common people call y* 
muscels, wherein they are found, by a name signifying deluge- 
shells: as if nature had not intended shells for y* rivers, but 
being left there at y* universall flood they had bred there, & soe 
propagated their kinde ever since. They know whether a muscle 
have a pearle in it before they open it : for such as have it, are 
allwayes contracted & somewhat distorted from their usuall shape. 

S', I must beg y* favour of you (in regard I have not time to 
write to M*" Lhwyd at present) to acquaint him y* M' Pryce 
hath reed y* Saxon-Grammar, and every thing else mentioned in 
his letter: and now since you were pleased to permitt me to 
trouble you, give me leave here to take notice of an assertion of 
D' Bernards (in his Epistle to D^ Hicks att the end of that Saxon- 
Grammar) relateing to y* Welch Languague as delivered in D** 
Da vies his Lexion : his words are — Quamvis Lexicon Johannig 
Davisij ex quadrante Cambricum sity semis hahens a Latinis quad- 
rante altera Anglis dominis concedentey w^ being considerable 
news to y^ gentleman & my self, though natives k well acquainted 
w^ that language, we thought it worth our time to examine the 
Welch Lexicon & to use our best judgment in discouering what 
Welch words are originally Latine, & w* English. The result 
of our inquirie was, y^ that Dictionary containeth about ten 
thousand words, whereof about fRfteen hundred are indeed like 
to Latine words of y® same signification, & about two hundred 
like y* English. But if y* D'''s observation be true, there should 
be five thousand from y* Latine, & two thousand five hundred 
from y* English, soe that to speak freely, whereas he hath affirmed 



that our language, as it is in D*" Davises his Lexicon is one half 
from y" Latine, we doubt whether he can make it evident y^ one 
sixth part of it is derived from y^ language; & whereas he 
delivereth y^ a fourth part of it is English, we doe not expect y^ 
he can satisfie any one y* understandeth both languages, y^ y* 
fortieth part of it is borrowed thence. Moreover, though we 
grant about fifteen hundred words to be like y* Latine, yet we do 
not therefore conclude that they owe their originall to y^ language. 
Marcus Zuerius JBozkomius saith in his Origines OaUiccs^ p. 86, 
GrcBcorum Romanorumque sermoni quam plurimum a simillima 
JBritannicus habeat negari non potest^ neque iamen ex eo sequitur 
vel a GrcBcis vel a Romards semumem suum BrUannos accepisse. 
And I shall here beg you patience, while I instance some British 
words that are doubtlesse cooriginall w*^ y* Latine of y* same 
signification, and yet I am perswaded D' Bernard will consent 
w^ us y^ the Britains never borrowed these words of y* Romans : 
at least but very few of them, since they were for y* most part, 
and still are used by other nations, who are allowed to have bor- 
rowed none from them, and from these few I shall instance, I 
think with Boxhornius we may have reason to doubt of many 
more. The words I would submitt to his judgment are these 
following : 

Daear & Tir, Lat. Terra. The Irish 
who were never subject to y* Ro- 
mans use Tir in y* same sence. 

Mor, Lat mare. Pliny in his Nat 
Ilist L 4, c. 14, tells us y* Cimbles 
call y northern ocean in theur lan- 
guage Morimarusa, which says he 
signifies y* dead sea. Mor-marowis 
y* only terme we can give it at this 
day. he also tells us y* Gauls called 
r nuuntime towns America, & Ary- 
mor with us signiiieth upon y* sea. 

Phr^d, Lat. fretum, Scotis FritL 

Mynydh, Lat. montis. 

Phynon, Lat. fons. Divona Ccltis erat 
fons Dei : nobis Phynon Dhy w. 

Lb^ch, I^t lacus, Uib. lokh, Grer. lee, 
teste Boxhomio. 

Ogov, Lat. cavea. 

Brig, Lat virga, Ang. sprig. 

Phaw^'dth, Lat fagus. 

Gryg, Lat erica. 

Helig, Lat salix, Ilib. silog. Ang. 
sallow & willow. 

Masam, Lat acer. 

M'^gar, Lat mora (fructus). Nor- 
wagis moarberg. Sunt mora nion- 
tana, hoc est fructus chanuemori 
Norvagicas Clusii. 

Sygin, Lat succus, Sclav, sucbo, Bo- 
hem, sychy, Polo, suchy, ut nos 
monet cL Bemardus. 

Phlam, Lat flamma. 

Braich, Lat brachium. 

Bow}'d, Lat. vita. 

Koppa, Lat. caput, Grer. koph., teste 

Elyn, Lat clunis. 

Kol & kolin, Lat aculeus. 

Gen, Lat gena, Goth, kinn, Armeu. 
gana, teste Bemanlo. 

Gwlan, Lat lana, Hib. Olan, Ang. 
wool, Sclav, volna. 

Blew, Lat. pilL 

Barv, Lat barba, Ang. beard. 

Kom, Lat. comu. 

Alarch, Lat olor, Hib. alah. 

By\Vch, Lat. vacca. 

Karw, Lat. cervus. 

Kath, Lat catus, Grer. keti, Boxhor. 

Kephyl, Lat. caballus, Hib. Kappwl. 

Keuiog, Lat. gallus, Hib. kilach. 

Gavor, Lat capra, Hib. gowr. 

G^Tch (capreolus), Latnircus. 

Keidr, Lat natrix, Ang. an adder. 

Kanwlh, Lat candda. 

Kar, Lat cumis, Ang. cart. 



Eledhiv & klethoi, Lat gladios, 
Hiber. kleyv. 

Saeth, Lat. sagitta. 

M^gr, Lat. minera, moneta, Ang. 

Mel, Lat. mel, Hiber. meL 

Moch, Lat. modus, Ger. midda, Box- 

Pryy, Lat Ycrmia, Aug. worm. 

PvBg, Lat. piBcis, Ang. fish. 

wy, Lat ovum, Hib. yoh. 

Baniw, Lat. fsemineus, EEib. b^noian. 

Katanra, Lat. caterva, an old Crauiish 
word, V^et: Wo derive it from 
kad, a battle, & torv, Lat torma 
& turba. 

Teym, Lat tyrannns, unde teymas, 

Jay, Lat jugum, Ang. yoke. 
Ivangk, Lat juvenis, Ang. young. 
Marw, Lat. mori, see y* 2^ word- 
Novio, Lat no navi. 
Kany, Lat. cano. 
Oed, Lat stas, Ang. age. 
Sygno, Lat sugo, Ang. suck. 
Bra^d, Lat frater, Ajag. brother. 
Kain & gwyn, Lat. candidus. 
Koch, Lat cocaneus. 
Rhydh, Lat rutilus, Ang. red, ruddle. 
Slant, Lat. centum, wiw most other 

numbers, such as yn, day, tre, Lat 

unus, duo, tria, &c. 
Phorch, Lat furca. 
Mereryd, Lat margarita, quam vocom 

barbaris acceptam innuit C. Flinius, 

Hist Nat L 9, c 36. 

What we have object'd against the words that appear like y* 
Latine, we also object against those that resemble y' English ; & 
shall not owne o^'selves indebt'd dominis Anglids for one moity of 
y* 200 words we have observed to agree in sound & signification 
w*** y* English, & y* y* English have borrow'd much more from y* 
BrittainSy we think we can make evident, especially if we consider 
y* language spoken by y* vulgar in several parts of England, & 
more particularly towards y* borders of Scotland : but that being 
besides our purpose att present, give me leave to insert a few 
Welsh words that doe indeed agree w^ y* English in sound and 
sense, & yet could not probally be receiv a into our language from 
y« English conquerors, as y* D' affirmes ; in regard they are for 
y« most part to be found in y« Armorican lexicon publish'd att 
Paris by Yvon Quillivere anno 1621, and y^ Brittains who went 
hence to Armorica left us in y* year 300 eighty four, whereas y* 
Saxons came not till y* 400 hundred & fifty, some British words 
agreeing in sound & signification w^ y* English, which yet we 
suppose to have been us'd by y« Brittams. 

Aval, sic Armor, an apple, 6. apffeL 

Bad, a boat 

Baedhy, to beat, cinbugen. 

Barkit, Armor, barquet, a lite. 

Bas (depressus), sic Armor, base. 

Basged & basgawd, a basket 

Bastardh, a bastard. 

Bittail, sic Armor, victuals. 

Bol, a belly, Hib. bollyg. 

Bragod, bragott 

Bran, sic Araior. branne. 

Brawd, Armor. Brawhwr, brother. 

Bruw, a bruise. 

Br^d (liquor fervidus), broth. 

B^a, a bow. 

B^ch, Armor, bouch, a buck. 

Bwkl, sic Armor, buckle. 

Bwkled, Armor, bowckler, a buckler. 

Ken, shinne. 

Klokh (campana), a clock. 

Rraig, a cragg. 

Kryd, a cradle. 

Kwmpas, sic Armor, compasse. 

K^mwd, a commot 

Kvph, a chip. 

Khwant, want 

Kh^, yee. 

Danadl, nettle. 

Dart, sic Armor, a dart. 

Diblo, to dable. 



Dynasdhyn, denizen. 

Dor, sic Annor. a door. 

D61, ft dale. 

Draen, sic Armor, a thorn. 

D^bler (patina), sic Ang. Boreal 

Eidhew, Armor. Ilieaven, ivie. 

Elkys, an elk or wilde swan. 

Eel/n, elbow. 

Em, Armor, erres, earnest 

Phaen, bean. 

Phagod, sic Annor. fiigot. 

Phlywkh (Lat coma), lock, flock. 

Pkol, sic Armor, a fooL 

Galw, sic Armor, to caU. 

Gardais, a garter. 

Glaiy (Lat. fidx), a gleave. 

Glan, dean. 

G16, sic Armor, cole. 

Gniph, greife. 

Gor (Cambris sanies, Armor, ulcus), 

Gwerth, sic Armor, hayar .... 
Hoseneg, hosen. 
Lbath, a lath. 
Lhawr, floor. 

Lhcdr, Armor, lezg, leather. 
Lhyvy, a sloven. 
Macr (praetor), a major. 
Mainh, a bench. 
Mantelh, sic Armor, a mantle. 
Marke, sic Armor, a marke. 
Marl, marie. 
Medh, meath. 
Mer (aqua), a mear, Ang. Bor. lacus. 

Mes, sic Armor, (glandes), mast 
Mign (Lat stercorarinm), Cestrien- 

sibus middin, miskin, & mixen. 
Mymdwm, murder. 
M^g, sic Armor, smoake. 
Mwng, mane. 
M^gn, mine. 
Nad 3b nid, not 
Nawn, Armor, non, no oone. 
Nedth, nitt 
olh, sic Armor. alL 
Pastwn, a battoone. 
Pig, a beake. 
Rhawd, a route. 
Rhaph, a rope. 
Rhent, sic Armor, rent 
Rheng, sic Armor, a ranke. 
Rhidiih (cribum), a ridle. 
Rhost, sic Armor, roast 
Saphrwm, sic Armor, saflron. 
Syr, sour. 

Travail (Latin labor), travell. 
Trawdh, trot 
Trippa fLat exta), tripes. 
Wym, Armor, wth, eight. 
Ysnen, oxen. 
Yvory, to morrow. 
Yspwng, sponge. 

Yskravelh (Lat strigil), to scrape. 
Yspagai, spokes. 

Ywen, Armor, iwinen, an yew-tree. 
Potten, pudding. 
Hespen, a harp. 

S', I should not have troubl'd you w*^ bo insipid & tedious a 
discourse, but that presuming that you are intimately acquainted 
^th j)r Bernard, it is my request (if you think it may deserve his 
attention) y^ you would take some opportunity of offering these 
argumentts to his consideration: & when we shall meet att 
London, which 1 hope may be next term, you may acquaint me 
whether they appear of any moment ; which is all att present, 
but that I am, 

¥*■ most oblig'd servant, 
M*" Trevor, y* was w*** Mbredyth Owen. 

us att y* Fountaine Tavern, 
gives you his humble respects. 


Since the above was in type we have ourselves dis- 
covered, at Oxford, the original letter. It is verbatim as 






K K 




A-*uaxA ■ 







.*/•///> >r ^^Wri ^^CrfA it jChM 

t '^ 



A - - - — 

'^. ^##^ 


^/',»#. //^A 

t t . :_ . 

;r/:/4^'7i jf Af^*^ 


.frcf.i^A tuu 


/ (f^ifo: 


printed above; but on p. 4 are the following endorse- 
ments: — 

** Kaile is wood in the Highlandish language and in the Irish 
language. So we say Kaile-pinnes (i) wooden pinnes. Skeile- 
pinnes Sc Jailers (i) sticks to throw at Cocks &c." 

'' Masarn is a Maple in Welsh ; from whence a Mazard bowie 
(i) a Maple bowle." 

** Mdm Mr Thomas Ellis of Jesus College Oxon did print 
eight sheetes of a British Historic wherein be many records of 
considerable historic, with an account of the British language [if 
it had been thoroughly printed]. It is now in the hands of Mr 
John Ellis Pr®centor of St David's. From Mr Mdd Lloyd." 

'^Mr Lloyd of the Museeum informs me that about 1630 at 
the Irish College in Lovain was an Irish Dictionary making 
which was carried on as far as the letter P in the Transcript.'* 


Upon the northern limits of the county of Glamorgan, 
and above the eastern and lesser of the two sources of 
the Taff, stand the ruins of the castle of Morlais, so called 
from a small brook which rises a little to its north-east, 
and which, after receiving the Dowlais, flows into the 
Taff, within the adjacent town of Merthyr. 

The castle is placed upon the edge of a considerable 
platform of mountain limestone rock, quarried extensively 
daring the present century for the neighbouring iron 
works, and about 470 feet above the Taff Vechan, which, 
descending through a steep and narrow gorge of consi- 
derable beauty, the boundary of the ancient districts of 
Brecheinioc and Morganwc, as of the modern counties 
of Brecknock and Glamorgan, escapes below the castle, 
through the defile and over the fall of Pont Sam, to join 
the Taff a little above Merthyr. 

The position, strong upon the north and west, is open 
upon the east and south ; thus, in its want of complete 
natural defences, resembling in position the Norman 



castles, rather than the Celtic or Saxon camps. It com* 
mands an extensive view over much of the upper Taff, 
and of the Merthyr basin, and was on the whole well 
placed to guard this frontier of Glamorgan against the 
inland tribes, to give notice of their approach to the gar- 
risons of the plain, and to cut off any spoilers who, having 
invaded the vale, might be returning by this route to their 
native fastnesses. 

The ancient trackway of Heol Adda, still a parish 
road, the shortest, and within memory the ordinary, way 
from Oelligaer and Merthyr to Brecon, passes about half 
a mile north-east of the castle, and was completely com- 
manded by it. 

The ground-plan of Morlais is very simple. A court, 
of an irregular oval shape, 140 yards north and south, by 
60 yards east and west, is inclosed within an embattled 
wall capped by five or six circular towers, and encom- 
passed on the north, east, and south sides by a moat, 
discontinued on the west side, which was always steep, 
though recently quarried into a cliff. The only re- 
maining entrance to the court is on the east side, through 
a narrow archway in the curtain, which could only have 
admitted infantry, and which is approached by a steep 
path, and a causeway across the moat. A broader cause- 
way across the moat at its south end seems to have led 
to a larger gateway, probably commanded by a tower, 
connected by a curtain with the main wall ; but this 
gateway, if it ever existed, is completely buried beneath 
the ruins. 

The court seems to have been divided by a wall into a 
northern and southern portion, in the latter of which is 
the well. 

Proceeding to details, A is the southern or keep tower, 
of two stories. The lower, a polygon of twelve sides, 28 
feet in diameter, has a central column, with corres- 
ponding facets, branching into twelve fan ribs, which, 
forming pointed arches, support the roof, and terminate 
on the containing wall in as many pilasters. The ribs 
are of limestone, but the upfiUing of the vault is of a 


calcareous tufa, light, and very strong, and found in situ 
below a calcareous spring on the Heol Adda road, towards 
Pont-Sticcill. The whole chamber, though extremely 
elegant, is quite plain, the mouldings being a mere 
chamfer with no other decoration. There are neither 
windows nor loops, and the entrance is by an acute 
lancet- headed doorway, 5 feet wide by 13 feet high, 
which occupies the northern facet, and is approached 
from the court by a descending flight of steps. The 
upper chamber was probably not vaulted. Like Castell 
Coch, it seems to have contained several large fire-places, 
as well as a guardrobe chamber. It was approached by 
a winding stair, which appears to have terminated below 
upon a sort of draw-bridge across the stairs leading to the 
crypt, and thus to have communicated with the eastern 
walls by another stair, exterior to the tower, and also 
leading to its battlements. In the curtain wall, close 
north-east of the keep, is a singular cavity, the use of 
which, if one it had, has not been discovered. 

The opposite or northern tower, B, was of much less 
elaborate construction. It appears to have been a mere 
shell, 37 feet in internal diameter, of two stories, divided 
by a timber floor, entered below from the court on the 
level, and above probably by a winding stair on its north- 
east side, communicating also with the ramparts of the 
eastern curtain. 

The east entrance, I, 5 feet broad, which was provided 
with a portcullis, and had a sharply pointed arch, de- 
stroyed about twenty years ago, is placed between two 
smaller drum towers, C and D, about 16 feet in dia- 
meter, each with its subsidiary well stair. The northern 
tower, close to the door, completely commanded its exte- 
rior, and the southern, at some distance from the door, 
but nearly opposite to the causeway, K, commanded that 
passage, and the steep way up to the gate. 

The western wall, probably 6 feet thick, was altogether 
weaker than the eastern, which was about 12 feet, and 
instead of two, it seems to have contained but one tower, a 
chamber of, or perhaps a drain from which, still remains. 

100 M0RLA18 CASTLE. 

South-west of the keep are two heaps of rubbish which 
evidently indicate the position of two towers, one upon 
the curtain, and the other some way in advance, and 
which seems to have terminated a sort of spur wall, 
projecting 60 feet from the curtain, and intended to cover 
the principal entrance by the southern causeway. 

The well, N, is a singular excavation, rough and un« 
lined, 27 feet square, and now about 44 feet deep. A few 
years ago it was partially filled up, and it is said before 
that to have been 70 feet deep. However this may be, it 
is certain that no water would be reached here at less than 
about 400 feet, a depth which was not likely to have been 
attained. Close to the well, at 0, is an oblong chamber, 
44 feet by 24 feet, with broad steps, which appears to 
have been a tank, probably for rain water. Near this 
tank is an oval oven, 1 1 feet by 16 feet, very perfect, and, 
singularly enough, formed of limestone. Near to this are 
the foundations of the kitchens. The wall dividing the 
court crossed just north of the well, opposite to which are 
traces of a large bow, and east of this of a doorway. In 
the southern court, against the east wall, were ranges, pro- 
bably of barracks, roofed with shingle or tile-stone, with 
leaden trimmings, the stones and lead having been turned 
up in the ruins. Near the well is a large heap of mixed 
iron slag, coal, charcoal, and clinker, probably from a 
smith's forge, near to which fragments of iron have been 
found. The heap is evidently old, inasmuch as it con- 
tains crystals of selenite. It also contains chlorine and 
sodium in various combinations, proving, or thought to 
prove, that common salt has been used in the operations 
of the forge, or perhaps in smelting the ore here. 

The moat, which ranges from 14 to 40 yards from the 
walls, is about 40 feet broad, and 14 feet deep, and its 
total length is about 370 yards. It has been quarried 
out of the rock, and its contents no doubt were used in 
building the castle, which is almost wholly of limestone. 

In the moat, at Q, is a drift- way, now. much broken 
down, but which it is just possible may have been a 
private passage into the court. The area covered by the 


castle, measuring from the exterior edge of the moat, is 
about four acres. 

Exterior to the moat, at its south side, is a sort of 
semicircular space inclosed within a mound, and pro- 
bably intended for the protection of cattle. East of the 
moat are various holes and ruined inclosures, the former 
probably old places for burning lime, and the latter 
shepherds' huts and folds. 

This castle, in 1833, was partially excavated by Lady C. 
E. Quest, when a metal seal was discovered in an adjacent 
field. The legend is, s . inon . fili . howel . gor . ; but 
the names of Einon and Howell are exceedingly common 
in Glamorgan pedigrees, and the concluding abbreviation, 
DO doubt a distinguishing cognomen, has not been ex- 
plained, unless it may be read " Goch " or " the Red." 
Coins have also been occasionally picked up. Very 
recently there were found together several silver pennies 
of Edward I., and one of Alexander I. of Scotland. 

The castle at this time is a ruin, only the mere outline 
of the walls, and the debris of the towers remaining. 
The keep alone is above ground. The foundations are 
however tolerably perfect, and have been excavated and 
traced very recently with a view to the annexed plan. 
There is reason, from the disposition of the rubbish, to 
infer that the walls and towers were regularly pulled down 
from the top, and not, as usual in later days, blown up; 
so that the castle was probably deserted and dismantled 
at an early period. Mr. Stephens, whose general autho- 
rity is in this instance strengthened by accurate local 
knowledge, is of opinion that this castle was never com- 
pleted ; and this may certainly have been the case. 

In the course of the recent excavations a few discoveries 
were made. The oven was before unknown, as were the 
staircases of the two eastern towers, and the chambers in 
the wall of the upper story of the keep, and in the western 
wall. Very many cut stones, parts of door and window- 
cases, brackets, &c., were dug up, but all were perfectly 
plain, having only the chamfer moulding. 

The brothers Buck engraved a view of Morlais from 


the north-west in the last century, which shows the keep, 
and a small part of the curtain, in a much more perfect 
state than at present. 

The details of Morlais, though good, are, as became an 
obscure castle, so bare of ornament that it is difficult to 
refer the building to any precise date. Still the general 
proportions of the openings, the character of the crypt, 
and, perhaps, the general plan of the building, point with 
tolerable certainty to the latter period of the Early English 
style, or the close of the thirteenth century, as about the 
time of its construction. 

The history of Morlais is scanty, but it corroborates the 
internal evidence supplied by its architecture, and connects 
it with one of the most remarkable legal struggles between 
the crown and the Lords of the Welsh Marches. 

It appears from the public records that, towards the 
middle of the reign of Edward I., a quarrel arose between 
Gilbert de Clare, the Red, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, 
Lord of Glamorgan, and Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford and Essex, Constable of England, and Lord of 
Brecknock. Both were powerful peers, and De Clare, 
during the quarrel, had married, 29th April, 18 Edward 
L, 1290, Joan, the king's daughter, while De Bohun's 
wife, Maud de Fienles, was of kin to the queen. De 
Clare was the elder, and had had the wardship of De 

The cause of quarrel was a castle, which De Clare had 
built upon his frontier, and, it was said, upon land be- 
longing to De Bohun. That Morlais was the disputed 
castle is certain from the general tenor of the evidence, 
and from the mention of Penderyn Church, which is 
near to no other fortified place to which the particulars 
given would apply. 

The trespass was the subject of a suit at law, and the 
king in Parliament, eight days before the Purification of 
the Virgin, 18 Edward I., (25th of January, 1290,) gave 
a formal order to the two earls to abstain from hostilities. 
This order they disobeyed, and the new ofience, of a far 
more serious nature than the original one, was at once 


noticed by the king, and the proceedings upon it are 
recapitulated with great minuteness in the parliamentary 
record, made on the occasion of the sentence, on the 7th 
January, 20 Edward L, 1292. 

It appeared from the complaint of De Bohun, that De 
Clare's retainers, headed by William de Valers, Richard 
le Fleming, and Stephen de Cappenore, with horse and 
foot, and the earl's banner of arms displayed, had made 
three forays into Brecknock. 

The first time, on Friday (3rd February) after the 
Purification, 1290, marching from the contested ground, 
they entered two leagues ; the second time, on Monday 
(5th June) before St. Barnabas, five leagues; and the 
third time, on Monday (27th November) before St. 
Andrew, they entered seven leagues. 

In these incursions they lifted and carried home 1070 
head of cattle, 50 farm horses and colts, and sheep, goats 
and swine unnumbered. Also they wasted the land, and 
killed several people. The damage was rated by a jury 
at £100. Of the spoil, De Clare, according to the custom 
of marcher war, received one-third. 

On other occasions, following this example, the loose 
rogues, ^* latrones et esketores," of the district, perhaps 
some of those who gave name to " Bwlch-y-Lladron" 
above Aberdare, and ** Rhyd-y-Milwr" above Rhymney, 
repeated the forays ; and, besides other outrages, burned 
the house of "Tyraph," and the church of Penderyn, 
taking from the latter a chalice, certain ornaments, and 
other matters. The earl and his captains were not charged 
with any knowledge of, or share in, these robberies or 

It seems probable that the league (leuca) was not 
above an English mile, and that their depredations were 
confined to the south side of the Beacons. If so, that 
tract of country must have been at least as well stocked 
as it is now.* And it may be doubted whether the 

^ Or as it was in the days of Leland, who, writing of the pastures 
of Brecknock, says, — ^* For the Welshmen in times past, as they do 
almost yet, did study more to pasturage than tillage/' adding, with 


modem church of Penderyn, with its hassocks, and 
cassock, and old prayer-books, would yield as much to 
any modem " esketores." 

Upon the receipt of this complaint, the king appointed 
by letters patent William de Luda, Bishop of Ely, whom 
Nicholas calls Lord Chancellor, (a statement unconfirmed 
by the very accurate Foss,) William de Valence, the king*s 
uncle, John de Mettingham, the honest Chief Justice, and 
Robert de Hertford, one of the judges of the Common 
Pleas, to inquire into the matter, and especially as to 
whether the outrages were committed after the royal 
inhibition. They were to summon witnesses from the 
counties of Hereford, Caermarthen, and Cardigan, and 
the parts of Gower, Ewyas, and Grosmont, and they 
were to report to the king by fifteen days from Easter, 
(22nd April,) 1291. 

The sheriff of Berkshire was to summon the Earl of 
Gloucester, and Robert de Typetoft, justiciary of West 
Wales, was to summon his captains. The sheriff of Here- 
ford, the Justiciary, Geoffrey de Genville, and Theobald 
de Verdun, bailiff of Ewyas, and Edmund the king's 
brother's bailiff of Grosmont, were to provide the jury. 
Strathwelly, in Brecknock, was to be the place ; and the 
Monday (12th March) after Quadragesima the time of 
meeting. Also, to prevent any collusion, the inquiry was 
to proceed even should one of the parties withdraw. 

The following magnates were also summoned by the 
king as jurors : John de Hastings, John Fitz- Reginald, 
Edmund and Roger Mortimer, Theobald de Verdun, 
John Tregoz, William de Braose, Geoffrey de Cam mill, 
(no doubt "Camville,") and Roger Pycheworth, together 
with the king's Welsh seneschals, ana his brother's sene- 
schals of Monmouth, Grosmont, Skenfrith, and White- 
castle. Also were summoned the sheriffs of Hereford and 

little appreciation of the Brecknock character, *' as favourers of their 
consuete idleness." An early rhyming description of the shires, 
also says, — 

" Cornwall is full of tin, 
Wales full of goats and kine." 

M0RLAI8 GA8TLB. 105 

Gloucester, and the seneschal of Crickhowel, so as to 
provide a jury of twenty-four knights and others. The 
preparations were not unsuitable to the rank and power of 
the offenders, and to what it is clear our English Justinian 
regarded as the excessive heinousness of the offence. 

On the appointed Monday, Hastings, then Lord of 
Abergavenny, and his companions, met the commissioners 
at Brecknock, and were adjourned to Wednesday, at 
Laundon ; but the commissioners proceeded the same day 
to Strathwelly, which they reached about three o'clock. 

The Earl of Hereford was punctual, but Gloucester 
and his captains were not forthcoming, though the sheriff 
and Typetoft proved their summons. It was probably a 
knowledge of this fact that had caused the previous ad- 
journment to Laundon, to which place the commissioners 
next proceeded. 

Here, his opponents being still absent, the Earl of 
Hereford stated his complaint, and demanded an inquiry. 
Upon this, the magnates were called upon to swear, 
placing their hands upon the Book. Hastings and the 
rest unanimously refused compliance. Their ancestors, 
they said, in those parts, had never heard of a compul- 
sory oath, except in certain march affairs, sanctioned by 
custom. They were admonished that the king's power 
was supreme, but they still, each for himself, declined, 
without consulting their peers. 

The excuses of certain jurors were next stated. De 
Braose did not appear because his lands were in the king's 
hands. Pycheworth was a name unknown ; but Pychard 
who came was not received. Geneville had enfeoffed his 
son Peter with his Welsh lands. The seneschal of Aber- 
gavenny had received no summons. Certain Crickhowell 
jurors came unsummoned, as their seneschal testified. 
Roger de Mortimer held his Welsh lands under the Earl 
of Hereford, and of course could not act ; and Edmund's 
lands were far off, so that no summons had found its way 
thither. From Tregoz and Camville came neither jurors 
nor seneschal. 

The inquisition then proceeded, and the jury found 



that the three forays had occurred, and the robberies, &C.9 
as stated ; but that John de Creppyng, who had been 
indicted as a captain, had not been present in person, but 
had sent his men, and shared the booty. 

Before the commission broke up, the charge to the 
earls to keep the peace was repeated. 

The next step, the commission having apparently 
reported, was taken by the king in council, who sum- 
moned the two earls to appear at Ambresbury, on Mon- 
day (3rd September) before the Nativity of the Virgin. 
Thither accordingly they came ; and as it was well known 
that there had been new and repeated breaches of the 
peace, the matter had become still more serious. With 
a view to fresh evidence on this point, the king further 
adjourned the inquiry to Abergavenny, where he, his 
council, the jurors, and the two earls, nnally met about 

The Earl of Hereford was asked whether he had dis- 
obeyed the royal order either before or since the Laundon 
meeting; but the Earl of Gloucester, having absented 
himself, was taken as guilty of the former chaise, and 
invited to meet only the latter. To this he pleaded not 
guilty ; but he was permitted to rebut the former charge, 
and, by special favour, to hear read the previous pro- 

The points he raised were ingenious, but rather fine 
spun. He took objection to the writ of scire facias^ 
under which he was summoned, as not having been issued 
through a court of law in the regular way. This was 
overruled, on the ground of the importance of the case, 
and the pressing necessity for action. Next, he objected 
to the commission itself as an ex officio proceeding, and 
not binding upon him. Then he advancea that his father, 
under the orders of the late and present king, had slain 
or done various injuries to the parents and kin of many 
of the jurors from Caermarthen and Cardigan, which 
disqualified them from sitting on the inquest. These also 
were overruled, the latter on the ground that judgment 
had gone by his non-appearance. He then said that. 


between the date of the original prohibition and the first 
foray, (25th January to 3rd February,) there had not 
been time to communicate with his distant and scattered 
retainers. This also was pronounced invalid. 

As to the second foray, the earl pleaded that he was 
not responsible for it, as the king had at that time seizin 
of his Glamorgan lands. This was no doubt on the 
occasion of his marriage, with a view to which event he 
surrendered, 18 Edward I., his estates, and, after the 
marriage, took a regrant of them to himself and his wife, 
under new limitations. It appeared, however, from the 
records, that the earl had received seizin nine days before 
the second foray; so this also failed. As to the third 
foray, he pleaded the recent enfeoffment, which, being 
entirely new, removed the effect of any prohibition issued 
to the old feoffee. This, however, was met by a decla- 
ration that the prohibition was not territorial but per- 
sonal ; consequently the verdict of guilty was confirmed 
against himself and his captains. 

The breaches of the peace after the Laundon meeting 
were then inquired into. It was proved that, on the 
Thursday (29th July) before St. Peter ad Vincula, the 
Earl of Gloucester's people having put certain averice, or 
'^plough bullocks," to feed in the disputed ground, the 
Earl of Hereford's bailiff and retainers appeared in force. 
Upon this De Clare's men retired with the cattle into their 
own lands. The others followed, slew some of the men, 
captured and drove off* the cattle, and lodged them in 
Brecknock Castle. De Bohun had not known of this; 
but, on its being reported, he directed the cattle to be 
retained until ransomed. At the time of the inquiry 
some of them had been killed, and others were in custody 
at Brecknock. 

Further, on Monday (9th August) after the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, the Earl of Gloucester's men went by 
night, like robbers, into the Bohun territory. The Bohun 
retainers, alarmed, drove them back three leagues into 
their own lands, recovered all the cattle they had stolen, 
and took several others besides, which they brought home 


and still kept. Of these expeditions the Earl of Gloa- 
Gester was entirely ignorant. The Bohun leaders were 
John Perpoynt, seneschal of Brecknock Castle, and the 
earl's bailifl^ John Deucroys, or Everoys, Philip Seys, 
Howell Vaughan, and Howell ap Trahern. Their earl, 
however, not only did not approve of this second expe- 
dition, but on hearing of it, he bound over his captains to 
bail, under which they still remained. Also, it was shown 
that, on receiving the royal order, the Earl of Hereford 
caused it to be proclaimed at church, and market, and 
other public places. Nevertheless, as he had sanctioned 
the retaining of the captured cattle, he was also found 

The Earl of Hereford, however, had not offended before 
the Laundon meeting, neither had the earl of Gloucester 
after it. 

In each case the jury notice with reprehension that 
the earls allowed proceedings in the Marches which else- 
where would, as they knew, have been punished. 

Both earls, with their followers, were committed to 
jail, and their Welsh franchises taken in hand by the 

Upon this Edmund, the king's brother, William de 
Valence, his uncle, Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, and 
John de Hastings, gave bail for Gloucester; and Reginald 
de Grey, Robert Typetoft, Robert Fitz- Walter, and 
Walter de Beauchamp, for Hereford ; and, while thus at 
large, they were permitted to hold their franchises. The 
earls themselves, thus bailed, were permitted to become 
bail for their followers, and thus passed 129L 

The parties appeared again at Westminster on the 
morrow of Epiphany, 1292, but sentence was not finally 
pronounced until Thursday (17th January) after the 
octaves of Epiphany, when the parties again appeared 
before the king at Westminster. 

With regard to the Earl of Gloucester, his whole 
franchise or royalty, totum regale^ in Morganog, was 
declared forfeited. But whereas he had married the king's 
daughter, and had by her offspring; and whereas she 


had an equal share in the franchise, the earl having a life 
interest only, he could not forfeit more than his own 
rights, neither was it lawful to punish the innocent for 
the guilty. His forfeiture therefore was to be for life 
only. He was further to be imprisoned during pleasure, 
and to pay £100 damages to the Earl of Hereford. 

The Earl of Hereford's Welsh franchises, being held 
by him without limitation, were forfeited altogether, and 
he also was remitted to prison. But, inasmuch as his 
offence non est ita carcans, nor deserving of punishment 
so heavy as that of his brother earl, and as he had 
married a kinswoman of the queen, who made the mar- 
riage, so that the earl's children and the king's children 
would be of kin, his forfeiture also was limited to his life. 

The obvious unfairness of the punishment seems to 
have been in some degree adjusted in the fines under 
which the earls were restored, Gloucester paying 10,000 
marks, and Hereford 1,000 marks. 

Neither earl long survived this transaction. Gloucester 
died in the castle of Monmouth in 1295, and Hereford in 
1298, but not before he had on more than one occasion 
made a bold, and successful, and strictly legal, opposition 
to his sovereign. 

The retainers were let off lightly, on the plea that they 
had not been warned by their lords of the royal prohi- 
bition. John de Creppyng was fined fifty marks ; his 
securities being Richard de Creppyng, of co. York, and 
John Wogan, of Somerset. 

Richard le Flemyng was fined £20 ; his securities were 
John le Waleys, of Somerset, and Stephen Haucumb, of 

Stephen de Cappenore was fined twenty marks; his 
securities being Robert de Typetoft, and John Lovel, of 
CO. Northampton, at ten marks each. 

William le Valers was fined £10; his securities were 
John de Creppyng, of Lincoln, and Robert Fylliot, of 

Perpoynt and his fellows were left to the ordinary 
course of law, with a hint that their punishment was not 


like to be very severe. And thus ended one of the 
most important transactions in the history of the Welsh 
Marches ; a trial evidently pressed forward by Edward 
with a view to break down the great, ill-defined, and ill- 
exercised power of the Lords Marchers, intended to be 
regulated by the celebrated statute of Rhuddlan. 

No apology is necessary for introducing this event at 
some length of detail into the history of a march castle; 
besides which, the names contained in it show who were 
at that time the great lords of the district. They show 
also, that while De Bohun's captains were native Welsh- 
men, for the Perpoynts, descendants of Giles Perpoynt, 
had become naturalized at Gileston a generation or two 
earlier, De Clare's affairs were in the hands of strangers 
to the soil, men whose names, with the exception of 
Flemyng, do not appear then or since in Glamorgan 
pedigrees. {Rollsj i. 70 ; Carte, Hist, of England^ ii. 
221; Dugd. Bar. i. 182; Jones, Brec. iii. 143; Rot. 
Fin. 20 Edward I.) 

The original cause of dispute seems to have been over- 
looked in the consequences, for nothing more is heard of 
the contested boundary. It is however noteworthy, that 
very near Morlais the present county boundary quits the 
well-defined Tafi* Vechan, and crosses the mountain in a 
direction unmarked by any natural features, and which is 
actually at this time, and has probably always been, the 
subject of dispute between the manorial lords on either 

Morlais, though thus founded amidst contentions, seems 
on the whole to have enjoyed a peaceful, if not an ignoble 
existence. No doubt the settlement of the country under 
the long reign of Edward III. destroyed its value as an 
outpost, and led to its neglect, or perhaps destruction. 
No mention of it has been discovered until the days of 
Leland, who says, — 

** Morelays Castelle standith in a good valley for corn and grass 

and is on the ripe of Morlais brook. This castelle is 

in ruin and longith to the king." (^Itin. iy. 39.) 

Leland probably had not visited the spot which he thus 


somewhat incorrectly describes, but bis evidence as to the 
proprietorship is likely to be correct. 

The circumstances that led to the construction of Mor- 
lais are sufficiently evident from its general position. The 
NormanSy though nominally conquerors of most of South 
and West Wales, actually, in the thirteenth century, 
exercised regular authority only over the strip of land 
bordering the Bristol Channel, and, in Glamorgan, known 
as ^^ the Vale." This was not only valuable agriculturally, 
but along it lay the main communication from England 
with the several Norman garrisons from Chepstow to 
Pembroke, and finally with Ireland. It included also 
certain ports, through which supplies could at any time 
be poured into the country from bristol or Gloucester. 

The first step taken by the Normans was to secure the 
rivers by which the low lands were intersected. Upon 
these they erected a chain of castles, within a day's march 
of each other, such as Chepstow, Newport, Cardiff, Neath, 
Swansea, Loughor, Kidwelly, Caermarthen, and LJan- 
stephan, and finally Pembroke and Haverford. By means 
of these, not only did they secure the passage of the rivers, 
and the command of the ports, but a line of garrisons, 
and of magazines of arms and supplies for the protection 
and succour of the intermediate country. 

Under the general shelter of these main posts held by 
the marcher barons, almost nominally, under the crown, 
sprung up with great rapidity a number of smaller 
strongholds, not ^^castra," but in the Latin of the time 
^^castella," intended to lodge the persons, and guard the 
private estates, of the knights and squires, Stradlings, 
Turbervilles, Bassetts, St. Johns, Raleighs, Butlers, and 
the like, who held by military tenure under the marchers. 
These buildings were of course irregularly placed, and 
their size and strength were governed more by the private 
resources of the builder than by the military importance 
of the position. Such in Glamorgan were LlandafiT, 
for the protection of the church, Dinas-Powis, Sully, 
Barry, Wrinston, Wenvoe, Fonmon, Penmark, Orchard, 
St. ragan's, St. George's, Peterston, Llanblethian, Tala- 


van, St. Donat's, Danraven, Ogmore, Bridgend, Coyly, 
Penlline, and several others in Gower, usually within 
reach of one another, and each with its estate around it. 

Tolerably secure public communication, and the de- 
fence of private property, being thus generally provided 
for, it only remained to guard against the sudden in- 
breaks of the Welsh, who, descending from the north, 
and moving with great rapidity, and having besides the 
advantage of what strategists call ^'interior lines,'' could 
readily select their point of attack, and cutting off de- 
tached parties, or sacking an occasional village or castle, 
could retreat through paths, and at a rate, which rendered 
useless any pursuit by the heavy armed Normans. 

To check such marauders, or at any rate to cut them 
off in their retreat, other castles were constructed by the 
marchers, such as Castell Coch on the Taff, Llantrisant 
upon one of the central passes, and finally at the head of 
the two great valleys of the Nedd and Taff, and at the 
apex of this contained triangle of mountainous country, 

Morlais is thus evidently part of a system, and .must 
have been the work of no petty lord, but of some baron, 
whose business it was to defend the whole extent of the 
vale from incursions from the north, and which certainly 
never more needed such a defence than during the years 
of anarchy which preceded and followed the death of 
Llewelyn in 1282. It appears never to have been inha- 
bited except by a garrison, and to have been allowed to 
fall into ruin when the general settlement of the interior 
country rendered its efficiency unnecessary. 

Caerphilly belongs to the same class of defences, and 
met with a similar fate. It was built hastily, and pro- 
bably decided upon hastily also. It never was, and 
Cardiff being the chief seat of the lord, it may be doubted 
whether it ever could have been, of an importance at all 
commensurate with its extent and cost. Morlais, on the 
contrary, seems to have been solidly constructed, and to 
have been in all respects suited to the purpose it was 
intended to fulfil. 


Local tradition, the tendency of which is, naturally 
enough, to ascribe all considerable works to the native 
lords of the soil, attributes this to Ivor Bach, a celebrated 
chieftain of east Glamorgan, late in the twelfth century, 
and who is reputed to have fallen in fight upon an 
adjacent spot, still called " Pant-Coed -Ivor." 

That Morlais, like Caerphilly and Castell Coch, was 
built on the territory of the family of Ivor Bach is no 
doubt true, since he, his ancestors, and his descendants, 
as Lords of Senghenydd above and below the Caiach, 
possessed the whole tract of country between the TafF 
and the Rhymney, from Cardiff northwards to the Brecon 
border ; but it is clear from the position of the work that 
it was not built by, but intended to curb the aggressions 
of, those turbulent native chieftains, among whom Ivor 
and his son Griffith, and his great-grandson Llewelyn 
Bren, (1315,) played in their day a conspicuous part. 

Moreover, the residences of Ivor and his descendants, 
said to have been anciently at Castell Coch, but known to 
have been afterwards at Brithdir, at Merthyr, and finally 
at the Van, have never been recorded as at Morlais, nor 
is it at all probable that they would have constructed so 
expensive a dwelling upon the very verge of their domain, 
and upon a spot far too high and rocky for ordinary 

It may be objected that, had Morlais been built by the 
Earls of Gloucester, it would have remained, like Caer- 
philly, in the hands of the chief lords; for the site of 
Caerphilly, seized upon by De Clare in the reign of 
Henry III., still remains an isolated part of the Cardiff 
lordship in the midst of the Van estate ; but it may well 
be that, while the size and importance of Caerphilly, and 
its later use as a prison, caused the lords of Cardiff to 
retain it in their possession, Morlais, from its moderate 
dimensions and distant position escaping notice, would 
be dismantled, and the site allowed to revert to the de- 
scendants of its original owners, who still held the sur- 
rounding estate. This view is corroborated, if not proved, 
by the statement, already cited, of Leland. 



The Morlais property, including the castle, passed from 
Ivor Bach's male descendant, Thomas Lewis, of the Van, 
by the marriage of his daughter with an Earl of Ply- 
mouth, to the Windsor family, of which family Baroness 
Windsor, the present possessor of the castle, is the 
descendant and representative. 

Geo. T. Clark. 

Dowlais, December, 1858. 


As a branch of the Pendrells have for seyerai generations lived in 
the county of Glamorgan, it may possibly be thought that the 
Journal is a fit place to preserye some notes to the BoicoM Tracts, 
1857 Edition, woich I was unable to communicate to the late editor 
before the publication of that volume. 

At p. 95 he observes, — " In the protections of 1708, 1716, &c., 
more tnan one individual of the Penderel blood is specially named." 

I find, from papers copied at the Council Office, Whitehall, in 
April, 1847, that on the 7th December, 1678, an order was made by 
the House of Lords for leave to bring in a bill to exempt Charles 
Giffard, Francis Yates and wife, William, John, Richard, Humphrey, 
and George Pendrell, Thomas Whitgrave,of Mosely, Colonel William 
Carlos, Frank Reynolds, of Carlton, in the county of Bedford, who 
were instrumental in the preservation of Charles IL after the battle of 
Worcester, or such of them as were then living (Richard died in 
1671) from being subject to the penalties of the laws against Popish 
recusants. The parliament having been dissolved before passine the 
bill, they were again disturbed ; but their exemption was carried out 
by order in Council, 17th January, 1678, 9; confirmed to their de- 
scendants on the 25th July, 1708 ; and again on the 6th April, 1716. 
On this latter occasion a petition was signed by the following as the 
then descendants, and under date 5th August, 1715, one of these 
petitioners, a Richard Pendrell, gave in under oath the following 
pedigrees: — 

JPetitioners. — Richard, John, George, Thomas, William, Lawrence, 
Richard, and Mary Pendrell ; George (jliflon, Thomas and Peter Giffard, 
Thomas Whitgrave, Francis Yates, Thomas How, Thomas How, junr., 
Ann and John Rogers, John Renyrson, Charles Birch, Charles Carlos, 
Edmond Reynolds, John Jones ; Richard, Joseph, Thomas, Edmond, 
and William Lloyd ; George Thombury, James Creagh, John Barber, 
James Gardner, William Calcot, Christopher Molineux, and William 

Pedigrees* — Charles Gifiard, no issue ; Thomas Oiffistrd, his nephew 



and heir, married Mary ; John Giffard, next nephew, and dead, mar- 
ried Catherine ; one of these left Peter, Katherine, *' and others'' (<^)- 
Francis Yates, dead, his son Nicholas, dead, married to Frances ; their 
daughter Frances married to Francis Rigmadem. 

1. William Pendrelt 





FranceesfJohn Jones, dead 

ThomaaspMary Calcot, who Katherine=^Thoma8 How 

dead I with her brother aee p. 370 

I William are peti- Tracts 

I tioners 


_ L 

lit Lloyd, 

r 1 1 

Thomas, Catherine, William, and " several others*' (tie). William 
ne1din||r=sThoma8 How's daughter Elizabeth; Christ. HoUneux 
^Thomas How's sister 







ohn Howell Bndget^ohn Reynolds Dorothy 



:£d. Mead Anne 



Frances Bridget Sereral children 




William Joseph MaryssJames Gardner 

— I 1 1 






and several 

Bichard Thomas Joan 

2. John FendrelY 




Frances John=T=B1isabeth Ann^ 




eo. Clifton 

W^inifrad-pRd. Bllow 

Mary=s. . . . Parkinson 
John (p. 373) Richard Thomas William Richard BacheIsM erryday 

-T 1 1 

George Mary Frances 

Note. — Robert Freeman, and Mary his wife, are near relations of 
the Pendrells. 


Richard Rachel 
with others 

3. Richard Pendrell 


Thommii i Anne 







Ann»^oha Rogers 



Lawrence James 
and several children 




(see p. 309.) 




omas Mary Anne 
and Mveral others 

Marysf=Geo. Thombury AnnespJas Creagh 
I dead | 

several several 

Jobn*sMary Josephs Mary^pBenedict Bamber Maigaret^oa. Clempaon 

several children 

several children 


Katherine Bliubeth 


NoU. — Charles Birch, nephew to (William, son of Richard,) is a 

4. Humphrey Pendrellsf: 

J 1 1 ' 1 

EdmondRa George FnmciB Mary 

dead I 

I ^ 1 

Richard AnnesrsJohQ Barber 


ary Anne 

6. George Pendrell< 


Geo rge ' . A nne Johns^EIizabeth 

dead dead {Mead in copy) 

\ 1 I r . 

Annes=Rob. Hope Margaret John George Mary Hannah 

William Carlos, dead without issue ; his nephew and heir 
Edward Carlo»s^Dorothy, dead 

Charles, and several others 

Note. — Edmond Reynolds, the petitioner, is the same person that 
was protected by Queen Anne, and the descendant of Francis in 
Charles II. petition, 

Thomas Whitgran 


Thoma^Abel (Isabella, pp. 378-80) 

Thomas James (in Burke, " James Abel,") and ssTeral others 

Note. — John Kempson, a relation of the Whitgraves, is also a 
petitioner, and is the same person that was in Queen Anne's pro- 
tection, by the name of Edmond. 

From the above descents, it is clear that in 1715, (as in the order of 
1678,) of the original five brothers, William was considered to have 
been the eldest, followed by John, Richard, Humphrey, and George; 
and they are so given in the Tracts, pp. 149, 235, 247 ; but at p. 368 
the author in his pedigrees has them, Richard, William, Humphrey, 
John, George ; which arrangement might mislaeul. 

It will be observed that John's second son was John, having one 
son, a William; and this is pretty certain evidence that the printed 
pedigree, p. 372 of the Sussex pensioners, must be incorrect ; and it 
will also be observed that, if they are in truth of this descent, (having 
omitted, by some accident, a generation, WiUiam,) they could never 
have been entitled to the pension. 

It would therefore appear probable that they descend from John, p. 
373, there supposed to have died in Sussex, s. p., in 1755, but of which 
death the 1848 claimant could produce no evidence, or any evidence 
of whether this John, or his brother Richard, left issue or not, or where 
they lived. 


Though I can now give a perfect descent of the 1848 unsuccessful 
claimant from the original John, it will appear presently that, in 
1783, bis ancestor of Aberdylais clearly considered the Sussex pensioner 
of an elder branch of the original John's descendants ; and this con- 
firms the probability of my suggestion just given as to the Sussex 
descent, one PendreH of which family was pointed out to me at the 
inn at Rottingdean, in January, 1858. 

The following extracts are from a letter to the writer's son, (and not 
to John, of Sussex, as stated at p. 366,) dated Aberdylais, Sept. 7, 

*^ Dear Son, — ^In answer to a part of your letter to your brother, have sent 
yon a copy of the grant from King Charles 11. to the PendreUs, as I receiyed 
it from Mr. John Partridge, of ChiUington, who receives and pays the same. 
The midermentioned annuities are included in one g^nt, and are settled on 
farm rents issuing out of eight different counties. To Kichard and William 
Pendrell, jSIOO per annum ; John, Humphrey, and George, 100 marks ; Eliza- 
beth Pendrell, £50 per annum (see Tracts^ p. 94). Mr. Partridge*s letter to 
me is dated January 7, 1776; the grant is to the five brothers and sister, 
and their successors, male or female ; if no lawful issue can be found to any 
one grantee, that pension will go equally among the survivors of the others ; 
if alTextinct, the whole to the crown. At that time there were representatives 
to all of them. l^Ir. Healy, who died about that time, was a descendant 
from Humphrey. Now, as I trace my pedigree from John, have no claim 
to Humphrey's, so I dropped correspondence with Mr. Partridge. My father 
was third son of Mr. Charles PendreU, of Esdngton, Bishbury, county 
Staflfbrd, who was the son of John, whose pension, I believe, John Charles 
Pendrell, of Sussex, receives. 

*^ If Mr. Partridge has rightly informed me, you see it is almost impossible 
for me or you to come to any of the pensions so long as an elder branch of 
our line remains. Your mother unites with me in blessing you, your wife, and 
children. Your brothers and sisters join. 

(Signed) ^^ Thomas Pendreix. 

"P.Si — ^Your brother John arrived safe in Jamaica, 28 June, &c., but family 
news I leave to Kichard. Tom Jones tells me you talk of paying the wood- 
cocks in this neighbourhood a visit next winter. I wish you may be so good 
as your word." 

The pedigree of Humphrey's descendants, pensioners, in the Tracts, 
is curious, on comparing it with that of 1715 and this letter, and its 
own notice of the ancestor George. 

Perhaps the names of the grandchildren, down to 1688, appear in 
the notice of secret service money (JCISOO in ten yeara) paid to the 
Pendrells, alluded to p. 23 of the Tracts, 

The larger pension to Richard and William no doubt arose from 
their having had the first and chief care of Charles (see p. 45) in the 
wood and Hoscobel House ; Richard, with John and Yates were the 
last to be parted with, and John is the last named after reaching 
IVhitgreaves. (p. 240.) At pp. 53, 95 and 367, the author appears to 
have confused Llizabeth (Pendrell?) Yates, and Margaret Yates, the 
sister to Richard's wife (pp. 221, 235) ; and at p. 368 he has recorded as 
clear that one of them was sister to Humphrey's wife. The petitioner 



(Francis in mj copy) was no doubt the Mrs. Frances in 1715, and 
Trcuits pedigree, p. 377. There is no authority for Elizabeth's 
Francis but the pedigree, p. 876; and but little doubt, from p. 94, 
and the 1783 letter, that she was a Pendrell, and that the author (pp. 
48, 55) and Hodlestone (p. 151) are wrong in assuming that her 
husband was the King^$ attendant ; Hodlestone ** not very perfect J' 
(p. 149.) She was a widow in 1675. The 1715 pedigree is of 
Francis and Margaret, no doubt the Francis and wife, 1678; see 
grant, pp. 95, 377, all confirming p. 221. At the same time, it is 
highly probable that her husband was the Pendreirs brother-in-law ; 
but it is remarkable that there should be no notice of her, or descend- 
ants, in the 1715 pedigrees. 

There is no college or other authority for Pendrell arms alluded to 
at p. 94 ; those assigned in Dictionaries, &o., are the bearing of Carlos 
(p. 397), with colours altered. It is not probable that arms would 
have been granted them. 

John Pendrell 

Olamorganshire Pedigree. 


according to the foregoing letter, and in the Bushbury register is found 
that Charles of Essington was buried May 7, 1713, and from the 
registry of wills at Lichfield, that administration was granted to 
Frances, the relict, on the 10th July, 1713 ; their third son from the 
same letter (and from the 1715 pedigree his name was Thomas) was 
father of the writer. 

Thomas PeodreU«pBIizabeth Hunches 

of Aberdylals, mar. 27th May, 1752, bur. 
13th Novembert 1793 

Britonferry Reg., Llantwlt Reg. 


1. ThomasspEliz. HoIme»BpMargt. Hillem 8. Richard 3. John 

bap. Ap. 15, 1753, | 
(B. F. R.) Scowerer 

■• I 

to the king's Kitchen, mar. 
Oct. 12, 1779, St. George'8, 
Hanover Square, bur. Ap. 3, 
1815, age 63 


June 6, 1814, b. July 3, b. Nov. 12, 
2nd wife 1700, 1761, 

the three sons In the above letter 
Thomas William, bur. May 5, 1815 

I 1 1 

4. Sarah Charles 5. Elizabeth 

b. Sept. 11, b. Mar. 17, b. June 16, 

1758 1764 1767 

6. Dorothy 
b. May 15, 1769 

b. Mar. 25, 1771 




died at sea on board the Lord £1^ bom Dec. 27, 1781, mar. 

don, June 30, 1812, bom Sept 11, July 21, 1804, bur. Sept 

1780, E.I.C.M.S. 8, 1825, at Gibraltar 

-Richard Jackson 
Gibralur, St 
Olave, I«ondon, 

Fred. Cuoper Jackson, Manchester, bora June 6, 1807, at Gibraltar, nnanoeessfiil 
claimant, 1848 

The descendants of the other brothers and sisters above, 2 to 6y are 
thus : — 



S. Richard Pendnlls^Katherine Hopkins 

d. May 2d, 1814, a. 54 

d. May 18,1838, a. 7& 

Jane=T=Thoa. Llewellia 


Thomaa ElizabethsJohn Jones 

-) Sargreon, Brecon, d. Oct. 24, 185.3, a. 62, m. 

Richard Pendrell Ue- Thomas d. 8.P. Ocl. 3, Mar. 11, 1830, a.p. 

wellio, Rector, Llan- 1817, a. 27. 

genwyd, Glamorgan 

Burgeon, Brecon, 

d. fall from his 
hone, 8.P. April 

3, 1831, a. 36 


Gatherine=T=EYan Jones, 
d. Sept. 24 I Garth, co. Gla- 
1857, a. 64, morgan 
m. Mar. 22, L 

Edward, Rector, Killy- 

bebill, Glamorgan, d. 8.P. 

May 12, 1839, a. 40 



3. John Pendrell:^. of William Campbell, of Jamaica, 
Surgeon, Jamaica, then at Bath | Ist wife 

I f 

JudithsssLonglands Elizabeths=Fisher 

Holy Orders, (366) Holy 

Grampound Orders 

"T 1 

MargaretssM'Kenzie Mary 

Civil Service, 1. Bath 



AnnessM'Kenxie, Army, 8.P. 
cpAnne Penny, 2nd wife 

John Pendrell=T» Harriet=sRey. Dorset Fellowes 

Holy Orders, Ghent, nnsaccessfal claimant, 1 


4. Sarah PendrelWThomas Charles 

5. Elizabeth Pendre1I=j=John King, d. at Neath, Aag. 12, 1813, ex. Steffordshire 

(CapUin, R.N.) 1st, 1831, 
d. of Joseph Harrisson, of 
Tydd St. Mary, co. Rut- 
land; 2nd, 1848, Rachel 
Anne, d. of Rev. Edward 
Lewis, Rector of St. Pierre and Portskewet. 
He d. Nov. 0, 1857, 8.P., a. 64, at Portskewet 
(J. P. GO. Monmouth). See 0*Ryme*s Diet. 

Thomas King=f:EIiza, d. of John 

Surgeon, Cliep- 
stow, b. Sept. 
1794, m. at Ti- 
denham, 1819 

Shutt, ex. Stafford- 
shire, and sister to 
the late Police Ma- 



I 1 

Mary, 1. 10 other children 

single dead 8.P. 

-Thomas Pendrell, E.I.C. Army, lost, 1854, in the Loify Nugmtt, Madras to 

Moulroein, — a ship never heard of 
-Arthur Wightwick, Attorney, Melbourne 
-Edward Pendrell, Surgeon, Chepstow 
-Albert, Merchant, London 
-ElizassRobert W. Peake, Esq., 1842 
-Anni^sEdward Mathew Curre, Esq., of Itton Court, co. Monmouth, 1854, High 

Sheriff, 1859 
-GertrudesRichard Peake, Esq., 1855 
-«nd four unmarried daughters 

* A sister, deceased, was wife of Mr. William Brearley, of (and who built) Pen 
Moil, and East Cliff, near Chepstow, and after of Water Eaton, co. SUfford, son of 
the Joseph Brearley and Martha Stubbs mentioned in Burke's Landed Gentry, 
under ** Wightwick." Another is widow of the late Mr. Wilson, County Court 
Judge and Recorder of Caermarthen. 


6. Dorothy Pendrell^pWatkin Price, Rector, KillybebSll, Neath 

October 12, 



T r 

Thoma8= Brooks Price Watkin, WiUiamsMary Jenkins 

Rector of Bagendon, CO. 8. p. supposed Sargeoo, Swansea, 

Gloucester 1823 d. Texas Glantwrch 

Edward, Curate, Lanthetty, Gwenllian ElizabethssAIfred Starbuck, 

Breconshire Milford 

Janesy=Matthew Whittington, Tonna, Neath 


I 1 

Jane=ReY. D. W. Herbert, 1858, Curate, Britonferry and several othen. 

In Bashbury register (transcript at Lichfield) is recorded, April 12, 
1712, buried, Robert, son of Charles Pendrell, Essington; October 
16, 1716, John, son of Richard Pendrell; Elizabeth, daughter of 
Richard, baptized September 8, 1717 ; and Anne, daughter of 
Richard, of Essington, May 10, 1719; July 9, 1727, buried, Charles, 
son of Richard ; May 28, 1764, Joshua Mills and Mary Pendrell, 
married ; Elizabeth, wife of Joshua Pendrell, buried. May 28, 1771 ; 
John Pendrell, January 19, 1783 ; John, son of Joshua and Sarah, 
July 30, 1787; Joshua Pendrell, Papist, July 29, 1788; John, 
May 5, 1789; William Bird and Isabella Pendrell, married, June 
11, 1793; Sarah Pendrell, buried, November 13, 1810. 

St. Mary's Roman Catholic Church, Brewood, is substituted for the 
old Convent Chapel of Black Ladies, county Stafford, which includes 
Boscobel, Salop ; and in the Black Ladies* register is, September 15, 
1763, baptized, William George, son of George Pendrell and Mary 
Howell his wife. Confirmation, June 11, 1764, of John Pendrell, 
and May 22, 1768, of Ann Pendrell, and baptism, December 23, 
1766, of Richard, son of George and Mary Howell. 

In the Roman Catholic Chapel, Chapel Court, three miles from 
Bnshbury, no register ante 1791; as in other places, earlier ones 
supposed to have been lost during the time of persecution, or never 

Boscobel is extra parochial, bat annexed to Donnington, as is White 
Ladies ; no entry of Pendrell — 1600-1750. There is a ruined chapel 
at White Ladies, and on a tomb-stone is, — ** Here lieth the body of 
William Pendrell, of Boscobel, son to him that preserved the king, 
who died March the 7, anno dmi. 1707. — Pray for us." — (A cross 
underneath.) — His will said to be in 1704, p. 370. 

The Richard Pendrell whose children were buried (Bushbury 
register) was probably the second son of Charles of Essington, (1715 
pedigree,) and of whom the 1848 claimant could give no account, as 
Das been stated ; and the George Pendrell (Brewood register) is pos- 
sibly the Jifth son of Charles, (1715 pedigree, which gives no notice 
of the Geoi^e in Sussex pedigree, p. 372, where he, as well as John, 
are probably called sons of old John, in error; as has been already 
surmised as regards the latter,) or the George in Humphry's pedigree. 


The Tattersell tomb is on the south side, and is now neatly railed in, 
close to the wall of the aisle. (See pp. 108, 899.) 

In recording these Notes, I am taking it for granted that anyone 
interested in them has, or will have, a copy of the Boscohel TracU. 
1857 edition. 

Richard Peaks. 
Wirewoods Green, ChepstQw, 
February 17, 18S9. 

No. XXII. 



The only mediaeval buildings now extant in this parish 
are the church, and the remains of the outbuildings be- 
longing to the Manor House, which formerly stood to the 
south-east of that edifice. 

This church, under the invocation of Eugraid, a saint 
of the sixth century, consisted originally of a smaH nave 
and chancel, the walls of which still stand, with windows 
of later date inserted. It seems to have been of the 
twelfth century, at least the cliancel arch is of this date ; 
but the east window and some other additions are of the 
fifteenth. At a much more recent period a chapel as 
large as the nave has been thrown out from the north 
side of the chancel, and thus the plan of the building has 
been rendered very anomalous. 

This little edifice is one of the simplest in the island. 
The nave has two doorways, north and south ; one small 
circular headed loop on the south side. The chancel has 
a two-light window of unusual design, with the lights 
cinquefoiled, and a small single-light window on the south 
side. The north chapel has a doorway at the north end, 
and a two-light square-headed window in the east wall. 
Tliis chapel does not seem of older date than the end of 
the seventeenth century ; but the east window of the 
chancel may be of the end of the fourteenth. 



Over the south door of the nave is a rudely sculptured 
crucifixal figure — a fragment perha^ from the church- 
yard cross — intrusted in the wall. The font is circular, 
on three steps, and is aa old as the earlier parts of the 
edifice. The pulpit, which stands within the chancel arch, 
bears the following iuscription, — 

L B C A B . ANNO . DOIVlT. 1644 

To the east of the north doorway in the nave is e 
Btoup for holy water, in tolerably good preservation. 
The benches are of extreme simplicity, probably of the 
seventeenth century. 

At the time when this account was written (1844), the 
church was in a state of great neglect ; hut it is deserving, 
from its architectural peculiarities, of being carefully 

Coorm; in Uaueugnid Firk. 

Not lar from the church, on the southern side, are the 
remains of a park wall; the mansion Btanding within 
which has moat probably been replaced by a modem 


fann-hoase. A doorway, which once led perhaps into 
the garden, or " pleasaunce," still exists, highly pictu- 
resque, coTered with ivy, and bearing the date 1575. 

FifteoD-EouM, LUneugnid. 

Near it stands a pigeon-house, the sure sign of a family 
of importance, with the cow-shed beneath, and 117 holes 
for the birds in the storey above. It is of Elizabethan 
date like the doorway, and is of good design. 


The church of this parish, though small, is one of the 
better kind in Anglesey. It is under the invocation of 
St. Gallgof, and looks like a cross church, on account of 
a north and south chapel having been thrown out from 
the edifice, the former after the chancel as it now stands 
was built, the latter apparently at the same time. The 
original church was most probably a plain oblong building 
divided into nave and cliancel, but has been replaced by 


the present one. At the west end of the nave is a chapel, 
perhaps of earlier date. The north and south chapels 
are of nearly equal dimensions, neither of them, however, 
so small as the chancel. There is no central tower ; but 
the roof, which is more modem than the walls, runs 
together without couples, something in the plan of house 
roofing of the present day. It is probable that all the 
walls were lowered perhaps a century after their erection, 
for the east window of the chancel is at present placed 
unusually high under its gable, and in a manner that 
could never have been meant by its original designer. 
The timbering of the chancel roof in fact comes athwart, 
and cuts off, the apex of the rear-arch of the east window. 

The west chapel is entered by a slightly pointed door- 
way in the south side, and is lighted by a loop in the 
gable; it communicates with the nave by an archway, 
nearly circular. There is no window in the nave; the 
north chapel has a doorway in the north end, and one 
window in the east wall; the south chapel has two 
windows, eastern and southern. The chancel is cut off 
by the remains of a screen ; but the roodloft, if there 
ever was one, has disappeared. Within the chancel some 
remains of stalls with poupee heads remain ; in the south 
wall is a window of two lights under a square label, the 
same as in the south chapel. 

The east window is of three lights, with vertical tracery. 
All the windows have their lights cinquefoiled ; and they 
may be assigned to the early part of the fifteenth century, 
after the country had recovered itself from the disturbances 
caused by Owen Glyndwr. The font is a circular basin 
on three steps, probably of the same date as the actual 

The workmanship of this church is more careful than 
usual, and shows that it was erected by some person of 
munificent disposition. 


This is a very small, plain church, only 28 feet by 13 
feet internally, without any division now remaining to 


make a distinction between nave and chancel. It is of 
the type of mediaeval chapels common in Wales; and 
tliough the walls are old, the windows and doorway are 
modem insertions, without any architectural character. 
There is a trace of an old west doorway over the modem, 
smaller, square-headed one, and a single bell gable above. 
The font is circular, and is the oldest thing in the building ; 
it stands at the south-west comer of the edifice. There 
is no reading-desk, but only a pulpit on the north side of 
the altar, entered from within the communion-table rails. 

H. L. J. 


In a mountainous part of the parish of Llanrhaiadhr, in 
Kimmerch, is an inclosure, nearly square, measuring about 
230 feet on each side, lying upon the southern slope of 
the hill, not far from a small house called Hafodty loan 
Uwyd. The embankments, though lowered by the effect 
of time, are still perfect, made of earth, with few stones 
intermixed, and were never, apparently, strong works of 
defence. A small stream runs parallel to, and not far 
from, the southern side, from which the occupiers of this 
work easily supplied themselves. Besides the opening in 
the north-west angle, there are entrances in the western 
and eastern sides, but not opposite to each other. At 
the western entrance are the remains of a paved road, 
which can be easily traced nearly across the inclosed 
space; and south o^ and parallel to, this paved road, are 
the foundations of two long walls, rather more than a 
yard in thickness, and a cross wall at the western end, — 
the eastern termination not being so clearly defined. 
North of the paved way are traces of a circular and an 
angular building, and small heaps of stones, which present 
no particular features. Such is an outline of the inclosure, 
which is popularly known by the name of Hen Dinbych, 


or old Denbigh — tradition assigfning to the two long walls 
mentioned the name of Hen Eglwys, or the old church, 
and the rest of the incloaure, that of the burial-ground 
of the said church. The present appearance of the place 
appears to be what it has ever been within the memory 
of the oldest native, except that a lai^e number of stones 
have been removed, for the purpose of building a small 

Plan of Hea QmbTch. 

farm-house ; but, from its retired situation, it is seldom 
visited, and little known, except to the inhabitants of the 
district; nor does it appear on the Ordnance Survey, — a 
remarkable circumstance, considering the minute details 
of those maps, and the very conspicuous appearance this 
work presents. 

During the meeting of the Association at Ruthin, in 
1854, a few of the best mounted and most active of the 
excursionists, on the day when the remains of the adjoining 
bills were examined, did, under the intelligent guidance 
of Mr. David Hughes, who was bom, and has spent some 
threescore years, in this mountainous district, visit the 


place. Since that time, the visit has been repeated on 
three or four occasions, on one of which labourers were 
provided to dig, but with no satisfactory results. On the 
termination of the Rhyl Meeting, Mr. Longueville Jones, 
Mr. Thomas Wright, and myself, revisited the place, 
during an excursion to these hills in search for Roman 
roads, which are known to exist in that locality. On ap- 
proaching the spot, on the eastern side from Ruthin, evi- 
dent vestiges of ancient trackways, sometimes depressed, 
sometimes slightly elevated, were seen, which, trending 
towards Ystrad and Bodfari, were connected with the 
eastern side of the work. It was remarked also that the 
boundary stones of the different manors almost uniformly 
are on the line of the trackways. Parallel to the western 
side of the inclosure runs a raised path, which is soon lost 
in its two extremities. It appears to have been a portion 
of a raised way, leading up the side of the hill, and is pro- 
bably a continuation oi the road that may be traced from 
Pen-y-gaer, near the first toll-gate on leaving the village 
of Cerrig-y-druidion. Frequently the road does not 
enter directly into works of this kind, but passes within 
a short distance. Still further west, at a short distance, 
on the summit of the rising ground, is a fine circle of 
stones, set as usual at intervals apart, to the south of which, 
in the lower ground, is what appears to be the remains of 
a long grave, consisting of a row of stones, placed edge- 
wise, and touching each other. These stones were re- 
moved and carefully replaced on a former visit, but no 
traces of sepulture were discoverable. At the foot of the 
opposite hill, on the other side of the little brook already 
mentioned, and somewhat to the east of the square inclo- 
sure, is an immense isolated mass of rock, known as the 
Giant's Stone, leaning against which is a slab, the inner 
side of which is level and regular, and which tradition 
states to have been severed from the larger mass by the 
sword of the said giant. It appears to have been detached 
from the larger mass, but whether by nature or man, it 
is not easy to decide. From the smoothness of the under 
surface, however, it has the appearance of having been 


divideH by human agency, but for what reason it is hard 
to say. Near this Giant's Stone are two circles, one more 
perfect than the other, having, as is often the case with 
the circles of this district, two or three stones lying in the 

Such is the character of Hen Dinbych, and the con- 
tiguous remains. What the scmare inclosure is there can 
be little doubt. It is a small Roman station, and in all 
probability a kind of halfway resting-place between Bod- 
fari and the Pen-y-gaer above mentioned. It will be seen 
that a road commences from the latter place, and can be 
distinctly traced the greater part of the distance towards 
the Hen Dinbych station; and, if careful researches were 
made, the line thence to Bodfari also might be made out, 
via Ystrad. From the neighbourhood of Pont Rhuffydd 
the eye can detect a continuous line of unbroken hedge, 
bearing straight up towards Ystrad, (Stratum,) which, 
if continued, would lead direct to this station. That 
Varae should be placed in the grounds of Pont Rhuffydd 
House was the opinion of the late Mr. Aneurin Owen, 
who saw the remains of an embankment, now no longer 
to be found. The debris of Roman pottery are also stated, 
on good authority, to have existed in the pleasure grounds 
of the said house, and probably do still ; and, during some 
late building operations in the same place, a paved road 
was found, which was, however, reported to be of com- 

Earatively modem structure. This road is said to have 
een in the line of the old high road, and it is possible 
that the old line of road might have been identical with a 
Roman one. 

The ancient road, on starting from Hen Dinbych to- 
wards Cerrig-y-druidion was not satisfactorily traced, 
unless it is to be identified with the present track, leading 
towards Hafodty-wen, which place it leaves to the west, 
and crosses the Alwen to the north of Caer Ddunod. It 
thence goes due south, across Llechwedd, a little to the 
east of a place called CastelL Here the line is a welt 
defined trench, and divides the lordship of Denbigh from 
the lands formerly belonging to the abbey of Conway. 


Thence it passes by a farm-house called Ty-newydd, where 
18 a well without masonry, but formerly surrounded by a 
circle of stones, and turning a little to the left makes 
direct for the strong work of Pen-y-gaer. Although the 
line is so clearly defined, especially by Llechwedd, no 
notice is taken of it in the Ordnance Survey. In fact, 
the whole of this district appears to have been imper- 
fectly surveyed. Throughout the whole extent of this 
line are innumerable remains of circular and rectangular 
inclosures, stone circles, small tumuli, &c., all fast vanish- 
ing, under the effects of the new inclosures of the common 
lands. Opposite the Ty-newydd, just mentioned, are 
several such remains. On the left hand side of the Alwen, 
opposite Gaer Ddunod, is a field said to be the site of a 
battle, and still called the Burying-Ground. Near Ha- 
fodty-wen the remains of a large circle exist, and there 
are many other similar traces of occupation throughout the 
whole extent of these mountains, as far as Bedd Emlyn, 
whence the Emlyn stone was removed to the grounds in 
Pool Park,— (see Arch. Camb., Third Series, vol. i. p. 
116,) and which are briefly noticed in Gibson's Camden. 

The most important discovery, however, made during 
this excursion, was that of four distinct Roman roads 
diverging from Pen-y-gaer. The one already alluded 
to, leading north-east to Bodfari by Hen Dinbych; the 
second, north-west into Caernarvonshire; the third, south- 
west leading to Bala, and which many years ago was 
actually traced on foot the whole way to Harlech by a 
peasant ; the fourth, leading in a south-eastern direction 
— probably to Wroxeter. 

It is intended, if possible, during this next summer, to 
make a more complete investigation of these lines, so as 
to furnish a not unimportant portion of the long desired 
map of Cambria Romana. 

E. L. B. 




I DO not know how far the following observations on the 
the Life of St. Non, of which Mr. Perrott has recently 
given an abstract in the Archnologia Camhrensis^ will 
possess any interest for its readers. I do not profess to 
be able to add anything to the information conveyed in 
the Preface and Notes of the Abbe Sionnet, the most 
important parts of which have been transferred into Mr. 
Perrott's abstract. But I may venture to offer some 
remarks for the purpose of identifying the names of 
persons and places occurring in the Buhez with those 
which occur in the Welsh legends, or which can be re- 
cognized as belonging to Welsh history or topography. 
And I will at the same time take an opportunity of cor- 
recting one or two errors which the Abbe Sionnet has 
committed, and into which he has led his epitomist. 

The Buhez^ especially as illustrated by the popular 
traditions recounted by Mr. Perrott in his account of the 
so-called Tomb of St. Non, is certainly a very remarkable 
and instructive example of the localization of a foreign 
legend. Parallel instances in the mythology of all nations 
will doubtless occur to the reader. However I am bound 
to say that the actual instances of such a localization in 
the Buhez itself, when carefully examined, appear to me 
to shrink into four at most. 1 may be in error, but it 
appears to me that the only expressions, which can be so 
regarded, are the following : — 

*^ An mab man certen a reno 
hac a bezo cuff hac vuel 
ha den vaillant prudant santal 
e Brdz ysel huy a guelo." — p. 100. 

The same expression is used with reference to the death 
of St. David :— 

** E Breiz ysel gant vuheldet 
Ezeo decedet an pret man." — p. 206. 

Of course the expression Breiz isel may possibly be a 
rendering of some term which in the Cambrian form of 


the legend meant Demetia, or South Wales generally. 
But I think there can be no doubt in the Buhez that it 
means what it seems to mean, nothing more or less than 
Basse- Bretagne. And there can be no doubt about the 
following passage : — 

'^ Ha cals a joa de ja dre e favor 
ba cals enor de cosquor Armory** — p. 48. 

The fourth instance is the account of the burial of 
Non, (p. 148,) which is too long to be quoted. It is 
clear however that the writer of the Buhez supposed that 
she was buried at Diriuon, '' between Daoulas and Lan- 
demeau." It seems to me that in p. 131 the scene changes 
to Dirinon at the point beginning with the emphatic 
words, — 

'' Aman en hanu Doe guir roe bet 
en servichif ne fillif quet." 

Of course the many passages in which the words Breiz, 
Bretonetj Bretonery^ &c., occur, are not more applicable 
to the continental than to the insular Britain. 

Strange to say M. Sionnet has been misled by the pos- 
sibly accidental resemblance between two pairs of local 
names existing in Wales and Armorica respectively, to 
suppose that the following passages are a proof of this 
localization : — 

** Obiit sanctissimus urbis legionum archiepiscopus Davidagius 

in Menevia civitate intra abbatiam suam Et iubente 

Malgone Venedotorum rege in eadem ecclesia sepultus. ' — (pp. 
200, 202.) 

The "urbs legionum" is named in Breton "Kaer a 
legion" (p. 182); and the " Malgo rex Venedotorum" 
describes himself in p. 208 as 

" Me Malgon roe Venedotonet." 

M. Legonidec, whose French translation of the Buhez is 
exhibited en face ^ renders "Kair a legion," ^^ La mile de 
Leon*^ and "Malgon roe Venedotonet," '' Malgon, roi 
des Vinttes.^^ Mr. Perrott observes upon this {Arch. 
Camb. for 1867, p. 379, note)', — "The legend places 
Menevia in the Diocese of the Archbishop of Lion ; and 


St. David is said to have been interred there by order of 
Melgofij King of the Vinhtes^ who must have been Bas- 
Bretons." I never heard before of an ^rcAbishop of 
Leon ; and if such a dignitary had ever existed, it is 
certain that a King of the " Vinhtes " would have had no 
jurisdiction in his diocese. 

It is however scarcely necessary to explain to Welsh 
readers that " Kair a legion " means neither more nor less 
than Caerleon, while " Malgon roe Venedotonet" is M algo, 
King, not of the Vinites (which in Breton would be 
" Guenet ") but of the Venedotians, or in other words 
Maelgwn Gwynedd. 

Certain Welsh localities are clearly named in the poem. 
In p. 30 we have Demetri meaning Demetia. In p. 108 
ruben is clearly the Vetus rubus of Ricemarch. The ylis 
guen in p. 34, which reappears in p. 50 ^ylis glan is 
possibly the Ty Gwyn ar Daf, unless it is Whitchurch, 
near St. David's. The most problematical appellation of 
all is Languen wmendi e immy^ which looks like a cor- 
ruption of a Welsh name, but which ought certainly, from 
the context, to mean Ty Gwyn ar Daf, or Whitland. 
With the exception of the last and one to be mentioned 
below, the names occurring in the Buhez would seem, by 
the form in which they occur, to indicate that the author 
had a Latin life of St. David before him. The other 
exception is a most remarkable one. In p. 14 we have 
the line : — 

" A grif sider da Yuerdon. 


Now Yuerdon^ which appears a few lines lower down in 
the mongrel form of Hiberdon, is simply Ytverddon. Is 
it the name by which Ireland is still known to the 
Bretons ? If not, it must have appeared in the legend 
which the Breton writer followed. 

I may observe that Muniter in p. 9, is the Criumther of 

The inscriptions from the chapel at Dirinon given by 
Mr. Perrott in his account of the Tomb of St. Non (Arch. 
Camb. 1857, pp. 254, 255) are very interesting. Here it 


is obvious that Helve is Ailfyw^ whence St. Elvis, near St. 
David's, derives it name ; Moms is the Mont or Mavi of 
the Latin legends ; and Port Mavigan is Porth Mawgan^ 
or Whitesand Bay, near St. David's, close to which is 
Capel Padrig, built upon the very spot where St. Patrick 
is said to have had the vision by which it was foretold 
that he should he the apostle of Ireland. The occurrence 
of the last name is extremely curious, as I do not recollect 
that it appears in any of the known Lives of St. David. 

I much regret that the Buhez Santez Nonn did not 
come under the notice of Mr. Freeman and myself before 
the publication of the History and Antiquities of St. 
David* s. Not that it adds much to our stock of traditions 
concerning the founder of the see, beyond the curious 
feet of his cultus among a cognate people. The incidents 
in the Buhez are, with the exception of those which are 
obviously Armorican additions, just those with which we 
are familiar from the Latin and Welsh Lives of St. David. 
We have pointed out in the work above referred to (p. 
242) that the legend of St. Non was known in Cornwall, 
and to a certain extent localized there. 

I had also suspected that her name had passed over to 
Brittany, the principal church at Penmarc'h in that 
country being dedicated to St. Nona. 

W. Basil Jones. 

University College, Oxford, 
February 11, 1859. 

P.S. — Mr. Norris' edition of the Cornish Drama^ pub- 
lished by the Delegates of the Oxford University Press, 
was placed in my hands after the above-written notes had 
been sent to the printer. In these curious relics I find 
two extraordinary instances of localization, far exceeding 
anything in the Buhez Santez Nonn. In vol. i. p. 186, 
Solomon is represented as conferring on one of the builders 
of the Temple " the parish of Vuthek, and the Carrak 
Ruan, with its land." And in vol. ii. pp. 62, 54, Pilate 
bribes the guardians of the Sepulchre to falsify the 


account of the ResuirectioD, by the offer of a similar 
enfeoffment : — 

" Teweugh awos Lucyfer, 
A heana na geuseugh ger, 

Pypenagol a wharfo : 
Ha why as byth gobar bras ; 
Penryn ya weth im HeUat, 
Me a'e re theugh ya luen ro." 
The case of St. Non is nothing to this I 

March 10, 1859. 

W. B. J. 


In the ancient house of Rhiwlas, in Merionethshire, is 
preserved a globe of apparently pure rock crystal, said 
to have belonged to Prince Owen Gwyoedd, who died in 
A.O. 1169. Th^ accompanying engraving represents it 

of the full size. It is kept in a green velvet hag of some 
antiquity ; and in the bag; is written, on a scrap of paper, 
the subjoined notice of the pebble. The writing, to the 
best of my recollection, does not appear to be of earlier 


character than from the beginning to the middle of the 
last century. 

" Maen gwertbfawr Owen " The precious Pebble of 

Gwynedd^ Ty wysog holl Gym- Owen Gwynedd, Prince and 

ru. Sovereign of all Wales. 

" Y Maen gwerthfawr hwn a " This Pebble is kept ever 
gadwyd er Amser Owen Gwyn- since the Time of Owen Gwyn- 
edd gan Deuly Rhiwaedog, v edd, in the Family of Rhiw- 
rhai ydynt o Deuly a Cbenedl aedog, who are lineally descen- 
ycyfriw Dy wysog Owen Gwyn- ded there from," 

The mansion of Rhiwaedog, referred to above, and the 
extensive property attached to it, belonged for many gene- 
rations to the lineal descendants of this prince, according 
to some authorities, the elder branch of his descendants. 
This branch became extinct in the male line in the 
present, or at the end of the last century, and the estate 
passed to two ladies of the name of Eyies, by the sur- 
vivor of whom Rhiwaedog was bequeathed to the late 
Mrs, Price, of Rhiwlas, It now belongs to R. W, Price, 

W, W. E. W. 

December, 1858. 

Balls of crystal, like the one here engraved, have been 
found in several instances in the early Anglo-Saxon and 
Prankish graves, and the circumstances under which they 
occur seem to show that they were signs of sovereignty, 
or authority. In a former "Number we have mentioned 
the crystal balls in the collection at Downing, which are 
stated to have been taken out of the tombs of the Mero- 
vingian kings at St. Denis, when they were destroyed in 
the great revolution. This remark, however, applies only 
to the crystal balls found in the graves, as we know that 
during the middle ages they were used for other, and 
especially for magical purposes. Several such balls have 
been brought forward of late years as the magical imple- 
ments used by Dee, Kelly, and other magicians of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 


Id further illustration of this subject we extract the 
following from Wilde's Catalogue of Antiquities in the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, p. 127 : — 

^^ Ciystal balls and ovals, varying from the size of a marble to tbat of a 
small orange, are to be found in many collections of antiauities in the British 
isles. Such objects formed part of the decoration of ecclesiastical shrines, of 
which several may be seen in the Museum: for example, in the Cross of 
Cong, the Cathach of the O'DonneH's, and the Domnach Airgid ; and globes 
of rock crystal are set in most sceptres, as may be seen among those m the 
regalia of Scotland, preserved in Edinbui^ Castle. The smidler kind, and 
those not of a globular form, manifestly belonged to shrines, from which,, 
perhaps, th^ peculiar sanative efficacy was supposed to be derived. Globular 
masses of rock crystal, unconnected with either shrines or sceptres, have been 
preserved in Irish families for centuries past, and have always been regarded 
with peculiar veneration, not only for their great antiquity, but on account of 
the virtue assigned to them by the people, as amulets, or charms, to be used in 
the prevention or cure of cattle distempers. One of the most celebrated of 
these crystal globes is that in the possession of the Marquis of Waterford, 
concemmg which there is a tradition in the family that it was brought from 
the Holy Land, by one of his Le Foer ancestors, at the time of the Crusades. 
This is eagerly sought after, even in remote districts, in order to be placed in 
a running stream, tnrough which the diseaj^ed cattle are driven backwards and 
forwards, when a cure is said to be effected ; or it is placed in the water given 
them to drink. These crystal balls were also regarded as magic mirrors, such 
as those described by Spenser.** 



(Continued from p. SH.) 


The accompanying engravings represent the two feces 
of a small sculptured stone cross recently discovered at 
Llandeilo, for the following particulars concerning which, 
as well as for rubbings thereof, I am indebted to our 
indefatigable member, George Grant Francis, Esq., of 
Swansea. The information which he communicates 
respecting it is as follows : — 

'' While digging the foundation of the present church, in the 
chancel the workmen came upon two slabs, the smaller of which 
has been missing ever since, the other has a cross inscribed on 
the obverse ana reverse sides, interlaced with cluiin (or rather 


ribbon) work, and measures 2 feet 4 iaches id height, by 1 Toot 
10 inches in width. The pedicle, or lower portion, which was 
fixed in the earth, was accidentally broken in attempting to 
remove it. It is now deposited in the nave of the church. This 
Btone cross is suppoaed to have been a production not later than 
the tenth century. ' 

It will be perceived that the ornamentation on both 
faces of the cross is very simple in its character, corre- 

spoDding with that upon many others of the sculptured 
stones of Glamorganshire. It does not seem indeed that 
the arras of the cross have ever been connected by a 
raised circle (producing a wheel cross, which is the more 
common form) ; indeed, the four bosses, on what may be 
supposed to have been the front face, prevents such a 
supposition. In this respect, therefore, as well as in the 
graduated outline of this cross, we have a marked devia- 
tion fi:xim the other early crosses of South Wales. The 
knot-work in the centre compartment of the back face is 



rather more irregular than ordiDary, and there appears 
some confusion in the interlacing of the left hand extre- 
mity of the front face. The outline also of the pannels, 
especially the central one on the reverse, is rude and 
irregular. It is probable that the cross was a sepulchral 
one, and that it was formerly fixed upright in the church- 

yard. It is not indeed improbable that the shaft, which 
IS stated to have been accidentally broken, contained some 
inscription, which is now lost. It is also to be hoped that 
the smaller slab, mentioned in the preceding extract from 
Mr. G. G. Francis' communication, may be recovered. 

J. 0. Westwood, M.A. 
Oxfoni, March 14, 1850. 




To the Editor of the Archmologia Cambrerms. 

Sir, — The Convent des Anges d'Abervrac'h, in Finist^re, (Lower 
Britanny,) was destroyed daring the Revolution, but the chapel of 
the sixteenth century still remains, and is used as a storehouse. The 
convent itself has been converted to an inn. 

In the chamber-choir of the chapel, behind the high altar, is a 
curious acoustic contrivance, said to be common in Britanny, but 
which we have been unable to discover in any part of Lower Britanny, 
except at Abervrac'h. In the walls of this chamber-choir, which also 
served as sacristy, are practised numerous holes, narrow at the opening, 
but enlarging circularly withinside. Formerly, each of these holes 
contained a globular bottle of red pottery, with a short neck, or collar, 
extending no farther than the face of the wall. At the time of our 
visit there remained but one of these bottles, and that not quite entire. 
All the others, very numerous, had been extracted piece-meal by the 
curious. Indeed it was necessary to break them in order to extract 
them, as they were embedded in the masonry. They would contain 
about a quart, or litre. Our host, an old man, had known the convent 
prior to its dissolution, when service was regularly performed in the 
chapel. Without any inquiry on our part, he explained that the bottles 
were thus inserted for musical purposes. At this time we were ignorant 
of any such arrangements, either in modern or in middle age con- 
structions, and our inquiries having been unproductive, we thought no 
more about it. A few years aflerwards, however, our curiosity was 
again awakened on reading the following passage, in a very interesting 
and useful work, entitled I/Anjou et ses Monuments, by M. Fauthier, 
where, in speaking of the church of St. Martin d*Angers, it is said : — 
" The choir is certainly of the commencement of the eleventh, and 
the middle of the twelfth century. The vaulting presents a striking 
peculiarity; in it are set a certain number of holes, disposed in 
triangles, three holes in each valve of the vaulting. They contain 
vases of grey pottery (de terre grise), sonorous and ovoid, a foot in 
length, with fifteen inches orifice, and a diameter of ten inches in the 
largest part of the belly (ventre). They are set in the thickness of 
the vaulting, and without doubt served an acoustic purpose. Earthen 
vases, with the same intent, were known to the ancients ; in Greece 
and Italy they were used in the theatres, and were composed some- 
times of brass, and sometimes of teri-a cotta. This is the only examjile 
we know of such vases in the vaultings of a church. — Vitruv. lib. v. ; 
PUn. lib. II. c. 51." 


We may be permilted to observe that Rondeiet, in hia TraitS de 
VArt de BAtir, ii. pp. 293 and diS, remarks that tubes, yases, and 
umsy in terra cotta, were made use of in the construction of the 
vaultings of cupolas in the ancient Byzantine churches. They are 
met with in the churches at Ravenna, and in that of St. £tienne>le- 
Rondy at Rome. The tubes were laid horizontally, and covered with 
plaster ; but the urns and the vases were set vertically, with the orifices 
downwards and uncovered. They were introduced in order to lighten 
the weight of the dame* 

There is not the slightest allusion to acoustic purposes. 

Is it probable that these vases and urns (at St. Martin's) were 
introduced in order to lighten the weight of the vaulting? As to the 
vessels employed in the Grecian and Roman theatres, they appear to 
have been bell-shaped, and to have been laid in two or three ranks, 
according to the size of the edifice, in little cells under the benches. 
In fact, the theatres and amphitheatres had no roofs. We are not 
aware of the efiect which would be produced acoustically by vessels 
placed like those at Angers. 

In the Illuitrated London NewSj 17th June, 1854, we are told 
that, ** at a recent meeting of the Royal Institute of British Archi- 
tects, there was an interesting discussion on the probable use of some 
curious earthenware jars^ imbedded in the base wall of a screen in the 
nave. These jars were laid in mortar, on their sides, and then sur- 
rounded with the solid stone work, the necks protruding from the 
wall, like cannons from the sides of a ship. [See the sketeh in the 
newspaper.] Their probable use has been the subject of much con- 

Here would seem to be our bottles of Abervrac'h, with the exception 
of the protruding necks ; but the base wall of a screen in the nave 
does not appear a place for acoustic contrivances. 

We have recently discovered that at Pallet, near Clisson, in the 
Loire Inf^rieure, there is a modem chapel, with earthenware vessels 
inserted in the walls of the choir, expressly for acoustic purposes. 
Pallet was the birth-place of Abelard. 

An experienced antiquary, long resident at Clisson, also acquaints 
us that '' all the churches of this locality (Clisson) possess, or have 
possessed, acoustic vessels (des pots acoustiques). The remains of the 
church of the Cordeliers, in the style of the fifteenth century, still 
exhibit a considerable number, ranged in several horizontal lines, at 
the height of about three metres, along the side walls. In the con- 
ventual cliurch of the * Dames Benedictines' of the twelfth century, 
now La Triniti de Clisson, many similar vessels are to be found. 
Again, in the collegiate church of the chapter of N. D., now the 
parish of Notre Dame (de Clisson), a very large number of these 
* pots acoustiques ' exist at the bottom of the choir, in the side walls, 
and at the usual height of three metres. The * pots ' have the form of 
a common pumpkin, but are not so large. Their orifice is, in general, 
between two and three inches in diameter, the middle about four inches 


and a half, wbibt the bottom is drawn in to the same siase as the 

The two following examples of the insertion of earthemware vessels 
in the walls of buildings, of a much more ancient date, may perhaps 
possess some interest. The first example must be pretty generally 
known in England ; the second, probably, less so. 

In the lUuttrated London News, of 27th December, 1866, p. 656, 
is the following notice :-^**Recent Researches in Babylonia. — On a 
small mound opposite Wass-wass, a fragment of low wall was removed 
by Mr. Loftus, composed entirelv of earthen vases (sketch 3, No. 3). 
They were laid horizontally, with the apertures outwards, and look^ 
like a honey-comb.'' 

In form these vases somewhat resemble sugar-loaf moulds, but are 
much smaller. 

We extract the following from the Bulletin de la Sociiti de OSo- 
graphie : — ** Towards the end of March, 1854, at about three kilo- 
metres from Die, in the department of the Dr6me, when digging a 
watering trench, a block of masonry was discovered, extremely hard, 
and about eight metres in length. The width is not yet ascertained, 
the mass lying, in part, under a road. It is covered with a cement of 
lime and pounded orick, forming a sort of mastic, or varnish. Built 
into the wall, and embedded in mortar, were forty-five urns, or 
amphors, of pottery, perfectly empty, turned perpendicularly upside 
down, the neck or collar downwards, almost touching each other, and 
in several ranks. Their greatest circumference is one metre twenty 
centimetres, their height forty centimetres. The thickness is slight 
in proportion to the size of the vase. The pottery is of red clay, 
tolerably pure, very well baked, and sonorous. It is not coated with 
calcareous soar (empat^ de spath calcaire) like those of the funerary 
amphors oi larger dimensions, and of the same form, sometimes met 
witn in the neighbourhood of Die. Our urns are new, and do not 
exhibit any deposit withinside. Their adherence to the mortar rendered 
the extraction of them difficult ; nevertheless, some of them have been 

" Vitruvius tells us that empty vases like those here spoken of, in 
bronze or pottery, and called JBchea, or Echeia, were placed under 
the steps of the amphitheatres, in order to increase the repercussion of 
sound. In the great theatre at Pompeii there have been discovered 
bronze vases for the same purpose. Similar means were employed in 
the choirs of the churches during the middle ages* Why are they 
given up ? 

" It is probable that the block containing these urns, or amphoree, 
empty and reversed, formed part of some pasan temple, which was 
subisequently consecrated to St. Saturnin, or oornin (the quarter in 
which these remains are situated). 

" Numerous debris of Roman buildings, columns, medals, &c., 
were, some years ago, discovered in the adjoining fields." 

There is some difficulty in understanding how this mass, or block 


of masoDry, was disposed. The inference would seem to be that the 
urns were not laid horizontallj, for they are said to have been retir 
nersSes perpendieulairementf Is goulet en has, which would lead to the 
supposition that they formed part of the crust of a yaulting. Such a 
mass, however, could not have fellen without completely fracturing 
the urns. 

Mr. Loftus's discovery appears to be yet more extraordinary and 
unaccountable. — I remam, &c., 

A Mbicbbr. 

To the Editor of the Archmologia Cambrensis, 

Sir, — I have often observed large mortice holes in the great tie> 
beams of the roof of Llanaber Church on each side, and it appeared 
to me that the principals between the tie-beams had been cut off just 
above the springs of their arches, and immediately over the clerestory 
windows. Thi§ led me to think that those windows were not part of 
the original plan ; also, the horizontal cuts across the principals seem 
more modem than the other workings of the carpentry. Tonlay, as 
the workmen were taking down the old plaster, preparatory to replas- 
teriug the church, I observed, at some distance below the sides of the 
clerestory windows, square holes in the walls, edged with worked free- 
stone. They are in a perpendicular line with the cut$-off of the 
principals to which I have alluded, and I have no doubt that hammer- 
beams, or some support for the principals above, were inserted into 
these holes. It is, of course, impossible to say when this alteration 
was effected. The clerestory windows do not appear of later date than 
the few other lancet windows, of which traces remained prior to the 
present restorations. 

In my former notices of those restorations, I believe that I omitted 
to mention a very remarkable lancet window, much perished, on the 
south side of the chancel. This window appeared to have, outside, a 
circular moulding all round it, on the centre of the chamfer plane, sill 
included. The only instance which I have noticed where this remark- 
able feature occurs, is in a window, one of the stones of which were dug 
up a few years since at Castell y Bere, and that appears to have been 
exactly similar. Upon pulling down the Llanaber window, for the 
purpose of restoring it exactly, we discovered that it had been not a 
single lancet, but a couplet ; and, after a very minute examination by a 
Gothic friend and myself, we made out, to the best of our belief, that 
it had had '' soffit cusps." It has been restored, so far as its perished 
state would allow of its being done, exactly eu it originally stood, and 
I have great pleasure in stating that it is much approved of by my 
friend the rector, and by those who have examined it. The restoration 
of this fine old church, probably the finest of its date in North Wales, 
is, doubtless, a subject of much interest We ought to speak very 


thankiully of a gentleman who has given permission for the removal 
of a large family monument from one of the pillars of the nave, and 
its re^rection in any other position within the church that the rector 
may select. That remarkable feature of Llanaber, the single lancet 
at the east end of the chancel, has been restored perfectly, and its 
mouldings cleaned of their coating of white- wash. We discovered 
on the east wall of the chancel a painting, which it was hoped might 
turn out interesting. It proved, however, to be a representation of 
a female sovereign, and upon a label over it was ** God bless the 
Q . . . •" doubtless, an efiusion of the loyalty of some rector of that 
day to our " Virgin Queen." — I remain, &c., 

November 29, 1868. W. W. E. W. 

To the Editor of the Archieologia Cambrensis. 

Sir, — In answer to the inquiry of " An Antiquary " in No. XVI. 
of the Journal, respecting the monuments of the ** Ankress" and Lord 
Grey, I can inform him that of the latter nothing is known, and it 
was probably destroyed about 160 years ago, when the south side of 
the church was rebuilt. In the garden attached to the cloisters is, or 
was, the mutilated effigy of a female ; but, if my recollection is accu- 
rate, the dress was not that of a religious female. Churchyard, how- 
ever, may have called it an ** Ankress " without any authority, so that 
the figure I allude to may be the one the poet saw. 

The ** Antiquary " very properly describes the tower as a modem 
barbarism — ^a character not to be redeemed by the addition of the new 
spire, which, creditable as it is to the architect, is sadly out of place, 
and always will be, in spite of the intended high-pitch roofs, which may 
diminish in some degree the present unseemly appearance, but never 
can remove the objection of placing a spire of such a character on such 
a tower. The original plan was to have cased the tower, and added 
buttresses, which would have given the people of Ruthin a church 
properly restored ; and it is very much to be regretted that Mr. Pen- 
son s plans were interfered with. As it stands, it is a decided mistake, 
and one unfortunately incurable, unless the tower itself receives ex- 
pensive alterations and additions, which may give it some approach to 
such a tower as should be surmounted bv such a spire. 

Before the rebuilding of the south front of the church the walls 
were painted yellow, with black ornamental work. From some 
remains that came to light when the present south windows were 
inserted, it appeared that this painting was of the same date as the 
panelled and ornamented roof on the north side of the church. This 
is supposed to have been eiven by Henry VII., who came into pos- 
session of the lordship, and who might thus have evinced his gratitude 
to his Welsh supporters at Bosworth. In almost all the churches 
in the lordship, Perpendicular east windows have been inserted — some 


of them handsome ones, and apparently by the same hand, from their 
similarity. We may perhaps assign these windows also to the same 
royal benefactor. — I remain, kc,, 

A Mbmbbr. 


To ike Editor of the Archaologia CambrensU. 

Sir, — After perusing the interesting account of Penmynydd in the 
last Number of the Archaohgia Camhremis, I am induced to send 
the following notices of the Tudor family, which may be of some 
assistance in ascertaining to whose memonr the splendid monument in 
that church was erected. In the first place, the shield of arms de- 
scribed does not contain a chevron between 3 Saracens' heads, but S 
pen SaiSf or Englishmen's heads, the well known arms of the cele- 
Drated Ednyved Vychan, chief counsellor and general of Llewelyn 
ab lorwerth, Sovereign Prince of Wales. When commanding in the 
wars between Llewelyn and John, King of England, he attacked the 
army of Ranulph, Earl of Chester, and obtamed a signal victory, 
killing three of the chief captains and commanders of the enemy, 
whose heads he laid at the feet of his sovereign. For this exploit he 
had conferred on him new armorial ensigns, emblematic of the occa- 
sion, and these continue to be borne by his descendants, among others 
by Sir Richard Williams Bulkeley, Bart. By his first wife, Gwen- 
llian, daughter of Rhys ab Orufiydd, Prince of South Wales, he had 
two sons, Gruffydd and Grono. To the second, Grono, he bequeathed 
the three manors of Penmynydd, Tre Castell, and Arddreiniog, 
with other extensive estates. Grono ab Ednyved, an illustrious and 
powerful man, resided at Tre Castell, near Llanvaes, and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Tudor, commonly called Tudor HSn ab Gh^no, who 
divided his lands at his decease among his three sons, Grono, Howel, 
and Madog. He spent an honourable life at Penmynydd, died 
October 9th, and was buried in the Bangor Monastery, which he 
himself had built, in a tomb made for him in the south wall of the 
chapel, at Friers, in the vear 1811. After the father's death, his sons 
enjoyed among themselves the whole inheritance of their father. 
Hx>wel died without issue; Madog, having received holy orders, 
became the first Archdeacon of Anglesey, and afterwards a most 
renowned Abbot of Conwy, left his lands to his own monastery of 
Conwy. Grono, the eldest son, having aciqnired the property of his 
brother Howel, made his son Tudor his heir, and was ouned with his 
fiither at Bangor, December 11, a.d. 1331. Sir Tudor ab Grono, a 
man of great valour, was a favourite of Edward III., by whom he 
was knignted. His wife was the Lady Margaret, daughter of Thomas 
ab Llewelyn, Lord of South Wales, and sister of the Lady Eleanor, 
the mother of Owen Glyndwrdu. He divided his estate among his 
five sons, viz., Grono, Ednyved, Gwilym, Meredydd, and Rhys. He 


lived mostly at Tre Castell, where he also died, and was buried in the 
Friary, at Bangor, September 19, 1367. Meredydd, the fourth son, 
committed a murder, which obliged him to flee his country, and live 
in exile. He was the father of Owen Tudor, beheaded in 1461, the 
grandfather of Henry VII. Grono, the eldest son of Sir Tudor ab 
Grono, obtained Penmynydd for his share, where he lived and died. 
He left an only daughter, Morvydd, who was married to William ab 
GnifFydd ab Gwilym, (ab Gruffydd ab Heilyn ab Sir Tudor ab 
Ednvved Vychan,) of Penrhyn, in the county of Caernarvon. Tudor 
Vychan succeeded to Penmynydd after his mother's death. He was 
followed by his son, Owen Tudor Vychan, who was esquire of the 
body to Henry VII. Then succeeded his son, Richard Owen, Esq., 
of Penmynydd, sheriff of Anglesey in 1565, and 1573. His son, 
Richard Owen Tudor, next followed, who was the father of David 
Owen Tudor, who signed Lewis Dwnn's Pedigrees, in 1588, and 
was the father of Richard Owen, Esq., of Penmynydd, sheriff of 
Anglesey in 1623, and father of Richard Owen Tudor, the last male 
lineal descendant, and sheriff of Anglesey in 1657. His daughter and 
heiress, Margaret, was married to Conningsby Williams, Esq., of 
Glanygors, in this county, who enjoyed Penmynydd during his life. 
Having no issue by his first wife, the estate passed to Jane, daughter 
of Rowland Bulkeley, Esq., of Porthamel, by Mary, his wife, 
daughter of Richard Owen, Esq., of Penmynydd, who was married 
to Richard Meyrick, Esq., of Bodorgan. She sold the estate in 1722 
to Lord Bulkeley, and it now belongs to Sir Richard Williams 
Bulkeley, Bart., who is lineally descended from Ednyved Vychan. 

I remain, &c., 
Rhydycroesau, Oswestry, Robert Williams, M.A. 

March 3, 1859. 


To the Editor of the Archwologia Cambrenm, 

Sir, — I am very willing to allow Mr. Basil Jones to have the last 
word in this controversy in its present stage, as it is only becoming 
wider and wandering farther and farther from the point, without 
promising any useful result. It appears to me that Mr. Jones has 
already abandoned the main points in discussion to fall upon secondary 
ones, and that the argument is becoming diluted and frittered away, 
instead of being cleared up. As far as I can gather, we are not always 
agreed on the meanings of words. When I state a simple ascertained 
fact which points to a certain conclusion, and Mr. Basil Jones replies 
by suggesting that such and such things might have been which 
would contradict that conclusion, I call this arguing by suppositions 
against facts ; but Mr. Basil Jones seems to consider this a misnomer. 
In his former paper, he quoted the Saxon Chronicle for " the first 
external notice of the Cymry," and then gave the words, which are, 



*' King Eadmund harrowed all Camberland ;" and he now complains 
that I call this quoting the An^Io-Saxon Chronicle incorrectly. In* 
asmuch as the Saxon Chronicle says nothing about '^Cymry/' I 
cannot help thinking that it is strictly speaking an incorrect or erro- 
neous quotation. As to the derivation of the name of Cumberland, 
Mr. Basil Jones says " he never heard of this derivation before/' in a 
manner which would lead one to suppose that he thought I bad 
invented it. I fancy he need go no further to seek it than an ordinary 
Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. I turn to Dr. Bosworth's, as the first at 
hand, and find it there. Arguments of this kind are liable to be 
carried on for the mere ingenuity of arguing, and too often fall into 
not only ^'chopping logic," by which I b^ to say that I meant nothing 
offensive, but into a sort of personal recrimination which certainly 
leads to no good purpose. Mr. Basil Jones quotes what I have said 
of a certain perioa of Armorican history, and accuses me of not giving 
authorities. I am quite sure that he neither suspects me of inventing 
the story, nor of concealing the source of it by design. In &ct, I was 
anxious to be as brief as possible, and as in the case of the derivation 
of the name of Cumberland, I thought I was stating what was suffi* 
ciently generally known, and was content to give the facts as I found 
them stated elsewhere. I believe my authonty was chiefly the first 
volume (new edition) of the History of France, by Henri Martin, in 
which the materials for this period have been tolerably well brought 
together, though I bv no means agree in all the author's conclusions. 
He has, however, I think shown pretty well the part the Armoricans 
acted in the '' Bagauderie." I was very far from supposing that there 
are no Roman antiquities in Britannv — it is a question into which I 
did not enter, because we know tolerably well the outlines of the 
history of the Roman occupation of that district, I still hold that it 
was by no means so much Romanized as Wales, and the explanation 
is a very simple one — ^Wales was one of the most important Roman 
mining districts, and I am not aware that Armorica enjoyed this dis- 
tinction. As I have remarked, Mr. Basil Jones goes on widening the 
controversy instead of narrowing it, and he runs into secondary and 
collateral questions, to investigate which I might perhaps be seduced 
into taking up one half of your next Number, and this would perhaps 
bring a reply still more expanded, and one does not know what might 
be the end ; I will, therefore, simply call back attention to what was 
the real beginning of the discussion. I have remarked on the extreme 
obscurity of the period of the history of this island of which we are 
speaking, and have urged that the only really accurate materials of 
this history are those which we deter from under the soil, and that we 
must look to these for the ultimate discovery of truth. I have said, 
and I am every day more convinced of it, that these records show that 
the so-called documentary records of the history of this period, on 
which our popular history of it is founded, are entirely worthless. 
These monuments which I recommend to notice seem to me to be 
perfectly reconcileable with the slight notices we find in known con- 


temporary or nearly contemporary writers. In comparing them serious 
doubts presented themselves to me as to the accuracy of our commonly 
received notions of the origin of the population of Wales — doubts 
which I most confess have not been in any degree cleared up by this 
discussion — and I suggested them as a point towards which further 
investigations might be directed. We have thus to deal with two 
classes of records of history, those which are commonly called docu- 
mentaiy records, which in this case are deplorably scanty, and those 
which for distinction I will call archseological records, which are more 
abundant, and which continued researches may make much more so. 
I believe, from the love for careful research which Mr. Basil Jones 
displays, that when he has made himself fully acquainted with the 
latter class of records, there will be no great disagreement between us. 

I remain, &c., 

Thomas Wright. 


To the Editor of the Archaologia Cainbrensis. 

Sir, — At a meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of London, held 
on December 23, 1858, an interesting paper was read by Mr. W. D. 
Cooper, on <' The Great Seals of England between 1648 and 1660.'' 
In it mention was made of a private seal of Oliver Cromwell's, which, 
as it involved in its description an account of his armorial bearings, 
more ample than what is commonly known, I think may be accep- 
table to some of our members. Of course for a full description I 
must refer them to the pages of the Archoiologia Lond. It appears 
that five days after Cromwell had constituted himself Protector, on 
December 12, 1653, he issued, under his own sign manual and private 
eealj a commission for the office of admiral and general of the fleet 
This very commission, with the seal attached, belongs, I believe, to 
the Society of Antiquaries. It bears the following arms, viz. : — 

1. SahUj a lion rampant argent^ for Cromwell^ alias Williams, 

2. Sable^ 9 spear-heads araent imbrued gules, for Kenfig-Sais. 
[Mr. Cooper conjectures that this is a mistake for '* sable, a chevron 
between 3 spear-neads argent imbrued gules, for Caradoc Vreichvras, 
from whom Cromwell was lineally descended." 

3. Sable, a chevron between 3 neurs-de-lys, for CoUwyn a/p Tangno* 

4. Gules, 3 chevronels argent, for lestyn ap Otvrgant, 

5. Argent, a lion rampant sable, for Mereaydd, Prince of Powys. 

6. The same as 1. 

Some of our members may be able perhaps to say something about 
these bearings ; at any rate a copy or this seal, wnich has abundant 
pretensions to be considered a Welsh one, ought to be solicited of the 
Society of Antiquaries, and added to the great collection of Welsh 
seals in the Museum of the Royal Institution of South Wales, at 
Swansea. Any of our own members who belong to the London 



Society would be able, I sbould think, to obtain this favonr for us, 
and the seal itself might with propriety be engraved for our own 
Journal. — I remain, &c.y 

February 18, 1859. An Antiquary. 


To the Editor of the Archmohgia CambrensU. 

Sir, — S. S. inquires, p. 72, about the similarity of the Welsh and 
Breton languages. As most of the simple terms, and many idioms, 
are identical in both, short sentences would in a great measure be 
mutually intelligible, though a long conversation could not be main- 
tained. I have sent you the first ten verses of the first chapter of 
St. John's Gospel, in the three Cyroraeg dialects, for comparison, and 
the close connection between the three will be evident. The Welsh 
version is slightly altered from the authorized one. The Breton is by 
Legonidec ; and I am answerable for the Cornish. Mr. Basil Jones 
asserts, p. 80, that the Cornish was nearly identical with the Breton ; 
but my researches have not led me to that conclusion. The Cornish 
is more closely related to Welsh than to Breton, and so is the Breton 
again to Welsh than to Cornish. The Breton and Cornish, however, 
have some points in common, and both different from the Welsh ; but 
I have not found six radical terms peculiar to Breton and Cornish, 
and which are not to be found in Welsh. I have treated the matter 
very fully in my ComUh Dictionary^ which I hope to be able to print 
soon, as one obstacle is now removed by the publication of the three 
Cornish dramas, preserved in manuscript in the Bodleian Library, 
For this great boon the students of Celtic literature are indebted to 
Edwin Norris, Esq., who has accomplbhed his task with consummate 
ability. — I remain, &c., 

Rhydycroesau, Oswestry, Robert Williams, M.A. 

Feb. 21, 1859. 


Yr Evengyl Sanctaidd 
hertoydd St. loan. 

1. Yn y dcchreuad 
(pencyntav) yr oedd y 
Gair, a'r Gair oedd gyd 
a Duw, a Duw oedd y 

2. Hwn yma oedd yn 
y dechreu gyda Duw. 

3. Trwyddo ev y 
gwnaed pob pcth; ac 
hebddo ev ni waaed dim 
aV a wnaed. 

4. Ynddo ev yr oedd 
byw}'d; a'rbywydoedd 
oleuni dynion (tud). 


Aviel Satitel hervez SarU 

1. Er pcn-centa edo 
ar GeFf iiag ar Ger a 
ioa gand Doue, hag ar 
Gcr a ioa Doue. 

2. He-man a ioa er 
pen-centa gand Doue. 

3. Cement tra a zo 
bet great gant-han ; ha 
nctra euz a gemend a 
zo bet great, n*eo bet 
great hep-z-han. 

4. Enn-han cdo ar 
Tuez, hag ar Tuez a oa 
goulou ann dud. 


EvengU Sans hencydh 
St. Juan. 

1. Yn dalleth (pen- 
censa) o an Ger, lia*n 
Ger o gans Dew, ha 
Dew o an Ger. 

2. Hemma o yn dall- 
eth gans Dew. 

3. Puptra a wreys 
gan^; ha hep ef ni 
wreys nebtra usy wrej's. 

4. Ynno ythese an 
bewnans ha'n bewnans 
o golow an dus. 



5. AV golenni (goleu) 
sydd vn llewyrchu yn y 
t^Tryllwch ; a'r tywy- 
Uwch nid oedd yn ei 

6. Yr ydoedd gwr 
wedi ei ddanvon oddi- 
wTth Dduw, a*i enw 

7. Hwn yma a ddaeth 
yn dystiolaeth, yel y 
tystioLaethai am v gole- 
tini, vel y credai pawb 
trwyddo ev. 

8. Nid oedd hwn yna 
y goleiini, eithr eve a 
anvonasid vel y tystiol- 
aethai am y goleum. 

9. Hwn yina ydoedd 
y gynr oleum, yr hwn 
sydd yn goleuo pob d}Ti 
a'r y sydd yn dyvod i'r 

10. Yny byd yr oedd 
eve, a'r byd a wnaed 
trwyddo ev; a'r byd nid 
adnabu ev. 

5. Hag ar ^ulou a 
Inch en devahen, hag 
ann devalien ne deuz 
ced he boeUet 

6. Bez'e oe emm den 
caset gan Done, pehini 
a oa hanvet lann. 

7. He-man a zeuaz 
da dest, da rei testeni 
d'ar goulon, evit ma 
credshe ann hoU dre-z- 

8. Ne ced hen a oa 
ar goulon ; hogen deued 
e oa evit rei testeni d'ar 

9. Hen-hont a oa ar 
gwir choulou, pehini a 
sclera cemend den a zeu 
er bed man. 

10. Er bed edo, hag 
ar bed a zo bet great 
gant-han, hag ar bed 
n'en deuz ced he ana- 

5. Ha'n golow a splan 
yn tcwolgow, ha'n te- 
wolgow ny'n wothye. 

6. Ythese den danv- 
enys adhiworth Dhew, 
ha hanow dhotho Juan. 

7. Hemma a dheth 
dho dest, may tocco 
destunny a-barth an go- 
low, may cresse pup ol 

8. Nyngo henna an 
golow, mes danvenys 
ythese may tocco des- 
tunny a-biurth an golow. 

9. Hemma o an gwir 
wolow, neb a wolowa 
pup den usy ow tos 
dh an bys. 

10. Yn bys ythese, 
ha'n bys a wreys dretho, 
ha'n bys ny'n aswonas. 


To the Editor of the Archeeologia Cambrensu. 

8iR, — We enjoy the enviable privilege of reading the " Proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland/' a copy of which, as the 
numbers appear, is forwarded to the Association Bretonne in exchange 
for their publications. Part 2 of vol. ii. is just come to hand, and in 
p. 217 we find the following statement, read at the sitting of the 
Society on the 14th July, 1856:— 

" Mr. Stuart, secretary, stated that, in consequence of reports of the recent 
destruction of a remarkable stone circle near the old castle of Moyness, in 
Naimghire, belonging to Lord Cawdor, he had communicated with his 
lordship's factor on the subject. From the answer of that gentleman it 
appeared that the reports in question had been greatly exaggerated. When 
the present line of road was made, many years ago, it was canicd through the 
circle, and many stones were removed ; but no recent encroachment on the 
circle, such as that referred to in the newspapers, has taken place, either to 
straighten an arable field, or for any other purpose. The supposed rocking- 
ttane consisted of one of the upright pillars, which had fallen over some smaller 
ones, leaving an end unsupported, and by jumping on this end a heavy man 
could just move it. The oidy change that has taken place on the circle, for 

years, is the removal of this pillar without the knowledge 

of the landlord or his &ctor." 


Notwithstanding the difference in naming the county (Moray 
instead of Nairn), there can be little doubt that the extract taken 
from the Forres Oazette^ and introduced into the article on '' Groupes 
of stones called Dancers, in Northern Graul and Britanny/' ArchieO' 
logia Cambrensis, Third Series, vol. ir. p. 394, refers to the monu- 
ment spoken of by Mr. Stuart. 

We are the more anxious to correct the misHStatement, in the 
propagation of which we have unwittingly participated, because of 
the recent agitation of the rocking-stone question, and, indeed, of 
the stone monument question in general. — I remain, &c., 

R. Pbrbott. 

January 1, 1859. 


To the Editor of the ArchBologia Cambreneis* 

Sir,— I find, in the October Number of the ArchiBologia Cam- 
brensiSf a notice by W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., of a bronze vessel found 
at Hendreforfydd, near Corwen. Judging from the drawing there 
given, it appears to be so like in shape to one I observed in the collec- 
tion of J. P. Senhouse, Esq., of Netherhall, Cumberland, that I 
cannot refrain from sending you a sketch I made of this latter. It stands 
eight inches high, of bronze, and is classed at present with some other 
articles of great interest, obtained from the adjacent Roman station of 
Yirosidum ^ Mary port) ; but it is labelled as having been discovered 
somewhere in Galloway, on the opposite side of the Solway. I saw 
a similarly shaped bronze tripodal vessel in the porch of Dumfries 
Church, which, I was told, had been dug up when the foundations of 
that building were being laid. — I remain, &c., 

W. Wtnn Williams. 
Menaifron, Dec. 11, 1868. 


artliffinlngital jlnhs anit (Hmm. 

Note 42. — Haverfordwest. — With regard to the name of this 
town, I learn from the Records in the Chapter-House, at West- 
minster, that it was called Hayerford-n7««^ to distinguish it from 
Haverford-^o^^, that part of the town built on the eastern bank of the 
Cleddau* I also learn that it was formerly called Caer Helen, at 
least so it is said, on the authority of a MS. British History, formerly 
preserved at St Clears, bat burnt, as being JPopishf in the times of the 
Great Rebellion. An Antiquary. 

N. 43. — Caer Sws. — I have recently perused a letter from etymo- 
logical Baxter to archaeological Lhwyd, in which he says, — ** Perhaps 
Caer Sus was in Latin called Segusio, as Suza in Gallia Subalpina, 
now Piedmont, upon the Duria or Doria ; quasi Se guy» ui, or Se 
guydh ui, — ad canspectum amnis Duriee et sabrianae." What will 
Mr. Davies say to this conjecture so destructive of his own about 
Mediolanum ? J. 

Q^ery 83. — MYDDPAi.-^Can any of your correspondents give a 
full, true, and particular account of the inscribed stone, or ^' St. Paul's 
Marble," removed about thirty years ago from Myddfai to Cilgwyn, 
Caermarthenshire ? M. A. 

Q. 84.— Pepper Street and Roman Roads. — In the Fourth Part 
of the Journal published by the Archseological Society of Chester, the 
late Mr. Massey stated that almost always Roman roads in England 
are associated with a Pepper Street, which term he derived from 
Pebble Street, or a street paved with smaller stones than in the case 
of the principal highways. Without discussing the question of the 
derivation, may I ask, is this statement of Mr. Massey s borne out by 
facts ? Can any instances be mentioned ? There is a Pepper Street 
in Chester. Are there streets of that name to be found at Gloucester, 
Colchester, Leicester, &c. M. N« 

Q. 85. — ^YcHELDRE. — Can any information be given as to who 
was the heir of Ycheldre in 1700 ? He was, as such, the visitor of 
Bala School, and was connected with the property left by Sir Edmund 
Meyricke for the benefit of Jesus College, Oxford. 

L. G. 

Anewer to Query 36, vol. ii. Third Series. — Welsh Coins. — The 
Welsh, properly so called, appear to have had no coinage of their 
own, ana no doubt made use of Saxon and Norman pennies during 
the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth centuries. How long the Roman 
money may have been in circulation is not easily determined ; but it 


is a remarkable circumstance that, thouprh we have plenty of British 
money, prior to or contemporary with the Roman occupation of this 
country, the Welsh have never, I think, coins of their own ; at least 
none, I believe, have ever been found. It is probable therefore that 
the ordinary coin of England was used and appreciated as much as it 
is in the present day by the inhabitants of Wales. A Membbr. 

AfUTver to Query 50, vol. iii. Third Series, p. 76. — Isle of Mak 
Records. — In a curious and scarce little book, called the '* History 
and Description of the Isle of Man," second edition, London, 1745, 
a brief allusion is made to the removal of the Manx Records. In 
speaking of Castletown, and alluding to the year 1726, the author 
says, — ** The Courts of Judicature are also kept here, and what 
records of the Island are yet remaining ; but the greatest part of them 
in troublesome times were carried away by the Norwegians, and 
deposited among the archives of the Bishop of Drunton, (Dron- 
theim,) in Norway, where they still remain, though a few years since 
Mr. Stevenson, an eminent, worthy, and learned merchant, of Dublin, 
offered the then Bishop of Drunton a considerable sum for the purchase 
of them; designing to restore and present them to the Island, but the 
Bishop of Drunton would not part with them on any terms." Perhaps 
** Li. T" may find some allusion to the sobiect of his inquiry in the 
account of Rushen Castle lately published by the Rev. J. G. Cumming. 

D. D. 

Answer to Query 81. — Cil and Llan. — The Welsh prefix "Cil" 
appears to be synonymous with the Irish ''Kil." In the comparative 
Vocabulary in the Archmologia JBritannica of Edward LIuyd, under 
the word ** Celo " there are the following comparative synonyms, 
which I give with the author's orthography: — Celo, to hide — Welsh, 
Kely, Cidhio— Cornish, Kitha — ^Armorican, Kydha — Irish, Keilim. 
According to Ecton's Thesaurus there are twenty-seven parishes in 
England and Wales having the prefix '^Kil" in their names. There 
are fifteen having ''Sel" which it is submitted b ''Cel" Anglicised; 
the latter never occurring except it is in the form of " Chel," of which 
thirteen parishes have that prefix. The word ''Llan" occurs other 
than as denoting the church of the patron saint; as Llanaber, the 
church at the conflux ; Liana von, the church by the river; Llangoed, 
the church by the wood ; Llanfaes, Llanwaen, &c., &c. As respects 
the combination of ''Llan" and " Cil " I can only find one parochial 
name where these words are united in the form or ^' Llancilo." 

J. D. 


351iJtillantnin Mniiits. 

Llandaff Cathedral. — The works are going on most satis- 
factorily at the west end of the nave, and probably by the end of 
this year the whole of that portion of the cathedral will be roofed in. 

Christ Church^ Brecon. — The restoration of the Dominican 
Priory Cbapely and the Decanal House, with the new buildings of 
the Grammar School, have been entrusted, we are happy to say, to 
Messrs. Prichard and Seddon, of Llandaff. 

Abbravon. — The old church at this place having become far too 
small for the increasing congre^tion, a new one has been recently 
erected by Messrs. Prichard and Seddon, of Llandaff. It is of the 
style of the fourteenth century, and in its walls are incrusted some 
windows from the old building, in order to preserve a slight record of 
it in the new. 

Caerphilly Castle. — A short time since some strangers, admitted 
to the interior of this castle, endeavoured to chip away one of the 
finely sculptured heads in the great hall. This wanton piece of Van- 
dalism — we would rather sav of robbery — was fortunately detected, 
and the persons were, we believe, ejected. If we could ascertain their 
names we lYould certainly publish them. 

Cornish Mysteries. — We have received, too late for reviewing 
in the present Number, Mr. Norris' volumes, containing the dramas in 
Ancient Cornish, which he has just published. It is a most valuable 
book, and we hope before long to give an extended notice of it. 

Mostyn Library. — ^A collection of nearly 800 letters of the times 
of James II., and the subsequent reigns, relating greatly to Wales, 
has been add^ to this fine library. We believe that they are now in 
process of being arranged and catalogued. 

Llanasa, Flintshire. — The fine old manor-house in this village 
b fast going to decay. Will none of our Flintshire members furnish 
us with drawings, and an account of it ? 

Castbll y Bere, Merioneth. — We understand that Mr. Wynne 
is continuing his excavations successfully at this place, and we hope, 
in a future Number, to give a detailed account of what has been done. 

Rohan Coins. — Upon the small island of St. Margaret, near 
Tenby, Roman coins are occasionally found. About two years ago 
one of Carausius was picked up, and, last February, a brass one of 
Constantine. Ohv.^ imp . constantinyb .p.p. ayo. Bev., soli . 





The Dkscendants of the Stuarts. Bj Williak Townbkd. 
1 vol. 8vo. Second Edition. Longmans. 1858. 

It is impossible to review a Stuart book without feeling, if not 
'showing, strong political feeling^, either for or against the cause of that 
unfortunate family. The politics of our own daj, dating as to the 
origin of their divisions from the times of the Tudors, have received 
their more immediate tinge from the reigns of the Stuarts ; and any 
English historical writer who should profess his indifference to the 
^at events of the seventeenth century, should be set down at once aa 
insincere — as a humbug j in fact— for such he would be neither more 
nor less. The writer, therefore, of this notice avows himself, without 
hesitation, as altogether what is called a "Jacobite;" and, from th« 
time of Mary Stuart downwards to the present day, he confesses his 
warmest sympathies and convictions to be altogether anti-Elizabethan, 
anti-Cromwellian, anti-Hanoverian. Thus much having been pre- 
mised, it is now for him to notice the book mentioned above as a 
matter of dry archseological duty — to look upon it as another instra* 
nient in the hands of scientific antiquaries for eliminating error, and 
for discovering truth — as one of the tools, in fact, wherewith archsdo- 
lo^cal mines are ever to be worked. 

If it be asked, " of what use is it to bring a book concerning the 
Stuarts before Webh antiquaries?" the answer is this, — that at the 
time of the Revolution, and for long after, the sympathies of th« 

f»rincipal gentry of the Principality were strongly in favour of the 
osing cause ; and so long did tiiis continue, that, had Prince Charles 
Edward marched on Chester instead of on Derby, in 1745, there is 
little doubt but that most of the Welsh gentry would have risen in 
arms for him. Numerous traces and proofs of these feelingrg still exist 
in Wales ; old family stories, and traditions as to places and times of 
meeting, &c. — many things illustrate this type of feeling at that 
troubled period. Two instances, among others, may be mentioned ; 
the first dates as &r back as 1688, when one of the principal gentlemen 
of Denbighshire, a baronet, who also possessed the magnificent estate 
of Wolverton, in Buckinghamshire, sold it to Dr. Radcliffe, the court 
physician, and put the whole of the proceeds, jB40,000, into the hands 
of James II., on Hounslow Heath, just after Marlborough had made 
up his mind to assassinate the king in hb coach. Out of this very 
estate, bequeathed to the University of Oxford by the doctor, the 
Radcliffe Library has been built. Another instance is, that on various 
estates of North Wales, particularly in Flintshire, enormous barns 
were erected durine the reigns of Anne and Oeorge I., far too large 
for any agricultund purposes warranted by the estates. They were 

REVIBW8. 155 

intended to serve as cavalry barracks, and would have lodged large 
bodies of borse, had the rising taken place. In Rathin, the old room 
where the Jacobite Club xued to meet, has onlj recently been dis- 
mantled — ^most needlessly, as any unbiassed arcbasologisti could such 
an one be found, would declare. 

We think, therefore, that we are not travelling out of our way in 
saying to Welsh antiquaries that the present work of Mr. Towuend's 
constitutes a valuable supplementary appendage to all that has been 
written and discovered about the Stuarts. It is superfluous to state 
that it is diametricallv opposed to what we consider the mendacious 
but brilliant work which was lately written for a coronet, and paid for 
with one ; but its principal value consists in its tracing all the existing 
branches of the Stuarts throughout their numerous European rami- 
fications. Of course it brings forward prominently the fact, well 
known to historical students, Uiat the present Duke of Modena is the 
direct senior representative of the royal family of Stuart, in whom all 
their claims centre; and that next to him comes his niece, Mary 
Theresa, born 2nd July, 1849. Should her Royal Highness die 
without issue, her claim rests between her father's two sisters, — one, 
Theresa, married to Henry V., titular King of France, and Count 
of Chambord ; the other, Mary, the wife of Don John, brother of 
Charles YI., King of Spain, whose two sons inherit of course his 
claims to the crown of the Spanish monarchy. 

Some of the biographical accounts of the less known among what 
we may call the continental Stuarts are exceedingly interesting. We 
give the following as brief specimens : — 

*^ It will thus be peroeived that in point of fact only four Royal Personages 
were excluded by the Act of Successioiii as all these princes and princesses, 
with the exertion of the Princess Palatine Louisa, had for progenitors either 
James H. ; Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans ; Charles Louis, Elector Palatine ; 
or Prince Edward. Of these James H., Elizabeth Charlotte (daughter of 
Charles Louis), and Prince Edward, as also the Palatine Princess Louisa 
Toluntaril^ embraced the Romish fiuth, whilst Henrietta, Duchess of Orleans, 
was bred m it from infiuncy by her moUier. Sophia, the heiress to the Crown 
of England, was the only remaining descendant of James L who had issue 
beyond those just eniunerated as exduded ; but her progeny we have erst thia 
narrated Her eldest son, George Louis, ascended tne English throne on the 
death of his cousin Queen Anne, and figures in our annals as King George L ; 
of his brothers, two, viz., Frederick and Charles, entered the service of the 
Emperor of Germany, in whose service they fell fighting against the Turks, 
1690. Of the others, Maximilian, the third son, embraced the tenets of the 
Church of Rome. He died in 1726. Christian, the fiflh son, died in 1708; 
and Ernest Augustus, the youngest, who was titular Bishop of Osnaburgh, in 
1728. All these princes were unmarried. Sophia, the only daughter and her 
mother*s namesake, espoused Frederic L, Kmg of Prussia, by whom she 
became ancestress of the present Royal Family, the heir to whose monarchy 
is so shortly to be united to England's fairest floweret, the eldest daughter of 
oar amiable queen.*^ 

^i Beaoedicta Henrietta Philippa, third daughter of Prince Edward Palatine, 
and yonnger sister of Anne, Princess of Cond^, was bom on the thirteendi 


daj of March, ie5S. She married, 1666, John Fiederick, Dtdoe of HsnoWv 
elaer brother and wedeoessor of that Ernest Augustus, more familiar to 
English readers as toe fiither of our Geoive L This prince, who was the last 
GaUioHc who reigned over Hanover, had not been reared in that fiuth, but 
had embraced it during his travels in Italy, in 1657. As a Romazdst, and 
attached to the French party in Germany, ne was conadered by Louis XIV. 
a desirable suitor for the hand of the Princess Benedicta. They were married 
on the twentieth of November, 1668 ; but as their union was unblessed with 
male issue, the duchy descended, on the duke's decease, to his younger brother, 
Ernest Augostos. Duke John, finding that his prafession of Catholiciaii 
rendered him unpc^uiar with his subjects, determined on soing to reside wi^ 
his fiunily in Italy ; but on his way thither, h&ng sudcknly attacked widi 
illness, he expired at Augsburg, on the eighteenth of December, 1679. This 
sad event necessitated a chanse in Benedicta's arrangements, and instead of 
taking up her residence in Itafy, as she had previously intended, she returned 
to France, where she occupiei herself witn the education of her fiunily. 
Unfortunately she was not Icdft in veij afiluent circumstances ; notwithstanding 
which she formed the most lofty alliances for her children. ^ She had set her 
heart on manryine her eklest daughter to the Due du Maine, son of Loiiia 
XIV., but unluckily that monarch preferred a niece of Benedicta's, the Prin- 
cess de Conde. Of her four dauehters, two died young, leaving Charlotte 
Felicita, who married the Duke of Modena, and Wilhelmina, who espoused 
the Emperor Joseph L, of Germany. This latter princess, by ^e same 
fatality that attenaed her mother and crandmother, had no male issue; so 
that by a continued failure of male pnnces, the Palatinate, Hanover, and 
Austna all passed away firom the ill-fated House of Simmeren. A detailed 
history of Benedicta of Hanover would involve the reader in the masy field 
of German politics ; and as the part she enacted in them was neither a promi- 
nent nor important one, we will spare them a tedious recapitulation. Bene- 
dicta, who, after her husband's death, continuously resided in France, died 
there at the age of seventy-eight, at Asni^res, her sister's residence, on the 
twelfth o£ August, nao.*" 

Mr. Townend gives a carious table of the descendants of the 
Electress Sophia, Dachess of Hanover, mother of George I., and 
shows that, after Her Most Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria and her 
family, they are now uinety-ni$^ in number! 

We are sorry to observe two errors in this carefully compiled work, 
and we do not hesitate to rectify them. At p. 37 the author says, — 
'^ There is reason to believe that Charles himself (Charles II.) died, 
even if he had not lived, in the communion of that faith ' (the 
Catholic) ; whereas there is no doubt whatever on the subject. James 
II., in his own Memoirs, states it as a positive fact, and gives circum- 
stantial aocoants of the king's death-bed, and the interview with the 
Protestant bishops and his own Catholic confessor. Charles in hot 
had been half converted by his mother. Queen Henrietta, while in 
Holland, though James resisted his mother's solicitations, incurring 
thereby her displeasure, and was not converted until his duchess, 
Anne Hyde, had renounced her previous creed, and joined the Church 
of Rome. 

Again, at p. 37, Mr. Townend says, — ** Until his brother's resto- 
ration, James wandered on the Continent without home or friends, aad 

UEVIBW8. 1 57 

almost penniieflB." ThiB, tboneh partially trae at one time, was not so 
always; for James II. served with great distinction in the French 
army, rose to the rank of lieutenant-general in it, and at one time was 
the chief in command of the whole French army in the Netherlands. 
Few English princes, besides James, ever attained the double distinction 
of being commander-in-chief of a large army on the battle-field, and 
ako that of being one of the most intrepid and successful admirals 
that ever led the British navy to victory. 

Thb Ulster Journal of ARCHiEOLoaY. No. XIX. London : J. 
Russell Smith. 

This Number opens with an admirable paper entitled '' Historical 
Notices of Spinning and Weaving,'' (specially as applied to the North 
of Ireland,) by a learned contributor to the Journal, Dr. Hume. We 
can do no more than recommend it to our Members for perusal, for 
nnfortnnately it will not admit of transference, even by lengthened 
quotations, to oar own pages. We also strongly advise Welsh anti- 
quaries to examine Mr. Herbert F. Hore's interesting memoirs in the 
same Number on the ** Inauguration of Irish Chiefs ; and to compare 
it with the historical and traditionary notices of similar procedures with 
regard to native Princes of Wales. There is also in this Number a 
detailed account of one of the best preserved Irish forts, that of TuU- 
sghog, in the barony of Dungannon, from which several hints may be 
gained by those who are concerned with the corresponding class of 
early remains in Wales. It is amply illustrated, and therefore all the 
more deserving of attention. 

We are glad to meet with another letter on Irish Antiquities by a 
Cornisbman, our friend "Trevelyan," whoever he may be, full of 
practical good sense and discrimination. Members will pardon us for 
the following extracts from it on the Stone and Metal controversy : — 

" I do not know whether it has ever occmred to yourself or any of your 
correspondents to take a large collection of Irish stone implements, (includini 
all sorts of things composed of flint, basalt, and other denominations of stone, 
and group them into classes and varieties ; and then to collate them with eaci 
other, and with iron and bronze articles found in Ireland ; and thus, not only 
compare form with form, but ascertain the law or custom which determined 
the forms, and the abstract number of them. Were this done carefully, we 
should have developed the types under which every individual object might be 
placed, like shells in a museiun. Such a systematic arrangement, composed of 
one specimen of each class, with a few others rffl>reBenting varieties belonging 
to each class, &c., would, in a scientific point oi view, be extremely valuable. 

^^ I bad great hopes that this work, or one similar to it, would have been ere 
now realized by some Irish or British antiquary, not himself a collector, — 
for this reason, that the collector, looking more to the number of specimens, 
than their intrinsic worth as scientific specimens in a series, wilt convert 
accidental differences (analogous to difierence of age, &c., in shells, plumage 
in birds at various stages of development, and so forth) into distinctions 
iHiere none were intended by the people who made the articles ori^^nally. 

158 REVIEWS.. 

To make a proper daaaficatioii of stone objects found in Ireland, the person 
who e88a3rB to do it must have both an artistic and a mechanical eye, to enable 
him to detect the rules which guided the manufacturer of the article. Having 
discovered the rule, then comes the question of the specific use to which the 
thing made was intended to be apphed, or to which it is probable it might 
have been applied, if something else more applicable for that purpose is not 
found in the collection. 

'^ I have not yet seen such a series completed, but I have seen some attempts 
at it ; and though not all that a scientific man would wish, yet it is quite 
manifest firom the attempts made at such dassifications, that the actual number 
of specific objects in the largest collections of Irish stone articles — ^take, for 
example, Mr. Bell*s collection, exhibited at Belfast, and that of the Royal 
Irish Academy in Dublin — ^is extremely small, though to an ethnologist of 
great interest. Not that they indicate progress or development of the arts 
generally in Ireland, amongst the people who fabricated these things, but that 
Uiey supply evidence that, on the whole, the arts were fidling off, the supply 
of metalhc iron and bronze fiiiling, and the art of substituting flint and stone 
for them advancing. Thus, I would infer that a people had fled or emigrated 
to Ireland from the continent of Europe, (or perhaps &om Africa, as the 
typical forms are more African than European,) rather than that a naked and 
untaught man had set to work in Ireland to manufacture bearded arrows, and 
stone hammers and axes, with holes or eyes in them, accidental counterparts 
of iron arrows and hammers ; as well as lozenge-shaped spear or javelin-heads 
of ground flint, of the identical shape of a dsSs of spear-heads which, by their 
indented and engraved ornaments, prove to demonstration that the bronze 
belonged to a people using 9$eel tools, and which, though made of brozize, 
apparently very impure, come down, in the language of the Danish antiquaries, 
' late into the Iron Period ! '" 

^^ I confess, the more I look into the Danish theory of ^ development,' either 
in Denmark or any other European country, the less am I disposed to adopt 
it. The higher forms of their flint objects, — their daggers for example,— 
appear to my eye to be copied from bronze implements, and their hammm, 
properly so called, copied firom iron hammers. In metal, things shaped like 
them would have been serviceable as UxAa and weapons ; but, made in stone, 
they are only jMttems to make iron hammers after, or thev were intended to 
be used as typical hammers, and, as such, possibly presented as votive offerings 
to Thor, the God of the Hammer. In cases where the hammer r^resents a 
canoe, it might indicate either that the person offering it had been saved at 
sea, or that ne was a fisherman, or that he ^ve it to a deity under whose 
protection it was believed mariners were especially placed. This is all rational 
enough ; but it is absurd to admit for one moment that a hammer whidi never 
could give more than one blow without breaking in two, could have been 
originidiy designed to be used at all as a real hammer, and as such be considered 
as evidence of material progress through a series of ^ Stone and Metal 

Members will do well to lay down all that " Trevelyan " says on 
this subject by the side, not only of what M. Worsae has published, 
but also of what Mr. Wilde states in his valuable Catalogite of the 
Soyal Irish Museum. They can then judge for themselves, instead 
of allowing themselves to drift into any line of thought previously 
laid down for them. This, the greatest bane and impediment of all 
scientific progress — the theorizing d, priori^ the generalizing without 
particulars — cannot be too carefully avoided. Archeeology certainlj 


admits of a good deal of inductiooy but indaction is not safe except 
when facts have been pretty well exhausted ; whereas, facts seem to 
maltiply with each succeedmg year, and at no period have archseo* 
logical and historical theories been brought into so much peril as the 

There is another exceedingly interesting article in this Number on 
" African and Irish Fibulae/^ which had better be introduced by the 
following extract : — 

" The singular fact, that metallic rings, cleft at one side, and quite identical 
in form with those found so frequentfy in Ireland, are actually used at the 

S resent day in Western Africa as money, was made known some time ago by 
lir William Betham. — TEtruria Celhca^ vol. ii.] The theory proposed 
previously by him, that the Irish rings had been used for the same purpose, 
was thus corroborated. The discovery was made in consequence oi a ship, 
which was bound on a trading voyage to Africa, being shipwrecked on the 
coast of the county Cork, in 1 836. Mr. Richard SainthiS, of Cork, ascertained 
that, among the articles on board, intended for barter with the natives, were 
some boxes of cast-iron rmgs^ extremely resembling those found in Ireland of 
aM; and on applying for ilirther information to the owner of the vessel, a 
Liverpool merchant, he learned that the ship was bound for the river Bonney, 
or New Calabar, not far distant from the kingdom of Benin. In exchange 
for the productions of that country, chiefly p^m oil and ivory, it appeared 
that there were regularly sent, besides various British manufactured goods, a 
quantity of these rings xnade in imitation of the cturent money of the natives, 
and known by the name of manUlas It was stated that the people of the 
£boe country, and all the neighbouring districts, use no other kmd of money 
in their commercial transactions ; and that this Liverpool mercantile house 
sent out to the coast of Africa annuallyabout for^ chests of such rings, which 
were manufactured in BirminghanL They were K>rmerly made exclusively of 
bronze, (copper and tin,) but subsequeutly they were sent entirely of cast-iron ; 
which seems at length to have given dissatisfaction to the natives, for of late, 
we understand, no more have been sent Besides these manillas of bronze, 
we have it on the authority of Mr. Bonomi, the well-known African traveller, 
that gold ones are likewise extensively used in Africa. In Ireland they are 
almost always found made of this metaL One instance only is mentioned 
where, in opening a tumulus in the county Monaghan, about the year 1810, 
several thousands of these rings were discovered made of bronze. They were 
sold to a dealer in metal, and melted down ; but one specimen is still preserved 
in the collection of Dr. Petrie, in Dublin, and perfectly agrees in shape with 
the African ones. The word maniUa is Spanish, and signifies a ^bracelet;* 
hence it is probable that these rings, or some varieties of them, are nsed by 
the Africans as personal ornaments as well as money. In fiict, Dr. Madden 
mentioned, at a meeting of the Royal Irish Academy [Proceedings^ voL iv. p. 
389] that he had himsdf seen gold rings, precisely similar to those found m 
Ireland, worn as bracelets by women both on the East and West coast of 
Africa. There is nothing unreasonable, therefore, in the suppomtion that the 
Irish likewise used their gold rings (many of which are ornamental in form) 
both as bracelets and money. 

** Another curious link of connection between Africa and Ireland has recently 
been discovered by Mr. Francis M. Jennings, of Cork, during a tour in 
Morocco last year. At Tangier and Mogador he was struck on ODserving the 
peasantiy wearing brooches or fibulas of the peculiar shape so famOiar to all 

1 60 RBVIEWS. 

ooUectors of antiquities in Ireland. He made inquiries on the subject, and 
ascertained that this particuLir form of ornament has been used by the pe(^le 
of the country for an unknown period of time.** 

We have to add to this accoant that the bead of the house at 
Liverpool mentioned in this paper is an intimate friend of onrs ; and 
that we have seen the '^ Ring Money " preparing, by oxydation, on 
his lawn for exportation to Africa. These rings are identical with the 
Irish ones, and have passed as currency in Africa from time imme- 
morialf but only at a distance of 400 miles inland from the coast. 
What a charming opening to the theorizing archaeologist 1 

Transactioks of the Kilkenny Archaolooioal Socibtt. Vols. 
I. and II. New Series. 1856-8. 

The transactions of this Society hold their place amongst other 
publications of the Irish archsological world, — and they hold it 
nonourably. The papers published are not so long as those in the 
Transactiani of the Royal Irish Academy, nor as those of the Ulster 
men in the North ; but they are of great interest notwithstanding. 
Among other improvements introduced into their method of illus- 
trating by the Kilkenny Society, is the use of chromo-lithography, 
and the insertion of several plates which give the golden and enamelled 
surface of objects with full accuracy. 

The subject of Ogham characters is taken up at much length in this 
volume, and numerous wood-blocks are given of various inscriptions ; 
but the readings conjectured, and the opinions expressed, especially hj 
Mr. Williams, of Dungarvon, are so wild and theoretic, that they 
might suit a set of "Druidic" antiquaries, or would do well to 
pr^uce at an Eisteddfod, but are not worth controverting by real 
bond fide archaeoloffists. We must wait, in fact, for Professor Graves' 
long promised worlc on this subject ; and we must also wait until the 
discoveries lately made by members of our own Association (for Wales 
abounds in Oghams) can be accurately examined, verified, and illus- 
trated, before it would be at all safe to pronounce dogmatically upon 
these much controverted characters. Suffice it to say, that great 
and unexpected light has been derived from quarters of very remote 
promise; and that several careful observers are at work upon the 
subject. Valuable papers, illustrative of Irish history and local 
customs, are to be found up and down throughout these volumes. 


±: \ 


Irrjif ulngia Cambrf D5ii 



( Continued from p. 348^ Vol IV,) 

• Oxf, 8l Davids day 
DearS^ 169| 

I am very much in y^ debt but when my present business 
is off my hands; I hope, to correspond with you more warmly. 
YoQ needed not have sent up y' money so soon ; for ^tis a hard 
case if I can not prevail to have one or two books at a subscriber's 
rate th6 I come later than the time proposed. Y*^ IBS. were ac- 
acceptable ; but whether I can get them into Camden or not may 
be questioned ; for Mr. Gibson tells me now that they have not 
room for much additions; and that at his reviseing of all y* 
papers sent in, he must so dispose things as that the whole work 
shall appear uniform &c. w^^ is contrary to y* agreement we made 
at first with the printers, and for that reason D' Edw* would have 
me keep my papers, in order to print them apart. But since 
matters have gone so far, I am resolv'd they shall ^oe on for me, 
and therefore shall submit to their censure what I nave collected. 
The kindled exhalation in Meirionydhshire is one of the most 
remarkable phsenomena I ever heard or read of. I conclude it is 
a meteor or ignite vapor, and not the effect of witchcraft, for that 
it has operated in the same method now for two months : viz a 
kind of ignis fatuus proceeding allmost every night from y* sea 
shoor; and that continued along. the sea coasts for two or three 
miles. Now altho an ignis fatuus is no very unusual meteor, 
yet that it should not onely continue regularly for two months 
together, but also fire hay and com and Duyldings, is not that I 
know of recorded by any historian or philosopher. The effect 



therefore being so very extraordinary; it seems necessary we 
should also search for some cause exceeding what is usual. To 
acknowledge freely my thoughts to you; which I desire you 
would communicate to as few as may be (or rather no body at 
all) I doe imagine there has been a considerable quantity of 
locusts drown*d in our sea in their voyage from America (for 
thence I suppose they came) which being cast up on the shoors 
about Harlech produced an infectious exhalation which poyson'd 
the cattle ; and being kindled also fired y^ hay and com. Nor 
is it so strange that their poysonous vapor should thus kindle; 
when we consider that even whitest alive multa (says Pliny) can- 
tactu exurunt. I must confesse not onely y^ self, but also Mr. 
Ray, D*" Bathurst, D' Lister, and all others to whom I have 
imparted my thoughts wholy dissent from me. But as my rule 
is to be as cautious as I can, in makeing use of my reason ; so I 
am not to be byassd so much with authority, as to acquiesce in 
the belief of anything from the judgment of others; for which I 
have no warrant from my own reasoning. All the account I have 
of this fire is from my worthy friend Mr. Jones of Dol Gelheu : 
who seems inclined to believe it witchcraft; and could give no 
other account of it but the particulars of the mischief it has 
wrought. He liveing too remote from Harlech to answer queries 
and to give a full relation of all circumstances. I shall adde 
nothing upon this subject ; but that I shall be ready to lay down 
my conjecture: when I find good reason for it What you 
mention of y* grounds being infectious long before is confirmd 
by many others ; but 'tis generally confessd they never dyed so 
suddenly as this year &c. I have sent queries to Mr. lienry 
Lloyd ; which if he's pleasd to answere we may be able to guesse 
farther &c. 

I am (D** S**) y** most affect, kinsman 
& humble serv* £. Lhwtd. 
For y* Rev** Mr Jo. Lloyd 
Scholemaster at 


Oxford March 8 
Hon^S*- 169i 

I just now receiv'd y' most obliging letter of the 28*^ 
of Febr. and y* excellent draughts you were pleas'd to send me 
of maen y chwvfan &c. came to hand about a fortnight or three 
weeks since. T am ashamed that I have put you to so much 
trouble at a time so inconvenient, but being ignorant of it I 
doubt not but you '1 excuse me. I acquainted you with my 
receiving y« draughts in a letter which I guesse might come to 
y' hands soon amr y* date of your's ; and added some questions 


relateing to them all which I find anticipated in your letter. Mr 
Gibson the gentleman whom the Printers have employ*d to 
deliyer this Book of y* Presse, tels us they can allow us to be 
but brief in our additions : otherwise they cannot afibard (as they 
have engaged in their printed proposals) to sell y* book at lib 12s 
(sic). He adds farther that we must give him y* liberty of so 
disposing of our notes as y* whole work may seem uniform : which 
(I fear) includes also a liberty of keeping much of what shall 
be communicated for a latin Edition or some other use. Upon 
this account Mr Kennet who had undertaken Oxfsh. is fallen 
off; and some others begin to be dissatisfied. Some friends also 
advise me to break off; but since things are gon {sic) thus farre, 
I'm resolv'd to go through with it as well as I can. Before I had 
rec^ your letter M*^ had made y* same objection concerning the 
letter M on y* copper plate^ with that you mention offer'd by the 
Bishop of Chester. And when 1 answer'd that letter occurr'd 
frequent in Reinesius his Syntagma Inscriptionum he reply^ Rein* 
has taken those ISS out of MbS &c. and not copied tnem him- 
self from y* stones. But I look'd upon that (pardon my freedom) 
as onely a disputatious subterfuge, and so acquiesc'd in y* answer. 
For it seems too hard to imagin (nc) y^ y* same mistake should 
be committed in at least 200 inscriptions copied by several hands. 
Nor can we well suppose (unlesse we suffer prejudice to lead us 
into dotage) that any one should counterfeit this copper plate. 
M** Davies of Newburgh in Anglesey writes thus (in all like- 
lihood) of your plate or Discus ; but I am fully satisfied he has 
been misinformed. ** About 50 years agoe there was accidentally 
dug up, in y^ parish of Aberfraw, around large piece of plate 
about 18 inches in y* Diameter, and thicker in y* midle (sic) than 
round the edges, having this inscription Socia Romje. It came 
to the hands of Owen Wood of Rhosmon Esq. and was found to 
be Corinthian brasse. He presented it to D** John Williams then 
Archbishop of York &c." A country fellow in Caermardhinsbire 
describ'd to me exactly such a cake of silver he once found in 
that countrey. Haveing not at that time heard of any such ; I 
was not so inquisive (sic) as to ask him whether it had any 
letters, neither did I take the name of the place in writeing where 
it was found. In Lodovico Moscardo's museo Lib. i. cap. xxvi. 
which is inscrib*d Delli Amuleti there is much such a head as 
that you sent me ; which confirms what you mention concerning 
It. I shall venture to say 'twas found somwhere in North 
Wales : as I suppose I may safely, since you are so particular 
as to inform me 'twas found in a well. We have an earthen 
vessel here in y* museum somwhat of y^ form of your urn, 
which we call a Portugal Ewer, but whether truly or not I am 
uncertain. It seems probable that your Crikiaeth urn was also 


to hold water or some other liquor in ; either at vrashing or aac- 
rificeing &c. Such Roman Bnrial-urna aa I have seen had large 
pieces of bum't bones in them, such as could never be put into 
such urns as yours. The brasse daggers were found in Meiri- 
onydhshire but upon ye borders of daernarvonsh. near Bedh- 
Kelert. I was there in ye countrey and procur'd several pieces of 
them : but I did not hear there that any of them were guilt (sic)* 
I took Clawdh Wat to be onely a continuation of Clawdh Offa 
under an other name. I can not guesse how this came to oe 
caird Clawdh Wat, nor whence the Roman way so call'd has 
been named Wailing Street. I have observed in several moon- 
tanous (gic) places small brooks issue violently out of y* ground ; 
and always iude'd them subterraneous currents, haveing seen 
such at Wkie Hole and Ogof Lhan y Mynych & some other 
caves. As for miraculous wells I take it for granted that super- 
stition and ignorance first gain'd them that reputation; which 
prejudice ana bigotrv has ever since maintained. As for y* sent 
(gic) of y* mosse, 'tis no more than what's natural, and to my 
knowledge there are other wells (in y" same countrey) the mosse 
whereof is endued with that smell. I can add no more at present 
than that I am Hon'^ S^ 

Y' much obliged and humb^ 
Servant Edw. Lhwtd. 

To y« hon"^ Rich. Mostyn 

Esq', at Penbedw in Flintshire. 
Chester post. 

Dear S'» Oxf. July 31. 1694. 

I'm afraid y* by this time you begin to question whether 
Your old Friends at Oxford be adhuc in vivis. And my onely 
hopes are that my friend Mr. Wyn (sic) has in some measure 
satisfied you, that since our late active correspondence, I have 
been somwbat busy haveing y* ungratefull task layd upon me of 
drawing a catalogue of about 1000 MSS. in my custody ; besides 
that which you nave contributed so much unto. They have now 
printed off about 7 or 8 counties, but have as yet but one presse 
at work, so that they have not come near Wales. I have seat in 
the six counties of South Wales and Monmouthshire long since: 
but have not yet parted with those of North Wales nor shall I 
be obliged to doe it 'til they have printed and sent me down some 
part of South Wales which I am sure will not be this month. 
Mr. Mostvn's draughts together with some other Antiquities out 
of South W. (Monmouthshire chiefly) will be engrav'd in a table 
or two at the end of the Welsh Counties ; to which I have also 

1 Altered to " Dear Veteran. 



added three specimens of Mock-plants, whereby I mean im- 
pressions of distinguishable species of plants ; on cole slates at 
20 fethoms depth &c. I have omitted a draught of an urn Mr 
Mostyn was pleased to send, because I am told by some of Lh^^n 
that 'twas found amongst y* Algse or Gwmmwn ; so that I am not 
satisfied as yet but that it might be cast out of some Portugal 
vessel ; seeing we have such at y" Museum by the name of Portugal 
Ewers : and that in regard it's like a sandbox within, it could not 
possibly be an urn, for that in urns we constantly find great pices 
(sic) of burnt bones. I shall take care to observe Mr Mostyn's 
orders in not making use of his name. I am troubled that Mr. 
John Williams and D** Charles should both refuse me the favour of 
takeing a figure and description of y * Gold Torques. M' Williams's 
answer was that he could not grant it ; because he could not call it 
his own ; and D** Charles (who had it a long time in his custody) 
reouired Mr. Williams' leave, before I should take any ace* of it 
What ends either of them could propose is best known to them- 
selves. I had sent up y* draughts to be engrav'd some time 
before S' Roger purchas d it, nor did I know ne had it 'til yes- 
terday. I beg a letter from you at y*^ first leasure ; with all the 
additions you can make. I desire a catalogue of such places 
where either y' self or Friends have observd any fossil shells for 
I intend to say something in general of such bodies, but have not 
resolv'd in what county. If you have received any tolerable 
account of y* fire in Meirionedhshire from some ingenious person 
pray send it me : for I would willingly give a full relation of it 
m that county, though I should say nothing to the cause. We 
have been inform'd here that 'twas seen also in Caernarvonshire ; 
of which I would gladly be satisfied. Mr Ray has added cata- 
logues of the rarest plants in each counties {sic) : and has (upon 
my unwillingnesse of being at unnecessary trouble) has drawn 
up also a catalogue of y* rarest plants in Wales, hitherto observ'd. 
But we are all so jealous of these printers that as yet we are un- 
satisfied what they'l doe. Viz. how much or how little they'l 
print of what we send them. All your friends here are very well. 
Ned Humphreys's brother gives you his humble service, and thanks 
for your kindnesse at his coming up &c. I hope to see'm {sic) a 

food scholer in few years; for he seems to be a very toward lad. 
ly hearty service to lapid Cardo {sic) &c. I am S' y' most 
afilect. F"*. and servant 

Edw. Lhwyd. 
shall I give Price of Lhanvylline a small toutch or not ? 
For y Rev. Mr John Lloyd Scholemaster of Ruthin 
in Denbighshire North Wales Chester post. 


Dear S' Ox/a. Qd. 26. ii& 

It's high time to let you know I am as yet amongst y* 
living : tho I have leasure to say little more at present. I am 
returned to Oxford about a fortnight since having rambld (very 
much to my satisfaction) throiigh 8 or 9 counties. I gave some 
account of my successe to D*^ Tancred Robinson^ who tela me in 
his answer y^ what occurred to me this summer is sufficient for a 
volume according to the measure and proportion of some late 
writers ; which tho he be my particular friend is I must confesse 
too fulsome a compliment. 

My L^ of Baneor was extraordinary obliging ; and is incom- 
parably the best skilld in our Antiquities of any person in Wales. 
He ^ave me leave to take a catalogue of his MSS. which tho 
considerable enough are yet much mferior to the collection at 
Hengwrt which 1 take to be the most valuable in its kind any 
where extant; tho I found no Manuscript there which I could 
safely conclude to have been written five hundred years since. 
My design hereafter is to spend a month or two (according to its 
extent) in each county ; ana so bid adieu to it: tho I think I have 
taken the best course the first year, to ramble as far as con- 
veniently I could in order to inform myself what helps I may 
expect from Manuscripts tec, in general : and to give more general 
satisfaction to the Gentry. I shall begin in Monmouthshire as 
being but a day's rideing nence and lying next to Glamorganshire; 
where the Gentry have subscrib'd as much as a third part of all 
Wales as far as I can yet learn. For I know no more of the 
subscriptions in Denbighshire and Flintshire than I did when I 
left you ; tho I hope you will shortly send some news thereof to 

Y^ most afiectionat Fr^ and servant 

Edw. Lhittd. 

I have sent you Nicolson's Historical Library as a small present 
by Cadwaladr the Carrier. My humble respects to M' Robinson, 
Mr Rich^ Mostyn and our Ruthin and Maerdy Society as you 
meet with opportunities. 

Dear S' Oaf^. 8* Steven's d. 96. 

I had y' L** just now ; and had observed the very same 
method you advise me to, about a week since. For I sent by M' 
K. Eaton a parcel of Queries to Mr Price of Wrexham, with a 
great many more to your worship directed to be left w*** y' B^ 
half a dozen to Chancellor Wyn (from his brother William) a 
dozen to Dick Jones, the like number betw. Ken. Eytyn and his 
Father; two to Mr Humphreys of Maerdy, four to your brother 
David ; and about 60 to the parson of Dolgelheu. His fellow 
travailler Mr John Da vies took with him a good parcel for 
Anglesey, and about a douzen to the Schoolmaster of Bangor. 


I shall dispose of them to other countreys as 1 have opportanities ; 
but must trouble you to prevail with your kinsman to disperse 
them in Flintshire where I have no acquaintance at all. I have 
printed four thousand of them ; so that I can afford three to a 
parish ; or more or lesse as occasion requires ; besides a sufficient 
number for Cornwall &c. My acknowledging in this paper a 
competant encouragement will probably be the occasion of few 
or none subscribing hereafter. However to such as ask what 
their neigbours have subscribd you may answer S*^ Rich. Midleton 
5^^ S' Go. Trevor o^^ S' Roger Puleston 5^^ the Bp. of S« Asaph 
40*'*. S*" R. Mostyn told me he would subscribe at London and 
I presume 'twill be the same summe. S^ Paul Pindar 40s. Mr 
Edsbury of Erdhig 20s. His brother D** Edsbury 408. Mr 
Ravenscroft (in Flintsh.) 20s. Mr Brereton of Barras 20s. D' 
Rosendale 1 guinea. D' Edw. 40s. Mr Young of Brin Yorkin 
10s. Mr W"* Eytyn 10s. And these are all the subscribers I 
know of in Denbighshire and Flintshire. Such as subscribe ten 
shillings if they expect no books are as much Benefactors to the 
design as they that subscribe twenty ; and will have their names 
according to the order of Alphabet in the Catalogue of Subscribers, 
without any distinction. If they expect books I would not have 
you take their subscriptions, because the Dictionary and Arches- 
oloeia (for I have some thoughts of printing them together) will 
probably amount to at least 50 shillings price. Tis pity the 
book you mentioned is imperfect; tho it be noe great losse I 
suppose to the commonwealth of learning ; as being onely a col- 
lection and translation out of much better authors. I suppose 
'twas writ by one Jones of Oelli Lyfdy in Flintshire, a great 
friend of Mr Vaughan's of Hengwrt. There is at Hengwrt a 
Geirlyfr of his in several volumes ; but they are onely bare words 
without any interpretation. I sent yesterday a paper of Q Q. to 
the Bp. of Bangor; with a request he would recommend them 
to the countrey : and also amongst our Parliament members at 
London. I hope they'll Frank a good number of them to the 
Clergy and others in Wales. My L^ of Bangor's name ought to 
have been subscribed amongst the approvers: but I could not 
conveniently send him the paper as not knowing whither to direct 
to him : and I was unwilling to print his name without his leave. 
You must extort a promise (if possible) from all your acquaintance 
that they have papers, to make the best use of them they can 
conveniently : and you may assure them that it lies chiefly in their 
own powers, whether a compleat or imperfect account be given 
of their countrey. I hope you will take some parish to your own 
share and furnish me with a sheet of paper upon each Query, or at 
least on several of them. I desire not that the answers be returned 
and I belive {sic) twill be two years at least 


perhaps 'twiii be eonv neglect the papers 

thoughts I think conveniency, after they have written 

them: sometime next summer I belive, (sic) they may direct 
them enclosed to our members from each county : and so we shall 
save the expences of postage. I have neither room nor matter to 
add more : so I subscribe myself 

y*^ much obliged and affectionat servant 

Edw. Lhwyd. 
For the Rev"^ Mr John Lloyd 
at Gwersylht near Wrexham in Denbighshire 
Chester Post. 

Dear S' Oxfi March 29. 1697 

Tis hi^h time to doubt whether the veteran be in the 
number of the hving : such silence having been hitherto very 
unusual. If you have anything to say to your old friend pray 
let him hear from you before he enters the campaign, where a 
letter may ramble a month before it overtakes him. This day 
three weeks I design God willing for Monmouthshire. I had set 
out sooner but that I was resolv'd to put my Lithophyllacii 
Britannici Ichnographia (for so I entitle the catalogue of my 
collection of figur d stones) in the presse before I left Oxford. I 
have now finish'd it and sent it to D' Lister and Mr. Ray for 
their censure before I print it. Twill be an 8"^ of about 300 
pages and will contain 22 copper plates. By this time I presume 
you may give a notable guesse what use the Queries are like to 
De of in your parts; or whether 'twas altogether needlesse to print 
them. I sent a parcel of them to Anglesey by Jack Davies : but 
y' Chancellor of St. Asaph^ (he tels me) perswaded him to leave 
them with him promismg to disperse them throughout the 
diocesse. Next Wednesday Mr John Wyn sets out for London, 
in order to go over as Chaplain with my Lord Pembroke. This 

Elace affoards no news worth the troubling you ; so being in some 
ast I shall adde no more than that I am S*" 

Yours most heartily whilst 

E. Lhwyd. 
I have never heard anything from D*" Foulks so I conclude he 
never received any subscriptions. Poor Robin Humphreys dyed 
here of a consumption about 3 weeks since. I hope your Fi^ has 
writ his Volum (sic) of Cowydheu^ and that you have rec^ so 
much money of some subscriber or other as will pay him. I 
desir'd Mr Wilbraham to pay you forty or fifty shillings for me : 
which he promised to doe atlout the 20^ of this month. 

1 Ch' Wyn ? 
(To be continued.) 


This is a small, plain, single-aisled chapel, of the fifteenth 
century, originally divided by a screen into nave and 
chaocel. It is only 30 feet by 11 feet internally, and 
appears to have been renovated — not improved — at the 
end of the last century ; for a stone near the doorway 
bears the following inscription : — 

O R . 1798 . R L 

The west gable bears a single bell ; in the north wall 
there is a doorway, but no window ; in the east wall of 
the chancel there is a single-light window ; and there are 
two small windows in the south wall, of one of which a 
view is here given. It is a good specimen of its kind. 

Omedog, South W*U. 

The gables bear traces of crosses; the copings are 
chamfered ; so are the small remains of the lower part of 



the screen, or roodloft ; otherwise, there is no ornamen- 
tation in the building. 

The font is of the same date as the church, circular, 
on two steps. 

The orientation is E.S.E., and the church is under the 
invocation of St. Mary. 


This small church, .in 1844, (for it has since been 
rebuilt,) consisted of a single-aisled chapel, 40 feet by 
16 feet internally, divided into a nave and chaticel. In 
the former was a north door, and a south, as well as one 
window in each of the north and south walls, but none 
in the western. The chancel had one east window, one 
northern, and onte western, — all of comparatively modern 
insertion. The bjuilding Wjas probably of t^e fifte0nth 
century, but had been; much renovated m the sevente^th; 
for on the screen was the following ipsqription. (and .t}ie 
general fittings of the church testified to ^he same date, — 

BIS' CHURCH. MAR. 13. 1610. 

The same munificent benefactor and his wife were 
commemorated on a brass plate, inserted in the east wail, 
by the altar, of which an engraving is annexed. 

Other inscriptions adorned the screen, they ran thus : — 




On the south side of the altar were two square holes 
in the wall, the lower of which may have served for a 
piscina; the upper was an ambry, and a second ambry 
existed close to the reading-desk on the west in the nave. 

The font was the only relic of a much earlier church, 
probably of the twelfth century. An illustration of it is 
here given. It stood on the ground without any pedestal 
or base. 


ThE Said Mahceue had T'wohvsbaitoes.viz IohnPrithe= 






The chancel was coved under the roof; and the pulpit, 
as well as the screen, bore the date 1610. 

Tlie whole building was in bad repair, and had become 
too small for the wants of the parish. The new church 
has been erected chiefly at the cost of the family of 
Llysdulas, which is in this parish. 

The orientation was E. by N., and the church was 
under the invocation of St. Gwenllwyfo, who flourished 
in the seventh century. 


This edifice, single-aisled, 68 feet by 14 feet internally, 
is divided by the remains of a screen into chancel and 
nave, and has the western portion of tbe latter partitioned 
off" for a school. The building is of the latter half of the 
fifteenth century ; and has rather better architectural 
features about it than most of the small churches in 
Anglesey. The east window is four-centred, of three 
tights, trifoliated, with bold splays and mouldings; and 
b^rs in its centre light the following coat of arms, viz. : — 
sable, a chevron argent, between 3 ox heads proper. 

Id the south wall is a doorway, which, being characte- 
ristic of the epoch, is here engraved. 

The font is circular, plain, on two steps. 


-rr^^^i — -^ 

: ^ 

U»n(fw7Uog, Soutii Doonrajr. 

In the church-yard is a tomb at the east end of the 
building, the head-stone and foot-stone of which seem to 
be fragments of tbe shaft of a cross; and another tomb 
at the west end of the building has for its head-stone a 
cross-shaft, with a slight portion of the bead remaining. 

The orientation of the church is due Elast, and it is - 
under the invocation of St. Cwyllog, who flourished in 
the sixth century. 

This church consists of a nave and chancel, with a 
tower at the west end of the former. The internal 
dimensions of the nave are 49 feet by 20 feet; of the 
chancel, 34 feet by 19 feet. The tower is 14 feet square 
inside, and about 40 feet high. 

This is one of the more notable ecclesiastical buildings 
of the island, though it is only a chapelry to Llanbeulan. 
The building, as it now stands, is of the beginning of 
the fifteenth century in its principal parts ; but the side 
windows are modern insertions, and many important 
alterations have been recently effected. The present 
description of it applies to its condition in 1844. 

The nave is entered by a north doorway, on the east 
side of which are traces of a stoup; there is also an 



entrance from the tower. In it is the font, circular, and 
tapering upwards from a rectangularly moulded base, on 
a single step. Outside the north wall runs a stone bench, 
to where the chancel sets on. The north doorway is a 
good example of the period, under a hood -mould, all 
chamfered concavely. The couples of the roof have their 
tie-beams resting on circular braces. 

The chancel arch is round and low, springing from 
square piers with abaci square in section, and may have 
formed part of a much earlier building. The east window 
of the chancel is the same as the west nave window at 
Penmynydd ; and so far links the date of the erection of 
the one church to that of the other. 

The tower is in two stages, with plain square-headed 
loops, and no buttresses. The parapet is deep and bold, 
similar to those of the Pembrokeshire towers, except that 
it rests on a cornice, not on corbels. In the eastern 
parapet is the bell-gable, — an arrangement so singular 

Llanercbymedd Tower, Bast Side. 

that an engraving of it is here given. There are traces 
of ancient crosses on the gables of both nave and chancel. 


The orientation of the church is E.N.E., and it is 
under the invocation of St. Mary. 


The walls of this church, which is one of the better 
sort in the island, are probably of the end of the four- 
teenth, or beginning of the fifteenth century, because 
several portions of the windows, &c., show mouldiags 
of that date, while other windows are later insertions. 
It consists of a nave and chaucel, the former of which is 
nearly square in plan, being 30 feet long, by 29 feet 
wide externally; the dimensions of the chancel are 31 feet 
by 18 feet. The nave is entered by a south door, under 
a porch of the earliest date of the church, and also by a 
north door of the same. The nave is unusually high, 
being 15 feet to the spring of the roof. In the west gable 
is a square-headed window, of two lights, trifoliated, with 
a pointed rear-arcb, 9 feet from the ground, and another 
si^uare-headed one in the south wall; a small square 
window of very late date also occurs in each of these walls, 
one being for the convenience of the pulpit, though it 
disfigures the building. In the north and south walls of 
the chancel are square-headed windows of rather unusual 
proportioDB, the hood -mouldings coming down very low, 
with their shelves arranged in steps internally; one of 
them is here shown in an engraving. 



I.lsndyfr.vdoR, Noi'h 


The eastern window of the cbaDcel is four-centered, of 
the end of the fifteenth century, with three lic^hts cinque- 
foiled. The rear-arch of this, and of all the windows 
and doorways, is well treated, and splays rather widely. 
The chance! walls are high, 14 feet ; and this circumstance 
gives great effect to the interior. The font is plain and 
circular, without any omamentatioQ- No piscina is visible 
in the chancel. On the south side of the altar is a seat 
bearing R. B. 1630, showing the possession of the Bulkeley 

The orientation is due East, and the church is under 
the invocation of St. Tyfrydog, who flourished in the 
sixth century. According to tradition this is the place 
where St. Cybi and St. Elian used to meet, coming from 
Caergybi, or Holyhead, and Xilaneilian — then only their 
eremitical cells — to confer on subjects of religion.' 


This church, which is a chapel to Llandyfrydog, is of 
the fifteenth century, single aisled, without any remaining 
distinction of nave and chancel. It had been repaired 

Umiimujigel T*eT Beiidd Bell- cot. 

> Vid$ R«es' Welsh Saints, p. 267. 



just before 1844, and had been fitted with new work, not 
of good architectural character, but its principal deco- 
rative features remained unaltered. It is 40 feet by 
12 feet internally. There are two pointed doorways, 
north and south ; one square-headed window, trifoliated, 
in the north wall, towards the east end ; and two similar 
windows, one trifoliated and the other cinquefoliated, in 
the south wall. The eastern window is a single-light one, 
of the same design as that in Llanbabo Church, but 
distorted by bad masonry. 

Over the western gable is a bell-cot of excellent design, 
which is here engraved: 

The font is octagonal, with projecting ribs at the angles, 
battering much downwards, on a single step. The new 
arrangements of the church-fittings have been made with 
so little ecclesiological reason as to place both pulpit and 
reading desk within the altar rails. 

The orientation is N.E. by £., and the church is under 
the invocation of St. Michael. 

In the church-yard, towards the south-west, stands a 
small early cross, 4 feet high, on three steps, without any 
sculpture upon it, but in tolerably perfect condition, ft 
is one of the few to be met with in the island. 

At the east end of the church is a grave with frag- 
ments of crosses at each end, not so large as those in 
similar positions at Llangwyllog. 

H. L. J. 



No. I. 
(1) 116 

In an Inquisition taken at Bewmaris upon Tuseday 
next before the Feast of S' Martine the Bishop (which is 
the 11** of November) in the 8* year of the Reign of 
King Henry the 4* Anno Domini 1406. 

Before Thomas Twkhwl, Philip de Mainwaring and 
Robert Haris the younger commissioners by vertue of a 
commission from Prince Henry Son & Heire apparent of 
the said king Prince of Wales Duke of Aquitaine Lan- 
cester, Cornwall and Earl of Chester, unto them or any 
two of them, directed &c were endited presented and 
fin'd the several persons and Inhabitants of the said 
County of Anglesey whose names are here under written, 
for being in Arms & Rebellion with 
Owen Glyndyfrdwy &c 





00 00 
5 00 


David ap lorwerth ddu .... 
Mados ap Uuy Vychan . . . 
Griffiu ap Kenricke ap 

Gronw 00 6 

Ednyfed ap Lluy ap 6r. • • 00 6 

ler. ap Hoel ap Mad 2 00 00 

Mad ap Hoel ap David 00 6 00 

Yor ap Hoel ap Gr 1 00 00 

Moris ap p Eioroa 1 00 00 

David ap Yor Lydan 00 13 4 

GrDdapYor 00 02 00 

DeiaapTydur 00 6 08 

TudurapTudur 00 6 8 

Ten ap David ap leii 00 3 4 

Hoel ap ler ap leii goch • . 00 10 00 

Deikus ap lor bach 6 8 

Gr.ap lor bach 2 

Jen ^och ap dda leii 6 

lorkin ap david ddu 3 

• • • 



Adda chwith , 


Dd grun 

leii ap len ap ler .... 
len Iloyd ap grach . . . 
Gronow ap Gronow . . 
Howel ap levan ap W 

Dd tew ap Penfrith 

Dd ap lev. ddu 

Deia dew 

lollo ap GriflP. 

Howel ap Dd chwith 

Matto ap Meirick 

Madog ap levan Kybi . . . . 

Eingan Gaston 

lorw' ap levan Comus . . . . 
lerw* ap leii ap Madog . . . 
Cynwrick ap Crynwas . . . . 
Grif. ap Howel goch 

I ■ 

























Eingan ap ler Brontua. • • • 6 8 

David ap leii ap Madog. . • 5 

Ir ap Mad dowyll 6 8 

len Uwyd ap len goch .... 013 4 

Keniicn ap dd ap levan. • . 3 4 

Tudyr ap Dd. ddu 3 4 

1 • d 

ler ap teg lum 3 4 

lollun goch 2 

Griffith ap leii ap Tydur • • 6 8 

Mredidd ap david vychan. • 13 4 

Hoel ap Mad Iwyd 3 4 

Hod ap hof a goch 3 4 

Davida ap hoel ap houa. • • 2 

Ingeira 6 8 

David ap Adda 16 8 

len ap Oriffidd ap Adda 

wy**^ 3 4 

Rees ap Tadur tew 3 4 

Eningan ap david ddu . • • • 3 4 

Eingan ap wm ally 2 

David ap leii ap wyn 13 4 

David ap gr ap Eingan • • • 6 8 

David ap Wm dd 6 

Eingan ap Gruffith 5 

lor ap Rees 13 4 

lor dd ap dd 6 

Tudur ap gronw ap leii ... 020 

Matto ap dd 3 4 

Tudur ap Madoc 2 

lor Lwydwyn 6 

Davidd ap Ednyfed goch • • 2 

MadapEdv^ 6 

Kenrik offeiriad «.•• 6 

Madofieiriad 6 

leii Llwyd 2 

Teg ap leii 3 4 

Mad ap Gronw ^ 

lor ap Eingan ap mad > 1 

uoel 3 

Gronw ap Eingan 10 

Eingan ap lorweth wudd • . 6 

ler ap leii ap Ednyfed «... 020 

leii ap Kennk ap david ... 010 

Grif ap lollyn eoch 2 

David Prater ejus 2 

Meirick ap levan ap Lin . • 2 

I • d 

David ap lor taiUior 00 3 4 

David Hiiin 6 8 

Hilin goch 00 500 

Hoel ap Teg ap Mad 1 10 

Hoel ap kefl ap Hoel 2 00 

Llewellun ap Blethin ddu. . 13 4 

Tudur prydun 13 4 

ttona duy 13 4 

David ap teg ap hoel 6 8 

lor ap leii ap pen duy • • • • 00 16 8 

Ir ap ken ap lor 3 4 

Madog ap Uuy ap hoel .... 1 00 4 

Llu^ ap y ewuthel 2 

len ap lor Eingan 2 

Teg ap len CTuth ........ 15 

Eingan ap David gowir ... 020 
leii ap leii ap y gwuthel . . 2 
Davia ap lor ap David .... 034 

Mad ap leii ap Madog. ... 068 

leii ap Adda ap Ten 3 4 

David ap Ir ap Eingan • • . • 2 

leii ap David goch 3 4 

Oo ap Mielir ap Mad 



Mad ap Hoy" ap Mad 13 

leii david ap tudur 2 

lor ap leii ap leii hen 2 

leii Iw ap houa 2 

Cradok ap leii 6 

Madd ap leii ap Uwadok • . 2 

Davidd EiDgan wydd 3 4 

Eingan ap Mad ap Deian . 

Ken ap len ap Keii 2 

1 s d 

lenpettit 6 8 

David ap Mad ap Kenrick 6 8 

Mad ap Adda ap David • • • 6 6 

Tudur ap Madog 6 

leii ap Adda ap teg 3 4 

Tudur ap David ap lor. • • • 2 

Heilin ap lor 2 

len ap Madog ap David • . 3 4 
Dd ap teg ap Madog wyn .068 

len ap Eingan ap Ednyfed. 3 4 

len Thomas 2 

Houa ap leii ap houa 2 

Matto ap len ap phe 5 

Deia ap len henr • • • 2 

len David ap len 2 

Griff ap Mad ap Eingan . . 6 

ler ap Eingan ap Mad .... 1 

Hwlkin ap Hoel ap Eing . . 3 4 
Dd ofieiriad ap len ap 

Tudur Uwyd 6 8 

llwy» Penwras 6 8 

len gethen 6 8 

len ap kenr ap gronow .... 020 

Kenr goch ap leii 2 

lor ap Blethm ou 3 4 

David ap Adda tew 2 

Blethyn ap Tudur 6 

lor ap leii Ro^ . .^ 5 

leii ap leii ap Eingan ap 

leii..... 6 8 

lor ap David ap Tor 2 

David offeiriad ap lethol . . 2 


Howel offeiriad ap Gr. 

Gytty" 1 

lorw. ap levan ap Hova. • . 10 

Dd ap Blethyn ov 10 

Dd ap Kenric ap Phe • • • • 6 

lorw ap Grif ap lorw 3 4 

Matto ap leii Kyw 2 

Keii ap Gr. Goch .... 068 

lor ap len ap Moreiddig • . 10 

len ap ler ap leii 10 

leii ap Rind ap hoel ap 

Gronw 3 4 

David ap Mad ap david ... 060 

IrapIorddiigapRo^s?.. 2 

lor eolyi 2 

hoel ap Kenrik ap Gronw . . 2 

ler ap heilin goch •....•.• 3 4 

Madog gam 6 8 

Deikus ap tegans 3 4 

Kenrich ap leii hir 5 

leii saer ap Eingan 3 4 

Eingan ap leri ap david ... 034 

llewelun ap leii Belyn 2 

llewj ap Eingan ap Mad , . 16 8 

Edn ap hoel dduy 2 

David ap lley ap Madog . . 6 8 

David ap lor ap leii 

leii ap Blethin vychan .... 020 

lor ap lor dduy 2 

david ap Gronow ap Ooryn 13 4 

Mad ap leii dduy ••.....• 3 4 

leii ap Blethyn wun .•••.. 2 



I • d 

David ap Madog ap leii. . • 6 8 

David ap len ap ler 

len lloya ap Mad ap Eingan 3 4 

david ap Mad ap lor 2 

len ap Blethyn ap Mad • • . 6 

leii ap leii dduy 3 4 

lor ap Madog vool 6 8 

Teg ap leii. 3 4 

david ap gwirail 3 4 

deia ap leii ap lor 13 4 

david ap len david 3 4 

david ap Madog ap Eingan 

Ten ap len ap lor (?) 8 3 4 

R6^ ap lor ap Ro® 2 

len ap lor dduy 

David ap Madog ap david .034 
len ap lor ap Brondewath .068 

len ap Wm ap Ithell 3 4 

Tudur ap leii lloyd 6 8 

david ap len ap Adda 10 

david ap Phe ap kyii 3 4 

Kick ap lorwerth 3 4 

hoel ap leii ap leii 2 

david ap Blethyn wan 3 4 

david ap Gronow ap len . . 3 4 

leii ap Gronow ap Cynyrigs 2 
howel ap david ap len win- 

rhaith 5 

Eingan ap lor ap Eingan . . 2 

Hoel frater ejus 2 

Griffith ap Goch 2 

Eingan ap leii y map 3 6 8 

len frater ejus 2 

david ap Eingan ap 

CO dduy 3 4 

1 B d 

friffith ap dd ap Meirich • . 6 4 

or ap Mad uychan 3 4 

Ilu^ ap CD vychan Ednyfed .020 

david ap Thomas 10 

Dryken ap Adda 3 4 

leii ap gronow ap Meirich . 3 4 

Mad ap teg grach 2 

lor ap lluy° ap lor 15 

Deikus g6ch Gr^ch 3 4 

Ithei ap Mad ap dd 2 

David firater ejus 2 

Ednyfed ap Gronow ap Ein- 
gan 3 4 

CD ap Gronow ap len 5 

Adda ap Grach 20 

Matto ap leii ap Eingan • • 3 4 

leii ap gr ap leii 2 

David ap teg dduy 6 8 

Griffith ap hoel ap Uuy" ... 10 

Meirick ap Keii ap Mad. • • 3 4 

lor ap Eingan dduy 3 4 

leii ap lof Iwyd wyn 3 4 

Deia ap leii ap Griffith . • • • 3 4 

dyei ap dd chwith... 2 

hoel ap len ap tee 3 4 

Keii ap Mad ap ad vychan 5 
deikus ap dd ap Ithel 

Oneuei 34 

lor dduy ap lor ap Ithel • . 2 

Mad ap Eingan ap teke ... 020 

lor ap CD chwith .••••...• 34 

Rs ap lor ap Rs 2 

leii ap Adda ap Teg 3 4 

leii ap leii goch 2 

lor goch ap Eingan 3 4 

Griffith ap Mad ap 

Griffith vychan 020 

The above docuinent is only a fragment of a copy of 
the original record, which may perhaps be found at a 
future period. — Ed. Arch. Camb. 



Subjoined is the translation of a letter from M. le Men, 
Keeper of the Archives of the Department of Finist^re, 
and a member of this Association. The excursion, of 
which he has given a detailed account, was made in a 
part of the country not yet satisfactorily explored or 
described, with the exception of the remains at Lusuen, 
to which M . Freminville alludes. The holes he mentions 
on the summits of certain stones, and hitherto supposed 
to have been the sockets of crosses subsequently removed, 
may, when occurring in a cemetery, have been intended 
as receptacles of holy water. The legend of the wren is 
curious. In portions of North and South Wales it is 
considered a sacrilege to destroy its nest or eggs ; and 
the part it used to play at Christmas time in the Isle of 
Man, and in Ireland, is well known. 

£• L. B. 

On the 2nd of October (1868) I left Quimper for Cioncarneau, 
intendiDg an examination of a district as yet unexplored around 
Pontaven and its vicinity. I commenced with the commune of 
Lanriec. The oldest portions of this church are not earlier than 
the sixteenth century; the arcades exhibiting elliptical arches, 
of which the archivolts have mouldings alternately hollow and 
convex, sinking into the mass of the pillars, which have neither 
capitals nor engaged colonnettes. The tower, which is square, 
and pierced on its faces with long openings, is surmounted by an 
elegant octagonal, crocketed spire, flanked with four turrets. In 
the cemetery is a stone cross with figures, and an altar. In 
commencing my tour I had expected to find some Romanesque 
remains, such as those of St. Croix at Quimperle ; but in this 
respect I was disappointed. The most ancient portions of all 
the churches that I visited on this occasion — with the exception 
of that of Moelan, where is an east window of your English 
Decorated style — are generally not earlier than the latter part of 
the sixteenth century. They have more or less been restored in 
the seventeenth and eighteenth, and more particularly to the 
latter period must be assigned the towers and spires. These 
edifices, which are very like one another, appear to have been 
only repetitions of that of Lanriec, having apparently been built 
on the same plan. The tenacity of the Breton character, and 


the national horror of all innovation, sufficiently explain this cir- 
cumstance. I have frequently seen ancient contracts for building 
rural churches, in which it is universally stipulated that the new 
building shall be in all respects similar to such or such a church 
in the neighbourhood. This still further explains how the Pointed 
style has been in fashion in Britany even as late as 1789, 
although it had long before vanished from the rest of France. 
These observations will give you some notion of the specimens of 
ecclesiastical architecture I met with in this part of Finist^re. Let 
us return to Lanriec. The surface of the country here, as at 
Tregunc, is covered with enormous blocks of granite, which 
imaginative antiquaries of the Fr^minville school will easily 
transform into so many dnddic monuments. At Tregunc I found 
some memorials of our early feudal times, one of which, called Ar 
Chastellic, or Little Castle, is situated by the village of Kergunno. 
It is circular, and has a diameter of 100 feet, and is surrounded 
by a rampart and deep fosse. In the greater part of its circuit 
it is defended by a marshy pool, and appears to have been flanked 
by two round towers on the east and west. Another motte, also 
protected by a pool and foss, exists at Penarchoet, and a third at 
the village of Castel. From Tregunc I proceeded to the point 
of Trevignon, on the sea-coast, having been informed of two 
objects worthy of examination, called Ty Korriquet, (the house of 
the fairies,) and Maison du Cur6. After a long walk I found to 
my disappointment that the latter consisted of some rocks about 
200 or 300 metres from the land, while the former was a natural 
grotto, such as is frequent in this coast. My disappointment 
was, however, lessened by discovering, at no great distance from 
the little bay of Rehuren, some Roman remains, though in a very 
dilapidated condition. At Trevienon Point I have only to notice 
a feudal motte at the village of Kerriguel, and the pretty chapel 
of St. Philibert, with its fine spire, near which is a well with 
masonry of the seventeenth century, and surmounted by a cross. 
I noticed a peculiar ornamentation on the surface of this cross, 
which I do not remember to have seen elsewhere, and which may 
be best described '^ Deux S adossis." Near this chapel are two 
menhirs, 6 feet high, the summits of which are pierced. Every- 
where around lie granite blocks similar to those at Tregunc. 

From this place I made my way with some difficulty to Pont- 
avon, passing by the menhir^ near Henan Castle, which you will 
remember. This is called by the peasants the Menhir of the 
Cock, for on putting your ear close to the stone you may dis- 
tinctly hear the crowing of the bird, who stands guard over the 
treasure deposited beneath. 

^ M. Fr^roinville speaks of two menhirs. 


The next day I made for Nizon, a miserable village in the 
midst of the most charming scenery. There are several roads in 
this district, but it is dangerous to try them for fear of meeting 
with a worse death than simple drowning. If you notice their 
wretched condition to the peasants, the invariable answer is, '' I 
have passed them, and others will do the same after me." These 
routes, therefore, being impracticable, the tourist must find his 
way across the fields, which are cut up in all directions by little 
narrow paths, called Binogen, so that a guide is indispensable. 
In the cemetery of the village is a small octagonal menhir, 2 feet 
high, with a small orifice in its summit, and also a good stone 
cross, with figures and altar. 

At the village of Kermarc, and in a field called Pare Kermarc, 
is a dolmen formed of five upright stones, supporting a table of 
10 feet by 8. A sixth support, which had closed the entrance, 
is gone. This monument is inside 6 feet high, but much lower 
externally. Between the supporters are remains of dry walling. 
At the village of Lusuen is one of the best preserved feudal 
mottes in the whole department, about 40 or 50 feet high, with a 
diameter of 60 at the base, and 30 at the summit. Some portions 
of the walls of the square tower which once surmounted it are 
similar in character to those at Stang Rohan, which you examined. 
Near this feudal fortress, in a field named Pare Roussic, are two 
well preserved dolmens of large dimensions. The table stone of 
the first is 20 by 10 feet, and rests on nine supporters ; that of the 
second, 10 by 9, has five props. They lie in the same axis, and 
are separated by an interval where still remains a single upright 
stone, which, with others now lost, must have supported a third 
table. My own opinion is, that in these two dolmens I saw only 
the remains of a long covered alley, divided into several chambers. 
In a coppice at no great distance, and near the farms of Lusuen, 
are the remains of another dolmen. You know my opinion on 
the value of these ancient remains. The careful examination I 
have made during this tour of a considerable number of them 
has only confirmed me in my view. Every honest person who 
sees the dolmen of Lusuen will be convinced that it was once 
beneath a tumulus, there still remaining a quantity of the soil 
heaped up around the table-stone, nearly on a level with the 
ground, although internally the chamber is 6 feet high. Apropos 
to the absurdities M. Fr6minville has published with reference to 
this monument, he speaks of the Forest of Lusuen, which in fact 
has never existed except in the brain of the discoverer. 

On my way towards Trevoux, I had the assistance of a guide 
in the form of a miserable old beggar-woman, whose face was 
disfigured by a loathsome disease. Among other stories she 


narrated the following legend, which I send for your amuse- 
ment : — 

Once on a time, when there was no fire upon earth, the birds 
suffered much from the cold. At last they summoned a general 
meeting to determine which of them should go to hell to procure 
some fire. The wren (laouennec) was charged with this dan- 
gerous commission, which it accepted, and performed with cha- 
racteristic readiness. But the poor little creature having, in flying 
across the flames, burnt its feathers, thus denuded, asked the 
assistance of the other birds, who all, with the exception of the 
owl, bestowed each one feather to the sufferer. Hence it is that 
the plumage of the wren is so Hzarrej and the owl so detested 
by the birds. 

I took advantage of my sojourn at the parsonage of Trevoux 
to make excursions into the surrounding communes, and I now 
give you the result of my exploration. 

Commune of Bannalec : — 

Feudal mottes, one at Kymerch, the other at Guiliou. 

A dolmen at Kermaout. 
I was informed of another one at Coskeriou, at a considerable 
distance. There are also some menhirs at the east end of the 
church, which I had not time to examine. 

Commune de Trevoux : — 

A very fine dolmen at the village of Kerdut6. 

An alignment of four stones, two of which are prostrate, at 
Lanniscar village, the tallest of them being about 12 feet 

A feudal motte at the village of Run. 

Another example, with foss and intrenched inclosure, near the 
manor of Llannongar. 

An intrenched inclosure at Lanniscar. 

Commune de Mellac : — 

In the cemetery a fine stone cross with several figures, and 
some remains of painted glass in the church. 

A menhir (taill^ en cone) in the midst of the Bourg. 

Commune de Riec : — 

Two menhirs similar to the last, and surmounted by crosses, 
on the side of the road from Pontaven to Quimperl6. 

A fairly preserved dolmen at the village of Loyant. 

Another dolmen, which has lately lost its table stone, stands 
in the uncultivated land called Ros Corriquet, near Yemeur 
village. It has four supporters, against which the soil (the 
remains of its former tumulus) is heaped up nearly to their 

In the cemetery are two little menhirs of 80 centimetres high, 
roughly cut, each having a small hole in the upper face. 


Commune de Rey : — 

A small menhir, roaghly cut, and surmounted by a cross, 
stands in the cemetery. 

Roman bricks near the bourg. 

On leaving Trevoux I made for Moelan, the most celebrated 
pLce in Britany for good cider. In this commune are the most 
magnificent Celtic remains in Finist^re ; but, before alluding to 
them, I should mention the foudal motte at the village of Ker- 
morsal, and a little more in advance, on the slope of the hill, 
which ends in a marsh, a straight ditch and fosse; but I was 
unable to make out the other portions of the indosure. On 
approaching Modan I was surprized to see the road completely 
macadamized with Roman bricks, which I soon found came from 
an adjoining fidd bdonging to the village of La Petite Salle, 
where are me remains of a Roman edifice, but so dilapidated 
that I could not satisfy myself as to its importance and details. 
Near Moelan, feudal remains give place exdusively to those of 
Celtic times, the first example of which that I met with was a 
dolmen, on the right side of the road, about half a kilometre 
from the bourg. Its table stone, which was 7 feet long, had 
been dislodged from its proper position. Opposite this dolmen, 
on the other side of the road, is a menhir 10 feet long, 4 broad, 
and 2} thick. It is called St. Philibert's Stone, and has the 
character of curing the cholic, by rubbing the person against its 

Having crossed the bour^, on mv way to the sea-^coast, I found 
a menhir, almost square, stbout 18 or 19 feet high. Owing to 
some mending of the road a year before my visit, it was found 
necessary to remove a large flat stone placed at the foot of this 
stone pillar. Underneath this stone were discovered, in a square 
chamber, the sides of which were composed of dry walling, eighty 
bronze hatchets, or celts, of a very common type, placed one 
above the other in a regular and symmetrical order. 

At this village of Kersegalou is a magnificent covered passage, 
nearly 40 feet long, and in a good state of preservation. There 
are tnree table stones, each about 9 feet long, and 3 in thickness, 
supported by fourteen lateral props, each end of the passage 
being inclosed by a similar slab. The interior is almost filled to 
the top with earth and small stones, the produce apparently of 
some former excavation. On the same line, and in the axis of 
the supporting stones on the south side, and at a distance of 19 
feet, is a menhir 12 feet high — a veritable sentinel. These two 
monuments, which are in a cultivated field, called Pare ar Menhir, 
have a very good effect in the landscape. 

From Kersegalou I went across the fields to Kermeur Bihan, 



near the mouth of the Aven. In a field, called Pare Riouach, I 
found another covered passage, larger than the former one. It 
is 60 feet long, and has twenty-two supporters, on which rest 
eight table stones, each about 7 feet long, the whole being in a 
state of excellent preservation. It is about 6^ feet high ; but 
unfortunately the interior is filled up with small stones and earth, 
while ferns and briars so thickly envelope the exterior that its 
efiect is much diminished, though nothing can better harmonize 
vrith the general view than this very fine monument. An oak 
tree is now growing between two table stones. It was night 
before I returned to Moelan ; but a glorious moonlight enabled 
me to see, at the village of Kergoustance, a third covered passage, 
about 60 feet long, with nine table stones of about 10 feet in 
length. It presents a peculiar feature. Two only of the table 
stones are supported in the usual manner. The others have one 
end resting on the ground, the opposite end being supported by 
the upper part of a pillar, exact like the curious gallery you saw 
at the village of Lescourt, near Douarnenez. The monument is 
without doubt more interesting, as presenting in one example 
both constructions used in these covered passages. The height of 
this monument, which you can easily enter, is about 6 feet 

On my way from Moelan to Clohars, I remarked, in the 
interminable heath which separated the two bourgs, two or three 
stones 5 or 6 feet high, being probably menhirs. The church at 
Clohars is a new edifice, but the church-vard retains a venerable 
relic. Near the south door of the church stands a rude unhewn 
stone, about 5 feet high, 2 broad, and 1 thick, having on its 
western face a cross approaching the form of the cross pat^, of 
the great antiquity of which there can be no doubt. On the 
upper part is a quadrangular hole, in which had once stood 
perhaps a cross, or crucifix. This relic appears to have been 
originally a common menhir, with the addition of the incised 
cross pat6. 

There is also in this boui^ a feudal motte ; and at Guenquis 
a menhir of 10 feet in height, standing in a field on the right of 
the road to the abbey of St. Maurice. 

On making my way across the fields to the ruins of this once 
celebrated establishment, I found little remains but the chapter- 
house, now converted into a kitchen, and which is a pure example 
of thirteenth century work, well deserving a visit. In the sacristy 
of the church is a tomb, said to be that of the famous Ann of 
Britany. The inscription, however, which is of the thirteenth 
century, reads thus, — 

" Mic : lacet : Bria : Mabilia : quonda : uxor : BrI : Helgomario : 

CSomubie : militis." 


The effigy is incised, and not in relief. The sacristy contains 
another curious object. It is a stone, having a flat and concave 
surface, in the shape of an egg cut through its greatest diameter^ 
and about a foot long. On the flat side is incised in single lines 
what appears to be a double cross. I consider it to be a conse- 
cration stone. At anyrate it is a singular object. 

On leaving St. Maurice I entered the forest of Camouet, where 
I soon lost my way, and was only released from my difficulty 
by a sabotier, who directed me to a road. In this forest are the 
remains of a castle of the Dukes of Britany, of the twelfth or 
thirteenth centuries, near which is a tumulus, explored some years 
ago, and found to contain one of our grottoes, or a covered 
chamber, with its passage. In the chamber were discovered a 
chain, the rings ot which were alternately gold and silver; a 
bronze knife, or dagger, which had been fastened to its handle 
by nails, or rivets ; some flint arrow-heads ; and two stone imple- 
ments (porphyry) of elongated quadrangular form, with the angles 
rounded on, and a hole pierced at each extremity. My informant 
was present at the openmg. These objects are now in the Cluny 
Museum, at Paris. 

As you have seen Quimperle, I shall make no remarks on the 
monuments of that town, but take you to Redenn6, on the road 
to which place, on the right hand, in a field, is a well preserved 
dolmen. I did not observe anything else in this commune, 
except that, in the cemetery, the tombstones, which are quite 
modern, have crosses in relief of a very ancient character. I 
passed the night at Arzano (Arthnou), where I found, in the 
cemetery, funeral monuments of a form I have seen nowhere 
else. The usual flat tombstone is wanting at this place ; but, in 
lieu of them are small monuments, about a foot or a foot and a half 
high, square and octagonal, exactly like Roman funereal cippi. 
They are ornamented with a cross, or other object, and some of 
them not more than two or three years old. In comparing the 
Roman cippi, the rude unhewn stone surmounted with crosses, 
and the small monuments of Arzano, (which have, without excep- 
tion, a square or round orifice on their summits,) they appear to 
me to be intended for the same purpose, and refer to one common 
object The small holes we find on the tops of these monuments 
in the cemetery, and on the menhirs in the neighbourhood, are 
not, in my opinion, as is generally supposed, intended for the 
insertion of crosses, but for some other destination connected 
probably with certain religious practices. 

I found the same small monuments at Guilligomarch, which 
I reached in following the banks of the ScorfrT In this, the 
most picturesque country I had yet seen, I found a very large 


feudal motte, called La Roche Moisan, which defended the bridge 
thrown over the river, which here divides Finist^re from Morbiban. 
From the top of this butte I saw, on the other side of the river, 
two fortified inclosures, which I ought to have examined. At 
Guilligomarch I onlv saw the ruins of an ancient castle, to which 
is attached a legend I would tell yon if I had any more space. 
From hence I walked to Locunole, crossing the river d'Elle at a 
point called Coz ty an diaoul, (the DeviFs wicked house,) to 
which also is attached a legend. Before I readied Locunole, I 
was overtaken by a most frightful storm, with a deluge of rain. 
Losing my way at every turn in those frightful roads for several 
hours, I arrived at last, about eight o'clock, in a miserable plight, 
and tibe weather still continuing so unfavourable, I gave up turOier 
prosecution of my tour, and returned to Quimper. 


No. III. 
(Continued Jrom p. 01.) 


Upon the death of Richard de Clare, in 1176, the earl- 
dom of Pembroke became extinct, and the custody of 
his estates, and the wardship of his infant heiress, Isabel, 
devolved upon the crown. 

In 1179, with a personal activity little diminished by 
age, Henry II. once more visited Pembroke, and while 
there had an interview with the bards, — 

" Who when at Pembroke called before the English king. 
Of famous Arthur told, and where he lay interred." 

He learned also that a tradition prevailed in Wales that 
Arthur, *' Rex quondam rexque futurus," would speedily 
arise from his tomb at Avalon and set free his country- 
men, the belief in which no doubt was deep and strong, 
and brought many a wild Welshman into the field against 
the invaders. 

In 1183, Maelgon, son of Prince Rhys, sacked and 
burned Tenby; and, in 1186, the Welsh overran Gla- 


morgan, burned Cardiff and, a second time, Kenfig, and 
laid siege to Neath. The castle being strong, they were 
resisted, and finally were driven from their battering 
machines by a party of Norman-French mercenaries. 
(A. of Margam.) They also burned what had been re- 
stored of Tenby. In this year Prince John, having been 
knighted at Gloucester, led an expedition into Ireland. 
About this time, also, 31 Henry II., the Honour of 
Striguil was in the king's hands. {IT. of JExch. i. 297.) 
In 1188 Archbishop Baldwin made that tour in South 
Wales which formed the foundation of the well known 
Itinerary of Giraldus. 

In 1189 Henry died, and Rhys improved the event by 
taking the castles of St. Glere, Abercorran, and Llan- 
stephan, and afterwards Dinefawr, and a large tract of 
South Wales, which was not wholly recovered until his 
death, in 1 197. He also repaired Kidwelly. 

About five years before Henry *s death, in 1184, he 
married the heiress of Pembroke, then fourteen years 
old, to William Mareschal, a young and warlike soldier, 
a younger son of a baronial family, and who appears at 
once to have turned his attention to the defence of his 
wife's Welsh and Irish estates.^ 

III. — William Mareschal, Earl Mareschal of Eng- 
land, Earl of Pembroke, and so called of Striguil,^ was 
grandson to Gilbert, Mareschal to Henry I., and thence 
deriving his sirname, and son to John, Mareschal to 
Henry and Stephen, but a supporter of the Empress 
MauQ. His mother's name appears, from an obit at 
Tin tern, 3rd June, to have been Sybil. He fined for his 
father's office, having sued it in court before Henry I. 
There appear to have been many " Mareschals " attached 
to the court. The title came from MarescaHare^ ^'to 
manage a palfrey," and was applied to persons employed 
about horses and game. The chief of all was " Magister 
Marescallus," and presided over the household court 

' Brady makes this marriago the work of Richard, in 1189. 
* Thus the old Earls of Derby were called, from their residence, 
Earls of Tutbury. {Peerage Dig* Rep. i. 406.) 


called thence the Marshalsea. (Ibid. i. 46.) The pedi- 
gree has not been traced with certainty beyond the 
Norman conquest. Earl William succeeded to an elder 
brother, John, who, 12 Henry II., had, for £100, livery 
of Westcombe, Marlborough, and Geriel, his father's lands 
in Wilts, and who witnessed a charter of the Empress 
Maud as ^* Johanne filio Gisleberti Marescallo." (Selden, 
T. of Honour^ 648.) He supported the king against 
Becket, carried the great gilt spurs at the coronation of 
Richard I., and, in the same year, had the manor of 
Boseham, co. Sussex. He died childless, 1199, in which 
year, 1 John, Boseham was confirmed to his brother, 
who added the family honours and inheritance to the 
vast estates derived from his wife. The office of Mare- 
schal had been disputed. 4 Richard I., Wm. de Venuz 
fined £100, which, 8 Richard I., he had in part paid that 
he might have the office of Mareschal; and Wm. de 
Hastings was also a claimant against Gilbert and John. 
No doubt it was to extinguish these claims that the king, 
1 John, by charter, conferred on William, Earl of Pem- 
broke, and his heirs, the *^ Magister MarescalcisB." Venuz 
probably was pacified, as his descendents in Hampshire 
were long afterwards " Mareschals" in the household. 

Earl William's sister married William de Pontarch, and 
was mother of Julian, who married Robert de Berkeley, 
of Berkeley Castle, a leader in the barons' wars against 
King John. She left no issue. 

Earl William, 

" Miles strenuissimus, 
Ac per orbem nomiQatissimus,'' 

called the " Sun of England,'' from the part he took in 
dispersing the clouds of rebellion, was a firm but judicious 
supporter of Henry H. through the Becket troubles, and 
on very intimate terms with Prince Henry, who, on his 
death-bed in 1184, at Chateau-Martel, in his dying 
anguish of repentance, charged him to bear his cross to 
Jerusalem. Whether Mareschal, at that time, performed 
this piece of vicarious piety is uncertain ; perhaps not, 
as he married in that same year, and no doubt had suffi- 


cient to employ him at home until 1189, when one of 
Richard's first acts was to create him Earl of Pembroke, 
although there is no good evidence that he used this title 
until he witnesses by it a charter of 1 John. (P. jD. 
a. V. 5.) At the coronation, Sunday, 3rd September, 
he carried tlie gold sceptre with the cross. His elder 
brother being alive and present, he did not as yet bear 
the gilt spurs. 

In this year John de Limesi had £30 to defend the 
land of Pembroke, (Pipe Roll^ 163,) possibly a last act 
of the expired wardship of the crown. 

17th October, 1190, he witnessed a Rouen charter, as 
" Earl of Estrigor* {H. of Ex. i. 29) ; and in the Annals 
of Waverhy he is called Earl of Striguil and Pembroke ; 
and a retainer, John Maltravers, is mentioned as holding 
under him Henneford, co. Somerset, by the service of 
constable of Striguil Castle. In this year, also, the great 
roll of the Pipe mentions the " Honour of Striguil.'* In 
this Honour were 65^ knights' fees in Gloucestershire. 

2 Richard I., he was constable of Nottingham Castle, 
and was excommunicated by the Pope as a favourer of 
Prince John. Early in the reign, 1 189, he was one of the 
lords joined with the two chief justiciaries in the govern- 
ment of the realm, (H. of Ex. i. 34,) and was surety for 
the king that he would meet the King of France at Easter, 
and proceed to the Holy Land. In the following year he 
escaped a payment ^^per libertatem sedendi in scacca- 
rium," from which, and from fines having been levied 
before him, 5 and 10 Richard I., Foss infers that he was 
brought up to the law. He also, 1191, paid 200 marks 
into the Norman exchequer, part of a sum of 2000 marks, 
for the Norman half of the lands of Earl GifFard, including 
the chief seat of Longueville. These he retained until 
the conquest of Normandy, when, by charter at Lisieux, 
1206, he gave to the King of France his castle of Orbec, 
and to Osbert de Rouvray those of Longueville and 
Molineux, retaining a power of redemption, on paying 
500 marks, if he, the Earl Mareschal, did homage before 


mid-May. Whether the earl redeemed these possessions 
is uncertain ; but he did homage to the King of France 
for some Norman lands until his death, in 1219. (Ibid. 
i. 169; Rot. Scacc. Norm, cxxxvi.-viii.) From 2 to 6 
Richard I., die earl was sheriff of Lincoln. He appears 
to have held Sussex all through the reign. 

In 1191 the earl went to Richard, then in Sicily, on his 
way to Palestine ; and the king, alarmed at the conduct 
of his chancellor Longchamp, named him, as William 
Earl of Striguil, one of a council to check the chancellor's 
proceedings, and to confer with the Archbishop of Rouen 
concerning the government of the realm. 

'' Hugh Bardolph full fierce, William Mareschal his peer, 
OeofFrey le Fitz Piers, William de la Bruere ; 
These were maintainors to sustain the crown, 
And rightful governors the folk in field and town." 

In 1184 the earl's younger brother Henry appears to 
have married; if so, his wife probably died and he 
changed his vocation, for, 1193, he was elected Bishop 
of Exeter, in which see he died, October, 1206. 

In the year 1197 the death of Prince Rhys produced 
various changes in South Wales. Griffith, his successor, 
was opposed by his brother Maelgon ; and Geoffrey Fltz- 
Peter, the justiciary, entering the Marches with a con- 
siderable force, profited largely by their disunion. Rhys 
and Maelgon continued to hold much of Gaermarthen 
and North Pembroke; but the earl's estates appear to 
have been well defended, though he himself was much 
engaged both in England and on the continent. It 
appears from various fines that he sat in court at Shrews- 
bury, about Epiphany, 1198; while the archbishop, hk 
colleague, was engaged diplomatically with David of 
Wales. (FineSj i. 1.) 

18th May he was again in Normandy, and witnessed 
a royal .charter at Jumieges. (Rot. Scacc. Norm. ii. cL) 

Goeur de Lion died 6th April, 1199, and the earl, who 
was in attendance, swore a most acceptable fealty to John, 
whose title and character much needed such support. 
7th April he witnessed a deed at Vaudreuil. {itnd. ii. 


XXXV.) He was confirmed in his hereditary office, and 
leaving John to secure the treasure at Chinon, and to 
wreak his vengeance upon Mans and Angers, he proceeded 
to England, where his management, with that of Arch- 
bishop Hubert and Fitz-Peter, led the nobles at North- 
ampton to swear allegiance to the new monarch. He 
was named sheriff of Gloucester and Sussex, and had a 
confirmation of Boseham, and other family manors. 27th 
May he attended John's coronation at Westminster, was 
girded with the sword of the earldom of Striguil, and 
thus served at the royal table. 26th September he was 
with the king at Vemueil. It was probably at his request 
that John granted, in this year, to the Temple, a mill at 
Pembroke Castle Bridge, upon an arm of the sea. (Mot. 
Chart. 3.) 

26th May, 1200, just after Arthur's cause had been 
abandoned by the King of France, the earl was directed 
to place William de Cayou in possession of the rents of 
the forest of Awi. (Mot. Norm. i. 23.) 2nd October 
Griffith ap Rhys had a safe conduct from the king to 
come and go, of which notice is sent to the sheriff of 
Gloucester. In this year also the earl witnessed the Jews' 
charter, (IF. of JEx. i. 256,) and was bail for the cham- 
berlain of Tancarville, that he should answer for his 
doings at a forbidden tournament. (Mot. de Obi. 75.) 
The king passed through St. Briavel's in November. 
(Pipe Molls, 170.) In this year, or 1201, he had from 
the earl 200 marks of silver. (H. of Ex. i. 39.) 

2nd May, 1201, John, at the earl's request, granted 
certain toll privileges to the burgesses of Pembroke. 
Later in the year, after John's visit to Paris, he, at the 
head of 100 knights, preceded the king into Normandy, 
(M. Chart. 96-8,) was 29th September at Harcourt, 2nd 
August with John at Chinon, and soon afterwards had a 
grant of 300 marks per annum for the keeping of Car- 
digan Castle. (Mot. de Liberat. 20-7.) He also witnessed 
a charter remitting to the monks of Canterbury the duty 
on certain wines. (Mad. H. of Ex. i. 766.) This was 
the year in which John divorced Joan, heiress of the 



earldom of Gloucester, and married Isabella, daughter 
of Aymer, Earl of AngoulSsme, already affianced to the 
Comte de la Marche, who became on this account a 
deadly opponent of the English in the following year. 

30th March, 1202, the earl was at Rouen, and 22nd 
April, the month of Arthur's murder, had custody of the 
castle of Lillebonne. 28th he was at Roche-Orival. 
23rd May, and 14th and 18th of June, he was to assign 
to Roger de Portes, Earl Warren and others, certain 
lands in Normandy, in place of lands lost by them. 
Earl Warren was to be compensated in Lillebonne. 
28th June he was at Rouen. 7tn August he was to give 
to John de Augi the land of Augi, or Eu. (Mot. 
Norm. i. 47-60, 1-9.) 18th August he appeared at Caen 
and Le Mans, and so on, continuing in close attendance 
upon the most locomotive of monarchs, his resting-places 
being marked by the number of documents to which he 
bore witness. 7th September he tested a patent roll at 
Le Mans, relating to the Viscount de Limoges, taken at 
Mirabeau. (Mot. Norm. xvi. 43.) 13th December the 
seneschal of Poitou is ordered to furnish him with twenty 
dolia of wine, de dono nostro. (Mot. Norm. i. 66.) This 
was the year in which, on John's refusal to answer to 
Philip and his peers for the death of Arthur, Normandy, 
Anjou, Maine, and Touraine were attacked by the French 
and Bretons. 

About this time seventy-seven Welsh foot-soldiers, and 
their seven constables or officers, were sent by John with 
certain other troops to Norway. 25th and 26th January, 
1203, the earl was to allot to John and Richard Mareschal 
certain lands in Normandy. 22nd March the constable 
of Chester and Henry de Rolleston were directed to let 
the earl have six carettcB of wine, quit of mala tolta. 
10th July, being at Rouen, he was quitted for one-seventh 
of his demesne lands. 24th, 25th, and 26th July he 
tested royal rolls at Montfort. (Mot. Norm. i. 71, 84, 
99, 100.) He also, in this year, had a grant of Goderich 
Castle, by the service of two knight's fees, and had 200 
marks towards keeping up his castles. 4th and 11th 


September he tested writs at Rouen ; 9th October he was 
also there; 30th November at Gunnovil; 1st December 
at Cesarburg, and 3rd and 4th at GunnoviL {Mot 
Norm. I 7 l'U8.) 

In 1204 the earl revisited England. 1st April he was 
at Marlborough, on his own property; 15th at Windsor; 
25th June at Giilingham; and 1st August at Oxford. 
In this year also he was selected as the roan of greatest 
vigour and capacity in the English court to relieve the 
the gallant Roger de Lacy, besieged for seven months by 
the French king in Chateau Gaillard, the last hope and 
hold of the English, Vemueil and Rouen having already 
fallen. The earl marched to the ground with a body of 
3000 horse and 400 foot, but owing to the late arrival of 
a flotilla of seventy boats, in which he trusted to destroy 
the floating bridge over the Seine, he was repulsed, the 
castle shortly afterwards was taken, and John, having lost 
the whole of his Norman possessions, fled to England. 

In this year, 1204, Richard Manganell and Walter ap 
Cadivor promised the king a palfrey, William de Braose 
being their pledge, to have right against Robert Fitz- 
Richard, the earl's vassal, concerning Haverford, held by 
the service of one and one-third knight's fee. In this 
year also tlie earl's clerk, Master Michael, gave five 
marks and six otter skins to the king, to have the vacant 
land between St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, and the 
house of the sons of Brune, the Jew, in the city of Lon- 
don, recognized to be the inheritance of the said Michael. 
(Rot. de. Obi. 198, 218.) 

7th February, 1205, the earl was at Abingdon, and 
next day at Woodstock. He paid four tons of wine for 
liberty to import forty from Normandy, (Ibid. i. 327,) 
and had a grant of 100 librates of land in the county 
of Bologne. (C JR. P. 9.) He appears also as sheriff 
of Gloucester, the county being farmed out to him. (H. 
of Ex. 191, 329.) 

22nd March, 1206, he gave a palfrey for license to 
export forty quarters of wheat from Boseham, and 28th 
May was one of the lords sent to conduct William of 


Scotland to a meeting with John at York. (Rot. Lit. 
Pat. i.) He was also named constable of St. Briavel's. 
In this year mention is made of three castles much cele- 
brated in border warfare. William de Braose gave 800 
marks, 3 destriers^ 5 chacuri^ 24 setm^ and 10 leporarii* 
for the fee and heirship for himself and his heirs of 
Grosmont, Skenfrith, and Llantilio Castles, with appur- 
tenances. {Rot. de Fin. 338.) 

11th February, 1208, the earl is directed to give up 
Cicester Castle to the king; and 6th March he is at 
Bristol. A day or two afterwards, John, then in the 
heat of his controversy with Pope Innocent concerning 
the nomination of Langton to Canterbury, thus addressed 
the justiciary of Ireland : — 

*^ Know that on Wednesday (5 March) we arrived at Bristol, 
at which place W"* Eari Mareschal came to us unbidden, and in 
a disposition to comply with our will ; and from Bristol we par- 
pose proceeding towards the council which we are to hold at 
Winchester (on the 12 March) ; and although we wished that the 
said Earl would go and visit his lands until Uie day of the council, 
et he would not quit our side, but intends to accompany us step 
y step to the council, disposed and ready, as he says, to execute 
our will/' (P. Roll 124.) 

The king also at the same time wrote to the barons and 
knights of Glamorgan, as they valued their lands, to put 
in order their houses, as they were wont to do in the 
castle bailey of Cardiff, and to keep ward there as was 
their duty. {Rot. Lit. Pat. 79.) On the 21st March 
the earl seems to have been in Ireland, probably enforcing 
the royal patent of Lord Mareschal for his kinsman. On 
the 22nd and 23rd was the Interdict. In this year the 
earl paid as scutage for a Scottish expedition £65 10s., 
upon 65^ knight's fees, held of the Honour of Striguil, 
and 40s. for Goderich. (Dugd. Bar.) He also paid 300 
silver marks for the land of OfFaly, with all castles upon 
it. {Rot. de Obi. 434.) While in Ireland he dared to 

' Chacuru$ is a hunter; Leporarius, a m*eyhound ; Seasus, probably 
some kind of dog ; Destrier is a saddle-horse ; Palfrey, something 
better, for state. 



extend his protection to his relative William de Braose, 
then most deservedly under the hot anger of the king. 
In this year also he had grants of the lands of William 
Martell in Somerset and Dorset, (C.M.P, 10,) and of a 
market at the town of Goderich Castle. At that time 
William de St. Ligo was sheriff of Pembroke. (Rot. 
Lit. Pat. 86.) 

Among the indications of the comparative failure of 
the interdict is the success of John's expeditions against 
Wales and Ireland. 21st January, 1209, a levy was 
directed against the Welsh, (C. R. P. 3,) William, Earl 
of Salisbury being warden of the Marches, and William 
de Londres, keeper of Gaermarthen Castle for the king. 
{Rot. de Lib. 142.) The preparation required was pro- 
bably considerable, for it was not for a year that all was 
ready. Tuesday, 24th May, 1210, and Wednesday, John 
was at Cardiff, on the way to meet his army, dispatched 
by sea to Pembroke. Thence he went to Margam, where 
he was so well entertained that, od a subsequent occasion, 
he exempted the abbey from a general impost, little aware 
that meantime the monastic annalist was heaping infamy 
on his name by recording that he starved, in 1202, twenty- 
two prisoners to death in Corfe Castle. {A. of Marg. 
and Pat. Rolls, 34.) While there, 27th, " Fulco'* was 
ordered to provide four ships for the royal service from 
Swansea to Pembroke for Saturday, 28th, an order which 
corresponds nearly with an entry in the Liberate Roll 
of three ships on a certain Saturday going between the 
same ports. (Rot. de Lib. 172.) "On the 28th John 
went from Margam to Swansea, and thence, Monday^ 
30th, to Haverford, where he was on the 31st, and so to 
the muster of the Flemish and other soldiers at Holy 
Cross, " apud crucem subtus Pembroke." Here arrived 
with the treasure its servants, Thomas Fitz-Henry, and 
Hugh de Monasteriis, and received 40s. for the waggons, 
making divers payments. Here also were Gilbert de 
Clare, and Richard Mareschal, the earl's brother. {Ibid. 


During John's stay at Pembroke, William de Braose 
appeared off the coast and offered 40,000 marks for his 
pardon. John probably distrusted his security as much 
as he disliked his person, and though at the instance of 
De Braose's nephew, William de Ferrars, John offered to 
see him and take him to Ireland, nothing was concluded, 
and De Braose, landing in Wales, laid waste the country. 
This baron, the author of the infamous Abergavenny 
massacre, was as false and brutal as John himself, but the 
chief offender seems to have been his wife, Maud de St. 
Valeri, a high-spirited woman, still, as " Moll Walbee," 
the reputed heroine of several Breconshire romances, and 
who, in refusing to give up her children as hostages, 
had added a significant hint about Prince Arthur. (Dugd. 
Bar. i. 417.) 

John landed at Crook, near Waterford, probably on the 
6th of June ; was at Kilkenny the 23rd, and Dublin the 
28th, and at Meath took possession of Maud de Braose 
and her children, who had fled to, and been taken at 
Carrickfergus. On their escape and recapture, he sent 
them to Windsor, where they are said to have been starved 
to death in 1210. De Braose himself died in 1211-12, 
in France. 

John was near Dublin 23rd August, and on the 26th 
had recrossed and was at Fishguard, and next day at 
Haverford and Kidwelly ; on the 28th at Margam ; on the 
30th at Newport; and on the 1st September at Bristol. 
Thus ended his Irish expedition, one of the few from 
which he returned without discredit. He left the Earl 
Mareschal behind as Deputy. 

In the following spring, 12th March, 1211, the king 
was again at Abergavenny, {Pat. Hollsj i. p. 1,) probably 
in his way to his North Welsh expedition, which he pushed 
to the verge of Snowdon, entering by way of Leominster. 
It was on this occasion that he obtained as hostages 
twenty-eight children, whom he is said to have hanged a 
few months afterwards, in 1213, while preparing a second 
inroad, which however he pushed no further than Chester. 


8th May, in this year, John, being at Freemantle, paid a 
man 69. for the heads of six Welshmen, brought to him 
at Rochester. {Pat. MollSy 158.) 

In 1211 the earl founded the priory of St. John the 
Evangelist, and shortly afterwards the abbey of Craigne- 
managh, or Duisk, in Kilkenny. 

In 1212, 2l8t May, John, by letters addressed to Fulk 
de Breante, bailiff of Glamorgan, restored to William de 
Karrio (Carew) his house of Karrio, and the lands he held 
when the king was at Pembroke on his way to Ireland. 
{Pat. Rolls, 125.) This is no doubt the same William 
who claimed, in 1207, to have held Moulsford, Berks, 
from the time of Henry I., and who had lands in Dorset, 
Somerset, Glamorgan, and Ireland. {Mot. de Obi. 414, 
491.) 26th May Rhys ap Griffith was allowed by the 
king the whole ot the lands which Maelgon ap Rhys held 
of the Honour of Cardigan, excepting two commotes. 
The earl also had permission, and 30th October performed 
homage to Prince Henry, who was specially committed 
to his care. {Mot. Lit. Pat. i.) In this year John had 
contemplated an expedition into Wales, and summoned 
the Earl Mareschal and others to meet him at Chester, 
on the 19th August. This, however, did not take place, 
and the musters were dismissed with a sort of apology 
on the 16th August. {Pat. Molls, 175-6.) 

15th May, 1213, the earl discharged the unpleasant 
duty of witnessing John's resignation of his crown into 
the hands of the papal legate. 10th June he was at 
Ospringe, and 21st he was detained in England by the 
king's affairs, and the justiciary of Ireland was ordered to 
attend to his estates there. 19th October, being warden 
of the Welsh Marches, he gave the king £1000, or 
marks, to have restored to him livery of Haverford 
Castle, which Robert Fitz-Richard held under the earl in 
fee, paying for it at Christmas, Paschal, and Michaelmas, 
each fifty marks. {Mot. de. Obi 499.) Undeterred by 
the reputed end of Henry I., the royal appetite seems to 
have kept pace with the royal troubles, for at Monmouth, 
28th November, 1213, Roger, the son of Nichol, agrees 


to give the king all the lampreys he can get, if he will 
request the Earl Mareschal to grant him in farm the 
manor of Langeford, co. Gloucester. (Ibid. 511, Madox« 
i. 481.) In this year the earl was made governor of 
Caermarthen, Cardigan, and Gower (probably Swansea) 
Castles, (Dugd. Bar.,) confirmed 29th January, 1214, 
{Hot. Lib. Pat. i.,) in consideration, probably, of the 
expenses of which offices, he was quitted of 2U0 marks 
of his payment for Haverford. (Mot. de Obi. 622.) 

Early in 1214 John crossed the sea, and prepared for 
the campaign which terminated in the defeat of his troops 
at Bo vines, and the destruction of his hopes of conquest 
on the continent. 8th March he wrote from Rochelle to 
the Earl Mareschal, reporting the safe arrival of himself 
and most of his army on the 15th February. (Pat. Molls, 
i. p. i.) During the king's absence the earl arranged 
the formal removal of the interdict, and soon afterwards, 
with the king, he besieged and took Rochester Castle. 
4th November he had custody of Gerald, son of Philip 
Prendergast, a hostage afterwards exchanged for his 
brother David. (Mot. Lit. Pat. i.) Later in the month 
the barons met in solemn assembly at Bury, and swore 
upon its high altar to press their riorhts upon the kins 

19th February, 1215, on his way to Northampton, 
John from Blisworth issued a safe conduct to the northern 
barons, who were to meet the Archbishop and the Earl 
Mareschal at Oxford on the 1st August. (Pat. Molls, 
ii.) At Epiphany John was brought to bay, and the 
Archbishop, the Bishop of Ely, and the Earl Mareschal 
were his pledges that he would meet the barons at Easter. 
Easter found the barons at Stamford, whence they marched 
to Brackley, where they were met on the Monday after 
the octaves of Easter by the Earl, Earl Warren, and 
Archbishop Langton on the part of John, then at Ox- 
ford. The various meetings then held did not prove 
satisfactory, and the barons, assuming the title of *^ the 
Army of God and Holy Church," retired to Northampton, 
which however, being garrisoned by mercenaries, they 


failed to take. Thence they went by Bedford to London, 
where they were well received, and whence they sum- 
moned by letter, and under penalties, the royal adherents, 
and among them the Earl and John Mareschal. The 
Mareschals neglected to obey, but finally were sent by 
John from Odiham, and meeting the barons, settled 
the preliminaries of the great charter. 27th May the 
archbishop and others had a safe conduct from the barons 
to meet the king at Staines. {Pat. Rolls^ ii.) 

Upon the sealing at Runnymede, 15th June, 1215, the 
Earl, the Archbishop, and the Bishop of Ely became 
cautions for the king that he would give the requisite 
satisfaction, the settlement of points connected with which 
was no doubt the cause of John's daily visits to Runny- 
mede from Windsor, from the 18th to the 23rd of June. 

A month later, 15th July, John, being between New- 
bury and Abingdon, and unwilling to meet the barons at 
Oxmrd on the 16th, sent the earl and others with letters 
in his stead, while he went to Clarendon and Woodstock, 
being however actually, as would appear, in Oxford on 
the dav of, and for the week following, the appointed 
time of meeting. 13th September, being at Dover, John 
sent various ecclesiastics and two laymen, John Mareschal 
being one, to Pope Innocent, requesting aid against the 
barons. {Pat. Rolls^ 73.) Later in the year, from 13th 
October to 6th December, he was again before Rochester, 
which had been surrendered by the archbishop, and was 
now governed by D'Albini. After a three months' siege 
he retook the castle, and then, disregarding the barons, 
marched northwards as far as Berwick. 

During this year the earl, no doubt through his officers, 
was directed, 13th June, to receive certain hostages, and 
then to liberate Rhys Boscanus. He also had custody of 
the see of St. David's, and, 20th August, liberty for a 
" Navigium " to come to Ros, (co. Pembroke,) providing 
it did not injure Waterford town. 21st October he is 
directed to give up Sweinsh (Swansea) Castle to the 
Bishop of Hereford, and, 18th November, the bishop 
being dead, all the castles which belonged to William de 



Braose, and were in the bishop's hands, were directed to 
be given up to the Earl Mareschal. 22nd December the 
Irish justices were ordered to give up to him the castle of 
Dumas, and neglecting this order, tney received a repri- 
mand soon afterwards. (JRoL Lit. Pat. i.) 

It is a very remarkable proof of the firmness and 
moderation of the Earl Mareschal, and of the general 
respect for his character and abilities, that, although a 
loyal adherent to John, and much in his <;ompany during 
tM jcear of his nephew's murder, and of some of his worst 
excesses, no man ever attributed any of them to his 
counsels. Philip of France always exhibited towards 
him great personal respect, and though opposed to the 
barons in the- field, it is clear that they regarded him, and 
with truth, as a believer in the justice of their demands, 
and as one: of the very few wise, prudent, and honest 
persons to whom the king was occasionally disposed to 
listen. The landing of Lewis, 30th May, 1216, and his 
reception in London on the 2nd June, rendered John's 
cause desperate, but he was still loyally supported by the 
earl, and by Hubert de Burgh, the gallant defender of 
Dover Castle. Both, however, must have felt greatly 
relieved by the death of John, 

'' Qui moriens inultum sedavit in orbe tumultum/' 

and which occurred 18th (19th) October^ 1216. 

(To be eantinued.) 


This parish consists of fourteen townships, of which thir- 
teen are in the Hundred of Yale, and County of Denbigh, 
the remaining one being in Flintshire. The names of 
two are Bodidris and Qelligynan. The former was the 
residence of Llewelyn ab Ynyr, one of the warriors who 
distinguished themselves in the battle of Grogen, in 1 165, 


when the English were signally defeated. For his ser- 
vices in this battle he had a grant of the township of 
Qelligynan; and, on the same occasion, new armorial 
bearings were conferred on him. For, while in conver- 
sation after the battle with his Prince, he accidentally 
drew his left hand, smeared with ^ore, across his sword, 
and impressed the marks of his tour bloody fingers on 
the blade, which the Prince observing, ordained that he 
should carry similar marks on his shield, viz., " Paly of 
eight argent and gules. 

The tomb of his son, Ghruffydd ab Llewelyn, was re- 
moved at the Dissolution from Valle Crucis Abbey to the 
church of his native parish. The local tradition about 
whom is that, having gone to Palestine during the 
Crusades, and when engaged in storming a town, he had 
his feet on the walls, when he was terribly wounded in 
the abdomen, and his bowels fell down between his legs. 
He still continued to fight for some time, when a dog 
seized his bowels, and began to devour them. At the 
foot of this tomb, as will be noticed further on, this 
incident is supposed to be commemorated.^ 

The estates of Bodidris have descended lineally from 
these two heroes to the Lloyds of Mostyn, their present 
owners ; and the ancient mansion of that name will be 
described and illustrated in a future Number of the 

The parish church, which is under the invocation of 
St. Qermanus, as its name indicates, consists of two equal 
aisles, (an arrangement common in this county,) and is 
83 feet by 44 feet in external dimensions. It was recased, 
or rather its outer walls were rebuilt, in 1736 ; and the 
windows, which are all of the round-headed, pseudo- 
Italian style of that period, betray this circumstance. 

^ A Bimilar tradition exists with regard to other knights of the 
middle ages. In the church of Oyerton-LongueTille, Huntingdon- 
shire, there is a recumbent figure of a knight of the LoneueTille 
fiimilj, (who were settled there soon after the Conquest,) with a dog 
at his feet, deyourine his bowels. It would be worth while to collect 
instances of this truly sanguinary incident from other localities. 


The aisles are, however, divided by a range of ux piers, 
bearing four-centered arches of the fifteenth century- 
Over £e west end of the aorthcm or oldest aisle, for the 
altar is at its east end, is a small cot, with two bells upon 
the gable. In this same aisle is suspended a good brass 
chandelier of the fifteenth century, in fair preservation, 
represented in the accompanying engraving. 

The font bears date 1737, — a hideous, nondescript, 
baluster-shaped thing, and the sooner it is replaced by a 
suitable one the better. 

In the south wall of the south aisle, near the east end, 
is the recumbent figure of Gruffydd ah Llewelyn, men- 
tioned above. The figure is no doubt a portrait, from 
the peculiar idiosyncrasy of the features. It is painted 


all over by modem hands, and no valae can therefore be 
attached to the colours ; but the various articles of dress 
are well made out, and the details are worth studying, 
especially the fastening of the shirt of mail on the neck, 
and the stuffing of the hose. 

In front of toe east window of this south aisle, and par- 
tially blocking it up, stands the tomb of Sir Evan Lloyd, 
of Bodidris, a direct descendant of Llewelyn ab Ynyr. It 
bears the date 1639, and is of interest from the armorial 
bearings on the shields with which it is adorned. They 
are as follows ; but it should be observed that some of 
the tinctures have evidently been either mistaken by the 
painter, or else obliterated by damp, and that the quar- 
terings are a few only — oddly selected — of the number 
to which Sir Evan Lloyd was entitled : — 

On an escutcheon upon the summit of the tomb, — 
Party per pale ; dexter, paly of 8 or and gules (Lloyd) ; 
sinister, per pale ermine and erminois^ over all a lion 
rampant or (Tudor Trevor). 

Crest, — On a wreath a lion rampant or. 

On four shields below (from dexter to sinister) : — 

1. Tudor Trevor (same as above). 

2. Argent, 3 lions passant regardant gules. 

(Cynan ap lago ap Idwal.) 

3. Or, a lion rampant azure, langued and armed gules. 

(Cadwgan, of Nannau.) 

4. Within a border engrailed or, on a field sahle, a lion 

rampant argent, langued and armed gules. 
(Davydd Goch, of Penmachno.) 
On fourteen snields below (from dexter to sinister) : — 

1. Vert, 3 eagles displayed in fesse or. 

(Owain Gwynedd.) 

2. Argent, a lion rampant sable, langued and armed 


(Madoc ap Meredith, of Powys.) 

3. Argent, a fret vert. 

(Evton, of Shropshire ? There were two fami- 
lies of Eyton, and the bearing is rightly 
described above.) 


4. Vert^ a lion rampant argent ? 

(Gwaithvoed, of Powys,) 

5. Gfules? a chevron or between 3 Saxon's heads 

coujped proper. 
(Ednyfed Vychan.) 

6. Paly of 8 or and gulesy over all a lion rampant 

sablCi langued and armed gules. 
(Griffith Maelor.) 

7. Or, a lion rampant gules ? 

(Bleddyn ap Cynfyn.) 

8. Vert, a chevron between 3 wolves' heads erased, 2 

and 1, argent? 

(Rind Flaidd, of Penllyn-) 

9. Azure, a lion passant gardant or. 

(Llewelyn Aurdorchog, of Yale.) 

10. Sable, a chevron or between 3 goats' heads, erased 

of the second. 

(Ithel Velyn, of Yale.) 

11. Gules, on a chevron between 3 boars' heads conped 

argent, 3 trefoils of the first. 
(Thelwall, of Plasyward.) 

12. Argent, a cross gules. 


13. Argent, a fesse sable between 3 choughs, 2 and 1 


14. Sable, a chevron argent between 3 water-bougets 

of the second. 


There is a shield of the Caroline period imbedded in 

the south wall on the outside. Its bearings are, — Party 

per pale. Dexter, — Quarterly, 1 and 4 a chevron between 

3 stars ; 2 and 3 a lion rampant. Sinister, — Quarterly, 

1 and 4 on a bend bordered ermine, a cinquefoil between 

2 mullets; 2 and 3 a cross bordered. 

In the same wall, on the outside, also stands the effigy 
of an ecclesiastic, once no doubt recumbent, but now im- 
bedded upright in a slightly retiring recess. It is carved 
in the carboniferous sandstone of the country, and is 


much defaced by weather. The drapery of the chasuble, 
as will be seen from the accompanying engraving, is 
peculiarly stiff; it may be of the nfteenth century, but it 
is not certainly known whom it commemorates. Mr. 
Morris, of Shrewsbury, considers it, with great proba- 
bility, to be that of John Lloyd, Abbot of Valle Grucis, 
who flourished in this century, and of whom mention is 
made in Arch. Camb.j First Series, i. pp. 27, 28. Pre- 
ferring that his remains should be placed with those of 
his ancestors, he may have directed that they should be 
interred at Llanarmon. He was brother of Tudor ap 
Davydd Lloyd, of Bodidris, which Tudor was the lineal 
ancestor of Sir Evan Lloyd, whose tomb has been 
described above. 

R. W., T. M., E. L. B. 


It has been long known that the village of Wroxeter, near 
Shrewsbury, stood on a small part of we site of an ancient 
Roman city, and the indications given by the early writers left no 
difficulty in identifying it. Ptolemy, about a.d. 120, couples it 
with Deva (Chester) as one of the two towns in the district of 
the Comavii, and calls it OiftpoK6vtoy. In the second British Iter 
of Antoninus, this same town is spoken of by the name of 
Uroconium, which is probably a mere error of the scribes who 
copied the manuscripts, as in a later Iter it is called Viroconium, 
which exactly represents the Greek name as given by Ptolemy. 
The tract De Situ JBHtannue, which goes under the name of 
Richard of Cirencester, calls it, in the text of the work, Uriconium, 
but in the Diaphragroata, or Itineraries, at the end, the name 
occurs several times under the forms Viriconium, Virioconium, 
Uriconium, and Urioconium. In the list of towns given by the 
anonymous geographer of Ravenna it occurs as '* Uriconium 
Comovinorum.'' We can hardly doubt, from a comparison of 
these authorities, that the true name of the town was Viroconium; 
but it seems also very probable that, at a late period of the Roman 
occopation of the island, it had become changed into Uriconium. 


This 18 the name which antiquaries have been in the habit of 
giving to ity though it is not clear how it came to be adopted. 

We know that, for seyeral centuries past, the soil of Wroxeter 
has furnished an abundance of objects of antiquity, which have 
been picked up, and sometimes preserved as curiosities, and of 
which a few have found their way into public collections ; and 
one or two partial excavations, made at intervals during the last 
century and a half, led to the discovery of Roman rooms, pave- 
ments, and hypocausts. No attempt had, however, been made 
to explore the site of the ancient city, either extensively or syste- 
matically, until the present year. A Committee of Excavations 
was formed last year, and permission liberally given by the Duke 
of Cleveland, who is the possessor of the greater part of the land, 
and by Lord Berwick, who possesses the rest, to open the ground, 
and carry the plans of excavation into effect The excavations 
were commenced on the 3rd of February, 1869. 

The circuit of the walls of the Roman city are very distinctly 
marked by a ridge of earth in nearly their whole circuit of we 
believe upwards of three miles. Tney form a very irregular 
oval, and the earth within the walls is distinguished from that 
without by its dark colour, caused by a mixture of burnt mate- 
rials. The surface of the ground, too, is covered everywhere 
with small fragments of Roman pottery, brick, and mortar, 
which have been broken and brought to the sur&ce bv the 
operations of agriculture, and perhaps by other causes. Neariy 
in the centre of the space inclosed withm the walls, and almost 
on the top of the elevation on which the greater part of the 
city of Uriconium was built, appears an imposing mass of 
Roman masonry, the only part or the Roman buildmgs whidi 
remained above ground. It stands in a large field where two 
roads separate, and forms a striking object from either. On the 
northern side this wall presents the appearance of the exterior of 
a building, while on tne other remained the traces of vaulted 
roofs which had sprung from it. It was thoueht advisable to 
commence the excavations at this spot, partly because, as there 
were undoubted remains of buildings to guide us, we should be 
able at once to ascertain the depth at which the ruins lay under- 
^ound — a point of great importance in respect to the prospect of 
important discoveries. A pit was accordingly sunk on the north- 
em side of the Roman wall just alluded to, which is popularly 
known by the name of the " Old Wall," the bottom of the 
masonry of which was only found at a depth of 14 feet beneath 
the present surface of the land, and it sank seven feet into the 
sand which forms the under stratum of the soil. From this point, 
trenches were carried to the northward of the liiie of the Old Wall, 


which ran nearly east and west^ and these brought saccessively 
to light a series of parallel walls^ marked b b, c c, and d d in 
the accompanying plan, a a representing the Old Wall. These 
walls were traced during their whole extent, with interruptions, 
caused no doubt by the tearing up of the masonry for building 
materials in comparatively moaern times. The northernmost of 
these parallel walls, d d d, was traced from west to east to a 
distance of 340 feet, when the progress of the excavators was 
arrested by a modem hedge and road. It was subsequently dis- 
covered that this long wall bordered a street, a regular pavement 
of which, composed of small round stones, resembling that 
found in many of our older towns at the present day, was met 
with at e in the plan. The wall d d terminated to the west in a 
wall running at right angles to it, which has now been traced to 
a considerable distance southwardly, and there can be no doubt 
that it also bordered upon a street, th^ site of which is occupied 
by the modem Watling Street Road. 

It thus seems evident that the building to which these walls 
belonged formed the comer of two streets of ancient Uriconium, 
which crossed each other at right angles. Its dimensions would 
seem to indicate that it was a public building, but it would be 
premature in the present state of our knowledge to attempt to 
form an opinion on its character. The two walls b b and c c 
inclose a rectangular area, 226 feet long by 30 feet wide, which 
appears to have had in its whole extent a uniform pavement 
formed of small bricks, three inches long by an inch broad, set 
very neatly in herring-bone fashion. The wcdls c c and d d were 
not quite parallel, the space between them being 14 feet wide at 
its western end, and 16 feet at the eastem end. At the latter 
was found a pavement in rather fine mosaic, presenting the ordi- 
nary patterns of Roman tessellated pavements. About the middle 
of the outer wall, d dy the traces of the wall were lost tlirough a 
considerable space ; but the broken condition of the masonry at 
each end of this breach seemed to show that it had been caused 
by the carmng away of the materials for the use of the mediseval 
builders. It is probable, however, that there was here an entrance, 
and the desire to obtain the large stones forming the doorway 
was perhaps the cause of the tearing up of the masonry. The 
two walls b b and c c also presented several breaches, where there 
may have been doorways, though no distinct traces of anything 
of this kind were met witfi. There may have been a doorway at 
the eastern end of the wall b 6, as it was not traced up to the 
eastern wall. In the wall which formed the western end of this 
central area, and which separated it from the street now repre- 
sented by the Watling Street Road, were two original openmgs 




■F"}f i*"ta 'o.'mik 


in the wall, within which were found, evidently in their original 
position, in one a lai^e squared stone, and in the other two simi- 
larly squared stones placed one upon another. One of these was 
bevilled off at the upper edge into a plain moulding, and their 
general appearance lead to the belief that they had formed the 
bases of something — perhaps of large columns. Here therefore 
may perhaps have been the principal entrance into the long and 
extensive area which occupied the middle of this building, which 
must have been designed for some public purposes. Its nerring- 
bone pavement of bricks, which is considered generally to have 
belonged to open courts, combined with its great breadth and 
extent, would lead us to suppose that it was not roofed, while 
several capitals, bases, and portions of shafts of columns, all of a 
very plain and rather late character, which were found scattered 
about, show that it was not devoid of architectural decoration. 
Nothing was found to indicate the exact character of this building. 
In the first excavation, at the eastern end, were found two or 
three links of a rather large iron chain, and a small iron trident 
which appears to have formed the head of a staff. Among the 
pieces of fresco*painting from the walls, one was picked up con- 
taining three letters of what had been a large and formal inscrip- 
tion; but, from the manner in which these fragments were 
scattered about, we could not venture to say to what particular 
part of the building this piece belonged. 

At the eastern extremity of the large central area, at g in the 
plan, there was a step, formed of one large squared stone, and 
above it a decided passage or doorway through the wall, leading 
into an inclosure. A, which had no pavement, and which, from the 
appearance of the walls, appeared to have been an open court. 
The walls here were, as represented in the plan, not quite at right 
angles to each other. Beyond this court extended a larger area, 
bounded by the continuation of the wall d dd, and by a wall 
rising at right angles to it at the point where the hedge and 
modern road prevented this wall from being traced any Airther. 
No pavement could be traced in this area, which may perhaps 
have been a garden. 

The continuation of the ** Old Wall," a a, was traced westward, 
after a short interruption, to the whole extent of the interior area 
we have been describing, forming one side of a long narrow 
inclosure, of which the other side was formed by the wall b b, 
and which was uniformly 14 feet wide. The appearance of the 
Old Wall, which formed one side of it, and other circumstances, 
leave little doubt that this was an open alley, to which there was 
probably some entrance at the western end from the street, and 
there may perhaps have been a passage out from it at the other 


end also. Herring-bone pavement was found here and there in 
this passage. At I and k, two stone steps were found, similar to 
that at g^ with openings, or doorways, through the wall. The 
step at A was very much worn by the feet of people who had 
passed over it, which showed that this entrance to whatever lay 
oeyond it had been very much used. It may be well here to 
remark that this wall, and the ** Old Wall," of which it was the 
continuation, is just 3 feet thick, which is the ordinary thickness 
of the walls which have been uncovered during these excavations. 
It is somewhat curious that this is the thickness prescribed in our 
early mediseval municipal regulations for the party walls of houses 
in a town. The two walls b b and c c were, however, 4 feet thick, 
and the northern wall, d d^S feet 9 inches. 

Circumstances have obliged us to fill up the whole of the exca- 
vations described above, but what we are now going to describe 
remains still open, and in fact the excavations are only in progress. 
Through the kindness of the proprietor of the land, the Duke of 
Cleveland, the Committee of Excavations has obtained absolute 
possession for a year, on payment of a rent to the farmer, of two 
acres of ground lying to the south of the Old Wall and its con- 
tinuation (including that wall as its northern boundary), and 
bounded to the west by the hedge of the Watling Street Road. 
This ground has been inclosed by a strong fence of hurdles, and 
has an entrance from the road. 

After having traced satisfactorily the buildings described above, 
the excavators were directed to cross the southern wall of those 
buildings at the step at Z, and to carry a trench southward at 
right angles to it. They seem to have come into some open 
courts, which have not yet been carefully explored, because the 
trench brought them to the semicircular end of the hypocaust 
marked m in the plan. The hypocaust, which had warmed a 
handsome room, 37 feet long, by 26 feet wide, was in a state of 
very perfect preservation when opened, although the floor which 
once covered it had entirely disappeared. The pillars, which were 
formed of Roman square bricks, placed one upon another without 
mortar, and of which 120 were counted, were from 2 to 3 feet 
10 inches high. Unfortunately, during the time we were excluded 
from the field, nearly all these pillars have been thrown down, and 
much wanton destruction has been committed in the excavations 
which were then open. The northern end of this hypocaust, the 
wall of which remained to the height of several feet, presents an 
imposing mass of masonry, and furnishes the interesting fact that 
the Roman houses were plastered and painted m fresco externally 
as well as internally. The exterior of the semicircular wall at the 
north end of this hypocaust was painted red, with stripes of 


yellow. Near it lay an immense stone^ hewn into the shape to 
nt the semicircular wall of the hypocaust, which had evidently 
formed part of a massive band of such stones at some height in 
the wall. A strong piece of iron is soldered into it with lead^ for 
the purpose of attaching something to the building externally.^ 
A little alley, considerably wider than the spaces between the 
pillars of bricks, ran across this hypocaust m, and through an 
opening in the wall, into another hypocaust, o, which has not yet 
been entirely cleared. It also had only some fragments of the 
cement of the floor remaining. This second hypocaust was 
entered from without by a rather large archway at p, which again 
was approached by a flight of three steps, each step composed of 
one large well-squared stone, descending from a square platform, 
which was apparently on a level with the original floors of the 
rooms. The masonry here was so characteristic, and in such 
good condition, and the spot so interesting in several points of 
view, that it has been given in the accompanying engraving from 
a drawing by a talented young artist of Shrewsbury, Mr. Hillary 
Da vies. It will give the reader also some notion of the command- 
ing position of the Roman city. In the background we see the 
steeple of Wroxeter Church, at the distance of about half a mile ; 
and the distance is formed by the Stretton Mountains, Lawley 
Hill and Caer-Caradoc, remarkable for their peaked forms, and 
the still more distant Breidden. When the steps were first opened, 
a broken shaft of a large column was found lying across them, 
which was removed, and raised upright on the platform above, as 
it appears in our engraving. The platform at the bottom of the 
steps, or at least the corner of it farthest from the arched 
entrance to the hypocaust, seems to have been used by the last 
occupiers of this mansion (for it was certainly to a mansion that 
these rooms belonged) as a receptacle for the dust swept from floors 
and passages, for the earth, for about a foot deep on the floor, 
was literally filled with articles such as coins, hair-pins, fibulee, 
broken pottery and glass, bones of birds and animals which have 
been eaten, and a variety of other such objects. 

To the east of the entrance of the hypocausts, a small room 
only eight feet square was found, which had a herring bone pave- 
ment like that of the great inclosure to the north of the Old 
Wall. A rather wide passage through the eastern wall of this 
small room led into another room with a hypocaust, the floor of 
which is also gone. The pillars of this hypocaust were rather 
more neatly constructed, but they seem to have been considerably 

^ An accurate drawing of this stone has been made^ and is pre- 


lower than those of the hypocausts previoosly opened. This 
hypocaust was the scene of a very interesting discovery. Abun- 
dant traces of burning in all parts of the site leave no doubt that 
the city of Uriconium was plundered, and afterwards burnt, by 
some of the barbarian invaders of Roman Britain at the close of 
the Romano-British period, that is, towards the middle of the 
fifth century. The human remains which have been met widi 
in different parts bear testimony to a frightful massacre of the 
inhabitants. It would seem that a number of persons had been 
pursued to the buildings immediately to the south of the line of 
the Old Wall, and slaughtered there ; for in trenching across what 
were perhaps open courts to the south and south-east of the door 
through the wall at /, remains of at least four or five skeletons 
were found, and in what appears to have been the comer of a 
yard at n, outside the semicircular end of the hypocaust first 
discovered, lay the skull and some of the bones of a very young 
child. In the last of the hypocausts we have been describing, 
three skeletons were found, that of a person who appears to have 
died in a crouching position in one of the corners, and two others 
stretched on the ground by the side of the wall. An examination 
of the skull of the person in the comer leaves no room for 
doubtins that he was a very old man. One at least of the others 
was a female. Near the old man lay a little heap of Roman 
coins, in such a manner as to show Uiat they must have been 
contained in a confined receptacle, and a number of small iron 
nails lying among them, with traces of decomposed wood, prove 
that this was a little box, or coffer. The remains of the wood are 
found attached to two or three of the coins. We are justified, 
from all these circumstances, in concluding that, in the midst of 
the massacre of Roman Uriconium, these three persons — perhaps 
an old man and two terrified women — had sought to conceal 
themselves by creeping into the hypocaust; and perhaps they 
were suffocated there, or, when the house was delivered to the 
flames, the falling rubbish may have blocked up the outlet so as 
make it impossible for them to escape. It is not likely that they 
would have been followed into such a place as this hypocaust 
These coins were 132 in number, and the following description of 
them has been given by Mr. Roach Smith : — 

Tbtricus. One, much worn, of the Fides MiUtum type I 

Claudius. One, r«r. cokbecratio ; an eagle I 

CoNSTAMTiNE, the Elder. Obv, coKSTAirrnnrs . max . avo. Head dia* 
demed, or wreathed, to the right. Bev, gi<oiua exescitvb. Two 
8oIdj^*8 with spears and shields, standing ; between them two standards ; 
or (in three instances) a single standard. 

Mint marks (exergual letters) : f . const., S ; tb . p., 6 ; s . l . c, 
1 ; illegible, 3 13 


CoHffTANS. Obv, Much wom or decayed. Bev. fbl . tbmp . bbparatio. 
The emperor holding a ^lobe and a standard, standing in a galley 
rowed by a Victory. This coin is altogether much wom. It possibly 

may haye been plated 1 

CoHSTTAHTiini IL Obv. coNSTAimNvs . ivK . NOB . c. Latireated head, 
to the right ; bust in armour. Rev. 6ik>bia exxscitys. Two soldiers 
standing ; between them two standards, and on the same a wreath, or 
other object, in the field. 

Exergual letters: tb . p. or tr . s., 15 ; p . l . c, 9 ; const., 8 ; 

illegible, 9; total 36 

CoNtTANTius n. Obv. T . I. . iTL . coMSTAimys . NOB . c. Laorcated 
head, to the right, bast in armour. Rev. gi.obia BXERcrrys. Two 
soldiers, &c., as on the coins of the preceding. 

Exerguat letters : tr.s., 3; *p., 1; smts, 1 ; total 5 

Jctjan. a plated denarius. Obv. fl . cl . itliants .p.p. ayg. Dia- 
demed head to the right Rev. Tons T itvlt . xx, within a wreath ... 1 
HxLBNA. Obv, T . L . iTi. . HEiJENAB AYG. Head to the right. Rev. pax 
FYBUCA. A female figure standing and holdine in the right hand a 
branch, and in the left nand a hasta pura. In Sie field, a cross (+) ; 

in the exergue, tb . p. Another, without the cross. Total 2 

Theodora. Obv. fl . theobobae ayg. Head to the right. Rev. pibtas 

BOMANA. A female standing suckling an infant : in the exergue, tb . p 1 
UxBs Roma. Obv. ybbs boma. Graleated head of Rome, to the left. 
Rev. Romulus and Remus nursed by the wolf; above, two stars ; on 
two, two stars and a wreath. 

In the exergue : pl . c, 1 1 ; tb . p. or tb . s., 10 ; illegible, 3 ; total 24 
CoHSTANTiNOPoiJs. Obv. coNSTANTiNOPOus. Bust of pcrsonificd Con- 
stantinople, hebned, and holding a sceptre, to the lefl. Rev. A winged 
Yictoiy, with hasta pura and shield; her feet upon the prow of a 
galley, to the lefl. 

Exergual letters : tb . p., 20 ; p . l . c. or s . l . c, 9 ; o . sis, 1 ; 

8 . CONST., 1; illegible, 3; total 34 

Yalens. Obv. D.N. yalens .... Diademed head, to the right. Rev. 
SBCYBXTAs .... YlctorY with wreath and palm branch, marching to 

the left. Much corroded 1 

Rude copies of some of the foregoing 6 

Rxtremdy corroded 6 

Total number 132 

This is, we believe^ the first instance which has occurred in this 
coantry, in which we have had the opportunity of ascertaining 
what particular coins, as beinsthen in daily circulation, an inha- 
bitant of a Roman town in Britain, at tne moment when the 
Roman domination in this country was expiring, carried about 
with him. Mr. Roach Smith, speaking of the great majority of 
these coins, those of the Constantine family, remarks, — ** I 
suspect these coins were sent into Britain even after the time of 
Yalens, because they are all comparatively sharp and fresh. It 
is not improbable that the procurators at Treves and at Lugdunum 
may have had large stores of these coins by them, which they 
sent out at intervals." A consideration of these coins gives us an 


approximation, at least, towards the date at which Uriconium 
must have been destroyed; Mr. Roach Smith agrees in the 
opinion that a compariBon of them points to the very latest period 
previous to the establishment of the Anglo-Saxons. They show 
us that at that time the great mass of the circulating medium 
consisted of coins of the Constantine family, which again explains 
to us why the first coinage of the Anglo-Saxons was nearly all 
copied from the coins of the emperors of that femily. Again, 
the care with which these small copper coins (for only one is of 
plated silver) seem to have been hoarded up, and the anxiety of 
their possessor to preserve them in the midst of a frightful 
calamity, may perhaps assist us in forming an estimate of the 
relative value of money at this period. 

The space to the northward of these hypocausts has as yet 
been only slightly excavated, hut one wall, which was partly 
uncovered, near the hypocaust last mentioned, represented a mode 
of ornamentation which we think is unique in this country; the 
inner sur&ce of the wall instead of being stuccoed and painted 
in fre$co, was tessellated, the tessellse, alternately of dark and 
light stones, one>half by three-fifths of an inch square, being set 
into the cement. A fragment of this tessellated wall is repre- 
sented in the annexed wood-cut. Immediately beyond this spot 

we come upon the rooms which joined up to the south side of the 
Old Wall, and which also have been as yet very imperfectly 
examined. The walls which divided these rooms are indicated 
by the dotted lines at »»»«,- and it appears from the remains, 
which are distinctly visible on the face of the Old Wall, that they 
had vaulted roofe of the kind technically called barrel roofs. In 
one of these rooms was found a quantity of burnt wheat, which 
would lead ns to suppose that they might have been store rooms. 
To the south of these rooms is a long passage, which appears 
to have communicated at one end with the floor of the room in 
the hypocaust of which the skeletons were found, and which has 
not yet been followed to its eastern termination. At t, io the 


plan, tbiB passage is interrupted hy a square pit in very good 
masonry, througn which a drain, t f tn the plan, runs, nearly north 
and south, which is represented in the accompanying cut, from a 
drawing by Mr, Hillary Davies. 

Dniu in tlia Romin Ruitu it Wrozettt. 

The bed of this drain is formed of the large square Roman roof 
tiles, with the flanged edges turned upwards so as to form the 
sides. To the south of this passage lay other domestic apartments, 
the bypocaust of one of which was brought to light by the exca- 
vators before they were subjected to a temporary interruption 
in their labours. The stucco of the southern iace of the wall, 
f(>rmiag the southern side of the passage just alluded to, presented 
an inscription scrawled in large straggling characters, incised with 
some slurp pointed instrument, such as a. stylus, and closely 
resembling in character the similar inscriptions which have been 
found on walls in Pompeii. When first uncovered, two lines of this 
inscriptioUj perhaps the whole of it, seemed to have been perfectly 
well preserved, but, before anybody had had the opportunity of 
examining it all, two casual visitors, with walking sticks, amused 
themselves with breaking off the plaster, in order apparentiy to 
try its strength, and were not observed by the workmen until the 



first line had been completely destroyed, and the second, which 
had been a shorter one, was very much broken into, though just 
enough remained to show that it must hare been writtea in Latia.* 
Before a tracing or drawing could be made of it, the farmer, in 
a fit of ill-humour, excluded the workmen and all who were 
concerned in the excavations from the field, and during this time 
what BtiU remained of the inscription baa been nearly destroyed 
by the weather, and perhaps by some unfriendly hand. Thus 
have we lost all the adrantage of a discovery which might have 
been singularly important for our knowledge of the state of 
Britain at this period, through mere mischieTous wantonness. 
AH that remained of this inscription when we were at length 
enabled to have it copied, is represented in the accompanying cut 

At the moment when the interruption in the excavations, 
already alluded to, took place, a trench bad been opened from 
the hedge of the Watllng Street Road eastward towaras the hypo- 
causts, and had brought to light the walls of other buildings, at 
V in the plan. These buildings have since been extensively 
explored, and will furnish the subject of a detailed report in the 
next Number of the Archtcologia Cambrensis. At the same time 
we will give a general account of the numerous objects which 
have been found during these excavations, all which have been, 
or will he, deposited in the museum at Shrewsbury. 

Thomas Wbiobt. 
Hbnbt Johnson. 

' When I first saw the inscription, immediately after the first 
destmcdon bad taken place, I traced distinctly the letters N T about 
the middle of the space represented in the wood-cut, and I am pretty 
sure, from what remained, that the letter before them was an A, 
forming the termination of a verb at the end of the senleDce. I 
picked up the bia of plaster from the ground, on the faces of which 
were still visible lines of the letters which had been destroyed, but 
thev were in far too fragmentary a state, and too much bai been 
brolcen to mere powder, to offer the slightest hope ofputting them 
together, and making anything of the inscription. — T. W. 



The excavations which have been for some time proceeding at 
Wroxeter, the Uriconium of the Romans^ have induced much 
attention to the history, as well as to the arts, of the period in 
which that Roman station must have been inhabited. After the 
retreat of the Romans from Britain, nearly the whole vale of 
Shropshire became a portion of the possessions of the then 
Princes of ancient Powys ; and Uriconium, or Wroxeter, was 
the property of Cyndrwyn, the father of Cynddylan, on whom 
the admired el^y of that princely bard, Llywaboh Hbn, was 
written. Cyndrwyn had seven sons, namely, Cynddylan, Elvan, 
Cynon, Cynvraitn, Gwion, Gwyn, and Cuawg, and several 
daughters, one of whom, Freuer, is commemorated at conside- 
rable length in the elegy on her brother Cynddylan ; and from 
the terms in which she is therein mentioned, there can, I think, 
be no question that she was the wife of Lly warch H6n himself. 
This, in all probability, was one reason why, when driven from 
his own principality of Argoed, in Cumberland, by the Saxons 
who invaded that district, he retreated to what was wen a portion 
of Powysland, and became a resident with the family of Cyn- 
ddylan, his brother-in-law. 

This position I shall have no difficulty in showing from the 
words of the elegy itself; but my main object is to prove also 
two facts hitherto not stated, namely, that the death of Cynddylan 
took place when Wroxeter was destroyed, and that this destruction 
was the work of the Saxons, consequent upon the battle in which 
Cynddylan lost his life, an event which, it is agreed by all our 
historians, took place in the sixth century. 

That celebrated antiquary, Mr. Edward Lhwyd, inferred from 
the elegy on Cynddylan, that the residence of his sister Freuer 
was at Uriconium (Wroxeter) ; and a glance at the poem itself 
confirms this opinion, — 

Neu'r syllals o ddinlle Wrecon Have not I gazed from the fortified hill of Wrekin 
Freoer werydre. On the Tordant Tale of Freuer. 

And that the bard was connected, as I have intimated, with 
the family of Cynddylan, may be gathered from these lines, — 

Tnner wen, brodyr a*th raeth Fair Frener, they were brothers who cherished thee 
Ni hanoeddynt o'r difiieth That were not descended from a base origin, 

Gwyr ni vegynt Tygyliaeth. They were men who did not cherish timldi^. 

Cwiorydd a'm bn diddan ; Bisters I had who made me happy ; 

Mi a'u collds oil a^lan, I bate lost them altogether, — 

Freoer, M edwyl» a Median. Rreaer, Medwyl, and Median I 

JLlAa Ty mrodyr ar unwaith, Slain were my brethren all at once, 

Cynan, Cynddylan, a Gynvreith, Cynan, Cynddylan, and Cynvraitb, 
Yn amwen Tren, trev ddifaith. In defending Tren, a town laid waste. 


'' Trbn/' the '' town laid waste/' was clearly Uriconiom, now 
Wroxeter, which is sitaated near the conflaence of the river Tern 
with the river Sevem ; and that Cynddylan was slain in endea* 
Youring to prevent the Saxons (Lloegvrians, as they are termed in 
the poem) possessing themselves of that station, is several times 
repeiated in the elegy. That tlie Saxons crossed the river Tern 
{liren, as it is written by the bard) to attack the town is also 
clear, — 

Cynddylan, ete di y nen, Cynddylan gnard thou Uie height, 

Tn 1 ddaw Lloegyrwys drwy Dran : Until the Lloegyriana oome throogh Tno : 

Ni elwlr eoed o nnpran. One tree cannot be called a wood. 

The whole scene of the poem is in the vale of which Shrews- 
bury is the centre, and the Wrekin to the east, and Baschorch 
to die west, are Uie extremities. The rivers named are Tren, 
Trodwydd (called also Trydonwy), and Havren, t.6.. Tern, Roden, 
and Severn ; the places mentioned are the Wrekin, Tren (so called 
from the river Tern, but by which Wroxeter is unmistakably 
meant), Withington, Ercall, Shrewsbury, and Baschurch; and 
the entire eleg^y is so clear in its description, and so definite in 
its narration, mat there can be no misconception as to the places 
named, or the facts stated ; and the language employed, of which, 
for the most part, I avail myself of the late Mr. William Owen*s 
almost literal translation, is a fine specimen of our ancient bardic 

Cynddylan Tyryr-bwyll o vri, Cynddylan, eminent for aagadty of thooght, 
Cadwynawg, eyndyniawg Un, Wearing the chain of honour, foremost in the heat, 
A myigai Tren hyd tra vn. The protector of Tren, whllat he Ufed. 

Cynddylan Powya horibr wy^ yt, Cynddylan, the splendid pnrple of Powya to thee 

Cell eabyd bywyd ior ; The retreat of atrangera waa the Hh of my lord— 

Cenan Cyndrwyn cwynitor I The warlikeson of Cyndrwyn for thee my moaning ! 

LlAs Cynddylan, llAs CynTieith, Cynddylan haa been dainyCynTraith haabeendain, 
Yn amwyn Tren, trev ddifaith — In defending Tren, a town laid waate — 
Gwae Ti Tawr arawa en Uaith I Great is my woe, that I anrriTe their death ! 

That fire was an auxiliary in the destruction of the town of 
Uriconium may be inferred from this passage, — 

Bryr Pengwem, pell gelwid heno, The eagle of Peogwem calls tkr about thJa night, 

Ar weed gwyr gwelid : On the blood of men he is seen : 

Rhy gelwlr Tren trey Uethrid. Henodbrth Tren shall be called the flaming town. 

And in the following verse, the position of the palace of the 
Princes of Powys at Shrewsbury may be clearly read : — 

TstaTell Cynddylan nid esmwyth The haU of Cynddylan is not easy this night, 

Ar ben careg Hydwyth, On the top of the rock of Hydwyth, 

Hebn6r,hebniver,bebammwytht.Withoat its lord, without company, without the 

dreling leaats I 

" Careg Hydwyth," above written as the rock of Hydwyth, 


means literally ^' the rock covered with shrubs/' one of the most 
ancient descnptions by which Shrewsbury is recognised. 

That the Saxons were the foes with whom the Britons con- 
tended is again stated, — 

TstaTellCynddylanyBtywylleineDyThe ball of Cynddylan, gloomy leems iti roof, 
Gwedi diva o Loegyrwys, Since the Lloegyriana have destroyed 

Cynddylan, ae Slvan Powyal Cynddylan and Elran of Powyi. 

TstaTell Cynddylan ys tywyll heno The hall of Cynddylan ]» gloomy this night, 

blant Cyndrwyn : Bereaved of the sons of Cyndrwyn, 
Cynon, a Gwlon, a Owyn. Cynon, and Owion, and Gwyn. 

The burial of Cynddylan, at Baschurch, is thus recited, — 

Eglwysan Baasa ynt wng heno, The chnrches of Bassa afibrd space to-night 

1 etiredd Cyndrwyn : To the progeny of Cyndrwyn — 
Mablan Cynddylan wyn ! The grave-house of fair Cynddylan ! 

It has already been stated that the Saxons came through the 
river Tern to the attack upon Wroxeter ; and the Britons seem 
to have met and encountered them at Withington, prior to their 
crossing the river, — 

T drev wen yn y tymmyr, The white town in the cnltivated plain, 

Si hevras, el glas vyvyr. Its yoath, its bine sons of contemplation, 

fii gwaed a dan draed el gwyr. And its blood, are onder the feet of men. 

T drey wen rhwng Tren a Throd- The white town between Tren and Trodwydd, 

Oedd gnoda^ ysgwyd ton More nsoal in it was to see the broken shield, 

Tn dy vod o g&d, nog y t ^9 yn Coming from battle, than the retaming ox at eve. 


I need not point out, to any one acquainted with the locality, 
the precise accordance of the position of Withington, ** the white 
town in the valley," which lies between the rivers Tern and 
Roden C^Tren and Trodwydd") near their junction, to that which 
is assigned to it in the poem. And without dwelling at greater 
length than may be requisite on the many fine passages of this 
clcgy^ I would recommend its perusal to all who are interested in 
the ancient history of this part of Powysland. Not one of our 
antiquaries or historians has ever thrown a doubt upon the cir- 
cumstances stated, or upon the accuracy of the description, in 
this poem ; and it is only remarkable that such an important fact 
as the destruction of Wroxeter, in connection with the death of 
Cynddylan, which is herein so clearly recorded, should have been 
so completely overlooked. 

Joseph Morris, 

8t John's Hill, Shrewsbury, 
2nd June, 1869. 



We learn with regret that our sister Association has been 
dissolved by order of the French government. The 
precise circumstances attendant upon this measure have 
not yet come to our knowledge ; but we believe that they 
are connected with the resignation of the officers of the 
Breton Agricultural Association, with which the archaeo- 
logical one had been associated. We cannot but express 
the hope that this dissolution is only temporary, and that 
the Association will be reconstituted on a safer footing 
than heretofore. Meanwhile, we beg our Breton brethren 
to remember that we are at all times ready to co-operate 
with them in promoting the study of their national anti- 
quities, and that we sympathise with them most fully. 


The Thirteenth Annual Meeting will be held at Cardigan, 
on Monday, August 15th, and four following days, under 
the Presidency of the Lord Bishop of St. David's. A 
Local Committee of fifty-four gentlemen has been formed, 
with Captain Pryse, M.P., Lord-Lieutenant of Cardigan- 
shire, as Chairman, the Rev. H. J. Vincent, and R. D. 
Jenkins, Esq., as Secretaries, and the Rev. W. James as 
Treasurer. The following arrangements are proposed, 
subject to such alterations as may be found necessary at 
the time of meeting : — 

Monday^ August \6th. — The General Committee will meet at 
7 p.m. for the transaction of basiness. At 8 p.m. the President will 
take the chair of a General Meeting. The Report will be read, and 
other business transacted ; and, if time permits, papers will be discossed. 

Tuesday^ August 16^/i. — Ebicursion, 9 a.m. Cardigan Castle and 
Church — Mount — Aberporth — ^Tresaith — The Stone at Dyffiryn-bem 
— The Dwelling-House at Llanborth—The Old Encampment at 
Castell-Nadolis — also, at Castell-pridd — Gaer, near Blaenporth, Pen- 
Uechyrasty and Crygma^wyn. Return to Cardigan by 5 p.m. 
Dinner at 6. Evening lifting at 7.S0. 

Wednesday^ August YHth. — Ezcursiony 9 a.m. Camau Pencrugiaa 
— Nevern Church and Cross — Newport Castle and Church — 


Llwyngwair (where James Bevan Bowen, Esq., will kindly receive 
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To the Editor of the Archaologia Cambremii. 

Sib,— I am glad to find that the controveray between Mr. Wright 
and mjself has at length collapsed into small type ; but my satis* 
faction is more than counterbalanced b^ my regret that it shoald 
have assumed at the same time something of a personal character. 
Although I am very reluctant to prolong a discussion which has eren 
begun to take this form, I do not feel that I should be altogether 
justified in permitting Mr. Wright to launch his Parthian shuts at 
me with impunity. In the first place, I must beg leave to enter a 
strong protest against Mr. Wright's supposition that I ''hare already 
abandoned the main points in discussion to fall back upon secondaiy 
ones,'' unless indeed the unfortunate disagreement as to the *^ meanings 
of words/' of which Mr. Wright complains, extends to the use of the 
terms ''main" and ''secondary" in different and even opposite senses. 
For I am quite willing to dlow that I have abandonea various sub- 
ordinate points at issue, either because I have thought them unim- 
portant,^ or because I have confessed them to be untenable,' or for the 
sake of narrowing the discussion.' I say this because I have been 
rather surprised to find myself charged with "widening the con- 
troversy instead of narrowing it" It is possible that I may have 
gone at greater len^ than was necessary into collateral questions,^ 
ut I have done so m no case where the issue had not been raised by 
my adversary. But I feel assured that anyone who has read my 
Paper at p. 27 of this volume with moderate care, will give me credit 
for having lightened the controversy by throwing overboard several 
subsidiary points. I must do my adversary the justice to allow that 
he also has shown a laudable desire to brins the question within mode- 
rate compass. It must, however, be regarded as somewhat unfortunate 
that this motive has not in every instance preserved him from expa- 
tiating unneppMarily on subordinate matters,' while it has apparently 
indu(>Bd him to pass over in silence some of the most telling arguments 
against his own position.^' 

^ E, g, p{>. 40, 41. ' £. ^. tJie etymology of Caery in p. 4S. 

* E, g. p. 43. * J&. ^. p. 83. 

* E, g, the arffoments about the name of " Bomans," and the authority of 
Gildas ; both of which were merelv danced at bjr myadf in foot-notes, bat 
have been disciuBed at length by w. Wright in his rqdy. 

* E. g. the argoments against Mr. Wri^t*s view based severslly upon the 
name q€ Britanny and upon the existence of the Cornish dialect. 


I hare already alluded to the alleged diBagreement between us as to 
Che meanines of words. The two instanceSy however, of that disa^ 
greement which are adduced by Mr. Wright imply much more than 
a merely verbal difference. The first, which I will quote in your 
correspondent's own words, proves a fundamental diversity in our 
principles, I will not say of historical criticism, but of logical inference. 
Mr. Wright observes : — 

"When I state a flimple ascertained fiict which points to a certain^ con- 
chudon, and Mr. Basil Jones replies by suggesting that such and such things 
might hare been which would contradict that conclusion, I call this arguing 
by suppositions against facts ;^ but Mr. Basil Jones seems to consider this a 


Surely this is not a fair way of putting the case. Mr. Wright 
observes a certain phenomenon, which I am perfectly willing to accept 
on his testimony. Mr. Wright accounts for this phenomenon by a 
supposition which I do not accept as a necessary inference for it, simply 
because it might be accounted for by other suppositions which it is 
equally competent to me to make. I am not arguing against his facts, 
but against nis inference from those facts. I do not care by what 
name Mr. Wright may choose to designate this method of argument, 
so long as he does not assert, what he evidently implies, that it is 
unfair or illorical. If it be so, then it must be equally unfair and 
illogical for Uie prisoner's counsel in a case of murder to argue that 
the deceased may have met his death by accident, or by suicide, or by 
the hand of another. 

Neither is the other difference in the use of terms so merely verbal 
a question as Mr. Wright appears to represent it. Mr. Wright charges 
me with quoting the Saxon Chronicle '* incorrectly." Now an incorrect 
quotation implies either carelessness or dishonesty on the part of the 
writer who makes it. I think I have sufficiently shown 9 that the 
citation in the context in which it occurred did not lay me open to 
either of these charges, and that the worst that could be said of it 
(which, however, I am by no means prepared to admit) is that it 
was irrelevant. 

As to the derivation of the name of Cumberland adopted by Mr. 
Wright, I can only repeat that it is new to me. I was iar from sup- 
posing that it was due to Mr. Wright's ingenuity, and am sorry that 

^ Th^;e is an unfortunate ambiguity about this word ^* certain.** Does Mr. 
Wright mean '^ qucedam ** or ^^ceria^f If the former, nothing is proved: 
if the latter, the question is begged. 

* Mr. Wright appears to imasine throughout that I either deny his facts, or 
do not give them sufficient wei^t. He (Soees his letter with an expression of 
his belief that when I have nuide myself fully acquainted with the facts of 
ardueology ** there will be no great disagreement between us.** I beg to 
assure him that I will accept aU tibe facts upon his testimony j but I must 
claim the liberty of drawing my own inferences from them, without being 
aocosed of " arguing against facts.** 

*Seep. 43. 



my words gave him that impresrion. Bat I think I could aopply Mr. 
Wright with a considerable list of distinguished historians ana ethno- 
logists who haye taken for eranted the other etymology, and who 
therefore must be supposed eiUier to hare been ignorant of that which 
has found &Tour in his eyesi or to have considered it unworthy of 
attention. I say this, not to dirow any discredit upon the deriyation 
adopted by Mr. Wright, but to show that his *^ always considered " is 
rather more than the truth. 

This is not the only instance in which Mr. Wright has assumed that 
his yiews are uniyeraally accepted. I asked for his authorities for 
certain statements with regard to the history of Qaul, not because I 
doubted that he had authorities to quotes but because I could not tell, 
before I had seen them, whether I should draw the same inferences 
from them as he had done. Mr. Wright had thought it unnecessary 
tojnye authorities, as he conceived that he was ''stating what was 
sufficiently generally known." ^ Now as the connection of the 
BagaudflB * (0. g.) with Armorica has escaped the notice of Oibbon, 
of Sismondi, and of Amed^e Thierry, and cannot be inferred from any 
of the original authorities quoted by those writers, I think it was not 
altogether unreasonable in me to ask for the eyidence upon which Mr. 
Wright's assertion rests. I am far from wishing in any way to 
disparage the authority of M. Henri Martin, when I say that I baye 
neyer met with his history, and that I cannot eyen find it in the 
Bodleian Library. But the last-mentioned iact shows at least, thai; 
it cannot be expected to be in the hands of eyery reader. 

Under these circumstances it is to be regretted that Mr. Wrisht's 
anxiety '' to be as brief as possible " should haye made him unwilling 
to occupy so much of your yaluable space as would haye been taken 
up by a few short references. Brem* este Idboro : obscunujio, 

Mr. Wright concludes by re-stating his former position, from which 
he tells us that nothing in this discussion has in any degree induced 
him to recede. Of course I cannot help that. But I will appeal to 
your readers to determine whether Mr. Wright has in any way met or 
answered my essential arguments, and, if not, whether it is not almost 
proyoking to find him retiring from the contest with his Eppur ft 

The letter of Mr. Robert Williams has introduced a new element 
into the discussion. No man has a better right to be heard where the 
relations of the Welsh language to its immediate cognates is in question. 
I am Quite willing upion his tiMe dixit to retract my assertion that the 
Cornisn was nearly identical with the Breton. I should also haye 
been willing upon the same authority to abandon a position which 
much more nearly afiiscts my argument, namely, that the relaticm 

1 Mr. Wright says '' Now we lamo;" &c. See p. 31. 

'I do not know whether the word Bagaudvi^ is an inirention of Mr. 
Wright's or of M. Henri Martin. In either case it is ^marently formed on 
the analogy of Jacquerie^ and, by the reminiscences ¥niich that analogy 
^gg^^ suffidenUy well describes the character of the moyemenl 


between the Cornish and the Breton languages is mneh more intimate 
than that between either of these languages and Welsh; were it not 
that I find that opinion maintained by an eminent philologist who, 
like Mr. Williams, has devoted especial attention to the study of 
Cornish, and who, as he expresses great obligation to Mr. Williams, 
may be supposed to have had that gentleman's views, and the facts 
upon which they are founded, laid before him. I allude of course to 
Mr. Edwin Norris, the learned editor of the Cornish Ordinalia. 
Although it is perhaps scarcely fair to anticipate the results of Mr. 
Williams' labours, which, as I am glad to learn, are about shortly to 
appear, I venture to think that mis marked discrepancy may be 
accounted for by supposing that Mr. Norris looks at the question from 
a philological and Mr. Williams rather from a lexicographical point 
of view. This explanation has been suggested to me by Mr. Williams' 
own words. He tells us that, — 

*^The Cornish is more closely related to Welsh than to Breton, and so 
is the Breton again to Welsh than to Cornish. The Breton and Comish, 
howeyer, haye some points in common, and both different from the Welsh ; 
but / have not found six radical terms peculiar to Breton and Cornish^ and which 
are not to he found in the Welsh,^ 

The words which I have placed in italics appear to mark the point 
of view from which Mr. Williams is regarding the question. He has 
carefully gauged the three dialects, and finds that Welsh and Breton 
have many common roots which do not exist in Cornish, and that 
Welsh and Coniish have many common roots which do not exist in 
Breton, while he does not find " six radical terms peculiar to Breton 
and Cornish, which are not to be found in Welsh." Now when we 
consider that the literary remains of both the Breton and Cornish 
languages, the latter more especially, are excessively scanty as com- 
pared with the entire mass of mediaeval and modern Welsh literature, 
and when we reflect further that a certain proportion of the Celtic 
roots in the language first mentioned must have been displaced by the 
intrusion of the Romance element (just as has happened to the modern 
English language when compared with what is called Anglo-Saxon) 
the ohenomenon described by Mr. Williams is not very surprising : 
in fact it would have been much more surprising if it had been 
otherwise. But the question is not so much what roots the several 
languages have in common, as what use, so to speak, they have made 
of those roots. Does not the cenius and structure of the Cornish 
language resemble that of the Breton more nearly than that of the 
Welsh ? Where, for example, a cognate form is found in each of the 
three dialects, will it not most commonly be found that the Breton and 
Cornish agree as against the Welsh ? This appears, if I understand 
it rightly, to be the view taken by Mr. Norris, and it is that which, 
upon what I freely confess to be a comparatively slight examination, 
I have ventured to put forward as my own. And I must add that 
it is rather confirmed than invalidated by a comparison of the speci- 

228 CORR£8POnD£llCB. 

mens of the three cognate dialects given by Mr. Williams himself.' 
I trust that in this attempt to reconcile the apparently contradictory 
views of the two greatest, or I should rather say, the only two Cornish 
scholars in existence, I shall not be found to have done an injustice to 
either. If, however, I have in any wav misrepresented the view 
maintained by Mr. Robert Williams, I shall trust to the kindness of 
that gentleman to correct me* 

Before I quit this subject, I will just notice that my friend Mr. 
Fenton, who has been making another assault upon our ancestral 
enemies, the Gwyddyl,^ does not seem to have seen a note upon that 
subject appended to my Paper on the " Origin of the Welsh " in the 
Archmohgia Cambrmim for April, 1858. 

In conclusion, I beg to express my most sincere regret if either in 
this letter or in any part of the controversy I have said anything 
which appears personally offensive to Mr. Wright I have had no 
wish in the matter beyond that of eliciting the truth, and, I must add, 
of preventing the mischief which would ensue to historical science, if 
an opinion, erroneous and unsupported as I believe that which I 
am assailing to be, should be generally or even commonly adopted 
without sufficient examination merely on the authority of a name so 
deservedly distinguished in archaeology and in literature as that of 
Mr. Wright. — I am, &c., 

W. Basil Jones. 

Univ. Coll., April 4. 

P.S. — I had scarcely sent the foregoine remarks to the press, when 
I met for the first time with a copy of Martin's History of France, 
I trust you will permit me, even at the risk of occupying more space 
in your pages than I am fairly entitled to claim, to state as briefly as 
possible the results of my examination of that work. M. Martin 
gives a very full account of the Bagaudse, from their first appearance 
in the reign of Diocletian, down to the middle of the fiflh century. 
The name of the Bagaudae is not, so far as I can discover, ever 
actually mentioned in connection with Armorica by any contem- 
poraneous writer. But, in point of fact, the term is applied to a 
series of successive and very different phenomena between which there 
may or may not have subsisted an historical connection. In the third 
century the ** Bagaudia " was, as I have already intimated, analogous 
to the *' Jacquerie '' of the middle ages,^ and at this period we find it 
connected with the eastern parts of Gaul, and certainly in no instance 
with Armorica. In the beginning of the fifth century the BagaudsB 
appear as banditti infesting the passes of the Alps;^ and in the middle 
of the same century the term is applied to insurgents who in obedience 
to the example set them by both Britain and Armorica in the year 
408, offered an organized and partially successful resistance to the 
imperial authority. It is of course perfectly possible, and it is perhaps 

' Cf. Arch. Camb. for 1854, p. 88. * Seep. 69. 

* Aurd. Vict, de Cibs. xxxix. Eutrop. ix. 18. ' Zosmius, vi. 2. 


eren probable, that the revolt of Armorica in 408 may have been 
commonly spoken of at the time as a '' Ba^udia ;*' and it is equally 
probable that the revolt of Britain, which (as we most never forget) 
preceded and apparently in some degree occasioned it, was similarly 
designated. Bat there is no evidence that such was the case, neither 
does M. Martin necessarily imply it in making sach an application of 
the term. And now let as return for a moment to Mn Wright. He 
says: — 

" Now we know that the population of Armorica, long before the simposed 
migration either way could have taken place^ ¥ras living in a state of inde- 
pendence, and even of turbulence. The Armoricans were almost the heart 
and nerve of that formidable * Bagauderie* which threatened the safety of the 
Roman government in Gaul almost before the invasions of the Teutons became 
seriously dangerous.*' 

Anyone who reads the terrible history of the devastation of Gaul 
in the winter of 4O7 will be forced to hx the period of which Mr. 
Wright is here speaking long before that date. But we do not find 
any mention of the Bagaudae as in any way formidable before that 
period, except at the time of their first appearance in 286, when, after 
committing fearful ravages in the country of the ^dui, they were, as 
Eutropius assures us, easily ^ subdued by Maximianus. There is no 
trace of their connection at this period with Armorica, and certainly 
no such connection at this period can be inferred from the statements 
of M. Martin. Therefore when Mr. Wright speaks, as he does, of 
** the great and apparently final assertion of independence ... of 
the Armoricans, which .... occurred in the year 406," [sic] (if by 
using the word "final" he implies that the Armoricans had made 
previous attempts to recover their independence,) he asserts more than, 
so far as I can find, he has any historical authority for. 

That Mr. Wright, as he says, by no means agrees in all the con- 
clusions of M. Henri Martin, is not to be wondered, as that writer 
appears to accept as historical the fictions which have been promul- 
gated in this country under the title of bardism. But when he adds 
Uiat in his opinion M. Martin has '' shown pretty well the part the 
Armoricans acted in the 'Bagauderie;'*' we feel compelled to ask 
what M. Martin actually does say on the subject. Now this is what 
M. Martin says. I pive the passage in extemo^ and request Mr. 
Wright to make what he can of it : — 

i< Meanwhile, the Bagaudia became enormously extended, and assumed a 
character wholly distinct fi'om that which had hitherto marked it. It was no 
longer a revolt of the poor, the slaves, and the peasantry against social order, 
but a general rejection of the Roman ^wer and of the imperial authority by 
everv class of society, and by whole cities and provinces. After the departure 
of Oonstantine for Gaul, Britain had recovered its independence under chie& 
of the blood and language of the Cvmrv. Western Gaul followed the 
example of Britain ; the provinces of toe West, less exhausted, less utterly 
desolated than t^e rest by the barbarian invaders, expelled the Roman 

^ ^^ Levibus praeliu edomiit** 


gCnrernora, who oonld only pillage withoQt protecting tlieni,^lirokB off fitMs 
an empire tottering in every part, and save themaelves (says Zosimui) * a 
^vemment to suit their own taste.' NotUng is more obscure than this event, 
important and interesting as it is ; no docmnent proceeding from the actors in 
this revolution has come down to us ; and its details are utterly unknown. 
We do not even know the extent of the sort of federal republic which shook 
off the yoke of Honorius and of Constantine. Zosimus informs us that it 
embraced * the whole of Armozica (^Apfwpucoc Airac^) and other Gaulish pro- 
vinces :* various inferences authorize us in presuming that Aquitania Secunda, 
Lugdunemds Secunda and Tertia, the maritime parts of Belgica Secunda, and 
certain dties of the central provinces, at all events of Lu^unensis Quarta, 
entered into the confederation. Unfortunately this noble effbst to preserve 
Gaul was not crowned with success. A young and vigorous republic cannot 
leap forth by such a deq)erate stroke nom the boeom of a society^ in the 
agonies of death. Some partial successes were obtained acainst erratic com- 
panies of forffl^ marauders ; but it was impossible to estaluish a firm govern- 
ment In the manrgent cities, anarchy succeeded to the imperial counts and 
presidents : the artizans, the peasants, and the slaves, shook off the oppressive 
rule of their masters and of the wealthier classes, and ruled tumultuously in 
their turn, but without the power of organizing a democracy. The revolution 
established nothing durable, except in a comer of the confederation, and that 
was not a new society ; it was on the contrary the return to ancient Graul, to 
which we owe the preservation of its language and, to a certain extent, of its 
manners and jnimeval traditions even to our own times, at the extremity of 
Armorica, as it were in an ancestral sanctuary. The island of Britain had 
been much less Romanized than Gaul, and the establishment of large numbers 
of British emigrants on this western point of Armorica, which had its^ 
remained the most Gallic district in Gaul, established there an indestructible 
focus of the Celtic race. We shall soon see what events renewed on a much 
larger scale the emigration of Britons to GauL'' 

M. Martin quotes no other authorities in sapport of his views than 
those which I nave mvself refen^ to, and I cannot help suspecting 
that some of the details of this picture, as is commonly the case with 
French historians, have been supplied by bis imagination. But how- 
ever faithful the picture may be, it must be obvious to anyone who 
gives it even a cursory examination that it is yery different from the 
picture presented to us by Mr. Wright. For the very gist of that 
gentleman's argument lay in the assumed independence of Armorica 
at the very time the population of Wales was still under the yoke of 
the Roman empire. Mr. Wright himself must confess, that there are 
no signs of such an independence, I will not say in contemporary 
historians, but even in the representations of M. Henri Martin, to 
which he has himself appealed. 

With regard to the history of Armorica during the former half of 
the fifth century, I can <4ply say that I have not round in the pages of 
M. Martin any facts of importance which were new to me, or any 
which affect the present argument I may, however, be permitted to 
say, that I have been led into an error by the ** Vitus JDolensis*' of 
Gregory of Tours. I had supposed it to be Dol in Brittany, and 
accordingly I stated, in p. 35, that the Britons of Riothimus, after 

* Sic, I am not responrible for the orthography or accentuation. 


their defeat by the Visigoths, fell back upon Armorica. M. Martin 
identifies it with Boar^-D6ols, near ChlLteanroax, in Berri. I must 
add that he appears to believe Rtothimos and his 12,000 men to have 
been bond fide emigrants from Britain. 

W. B. J. 

Uniy. Coll., April 5, 1850. 


To the Editor of the Archmologia Cambrenm. 

Sir, — In reference to the above interesting subject, I may mention 
the following fact. Some years back there was a wreck on the 
Glamorganshire coast of a Breton vessel, loaded with wheat. The 
lives of the sailors were with difficulty saved by the inhabitants of the 
neighbouring villages. I was present on that occasion. The only 
man on board that vessel who could speak pure French was the 
captain, who died from an injury shortly afler being rescued. The 
sailors spoke the Breton language only, and were able to get on very 
tolerably with the Welshmen. I agree with Mr. Williams that a long 
or difficult conversation could not easily be maintained ; but, on the 
occasion I have alluded to, all the wants of a sick chamber were 
promptly attended to by means of a '' cross fire'* of the Breton and 
Welsh languages* Apologizing for troubling you at this length, I 
remain, &c., 

John W. Nicholl Carne, D.C.L. 

Bimland Castle, April 26, 18S9. 


To the Editor of the Archaologia Cambrensis, 

Sir, — A short time previously to a late meeting of our Association^ 
one of the Members, occupied in collecting objects of antiquity for the 
temporary museum always formed on such occasions, wrote to a 
clergyman, not an archeologist, to request that he would allow the 
ancient head of a cross, lying somewhere about his parish, to be for* 
warded for exhibition to our members. He received the following 
inimitable reply : — 

'^ DxAR Snt, — Having but little respect for objects of idolatrous worship, 
and still less for those who now renu^ them with a degree of veneration so 
incompatible with the principles of the Protestant Chtmch of this countnr, I 
regret that I cannot comply with your request at present— J remain, Acr 

Our friend's intelligent correspondent is probably strong in ante- 
Christian archseology. — I remain, &c., 
June 1, 18S0. CAMBRBirsis* 


^rtinEolngital Mitts nl (tmut. 

Note 44. — MoKA and Moneda. — ^I was recently asked what were 
the authorities for the usual assignius of the above appellations to 
Anglesey and the Isle of Man. The following is briefly the result of 
my inquiries on the subject Tacitus^ as is well known, is the chief 
authority for Mona, as the name of what we now call Anglesey. 
Ptolemy also calls it M6ya. Pliny (Hist. Nat. iv. 16, S 90) speaks 
of Mona and Menapia, where hts commentator, Hardouin, under- 
stands him to apply the former to Anglesey, the latter to Man. On 
the other hand, the passage in Caesar, SdL Odll. y. 13, and that in 
Pliny, Hiit. Nat. ii. 76, § 77, have been interpreted as applying the 
name of Mona to Man, and not to Anglesey. Ptolemy, however, calls 
Man Moyaoiia. Now I venture to suggest that in one of the ancient 
Celtic dialects of Britain the word num may have stood for a sea-girt 
rock, or island ; and that hence the word Mona becomes applicable to 
each of the islands in question. Can some of our members throw light 
on this rather hazardous suggestion ? to which, by the way, I by no 
means attach any undue weight. J. 

Query 86. — Riysr Conwt. — There is a tradition afloat that the 
point of junction of this river with the sea was in ancient times con- 
siderably further to the north than it is at present, and that it even 
extended towards Ynys Seiriol, or Priestholme, as the Norw^;ian 
navigators termed that little isle. Upon what authority does this 
depend? In what book or MS. is the tradition first alluded to? 
Information upon this point, and upon anything concerning the north- 
eastern and south-western ends of the Menai Strait, and their probable 
changes, is much wanted. The tradition of the Lavan Sands is of 
course well known, what is now required is something independent of 
that. J. 

Q. 87. — Ravset, Skomar, and Skokholm Islands. — ^Are there 
any Welsh names existing of these islands ? Caldy has the appellation 
of Ynys Pyr, I do not exactly know on what authority ; but is there 
any Cymric appellation of immemorial date for the islands above 
mentioned? A Pembrokbshirb Man. 

Q. 88. — Can any Member inform me where I am likely to find the 
earliest instance of our Welsh island being called ''Aiigles-eye?" 
In what document does it occur for the^r#^ time? A Member. 

Q. 89. — Early Arches in Wales. — ^l should be greatly obliged 
to any architectural member of our Association if he would point out 
to me what he considers to be the earliest existing specimen of a 
circular arch, which among English architects is called a Norman 
arch, in any building within the twelve counties of Wales. He would 
confer an additional favour if he could lead me to the latest example 
of the same kind previous to a.d. IfiOO. Ttro. 


MmtiluuM Mnlitu. 

On the Interlaced Ornamentation of Ancient Sculptured 
Stones. — By O. J. French.— ^This is the title of a small book, pri- 
yatelj printed, in which the author advances the theory that the inter- 
laced work of early scalptured monaments in Wales, Ireland, and 
Scotland, is chiefly derived from an imitation of the basket work, 
known to have been common among the inhabitants from the earliest 
period. It is illustrated with various lithographic views, reduced from 
the works of Mr. Stuart, Mr. Gumming, and others. Without dis- 
cussing the author's theory, we recommend it to the attention of 
members; they may find in it some new ideas, and many worth 
making a note of. 

Selections from an Antiquarian Sketch-Book. — By. J. E. 
Lee. — One of our most active and valued members has presented us 
with a copy of these interesting memoranda of his archsBological tours. 
The booK — most creditably printed at Newport-on-Usk — contains 
sketches, foreien as well as domestic, all of antiquarian value. Among 
them, those of Skenfrith and Kentchurch, in Monmouthshire, are not 
the least curious. 

History of the Scotch in France. — This is the title of an 
interesting work which has been compiled by M. Fr. Michel, and is 
about to oe published. It details all the operations of the Scotch 
troops, long in pav of the French monarchs, with accounts generally 
of the doings or the more notable Scots in the service of the French 
monarchy. There is room for a similar work, on a much smaller 
scale, on the history of Welshmen in the service both of France and 
of Spain. 

Otstermouth Church, Glamorganshire.— We understand 
that efforts are making to obtain funds for the enlarging and repairing 
of this church. If so, we can only hope that the works will be 
intrusted to some scientific and conscientious architect, in whose hands 
the building will not suffer more damage than these operations 
commonly entail. Complete annihilation, or rebuilding as it is called, 
is not wanted in this case. The addition of a second lateral aisle on 
the south side would suffice. All the windows, doorways, &c., some 
of which are of the thirteenth century, might be worked up over 
a^in ; and indeed the building might be made architecturally good, 
with a proper exercise of taste and archaeological science. It all 
depends on the architect employed. 

Llaneilian Church, Denbighshire. — This church, we are in- 
formed, is likely to undergo the process of careful reparation — we 
hope not of restoration. 

arch, camb., third series, vol. v. 2 H 


YsTRADOUNLAis Church^ Breookshire. — This church, which has 
been so much altered at former periods, comfmratively recent, as to 
retain nothing of its mediaeval character, is, we hear, going to be either 
enlarged or rebuilt. To this there cannot be much objection, no archi- 
tectural or constructional feature of any value now existing there. 
We hope the early inscribed stones will be put in a position of safety. 

Basballbo, Monmouthshire. — We have been informed that a 
small isolated chapel, of Perpendicular architecture, standing in Bas- 
salleg church-yard, detached from the church, has lately been destroyed 
by order of the incumbent, and the owner of the rectorial tithes. We 
regret to hear this, because its destruction appears to us altogether 
unnecessanr; it was a mediaeval monument, and as such entitled to 
respect. It had been used as a school for some time past Instances 
of perfectly detached chapels are by no means common; this one 
might very well have been preserved, and applied to some suitable 
ecclesiastical purpose. 

The Hengwrt Library. — We learn with gtoeX satisfaction that 
all the MSS. of this invaluable library, so called from the ancient 
house where it was first formed and long kept, until its removal to 
Rug by the late Sir Robert Yaughan, has been bequeathed by him 
to W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., M.P., our excellent Vice-President It 
could not have fallen into more appropriate hands, and we hope that 
its treasures will now be properly examined and described, — ^for almost 
the first time since being collected. 

Llannor Inscribed Stones, Caernarvonshire. — ^The stones 
in this parish, which were drawn and described in the ArcluBologia 
CambrensU, First Series, ii. p. 201, will be remembered by oar 
readers. A correspondent informs us that about three years ago these 
stones were buried by the farm tenant more than a yard under the 
ground ; and that, at the time of moving them, there was found a 
skeleton which measured more than sef^en feet in length. Almost 
immediately on its exposure to the air it crumbled into dust ; but one 
or two of the vertebrae being still hard were preserved by the ianner. 
If this notice meets the eye of the owner of the property, it is to be 
hoped that he will take steps to have these stones exhumed, and pro- 
perly preserved. 

Anoient Bell of St. Cbneu. — ^A bell, said to have belonged to 
the church of Llangeneu, in Breconshire, is now in the hands of Mr. 
Kerslake, the eminent bookseller of Bristol. It appears to consist of 
an inner bell of iron, coated with what is called bell-metal. We 
should be glad to know of its being purchased for the museum at 
Swansea, or Caerleon, in the absence of one at Brecon. 



The Ancient Cornish Drama. By Edwin Norris, Sec. R.A.S. 
2 vols. 8vo. Oxford : at the Uniyersity Press. 1859. 

This is another of the great works of the day on Celdc subjects, 
not proceeding from the pen of a Celt^ but from that of a Teuton. 
How is this ? Are there no learned men amone the Celtic tribes ? 
Are there no students ? Do they not cultiyate their own literaturCi 
their own history^ thdr own antiquities ? Surely it is time for them 
to come out with something, and not to let Zeuss, Meyer, Thierry, 
Nash and Norris run off with all the honours of the day. We know, 
indeed, that in Ireland there are many active and sedulous students of 
ancient national literature ; we know that in the ranks of our own 
Association there are several men who are preparing to take the field ; 
we have read Mr. Stephens' Literature of the Kymry^ although the 
views of the author have been rectified since he published that inte- 
resting work ; we are aware that Mr. R. Williams is nearly ready with 
his Cornish Dictionary, and that he has had no small share in aiding 
Mr. Norris with the book now before us. Still it is a fact that the 
names of the authors of the great books of the day on Celtic subjects 
are not those of Celts, but or Teutons. 

Owen Pughe, Aneurin Owen, and Prichard ought to have some 
successors among their countrymen. We have indeed a lexicographer 
worthy to wear toe mantle of the former, and we look with impatience 
for the appearance of his magnum opus, so closely allied to the subject 
of the book now before us. We have had the evidence of a really 
original and acute grammarian, in the Rev. T. J. Hughes' Essay on 
the Principles and Laws of i^nglish and Welsh Syntax, There 
ought to be some one capable of continuing the labours of Aneurin 
Owen among Welsh historical records, and we still hope that such an 
one may appear. At present, however, the accumulated treasures lefl 
by that profound antiquary are likely to serve only as unacknowledged 
materials for other men's suction ; and the numerous papers, especially 
the chronicles, which he transcribed or compiled for the Record 
Commission, have been so little valued by those who ought to have 
preserved them, that the present Master of the Rolls cannot tell by 
whom they have been abstracted from the Record Office, nor by 
whom they are now most improperly detained. 

We must profess our belief that such writings as the Oomer of the 
late Archdeacon Williams, or the Grammar of the Rev. J. Williams, 
are not among the great Celtic books of our day. We consider them 
to be among the minor ones, doing very little credit to their authors, 
and no service to Celtic literature : witii the exception of these, and 
two or three trifling poetical effusions, Cymric literature is not pro- 
ducing anything very extraordinary in Wales, whatever Celtic litera- 


tare may be doing in Ireland, Scotland, or Britanny. We hope for 
better thingB, especially from members of oar own body ; and, in the 
meantime, we are thankful for the appearance of such a work as 
Mr. Norris', and hope that he will continue labours commenced so 

In reviewing this book we must crave our readers' indulgence if 
we do so somewhat anomalously, somewhat discursively. We do not 
profess to have had the time as yet to study it as thoroughly as its 
great merits demand ; the subject is, so to speak, new to us. There 
are not six Welshmen who know anything at all about the Cornish 
language ; there is only one who can write in it, the learned author of 
the Cornish Dictionary j now ready for the press. We wish indeed 
that the desire, to bring before the notice of members all important 
archffiological books as speedily as possible, had not precipitated us 
into immature criticism; but we cannot help ourselves. Members 
will be naturally desirous to have some account of Mr. Norris' book, 
and we must give them a sketch of it, though it be brief, scanty, and 

Ana we may here be allowed to express the hope that some com* 
petent Irish and Breton scholars will give the world their opinion of 
Mr. Norris' book. Professor 0*Donovan has just put forth the first 
part of a lucid review of Zeuss' Orammatica Celtica, and we call his 
attention to the Cornish Drama, Did we know more about the 
private studies of our Breton brethren, we would appeal to them to 
give us the light of their own examination of this book. But this is 
all for the future ; we can only direct the attention of members to a 
remarkably lucid notice of this book, in which we recognize a pen 
well known in the pages of the Archmohgia CambrensiSf which has 
lately appeared in the Saturday Review^ one of the ablest journals of 
the times we live in; and we must make them the same recom- 
mendation that we have often before employed, viz., to buy Mr. 
Norris* book, and read it with the same feelings of satisfaction that its 
novelty and ability have caused ourselves. 

The work consists of two volumes, of 479 and 516 pages respec* 
tively. It begins too abruptly, it ends too quicklv, and it bears many 
marks of haste, want of time, and undisturbed leisure. It ought 
to be introduced by a copious body of prolegomena. We want a 
sketch of Cornish history ; we want a Cornish dictionary to precede 
the corpus operis ; whereas most of these things are thrown back into 
the Appendix. A second edition will remedy, no doubt, these and 
other defects ; and, in the meantime, the only Cornish writer of the 
day will, we trust, have published his long promised work ; we shall 
then see our way more clearly. 

All the first volume, and part of the second, is occupied with the 
text and translation of the three dramas, or mysteries, which Mr. 
Norris has transcribed and edited. The Appendix fills 314 pages of 
the second volume ; and, to the generality of readers, this will prove the 
most interesting portion of the whole. We feel indeed that the subject 


must be so novel to our readers tliat we hope to be excused if we 
invert the usual laws of reviewing, and if we turn our attention to 
parts of the Appendix, and other subsidiary matter, before we say 
anything of the text of the dramas themselves. It will be found on 
the whole a more satisfactory way of proceeding; much previous 
explanation is required, in order to appreciate them ; and in this, our 
first notice of this remarkable literary work, we shall confine our 
attention to subjects of this nature, reserving the poetical or dramatic 
extracts for a subsequent occasion. 

We will begin by saying that the dramas are three in number, — 
the Origo Mundi, the Pamo Domini Nostri, and the Resurrexio 
Domini Nostri. Concerning them let us quote Mr. Norris' own 
prefatory words, — 

^^The three Dramas contained in these volumes constitute the most 
important relic known to exist of the Celtic dialect once spoken in Cornwall. 
They are of greater amount than all the other remains of the language taken 
together ; and the only other Cornish composition left of the same antiquity, 
the poem of Mount Calvary, is barely equal to one-fourth of their extent It 
will be understood, as a matter of course, that quantity and antiquity are here 
the chief elements of value, and that, apart from some evidence of the 
condition and culture of the Cornish Celts of the fourteen or fifteenth century, 
the term mportarU applies to the language only; in regard to the matter, 
there is notmng in these Dramas that may not be fotmd in such as have been 
printed in EngUsh, French and Latin, under the designation of Mysteries, or 

"The object of the Editor in undertaking this work was simply to preserve 
from obscmity and possible destruction Sie most considerable relic of the 
lanffuage, existing in a single manuscript, which had not been consulted for 
peraaps a century, or since the language had ceased to be spoken in the more 
remote districts of the county. But aner reading a few lines only, he became 
aware that it would be impossible to produce a text having any pretence to 
correctness, without knowing something of the language; because some letters 
were occasionally doubtful, and the divisions of the words frequently uncertain. 
He was therefore induced to study it by the help of Lhuyas Grammar and 
the Yocabulaiy printed by Fryce, using as his text book Jordan's * Creation ' 

purchase, although he had eagerly sought for it during 
several months ; and it was his rare good fortune, that Mr. Williams had 
collated this copy with the original manuscript in the British Museum, 
correcting the numerous errors which so seriously impair the value of the 
printed edition. 

" In preparing the manuscript for the press, the E(Htor translated each line 
as he transcribed it ; and finding the result to be better than he anticipated, 
he thought it might add to the interest of the publication to print his version 
opposite the text. He had made the translation like a school exercise, word 
for word, without attending in any wav to English idiom; and he has printed 
it as he made it, only correcting mistskes of the eartier portions, by the help 
of the increased knowledge acquired as he went on with his work, and altering 
the diction here and there, where it was absolutely necessary to do so, if he 
would be understood. He is aware that many errors are still left, and he 
would wish to ascribe them to tibe tentative nature of a translation made from 

238 REvijiws. 

an uncultivated and forgotten language, which was to be acquired chiedv fit>m 
fiiulty vernons made by unlearned men, who lived when it was barely a snadow 
of what it had been; some of these errors are corrected in notes commencing 
at page 20S of the second volume. He is afraid that the piecemeal way in 
which he has proceeded will be too visible to Celtic scholars, who will find 
occasionally a want of that precision which ought to be found in a literal 
translation. Not being himself a Celt, nor acquainted with more than the 
mdiments of any other Celtic lan^age, working too at intervab of leisui« 
snatched from engrossing occupations, he is conscious of having ventured 
somewhat rashly; he has marked many lines of which his rendering is doubtful^ 
and he ought, perhaps, to have extended the mark of doubt to many others. 
The number ot such passages would have been greater if he had not had the 
kind assistance of the Rev. R. Williams. That gentleman has lone studied 
the language, and has nearly completed a Cornish Dictionary, ^niich will 
include a comparison of all the Celtic Dialects. Mr. Williams carefully read 
over the proou as tliey came from the printer, and made very many important 
corrections, which the Editor has much pleasure in gratefully acknowledging. 
He also wishes here to express his thanks to Th. Aulrecht, Esq., who col^ted 
every line with the original nuuiuscript, and furnished many i^uable sugges- 
tions ; without his conscientious aid tnis work could not have been completed.** 

Having tbas introduced oar readers to the nature of the work, and 
to the manner in which the literary labour of its compilation has been 
condnctedi we must skip over the whole of the dramas themselves, 
and request them to peruse carefully the following extracts, which we 
are compelled to make at some length from Appendix No. 1, on the 
Remains of Cornish Literature : — 

*^ On a subject so little known as Cornish literature, which comprises only 
two or three compo^tions in an obsolete language, whose existence is forgotten 
by all but a few Celtic scholars, even in the county where it was spoken little 
more than a century ago, the Editor believes that some brief obsenrations will 
be acceptable to the few who may look at the present work. AH the monu- 
ments of this obscure literature may be summed up in half a page :*-one is, 
A Poem, which we may by courtesy call Epic, entitled Mount Calvary ; the 
oldest copv of this is pretty certainly of the fifteenth century ; it contains 259 
stanzas of eight lines eadi, in heptasyllabic metre, with akeniate rhymes, 
usually continued on the same sounds throughout the stanza. The subject of 
this poem is the Trial and Crucifixion of Christ Another is the series of 
Dramas contained in these volumes, representing Scriptural subjects fix>m the 
Creation to the Death of Pilate. The oldest MS. of^ these Dramas is appa- 
rently of the same age as the one just mentioned, and they hardly diner 
perceptibly in language and orthography. The date of the composition of 
these works is nowhere stated, but fit>m the condition of the language, the 
form of the English words introduced into it, and a comparison with an ancient 
Cornish Vocabulanr in the British Museum, reproduced in the preceding 

Sages, it may be inferred that it cannot be much older than the age of the 
lanuscripts; certainly it cannot be assigned to a period eariier than the 
fourteenth century. 

*^ The next work known is another Drama, called ^ The Creation of the 
World with Noah's Flood,* which was written, as stated upon the MSS. 
containing it, ^ on the 1 2th of August, 1 61 1 , by William Jordan.* This work 
is in several passages an imitation of the Dramas now published, occanonally 
almost a copy ; it is written in a language far more corrupt than the other 


compositions, and is full of English words : the language was evidently breaidng 
down, and genuine Celtic was largely giving pmce to the intrusive Saxon. 
After these writings of some pretension and considerable length, we have two 
versions of the Lord*B Prayer, Commandments, and Belief, one called ancient, 
and the other modem, without any very apparent reason for the distinction, 
two very poor translations of the first chapter of Genesis, a few songs, some 
fiuniliar proverbs, and a short tale. This is alL" 

The author then gives a critical notice of the MSS. in the British 
Museum, and the Bodleian Library, which he used in compiling his 
book, and proceeds to observe, — 

^^The work before the Reader comprises nominally three Dramas, each 
named Ordinate, a word used to signify the order of Church service, or the 
service itself, and in this case expressing the sense entertained of the nature 
of the Dramas. All three ostensibly form a trilo^, and at the close of the 
first and second piece the principal personage on the stage at the time calls 
upon the audience to come again ^ to-morrow morning ear^* to hear the next 
play. But although we have only three pieces in form, they are four in fact ; 
the third, which should have been caUed the ^ Resurrection and Ascension,* 
being interrupted by the ^ Death of Pilate,* (R. 1587 to 2360,) the action of 
whi(£ is entii^y detached. The Editor woula perhaps have done better if he 
had printed the Death of Pilate as a separate piece, but the immediate con- 
nection of the first and last divisions did not strike him until the whole was 
in print. 

^* The first piece, the Origo Mundi, begins with the Creation, and is con- 
tinned by the Temptation and Fall, the death of Abel, the birth of Seth, the 
death and burial of Adam, the building of the Ark, the Delu^ and the 
Temptation of Abraham. Here the narrative is interrupted, or, m dramatic 
language, the first act closes. The second act begins with the history of Moses, 
and is continued through the Exodus to his death, when we have another 
interruption. The third act commences with the reign of David, and goes on 
to his oeath and the accession of Solomon, who builds the Temple, and con- 
secrates a bishop to take care of it ; the Drama closes by the bisnop*s putting 
to death the martyr MaximiUa for refusing to abjure her belief in Christ. 
The second Ordinale represents the history of Christ firom the Temptation to 
the Crucifixion, without any break in the action, and the subject of the* third is 
the Resurrection and Ascension, with the interposition of the Death of Pilate, 
as mentioned before. 

^^ In aU this the Editor has seen nothing that may not be found in other 
mediseval works of similar purport ; and it would not very much soiprise him 
if it should be discovered by some adept in mediaeval lore that these Ordinalja 
were mainh^ translated, or at least duectly imitated, firom French or IJatin 
ori^;inals ; for his acquaintance with this branch of literature is almost wholly 
limited to the works on the subject j^rinted in France and England. All the 
compositions of this nature, the pastime of the middle aces, being founded on 
the same subjects which were known to everybody, could hardly afford matter 
for much variety ; the same events were generally represented m the same 
order, and a conventional treatment appertamed to each action, which it would 
probably have been deemed sinful to depart fix)m; no doubt any glaring 
deviation firom the sacred text, or the tiien almost equally sacred legend, would 
have been disapproved and discouraged.** 

And further on adds, — 

^* In the composition of these Dramas more art has been used in continuing 


the series of events than we find in the Townley, Chester, and Coventry 
Mysteries, the three Collections which have appeared in England, and which 
are sufficiently well known ; each of these collections consisting of twenty or 
thirty pieces of small extent, usnally quite detached from each other, without 
any attempt at combination. It is probable that this diverse treatment arose 
from the practice of representing tnese Mysteries in England in an uncon- 
nected way; each piece b^g the peculiar province of a separate trade or 
guild, whose members had the honour or profit of oonstitutinff the persons of 
the drama, and each guild performing in its own separate locality , in the 
streets of a town or cit^ ; whereas the Cornish plays were represented in the 
open country, in extensive amphitheatres regular^ constructed for the purpose, 
and were attended by large assemblages of spectators who came frt>m ecu- 
siderable distances, and pitched their tents in and near the place ; combining 
the pleasure of a modem racecourse, or great picnic, with what they would 
consider to be a religious duty. 

^^ These Dramas are distinguished from the contemporary English Col- 
lections by the simplicity and regularity of the metre in the genend dialo^e 
of the scene, and by the artificial arrangement adopted whenever the writer 
wished to be more lyrical or operatic, and to distinguish the diction from that 
of ordinary recitation. Two or three verses in a hundred perhaps have four 
syUables onlv ; but with this exception, the versification is made up whollv of 
seven-syllable lines ; this rhythmical simplicity is maintained witn barely a 
angle exception throughout the 10,000 Imes of the compodtion, and, mono- 
tonous as it appears, it constitutes the raw material out of which the whole 
metrical system is built up ; it is never varied with the unaccented or uncounted 
syUables so common in the English Mysteries, which give such a variety to the 
Old diiJogue, where the verses may be perhaps scann^ by fiset, rather than by 
counting syllables. Nothing of the kmd is seen in the Cornish rhythm ; in 
this the number of syllables is adhered to as strictly as in the syllabic rhythm 
of Pope and his imitators. It would seem that no attention was paid to the 
accent : at least the Editor has failed to discover any law which could have 
regulated the position of a polysvUabic word in a verse. The rhyme, as a 
ruEa, is in the last syllable only, which appears to have been unaccented, as in 
Welsh, when there is more than one syllable in Uie word ; so tiiat it then forms 
really no rhyme at all in our sense of what rhyme should be : lavaraf and 
vmnaf^ in 0. 1338, or Yethewan and Crystyon in D. 1110, would no more 
rhyme together than would the words speaking and thinking^ or brethren and 
children in English. Luddlv the Cornish language had a 1^^^ proportion of 
monosvUables, which enabled the poet to make true rhymes. The versification 
is maae up by combinations of such rhymes, so arranged that an agreeable 
variety ia maintained, which occasionally rises, in emphatic passages, to what 
must be felt, even now, as a musical recitation ; produdng the belief that such 
stanzas were suns, or at least deckimed in operatic style, and periiape acoom- 
panied by music. 

(To h$ continued,) 

IrrJffnlHgia CarahJttsis 



No. IV. 


(Continued Jrom p. 202.) 

The conduct of the Earl Mareschal at this very difficult 
conjuncture displayed in a remarkable degree his firm- 
ness and conciliatory spirit, and forms an important 
feature in the history of the new reign. 

Having caused the royal corpse to be embalmed at 
Croxton, he escorted it, at the head of the troops, by 
Newark to Worcester, where it was committed with due 
ceremony to the care of God and St. Wolstan. He then 
reached Gloucester on the 27th October, having, by cir- 
cular to the sherifis, summoned all persons to pay alle- 
iance to Prince Henry, then onlv ten years old. At 
Gloucester h% presented the youtn to such as were at 
hand, and next day, 28th, had him crowned in the 
cathedral. His chief supporter in this ceremony was the 
Poitevin, Peter de Rupibusj Bishop of Winchester, one of 
the turbulent spirits of the reign'; '' Vir equestris ordinis 
et in rebus bellicosis eruditus, ' says Wendover, — a cha- 
racter not altogether uncommon among the prelates of 
the thirteenth century. The earl and his kinsman, John 
Mareschal, did homage at the coronation. ** We have,'' 



said he, '* withstood the father justly for evil conduct ; 
but this child now before you, as he is of tender age, so 
he is guiltless of his fether's acts. Let us then take him 
to be our king and ruler, and cast away the yoke of 
foreign servitude." 

11th November the earl held a great council at Bristol. 
He was already guardian to the person of the king, under 
a patent of 1212, 14 John, which also directed him to 
swear fealty to the prince, saving that due to his father. 
(Mot. Pat. 95.) He was now chosen protector of the 
realm, and guardian of the king, ** Rector regis et regni," 
in which capacity, on the 12th, he declared a revision of 
the great charter. This, and other public documents 
usually tested by the sovereign, were now tested by the 
earl, whose personal seal superseded that of the kingdom. 
17th December he was at Fairford. (Ex. e S. Pin. 1. 2 ; 
Possy II. 160; Carte, H. of Eng.) 

In this year he made a considerable purchase in Berk- 
shire from the Bishop of Chalons, including Newbury, Shri- 
venham, Woodspene, &c. (Lys. M. Brit. Berksy 317.) 

Lewis and the French party had now secured London, 
and made some progress in Bedford and Herts. They 
agreed to a truce until after Epiphany, and finally until 
Easter, 26th March. Pembroke employed the time thus 
gained in winning over the great barons both in England 
and Ireland, and in strengthening himself in Wales ; and, 
6th February, he dispatched to Ireland a copy of the great 
charter, having Dublin and Ireland substitute for London 
and England, and sealed by himself and the legate. 

William Mareschal the Younger now left the barons, 
and, 3rd May, joined his father, who was at Devizes. 
Thence they marched to the relief of Mount Sorrell, 
threatened by the barons, and, beating them, followed 
them to Newark and Lincoln. On the way the earl re- 
ceived fresh support, reinforced the garrison of the latter 
castle, then defended by a very valiant heroine, Nichola 
de Camville, and finally, by a skilful ruse, took the town, 
and utterly routed the French party in the combat of the 
20th May, called the « Fair of Lincoln." 


The victory was so complete that from the field the 
earl rode direct to the king at Stowe, while Lewis and 
the remnant of his party fell back upon London to await 
assistance from beyond sea. On 2nd June the earl was 
at Oxford. When Philip was applied to for aid, he asked, 
** Is William Mareschal alive ? and hearing that he was 
so, added, '^ I have then no fear for my son." This speech, 
cited as evidence of the earl's treason, is proved oy his 
whole conduct to have been a tribute to his moderation, 
as not likely to allow Lewis, if taken, to be put to death. 

The fleet equipped under the name of Blanch of Castile 
to relieve her husband was broken, 23rd of August, by 
Hubert de Burgh. John Mareschal raised the Cinque 
Ports, and cutting ofi^ many of the ships completed the 
victory. Lewis, attacked in London, met the young king 
and the earl upon an island on the Thames, near Staines, 
or Kingston, 11th September, and thence, under Pem- 
broke's personal escort, departed for France. The Scotch 
and Welsh, allied to Lewis, were to participate with the 
English in the benefits of the treaty, if they gave up the 
castles they had taken, which Llewelyn seems at first to 
have declined to do. 

24th September the earl was at Gillingham, probably 
on his way from escorting Lewis to the shore, and on the 
8th of October at Lambeth. On the 10th various safe 
conducts were issued by the king to enable certain persons 
to visit the earl, who on the 12th was at Westminster, 
and 29th November again at Lambeth, busily engaged 
in completing a general amnesty and pacification. (JEx- 
cerp. e M. F. I.) The Welsh alone held out, and not 
without reason. During the recent troubles in England 
the attention of the Norman nobles had been much with- 
drawn from Wales, and Rhys and Maelgon, and more 
recently Llewelyn ap lorwerth, had profited by this cir- 
cumstance to gain a footing in the south and west. The 
castles of Kemaes and Newport in Pembrokeshire, and 
of Kilgaran and Cardigan, had been taken by Llewelyn 
in 1215, and Maelgon placed in charge of the territory. 

In 1217, having in the meantime gained a footing in 


Brecknockshire, Llewelyn revisited Pembroke, intending 
to root out the Flemings. This design he was persuaded 
to forego, but he made them contribute largely to his 
expenses, accept their lands from him as chief lord, and 
give hostages for their behaviour. The earl's utmost 
attempts to relieve them had only attained to the re- 
covery of Caerleon ; it was, therefore, not surprizing that 
Llewelyn hesitated to make peace. His inducement to 
do so was the departure of the French, and the possible 
internal pacification of England under the new king. 
This consideration, backed by the earl's present power, 

f re vailed ; the Welsh accepted the conditions ; and, 12th 
February, 1218, Llewelyn met the earl at Worcester, and 
promisea to yield up, it possible, the castles and domains 
of Cardigan and Caermarthen into the hands of the legate, 
as representing Henry, and to restore the other South 
Welsn castles. (Carte.) 

2 Henry IIL the earl was sheriff of Essex and Herts, 
and his tide of '^ Rector" appears to have been formally 
confirmed. John Mareschal was made Justice of the 
Forests. The earl also had the exchange, ^* cambium/' 
of all England, no doubt a life grant, since, 6 Henry III., 
it was farmed out at an annual rent. (Col. Rot Pat. 
11, 12.) Also, he had the custody of the lands of the 
late Ralph Pluketts, in Dunham, Notts, and of the late 
Thomas de Erdington at Stoke, Sussex ; and among other 
prerogatives of royalty exercised by him as regent was 
that of granting licenses to impark lands. One such 
grant, to Ralph Hareng of Westbury, in 1230, having 
been afterwards disputed, was admitted by the king to b^ 
valid. (£xc. e R. F. 17, 194.) About this time it 
was decided at a great council, at which were present, 
with other magnates, the Earl Mareschal, William his 
son, and John Mareschal, that no charter or letters patent 
of confirmation, alienation, sale, or grant in perpetuity, 
should be sealed with the king's seal during his minority. 
(Mad. H. of Ex. I. 26-^7 ; Firm. Burai, 14.) 

The earl was now approaching the close of his long 
and brilliant career ; but the detaik of his movements in 


the last year of his life show no diminution of personal 
activity. At Christmas, 1217, he took down Henry to 
Newark and Northampton to disperse the last remains of 
the rebellion, and to receive, 19th December, the personal 
homage of the King of Scotland, which was followed by a 
similar submission at Worcester, where Prince Llewelyn 
received from the legate, in the presence of William 
Mareschal, the castles of Caermarthen and Cardigan, &c., 
to be held by him during the king's minority as the royal 
bailiff. (Brady, H. of E. 11. 511.) 

3rd January, 1218, the earl was at Gloucester; 17th 
February at Ilminster; 10th March at Gloucester; 14th 
at Worcester. On the 5th April he was at Westminster; 
6th at Caversham; 10th at Ham psted- Mareschal ; 11th 
at Winchester; 3rd, 4th, 6th, 15th, 17th May at West- 
minster; 30th at Amersham; 31st at Westminster; 1st 
and 2nd June at the Tower of London ; 14th and 16th 
at Westminster; 18th, 23rd, 25th, 27th, 29th, and 2nd 
July at the Tower; 11th at Standon; 17th at Graham; 
28th and 8th August at Wallingford ; 9th at Crendon ; 
25th and 26th at Winchester ; 5th September at Brem- 
her; 7th at La Knappe; 12th at Boseham; 22nd and 
23rd at Striguil ; 1 Itb, 23rd, and 30th October, and 6th, 
9th, 28th, 29th November, at Westminster ; 3rd, 4th, 5th 
of December at St. Paul's, London ; 1 1th at Westminster ; 
2nd and 6th of January, 1219, at Marlborough ; 10th at 
Reading; 12th and 13th at Caversham; 16th, 18th, 
I9th, 20th, 26th, and 30th January, and 24th February, 
at Westminster; and, finally, 21st and 25th March, and 
2nd and 8th of April, at his manor of Caversham, where 
he died in April on a Sunday, on which day he was born. 
{Exc. e JR. F. I.) His cornse, sewn up in a bull's hide, 
was buried on Ascension Day, 16th April, in the New 
Temple in London, where his recumbent effigy is still 

(To be continued.) 



( Continued Jrom p. 168.^ 


The Reverend Mr Humphrey Foulkes 
Rector att S' George's 

Oxfd Decern. 20 
Dear S' 1702. 

I had been long conscious of my desperat dept. (jdc) and 
was resolved upon writing the very post I received yours. The 
French words parallelled with Brittish (sic) were very acceptable : 
and I intreat you to send the remainder att your leasure together 
with what Greek you have additional to D' Davies's. I under- 
stood the additional Brittish in your dictionary were but very few, 
els you had been teisd for them long since. I have no thoughts 
(because no time) of a second edition of that work : but I destga 
in my archsologia a large etimological vocabulary of the Irish^ 
and a lesser of the Cornish : which I hope may contribute some- 
thing to the better understanding of our language, and may be 
acceptable att least to the curious of our nation, as well as to the 
lovers of antiquity elsewhere. As for Moriadoc, Carew in his 
survey of Comwal makes him a prince of that country. D'Ar- 
gentre in his French H. of Bretagne Armorique follows G. of 
Monm. as to his coming out of this isle, but pretends not to 
distinguish whence. I shall not pretend to moderate betwixt you 
and M** Carew ; and can only inform you that on the one hand the 
Cornish language is tolerably intelligible to the Armoricans, and 
vice vers& : but the Welch (sic) to neither of them ; which should 
imply their going out of Cornwal Devon &c. and on the other 
hand there is in his Bretagne a very considerable city and country 
called by the Bretons Gwenett, by the French Vannes; whicn 
we came not nigh, being prevented as Mr Taylor can particularly 
informe you. I am of opinion we never had the whole Bible in 
Brittish before your present translation. Some pieces we might 
have as well as the Saxons, and other nations; but I do not 
know that any nation had it in their vulgar toungue till of late 
ages. The oldest I have anywhere seen is an imperfect copy of 
the B. of Genesis iu Irish w^*^ a Priest near Slego (sic) bestowed 
on me.' He told me 'twas the opinion of one of their chiefest 
antiquitys, {sic) that that very fragment was little later than the 
first planting of Christianity in that Island. So that *imll be an 
old piece tho we allow him 300 or 400 years mistake. One of 

' Is this in the Ashmolcan or Bodleian ? 


the oldest Latin Gospels in England is that imperiect one att 
the Cathedrall Library in Lichfield which they call Textus S*' 
Geaddee ; but we have lately discovered it to have come anciently 
out of S. Wales and that it belonged to the Church of Llandaf 
about 900 years ago, from some donations to that Church men- 
tioned in the margin. And, now I mention Llandaf, I should be 
glad to know what B. D*^ Davies should mean by Lib. Land, so 
often quoted in his Dictionary : since the manuscript of that 
name cited by Usher, Goodwyn and Dugdale, and now in Mr 
Davies of Llanerch's library contines (sic) out few of those words 
which agree very well with the Cornish and Armoric. As to the 
customs you mention we find some of them in Howel Dha's laws, 
which were not only retained but improved by the English, 
because they served their interest, tho they abrogated his other 
laws because dictated by the Devil, as the A. Bp. told our last 
Prince Lhewelyn ; who itt seems was ignorant the (sic) had con- 
firmed them. I know no more of the Welch Convocation man 
than what you mention out of Morris KyfTyn, nor is his memory 
worth much enquiry. I never saw Mr Baxter's notes on 
Horraw. I have lately begun a correspondence with him ; and 
I take him for a person of learning and integrity, tho, I fear me, 
too apt to indulge fancy : w*^^ I gather from his interpretation of 
those three Englyns w^ I found this last summer in the margin 
of a very ancient Latin MS. at the publique library in Cambrige 
(dc). The book seemed to me about 1000 years old* and the 
marginall Englyns not much later. I have Uiis very post sent 
them in the ori^inall hand as near as I could imitate it to M*^ 
John Lloyd of Kuthyn, but have not time to insert them so here. 
I should be glad to know your thoughts of them and so shall 
forbear insertnig M*" Baxter's reading least it should prejudice 
you, only tell you in generall that he declares it is to him a very 
plaine prediction that our gracious Queen shall have another 
prince who shall reign after her. The words are thus. 

niguorcosam nemhennaur 
henoid mitolu nit gurmaur 
mi am franc dam an calaur 

ni camwiguardam nicusara 
(sic) -^ henoid cet iben med nouel 
mi am franc dam an patel 

namercit un nep ceguenid 
henoid isdiscir mi conedid 
^ don nam ricens imgnetid 

As to our old Brittish orthography you must know that a was 


sometimes pronounced e; b sometimes as /; c sometimes as ch, 
{sic) sometimes as gy but generally k; D commonly as now, and 
after it served for dd; g often superfluous in the middle for the 
word pedwar the (nc) wrote petguar: II was expressed by a 
single I; m often in the midst and att the end as / (or v) : p Bit 
the end of words for b; and b at the end was always as v; ^ 
supplyed th and nw. 

I once supposed from the last line of these Englyns that they 
alluded to S* Peter's denying our Saviour : but I can not make 
it out. As for D' Leigh one difference betwixt him and M' 
Baxter is that Baxter understands severall languages, but Leigh 
never a one : nor indeed (as an author) scarce common sense or 

Cmobalus might very properly be rendered Kynhtwalf and so 
might Cunomabu ; as K. Kadvan at Lh. Gradwaladr in Anglesey 
is written Chiamanus. I have observed that the Romans and 
ancient Britans («u;) expressed Kyn in the Brittish names by 
CunOf but towards the 8^ century both the Brittans and Irish 
rendered it con; for the Brittish name Kynvelyn was written by 
the Romans CwMheHmts; and I found it on an old crosse in 
Glamorganshire* Conbolini ; and that (according to their skill in 
Grammar) in the nominative case. So ConmarSi and Concen on 
the monument (of the 9^ century) att Vale Crucis : but in Pen- 
brokeshire Cunotamus for Kynodha;^ and in Corawal CwMval 
for Kynwal,^ which is probably the same name with your Kyn- 

The Triades, quoted by Camden and others, are not the same 
with those you mean; th6 in some lesser copies those morall 
Triades yon mention are added to them. Their Triades is called 
{sic) Trtoedh Ynys Brydyn ; but 'tis above a sheet or two in all ; 
written as M' Vaughan of Hengwrt concluded about a thousand 
yeares since, or little lesse; but the transcribers in every age 
commonly added Something. M' Vaughan was prevailed upon 
by Primate Usher to write a large comment upon it, w^ some 
body after the author's death conveyed out of Hengwrt study, as 
his son M' Griff. Vaughan assured me ; who was much concerned 
att the losse of it. 'The oldest coppy of Trioedh I have begins 

'' Porth a aeth ygan yrp Cuydauc 'hyt yn Lhychlvn, ar gar 
hvnnv a doeth yman ^n oes Gadyal y byry y erchi aygyfor or 
ynys honn ar roi hynny un tri a ryanllu ynys Brydein 

< Where is this ? 
' The St. Dogmael's Ogham Stone.— Ed. Arch. Camb. 

« Where is this? 


Tri goruchol garcharwr ynys Brvdein Ihyr Lhodyeiih » Maboa 
Glodiydh vab Modron a Gw vab Gkiryoed kc/' 

The last words are 
** ar drydyd calaia verch idoo uab merygan naelgvn," 

I have but joat room to ackl that I hope you will for ever 
favour me with your oorrespoudeno^i, w^ is y* hearty request of 


Your reall frieud 

k Serv^ Ep. Lrwth. 

Ooof^ MiehcUm, day 
DearS' 1703 

I rec^ both your kind letters^ and am glad to hear of 
your recovery. I shewed the Bearer your former and he has 
payd me 8 shillings and brought to me one that deals with him 
for stockens, who promises to pay the two and thirty shillings 
upon demand ; so you may venture to pay him ualesse you hear 
from me to the contrary within a fortnight space. 

I have ventured to put my Book into y* presse the time specifyd 
in the proposals : th6 I have not as yet above 200 subscriptions 
besides the former. London being now very empty I have had 
as yet very few thence; but about a hundred and forty have 
subscribed m our colleges, and the Bishop of CSarlile has sent me 
twenty out of his countrey. Jack Edwards of Lhan Vylhin 18 ; 
Jy Davies of Birmingham 12 ; Jack Lloyd and Mr E. Griff, the 
schoolmaster of Nottingham ten &c. I shall receive shortly 
1 ft 7s. as subscription money for Mr Edw. Samuel. If it be 
your fortune to pick up subscriptions, I desire you to pay him 

The Bearer's hast permits time onely to beg your pardon for 
this hasty scrible and to subscribe myself 

(Dear SO yours as always 

B. hap. 

I suppose Jy Foulks is in Staffordshire : my hearty service to 
all other friends, and to him at his return. 

One Abbot Pezron an Armori^ue Britan (jtie) has lately pub* 
lished his Antiquit6 de la Nation et de la langue Gauloise; 
wherein he has infinitely outdone all our Coun&eymen as to 
national zeal. He proves that they and we are the onely nations 
in the world that have the honour to have preserved the language 
of Jupiter and Sadum, whom he shews to have been Princes of 
the Titans, the progenitors of the Oauls, and to have had an 
Empire from the Euphrates to Cape Finister in y* time of Abra- 
ham, He makes the Curetes, who had the care of Jupiter in 




Crete &e. to have beea Druids & to have 1"* iatrodaced the Olyin*- 

Jae Games amongst the Lacedemonians ; where he observes the 
ish nations are stil the most noted for y* exercises of running 
wrestling &c. The Romans, he says, borrow'd their week days 
from the old Umbri of Italy, a Ghtulish nation. The true name 
of Jupiter, he tels us, was lau, to which the Romans added piter 
i.e. Pater^ as they sayd MarspUer^ DispUer &c. 

In y* close of his book he adds 3 large catalogues of words ; 
1** of those the iEolians and other Greeks borrow'd from our 
ancestors the Titans; 2^^ of those the Romans borrow'd from the 
Umbri ; & 3'^ of those the Germans had from y* several Gaulish 
colonies planted in their countrey. 

For the Rev^ Mr John IJioyd at the Free School 
at Ruthin, Denbighshire. 

For the Reverend Mr Humphrey Foulkes Chapl*^ 
to the Right Rev^ the U Bishop of S* Asaph. 

Oxford. July 28. 1705. 

I heartily beg your pardon for so long deferring my 
thanks for both letters. You say well that writing vocabularies 
is a tedious employment ; but it is well known to some here that 
the book has been in the press above 18 months, and has not, 
all that while, stayd three days upon my account for want either 
of pay or emplojrment. Yet such is the tediousness of the com- 

Eositor that he prints but one sheet a week : D' Hicks's Thesaurus 
inguarum veterum Septentrionalium continuing (thd with fre- 
quent intermissions) a twelve months under his hands lonser than 
we expected, he has as yet printed but 48 sheets ; so that he'll 
scarce have done till about Easter or Whitsuntide, and there are 
not letters enough of the sort to employ two compositors. The 
additional words to D*^ Davies's dictionary came safe and shall 
be printed (with some others) in the Armoric and Cornish 
vocabulary, distinguish'd with an asterisk or some other marke. 
We are now upon a sort of Latin-Celdque vocabulary : viz Latin 
Welsh Cornish Armoric and Irish; and it will be about the 
middle of November ere we begin y* Arm^ Vocals. If in the 
interim you meet with any more primitive Brittish words, for we 
have not room for compounds, I shall afford them place and 
mention them in the preface whence received. 

I must intreat you to return the subscription money you have 
received by the first conveniency: for I find the expence of 
printing a great deal too heavy for my small stock ; and it was 
therefore that I printed it by subscription. I am now (notwith- 


standing my date) six miles out of town, and have not D' Powel 
by me ; bat suppose the booke he mentions was not of his own 
writeingy but of Giraldus's; viz. his tract De Ulaudabilibus 
WaUitB published with a great many other pieces of his by Mr 
Wharton in his Anglia Sacra, The History of the Lords 
Marchers^ I have seen in MS. but have not myself: but, as I 
take it, Mr Dodsworth the author has printed it. Kynan was in 
all probability surnamed from y"^ Meriadock : however, that the 
Armoriques Britans and Cornish are the same, you'll find by their 
language : but they told me they |i&d two dialects, y* of the 
Diocess of S^ Paul de L^on k Kemper Corentin ; and that of 
Vennes called in their language Guenet (nc). The former (like 
our N. Wales dialect) has got the upper hand in books, and I 
never conversed with any of the Guenet (GK^ynedh) where per- 
adventure Konans people must have seated. But after all what 
shall I not say to Heylyn and almost all modem Engl, and 
French historians) who deny that ever there went any colonies 
hence to France. 

I intend not any catalogue of our printed Welsh Books ; nam 
pauperis est numerare pecus. The collection of the catalogue you 
mention is I suppose is (jsk) one Thomas Davydh, a Cardigan- 
shire Day labourer about London; who (like myself) has the 
misfortune to be troubled with the Itch of Curiosity, tho he 
never was att School so much as to learn Welsh or English. He 
obliges me now and then with a Welsh epistle, always about 
some Welsh booke he meets with, or hears to be intended for the 

I have with some difficulty gon through, and printed, a com- 
parative Etymologicon, which will be the first tract of this 
volume. Mr W°* Baxter being looked upon as the greatest 
Critique in England that way, I liave (haveing a long time cor- 
responded with him) submitted it to his perusall : and received 
his approbation : but we must in such cases make large allow- 
ances for complement. 

The most difficult subject I shall have to do with in this volume 
will be the interpreting our Brittish proper names of persons. As 
for those of places I shall manage it much easier, for I beleeve 
our places are more intelligible to us than to any nation in 
Europe, and tho there are a great number too difficult for us, yet 
tliere are so many intelli^ble that they'l suffice to draw a scheme 
of the method of namemg places Sec. What occurrs to your 
thoughts occasionaily on these subjects, may give hints. 

I know not whether you have seen our last catalogue of the 

3 What is this Work ? 


Bookes in tte preiB. It contCiitiBy-^l*^ An Ezpositioii of Daniel's 
Drophesy of 70 weeks &c. by the Bish^ of Worcest A\—2^^ 
JosippoDi 0i?e Josephi Bea Oorionis Hist Jodaics Libr. VI 
kitegri hactenos inediti, nunc primom ex Hebneo in Lat tranalati, 
et notia illaatrati operft et atodio Joan. Goraier A.M. — 3^ Jo. 
Em. Grabe diaaertationea trea de Teraione LXX Interpretu 4*. 
*^^ Atlien]B^ona Athen. opm, anaa notaa qQaleacunque adiedt 
Edw. Dechatr A. M. 6 Coll. Lmc.---^5^ SopbocHa Ajaz flage&ifer 
at Electra Or* Lat. cum Schol. Antiqu. et Annot per T. Jcrfmaon 
Btonenaem.'-^G^ Introductio ad veram phyaioainy aeu leetkmea 
phyaiciB habitcB in Schola Nat. Philoaopbiffi Aoad. Oxoik aooedunt 
diriatiani Hngonii the<»remata devi centrifiigfL et anotu circaiati 
demonelrata per Jo. KeiU AM et Reg. Soc 8ocmm. Edit. 3^ 
ennndatior et anetior 8^. 

Our S' CSmria Coatarel and noiaa-inonger A. 0. haa diyided 
the catalogue now into three parts*— I** Qui sub prelo aunt— 2^' 
Qui nuper ex eodem Typographeo prodiatini---3'^ Qui pido 
parantur; in which last he inserta anything (whetlMr ever kkdy 
to be printed) if he thinks it will meet wi& apablike applause. 
In this last catalogue prelo parantor>— 1*^ Geogn GinconiBi 
minorum Vol. 1""*" 8^ — ^2*^ AppoUonei Pergaai libri duo wtfi 
X6yop aworofioe ex Arabico in Latinum convern per E. Halloran 
quond (7) (ric) Prof. Sayil.-^^ Versio LXX vindis juxta exem- 
plar Alexandrinum cum var. lect annott k loc. pandlel. F<4. 
per Jo. Emeatum Gh*abe — 4'3r i^ivU opera cum var. lect. chroo. et 
not. accurante T. Heame AM. — 6^' S' Jo. Spelmana life of K. 
Alfred from the originall copy, with severall additions from MS& 
by M' Heame.-i-6'' Quint inst oratorise et Hermogenia Rhet. 
cum not et var. lect. 2 vol. 8"^. 

I have but juat time to aubacribe aayaetf 
your most aflectn fiiend and humble 
Serv* E. Lkwtd« 

Oxfli Dee 11. 17M. 

This hopes to find you in perfect health : and bcjgs a 
renewing of our correspondence : at least now k then a few lined 
as occasion offers. The Bearer hereof Morys ab Evan told me 
some time since, as from you, that you had rec^ some ftubscriptioQ 
money for me, over and above what you payd M' Samuel. 
Perhapa it*^ the Fellow's blunder : but if there be any such a 
summe in your hands as twenty seven diillings w^ I owe M** 
Samuel for his books, I desire you'd please to pay it him ; or if 
there be not y* you would lay out so much because I understand 


ft speedy payment would be very aoceptftble. I ftm afraid my 
book is expected by this time ; and truly when I put it in the 
press I propos'd the same myself: but so it falls out that there is 
not much above a third part of it as yet printed : tho I can safely 
say (and 'tis sufficiently known here) that the press has never 
stayd an boar on mv account for want of work or payment; and 
that the dela^ is wboly owing to the printers, who will always 
have several irons in the fire and also keep holyday whoi they 

You perhaps remember who it is we called formerly the frigid 
Friend fi he has lately, as indeed he had done several times before 
(for reasons I thank God utterly unknown to me) appear'd my 
fervent adversary. My fellow-travailer David Panv nad occa- 
sion this last week to stand for a Cardiganshire Scholarship, to 
which he had a singular title as a Relation of the Founder's, who 
had left it so limitted. I had gone long before to our frigid 
friend and mentioned it to him; but he sayd immediately the 
Principal had had such a vile character of him that he was 
aflfiayd he would not hear of it. I re{dv'd I knew of no manner 
of ill character he deserv'd : and added I was <lierefbre resol/d 
to propose to the Principal; upon which he encourag'd me to 
doe it. When I went to the Pnncipal he havinp; rec^ a letter (as 
I presume) from the Master of the Rolls^ in his bdial^ received 
the proposal with all the marks of favour and good will ; and not 
onely soe but told the Societjr at their next poblique meeting thai 
Parry had a just title to this Scholarship : and that he nad a 
good character for speaking Latin occasionally with ForeigneiB 
at the Museum; and some knowledge in Natural History and 
Coins &c. The onely person that objected to it, was the frigid 
Fr^ and all he had to say was that his belonging to the Museum 
was a hindrance to his ^forming his Exercise &c. : whereas he's 
jnst Batchl" standing this term. Ever after I found the Principal 
quite altered ; in so much tiiat he refhs'd to look at his pedegnse, 
and sayd they were not at all to regard &c. After ul Parry, 
being very well belov'd, had certainly been elected had not the 
Fr. Fr. convened the fellows to the tavern, afler his usual manner, 
the night before the Election, and represented Parry as uncape- 
able (sic) of the Scholarship on Ace* of deficiency in Philosophy 
&c. so that tho die majority of the fi^ows sayd before, and sl» 
say, they were for him ; they were so over aw'd that not one man 
voted for hinu 

^ Dr. Wynne, afierwardB Bishop of 8t. Asaph. — R. W. 

» Sir John Trevor,— R. W. 


Mv moBt hearty respects to D^ Fonlks coDcludes this hasty 
scrible from 

Yr. ever affectionat 
as oblig'd Fi^ 

E. Lhwtd. 
For the Rev^ M' John Lloyd« 
at the Free School in Ruthin. 


In various parts of Britanny, and more particularly in 
Lower Britanny, are found two appendages of the church- 
yard, which, though not exclusively confined to those 
districts, yet bv their numbers and importance form very 
characteristic i^atures of that interesting country. 

These are the calvaries and ossuaries, of the former of 
which the accompanying engraving (from a photograph 
kindly lent by Dr. Mansell, of Guernsey) gives an accu- 
rate representation. The upper part of this monument 
has already been eneraved for the ArcfuBologia Cambren- 
«M, Third Series, Vol. IV. p. 267. The present one shows 
the lower part, including the altar, almost always a neces- 
sary portion of the structure. None of these monuments, 
however, are of any great antiquity, the oldest, that oJF 
Notre Dame de Quilinen, in . the parish of Briec, being 
assigned by Bome to the fifteenth century, a date which 
others think too remote. The great majority of them are 
in fact of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ; the one 
at Plougastel, the most magnificent of them all, having . 
been finished in 1602. There is a second inscription, 
however, with. the date 1604. M. Freminville, as usual, 
supplies us with some conjectures of his own, and tells 
us that it was built by the lord of that manor, in the 
accomplishment of a vow, connected with some epidemic 

® Endorsed (apparently by Mr. Lloyd) '' of no lue.*' 

La/ifaA/u,' lU. ■/■Cou^m.^'M/-- , 'A 



disease, in 1598. There does not appear to be the least 
grounds for the assertion. It is more probable that the 
structure was erected at the expense of the parishioners, 
the two inscriptions giving only the names of the cure 
and architects. The whole monument is of the celebrated 
Kersanton stone, and embraces nearly one hundred figures, 
presenting us with a grand tableau of the Passion. 

The costumes of these figures, as well as in other 
examples, appear to be faithful copies of the dress of the 
period, and are well worth an attentive study. The cal- 
vary, however, of Pleybin is an exception to this rule ; 
for, although it bears the date of 1630, it presents us with 
the dresses of the preceding century. Other fine examples 
occur at St. Thegonnec, Tranhouarn, in the parish of Be- 
zec Cap Caval, and at Notre Dame de Quilinen, already 
alluded to. 

In certain parts of France, especially in Poitou, are 
found in the cemeteries small structures, generally known 
as colonnes creusesy or lanternes des morts. These gene- 
rally consist of a tall shaft, sometimes square, sometimes 
round, having four windows, or openings, at the summit, 
and ascended inside as a common chimney. A cross 
generally surmounts the whole. At the foot is an altar 
for the service of the mass in the open church -yard. 
These structures, which are confined to the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, occur in various parts of France, and 
more especially in Poitou ; but no example occurs in the 
whole of Britanny. As the presence of the altar in both 
kinds of monuments seems to indicate a common object, 
it has been conjectured that these calvaries, all later than 
the latest hnteme des morts, are in reality substitutes for 
the latter structures. How far this theory is correct may 
be questioned ; for, from the fact that no remains of the 
lanteme des morts exist in that country, it is not im- 
probable that they were never introduced there at all, 
and therefore could not have given place to the calvary. 

The other peculiar feature of a Breton church-yard is 
the bone-house, or ossuary, common in Lower, rare in 
Upper, Britanny. 


In Finist^re, more particularly than in any other of 
the contiguous departments, it is customary to disinter a 
body after it has been buried a certain time. The skull 
is then placed in a small wooden hutch, not unlike a 
diminutive dog-kennel, with the name of its late owner 
painted on the front, the skull being visible through an 
opening in front of the hutch, which is generally placed 
in the church, or its porch, on ledges built to receive it. 
The other bones are consigned to the ossuary, which, 
when it has received its full complement, is emptied, 
with certain solemn ceremonies conducted by the priest, 
and its contents consigned once more and for ever to the 

These monuments appear to have been nearly cotem- 
poraneous with the calvaries, the earliest probably being 
of the fifteenth century, the greater part being of the 
sixteenth and seventeendi. The most ancient are those 
of Pleyben, St. Evarzec, La Forest Pouesnant, Fouesnant, 
and others, which are possibly of the fifteenth century, 
unless a style has been adapted earlier than the actual 
buildings. Some of the later ones are enriched with 
figures of the Danse Macabre, as at St. Morice (1689), 
where we have a pope, king, knight, monk, labourer, 
&c., and near them death, armed with a dart, with the 
device, " Je vous tue tons." Others similarly furnished, 
also of the seventeenth century, are at Th^onnec, where 
there is one of great beauty and elaborately ornamented, 
and at Plouedern, and Llandivisian. 

In most parts of Upper Britanny ossuaries are very 
rare, and are generally affixed to the walls of the churches, 
and not detached as in the lower districts. They are also 
usually of later date ; for as they are either built of wood 
entirely, or resting on stone bases, they have been more 
frequently rebuilt. Many of these bone houses have 
been converted to other purposes, and are generally only 
employed for the object of their erection, where tlie cus- 
tom or disinterring the bodies exists, as is more especially 
the case in Leon. 

£• L* B. 


/ I . « 

\^' excavations' AT WROXETERi 

/ J . ' ' ■ • \ . . • '• .' . t . •■ • ' • 

: OPflCJAL R^POTIT, No/II. • / ^ 

Since the publication of our former report, considerable, progress 
has been made in the excavations, and various conjectures to 
which the first appearance of the ruins gave rise have, been con- 
firmed or disproved. In the first place, the line ofhypocausts, 
beginning with the great hypocaust m in our plan, have been 
successively uncovered eastward until they have reached what 
appears, to be the boundary wall to the east of this extensive 
building, 'and this boundary line runs at right angles to the 
eastern^ end of the Old Wall.. A chamber, about 12 feet square, 
neatly payed with the small bricks laid in herring-bone pattern, 

Erojects outwardly a little beyond this eastern boundary wall, and 
as a wide openings westward into a room with a hypocaust, the 
the northern wall of which, as shown in our engraving, retains its 
coating of cement, which is covered with the broken remains and 
the impressions of the flue-tiles to convey hot air, with which 
it appears to have been completely covered. Our view of this 

Krt of* the ruins is taken from the square room with herring- 
ne pavement. just mentiQued, and looks towards the west; it 
includes a portioji of the.iniier.iace of the Old Wall, and shows 
the;spnn'ging'bf the rooms adjoining to it. A 
portion of the.herring-bbne pavement is seen in the foreground, 
and/bej^ond it the rooip iyith'the hypocaust jiist mentioned, the 
noribern end^oiily of which* has been excavated. At the foot of 
the' western >hd of this north we^U there is a large stone scooped 
out in a 'singular manner, and jipiriing on the other side to other 
sinnlar stones which run round the end of the wall. They have 
somewhat the^appearance of a water-channel, but their real object 
is as ' yet-* very uncertain; * The floor was here again formed of 
smoothed ceiheht, a large piece of which remains in its original 
position, aind-is seen' in the engraving.' Bi^yond this is a wall, on 
the north side of; which was a long passage, and on the south 
other- rooms wHh by ppcausts, and to the west the passage opens 
into the room'in'the hypociaust ,of which the three skeletons were 
found, and which'is'the last of the rooms of which the interior is 
seen in our engraving.* ' This toom is succeeded westwardly by 

^ Two skeletons, both of young persons, have since been found in 
one of ^e hypocausts to the east, so that the frightened inhabitants of 



the hTPOCftoat m ia the plan, bv the square room g, (closely 
regembting the room wiUi hernng-bone pavemeot mentioDed 
above,) and the staircase p, and their adjoining bypocaust o, and 
by the lame room with bypocaust marked m in tne plan. The 
annexed sketch of the staircase, taken from the litue room g, 
shows the exterior appearance of the semi-circular end of this 
large room. 

Bntranca to Hypocuut*, tod SemloiTculiT Bad of Lirge Boom. 

More recent excavations have brought to light a atnu^ wall, 
running north and south, a little way to the west of this last 
bypocanst, and parallel to the eastern boundary wall, which seems 
to be the western boundary wall of this buildings and, conside* 
rably to the south, a wall running east and wes^ or parallel to 
the Old Wall, which was no doubt the southern boundary of what 
thus formed a very extensive rectangular parallelogram. Several 
trenches have been dug across the inclosed area, which show 
apparently that there was an interior court, paved with smoothed 
cement, with what appear to have been a laige tank of water, and, 
on the eastern aide, a range of buildings, within which was also 
a tank of water, perhaps a cold bath. These and other circom- 
stances appear to show that this great square building consisted 
of public baths; hut it will pemaps be better to reserve any 
furtJier account of it until it has been further excavated. 

A considerable space of ground thus lies between the western 
boundary wall and the street now occupied by the Watling Street 

the town appear to have sought very generally to hide themselves in 
the hypocansts. 


Road. The northern part of this space has, for motives of con- 
venience, not yet been excavated ; but the excavations commenced 
at V in the plan given in our former report have been carried on 
towards the south, and the walls which were then met with have 
been discovered to form part of a square building, with an interior 
court between 40 and 60 feet square, with the same herring- 
bone pavement of small bricks which has been met with in other 
parts of these excavations. This court had two entrances firom 
the street, one on its northern side about 12 feet wide, which was 
approached by an inclined plane formed of three massive stones, 
for the floor of the court was about 3 feet higher than the level 
of the street. This entrance appears to have been intended for 
horses and carts, and the pavement on this side of the court had 
been broken and damaged in places, and mended at periods 
anterior to the destruction of the town. A portion of a horse- 
shoe, too, was found in this part of the court. The other entrance 
was a smaller doorway, at th^ southern side of the court, and 
evidently intended for people coming on foot. This door was 
approached by two steps, formed each by a single mass of stone, 
and both worn in a very singular manner by the feet of the pas- 
sengers, so as to show that we place must have been very much 
frequented, and that those who frequented it must generally have 
come up the street from the south, and have trodden upon that 
side of the steps. Internally, the court was bordered on the 
north and soutn by four sauare chambers on each side. Of 
these, only one has been cleared out, that at die north-west 
comer, it was found to be 10 feet deep, with a low transverse 
wall at the bottom. There was found in it a considerable quantity 
of unused charcoal, as though it had been a store room of that 
article. Two other chambers appear to have been filled with 
horns and bones of various animals, and as many of these appear 
to have been sawed and cut, and some have been partly turned 
on the lathe, it seems probable that they may have been the 
stores of some manu&cturer of the numerous articles in bone 
and horn, such as hair-pins, handles of knives, and other objects, 
&c., which are found scattered about in all parts of the ruins. 
The notion that these chambers were store rooms, and that this 
building was some sort of market, seems confirmed by the cir- 
cumstance, that a number of weights of difierent sizes, of metal 
and stone, some with Roman numerals upon them, were picked 
up in this part of the excavations, four of which are represented 
in the accompanying cut. The back, or eastern side, of this 
court, was formed by a long gallery, one side of which was 
divided at short intervals by transverse walls running from the 
western wall about half way across the court, as Uiough the 


compartments thus formed bad been intended for shops or stalls. 
As tar as can yet be judged, this gallery appears to be continued 

Bomtn Waiglita, 

beyond the limits to the court to the north. It appears to have 
been entered from the Bouth-eastern comer of the court by steps, 
for it is on a considerably lower level than that of the floor of 
the court. There is also a doorway in the eastern wall of this 
gallery leading into a passage, or narrow lane, which separates it 
from the western wall of the great building containing uie hypo- 

Walls of other buildinge hare been traced to the south of this 
supposed market, until, at a very short distance, the excavators 
came upon another transverse street, ninoiog east and west, and, 
crossing this, they came to buildings on the other side. It will 
be better to reserve any account of these until they have been 
further excavated. 

It will> perhaps, be well also to reserve any general account of 
the construction of the buildings of the Roman city of Uriconium 
until a greater extent of ground has been explored. We otBy, 
however, observe generally that the average thickness of the 
walls of the houses and other buildings appears to have been 
about 3 feet, that they were stuccoed and pamted in jresco, both 
internally and externally, and that they were roofed most com- 
monly with thick heavy slabs of a laminated sandstone found in 
Shropshire, cut into elongated hexagons, and arranged on the roof 
so as form a lozenge-formed pattern. The stone is filled with 
bright grains of mica, which must have glittered in the sunshine, 
80 as to give the houses the appearance at a distance of having 
their roots covered with diamonds. The windows of the houses 
were glazed with very good glass, rather more than one-eighth 
of an inch thick, numerous fragments of which have been picked 
up on the floors. Tliere appears, as far as we have yet gone, to 
have been nothing but ground floors, but the rooms appear to 
have been lofty, though it would be premature to form a judg- 
ment on this question, as we have evidently not yet come to any 
private bouses. The floors seem generally to nave been at a 


small elevation above the level of the street, and to have been 
approached by stone, and perhaps in some cases by wooden, steps. 
The doorways seem to have been very generally broken away oy 
the medieval builders for the sake of'^ the larger and more usefiil 
materials of which they were made. 

The medieval builders, too, in breaking up the walls for 
materials, have so completely displaced all the architectural orna- 
mentation which remamed standing, that we find none of it at 
present in its place — at least, none has been fonnd so &r as the 
excavations have been carried. But capitals and bases of 
columns, fragments of the shafls, and other similar relics, are 
found scattered about in all parts of the diggings, and many have 
been dug up by the farmers in former times, and may be seen in 
their gardens and farm-yards. In general tliese are plain, or at 
least not much ornamented, but this is by no means always the 
case. In excavating the yard of the quadrangular building, the 
portion of a very handsome capital of a column, represented in 
the annexed cut, was found lying on the floor. It is rather 

Portion of K Roman Capital from Wroxetei. 

classical in style, and of large dimensions, for in its present state it 
is more than 2 feet hi^h, and it appears that this is little more than 
two-thirda of its original height, for an upper part, corresponding 
with it, was also found, and la placed over it in the museum. As, 
however, this upper part evidently belonged to another capital, 
and not to the one here given, there have been at least two of 
them ; but whether they belonged to the quadrangular building 
in which they were found is very uncertain, from the manner in 
which we find elsewhere the fragments of columns scattered 


about in places to which they erideotly did not belong. Many 
of theae fragmenta of erchitectural omameDt are evidently of a 
late date, and of a debased, though elaborate style. In an 
excavation in the southern comer of the ancient city, made while 
we were excluded temporarily from the field of the Old Wall, a 
large bearded human head, sculptured in eaad-sttme, in a bold 
but veiy late style, which had evidently been used as an archi- 
tectural ornament^ was found, and is now deposited in the 
museam at Shrewsbury. Two remarkably interesting capitals of 
columns were at two different times dragged out of tbe river 
Severn by Mr. W. H. Oatley, of Wroxeter, and were preserved 
in his garden, until he recently gave them to ornament the new 
gateway to the church-yard, where they now stand. They are 
richly ornamented, but in a late style, approaching almost to 
medieval Byzantine, and are about sixteen inches in height. 
These two capitda are represented in the accompanying cut. It 

Homan Oipttil* ftom Wioxater. 

will be seen that they differ considerably in the detail of tbe 
ornament, but they have evidenUy belonged to the same colon- 
nade. Mr. Oatiey has also in his garden two fragments of the 
shafts of rather email columns, the surface of which is ornamented 
in one with scales, and in the other partiy with scales, and partiy 
with a sort of treUis ornament. Upon the side of one of these 
fragments is sculptured the lower part of a figure either of A^a, 
or of Bacchus, with an animal supposed to be a panther; and 
on tbe other a winged cupid, kneelmg on a panter, and holding a 
bunch of grapes in each hand.' 

< Ad enmTiDg of these fragments will be found in Mr. Roach 
Smith'a Cvw«(aiHa Antiquoj vol. iii. plate vu. 


The collection of antiquities from Wroxeter which has been 
fonned in the museum at Shrewsbury increaaes very rapidly, and 
will no doubt eventually become one of great importance. Aa 
the excavations proceed, the objects contributed to the museum 
become not only more numerous, but more varied, and tbey will 
no doubt become more so as we excavate the private dwelling- 
bonses. For this reason we will at present refer to only a few 
classes of objects which, though veiy imperfect, are still more 
complete than the others. First among these stands the pottery, 
which is here extremely interesting, in more than one point of 
view. As yet the pottery common^ called Samian ware has not 
been found in great abundance, but this may perhaps partly be 
ascribed to the character of the locality in which we have been 
<ligg>°gt and it may be foond in greater quantity in the ruins of 
the dwelling-houses. Among the fragments already placed in 
the museum, there are, however, a few patterns wnich are 
interesting and not common. Three of these are given, on a 
diminished scale, in the annexed wood-cut. In the first, the 
sea-monster in the middle is in the original andrc^nous, and 

Bnoiui and. othw Wus &om Vrozet«r. 


appearo to be engaged in combat with other sea-monsters of 
different descriptions. To the extreme right is a figure of a man, 
possibly intended to represent Neptune, and in the upf)er comer 
to the left a hare is playing on the double pipe. This ware was 
made from moulds in whicn the figures were stamped with dies, 
each of which represented a single figure, man, animal, or what 
it might be, and these were sometimes jumbled together without 
much order. Such may perhaps be the case with the fragment 
of Samian ware to the right under the piece just described, for 
the nude female figure with her hands bound behind her, in the 
midst of so many different animals, seems to have been intended 
originally to represent Andromeda. The other fragment repre- 
sents a wild boar pursued by dogs. 

The two fragments at the bottom of this cut, which are in a 
ware somewhat resembling the Samian ware in substance, but the 
ornaments of which are incised instead of being in relief, appear 
to have been of very late Roman manufacture. A number of 
examples are engraved in Mr. Roach Smith's Anti^ties of 
Richooroughy JReculver, and Lymne. They were perhaps imported 
from Gauf, for they seem to De found more abundantly at Rich- 
borough (RutupicB) than elsewhere, and they were evidently the 
type of the ornamentation of the later Prankish pottery. 

The wares made in the Roman potteries at Upchurch and 
Caster in Northamptonshire fDurobriwBj, are uso found at 
Wroxeter, but not in great abundance; but these excavations 
have brought to light two new classes of Roman potteiy, or at 
least classes which have not been remarked before, and which 
were evidently made in Shropshire. One of these is a white 
ware, which experiments made by Dr. Johnson have proved, 
without any doubt, to be made o!* what is now known as the 
Broseley clay. It is of rather coarse texture, but the vessels 
formed of it display the el^ance of form by which all the Roman 
pottery is distinguished. The majority of the vessels made of 
this ware are tastefully formed jugs, and dishes used for the 
same culinary purposes as our modem mortars, and called by 
the Romans mortaria. The interior surface of the latter is 
covered with small grains of flint, or other very hard stone, which 
assisted in the process of triturition. None of the vessels of either 
of these classes have yet been found whole, but fragments of the 
same vessel are met with in suflicient numbers to enable us to 
restore the forms. Rather numerous fragments have also been 
found of bowls of this ware, which are painted with stripes of red 
and yellow. Perhaps the potteries in which this ware was made 
will one day be found, ana it is not improbable that they may 
have been in Uriconium itself. 


The other RomanoSalopian pottery found at Wroxeter ia a 
red ware, differii^ id tiat from the generality of the Roman red 
wares before known, end of a finer texture than the white ware 
just described. It also is made from one of the clays of the 
Severn valley. Among the vessels made of this ware are jugfl, 
not unlike the white ware jugs in shape, bat distinguished by a 
peculiarity of form in the neck and mouth. A fr^ment of one 
of these veseels is given in the accompanying cut. Our next cot 

Ilomaiu>-8ilo[dui Potteiy. 

represents one of several similar vessels made of this ware found 
in the excavationH, which are pierced with small holes, and have 
evidently served the purpose of colanders. The pottery of both 
these wares seems to have been in very common use in ancient 

Coluider in Romuio- Salopian Potteir. 

Glass has been found at Wroxeter in rather considerable 
quantity, if we compare it with the extent of the excavaUons, 
bat, as may be supposed, in a very fragmentary condition. The 
Tessels to which these fragments belonged have presented a great 
variety of forms, of ornament, and of colour, and furnish examples 
ofdififerent processes, which show a very extraordinary d^ree of 
skill in glass making. Some of them, too, are rare, and among 
them may be point«i out the fragments of a cup, ornamented 
with spots of deep purple. 




Various objects of domestic use, such as knives, whetstones, 
fragments of culinary implements, keys, &c., which, however, are 
not yet sufficiently numerous or important to require a particular 
description^ several rather curiously formed heads of axes, 

¥ickaxes, spears, &c., have also been deposited in the museum, 
he personal ornaments which have been collected during the 
excavations are more numerous. Among them are a number of 
fibul», and brooches, bracelets, buckles, and buttons and studs of 
various forms. These are chiefly remarkable for the predomi- 
nance of enamel in their ornamentation. By far the most 
numerous class of personal ornaments yet met with are the hair- 
pins, which were used by the Roman women for fixing the knot 
of hair behind the head. A few specimens are given, half the 
size of the originals, in the accompanying cut. They are usually 


Roznan Hair- Pins. 

made of bone, but one was found made of a hard wood, 
and several of bronze. These latter were thinner than the 
others. The pin is made thick in the middle, evidently to 
prevent it from slipping out of the hair. It has always an 
ornamental head, sometimes large and well executed. Specimens 
have been found in former times at Wroxeter, but have passed 
into private collections, and are perhaps lost, in which the head 
of the hair*pin was formed into an elerant bust, perhaps intended 
to represent some known individual. It is a circumstance wortiby 
of remark that hitherto these hair-pins have been found more 
abundantly in the ruins of what are now supposed to have been 

Eublic baths than elsewhere; and we may ask if it might not 
ave been the custom to have stores of these hair-pins in such 
establishments with which to supply the bathers when necessary ; 
and this may also explain why all those we have yet found are 


oT very ordinary quality, and must have been of very little value. 
Among otlier objects conuected with the toilette, are two combe, 
both of bone, which are here engraved of the size of the originals. 

One, it will be seen is only a portion — apparently about one half 
— of the comb ; hut the smaller one is complete, except the loss 
of some of the teetii, and it is rather pretty in its form Rod 

Among other personal ornaments taken from the excavations 
are a number of beads of glass, of different colours and sizes, 
and several finger-rings, made of silver, bronze, and one of wood. 
One of the rinss is formed of iron and bronze wire twisted in 
alternate threads. The mixture of metals in this manner is not 
very uncommon in ornamental work of Roman make. We may 
also enumerate, among other objects more or less relating to the 
person, several large coarse needles (or perhaps bodkins), bronze 
tweezers (used for eradicating superflous hair), and several styli, 
or instruments for writing on the wax of the tablets, made of 
bronze and iron. 

Of some other classes of objects we will reserve the description 
until another occasion, and of objects of a more miscellaneous 
character we will only describe one, the medicine stamp. It is 
the stamp with which a Roman physician, probably of Unconium, 
named Tiberius Claudius, marked his packages of a peculiar 
dialibanum, or eye-salve, and is represented in the accompanying 


cnt the exact size of the original, or rather an impresuoa in 
■ealing-waz from the stamp is represrated in the accompanying 
, woodcDt, The reading of the iiucription upon this curious stamp 

» perfectly clear. It is, supplying the abbreviation in small 
lettetB, TiBcrit CLmidU uedtci mAUBAnttm ad oxnb virnm 
oculomm BX ow,' i. e., " the dialibanum of Tiberius Claudius the 
phvNcian, for ail complaints of the eyes, to be used with ^g." 
This curious object does not come from the preaeat excavations ; 
it was fomid at Wroxeter to 1808, and a very inaccurate copy 
was engraved at the time in the Qe^lemaH'i Mcyazine, after 
which it was entirely lost ught of, and has only recently been 
discovered in the possession of a farmer, from whom it was 
purchased by Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.P., and presented by 
nim to the museum, in which it is now preserved. A connde- 
rable number of such Roman medicine stamps have been met 
with in this island, and in Germany and France, and curioDsIy 
enough they are all for medicines for the eyes, which shows that 
eye diseases must then have been very prevalent. Some of 
them, like this dialibanum of Tiberius Clauaius, were directed to 
be beaten up with the yolk of egg for use. 

Thomas Wbioht, 
Hbnst Johkson. 
(To be continued.) 

* The A is used not uncommonly in such inscripdons as a mere 
mark {hT division between words and letters. 




The grant here printed has long been in possession of 
the rector of Llanfyllin, Montgomeryshire. It is of 
importance as giving evidence of the unscrupulous 
manner in which political services were paid at a most 
corrupt period of our history ; and it is interesting to the 
Welsh antiquary from its reciting the names of persons 
and places, with the extent and value of their holdings 
in several parts of Montgomeryshire. This grant, which 
is in fine preservation, was exhibited to the Association at 
the Wekhpool Meeting ; but the Editor has not had time 
to transcribe it until lately, when illness, by confining 
him to his house, gave him the desired opportunity. The 
recital of the grant only is printed, — it extends over nine 
skins of parchment, — because the concession is only a 
repetition totidem verbis of the enumerations of the recital. 
The whole document fills seventeen skins. 

For the better understanding of the grant the following 
notice, by Joseph Morris, Esq., F.S.A., is prefixed : — 

''William Henry Nassau de Zuleistein, son of Frederic de 
Nassau, natural son of Henry Frederick, Prince of Orange, 
(grandfather of William III.,) was created Baron of Enfield, co. 
Middlesex, Viscount Tunbridge, co. Kent, and Earl of Rochford, 
CO. Essex, 10th May, 1695. He died in 1708. 

" WiUiam Herbert, who was created Earl of Powis on the 4th 
of April, 1674, was, on the accession of James II., created (24th 
March, 1687) Viscount Montgomery and Marquess of Powis. 
Attaching himself to the cause of James II., he withdrew with 
that monarch to France, (when William III. was called to the 
throne of Great Britain and Ireland,) and in France he was 
created, by James II., Marquess of Montgomery and Duke of 
Powis ; but those titles were never recognized in England. In 
1689 he was outlawed for not returning to England within a 
certain period, and submitting to the then government; and 
mider this outlawry his estates became forfeited to the crown. 
The precise date of their restoration to his son, William Herbert, 
I do not know ; but this William Herbert, who was restored to 


the dignities of Viscount Montgomery, and Earl and Marquess 
of Powis, was first summoned to parliament by those titles on 
the 8th of October, 1722. He died in 1745." 

Skin I. 

GuiiisLBCus tertius Dei Gratia Anglie Scotie Ffrancie et Hibemie Bex ffidei 
defensor etc OmnibuB ad ^uas presentos Pre n*re pervenerint aalutem Com 
per ouandam inquisitionem indentat capt apud le Talbot in Owndle in com 
n*ro Northton nono die Januarii anno regni n*ri et Domine Marie nuper regin 
An^ seciindo coram Joh*e Radford Bobto Blaney Theophilo Eyton Ar^is et 
Henrico Starkey gen* comissionar* n'ris et diet nuper Regin* Angl inter al 
▼irtnte comissionis sub masno sigiUo nro Angl eis et al direct per sacrament 
Bemardi Walcott Ar' et al probor* et legaliu hominn* com nri r^orditon pred 
computum fiiit et existit quod Will*mo nuper Marchio Fowys in comisaion 
et in^uiaiton pred nominat Qui quidem Will m nuper Marchio Fowys pro alta 
proditione per ipsum primo die Augusti anno regni nri et diet nuper Begin 
Angl primo contra formam statuti in hu'mol casu edit et prris comiss unde 
ipse indictat fuit ad Session Over et Terminer tent pro civitat n*ra London 
apud Justice Hall apud le Old Bayly London is paroch Sti Sepulchri in Mar. 
de ffiiringdon extra London die Mercurii nono die Octob anno regni n*ri et 
predict nuper Regin Angl primo coram Thoma FiUdngton Mil tunc Maior 
Civitat n*re London et al Jusdc nostr per Tras n'ras paten eisdem justiciar et 
al* ac quibuscunq* quatuor vel pluribus eor* sub magno sisillo nro Angl 
confect ad inquirend audiend et terminand de quibuscunq proditionibus 
imprision prodico*n et concelament prodico*n per sacrament probor* et legal 
Hominu de civitat pred Jurat et onerat ad inquirend pro nobis et Maria nuper 
Regin Angl et corpore Civitat pred et superinde uUagst fuit in London die 
lune prox ante ffestum sancti Valentini conf et Martjrris anno re^ol nri et 
diet nuper Regin Angl primo die perpctraconis alte prodiconis m eadem 
comission spificat et postea seisit ^t in dominio suo ut de fieoddo de et in 
toto manerio de Owndle cum pertinen in com nro Northton pred et cur Baron 
Maner pred spectan et pertin et im mercat in quaUbet septiman et tribus 
fieriis annuatim in Owndle pred cum tolnet spectan et pertin eisdem et un 
Molendin aquatic ac quibusdm fibmacibus calcin Angbce Lyme Kilnes in 
parocb de Owndle pred clari annul valoris in oibus exitibus ultra repris 
septuagint et quatuor librar Ac de et in toto illo Bosco vocat Parkwooa in 
pux>ch et comitat pred continen per estimac*onem centum acr sive plus sive 
minus Ac de et in toto illo Bosco vocat Hillswood in paroch et comitat pred 
continen per estimacon quinquagint acr sive plus sive minus Ac tot illo 
Bosco vocat Perslejrwood in paroch et com pred continen per esdmaoon 
viginta et sex acras sive plus sive minus Ac tot ill Bosco vocat Littlehallwood 
in paroch et com pred continen per estimacon trigint acr sive plus sive minus 
Ac etiam de et in tot ill Bosco vocat Parsons wood in parocn et com pred 
continen per estimacon sexagint acr sive plus sive minus que quidem seperas 
Bosc nuper fuer in possession pred Willi nuper Marchionis JPowys et sunt clari 
annul valoris in oibus exitibus ultra repris ducent librar' Ac de et in revercon 
capital messuag vocat Le Berested et Scit Maner de Owndle pred cum 
omnibus edific terr et hereditament pred scit spectan vel pertinen in paroch et 
com pred et nuper in tenur sive occupatione Brigide Page et dicto die 
capc*onis inquisic onis pred in possessione Thome Maninff gen post expuraoon 
nonaeinta et novem annor* concess Galfrido Palmer WiUo Rowley et Thome 
Arnold per indentur ^eren dat primo die Martii anno domini tricesimo primo 
predarissimi ayoncuh nostri Caroli Sc*di nuper regis Angl si prefat Thomas 
Maning et Alicia ux cius et Thomas Maning Junior sive alter eor* tamdin 


Tixerint clAri annui valor in oibus exitibus ultra repris duran termin pred 
octo libr. Ac de et in tot ill maner de Beggis cum pertinen et un messuag 
et un subbose et in nonagint acr ten* et pastur cum pertinen in seperas parocn 
de Owndle pred et in paroch de Southwick et Barnewell in Com pred dicto 
die capconis inquisicon pred vel nuper in tenur sive occupacone firanci* Ashby 
et ffranci hinde sive assign suor^ et trigint acr prati in Killsey in paroch de 
Barnewell pred et vigint et septem acr prati in Perryherne in paroch de 
Southwick pred et comun pastur in Benefeild pro oibus averiis levand et 
couchand super firinsoe Tolnoe Shipwood Comer Bigginfeild et Sillyfeild in 
Biggin pred clan annui valor in oibus exitibus ultra repris trecent librar* Ac 
de et in tot ill Messuag et quatuor cotta^ et tribus acris subbosc et centum et 
octogint acr ten* et pastur cum pertin in paroch de Benefield in Com nro 
Nortnton pred dicto die capcjonis inquisicon pred vel nuper in possessione 
Joh*is Stapleton clari annm valor in oibus exitibus ultra repris et comun 
pastur pro omnibus averiis in Benefeild pred predict messuag et terr spectan 
et pertin septua^nt librar* Ac de et in tot ill cottag et duodecim Acr terr et 
pastur cum pertm in paroch de Benefeild pred dicto die capconis inquisicionia 
pred vel nuper in occupacone Christopheri Parker clan annui valoris in 
omnibus exitibus ultra repris sex librar* Ac de et in tot ill Abbat de Pipwell 
et un Capital Messuag et tribus acris subbosc ct centum acr prati quadringent 
acr pastur et septingent acr terr cum pertin in paroch de Magn Oakeley 
Rusnton et Wilbarston in com nro Nortnton pred dco die capc^on inquisicon 
pred vel nuper in tenur sive occupacone ffranci Hinde vel subtenen sive assign 
8oor' clari annui valor in oibus exitibus ultra repris quin^nt librar* que 
omnia et singula premissa premenconat sunt clari annul valor in oibua exitibus 
ultra repris un mule centum quinquagint et octo Ubrarum et ratione attinctur 
pred nuper Marchionia Powys omn et singul premissa pred comissionar nri 
premenconat in manus nras seisiverunt et ceperunt juxta exigenciam comis- 
lion pred prout per eandem comission et retom inde in cur Sccii nri affilat et 
ib*m de recordo remanen plenius liquet et apparet Cumq* per miandam al 
Inquisicon indentat capt apud vill ae Montgomery in com nro Montgomery 
■ecnndo die Septembris anno regni nri et dicte nuper reein Angl tertio coram 
Price Devereux Willo Grower Henrico Powell et Tnoma Jones Ar*is et 
Edwardo Kettleby gen comissionar inter al virtute comission nre et diet nuper 
Regin sub magno sigillo nro Angl eis et al direct per sacrament Gabriel 
Wynne Ar et al probor* et legliu* hoHum Com nri pred compertum existit 
quod predus Will nuper Marchio Powys in comission pred nominat die per- 
petraconis alte prodicon pred in eadem comission specificat vizt primo die 
Augusti anno regni nri et die nuper Regine Angl primo soisit fuit in dominio 
BOO ut de fieodo de et in tot ill Baron et castro vocat Powys Castle cum 
pertinen in paroch de Pola in com nro Montgomery pred cum o'ibus suis jur 
membris et pertin et un gardin castro pred spectan et pertin et un pare in 
paroch de Pola pred in com nro Montgomery pred continen per estimaoon 
treoent acr terr sive plus sive minus et ducent al acr terr centum acr prati et 
trecent acr pastur sive plus sive minus in paroch de Pola 

Skin IT. 

pred in Com nro Mon^mery pred et prefat Baron et Castro prope 
adjungen doo die capconis Inquisitonis pred vel nuper in possession prefat 
WiU'i nuper Marchionis Pow^'s et £d*n howell Johis fTarmer Bici Evans 
Carol! Jones de Layton Johis Jones de pola et Caroli Jones de pola 
Willi Clarke Rid Jervis Hici hill Rici Cristowe Gilberti Jones Johis Jones 
de pola pred* humfi^ Jones Rici Davyes Georgii Blackbome Georgii 
Antliony et Samuel Wollaston vel subtenen suo* clari annui valor* in omnibns 


ezitibuB ultra reprifl' Quadringent et quinq* librar* Ac de et in toto ill Maner 
de LUnerchydole in aeperat paroch de pola Gnilafeild et Battington cum suis 

i'uribuB membr et pertin in Com* n*ro Montgomeiy ac reddit et servic omn' 
ko*ium et inbabitan infra Maner pred eidem Maner spectan et pertin dari 
annul Talor* in omnibus ezitibus ultra repris Octodeeim Librar duodecim solid* 
et quatuor denar* Ac de et in toto ill Cur yi*s ffiranc pl^* et Cur Baron 
Maner predic spectan et perdnen ac omn wafert estreat Don et cataU ffdon 
fiuj^tiyor* et ffebn de se infra Maner predic dari annul Talor in omnibufl 
ezitibus ultra repris quadragint solid* Ac de et in omn ill novem messnag 
cum pertin et centum acr terr quadraffint acr prati et ducent acr pastur mre 
plus sive minus in paroch de pola Guusfeild et Buttington predic in com n*io 
Montgomery med dicto die Capc*on Inqmsic'onjpred vel nuper in poesessioDe 
Samuel Pyroe £d*ri C*uixunc (?) husonis Davys Ijiome Dav^es Micnad Rogers 
Johis howdl Rid Davyes Andree Jones howeDi Jdm Rici Rogers ReginaMi 
Jones Rid Parrye Will*i Clarke Joh'is Evans et Rid Oliyer vd subtenen suor* 
dari annul valor* in omnibus ezitibus ultra repris Centum Trigint et quinq 
libr novem solid et octo denar Ac de et in Reverc*on un Messuag cum pertin 
decem acr terr quatuor acr prati et sex acr pastur cum pertin in pred parodi 
de pola Guilsfdld et Buttington et al paroch de Berievr et CasUe Carineon 
in Com n*ro Montgomery pred dicto die Capoo*nis Inqmsitionis pred in 
poss*ion Morgan Evan post termin nonaginta et novem annorum a vioesimo 
seicto die ffebruarii Anno Dni Mill*imo sexoentesimo septuagesimo aeptimo 
adhunc ventur et plenar complend et finiend Si ipse pred Morgan Evan Anna 
ux* dus et Edra*8 filius suus tamdiu vixerint nuper oonoess per prefix nujper 
Marchion Powys ipd pred Mor^pan Evan per Indentur dat predto vioesuoo 
sexto die prefat Mensis ffebruarii Anno Domini Millim*o sexcentesuno septna* 
gesimo septimo supradicto dari annul valor in omnibus exitibus ultra repna 
durand termin pred quinq* solid* Ac de et in omn ill reverc*on al messuag cum 
pertin ac deoem acr terr quatuor acr prat et quatuor acr pastur cum pertin 
m pred paroch de pola in com* n*ro Montgomery pred aco die Capc^onis 
Inquisition* pred* in po8s*ione prefat Rid Roger post tennin nonagint et novem 
annor* a dedmo sexto die Novembris Anno Dni MiUimo sexoentesimo 
trioesimo secundo adhunc ventur et plenar complend et finiend si ipse pred 
IUc*us Roger tamdin vixerit nuper concess per quendam humfrn*m Robinson 
cuidam Rogero Griffithes per indentur dat premcto dedmo sqpto* die prefiit 
Mensis Novembris anno Dni sexoentesimo tricedmo secundo sumradicto dari 
annul valor in oi*bus exitibus ultra repris duran termin pred IVium libra* 
Ac de et in omn ill Maner de halfiter in seperat parodi de Churcfastock 
Hussington et Snead cum suis Juribus membiis et pertin in com* n*ro M<nit* 
g^omery ored ac reddit et servit om*n homin* et innabitan infra Maner pied 
ddem Maner spectan et pertin ac cur Vis ffiwic pleg et Cur Baron Maner 

Sred spectan ac pertin et omn wafert estreat bon et catall ^lon fiu^tivor* et 
don de se infra Maner pred dari annul vidor in omnibus exitibus ultra repris 
sex libr quinq* solid et tnum denar Ac de et in omn iU septem Messuag vigint 
et un Cottag* un ffodina tegule Anglice a Quarrey of Tyle cum pertin et 
centum acr terr quinquagint acr prati et centum acr pastur cum pertin sive 
plus sive minus in pred paroch de Churchstock Snead et hussington in com 
nro Montgomery pred dco* die capc'onis pred inqiiisic*on in posslon YTilll 
Williams Thome Amrett Davidis Williams Joh*is Williams Rob*ti Pryoe 
Thome ap Evan Joh*is Griffithes Will*i ffarmer Owen hordley Lodovid powdl 
henrid Pryce Mauridi lioyd Ric*i Evans Elleanor Jaundreff vid Lodovid 
Waters et subten suor* ffinuid* Nicholas Ric*i Jones Joh*is Beuneon Gwenne 
Bayley vid Marie powdl vid Joh*is Liewis Joh*is Evans howd Pryoe Samud 
ap Evan Samud Carper (?) Marie Bevan vid Joh*is Jones Ric*i powdl Lude 
Jones vid Thome Jones Joh*is Byshopp Lodovid Barley £dr*i CadvaJlider 


Thome Phipps Katherine Pugh vid et Joanne Lewis rid clari annul Talor in 
olhvLS exitibufl ultra repris tngint et sex libr et septem solid Ac de et in omn 
ill Maner de Titrefie in seperatt paroch de pola Castle Caerynnyon Bnttington 
et Guilsfoild cum suis junbus membris et perdn in com n*ro Mont^mery pred 
ac reddit et servit omn bo*ium et inhHtan infira Maner pred eidem Maner 
spectan et pertin ac cur Vis firanc pleg et Cur Baron Maner pred spectan et 
pertin ac omn Wafert estreat bon et catall fielon fiugitivor* et ffelon de se 
infra Maner pred clari annul valor in omnibus exitibus ultra repris duodedm 
libr octodecim solid quina* denar et un obol Ac de et in tot ill capital 
Messuag vocat Buttington nail et ducent acr terr centum acr prati et trecent 
acr pastur cum pertin sive plus sive minus in paroch de Buttmeton pred* in 
com nro Montgomery pred Messuag pred spectan et pertin dca die capc*on 
inquisiton* pred vel nuper in possione Rene Aubines Cr*oferi Clongh Will*i 
Lloyd Joh^is Griffithes Will*i pugh Joh*is pickstock Joh^is Thomas Joh'is 
Ciympe Ric*i Evans Davidis Jones Thome neild Ric*i ap Richard et Thome 
Evans clari annul valor in omnibus exitibus ultra repris quadringent viginti 
et quinq* libr Ac de et in omn ill octodecim al Messuag cum fabrica ferea 
Anglice A Smiths shopp un fodine tegule Angllce a Quarrey of slate trlgint 
et un Cottag cum pertm et quadra^nt al acr terr aninquagint al acr prati 
et centum al acr pastur cum pertin m pred paroch ae pola Castle Carineon 
Guilsfeild et Buttington in com nro Montgomery pred dco* die capc*on 
inqulsic*on pred vel nuper in possione pre&t Christopheri Clough et Rene 
Aubines ac etiam JoVis powell Thome humfiyes Joh'is Davis Thome Peirce 
Thome Griffithes Robti ap John Anne Pryce vid Ed*ri Roberts Evan GrifBthes 
Davidis Thomas Robti Thomas Georgil hordley Georgii Coney Davidis Wilkes 
Rid Williams Ric*i ap Richu?d Thome Hodson Rici Bowyer Priam Porter 
Thome Austin Jane Price Joh*ls fibwtreff fikatherine Austin Elizabethsa Jones 
Marie Corbett Joh*is Thomas Joh*is Raynolds Eleanore Jones vid Marie 
Edwards vid Robti Raynolds Blanch Oliver vid Oliver Jenks Joh*b Davyes 
humfridl Thomas Joh*ls Evans Anne Atkins vid Petri Glthens Willi Price 
Ed*ri harper Georgii Price Jane Phillips vid. Rlcl Panye Ellzabethe Payne 
vid Willi Daniel Dorothee humfrves via Anne Vaughan vid Margerie Wilkes 
vid Rici Peirce Anne Thomas via Ricl Evans hugon Williams Arthur Evans 
Thome Peirce Thome Davyes Cleci hugon Mathewes Margarete Roeers vid 
Samuel Pryce Owen Jones Oliver Jenks et Ed*ri Thomas subtenen vd assign 
suor* dari annul valor in omnlb exitibus ultra repris ducent vigint et quatuor 
libr octodedm solid et octo denar Ac de et in tot ill Reverc*on un Messuag et 
duobus molendin aquatic granatic Anglice Water come mills et decem acr 
terr quatuor acr prati et vigint acr pastur cum pertin Molendin pred spectan 
et pertin in predict paroch de pola in Com nro Montgomery pred dco* die 
Capc^on inqui8ic*on pred in poss lone prefat Ricl Williams post termin vigint 
et un annor a vicesimo die April Aixmo Dni Miirimo Sexcentesimo septua- 
geamo tertio adhunc ventur nuper concess per prefat Marchion prefat Rico 
Williams per indentur dat predco vicesimo die prefat mensis April anno 
domini Milllmo Sexcentesimo septuagesimo tertio supradco* et clari annul 
valor in omnibus exitibus ultra repris duran termin pred septem libr Ac de et 
in tot ill reverc*on un al Messuag et decem acr terr quatuor acr prati et 
viginti acr pastur cum pertin 

Skin III. 

in paroch de Buttington pred in com n*ro Montgomery pred dicto die capc'on 
inqulsic*on pred in possione Johls Ifledge (?) post termmu vigint et un annor* 
a vicesimo die Mail anno domlnl mllSmo sexcentesimo septuagesimo nono 
adhunc ventur nuper concess per pre&t nuper Marchionem pre&t Johl 



Ifledge per indentur dat predicto vioesimo die mensiB Mail anno domini 
milluno sexoenteaimo septiuigenmo nono supra dicto et diui annul yalor in 
onmib entib ultra repris duran tennin pred trium librar et aninq* solid Ac de 
et in tot ill Maner de Kerrye in separa s paroch de Kerrye Mo<mtree Church 
stock et MontgomeiT cum suis junbus membris et pertin in com mo Mont- 
ffomeiy pred Ac reddit et senrit omn hominn' et Inhabitan infra Maner de 
Kenye pred eidem Maner spectan et pertinen ac Cur Vis fiiranc-pl^ et Cur 
Baron Maner pred spectan et perdn ac omn Waiert Estreat bon et eatall 
^on ffugitiyor* et ffdon de se infra Manner pred cUiri annul Talor in omnibus 
ejdtibus mtra repris Tiffint et septem libr quatuor solid et trium deoar Ac de 
et in omn ill duobus Messuag tri^mt cottag et deoem acr terr quin(^ acr 
prati et ^iginti acrpastur cum pertmen in prad. paroch de Kenye Mocntree 
Church stock et Montgomery in com nro Montgomery {sed dco die capc*on 
inquisic*on pred Tel nuper in possione Bobti Jones Margarete Jones vid Ed*ri 
ap Richard Thome Jones Joh*is Arthur Joh*is Thomas Joh*is Lewis Evan 
Fryce Mauritn Davyes Dayidis Eyans Thome Richard Rogeri Eyans Ricl 
Morris Rid PhilHpps Elisabethe PhilHppB Ed*ri Lewis — f emol yid Johls 
Jenkin Susanne Evans Joh*is Eyans Rid Robot Marie Jonoi yid — 
Mathews yid Eyan Mathew Ed*ri John Thomas Malhei ffisher Dayidis Jenkins 
Thome Roffers et Dayidis Powell dan annul yalor in omnibus exitibus ultra 
repris Trigmt Libr. et quinq* Solid Ac de et in tot ill yill nye bur*g de Mont- 
gomenr in paroch de Montgomery cum suis jur Membr et pertinen in com 
n*ro Montgomery pred ac reddit et servic* omn hominu et inhabitan infra yiU 
siye burg jj^red eidem yille siye burgo spectan et pertinen dari annul yalor in 
omnib exltib ultra repris yisint et duo libr sex dedm soHd et septem denar 
Ac de et in tot ill Muier de Strata MarceOa maiore al*8 yocat Strata MaroeUa 
Abbot infra pred sepera's paroch de Pola Guilsfeikl Buttington Beriew et 
Castle Carineon cum suis jur memb et pertinen in com nro Montp>mery pred 
ac reddit et seryic omn homin et inhabitan infra Maner pred eidem Maner 
spectan et pertinen ac Cur Vis firanc pleg et Cur Baron Maner pred spectan 
et pertin ac omn Wafert estreat bon et catdl fielon ffugitiyor' et ffidon de se 
infra Maner pred clari annul yalor in omn exltib ultra repris yigint et quinq* 
solid et novem denar Ac de et in omn ill yigint et quatuor l&»uaff tribus 
cottag et tribus molendin aquatic granatic Anglice Water come M31s cum 
pertin et ducent acr terr centum acr prati et trecent acr pastur cum pertinen 
m pred paroch de pola Guilsfeild Buttington Beriew et Castle Careneon in 
com nro Mont^mery pred dco die capc*on inc|uisic*on pred yd nuper in 
possion Josephi Nicholis Joh^is Pickstock Robti Griffithes Dayidis Jones 
Griffith Richard Davidis Roberts Thome Jones Thome Feild Samud Vau^ian 
Anne Rogers yid Marie ffox yid Dayidis Griffith Joh'is Ruffe Jacobi Atidns 
Margarete Williams yid Willi Rufie Johis Dayyes Joanne Braxier yid Thome 
Eyans Eyan Jones Dayid William Edmund Lloyd Dudley Lloyd Marthe 
Ellis et Ed*ri Eyans dari annul yalor in omn exltib ultra repns quingent 
quadragint et quinq* libr duor* solid et un quadrant Ac de et in tot ill 
Reyercon un Messuag cum pertinen yigint acr terr decem acr prati et 
quadragint acr pastur cum pertinen in pmi paroch de pola et GuilsfeQd in 
com nro Montgomery pred dicto die eapc*on inquisicon pred in poadoh 
Stephani Nidious post terminu nonaginta et noyem annor' a yicesuno quarto 
die Januar Anno Domini Millimo Sexcentesimo qnadragesimo octayo adhuc 
yentur et plenar oomplend et finiend si ipse pred Stephanus Nicholis tam din 
ylxerit nuper concess per qnendam ffiranc*um BuUer Ac ipsi ]grefrit St^hano 

Sr indentur dat predco yiceramo quarto die mensis Januanl anno oomiiil 
illimo Sexcentesuno quadngesimo octayo supra dco dari annul yalor in 
omn exitibus ultra repris duran termino predco* yigint et quinq* libr Ac de et 
in toto iU Reyeroon un id Messuag cum pertin decem acr terr quinq* acr 


prati et vigint acr pastur cum pertiiiea in pred paroch de GuiLsfdld in Com 
nro Montgomery pred dicto die capc*on inquisic^on pred in possion cuiusdam 
Morton Griffithes poet termin nonagint et novem annor* a vioesimo secundo 
die Januar Anno domini millimo sexoentesimo auadragesimo octavo adhunc 
ventur et plenar complend et finiend si ipse pretat Morton GriffiUieB tamdiu 
vixerit nuper ooncess per prefat firanc*um Biuler ipsi prefat Morton Griffithes 
per indentur dat preaco yioeaimo secimdo die menais Januarii anno domini 
millimo sezcentesimo quadragesimo octavo supra doo dari annul valor in omn 
exitib ultra repris duran termin pred quin<}uagint et duor' solid. Ac de et in 
tot ill Reverc^n un al Messuag cum pertmen ac decem acr terr quinq* acr 
prati et duodecim acr pastur cum pertinen sive plus sive minus in pred paroch 
de Guilsfeild in com nro Montgomery pred dicto die capc^on inquisic*on pred 
in posaion cuiusdam Robti Griffithes jpost termin nonagmta et novem annor a 
sexto die Novembris anno domini millesimo sexcentesimo sexagesimo secundo 
adhunc ventur et plenar complend et finiend si quidam Thomas Griffithes 
tamdin vixerit nuper concess p pfiit ffiranc*um BuUer ipsi pfiit lliome p' 
indentur dat predicto sexto oie pre&t Mensis Novembris Anno domini 
Millesimo Sexcentesimo sexagesimo secundo supra dco* clari annul valor in 
omnibus exitibus ultra repris duran termin pred quinq* libr Ac de et in tot ill 
Be veroon un al Messuag cum perdnen ac ti^t acr terr duodecim acr prati et 
quadraffint acr pastur sive plus sive minus cum pertinen in pred paroch de 
GuilafeSd in com nro Mont^mery pred tunc in possione cuiusdam Will*! 
Pickstock post termin nonagmt et novem annor* a secundo die April anno 
domini Milumo Sexcentesimo tricesimo nono adhunc ventur et plenar complend 
et finiend si quidam Stephanus Nicholls tamdiu vixerit nuper concess per 
prefiit ffiranc*um Buller cuidam Thomasine Benbow spinster per indentur dat 
predco secundo die prefat Mensis April anno domim millesimo sexcentesimo 
tricesimo nono supra dicto dari annul valor in omnibus exitibus ultra repris 
duran tennin pred quadraginta solid Ac de et in tot ill reverc*on un al Messuag 
cum pertinen ac decem acr terr quinq* acr prati et decem acr pastur sive plus 
sive minus cum pertmen in predco paroch de Guilsfeild in com n*ro Mont< 

?>mery pred dco* die capc*on inquisic'on pred in possion cuiusdam Thome 
ursett post termin Nonagint et Novem annor* a vicesimo nono die Septembr 
anno domini millimo sexcentesimo sexagesimo quarto adhuc ventur et plenar 
complend et finiend si quidam Abigail Nicholls vid et Joh*es Nicholls tamdiu 
vixerint nuper concess per prefat ffiranc*um Buller cuidam Matheo Nicholls 
per indentur dat predco vicesimo nono die prefat mensis septembr anno domini 
millesimo sexcentesimo sexagesimo quarto supra dco dari annul valor in omn 
exitib ultra repris duran termin pred decem libr. Ac de et in tot ill Bevercon 
al Messuag cum pertinen ac ^uinq* acr terr trium acr prati et quinq* acr 
pastur cum pertinen sive plus sive minus in pred paroch de Guilsfeild in com 
nro Montgomery pred dco* die capc*on inqui8ic*on pred in possione cuiusdam 
Bobti Griffithes post termin nonagint et novem annor' a vicesimo die Septembr 
anno domini miuim'o 

Skm IV. 

sexcentesimo et dedmo octavo adhuc ventur et plenar complend et finiend si 
quidam Joh*es Whitacre tamdiu vixerit nuper concess per quendam Johannem 
dayward cuidam Johimni Whitacre per indentur dat predco* vioesimo die 
prefat menais Septembris anno domini millesimo sexcentesimo et decimo 
octavo supra dco dari annul valor in omnibus exitib ultra r^ris duran 
termin pred septendecim solid et quatuor denar Ac de et in tot iu reverc*on 
un fiiabrice Anglioe a smith*s shopp et un Gardin et un pomar adinde pertinen 
com pertinen oontinen per estimacon un acr sive plus sive minus in pred 


paroch de Guilsfeild in com nro Montffomeiy pred doo die Capo'on Inquifaooo 
pred in posaione caiuBdam Thome ffieM post tennin nonagint et novem annor* 
a vioedmo quarto die Octobris anno domini millenmo sexoenteamo qninqaa- 
gesimo nono adhuc ventnr et plenar complend et fliniend si ipse Thomas Field 
tamdia Yixerit nuper ooncen per prefat ffiranc*um BoSer Cnidam Clementi 
field per indentm* dat predco vioesimo quarto die pre&t MensiB Octobris anno 
domini millesimo sexoentesimo quinquagesimo nono supra dicto dan annoi 
valor in omnib exitib ultra repris duran tennin pred nn decim solid Ac de et 
in tot in revercon un al Messuag ac auatuor acr terr et duar* acr pastur cum 
pertineo aive plus siye minus in prea paroch de Guilsfeild com n*ro Mont- 

g>merY pred dicto die Capoten inquisioon pred in poss'ione cuiusdam Thome 
riffithes post tennin nonaginta et novem annor^ a dedmo die novembris 
Anno dommi millesimo sexcentesimo sexagfflimo secundo adhunc Tentur et 
^enar complend et ffiniend si ipse prefat Thomas Griffithes tamdiu vixerit 
firanc^um Buller prefat Thome Grimthes per indentur dat pred decimo die 
prefat Mensis Novembris Anno domini millesimo sexoentesmio sexagemmo 
Bcdo supra doo dan annui valor in omnib. exitib ultra repris duran termin 
pred decem solid Ac de et in tot ill revercon un al messuag cum pertinen ac 
viginti acr terr decem acr prati et quadragint acr pastur cum pertinen in pred 
paroch de Guilsfeild in com nro Montgomery pred dicto die capcopis inquiaoon 
pred in possione cuiusdam Thome Vaughan post tennin nonagint et novem 
annor* adhuc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend si ipse pre&t Tliomas 
Vaughan tamdiu vixerit nuper concess per pre&t finnc'um Buller prefat 
Thome Vaughan per indentur dari annm valor in omnib exitib ultra repris 
duran termin prea quindecim libr et decem solid Ac de et in tot ill revercon 
un al messuag cum pertinen ac duodedm acr tenr decem acr prati et trigint 
acr pastur cum pertmen sive plus sive minus Messuagio predco spectan in 
pred paroch de Guilsfeild pred m com nro Montgomery prea dicto die ca^iconis 
mquidcon pred in possione prefat Thome Vau^um post termin nonagmta et 
novem annor a vicesimo nono die Septembr anno domini millemmo sex- 
oentesimo sexagesimo quarto adhunc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend Si 
ipse prefat Thomas Vaughan tamdiu vixerit nuper concess per prefat £franc*iim 
Buller prefat Thome Vaughan per indentur dat predco vioesimo nono die 
prefat Mensis Septcmbris Anno domini millesimo sexcentesimo sexageomo 
quarto supra dicto clari annui valor in omnib exitib ultra repris duran termin 
pred duodedm libr et decem solid Ac dc et in tot ill revercon un al messuag 
cum pertin ac vigint acr terr decem acr prati et quadragint acr pastur cum 
pertinen sive plus sive minus Messuagio predco q)ectan in pred paroch de 
Guilsfdld in comitat nro Montgomery pred dicto die Capconis inquisioon pred 
in possione cuiusdam Samud Vaughan post termin Nonagint et novem annor* 
a vicesimo quinto die Octobris anno domini MiUesimo sexcentesimo quinqua- 
sesimo nono adhuc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend si ipse {unefiit Samud 
V aughan et quedtmi Anna Vaughan tamdiu vixerint nuper concess per pre&t 
Firanc^um Buller cuidam Ed*ro Vaughan per indentur dat predco vicesimo 
quinto die prefat Mensis Octobris anno domioi millesimo sexcentesimo 
quinquagesimo nono supradicto clari annui valor in omnib exitib ultra r^ris 
auran termin pred octodocim libr et decem solid Ac de et in tot iU revercon 
quarte partis un et Messuae cum pertinen in T^r y Moneth ac decern acr terr 
quinq* acr prati et duodecim acr pastur cum pertinen sive plus sive minus 
Messuag pred spectan in pred paroch de Guilsfeild in com nro Montgomery 
pred dicto die capconis inquisicon pred in possione prefat Samud Vaughan 
post terrain nonaginta et novem annor* a vicesimo quinto die Octobris anno 
domini millesimo sexcentesimo quinquagesimo nono adhuc ventur et plenar 
complend et ffiniend si ipse prefat Samud Vaughan et pred Anna Vauehan 
tamdiu vixerint nuper concess per pre&t ffiranc*um ISuUer cuidam I:id*ro 


Vaughan per indeDtur dat predicto vicesimo quinto die prefat Mensis Octobiis 
anno domini millesimo Sexcentesiiuo quinquagesimo nono supradicto dari 
annul valor in omnib. exitib ultra repris duran termin pred quatuor solid et 
octo denar Ac de et in tot ill revercon un et messuag cum pertinen in Tyr y 
Moneth pred ac quatuor acr terr duarum acr prati et quinq* acr pastur cum 
pertinen siye plus sive Minus Messuagio predicto spectan in pred. paroch de 
pola et Guilsfeild in com nro Montgomery pred dicto die capcon mquiscion 
pred in possione Anne Rogers vid post termin nonagint et novem annor* a 
vicesimo secundo die preiat mensis Mali Anno dom millimo Sexcentesimo 
septuagesimo primo adhuc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend si quedam 
Margareta Nicholls ux cuiusdam Petri Nicbolls tamdiu vixerit nuper concess 
per prefat fl^tmc'um Buller cuidam Joh^i Rogers per indentiur dat predco 
vicesimo secimdo die prefat Mensis Maii Anno domini millesimo sexcentenmo 
septuagesimo primo supradco clari annui valor in omnibus exitibus ultra repris 
duran termin pred undecim solid Ac de et in tot ill revercon un al messuag 
cum pertinen m Tyr y Monetb pred ac (juatuor acr terr duarum acr prati et 
sex acr pastur cum pertinen sive plus sive minus Messuag pred gpectan in 
pred paroch de Guilsfeild et pola in com nro Montgomery prea dco die 
capoon inquisicon pred in possione Joh'is Symonds de Gunrogg vaur in com 
nro Montgomery pred poet termin nonagint' et novem annor* a decimo die 
Maii Anno domini Millesimo Sexcentesimo et quinquagesimo adhuc ventur et 
plenar complend et ffiniend si auedam Maria Symonds tamdiu vixerit nuper 
coDcess per prefat firanc*um Buller cuidam Thome Symonds per indentur dat 
piedoo decimo die prefat Mensis Maii anno domini MUlesimo Sexcentesimo et 
quinquagesimo supradco clari annui valor in omnibus exitibus 

Skin V, 

ultra repris duran termin pred trium librar* Ac de et in tot ill revercon un al 
messuag cum pertin ac sex acr terr quatuor acr prati et deoem acr pastur cum 
pertin sive plus sive minus Messuag pred spectan et pertinen in pred paroch 
de Castle Careineon et pola in com nro Montgomery pred dicto die capconis 
inquiscion pred in possessione cuiusdam £d*ri Panye post terminu nona^t 
et novem annor' a vicesimo die Octobris anno domini millesimo sexcentesimo 
quinquagesimo nono adhuc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend si ipse 
prefat Edrus Panye tamdiu vixerit nuper concess per prefat ffiranc'um BuUer 
pred £d*n> Parrye per indentur dat pml vicesimo die pre&t mensis Octobiis 
anno domini millesimo sexcentesimo quinquagesimo nono supradicto clari 
annui valor in omn. exitib ultra repris duran termin pred c[uinq* libr* Ac de 
et in tot ill revercon un al Messuag cum pertin ac duodecim acr terr decem 
acr prati et vigint acr pastur cum perdnen sive plus sive minus messuag 
predict spectan et pertin in predco paroch de Guilsfeild in com nro Mont- 
gomery predict dicto die capoon inquisicon pred in possessione Joh*is Lewis 
post termin nonagint et novem annor* a vicesimo primo die Septembris anno 
domini millesimo sexcentesimo septuagesimo quarto adhuc ventur et plenar 
complend et ffiniend si quidam Walterus Dunne et Maria Dunne tamdiu 
vixerint nuper concess per prefat ffi*ancum Buller cuidam Willo Dunne per 
indentur dat predicto vicesimo die prefat Mensis Septembris anno domini 
millesimo sexcentesimo septuagesimo quarto supra dicto dari annui valor in 
oibus exitib ultra repris duran termin pred vigint solid Ac de et in tot ill 
revercon un al Messuag cum pertin in Tyr y Moneth ac tri^t acr terr vigint 
acr prati et quinquagint acr pastur cum ptinen sive plus sive minus Messuag 
pred spectan et pertinen in pred. paroch de Guilsfdld et pola in com nro Mont- 
fl»mery pred dicto die capcon inquisicon pred. in possion cuiusdtun Thome 
rrioe gen post termin nonagint et novem annor* a decimo die Junii anno dni 


iiiilli*mo Bexoentesiiiio aeptnagewimo primo adhac veotur et plenar complend et 
ffiniend si quidain Thomas fioiilkes tamdiu vixerit nuper conoess per pre&t 
firancum Boiler predicto Thome Ffoulkes per indentur dat pred. oecimo die 
prefiit meons Jimii anno dnmi MilU'mo sexcentesimo eeptfiaggmmo primo 
sapradicto dan annui valor in oibus ezitib ultra repru duran termin pred 
quadragint et quatuor librj Ac de et in tot ill revercon nn al messuag com 
pertin ac decem acr terr quinque acr prad et duodedm acr pastor com 
pertinen are plus sive minns Messoag pred spectan et pertin in pred parocfa 
de Castle Careineon in com nro Montgomery pred dco die ci^pcon inquiaieon 
pred in possion cuiusdam Thome Richard David post termm nona^nt et 
novem annoij a viceaimo sexto die Mardi anno dni millimo sexcentesimo 
quadragesimo sqitimo adhuAc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend d. qoidam 
David Griffithce tamdio vixerit nuper conoess per prefat firancum Boiler pred 
David Griffithes per indentur dat pred vicesimo sexto die pre&t Mends 
Martii Anno dni millimo sexcentesimo quadragesimo sqitimo supra dco dan 
annui valor in oibus exitib ultra repris duran termin pred quinq* libr. Ac de 
et in tot ill revenoon un al Messoag cum pertin in Gunrogg vaur in com nro 
Montgomeiy pred ac quinq* acr terr trium acr prati et decem acr pastor cum 
pertinen sive plus sive minus Messuag pred spectan et pertinen in ^red paroch 
de pola pred m com nro Montgomery pred dco die capcon in possione cuius- 
dam Ehzabethe Byshopp vd assign suor* post termin nonagint et novem 
annor* a vicesimo nono die Ootobris anno domini millemmo sexcentesimo 
septuaeedmo secundo adhunc ventur et pl^iar complend et ffiniend si i^sa 
prefat Elisabethe Byshopp tamdio et Miuia Parry soror dos tamdio vixennt 
nnper concess per [nvfat firancum BuUer cuidam Thome Pany per indentur 
dat pred vicesmio nono die prefat Mensis Octobris anno domini millimo 
sexcentesimo septuagesimo secundo supra dicto dan annui valor in omnibus 
exitibus ultra repris duran termin prea quadraginta solid Ac de et in tot ill 
revercon octo acr terr arrabil et duo dedm acr pastur sive plus sive minus 
cum pertinen in Gunrogg vaur et Gonrogg veecham (sic) in pred paroch de 
pola m com nro Monteomeiy pred dicto die capcon tnquisicon pred in 
occupacone cuiosdam Joh*is Poole post termino nonagint et novem Bnnor* a 
s^timo die Novembris Anno dni millimo sexcentesimo sexageomo seeondo 
adhunc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend si ipse prdat Joh^is Poole et 

2uedam Alida Parrock tamoiu vixerint nuper concess per i>re&t ffirancom 
duller pred Johanni Poole per indentur oat predicto sqptimo die prefat 
Mensis Novembr anno dni millimo sexcentesimo sexagesimo seeondo supra 
dicto dari annui valor in omnibus exitib ultra repris doran termin pred sex 
libr. Ac de et in tot ill revercon on al messoag com pertinen in Treireme in 
com nro Mont^meiy pred ac sex acr terr qoatoor acr prati qoinq* acr pastor 
com pertinen sive plus sive minos Meswiag pred spectan et pertinen in pred 
parocn de Bottington in com nro Montgomeiy pred dco die capcon inqoisicon 
pred in possione cuiosdam Petri Vaofhao post tennin nonagint et novem 
annor' a vicesimo septimo die Octobris anno dni millimo sexcentesuno 
quinquagesimo nono adhunc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend si quidam 
Thomas Corbett tamdiu vixerit nuper concess per prefiit ffirancom Boiler pred 
Thome Corbett per indentur dat pred vicesimo septimo die pre&t meomB 
Octobr anno dni millimo sexcentesimo quinquagedmo nono supra dicto dari 
annui valor in omnib exitib oltra repris duran termin {sed sex solid et octo 
denar. Ac de et in tot ill revercon un al messuag com pertinen infi« pred 
Maner de Strata Maroella Maiore et ddem maner spectan et pertin et doo- 
dedm acr terr octo acr prati et vigint acr pastur cum pertinen sive plus rive 
minos messuag pred pertinen in pred paroch de pola in com nro Montgomery 
pred dco die capcon inquirioon in possione cuiusdam Joh*is ffitmcis post tennin 
nonagint et novem annor a primo die Junii anno dni millesiiiio sexcentesimo 


quadragesimo septimo adhunc Tentur et plenar complend et ffiniend si ipse 
prefat Joh*e8 flfrajQcis tamdiu vixerit nuper concess per prefat ffi^ncum BiiUer 
prefat Joh*i ffrancis per indentur dat pred primo die Mensis Junii anno dui 
niillesimo sexoentesimo quadragesimo septimo supra dicto clari annui valor in 
omnibus exitib ultra repris diu*an termm pred novem libr. Ac de et in tot 
ill revercon un al messuag cum pertinen mfra maner pred et eidem maner 
pred spectan et pertinen ac decem acr terr quinq^ acr prati et duodecim acr 
pastur cum pertinen sive plus sive 

Skin VL 

minus messuag pred spectan in pred paroch de Guilsfeild in com nro Mont- 
gomery dco die capcon mquisicon pred m occupacone cuiusdam Willi bumfreys 
post termin nona^nt et novem annor* a vicesmio nono die Mail anno domini 
milHmo sexcentesimo septuagesimo primo adhunc ventur et plenar complend 
et ffiniend si ipse pre&t Willus humfreys et quedam ELatnerina humfreys 
tam diu vixerint nuper concess per prefat nrancum Buller pred Willo humfreys 
per indentur dat pred yicesimo nono die anno domini MiUesimo Sexcentesimo 
septuagesimo primo supradicto clari annui valor in omnib* exitib* ultra repris 
duran termin pred undecim solid et Septem denar* Ac de et in tot ill revercon 
un al messuag cum pertinen infra maner pred et ddem maner spectan et 
pertinen continen per estimacon decem acr terr quinq* acr prati et vigint acr 
pastur cum pertin sive plus sive minus in predict paroch de pola et Guilsfeild 
m com nro Montgomery pred dco die eapcon mquisicon pred in possione 
Joanne Brasier via post termin nonagint et novem annor* a duodecuno die 
Mail anno dni Millimo Sexcentesimo septuagesimo primo adhunc ventur et 
plenar complend et ffiniend si ipse prefat Joanna Brasier tam diu vixerit 
nuper concess per prefat firancum Buller cuidam Griffith Brasier per indentur 
dat predict duodecimo die Mail anno domini millimo sexcentesmio septua- 
gesimo primo supradict clari annui valor in omnib* exitib ultra repris auran 
termin pred septendecim solid et auatuor denar Ac de et in tot ill Maner de 
Strata Maroella Minor als vocat Strata Marcella Regis in seperas paroch de 
pola Guilsfeild Buttington Castle Caerineon et Mivod cum suis junb* membr 
et pertin in com nro Montgomeiy pred ac reddit et servic omn hominum et 
inhabitan infra maner pred ddem maner spectan et pertinen Ac cur vis ffranc 

eig et Cur Baron Maner predict spectan et pertinen ac omn wafert estreat 
n et catall ffelon ffugitivor* et fielon de se mfra Maner pred dari annual 
valor in omnib* exitib* ultra repris vigint et duar* libr novem solid et quinq* 
denar Ac de et in tot ill Messuag vigint et duobus cottag quinqua^nt acr terr 
quadragint acr prati sexagint acr pastur cum pertinen sive plus sive minus in 
pred p^t)ch de pola Gmlsfdld Buttington Castle Carineon et Mivod in com 
nro Montgomery pred dicto die capcon inquisicon pred vel nuper in possessione 
Joh*i8 Edwards Kici Davies Thome Owen Evan Vothan (?) Jacobi Davies Anne 
Hughes als Oliver vid Davidis liovd Blanch Price Johis Oliver Johis Griffith 
Alicie Oliver Marie Evans Griffith David ap Lewis Willi Peirce Thome ap 
Reynall Oliver Jeffi^yes Katherine Morris als Stephen Rid Jones Sare 
Edimunds YTilli Richards Eleanor Roberts Mauritii Griffith Joh*i8 Griffith et 
Arthur Pugh clari annui valor in omn exitib ultra repris vigint et octo libr 
Ac de et in tot ill revercon un al Messuag cum ptinen infra Maner pred centin 
per estimacon decem acr terr sex acr prati vigint acr pastur sive plus sive 
minus in pred paroch de Guilsfdld in com nro Montgomery pred dco die 
capcon inquisicon pred vel nuper in posdone Mai]^arete ritts via post tormin 
nonagint et novem annor' a vicesimo die Octobns anno dni millimo sexcen- 
teamo et oct<^;efflmo sexto adhuc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend d 
ipse prefat Mai^areta Pitts vid et Robtus Richards Jun tamdiu vixerint 


nuper concess per prefat Marchionem Powis cuidam Thome Pitts per indentur 
dat pred viceaimo die pref Mensis Octobris anno dni Millimo Sexcentesimo et 
octoeesimo sexto pred clari annui ralor in omnib* exitib ultra repris daran 
termin pred quadragint solid Ac de et in tot ill revercon un Molenoin acjoatic 
granatic AngUce vocat Water come Mill ac an jgardin dimid acr prati cum 
pertinen sive plus sive minus in pred paroch de Guilsfeild in com nro Mont- 
gomery pred dicto die capcon inquiacon pred vel nuper in poasione Hester 
Wynne vid post termin nonaginta et novem annor* adhunc ventm* et plenar 
complend et ffiniend si Broth well Wynne et Thomas Wynne fihi pre&t Hester 
et quidam Thomas Digs tamdiu vixerint nuper conoess per prefat nuper 
Marchionem predict Hester Wynne per indentur clari annui yalor in onm 
exitib ultra repris duran termin pred. quadraginta solid Ac de et in tot 01 
vUl sive burgo de pola in com nro Montgomery i>red cum suis juribus membris 
et pertinen ac reddit burgag vill sive burg ill in paroch de pola in com nro 
Montgomery pred dan annui valor in ommb exitib ultra repris sex libr sex 
solid et sex denar Ac de et in tot ill un Mercat in pola pred tent die Luna in 
qualibet s^timan animaliu ac quatuor fieriis in pola pred annuatim et omnia 
tolnet et profit catallor^ eisdem mercat et fferiis spectan et pertinen dco die 
capconis mauisioon pred vel nuper in possessione Georgii Blackbume dan 
annui valor m omnib exitib ultra repris vigint libr. Ac de et in omn ill sex 
Messuag decern acr terr quina* acr prati et septem acr pastur cum pertinen 
sive plus sive minus in paroch de pola pred m com nro Montgomery pred 
dicto die capcon inquisicon pred vel nuper in possione Willi Lloyd Rici Hill 
David Jones Willi Gierke Thome Jenkyns Kose Jones Katherine Tomer 
Thome Roberts et Nehemie Davis dari annui valor in omnib exitib ultra 
repris trigint et quina* libr et deoem solid Ac de et in tot ill Maner de 
Kedewen Uchoeid et Maner de Kedewen Usecoied cum seperat suis juribus 
membris et pertinen infra seperat paroch de Nova Villa Lliuidyssill Uanllocfa 
Hayme Beirio Bettus Tregynnon Manavaon Llan Llygan Aber have heape 
Llanyrwigg in com nro Montgomery pred Ac reddit et servit omniu hominm 
et inhabitan infira seperat Maner pred et eisdem Maner spectan et pertinen 
Ac etiam seperat cur vis ffranc pleg et ciur Baron seperat pred maner spectan 
et pertin ac omn Waivet et estreat bon et catall ffdon fiugitivor' et fielon de 
se mfira seperat Maner pred clari annui valor in omnib exitib ultra r^ris 
septuagint et quatuor libr sexdedm solid deoem denar et un obol Ac de et in 
tot ill scit un antioui castri vocat Castle Doley ffor Wyn Ac un fibrest vocat 
Doley fibr Wynn norest continen per estimacon trigint acr terr sive plus sive 
minus infra paroch pred in com nro Montgomery pred dco die capcon 
inquisicon pred in possione Johis Glace et Thome ap Hugh clari annui valor 
in omn exitib ultra repris auatuor libr Ac de et m tot iU vigint messnag 
vigint et novem cottag quadrapnt acr terr quinquaeint acr prati et duoent 
acr pastur cum pertinen ave plus sive minus in pred paroch de Nova Villa 
Llandyssill Llan loch Hayme Berrion (sic) Bettus Tregunon Man a Vacm 
Llan uygan Aberhave 

Skin VIL 

Hesp Llan yr y wig in Com nro Montgomery pred die die capcon inquiscion 
pred in possione Thome Jones Elizi^the nrancis Johis Lawrence Marie 
Owen Davidis humfry Evani Griffith Willi Wooding Mamret Morris 
Thome David Willi Rees Robti Oliver f&anci herbert Johis Edward £dri 
John Johis Rees Rid John Thome Vanghan Oliveri Rees Willi Cartwripht 
Isaad Thomas Rid Morris Robti David Johis Rickett Oweni Jones Davidia 
Oliver Willi Hughes henrid Parry Rid Howells Johis David Evani Richard 
Thome Evans Davidis Evan Oliver Gaynor Rogers Anne Sbutt 


humpridi David EHzabetli William Evan Powell Elize Nixon Marie Morru 
Anne Ellis Alicia Ellis Thomas Hodson Rid Morgan Johis Evans Rici 
Griffiths Jane Griffiths Rid Watkins Elize Whittingham Thome Kinsev 
Thome Beynyon ffirand Herbert Erasmi Williams c^his Morris Mauritii 
David Evani Rowland Thome ffiunds Mauritii David Thome Jones Katherine 
Peter Rici Thomas Thomas David Greom Caroli Jones Rici Thomas Arthur 
firands Edri John Edri Harries Marie L&ma Evani James Rid Oliver Edri 
Lloyd ffiund Thomas Bridgette Price Rid Daccus Johis Edward Marie 
Uewis vid Marie ap Hugh Johis Rees Ricd Nicholas et Edmundi Jones 
clari annui valor in omn exitib ultra repiis nonagint et novem libr Ac de et 
in tot ill villa de Nova Villa infra Maner pred in com nro Montgomery pred 
ac un Mercat in Nova Villa pred tert die Mards in qualibet septunan 
annuatim ac de et in omni tolnet et profit granor* et catellor* quor*cuncf 
dsdem mercat et fieriis spectan et pertm dco die capcon inquision pred vel 
nuper in possione Elizabethe Baxter et mauriod Davies dari annui valor in 
omn exitib ultra repris vigint liber Ac de et in tot ill seperat Maner de 
Mechen Ushcoed et Mechen Iscoed cum seperat suis juribus membr et pertin 
in seperat paroch de Mivod Llanvihangell Uanvilling Llanwithing Pennant 
faemant Llangynog et Llanrhavders in com nro Montgomery pred ac reddit et 
servit omn hominu et inhabitan mfira seperat maner pred et dsdem maner spectan 
et pertin Ac etiam seperat cur vis ffiranc pleg et cur Baron sjsp^t maner pred 
spectan et pertin ac omn Wafert estreat bonat catall fielon fiugitivor* et nelon 
de se infra seperat maner pred dari annui valor in omn exitib ultra repris 
vigint et quinq* libr. Ac de et in tot ill vill sive bur^ de Uanvilling infira 
maner pred in com nro Montgomery pred cum suis junb membr et pertin Ac 
reddit burgag ville sive burgi ill cUui annui valor in omn exitib ultra repris 
trigint et septem solid et undecim denar Ac de et in tot ill un Mercat in 
LlanvUling pred tent die Jovis in qualibet septimana annuatim ac quatuor 
fier in Uanvilling pred annuatim ac tolnet de p^fit catallor* eisdem Mercat 
et fieriis spectan et pertin dco die capcon inquisicon pred vd nuper in posses- 
sione Grimn Thomas dari annui valor in omn ex*ibit ultra repris Octo Ubr 
Ac de et in tot ill un capital Messuag vocat Greenhall cum duobus molen- 
dinis aquatic granatie prope adjtmgen ac cent acr terr quinquagint acr prati 
et trecent acr pastur cum pertin sive plus sive minus Messuag pred spectan et 
pertin in paroch de Uanvilling pred in com nro Montgomery pred dco die 
oapoonis inquisicon pred in possessione Jacobi Mathews Robti Price Michdis 
Davis Edwardi Jones Joh*is Davis et Johis Thomas clari annui valor in omn 
exitib ultra repris septuagint et quinq* libr Ac de et in omn ill quinq* al 
Messuac octogint et quatuor cottag un molendin ffullonid Anglice a fiuDing 
mill ac ducent al acr terr quadragint al acr prati et trecent al acr pastur sive 
plus sive minus cum pertinen in pred parocn de Llanvillin^ Mivod Uanvi- 
nangdl Uangwithin Pennant himant Uangynog et Uanrhaider in com nro 
Montgomery pred dco die capcon in quiscon pred vd nuper in possessione 
Edris Lewis Lndovid Evans Thome Jones Thome David Mason Johis David 

Mason Katherine Morris Edri Jones David Morris Henrici Mathew 

Bernard vid Hugon Thomas Elize Griffith David Williams Robti Evans Johis 

Sryce Mauritii owen Evan Morris David Morris Eve David David ap Evan 
ohis Cadwallader David ap humfrey Maurice Griffith Hugh Johis 

humfiy Johis David ap Ricnard humfridi Johis ap Evan Johis Griffith Robti 
Owen David Jones £van Cadwallader humfrid John ap William Rid ap 
Edward Johis Owen John Evan Evan ap Pugh Robti Jones EUis Charlett 
Thome Owen YTilli Mathew Robti Rees David Thomas Thome Griffith Willi 
Griffith Evan Griffith Oliver Llc^ Willi Cadwallader Willi Bynner Hu^on 
William Darid Jacobi Wynne Elize Rees vid David John Ann Evan Gnffin 
ap Hugh Owen Bulkley Theophilus Jones Evan ap Hugh Johis Edwards 



YTilli Uoyd Johb Morgan Johis Lioyd Heorici Udder Alicia Moodey^ vid 
Jeremii Jones Hellene Evans Artiiur Rees Guen Evan Griffith TlKNnas 
Meredith David Willi Roberts Willi Uo^d Elize Hugh Ludovid Robert 
David Daniel Edwards Robti Piyce Georgii ap Evan Johis liewellin Edri 
Llewellin Robti Allen Geor^ Evans Maud Uu^h Evan ap Roger Johis 
Rogers Thome Jones Thome Frioe Johis Evan Johis David Owen Meredith 
Jo&i Johis Hugh Johis Kyffin Willi Jones Elize Adams vid Thome Fu^ 
Ricei Lewis David ap Evan et Johis Owen dan annui valor in omn ezitaib 
ultra repris centum et decern libr Ac de et in tot ill maner de Mouchnant 
cum suis juribs Membr et pertin infra seperat paroch de Harant (sic) Pennant 
Uaneync^ et Uanrhayder in com nro Montgomery pred ac reddit et servit 
omn hominu et inhabitan infra Maner pred et ddem Maner spectan et pertin 
ac edam cur via firanc pleg et cur Baron Maner pred spectan et pertin ac 
omn Wafert Estreat bon et catall ffdon fiugitivor* et ffdon de se infra Maner 

Sred dan annui valor in omn exitib ultra repris vigint et novem libr qnatuor- 
ecim solid et sex denar Ac de et in tot ill tolnet et profit cataHor Moncat 
et fieriar* vill de Uanrayder infra com nro Montgomexy pred spectan et 
pertin dco die capoon inquisicon pred vd nuper in possione Rid Hughs dan 
annui valor in omn exitib ultra repris vigint solid Ac de et in tot ill duobus 
messuag triginta et septem oottag quinquagint acr terr vigint. acr prati et 
quadragint acr pastur cum pertin sive plus dve minus infra pred paxoch de 
Llanraider Pennant Hemant et Llangynog in com nro Montgomery pred doo 
die capcon inquisicon md vd nuper in possione Hugonis Probat Hngonia 
Biveon Mauritii Jones Thome David Susanne Morgan Alide fiands Ludovid 
Edward Robti Jones et Willi Morris dari annui valor in omn exitib ultra 
repris trigint et quatuor libr sexdedm 

. Skin VIIL 

Solid. Ac de et in tot ill seperat maner de Careineon Iscoed et Careineon 
Uchcoed cum seperat jur membr et pertin in seperat paroch de Llanvdr 
Llanveroyll Liangadvan Maloyd Gwrth Bibio Llanguniew et Castle Carineon 
in com nro Montgomery pred ac reddit et servit omn hominu et inhabitan infi« 
seperat maner pred spectan et pertin ac de et in omn wafert estreat bon et 
cataU ffdon fiu^tivor' et ffdon de se infi« sepmt maner pred dari annul 
valor in omn exitib ultra repris viginti et quinq; libr tresdedm solid et decern 
denar Ac de et in tot ill quadragint et quin<f Messuag sexagint et septem 
cottag ducent acr terr centum acr prati et treoent acr pastur cum pertinen 
sive plus sive minus in predict paroch de Llanvdr Lluieroyle Llangadvan 
Malloyd Gaxihbibio Uangmineno and (sic) Castle Caerineon in com nro 
Montgomery pred et infra seperat maner pred dco die capoon inquisicon pred 
vd nuper in possessione Katherine Edward vid Johis Thomas Howell Thome 
Evan Robti Evan Morgan Reginald! Davis Edri Richards Johis Samud 
David Griffith David Robert Robti Edward Evan Edward Samud ^Wnne 
Johis Evans Willi Jones Ric'i Cadwallader Morgan Edwards Rid Morris 
Robti Davis Hugonis Evans Johis Owen Edri Lloyd Willi ^chard Edward 
Thome William Petri Jones Ludovid Jones Ludovid Evan Edri Robert 
Henrid Davis Georgii Wyrrall Willi Cooper Jane Griffithes Johis lioyd David 
Morris David Davis Thome Humfry Bythwell Jones Johis Davis Eiixabethe 
Gwynne Rici Evan Evan Owen Thome Ba^ly David Evan Johis Evan Lewis 
Henric Rees Griffin Robert Rid Davis Ohver Lewis Meredith Lloyd Robti 

Morris Rid Davies Margarete Robert vid David Thomas Owe n 

ap Oliver vid Elize Griffith Evani Jones Elize Jones vid Willi Jones WlUi 
Jones ap Cafimn Willi Jones Thome Meredith Thome Weaver Evan Humfrejr 
David Evan Oliver Richard Llewis Gwynnes Marie Cadwallader Gecnrgii 


Bees Evan Rees Huffon Jones Mauricei Owen Edri Owen Thome Owen Jane 
Jones Johis David £dri ap David Humfridi John Rees Willi Owen Anne 
Evan vid Johannis Morris Elize David Johis Meredith Ludovic Jones Willi 
Biehard Edward Johis Thomas Johis Rees Jane Prichard vid Robti Davies 
Johis Owen Henrici Rees Evan Owen David Morris Johis Davies Jacobi 
Harry Elize Edward Thome Bayly Willi Henry Alicie Perry vid Ricei Evans 

Harrys vid Johis Evan Lewis Edn Richard sive Richard Evan 

Edward Evan Davies David Griffith David Evan David Ricei ap Hugh David 
Robert Evan Davis Johis Evan Rici Davies Robti ap Oliver Arthur Oliver 
Oliver Lewis Willi Robert Thome Griffith Ludovid Evan Rici Gittins Rid 
Waller Guillm John Richard Mathei Richard Hugon Evan Mathei Richard 

Thome Robert Robti John David Humfrey Rici Davis Johis Watkin 

Robert vid Hugon Griffith Ludovici Evan Humfri David Edwardi William 
Henrid Lloyd Willi Llo^d Thome Jones Evan David Humfri David Richard 

Hugonis Williams Watlan Edward David Lloyd Evan Edward 

Isaac vid Thome Humfryes Jane Robert Edri Vaughan Henrici Herbert 
Jacobi Harry Mauricd Evan Thome Rees Thome Oliver Ricd Evan Robert 
Evani Griffith Robti David Edri Gawman Evan Thomas Evan Williams 
David Evans Thome Oliver Robti William Elize Evan Evan David Evan 
Morgani William Moi^ani Evan Evani John Griffin Evan Edri WilUam 
Thome Evan David ^lorris Thome Howell David Ryderth Humfn Hugh 
Johis Morris Mauritii Oliver Elize Thomas Thome Humi^ Mathd Reos 
Ricd ap Evan Elize Rees Humfri David WiUi Evans Johis Griffith Davidis 
Rowland Thome Evan Lumley Williams Ricd Edward Watkin Thome Evan 
Johis Evan Edward Rees Hugon Roger Thomas Thome Owen Mathd Lloyd 
Owen Vaughan Tydder ap Robert Tydder Ricd Lloyd Johis Owen Johis 
Evan David Evan Arthur David Robti Thomas Johis Thomas Henrici Morgan 
Thome Price et Meredith ap Rees ap John clari annui valor in omn exitib. 
ultra repris trecent septuagint et septem libr novem decim solid et octo denar 
Ac de et in tot ill revercon sexdecim acr pastur cum pertin in pred paroch de 
Llangadvan in com nro Montgomery pred dco die capcon inquisicon pred vd 
nuper in posdone cuiusdam Henrici Davies post termin nonagint et novem 
annor* a vicesimo die Novembris anno dni miUimo sexcentesimo vicesimo 
tertio adhunc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend si quidam Edrus ap 
Thomas tamdiu vixerit nuper concess per quendam Pdrcy Herbert mil cuidm 
Owen ap Howell per indentur dat pred vicesimo die pfat Mensis Novembris 
anno dni nulHmo sexcentesimo vicesimo tertio supradicto clari annui valor in 
omn exitib ultra repris duran termin pred tresdecim solid et quatuor denar 
Ac de et in tot ill revercon un Messuag cum pertin ac decem acr terr quatuor 
acr prati et vimnt acr pastur sive plus sive minus in pred paroch de Llanveir 
in com nro Montgomery pred dco die capcon inqmsicon pred vd nuper in 
posmone cuiusdam Evan Owen post termin vitar* ipsius Evan Owens et 
cuiusdam Katherine Owen Soror ejus nuper concess per pred Pdrcy Herbert 
mil cuidam Owen Evans per indentur dat dedmo die Mardi anno dni millimo 
sexcentedmo quinquagesimo septimo dari annui valor in omn exitib. ultra 
repris duran termin pred vigint soHd Ac de et in tot ill revercon quatuor acr 
terr quatuor acr terr quatuor acr prati et novem acr pastur cum pertinen sive 
pluB sive minus in pred paroch de Llanveir infra maner predict in com nro 
Montgomeiy pred dco die capcon inquisicon pred in posdone cuiusdam Johis 
Davis post termin vigint et un annor* a vicesimo die Maii anno dni millimo 
sexcentesimo septuagesimo quarto adhunc ventur et plenar complend et 
ffiniend nuper concess per piefat nuper Marchionem Powys pred Johi Davis 
per indentur dat pred vicesimo die Mali anno dni millimo sexcentesimo 
septuagesimo quarto supradicto dari annui valor in omn exitib ultra repris 
duran termin pred sex solid et octo denar Ac de et in tot ill revercon sep'at 


preflT terr continen per estamaoon decern acr tave plus dve minus in pred 
paroch de Guilsfdld infra maner de Strata Maroella majore predict in com 
nro Montgomery pred dicto die capcon inquisicon pred vel nnper in possione 
pred Morton Griffiths post termin nonagint et noTem annor* a vioesimo sodo 

Skm IX. 

Januarii anno dni millimo sexoentenmo qnadivgesimo octavo adhunc ventur 
et planar complend et ffiniend nuper concess per pfiitum ffrancum Buller pred 
Morton Griffiths per indentur dat pred vioesimo scdo die Januarii anno dni 
miUimo sexoentesimo quadragesimo octavo supradicto dari annui valor in 
omn exitib ultra repris duran termin pred sex solid et octo denar Ac de et in 
omn ill seperat Rectoriis de Pola Mivod Guilsfeild et Buttineton cum pertin. 
in predict Montgomery (sic) ac de un medietat vd dimid partis omn et 
omnimod decimar* Granar* Garhor* et ffeni an^uatim quolibt anno crescen 
renovan et provenien infra Bectoriam de Mivod pred ac etiam tribus part tot 
in quatuor partis dividend omn et omnimod dedmar* granar' Garhor' et fieni 
annuatim et quolibt anno crescen renovan et provenien infi^a separat Bectorias 
de pola Guilsfeild et Buttington pred in com nro Montgomery pred omn ill 
decem acr terr quatuor acr prati et vigint acr pastur cum pertin sive plus aive 
minus existen terr glebal Kector pred spectan et pertin et jacen infra pred 
paroch de Pola Guimeild Mivod et Buttington in com nro Montoomery pred 
dco die capcon inquisicon pred vd nuper in possione Samud Davis l^um 
Boor Cadwallader Wynne et Thome Liojd pro termino vigint et un annor' 
adhunc ventur et inexpirat clari annm valor in omn exitib ultra n^ris 
quadringent libr Ac de et in tot ill Messuag ac vigint acr terr decem acr 
prati et quadragint acr pastur cum pertin sive plus sive minus in paroch de 
Langineo in com nro Alontgomery pred doo die capcon inquisicon pred in 
possione Georgii Wiirall et David Evans subtenen vd assign suor* pro termino 
nonagint et novem annor* adhunc ventur clari annui valor in omn exitib ultra 
repris trigint et quinque libr Ac de et in tot ill Messuag et un molendin 
aquatic granatic decem acr terr quatuor acr prati et vigint acr pastur cum 
pertin sive plus sive minus in paroch de Buttington pred in com nro Mont- 

f ornery dco die capcon inquisicon pred vd nuper in possione Willi Thomas 
uran termin nonagint et novem annor* adhunc ventur et plenar complend et 
ffiniend si quidam Edrus Jinkes tandiu vixerit dari annui valor in omn exitib 
ultra repris septem libr Que omn et singul Baron Castr Maner Messuag Cott 
Terr prat pastur revercon Rector Mercat ffisr catall et al premiss vl menconat 
ratione attmetur pred nuper Marchionis Powys pred oomissionar nri premen- 
conat in manus nras seisiverunt et ceperunt juxta exigendam comissionis pred 
et sunt clari annui valoris in omnibus exitibus ultra reprisis Trium MUle 
Quingent Vigint et Quatuor libr et novem decim solid prout per eandon 
comission et retom inde in cur Scaccarii nri affilat et ibm de Reoordo remanen 

Elenius liquet et apparet Sciatis modo quod Nos pro et in consideracone 
oni veri et acceptabilis servidi Nobis per predilectu et ffiddem consangnin 
nrm WiUum comitem de Rochford multiplidtor impens et impostera impen&nd 
ac pro diversis al bon causis et consideracon Nos ad presens spialiter moven 
de gra nra spiali ac ex certa scientia et mero motu nris DEDOins m Com- 
c£88iMr8 ac per presentes pro Nobis hered et successor nris Damus et 
CoNcEDiMus prefat Willo Comiti de Rochford heredibus et assignatis suis 
ToTUM ill Maner de Owndle &c &c 

(Here foUmr all the particulars of the recital as given abore.) 


Skm XVIL, line 5. 

Ac etiam omn al Maner Mesquag terr tenement Bosc subbosc 

reddit servit et hereditament quecunq' in diet com nro Montgomeiy in 
inquisicon pied apecificat sive menconat Ac revercon et reveroones remaneriu 
et remanena reddit exit et profit omn et singulor* premissor* pred et cuius- 
libet part et parcell eor'dem Ac tot statum jus Titul interess ffiduc term 
annor dam et demand quecunq* nostr de in yd ad premiss pred aut eor* 
aliqu aut aliqu part eor* sen alicuius vel aliquor* eor'dem Ac etiam tot tant 
tal numoi eadem et consimil libtat firanchessa privilegia jurisdiccon et immu- 
nitat quot quant qual et que diet nuper Marchio liuit tenuit sive gayisus fuit 
vd de jure debuit de et in premiss predict vd de aut in aliqu part inde ad 
aliquod^ tempus ante perpetracon alt perdicon predict Except et extra hunc 
concessionem nostram omnino reservat omn ill seperas Rector de pola Mivod 
Gruilsfeild et Buttington cum pertin in com nro Montgomery ac un medietat 
Td dimid part omn et oim'od decimar' ^ranor* garbor* et ffeni annuatim 
auolibet anno crescen renovan siye proyemen infira rectoriam de Mivod pred 
Ac etiam tribus part tot in quatuor part dividend omn et oimod decunar 
granor garbor* et ffeni annuatim et quolibet anno crescen renovand et 
provenien infra sq>eras rectorius in paroch de pola Guilsfeild et Buttington 
predict in com nro Montgomery prea ac omn iU decem acr terr quatuor acr 
prati et vicint acr pastur cum pertinen sive plus sive minus existen terr glebal 
rector pred spectan et pertinen et jacen infina pred paroch de pola GuibfeUd 
Mivod et Buttington in com nro Montgomery pred aue premissa pre except 
no8 nuper conoesserimus reverend in Christo patrib* WilTo £po Coventry et 
Litchfeild et Edro Epo St Asaph habend et tenend omn et singul pred domin 
castra maner messuag cottag boec subbosc terr prat pastur revercon mercat 
fier tolnet comun pastur et oia et sin^ al premiss premenconat cum pertinen 
except pre except prefat Willo comiti de Rochford hered et assign suis ad 
solum et proprium opus et usum pred Willi Comitis de Rochford hered et 
assign suor* impeipetuimi in tam amplis et beneficial modo et fibrma prout 

§ remiss pred et qudibet eor* respective nobis devenerunt vd de jure devenire 
ebuerint pro vd rac*one alte prodicon pred per prefat nuper Marchion de 
Powys comiss aut racone utlagat et attinatur supennde et Ulterius de amplior 
^*a n*ra 8pi*ali ac ex certa scientia et mero motu nro concessimus et assisna- 
sunns per presentes pro nobis heredib' et successorib* mis conceding et 
assignasimus prefat WiUo Comiti de Rochford executor administrator et 
assign suis tot ill messuag ac vigint acr terr decem acr prati et quadragint 
acr pastur cum pertinen sive plus sive minus in paroch de Lan^eo in com 
nro Montgomery pred dco die capcon inquisicon pred In possione Geoigii 
Wiirall et David Evans subtenen vd assignator* suor* pro termin nonagint et 
novem annor* adhunc ventur* dan annul valor in omnib* exitib* ultra repris 
tiigint et quinq* libr ac tot ill messuag et un molendin aquatic granatic decem 
acr terr quatuor acr prati et vigint acr pastur cum p^idnen sive dIus sive 
minus in paroch de Buttington pred in com nro Montgomery prea dco die 
capcon inquifucon pred vd nuper in possione Willi Thomas duran termin 
nonagint et novem annor* adhunc ventur et plenar complend et ffiniend si 
quidam Edrus Jinkes tam diu vixerit clari annul valor in omnib* exitib* ultra 
repris septem libr Habend et Tenend pred messuag terr molendin prat et 
pastur ult menconat cum pertinen prefat Willo Comiti de Rochford executor 
administrator et assign suis ad solum et proprium opus et usum prefat Willi 
Comitis de Rochfora executor ct assign suor* pro tot tant et tal termin et 


numer annor* quot quant et qiial faced nnper Marchio de Powya aut afiquis in 
ffiduda pro se posseas fiier vel fuit Beddend et Solvend pro omn et singul 
maner et premiss pred Nobis hered vel succor mis annual reddit siye sum 
tresdecim solid et octo denar legal Monet Ansl per Annu et omn tal al reddit 
et servic si aliqu Aier prout nobis solubil nier pro premiss aut aliqa eor| 
reqpectiTe ad tempus norisfactur eor*dem ut jurefertur ad recq)t Sccii nri 
hered Tel soooessor nror* Tel ad manus receptor general com nror* Northampton 
et Montgomery pro tempore existen ad usum nmm hered et successor* nror* 
ad ffestum Sti Michis Archi quolibet anno soWend imperpetum Deniq* 
Volumus ac per presentes pro nobis hered et suoceasor nris concedimus prefat 
Willo Comiti de Rochfora hered et aasi^ suis quod he Ire nre paten Tel 
ixrotulamen earundem sint et crint in ommbus et per omnia bone fixme Talide 
Buffidm et effectual in le^ erga et contra nos hered et successor uros tarn in 
omnib* cur nris quam alibi absq* aliquibus oonfirmaconib* licentiis yel toUeraoon 
de nobis hered Td successor nris per prefat Willum Comitem de RocMord 
hered Tel assign suos procurand ant obtinend Non Obstante male nominand 
Tel non nominand male redtand Tel non recitand pred Baron castr terr et al 
premiss per presentes ooncess seu menconat fore conoess ant alicuius partis tcI 
paroell eor*aem Td alicuius eor* £t Non Obstant non nominand male 
nominand Tel non recte nominand aliqu Till hamlett loc paroch Tel comitat in 
quo Tel in quibus premiss pred aut eor* ali<}nod Tel ali<]^ua existunt Tel existit 
£t Non Obstant aliquo defectu siTe aliqmb' defectib* m male nominand tcI 
non nominand aliqu tenen ffirmar* siTe occupator* premissor* aut eor* aHcmus 
Tel aliquor' Et Non Obstan aliquo Tariadone sen discrepanter inter has Iras 
nns patentes et alianod particular certificacon Tel superrision premissor* aut 
alicmus partes eor*aem antehac hct aut aliqu al defectu oontrarietat incerti- 
tudine sitc repugnantia in presentib* content aut aliqua al re causa Tel materia 
quacunq* in contrar inde uJlo modo non obstan In Cuius Bet testimoniu has 
Iras nras fieri fedmus patentes Teste meipso apud Westmonaster Ticesimo 
primo die Aprilis anno regni nri octaTo per breTe de priTato sigillo 


There are 48 lines on each skin except Skin 1 ; good eDgrared 
Portrait of W. III. ; etamp on each skin of 40 shillings; great seal 
(broken) in green wax. Endorsed on Skin 2 : — 

'' In Chancery. Shewn to Edmund Edye on his 
exafhon for ETan DaTies and ors defts suit of 
DaTid Hughes comptt 

" J. N. Danger 
" Exam 

The following is endorsed on Skin 1 : — 

" 21. Ap». 8. W. 3. 1696 P. no 7. 

Greenhill recital 7 skin 

Grant 15 skin 

* Grant begins 0^*^ skin to Wilto Comiti de Rochford. 




{Continued from p. 138.) 


The description and figure published in Bishop Gibson's 
edition of Camden's Sritannia^ from, as there is reason 
to believe, the communication of Edward Lhwyd, the 
antiquary, of an early inscribed stone on the top of the 
mountain north of Margam Abbey, led me some time ago 
to hunt for this interesting monument, when I traversed 
the mountain for several hours, in different directions, 
and met with many interesting British earthworks, which 
require careful investigation. I might, indeed, have lost 
my labour, had it not been for the information given by 
a passer-by ; for the stone itself had been thrown down, 
and no longer presents that striking mark for observa- 
tion which it must have done when erect.^ It stood near 
a small tumulus, or hillock, called in Welsh " Crug 
Diwlith," or the Dewless, a curiously singular appellation, 
as I learned from the late antiquary, Taliesin Williams, 
of Merthyr Tydfil, and was, when I visited it, lying 
amongst the stones still remaining of this tumulus. 

From the observation which I made of the locality, it 
seemed to me that the situation had been chosen with 
reference to the origin of the river Kenfig, as the rise of 
this little stream can be traced to a small morass close to 
the tumulus on which the stone is lying. 

The inscription upon this stone is one of the most 
interesting of those of the period to which it belongs, and 
of which so many are now known to exist in Wales. It 
is entirely in Roman capitals, with the exception of the 
h in the top line, the whole being in excellent preserva- 
tion, and is to be read thus (all the A's being turned 
upside down : — 

* See Archaologia CambrenM, vol. iv. New Series, p. 78, for some 
notes on the overthrow of this stone, accompanied by some elegant 
verses from an anonymous correspondent. 





TtM Uun LL^lhyioe. 



The inscription is thus rendered by Bishop Gibson, 
whose reading is adopted by Goagh, in his subsequent 
edition of the Britannia^ and all the more recent writers 
who have mentioned the stone, — 

** Bodvocus hie jacit, filius Catotis, Irni pronepus, 
etemali ve domav. i. e. etemali in domo/'^ 

Gibson adds the following explanations in support of 
his reading: — '*In old inscriptions we often find the 
letter V where we use O, as here, PRONEPVS for 
Pronepos. — {Vide Remes. Syntagma Inscript. p. 932.) 
In the last mentioned Work fp. 700) we nnd the 
Epitaph of one Boduacus dug up at Nismes in France ; 
wnereupon he tells us that tiie Koman Name Betulius 
was changed by the Gauls into Boduacus. But it may 
seem equally probable, if not more likely, since we also 
find Bodvoc here, that it was a Gaulish or British name 
& the name of the famous queen of the Iceni, Boadicea 
seems also to share in the same original. Sepulchres are 
in old inscriptions often called 'domus SBternae' but 

'setemales' [etemali' 
words I read ' eetema 

seems a barbarous word. The last 
i in domo,' for in that age sepulchres 
were called 'aetemales domus,' or rather ^setemse' (^lieines. 
p. 716), according to this dystich, — 

<< ' Docta lyrsB grata et ^estu formosa puella, 
Hie jacet esteraa Sabis humata dome' '' 

On examining the inscription, several peculiarities will 
be noticed, the first and most important of which is the 
Greek cross incised upon the truncated top of the stone, 
and continued by a thin line over the angle towards the 
inscription. That the cross is coeval with the latter I 

* Oibson tells as that it was the common opioion of the ignorant 
people of the district, that whoever happened to read the inscription 
on this stone would die soon after. 



have DO doubt, and hence I consider this stone as an 
indication that the deceased Bodvoc was a Christian.^ 

In the second place the stroke after the word BODVOC 
indicates the genitive termination BODVOCI, (of which 
multitudes of examples have already been given in our 
pages,) and requires the word corpus before the name, 
to complete the sense. In the same manner the hori- 
zontal stroke at the end of the inscription has been over- 
looked by Camden. This would cause the last line to 
be read VEDOMAVI. 

In the next place it will be seen that there are no 
spaces between the words, and therefore the division. of 
the second line adopted by Camden FILIUS CATOTIS, 
IRNI (PRONEPUS) is arbitrary. The names may 
equally be read CATOTI, SIRNI, even if the letters are 
not intended for a single name, or the double name of a 
single man ; this latter suggestion, indeed, arises from the 
circumstance, so unusual in these inscriptions, of making 
the genitive case precede its nominative in Imi pronepus, 
the reverse having been adopted in the immediately pre- 
ceding words, Filius Catotis. To adopt this suggestion, 
however, it will be necessary to look out for another 
genitive to the word Pronepus, and when we have such 
names as Vendomagli, or Venbyrari, on these stones, there 
seems nothing unreasonable in supposing that the last 
line in this inscription may indicate the name of a man, 
Vedomavus, to whom Bodvoc was pronepus. But the 
^'etemali domo*' of Gibson's explanation will probably 
be deemed to possess greater weight than my suggestion .^ 

As regards the date of this stone, Taliesin Williams, 
in a letter to me, considered it to be '* about a.d. 300, if 
not earlier." Considering, however, that the formula and 
the orthography are debased Roman, it may more pro- 

' When it is remembered that not one of all the hundreds of Roman 
inscriptions fonnd in England bears the slightest indication of Christi- 
anitj, the value of this, and some other Romano-British inscriptions 
of a Christian character, will be immediately evident 

* The name Etemi, apparently that of a man, occurs on one of the 
Caernarvonshire stones at Llannor. 


bably be towards the end of the fourth, or beginning of 
the nfth, century, that we may refer this stone. 

In addition to the observations on the name of Bod- 
yocus made by Gibson (copied above), I find, in Ruding's 
Plates of the Coinage of Great Britain^ two coins 
represented in the appendix to the British series, pi. 29, 
which are inscribed with the name BODVOC. In the 
larger (golden) of the two, (from the collection of Mr. 
Sharp,) the name occurs in large letters running across 
the middle of the plain field, the reverse bearing a rude 
representation of a rampant horse with a wheel between 
the legs ; the smaller one (silver), (from the collection of 
Mr. Dimsdale,) with a side face, occupying nearly the 
whole of the obverse, the name Bodvoc immediately in 
front of the profile, and the reverse with a rampant horse 
well drawn. These two coins are doubtfully referred to 
Boadicea, and in the descriptive text (vol. ii. p. 299) we 
read, — *' These coins are given to Boadicea, in compliance 
with general opinion ; but the propriety of the arrange- 
ment is very questionable. The letters cannot easily be 
reconciled with the usual spelling of the name, and the 
head on No. 2 is by no means feminine in its appearance. 
I rather incline to think them Gallic, and struck by 
BODVOGNATUS, who is mentioned by Caesar in the 
second book of the War in Gaul" The editor of the 
third edition adds, — " The style of this coin is Gaulish, 
but the name is not found in any of the Gaulish series. 
Until further evidence is acquired, the origin of this piece 
must remain doubtful." 

On referring to the general plates of British coins, we 
are immediately struck with the identity of the figure of 
the horse on the reverse of the larger gold coin with that 
of the same animal represented in the first four figures of 
gold coins in plate 1, the obverse of all of which is left 
blank. The editor of the third edition remarks, however, 
respecting these four coins, that their ^' origin is at present 
doubtful. Similar coins are discovered on the coast of 
France, and thev are more frequently found in that 
country than in England." As Mr. Sharp's gold Bodvoc 


agrees with the four coins with blank obyeraes figared 
in Ruding*s first plate, except in having the name Bodyoc 
impressed across the centre of the otherwise blank obverse, 
I see little difficulty in supposing that Bodvoc may have 
appropriated some of these gold coins, and impressed his 
own name upon them ; at all events the Margam stone 
supplies us with a genuine British Bodyoc, whose name 
is identical with that on the coins in question. 

J. 0. Wbstwood. 

Oxford, September, 1809. 



To the Editor of the Arckmohgia CambrentU. 

Rennes, 26th April, 1859. 

Sir, — Hy friend, H. de Keranflec'h, having lately put into my 
hands the last two Nombers of the ArcMBologia CafnJbrenriSf I hare 
read them with that interest and attention which their learned contents 
deserve. I cannot, however, I must confess, refrain from expressing 
mv astonishment at the nature of the discussion raised between Mr. 
Wrieht and Mr. Basil Jones, on the origin of the Bretons of Wales 
(or me Welsh). I sp^ more particulany of the January and April 
Numbers of 1859, which are bdbre me. 

As this discussion no less directlv concerns the origin of the conti- 
nental Bretons, a subject which has for some time occupied my 
attention, I think that tne ArchiBologta Cqmbrenm may be considered 
a proper medium for informing its learned readers in England what 
professed opinions are entertained on this subject by the majority of 
the Armoncan Bretons who have examined it It appears to me 
that if such literary intercommunications between the American and 
Cambrian Bretons are not undesirable, so especially on a subject 
which forms the basis of our history, and the foundation of this 
national fraternity, we should wish to recognize and discuss, as far as 
we are able, our mutual connection after a separation of thirteen or 
fourteen centuries. 

It is not, however, my intention to encroach upon your kindness by 
entering into this subject to its fiill extent, which might fill a volume. 
I shall confine myseff, therefore, in a few observations, to the general 
opinion held in our country. 

Mr. Wright sets out ftom this point, namely, that the similarities of 
language and manners still existing between the Welsh and the 
Bretons are too marked and too numerous to be satisfactorily explained, 
if we refer the final separation of the two nations to a penod anterior 
to the conquest of England by the Romans. 

On this point I quite agree with that gentieman. 

Mr. Wnght, in order to explain these similarities so marked and 
strikine;, proposes this dilemma,— either the Armorican peninsula has 
since the time of the Romans been colonized by natives fix>m England, 
or Wales by Bretons of Aimorica. I admit thb dilemma also ; but, 
instead of adopting, as Mr. Wrieht has done, the latter alternative, I 
maintain, and I am supported Dv the authority of all our azicient 
documents and traditions, as well as by all modern and mediaeval 
critics and historians, that our Armorican peninsula was colonized 
from the Isle of Britain. We have one proof in answer to all 
objections, and that is tiie very name which our country bears to this 
day, und which it first received towards the end of the fifth century. 


At the period of the Roman occapationy and even to what we maj 
call the drnidic epoch, this peninsula was a portion of Armorica 
occupied bj five tribes, Redones, Nannetes, veneti, Osismii, and 
Curiosolites. The names of Breton and Bretagne were absolutely 
here unknown, whibt thej at this very time, as we know, exclnsivelT 
distinguished the country and inhabitants of England by those appel- 
lations. But in the second half of the fifth century we find the name 
Breton first applied to the people of this peninsula, which, losing the 
appellation of Armorica, was <»Iled Bretagne, or La Petite Bretagne, 
or Bretagne Cismarine, in opposition to the Isle of Britain, known to 
this day as Oreat Britain. 

So instead of one Britanny we have two, and must conclude that 
the second, at least as to time, must have received from the older one 
sufficiently numerous and important colonies to have thus engrafted 
on itself the name of their mother country. 

At any rate we must account for the sudden imposition of the name 
of Britanny on the Armorican peninsula. Whence could it hare been 
derived except from the only country we find so named before the 
fifth century, that is, the Isle of Britain ? Whence has it come, if not 
firom important emigrations fi*om the island to the continent? I defy 
anyone to give any other satisfactory answer io this question. 

As regaras the striking resemblances mentioned by Mr. Wright 
between the Bretons of Wales and those of Armorica, that is to say 
between the Bretons of Oreat and Little Britanny, these resemblances 
arise simply from the fact that the little Britanny has received from 
the great one numerous emigrations, which conmienced about the 
second half of the fifth century. 

This, then, is what we Bretons of Armorica regard as an elementary 
truth, of which the name of Britanny, so dear to us, and so well known 
in our own country, appears to us an unanswerable proof. But, ac- 
cording to Mr. Wright s svstem, we are informed that the Armorican 
Oaub colonized part of Britain, and instead of giving their colony 
the name of their mother country, designated it by that of the country 
colonized by themselves. But is such a statement credible? We 
Bretons think such a fact impossible, because it never has yet been 
done, and the opposite to it is seen everywhere. 

Until Mr. Wright answers these objections, his system virtually falls 
to the ground, so that there will be no occasion to discuss in detail 
the arguments on which he appears to relv. The principal of these 
arguments rests entirely, if I am not mistaken, on an error of fact 

Mr. Wright has set up between the state of the Armoricanpenin- 
sula and that part of Oreat Britain which is represented by Wales a 
difference which in truth has never existed. With regard to Roman 
antiquities, we could apply to our peninsula what Mr. Wright says of 
Cambria. Roman roads traverse it in all directions ; all over it you 
find ruins of cities, villas, stations, and Roman camps,' all of which 

I Since the time when M. de Freminrille stated that the Bomans had never 
■et foot in L^on, and had occupied Lower Britanny only in a temporsiy 


most certainly attest the existence of a domination— the sway of the 
^' Romanes reram dominos'' — ^incompatible with the least degree of 
independence having been left to the native inhabitants. And indeed 
this pretended independence of Armoricay mentioned by Mr. Wri^hti 
had no existence previous to the year 409 ; not the least proof of tt is 
to be found in historical documents of those ages, or on the spot ; and 
I dd^ any one to produce any passage, any monument, of those times 
which proves that the insurrections of the Bagauds ever penetrated 
into that part of Grallic Armorica which is now represented by our 
province of Britanny. 

Mr. Wright brings forward the Hittory of France^ by M. Henri 
Martin; but this work, which certain persons in France praise on 
account of the author's s^le, and his democratic opinions, is a book 
very little to be depended on in any serious point of view, and the 
testimony of which can nevev be received instead of that of original 
authors, which again can never be produced because it does not exist. 
In point of fact, Armorica made itself independent of the empire in 
409 ; but the island of Britain had done just the same thing the same 
year. The condition, therefore, of these two countries was precisely 
the same, at whatever epoch it be considered. 

Mr. Wriffht seems to be labouring to find an epoch for the emigra- 
tions fi^m ike island to the continent. But it is not assigned in any 
more satis&ctory manner by tradition, or bv written documents. 
According to Oildas, Bede, and the Saxon (Aromcle, Hengist and 
Horsa were admitted into the island of Britain in 449 or 460. Five 
years after* began those hostilities between the insular Britons and the 
Saxons, which soon spread all over the land with fire and sword. It 
is about this moment that we ought to place the beginning of the 
emigrations from the island of Britain into Armorica ; and indeed we 
find in Graul, in 461, a certain Mamuetus Spiscopus Britonum 
present, and givine his si^ature at the First Council of Tours. In 
468 and 470 we observe, m like manner, on the testimony of Sidonius 
Apollinaris and Jomandes,' Britons setded on the banks of the Loire 
— ** Sritannoi nipra Liaerim ntos" according to Sidonius Apollinaris 
— and their King Riotnimus marching in rorce, as an ally of the 
empire, against Euric, King of the Wisiffoths. I confine myself to 
these current examples, and I subjoin this remark, which is of im- 
portance, — the emi^tion of the insular Britons into Armorica was 
not eflPected at one smgle time, nor by masses, but on the contrary little 
by little, and by successive bands generally not very considerable in 
number, but which, by dint of being often renewed and accumulated, 

manner, the labours of Breton arduBologiflts, at the head of iHiom M. Bixeol, 
of Blain, ought to be placed, have proYM on the most complete evidence that 
the Roman occupation was as complete in Britanny as in any part of Great 
Britain or GaaL 

* Vide Saxon Chronicle, anno 455. 

'Sidon. ApolL Epistolare, lib. i. 7, and m. 9; Jora. De Rebus Geticis 
cap. zlv. 


fiNmed al leneth a nameroiis popuIatioD. In fiiet, the oon^nest of 
Ghreaft Britain l^y the Saxons having been bat slowly progressive, the 
emigration canted by this conquest most also have been lon^ and 
saooessiye, the Angl<>>8azon conquests not having reached their last 
limits till about the end of the seventh oenturj. It was also up to 
this epooh that the British emigrations^ cominflr firom the island into 
Armorica) must have extended themselves, and thus they must have 
continued throughout nearly a century and a half. 

Without adverting to traditionary documents, two contemporary 
witnesses speak to us of these emimtions in explicit terms. One is 
Oildas,^ wnose words are too well known to render it necessary for 
me to quote them, and whose authority seems to me lushakable, 
notwithstanding the observations of Mr. Wright This gentleman, 
if my recollection does not mislead me,^ has maintained tbt the two 
works attributed to Gildas must have been the production of some 
forging and anonymous Anrio-Saxon monk of tne seventh century. 
But it is certain that, before Mr. Wright did so, nobody ever doubted 
the audienticity of the De JBmeidio, and that since the publication of 
his objections, nobody has doubted it a bit the more, in truth, too, 
all possible obiections of this kind, are thev not destroyed by the 
invaluable testimony of Bede? Bede, that learned man, who lived 
himself durins the seventh century, only a hundred and some years 
after Oildas, aoes not doubt for a single instant the authenticity and 
^e authority of the two works in question, the HiMtmia and the 
JS^nstola, of which the JDe JEsoeidio is composed, and which always 
and invariably have been attributed to Gildas. In my opinion there 
is no modern critic who can reasonably pretend to counterbalance in 
this matter the authority of Bade. 

The other contemporary witness of the British emigrations is the 
historian Prooopins, who wrote at Constantinople about die year 560. 
In the 20th chapter of the fourth book of his Higtory of ike Chtkie 
War$f he says,—'' The island of Britain is inhabited by three very 
populous nations, that is to say, by the Angles, the Prisons, (i. e. the 
Saxons, who were connected with the Prisons by dose ties of origin,) 
and the Britons, whose name is the same wiu that of the isbnd. 
And such appears to be the populousness of these nations, that each 
year (itya war ^60) they come out from thence in numbers, with 
their wives and children, and ^q to the Pranks (i* e. into Gkul), and 
the latter settie them to dwell in what are consiaered to be the most 
desert parts of their land, and fr^m this drcumstanoe th^ pretend to 
claim tne island for themselves." 

I have quoted this passage because it is littie known, and because it 
attests positively, in the sixth century, the existence of numerous 
emigratums coming each year out of the Island of Britain, and landing 
in Gaul. That ProcofMUS should have been in error as to the cause 
of this emigration need not occasion surprize, but it is impoesible 

* Gfldas, De Excidio BritaimiflD, capi 85. 
* Biographia Britannica litteraria, vd. i. tub voce Gildas. 


to suppose that he could have been deceived as to the fact itself. 
For in the lines immediately following the passage I have translated, 
he states that a short time before he wrote his Oothic WaVy a Prankish 
king having sent an embassy to Byzantium, had taken care to join to 
it some individuals of the nation of the Angles, as a proof of that 
supremacy, which the Franks rightly or wrongly pretended to over 
the Isle of Britain. We cannot doubt, therefore, that the passage 
quoted above was written on the strength of recitals made to the court 
of Byzantium by these Frankish ambassadors; and since Procopius 
occupied important stations for a long time at that court, he must have 
been as well placed as possible for getting these recitals at first hand. 
It is evident, therefore, that his testimonv cannot be impugned. 

To conclude, Sir, I will sum up in a few words the points I wish to 

(1.) The monumental vestiges of Roman domination are as nume- 
rous in the Armorican peninsula as in Wales. 

(2.) The Armorican peninsula remained subject to the Roman yoke 
as long as the Isle of Britain. 

(3.) The names of Britanny (Bretagne)^ and of Bretons, given 
ever since the fifth century to this peninsula and its inhabitants, can 
only be explained by the establishment of important colonies, which 
came from the Isle of Britain, and brought to the continent the name 
of their mother country. 

^4.) The existence of numerous emigrations of this kind in the 
fiftn and sixth centuries is proved by the testimony of the best con- 
temporary authors, and among others by Sidonius ApoUinaris, Gildas, 
and Procopius. 

Such, in a few words, are the reasons that induce me on this 
question to side altogether with Mr. Basil Jones, as opposed to Mr. 
Wright ; and I believe I can affirm that this opinion is snared here, in 
our own Britanny, by every one who has made a serious study of 
Breton antiquities, whether on this or on the other side of the water. 

I have the honour, &c., 

A. Db la Bordbrib, 
Secretary of the Breton ArchtBological Aeeociatum, 


To the Editor of the Archaohgia Cambrensis. 

Sir, — It would take more room than you can well spare if I gave 
all the reasons that induced me to assert that the Cornish agreed more 
with the Welsh than the Armoric. I may mention, however, that 
not only in the vocabulary, but in many idioms, and especially in the 
inflexion of the verbs, the agreement seems to me to be closer. In 
making the comparison, I do not confine myself to the Welsh of the 
present day, for, in consequence of its extensive cultivation, there is a 
considerable difference between many forms of expression now in use, 
and the earliest specimens of Welsh literature when the connection 



was necessarily closer. A few examples may be given in proof: a 
yery peculiar idiom occurs in the Cornish drama, where the verb 
BtthstantiTe with a pronoun is used to denote po ooooBi on, thuBi— wAy 
a'» bydh, <<yon shall have/'— O. 2686, D. 9075; m 'm bvdh, ''I 
have not,'' — O. 171, &c. Now this idiom does not exist in Armoric, 
or modem Welsh ; but refer to Lly warch H6n, and there you have it 
often. Owedy y parch a*m buai, ** after the respect I experienced/' 
78; brodyr a'm bwyad a dhug Dun rhagov, '^ brothers I have 
had whom God has taJcen from me," — ^96; brodyr d*m bwyad innau^ 
''brothers also have I had," — 100; thwiorydk a*m hu didhaUf 
''sisters I had who made me happy." Another peculiar idiom in 
Cornish is the turning of the prseterite tense into the prseterperfect by 
prefixing the particle re ; thus, — eottoif " lost ;" re gotlaSf " nas lost ;" 
cafee, re cafes; ti r^um hdhUf "thou hast deceived me," — O. 2S2; 
efr'um sirraSf " he has provoked me," — 0. 424. This again does not 
exist in Armoric, or modem Welsh, but was of constant uae in the 
time of Lly warch H6n. R'^ gorug vn vedhm vedh Tren, "the 
mead of Tren has made me mtoxicated, — 90 ; Rhodri mawr r*ym 
ttovee, " Rhodri the Gb-eat has endowed me ;" Ham r'ym dasrawd, 
" the step that has been decreed to me," — 90 ; Uam r^ym gaUae, " the 
step that hath befallen me," — 90. There are many illustrations to be 
found in the colloquial forms of Welsh used at the present day, which 
are little noticed by our erammarians. Amon^ the points of affi'^ee- 
ment between the Cornish and Armoric is the impersonal use of the 
active verb, as mt a ivra, H a tvra, ef a tvra, &c. ; but this is con- 
stantly used by the Welsh in common conversation, and occasionally 
bv the translators of the Bible, as Nid chm a*m hebrynaodh, Genesis 
xlv. 8 ; Os nyni a geidw ein hyder, Hebrews iii. 6 ; and in the Com- 
munion Service, Os m a'i cyn^mer vn anheUnmg, Dr. Davies is the 
only grammarian that I recollect having noticed it When I first 
wrote, I said that in some particulars the Cornish agreed more with 
the Armoric than the Welsh. One remarkable pecuharity is the total 
absence of the Welsh nasal mutation of initial consonants in Cornish 
and Armoric, and the presence of the mutation of initial consonants 
from sonants into surds, when b, 0, d become p, c, L This mutation 
does not exist in the initials of Welsh words, but is found in other 
positions, as in cyfelyb, " like ;" c^dypach, " more like ;" eyvoetkogf 
"rich;" cyvoethocachj "more nch; ynvyd^ ynvytach. Compare 
also gwypo from gmybod; dyco from dygyd; gaio from gadu. I 
have placed the agreements and discrepancies of the different dialects 
at full length in the Introduction to my Dictionary; and I only 
regret that Celtic philology obtains no greater support at the present 
day than in the days of Edward Llwyd, IfiO years ago. My adver- 
tisements for the last six months have not brought me the names of a 
dozen subscribers. — I remain, &;c., 

Rhydycroesau, Oswestry, Robert Wiluaks, M.A. 

August 24, 1869. 




To the Editor of the ArcJueologia CambrenHs. 

BiK, — One of your Correspondents some time ago, (Third Series, 
iv. p. 110^ adverting to the impossibility of Richard II. riding from 
Mifford Haven to Conwy in one night, suggests that the king may 
have landed at Barmouth, and thus that the Barkloughly Castle men- 
tioned by Shakspeare may have been that at Harlech. On referring 
to the French metrical account of the king's deposition, published by 
Mr. Webb in the Archaoloaia, 1 find that both the Editor, and Stow 
the old antiquary long berore him, interpret the expression in the 
poem, *^ au point de jour" not as the break of the day foUowioe the 
departure from Milford, but merely as ** at break of day" indefinitely, 
and that they consider it to state merely that the king arrived at 
Conwy in the morning — ^not at nieht. This interpi*etation is very 
fair, and, I think, s<Jves the difficulty in point of time ; but Shak- 
speare's misnomer of the castle still remains a poetical difficulty. The 
text of the whole passage is as follows : — 

** Ainfli passa le roy richart la mer Ainsi leroy sen ala sculement 

En poa de temps car lair fu bd et der, Lui quatoradesme celle nuit p*preine*t, 

£t le vent bon, qui le fist aniver Fort chevaacha desirant bnenrement 

Avant deux jours Trouyer le conte 

A Milleforde : — la ne fist pas sejours, De Salsebery, qui ne tenoit maiz conte 

Yea le meschief, lesplaintes etles plours De savie, pour le despit et honte 

Des povres gens et les mortels doulours Quil ot du due, q* ainsi tout surmonte 

Que ch*un ot. Qued part quil voise. 

hen savisa que sans dire nul mot Tant cnevaudi a le roy, sans faire noise 

8e partiroit a minuit de son ost, Qua Comuay, ou il a mainte ardoise 

A poa de gent, car pour rien il ne vot Bur les maisons, aniva, qui quen poise 

Estre apercus Au point du jour.*' 

— Archccdogia xx, p. 321. 

I remain &c., An Antiquary. 


To the Editor of the Archaologia Cambrensis. 

SiRy — ^The following pedigree has been forwarded me since the 
publication of the April Number of the Journal, as an authentic ' 
family record : — 

Richard P6Ddrilla9!;Anii Griffin of MonmoathBhlre. 
of Rofls I 

John Thomas PeDdriU^Frances, only child of James Philllpps, of Painswick, co. 
of Rosa Oloacaster, by his wlfb Mary Herbert 

Frances PendrlllsfsCharles Stonor Bodenham, Anne Pendrill, d. 

eldest daughter and co- 
hair, bom at Roes 1 791 , m. 
1768, died 1803, b. at Ro- 
therwaa, fBt. 72 

of Rotherwas, co. Hereford, b. unmarried, 1805, 

1718, d. 1764, bar. at Rother- b. at Rotherwas 

was, »t. 52 

Charles Bodenham, bom at Hereford 1750, m. 1784. 

ThomM of AbcrdylulB i 1758 
died 1783 


Theae aro the two ibten alluded to at p. 93 of '< The Boscobel 
Tracts/' as deaoendanta of the original Richard^ but there can be 
bat little doubt of their descent from the original John* 

Prom the pedigree at p, 118^ of this volume, it will be seen that 


ThomM ^ 1779 
born 1763, died 1816 

Two of the sarviving nieces of this last named Thomas inform me 
that their uncle and the above Charles Bodenham were cousins, (thej 
understanding ** first cousins,") and that these two young men were 
sent abroad for their education at the expense of the latter's father, 
but that a quarrel arising between them, Thomas of Aberdylais had 
eventually to pay for his son's proportion. 

On reference to the Aberdylais and Ross pedigrees, (their srand* 
father's name,) it will appear that Thomas of Aberdylais and Canoes 
(Bodenham) could not nave been brother and sister, the only way of 
making their children ** first cousins." 

I can therefore only suggest, in absence of proof, the following, as 
the most probable connexion, and would observe that the Aberdylais 
family, generally, adopted PendrtU. 

John (orlginel). See p. 116. 



r 1 1 

John Richardafs Thomi 

of Ron I the third eon of Charlee I 

John Thome»^ Thomas of Aberdjleie>^ Dorothy 

SuMex pensioDere ? | ' j- — ^ 

France^i^ Thomae< 

Charles Bodenham^ 

That is, Richard (second son of Charles, 1715 pedigree) was probably 
Richard of Roes, and Thomas (third son, 1715 pedigree) was pro- 
bably the third son in 1783 letter. 

Further, it appears that Thomas of Aberdylais had a sister Dorothy, 
who died in a convent abroad, and improbable that John Thomas and 
Thomas were brothers. — I remain, &c., R. P. 

To the Editor of the ArchtBologia Cambrmmt. 

Sir, — Can you inform me whether there is any history of the 
translator of the Welsh New Testament extant, and what is known 
about him ? 

In Stryfie's Life of Oranmer I find this passage: — *^ This Bishop 

^ p. 119, Mary is a oiispriut for MargS (Harrisson.) 
^ The fellow-studouts and (supposed firat) cousins. 


(Davies of St David's) was now very busy in translating the Bible 
into Welsh, together with William Salisbury, Bishop of Man, a man 
very learned in British antiquities." 

Again, — ** The Archbishop sent a manuscript of very great anti- 
quity to Da vies, Bishop of S. David's, praying him to shew it to Mr. 
Salisbury, who sojourned then with the Bishop of S. David's, and to 
confer with him about it, because he had heard he was a great searcher 
after antiquities. Salisbury wrote to the Bishop," &c., a long answer. 

These passages in Life of Parker, Book iii., Chaps, vi. and vii., 
probably refer to William Salisbury, the translator of the New Testa- 
ment ; but was he ever Bishop of Man ? What is known of him ? 

But there are several notices of John Salisbury in Strype. In his 
Annah of the JRtformation, Chap, zxviii., amonest the names of 
mepabers of the Lower House of Convocation who signed the Articles 
is " Johannes Salisbury Decan. Norwic." This was a.d. 15G2 } but 
in 1573 " the Deanry of Norwich was now vacant." — Life of Parker, 
Book iv.. Chap. 32. 

Again, in the Life of Arckbithop Ortndal, Book ii., Chap, ii., we 
read, — ^* Thomas Stanley, the last Incumbent of the Bishopric of 
Sodor or the See of Man, being dead, the Earl of Darby, in the year 
1570, nominated and presented according to the custom, by letters to 
the Queen, John Salisbury to succeed in the said See, who was late 
Sufiiftgan Bishop of Thetford, and now Dean of the Cathedral Church 
of Norwich. Tnereupon the Queen sent her letters to the Arch- 
bishop of York Sep. 29, and accordingly he confirmed him April 7. 

Of the same date in the Life of Parker, Book ly., Chap, vi., is 
the following : — '^ Dr. Whiteift — ^for his learning and opposing the 
Puritan Cartwright was well known to the Archbishop; who to 
encourage him gave him a Dispensation (t. e, to hold preferment). 
The like favour of Dispensation was granted by the Archbishop to 
John, Bishop of Sodor, or Man, who held therewith the Deanry 
of Norwich, the Rectory of Thorpe super Montem in the Diocese of 
Lincoln, and Dys in the Diocese of Norwich, and lastly the Arch- 
deaconry of Anglesey." 

What more is known of this Bishop of Sodor or Man ? 

I remain, &c., Investioatob. 


To the Editor of the Arcfueologia Cambreneis. 

Sir, — Among the several measures recommended by you for the 
benefit of our Cambrian Archseological Association which have been 
inserted in the Journal, it has lately struck me that one is wanting, of 
great importance, which I now beg to suggest for adoption ; and I 
think it is likely to give general satisfaction to all subscribing members. 

The want of access to references upon subjects of antiquity, as well 
as those of historical record, is often felt by active members of the 


Association, and a good library of books to belong wholly to them, 
and to be placed in a convenient and safe locality for reference, would 
no doabt prove a most desirable boon. 

I propose that such a library should be kept within the precincts of 
oar cathedral of St. David's, and the same might be extended to oar 
other Welsh cathedrak. I have very little doabt bat that oar worthy 

Gtron, the Bishop of St. David's, would be inclined to the utmost of 
ipower and recommendation to promote so desirable an object. 

These books mieht form a collateral library with those records 
belonging to the cathedral, many of which, collected by the late worthy 
Archdeacon Payne, are upon subjects of antiquarian importance, and 
in which, at the time they were brought together, I took a con- 
siderable interest. I believe these are now under the care of the 
resident precentor and canons ; and ours might, under permission, be 
consigned to the same custody. 

Access to such documents should only be permitted under certain 
regulations to subscribing or honorary members of our Aasodation, 
and a code of rules, drawn up at the time when the library is estab- 
lished, should be framed and circulated among the Association. This 
would, in my opinion, prove the most efficient and least expensive 
plan; and to render it more feasible, it should be intimated that 
donations of such books as would form useful additions to the pro- 
posed collection would be thankfully received both from the members 
of the Association and from the public generally. The name of each 
contributor should be inscribed m our Journal, as well as in the pro- 
posed library ; and any poat obit legacies bearing upon the question 
ou^ht to receive every attention. For my individual part, I would 
willingly consi^ a portion of my little antiquarian collection to this 
purpose, knowing that in future it would be preserved with care. 

In the short essay read at Cardignm, upon the several modes of 
burial among our Celtic ancestors, I have touched upon an allied 
subject, namely, the want of a museum of the underground relics 
found in the cameddau and tumuli of Wales, similar to that which the 
late Sir R. C. Hoare formed at Heytsbury, in Wiltshire, being the 
result of his long and indefatigable researches amone the numerous 
tumuli of that interesting county. I accompanied the hite worthy 
baronet, at an early penod of my life, in many of his excursions, 
particularly at Stonehenge, around which there are extensive groups 
of these very early cemeteries ; and this circumstance proved of con- 
siderable use to me afterwards during such sepulchral investigations in 
Wales. A collection of this kind, if properly arranged, would be of 
important use to the members of our Association, and become a useful 
auxiliary in connection with the library I have proposed, particularly 
to future members possessed of activity and research. Hoping you 
will give my suggestions your concurrent approbation and assistance, 
I remain, &c., John Fbntok. 

Bodmor, near GlynymSI, Fishguard, 
1st September, 1859. 



To the Editor of the Archaoloffia Cambrensii. 

Sir, — The attention of oar Association has been very properly 
called at different times to the demolition of ancient ecclesiastical 
buildings, especially churches, under the plea of erecting larger or 
more suitable edifices, or of other kinds of improyement. It is well 
known that, in many parts of Wales, some of the most egregious 
pieces of folly and extravagance have been committed under pretexts 
of this kind ; but of late years architects have shown a more enlight- 
ened judgment in matters of this kind ; and I could point out several 
gentlemen in that most honourable profession who are members of our 
Association, and who have greatly distinguished themselves by their 
judicious restorations. I need do no more than cite the cases of 
Clynnog Collegiate Church, in Caernarvonshire, and Llandaff Cathe- 
dral, in Glamorganshire, to show what may be done by the combina- 
tion of sound judgment and professional taste. 

Still it is a painful fact that many old buildrnss, and parts of old 
buildings, are being continually destroyed in Wales, without any 
paramount necessity. Churches may oflen be ** restored*' in the 
proper, not the improper and more currently received, sense of the 
word, without demolition ; parts of them may be preserved ; repairs 
may do instead of new erections ; and many an old church may stand, 
renovated, and, I am free to confess, improved, after passing through 
the hands of a judicious architect, without being totally replaced by a 
new one, to which none of the sympathies engendered by antiquity 
and immemorial association can ever attach themselves. On the 
other hand, there are certain classes of churches which have been so 
fearfully mutilated during the last century, and the early part of the 
present, or which are altogether so inadequate to the requirements of 
a growing population, that re-edification becomes with them almost a 
matter of stern necessity. Such, for instance, are many churches in 
Pembrokeshire, Caermarthenshire, and Anglesey ; I do not specify any 
— ^for a very good reason, — but such there are. Even in cases of this 
kind, however, the considerate architect will hesitate ere he touches a 
building unadvisedly ; and, in more instances than he could oreviously 
suppose, he will find the possibility of preserving what, at nrst sight, 
he might have doomed to removal. 

I think that it is the duty of all archseologists, and especially of an 
association such as our own, to disseminate sound opinions on matters 
of this kind, and to give advice to the country clergy and gentry who, 
though they have to pay dearly for the want of them, are commonly 
very scantily imbued with the most ordinary principles of architec- 
tural construction. 

We have had, indeed, such a lamentable display of ignorance on 
subjects of this kind lately proclaimed by a member of the legislature, 
who unfortunately possesses the temporary power of spoiling a good 
work, that we cannot be surprized at finding similar and darker 


ignorance spread throughout many classes of men not so highlj 
placed as himself. 

My object in writing now is to point out three instances of demoli- 
tiouy in which reparations and additions were all that the cases 
required ; and I thmk that the Local Secretaries of our Association, in 
their several districts, should be required to obtain and communicate, 
at our next Annual Meeting, some more precise information and ex- 
planations about them than have at present transpired throughout 
somewhat circuitous channels. 

At Llanddewi Brefi, in Cardiganshire, a double-aisled church has 
been turned into a square conventicle-shaped room, without any neces- 

At Yspytty Evan, in Denbighshire, and at Penmachno, in Caer- 
narvonshire, the churches have been either totally taken down, or are 
in process of it. In the former of these cases the eastern gable, with 
its large window characteristic of the locality, might very well have 
been preserved. In this church we hope that the recumbent monu- 
mental figures, and the brass, will have been preserved, and will be 
suitably placed in the new one. 

I should be glad to find that the Association had received informa- 
tion of the insurmountable necessity that occasioned the demolitions 
and alterations in question ; but, in the meantime, I think that public 
attention ought to be called to the subject We have so many 
instances of what havoc ill advised church building zeal, and parochial 
parsimony, have effected in former days, that we cannot but feel ap- 
prehensive of fresh damage whenever we hear of a ** restoration,'' even 
in these latter days of very partial and limited architectural enlighten- 

As for Church Building Societies, whether metropolitan or provin- 
cial, they will allow any abomination to pass them : no public bodies 
are more afflicted with the spirit of official routine and joint irrespon- 
sibility than they are : and for this very reason I never have, and 
never will, subscribe to, or join, any of them. 

I hope this subject will call forth remarks from some of our pro- 
fessional members in your next Number. — I remain, &c.. 

An Old Member. 
. September 2, 1850. 



To the Editor of the Archtsologia Cambrensis. 

Sir, — Several years ago some members of our Association, myself 
among them, visited that portion of the Roman road leading from 
Llanvair ar y bryn to Llanio, where it passes over the hills to the 
north-east of Lampeter, and descends to the valley of the Teivy. 
We found it in good condition, easily traceable, paved, slightly raised 
above the adjoining ground, and uniformly 20 feet broad. It was 


part of the Sarn Helen, leading up from Neath (Nibvm) to Tommen 
y Mur (Hbriri xons) and Caeroun (Conoyivm). 

I am jast informed that, by order of the Lampeter bench of magi- 
strates, this portion of the Roman road has been totally destroy^i 
broken np, and converted into a common road. The hardness of the 
ancient road was quite a cause of surprize when it came to be broken 

If true, this statement constitutes such a piece of Vandalism that the 
names of the parties concerned in it ought to be published. I hope, 
however, that through the medium of our Journal some explanation 
may be elicited ; for, if my information is correct, two of tne magi* 
strates in question are members of our Association. I hope that our 
Local Secretaries, and I may add Mr. Johnes, of Dolaucothy, will 
make inquiries about it. — I remain, &;c., 

September 1, 186B. An Antiquary. 

To the Editor of the Arckmologia Camibrentu* 

Sir, — I hardly know whether it is worth while to intrude on the 

Savity of your pages with allusions to a subject started by some of 
e more illiterate among our fellow-countrymen not long ago; but, 
having observed in print a suggestion as to the propriety of publishing 
a Ust of such persons as have proved themselves '' traitors," as the 
term goes, to the last of the several phases of traditionary belief among 
the C^mry, I send you a list of the more prominent names of persons 
of this description. I cannot but remark that, in this our day, 
'' treason" of the kind alluded to assumes so bold a front that vigorous 
measures must be taken by its opponents to hinder its progress, or else 
we shall all have to alter and renew our notions of Cambrian history ; 
stump-oratory will be deprived of some of its most valuable and 
succMful claptraps ; and the nation itself will have to content itself 
with an honourable and rational account of its past existence. 
The list of the principal ^* traitors" is as follows : — 

1. Meurig Dayydd, of Glamor^ (1500-1600), for asserting that 
the Gospel was brought hither by the Apostle Paul, whereas he should 
have had prescience enough to see that after his dav the legend of 
Bran ap Llyr would be invented, and would become the authoritative 
belief. — Cyvrinach y Beirdd, p. 31. 

2. Lly welyn Sion (1601), for a similar want of prescience, and for 
believing that the Gospel was brought hither by Joseph of Arimathea. 
^^Cyvrtnachy Beirddf p. 8. 

3. George Owen Harnr, for asserting cromlechs to have been graves. 

4. Thomas Pennant, for the same offence. 

5. Edward Lhuyd, for asserting that the Gkiel occupied this country 
before the Cymiy. 

6. The Rev. £d. Davies, for denying the antiquity of the bardism 
of Glamorgan. 



7. lolo Morganwgy for denyine that there ever was a Brut TtfMiUio. 

8. The Rev. Thomas Price, for asserting that the pretensions of 
the chair of Glamorgan can on no account be received. — Sanes 
CymrUf p. 42. 

0. Rev. Walter Davies, for denying that Prince Madoc ever went 
to America. 

10. Professor Rees, for denying any historical foundation to the 
Bran ap Llyr legend. 

11. Kev. John Williams (ab Ithel), for denying the truth of the 
Trojan legend. 

12. Rev. W. Basil Jones, for having written Vestiges of the Oad 
in Choynedd. 

13. Mr. Anenrin Owen, for having denied the antiquity of the laws 
of Dyvnwal. 

14. Archdeacon Williams, for insinuating the paganism of the 
hardic chair. 

15. And that arch-heretic Mr. Thomas Stephens, for having 
adopted nearly all the heresies of his predecessors, with I know not 
how manv more ; and especially for having abandoned his qualified 
belief in tne Triads, on the ground that, after seven years of incessant 
researches into the sources of Cambrian History, he found them to be 
neither old nor trustworthy. 

All these men, it is true, were thoroughly conscientious in their 
belief, and laboured under the delusion that thev were doing their 
country a real and important service in unveiling its true history, and 
in pavine the way for such a reconstruction of its annals as should 
command the respect of the literary world, instead of exciting its 
ridicule ; and might be accepted as an authentic, integral, and honour- 
able portion of the history of Europe. Moreover, they seem to have 
had a most obstinate love of something they call Truth : and in their 
simplicity to have believed that history should not be an illusion, and 
that patriotism should have some more enduring foundation than a 
series of demonstrable untruths. — I remain, &C, 


To the Editor of the Archmohgia CambrennB* 

Sir, — Perhaps some of your readers may be able to throw light 
upon a fact which possibly may bear reference to some disputed points 
of Welsh historv. 

In the parish of Llanwenog, Cardiganshire, (a few miles from 
Lampeter,; there is a colony of people who are looked upon by 
their Welsh neighbours as a distinct race, and are called by them 
** Gwyddyl," — Irish. They are almost exclusively confined to a 
tract of country about four miles long, on the banks of the Tivy. They 
are chiefly farmers' families, and have been on the fanns thev now 
hold from immemorial times. From their marked physical charao- 


teristicsy they could be picked out, at a glance, in a crowd of their 
Welsh neiebboun : black hair, and dark eyes, in which a fierce rest- 
lessness of expression reminds one of the look of a wild animal, 
brilliant teeth, and the high features, and clear red-and-white com- 
plexion sometimes seen in Italian faces, mark them decidedly as a 
distinct race. They are generally large and powerful men, with a 
look of restless energy about them, which is very striking in contrast 
to the usual apathetic, spiritless bearing of the Welsh, at all events of 
the middle-affed and harder-worked amongst them. These Owyddyl 
are famous for ** wild blood ;" they are an impetuous but warm- 
hearted race ; they are much intermarried amongst themselves, and 
seem quite to acquiesce in their comparative isolation as a distinct 
people. The tradition of '' the Gwyadyl " is so general in Wales, 
that the existence of these people, still bearing the name amongst their 
neighbours, may he a new and interesting &ct to some of your readers. 

I remam, &c., D. J. 

Gwynfryn, 18th Sept., 1850. 


To the Editor of the Archaologia Catnbrensis, 

Sir, — In your Eighteenth Number a correspondent speaks of vases 
used for acoustic purposes in Breton Churches, &c. I observe in the 
I^antactiofu of tne Kilkenny Archseolosical Society for 1854-5 an 
account of similar vases discovered in St. Mary's Church, at Youghal. 
They were imbedded in the choir, and were of various shapes, the 
largest measuring 11} by 15 J inches, and were placed behind per- 
forated pieces of freestone, about 25 feet from the ground. A plate 
of them is given in this Volume of the Transactions; and in the same 
plate are represented four pipes, called ^' old Irish Dudeens," found 
m a cutting made round the choir of the same church ; but I fancy 
that these narcotic contrivances are long posterior in date to the 
acoustic ones. It is stated in the essay accompanying this plate that 
other acoustic vases have been discovered in Fountains Abbey, York- 
shire, and that vessels of a similar character were found in a line in 
the masonry under the stalls of St Peter Mancrofl Church, at Norwich. 
We may hear of other instances, perhaps, from some of your corres- 
pondents. — I remain, &c.. An Antiquary. 


To the Editor of the ArchBologia Camhrensis. 

Sir, — I observe, in a late Number of the Archmological Jotimal, a 
note appended to the interesting paper of Mr. Dunoyer, on Early 
Irish Buildings, &c., at Fahan, in Kerry, a subject, by the way, briefly 
bnt well treated of in Wilde's Catalogue of the Museum of the Royal 
Irish Academy. This note, which I here transcribe textually, contains 


statements so extraordinary, and, as I oonoeivei so damaging to the 
scientific reputation of the two archtsolo^ts who seem to be its 
parents, that I conceive myself to be doing them a service by thns 
calling their attention to it, with the hope that on second thoughtB 
they may withdraw it. I need not stop to add that anybody rodly 
acquainted with Welsh MSS., and with Early Welsh remains, will at 
once perceive its utter absurdity. The note is as follows : — 

^ The Rev. CharieB Graves, D.D., infi)nned me, during the meeting of the 
British Association in Dublin, in 1857, that he was acquainted with a Welsh 
poem of undoubted antiquity and authenticity, wherein was given a description 
of the eariiest stone houses erected in Wales. It was statra that in the time 
of Caractacus the Welsh cut down all their great forests in order to jrender 
their country less tenable to the invadine Romans ; and, as they had hitherto 
eonstructed their houses of wood, when this timber failed them, they adopted 
the Irish form of stone houses, that of the bee hive, constructed of dry 
masoniy, a mode of buildinghitherto unknown in Wales. This interesting 
record fixes the date of the W elsh dogfaauns, and affords us strong evidence 
of th e ant iquity of that fonn of house in Ireland.''--wircAcEO%»caZ Joumaly 
Na LYIL, p. 22, note. 

I remain, &c.. An Antiquary. 

May 2, 1860. 

Ircliffilngual Miin ui ^ntxin. 

Note 45. — Rbdbtonb, kbar Narbbrth. — Just where the torn- 
pike-road from Narberth to the railway station branches off east and 
west, about half a mile from the town, used to stand a tall, thin slab 
of red stone — of the old red sandstone formation — in a pond, by a 
&rm-hou8e. It was outside the wall of this farm ', and from givine its 
name to the spot it may have been an ancient boundary mark. The 
house has been recently rebuilt ; the wall also ; and the stone has been 
removed from its original position, and incrusted in the wall to the 
eastward of the gate. There it may still be seen, and from its size 
and peculiar red colour will be sure to attract notice. It is worth while 
noting its position, on account of the name of the spot. J. 

Query 90. — Alban Thomas. — In my edition of Baxter's Ohe- 
earium, London, 1719, I observe the following advertisement on a 
leaf just before p. 1 : — 

^' There is preparing for the press a collection of writing in the Welsh 
tongue, to the beginnme of the sixteenth centuiy, to be pnnted in several 
volumes in octavo ; each volume to consist of about twenty sheets, at five 
shillings a volume in the small paper, and ten shillings in the larse; one 
mmety to be paid at the time of subscribing, and the remainder men the 


oopies are deliyer'cL Propoeab at larae are deliver*d and sobscriptioiiB taken 
in by Mr. Alban Thomas at the BoyS. Sode^'s House in Crane Court Fleet 
Street; and by Meaar** Williiun and John Innys, Booksellers in S. Paul's 
Churchyard London. 
'*N.B. No more copies will be printed than are subscribed for.** 

My query is, — was such a work eyer published ? if not, where are the 
MSS. of the author ? J. 

Q. 91. — J. Brinkbr, Esq.| Caernarvon. — I observe in the 
Journals of the House of Commons, under date of ** Die Veneris i. 
Jan 1640/' (the difference of style in reckoning time must be borne 
in mind,) the following entry: — ^'^ James Brinker Esquire High 
Sheriff of the County of Carnarvon summoned by the House for not 
returning a Knight and a Biirgess for county and town of Carnarvon." 
Can any member throw light on the cause of this non-election ? 

An Antiquary. 

Q. 02. — Parktbulwark, Cabrmarthen; — Can any member at 
Caermarthen state whether the two fields called Parkybuiwark Vawr 
and Parkybuiwark Yach derive their names from the outworks thrown 
up in the time of Cromwell, or from the mediaeval fortifications ? A 
good map of old Caermarthen is much wanted. A Member. 

Miittiiunu jlntim. 

Llanfaes Church, Brecon. — ^The ancient church of St. David, 
in a suburb of Brecon, which for some years past had remained in a 
ruinous condition, has just been rebuilt by the parishioners, aided by 
a subscription list and public grants. The new church is in the style 
of the fourteenth century, and consists of a nave and chancel, with a 
tower surmounted by a spire at the west end. 

Otstermouth Church, Swansea. — It gives us great satisfaction 
to learn that the repairs of this church have been intrusted to R. K. 
Penson, Esq., a circumstance from which we anticipate a thoroughly 
grood archaeological result. 

Pbnmachno and Yspttty Evan Churches.— We are informed 
that these churches have recently been pulled down and rebuilt ; and 
we call attention to a letter on the subject, addressed to us by a corre* 
spondent in this Number of our Jourual. 

Llanddewi Brefi Church. — This church has been almost 
entirely pulled down not long ago, and a square kind of room, as we 
are informed, erected instead. The subject is alluded to by a corre* 
spondent in a letter mentioned above. 

Early Inscribed Stones and Crosses.— During and since the 
Cardigan Meeting of the Association, five early inscribed stones, and 


four early crosses^ all hitherto unknowny have been discovered in 
North Pembrokeshire and Caennarthenshire. They will all be 
described and illustrated in the Journal in the course of next year. 

Rbadt's Welsh Seals. — ^The collection of '' seals connected with 
Wales/' formed by Mr. Ready, and executed in gutta percha, coloured, 
now comprises 271 specimens. A copy of it is in the Swansea 
Museum, and another m that at Caernarvon. The price of the whole 
collection is six guineas. 

Guide to Penxaen Mawr (Humphreys, Caemanron, 1859). — 
This is a very useful little book, giving not onlv the topography and 
botany of the mountain and its neigni>ourhooa with a good deal of 
detail, but also the archaeology of the district. It is m this latter 
respect that the work comes imder our notice ; and we are glad to 
observe that the authoress Tas it is published anonvmously, we shall 
only say that we understana it to be written by a lady living on the 
skirts of the mountain^ has devoted much time to examining and 
describing the early British remains on the summit of Penmaen 
Mawr, and on the moors behind it. In particular, the authoress has 
succeeded in identifying the Maen y C7an»ptiaii, a stone circle, men- 
tioned by Pennant, but which escaped the notice of those members of 
our Association who recorded their visit in the First Volume of the 
ArduBohgia Cambrenm, When the Association meets at Bangor 
next year, this book will, we hope, makes its way into the hands of 
many members, for they will find it of no small assistance in exploring 
that interesting district. 

CoRKiSH DiCTioKART. — ^Thc OerkvoT Cemewac is now ready for 
the press. It constitutes a complete dictionary of the Cornish dialect of 
the Cymraeg, or Ancient Britisn languaee, in which the words are eluci- 
dated by numerous examples from Cornish works now remaining, with 
translations in English. The synonyms are given in the cognate dialects 
of Welsh, Armonc, Irish, Gaelic, and Manx, showing at one view the 
connexion between the different dialects, and form a Celtic lexicon. 
A copious comparative grammar is prefixed, and a dissertation on the 
connection of the Celtic with the other languages of Europe. The 
author is the Rev. Robert Williams, M.A., Christ Church, Oxford, 
Incumbent of Llangadwaladr, and Rhydycroesau, Oswestry. This 
work is the first attempt towards collecting and preserving all that 
now remains of the ancient language of Cornwall, which is supposed 
to have been that dialect of the CeTto-British which was once spoken 
throughout the central and southern divisions of England by the 
original inhabitants, who ultimately coalesced with the Anglo-Saxons ; 
an event which has in a considerable degree influenced the formation 
of the English language. This is also the first time that the six Celtic 
dialects have been carefully examined and analyzed, and the result is 
no less curious than interesting. Proofs will be given of — I. Welsh, 
or the Ancient British, having been the original language of Britain, 
and spoken in Scotland. 2. Also the original language of Ireland ; 
from which, by the immigration of the Teutonic Belgss, and Scoti, 


was formed the Irish language. 3. The Welsh of Scotland extirpated 
by the invasion and settlement of the Irish. 4. Welsh and its dialects 
of Cornish and Armoric identified with the ancient Celtic or Graulish. 
5. The Picts not Welsh. It will be published in three parts, price 
150. each, to form one volume 4to ; but it will be delivered at lOs. 6d. 
each part to those who forward their names before printing the first 
part, which will be put to press as soon as 250 copies are subscribed 
for. £ighty more names are now required, and those who are inclined 
to patronize the undertaking are requested to forward their names at 
their earliest convenience to the editor, at Rhydycroesau, Oswestry. 

The Public Records. — ^The Twentieth Annual Report on Public 
Records (May 9, 1859) has been published as a blue book of 200 
pages. The authors of the report insist on the value and importance 
of our public archives. Those of France (the most complete in 
continental Europe) ascend no higher than the reign of St. Louis, or 
Louis IX., who flourished in the thirteenth century, and, compared 
with ours, are ** stilted and jejune ;" whereas in England, taking up 
our title from Domesday, the documents now placed, or hereafter to 
be placed, under the care of the Master of the Rolls, contain what 
the French call mhnaires pour servir — that is to say, the whole of the 
materials necessary for the history of this countiy in evenr branch, and 
under every aspect, civil, religious, political, social, moral, or material, 
from the Norman Conquest (1066) to the present day, a period of 
nearly 800 years. Chasms, or hiatus^ — ** much to be deplored," — 
there certainly are ; but the only one of importance is that intervening 
between Domesday and the Great Rolls of the Exchequer — viz., from 
1088 to 1130; and, inasmuch as in the reign of Henir II. (1164- 
1189) we have authentic testimony that no documents of the reign of 
the Conqueror, except Domesday, existed, it is most probable that 
none were ever framed. With respect to subsequent periods, the place 
of lost or non-existent documents is generally supplied by others 
affording information nearly equivalent ''It is needless to state,'' 
adds the report, '' that the public records, accompanied by the state 
papers and government arcnives, now united to the Department of 
the Public ^cords, constitute the backbone of our civil, ecclesiastical, 
and political history ; but their value is equally CTeat for the investi- 
gation of those special and collateral subjects, without which the mere 
knowledge of public or political affairs affords but a small portion of 
the information needed tor elucidating the march of history, and the 
mutations and progress of society. The real history of the Courts of 
Common Law and Equity, nay, of every branch of iurisprudence, 
awaits a competent inquiry ; and, so far as respects their earlier eras, 
the standard work first placed, or which used to be first placed in the 
hands of the legal student, is a congeries of errors, equally with 
respect to our ecclesiastical, our political, and our legal institutions." 
The statistics of the kingdom, in eY&ry branch, can from these sources 
be investigated with singular satisfaction and accuracy. The *' Minute 
Books" up to 1800 are especially interesting. 




Esq., M.P., and T. Wakkhan, Esq. Printed for the Mon- 
mouthshire and Caerieon Antiqoarian Aaaociation. Newport. 


This publication emanates from the pens of two of our most distin- 

Eished members, and is illustrated by the pencil of a thirds J. E. 
e, Esq. We need saj little more to recommend it to aU our 
members than to point out that it is one of the publications of our 
sister association at Caerleon. The remains noticed are those of certain 
small chapels, &c., in ruins, on the Severn shore of Monmouthshire, 
almost unknown from their small size and their remoteness. The 
places referred to are the following: — Runston, Sudbrook, Dinham 
and Llanbedr. We advise any of our members who may be strolling 
through a county, every acre of which deserves to be visited by the 
antiquary and the artist, to go to those localities with this excellent 
account in hand. Our space forbids us to make more than one 
extract, and this we select from the notice of Sudbrook, a place of no 
small interest, as bearing on the notions we are gradually collecting 
as to a Cambria Romana. 

^*The ntuation of this cnrioTis and interesting Church, or Chapel as it is 
usually called, is the foss of an ancient encampment, (the high bank of which 
rises immediately to the west of it,^ upon the very brink of a cliff overhanging 
the Bristol Channel, and half-a-nule from the nearest habitation, is extremely 
nngular, and in the present state of things <itifficult to account for. It could 
not have been so placed at the time of its erection, for it is evident that the 
Ijreater part of the camp, and part of the Church-yard have been washed away, 
since the ruins of the Church stand absolutely on the edge of the sandstone 
diff ; which is here of so very soft a nature, that if the sea makes any fiorther 
encroachments, a portion of the chancel wall must of necessity £UL** 

" The history of the foundation of this Church is veiled in obscurity, but its 
architecture reveals the fiu^t of the original building having been erected at 
least as eariy as the begiiming of the All century. It is not mentioned in 
Pope Nicholas' Taxation in 1290; and from this it may be infened, tiiat 
though in existence, it was only a Chapel, possibly a private one, and that the 
district had not attained to the dignity of a Parish, as it appears afterwards 
to have done, but was probably mduded in that of Portekewet, or was a 
detac hed part of some otiier Parish. In the * Valor Ecdesiasticus * of Heniy 
Vm, made in 1 535, it is raised in importance, being styled ^ Ecdesia Farochiahs 
de Sudbrook * — ^the then Hector's name was Roger Gunter, and the value is 
given as £4 15s. 9d. If one may hazard a conjecture, it may have been 
elevated to the dignity of a Rectoiy when the lai^ additions were made to 
the original small structure in the AlV century. 

^^ The Manor bebnged to a family called De Sonthbrook from this place. 
They held a moiety by the service of half a Kni^t's fee of the Lords of 
Magor, and the remainder by ^ of a Knight's fee of the^ Lords of Caerieon. 
The earliest mention of the name that has been found is in 1245, when John 
De Southbrook was one of the juiy on the inquiution post mortem of his 


iMoghbour Philip Deneband of Portscuet The same John or perhaps a son 
of the same name had house-bote and hey-bote in Wentwood m 1270. 
David de Southbrook, probably the son of John, held it in 1297 of Milo de 
Rodberewe, and Matilda his wife, hv the service of half a Knight's fee, as of 
their Manor of Magor. In 1330 Walter De St. Pieire appears by two deeds 
to have been Lord of Portscnet and Sudbrook, yet in 1335, William Durant 
of Bedwick held Sudbrook by half a Knight*s fte of Thomas De Rodberewe, 
as of his Manor of Magor. This was apparently some temporary alienation, 
for in 1858, Walter De Sudbrook who seems the same person as the above 
named Walter De St. Pierre is mentioned again. In 1363, John De St. Pierre 
described himsdf as son and heir of Walter De St Pierre, and Lord of Sudbrook, 
but he was not Lord of Portscuet, which by some means had beocMne the 
property of the Seymours of Penhow. What connection there was between 
the three families of De Southbrook, De St. Pierre, and Seymour is uncertain ; 
no pedigree of either that can be relied upon having come down to us. If 
such a conjecture may be allowed, we may very fairly attribute the enlargement 
and alteration o£ the Church to one of the St. Pierres just mentioned, who 
flourished in the XIV century ; and the period at which Sudbrook became a 
separate Parish to the time when the Manor of Portscuet passed from that 
fiunily to the Seymours, leaving the former Manor in the possession of the 
Lords of St. Pierra John De St. Pierre appears to have been the last male 
heir of the family, for a few yean afterwards St. Pierre belonged to the 
Minsterworths, a Gloucestershire family ; and Sudbrook to Henry, a younger 
eon of Jevan ap Jenldn Kemeys, of Beg^. With Bridget, the great grand 
daughter of this Henry Kemeys, it passed to her husband Thomas Herbert, 
of Caldicot George Herbert Uieir son died sdzed of it in 1549, holden by 
the service of half a Knight's fee of the Castle of Caerleon. It was afterwards 
sold by some of his descendants to the ancestors of Mr. Lewis of St. Pierre, 
to whom it now belongs. 

**The Church is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and the advowson is 
appendant to tiie Manor. At what time the &bric was suffered to fall into 
decay, and the livine united to Portskewet is not known. It was a separate 
rectory in 1560, and John Williams, the then Incumbent, was resident. It is 
however very probable that the encroachments made by the sea during those 
centuries may have so diminished the area of the Pansh, and destroyed the 
houses of the inhabitants, that they retreated to Portskewet, and tnus the 
Church ceasing to be any^ lon^ required as a separate place of Worship, the 
Parish became merged in its no^bour. Coxe, writing in 1 800, eaja that divine 
service was pfoformed there within the memory of persons then living, and a 
person he met Uiere told him that he assisted at a Mineral there forty years 
before. The correctness of his information as to any regular service having 
beinj^ performed there within memory may be doubted, excepting the funenu 
service he alludes to, which todc phuie in 1756 or 7. A Mr. Blethyn Smith, 
who had been master of a vessel, by his Will dated in 1755, and proved in 
1 757, desired that his body ^ should be buried in the eastern end of the Chancel 
of the decayed Church of Sudbrook, as near the wall as may be, attended by 
six seafimng men as bearers, m^ coffin covered with the ensigns, or colours of 
a ship, instead of a palL* Tins was accordingly done, and of course the 
reeular burial service read over the grave. The Church was then in ruins. 
A brass plate, with an inscription to the memory of Mr. Smith, was affixed 
to the wall above his grave, but has long since disappeared. 

^ The most cursory examination of iSd locality u sufficient to convince any 
one, that tiie greater portion of the camp, in the foss of which the ruined 
Churdi staads, has been washed away by the sea ; but to form an idea of the 
extent of the devastation, the pbice must be visited at low water ; and it will 


314 REVIBWd. 

appear, that the land at Bome remote period, most have extended a long way 
to the south and south west, in the direction of^ and probably as far as tlie 
Denny island, which is in the Parish and within the Manor of IJndy. At all 
events such names as Gmc^ lecte Crogan, the hillodcs, Bedwin, the birchen 
grove, Dinan, the fortified mUs, bj which these rocks and sands are still known, 
oonld never have being given to places overfl o wed b y the tide twice in every 
twenty-four hours. Aus again we have the andent Welsh tradition embodied 
in the Triads, that Portscuet was one of the three chief haiboun in the island, 
which in the present state of things would be sunply ridiculous ; but when the 
land extended out in a long narrow strip towards the south west, the confluence 
of the Troffgy, now called the Neddon, and several other minor streams 
must have Kraied a spacious estuary on its north side, wortiby of the name of 
The Port of Itcoed, if that be the etymology of Portscuet lliis was {H^bably 
the case at a less remote period wax is ffenerally supposed. The sea has 
been, and is now dailf and nouriy encroadung on the land all down this coast 
to an extent incredible to strangers. The number of acres that have 
disappeared within the last thirty years that I have been acquainted with the 
locality, is astonishing. At a tnal at Monmouth Aanzes about a century or 
more ago, a witness swore that, when a young man, he had mown the grass 
on Chitfstone rock, which was then a meadow, united to the main land, but 
now half-a-mile from the shore, and covered by the tide. In Magor and 
Redwidc, fully half-a-mile in width of Salt-wharf^ outside ihe sea wall, existed 
within the memory of the fiithers of the present inhabitants. Golddiff Prioiy 
is supposed to have stood beyond the eaee of the present daS, which is rery 
probable, as there are still to be seen we stumps of an extenave srove of 
trees, extending seaward full half a mile finom the base of the difi* down to 
low water mark. When we find such changes in the space of comparatively 
a few if'ears, what may we not imagine to nave taken idaoe in the fourteen 
centuries that have eUpsed smce the Bomans occupied the camp at Sadbrook 
as an outpost to their great station of Venta Silumm. The Porth-isooed has 
disappeared, the name alone being retained in that o£ the adjacent Villa^ 
and Parish of Portscuet A small portion of the original camp remains ; it 
stood at the head of the harbour, occupying the neck of land, umting the long 
spit forming its south side with the main-land. The probabilitv is, that it 
was a British work, afterwards occupied by the Bomans. What was its 
name? Nmther history nor tradition give any reply to the question. Caerwent 
was an undoubted Boman town, and has no pretensions to a British origin, 
the situation being not at all that which the Britons were in the habit of fixing 
upon for their strongholds. But where did they pick up the name ? Probably 
from the appellation of some place in the neighbourfaooa, which was the ancient 
capital of tne district ; for Venta is not a Latin name, but an adaptation of 
some British word, with a Boman termination. There are numerous British 
Caers in the ndghbourfaood, but none of a ma^tude to warrant the supposi- 
tion of its havinf^ been the capital of the district, unless it may be this one at 
Sudbrook, of which so smaU a portion remains that we can form no accurate 
idea of its original size ; we are however certain, that it must have been of 
considerably more importance than any other in the nei^^bouriiood, and 
therefore has the best claim to be considered to have Men the original 
Caerwent or Venta. 

" Portscuet, that is to say the harbour, not the little Village so called, b 
mentioned in the Triads, not only as one of the principal haibours in the 
island, but as a noted place for Passage or Ferry. This, by the way, is a 
strong proof of the great antiquity of these memorials of andent days, for 
there can be no doubt that it was so in the Boman times. Here was the 
Passage across the Severn ; on that part df whact is called the Via Julia 


between Caerwent and Bath, respecting which so many learned dissertations 
have been written by gentlemen, who for the most part, seem to have thought 
it totally unnecessary to make themselves acquainted with the locdities. The 
consequence has beeoi that the Trajectus has oeen placed at everv imaginable 
point between Lydney and Caldicot Fill on the one side, and Oldbury, and 
Pordshead on the other. In Coxe's introduction, he has proved dearly enough, 
that the intermediate stations, mentioned in the Itineranes, between Caerwent 
and Bath, called by Antonine Abone, and Trajectus, were at Sea Mills on the 
Avon, and Bitton. From Abone to Caerwent, Antonine makes nine miles ; 
this is the exact distance in fact to Sudbrook camp, and the three miles 
from thence is left out ; whether the omission was accidental, or Sudbrook 
was considered as an appendage to Caerwent, we have no means of knowing ; 
but the total distance when these three miles are added is surprisingly correct. 

From Yenta Silurum — Caerwent 

to Sudbrook.— 8 Miles 

to Abone Sea Mills — 9 „ 

to Trajectus Bitton — 9 „ 

toAquaSolis Bath — 6 „ 


^ Whether the landing place on the English side was, as Coxe supposed, a 
little above the present mouth of the Avon, or at Abone itsdf, the oifierence 
in distance would be inconsiderable. It must be borne in mind, that we are 
contemplating a state of things as they existed some sixteen hundred years 
ago, and my belief is, that the Severn has completely changed its course, and 
that the Marshes between Aust Cliff, and Portishead, were the original bed of 
the river, and, if so, the mouth of the Avon was much nearer Abone than it is 
at present. In the itinerary, which is attributed to Richard of Cirencester, 
of no great authority, this road is called the Via Julia, which name is generally 
adopt^ Richard lived in the latter part of the fourteenth centunr, and 
professed to have compiled the itinerary from * certain Augments len by a 
Koman general,' in wnich he acknowledges that he had made alterations 
^ as he hoped for the better,* by which, in met, he has deprived his work of all 
authority. The road from Sudbrook ran in a direct line to Portscuet, whence 
it is now the turnpike road to Crick, where it met another road, which came 
from the station of Glevum, now Gloucester, by Lidney, and crossing the Wye 
at Chepstow, followed very nearly in the line of the turnpike road to 
Poolm^rric, then crossed the fields behind Hayes* Gate Farmhouse and fell 
into a Parish road near Broadwell, in which the pavement was perfect some 
years ago, and thence to Crick; from whence, turning at rather a sharp angle, 
the united roads went in a straight line to Caerwent This road from 
Gloucester appears from a casiial observation of an annotator on the ancient 
poet Necham m the XII century, was also called the Via Julia. Although 
It is not mentioned in either itinerary, there are indisputable traces of it still 
existing, all the way fit)m Gloucester. Sir Richard C. Hoare coniectured that 
fit>m Caerwent this Via Julia foUowed the track of an old British road called 
the Akeman street all the way to St. David's. A confirmation of this opinion 
of the learned author occurs in a document in the possession of our friend the 
President, of the time of Henry VI, wherdn a certain house, &c., is described 
as in Newport, and situate at the comer of the Akeman street." 


AooouNT OF Ahoibnt Dooumbntb rblating to the Honour, 
Forest, and Borough of Clun. Priyately Printed. 1858. 

We ought sooner to have noticed this brief but important contribation 
to the documentarj historj of the border land between Engbind and 
Wales. It was read bj its author, Mr. Salt, before the ArchsBological 
Institute, at Shrewsbury, in 1855, and has since been privatelj printed. 
It contains a lucid statement of the object of many charters and 
documents concerning the jurisdiction of the Lords Marchers, and the 
customs of the Honour of Clun ; and we recommend Members in that 
part of the Marches to consult it for several points of curious local 
information. Among other topics, discussed with much ability b^ Mr. 
Salt, is that of the custom of Amob^, as prevailing in Clun in former 
times. This custom is too well known to most of our readers to need 
any explanation ; but Mr. Salt takes the opportunity of correcUng an 
erroneous impression concerning it, entertained in this part of the 
Marches, and shows that it signified nothing more than the fine, or 
price, paid to the lord for protecting the honour of female wards until 
the time of their marriage. This point is worked out with great clear- 
ness. A good map of the Forest and Honour of Clun accompanies 
this publication. The following extract will interest our readers : — 


^^ Though for the laat centuiy, and probably for two centories, it has been 
a green pasture, baring no trees upon it^ there is abondaat proof that it was 
anciently well wooded, and that a considerable quantity of trees remained 
undestroyed in the Beign of Queen Elizabeth. The ancient forest, as shown 
by the ffrwa colour in the plan, contained in round numbers, about 17,000 
acres. It appears by the evidence of many old witnesses examined in the 
above mentioned cause, whose memories wont back to the Reign of King 
Henry tiie 6th, that Clun Forest was what was called a Band Forest, meaning 
an Ancient Forest, of which the meares and bounds had been publicly 
proclaimed or banned throu^out the whole Shire or Lordship Marcher, and 
afterwards duly recorded. The district within the recorded bounds, thereby 
became subject to the Forest Laws. How cruelly and tyrannically these laws 
were executed in many of the Forests of Wales and the Marches, of the same 
may be learnt by reading the preamble to the Statute of 27th Henry the Sth, 
chap. 7, passed for remedying such abuses. But whatever nuty have been the 
abuses and exactions of the Officers of the Forest, or of the Lords before the 
reign of Henry the 6th (a subject which has not now been enquired into) the 
later Earls of Arundel do not appear to have enforced the forest laws at all 
rigorously fix>m that period, with the single exception, Q£ it can be considered 
one) that ^ if any inhabitant or other did hawk, nunt, nsh or fowle within the 
Forest without licence he was by the custom of the Forest to forfeit £7^^ 
—a large sum in those days. To every Forest, as is well known, there was 
necessarily incident a Swainmote Court, possessing powers to attach and punish 
summarily all snudl tresspasses in the forest, and to regulate all other lesser 
matters connected with it. 

^^ During the 4th, 5th, and 6th years of King Heniy the 8th, the Swainmote 
Courts for Clun were hdd three or four times a year, and the attachments for 
Vert, * i. €. for cutting or destroying any thing bearing green leaf which may 
cover a deer,' are very numerous, as also are those for turning goats, pigs, 
sheep and cattle into the Forest ; but the Lords seem to have taatly permitted 

REVIEWS. 3 1 7 

these practises, as the fines were seldom more than 4d. for vert, goats and 
pigs ; 2d. for sheep ; and from fid. to Is. for cattle. The proceedings in the 
oefoie mentioned suit by Queen Elizabeth show that before the 18th year of 
her reign, the woods had been extensively cut down and much trespassed 
upon by the freeholders and others, which occasioned the suit. This could 
scarcely have happened, if the forest rights of the Lord had been rigidly 
enforced previously. Another proof that they were not so is, that parts of 
the Forest b^;an to be enclosed at an early period. Howdl ap Madoc ap Mirick, 
aged 80 years, deposed in 18th Elizabeth to having known Ae rorest for 
70 years ; and tiiat parts of it, namely, the farms of Newcastle and Maemhame, 
were endoeed before his remembrance, but that other parts exceecong the 
quantity of fiOO acres had been in the tim6 of his remembrance enclosed ; and 
he is confirmed by other witnesses. 

^*' Documentary evidence is in existence which leaves the inference that the 
Hall of the Forest, or the Ladies Hall as it was then called, was built by 
Anne Lady Mautravers, Widow, who had a life interest in the forest and 
was living in 1573, after the seisure of the Honor of Clun by the Crown in 
consequence of the partidpuition by Henry, Earl of Arundel (the last Earl 
in the Male Line) in the crime of tiie Duke of Norfolk. The Duke was hLs 
son in law, having married his daughter and eventually sole heir Lady Mary 
Fitz-Alan. Upon the death of the Earl in 1580, without issue male who 
survived him, Ids titles descended to the Howard fiunily, and the Duke of 
Norfolk now inherits the Earldom of Arundd and the Baronies of Mautravers 
and Clun through Lady Mair Fitz-Alan ; but the Clun estate has not been 
united to these titles dnce 1572. The Queen kept it in her hands or in those 
of her lessees until her death, and in lfi03, King James the 1st granted the 
Honor and Forest of Clun and the Hundreds of Clun and Purslow to Mary 
Fitz-Alan*s younger grandsons, Thomas Howard, created Earl of Suffolk, and 
Henry Howard, created Earl of Northampton ; and by a fiunily airangement 
between them, these estates shortly afterwards became the sole prof^rty of 
the latter, and remained in his fiimily until sold in 1677. 

«« We have seen that the fireeholders of Kerry refused to hold under the 
Lordship of Clun. Notwithstanding this rufusal, an agreement was made 
with them (at a very early date not yet ascertained) which was creditable to 
both parties. The cattle and horses of the Kerry men would unavoidably at 
times be found in Clun Forest, and the arrangement was, that the Keny men 
should pay the Lord of Clun two marks yearly for such trespasses, in return 
for which their cattle and horses were not to be treated as estrays. This 
bargain continued until 1797, when the enclosure of the Commons in Kerry 
which adjoined Clun Forest put an end to the payment It was known by 
the name of ^ Kerry Escape Money.' " 

Rbmarrs on Offa's Dyke, &c. By O. Ormerod, D.C.L., 

These remarks are, in so far, supplementary to those already made 
by the learned author in the Archaologia and elsewhere, that they 
refer to the line of earthworks in Tidenham parish, (Juxta Chepstow,) 
in Gloucestershire West of Severn, and to the supposed termination of 
the Dyke on Severn Clitf in Sedburv Park, Dr. Ormerod's own 
beautiful seat. Some excellent lithographic views, executed in Sedburv 
House, accompanies these remarkn, and identify the locality. As all 
matters connected with this great line of international demarcation are 



of importance, we do not hesitate to reprint much of what now liefl 
before us; knowing that the author is desirous of bringing the subject 
as clearly and fully as possible before the members of our Association. 
Afler alluding to the Memoir on the Dyke in Archmologia lxxix. 
. 16, in which attention was turned to earthworks ranging along the 
efl bank of Wye, from Tintern to Sedbury — these works having 
borne the name of Offa's Dyke by unvarying tradition, though Wye, 
flowing beneath them was the virtual boundary of Mercia, Dr. 
Ormerod observes : — 

'* It was purposeljT left as an open question, whether this discontinuoasoeBS 
was the result of original non-completion, or of early destruction, alleged to 
have been effected by the Welshmen of Gwent and Morganwg ; and &t was 
also freely admitted, with reference to the point here represented, that a pen- 
insula thus defended, by a line of earthworks croasin^ its base from the Wye 
to the Severn, nu^ht have been selected subsequently for a retreat by Banish 
pirates, as it certamly was by royalist troops in the seventeenth century, when 
a small portion of the mounds on Butdnton Hill was the subject of limited 
readaptation. But this in no way disproves the original object of constmcticm, 
and tne discussion may at once be transferred to proof of ezistanoe of this 
part of the line in the Saxon period, and to its coincidence with the point 
assigned, equally by tradition and chronicles, to the southern termination of 
the entire demarcation. 

^* L — ^Wlth respect to such decisive evidence of Saxon antiquity, it is 
proved indisputably by a Charter of King Edwy, granted to the Seculars of 
Bath, in 956, that the Dyke, here illustrated, was then a known boundsrv 
between Cyngestune and Utanhamme. The former of these is identified with 
Sedbury, and the latter, or the outer hamlet, with Beachley, by the unchanf;e- 
able boundaries of the Severn and Wye ; and tiiis is the intermediate position 
of the Dyke at the present day. 

^^ IL--It mav be added, in confirmation of this Dyke, thus referred to the 
Saxon period, bavins been a portion of the Dyke ascribed to Offa, that its 
form, wiiere unaltered, with its ditch on the Welsh side, and other coincidences, 
accords mth that of the northern and more continuous portions of his work ; 
and that the name of Ofia^s Dyke has been uniformly applied to it, as well by 
local tradition as bv successive topographers. 

^' m. — It must be also remembered that the ancient authorities for the for- 
mation of the general demarcation itself—^sser, ISmeon of Durham, and the 
Folvchronicon — fix a southern termination, which will coindde with the 
Sedbunr Cliffs, but with no other place. The two first bring it from ''Sea to 
jSeo,* the last ' from the south, near Bristol,* and Camden founds on theee 
statements, his deduction of it from the mouth of the Dee to the Wyemouth. 
Such limitation necessarily confines the southern termination to one point It 
must be a point west of the Bristol Channel, or Severn Sea, as the Dyke had 
no^ continuation to the east of it Sedbury would be the nearest convenient 

K)int to the mouth of the Wye (the virtual boundaiy), upon its left, or its 
erdan bank. No local point could combine these coinadences, excepting 
that p<nnt where the Dyke, as here ddineated, rests on tiie Sedbury Cliffih 
overhanging the broad estuaiy of the Severn, immediately north of itsjunction 
with the minor estuary of the Wye and commencement of the Bristol Channel** 

REVIEWS. 3 1 9 

Guide to the Cathedrals of England and Wales. Bj 
M. Walcott, M.A, 

This small portable volame is coDceiyed on a good plan, but is, as 
far as we have examined it, very faultj in execution. We have tested it 
bj several English cathedrals with which we are intimately acqaaintedy 
and also more especially by the four Welsh ones* The accounts of 
these buildings are confused; they require more architectural pre- 
cision ; they betray the pen of an amateur ; and the author should have 
called in for them the aid of some professional adviser. Stilly as we 
said before, the plan is good, and, if a second edition is required, we 
would recommend the author to consult and to imitate that admirable, 
though succinct, account contained in Storer's Cathedrals, one of the 
most satisfactory works on the subject. 

We wish that Mr. Walcott had spoken more openly of the dilapi- 
dated condition of parts of St. David's, of the mean state of Bangor, 
of the Chinese-Gbthic of 8t. Asaph, and of the praiseworthy re- 
edification of Llandaff. But he is evidently quite ignorant of what 
has been written on these topics in our own pages, or in those of Mr. 
Basil Jones and Mr. Freeman — the more the pity ! He would not 
have erred too had he gone a little out of his usual track to say some- 
thing about the parsimony of certain Welsh capitular bodies, or the 
lamentable apathy of some great Welsh landowners, any one of whom 
ousht to esteem it an honour and a privilege to rebuild the cathedral 
of liis own district at his own sole expense, and at the cost of about 
half a year's income. Truly there are some men among us who will 
have an uncommon tight squeeze at a certain gate by and by I 

A Week's Walk in Oower. Tenby : R. Mason. 1850. 

This is the title of an agreeable and useful mide book in one of 
the pleasantest but least known districts of South Wales. It is useful 
to the geologist rather than to the antiquary, though it sketches off 
the castles and churches with much spirit. We can recommend it to 
members as a very fair preparation for that '' Great Walk in Gower'* 
which will be taken by the Association when it meets at Swansea, 
as we hope it mil do in one of its approaching annual visits. 


Cambrian Irrjiaealagiral laaariatian. 


Thb Thirteenth Annual Meeting, held at Cardigan, commenced on Mcmday, 
Augost 15, 1859. Active preparations had been previously made by a Local 
Committee, consisting of the following gentlemen : — 

Captain Pbtsb, M.P., Lord- Lieutenant of Cardiganshire, Chairman 

James Bowen, Esq., Troedyraur 

James Sevan Bowen, Esq. 

W. O. Brigstocke, Esq. 

W. O. Brigstocke, Esq., Junior 

John Colby, Esq. 

S. £. Colby, Esq. 

A. H. S. Davies, Esq. 

David Davies, Esq. 

John Lloyd Davies, Esq. 

T. Elliott, Esq. 

John Fenton, Esq. 

John Griffiths, Esq. 

W. H. Howell, Esq. 

J. T. W. James, Esq. 

R. D. Jenkins, Esq., Mayor of Car- 

Morgan Jones, Esq. 

Walter D. Jones, Esq. 

G. B. J. Jordan, Esq. 

F. Lascelles, Esq. 

R. Lascelles, Esq. 

W. P. Lewis, Esq., High Sheriff of 

Major L^wis 

James L. lioyd, Esa . 

Thomas David Lloya, Esq. 

T. Morgan, Esq. 

C. A. Prichard, Esq. 
— Prout, Esq. 
M. A. Saurin, Esq. 
Gwinett Tyler, Esq. 
Lieut.-CoL Vaugfaan 
T. R. P. Wagner, Esq. 
Rev. J. Davies, Meline 
Rev. H. L. Davies 
Rev. D. Evans, Cilgerran 
Rev. D. J. Evans 
Rev. Griffith Evans 
Rev. J. Evans, Eglwyswrw 
Rev. J. P. George 
Rev. Hugh Howell 
Rev. John Hughes 
Rev. W. James 
Rev. W. E. James 
Rev. J. Jones, Nevem 
Rev. J. Price Jones 
Rev. Rhvs Jones Lloyd 
Rev. Wmiam lioyd 
Rev. Dr. Malet 
Rev. D. E. Morgan 
Rev. D. Sinnett 
Rev. Griffith Thomas 
Rev. LI. LL Thomas 
Rev. H. J. Vincent 


The Rev. Wm. James, Cardigan. 

trati Unaiidnf 

Rev. H. J. Vincent R. D. Jenkins, Esq. 

CiDltsn of XXBISBBL 
Rev. H. J. Vincent Mr. R. Ready. 

To assist towards the necessary expenses of the Meeting a local fund had 
been raised, to whidi the foUowing ladies and gentlemen contributed : — 



Lord Bishop of St. David's £5 

U. Logan, Esq. 2 2 

W. O. Brigstocke, Esq 2 

John Colby, Esq. 2 

Morgan Jones, Esq 2 

Thomas Davies Lloyd, Esq. 2 

W. D.Jones, Esq., Glancych 1 1 

John Griffiths, Esq. 1 

Miss Jones, Cilwend^ge ... 1 

J. J. Lloyd, Esq., I!^yadd 1 

M. A. Saurin, Esq I 

J. Bowen, Esq., Troedyniur 10 

Edward Colby, Esq 10 

Thomas Davies, Esq 10 

David Davies, EsqL.. £0 10 

Thomas Edwards, Esq 10 

Rev. J. Evans. 10 

Rev. Hugh HowelL 10 

Rev. Dr. James, Panteg.... 10 

Rev. Wm. James 10 

R. D. Jenkins, Esq. 10 

Thomas Morgan, Esq 10 

Messrs. Wilkms & Ca 10 

Rev. Thomas Evans 5 

Rev. H. Hughes 5 

Miss Lucas 50 

Mr. James Evans, Lampeter 2 6 

Rev. W. £. James. 2 6 

Monday, August 15th. 

After the dispatch of the usoal business in Committee, which assembled 
at seven o'clock, the Meeting of the Association was formally opened, on the 
proposal of Mr. Babington, that R. D. Jenkins, Esq., the Mayor of Cardigan, 
should take the chair, in the unavoidable absence of the out-going President, 
the Lord Bishop of St. Asaph, from whom a letter was read, expressing his 
regret that a visitation prevented his attending to resign in person the 
President's chair. Mr. Jenkins, after welcoming the Members to CaztliganY 
resigned the chair to the Bishop of St. David's, who proceeded to deliver 
an inaugural address, whidi elicited divers applauses as his lordship touched 
upon the various tojMCS embraced in a general view of the Sodety's pro- 
ceedings, and the objects they had so successfully carried out for so many 
years. For his own part, his lordship acknowledged that it was with no little 
personal pleasure that he had accepted the honour the Society had done him 
on this occasion, and more especially as he was well aware that the success of 
the Meeting did not depend on his own individual exertions. He could 
conceive no more agreeable re-unions than meetings like the present, nor 
were they less agreeable than instructive and valuable as encouraging a spirit 
of inquiry and observation as regards the various relics of antiquity of this 
country. He did not remember that he had ever epeaat a more agreeable 
week than he had done at Tenby, when the Association met there a few years 
ago ; and he regretted much that he had been prevented from assisting at the 
only meeting the Society had since that time held within his diocese, namely, 
that of Ldandeilo. His lordship then dwelt at some length upon the value of 
such meetings as the present, where strangers assembled from all parts of the 
country, and assisted in the examination of the various monuments of antiquity 
which existed in every county of Wales ; thus, by personal observation, and 
mutual discussions, contributing to throw light on details not always clearly 
understood or explained. Nor was there any class of antiquities wanting, so 
that the tastes of all were consulted, whether cromledis, and other piimitrve 
remains, camps, castles, churches, as the programme of the exeuraons promised 
on this occasion. But valuable as he conceived these meetings to be, they 
would be far less so but for the Journal which the Society published, and 



which now contained a most important collection of notices of great value ; 
nor would that Journal, but for these Annual Meetings, have done the good it 
had, and which he trusted it would still continue to do ; so that the meetings 
seemed to be no less necessary to the success of the Journal than the 
Journal to that of the meetings. One striking advantage attending such 
meetings as the present, as had already been alluded to, was that a personal 
examination of monuments was the readiest way to determine any controversy, 
which, if continued in print without such advantage, was too apt to leave the 
disputants at a greater distance from one another than they were at the 
beginning of the discussion ; and as an illustration he alluded to the story of 
the knights disputing the colour of the shield, the opposite sides of which, 
of different colours, had only been seen by each kni^t. But there were still 
other and more important advantages he might mention resulting from sudi 
meetings as the present ; he alluded more particularly to the good effect they 
bad in securing the preservation of such monuments of antiquity. This 
Association not only investigated for itself, and recorded in its Journal the 
result of its labours for the benefit of posterity, but it used its best endeavours 
to impress upon all classes of society their value and importance, and thus to 
spread evexywhere a degree of respect and reverence commensurate as fiu- as 
possible with their importance. Once such monuments are lost and destroyed, 
restoration is impossible. While they exist they can be studied, oompfl^ed, 
and questioned as to their history, with all the warmth and vigour of the living 
men who visited them ; but destroyed, their memory at best remains only in 
drawings, or in books, they having lost all the force of actual bodily presence: 
He trusted he should never see in England what once had existed in France, 
a bande notre, whose sole object in their search after monuments was their 
destruction ; much less did he think it possible that a second Abb§ Fourmont 
should ever appear in this country, who has recorded, in the Memoirs of the 
French Academy of Inscriptions, that, when he had aocuratdy copied the 
details of any remarkable monument in Greece, he took particular care to 
have it destroyed, as fiir as was in his power. His Lordship proceeded to 
observe, that however zealous and devoted the veneration of the antiquary 
was for the relics of past times, he was not necessarily insensible to the 
advantages of the present He was confident that every right-minded person, 
casting aside all the petty feeling of local jealousy and mistakai patriotism, 
would rejoice that he was a dtizen of so free and powerfrd a nation as our 
own ; and would, while he learned to profit by the good, feel thankful that 
he was yet spared frx>m much that it had of sufiering and eviL 

When the applause with which the Preddent*s address was received had 
terminated, Mr. Lloyd Phillips, the General Secretary, at the sunmions of his 
Lordship, read the following Report of the proceedings of the Association for 
the past year : — 

" The first Annual Meeting of the Association having been held in 1S47, at 
Abeiystwyth, and the present one, the thirteenth, having once more invited 
the Association to the same county, your Committee cannot refrain finom 
congratulating the Members on thor commencing, under such favourable 


auspices as the present Meeting, a second cycle of visits to the vaiious 
counties of the Principality, and of the Marches. Comparing the present 
resources and prospects of the Society with those of its earliest days, they 
would still further congratulate the Association on the result of the comparison, 
as regards not only its present condition, but also its prospect of future and 
continued prosperity. 

'^ As the Association is now possessed of a certain amount of property, it 
has been thought necessary to suggest the appointment of Trustees, in whom 
that property may be invested for the use and benefit of the Association. 
And your Conmdttee would accordingly propose that three of its oldest and 
warmest friends, namely, Sir Stephen Glynne, Bart, who occupied the 
presidential chair at its first two Meetings, James Dearden, Esq., to whose 
munificence the Association is so deeply indebted, and Octavius Morgan, Esq., 
M.P., President in 1857-58, be proposed as Trustees. 

^' Since the Members were assembled at Rhyl, two important events have 
occurred, one of which is as much a subject of regret to your Committee as 
the other is of congratulation. 

^* For reasons not given, the French government has thought fit to annul 
the Breton Association, which consisted of the two sections — agricultural and 
archaeological. The leading officiab of the former class have given in thtar 
resignation to the Minister of the Interior, though on what grounds has not 
been stated. Those, however, of the archaeological section, holding themselves 
as perfectly distinct, did not conrider themselves called on to follow the 
example thus set, and were preparing to take steps to consult their associates 
as to the course to be adopted, when the Minister of the Interior suddenly 
dissolved the Association. 

^^A letter has been addressed to your Secretaries by M. de Keranflec*h, 
Secretary of the archaeological class of the late Breton Association, regretting 
the abrupt termination of the cordial union between the two societies, and 
inclosing a protest addressed to the Journal de Rennes, 

'' ' Rennes, May 25, 1859. 
^'^ To the Editor of the Journal de Rennes. 

" *• Mr. Editob, — ^You have published in your journal a decree, by which 
the Minister of the Interior has pronounced the dissolution of the Breton 
Association. One of the reasons for the decree is thus stated : — 

'* In consequence of the resignation of the members charged with the duty 
of directing, under the patronage of the state, the Agricultural and Scientific 
Society established in the five departments under the name of the Breton 
Association, &c., &c." 

'^ *' The Breton Association comprised two classes or sections, one of agri- 
culture, another of archaeology. As an agricultural society, it was directed 
by members who were the directors of the agricultural class ; as a scientific 
society, by members who were the directors of the archaeological class. 

*•*' *• The wording of the reason given may convey the idea that the members 
who compose the direction of both classes have equally resigned, but this is 


^ *' From reafODS which we abstain &om noticiiig at present, the director of 
the agricukural class has, in fiwst, tendered his resignation to the minister, and 
has been followed in this act by his colleagues (^ the same class. But he has 
no power to influence the directors of the archseological class. Their duties 
haying been conferred on them by the fiee choice of the Aasociation in a full 
meeting, they can only offer their resignations to the same body. Conse- 
quently they still retained the charge committed to their care, wishing to 
fulfil their duties to the last. They were engaged then in convoking a 
meeting of the Association, so as to meet the difficulties of their situation, 
when they were infonned by the public journals of the measures which has 
thus completely extinguished the Breton Aasociation. So &r, therefore, has 
thia proceeding resulted fixxn their resignation, that it has come upon them in 
the actual exercise of their duties. 

'* ^ Ab the establishment of this fiMt is necessary, relying, Mr. Editor, on 
your impartiality, they are convinced that you will admit, without dday, into 
your columns, this explanation. 

*^ ' We have the honour to be, 

^« ^ Your very humble Servants, 

^^ * Th. HmtaAnr db i.a ViLLwiAnaoB, 
'' ' Member of (he ImUtute^ laU Directar of (he 

Archaologioal Section of the Breton AModatkm. 
^^ ^ A. Db JLA BonnBUB, 
'•^ * Ch. Db KBRAHriac'H, 
*^ ^ LaU Secretariee of the Archaological Section. 


'' ' Late Treasurer of the Arehaologieal Section: 
'* However deeply this Association regrets the dissolution of the Breton 
Society, yet that regret will be in no slight degree diminished by the ccmfi- 
dence that the same friendly feeling shown, and the valuable assistance 
hitherto rendered, by some of the most distinguidied members of the Ute 
Society, will still be continued. Your Committee, therefore, would recommend 
that the Secretaries be requested to express, on bdialf of the Sodeiy, their 
deq> regret at the course adopted by the fVench government, and their 
earnest wishes for a speedy re-establishment of the Breton Antiquarian 
Aasociation. It is believed that the late Breton Aasodation will shortly 
complete the series of their Bulletins. 

^^The other event alluded to is one of great interest and in^Mrtancei 
being the discoveries now being cairied on under the superintendence of Mr. 
Thomas Wright, and Dr. Henry Johnson, on the site of Uriooninm, near 
Wroxoter. It is the only opportunity that has occurred of late years of 
a complete and scientific examination of a Roman British town of the fiftii 
century, and there is every reason to anticipate that very important light will 
be thrown upon that portion of the history of this country, of which, at present, 
so little is accurately ascertained. Although the expenses connected with the 
excavations have been, and will be, very considerable, yet such is the increased 
interest generally taken among the higher, and middle, and, we hope we may 


add, the lower, classes of society, there is no reason to fear that a want of 
the necessary funds will prevent the complete inTestigation of these remains. 
Not only has a considerable amount of subscriptions been already raised, 
principally from local contributions, but a metropolitan committee, which 
numbers several noblemen and gentlemen, has been established for the same 
object; while the Society of Antiquaries has granted the sum of £50. 
Subscriptions to this fund will be received by Masterman & Co., Bankers, 
London, or Dr. Henry Johnson, Shrewsbury. 

'^ As, however, Uriconiimi is situated within what is conridered the le^ti- 
mate district of the Association, to it has been assigned, by the excavation 
committee, the honour of printing in their Journal the discoveries, as they 
occur from time to time. These reports will be furnished by Mr. Wright 
and Dr. Henry Johnson. But, as a considerable additional outlay for the 
necessary illustrations is required, and as it is thought unadvisable to diminish 
the usual allowance devoted to general illustrations, a Sub-committee has 
been formed, with a view to raise a special fund for the distinct purpose of 
providing for the efficient illustration of the Urioonium discoveries. The last 
Number of the ArchcBologia Cambrensis contains the first report, firom which 
Members will be able to form some notion of what is contemplated by your 
Committee. As the work will probably last for two years, it is thought that 
at least the sum of XI 50 is required, which amount your Coramittee trust will 
be willingly contributed by the members of the Association. Subscriptions 
for this fund should be forwarded to the Rev. £. L. Barnwell, Ruthin. 

**Your Committee have also the satisfaction of announcing that they 
contemplate the production of a small volume, to be called, A Handbook of 
Welsh AfUiquUieSj or some such title, the object of which is to convey to the 
pubUc correct impressions as to the nature of our antiquities. The most 
striking and characteristic features of the Celtic, Roman, and Medieval 
remains in Wales will be marked out, so that, while it is expected that this 
vidume will be useful to the stranger unacquainted with the country, it is no 
less hoped such additional interest will be felt by the resident and native 
population, which may tend to check the work of destruction stUl, it is to 
be feared, going on ; and which, in the great majority of cases, may be more 
immediately traced to ignorance or uidi£ference. 

*^ Since the Greneral Meeting of the Association at Rhyl, the Manx Society 
has commenced carrying into effect their proposed object, namely, the printing 
not only original notices of the antiquities, language, and history of the 
island, but also the reprinting such valuable works on the same subjects as 
are now only to be procured at high prices, and with great difficulty. It 
is proposed to print three such volumes yearly, to be distributed among the 
members, the first of the series having lately been issued, being An Account of 
the Isle of Man^ by William Sacheverell, governor of the island in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. The second volume, already in the hands of 
the printer, is Kelly *s Grammar of the Ancient GaeUc; or^ the Language of the 
Isle of Man, which was first published in 1804, but is now extremely rare. 

^^ Since the establishment of the Manx Society, an important move has been 


made by tbe principal geatiy of the islaiid towards raismg a sufficient smn to 
rescue from imminent and total destruction the interesting remains of Peel 
Castle, and its cathedral, its still more ancient church, and round tower. Tlie 
friable n|iture of the sandstone of which the ruins are prindpaOj built— their 
exposed situation — ^the long neglect, and the hand of time, and still more 
destructive influence of man — are rapidly combining to level the present 
structures to the ground. No attempt will be made at any restoration^ 
especially as regards the cathedral ; but the ruins will, as far as practicable, 
be partially repaired, supported, and strengthened, so as to arrest future 
mischief. A survey has been made, and it is ascertained that fit>m £1500 to 
£2000 will be required to effect the desired object. The subscription list is 
headed by the names of Her Majesty and the Prince Consort, who have given 
the sums of X30 and £25 each, and a communication has been made to the 
Secretaries of this Association, requesting that the subject be laid before the 
Association, in case any of its Members may be inclined to support this very 
praiseworthy attempt Communications should be addressed to William 
Harrison, Esq., Rock Mount, St John's, Isle of Man. 

*^ Your Committee regret to state that they are not yet able to report the 
removal of the cross in Dyserth churbh-yard from its present exposed 
situation to one of greater safety within the walls of the church. They are, 
however, informed that it is the intention of the parochial authorities to cany 
out the suggestion offered by the Association last year, and to remove it at the 
earliest opportunity. With reference to the incised coffin-lids, now forming 
the thresholds of the entrances of Rhuddlan Church, there appears to be little 
prospect of their bdng removed from their present most unsatisfactory poation. 

*^ Since the last Meeting the Committee have to regret the loss of one of the 
oldest and warmest friends of the Association — ^the Venerable Archdeacon of 
Cardigan. By his death the Principality has been deprived of a distinguished 
scholar, as well as an ardent lover of his nation, language, and country. 

** The Sub-committee appointed to consider the question of printing the 
Journal of the Association, having recommended that Mr. Mason be continued 
as their printer and publisher, that recommendation has been carried into 
effect If the funds of the Association admit, as they probably will, a 
Supplemental Number will be issued at the end of each year, whidi will be, 
if possible, devoted to one complete subject The number of copies issued in 
July last was 314. 

*•*' Your Committee recommend that the Ri^t Rev. Lord Bishop of Bangor, 
who has lately become a Member of the Association, be placed on the list of 

^^Your Committee have to announce the resignation of the office of 
Treasurer by T. O. Morgan, Esq., and they recommend that the thanks of the 
Association be tendered to that gentleman, for his kind services to the 

*^J. Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., has kindly consented to act as Provisional 
Treasurer until this Meeting, when it is hoped his nomination will be confirmed. 

<* The bakmce now in hand amounts to £92 28. 2d. 


" The Rev. Rowland Williiuiis having resigned the Local Secretaryship of 
the southern part of Cardiganshire, R. D. Jenkins, Esq., has been nominated 
to succeed him, and the Rev. Williams Mason has also been nominated one of 
the Local Secretaries for Merioneth. 

" The out-going Members of the Committee are, — ^Thomas Wright, Esq., 
the Rev. W. Basil Jones, and the Rev. J. Pryce Drew ; and your Committee 
propose these gentlemen, and B. L. Chapman, Esq., as fitting persons to fill 
up the present vacancies. 

*^ The following Members have joined the Society, and wait for confirmation 
at the Meeting : — 

^* Right Rev. Lord Bishop of Bangor ; W. P. Lewis, Esq., Llysnewydd, 
Newcastle-Emlyn ; Major Lewis, Clynfew, Newcastle-Emlyn ; R«v. Lewis 
Evans, M.A., Ystradmeurig ; Rev. W. Rowlands, Portland Street, Aber- 
ystwyth; Rev. John Griffith, M.A., Merthyr Tydfil; Rev. Samuel Fenton, 
M.A., Wavertree, Liverpool; Griffith Phillips, Esq., Bloomfield, Neath; 
W. E. Jones, Esq., Neath; Rev. D. Parry Thomas, Llanmaes Rectory, 

Tuesday, August l^u. 

According to the programme, the castle and church of Cardigan were to 
have conmienced this day's excursion ; but time admitted of an inspection only 
of the castle, which is so surroimded by buildings, and has suffered such 
dilapidations, that, without more careful examination, it was not easy to 
ascertain all its original details. It appears, however, to have been of a 
triangular form. Of the external works, two bastions and a connecting 
curtain are the principal remains, the latter later than the former, as appears 
from its junction with the towers. In the most northern of the bastions are 
two passages descending towards the river, one of which is said to have 
conununicated with it by a sally-port, the other to lead to a chamber where 
a well supplied the inmates of the castle. In addition to these remains is 
what is called the keep, now converted into the mansion of the present owner, 
— a circular tower of massive and strong masonry, still retaining its under- 
ground apartments and passages, now used as cellars, and presenting some 
peculiarities of vaulting. Whether this tower was connected with the outer 
defences of the castle, or occupied a more central position, was not stated, that 
portion of the castle not being easily made out. The masonry is decidedly 
superior, and older than that of the bastions, which exhibit none of the work 
usually found in Norman castles. Gilbert Marshall is said to have rebuilt this 
stron^old in the middle of the thirteenth century, or rather to have increased 
and strengthened the works ; for it is doubtful whether any part of the original 
structure still remains, unless the keep be a portion. Few casdes appear to 
have undergone more assaults. There was a castle here in 1091, which 
Roger de Montgomery, finding inconvenient to hold, gave up to Cadwgan ap 
Bleddyn, Prince of South Wales. Henry L recovered it in 11 10, but lost it 
in 1136, when the Webh again seized it, who, in their turn, were shortly 
ousted, for in 1 144 we find them again attacking the Norman and Fleming 


garriicm, and wrestiiig it £rom them. It snbfiequently changed owners no less 
than thirteen times from that period till 1240, when Gilbert Marshall seized 
it, and strengthened or rebuilt the works. From that time, until assaulted 
and taken by the parliamentary forces under General Laughame, no notioe 
occurs of it in history. 

On leaving the castle the excnrsbnists proceeded on their course, first 
stopping at Mount, a small solitary church near the shore, taking its name 
from a picturesque hill abore it, the top of which is marked by two lines of 
defence. The church, dedicated to the Holy Cross, exhibits no architectural 
features of interest, except the roof— a fine Early Perpendicular one — and the 
font, oblong in form, and of the genuine Pembrokeshire type of the thirteenth 
century. The east end is lighted by a square two-light window, of Per- 
pendicular character, which appears to have undergone some alteration. The 
most interesting feature of the place is the drcnmstanee of its being die site 
of a bloody battle between the Flemings and Welsh, fat the knoiHedge of 
which we are indebted solely to the singular customs which were in existenoe 
within the memory of old men of the present day, when a mimic battle was 
fought on the first Sunday in January, called Bed Sunday. The immwnsfi 
quantity of bones, only slightly covered by the soil, also confirms the tradition 
of its being the site of a battle, whidi probably led to the building of the 
church on or near the spot 

From Mount the carriages drove to Aberporth, whence, after inspecting 
a very satisfactory new church, the excursionists proceeded to the sepulehrd 
stone mentioned in Gibson's Camden, where the inscription is given correctly, 
with the exception of the mark of contraction afUr the word COR., for 
CORPVS. The description of ORDOVS, presumed to denote Ordovix, is 
a singular addition. Althou^ no signs of any burial place exist at present, 
it is said to have originally stood on a small heap oi stones, dose to the 
present site. 

In the same parish, namely that of Penbryn, and at no great distance from 
this stone, was lately disoovoed an aureus of Titus, now in the possession of 
Mr. R. D. Jenkins, of The Priory, Cardigan. A small camp also exists 
between the monoment and the sea, which was not visited, but which was 
stated to be Roman. Time did not admit of visiting the old honae ol 
Llanborthi mentioned in the programme of excnrsioBs. 

The next object examined was a large, stron^y fortified camm called 
Castell Nadolig, well situated for commanding the passes to the south. The 
fionn is unusual, being nesriy semicircnlar, having two lines of defence on 
the side of its chord, the outer one of which is straight, and runs neariy 
parallel with the present road, the inner one presenting three curves. Another 
camp joins on to this work, in which was lately found, under a large stone 
now lying on the qiot, three urns containing adies. Near the same spot may 
be also seen a considerable number of bones, on the sur&oe of the grouid, 
which have undergone the action of Bie, An accurate plan of this wosk 
should be made, and engraved, for the JoumaL Another camp, said to be 
of the same kind, at Castdl Pxidd, was not visited, owing to the htcnoss of 


the hour. After partaking of the hospitality kindly ofTered to the Members 
of the Aflsociation by Captain Prichafd, of ly-Llwyd, on the return home 
they examined Blaenporth, picturefiquely situated at the head of a goxgei 
comprising a strong hiU and adjoining indosnre, fortified also by a rampart, 
except where the steepness of the ascent rendered such a work less necessaiy. 
The majority present were inclined to asngn to this work an early British 
origin^ although no lines of intrenchment encircled the hiU. Others con* 
jectured that it might have been of the same character as Castle Meurig, 
near Llangadock, known to be an eaiiy Norman post, surmounted with 
wooden defences, as was the practice also of the native Welsh certainly as 
late as the twolfUi centuiy. Mr. Babington pointed out the contrivance by 
which a spring at the base of the hiU was probably dammed up, so as to 
furnish a large supply of water, and which, on one side also, would have 
acted as an additional defence. In the adjoining fields, funereal urns, pro* 
bably British, have been lately found, containing fragments of burnt bones, 
which find was understood not to have been the only one on or near the 
same spot. This concluded the excursion of the day, with the exception of 
the remains of a cromlech, called liech yr Ast, near the road, some of the 
stones of which have been converted into gate-posts. The monument itself 
has vanished within a few years, one solitary stone remaining. 

The President took the chair at the Evening Meeting, and opened the 
proceedings by calling on Mr. Babington to give an account of the day's 

Mr. Babington, after apologizing for his imperfect knowledge of the dirtrict 
they had examined that day, made some remarks on its more particular 
features, alluding to the scattered situation of the houses, so characteristic of 
a Celtic population. He was much struck by the isolated position of Mount 
Church— a circumstance he could not easily account for. It contaLoed a good 
roof and font, but he was not inclined to accede to his Lordship's opinion as 
to the eariy character of the east Tnndow, which he held to be Perpendicular. 
The two earthworks he had seen were, in his opinion, both early British 
works ; and he did not think that of Blaenporth could have been a N6nnan 
work, firom the apparent absence of masonry ; but this point might be eadly 
ascertained by a section of the surfiice of the top of the mound. He should 
refer the Members to Mr. Westwood for any observations on the interesting 
sepulchral stone they had seen ; and, after alluding to their hospitable reception 
by the owner of ly-Llwyd, again expressed his regret that no gentleman 
better acquainted with the country had done what he had endeavoured to do, 
though so imperfectly. 

The President, having thanked Mr. Babington, remarked on his having 
omitted to notice what had struck him as extremely curious— the tradition 
of an invanon of Flemings at this spot, no less comfinnod by singular customs 
kept up within fifty or sixty years, and the immense number of bones still 
remaining under a light covering of soiL He was not aware of any accounts 
of Flemish invasions having taken place by sea, or by land, except firom their 
settlements in Pembrokeshire, whence the name of ** Little England beyond 



Wales.** Had he been aware of the stone defences on the summit of the hilf 
near the church, in spite of its steepness, he should haye been inclined to scale 
it, if only to compare it with a stone fortress he had seen some years ago in the 
county of Kerry, the curious and interesting details of which, its passages in 
the walls, the stairs leading to the battlements, &c, had struck him as forming 
one of the most remaikable structures he had ever seen, and he was much 
surprized that so little seemed to be known of it As to Mr. Babington** 
observations about the solitaiy position of Mount Church, he thought many 
satisfiictory explanations might be given* Formerly churches were inde- 
pendent of their congregatbns, and erected simply for masses for the dead. 
That such a motive might have led to the church at Mount he though 
probable, there being evidence of a bloody battle fought on the vexy spot; 
but that, at any rate, there were many instances of dhurches having been built 
in similar situations. With reference to the inscribed stone they had examined, 
there could be no question that the word COR was an abbreviation for 
CORPVS. The supposition of its meaning the heart was so cootnry to all 
rule and experience, that there could be no doubt on the question. The 
name, also, of the person buried was new to him, nor did he remember ever 
seeing any name like it, while the position of the stone rather puzzled him, 
for he could conceive no reason why a place so lonely and retired should have 
been selected for such a purpose, and he should be much obliged if any 
gentleman present would give him any explanation. 

Mr. Babington explained that the reason why he had not mentioned the 
battle-field, and remains of the Flemings, was simply because he had not 
heard a word of them until his Lordship had alluded to them. This was the 
first time he had learnt these facts — in his opinion, of great historical interest 
and importance. With reference to the question of stone forts in Ireland, he 
had personally visited several of the most interesting character, but not the 
one alluded to by the President. He was one of the party of visitors who 
examined the wonderful remains of that class cm the Ann Isles, in 1857, on 
the occasion of the British Association meeting in Dublin. There were 
rimilar worics in North Wales, to be seen on Penmaen Mawr, and Yr Eifl, 
vulgarly called '^The Rivals," as also at Cam Goch, near Llandeilo, visited 
by the Association in 1855. 

Mr. Fenton wished to impress upon the Members the great importance of 
attending to the etymology of names of places— a point, he thought, not 
sufficiently attended to. He mentioned several instances to exhibit the 
importance of such a habit 

Mr. Westwood thought that probably the most important object visited in 
the day's excursion was the inscribed stone at Dyffiyn Bern. ThoB stone had 
been described and figured in Camden's Britanma, but some peculiarities 
in that figure required some elucidation. They had, however, found every 
letter in the inscription verified, the whole (with the exception of the letter 6 
of the eariy uncial fi^rm) being in weQ formed Roman capitals. Mr. Westwood 
then alluded to the various attempts which had been to decipher the inscrip- 
tion, (which will be noticed in a separate article by Mr. Westwood in a future 


Nmnber of the Journal^) and conduded that tbis montxment, of the fourth 
or fifth centuiy, was an inTaloable landmark in the histoiy of the diBtrict, 
these early InBcribed stones being the only authentic documents in a country 
which possessed not a single manuscript previous to the twelfth oentnry. Ajb 
to the inquiry of the President respecting its isolated position, he would reply 
that the country afforded no indication now of its character 1500 years aga 
Moreover, before any general answer could be given to the query, it was 
desirable that the original position of such stones should be taken into 
consideration. He knew stcmes still standing in the bleakest and wildest 
parts of the country, whilst others, as the Eindon stone, was found in a low 
and sheltered valley. 

Mr. Barnwell thought that there was nothing unusual about the secluded 
position of the stone of Dyffiyn Bern, as the greater majority of the earliest 
monuments (and he spoke more especially of Celtic ones) were almost univer- 
sally in the wildest and most secluded situations, as well as near the sea-coast, 
in both of which respects the stone in question was pofectly in order. 

The President, in answer to Mr. Westwood, stated that that gentleman had 
misunderstood him ; he never entertained a doubt, or could have done so, aa 
to the monumental and sepulchral character of the stone at Dyffir3m Bern ; 
nor, moreover, had that gentleman, or Mr. Barnwell, in any way given him any 
assistance or explanation on the point he wished to be elucidated ^namely, 
why such solitaiy spots were selected for such monuments. 

Mr. James Allen suggested, as a solution, that such secluded situations 
were especially sdected for distinguished warriors, or chieftains, as more 
likely to be undisturbed. 

The President expressed himself not more enlightened on the real question 
by the ingenious suggestion of Mr. Allen, than by the answers of the other 
gentlemen, which appeared only to confirm the very difficulty of which he 
asked for a solution. 

Mr. LongueviUe Jones appeared as oimicm curias ; he was not able to satisfy 
his Lordship, but he must demur to what had been stated by some of the 
Members as regards to the rule that these early monuments were to be found 
only in isolated and remote districts. His own experience was to the contrary ; 
he knew several in church-yards, and some even let into the walls of churches, 
as was the case in Anglesey, Pembrokeshire and Brecknockshire. 

The President then called on Mr. LongueviUe Jones to read a paper of 
Mr. Fenton's, whose health prevented his reading it himself. On account of 
the lateness of the hour, only selections were read, containing many useful and 
interesting details on the different graves, which Mr. Fenton divided into three 
classes, according to the dniidical rank, or other relation of the occupants. 
The fact of very small funereal urns being found, he was inclined to explain 
by the supposition that a pre-Geltic and pigmy race of people had occiq^ied 
this country. Some useful directions were also given regarding the best mode 
of exploring tumuli. 

Mr. Moggridge could not admit the theory of pigmies, and thought few 
others would do so. In his own explorations, especially of the largo tumulus 


of Mynydd Cam Goch, in GlAmorganshire, he had foimd small urns, geaeiully 
placed in the krger ones, an explanation of which fiust, he thoo^t, might be 
given, without the assistance of the pigmies. 

The President made some observations on die general question of ancient 
sepulchzes, distinguishing between those of the Eastern and Western, aJlnding 
more porticulaily to the rock sepulchres of the former, of which he was inclined 
to think the pyramids but o^ies. He then called on the Bev. John Griffith, 
Rector of Merthyr Tydfil, to read the next paper on the list for that evening, 
which that gentleman, in his preliminaiy observations, remaiked, was not of 
so extensive a nature as his Lordship was erroneously led to announce on the 
preceding evening. The notes he had prepared related to the ojunions the 
English had of Wales, and the Welsh, some 130 years ago, which he had 
colleoted from manuscripts and other sources, which he had from tune to 
time examined, to see what the world thought of the Wdsh in former days. 
His subject was not one of yery great antiquity, and he therefore begged to be 
understood as speaking respectfully in the presence of archsDobgiBts, and, at 
the same time, wished his compatriots, the Welsh (who like himself were not 
antiquaries, but very jealous of their country), to understand that the picture 
he was about to draw was not his own, but one taken frt>m the stray leaves, 
and, he would add, very loose condusiona, of such of his Saxon neighbours as 
had done them the honour of visiting them, and writing about them, in the time 
of (jeorge L They were to imagine themselves as living about that time on 
the other side of the border, deeply interested in some new book of travels, 
then puldishod, and just sent them ; that the scene of its subject was a terra 
inoognUa^ as Wales was at that time ; that the author, a man good and true, 
had seen prodiges, talked with monsters, travelled throng deserts, and that 
they, while thus quietly reading by their fire-sides, might wonder how it was 
possible such intolerable savages as the Welsh could exist in the same island 
as themselves. The notes he held in his hand were extracted from certain 
tracts he found in the Bridsh Museum. The first was called A IV^ ihrtjugh 
North Wales, 1741 ; the other, A Descriplion of WaUs, about the same date. 
The author of the first was a barrister on the North Welsh circuit, and, from 
his hostility to the Welsh attorneys, in all probability a briefless one. Mr. 
Griffith then read several ^mnaing extracts, being ridiculous caricatures of 
the inhabitants, and their customs, manners, &c, &c. Of the oaths then 
said to be in fiishion, one only had survived, ^^ May the Hvil bite hnr head 
off** (Diawl a mytto i). The pulpits were said to have been merely hollow 
trees, badly covered, and worse lined. The account of the clergy mi^t 
have been written by some Glamorganshire magistrate (alluding to some 
discussion which had arisen on the question of a Welsh or English chaplain 
to the Swansea jail). The annual stipend of a clergyman was sud to be about 
five nuuks ; some had even £6 ; so that it was cnstomaiy to increase thesesmali 
incomes by various expedients of keeping bulls or bears for buting, and by 
supplying their parishioners with music at thdr merry-makings. Bells were 
said to be extremely scarce; and Dr. Godwin's authority was ^ven for a 
story of a Bishop of Bangor having melted the only peal existing, to give a 


marriago portion to a daughter. Other extracts aDuded to the attorneys 
and their litigious clients, the proceedings in the courts of justice, and other 
(so-caUed) characteristics of the people. 

Mr. Henry Thomas, the Chairman of the Glamorganshire Quarter Sessions, 
replied to Ihat portion of Mr. GriffitVs remarks which touched upon the 
chaplain question, and was followed by Mr. Westwood, who contended that 
it was impossible to look upon the extracts they had heard but as a mere 
caricature and burlesque, never intended to be taken as serious fiict, and that 
it would be just as reasonable for an Englishman to attempt to show what 
the French thought of his coimtry by quoting extracts from some of the 
productions of the French press as to the habits and characters of their 
opposite neighbours. He should have thought that Mr. GrifBth must have 
foi^ot entirely the testimony of Shakspeare on the subject, who had drawn a 
much more &vourable character of the Welsh ; and he strongly deprecated 
the idea of admitting for one moment the tracts in question in any other light 
than what they evidently were, an illnatured and malicious efiusion of some 
discontented man. 

The President also expressed his astonishment that any gentleman oould 
attach the least importance to the notices they had heard read, and he entirely 
coincided with Mr. Westwood in the view in which they should be regarded. 
He refened to the Towr t» the, Hebrides as a somewhat parallel instance, 
which only proved the antipathy of the writer to the Scotch, and nothing 
more. While tiie union of Eng^d and Wales had only been effected after 
many years of hostility, and a long struggle, nothing had since that time beea 
done to counteract the antipathy which would naturally follow from such a 
state. It was not even till the early part of the eighteenth century that the 
first book was printed in Wales. 

Mr. Moggridge wished to have addressed the meeting, and Mr. Griffith to 
reply to the observations that had been made, especially by Mr. Henry 
Thomas, but the late hour prevented the continuation of the discussion. 

WsDRESoAT, August 17th. 

The veiy numerous body of excursionists that started this morning made 
thdr first halt at Camau Pencrugiau, or, as given in the Ordnance survey, 
Crugiau Eemmes. These tumuli are five in number — not in a line, but form- 
ing part of a very large circle, from the sununits of which a view of the sea is 
obtained. One of these, according to Gibson, in his additions to Camden, has 
been opened, and found to contain five urns, with a large quantity of bones^ 
one of which urns was sent to the Ashmolean Museum. The other tumuli 
appear to have been untouched, and might be examined carefully at a small 
outhiy of trouble and expense. 

Soon after leaving these remains the carriages arrived at Nevem, where 
several objects of attraction detained the excursionists some time. The 
principal of these is the fine cross in the church-yard, of the ninth century^ 
ornamented with network and other patterns, divided in square compart- 
ments, as usual in that class of monuments, of which Wales does not 


oontain many spedmens — the most important being the ckmb at Carew, and 
Maen Achwyn&n (stone of lamentation), netr Holywdl, in Flintahire, examined 
by the Society last year. There existed here fbrmerily, also, two other stones, 
one of which stood on the north aide of the church-yard, abont six feet hig^ 
with the inscription VITATJANI EMERITL It is not known iHiat has 
become of this relic, apparently the monument of some Roman ^veteran. 
The other is said to hare stood inside the church, and was about two feet 
hi^ rounded at the top, and bearing certain characters not more like Greek 
than Roman. The fete of this relic is also unknown, and likely to be so, as 
active inquiries have been made after them without any success. The 
church itself presents no remarkable features, but contains in the chancel a 
coffin-lid, with an early Greek cross, probably of the seventh century, and 
similar to the Margam crosses. An ancient road climbs the hill to the ri^t 
on leaving the church-yard, and is said to have been the route to St 
David's from Strata Florida. On the right hand side is seen a plain cross, 
cut rudely in the rock, with a natural ledge below, on vdiich devout traveOers 
knelt Nothing could be more picturesque than this picture of a wild, narrow, 
mountain road, bounded on one side by the grey rock, and still bearing this, 
the third example in this county, of a wayside cross. 

The remains of the castle, which originally bore the name of Llanhyvor, 
were next examined. Whether a portion of it had at a previous period been 
occupied as a British fortress cannot be easily determined ; but the present 
work is an undoubted eariy Norman work, and presents us with a good type 
of such structures as were intended more for strongholds in an unsettled 
country, than places of permanent residence. No portion of building above 
ground now exists, though a considerable extent of walling, internal and 
external, remains in the fosses, &c. The work ocKiristed of an oval space, at 
each extremity of which are two mounds, the larger surrounded by a deep ditch, 
the perpendicular sides of which still retain their walling through the greater 
part of its extent The hi^est portion of the mound was apparently the 
site of the actual keep ; of the lener mound, which was apparently inclosed 
within the waU protecting the oval space, or court, remains are still exist- 
ing on the edge of the hilL On the north side of the keep also is a small 
circular platform, defended on its northern side by a similar wall, surmount- 
ing a precipitous descent One ascent appears to have been from the high 
road, near the brook, and leading up to the work which separates the keep- 
mound from the other portion of the castle. Some of the defences may 
have consisted of wood as well as stone ; at any rate there are no traces of 
any buildings of importance having ever existed, and it is possible that none 
ever existed, for the castle was soon abandoned for the more eligible situation 
of Newport, probably at the commencement of the thirteenth century, when 
the Norman owner, having strengthened his position by his marriage with the 
daughter of Rhys ap Griffith, may have had less reason to continue to occupy 
so inconvenient a residence. 

The picturesque ruins of Newport Castle were next visited. The principal 
remains are those of the great gateway, now consisting of the western flank* 


ing tower, an extremely elegant structure rimng from a square base into a 
circular form, surmounted by an upper polygonal story of later date. This 
tower is of the thirteenth century. It has none of the massive character o f 
the Edwordan style, and Flemish architects may have probably been em- 
ployed^ as it recalled to some of the gentlemen present the celebrated keep 
of Pembroke. A portion of what is known by tradition as the HwUer^s Hall 
still retains the relics of a fire-place, some string courses on the exterior, 
and mouldings of Eariy English, which correspond with the date ascribed to 
the castle, namely, the middle of the thirteenth century. In this pordon 
also may be seen the admirable arrangements of the sewerage within the 
thickness of the walL The breadth of the building called the Hunter's Hal^ 
has been considerable, judging from the recesses in which the beams fitted, 
and which must have been of considerable size and strength. It is very 
probable, therefore, that, in spite of the jtradition (which however does not 
prove anything -to the contrary), here was the great banquet hall of the 
castle. The curtain between this portion and the gateway is in a complete 
state of ruin, but was originally of great thickness. The curtain which de- 
fended the west and south-west sides, and which was strengthened by a 
bastion now gone, is in the same dilapidated state. This side was probably 
also defended by a wet moat, supplied by two streams, dammed up at 
one end by what appears to be original work. In the south-east angle 
are the ground, and a portion of the first, floors of a large round tower, 
rising from a square base, and presenting a flat side towards the court. It 
is provided with a sink and garderobe, and also with two largB recessed 
spaces, the purpose of which is not apparent They appear to be too 
large for lockers. Some present conjectured them to be sleeping places for 
the guard, as the chamber may have been a guardroom. In this part also 
is another example of the drainage being provided for in the thickness of the 
walL On the north side of this tower, and adjacent to it, is a vaulted 
chamber, with a central pier of Early Decorated character, firom which spring 
eight ribs, terminating in as many pilasters on the sides and comers of the 
chamber. On the east side there are two deep bays, probably terminating 
in loop-holes in the outer walls. To what use this vaulted chamber was 
applied is not very apparent. It might have been used as a storehouse, or a 
place of confinement, there being a similar chamber, but on a larger scale, 
in Ruthin Castle, which has, from the rude inscriptions and figures on the 
walk, evidently been used as a prison. A curtain connected this portion with 
the gateway. 

The church, said to be of the thirteenth century, has undergone so many 
alterations, that at present little remains of the original edifice. The font 
is a good specimen of the Pembrokeshire kind, and in the tower were exhi- 
bited the firagments of a coffin-lid of the fourteenth century, with a foliated 
cross, which supplies the place of the body of the efi^, the head of which 
alone appears, as is frequently found in tombstones of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries, rarely later. Mr. Westwood, however, fix>m the form of 
the inscription, in Norman French, referred it to the fourteenth century. The 


inscription reads thus :— CES : ANE : GIT : IGI : DEV : DEL : ALME : 

Before retoniing to the carriages a short digression was made to examine a 
small cromlech near the road. The covering stone is still in its proper 
poffltion, but some of the supporters have vanished. No remains of any 
outer circle, or gallery leading to the chamber, could be traced. An adjourn- 
ment then took place to Llivyngwair, where the numerous assemblage was 
received with the most courteous hospitality by Mr. Bowen. This important 
item of the programme having been most fully and satisfactorily discnssed, 
the carriages were ordered to proceed towards the cromlech of Pentre Evan, 
probably the finest monument of the kind existing in the kingdom, certainly 
the highest,—- a tall man mounted easily riding under the single covering 
stone now remaining. On the present occasion six ladies and gentlemen, on 
horseback, stood together under it at the same time. In the time of Gibson a 
circle of stones, now only partially to be traced, surrounded this monument, 
which was evidently once of much larger extent than it is now. The present 
remains are probably a portion of the chamber of the burial-place, so that 
there must have been at least one more covering stone, if not*twa In the 
adjoining field may still be seen numerous immense masses, all of which must 
have formed part of the structure, which probably conasted of a square 
chamber approached by a gallery, formed in the same manner as the chamber, 
but perhaps of less height It was also, there is little doubt, covered with 
soil, long since removed by man and time ; and, as is so firequenUy the case, 
it is placed in a conspicuous position, commanding a view of the sea. It is 
curious that Arthur*s name is associated with it ; but that it was the burial- 
place of some distinguished chieftain or warrior is meet likely. 

After remaining some time admiring this fine relic, as wcJl as the view no 
less fine, some present under the guidance of Mr. Bowen explored the remains 
of an old road, which had been well and completely paved, and boane evezy 
indication of a Roman way. A portion of it is lost ; but lower down it recurred 
again, exhibiting more regular work in the arrangement of the stones. No 
satisfactory information could be obtained as to how far it could be traced, or 
of its direction, but it was understood to be the boundary line of two andent 
properties — a strong confirmation of its great antiquity. The rest of the 
party, who had gone round in their carriages, met the pedestrians at Poitre 
Evan, where the remains of the mansion of Sir James ap Owain, consisting 
only of a stable retaining some rudely splayed windows, and an early, probably 
original, roof, were examined. Tradition called the place the ^^ House of 
Refuge,** or some such name ; but this may probably be traced to the hospitable 
character of its owners. Some delay subsequentiy occurred by three of the 
excursionists bdng lost, who had, contrary to all order, strayed away to 
examine the remains of Trewem, the original seat of the Warrens, once a 
Norman family of importance in this country. 

The Evening Meeting did not commence much before nine o'clock, when, in 
the absence of the President, Sir Stephen Glynne, y.P., occupied the chair, 
and at his request Mr. Westwood gave an account of the excursion of the day, 


which, he said, had iiilly borne out the remark of the President on Monday 
night, in providing materials of all ages for the varied tastes of the viators. 
After alluding to the tumuli visited in the first portion of the day, Mr. West- 
wood remarked on the great cross at Nevem, that this dass of monument had 
been unfortunate in the attempts made to explain their origin. By one clan 
of writers they had been assumed to be Runic, and consequently of Scandi- 
navian origin, whereas no such monuments were to be found in Scandinavia. 
Such ornaments do indeed occur on the crosses of ihe Isle of Man, inscribed 
with Runes, but thei« b no doubt that the ecclesiastical artists of that island 
derived their arts, as well as their religion, from Ireland, Cumberland, and 
Wales. These crosses, however, perfectly agreed, not only with the Irish 
crosses in the style of their ornamentation, but also with the manuscripts of 
the Irish and Anglo-Saxons previous to the tenth century, as might be 
seen by examining the fac-smiles from the Hereford Gospels, exhibited in 
the Temporaiy Museum. Another dass of writers, on the other hand, had 
referred these monuments to a druidical origin, and invested their simply 
ornamental designs with mystical and cosmological ideas of the most absurd 
nature, including the movements of the planets, the distribution of tune, &c» 
He had been struck in Newport Church by the sise and width of the 
arches opening into the transept ; but he undertood this peculiarity was not 
unusual in South Wales. In the belfry, tmder the tower, the fin^ments of 
a recently discovered tombstone were exhibited. This slab, of the fourteenth 
ooituiy, had a cross fleury, surmounted by a female head in high relief with 
the edges bevelled, and inscribed with Lombardic capitals. The name of the 
person conunemoratod was an unusual one. Mr. Westwood then pointed out 
the more remarkable features of the casde of Newport, alluding to the new 
buildings now going on, which, though exceedingly picturesque in themselves, 
did not exactly hannonbEe with the elegant tower still standing, Mr. 
Westwood, having alluded to the two cromlechs they had visited, and the 
kindness with which James Sevan Bowen, Esq., had received them, expressed 
his opinion that the rude footpath he had traversed with some of the excur- 
aonists was probably Roman. The remains of the old house of Pentre Evan 
were apparently about the time of Henxy VII., as &r as could be conjectured 
from the small remains, which consist only of a bam and stable. On thdr 
return the excursionists had separated, one party climbing College Hill, the 
other returning by Pont Baldwin,.-.iOn which spot Archbishop Baldwin was 
said to have preached one of his ^* crusade*' sermons, — ^passing also through the 
pretty village of Eglwyswrw, the church and church-yard of which contained 
nothing of antiquarian interest. 

The President, on his arrival, assumed the chair. A paper of Mr. Vincent's 
was read on St. Dogmael's Abbey, giving an account of the history of the 
abbey, and principal architectural features of the present remains. This 
paper will appear in the Journal 

Mr. Westwood regretted that no notice had been taken of the very interesting 
incised stones still remaining in the abbey grounds, and which were several 
centuries earlier than the establishment of the abbey itself 



The PreBident thought ihat it was hardly &ir to call Mr. Yinceat to 
aocotmt for the omiflsion of noticing these stones, as the paper only professed 
to embiBoe the histoiy of the abbey. 

Bir. Longaerille Jones observed in ezplanatton that it was only of late 
years that the stone, to i^ch Mr. Westwood more particalazly alladed, was 
bron^t to the abbey by Mr. Vincent, who had rescaed it from its former 
position, it having been used aa a bridge across a stream. It subsequently 
appealed that the atone in question was originaUy taken firam the abbey, 
then converted into a gate-poet, then into a bridge, (over vdiich a White 
Lady was said to walk nightly,) and finally restorod to its original ground by 
Mr. Vincent. Fortunately, while used as a bridge, the inscribed face had 
been put downwards. 

Mr. Westwood repEed that this was another instance of the removal of 
these inscribed stones fivm their old locafities without say permanent record 
of the dicumstances being afibrded for the information of inquiren. He 
had himself) only in the last wedc, lost many hours in hunting for a stone 
figured in Camden, and at last foimd that it had been removed to the htwn of 
a gentleman*s house in the neighbourhood of Caermarthen. To remove such 
relics, except for the sake of safety, could not be tolerated ; an iron fence 
would protect them sufficiently ; and at any rate, if removed at all, they 
should be put either in the adjacent church, or in some local museum, or even 
in the county hall, with a brass inscription indicating the circumstances of the 
removal This had been done by the late excellent antiquary, the late Bev. 
T. Price, who had removed one <^ these stones, and fixed it in the walls of his 
church at IJanfihangel Cwmdu, when it was rebuilt He hoped that the 
stcme now exhibited in the Temporary Museum, brought finom lianDear, and 
now for the first time introduced to the notice <^ the antiquary, would be 
thus treated, and not allowed, bearing as it did the symbol of Redemption, to 
be used as a gate-post 

Mr. Moggridge then read some notes on the Cantief y Gwaelod, and 
wished, if possible, that some decision should be come to before th^ parted 
as to the historic truth of the story of this submei^ed district He examined 
the question in an historical, traditional, and physical point of view. He 
detailed the various circumstances as recorded by the legend, in wluch the 
catastrophe was attributed to the negligence of the person who had charge of 
the sluice gates, in the time of a king called Gwydno. 

The Presidttit observed that similar legends were common, and to be met 
with in many other countries, and although he did not believe in the historic 
truth of the story of Cantref y Gwadod as to the number of cities submeiged, 
or the cause of the accident, yet he had no doubt that there was sufficient 
physical evidence to believe that some extenrive tracts of land had been sub- 
merged along the coast of Cardiganshire, and he alluded more particulariy 
to that level portion of the coast extending southward fix>m Aberdovey. As 
to what was said of the fertility of the lost country, it was so fiu* probable, 
as confirmed by the case of Holland, where the land, protected from the sea 
by dykes, was of such fertility, that even in the present dry season the grass 


had been cut three timea. He oould not, however, go so far as Mr. Mog- 
gridge, in attaching anything like historic anthori^ to the legend, and 
certainly for his own part he declined taking any part in reflecting on the 
conduct of King Gwydno, during his absence. (Laughter.) 

Mr. Babington did not rise to enter into the question of historic evidence 
as to this I^end, but he thought that geology could furnish sufficient 
explanation ; in fact, he looked upon it merely as a question of geology. In 
many other districts, besides the one now under conrideration, he had seen 
the trunks of trees standing in their original position &r out in the sea. 
There were also those sinkings and elevations of land still going graduaQy on 
in Europe, and more particularly in Scandinavia, where the rate of depresnon 
or elevation was ascertained. 

Mr. R. D. Jenkins stated that, though he did not call himself a very old 
man, he could bear personal testimony to the oicroachments of the sea in 
or about the nei^bourhood of Aberayron. The Cantref y Gwaelod was sup- 
posed to have extended out seaward firom that point of Cardiganshire, and 
it certainly did appear to any observer travelling in that direction as if 
the sea had made great encroachments. The shallow appearance of the 
water for a conriderable distance firom the shore confirmed the statement ; and 
he knew that, within the last few years, it had been gradually and continually 
gaining ground near Aberayron, at a place called Llanina, between the last 
mentioned place and New Quay. There was eveiy reason to apprehend 
that it would not be very long before the parish church, if not the mansion 
house, of TJunifiR itself would be swept away ; at Dinas, between the towns of 
Fishguard and Newport, the parish church and a portion of the church-yard 
had already been carried away by the sea. At Newport also, at certain states 
of the tide, imdoubted evidence was afibrded of the incursion of the sea ; but 
these districts ware too far removed down the coast to bear directly on the 
question of Cantref y Gwadod. 

Mr. Moggridge having replied to these observations, 

Mr. Longueville Jones, at the summons of the President, gave a lecture 
on ancient camps, British, Roman, Danish, &c, describing tiieir reqiective 
characteristics. He then pointed out the various details of Cam Croch, in 
Caermarthenshire (visited by the Association in 1855), from a plan prepared 
fix>m the original Ordnance survey, concluding his remarks by reading a list 
of the several similar works existing in Ireland, as given by Mr. Wilde. 

The President, in commenting on his lecture, expressed surprise that, in 
the list of such primitive works in Ireland, no notice had been taken of that 
extraordinary stone fort in Kerry, which he had alludod to on a former 
occasion. None of the examples mentioned appeared to him to approach in 
interest, or in importance, the work he alluded to, and which he had already 
described, with its passages, parapets, waUs, &c 

A paper by Mr. T. O. Morgan, on Britonny, was to have followed, but 
the extreme lateness of the hour prevented it. 


Tbdbsdat, August ISth. 

An alteration was made in the first portion of this day's excnrraon by taking 
Cilgerran Castle on the way to Moel Trigam. Cilgerran Church, a new 
edifice, ktely rebuilt and fitted up in a highly satisfactory manner, was first 
inspected, and subsequently ihe incised stone in the church-yard, which has 
been described by Mr. Westwood, in the Archaiolo^ Cambrentis^ Tlurd 
Series, i. p. 9. llie inscription reads,— 


There are alao Ogham chancten on the edge of the stone, and a rude cross, 
of equal limbs, on one of its sides. The Ber. D. Brans, the rector, stated 
that there were still indications of the name in his parish, where there is a 
fium called Penallt-treini, Penallt bdng a common prefix to the name of the 
first bonder, as Peoallt Cadwrgan, Penallt Hywell, both in this paridL 

On leaving the church the excursionists, who were here joined by a large 
number of ladies and gentlemen, took a brief surrey of the picturesque 
ruins of the castle, and the matchless scenery of its situation, after i^ch 
the President called cm Mr. Clark, of Dowlais, to explain to them the most 
characteristic features of the building. Mr. Clark, who had only preceded 
the general party by a few minutes to take a hasty ^ance at the outline of 
the woiks, after apologiaing for addressing his auditors on a building he had 
seen for the first time, asked them to take the map of Wales, and note on 
it the principal fortresses, from which it was evident that the builders of 
those castles employed three chief towns as the regpecAre bases of their 
attacks upon the I^cipaUty. From Chbstbb extended the line of castles 
idiich made Flint, Rhuddlan, Denbigh, Ruthin, Conway, Beaumaris, Caer- 
narvon, Eburlech, &c, a complete chain, including many magnificent works 
chiefly by Edward L, and intended to keep in check the inhabitants of North 
Wales. Based upon SHsawsBUBT, there were Ludlow, Welshpod, and 
Montgomery Castles, commanding the approaches of the central districts, and 
originally planned by the great baron who gave his name to the county of 
Montgomery. GLoucasTEB, the third town, was the centre of a very long 
series of castles, which, extending by Chepstow, Cardiff, Neath, Swansea and 
Caermarthen to Pembroke, commanded the passages of the rivers, and thus 
along the plain country of the South secured a ready and safe communi- 
cation with Ireland. It was upon two castles of this series, Caermarthen and 
Pembroke, that the conquest, or tenure, of Cardigan was made to depend. 
The actual occupancy of the district being thus secured by Aber ysi w yt h on 
the north, and Cardigan and Cilgerran on the south, Newport, Nevem, and 
some inferior fortresses were erected by private persons for the defisnce of 
thdr own estates ; but the more important works remained in the hands of 
the Crown, or of the Lord Marcher who was held responsible for the peace 
of the district Cilgerran Castle was one of these, and though it mi^t be 
called technically an Edwardan castle, was, like others, of rather earlier date 
than Edward I. It was of peculiar interest, because it did not exhibit the 


Qsaal Edwardan symmetxy of plan, but had been adapted by the engineer to 
the character of the ground, which formed a sort of peninsula, with its two 
sides strongly fortified hy nature. The north-eastem and north-western sides 
being thus protected, the engineer had only to turn his attention to the re- 
maining sides. Mr. Clark then pcnnted out the irregular plan of the inner 
bailey, on the west side of which, abutting on the cUff, was the gate-house, 
a plain rectangular building, the northern half of which, including most of 
the gateway, has been removed, though a rude portcullis groove, and a 
portion of the chamber above, still remained. The gate-house was connected 
by a short curtain wall with the south-west tower, a very fine cylindrical 
shell, containing four floon not vaulted, and a battlement platform. It was 
entered on the court by a plain doorway, on the right of which was a well stair 
leading to each floor, the curtain and gate-house, and to the battlements of 
the tower itself. One of the windows was divided into two lights by a rude 
pier, either an afterthought of the builder, or of much later date. fVom this 
tower a curtain of great height and thickness passed on to the south-east 
tower. At its junction with this tower there was a postern, and above it at 
some height a relieving arch, an indication that this part of the wall belonged 
rather to the south-east than the south-west tower. The south-east tower, 
which was not unlike its sister, had also a door towards the court, and a well 
staircase, though on the left hand, ascending to the summit and curtain 
beyond. There were, however, no fire-places as in the south-western tower, 
and the windows to the court are in pairs, and may almost be pure Norman 
firom thdbr character. The ashlar work of both towers, if there had been any, 
was nearly all removed. Although part of the original plan, the south-eastern 
tower appeared to be of earlier execution than its companion. From this tower 
the curtain was continued eastward until it terminated in a sort of polygonal 
head upon the river diff, where a breastwork commenced. This breastwork 
ran along the river firont as fiir as the north angle, which was occupied by a 
rectangular building of superior masonry to the rest, and which probably 
contained dwelling or guardrooms. From this building, which conmianded 
the view up the two ravines, the breastwork was continued along the edge of 
the difif until it met with the gate-house, and thus completed the circuit of the 
interior defences. Mr. Clark then conducted his audience into the outer bailey, 
and pointed out where this bailey covered the two landward faces extending 
fix>m cliff to diff, being traversed by a causeway leading fit>m the gate-house 
towards the village, and which ran along the edge of the north-western cliff, 
from which it was protected by a slight parapet. This bailey also included a 
diy moat from which the two drum towers rose, and a sort of platform of 
green sward, outside of which was evidently an outer line of wall South- 
eastward this bailey was terminated by the lofty curtain which connected the 
two towers close to the postern, and evidently was returned southward to 
unite with the outer work. This portion also contained a postern, or water- 
gate, so arranged that persons issuing from the inner work could gain an 
exit to a zig-zag leading under the river front to the water edge. The 
masonry, generally, was not unlike the worst part« of Caerphilly, being of rude 


chancier, and with little ashlar even about the loops and windowa. In &ct 
quality seemed to be replaced by quantity, the walla being of enormous thick- 
ness. The drum towers did not, as frequently dsewhere in Wales, rise from 
square bases, but like those of Caerphilly, were cylindrical from top to bottom. 
The battlements were but slightly projecrted, and rested on shallow corbels. In 
some cases they had no projection at alL No traces of chapd, or distinct 
state apartments, or even a well, could be made out 

The President having thanked Mr. Chu^ on behalf of himsdf and the 
assembly present, for his dear explanation of the details of this ruin, ezpmsed 
his regret that his engagements compelled him to return hom& 

Mr. Barnwell thanked his Lordship for his kindness in contributing so 
much to the pleasure and interest all, he believed, had felt in the present 
Meeting. It was true that they had enjoyed most favourable weather, and 
that the excursions had been very rich in objects of great interest, yet he was 
sure he was speaking the sentiments of all present when he attributed princi- 
pally to his Lordship^s exertions, as their iSnesident, the unqualified sucoeas of 
the Meeting. 

His Lordship then having briefly relied, returned homewaida, while the 
excursionistB proceeded on their route towards Moel Trigam. 

The summit of this hill, forming part of the Preseleu range, b crowned 
with a very fine stone camp, having originally three lines of defence on the 
eastern side, two on the north and south, on the west ride only one ; but here 
the declivity is much steeper, as well as defended in many parts by the 
natural rode Throughout the interior space may be traced remains of 
cytdau, &c, and externally indosures of a square and other forms, one or 
two of which are singularly perfect. The name of the hill is derived from 
the three large cams still remaining, thou^ they have apparently been dis- 
turbed. A lai^ cirde also remains, nearly between ihe first and second of 
these cams, but a little to the southward. The cams were thought by 
some present to have been beacons, by others sepulchral cams. If beacona, 
one large one would probably have been more useful than three smaller ones. 

Mr. BamweU, in some observations made on these cams, remarked on their 
being three in number, as was also the case on the top of a high mountain in 
Caermarthenshire, and which, like the present one, received its name firam 
that circumstance. He also mentioned several inBtAnoes in which this rule of 
three obtained ; and he thought, firom the many instances known, that such 
groups were not always the surviving remains of larger masses, but an original 
number, for which however no explanation had yet been given. The poritton 
of these and similar monumental remains was generally found to be near the 
sea, though there were a few important exceptions to this rule. Mr. James 
AUen mentioned the well known one of Widand's Cam, in Berkshire, as 
being almost in the centre of England. 

From the camp the members proceeded to examine what was called oo 
the programme a Roman road, but which was popularly attributed to the 
Flemings. It appeared to be an original British road or trackway, and was 
said to extend many miles along the ridge of hills in the direction of St David's. 


Fenton seems to have found one part of it paved, and conjectures that a 
neighbooring cromlech had been robbed to serve as paving materials ; but 
no such traces of any pavement were observed on this occasion. At some 
distance is a fine circle, or rather oval, of small upright stones, known hy the 
native peasantry as Bedd Arthur, or Arthur's Grave. It lies somewhat to 
the left of the ancient trackway. After some delay the carriages were re^* 
gained, and proceeded to Bridell Church-yard, in which stands a stone having 
an early cross of unusual character, within a circle, the arms being truncated^ 
BO as not to touch the surrounding circle. This stone has also Ogham cha- 
racters with some remarkable peculiarities, constituting, however, the longest 
inscription of this kind hitherto discovered in Wales. 

In the evening the members of the Committee met for the transaction of 
bunness, after which the General Meeting of members only was held, under 
the prendency of Sir Stephen Glynne, Bart. 

The proceedings of the Committee having been confirmed, Mr. Moggridge 
moved, and Mr. Westwood seconded the resolution, that Sir Stephen Glynne, 
Bart, Octavius Morgan, Esq., M.P., and James Dearden, Esq., F.S.A., be 
elected Trustees, and that the Lord Bishop of Bangor be made a Patron of 
the Association. 

Mr. Babington moved, and Mr. James Allen seconded the resolution, that 
Mr. Joseph Joseph be elected Treasurer, and that the other officers of the 
Association be re-elected for the ensuing year. 

A vote of thanks was also passed to the Lord Bishop of St Asaph for 
his services as President for the past year. 

It was also agreed that steps should be taken by the Association towards 
removing, if possible, the stone at T^-goed to a fitting site, in or near the 
church at Clydau. 

Fridat, August 19th. 

The members started this morning, on foot, to visit St Dogmael*s Abbey 
and Church, where they were received by the Bev. H. J. Vincent, who pointed 
out the general outline of the ruins, which are his private property, and 
i^ch are most carefully protected from fbrther dilapidation. 

Mr. Talbot Bury then proceeded to describe the more particular features 
of the ruins. After pointing out the only remaining portions, namely, 
the west and north waDs, the north transept, and the remains of some 
buildings attached to the east side, Mr. Bury observed there was no 
difficulty in arriving at the plan of the oiiginaJ structure. It had been a 
cruciform church, having a nave without aisles, and transepts, and a veiy 
extensive choir. In the west wall are the remains of a very large window, 
but without any vestiges of tracery. The jamb mouldings, however, may be 
referred to a date between 1280 and 1330, which date is confirmed by a 
doorway at the western end of the north wall having the bail-flower running 
round the ardied head. In the north wall are some curious recesses, evi- 
dentiy intended for sepulchral monuments, but there is no evidence of their 
ever having been used for that purpose, unless they have been subsequentiy 


stripped of the freestone with which they mast hiiTe been lined and moulded, 
or they may have been purposely left unfinished, and walled up, to be opened 
and completed when required. The north transit has undergone conside- 
rable alterations at a later period, and been used as a Lady, or other chisel, 
perhaps a sepulchral one, as the same kind of recesses before described occur 
on each side of the altar. The roof is of stone, and of a good design 
of fim tracery groining, springing from richly ornamented oorbeb; only a 
few feet however of the springers of this rich groining remain. The windows 
in this transept are of the same character and date as the roof, namely, of 
the period of the reign of Henry VLL The other portions of the building, 
above ground, are on the south side, and consist of a part of the cloister 
walls, and the south side of the refectory. This portion of the domestic 
buildings is very interesting, from having the staircase constructed within the 
wall leading to the remains of the pulpit, which had a window at the back, 
as in the well known examples of the rdectories of the abbeys of Beaulieu, 
Walsingham, Chester, and elsewhere. About 150 feet east of the refectoiy, 
and nearly on the same line, is a building in more perfect condition than any 
other part of the ruins, about 88 feet long, by 20 feet 6 inches ; but it is 
not easy to determine its character, unless it belonged to the abbot's resi- 
dence, and was either a chapel, or refectoiy, as some thought, for strangers. 
The recesses in the south wall, iqpparently occupied by sodilia, with the 
remains of a pisdna, do not fiivour the latter supposition. There b also a 
recess, about 5 feet deep by 14 feet long, in the centre of the south wall^ 
which may as well be supposed to have been used for a pulpit as for any 
other purpose. The building seems to be of an earlier date than the church, 
and its construction is of better masonry, which exhibits alternate rows of 
light and dark stones, being a very eariy example of a style of decoration 
supposed to be exclusively Italian. The roof is of stone, vaulted, in the form 
of a pcnnted arch, but without ribs, and has been ingeniously constructed to 
avoid all outward thrust of the walls. Over the panel of the east window is 
a corbel supported by an angeL That this, and probably other parts a[ the 
abbey now not existing above ground, are of a date prior to the principal 
remains of the church, is evident from the large quantity of fragments of 
mouldings of piers and arches found in different portions of the ruins. Some 
are transitional between the Norman and Early Pointed styles — ^undoubted 
remains of the original church, completed in the time of Henry L, by Robert, 
son of Martin de Tours, who was seized of the Lordship of Cemaes in the 
reign of T^/llliam the Conqueror. In concluding his observati<ms, Mr. Bury 
congratulated the members on the fact that these interesting ruins wcro under 
the protection of so worthy a proprietor as Mr, Vincent had shown himsd^ 
by the care he had taken, not only in preventing further destruction, but by the 
labour and great expense he had incurred, at various times, in strengthening 
weaker portions of the buildings, without which precaution the ruins would 
not have been so well preserved as they are at present ; and he wished most 
heartily that all other proprietors of such remains could be induced to fdlow 
the example which their Local Secretary for Pembrokeshire had set them. 


At the oondtision of Mr. Bury*s address the visitors proceeded to explore 
the Tarious interesting relics which are dispersed throughout the grounds. 

Having first examined a mutilated coffin-lid, with an early Greek cross, 
Amilar to those found at Margam, and another slab on which the shaft only 
of the cross remains, and which Mr. Westwood considered to be unique, as 
well as the slab of the high altar of the abb^, marked with small crosses, the 
company assembled round the celebrated stone of Sagramnus, on which Mr. 
Longueville Jones gave a brief lecture, illustrating his remarks by numerous 
copies of stones in Wales and Ireland, the edges of which were marked with 
Ogham characters. The stone of Sagramnus, he observed, was one of pecu- 
liar interest and value, and had been called the Bosetta stone of the Ogham 
controversy ; for the oghamic character, if read according to Dr. Graves^s 
system, firom below upwards, and from the left to the right, gave the equi- 
valent of the Latin inscription, the word MAQI of the Oghams representing 
the Fili in the Latin inscription. There was also another circumstance which 
gave an additional value to this stone. Sagranmus was described as the son 
of Cunotamus, or Cunatamus, the Latinized forms of Cunedda, who was known 
to have flourished in the fifth and sixth centuries ; so that the palffiographic 
character of the Latin inscription, as determined by Mr. Westwood, corres- 
ponded with the historic date. This Cunedda, who was a prince of North 
Wales, was stated to have given to his son Ceredig (firom whom Cardigan 
takes its name) a large district, including the present county of Cardigan, and 
part of Pemlnrokeshire ; so that this account, to a certain extent, seemed 
confirmed by finding in this district the tomb-stone of one of his brothers, 
whose name, however, was not recorded in history. 

Mr. Westwood, after stating that he believed he was the first to call atten- 
tion to the existence of Oghams in Wales, was delighted to find that the sub- 
ject had gained so much ground, and that so many additional examples had 
been dnce discovered. He was aware that there were persons who believed 
these scorings om the angles of the stones to be destitute of any literary 
meaning ; but, independent of the accounts given of the Bardic alphabet of the 
WeUh, (of the antiquity of which, however, he could not give any opinion,) 
cut on the angles of pieces of wood, or sticks, (of which, he thought, the tallies 
used in the Exchequer were a remnant,) it was certain that an occult system 
of writing was practised in Ireland coeval with the ordinary Irish characters, 
just as the An^o-Saxons occasionally employed Runes instead of the usual 
letters. Numerous Ogham alphabets were given in Astie*s work on writing 
(plate xxxL), all of which were &r more modem than the inscribed stones, 
of which the alphabet could scarcely yet be said to have been ascertained, 
although the researches of Dr. Graves had done much to tmravel this difficult 

Mr. Vincent then communicated his wish to follow the advice of the 
Members of the Association as to the best course to be adopted to preserve 
the stone now before them. A discussion succeeded, some proposing that it 
should be deposited in some l6cal museum ; but it was ultimately determined 
that the best place would be to place it within a niche, to be made for that 
express purpose, in the vestry of the church of Bt. DogmaeL's, and to be 


further protected by plate ^bn, a bnas plate being also attached, aettiiig 
forth the history of the stone. 

An adjournment then took place towards the pariah church of Cardigan, 
formeily the church of the prioiy of black monks, and subordinate to the abbey 
of Chertsey, in Suiiejr. The tower and church ha^e undergone manj 
subsequent alterations, so that, with the exception of a fine Late Decorated 
piscina, and the lower portion of the nave, there are hardly any portions of 
architectoral interest 

On leading the church the excursionists proceeded to Pen y Ian, where they 
had been kindly invited to a magnificent luncheon. At the conclusion of ihe 
repast, Mr. Babington, having alluded to the great hospitality the members 
had receiYed during their visit to the county of Cardigan, expressed on 
behalf of the Association their cordial thanks to Morgan Jones, Esq., who 
had received them, on the present occasion, in so hospitable a manner. 

An adjournment then was made to the new and very satisfiictoiy church 
of Llandygwydd, after examining which some returned to Cardigan, the 
others prosecuted their route to Newcastle-Emlyn. Soon after leaving Fen y 
Ian, a large tumulus on the left was seen, but not examined ; but, as fiur as 
could be judged firom w^t was seen of it in passing, it seemed to be more 
of a defensive than a sepulchral character. The picturesque Kenarth water- 
fidls were next visited. 

An inspecticm of the ruins of Kewcastle-Emlyn formed the completion 
of the excursion. These are extremely scanty, being only the principal gate- 
way, flanked with two octagonal towers, which have been connected by curtains 
to the precipitous sides of the peninsula on which the castle stood. Traces 
of a wall crowning the circuit of the castle, together with some of its towers, 
can be made out; but, beyond the gateway, and its fl^nWiiig towers, no 
buildings remain. The masonry is of an inferior kind, and has been dspared 
of all its ashlar work, nor are there any decided indications of the date of its 
structure, which is attributed, and apparently with truth, to Sir Hhys vp 
Thomas, in the time of Henry VlL From the configuration of the ground, 
washed on three sides by the Teivi, there is little doubt that it has been a 
strong post, even prior to the Norman castle which is said to have preceded 
the building of Sir Rhys. It was stated that communications had existed 
between the north side of the castle with the river, which had at one time been 
crossed by a bridge, the traces of which were said to be in existence. 

Behind a gentleman's house, on the other side of the bridge, is a con- 
nderable mount, of a military character, which must have commanded the 
river. There are no traces of any masoniy existing. It may. have been 
held as a check to the occupants of the opposite castle, or may have been the 
original strong poet occupied by the Normans prior to their erecting their 
castle on the peninsula, and ihence called Newcastle, as in the case of 
Newport, whither the Norman baron removed icom his castle at NeveriL 
Such mounts are not unfrequently found near later and more important 
edifices, as in the case of the Twthill, near Rhnddlan Castle. The addition 
of Emlyn is remarkable, as tending to prove the existence of the very eariy 
occupation either of the mount or the peninsula. The name, however, does 


not occur in the Wekh annals, although it is fonnd on the ^miliniis stone, 
now in Pool Park, Denbighshire, where it was removed a few years ago 
from Bedd Emljn, virited by the Association, in 1854. (See Arcfu Camb. 
Third Series, i. p. 1 1 6.) On the letmn home, by the same route, along the 
picturesque rale of the Tdvi, the only object noticed was the mound near 
Kenardi Bridge surmounted with trees. 

At the Evening Meeting the Mayor, in the absence of the Plnesident, took the 
chair, and after reading a letter connected witJi the histoiy of the Dyffiyn 
Bern stone, which threw some light on the discussion of Tuesday evening, 
called on the Bev. Evan Jones to read a paper by the Bev. W. Edmunds, 
Head Master of Lampeter Grammar School, on the history and genealogies 
of certain Cardiganshire families in the neighbourhood of that place. 

Mr. Moggridge proceeded to give an account of a fine druidic circle at 
Bhosmaen, near Llandrindod, in Badnorshire, on the summit of a dome-like 
elevation, many such domes being scattered over the partly inclosed common, 
extending firom Uandegley Hills to Badnor Forest The diameter of the 
drde is about 80 feet, and still retains 37 of its stones ; a full account of 
which interesting relic, with an engraved plan, wiU appear in an early 
Number of the JoxunaL 

Mr. Barnwell strongly objected to the assumption that the drde of 
Bhosmaen was connected in any way with druidic worship ; the description 
given of it accorded in no respect with the little that was known of that 
cult, but on the contrary, bore a strong resemblance to what were proved 
to be sepulchral remains, so many instances occuring of the surrounding 
drde alone remaining, when all traces of the grave, or tumulus, had vanished. 

Mr. lioyd-Phillips alluded to such circles as he had seen in Denbighshire, 
on the most solitaiy and mountainous spots, where he did not think any 
tumulus could have existed, for it seemed impossible to account for the re- 
moval of the soil, or stones, for agricultural purposes in such a district. 

Mr. Babington also hesitated about subscribing to Mr. Barnwell's views, 
that all such drdes were the remains of burial-places, although there was 
nothing as regarded that at Bhosmaen against its being such. He then 
described the prindpal features of the great sepulchral tumulus at New 
Grange, which was also surrounded with a cirde of stones, of far larger 
dimensions than the one of Bhosmaen. 

Mr. Longueville Jones thought that, instead of theorizing, it would be 
more desirable to add to thdr store of observations. It was very probable 
that such drdes had other uses, dther of religious worship or national 
assemblies, and he was therefore not prepared to see a buxial-place in every 
drde. In short, he considered that the question was at present far from 
being settled. 

Mr. Moggridge expluned that he had only used the word druidical in a 
conventional sense, and did not insist on its being merdy intended for the 
performance of druidic rites, although he was by no means convinced that 
it was what Mr. Barnwell suggested, merdy sepulchraL ^ 

The usual votes of thanks were then moved and agreed to. 

Mr. Longueville Jones, in proposing that the thanks of the Association be 


giYen to the geatleiDai who had received the Members of the Association at 
their houses during the present Meeting, expressed on behalf of the Members 
their great obligation for the kind and hospitable manner in whidi thej had 
been welcomed hy the leading gentry of this portion of the oountiy. 

Mr. Lloyd-Phillips seconded the resolution. This was the tenth oocasioD 
on which he had attended the AnnnAl Meeting, and on no other occasion had 
they been welcomed with greater hospitality that they had enjoyed on the 
present one. 

Mr. Babington proposed, that the thanks of the Associafcion be given to 
the Local Committee. Although the Local Committee embraced so 
numerous and distinguished a list, yet th^ were all aware that the laborious 
duty of the pr^Murations devolved on two or three. He wished, therefore, 
in expressing his thanks generally to the Committee, to mention more par- 
ticulariy the names of Mr. Yinoent and Mr. Jenkins, to whose untiring 
exertions they were all so much indebted, in having contributed so effectually 
to the distinguished success of their Meeting on this occaaon. 

Mr. Bury, in seconding the resolution, expressed his regret at not having 
been able to attend earlier in the week. 

Mr. Moggridge proposed a vote of thanks to the contributors to the 
Temporary Museum, the contents of which, he regretted to say, he was not 
so well acquainted with as he should have wished, and he should not have 
been sony if a wet day had compelled them to stay a morning in Cardigan, 
when they might have had time to ^^^gi^mintt more carefully the various 
antiquities kindly contributed for their inspection. He should therefore 
suggest that, in ftiture arrangements, if possible, some provioon should be 
made for a careful examination of such collections. 

Mr. Barnwell, in seconding the proposal, remarked that the formations of 
such museums were useful in many respects. Sometimes a curious relic 
might be brought to light, as was the case of the unique iron celt, now in 
the British Museum, which might have been thrown away as old iron, or 
lost, but for the Local Museum formed at the Ruthin Meeting. He stron^y 
recommended every one to collect antiquities, and take care of such cdlec- 
tions, whether they thought them valuable or not. 

Mr. Babington then moved, that the thanks of the Meeting be given to the 
Mayor for his kindness in presiding on this occasion. 

The vote, carried with acclamation, was responded to by Mr. Jenkins, 
which concluded the proceedings of the weeL 

In addition to the early inscribed stones at Dyfiryn Bern, St. Dogmael*8, 
Cilgerran, the Ogham stone in Bridell Church*yiund, and others mentioned in 
Meyrick*8 Cardiganshire^ several other equally interesting ones were, for the 
fint time, at this Meeting, brought under the notice of archtDologists. Two 
such stones, one of them having Ogham characters, are at Clydai Church, 
and a third at a neighbouring &rm-house called Ty-goed ; a fourth brought 
from lianllear, already alluded to in the Beport ; three other similar stones, 
%ne of them marked with a Greek cross, built into the wall of liandysilio 
Church, and of the fifth or sixth centuzy. 



The objects contribnted to the Local Museum were placed in a room on the 
ground floor of the County HalL 

A sepalehral oni (British), with remains of bami bones, found in the parish of 

Tremaen. — ^The Re^. O. Evans. 
Cireular stone (perforated) Ibnnd, with an am, in a field called Pare yr Och (the 
Field of Laoientatlon), near Sclethy, Fishgnard ; 
Hammer of trap, found in a camedd in Llanwnda parish, in Pembrokeshire; 
A stone hammer, similar to the former, but apparently older, found in a camedd, 

since destroyed, near Cronllwyn, Yale of Owayn ; 
An instrament in green stone, or basaltic porphyry, the property of the lata 
Richard Fenton, Esq., the historian of Pembrokeshire. The account of this 
instrament is lost, but its British origin is very doubtful ; 
A singular round stone, the use of which is uncertain, but conjectured to have 
been a stone for bowling. The sides are slightly conyex, and are polished. It 
is said to have been found by the lata Samuel Fenton, Esq. No similar 
specimen is known, and its British character may admit of a doubt 

J. Fentoo, Esq. 
Oval stone, called a divining stone, found in a gmve, together with a stone celt, at 

Athelney. — Mr. Oliver, Oxford. 
Stone aze found in Bwlch-blaen-cuerfii, Clydai parish. — Rev. Hugh Howell. 
Oaken spade (said to be Roman) found 70 feet from the surface of an old lead work, 
at Daren, Cardiganshire. This spade dUfers fh>m other spades found in similar 
situations ; 
Bronse celt of the ordinary Breton type. This specimen, which has never been 
used, was one of eighty found symmetrically arranged in a chamber of dry 
masonry, covered by a large slab, at the foot of a menhir, in Flnistdre ; 
Ancient bell belonging to the church of Liantood ; 
Chalice from Uantood Church, 1674; 
Pewter fiagon from. Monnington Church ; 
Small stone pediment head, apparently of a monk; 
Fragments of painted glass (both these last articles are from St Dogmael's 

Brass compass found at the castle of Eglwyswrw. 

Bev. Henry James Yincent. 
Stone head found in a wall at Uendre.— W. H. Lewis, Esq. 
Part of drinking cup (medissval) found at Penlan, Coedmore. — Mrs. Gower. 
Two-handled (medissval) cup found at Newport Castle. — ^T. D. Lloyd, Esq. 
Ivory carved comb [tmnp, Elis.) given to a lady of the Fenton family, who was 

maid of honour to the Queen. — J. Fenton, Esq. 
Stone ball ; 

Iron cannon ball (both found at Coedmore). 

Mrs. Gower. 
Fragment of old plaster work, in which grass or hay has been used Instead of hair. 

— Captain Heyward. 
Haoe of the Corporation of Cardigan. — R. D. Jenkins, Esq. 
Silver filigree needle-book, about 1660, once in the possession of the Countess of 
LiverpooL^T. D. Lloyd, Esq* 


Town ied of Cardlgao.-- R. D. JaUhs, Bsq. 

Town seal of Caermarthen, of fourteenth oentnry (onimbliahed).— ^olm Feotoo, Biq. 
Blgfat foreign Mnb, in brt«, of the aixteenth centoiy ; 
A oollectlOQ of 170 beronialy epiaeopal, ud ooiporata Mtla of and oomieetad with 


Mr. R. Ready. 
Gold ring, found about a century back In Pembroke Castle. — Major Lewis. 
A wig, said to have been left by Cromwell at Trellyfoint, in the county of Pembroke, 

at that time the seat of Owen Picton, Esq., whose lineal descendants, still 

proprietors of the estate, have preserved from generation to generation the fiict 

that it was worn by the Protector. — Mrs. Owen, HaTerfordwest 
Head of a pike found at Maenoni, in the parish of Uanllwny, in the county of 

Caermarthen. — Rev. John Jones, Newcastle Bmlyn. 
Portion of a couteau-d*-chssse from Llanwnda parish, eogruTed with a repr»- 

sentation of a hunt, and the death of the stag. — John Fenton, Esq. 
Bword of the Barl of Carbeny. — John James, Esq., Park NesL 
8wwd worn by Captain Elliot at the battle of Minden.— Dr. Jones. 
Part of a sword conyerted into a dagger, or knlfo, taken at Carreg Owastad, from 

the French, on their landing in 1707. — Mr. J. J. Jonas, Cardigan. 
Antique Indian firelock, inlaid with iyory and mother of pearl, fh>m Sering^NUam. 

—John Colby, Esq. 
Egyptian flgurs. — Mr. D. H. DuTles, New Quay. 
SoTeral pedigree books of fiunilles in North and South Wales, in MS.— R. D. 

Jenkins, Esq. 
Figure of a toad, sent from Italy by Sir Richard Mason, Knight of the Green 

Cloth to James II., to his relations at Trellyfolnt, in Pembrokeshire, who bore 

a toad for their crest. — Mrs. Owen, Hayerfordwest. 
A collection of Gaulish money, copper ; 
A collection of British money, copper, embracing specimens of the Tarions types 

of the wheel, hog, horse, kc, &e. 

Rer. B. L. Barnwell. 
Seven pennies of the early Bdwards; 
One abbey and two Nuremburg tokens, all of which have been found at various 

times at St Dogmael's Abbey ; 
A collection of second and third Roman brass, found near Fishguard. 

Rev. H. J. Yfaieent. 
A collection of Roman brass of Lower Empire, found near Cefnhendre, above 

FIshgusrd. — John Fenton, Esq. 
Two third brass Roman, found also near Fishguard. — ^Dr. Jones. 
Thirteen pennies of Henry III., and a Scotch penny of same date, found near a 

stone coffin in Cllgerran Chnrch^yard. — Mrs. Gower. 
Aureus of Titus, found at Penbryn, near Cardigan. — Rev. John Hughes, Penbryn. 
A collection of Greek and Roman brass (various).— Mr. D. U. Davies, New Quay. 
Fifty consular denarii ; 
Thirty imperial ditto ; 
Incused Byiantine brass coin. 

Mr. Ready. 
Copper medal of Frederick the Great, found deep in the earth of Glyn-y-mel 

Garden. — John Fenton, Esq. 
A collection of rubbings of monameutal brssses. — W. J. Withers, Esq. 
Rubbing of a monumental brass from Huetmonoeanz ; 


Fke-simlle of Magna Cbarta. 

Rey. Dr. Malet. 
FacHdmilea of three title-pagea of the Latin Gospels, in Hereford Cathedral, 

execated hj an Anglo-Saxon scribe of the eighth or ninth century. — J. O. 

Westwood, Esq. 
A collection of drawings ct fonts, chorches, crosses, kc, in Caidiganshiie.— 

Miss E. O. Williams, Rhnal-Issa, Mold. 
Rare and fine etching, by Rembrandt, of an Earl of Pembroke. —J. D. Lloyd, Esq., 

Colonred Russian engraTing, " The Expalsion." — R. D. Jenkins, Esq. 
Map of the place where the French landed, near Flshgnard, in 1797. — Mr. J. J. 

Jones, Cardigan. 
Pedigree of the Lloyds of Cwmgloyne.— Mrs. Owen. 
Pedigrees of the Gentry in the coonties of Caermarthen, of Pembroke, and Cardigan, 

temp, 1704. — Dr. Jones. 
Records of the Cardigan Corporation, beginning a.d. 1053.— John Davles, Esq., 

The following are fh)m the Bronwydd muniment room : — 
1. Pedigree of the Lords of Kernes ftom the Norman Conquest down to 1676, the 

date of the pedigree ; 

5. Short pedigrees of noblemen, knights, esquires, with their arms, of the county 
of Pembroke; 

8. Register book of the barony of Kemes, containing copies of grants made to 

and by the lords of the barony, and other agreements between them and the 

Earls of Pembroke ; 
4. Exemplification of the Charter of Newport, granted by Nicholas, son of 

William Fitzmartin, Lord of Kemes (temp. John), the original charter of 

which is still in existence; 

6. Collection of old deeds relating to Kemes, In the reigns of Edward II., III., 
lY., Richard II., Henry III., IV., and Y.; 

6. A similar collection relating to Bayyll and Nevem,— Edward lY., Richard III. ; 

7. Charter of Nicolas, son of Martin, for the commune of Preseleu ; 

8. Release from John Yaehan, a rector of the parish of St. Dogmael's, to Richard 
ap Owen, 1 Richard II. ; 

9. Conyeyance from Rees ap Griffith ap Gel of lands in the fee of St. Dogmael's, 
49 Edward IIL ; 

10. Grant from William ap Goriwared ap Gel to Llewelyn of his land as the fee of 
the Abbot of St. Dogmael's, 29 Edward III. ; 

11. Release, by Philip ap leran ap Madoc (temp, Henry Y.) ; 

IS. Specimens of the Court Rolls of the barony of Kemes (temp, Elixabeth) ; 
13. The same, of 1766. 

T. D. Lloyd, Esq. 


Bible of Dr. Morgan, foL 1688; Dr. Parry, fol. 1680; Dr. Lloyd, fol. 1690; 
Cromwell, 8yo. 1654; Dr. Gonge, 8vo. 1678; Dajid Jones, 8to. 1690; 
Moses Williams, 8yo. 1717; Griffith Jones, 8to. 1746; Griffith Jones, 8vo. 
1762. The foregoing are all the editions of the Welsh Bible, with two 
exceptions, to 1762, after which time Welsh Bibles became common. 



Bible of CoYordale, 4to. 1650, Imperfect ; The Biahopt*, foL lOOS, with the initiAle 
of the bishops attached to the diflbrent parts translated by them ; King James*, 
4to. 1613; three editions of the Breeches Bible, 4to. 1689, 4to. 1001, 4to. 
1630; English Bible, Sio. 1648 ; Field's ditto, 4to. 1668 ; 
The Coborger Bible Latin Vnlgate, fol., printed on Tcllnm, and beantifally 
illnminated, bound, 1682, in oak covers and pig skin, highly omamoDted ; 
Noremberg, 1478, perfect ; 
English Book of Common Prayer, First Edition, foL 1668; Welsh ditto, foL 
1669; ditto, by BUis Wynne, foL 1710; Homilies, WeUh, 4to. First EdiUoo ; 
English ditto, fol. 1786; Welsh Concordance, printed at Philadelphiny 1730 
(Dr. Franklin supposed to be In the printlng-offloe when this book was 
Back's South-West View of St. Dogmael's Priory, 1740; Hortus Slocus, con- 
taining 1600 plants, two large vols. foL, about 160 years old. 

Rev. Henry J. Vincent, Vicar of St Dogmnel's. 
A small Bible, said, on good anthority, to haye been once in the poaseasion of 

Oliver Cromwell.— T. D. Lloyd, Esq. 
Bible, 1677 ; 
Qnarle's emblems, 1660. 

Dr. MaleC 
Bnchedd Grel^ddol, printed at Adpar, 1788.— Dr. Jones. 


Cambrian ^rrljaEnlngiral ^BBnriotinti. 



His Grace the Duke of Beaufort 

The Most Noble the Marqms of Westminster 

The Right Hon. ike Earl of Dunrav^ {President 1649) 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Oawdw (President 1851) 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Powys (President 1866) 

The Right Hon. the Earl of Ilchester 

The Right Hon. the Lord Viscount Dungannon 

The Right Hon. the Lord Viscount Hill 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St David's (President 1859) 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bi8h<9 of St. Asaph (President 1858) 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of liandaff 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Bangor 

The Right Hon. the Lord Dynevor (President 1855) 

The Right Hon. the Lord Bagot 

The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of St. David's 

Chabum Wtitne, Esq., M.P. 


The Lord Viscount Fielding 

R. Myddleton Biddulph, Esq., M.P., Lord-Lieutenant of Denbighshire 
The Very Rev. the Dean of St. David's 
James Dearden, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
The Lord Viscount Endyn, M.P. 

Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Bart., F.S.A., Lord-Lieutenant of Flintshire, (Presi- 
dent 1847, 1848) 
Rev. H. Jones, D.D., F.S.A., Rector of Beaumaris 
Capei Hanibury Leigh, Esq., Lord-Lieuteoaat of MoDinouthahire 



C. Octavius S. Moi^ran Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A., {PresOeni 1857) 

Edward Lewis Pryoe, Eaq.^ M.P., Lord-Iieatenaiit of Cardigan 

J Bnioe Pryce, Esq. 

Hey. J. M. Traheme, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

The Rey. the President of Trinity College, Oxford 

G. R. M. Talbot, Esq., M.A., M.P., Lord-Iieotenant of Glamoi^;an8hire 

F. R. West, Esq., (President 1854) 

W. W. E. Wynne, Esq., M.P., {Presideni 1850) 

Sir Watkin Williams Wynn, Bart., M.P. 


The Ptesident, with all those who have held that office; the Vioe-Prendents ; 
the Treararer ; the General and Local Secretaries, and the Editorial Sab- 
Committee, with the following :— 

C. C. Babington, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., Chairman 

J. O. Westwood, Esq., M.A., F.L.S. 

Rey. John Jones, M.A., (Llanllyfni) 

Rey. J. Earle, M.A. 

J. D. NichoU Came, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 

Talbot Bory, Esq. 

Matthew Dawes, Esq., F.S.A. 

Thomas Tumor, Esq. 

Joseph Meyer, Esq., F.S.A. 

B. L. Chapman, Esq., M.A. 
Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. 
Rey. W. Basil Jones, M.A. 

Rey. J. Pryse Drew, M.A. 


C. C. Babington, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 
Rey. H. Longaeyille Jones, M.A., Editor 
Rey. Robert WHliams, M.A. 

Joseph Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., Brecon 


Sir Stephen Glynne, Bart, M.A., F.S.A. 

James Dearden, Esq., MA., F.S.A. 

C. OcUyius S. Morgan, Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A. 


Rey. E. L. Barnwell, M.A., Ruthin 

Frederick Lbyd-FhUipps, Esq., M.A., Hafodneddyn, Caennarthen 



Cornwall: — ^Ricluird Edmonds, Jiinr., Esq., Penzanoe 

France: — M. Didron, Rue Hautefeuille, 13, Paris 

BriUmny : — M. de Keranflecli, Chateau de Plessis au ProTost, St. Meen, Hie 

Scotland :ScAaL Stuart, Esq., F.S.A., Soot, Edinburgh 
Ireland: — Rev. C. Grares, D.D., Trinity College, Dublin 
IsU of Man: — 

Mr. J. Russell Smith, 36, Soho Square, London 


Messrs. Catherall and Pritchard, Chester 
Mr. R. Mason, Tenby 


M. Ajmar de Blois, Chateau de Poulguinan, Quimper, Finist^re 

Le Vicomte Hersart de la Yillemarqug, Chateau de Keransquer, Quimper, 

M. Arthur de la Borderie, Rue de TEyeche, Nantes 
M. Pol de Conrci, St Pol de L6on, flnist^re 


His Royal Highness the Prince Albert 

Ilchester, the Earl of, 31, Old Burlington Street, London, W. 

Dunraven, the Earl of, Adare Castle, Ireland 

Londesborough, the Lord, 8, Carlton House Terrace, London, S.W. 

Schreiber, the Lady Charlotte, Canford Manor, Wimbome 

Phillips, Sir Thomas, 11, King's Bench Walk, Temple, London, E.C. 

Allen, Thomas, Esq., 1, Essex Court, Temple, London, E.C. 

Babington, Chas. Cardale, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., &c., St John's 

College, Cambridge 
Bayly, Rev. F. S. T., M.A., Brookethorpe Vicarage, Gloucester 
Beamont, W., Esq., Warrington 

Bedford, Rev. W. K. Riland, M.A., Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham 
Bowyer, Rev. W. H. Wentworth, M.A., Rectory, Clapham, Surrey 
Bury, T. Talbot, Esq., 50, Welbeck Street, London, W. 
Byam, Edward S., Esq., 1 1, Bellevue Teirace, Southsea, Hants 
Chapman, B. L, Esq., M.A., 3, Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, London, 


Cole, J. G., Esq., 8, Charles Street, Berkeley Square, London, W. 
Cooke, Wm., Esq., M.A., 4, Elm Court, Temple, London, E.C. 


Dawes, Matthew, Esq., F.8.A., F.G.S., Westbrooke, Bolton, Lancashire 

Dawson, Charles, Esq., 3, St James's Terraoe, Park Hill, Clapham, Surrey 

Dearden, James, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., The Manor, Kochdale 

De Keranflec*h, M.^ Chateau de Plessis, St. Meen, Ole et Vilaine 

Earle, Rev. J., M.A., Swainswick, Bath 

Edmonds, R., Esq., Jun., Poiaanoe 

Fenton, Rev. Samuel, M.A., Wavertree, Liverpool 

Fenwicke, Rev. G. O., B.D., Dowry Square, Clifton 

Franks, Charles William, Esq., 5, John Street, Berkeley Square, London, W. 

Gibbs, Francis Thomas, Esq., Greenford, Hounslow, Middlesex 

Gilbertson, Rev. Lewis, M.A., Jesus College, Oxford 

Goode, B. W., Esq., St. Paulas Squai^ Birmingham 

Graves, Rev. C, D.D., M.R.I.A., Trinity College, Dublin 

Guest, Edwin, 1).C.L., F.S.A., Master of Cains College] Cambridge 

Harrison, William, Esq., Rock Mount, St. John's, Isle of Man 

Heaton, Rev. W. C, M.A., Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford 

Hindmarsh, F., Esq., 17, Bucklersbury, London, E.C. 

Hope, A. J. B., Esq., M.Al., F.S.A., Bedgebury Park, Cranbrooke, Kent 

James, Rev. J., Netherthong, Huddersfield 

Jones, Rev. W. Basil, M^A.^ University College, Oxford 

Jones, T., Esq., M.A., Chetham Library, Manchester 

Jones, Rev. H. Longueville, M.A., Privy Council Office, London, S.W. 

Lysaght, T. Royce, Esq., Berkeley Square^ Bristol 

Le Keux, John Henry, Esq., 30, Argyle Street, New Road, London, W.C. 

Le Men, M., Archiviste du Department, Quimper, Finist^re, France 

Mackenzie, John W., Esq., F.S.A., Scot., 16, Royal Circus, Edinburgh 

Meyer, Joseph, Esq., F.S.A., Liverpool 

Milman, Ileniy Salusbury, Esq., Oxford and Cambridge Club, Pall Mall, 

London, S.W. 
Nicholl, Frederick, Esq., 16, Upper Harley Street, London, W. 
NichoU, John, Esq., Henrietta Street, Cavendish Square, London, W. 
Ormerod, George, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., D.C.L., Sedbury Park, Chepstow 
Parker, J. H., Esq., Oxford 
Peake, R., Esq., Wirewoods Green, Chepstow 
Perrot, R., Esq., Rue Rameau, Nantes, France 
Petit, Rev. J. L., M.A., F.S.A., 9, New Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C. 
Poste, Rev. Beale, M.A., Bydews Place, Maidstone, Kent 
Powell, Arthur, Esq., Whitefriars, London, E.C. 
Redwood, Theophilus, Esq., Id, Montague Street, Russell Square, London, 

Reoce, WiUiam Henry, Esq., 104, New Street, Birmingham 
Salvin, Anthony, Esq., F.S.A., 80, Argyle Street, Regent Street, London, W. 
Skene, S. W., Esq., 20, Laverleith Row, Edmburgh 
Smith, Basset, Esq., The Temple, London, E.C. 
Smith, Mr. J. Russell, 36, Soho Square, London, W. 
Solly, Mrs., Myrtle Cottage, Packstone, Pocrfe, Dorset 


Spode, Josiah, Esq., Hawkeeyard, Rugdey, Stafibrdfihire 

Stuart, John, Esq., Sec. Soc. of Antiq., Scot, 2, South Bkckett FUce, Edin- 

Todd, Rev. J. H., D.D., M.RLA., Senior Fellow Trinity College, Dublin 

Walker, John, Esq., 12, FumiTal's Inn, London, E.G. 

Watts, T. King, Esq., St Ives, Huntingdon 

Way, Albert, Esq., M.A., F.S.A., Wonham Manor, Reigate 

Wemyss, Mrs General, 3, Green Fark Buildings, Bath 

Westwood, J. O., Esq., M.A., F.L.S., Oxford 

Williams, Rev. Charles, D.D., Frincipal of Jesus College, Oxford 

Williams, Rev. Rowland, D.D., Broad Chalk, Salisbury 

Wilson, Rev. J., D.D., Fresident of Trinity College, Oxford, Woodperry, 

Wright, T., Esq., M.A., F.S.A., U, Sydney Street, Brompton, London, S.W. 



Willoughby De Broke, the Right Hon. Lady, Flas Newydd, Bangor 

Bulkeley, Sir Richard Williams, Bart, M.F., Baron HiU, Beaumaris 

Jones, Rev. Hugh, D.D., F.S.A., Beaumaris 

Jones, Rev. J. Wynne, M.A., Heneglwys, Bangor 

Mealy, Rev. K A. Farry, Beaumaris 

Williams, Bev. W. Wynn, Jun., M.A., Menaifron, Caernarvon 

Rev. R. Wynn Williams, Jun., M.A., Menaifron, Local Secretary 


Bangor, the Lord Bishop of, The Friars, Beaumaris 
Bangor, the Very Rev. the Dean of. Deanery, Bangor 
Jones, Rev. John, M.A., Llanllyfni, Caernarvon 
Kennedy, Henry, Esq., Bangor 
Parry, T. Love D. Jones, Esq., Madryn Park, Fwilheli 
Pritchard, William, Esq., Tan y Coed, Bangor 
Turner, Thomas, Esq., Caernarvon 

T. Love D. Jones Parry Esq., Madryn Park, PwUheli \ ^^ Secretaries 
Henry Kennedy, Esq., Bangor J 


Biddulph, R. Myddleton, Esq., MP., Chirk Castle, Chirk, Lord-Lieutenant 

of Denbighshire 
Bagot, the Right Hon. Lord, Poole Park, Ruthin 
Dungannon, the Right Hon. Lord Viscount, Biynkynalt, Wrexham 
Wynn, Sir W. W., Bart., M.P., Wynnstay, Rhuabon 
Barnwell, Rev. E. L., M.A., Ruthin 
Cunlifie, Miss, Fant-yn-Ochan, Wrexham 


Davies, Rev. John, M.A., Woodlands, Ruthin 

Davies, Rev. Morgan, M.A. Uanrwst 

Edwardes, Samuel, Esq., Denbigh 

Griffiths, T. T., Esq., Wrexham 

Hughes, Hugh.K, Esq., Kinmel Park, St Asaph 

Hughes, Thomas, Esq., Ystrad, Denbigh 

Jackson, Bev. K H., Llanelian, Abergele 

James, John, Esq., Wrexham 

Jenkins, Joeiah, Esq., M.D. Ruthin 

Jones, Thomas, Esq., Rhos-Llanerchrugog Hall, Wrexham 

Lloyd, W., Esq., Solicitor, Ruthin 

Mainwaring, Townshend, Esq., M.F., Gralltfiienon, Denbi^ 

Maurice, James, Esq., Ruthin 

Owen, Rey. E., M.A., Tilanfair, Ruthin 

Owen, O., Esq., Llewenny, Denbigh 

Roberts, Rev. 6. Lloyd, M.A., Ce& Coch, Ruthin 

Sandbach, Henry R., Esq., Hafodunos, Llanrwst 

Smith, F. W., Esq., Ruthin 

Thelwiall, Rev. Edward, M.A., Llanbedr, Ruthin 

Tumor, Thomas, Esq., Pool Park, Ruthin 

Tumour, Arthur A., Esq., M.D., Denbigh 

West, Frederick R., Esq., Ruthin Castle 

Wickham, the Yen. Archdeacon, Gresford, Wrexham 

Williams, Rev. T., M.A., St George*s, St Asaph 

Williams, Rev. Robert, M.A., Rhydycroesau, Oswestry 

Wynne, Chas., Esq., Jun., M.F., Fentrevoelas 

Rev. Thomas Williams, M.A., St Geonre^s, St Asaph | r^^. c _ ^ 
Rev. R. H. JackM«rSaneli«i, AbeisX | Xoorf &«refain«. 


Glynne, Sir Stephen Richard, Bart, M.A., F.S.A., Hawarden, Flint, Lord- 
Lieutenant of Flintshire 
St Asaph, the Lord Bishop of, the Palace, St Asaph 
Fielding, the Lord Viscount, Downing, Holywell 
Mostyn, Sir Pyers, Bart, Talacre, Flint 
St Asaph, the Very Reverend the Dean of, St Aaaph 
Briscoe, Rev. W., M.A., Mold 
Conwy, W. Shipley, Esq., Bodryddan, Rhyl 
Evans, Rev. Evan, M.A., Dyserth, Rhyl 
Glynne, Rev. Henry, M.A., Hawarden, Flintshire 
Hughes, Rev. T. J., M.A., Northop, FUnt 
Hughes, William, Esq., 1, Crescent Road, Rhyl 
Lloyd, Miss, Tj-n-yr-Rhyl, Rhyl 
Meredith, Rev. J., Abei^e, Rhyl 
Morgan, Rev. Hugh, M.A., Rhyl 


Peanon, Philip Pennant, Esq., M.A., Bodfari, Rhyl 
Raikes, Henry, Esq., Uwynegryn, Mold 
Theed, Frederick, Esq., Rhyl 
Williams, Rev. Tliomas, M.A., Flint 


Mason, Rev. J. TVllliams, M.A., Llanfair, Harlech 

Morgan, Rev. B., Aberdovey 

Pugh, John, Esq., Penhelig, Aberdovey 

Pughe, Rey. T. Evans, M.A., Llanderfel, Corwen 

Wynne, W. W. E., Esq., M.P., Aberamfira, Barmouth 

Williams, David, Esq., Casde Dendraith, Portmadoc 

I^v. J.^illiaSi'Mason, S:.A., LlSr, Harlech } ^^^^ Secretaries 


Powis, the Earl of, Povns Castle 

Davies, Rev. David, Dylifie, Machynlleth 

Drew, Rev. J. Pryse, M .A., Milford Newtown 

Edwards, Rev. John, M.A., Newtown 

Ffonlkes, Rev. H. Powell, M.A., Uandyssul, Welshpool 

Howells, David, Esq., Machynlleth 

Howells, Abraham, Esq., Welshpool 

Lewis, Rev. D. P., M.A., Buttington, Welshpool 

lioyd. Rev. J., M.A., Uanmerewig, Newtown 

Pugh, David, Esq., M.P., Lknerddol, Welshpool 

Richards, Rev. R., Meifod, Welshpool 



Banks, William L., Esq., F.S.A., Brecon 

Joseph, J., Esq., F.S.A., Brecon 

Price, Hugh Powell, Esq., Castell Madoc, Brecon 

Powell, John, Esq., Brecon 

Thomas, Henry, Esq., Unrynmadoc, Brecon 

Williams, Rev. W. J., M.A., Glamorgan Street, Brecon 

Williams, Edw., Esq., Talgarth, Brecon 

'w'rt^^ta^t^n } Local Secre.^ 



Piyse, £. L., Esq., M.P., Lord-lieutenant of Cardiganshire 

St David's, the Very Rev. the Dean of 

Brigstocke, W. O., Esq., Blaenpant, Newcastle Endyn 

Colby, John, Esq., Ffynnonau, Newcastle Emlyn 

Davies, David, Esq., Castle Green, Cardigan 

Davies, J. Lloyd, Esq., Blaendyffiyn, Newcastle Emlyn 

Evans, Rev. D. J., M.A., TJandigwydd, Cardigan 

Evans, Rev. Lewis, M.A., Ystradmuerig, Aberystwyth 

Harford, J. Battersby, Esq., Falcondale, Lampeter 

Hughes, J., Esq., Lluestgwilim, Aberystwyth 

Hughes, J. G. Parry Esq., AllUwyd, Lampeter 

Jenkins, R. D., Esq., PanturioOf Cardigan 

Jones, W. D., Esq., M.D., Lancych, Newcastle Emlyn 

Jones, W. T., Esq., Gwynfryn, Machynlleth 

Jones, Rev. Evan, Lampeter 

Lewis, Mr. John, Tregaron 

Lloyd, Rev. R. J., B.A., Troedgrour Rectory, Newcastle Emlyn 

lioyd, T. D., Esq., Bronwydd, Caermarthen 

Moi^gan, T. O., Esq., Abexystwyth 

Pritchard, Capt, l^llwyd, Newcastle Emlyn 

Rogers, J. E., Esq., Abermeurig, Lampeter 

Rowlands, Rev. W., Portland Street, Aberystwyth 

Tyler, Gwinett, Esq., Mount Gemos, Newcastle EmlyB 

Williams, John Graham, Esq., Gloucester Hall, Aberystwyth 

Williams, Matthew D., Esq., Cwmcynfelin, Aberystwyth 

T. O. Mox^an, Esq., Aberystwyth 1 r i o a • 

B. D. Je^ &q^ Pan&oi^ Cwdigwi \ ^"^ Secrtlana 


Dynevor, the Lord, Dynevor Casde 

Emlyn, the Lord Yisoonnt, Golden Grove, Uandeilo 

St David's, the Lord Bishop of, Abeigwili Palace, Caermarthen 

Bonville, W., Esq., Caermarthen 

Caermarthen Literary Institution 

Du Buisson, W., Esq., Glynhir,' Uanelly 

Green, F., Esq., Court Henry, Uandeilo 

Griffith, Rev. J., Prebendary of St David's, Llangunnor, Caermarthen 

Griffith, Rev. J. Uandeilo 

Johnes, J., Esq., Dolaucothy, Uandeilo 

Jones, David, Esq., M.P., Pantglas, Uandeilo 

Jones, Edward, Esq., Yelindre, Llandovery 

Jones, John, Esq., Blaenos, Llandovery 

Lewis, W. P., Elsq., Uysnewydd, Newcastle Emlyn 

Uoyd, Rev. D., LL.D., Presbytenan College, Caermarthen 


Lloyd-Fhilipps, Frederick, Esq., M.A., Hafodneddyn, Gaeniuurthen 

Morgan, Charles, Esq., Alltygog, Caermarthen 

Morse, lieat-CoL, Clearbrook, Caermarthen 

Fenson, B. Kyrke^ Esq., Ferryside, Caermarthen 

Philipps, J. Walter, Esq., Aberglasney, Caermarthen 

Philipps, Rev. E. Owen, M.A., Warden of Llandovery College, Llandovery 

Price, J. LL, Esq., Glangwili, Caermarthen 

Prothero, D., Esq., M.D., Llandeilo 

Pugh, David, Esq., MP., Manoravon, Llandeilo 

Rees, W., Esq., Tonn, Lhindovery 

Thomas, Rees Goring, Esq., Iscoed, Kidwelly 

Thomas, Rees Goring, Jun., Esq., M.A., Iscoed, Kidwelly 

Thomas, W. Gwynne S., Esq., Oak House, Caermarthen 

Rev. D. Lloyd, LL.D., Caermarthen ) 

Rees Goring Thomas, Jun., Esq., MA., Iscoed, Kidwelly > Local Secretaries 

William Rees, Esq., Tonn, Llandovery ) 


Talbot, C. R. M., Esq., MA., MP., Lord-Iieutenant of Glamorganshire, 

Margam Park, Taibach 
Dunraven, the Countess Dowager of, Dunraven Castle 
Llandaff, the Lord Bishop of 
Uandaff, the Very Rev. ^e Dean of 
Boteler, Captain, R.E., Uandough Castle, Cowbridge 
Bruce, H. A., Esq., M.P., Dyffryn, Aberdare 
Basset, Alexander, Esq., Cardiff 
Biddulph, Mrs, Swansea 

Came, J. W. I^choU, Esq., D.C.L., Dimlands CasUe, Cowbridge 
Came, R. NichoU, Esq., Kash Manor, Cowbridge 
Clark, G. T., Esq., Dowlais House, Merthyr-Tydfil 
David, Charles William, Esq., Cardiff 
Evans, Rev. R., Margam, Taibadi 
Fothergill, Rowland, Esq., Hensol Castle, Cowbridge 
Francis, G. Grant, Esq., F.S.A., Swansea 
Griffith, Rev. John, M.A, Merthyr-Tjrdfil 
Gwyn, Howel, Esq., Dyffiryn, Neath 
Jenner, Mrs George, Bryn Garw, Bridgend 
Jones, Robert, Esq., Fonmon Castle, Cardiff 
Jones, W. E. Esq., Neath 

Knight, Rev. E. D., M.A., Nottage Court, Bridgend 
Lewis, William Wyndham, Esq., The Heath, Cardiff 
Llewelyn, J. Dillwyn, Esq., Penllergare, Swansea 
Lleweljm, John Talbot Dillwyn, Esq., Penllergare, Swansea 
Lloyd, Edw., Esq., M.D., Aberpergwm, Neath 
Loid, Arthur Owen, Esq., Tythegstone Court, Bridgend 



Moggridge, Matthew, Esq., F.G.S., The Willows, Swamea 

NichoU, John Cole, Esq., Merthyr Mawr, Bridgend 

NichoU, Rev. Edward Powell, M.A., Llandough, Cowbridge 

Perkins, William, Esq., Groscoed, Pont y Pridd 

Price, William, Esq., M.D., Glantwrch, Swansea 

Prichard and Seddon, Messrs., Llandaff, Cardiff 

Pryce, J. Bruce, Esq., Dyflfiyn, Cardiff 

Randall, David, Esq., Neath 

Redwood, Isaac, Esq., Cae Wem, Neath 

Richards, Edward Priest, Esq., Cardiff 

Stacy, Rev. T., M.A., Cardiff 

Stephens, Mr. Thomas, Merthyr-Tydfil 

Talbot, Theodore Mansel, Esq.,.Maiigam Paris, Taibach 

The Qaeen*s Advocate, Glanogwr, Bridgend 

Thomas, Rev. D. Parry, lianmaes Rectory, Cowbridge 

Traheme, G. M., Esq., St Hilary, Cowbridge 

Traheme, Rev. J. Montgomery, M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., Coedriglan, Cardiff 

Vaughan, N. Edward, Esq., Rheola, Neath 

Williams, Charles Croft, Esq., Roath Court, Cardiff 

Williams, Evan, Esq., Dyffiryn Prwd, Cardiff 

Williams, Miss Jane, Ynyslas, Neath 

Williams, Rev. T., Tir-y-Cwm, Ystrad, Swansea 

Wood, Lieut -Colonel, Stout Hall, Swansea 

Matthew Mogrndge, Esq., F.G.S., Swansea ) r™/ Secrelaries 
George Giunt Francis, Esq., F.S.A., Swansea / ^^"^ ^cretanes 


Cawdor, the Earl of, Stackpole Court, Lord-Lieutenant of Caermarthenshire 

Allen, Rev. James, M. A., Prebendary of St. David's, Castlemartin, Pembroke 

Bowen, James B., Esq., Llwyngwair, Newport 

Davies, A. S., Esq., Pentre, Newcastle End}!! 

Evans, Rev. David, Cilgerran, Cardigan 

Gwynne, Mrs., St Julian House, Tenby 

Lewis, Major, Clynfeu, Newcastle Endyn 

Lloyd-Philipps, J. B., Esq., Pentepark, Haverfordwest 

Lloyd-Philipps, J. P. A., Esq., Dale Castle, Milford 

Mason, Mr. R., Hi^ Street, Tenby 

Phillips, Griffith, Esq., Bloomfield, Narberth 

Philipps, J. H. Esq., M.P., Williamston, Haverfordwest 

Philipps, Rev. J. H. A., Picton Castle, Haverfordwest 

Thomas, Rev. W. B., M.A., Prebendary of St David's, Steynton, M3ford 

Tombs, Rev. J., Burton, Haverfordwest 

Vinoent, Rev. Henry James, M.A., St Dogmael's Cardigan 

Rev.' James Allen, M. A., Castlemartin, Pembroke \ j^^ , «^_^^ 

Rev. Henry James Vincent, M.A., St Dogmad's, Cardigan / ^"^^ ^cretanes 



Jones, John, Esq., Cefhfaes, Rhayader 
Lloyd, T. Lewis, Esq., Nantgwyllt, Rhayader 
Moore, Richard, Esq., Presteign 

John Jones, Esq., Cefiifaes, Rhayader, Local Secretary 


Beaufort, the Duke of, Badminton House 

Leigh, Capel H., Esq., Pontypool Park, Lord-lieutenant of Monmouthshire 
Salusbury, Rev. Sir Charles John, Bart., M.A., Llanwern, Newport, Mon- 
Dyke, Thomas, Esq., Monmouth 
Falconer, Thomas, Esq., Judge of County Courts, Usk 
Freeman, Edward A., Esq., M.A., Glanrhynmey, Cardiff 
Hawkins, Henry Montonnier, Esq., Tredunnock, Usk 
Lee, J. E., Esq., The Priory, Caerleon 
Uewellin, Wm., Esq., Glanwem House, Pontypool 
Mitchell, Frank Johnston, Esq., Newport 
Morgan, Chas., Octavius S., Esq., M.P., F.R.S., F.S.A., The Friars, Newport 

Edward A. Freeman, Esq., M.A., Glanrhynmey, Cardifi^ Local Secretary 

Westminster, the Marquis of, Eaton Hall, Chester 

Hill, the Ldrd Viscount, Hawkstone, Shrewsbuiy 

Baily, W. H., Esq., Shrewsbury 

Davies, Rev. James, M.A., Moor Court, Kington, Herefordshire 

Davies, James, Esq., Solicitor, Hereford 

Martin, John, Esq., M.P., Upper Hall, Ledbury 

More, Rey. T. R., Linley HaJl, Bishop's Castle 

Morris, Joseph, Esq., Shrewsbuiy 

Mouseley, Thomas, Esq., Combermero, Whitchurch, Salop 

Parker, Rev. John, M.A., Llanyblodwell, Oswestry 

Salisbury, E. J., Esq., M.P., Stanley Place, Chester 

Vaughan, R. Chambre, Esq., B.A., Burlton Hall, Shrewsbury 

Williamson, Edward, Esq., Ramsdell Hall, Lawton, Cheshire 

Williams, Rev. Philip, Chester 

James Davies, Esq., Hereford, Local Secretary for Herefordshire 

Rev. John Parker, M.A., Lhmyblodwell, Oswestry, Local Secretary for 



The Society of Antdquaries of London 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 

The Royal Irish Academy 

Kilkenny and South-East of Ireland Arehnological Society 

The Smithsonian Institute, Washington 

The Azcheological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 

Society of Northern Antiquaries, Copenhagen 

The Breton Antiquarian Association, Nantes 

As it is not unlikely that omissions or errors exist in the above 
lists, corrections will be thankfully received by the General 

The Annual Subscription is One Otdnea, payable in advance, 
on the first day of the year. 

The names of members in arrears will be erased from the list. 




Of Members and their JEXection. 

I. — ^The ABSociation shall consiBt of Subscribing and Corres- 
ponding Members. 

II. — ^All Members shall be admitted by the General Secretaries, 
on the proposal of one of the General or Local Secretaries, or of 
any two Members, subject to the approval of the Committee at 
the Annual Meeting. 

Of the Oavemment of the AssociiUion. 

III. — ^The Government of the Association shall be vested in a 
Committee consisting of a President, all who have held that office 
in previous years, the Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, the General 
and Local Secretaries, the Editorial Sub-Committee, the Chairman 
of the Committee, and twelve, or not more than fifteen, ordinary 
Subscribing Members, three of whom retire annually according 
to seniority. 

IV. — ^The President shall hold office for one year, and shall be 

V. — ^The election for the ensuing year of the President, Vice- 
Presidents, other Officersof the Association, and ordinary Members 
of the Committee shall be made on any day, except the first, of 
the Annual Meeting, by the Subscribing Members of the Asso- 
ciation. The Committee shall recommend Members to fill up the 
vacancies. Any Subscribing Member of the Association is at 
liberty to propose any other persons in place of those recommended 
by the Committee. Notice shall be given on the Programme of 
the Annual Meeting of the day and hour at which it is proposed 
that these elections shall take place. 

VI. — ^The Chairman of the Committee shall preside at all 
meetings of that body in the absence of the President; shall 
superintend the business of the Association during the intervals 


between the Annual Meetings ; shall have powers with the con- 
currence of one of the Secretaries, to authorize proceedings not 
specially provided for by the Laws, if necessity for so doing shall 
arise : a report of his proceedings in these respects to be annually 
laid before the Committee for their approval, or disapproval. 

VII. — ^The Editorial Sub-Committee shall consist of three 
Members, and shall superintend all the Publications of the Asso- 
ciation, and report their proceedings annually to the Committee. 

VIII. — ^The Committee shall be empowered to fill up pro tern, 
all occasional vacancies that may be caused by the death or 
resignation of the President, or of any other Member of the 

IX. — In all nominations made by the Committee, it shall be 
allowable for any Member thereof to demand a ballot 

X. — No person who is not a Subscribing Member shall be 
eligible for election into any office in the Association, or be a 
Member of the Committee. 

Of Subscriptions, 

XI. — ^All Subscribing Members shall pay One Guinea annually 
to one of the General Secretaries, or to those Local Secretaries 
whose assistance may be specially requested by either of the 
General Secretaries, who shall transmit the money to the Trea- 
surer, or his Banker. 

XII. — All Subscriptions shall be paid in advance, and become 
due on the 1st of January in each year. 

XIII. — Members wishing to withdraw from the Association 
are required to give six months* notice to one of the General 
Secretaries, and to pay any Subscriptions which may be due from 
them to the Association. 

XIV. — All the Subscribing Members shall have a right to re- 
ceive, gratuitously, all the Publications of the Association which 
may be issued during the year to which their Subscriptions relate, 
together with a Ticket giving free admission to the Annual 

XV. — ^The Treasurer shall be required to forward, quarterly, 
to the Chairman of the Committee and the General Secretaries, 
for their guidance, a statement of finance for the past quarter of 
the year. 


XVI. — ^The Accounts of the Treasurer shall be made up an* 
nualiy, to December 31st; and, as soon afterwards as may be 
convenient, audited by two Subscribing Members of the Asso- 
ciation, to be appointed at the Annual General Meeting. A 
Balance-sheet of the said Accounts, certified by the Auditors, 
shall be printed and issued with the April Number of the 
ArchiBologia Cambrensis. 

XVII. — All bills due from the Association shall be counter- 
signed by one of the General Secretaries and the Chairman of the 
Committee, and forwarded to the Treasurer, who shall pay the 
same as soon as may be convenient. 

XVIII. — ^The funds of the Association shall be deposited in a 
Joint-Stock Bank, in the name of the Treasurer of the Asso- 
ciation for the time being. 

Of the Meetings, 

XIX. — A Meeting of the Committee shall be held annually, 
for the purpose of nominating Officers, and framing Laws for 
the government of the Association. 

XX. — ^The Annual Meeting shall be held in one of the principal 
towns of the Principality or its Marches, at which the elections, 
the appointment of the place of Meeting for the ensuing year, 
Sec, shall take place. Due notice of this Meeting shall be given 
publicly by one of the General Secretaries. 

XXI. — ^The Chairman of the Committee, with the concurrence 
of one of the Secretaries, shall have power to appoint a Special 
Meeting, when required ; and for such Special Meeting, a notice 
of at least three weeks shall be given, by a circular letter addressed 
to each Member by one of the General Secretaries. 

XXII. — At the Annual Meeting, the President, or, in his 
absence, one of the Vice-Presidents, shall take the chair, and in 
their absence the Committee shall appoint a Chairman ; and the 
Chairman of the Annual, or any other General Meeting, shall 
have an independent as well as a casting vote. 

XXIII. — A Report of the proceedings for the whole year shall 
be submitted to the Annual Meeting. 

XXIV. — At the Annual Meetings, Tickets shall be issued to 
Subscribing Members gratuitously ; and to Corresponding 
Members and Strangers, admitting them to the Excursions, 


ExhibitionSy and MeetingSy at such rates as may be fixed by the 
Chairman of the Committee and one of the General Secretaries^ 
as most suitable to the circumstances of the locality in which the 
Meeting is to be held. 

XXV. — ^The superintendence of the arrangements for the 
Annual Meeting shall be under the sole direction of one of the 
General Secretaries, in conjunction with the Local Secretaries of 
the district, and a Local Committee to be approved by him. 

XXVL — ^The accounts of each Annual Meeting shall be 
audited by the Chairman of the Committee, and the balance of 
receipts and expenses on each occasion be received or paid by the 
Treasurer of the Association. 

XXVIL — ^Wherever it is practicable, the Local Secretaries 
shall cause Meetings to be held in their several districts, and shall 
encourage the formation of Museums. 

Of the Ruk». 

XXVIIL — It shall be lawful for any Member to propose 
alterations in the Laws of the Association. Any such alteration 
must be notified to one of the General Secretaries at least one month 
previous to the Annual Meeting, and he shall lay it before the 
Committee. If approved of by the Committee, it shall be sub- 
mitted for confirmation at the next Meeting. 

XXIX. — ^The Committee shall be empowered to make such 
Bye-Laws as may fh>m time to time appear to them expedient, 
subject to confirmation by the Members of the Association at the 
next General Meeting. 

C. C. BABINGTON, Chairman. 


IlpjinliBtitfll Sttin of €\ihn\i. 


AberaVon Charch, 153. 

Acoustic Contrivances in Churches, 139, 

Anglesey, 232. 

Antiquarian Sketch Book, 283. 
ArchflBology, Progress of, 231. 
Arches, Early, in Walee, 232. 

Bailey, Sir Joseph, Obituary, 66. 

Bassalleg, Chapel of, 234. 

Bell, Ancient, of St Cenen, 234. 

Brecon, Christ Church, 153. 

Brecon, Christ College, 72. 

Breton AnUquities, 181. 

Breton Archaeological Assodation, 222. 

Breton Language, 224,231. 

Breton and Welsh Languages, 72, 143. 

Briavers, St., Castle, 70. 

Brinker, J., Esq., Caernarvon, 309. 

Britain, Great, Name of, 76. 

British, Ancient, Languages, 297. 

Bronze Vessels, Ancient, 150. 

Buhez Santez Nonn, 130. 

Caernarvon Castle, 76. 

Caerphilly Castle, MuUIations, 153. 

Caer Sws, 161. 

Cambrian Archvological Association, 
Cardigan Meeting, 320. 

Cambrian Archaeological Association, 
Statement of Accounts and Expendi- 
ture, 08. 

Cardigan MeeUng of Cambrian Archeo- 
logical AssociaUon, 320. 


Cardiganshire, Destruction of Roman 

Road in, 304. 
Cardiganshire, the Owyddyl in, 306. 
Castell y Here, Merioneth, 153. 
Castell Carreg Cennen, 69. 
Cathedrals, Guide to, 319. 
Celh Amwlch, Inscribed Stones, 53. 
Cenen, St, Bell of, 234. 
Churches, Restoration and Destruction 

of, 303. 
ClI and Llan, 75, 152. 
Clun, Documents relating to, 316. 
Coedana, 124. 
Coins, Roman, 153. 
Conwy, River of, 232. 
Cornish Dictionary, 310. 
Cornish Drama, Ancient, 235. 
Cornish Language, 224. 
Cornish Mysteries, 153. 
Croes Ergain, Rhuddlan, 76. 
Cromwell, Oliver, Seal and Arms, 147. 

Davies, Richard, Quaker, of Welshpool, 

Denbigh Castle, 76. 
Denbighshire, Roman Roads, in 125. 

Early Inscribed Stones, 53, 136, 234, 

Early Stone Houses in Wales, 307. 
Ethnog^nie Gauloise, 77. 

Germanus, St, 57. 

Gower, a Week's Walk in, 319. 

VOL. V. 3 B 




Gwredog, 109. 

Gwyddyl, in CaTdigtnshire, 306. 

Gwyddyl, Origin of, 824. 

HaTerfoidwert, 161. 
Hengwrt Library, 834. 

Kilkenny Archaologienl Society, Tnuu- 
aetiona, 100. 

Lhwydiane, Reliqnis, 177. 

Libnuriee, Arehaologlcal, for Wales, 

Llanaber Chareh, 142. 
Llanallgo, 123. 
Llan and Oil, 76, 162. 
Uanarmon in Tale, 208. 
Llanaea, 168. 
Llandaff Cathedral, 163. 
Llanddewl Brefi, Chnrch of, 309. 
Llanddewi Tstradennl, 72. 
Llandegfan, 21. 
Llandeilo Croes, 136. 
Llandyirydog, 174. 
Llaneilian Church, 233. 
Llanerchymedd, 172. 
Llanengraid, 121. 
Llanfaee, Chnrch of, Brecon, 309. 
Llanfihangel Rhyd leithon, 72. 
Llanflhangel Tre 'r Beirdd, 176. 
Llangwyllog, 171. 
Llannor, InBcribed Stones, 234. 
Llanwenllwyfo, 170. 
Llewdyn ap Orylfydd, 46. 
Llwyd, Letters of Edward, 161, 246. . 
Llythyrog, Maen, 288. 

Man, Isle of, Runic Stones in, 73. 
Man, Isle of. Records, 162. 
Mona, 232. 

Mona Medisva, 21, 121, 160. 
Monmouthshire, Notes on Ecclesiastical 
Remains of, 312. 

Moneda, 232. 

Morlais Castle, Account of, 97. 

Mortimers and Llewelyn ap Gryffydd, 

Mostyn Library, Letters temp. James 

II., 163. 
Myddfai, " St. Paul's Marble," 161. 

Obituary, 66. 

Oflk, Dyke of, 317. 

Owen Gwynedd, Pebble of, 134. 

Oweo, Meredydd, Letter of, 92. 

Owen, Morgan, Bishop of Llandaff, 71. 

Oystermouth, Church of, 283, 809. 

Parkybulwark, 309. 

Parsonages, Ancient, in Wales, 75. 

Pembroke, Earla, Earldom and Castle 

of, 1, 81, 188, 841. 
Pendrell Fkmlly, 114, 299. 
Penmachno, Church of, 309. 
Penmaen Mawr, Guide to, 310. 
Penmynydd Church, 23, 144. 
Pepper Street and Roman Roada, 151. 
Plougastel CalTuy, 264. 
Pont Avon, 181. 
Powys, Marquis, Grant of Estates of, 


Ramsey, Island of, 838. 
Records, Public, 311. 
Redstone, 308. 
Rhuddlan, Croes Ergain, 76. 
Richard II. in Walea, 899. 
Rocking Stones, 149. 
Roman Road in Cardiganshire, Destruc- 
tion of, 304. 
Roman Roads in Denbighshire, 125. 
Roman Coins, 153. 
Runic Stones, Isle of Man, 73. 
Ruthin Collegiate Church, 143. 

Salisbury, William and John, 800. 



Sarn Blen, 70. 

Scotch in France, 233. 

Sculptared Stonee, Ornamentation of, 

Seals, Welsh, 310. 
Skokholm, Island of, 232. 
Skomar, Island of, 232. * 
Stuarts, Descendants of, 154. 

Traitors, Historical and ArchsBological, 

Thomas, Alban, 306. 

Ulster Journal of ArchsBology, No. 
XIX., 167. 

Wat's Dyke, Circle, 75. 
Wat's Dyke, Inner Trench, 75. 
Welsh and Breton Languages, 72, 148. 
Welsh Coins, 151. 
Welsh Language, &c., 224, 231. 
Welsh, Origin of, 27, 145, 224, 293. 
Williams, Archdeacon, Obituary, 66. 
Williams, W., Letters of, 13. 
Wiltshire, Cromlech-Tumulus in, 60. 
Wrozeter, Excavations of, 207,219, 257. 

Ycheldre, 151. 

Yspytty Evan, Church of, 300. 

Ystradgunlais Church, 234. 


l^ist of 3llii9trattnit9* 

Pembroke Castle, Exterior, from N.W. 

Calvary, Ploogaetell 

Cefn Amwlch, Stonee at . 

Hen Dlnbyeh, Plan of 

Llanallg^o Choreh . 

Llanannoo in Yale, Effigies 

„ „ Brass Chandelier 

Llandegfiu Church 

Llandeilo Cross 

Ltandyfrydog, Window 

Llaneugraid Church 

„ Park, Doorway . 

„ Pigeon House 

Llanerehymedd, Tower, East Side 

Llanflhangel Tre 'r Beirdd, Bell-Cot at 

Llangwyllog, South Doorway . 

Llanwenllwyfo, Brass at 
„ Font at 

Mortals Castle 

Owen Owynedd, Pebble of 

Pembroke Castle, S.W. 

„ „ Gateway, Interior 

Penroynydd Church, Windows 
„ „ Tomb at 

Wroxeter, Excavations 

Plan of Excavations 
Tessellated Wall 

Wall, Inscription on 
Hypocaust . 
Roman Weights 
Roman Capitals • 
Samian and other Ware 
Romano-Salopian Pottery 
Roman Hair Pins 
Roman Combs 
Roman Medicine Stamp