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THE following Translation of Aristotle's History of Ani- 
mals has been made from the text of Schneider. In a work 
of considerable difficulty it is hardly possible entirely to 
avoid errors ; but it is hoped that those which have escaped 
are neither numerous nor important. The notes of 
Schneider have been consulted throughout ; and in places 
of difficulty the English translation by Taylor, the French 
of Camus, and the G-erman of Strack, have been severally 
referred to. 

The work itself is the most ancient and celebrated contri- 
bution to science which has come down to us ; and it is 
hardly possible, when we consider the means of observation . 
which were accessible at the time, to imagine a work of 
more accurate observation. Erom the numerous quotations 
in which our author avails himself of the experience of 
hia predecessors in the same field, as well as corrects 
their errors, there can be no doubt that Aristotle had the 
advantage of many works which have perished in the lapse 
of ages. In the Appendix to the present Translation 
will be found the Essay of Schneider on the sources 
whence Aristotle derived his knowledge of the animals he 
describes ; and these sources, together with his own accu- 

031 7 


rate observations, are probably sufficient to account for the 
correct knowledge of the history of animals displayed 
throughout the work. 

It is right, perhaps, to observe in this place, that Dr. 
Smith, in his Dictionary of Biography, speaks of the ' His- 
tory of Animals ' as partly the result of the royal liberality 
of Alexander ; and doubtless Aristotle would gladly have 
introduced into his work any fresh materials which might 
have been made available to him either during his residence 
at the Macedonian court, or by the subsequent victories of 
Alexander in the East, if the information so obtained had 
reached Athens in sufficient time to be incorporated. But 
in the first instance he would naturally use the mate- 
rials ready to his hand in the works of his predecessors, 
and these were not few. The animals also which he de- 
scribes are principally those of Greece and of the countries 
with which the enterprising Greeks had frequent and com- 
mercial intercourse. He says little of the animals of the 
interior of Asia and of India, and speaks very cautiously of 
such as he does mention ; and one who quotes his authorities 
so freely would hardly have failed to notice the sources of 
his information. 

The study, or at least the knowledge of the classification 
of animals appears to have been carefully pursued in the 
earliest period of man's history. The oldest records that 
we possess contain abundant notices of the peculiarities of 
animals. The Mosaic law abounds in them, in its distinc- 
tions between the clean and the unclean, a distinction not 
then first established, but of the most remote antiquity. 
Indeed it could hardly be otherwise than that men engaged 
in the pursuits of agriculture and the chase should study 
the habits of the animals that were valuable to them, as well 
as those which were injurious. A study thus commenced 


by necessity, would eventually be pursued for its own sake -, 
and not a few would be found who would investigate, and, 
as far as they could, record the various phenomena they 
observed. The paintings of Egypt and the sculptures of 
Assyria are our witnesses of the skill with which animals 
and plants were drawn, and of the minute perception 
of their external forms ; and the knowledge thus gained 
in the ancient centres of civilization would be sure to 
circulate and increase when the intercourse with foreign 
nations spread the knowledge and philosophy so acquired. 

In the writings of Homer we find that the knowledge of 
the anatomy of the human body had already made consi- 
derable progress ; and the inspection of the animals offered 
in sacrifice cannot fail to have added much to the general 
knowledge of their history. A century later, we have the 
poems of Hesiod, devoted to the encouragement of agricul- 
ture and rural pursuits. Pythagoras, in the seventh cen- 
tury B.C., may perhaps have left no writings, but we know 
that he was an eminent student and exponent of natural 
phenomena. His contemporary, Alcmseon of Crotona, is 
especially mentioned by Aristotle ; and he is eminent among 
natural philosophers as the first who is said to have recom- 
mended to his followers the practice of dissection. Empe- 
docles of Agrigentum left a work on the phenomena of na- 
ture, of which a few fragments still remain, and there were 
also others who, if they did not enter into the details of 
what we now call natural history, treated generally of the 
nature of things, and opened the field to those who would 
study the subject in its particular parts. The empire 
of Persia was still the dominant power, and was carrying 
the civilization of the East to every part of the known 
world when Ctesias wrote his great works, of which, un- 
happily, only a few fragments remain. He described not 


only the history of his own time, "but also the natural history 
of Persia and of India, and that probably with more accu- 
racy than has been usually attributed to him. India he had 
not visited personally, so that he could only describe it 
from the information of others ; but this implies that he 
was not alone in the studies which he devoted to natural 
objects. With such predecessors and aided by his own 
acute observations, we need not wonder that Aristotle pro- 
duced a work which has ever been admired by naturalists, 
and must continue to rise in their estimation the longer 
it is in their hands. 

The Index to the present volume has been formed on the 
basis of that of Schneider, and considerable pains have been 
taken to add as many names as possible from other sources, 
especially the Index of Strack, and Kiilb's recent translation 
of the History of Animals, both of which contain identifica- 
tions of a great many animals. A few identifications have 
also been added from Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, as well as 
from Professor Bell's Catalogue of Animals in Captain Spratt's 
work on Lycia ; and the cephalopods are named from Pro- 
fessor Owen's article on that class, in the Cyclopaedia of 
Anatomy. It is hoped, therefore, that the Index will be 
found to contain a greater number of suggestions for the 
identification of the animals mentioned by Aristotle than 
have been hitherto published collectively. It is also right to 
add, that it has been compiled after the translation was com- 
pleted ; and, therefore, in any differences which may be found 
between the identifications at the foot of the page and those 
given in the Index, the reader will rather prefer the latter, 
as the result of later research in works which were not ac- 
cessible when the translation was made. 

April 30, 1862. E. C. 



BOOK I. The work commences with a general review of 
the animal kingdom, and several suggestions for a natural 
arrangement of animals in groups, according to their 
external form or their mode of life, a comparison of animals 
among themselves, and a description of some of their habits. 
Aristotle then introduces the human form, the best known 
to man, as the standard of comparison to which he refers 
the rest of the animal kingdom. The concluding chapters 
of this book are occupied with a description of the several 
parts of the human body, both internal and external. 

BOOK II. In the second book the different parts of ani- 
mals are described. The animals are arranged in various 
groups, viviparous and oviparous quadrupeds, fish, ser- 
pents, birds. The only animals described are those with 
red blood : the description of the rest being reserved for the 
fourth book. Their internal organs are also described ; and 
in the course of the book a few animals, as the ape, ele- 
phant, and chameleon, are especially noticed. 

BOOK III. The third book commences with a description 
of the internal organs, beginning with the generative 
system. A considerable portion of the book is devoted to 
the course of the veins ; and Aristotle quotes from other 
writers, as well as states the result of his own observations. 
He then describes the nature of other constituent parts of 
the body, sinews, fibres, bone, marrow, cartilage, nails, 
hoofs, claws, horns, and beaks of birds, hair, scales, mem- 
branes, flesh, fat, blood, marrow, milk, and the spermatic fluid. 

BOOK IV. Animals without blood, and first, the cepha- 


lopods, are described ; then the crustaceans, testacea, echi- 
nidaB, aseidians, actiniae, hermit crabs, insects. In the eighth 
chapter the organs of sense are considered, and afterwards, 
the voice, sleep, age, and differences of the sexes in animals 
are described. 

BOOK Y. In the former books animals are for the most 
part described with reference to their several parts. In the 
fifth book they are treated as entire, and especially with 
regard to their mode of reproduction. First of all, our 
author treats of spontaneous reproduction, and then of 
those animals which spring from a union of the sexes ; and 
from this he proceeds to some detail with respect to 
different groups of animals, testacea, Crustacea, insects. 
The book concludes with a long description of bees and 
their habits. 

BOOK YI. In this book the same subject is continued 
through the several classes of birds, fish, and quadrupeds. 
This account of the reproduction of animals includes also 
the consideration of the seasons, climates, and ages of 
animals, and how far these influence their reproduction. 

BOOK YII. The seventh book is almost entirely devoted 
to the consideration of the reproduction of man, and an 
account of man from his birth to his death. This book 
ends abruptly, and is probably imperfect. 

BOOK VIII. In the eighth book Aristotle passes on to 
the most interesting part of his work, the character and 
habits of the whole animal world, as it was known to him. 
The amount of detail which he has collected and arranged 
on this subject is most interesting. He treats, first of all, 
of the food of animals, of their migrations, their health and 
diseases, and the influence of climate upon them. 

BOOK IX. The subject of the eighth book is continued, 
with an account of the relations in which animals stand 


to each other, and especially the friendship and hostility 
of different species ; and these are for the most part re- 
ferred to the nature of their food, and their mode of pro- 
curing it. The notices of fish are not so numerous as those 
of other groups : this would necessarily arise from the diffi- 
culty of observation. At the conclusion of the book, an 
essay on bees and their congeners is given at considerable 

BOOK X. This book, in all probability erroneously as- 
cribed to Aristotle, is occupied with a treatise on the 
causes of barrenness in the human species. It appears 
to be rather a continuation of the seventh book, which ends 
abruptly ; but it is well placed at the end, as no genuine 
work of our author. 




1. SOME parts of animals are simple, and these can be 
divided into like parts, as flesh into pieces of flesh ; others are 
compound, and cannot be divided into like parts, as the 
hand cannot be divided into hands, nor the face into faces. 
Of these some are not only called parts, but members, such as 
those which, though entire in themselves, are made up of 
other parts, as the head and the leg, the hand and the entire 
arm, or the trunk ; for these parts are both entire in them- 
selves, and made up of other parts. 

2. All the compound parts also are made up of simple 
parts, the hand, for example, of flesh, and sinew, and bone. 
Some animals have all these parts the same, in others they 
are different from each other. Some of the parts are the 
same in form, as the nose and eye of one man is the same as 
the nose and eye of another man, and flesh is the same with 
flesh, and bone with bone. In like manner we may compare 
the parts of the horse, and of other animals, those parts, that 
is, which are the same in species, for the whole bears the same 
relation to the whole as the parts do to each other. And in 
animals belonging to the same class, the parts are the same, 
only they differ in excess or defect. By class, I mean such as 
bird or fish, for all these differ if either compared with their 
own class or with another, and there are many forms of 
birds and fishes. 

3. Nearly all their parts differ in them according to the 
opposition of their external qualities, such as colour or 
shape, in that some are more, others are less affected, or 



sometimes in number more or less, or in size greater and 
smaller, or in any quality which can be included in excess 
or defect. For some animals have a soft skin, in others the 
skin is shelly ; some have a long bill, as cranes, others a 
short one ; some have many feathers, others very few ; some 
also have parts which are wanting in others, for some species 
have spurs, others have none ; some have a crest, others have 
noo. But, so tc say, their principal parts and those which 
furrn the bulk of their body, are either the same, or vary 
only in their oppoaHefl, and in excess and defect. 

4 By excess and defect I mean the greater and the less. 
But some animals agree with each other in their parts neither 
in form, nor in excess and defect, but have only an analogous 
likeness, such as a bone bears to a spine, a nail to a hoof, 
a hand to a crab's claw, the scale of a fish to the feather of 
a bird, for that which is a feather in the birds is a scale in 
the fish. "With regard then to the parts which each class 
of animal possesses, they agree and differ in this manner, 
and also in the position of the parts. For many animals 
have the same parts, but not in the same position, as the 
mammae which are either pectoral or abdominal. But of the 
simple parts some are soft and moist, others hard and dry. 

5. The soft parts are either entirely so, or so long as they 
are in a natural condition, as blood, serum, fat, tallow, mar- 
row, semen, gall, milk (in those animals which give milk), 
flesh, and other analogous parts of the body. In another 
manner also the excretions of the body belong to this class, 
as phlegm, and the excrements of the abdomen and bladder ; 
the hard and dry parts are sinew, skin, vein, hair, bone, car- 
tilage, nail, horn, for that part bears the same name, and on 
the whole is called horn, and the other parts of the body 
which are analogous to these. 

6. Animals also differ in their manner of life, in their ac- 
tions and dispositions, and in their parts. We will first of 
all speak generally of these differences, and afterwards con- 
sider each species separately. The following are the points 
in which they vary in manner of life, in their actions and 
dispositions. Some animals are aquatic, others live on the 
land ; and the aquatic may again be divided into two classes, 
for some entirely exist and procure their food in the water, 
and take in and give out water, and cannot live without it ,- 


this is the nature of most fishes. But there are others 
which, though they live and feed in the water, do not take 
:n water but air, and produce their young out of the water. 
Many of these animals are furnished with feet, as the otter 
and the latax 1 and the crocodile, or with wings, as the seagull 
and diver, and others are without feet, as the water-serpent. 
Some procure their food from the water, and cannot live out 
of the water, but neither inhale air nor water, as the acalephe 3 
and the oyster. 

7. Different aquatic animals are found in the sea, in rivers, 
in lakes, and in marshes, as the frog and newt, and of 
marine animals some are pelagic, some littoral, and some 
saxatile. Some land animals take in and give out air, and 
this is called inhaling and exhaling ; such are man, and all 
other land animals which are furnished with lungs ; some, 
however, which procure their food from the earth, do not 
inhale air, as the wasp, the bee, and all other insects. 3 By 
insects I mean those animals which have divisions in their 
bodies, whether in the lower part only, or both in the upper 
and lower. Many land animals, as I have already observed, 
procure their food from the water, but there are no aquatic or 
marine animals which find their food on land. There are 
some animals which at first inhabit the water, but afterwards 
change into a different form, and live out of the water ; this 

happens to the gnat in the rivers, and 4 which 

afterwards becomes an oestrum. 6 

8. Again, there are some creatures which are stationary, 
while others are locomotive ; the fixed animals are aquatic, 
but this is. not the case with any of the inhabitants of the 
land. Many aquatic animals also grow upon each other ; 
this is the case with several genera of shell-fish : the sponge 
also exhibits some signs of sensation, for they say that it is 
drawn up with some difficulty, unless the attempt to remove 
it is made stealthily. Other animals also there are which 
are alternately fixed together or free, this is the case with a 
certain kind of acalephe ; some of these become separated 
during the night, and emigrate. Many animals are separate 
from each other, but incapable of voluntary movement, as 

1 Beaver,Castor fiber. 2 Medusa, or perhaps Actinia, or both. 
8 Under the class fvrofjia are probably included all annulose animals. 
* Some words appear to be lost in this place. 5 Tabami8,gad-fly. 

B 2 


oysters, and the animal called holothuria. 1 Some aquatic 
animals are swimmers, as fish, and the mollusca, 2 and the 
malacostraca, as the crabs. Others creep on the bottom, as 
the crab, for this, though an aquatic animal, naturally creeps. 

9. Of land animals some are furnished with wings, as birds 
and bees, and these differ in other respects from each other ; 
others have feet, and of this class some species walk, others 
crawl, and others creep in the mud. There is no animal which 
has only wings as fish have only fins, for those animals whose 
wings are formed by an expansion of the skin can walk, 
and the bat has feet, the seal has imperfect feet. Among 

"sX^ birds there are some with very imperfect feet, which are 
(therefore called apodes ; they are, however, provided with 
very strong wings, and almost all birds that are similar to 
this one have strong wings and imperfect feet, as the swallow 
and drepanis ; 3 for all this class of birds is alike both in ha- 
bits and in the structure of their wings, and their whole 

~*^*- appearance is very similar. The_annsj is seen at all times 
of the year, but the drepanis can only be taken in rainy 
weather during the summer, and on the whole is a rare bird. 

10. Many animals, however, can both walk and swim. 
The following are the differences exhibited by animals in 
their habits and their actions. Some of them are gregarious, 
and others solitary, both in the classes which are furnished 
with feet, and those which have wings, or fins. Some partake 
of both characters, and of those that are gregarious, as well 
as those that are solitary, some unite in societies and some 
are scattered. Gregarious birds are such as the pigeon, 
stork, swan, but no bird with hooked claws is gregarious. 
Among swimming animals some fish are gregarious, as the 
dromas, 5 tunny, pelamis, 6 amia. 7 

11. But man partakes of both qualities. Those which 
have a common employment are called social, but that is 
not the case with all gregarious animals. Man, and the 
bee, the wasp, and the ant, and the stork belong to this 
class. Some of these obey a leader, others are anarchical ; 
the stork and the bee are of the former class, the ant and 
many others belong to the latter. Some animals, both in 

1 Perhaps some species of Zoophyte. 2 Cephalopods. 

3 Perhaps Sand martin. 4 Swift. 5 Some migratory fish. 

6 A kind of tunny, still called palamyde at Marseilles. 

7 A kind of tunny, Les Bonitons (Camus.) 


the gregarious and solitary class, are limited to one locality, 
others are migratory. There are also carnivorous animals, 
herbivorous, omnivorous, and others which eat peculiar 
food, as the bee and the spider ; the former eats only honey )^ 
and a few other sweet things, while spiders prey upon flies * 
and there are other animals which feed entirely on fish. Som* 
animals hunt for their food, and some make a store, which 
others do not. There are also animals which make habita- 
tions for themselves, and others which do not. The mole, 
the mouse, the ant, and the bee, make habitations, but many 
kinds both of insects and quadrupeds make no dwelling. 

12. "With regard to situation, some are troglodite, as lizards 
and serpents, others, as the horse and dog, live upon the sur- 
face of the earth. Some kinds of animals burrow in the 
ground, others do not ; some animals are nocturnal, as the owl 
and the bat, others use the hours of daylight. There are 
tame animals and wild animals. Man and the mule are al- 
ways tame, the leopard and the wolf are invariably wild, and 
others, as the elephant, are easily tamed. "We may, however, 
view them in another way, for all the genera that have been 
tamed are found wild also, as horses, oxen, swine, sheep, 
goats, and dogs. 

13. Some animals utter a loud cry, some are silent, and 
others have a voice, which in some cases may be expressed 
by a word, in others it cannot. There are also noisy 
animals and silent animals, musical and unmusical kinds, 
but they are mostly noisy about the breeding season. Some, 
as the dove, frequent fields, others, as the hoopoe, live 
on the mountains ; some attach themselves to man, as the 
pigeon. Some are lascivious, as the partridge and domestic 
fowl, and others are chaste, as the raven, which rarely / 

14. Again, there are classes of animals furnished with 
weapons of offence, others with weapons of defence ; in the 
former I include those which are capable of inflicting an in- 
jury, or of defending themselves when they are attacked ; in 
the latter those which are provided with some natural pro- 
tection against injury. 

15. Animals also exhibit many differences of disposition. 
Some are gentle, peaceful, and not violent, as the ox. Some 
are violent, passionate, and intractable, as the wild boar. Some 


are prudent and fearful, as the stag and the hare. Serpei .ts 
are illiberal and crafty. Others, as the lion, are liberal, 
noble, and generous. Others are brave, wild, and crafty, 
/like the wolf. For there is this difference between the 

/ generous and the brave the former means that which comes 
of a noble race, the latter that which does not easily depart 
from its own nature. 

16. Some animals are cunning and evil-disposed, as the 

A fox ; others, as the dog, are fierce, friendly, and fawning. 
) Some are gentle and easily tamed, as the elephant ; some are 

/ susceptible of shame, an'd watchful, as the goose. Some 

\ are jealous, and fond of ornament, as the peacock. But man 
is the only animal capable of reasoning, though many 
others possess the faculty of memory and instruction in 
common with him. ISfo other animal but man has the power 
of recollection. In another place we will treat more accu- 
rately of the disposition and manner of life in each class. 


1 . ALL animals possess in common those parts by which they 
take in food, and into which they receive it. But these 
parts agree or differ in the same way as all the other parts 
of bodies, that is, either in shape or size, or proportion or 
position ; and besides these, almost all animals possess many 
other parts in common, such as those by which they reject 
their excrements, (and the part by which they take their 
food,) 1 though this does not exist in all. The part by which 
the food is taken in is called the mouth, that which receives 
the food from the mouth is called the stomach. The part 
by which they reject the excrement has many names. 

2. The excrement being of two kinds, the animals which 
possess receptacles for the fluid excrement have also recepta- 
cles for the dry ; but those which have the latter are not 
always furnished with the former. Wherefore all animals 
which have a bladder have a belly also, but not all that have 
a belly have a bladder ; for the part appropriated to the 
reception of the liquid excrement is called the bladder, and 
that for the reception of the dry is called the belly. 

3. Many animals possess both these parts, and that also 
by which the semen is emitted. Among animals that have 
the power of generation, some emit the semen into them- 

1 The words in brackets should probably be excluded from the text. 


selves, and some inject it into others. The former are 
called female, the latter male. In some animals there is 
neither male nor female, and there is a diversity in the form 
of the parts appropriated to this office. For some animals 
have a uterus, others have only something analogous to the 
uterus. These are the most essential organs ; some of 
which exist in all animals, others in the majority only. 


1. THERE is only one sense, that of touch, which is common 
to all animals ; so that no exact name can be given to the 
part in which this sense resides, for in some animals it is 
the same, in others only analogous. 

2. Every living creature is furnished with moisture, and 
must die, if deprived of this moisture either in the course 
of nature or by force. But in what part of the body this 
moisture resides is another question. In some animals it is 
found in the blood and veins, in others the situation is only 
analogous, but these are imperfect, as fibres and serum. 1 The 
sense of touch resides in the simple parts, as in the flesh and 
in similar places, and generally in those parts which contain 
blood, at least in those animals which have blood ; in others 
it resides in the analogous parts, but in all animals in the 
simple parts. 

3. The capacity of action resides in the compound parts, 
as the preparation of food in the mouth, and the power of 
locomotion in the feet or wings, or the analogous parts. 
Again, some animals are sanguineous, as man, the horse, and 
all perfect animals, whether apodous, bipeds, or quadrupeds ; 
and some animals are without blood, as the bee and the 
wasp, and such marine animals as the sepia and the carabus, 2 
and all animals with more than four legs. 


1. THERE are also viviparous, oviparous, and vermiparous 
animals. The viviparous, are such as man, and the horse, the 
seal, and others which have hair, and among marine animals 
the cetacea, as the dolphin and those which are called selache.* 

1 Fibres and serum, as compared with veins and blood, refer to th 
circulation in animals without red blood. 

2 Palinurus, Spiny Lobster. 3 Cartilaginous fishea. 


Some of these are furnished with a blow-hole, but have no 
gills, as the dolphin and the whale. The dolphin has its 
blow-hole on the back, the whale in its forehead; others 
have open gills, as the selache, the galeus, 1 and the batus. 2 
That is called the egg of the perfect foetus, from which the 
future animal is produced, from a part at first, while the 
remainder serves for its food. The worm is that from the 
whole of which the future animal is produced, and the 
foetus afterwards acquires parts and increases in size. 

2. Some viviparous animals are internally oviparous, as 
the selache ; others are internally viviparous, as mankind 
and the horse. In different animals the foetus assumes a 
different form, when first brought into the world, and is 
either a living creature, an egg, or a worm. The eggs of 
some animals, as birds, are hard- shelled, and are of two 
colours. Those of the selache and some other animals are 
soft-skinned, and have only one colour. Some species of the 
vermiform foetus are capable of motion, others are not. But 
in another place, when we treat of generation, we will dwell 
more accurately on these subjects. 


1. SOME animals have feet, others have none ; of the for- 
mer some have two feet, as mankind and birds only ; others 
have four, as the lizard and the dog ; others, as the scolopen- 
dra and bee, have many feet ; but all have their feet in pairs. 

2. And among apodous swimming animals some have 
fins, as fish ; and of these some have two fins in the upper 
and two in the lower part of their bodies, as the chryso- 
phys 3 and labrax ; 4 others, which are very long and smooth, 
have only two fins, as the eel and conger ; others have none 
at all, as the lamprey and others, which live in the sea as 
serpents do on land, and in like manner swim in moist places ; 
and some of the genus selache, as those which are flat and 
have tails, as the batos and trygon, have no fins ; these fish 
swim by means of their flat surfaces ; but the batrachus 5 has 
fins, and so have all those fish which are not very thin in pro- 
portion to their width. 

3. But the animals which have apparent feet, as the cepha- 

' Squalus galeus. 2 Raia batos. 8 Spams auratus. 

4 Perca labi'ax. 5 Lophius piscatorius and also L. barbatus. 


lopods, swim both with their feet and fins, and move quickly 
upon the hollow parts of their bodies, as the sepia, teuthis, 
and polypus : but none of them can walk except the polypus. 
Those animals which have hard skins, as the carabus, swim 
with their hinder parts, and move very quickly upon their 
tail, with the fins which are upon it, and the newt both with 
its feet and tail, and (to compare small things with great) it 
has a tail like the glanis. 1 

4. Some winged animals, as the eagle and the hawk, are 
feathered; others, as the cockchafer and the bee, mem- 
branaceous wings ; and others, as the alopex 2 and the bat, 
have wings formed of skin. Both the feathered and leather- 
winged tribes have blood ; but the insects, which have naked 
wings, have no blood. Again, the feathered and leather- 
winged animals are all either bipeds or apodous, for they say 
that there are winged serpents in Ethiopia. 3 

5. The feathered tribe of animals is called birds ; the other 
two tribes have no exact names. Among winged creatures 
without blood some are coleopterous, for they have elytra 
over their wings, as the cockchafer and the beetles, and others 
are without elytra. The animals of this class have either 
two or four wings. Those with four wings are distin- 
guished by their greater size or a caudal sting. The diptera 
are either such as are t small, or have a sting in their head. 
The coleoptera have no sting at all ; the diptera have a sting 
in their head, as the fly, horse-fly, gad-fly, and gnat. 

6. All bloodless animals, except a few marine species of 
the cephalopoda, are smaller than those which have blood. 
These animals are the largest in warm waters, and more so 
in the sea than on the land, and in fresh water. All creatures 
that are capable of motion are moved by four or more limbs. 
Those with blood have four limbs only, as man has two 
hands and two feet. Birds have two wings and two feet ; 
quadrupeds and fishes have four feet or four fins. But those 
animals which have two wings or none at all, as the serpent, 
are nevertheless moved by four limbs ; for the bendings of 
their body are four in number, or two when they have two 

1 Silurus glanis, L. (Strack). 2 Probably some kind of flying 

squirrel. 3 Herodotus, ii. 76 : " the form of this serpent is similar 

to that of the water-snake ; its wings are not feathered, but like those of 
bats :'' the draco volann may have given rise to this storv. 


7. Those bloodless animals which have more than four 
feet, whether furnished with feet or wings, always have more 
than four organs of locomotion, as the ephemera, which has 
four feet and four wings ; and in this it not only agrees w r ith 
its peculiar manner of life, from which also it derives 
its name, but also that it is winged and four-footed; and 
all creatures, whether they have four feet or many feet, 
move in the same direction, for they all move in the long 
way of their bodies. All other animals have two leading 
feet, the crab alone has four. 


1. THE following are the principal classes which include other 
animals birds, fishes, cetacea. All these have red blood. 
There is another class of animals covered with a shell, and 
called shell fish, and an anonymous class of soft-shelled 
animals (malacostraca), which includes carabi, carcini, and 
astaci ; and another of mollusca, such as teuthis, teuthos, and 
sepia ; and another class of annulose animals. All these are 
without blood, and the species with feet have many feet. 
There are no large classes of other animals ; for there are 
many forms which are not included under a single form, but 
either stand alone, having no specific difference, as man, or 
have specific differences, but the classes are anonymous. 

2. All animals with four feet and no wings have blood. 
Some of these are viviparous, others oviparous. The vivi- 
parous are not all covered with hair, but the oviparous have 
scales. The scale of a reptile is similar in situation to the 
scale of a fish. The class of serpents, sanguineous land ani- 
mals, is naturally without feet. Though some have feet, this 
class is also covered with scales. All serpents, except the 
viper, are oviparous. The viper alone is viviparous, so that 
not all viviparous animals have hair ; for some fishes also are 
viviparous. All animals, however, that have hair are vivi- 
parous ; for we may consider the prickles of the hedgehog 
and porcupine as analogous to the hair of animals ; for they 
answer the purpose of hair, and not, as in marine animals 
that are so covered, of feet. 1 

3. There are also many classes of viviparous quadrupeds, 

1 The Echinidffi. 


but they have never received names. Each kind must, 
therefore, be taken separately, as man, as we speak of lion, 
stag, horse, dog, and of others in like manner. There is, 
however, one class of those that have a mane called lopburi, 1 
as the horse, ass, mule, ginnus, 2 hinnus, and those which in 
Syria are called mules, 3 from their resemblance, though not 
quite of the same form. They copulate and produce young 
from each other, so that it is necessary to consider well the 
nature of each of them separately. 

4. We have now treated of these things in an outline, for 
the sake of giving a taste of what we are afterwards to 
consider, and of how many. Hereafter we will speak of them 
more accurately, in order that we may first of all examine 
into their points of difference and agreement ; and after- 
wards we will endeavour to inquire into the causes of 
these things, but it will be a more natural arrangement to 
do so when we treat of the history of each. For it is evident 
from these things what they are, and what we have to de- 

5. Our first subject of consideration must be the parts of 
which animals are made up, for these constitute the chief 
and the whole difference among them ; either because they 
have them or are without them, or these parts vary in posi- 
tion or arrangement, or in any of the differences mentioned 
before, in form, size, proportion, and difference of accidents, 
First of all, then, we will consider the parts of the human 
body ; for, as every one can best understand the standard of 
money with which he is most familiar, so it is in other things. 
And of necessity, man must be the best known to us of all 
animals. The parts of the body are, indeed, plain enough to 
every one's common sense ; but, that we may not forsake our 
arrangement, and may have reason as well as perception, we 
will speak, first of all, of the organic, and afterwards of the 
simple, parts. 

1. THESE are the principal parts into which the whole body is 
divided. The head, neck, trunk, two arms, and two legs, 

1 Animals with long hair on their tails. 

2 Ginnus is the offspring of a mule and mare. Book vi. 24, 1. 

3 Hemionus, perhaps the foal of a horse and wild ass, and so dis- 
tinct from oreus, the foal of the he-ass and mare. 


The whole cavity, from the neck to the pudenda, is called 
the trunk. That part of the head which is covered with 
hair is called the cranium, the fore part of this is called the 
sinciput. This is the last formed, being the last bone in 
the body which becomes hard ; the hinder part is the occi- 
put, and between the occiput and sinciput is the crown oi 
the head. The brain is placed beneath the sinciput, and the 
occiput is empty j 1 the cranium is a thin spherical bone covered 
with a skin without flesh. The skull has sutures : in women 
there is but one placed in a circle ; men have generally three 
joined in one, and a man's skull has been seen without any 
sutures at all. The middle and smooth part of the hair is 
called the crown of the head ; in some persons this is double, 
for there are some people double-crowned, not from any for- 
mation of the bone, but only from the division of the hair. 


1. THE part immediately beneath the cranium is called the 
face in mankind alone, for we do not speak of the face of a fish 
or of an ox ; the part immediately beneath the sinciput and 
between the eyes is called the forehead. Those in whom 
this feature is large are tardy ; those who have a small fore- 
head are easily excited ; a broad forehead belongs to those 
w ^ are ^ a kl e * ^ e carr i e( i away by their feelings ; a round 
forehead is a sign of a passionate disposition. 

2. Under the forehead are two eyebrows; if they are 
straight, it is a mark of a gentle disposition ; the eyebrows 
bent down to the nose are an evidence of an austere tem- 
per ; if they incline towards the temples, of a mocker and 
scoffer ; if they are drawn down, it is a sign of an envious 
person. Beneath these are the eyes, which by nature are two 
in number: the parts of each eye are,first, the upper and under 
eyelid, the edges of which are furnished with hair. "Within 
the eye, the moist part with which we see is called the pupil ; 
round this is the iris, and this is surrounded by the white. 
Two corners of the eye are formed at the junction of the eye- 
lids, one in the direction of the nose, the other towards the 
temple. If these corners are large, they are a sign of an evil 
disposition ; if those near the nose are fleshy, and have a 
swollen appearance, they are an evidence of wickedness. 
1 This mistake is again repeated in Ch. xiii. 


3. All other classes of animals have eyes, except shell-fish, 
and some other imperfect creatures, and all viviparous 
animals except moles have eyes. A person might, however, 
conclude from the following observation, that it has eyes, 
though it is quite without them, for it certainly does not 
see at all, nor has it any external eyes ; but, when the skin is 
taken off, there is a place for the eyes, and the iris of the 
eye is in the place which it would naturally occupy on the 
outside, as if they had been wounded in their birth, and the 
skin had grown over the place. 

4. The white of the eye is generally the same in all animals, 
but the iris is very different. In some it is black, in others 
decidedly grey, in others dark grey, and in some it is the 
colour of the goat's eye, and this is a sign of the best dis- 
position, and is most to be prized for acuteness of vision. 
Man is almost the only animal which exhibits a variety of 
colouring in the eye ; there are, however, some horses with 
grey eyes. 

5. The eyes of some persons are large, others small, and 
others of a moderate size the last- mentioned are the best. 
And some eyes are projecting, some deep-set, and some mo- 
derate, and those which are deep-set have the most acute 
vision in all animals ; the middle position is a sign of the 
best disposition. Some people have an eye which is perpe- 
tually opening and closing, others have an eye always intent, 
and others a moderately -intent eye : this last is the best dis- 
posed ; of the others, the one is impudent, and the other a 
sign of infirmity. 


1. THE part of the head by which we hear, but do not breathe, 
is the ear ; for Alcmseon is mistaken when he says that 
goats breathe through their ears. One part of the ear has not 
received any name, the other part is called the lobe. The 
whole ear is made up of cartilage and flesh. Internally, 
the ear has the nature of a shell, and the last bone is simi- 
lar to the ear itself. The sound reaches this part last, as 
it were in a chamber. There is no passage from the ear into 
the brain, but there is to the roof of the mouth ; and a vein 
extends from the brain to each ear. 1 The eyes also are con- 
nected with the brain, and each eye is placed upon a vein. 
1 Eustachian tube. 


2. Man is the only animal with ears that cannot move them. 
Among animals which have the faculty of hearing; some have 
ears, and others, as winged and scaly creatures, have no ear, 
but an open orifice in the head ; all viviparous animals, except 
the seal, and the dolphin, and other cetacea, have ears ; the 
selache also are viviparous. The seal has open orifices by 
which it hears ; the dolphin can hear, though it has no ears ; 
all other animals can move their ears, but man alone does 
not move them. 

3. The ears (of man) lie in the same circle with his eyes, 
and not above them, as in some quadrupeds. The ears are 
either smooth, hairy, or moderate. These last are the best 
for hearing, but they do not in any way indicate the dis- 
position. They are large, or small or middling, or they are 
erect, or not at all, or only moderately erect. The moderately 
erect are a sign of the best disposition ; large and erect eara 
are an evidence of foolish talking and loquacity. The part 
of the head between the eye and the ear is called the temple. 

4. In the middle of the face is the nose, the passage for the 
breath, for through this animals inhale and exhale, and 
through it also they sneeze ; this is the expulsion of a con- 
centrated breath, and is the only kind of breathing which is 
esteemed ominous or sacred : moreover, inhaling and exhal- 
ing is into the chest, and without the nostrils it is impossible 
to inhale or exhale, for inhaling and exhaling is from the 
breast by the windpipe, and not from any part of the head. 
But it is possible to live without this respiration through the 
nostrils. The smell also resides in this part ; this is the sense 
of odour. The nostril is very moveable, and not naturally 
immoveable like the ear. 

5. One part of the nose, namely, the division between the 
nostrils, is cartilaginous, but the passage is empty, for the 
nose is formed of two divisions. In the elephant, the nostril 
is very large and strong, and it answers to the purpose of a 
hand,' for the animal can extend it, and with it take its food, 
and convey it to its mouth, whether the food is moist or dry. 
This is the only animal that can do so. 

' 6. There are also two jaws, the upper and the under. All 
animals move the lower jaw, except the river-crocodile, and 
this moves the upper jaw only. Below the nose are two lips, 
the flesh of which is very moveable. The mouth is the 


centre A the jaws and the lips. The upper part is called 
the roof of the mouth, the lower, the pharynx. The tongue 
is the organ of taste. This sense resides in the tip, and, if 
food is placed on the broad part of the tongue, the taste is 
less acute. The tongue partakes of all the other sensations, 
as harshness, heat, and cold, as well as that of taste, in com- 
mon with the rest of the flesh. 

7. The flat part of the tongue is either narrow or moderate 
in size, the moderate is the best, and most apt for clear elocu- 
tion. The tongue may be either too loose, or tied down, as in 
stammerers and inarticulate speakers. The flesh of the 
tongue is porous and spongy. The epiglottis is a portion 
of the tongue, the double part of the mouth is the tonsils ; 
that in many divisions the gums, they are fleshy, and in 
them are fixed the bony teeth. Within the mouth there is 
another part, the uvula, a pillar filled with blood. If this part 
is swelled with relaxation, it is called a grape, and chokes. 


1. THE neck is the part between the head and the trunk ; the 
front part is called the larynx, behind this is the O3sophagus. 
The voice and the breath pass through the front part, the 
trachea, which is cartilaginous, but the oesophagus is fleshy, 
and placed farther in, near the vertebra of the neck. The 
back of the neck is called the epomis. These are the parts 
as far as the thorax. The parts of the thorax are some be- 
fore and some behind. First of all, below the neck is the 
breast with two mammae ; on these axe two nipples, through 
which the milk of the female passes. The mamma is porous. 
There is also milk in the breasts of men. The flesh of the 
mamma in men is thick, in women it is spongy and full of pores. 

2. The part below the thorax, in front, is the belly, and o4 
this the navel is the centre. Beneath this centre, the part on 
each side is called the iliac region ; the part in the centre, be- 
neath the navel, is called the hypogastric region ; the lowest 
part of this is called pubes ; above the navel is the epigas- 
tric region ; the lumbar region is situated between the epi- 
gastric and iliac regions. 

3. Of the hinder parts the loin forms the division of the 
body, whence also its name is derived (60^$ quasi /Vopiig). 
The part of the central region which is like a seat is the but- 


tock ; that on which the thigh turns, the cotyledon. The 
peculiar part of women is the uterus ; of men the penis, it 
is external, at the extremity of the trunk in two parts ; the 
upper part is fleshy and smooth, and is called glans ; this is 
covered with an anonymous skin, which, if it is cut asunder, 
does not unite again, neither does the cheek nor the eyelid. 

4. Common to this and the glans is the prepuce, the re- 
maining part is cartilaginous, readily increases in size, and 
it is drawn in and out, contrary to that of the class of ani- 
mals called lophuri. Beneath the penis are two testicles, 
surrounded by a skin called the scrotum ; the testicles are 
not of the same nature as flesh, nor are they made of flesh. 
In another place we shall treat of the nature of all these 
parts more accurately. 

5. The pudendum muliebre is contrary to that of the 
male, for it is hollow under the pubes, not projecting like 
that of the male, and the urethra is outside the womb, for the 
passage of the semen of the male, and for the fluid excre- 
ment of both. The part of the body which joins the neck and 
the breast is called the jugulum ; that which unites the side, 
the arm, and the shoulder is the arm-pit. The region 
between the thigh and the hypogastric region is called the 
groin ; the part common to the thigh and the buttock on the 
inside is the perineum, that of the thigh and buttock on the 
outside is called hypoglutis. 

6. We have previously treated of the trunk. The hinder 
part of the breast is called the back : the parts of the back 
are two shoulder blades and the back-bone ; below the thorax, 
and opposite the stomach, are the loins ; the ribs belong 
both to the back and the front of the trunk, and are eight 
on each side, for we have never heard anything worthy of 
credit concerning the Ligyes, who are said to have seven ribs. 


1. MAN has upper and lower side, the front and the back, and 
right and left side. The right and the left are nearly alike in 
their parts and in every particular, except that the left side 
is the weaker ; but the back parts are not like the front ; 
nor the lower parts to the upper, except in this particular, 
that the parts below the hypogastric region are full-fleshed 
or lean in proportion to the face, and the arms also answer 


to the proportion of the legs. Those persons who hare a 
short humerus have also generally a short thigh : those who 
have small feet have also small hands. 

2. One of the double parts of the body is the arm. The parts 
of the arm are the shoulder, humerus, elbow, cubitus, and the 
hand ; the parts of the hand are the palm and five fingers ; the 
jointed part of the finger is the condyle, the unjoin ted part 
the phalanx. The thumb has but one joint, all the rest have 
two. The bending of the arm and finger is always inwards. 
The arm is also bent at the elbow : the inner part of 
the hand is called the palm; it is fleshy, and divided 
by strong lines. Long-lived persons have one or two lines 
which extend through the whole hand ; short-lived persons 
have two lines not extending through the whole hand. The 
joint of the hand and arm is the wrist. The outside of the 
hand is sinewy, and has not received any name. 

3. The other double part of the body is the leg. The 
double-headed part of the leg is called the thigh, the move- 
able part is called the patella, that which has two bones 
the tibia ; the front of this part is the shin, the hind part 
the calf of the leg. The flesh is full of sinews and veins ; in 
those persons who have large hips, the flesh is drawn up- 
wards towards the hollow part under the knee, in those who 
have not it is drawn down. The lowest part of the shin is 
the ankle, and this is double in each leg. The part of the 
leg with many bones is called the foot, the hind part of w r hich 
is the heel. The front part is divided into five toes ; the 
under part, which is fleshy, is called the sole of the foot ; 
the upper part, (the instep,) is sinewy, and has not re- 
ceived any name. One part of the toe is the nail, the other 
is the joint ; the nail is on the extremity of the toe, and the 
toes are bent inwards. Those who have the sole of the foot 
thick, and not hollow, but walk upon the whole of the foot, 
are knavish. The common joint of the thigh and the leg is 
the knee. 


1. THESE parts are possessed in common by the male and fe- 
male ; the position of the external parts, whether above or be- 
low, before or behind, on the right side or the left, will appear 
on mere inspection. It is necessary, however, to enumerate 



them, for the reasons which I have mentioned before, that 
its proper place being assigned to each part, any diiference in 
their arrangement in man and other animals may be less 
likely to escape our notice. 

2. In man, the parts of the body are more naturally di- 
vided into upper and lower than in any other animal, for all 
the upper and lower parts of his body are arranged accord- 
ing to the order of nature above and below ; in the same 
way, also, the fore and hind parts, and those on the right 
and left, are placed naturally. But in other animals some 
of these parts are either not at all so placed, or they are 
much more confused than in man. The head is placed above 
the body in all animals, but in man alone, as we have said, is 
this part corresponding to the order of all things. 

3. Next to the head is the neck, then the breast and the 
back, the one before and the other behind ; and each of them 
in the following order: the stomach, loins, pudenda, 
haunch, then the thigh and leg, and, last of all, the foot. 
The legs have the joint bent forwards, in which direction 
also is their manner of walking, and the more moveable part 
of the legs as well as the joint is bent forward : the heel is be- 
hind. Each of the ankles is like an ear. Prom the right and 
left side come arms, having the joint bent inwards, so that 
the flexures both of the legs and arms are towards each other, 
especially in man. 

4. The senses and the organs of sense, the eyes, nostril, 
and tongue are in the same position, and in the anterior part 
of the body ; but the hearing, and its organ, and the ears are 
at the side, and upon the same circumference as the eyes. 
Man has the eyes closer together, in proportion to his size, 
than other animals. The sense of touch is the most accurate 
of the human senses, and next to this the taste. In the rest 
of his senses he is far surpassed by other animals. 


1. THE external parts of the body are arranged in this 
manner ; and, as I have said, are for the most part named and 
known from habit. But the internal parts are not so well 
known, and those of the human body are bhe least known. 
So that in order to explain them we must compare them with 
the same parts of those animals which are most nearly allied. 


2. First of all, the brain is placed in the fore-part of the 
head, and it occupies the same position in all animals that 
have this part, which belongs to all sanguineous and cepha- 
lopodous animals. In proportion to his size, man has the 
Jargest brain of all animals, and the moistest. Two mem- 
branes enclose the brain : that outside the skull is the strong- 
est ; the inner membrane is slighter than the outer one. In, 
all animals the brain is in two portions. The cerebellum is 
placed upon the brain at its lowest extremity. It is different 
from the brain both to the touch and in appearance. 

3. The back of the head is empty and hollow in all ani- 
mals in proportion to their size, for some have a large head, 
but the part lying under the face is less in those animals 
which have round faces ; others have a small head and large 
jaws, as the whole tribe of Lophuri. In all animals the brain 
is without blood, nor does it contain any veins, and it is 
naturally cold to the touch. The greater number of animals 
have a small cavity in the centre of the brain. And round 
this a membrane filled with veins : this membrane is like 
skin, and encloses the brain. Above the brain is the smooth- 
est and weakest bone in the head it is called sinciput. 

4. Three passages lead from' the eye to the brain ; the 
largest and the middle-sized to the cerebellum, the least to 
the brain itself. The least is that which is nearest the nostril ; 
the greater are parallel, and do not meet ; but the middle- 
sized passages meet : this is most evident in fishes, and 
these passages are nearer to the brain than the larger, but 
the least separate from each other, and do not meet. 

5. Within the neck is the oesophagus, which also de- 
rives its additional name, the isthmus, from its length and 
narrowness, and the trachea. The trachea lies in front of 
the oesophagus in all animals which possess this part, that is, 
all animals which breathe from the lungs. The trachea is 
cartilaginous in its nature, and contains but little blood : it 
is surrounded with many smooth rings of cartilage, and it 
lies upon the upper part towards the mouth, opposite the pas- 
sage from the nostril to the mouth, wherefore, also, if any 
liquid is drawn into it in drinking, it passes out of the mouth 
through the nostrils. 

6. Between the passages is the epiglottis, which can be 
folded over the passage which extends from the trachea to the 

e 2 


mouth ; by the epiglottis the passage of the tongue is closed, 
at the other extremity the trachea reaches to the middle 
of the lungs, and afterwards divides to each side of the lungs. 
For the lung is double in all animals which possess this 
part, though the division is not so marked in viviparous ani- 
mals, and least of all in man. The human lungs are ano- 
malous, neither being divided into many lobes, as in other 
animals, nor being smooth. 

7. In oviparous animals, such as birds and the oviparous 
quadrupeds, the parts are very widely separated, so that 
they appear to have two lungs ; they are, however, only two 
divisions of the trachea extending to each side of the lungs ; 
the trachea is also united with the great vein and with the 
part called the aorta. When the trachea is filled with air, 
it distributes the breath into the cavities of the lungs, which 
have cartilaginous interstices ending in a point ; the passages 
of these interstices go through the whole lungs, always divid- 
ing from greater into less. 

8. The heart is connected with the trachea by fatty and car- t 
tilaginous muscular bands. There is a cavity near the junction, 
and in some animals, when the trachea is filled with breath, 
this cavity is not always distinguishable, but in larger ani- 
mals it is evident that the breath enters it. This then is the 
form of the trachea, which only inhales and exhales breath, 
and nothing else either dry or moist, or it suffers pain till that 
which has passed down is coughed up. 

9. The oesophagus is joined to the mouth from above, near 
the trachea, being united both to the spine and the trachea 
by membranaceous ligaments. It passes through the dia- 
phragm into the cavity of the stomach, is fleshy in its nature, 
and is extensible both in length and breadth. The human 
stomach is like that of a dog, not a great deal larger than the 
entrail, but like a wide bowel ; after this there is an entrail 
simply rolled together, then an entrail of moderate width. 
The lower part of the abdomen is like that of a hog, for it is 
wide, and from this to the seat it is short and thick. 

10. The omentum is united to the abdomen in the middle, 
and is in its nature a fatty membrane, as in other animals 
with a single stomach and teeth in both jaws. The mesente- 
rium is over the bowels ; it is membranaceous, broad, and fat ; 
it is united to the great vein and the aorta : through it extend 


many numerous veins at its junction with the intestines, 
reaching from above downwards. This is the nature of the 
oesophagus, trachea, and the parts of the abdominal cavity. 


1. THE heart has three cavities : it lies above the lungs, near 
the division of the trachea. It has a fat and thick membrane, 
by which it is united to the great vein and the aorta, and it 
lies upon the aorta near the apex ; and the apex is placed in 
the same situation in all animals which have a chest ; and in 
all animals, whether they have or have not a chest, the apex 
of the heart is forwards, though it often escapes notice by 
the change of position in the parts when dissected. The 
gibbous portion of the heart is upwards ; its apex is gene- 
rally fleshy and thick, and there is a sinew in the cavities. 

2. In all other animals which have a chest the heart is placed 
in the centre ; in man it is rather on the left side, inclining 
a little from the division of the mammae towards the left 
breast in the upper part of the chest ; it is not large ; its 
whole form is not long, but rather round, except that the 
extremity ends in a point It has three cavities, as I have 
said. The greatest is that on the right, the least on the 
left, the middle one is of intermediate size. They are all 
perforated towards the lungs. It has both the two smaller, 
and all of them perforated towards the lungs, and this is 
evident in one of the cavities downwards from its point of 

3. Near the principal cavity it is attached to the great 
vein to which also the mesenterium is united, and in the 
middle it is attached to the aorta. Passages lead from 
the lungs to the heart, and they are divided in the same 
way as the trachea, following the passages from the trachea 
throughout the whole lungs, and the passages leading from 
the heart are on the upper part. There is no passage which 
is common to them both, but by their union they receive the 
breath and transmit it through the heart ; for one of the 
passages leads to the right cavity, and the other to the left. 
We will hereafter speak of the great vein and the aorta in 
the portion of our w r ork which treats of these parts. 

4. In all animals which have lungs and are viviparous, either 
internally or externally, the lung has more blood than all the 


other parts ; for the whole lung is spongy, and through each 
perforation branches of the great vein proceed. Those per- 
sons are deceived who say that the lungs are empty, drawing 
their conclusion from dissected animals, from which all the 
blood has escaped. Of all the viscera the heart alone con- 
tains blood, and in the lungs the blood is not in the lungs 
themselves, but in the veins by which they are perforated. 
But in the heart itself the blood is in each of the cavities, 
but the thinnest blood is in the middle cavity. 

5. Beneath the lungs is that division of the trunk which 
is called the diaphragm. It is united to the ribs, the hypo- 
chondriac region, and the spine. In the centre is a smooth 
membranous part, and there are veins extending through it. 
The human veins are thick in proportion to the size of the 
body. Under the diaphragm, on the right side is the liver, 
on the left the spleen, alike in all animals which are fur- 
nished with these parts in their natural form and without 
monstrosity, for already there has been observed an altered 
order in some quadrupeds. They are joined to the abdomen 
near the omentum. 

6. The appearance of the human spleen is narrow and long, 
like that of the hog. Generally speaking, and in most ani- 
mals, the liver is not furnished with a gall, though this is 
found in some animals. The human liver is round, like that 
of the ox. This is the case also in animals offered for sacri- 
fice, as in the district of Chalcis, in Euboea, where the sheep 
have no gall, and in Naxos it is so large in nearly all the ani- 
mals, that strangers who come to sacrifice are surprised, and 
think that it is ominous, and not at all natural. The liver is 
united with the great vein, but has no part in common with 
the aorta. For a vein branches off from the great vein through 
the liver, at the place where the gates of the liver, as they 
are called, are situated. The spleen also is only connected with 
the great vein, for a vein extends from this to the spleen. 

7. Next to these are the kidneys, which lie close to 
the spine. In their nature they are like the kidneys of 
oxen. In all animals that have kidneys the right kidney 
lies higher than the left, and is covered with less fat, and is 
more dry than the left. This is the same in all animals. 
Passages lead from them to the great vein and to the aorta, 
but not to the cavity ; for all animals, except the seal, ha\9 


a cavity in their kidneys, though it is greater in some than 
in others. The human kidneys, though similar to those of 
oxen, are more solid than in other animals, and the passages 
that lead to them end in the body of the kidney ; and this is 
a proof that they do not pass through them, that they con- 
tain no blood in the living animal, nor is it coagulated in 
them when dead ; but they have a small cavity, as I said 
before. From the cavity of the kidneys two strong pas- 
sages lead to the bladder, and two others, strong and con- 
tinuous, lead to the aorta. 

8. A hollow, sinewy vein is attached to the middle of each 
kidney, which extends from the spine through small branches, 
and disappears towards the hip, though it afterwards ap- 
pears again upon the hip. The branches of these veins reach 
to the bladder ; for the bladder is placed lowest of all, being 
united to the passages which proceed from the kidneys by 
the neck which reaches to the urethra ; and nearly all round 
its circumference it is united by smooth and muscular mem- 
branes, very similar in form to those upon the diaphragm of 
the chest. 

9. The human bladder is moderately large in size, and the 
pudendum is united to the neck of the bladder, having a strong 
passage above and a small one below. One of these pas- 
sages leads to the testicles ; the other, which is sinewy and. 
cartilaginous, to the bladder. From this are appended the 
testicles of the male, concerning which we will treat in the 
part devoted to their consideration. These parts are the same 
in the female, who differs in none of the internal parts except 
the womb, the appearance of which may be learned from 
the drawings in the books on anatomy. Its position is upon 
the entrails. The bladder is above the uterus. In a future 
book we will speak of the nature of the uterus generally ; 
for it is not alike, nor has it the same nature in them all. 

These are the internal and external parts of the human 
body, and this is their nature and their manner. 




1. OP the parts of other animals some are common to them 
all, as I have said before, and some belong to particular 
classes, and they agree and differ in the manner often before 
mentioned. For almost all animals which differ in kind, 
have also their parts different in form, and there are some 
which have only a proportionate resemblance, but differ in 
kind, and others agree in kind, .but not in form, and many 
parts belong to some which others have not. Viviparous 
quadrupeds have a head and neck, and all the parts of the 
head, but they differ from each other in their forms. The 
lion has one bone in the neck, but has no vertebrae, and 
when laid open its internal parts are like those of a dog. 

2. Viviparous quadrupeds have fore-legs instead of arms, 
and in all quadrupeds, especially those which have the fore- 
feet much divided, they are analogous to hands, for they 
use them as hands, and the left legs are less at liberty than 
in men, except in the elephant, and this animal has the toes 
less perfectly jointed, and its fore-legs much larger than the 
hind ones ; it has five toes, and short ankles to its hind legs. 
It has a trunk of such a nature and length as to be able to 
use it for a hand, and it drinks and eats by stretching this 
into its mouth ; this also it lifts up to its driver, and pulls 
up trees with it ; with this organ it breathes as it walks 
through the water. The extremity of the proboscis is curved, 
but without joints, for it is cartilaginous. 

3. Man is the only ambidextrous animal. All animals have 
their chest analogous to man, but not similar to his, for he 
has a wide chest, and theirs is narrow : no animal but man 
has pectoral mammae ; the elephant has two mammae, but not 
on the breast, though they are in that direction. 

4. All animals, excepting the elephant, bend both their 
fore and hind legs in contrary directions, and also contrary 
to the way in which a man's limbs are bent. ' For in vivi- 
parous quadrupeds, except the elephant, the joints of the 


fore-legs are bent forwards, and those of the hind-legs back- 
wards, and they have the hollow part of their circumference 
opposite to each other : the elephant is not constructed as""] 
some have said, but is able to sit down, and bend his legs, I s 
but, from his great weight, is unable to bend them on both I f^ 
sides at once, but leans either to the right side or the left, and j 
sleeps in this position, but its hind legs are bent like a man's^J 

5. In oviparous quadrupeds, as the crocodile, lizard, and 
such like, both the fore and hind legs are bent forwards, 
inclining a little to the side, and likewise also in other ani- 
mals with more than four feet, except that the middle joint 
of their last pair of legs is always doubtful, and is rather 
bent towards the side. And man also has both the flexures 
of his limbs in the same direction, and those of his arms 
and legs contrary to each other, for he bends the arm back- 
wards, except that the external part of the arm is a little 
inclined inwards, towards the side ; the legs bend forwards. 

6. No animal bends the joints both of its fore and hind 
legs backwards. The flexure of the cubitus and fore-leg is 
in a contrary direction to the flexure of the shoulder in all 
animals, and the flexure of the knee is contrary to that of the 
hip ; so that since man bends his joints in the contrary direc- 
tion to many animals, those which have such joints as man's 
also bend them in a contrary direction to many animals. Birds 
bend their limbs in a direction similar to that of quadrupeds, 
for being bipeds, they bend their legs backwards, and have 
wings instead of arms, or fore-legs, and these bend forwards. 

7. The seal is like a maimed quadruped, for immedi- 
ately beneath the scapula it has feet like hands, as are also 
those of the bear, for they are five-fingered, and each of the 
fingers has three joints, and a small claw : the hind feet are 
five-fingered, and each of the fingers has joints and claws like 
those upon the fore-feet ; in shape they are very like the tail 
of a fish. 

8. The movements of animals, whether they have four 
feet or more, are in the direction of the longer diameter of 
their bodies, and thus also they stand, the commencement 
of motion is always on the right side of their bodies. The 
lion and the camel, both the Arabian and Bactrian, walk with 
the hind-foot following the fore-foot on the same side, and 
this means that the right foot is not put before the left, but 
follows it. 



1. WHATEVER parts a man has before, a quadruped has be- 
neath : those that are behind in man, form the quadruped's 
back ; most animals have a tail, the seal has a small one, like 
that of a stag ; hereafter we shall speak of apelike animals. 
All viviparous quadrupeds are, so to say, rough, with hair, 
and not like man, who, except on his head, has not much hair 
on his body, and what there is, is very fine ; but his head is 
more massy than that of other animals. 

2. And all creatures that have their upper part rough 
with hair, are quite smooth, or only slightly rough beneath ; 
but man is contrary to this : and again, each eyelid in man 
is furnished, with lashes, and he has hair, on the cheek, and 
pubes ; other animals are not so furnished, having no hair 
on the lower eyelid, or only a few hairs under the eyelid. 

3. But some hairy quadrupeds are rough all over, as the 
hog, the bear, and the dog ; the neck of others is the roughest 
part, as in those which have a mane, like the lion ; in others 
which have a mane, the back of the neck from the head to 
the point of the shoulder is hairy, as the horse and the mule, 
and among wild animals with horns, the bonassus. The 
hipellaphus, 1 as it is called, has a mane upon the point of 
its shoulder, and so has the pardium, 2 though both these 
have a thin mane from the head to the shoulder, and the 
hipellaphus has a beard upon its larynx. 

4. Both of these are horned, and have a cloven hoof: the 
female hipellaphus has no horns, it is about the size of a 
stag ; there are hipellaphi in the country of the Arachotse, 
where also are buffaloes. The wild differ as much from do- 
mesticated oxen, as wild hogs from tame ones; for they 
are black, and of great strength ; their nose is curved like 
an eagle's beak, and their horns lie backwards ; the horns of 
the hipellaphus are very like those of the dorcas : 3 the ele- 
phant is the least hairy of all quadrupeds. The tails of ani- 
mals are like their bodies in roughness, and smoothness, in 
as many as have tails in proportion to their size, for some 
have very small tails. 

1 Perhaps Nylghau (Liddel and Scott's Lexicon), or some large kind 
of Stag. 2 Cameleopard. (Schneider.) 

3 Gazelle or antelope, so named from the brightness of its eyes. 


5. Camels have a part peculiar to themselves, called the 
hump upon the back ; the Bactrian camel differs from the 
Arabian ; the one has two humps, the other but one ; and they 
have another hump below, like the one on their back, upon 
which the rest of their body is supported, when they go 
down upon their knees. The camel has four mammae, like the 
cow, and a tail like an ass, and the pudendum is behind; 
it has but one knee in each leg, and not many joints, as 
some persons say ; this appearance arises from the position 
of the abdomen. It has a a talus like that of an ox, mis- 
shapen, and small in proportion to its size. 

6. The hoof is cloven; it has not teeth in both jaws. 
The cloven hoof is formed in this manner ; the lower part is 
somewhat cloven, as far as the second joint of the toes, but 
the upper part is four-cleft as far as the first joint of the 
toes ; there is a membrane uniting the cloven parts as in 
geese, the foot is fleshy underneath like that of a bear, where- 
fore, when camels are used in war, and become footsore, their 
drivers put them on leather shoes. All quadrupeds have 
their legs bony and sinewy and without flesh, that is all 
animals with feet are so formed, excepting man, and they 
are without hips ; this is particularly the case with birds. 
But on the contrary, the hips, thighs, and legs of man are 
more fleshy than almost any other part of his body, for even 
the calf of his leg is fleshy. 

7. Some sanguineous and viviparous quadrupeds have many 
divisions in the foot, like the hands and feet of man ; for 
some, as the lion, the dog, and the panther, have many divi- 
sions of the foot ; others are cloven-footed, and instead of 
nails have hoofs, as the sheep, the goat, the stag, and the 
river-horse. Some are without divisions in the foot, as the 
solidunguli, the horse, and the mule. The genus of swine 
belongs to both classes ; for in Illyria, Paeonia, and other 
places, there are swine with a solid hoof. Those with a two- 
cleft hoof have two divisions, before and behind ; in those 
with a solid hoof this is continuous. 

8. Some animals have horns, others have none ; most of 
those with horns have also cloven feet, as the ox, the stag, 
and the goat. "We have never seen an animal with a solid 
hoof with two horns, and there are only a few that have a 
solid hoof and one horn, as the Indian ass, and the oryx. 1 

1 Antelope Oryx. 


Of all animals with a solid hoof, the Indian ass alone has a 
talus. Swine, as I said before, belong to both classes, so that 
they have not a well-formed astragulus. 

9. Many animals with cloven hoofs have a talus ; no ani- 
mals with their feet in many divisions have a talus, nor has 
man. The lynx has as it were half a talus, and so has the 
lion, but it is more intricate, as some pretend. The talus is 
always in the hind leg, and it is placed upright upon the gamb, 
with the lower part outwards, and the upper part inwards ; 
the parts called Coa 1 turned inwards towards each other, and 
the Chia turned outwards, and the projecting portions up- 
wards. This is the position of the talus, in all animals 
which are furnished with this part. Some animals have a 
cloven hoof, and a mane, and two horns turned towards each 
other, as the bonassus, an animal which inhabits the coun- 
try between Pseonia and Media. 

10. All animals with horns are four-footed, unless there is 
any animal which metaphorically, and for the sake of a word, is 
said to have horns, as they say that the serpents in the neigh- 
bourhood of Thebes in Egypt have, though it is nothing 
more than an appendage, that is called a horn. The stag is 
the only animal that has solid horns, the horns of all other 
animals are hollow for a part of their length, and solid at 
the extremity ; the hollow part is principally formed of skin, 
and round this is arranged the solid part, as in the horns of 
oxen. The stag is the only animal which casts its horns ; 
they are reproduced ; this takes place every year after the 
anLnal has attained the age of two years ; other animals 
never lose their horns unless destroyed by violence. 


1. THE parts of the mamma3 also, and the organs of genera- 
tion, are different in man and in other animals For some 
have the mamma3 forward on or near the breast, and two 
mamma3 with two nipples, as man and the elephant, as I 
said before, for the elephant has two mamma3 near the arm- 
pits ; in the female they are small, and do not bear any 
proportion to the size of the animal, so that they are 
scarcely visible in a side view ; the males also have mammse as 
well as the females, but they are exceedingly small. 

1 Coa, the highest throw with the Astragalus with the convex side up- 
permost, opposed to Chia, the lowest throw, sixes and aces. 


2. The bear has four, other animals have two mammae upon 
the thighs, and two nipples like sheep ; others have four nipples, 
as the cow ; some animals have not their nipples on the breast 
and thighs, but on the abdomen, as the dog and the hog, 
they have many nipples, but not all of the same size ; other 
animals also have more than two, as the panther, which has 
four on the abdomen ; the lioness has two on the abdomen, 
the camel has two mammae and four nipples, like the cow. 

3. Among animals with a solid hoof the males have no 
mamma3, except some horses which bear a resemblance to 
their dams. Some males have the penis external, as man, and 
the horse, and many others ; some internal, as the dolphin. 
Of those animals in which it is external, some have it in 
front, as those which I have named ; and some of these have 
both the penis and testicles loose, as in man ; others have 
them close to the abdomen ; some have them more, others 
less loose, for this part is not equally free in the boar and 
the horse. 

4. The elephant has a penis like a horse, but small and less in 
proportion to the size of its body ; its testicles are not external 
but internal, and near the kidneys, wherefore also the work 
of copulation is quickly performed. The female has the 
pudendum in the same position as the udder of the sheep, 
and when excited with desire, it is lifted up outwards, so as 
to be ready for copulation with the male ; and the orifice of 
the pudendum is very wide. Most animals have the penis 
in the same direction, but some are retromin gent, as the lynx, 
lion, camel, and' hare. In some males, as I have said, the 
direction of the penis is different, but all females are re- 
tromin gent, for even in the female elephant the pudendum is 
placed under the thighs, as in other animals. 

5. The penis is very different in different animals, for in some 
it is cartilaginous and fleshy, as in man ; the fleshy part does 
not swell, but the cartilaginous portion is erected ; in others 
it is sinewy, as the camel and the stag ; in others it is bony, as 
the fox and the wolf, the weasel and the martin, for the 
martin also has a bony penis. 

6. Again, man being a perfect animal, has the upper part 
of his body less than the lower part ; the contrary is the case 
with other sanguineous animals : by the upper portion of 
his body we mean the portion of his body from the head to 


the anus ; and by the lower, the parts from hence down- 
wards. In those animals which have feet the hind leg is 
the lower part of the body in point of size ; and in those 
without legs, the same relation is observed in their various 
kinds of tails. Such is the nature of perfected animals, but 
they differ in the development of their parts. Man in the 
young state has the upper part of his body greater than the 
lower ; but as he grows the proportion of his parts changes, 
wherefore also he is the only animal which does not move in 
the same way when young and when grown up, for at first 
a child crawls like a four-footed animal. 

7. Some animals grow in the same proportion throughout,as 
the dog others when they are first born have their upper 
part proportionally less than the lower, but as they approach 
maturity, the upper parts increase in size, as in the lophuri, 
for in these animals the part from the hoof to the haunch never 
grows after their birth. 

8. There is a great difference in the teeth of animals, both 
among themselves and from the human type ; all viviparous 
and sanguineous quadrupeds have teeth ; some have teeth in 
both jaws, which others have not ; this is the first distinction. 
Those which have horns do not possess teeth in both jaws, 
for they have no front teeth in the upper jaw. There are 
others, as the camel, which, though it has no horns, has not 
teeth in the upper jaw. 

9. Some animals have tusks like the boar, others have not ; 
some have pointed teeth, as the lion, panther, and dog ; the 
teeth of others have an even surface, as the ox and the horse. 
Animals with pointed teeth have their teeth fitting into each 
other ; no animal has both tusks and horns, neither those 
with pointed teeth nor any others. Most animals have their 
front teeth sharp, and their hind teeth flat ; all the teeth of 
the seal are sharp pointed, showing an approximation to the 
race of fishes, for all fishes have pointed teeth. 

j 10. None of these genera have a double row of teeth. But, 
if we may believe Ctesias, there are some which have this 
peculiarity, for he mentions an Indian animal called marti- 
chora, which had three rows of teeth in each jaw ; it is as 
large and as rough as a lion, and has similar feet, but its 
ears and face are like those of a man ; its eye is grey, and 
its body red ; it has a tail like a land scorpion, in which there 


is a sting; it darts forth the spines with which it ia 
covered instead of hair, and it utters a noise resembling the 
united sound of a pipe and a trumpet ; it is not less swift of 
foot than a stag, and is wild, and devours men. 

11. Man sheds his teeth, and so do other animals, as the 
horse, the mule, and the ass ; man sheds his front teeth, but no 
animal sheds the molar teeth ; swine do not shed any of their 
teeth. About dogs, there is some doubt ; some persons think 
they do not shed their teeth at all, others that they shed only 
the canine teeth ; but it has been observed that they do shed 
their teeth like men : perhaps it has escaped notice, because 
they do not shed them before the inner ones, which are simi- 
lar, are grown up. 

12. And it is probable that the same takes place in other 
wild animals, since they are said only to shed their canine 
teeth. Young dogs are known from old ones by their teeth, 
for young dogs have sharp white teeth, old dogs have them 
black and blunted. The horse is in this respect different 
from all other animals ; for while the teeth in other animals 
become darker as they grow older, in the horse they become 
more white. 

13. Those which are called canine teeth are placed between 
the cutting and the molar teeth, and partake of the nature of 
both, for they are wide below, but sharp at the top. The 
male has more teeth than the female in mankind, and sheep, 
and goats, and swine. This has not been observed in other 
animals. Those persons which have the greatest number of 
teeth are the longest lived ; those which have them widely 
separated, smaller, and more scattered, are generally more 
short lived. 

14. The last molar teeth, which are called wisdom teeth, ap- 
pear, both in the male and female about the age of twenty, 
and some women cut the molar teeth at eighty years of age, 
causing great pain in the extremity of the jaw, and some 
men also : this happens with persons who do not cut their 
wise teeth at the proper age. 

15. The elephant has four teeth on each side, with which he 
grinds his food, for he reduces his food very sitiall, like meal. 
Besides these, he has two tusks : in the male these are large, 
and turned upwards ; in the female they are small, and bent 
in the contrary direction. The elephant has teeth as soon 


as it is born; but the tusks are small, and therefore in- 
conspicuous at first. It has so small a tongue within its 
mouth, that it is difficult to see it. 


1. ANIMALS have very differently-sized mouths, for some have 
wide, open mouths, as the dog, the lion, and all animals 
with pointed teeth ; other animals have a small mouth, as 
man, or a moderately-sized one, as the swine. The Egyp- 
tian river-horse has a mane like a horse, and a cloven hoof 
like the ox ; it has a flat face ; the talus is like that of other 
animals with cloven hoofs, and it has large projecting teeth ; 
it has a tail like a hog, and utters a sound like the neigh- 
ing of a horse ; it is about the size of an ass, and its skin is 
so thick that shields are made of it ; its intestines are like 
those of a horse or ass. 


1. SOME animals unite in their nature the characteristics of 
man and quadrupeds, as apes, monkeys, and cynocephali. 
The monkey is an ape with a tail ; cynocephali have the same 
form as apes, but are larger and stronger, and their faces 
are more like dogs' faces ; they are naturally fierce, and their 
teeth are more like dogs' teeth, and stronger than in other 

2. The apes are hairy in their upper parts, so as to bear 
some resemblance to quadrupeds, and also in the lower, 
because they are like men, for in this particular, as I said 
before, there is a difference in men and brutes ; their hair 
is coarse, and apes are rough both above and below. They 
bear a strong likeness to men in their face, for their nos- 
trils, ears, and teeth, both the fore and back teeth, are like 
his ; and as for eye-lashes, though other animals are entirely 
without them, the ape has them on the lower eye-lid ; they 
are, however, very thin, and altogether small. 

3. Upon the breast are two small mammae, with two nipples ; 
the arms are like those of man, but hairy ; both the arms and 
legs are bent- like those of man, the curves of the limbs being 
turned towards each other. Besides these, it has hands, fin 
gers, and nails like those of man. but all indicating an ap- 
proximation to the brute ; their feet are peculiar, for they 


are like great hands. The fingers upon them are like those 
on the hands, and the middle one is the longest ; the sole 
of the foot is like a hand, except that it extends the whole 
length of the hand like a palm, and is hard at the extremity, 
and is a bad and obscure representation of a heel. 

4. The feet are used for both the purposes of hands and 
feet, and are bent like hands. The humerus and the femur 
are short compared with the cubitus and the leg. The navel 
is not prominent, and there is a hard place about the region 
of the navel. Like quadrupeds, the upper part of the body 
is much larger than the lower, almost in the proportion of 
five to three, and the feet are like hands, and as it were 
made up of hands and feet, a foot as far as the extremity 
of the heel, and the remainder like a hand, for the fingers 
are furnished with something like a palm. 

5. The ape passes more of its time as a quadruped than 
a biped, and like a quadruped, it has no nates, nor has it 
a tail like a biped, but only something in representation of 
a tail. The pudendum of the female resembles that of a 
woman ; that of the male is more like a dog's. The monkey, 
as I said before, has a tail, and all the internal parts of 
the body are like those of man. The external parts of vivi- 
parous quadrupeds are of this nature. 


1. OVIPAROUS and sanguineous quadrupeds (for no san- 
guineous land animal that is not either a quadruped or apodal 
is oviparous) have a head, neck, back, upper and lower parts 
of the body, and fore and hind legs, and something resem- 
bling a breast, like oviparous quadrupeds : most of them also 
have a large tail, some a small one ; all of them have many toes 
and divided feet, and all the organs of sense, and a tongue, 
except the Egyptian crocodile. And in this respect it re- 
sembles some fishes, for the tongue of fishes is thorny, and 
not free, and in some the place for the tongue is altogether 
smooth, and without division (so that nothing is visible), 
unless the lips are drawn aside. 

2. They have no ears, only a passage for hearing ; neither 
have they any mammae, and the penis and testicles are in- 
ternal, and not external. They have no hair, but are covered 
with scales, and all are furnished with sharp teeth. The 



river- cocodiles have eyes like hogs, and great sharp teeth, 
strong claws, and an unbroken scaly skin. In the water 
their sight is imperfect, but very good on land. They pass 
the greatest part of the day on land, and of the night in the 
water, for they cannot bear the cold air. 


1. THE chameleon has the whole of its body like that of a 
lizard, and the ribs, descending downwards, are joined to- 
gether on the hypogastric region, like those of fish, and 
the baek-bone stands up, like that of a fish ; its face is like 
that of the chceropithecus. 1 It has a very long tail ; the ex- 
tremity is very smooth, and rolled together like a thong. It 
is raised, upon longer legs than a lizard ; the joints of the legs 
are bent in the same direction as the lizard's. 

2. Each of its feet is divided into two parts, having the 
same relation to each other as our thumbs have to the 
rest of the hand : and, for a short distance, each of these is 
divided into toes ; in the fore-feet the internal part has three, 
the external two toes ; in the hind feet the internal part 
has two, and the external three toes ; there is a claw upon 
each of its toes like that of birds of prey ; its whole body 
is rough, like the crocodile. 

3. Its eyes are placed in a hollow, and are very large 
and round ; surrounded with skin like the rest of its body, 
and in the middle is left a small aperture through which 
it sees ; this is never covered with skin. The eye is turned 
round in a circle, and it can direct its vision to any side, so 
that it can see where it will. The change in the colour of 
its skin takes place when it is filled with air. It can acquire 
either a black colour, like that of the crocodile, or ochreous, 
like that of the lizard, or spotted with black, like the pan- 
ther ; and this change takes place over the whole body, for the 
eyes also change like the rest of the body, and so does the tail. 

4. Its movements are slow, like those of the tortoise ; 
when dying, it becomes ochreous, and retains this colour after 
death. The oesophagus and trachea of the chameleon are 
similar to the same parts in lizards ; it has no flesh, except a 
little on the head and cheeks, and upon the appendage at the 
end of its tail. It has no blood, except about the heart, and 

1 Simla rostrata, or perhaps baboon. (The identifications of the 
animals, unless otherwise noted, are taken from the German translation 
by Struck, 1816.) 


eyes, and the parts above the heart, and the veins that ex- 
tend from these : and even in these there is very little blood. 
5. The brain lies a little above the eyes, and is continuous 
with them ; and when the outside skin of the eye is taken 
away, a bright object shines through it, like a bright 
ring of brass. Through the whole of its body many strong 
membranes are extended, which are much stronger than in 
other animals. It breathes strongly for some time after it 
has been dissected, and there are some slight movements of 
the heart ; it also continues to contract its sides, but not the 
other parts of the body. It has no distinct spleen ; and it 
hides itself in rocks like the lizard. 


1. BIRDS also have many parts like the animals described 
above. For all these have a head, neck, back, and under 
parts of the body, and something resembling a breast. They 
have two legs, and thus resemble men more than other ani- 
mals, except that the joints bend backwards like those of quad- 
rupeds, as I said before. They have neither hands, nor fore- 
feet, but wings ; herein they differ from all other animals. 
Again, the hip is like a thigh, large and united as far as 
the middle of the abdomen, so as to look like a thigh, 
when it is separated from the rest of the body ; and the thigh 
where it is joined to the leg is another part. The class of 
birds with crooked claws have the largest thigh, and 
stronger breasts than others. 

2. All birds have claws and many divisions of the foot ; 
in most of them the toes are quite separate ; but the swim- 
mers have their feet covered with a web, but even these have 
distinct and jointed toes. All birds that fly high in the air 
have four toes ; and, generally, these are placed three for* 
wards, and one backward, like a heel ; a few birds have two 
toes turned forwards and two backwards, as the bird called 
jynx. 1 This bird is somewhat larger than the spize, 2 and is 
variegated in appearance. The formation of its toes is pecu- 
liar, and so is that of its tongue, which is like a serpent's. 
This it can project from its mouth, as much as the width of 
four fingers, and draw it in again. Like a snake it can turn 
its neck quite round, whilst the rest of its body is perfectly 
1 Jynx torquilla, wry-neck. ~ Fringilla, finch. 



still. It has large claws, like those of the colius, 1 and it 
hisses with its voice. 

3. Birds have a mouth, but its construction is peculiar, 
for they have neither lips nor teeth, but a beak, and 
neither ears nor nostrils, but only passages for these organs, 
for the nostrils in the beak, and for the ears in the head. 
They have two eyes like other animals, without eyelashes ; 
when heavy with sleep, they close their eyes with the 
lower eyelid ; and all possess a nictitating membrane, which 
closes the eye. The owl-like birds also use the upper eye- 
lid. The same is the nature of the scaly animals, as the 
tsaurians, and others of this class ; all of them close their 
eyes with the lower eyelid, but they do not all wink like 
birds. Again, birds have neither scales nor hair, but 
feathers ; all the feathers have a stem. 

4. Birds have no tail, but a rump ; in birds with long 
legs, or palmated feet, this is short, in others it is large. 
These last, when they fly, keep their legs close to the 
body, but the others stretch them out behind them. All 
birds have a tongue, but this differs in various kinds: 
some have it large, others small. Next after man, some 
birds articulate words better than any other animals ; this is 
particularly the case with those with broad tongues. No 
oviparous animal has an epiglottis on its trachea : but it 
can close and open the passage, so as to prevent any heavy 
thing finding its way into the lungs. 

5. Some tribes of birds have spurs; this is never the 
case with those which have crooked claws. Those with 
crooked claws are more active in flight ; those which have 
spurs, are heavier in their make. 

6. Some birds have a crest, mostly formed of erect 
feathers ; the domestic fowl, alone, is peculiar, for its crest 
is neither flesh, nor very unlike flesh. 


1. AMONG aquatic animals, there is one class of fish, which 
embraces many forms, and is separated from other animals, 
for it has a head, and upper and lower parts, in which last 
are the stomach and bowels, and a continuous and undivided 
tail. This is not alike in all. They have neither neck nor 
limb, nor internal and external testicles, nor mammse, nor 
1 Perhaps Corvus galgulus. 


has any other animal mammae that is not viviparous, nor 
indeed all viviparous animals, but those only that are inter- 
nally viviparous, and not first of all oviparous. For the dol- 
phin is a viviparous animal, wherefore it has two mammae, 
not indeed above, but near the organs of reproduction. It 
has not evident nipples, but, as it were, a stream flowing from 
each side. From these the milk exudes, and the young ones 
suck as they follow the mother. This has been distinctly 
observed by some persons. 

2. But fish, as we have observed, have neither mamma3 
nor any external passage for the genital organs. In the 
branchia they have a distinctive organ, through which they 
eject the water they have received into their mouths ; and 
they have fins, most fishes have four, but the long fishes, as 
the eel, have only two placed near the branchia, and in this 
respect the cestreus, 1 a fish in the lake of Sipha3, is similar to 
the eel, 2 and so is the fish called ta3nia. 3 Some of these 
long fish have no fins, as the muraBna, nor have they divided 
branchia like other fish. 

3. Some fish with branchia have coverings over their bran- 
chia ; in all the cartilaginous fishes they are uncovered. All 
fishes that have coverings have the branchia placed on their 
sides ; among the cartilaginous fishes some are broad in the 
lowest part, as the narce 4 and the batos ; 5 some very long in 
the sides, as all the galeodea. 6 In the batracus, 7 although the 
branchia are on the sides, they are covered with a coriaceous, 
not a prickly membrane, like those of fishes which are not 

4. In some fishes with branchia they are single, in others 
double, but the last towards the body is always single. 
Some have but few branchia, others have many ; but their 
number is always equal on both sides, and those with the 
smallest number have always one on each side; this is 
double in the capros ; 8 others have two on each side, some- 
times these are single, sometimes double, as in the conger 9 
and the scarus ; 10 others have four simple branchia on each 
side, as the ellops, 11 synagris, muraena, and eel ; others have 

I Mugil, mullet. 2 Mursena anguilla. 3 Perhaps Cepola tsenia. 
4 Raia torpedo. 8 Raia batos. 6 The shark tribe. 

7 Lophius piscatorius. 8 Perhaps Cottus cataphractus. 

9 Murgena conger. i0 Scarus cretensis. 

II Swordfish or sturgeon (L. and S. Lexicon), or Centriscus swlopax. 


four, all divided except the last, as the cichle, 1 perca, 2 glanis, 3 
and cyprinus ; 4 all the galeodea have five double branchiaon 
each side, the xiphias 5 has eight, which are double. This is 
the manner and number of the branchia of fishes. 

5. And fish differ in other respects besides their gills, for 
they have no hair like viviparous quadrupeds, nor scaly 
plates like oviparous quadrupeds, nor feathers like birds, but 
the greater number of them are covered with scales ; some of 
them are rough, and a very few are smooth. Some cartila- 
ginous fishes are rough, others smooth. Congers, eels, and 
tunnies are smooth. All fish except the scarus have pointed 
teeth, and all have sharp teeth, some several rows of them, and 
teeth on the tongue ; they have also a hard prickly tongue, so 
united to the mouth as sometimes to appear without a tongue. 

6. The mouth of some fishes is wide, like viviparous quad- 
rupeds. They have no external organs of sense, nor even 
passages for smelling or hearing ; but all have eyes without 
eyelids, though their eyes are not hard. All fishes are san- 
guineous ; some are oviparous, others viviparous ; all those 
that are covered with scales are oviparous. The cartilagi- 
nous fishes are all viviparous, except the batrachus. 


1. THE remaining class of sanguineous animals is that of 
serpents ; these partake of both characters. The greater 
portion of them inhabit the land, a few inhabiting water are 
found in rivers. There are also serpents in the sea very like 
those on land, except in their head, which is more like that 
of the conger. There are many genera of sea-serpents, and 
they are of all kinds of colours ; they do not exist in the 
deepest part of the ocean. Serpents are apodal, like fishes. 

2. There are also marine scolopendra}, 6 very like those on 
land, but rather less ; they live in rocky places ; in colour 
they are redder, and they have more feet, and slighter legs 
than in the terrestrial species. These also, like the ser- 
pents, are not found in deep places. 

3. And there is a small fish which lives among the rocks, 
which some call echineis ; 7 some people use it for trials 
and philtres ; it is not fit for food. Some people say it 

1 A variegated fish. 2 Perca fluviatilis. 3 Silurus glanis. 

4 Cyprinus carpis, Carp. b Xiphias gladius, Swordfish. 

9 Nereis, or aphrodite. 7 Echeneis remora. 


has feet, but it has none ; the fins, however, are like feet, 
which gives it this appearance. I have now described the 
external parts of sanguineous animals, their nature, and their 
number, and the differences which occur amongst them. 


1. FIBST of all we will speak of the internal parts of san- 
guineous animals, for the greatest number of genera differ 
from other animals, some being sanguineous, others ex- 
sanguineous. The sanguineous genera are man, viviparous 
and oviparous quadrupeds, birds, fishes, and whales, and 
perhaps others that are anonymous, because they do not 
form a genus, but simply species amongst each other, as the 
serpent and the crocodile. 

2. All viviparous quadrupeds have an oesophagus and 
trachea, situated as in man, and so have oviparous quadru- 
peds and birds, though there is some difference in the forma- 
tion of these parts ; all that breathe by inhaling and exhaling 
air have lungs, trachea, and oesophagus. The position of the 
O3sophagus and trachea, though similar, is not the same, nor 
are the lungs alike in all, nor similar in position. 

3. All sanguineous animals have a heart, and a division 
in the middle of the body, called a diaphragm. In small 
animals its smallness and thinness render it less apparent. 
The heart of the ox is peculiar ; for there is a kind of ox, 
though not the whole genus, which has a bone in its heart, 
and there is also a bone in the heart of the horse. 

4. Not all animals have lungs, fish and those with gills have 
no lungs. All sanguineous animals have a liver, generally a 
spleen also ; but in oviparous animals that are not vivipa- 
rous, the spleen is so small as nearly to escape notice, as in 
most birds, the pigeon, kite, 1 hawk, 2 and owl. The aegocepha- 
lus 3 has none at all. Oviparous quadrupeds are of the same 
nature, for they have a very small spleen, as the tortoise, 
emys, 4 phryne, 5 lizard, crocodile, and frog. 

5. Some animals have a gall upon the liver, others none. 
Among viviparous quadrupeds the stag 6 has none, nor the 
deer, 7 horse, mule, ass, seal, and some swine. The Achainian 
etag appears to have the gall in the tail ; that which they call 

1 Falco milvus. 2 Falco palumbarius. 3 Stryx otug. 

4 Testudo coriacea. 6 Cervus elaphus. 

7 Cervus capreolus, or C. Dama, 


gall in these animals resembles it in colour, but it is not liquid 
like gall, but more like the spleen in its internal structure. 

6. All, while they are alive, have worms 1 in the head ; they 
are produced in the hollow part under the hypoglottis, and 
near the vertebrae, where the head is joined on. In size 
they resemble very large maggots ; they are numerous, and 
continuous, in number not generally more than twenty. 
Stags, as I have observed, have no gall, but their intestines 
are so bitter that dogs will not eat them if the deer are fat. 

7. The elephant also has a liver without a gall, but when 
the part where the gall is attached in other animals, is cut 
open, a quantity of fluid like bile, more or less abundant, runs 
out. Among those animals which inhale sea-water, and have 
lungs, the dolphin has no gall. All birds and fishes have 
galls, and all oviparous quadrupeds, to speak of them at 
once, have a gall, greater or- less ; but in some fishes it is 
placed upon the liver, as the galeodea, glanis, rine, 2 leio- 
batus, 3 narce, and in some long fish, as the eel, belone, 4 and 
zygsena ; 5 and the callionymus 6 has a gall upon the liver, 
larger in proportion to its size than any other fish. Others 
have a gall upon the intestines, extending from the liver by 
several thin passages ; the amia 7 has it stretched out upon 
the intestines, and equal to them in length, and many times 
folded upon it. Other fish have the gall upon the intes- 
tines, some at a greater, others at a less distance, as the 
batrachus, elops, synagris, muraena, xiphias. 

8. And the same genus often appears to have the gall 
extended in both directions, as the conger, in some indivi- 
duals it is turned towards the liver, in others suspended be- 
fore the liver. The same structure is observed in birds, for 
some have the gall turned towards the stomach, and others 
towards the entrails, as the pigeon, crow, quail, swallow, 
sparrow; in others it is directed both towards the liver 
and the stomach, as the segocephalus ; in others, as the hawk 
and kite, it is directed towards the liver and the intestines. 


1. ALL viviparous quadrupeds have kidneys and a bladder, 
but some oviparous animals have neither, as birds and 

1 Possibly CEetrus nasalis. z Squalus squatina. 

3 Eaia batos. 4 Syngnathus acus. * Squalus zygsena. 

Uranoscopus scaber. 7 A kind of marked scomber, mackerel ? 


fishes, and among oviparous quadrupeds the marine turtle 
is the only one that has them at all proportionate to its size. 
The marine turtle has the kidneys like those of oxen, and 
that of the ox is like a great many kidneys joined together. 
In all its internal parts, the bonassus 1 is like the ox. 

2. The position which these parts occupy is the same in all 
animals, and the heart is in the middle of the body of all crea- 
tures, except man. In him it is inclined towards the left side ; 
and, as it was before observed, the apex of the heart is 
directed forward in all, but in fishes it does not appear to 
be so, for the apex of the heart is not directed towards the 
chest, but towards the mouth and head, and the top of the 
heart is suspended from the place where the right and left 
bronchia are joined to each other, and there are also other 
passages which extend from the heart to each of the bran- 
chia, greater towards the larger branchia, and less towards 
the smaller ; but that to the top of the heart in great fishes 
is a thick white tube. 

3. A few fishes, as the conger and the eel, have an oeso- 
phagus, but even in these it is very small ; in some of the 
fish that have a liver, it is placed on the right side, and has 
no lobes ; in others, it is divided from the commencement, 
and the greater part is on the right side. For in. some fish 
each part of the liver hangs down, and the divisions are not 
united at their origin, as in the tribe of fish called galeodea, 
and in a species of hare which is found near the lake of 
Bolba, in the place called Sycine, and in other places, so 
that one might suppose that they had two livers, on account 
of the distances at which the passages unite, as in the lungs 
of birds. 

4. In all animals the spleen is naturally situated on the 
left side. The case has occurred that an animal having been 
opened, has been observed to have the spleen on the right 
side and the liver on the left, but such appearances are con- 
sidered ominous. In all animals the trachea reaches to the 
lungs (its nature will be described in another place) ; and the 
oesophagus, in all that have this part, reaches to the stomach 
through the diaphragm. For most fishes (as I observed be- 
fore) have no resophagus, but the stomach is united directly 
with the mouth. So that it often happens that, when great 

J Bos grunniens. 


fishes are pursuing small ones, the stomach falls forward 
into the mouth. 

5. All the animals that have heen mentioned have a 
stomach, and in the same situation, for it is universally 
placed under the diaphragm, and an intestine follows it, 
and ends in the exit for the food which is called the anus. 
But the stomach of different animals is variously formed, 
for in the first place viviparous horned quadrupeds, which 
have not teeth in both jaws, have four such passages, and 
those animals are said to ruminate. For the ossophagus, 
commencing in the mouth, extends to the parts just below the 
lungs, and passes through the diaphragm to the great stomach. 

6. The internal part of this is rough, and folded to- 
gether ; and it is united, near the junction of the stomach, 
to the part which, from its appearance, is called the net, 
for the exterior is like a stomach, but the inside resembles 
the meshes of a net ; in point of size, the net is much less 
than the stomach. Next to this is the part called echinus, 
because internally it is rough and channelled ; it is nearly 
the same size as the net. Next to the echinus is the 
enystrum, which is both larger and longer than the echinus, 
and internally covered with many large and smooth folds ; 
after this are the entrails. 

7. This is the nature of the stomach of animals with horns, 
and no teeth in the upper jaw. But they differ from each 
other in the form and size of these parts ; and because the 
oesophagus is sometimes united to the middle, and some- 
times to the side of the stomach. Most animals which have 
teeth in both jaws have but one stomach, as the man, dog, 
bear, lion, and the wolf. The thos 1 has all its intestines like a 
wolf. All these have but one stomach, to which the bowel 
is united. But in some of these the stomach is larger, as 
the hog and the bear ; that of the hog is marked with a 
few smooth lines. In other animals the stomach is less, 
not indeed much larger than the intestine, as the dog, lion, 
and man. In the forms of their bowels other animals 
are divided into two classes, resembling these types ; for in 
some the stomach resembles a dog's, in others a hog's, both 
the greater and lesser animals in the same way ; and the 
stomachs of various animals differ in size, form, thickness, 
thinness, and the position of the junction of the oesophagus. 

1 Fells onza, perhaps also canis aureus. 


8. And the nature of the bowels differs in the before-named 
animals, those, namely, which have not, and those which have 
teeth in both jaws, in size, thickness, and folding. The intes- 
tines of the ruminants are all large, and so are the animals 
themselves ; there are a few small animals of this class, and 
there is no horned animal which is very small. And some 
have appendages to the intestines, for none of the animals 
with teeth in both jaws have straight intestines. There are 
enlargements in the bowels of the elephant, which give it 
the appearance of having four stomachs ; in these the food is 
detained, and apart from these there is no receptacle for the 
food. Its intestines are very like those of the hog, except 
that the liver is four times greater than that of the ox, and 
other parts also ; the spleen is small in proportion to its size. 

9. The stomach and intestines of oviparous quadrupeds 
bear a similar proportion to each other, as in the land and 
marine tortoise, the lizard, and both kinds of crocodiles, 1 
and similar quadrupeds ; for they have one simple stomach, 
in some it is like that of the hog, in others like that of the 

10. The class of serpents in almost every part of their 
body resemble the saurians, which have feet, and are ovi- 
parous, if we add to their length, and take away the feet ; 
for snakes are covered with scales, and have their upper 
and lower parts like saurians, except that they have no tes- 
ticles, but, like fish, two passages united in one, and a 
large and cloven uterus, but in other respects their in- 
testines are so like those of saurians, except that from 
their elongated figure their intestines are long and narrow, 
that they might be mistaken for them, from their similarity. 

11. For the trachea is very long, and the oesophagus still 
longer, and the commencement of the trachea is close to 
the mouth, so that the tongue appears to lie beneath it. 
The trachea appears to be above the tongue because this 
last can be retracted, and is not always in one position, as 
in other animals. Their tongue is long, thin, and black, 
and can be put forth for some distance. The tongue of 
serpents and saurians is distinct from that of all other 
animals, for the extremity of the tongue is cloven ; this is 
most remarkable in serpents, for the extremities of their 

1 Crocodilus niloticus and Lacerta stellio. 


tongues are like hairs. The seal also has a forked tongue. 
The serpent has a stomach like a very wide entrail, like 
that of the dog, afterwards a very long and thin intestine, 
which is alike to its extremity. 

12. Behind the pharynx is a small kidney-shaped heart, 
so that at times the apex does not appear to be directed 
towards the chest, next to this is a single lung, divided by 
a muscular passage, very long, and descending a long 
distance from the breast. The liver is long and simple, 
the spleen small and round, like that of the saurians. 
The gall resembles that of fish, in water serpents it is 
situated on the liver, in others generally upon the intes- 
tines. They all have pointed teeth, and as many ribs as 
there are days in the month, for they have thirty. Some 
persons say that in one respect serpents resemble the 
young of the swallow, for if their eyes are pierced with a 
pointed instrument, they will grow again, and if the tails of 
serpents or lizards be cut off, they will be reproduced. 

13. The same remarks will apply to the intestines and 
stomachs of fishes, for they have one simple stomach, 
but it differs in form, for in some fishes it is like a bowel, 
as in the one called scarus. and this is the only fish that 
appears to ruminate, and the size of the intestines is 
simple and folded together, for it can be resolved into one, 
by unfolding it. The appendages of the stomach appear 
to be peculiar to fishes and birds, for birds have them 
above the stomach, and few in number, but in fish they 
are above, and around the stomach. Some have many ap- 
pendages, as the gobius, 1 galeus, 2 perca, scorpios, 3 citharus, 4 
trigla, 5 and sparus. 6 But the cestreus has many on one side 
of the stomach, and only one on the other. Some have 
only a few, as the hepatus 7 and the glaucus, 8 and the chry- 
sophrys 9 also has only a few, but some individuals differ 
from others, for one chrysophrys has many, another has 
only a few. There are some fish which have none of them, 
as most of the cartilaginous genera; others have a few, 
and some a great many, and all fish have these appendages 
very near the stomach itself. 

1 Gobio, gudgeon. 2 Shark. 3 Coitus scorpius. 

* Probably Pleuronectes rhombus. 5 Mullus surmulentus. 
6 Sparus maina. 7 Theutis hepatus. 8 Probably Gobio gozo. 

* Sparus aurata. 


14. Birds have their internal parts different from each 
other and from other animals ; for some have before the 
stomach a crop, as the domestic fowl, pigeon, dove, and 
partridge. The crop is a large and hollow skin, into which 
the food is received before it is digested. Hence from the 
oesophagus it is narrower, then wider, and where it descends 
into the stomach it is smaller. 

15. In most birds the stomach is fleshy and thick, and on 
the outside there is a strong skin, which is separated from 
the fleshy part. Some birds have no crop, but instead of 
it a wide oesophagus, either wholly so, or in the part extend- 
ing to the stomach, as in the coloeus, 1 raven, and crow. 
The quail has the lower part of the oesophagus broad, the 
segocephalus has it small but wider, and so has the owl. 
But the duck, goose, gull, diver, and bustard, have a wide 
and broad cesophagus, and so have many other birds. 

16. And some have a part of the stomach itself like a 
crop, as the cenchreis ; 2 and there are some which have 
neither oesophagus nor a \vide crop, but a large stomach ; 
these are small birds like the swallow, and the sparrow. 
A few have neither a crop, nor a wide oesophagus, but a 
very long one ; these are birds with a long neck, as the por- 
phyrion. 3 Almost all these emit a moister excrement than 
other birds. 

17. The quail has these peculiarities, for it has a crop, and 
before the stomach a wide and broad cesophagus. And the 
crop is at a great distance from the part of the oesophagus 
before the belly, considering the size of the bird. Birds 
have generally a small intestine, which is single when un- 
folded, and birds have appendages, a few, as I have said, and 
not placed above, as in fish, but below, near the end of the 
intestine. Some birds have not these appendages, though 
they generally have them, as the domestic fowl, partridge, 
duck, night-raven, 4 localus, 5 ascalaphus, 6 goose, bustard, 
owl. Some of the small birds have them, but they are very 
minute, as the sparrow. 

1 Three kinds of birds are called by this name. Corvus graculue, 
C. rnonedula, and Pelicanus graculus. 2 Falco tinnunculua. 

3 Fulica porphyrion. * Ardea nycticorax. 5 Some kind of heron. 
6 Some kind of owl. 




1. WE have treated of the other internal parts of animals, 
their number, their nature and varieties. It now remains for 
us to speak of the organs of generation. In females these are 
always internal ; but there is much difference in males, for 
some sanguineous animals have no testicles at all, in others 
they are internal ; and in some animals with internal tes- 
ticles, they are placed near the kidneys, in others near the 
abdomen ; in other animals they are external. The penis 
of these last is sometimes united to the abdomen, in others 
it is loose as well as the testicles ; but in promingent and 
retromingent animals it is suspended from the abdomen 
in a different manner. Neither fish nor any other animal 
with gills, nor the whole class of serpents, have testicles ; 
neither has any apodal animal which is not internally vivi- 

2. Birds have testicles, but they are internal and near 
the loins, and so have oviparous quadrupeds, as the lizard, 
tortoise, and crocodile, and among viviparous animals, the 
hedgehog. In some viviparous animals they are situated in- 
ternally upon the abdomen, as the dolphin among apodal 
creatures, and the elephant among quadrupeds. In other 
animals the testicles are external. It has been previously 
observed, that the manner and position of their junction with 
the abdomen is various, for in some they are joined on and do 
not hang down, as in swine, in others they hang down as in 

3. It has also been observed that neither fishes nor serpents 
have testicles, but they have two passages hanging down on 
each side of the spine from the diaphragm, and these unite 
in one passage above the anus, by above, we mean nearer 
the spinal column. At the season of coition these passages 
are full of semen, which exudes on pressure ; the differences 


among these may be seen by dissection, and in another place 
they will each be considered more particularly. 

4. All oviparous animals, whether bipeds or quadrupeds, 
have their testicles placed in the loins below the diaphragm, 
some of a white colour, others ochreous, but in all sur- 
rounded with small veins ; from each of these a passage is 
produced, which afterwards become united in one, and, as 
in fish, open near the anus. This is the penis, which is in- 
conspicuous in small animals ; but in the larger, as the goose 
and such like, it becomes more conspicuous immediately 
after coition. 

5. And these passages, both in fish and other animals, 
are joined to the loins below the stomach and between the 
entrails and the great vein, from which passages proceed to 
each of the kidneys ; and, as in fish, the semen may be seen 
entering them at the period of coition, when these passages 
become very conspicuous, but when this season is passed 
the passages again become invisible. So also the testicles 
of birds are either small or entirely invisible when not excited, 
but when urged by desire they become very large ; this is so 
remarkable in pigeons and partridges, that some persons 
have supposed that they had no testicles during winter. 

6. In some of those animals in which the testicles are placed 
forwards, they are internal and upon the abdomen, as in the 
dolphin ; in others they are externally conspicuous upon the 
extremity of the abdomen. These animals are similar in 
other respects, but differ in this, for in some the testicles 
are uncovered, and others that have external testes they are 
placed in a scrotum. 

7. This is the nature of the testicles of all viviparous ani- 
mals with feet : from the aorta, passages like veins proceed 
to the head of each testicle, and two others from the kidneys, 
these last are full of blood, but those from the aorta con- 
tain no blood. From the head of each testicle to the tes- 
ticle itself, there proceeds a thicker and more muscular pas- 
sage, which is in each testicle reflected back to the head of 
the testicle, and from this point they again unite upon the 
penis towards the fpre-part of it. 

8. And both these passages which are reflected back upon 
themselves, and those which are seated upon the testicles, 
are covered with the same membrane as the testes them- 


selves, so that unless this membrane is taken away, they all 
appear to be one passage. These last passages, which are 
seated upon the testicle, contain sanguineous fluid, but less 
than those above from the aorta; but in the reflected 
passages of the duct which is upon the penis, the fluid is 
white. A passage also leads from the bladder, and is united 
to the upper part of this duct, which is enclosed in the part 
called the penis as in a husk. The accompanying diagram 
will illustrate the position of these parts. 

9. The origin of the passage from the trachea, a ; the head 
of the testes and the descending passages, b b ; the passages 
which proceed from these, and are seated upon the testicle, 
c c ; the reflexed passages which contain the white fluid, 
dd; the penis, e ; the bladder,/; the testicles, g g. But 
when the testicles are cut out or otherwise destroyed, the 
upper passages are retracted ; in young animals castration 
is performed by bruising the testicles, in older animals by 
excision. And it has happened that a bull has begotten 
young if admitted to the female immediately after castra- 
tion. This is the nature of the testicles of animals. 

10. The uterus of the females that possess this organ is not 
of the same nature, nor alike in all, but they differ from 
each other both in viviparous and oviparous animals. The 
uterus is double in all those animals in which it is situated 
near the external organ of generation, one part lying on the 
right side, the other on the left, but the origin is one, and 
there is but one os uteri, which is like a very fleshy tube, 
and inmost animals, especially those of a large size, it is 
cartilaginous. One part of this organ is called the uterus 
and delphys (whence the word adelphi, brothers), and the 
vagina and os uteri are called metra. 

11. In all viviparous animals, whether bipeds or quadru- 
peds, the uterus is placed below the diaphragm, as in the 
human female, the bitch, sow, mare, and cow, and it is the 
same in all horned animals. At the extremity of the uterus 
most animals have a convoluted part called the horns ; these 
are not distinct in all oviparous animals ; but in some birds 
they are placed near the diaphragm, and in some fishes 
below, as in the viviparous bipeds and quadrupeds. But 
they are thin, membranaceous, and long, so that in very small 
fish each part of the roe appears as one ovum, as if the fish 


which are said to have a crumbling roe had hut two ova, for 
it is not one ovum but many, and therefore it may be resolved 
into many. 

12. In the uterus of birds the vagina is below, fleshy and 
tough, but the part near the diaphragm membranaceous and 
rery thin, so that the eggs appear to be outside the uterus. 
In large birds the membrane is more conspicuous, and if 
inflated through the vagina, it swells and enlarges at places ; 
in small birds these parts are not conspicuous. The uterus 
of oviparous quadrupeds, as the tortoise, lizard, frog, and 
such like, is of the same nature, for the vagina below is one 
and fleshy, but the division and the ova are higher up and 
near the diaphragm. 

13. In those apodal creatures which are outwardly vivi- 
parous and inwardly oviparous, as the sharks and selachea 
[The selachea are apodal, furnished with gills, and vivi- 
parous] the uterus is divided, and as in birds, it com- 
mences below and extends towards the diaphragm. The 
ova are situated between the division, and above near the 
diaphragm ; and the animal is produced from the ovum after 
this has descended into the open space. 

14. The difference between the uteri of these fish and 
others may be studied more accurately in drawings of dis- 
sections. Serpents also differ much both among themselves 
and from other animals, for all serpents except the viper are 
oviparous ; this one is viviparous, though at first internally 
oviparous, wherefore, in many rsspects, its uterus resembles 
that of the cartilaginous fishes. The uterus of the serpent 
is long, like the body, and descends downwards, beginning 
from one duct and continuing on either side of the spine as 
far as the diaphragm, as if each were a passage, in which the 
ova are placed in order ; these ova are not extruded singly, 
but connected together like a chain. 

15. In all animals that are either internally or externally 
viviparous, the uterus is situated above the abdomen ; in all 
oviparous creatures it is placed below, near the loins. Those 
that are externally viviparous, but internally oviparous, par- 
take of both characters, for the lower part in which the ova 
are situated is near the loins, the other part whence the ova 
are extruded above the intestines. And there is also this 
difference in the uteri of animals ; those which have horns 


and not teeth in both jaws have cotyledons in the pregnant 
uterus, and some of those also with teeth in both jaws, as the 
hare, the mouse, and the bat. But other viviparous animals 
with teeth in both jaws, and with feet, have a smooth uterus. 
The embryo is not united to the cotyledon, but to the 
womb. This is the manner of the internal and external 
heterogeneous parts of animals. 


1. Or the homogeneous parts of animals, the blood is com- 
mon to sanguineous animals ; and so is the part in which it 
is contained, which is called a vein ; analogous to these, in 
exsanguineous animals are the serum and the fibre. That 
which especially constitutes the body is flesh or its analogue : 
the bone and its analogue ; the spine and the cartilage. 
Next to this we place the skin, membranes, sinews, hair, 
nails, and their analogue ; after these, adeps, fat, and excre- 
mentitious matters ; then are faeces, phlegm, and bile, both 
the yellow and the black. 

2. But inasmuch as the blood and the veins seem to 
occupy the chief place, we will first of all speak of these, 
both for other reasons, and because former writers do not 
appear to have described them rightly. The difficulty of 
understanding them is the reason of their errors, for in 
dead animals, the nature of the principal veins is obscure, 
for they collapse as soon as the blood has escaped, and it 
pours out of them as from a vessel. No part of the body, 
except the veins, contains any blood, except the heart, which 
has a little ; but it is all in the veins. In living creatures 
their nature cannot be distinguished, for they are internal, 
and out of sight ; so that those who consider them only in 
dead and dissected animals, cannot see their principal ori- 
gins. But some, by the examination of emaciated persons, 
have distinguished the origin of the veins, from the appear- 
ance of those which are external. 

3. For Syennesis, 1 a Cyprian physician, speaks thus : 
" The larger veins are thus constituted. From the navel 
around the loins, through the back to the lungs, under the 
breasts ; that from the right to the left, and that from the 

1 Syennesis, a physician of Cyprus. Very little is known of him j 
b must have lived in or before the fourth century B.C. 


left to tlie right. That from the left, through the liver to 
the kidney and the testicle ; that from the right to the spleen, 
the kidney, and the testicle, and from thence to the penis." 

4. Diogenes 1 of Apollonia writes thus : " The veins are 
thus placed in man. There are two very large ones, which 
extend through the stomach by the spine of the back, one 
to the right and the other to the left, each to the leg nearest 
itself, and upwards to the head by the collar-bone, and through 
the neck. Prom these great veins others extend through the 
whole of the body, from the right to the right side, and from 
the left to the left side. The largest are two from the heart, 
surrounding the spine of the back ; and others, a little higher 
up, through the breasts under the arm-pits, each to the hand 
nearest itself ; and the one is called the splenetic, the other 
the hepatic vein. 

5. " The extremity of these veins is divided, one branch 
goes to the thumb, and another to the wrist, and from these 
many small branches are extended upon each hand, and the 
fingers ; and others, smaller still, branch off from these first 
veins, from the right side to the liver, from the left to the 
spleen and kidneys. The veins, which go to the legs, are 
divided near the junction, and extend through the whole 
thigh ; but the largest of these extends to the back of the 
thigh, and appears thick ; another, less thick, passes through 
the inside of the thigh, and afterwards veins extend by the 
knee to the leg and foot. As on the hands, they are distri- 
buted upon the tarsus of the foot, and from thence to the toes. 

6. " A number of small veins are distributed on the 
stomach and the lungs. Those $>hat extend to the head, 
through the jugular region, appear large in the neck. Erom 
the extremity of each of these many veins are distributed 
upon the head, some on the right side to the left, others on 
the left side to the right, they all end near the ear. And 
there is a second vein upon the neck on each side, some- 
what less than the other, to which the principal veins of 
the neck are united. These pass inwards, through the 
neck, and from each of them veins pass beneath the 
shoulder-blade and to the hands ; and near the splenetic and 

1 Diogenes of Apollonia -was an eminent natural philosopher of Crete, 
in the fifth century B.C. He wrote a work, wtpt <f>vfftw, in which he 
treated of natural philosophy in the widest sense of the words: a few frag- 
ments are still extant, of which this quoted by Aristotle is the longest. 


hepatic veins there appear others a little less, which they 
divide when any disease attacks the skin ; but the hepatic 
and splenetic veins are divided for any disease in the neigh- 
bourhood of the stomach. 

7. Other veins pass from these, beneath the breasts; 
and there are other small ones, which proceed from each of 
these through the spinal marrow to the testicles, and others 
beneath the skin, through the flesh, reach the kidneys ; in 
men they terminate upon the testicles, in women on the 
uterus. The first veins from the stomach are wider, and 
afterwards become smaller, until they pass over from the 
right to the left, and from the left to the right ; these are 
called the spermatic veins. The thickest blood is beneath 
the flesh, but that which is in excess in these places be- 
comes thin, and warm, and frothy." These are the opinions 
of Syennesis and Diogenes. 

8. Polybus 1 writes thus : "There are four pair of veins, one 
from the back of the head through the neck, on the outside, 
near the spine on either side, as far as the thighs and the 
legs, afterwards through the legs to the ancles, on the out- 
side, and to the feet. Wherefore, in complaints of the back 
and thigh, they divide the veins upon the poplitic region, or 
ancles, on the outside. Another pair of veins pass from the 
head, by the ears, through the neck, these are called the 
jugular veins ; and others within, near the spine, lead by the 
loins to the testicles and the thighs, and through the poplitic 
region on the inside, and through the leg to the inner part 
of the ancle, and the feet ; wherefore, in complaints of the 
loins and testicles, they bleed in the poplitic region and ancles. 

9. tl The third pair of veins, from the temple through the 
neck, and beneath the scapula, reach the lungs ; those from 
the right to the left, under the breast, to the spleen and 
kidneys ; and those from the left to the right side, from the 
lungs, under the breast, and liver, and kidney ; and both 
end beneath the testicles. The fourth pair from the forepart 
of the head and the eyes, under the neck and collar-bones ; 
from thence they extend through the humerus to the elbow, 
and through the cubitus to the wrist and the fingers, and 
through the lower part of the arm to the arm-pits, and the 

1 Polybus, a pupil of Hippocrates, a native of the island of Cos ; he 
lived in the fourth century B.C. Many treatises on medical subjects are 
attributed to him. 


upper part of the lungs. The one reaches as far as the 
spleen, the other to the liver ; afterwards they both pass 
over the abdomen to the pudendum." 


1. THE opinions of other persons are nearly these ; and 
there are other physiologists, but they have not treated so 
accurately of the veins. But all agree in placing their 
origin in the head and brain, in which they are incorrect. 
But, as I have remarked before, it is difficult to discern the 
course of the veins ; indeed, it is impossible to understand 
them unless a person will examine animals which, after 
emaciation, have been killed by strangulation. The follow- 
ing is the nature of the veins : There are two veins in the 
interior of the chest, near the spine ; the larger of these is 
placed forward, the smaller is behind ; the larger is inclined 
to the right side, the smaller to the left ; and this by some 
persons is called the aorta, from the sinewy portion which 
is seen in dead animals. 

2. These veins have their origin in the heart, for they 
pass completely through the other intestines, and always 
preserve the character of veins. The heart is, as it were, a 
part of them, and especially of the more forward and larger 
one, for these veins are above and below, and the heart is in 
the middle of them. The heart of all animals contains cavi- 
ties, but in the heart of very small animals the largest cavity is 
scarcely perceptible, in moderately sized animals the second 
cavity is scarcely visible, but in large animals they are all 
three distinct enough. And when the apex of the heart is 
turned forwards, as I have observed, the principal cavity is 
on the right side, and above it the least is on the left side, 
and the middle-sized one is between them ; the two smaller 
are far less than the greater. 

3. All these are perforated towards the lungs, but im- 
perceptibly so from the minuteness of the passage, except 
in one place. The great vein is suspended from the upper 
portion of the principal cavity; and on the right side ; after- 
wards through the cavity a vein extends again, as if the 
vein were a part of the cavity in which the blood stagnates. 
The aorta has its origin from the middle cavity, but in a dif- 
ferent manner from the vein, for it communicates with the 
heart by a much narrower pasf age, and the vein is continued 


through the heart. But the aorta passes from the heart, and 
the great vein is membranous and like skin, but the aorta ia 
narrow and very sinewy, and as it is continued towards the 
head and the lower parts of the body, it becomes narrow and 
quite sinewy. 

4. A portion of the great vein is first of all extended up- 
'wards from the heart to the lung, and to the junction of 
the aorta, this vein being undivided and large ; from this 
place it divides into two branches, the one towards the lung, 
and the other to the spine and the lowest vertebra of the 
neck. The branch which goes to the lungs is first divided 
into two branches, and afterwards it is continued upon every 
tube and passage of the lungs, greater to the greater, and 
less to the less, so as to leave no part in which there is not 
a passage and a small vein. These last are invisible from their 
minute size, so that the whole lung seems to be full of blood. 

5. And the passages from the vein are above the tubes which 
extend from the trachea. And the vein which is continued 
upon the vertebra of the neck, and upon the spinal column, 
returns again to the spine, as Homer writes in his poems : "He 
cut off the whole vein which passes up the back and returns 
again to the neck;" 1 and from this vein branches extend to each 
rib and to each vertebra ; but that which is upon the vertebra 
near the kidneys branches in two directions. These branches, 
then, of the great vein are subdivided in this manner. 

6. And above these, from that part which is continued from 
the heart, the whole is again divided into two directions, for 
some reach to the sides and the clavicles, and afterwards 
through the armpits to the arms, in the human subject, but 
in quadrupeds to the fore-legs, to the wings in birds, and to 
the pectoral fins in fishes. The commencements of these veins, 
when they are first of all divided, are called jugular veins ; 
and having branched off in the neck from the great vein, they 
are continued to the trachea of the lungs. And if these 
veins are held on the outside, men fall down dead with in- 
sensibility, with closed eyes, but without choking. 

7. Extending in this manner, and receiving the trachea 
between them, they reach the place where the jaws unite 
with the head ; and again from this point they are divided 
into four veins, one of which bends backwards and descends 

1 Iliad, xiii. 546. 


through the neck and shoulder, and meets the first division 
of the vein by the joint of the arm ; the other portion ter- 
minates in the hand and fingers ; and another branch ex- 
tends from each part near the ear to the brain, where it 
is divided into many small branches upon the membrane 
which surrounds the brain. 

8. The brain never contains blood in any animal, nor does 
any vein, small or great, terminate upon it ; but some of 
the other branches that extend from this vein surround the 
brain in a circle, and others, end upon the organs of sense 
and the teeth in very small veins. In the same manner, 
also, the branches of the smaller vein, which is called the 
aorta, are divided : they are continued beside those of the 
great vein, but the tubes are smaller and the branches less 
than those of the great vein. 


1. THE veins, then, are thus distributed in the parts above 
the heart, but the part of the great vein which is below the 
heart passes through the middle of the diaphragm, and is 
united to the aorta and spinal column by membranous flaccid 
passages. From this a short and wide vein passes through 
the liver, from which many similar branches extend to the 
liver, and disappear upon it. There are two branches of the 
vein, one of which terminates upon the diaphragm, and what 
is called the praecordia, the other returns through the arm- 
pit to the right arm, and unites with the other veins near 
the interior part of the elbow. For this reason physicians 
treat certain diseases of the liver by venesection in this vein. 
2. From the left of this there is a short and wide vein, 
which reaches to the spleen, and the branches of this vein 
are lost upon this organ, and another portion branching off 
in the same way from the left the great vein passes up to 
the left arm, except that the last-mentioned pass through 
the liver, but this one through the spleen. Other branches 
also separate from the great vein, the one to the omentum, 
the other to the pancreas ; and from this many veins extend 
through the mesenterium, and all end there in one great 
vein, which passes through the whole intestine and the 
Btomach, as far as the oesophagus ; and many veins branch 
off from them around these parts. 


3. Both the aorta and the great vein continue as far as 
the kidney each as a single duct ; from this point they are 
more closely united to the spinal column, and are each di- 
vided into two parts, like the letter lambda (A), and the 
great vein is placed farther back than the aorta. The 
aorta is more closely united to the spinal column, near the 
neart, and the junction is formed by small sinewy veins. 

4. The aorta leaves the heart as a large hollow passage, 
but as it advances it becomes narrower and more sinewy. 
Prom the aorta, veins extend also to the mesenterium, like 
those from the great vein, but far inferior in size, for they are 
narrow and muscular. They terminate in small hollow 
muscular veins. No branch of the aorta extends to the 
liver and the spleen, but the branches of either vein extend 
to each hip, and both touch upon the bone. Branches 
reach the kidney both from the great vein and the aorta ; 
they do not, however, enter the cavity, but are taken up in 
the* substance of the kidney. 

5. Two other strong and continuous passages reach from 
the aorta to the bladder, and others from the cavity of 
the kidney ; but these do not communicate with the 
great vein. From the centre of each kidney a hollow 
sinewy vein passes through the other veins to the spinal 
column; first of all they disappear upon each hip, and 
then appear again in branches towards the hip ; their ex- 
tremities are distributed upon the bladder and penis in 
the male, and upon the uterus in the female ; no branch 
of the great vein passes to the uterus, but many and thick 
ones reach it from the aorta. 

6. Prom the aorta and great vein branches are distributed 
to the nates ; at first they are large and hollow, afterwards 
they pass through the legs, ending upon the feet and toes ; 
and others again pass through the nates and thighs, alter- 
nately from right to left, and they join with other veins 
below the knees. 

7. The nature and origin of the veins are evident from this 
description. In all sanguineous animals, the nature and origin 
of the principal veins are the same, but the multitude of smaller 
veins is not alike in all, for neither are the parts of the same 
nature, nor do all possess the same parts. Nor are the veins 
equally apparent in all animals ; but they are more manifest in 


those which have most blood, and in the largest creatures ; but 
in those animals which are small, and have not much blood, 
either by nature or from excess in fat, they are not so easily 
investigated, for some of the passages are confused, like 
rivulets that are lost in beds of mud ; and there are some 
animals which have but few, and these fibres instead of veins. 
The great vein is very conspicuous in all, even the smallest 

1. THE following is the nature of the sinews of animals. 


tions are always sinewy, for they are not hollow, and are 
extensible, like the sinews which end upon the bending of 
the bones : for it is not the nature of sinews to be con- 
tinuous from one origin, like the veins, for the veins have 
the whole form of the body as in outline sketches, so that 
in emaciated subjects the whole mass appears full of veins, 
for the same place is occupied by veins in lean persons that 
in fat ones is flesh. 

2. The sinews are drawn round the joints and flexures of 
the bones ; but, if their nature were continuous, the con- 
tinuation would be evident in emaciated persons. The 
principal parts of the sinews are around the part of the 
body appropriated to leaping, and this is called the poples. 
Another double sinew is the tendon of the neck, and the epi- 
tonus and the sinew of the shoulder, which aid in the support 
of the body. The sinews around the joints have not re- 
ceived any name, for all the bones where they are contiguous 
are bound together by the sinews. 

3. And there are many sinews round all the bones ; there 
are none in the head ; but the sutures of the skull are 
adapted to each other. It is the nature of sinew to tear 
readily lengthwise, but across the fibre it is indivisible, 
and it is very extensible. The sinews are surrounded by 
a mucous, white, and gelatinous fluid, by which they are 
nourished, and from which they seem to derive their origin. 
The vein does not alter its form by combustion, but the 
einew is entirely destroyed. Neither does it unite after 


4. Numbness does not take place in those parts of tbef 
body which contain no sinews. The sinews are most abund- 
ant on the hands and feet, and on the ribs and shoulder- 
blades, and round the neck and arms. All sanguineous 
animals have sinews ; but in those which have not jointed 
limbs, and are without feet and hands, the sinews are small 
and inconspicuous, so that in fishes they are most distinct 
near the fins. 


1. THE fibres are between the sinews and the veins ; but 
some of them are moistened with serum, and they extend 
from the sinews to the veins, and from the veins to the 
sinews. There is also another kind of fibre, which is pro- 
duced in the blood of most, but not of all animals. When 
this is extracted from the blood, it does not coagulate, but 
if it is not taken out of the blood it coagulates. These 
fibres are present in the blood of most animals, but not in 
that of the stag, prox, 1 and bubalis, 2 and some others ; so 
that their blood does not coagulate like that of other 
animals : the blood of stags is very like that of hares ; 
for in both of these coagulation takes place ; not firm, as 
in other animals, but trembling, like that of milk, if no co- 
agulating substance is put into it. The blood of the 
bubalis coagulates more thickly, only a little less so than 
that of sheep. This is the nature of veins, sinews, and 


1. THE bones of animals depend upon one bone, and are 
connected with each other, like the veins ; and there is no 
such thing as a separate bone. In all animals with bones 
the spinal column is their origin. The spinal column is 
made up of vertebra, and extends from the head to the hips. 
All the vertebrae are perforated; the upper part of the 
head is a bone joined to the last vertebra, and is called the 
skull, the saw-like part is the suture. 

2. This is not alike in all animals, for the cranium of 
some consists of a single bone, as in the dog ; in others it 
is compound, as in the human subject. The female has 

1 Cervis Capreolus, or C, dama. 2 Antilope gnou. 


one suture, in a circle ; the male has three, meeting at the 
top of the head, like a triangle ; and human skulls have been 
seen without sutures. The head is not composed of four 
bones, but of six ; two of these are placed above the ears, 
and are small compared with the rest. 

3. From the head the jaw-bones descend. All other ani- 
mals move the lower jaw, the river-crocodile alone moves 
the upper jaw. In the jaws are the order of the teeth, which 
are bony, in some parts they are perforated, in others they 
are not. These are the only bones too hard to be engraved. 

4. From the spinal-column, which is the point of union, ori- 
ginate the clavicles and ribs ; the breast also is placed upon 
the ribs, and some of these are united, others are not, for 
no animal has a bone round the stomach. There are also 
the scapulae upon the shoulders, and these are conti- 
nued upon the arms, and those again to the hands ; and 
in all animals with fore legs the nature of the bone is 
the same. 

5. At the extremity of the lower part of the spinal co- 
lumn, and next to the hip, is the socket, and the bones 
of the lower extremity, with those of the thigh and leg, 
which are called the colenes. The ancles form a portion 
of these, and the part called the spur in all creatures with 
ancles. Continuous with these are the bones of the feet. 
Viviparous animals with blood and feet do not differ much 
in their bones, but rather by analogy, in hardness, softness, 
and size. Again, some of the bones contain marrow, whilst 
others, in the same animal, have none. 

6. Some animals do not appear to have any marrow at all 
in their bones, as the lion, whose bones are very small and 
slight : or there may be marrow in a few of its bones, as in 
those of the thigh and fore leg ; otherwise, in the lion, the 
bones are particularly solid, for they are sufficiently hard to 
emit fire like stones on concussion. The dolphin also has 
bones, but it has no spine, like fish. Some sanguineous ani- 
mals differ partially from these, as the class of birds. In others, 
as fish, the bones are only analogous, for viviparous fish have 
a cartilaginous spine, like those which are called selachea ; 
the oviparous fish have a spine, which is like the backbone 
of quadrupeds. 

7. It is a peculiarity in fish that some species have small 


spines in the flesh separated from each other. Serpents are 
like fish, for their back-bone is spinous ; among oviparous 
quadrupeds the greater animals have a bony vertebral 
column ; the lesser have a spinous one. 

8. Tor all sanguineous animals have either a bony, or a 
spinous column. The remainder of the bones exist in some 
animals, but not in others, for if they have the limbs, they 
have the bones belonging to them ; for those that have not 
hind and fore legs have not hams, nor are they present 
in those animals which possess limbs unlike those of quad- 
rupeds, for in these they vary in size and proportion. This 
is the nature of the bones of animals. 


1. CAETILAGE is of the same nature as bone, but it differs 
in the greater and less, and neither bone nor cartilage are 
reproduced if they are cut off. In sanguineous and vivi- 
parous animals living on the land the cartilage is imper- 
forate, and does not contain marrow, like the bones ; but the 
flat selachea, which have a cartilaginous spine, have a carti- 
lage analogous to bone containing a liquid marrow. Vivi- 
parous animals, with feet, have cartilage about their ears, 
nostrils, and extremities of their bones. 


1. THEEE is another class of parts, which, though not the 
same as these, are not very different, as nails, hoofs, claws, 
and horns, and besides these, the beak of birds which alone 
possess this part. For these are both flexible and fissile. 
But bone is neither flexible nor fissile, but brittle ; and 
the colour of horns, nails, claws, and hoofs follow the 
colour of the skin and the hair : for in black animals the 
horns are black, and so are the claws and hoofs in those 
with claws ; in white animals they are white. There are 
also intermediate colours, the nails also are of the same 

2. But the teeth are like bones ; wherefore, in black men, 
Ethiopians, and such like, the teeth and the bones are 
white, but the nails are black, like the rest of the skin. 


The horns of most animals are hollow at their "base, and 
surround a bony process on their heads ; but at the ex- 
tremity the horn is solid and single. The stag's horns are 
solid throughout, and divided ; and these animals alone cast 
their horns ; this is done annually, if they are not cut 
off. Concerning those that are cut off, we shall speak here- 

3. The horns are more nearly allied to skin than to bone, 
so that in Phrygia and elsewhere there are oxen which 
have the power of moving their horns, as they do their 
ears ; and of those which have nails (and all that have 
toes have nails, and those that have feet have toes, except 
the elephant, which has its toes undivided, and scarcely 
distinguished, and no nails at all) and of those with nails, 
some have straight nails, like men, others crooked, as the 
lion among beasts, and the eagle amongst birds. 


1. THIS is the nature of hair and its analogues and skin. 
All viviparous animals, with feet, have hair; oviparous 
animals, with feet, have scaly plates ; and those fish alone 
which produce friable ova are covered with scales ; for the 
conger and mura3na among long fish have not such ova, and 
the eel produces no ova. The hair differs in thickness, thin- 
ness, and size, according to its situation, both in the parts of 
the body which it occupies, and the nature of the skin, for 
upon thick skins the hair is generally harsh and thick, 
the hair is both thicker and longer in the hollow and 
moist parts of the body, if they are such as to be covered 
with hair. 

2. And the case is similar in those animals which are 
covered with plates or scales. If animals covered with soft 
hair are placed in good pastures their hair will become 
coarser ; and, on the contrary, it becomes finer and less in 
those that have coarse hair. Warm and cold situations also 
make a difference, for the hair of natives of warm climates 
is harsh, but it is soft in those of colder climates. Straight 
hair is soft, crisped hair is harsh. 

3. It is the nature of hair to split ; and different kinds 
of hair are dissimilar in excess and deficiency ; some are so 
changed by harshness as to bear slight resemblance to hair, 


and are more like spines, as in the hedgehog, wherein they 
resemble nails. So again the nails in some animals are not 
different from bones in point of hardness. 

4- Man has the thinnest skin in proportion to his size. 
There is a mucous, glutinous fluid in the skin of all animals, 
less in some, more in others, as in the skins of oxen, from 
which glue is made ; and sometimes glue is made from fishes. 
"When the skin alone is cut it is insensible, especially 
that upon the head, from the absence of flesh between that 
and the bone. Wherever the skin is without flesh it does 
not unite again after being cut, as the thin part of the 
cheek, the prepuce, and the eyelid. In all animals the skin 
is continuous, and it is only wanting in places where there 
are natural passages for exudation, and at the mouth 
and nails. All sanguineous animals have a skin: all, 
however, have not hair, but those which are described 

5. The colour of the hair changes in men as they grow 
old, and the hair becomes grey. This takes place in other 
animals, but not so remarkably as in the horse. The hair 
begins to grow white from the extremity. Most white 
animals are white from their birth, wherefore it is plain 
that whiteness does not arise from dryness, as some persons 
suppose, for no animal is born dry. In the exanthematous 
disease, called whiteness, all the hair becomes hoary ; and 
some patients, who have suffered from illness, after the hair 
has fallen off on recovery, have regained their dark-coloured 
hair. Hair which is covered up becomes white more 
readily than that which is exposed to the air ; in man the 
temples are the first to grow grey, and the fore part of 
the head before the hind part, and last of all the hair on 
the pubes. 

6. Some of the hair exists on the body at the period 
of birth, and some appears afterwards. In man alone the 
hair on the head, eyelashes, and eyebrows exist at birth. 
The hair on the pubes, in the armpits, and on the chin ap- 
pear successively after birth, so that the parts on which 
the hair appears at birth, and those on which it grows after- 
wards are the same in number. In old age the hair on the 
head especially is the first to fail, and falls off. This is 
only in front, for no one ever becomes bald on the back 

a. ra .i THE HISTOET or ANIMALS. 63 

of the head. The smoothness on the crown of the head 
is called baldness, that upon the eyebrows depilation ; 
neither of these takes place before the commencement of 

7. Children, women, and eunuchs never become bald. If 
a person be castrated before puberty, the hair which grows 
after birth never makes its appearance ; if after puberty 
these alone fall on% except the hair on the pubes. "Women 
have no hair upon the chin, excepting a lew of those in 
whom the catamenia have ceased, and the priestesses in 
Caria : and this appears ominous of future events. Women 
also have other hair, but not much. There are some 
persons, both male and female, who from their birth are 
without the hair which grows after birth ; but those per- 
sons are barren who have not hair on the pubes. 

8. The rest of the hair grows proportionally, either more 
or less. Thaifupon the head grows the most, then that on 
the chin, and thin hair most of all. The eyebrows grow so 
thick upon some aged persons as to be cut off, for they are 
placed upon the symphysis of the bone ; and this being 
separated in old persons, a more abundant moisture exudes. 
Those on the eyelids do not grow, but they fall off, 
when persons come to puberty, and especially in those off 
warm sexual desires ; they become grey very slowly. If the 
hair is plucked out during the period of growth, it comes 
again, but not after it has done growing. 

9. Every hair has at its root a glutinous moisture, which 
will adhere to anything with which it comes in contact, 
soon after it is drawn out. In spotted animals the spots 
exist both in the hair and upon the skin, and upon the skin 
of the tongue. As for the beard, some persons have a thick 
one, both beneath the chin and upon it ; in others, these 
parts are smooth, and the beard is on the cheeks. Those 
who have smooth chins are least likely to become bald. The 
hair grows in some diseases, as in phthisis especially, 
and in old age, and upon ciead bodies, and the hair becomes 
harder instead of softer. The same is the case with the 
nails. In persons of strong passions, the hair that is born 
with them decreases, while that which comes after birth in- 

10. Those who suffer from enlarged veins are less likely 


to become bald ; and if they have this disease after they are 
bald, the hair sometimes grows again. The hair, when 
cut off, does not grow again from the extremity, but in- 
creases by growth from the root. The scales of fishes 
become harder and thicker, and in those that are growing' 
thin and old they become still harder. The hair and wool 
of old animals becomes thicker, though the quantity de- 
creases ; and the hoofs and claws enlarge as they grow old, 
and the beaks of birds. And the claws grow in the same 
way as the nails. 

11. Feathered animals, like birds, do not change their 
colour by age, excepting the crane, for this bird is ash- 
coloured, and becomes black by age. But from the change 
of season, when it becomes cold, some of those having but 
one colour, black or grey, become white, as the crow, 
sparrow, and swallow ; but none of those which are white 
become black. At different seasons of the yellr many birds 
change the colour of their plumage, so as to render it difficult 
for those who are not acquainted with them to recognise 

12 And many animals change their colour with a change 
of water ; for in one place they are black, and in another 
white ; and the same thing takes place at the season of co- 
ition. There are many waters of such a nature that if 
sheep drink of them before sexual intercourse, they produce 
black lambs ; as at that which is called the cold river in the 
Thracian Chalcis (in Astyritis). And in Antandria there 
are two rivers, one of which turns the sheep white, the 
other black ; and the Scamander appears to make the sheep 
yellow, wherefore some people think that Homer called 
the Scamander the Xanthus. 

13. Other animals have no hair internally, nor upon the 
bottom of their feet, though it is on the upper part. The 
hare alone has hair on the inside of its cheeks, and upon 
its feet, and the mysticetus 1 has no teeth in its mouth, 
but hairs, like hog's bristles. The hair, if it is cut off, 
increases below, but not above. Feathers do not grow 
either above or below, but fall out. The wing of the bee, 
if it is plucked off, does not grow again, nor that of any 
other creature which has an undivided wing ; nor does the 
1 Balsena Mysticetus. 


sting of the bee grow after it is plucked out, but the animal 


1. THERE are membranes in all sanguineous animals. Mem- 
brane is like a dense thin skin, but it differs in kind, for it 
is neither divisible nor extensible. There is a membrane 
round every bone and every intestine, both in the greater 
and smaller animals ; they are inconspicuous in small ani- 
mals, owing to their thinness and small size. The principal 
membranes are two, which surround the brain, one round 
the bones of the head, and this is stronger and thicker than 
that round the brain itself; and after these, the membrane 
which surrounds the heart. A thin membrane does not 
unite after it has been cut asunder, and the bones, when de- 
prived of their jnembranes, become inflamed. 

2. The omentum is a membrane. All sanguineous ani- 
mals have an omentum ; in some it is fat, in others it con- 
tains no fat. In viviparous animals, w r ith cutting teeth in 
both jaws, it has its origin and is suspended from the middle 
of the stomach, where it appears like a suture of this organ. 
In those that have not teeth in both jaws, it is suspended 
in the same way from the principal stomach. 

3. The bladder also is membranous, but its character is 
different, for it is extensible. All animals have not a 
bladder, but all viviparous animals have this organ, and the 
tortoise alone of oviparous animals. When the bladder is 
cut it does not re-unite, except at the very origin of the 
urethra, or only very rarely, for it has happened sometimes. 
No moisture passes into the bladder of dead animals ; but 
in living creatures there are dry compounds, from which are 
formed the stones that are found in persons labouring under 
this disease ; sometimes they are of such a nature in the 
bladder as to differ in nothing from shells. This, then, is 
the nature of veins, sinews, and skins, and of muscle and 
membrane ; and of hair, nails, claws, hoofs, horns, teeth and 
beaks, and of cartilage, bone, and their analogues. 


1. IN all sanguineous animals, flesh, and that which is like 
flesh, is between the skin and the bone, or what is analogous 

66 TIIE HISTORY Of ANIMAL8. F B - ilt > 

to bone : for the same relation which a spine bears to a bone, 
is also borne by flesh to that which is like flesh, in animals 
possessing bones and spines. The flesh can be divided in 
every direction, and so is unlike sinews and veins, which 
can only be divided in their length. The flesh disappears 
in emaciated animals, giving place to veins and fibres. Those 
animals which can obtain abundance of good food have fat 
instead of flesh. 

2. Those that have much flesh have smaller veins and 
redder blood, and their intestines and stomachs are small ; 
but those which have large veins and dark blood, and large 
intestines and great stomachs, have also less flesh, for those 
that have fat flesh have small intestines. 


1. ADEPS and fat differ from each other, for fat is always 
brittle, and coagulates upon cooling, but adeps is liquid, and 
does not coagulate; and broths made from animals with 
adeps do not thicken, as from the horse and hog, but that 
made from animals with fat thickens, as from the sheep and 
goat. These substances also differ in situation, for the 
adeps is between the skin and the flesh ; but the fat only 
exists upon the extremity of the flesh. In adipose animals 
the omentum is adipose, in fat animals it is fatty : for the 
animals with cutting teeth in both jaws are adipose, those 
that have not cutting teeth in both jaws are fat. 

2. Of the viscera in some animals the liver is full of 
adeps, as in the cartilaginous fishes, for oil is procured from 
these during the process of decomposition, the cartilagi- 
nous fish are particularly free from adeps on their flesh, 
but the adeps is separated on the stomach. The fat also 
of fishes is adipose, and does not coagulate ; and some 
animals are furnished with adeps on the flesh, and others 
apart from the flesh ; and those creatures in which the 
adeps is not separated from the flesh have less of this 
substance on the stomach and omentum, as the eel : for 
these creatures have little fat on the omentum. In most 
animals the adeps collects principally upon the abdomen, 
especially in those which take little exercise. 

3. The brain of adipose animals is unctuous, as in swine ; 
that of fatty animals is dry. Of all the viscera the kidneys 


are surrounded by the greatest quantity of adeps in all ani- 
mals ; that on the right side is always the least adipose ; 
and let there be ever so much adeps, there is always a space 
left between the kidneys. They are also the most fatty of 
the viscera, and especially in sheep, for this animal some- 
times dies from the entire concealment of its kidneys in fat. 
This excessive fat around the kidneys arises from good 
pasture, as in the Leontine territory of Sicily ; wherefore 
also in the evening they drive away the sheep which have 
been feeding during the day, in order that they may take 
less food. 

4. The fat around the pupil of the eye is common to all 
animals ; for all have fat in this part, that possess it, and are 
not hard-eyed. Eat animals, both male and female, are 
more inclined to be barren, and all old animals become fat 
more readily than young ones, especially when they increase 
in depth, having obtained their proper width and length. (/ 


1. THE following is the nature of the blood. This is most 
essential and common to all sanguineous animals, and is not 
superadded, but exists in all animals that are not in a perish- 
ing condition. All the blood is in a vessel called the veins, 
but in no other part of the body, except the heart. The 
blood of all animals has no sense of touch, nor has the excre- 
mentitious matter in the stomach ; neither have the brain, nor 
the marrow, any sensation of touch ; but wherever the flesh 
is divided, the blood flows in the living subject, unless the 
flesh is perishing. It is the nature of the blood to have a 
sweet juice, as long as it is healthy and a red colour, and 
that is bad which either by nature or disease is black. The 
best kind of blood is neither very thick nor thin, unless it 
is vitiated either by nature or disease. 

2. In living animals it is always warm and moist, but 
when taken out of the animal the blood of all creatures co- 
agulates, except that of the stag and deer, and perhaps some 
others of the same nature. The blood of all other creatures 
coagulates, unless the fibre is taken out of it. Bullock's 
blood coagulates faster than that of any other animals. 
Amongst sanguineous animals, those which are both inter- 
nally and externally viviparous, have the most blood, and 

r 2 


after them the oviparous sanguineous animals ; those which 
are well disposed, either by nature or by health, have not a 
great deal of blood, as in those that have just drank ; nor 
a very little, as in those which are very fat. Pat animals 
have pure blood, though the quantity is small ; as they be- 
come more fat they lose a portion of their blood, for fat is 
free from blood. Fat is not corruptible, but blood and the 
parts that contain blood are very corruptible ; of these the 
parts surrounding the bones are most corruptible. 

3. Man has the thinnest and purest blood, that of the ox 
and ass is the thickest and blackest of all viviparous ani- 
mals. The blood is thicker and blacker in the lower than iu 
the upper part of animals. The blood palpitates in the veins 
alike in all animals ; this alone of all the fluids exists in every 
part of the body of living subjects, and as long only as they 
are alive. The blood first of all exists in the heart of all 
animals before it is distributed through the body. When de- 
prived of their blood, or if the greater part escapes, they faint 
away ; but when a very great deal is lost, they die. When 
the blood becomes very much liquefied, illness ensues, for it 
becomes like serum, and flows through in such a manner, 
that some have perspired blood ; and when taken out of the 
body, it does not coagulate into a mass, but into separate 
and divided portions. 

4. In sleeping animals, the blood in the extremities 
is diminished, so that it does not flow freely when they 
are pricked. Blood is formed from serum, and fat from 
blood. When the blood becomes diseased, hemorrhoids 
are produced, either in the nose or anus, and a disease 
called ixia. 1 When the blood becomes corrupted in the 
body, pus is formed, and from pus a scab. The blood 
in females differs from that of males, for it is more thick 
and black in females of similar health and age. In the 
whole of the body the quantity of blood is less in females, 
but internally they are more full of blood. Of all females, 
women have the most blood, and the catamenia are more 
abundant in them than in other females. 

5. When this blood is diseased, it is called a flooding. 
Women have a less share in other diseases ; but a few are 
afflicted with ixia, and with hemorrhoids and bleeding 

1 Varicose veins. 


from the nose ; when any of these take place, the catamenia; 
decrease. The blood differs in proportion to the age in quan- 
tity and appearance, for when very young, it is more like 
serum, and very abundant ; in the aged it is thick, black, 
and in less quantity ; in those in the prime of life it is be- 
tween these. In aged persons the blood coagulates quickly 
in the body, or on the surface ; but in young persons this 
does not take place. Serum is imperfect blood, because it 
has not ripened, or because it has become more fluid. 


1. CONCERNING marrow, for this is one of the fluids which 
exist in some animals. All the natural fluids of the body 
are contained in vessels, as the blood in the veins, and the 
marrow in the bones, and others in membranes, skin, and 
cavities. The marrow is always full of blood in young ani- 
mals ; but when they grow older, in the adipose it becomes 
adipose, in fat animals fatty. There is not marrow in all 
the bones, but only in those that are hollow, and not even 
in some of these, for some of the bones of the lion have no 
marrow, others but little ; wherefore some persons say the 
lion has no marrow at all, as was before observed. In the 
bones of swine there is very little marrow, in some none at 


1. THESE fluids are nearly always co-existent with animal, 
life ; but milk and the spermatic fluid are produced after- 
wards. Of these the milk is always secreted in those ani- 
mals in which it is present. The spermatic fluid is not 
secreted in all, but in some as in fishes are what are called 
melts. All animals having milk have it in the mamma3. 
All animals that are both internally and externally vivi- 
parous have mamma3, that is, all that have hair, as man, and 
the horse, the cetacea, as the dolphin, seal, and whale, for 
these also have mammae and milk. 

2. Those animals that are only externally viviparous, and 
oviparous animals, have neither mammae nor milk, as fish, 
and birds. All milk has a watery serum, which is called 
whey, and a substantial part called curds ; the thicker kinds 
of milk have the most curds. The milk of animals without 


cutting teeth in both jaws, coagulates, wherefore cheese is 
made from the milk of domestic animals. The milk of those 
with cutting teeth in both jaws does not coagulate, but re- 
sembles their adeps, and is thin and sweet ; the milk of the 
camel is the thinnest of all, next is that of the horse ; in 
the third place that of the ass. Cow's milk is thicker. 

3. Under the influence of cold, milk does not coagu- 
late, but becomes fluid ; by heat it is coagulated, and be- 
comes thick. There is no milk in any animal before it 
has conceived, or but rarely ; but, as soon as it has con- 
ceived the milk is produced ; the first and last milk are 
useless. Sometimes milk has come in animals not with 
young, from partaking of particular kinds of food ; and even 
in aged females it has been produced so freely when sucked, 
as to afford nourishment for an infant. And the shepherds 
round _<Eta, when the shegoats will not endure the approach 
of the males, cut their udders violently against a thorn, so 
as to cause pain ; at first, when milked, they produce 
bloody, and afterwards putrid milk, but at last their milk 
is as good as that of those which have young ones. 

4. The males, both of man and other animals, rarely pro- 
duce milk ; nevertheless, it is found in some cases : for in 
Lemnos, a he-goat has given from the two nipples, which 
are always found on the penis, so much milk, that cakes of 
cheese were made from it. The same thing happened to 
another he-goat, which was produced from this one ; but 
such things as these are considered ominous : for, on inquiry 
being made of the god of Lemnos, he replied that there 
should be an additional supply of cattle. A small quantity of 
milk has been forced from some men after puberty; from 
others a great quantity has been produced by suction. 

5. There is a fatness in milk which becomes oily when 
it is cooked. In Sicily, and other countries, when there is 
an abundant supply of goat's milk, they mix ewe's milk 
with it, and it coagulates readily, not only because it con- 
tains abundance of curd, but also because it is of a drier 
nature. Some animals have more milk than enough for the 
support of their offspring, and this is useful for making 
cheese, and for putting aside. The best is that of the sheep 
and goats, and next, that of the cow. Mare's milk and ass's 
milk are combined with the Phrygian cheese. There is 


more cheese in the milk of the cow than of the goat : for 
the shepherds say, from an amphora of goat's milk they can 
make nineteen cakes of cheese, each worth an obolus, and 
thirty from cow's milk. Other creatures have only enough 
for their young, and no superabundance useful for making 
cheese, as all those animals which have more than two mam- 
mae, for none of these have a superabundance of milk, nor 
will their milk make cheese. 

6. Milk is coagulated by the juice of figs, and by rennet ; 
the juice is placed upon wool, and the wool is washed in a 
little milk ; this coagulates upon mixture. The rennet is a 
kind of milk, which is found in the body of sucking animals. 
This rennet is milk, containing cheese, for the milk be- 
comes cooked by the heat of the body. All ruminating ani- 
mals contain rennet, and the hare among those with cutting 
teeth in both jaws. The older coagulum is the better, 
for such rennet is useful in diarrhrea, and so is that of the 
hare. The rennet of the fawn is the best. 

7. The greater or less quantity of milk drawn from 
those animals which have milk, differs in the size of the 
body, and the variety of the food. In Phasis there are very 
small cows, each of which gives a great deal of milk ; and 
the large cows of Epirus give an amphora and half 
of milk from each of their two mammae ; and the person 
who milks them stands up, or only leans a little, because 
he cannot reach them sitting down. The other animals of 
Epirus are large except the ass, but the largest are the 
cows and the dogs. These large cattle require more pas- 
ture ; but the country has a great deal so excellent, that 
they can be changed to fit places every hour. The oxen 
are the largest, and the sheep, called Pyrrhic ; they have 
received this name from king Pyrrhus. 

8. Some kinds of food check the milk, as the medic grass, 
especially in ruminating animals. The cytisus and oro- 
bus have a very different effect; but the flower of the 
cytisus is unwholesome, and causes inflammation; the orobua 
does not agree with pregnant cattle, for it causes difficulty 
of parturition. On the whole, those animals which are 
able to eat the most food, as they are better adapted for 
parturition, will also give the most milk, if they have enough 
food. Some of the flatulent kinds of food, when given to 


animals, increase the quantity of milk, as beans given freely 
to the sheep, goat, ox, and chimcera, 1 for they cause the udder 
to be distended ; and it is a sign that there will be plenty 
of milk when the udder is seen below before parturition. 

9. The milk lasts a long time in those that have it, if 
they remain without sexual intercourse, and have proper 
food ; and in sheep it lasts longer than in any other animals, 
for the sheep may be milked for eight months , Altogether 
the ruminating animals produce milk in greater abundance, 
and more fitted for making cheese. Around Torona the 
cows fail in their milk a few days before calving, but give 
milk all the rest of the time. In women dark-coloured 
milk is better for the children than that which is white ; 
and black women are better nurses than white women. The 
most nutritions milk is that which contains the most cheese, 
but that which contains less cheese is better for infants. 


1. ALL sanguineous animals eject the spermatic fluid ; the 
office it performs in generation, and how it is performed, 
will be treated of in another place. In proportion to his 
size man ejects more than other animals. This fluid, in ani- 
mals covered with hair, is glutinous, in others it is not glu- 
tinous ; in all it is white, so that Herodotus is mistaken 
when he says that the Ethiopians have black semen. 2 The 
semen comes out white and thick if it is healthy, but after 
ejection it becomes thin and black ; it does not thicken with 
cold, but becomes thin and watery, both in colour and den- 
sity. By heat it coagulates and thickens, and when it has 
been ejected for any time into the uterus, it comes out more 
thick, and sometimes dry and twisted together. That which 
is fruitful sinks in water, but the barren mixes with it. All 
that Ctesias said about the semen of the elephant is false. 

1 Some kind of domestic goat, bvit not known, 

2 Herodotus, iii. c. 97, 101. 




1. WE have hitherto treated of sanguineous animals, the 
parts possessed by all as well as those which are peculiar to 
each class, and of their heterogeneous and homogeneous, 
their external and internal parts. We are now about to 
treat of ex-sanguineous animals. There are many classes 
of these, first of all the mollusca. 1 These are ex-sanguineous 
animals, which have their, fleshy parts external, and their 
hard parts internal, like sanguineous animals, as the whole 
tribe of cuttle-fish. Next the malacostraca, these are 
animals which have their hard parts external, and their in- 
terior parts soft and fleshy; their hard parts are rather liable 
to contusion than brittle, as the class of carabi and cancri. 

2. Another class is that of the testacea. These are ani- 
mals which have their internal parts fleshy, and their ex- 
ternal parts hard, brittle, and fragile, but not liable to 
contusion. Snails and oysters are instances of this class. 

3. The fourth class is that of insects, which includes many 
dissimilar forms. Insects are animals which, as their name 
signifies, are insected either in their lower or upper part, or in 
both ; they have neither distinct flesh nor bone, but something 
between both, for their body is equally hard internally and 
externally. There are apterous insects, as the julus and 
scolopendra ; and winged, as the bee, cockchafer, and wasp ; 
and in some kinds there are both winged and apterous in- 
sects ; ants, for example, are both winged and apterous, 
and so is the glowwor'n. 

4. These are the parts of animals of the class mollusca (ma- 
lacia) ; first the feet, as they are called, next to these the 
head, continuous with them ; the third part is the abdomen, 
which contains the viscera. Some persons, speaking incor- 
rectly, call this the head. The fins are placed in a circle 
round this abdomen. It happens in many of the malacia 
that the head is placed between the feet and the abdomen. 

1 The Cephalopoda. 


5. All the polypi, except one kind, have eight feet, with 
a double row of suckers. The sepia, 1 teuthis, 2 and teuthos 3 
possess as a characteristic part two long proboscidiform mem- 
bers, which have rough suckers at their extremities, with 
which they seize their food and bring it to their mouth ; and 
when a storm arises they weather it out, fastening these 
members upon a rock, like an anchor. They swim by means 
of the fin-like members which are attached to the abdomen. 
There are suckers upon all their feet. 

6. The polypus 4 uses its tentacula both as feet and hands, 
for it brings its food to its mouth with the two that are above 
the mouth, and it uses the last of its tentacula, which is 
the sharpest of all, in the act of coition ; this is the only 
one which is at all white, and it is divided at the ex'tre- 
mity, it is placed upon the back ; and the smooth part, in 
front of which are the acetabula, is called the back. In 
front of the abdomen, and above the tentacula, they have a 
hollow tube, by which they eject the sea- water which they 
have received into the abdomen, if any enters through the 
mouth. This part varies in position, and is sometimes on the 
right side, sometimes on the left, and by this its ink is 

7. It swims sideways upon the part called the head, 
stretching out its feet ; as it swims it is able to see forwards, 
for the eyes are upwards, and the mouth is placed behind. 
As long as it is alive the head is hard, as if it were inflated ; 
it touches and holds with its tentacula bent downwards, 
a membrane is extended throughout, between the feet, if it 
falls into the sand, it can no longer hold by it. 

8. The polypus and the above-mentioned malacia differ 
from each other ; the abdomen of the polypus is small, and 
the feet are large ; but of the others, the abdomen is large, 
and the feet small, so that they cannot walk upon them. 
They have also differences among each other; the teu- 
this is the smallest, the sepia wider ; the teuthos is much 
larger than the teuthis, for it reaches the length of five cubits. 
Some sepise are two cubits long, and the tentacula of the 
polypus are as long, and even larger in size. 

9. The class of the teuthos is rare, and differs in form from 

1 Sepia officinalis. 2 Loligo vulgaris (Owen). 

3 Loligo media (Owen). 4 Sepia octopodia. 


the teuthis, for the extremity of the teuthos is wider ; and, 
again, the fin is placed round the whole abdomen, but it is 
wanting in the teuthis. It is a marine animal, as well as 
the teuthis. After the feet, the head of all these animals is 
placed in the middle of the feet, which are called tentacula ; 
one part of this is the mouth, in which are two teeth ; above 
these are two large eyes ; between these is a small cartilage, 
containing a small brain. 

10. In the mouth is a small piece of flesh, for these animals 
have no tongue, but use this instead of a tongue. After 
this, on the outside, the abdomen is apparent. The flesh of 
this can be divided, not in a straight line, but in a circle. 
All the malacia have a skin around this part. After the 
mouth, they have a long and narrow oesophagus ; and con- 
tinuous with this is a large round crop, like that of a bird ; 
this contains the stomach, like a net. Its form is spiral, 
like the helix of a whelk ; from this a thin intestine turns 
back, to the vicinity of the mouth. The intestine is thicker 
than the stomach. 

11. The malacia have no viscus, except that which is 
called the mytis, 1 and the ink which is upon it. The most 
abundant and largest of all is that of the sepia ; all ex- 
clude this ink, when alarmed, but especially the sepia ; the 
mytis lies beneath the mouth ; and through this the oeso- 
phagus passes ; and where the intestine turns back the ink 
is beneath, and the same membrane surrounds both the ink 
and the intestine. The same orifice serves for the emission 
of the ink and the faeces. 

12. There are some appearances of hair 2 in their bodies ; 
the sepia, teuthis, and teuthos, have a hard part upon the 
forward part of the body ; the one is called sepium (the 
bone of the cuttle-fish), the other xiphus (the pen of the 
1 oli go) . These two are different ; for that of the sepia is 
strong and wide, partaking of the nature of spine and bone, 
and it contains a spongy, friable substance ; but the pen of the 
teuthis is thin, and cartilaginous. In their form also they 
correspond with the differences of the animals themselves. 

1 Kohler supposes the part called by Aristotle mytis to have been 
the glandular appendages on the vena cava and two visceral veins. 
(Owen in Todd's Cyclopedia of Anatomy, Art. Cephalopoda^) 

2 Probably the branchia. 


The polypus has no hard internal part, but a portion of car- 
tilage round the head, which becomes hard as they grow old. 

13. The females also differ from the males, for the latter 
have a passage beneath the oesophagus, extending from 
the brain to the lowest part of the body. That part to 
which it reaches is like a teat. In the female there are two 
such organs, which are placed above. In both sexes, some 
small red bodies are placed under these. The polypus has 
one capsule of eggs, which is uneven on the surface ; it is 
large ; internally it is all of a white colour, and smooth. 
The multitude of the ova is so great as to fill a vessel larger 
than the head of the polypus. 

14. The sepia has two capsules, and many eggs are in 
them, like white hailstones. The position of each of these 
parts may be seen in anatomical diagrams. In all these 
creatures the male differs from the female, and especially 
in the sepia. The fore part of the abdomen of the male 
is always darker than the back ; and more rough than in 
the female, and variegated wi ,h stripes, and the extremity 
of the body is more acute. 

15. There are many kinds of polypus ; one, which is the 
largest of all, is very common. Those near land are larger 
than those which are caught out at sea. There are smaller 
kinds, which are variegated ; these are not articles of food ; 
and two others, one of which is called eledone, 1 differs in 
the length of its feet, and is the only one of the malacia with 
a single row of suckers, for all the rest have two ; the other 
is called bolita3na, 2 and sometimes ozolis. 

16. There are two other kinds which dwell in shells, which 
some persons call nautilus 3 (and nauticus), and others call 
it the egg of the polypus ; its shell is like that of the hollow 
pecten, and not like that which has its shells close together. 4 
This animal generally feeds near the land ; when it is thrown 
upon the shore by the waves, after its shell has fallen off, it 
cannot escape, and dies upon the land. These animals are 
small in form, like the bolita3na ; and there is another, 5 which 

1 Eledone moschata. Leach. (Owen.) 

2 Eledone cirrosa. Leach. (Owen.) 3 Argonauta argo. (Owen.) 
* This is probably the meaning of the passage. Two kinds of pectens 

were distinguished ; the one large, hollow, and of a dark colour, the other 
broad and sweeter, but harsh. 
5 Nautilus Pompilius. (Owen.) 


inhabits a shell like a snail. This animal never leaves its 
shell, but remains in it, like the snail, and somct imcs stretches 
out its tentacula. Let thus mueh be said about the malacia. 


1. OF the malocostraca, there is one genus, of carabi, 1 and 
another, very like it, of astaci ; a these differ from the carabi, 
which hare no claws, and in some other respects. There 
is a third genus, of carides, 3 and a fourth, of carcini. 4 There 
are more genera of carides, and of carcini ; for among the 
carides are the cyphse, 6 the crangon, 6 and a small species, for 
these never grow large. 

2. The family of carcini is more various, and not so easily 
enumerated ; the largest genus is that called maia, 7 the next 
to this the pagurus, 8 and the Heracleot carcini ; and, again, 
those that live in rivers. The other genera are small, and 
have not received any name. On the Pheuician coast there 
are some that they call horsemen, because they run so fast 
that it is difficult to catch them, and when opened, they are 
empty, because they have no pasture. There is another 
small genus like carcini, but in shape they resemble astaci. 

3. All these creatures, as I observed before, have their 
hard and shelly coats on the outsides of their bodies in the 
place of skin, the fleshy part is internal. Their under parts 
resemble plates, upon which the females deposit their ova ; 
the carabi have five feet on each side, including the claws ; 
the carcini, also, have in all ten feet, including the claws, 
which are last. Of the carides, the cypha have five on each 
side ; those near the head are sharp, and five others on each 
side of the stomach have flat extremities ; they have no 
plates upon the under pa/t of their body ; those on the 
upper part are like the carabi. 

4. The crangon is different, for it has, first of all, four 
plates on each side, and, afterwards, three slight ones, con- 
tinuous with those on each side, and the greater part of the 
remainder of its body is apodal ; all the feet are directed 
outwards to the side, like those of insects ; but the claws, 
in those that have them, all turned inwards. The carabus 

1 Palinurus, spiny lobster (Bell's Crustacea). 2 Lobster. 

3 Prawns. * Crabs. * Shrimp. Perhaps Prawn, 

7 Perhaps Maia squinado. 8 Cancer pagurus, Great crab. 


also has a tail, and five fin-like appendages. The cypha, 
among the carides, has a tail, with four fin-like appendages. 
The craiigon has fin- like processes on each side of the tail, 
and the middle of them is spinous on both sides ; but this 
part is wide in the crangon, and sharp in the cypha. The 
carcini alone are without a tail ; the body of the carabi and 
carides is elongated, that of the carcini is rounded. 

5. The male carabus is different from the female, for the 
female has the first foot divided ; in the male it is formed of 
a single claw, and the fin-like process on the lower part is 
large in the female, and interchanged with each other in the 
neck ; in the male they are small and not interchanged. In 
the male, also, the last feet are furnished with large and 
sharp processes like spurs ; in the female these are small and 
smooth. They all have two large and rough processes, like 
horns, before their eyes, and two, smaller and smooth, below. 

6. The eyes of all these animals are hard, and capable of 
motion, inwards, outwards, and to the side ; the same is the 
nature of the carcini, in which they are even more move- 
able. In colour the astacus is all of a dull white, sprinkled 
with black ; it has eight small feet, as far as the large ones ; 
after these the large feet are far greater and wider at the 
extremity than in the carabus, and they are unequal in 
size ; for on the right side the broad part at the end is long 
and smooth, on the left side the same part is thick and 
round ; they are both divided from the extremity like a jaw, 
with teeth above and below, only that in those on the right 
the teeth are all small and sharp, and they are sharp at the 
extremity of the left side ; in the middle they are like molar 
teeth ; in the lower part are four close together, but in the 
upper part three, but not close together. 

7. In both claws the upper part is moved and pressed 
down upon the lower ; both are placed sideways in position, 
as if intended by nature for seizure and pressure ; above 
these large feet are two rough ones, a little below the 
mouth ; and still lower, the branchial organs around the 
mouth,, which are rough and numerous, and these are con- 
tinually in motion ; it bends and approximates its two 
rough feet towards its mouth ; the feet near the mouth have 
smooth appendages. 

8. It has two teeth like the carabus, above these the long 


horns, much shorter and smoother than in the carabus ; four 
others of the same form as these, but still shorter and 
smoother ; and above these are placed its eyes, which are 
small and short, and not large like those of the carabus. 
The part above the eyes is acute and rough, as it were a 
forehead, and larger than in the carabus : on the whole, 
the head is sharper and the thorax much wider than 
in the carabus, and its whole body is more fleshy and soft : 
of its right feet, four are divided at the extremity, and four 
not divided. 

9. The part called the neck is externally divided into five 
portions, the sixth and last division is wide and has five plates ; 
in the inside are four rough plates, upon which the females 
deposit their ova. On the outside of each of these which 
have been mentioned, there is a short and straight spine, 
and the whole body, with the part called the thorax, is 
smooth, and not rough as in the carabus. On the outside 
of the large feet there are great spines. The female does 
not in any way differ from the male, for whether the male 
or female have larger claws, they are never both of them 

10. All these animals take in sea- water through their 
mouths ; the carcini also exhale a small portion of that which 
they have taken in, and the carabi do this through the 
branchiform appendages, for the carabi have many branchi- 
form appendages. All these animals have two teeth : the 
carabi have two front teeth, and then a fleshy mouth in- 
stead of a tongue, from this an oesophagus continued on 
to the stomach. And the carabi have a small oesophagus 
before the stomach, and from this a straight intestine is 
continued. In the caraboid animals and the carides, this 
is continued to the tail in a straight passage, by w r hich they 
eject their excrements, and deposit their ova. In the carcini 
this is in the middle of the folded part, for the place wherein 
they deposit their ova is external in these also. 

11. All the females also, besides the intestines, have a 
place for their ova, and the part called my tis 1 or mecon, which 
is greater or less, and the peculiar differences may be learned 
by studying the individual cases. The carabi, as I have ob- 
served, have two large and hollow teeth, in which there i 

1 Perhaps the liver. 


a juice resembling the mytis, and, between the teeth, a 
piece of flesh resembling a tongue ; from the mouth a short 
oesophagus extends to a membranous stomach ; in the part 
of this nearest the mouth are three teeth, two opposite and 
one below. 

12. And from the side of the stomach there is a simple 
intestine, which is of equal thickness throughout, reaching to 
the anus. All these parts belong to the carabi, carides, and 
carcini ; and, besides these, the carabi have a passage sus- 
pended from the breast and reaching to the anus ; in the 
female this performs the office of a uterus, in the male it 
contains the spermatic fluid. This passage is in the cavity 
of the flesh, so as to appear to be between portions of the 
flesh, for the intestine is toward the curved part, but the 
passage towards the cavity in the same way as in quadru- 
peds. In the male this part differs in nothing from the 
female, for both are smooth and white, and contain an ochre- 
ous fluid, and in both sexes it is appended to the breast. 

13. The ova and spirals occupy the same position in the 
carides. The male is distinguished from the female by 
having in the flesh upon the breast two distinct white bodies, 
in colour and position like the tentacula of the sepia ; these 
appendages are spiriform, like the mecon of the whelk; 
their origin is from the acetabula, which are placed under 
the last feet. These contain a red sanguineous flesh, which 
is smooth to the touch, and not like flesh. Prom the whelk- 
like appendage there is another spiral fold, about as thick 
as a thread, below which there are two sand-like bodies 
appended to the intestine, containing a seminal fluid. 
These are found in the male, but the female has ova of a 
red colour ; these are joined to the abdomen, and on each 
side of the intestine to the fleshy part of the body, enclosed 
in a thin membrane. These are their internal and external 


1. IT happens that all the internal parts of sanguineous ani- 
mals have names, for all these have the internal viscera ; but 
the same parts of exsanguineous animals have no names, but 
both classes have in common the stomach, oesophagus, and 
intestines. I have before spoken of the carcini, and their 


legs and feet, and how many they have, and in what direc- 
tion, and that, for the most part, they have the right claw 
larger and stronger than the left; I have also mentioned 
their eyes, and that most of them are able to see sideways. 
The mass of their body is undivided, and so is their head, 
and any other part. 

2. In some the eyes are placed immediately below the 
upper part, and generally far apart ; in some they are placed 
in the middle, and near together, as in the Heracleot carcini 
and the maia. The mouth is placed below the eyes, and 
contains two teeth, as in the carabus, but they are long 
and not round, and over these there are two coverings, 
between which are the appendages, which the carabus 
also possesses. 

3. They receive water through their mouth, opening the 
opercula, and emit it again by the upper passage of the mouth, 
closing the opercula by which it entered; these are im- 
mediately beneath the eyes, and when they take in water 
they close the mouth with both opercula, and thus eject 
again the sea-water. Next to the teeth is a very short 
oesophagus, so that the mouth appears joined to the sto- 
mach, and from this proceeds a divided stomach, from the 
middle of which is a single thin intestine ; this intestine 
ends externally beneath the folding of the extremity, as I said 
before. Between the opercula there is something resembling 
the appendages to the teeth of the carabi ; within the abdo- 
men is an ochreous chyme, and some small elongated white 
bodies, and other red ones scattered through it. The male 
differs from the female in length and width, and in the abdo- 
minal covering, for this is longer in the female, farther from 
the body, and more thick-set with appendages, as in the female 
carabi. The parts of the malacostraca are of this nature. 


1. THE testacea, as cochlea?, 1 and cochli, 2 and all that are 
called ostrea, 3 and the family of echini, are composed of 
flesh, and this flesh is like that of the malacostraci, for it is 
internal; but the shell is external, and they have no hard 
internal part. But they have many differences amongst 
themselves, both in regard to their external shells and their 
1 Land snails. ? Marine. 3 Bivalves. 


internal flesh, for some of them have no flesh at all, as the 
echinus ; in others it is entirely internal and out of sight, 
except the head, as the land snails and those called coccalia, 1 
and in the sea the purpura 2 and the ceryx, 3 the cochlus, and 
all the turbinated shells. 

2. Of the rest some are bivalves, others univalves. I call 
those bivalves which are enclosed in two shells ; the univalves 
are enclosed in one shell, and the fleshy part is uncovered, 
as the, lepas. 4 Some of the bivalves can open, as the 
pectens and mya, for all these are joined on one side, and 
separated on the other, so as to shut and open. There 
are other bivalves which are joined on both sides, as the 
solen ; others which are entirely enclosed in their shells, and 
have no external naked flesh, as those which are called tethya. 5 

3. And there is a great difference amongst the shells 
themselves, for some are smooth, as the solen, mya, and 
some conchas, called by some persons galaces ; 6 other shells 
are rough, as the limnostrea, 7 pinnae, some kinds of conchae, 
and the whelk ; and of these some are marked with ridges, as 
the pecten and a kind of concha, others are without ridges, as 
the pinna and another species of concha. They also differ in 
thickness and thinness, both in the whole shell and in certain 
parts of the shell, as about the edges, for in some the edges 
are thin, as the mya; others are thick-edged, as the limnostrea. 

4. Some of them are capable of motion, as the pecten, for 
some persons say that the pectens can fly, for that they 
sometimes leap out of the instrument by which they are 
taken. Others, as the pinna, cannot move from the point 
of attachment ; all the turbinated shells can move and crawl ; 
the lepas (patella) also feeds by going from place to place. 
It is common to all those with hard shells to have them 
smooth in the inside. 

5. Both in univalves and bivalves the fleshy part is united 
to the shell, so that it can only be separated by force ; it is 
more easily separated from the turbinated shells ; it is a 
characteristic of all these shells, that the base of the shell 
has the helix directed from the head. All of them from their 
birth have an operculum ; all the turbinated testacea are 

1 Some small land snail with a conical shell. 

2 Purpura. 3 Whelk. 4 Patella, limpet. 
5 Ascidians. 6 Chama, L. 7 Ostrea edulis. 


right-handed, and move, not in the direction of the helix, 
but the contrary way. 

6. The external parts of these creatures are thus distin- 
guished ; the nature of their internal structure is similar 
in all, especially in the turbinated animals, for they differ 
in size and in the relations of excess, the univalves and 
bivalves do not exhibit many differences. Most of them 
have but few distinctive marks from each other, but they 
differ more from the immovable creatures. This will be 
more evident from the following considerations. In na- 
ture they are all alike, the difference, as before said ; is in 
excess ; for in larger species the parts are more conspicuous, 
and less so in those that are smaller. They differ also in 
hardness and softness, and such like affections. 

7. For all have on the outside of the shell, in the mouth, 
a hard piece of flesh, some more, some less ; from the middle 
of this are the head and the two horns ; these are large in 
larger species, in the little ones they are very small. The 
head is protruded in the same manner in all of them, and 
when the creature is alarmed it is again retractef; some 
have a mouth and teeth, as the snail, which has small, sharp, 
and smooth teeth. 

8. They have also a proboscis, like that of the fly, and this 
organ is like a tongue. In the ceryx and the purpura this 
organ is hard, like that of the my ops and oestrus, with which 
they pierce through the skins of quadrupeds ; but this is 
more powerful in strength, for they can pierce through the 
shells of the baits. The stomach is joined quite closely to 
the mouth ; the stomach of the cochlus is like the crop of a 
bird ; below this there are two hard white substances like 
nipples, which also exist in the sepia, but are much harder. 

9. From the stomach a long, simple intestine reaches as far 
as the spiral, which is on the extremity of the body. These 
are distinct, and in the purpura and the ceryx are in the 
helix of the shell. The bowel is continuous with the intes- 
tine. The intestine and bowels are joined together, and are 
quite simple, to the anus. The origin of the bowel is around 
the helix of the mecon, 1 and here it is wider. The mecon is, 
as it were, a superfluous part in all testacea, afterwards an- 
other bend causes it to return to the fleshy part ; the end of 

1 The so-called liver (Strack). Papaver (Scaliger). 

G 2 


the entrail, where the faeces are emitted, is near the head, aiid 
is alike in all turbinated shells, whether terrestrial or marine. 

10. In the larger cochli a long white passage, contained 
in a membrane, and in colour resembling the upper mastoid 
appendages, is joined from the stomach to the oesophagus, 
and it is divided into segments like the ovum of the carabus, 
except that it is white, while the other is red. It has 
neither exit nor passage, but it is contained in a thin mem- 
brane, which has a narrow cavity. From the intestine 
black and rough bodies descend continuously, like those in 
the tortoise, but they are less black. 

11. Both these and white bodies occur in the marine cochli, 
but they are less in the smaller kinds. The univalves and 
bivalves are in some respects like these, and in others they 
are different, for they have a head, horns, and mouth, and 
something like a tongue, though in smaller species these 
are inconspicuous from their minute size, and they are not 
discernible when the animals are dead or at rest. They all 
contain the mecon, but not in the same position, nor of the 
same size, nor equally conspicuous. In the lepas it is in the 
bottom of the shell, in the bivalves near the hinge. 

12. They all have hair-like appendages placed in a circle, 
and so have the pectens, and that which is called the oVarium 
in those that have it ; where it is possessed, it is placed in a 
circle on the other side of the circumference, like the white 
portion in the cochli, for this is alike in all. All these parts, 
as I have said, are conspicuous in the larger kinds, but in 
smaller not at all, or scarcely so, wherefore they are most 
conspicuous in the larger pectens, and these have one valve 
flat like an operculum. 

13. The anus is placed in the side in some of these crea- 
tures, for this is where the excrement passes out. The mecon, 
as I have said, is a superfluous part enclosed in a thin mem- 
brane in all of them ; that which is called the ovarium has no 
passage in any of them, but it swells out in the flesh. This is 
not placed upon the intestine, for the ovarium is on the right 
side and the intestine on the left ; the anus is the same as in 
others ; but in the wild patella, as some persons call it, or the 
sea-ear (haliotis), as it is named by others, the excrement 
passes out below the shell, for the shell is perforated. The 
stomach also is distinct behind the mouth, and so is the ova- 


rium in this animal. The position of all these parts may be 
vseen in dissections. 

1A The creature called carcinium 1 resembles both the 
malacostraca and the testacea, for this in its nature is similar 
to the animals that are like carabi, and it is born naked 
(not covered with a shell). But because it makes its way 
into a shell, and lives in it, it resembles the testacea, and 
for these reasons it partakes of the character of both classes. 
Its shape, to speak plainly, is that of a spider, except that 
the lower part of the head and thorax is larger. 

15. It has two thin red horns, and two large eyes below 
these, not within nor turned on one side, like those of the 
crab, but straight forwards. Below these is the mouth, 
and round it many hair-like appendages ; next to these, two 
divided feet with which it seizes its prey, and two besides 
these on each side, and a third pair smaller. Below the 
thorax the whole creature is soft, and when laid open is 
yellow within. 

16. From the mouth is a passage as far as the stomach ; 
but the anus is indistinct ; the feet and the thorax are hard, 
but less so than those of the cancri ; it is not united with the 
shell like the purpura and ceryx, but is easily liberated from 
it. The individuals which inhabit the shells of the strombus 
are longer than those in the shells of the nerita. 

17. The kind which inhabits the nerita is different, though 
very like in other respects, for the right divided foot is small, 
and the left one large, and it walks more upon this than the 
other ; and a similar animal is found in the concha?, though 
they are united to their shells very firmly ; this animal is called 
cyllarus. 2 The nerita has a smooth, large, round shell, in 
form resembling that of the ceryx, but the mecon is not 
black, but red ; it is strongly united in the middle. 

18. In fine w r eather they seek their food at liberty, and if a 
storm arises, the carcinia hide themselves under a stone, and 
the nerita3 attach themselves to it like the patella, the 
ha3morrhois, and all that class, for they become attached 
to the rock, where they close their operculum, for this re- 
sembles a lid ; for that part which is in both sides in the 
bivalves is joined to one side in the turbinated shells : the 
interior is fleshy, and in this the mouth is placed. 

1 Hermit crab. 2 Cancer Diogenes. 


19. The nature of the haemorrhois, the purpura, and all 
such animals is the same. But those which have the left 
foot greater are not found in the shells of the strombus, but 
in the neritse. There are some cochli which contain an ani- 
mal like the small astacus, which is found in rivers ; but 
they differ from them in having the inner part of the shell 
soft. Their form may be seen by examining dissections. 


1. THE echini contain no flesh, but this part is peculiar, for 
they are all of them void of flesh, and are filled with a black 
substance. There are many kinds of echinus, one of which 
is eatable ; in this one the ova are large and eatable, both in 
the greater and the less. 

2. And there are two other kinds, the spatangus and that 
called bryttus ; these are inhabitants of the sea, and rare. 
Those which are called echinometraB 1 are the largest of all. 
Besides this, there is another small species, which has long 
and sharp spines ; this is procured from the sea, in many 
fathoms water, and some persons use it for stranguary. 

3. Around Torona there are white marine echini, which 
have shells, and prickles, and ova, and are longer than others ; 
but the prickle is neither large nor strong, but soft, and the 
black parts from the mouth are more in number, and united 
to the outward passage, but distinct among themselves, and 
by these the animal is as it were divided. The eatable kinds 
are particularly and especially active, and it is a sign of them ; 
for they have always something adhering to their spines. 

4. They all contain ova, but in some they are very small, 
and not eatable : that which is called the head and mouth in 
the echinus is downwards, and the anus placed upwards. 
The same thing occurs in the turbinated shells, and the 
patella; for their food is placed below them, so that the mouth 
is towards the food, and the anus at or on the upper part of 
the shell. 

5. The echinus has five hollow internal teeth, in the midst 
of these a portion of flesh like a tongue ; next to this is the 
oesophagus ; then the stomach, in five divisions, full of faecu- 
lent matter : all its cavities unite in one, near the anus, 
where the shell is perforated. Beneath the stomach, in an- 

1 Echinus esculentus. 


other membrane, are the ova, the same number in all, they 
are five in number, and uneven. 

6. The black substance is joined above to the origin of the 
teeth, this black substance is bitter and not eatable ; in many 
animals there is either this substance or its analogue, for it is 
found in tortoises, toads, frogs, turbinated shells, and in the 
malacia ; these parts differ in colour, but are entirely or nearly 
uneatable. The body of the echinus is undivided from be- 
ginning to end, but the shell is not so when seen through, 
for it is like a lantern, with no skin around it. The echinus 
uses its spines as feet, for it moves along by leaning upon 
them and moving them. 


1. THE creatures called tethya 1 have a most distinct charac- 
ter, for in these alone is the whole body concealed in a 
shell. Their shell is intermediate between skin and shell, 
so that it can be cut like hard leather : this shell-like sub- 
stance is attached to rocks ; in it there are two perforations, 
quite distant from each other, and not easily seen, by which 
it excludes and receives water, for it has no visible excre- 
ment as other testacea, neither like the echinus, nor the 
substance called mecon. 

2. When laid open, there is first of all a sinewy membrane 
lining the shell-like substance, within this the fleshy sub- 
stance of the tethyon; Unlike any other creature, its flesh, 
however, is alike throughout, and it is united in two places 
to the membrane and the skin from the side, and at its 
points of union it is narrower on each side ; by these places 
it reaches to the external perforations which pass through 
the shell ; there it both parts with and receives food and 
moisture, as if one were the mouth, the other the anus, the 
one is thick, the other thinner. 

3. Internally there is a cavity at each end, and a passage 
passes through it ; there is a fluid in both the cavities. Be- 
sides this, it has no sensitive or organic member, nor is there 
any excrementitious matter, as I said before. The colour of 
the tethyon is partly ochreous, partly red. 

4. The class acalephe 2 is peculiar ; it adheres to rocks like 
gome of the testacea, but at times it is washed off. It is not 

1 Ascidian molluske. 2 Actiniae. 


covered with a shell, but its whole body is fleshy ; it is sen- 
sitive, and seizes upon the hand that touches it, and it holds 
fast, like the polypus does with its tentacula, so as to make 
the flesh swell up. It has a central mouth, and lives upon 
the rock, as well as upon shell-fish, and if any small fish falls 
in its way, it lays hold of it as with a hand, and if any eat- 
able thing falls in its way it devours it. 

5. One species is free, and feeds upon anything it meets 
with, even pectens and echini ; it appears to have no visible 
excrement, and in this respect it resembles plants. There 
are two kinds of acalephe, some small and more eatable, 
others large and hard, such as are found near Chalcis. Dur- 
ing winter their flesh is compact, wherefore in this season 
they are caught and eaten ; in summer time they perish, for 
they become soft; if they are touched they soon melt down, 
and cannot by any means be taken away. When suffering 
from heat, they prefer getting under stones. I have now 
treated of malacia, malacostraca, testacea, and of their exter- 
nal and internal parts. 


1. INSECTS must now be treated of in the same manner. 
This is a class which contains many forms, and no common 
name has been given to unite those that are naturally 
related, as the bee, anthrene, 1 and wasp, and such like ; 
again, those which have their wings enclosed in a case, as 
the melolontha, 2 carabus, 3 cantharis, and such like. The 
common parts of all insects are three the head, the abdo- 
men, and the third, which is between these, such as in other 
animals is the breast and back. In many insects this is one, 
but in the long insects with many legs, the middle parts are 
equal to the number of segments. 

2. All insects survive being divided, except those which 
are naturally cold, or soon become so from their small size, 
so that wasps live after they are cut asunder; either the 
head or the abdomen will live if united to the thorax, but 
the head will not live alone. Those which are long, and 
have many feet, will survive division for a considerable time ; 
both the extremities are capable of motion, for they walk 
both upon the part cut off and upon the tail, as that which is 
called scolopendra. All of them have eyes, but no other 
' Wild bee. 2 Chafer. 3 Beetle. 


manifest organs of sense, except that some have a tongue. 
All the testacea have this organ, which serves the double 
purpose of tasting and drawing food into the mouth. 

3. In some of them this organ is soft ; in others very 
strong, as in the purpura ; in the myops and oestrus this 
member is strong, and in a great many more ; for this mem- 
ber is used as a weapon by all those that have no caudal 

4. Those with this weapon have no small external teeth, 
for flies draw blood by touching with this organ, and gnats 
sting with it. Some insects also have stings, which are 
either internal, as in bees and wasps, or external, as in the 
scorpion. This last is the only insect that has a long tail ; 
it has claws, and so has the little scorpion-like creature 1 
found in books. The winged insects, in addition to other 
parts, have wings. Some have two wings, as the flies ; 
others four, as the bees ; none of the diptera have a caudal 
Sting. Some of the winged insects have elytra on their 
wings, as the melolontha ; and others no elytra, as the bee. 
Insects do not direct their flight with their tail, and their 
wings have neither shaft nor division. 

5. Some have a horn before their eyes, as the psych a3 2 and 
carabi. Of the jumping insects, some have their hind-legs 
larger ; others have the organs of jumping bent backwards, 
like the legs of quadrupeds. In all, the upper part is dif- 
ferent from the lower, like other animals. 

6. The flesh of their bodies is neither testaceous nor 
like the internal parts of testacea, but between the two. 
"Wherefore, also, they have neither spine nor bone, as the 
sepia ; nor are they surrounded with a shell. For the body 
is its own protection by its hardness, and requires no other 
support; and they have a very thin skin. This is the 
nature of their external parts. 

7. Internally, immediately after the mouth, there is an 
intestine which in most insects passes straight and simply 
to the anus, in a few it is convoluted ; these have no bones 
nor fat, neither has any other exsanguineous animal. Some 
have a stomach, and from this the remainder of the intes- 
tine is either simple or convoluted, as in the acris. 3 The 

1 Phalangium Cancroides. Linn. Schneider. 

2 Butterfly. 3 Locust. 


tettix (grasshopper) alone of this, or any other class of 
living creatures, has no mouth ; but, like those with a caudal 
sting, it has the appearance of a tongue, long, continuous, 
and undivided, and with this it feeds upon the dew alone. 
There is no excrement in the stomach. There are many 
kinds of these creatures, they differ in being greater or less ; 
those called achetae are divided beneath the diaphragm, and 
have a conspicuous membrane, which the tettigonia has not. 
8. There are many other creatures in the sea which it is 
not possible to arrange in any class from their scarcity. 
"For some experienced fishermen say they have seen in the sea 
creatures like small beams, black and round, and of the same 
thickness throughout ; others like shields, of a red colour, 
with many fins ; others 1 like the human penis in appearance 
and size, but instead of testicles they had two fins, and that 
such have been taken on the extremity of grappling irons. 
This is the nature of the internal and external parts of all 
animals of every kind, both those which are peculiar to cer- 
tain species, and -those which are common to all. 


1. WE must now treat of the Senses : for they are not alike 
in all, but some have all the senses, and some fewer. They 
are mostly five in number ; seeing, hearing, smelling, 
taste, touch, and besides these there are none peculiar to 
any creatures. Man, then, and all viviparous animals with 
feet, besides all sanguineous and viviparous animals, have all 
these, unless they are undeveloped in any particular kind, 
as in the mole. 

2. For this creature has no sight, it has no apparent eyes, 
but when the thick skin which surrounds the head is taken 
away, in the place where the eyes ought to be on the out- 
side, are the undeveloped internal eyes, which have all the 
parts of true eyes, for they have both the iris of the eye, 
and within the iris the part called the pupil, and the 
white ; but all these are less than in true eyes. On the 
outside there is no appearance of these parts, from the 
thickness of the skin, as if the nature of the eye had been 
destroyed at birth ; for there are two sinewy and strong 
passages proceeding from the brain, where it unites with 
1 Perhaps Pennatula, 


the spinal cord, reaching from the socket of the eye, and 
ending upon the upper sharp teeth. 

3. All other animals are endued with the perception of 
colours, sounds, smells, and taste. All animals have the 
fifth sense, which is called touch. In some animals the 
organs of sense are very distinct, and especially the eyes, 
for they have a definite place, and so has the hearing. For 
some animals have ears, and others open perforations : so 
also of the sense of smelling, some animals have nostrils, 
others passages, as the whole class of birds. In the same 
way the tongue is the organ of taste. 

4. In aquatic animals and those called fish, the tongue is 
still the organ of taste, though it is indistinct, for it is 
bony, and not capable of free motion. In some fish the 
roof of the mouth is fleshy, as in some cyprini among river 
fish, so that, without careful examination, it appears like a 
tongue. That they have the sense of taste is quite clear, 
for many of them delight in peculiar food, and they will 
more readily seize upon a bait formed of the amia and other 
fat fishes, as if they delighted in the taste and eating of 
such baits. 

5. They have no evident organ of hearing and smelling, 
for the passages which exist about the region of the nostrils 
in some fish do not appear to pass to the brain, but some of 
them are blind, and others lead to the gills ; it is evident, 
however, that they both hear and smell, for they escape from 
loud noises, such as the oars of the triremes, so as to be 
easily captured in their hiding-places. 

6. For if the external noise is not loud, yet to all aquatic 
animals that are capable of hearing, it appears harsh and very 
loud ; and this takes place in hunting dolphins, for when they 
have enclosed them with their canoes, they make a noise from 
them in the sea, and the dolphins, crowded together, are 
obliged to leap upon the land, and, being stunned with the 
noise, are easily captured, although even dolphins have no 
external organs of hearing. 

7. And again in fishing, the fishermen are careful to 
avoid making a noise with their oars or net when they per- 
ceive many fish collected in one place ; they make a signal, 
and let down their nets in such a place that no sound of the 
oar or the motion of the waters should reach the place 


where the fish are collected, and the sailors are commanded 
to row in the greatest silence until they have enclosed them. 

8. Sometimes, when they wish to drive them together, 
they proceed as in dolphin catching, for they make a noise 
with stones that they may be alarmed and collected together, 
and thus they are enclosed in a net. Before their inclosure, 
as it was said, they prevent a noise, but as soon as they have 
enclosed them, they direct the sailors to shout and make a 
noise, for they fall down with fear when they hear the noise 
and tumult. 

9. And when the fishers observe large shoals at a dis- 
tance, collected on the surface in calm, fine weather, and 
wish to know their size, and of what kind they are, if they 
can approach them in silence, they avoid their notice, and 
catch them while they are on the surface. If any noise is 
made before they reach them, they may be seen in flight. 
In the rivers, also, there are little fish under the stones, 
which some persons call cotti i 1 from their dwelling beneath 
rocks, they catch them by striking the rocks with stones, 
and the fishes fall down frightened when they hear the 
noise, being stunned by it. It is evident, from these con- 
siderations, that fishes have the sense of hearing. 

10. There are persons who say that fish have more acute 
ears than other animals, and that, from dwelling near the 
sea, they have often remarked it. Those fish which have the 
most acute ears are thecestreus 2 (chremps), 3 labrax, 4 salpe, 5 
chromis, 6 and all such fishes ; in others the sense of hearing 
less acute, because they live in the deeper parts of the 

11. Their nature of smelling is the same, for the greater 
number of fishes will not take a bait that is not quite fresh ; 
others are less particular. All fish will not take the same 
bait, but only particular baits, which they distinguish by the 
smell ; for some are taken with stinking baits, as the salpe 
with dung. Many fish also live in the holes of rocks, and 
when the fishermen want to entice them out, they anoint 
the mouths of these holes with salted scents, to which they 
readily come. 

1 Perhaps Cottus gobio L., miller's thumb. Salmo Fario (Stracfy. 

2 Mullet. 3 Unknown. 4 Perca Labrax. 

5 Scomber. 6 Unknown. 


12. The eel also is enticed out in this way, for they place 
a pitcher of salt food, covering the mouth of the pitcher 
with another vessel pierced with holes, and the eels are 
quickly drawn forth by the smell of the bait. Baits made 
of the roasted flesh of the cuttle fish, on account of its 
strong smell, attract fish very readily. They say they put 
the roasted flesh of the polypus upon their hooks for nothing 
but its strong smell. 

13. And the fish called rhyades, 1 when the washings of 
fish or of fetid drains are emptied into the water, make 
their escape as if smelling the foetid odour. They say that 
fish soon smell the blood of their own kind ; this is plain 
from their hastening from any place where the blood of 
fishes may be. On the whole, if any one use a putrid bait, 
the fish will not come near it ; but if a fresh strong-smelling 
bait is used, they will come to it from a great distance. 

14. This is especially observable in what was said of 
dolphins, for these creatures have not external organs of 
hearing, but are captured by being stunned with a noise, as 
was before observed ; neither have they any external organs 
of smell, yet their scent is acute. Therefore, it is evident 
that all creatures have these senses. Other kinds of animals 
are divided into four classes ; and these contain the mul- 
titude of remaining animals, namely, the malacia, malaco- 
straca, testacea, and insects. 

15. Of these the malacia, the malacostraca, and insects have 
all the senses, for they can see, smell, and taste. Insects, whe- 
ther they have wings or are apterus, can smell from a great 
distance, as the bee and the cnips 2 scent honey, for they 
perceive it from a long distance, as if they discovered it by 
the scent. Many of them perish by the fumes of sxilphur : 
ants leave their hills when origanum and sulphur are 
sprinkled upon them. Almost all of them escape from the 
fumes of burnt stags' horns, but most of all do they avoid 
the smell of burnt styrax. 

16. The sepia, also, the polypus, and the carabus are 
caught with baits ; the polypus holds the bait so fast that 
it holds on even when cut : if a person hold cony za to them, 
they let go as soon as they smell it. So, also, of the sense 
of taste, for they follow different kinds of food, and do not 

1 A fish living in shoals. 2 Perhaps some species of ant. 


all prefer the same food, as the bee approaches nothing that 
is putrid, only sweet things ; the gnat not what is sweet, 
but what is acid. 

17. As I before observed, the sense of touch belongs to 
all animals. The testacea have the senses of smelling and 
tasting. This is plain from the baits used, as those for the 
purpurae ; for this creature is caught with putrid substances, 
and will be attracted from a great distance to such baits, 
as if by the sense of smell. It is evident from what follows 
that they possess the sense of taste ; for whatever they 
select by smell, they all love to taste. 

18. And all animals with mouths receive pain or 
pleasure from the contact of food. But, concerning the 
senses of sight and hearing, it is not possible to say anything 
certain, or very distinct ; the solens, if a person touch them, 
appear to retract themselves, and try to escape when they 
see an instrument approaching them, for a small portion of 
them is beyond the shell, the remainder as it were in a retreat ; 
the pectens. also, if a finger is brought near them, open and 
shut themselves as if they could see. 

19. Those who seek for neritae do not approach them with 
the wind, when they seek them for baits, nor do they speak, 
but come silently, as if the creatures could both smell and 
hear ; they say that if they speak, they get away. Of all testacea, 
the echinus appears to have the best sense of smell amongst 
those that can move, and the tethya and balanus in those 
that are fixed. This is the nature of the organs of sense in 
all animals. 


1. THE following is the nature of the voice of animals, 
for there is a distinction between voice and sound. Speech, 
again, is different from these. Voice is due to no other part 
except the pharynx, the creatures, therefore, without 
lungs are also without voice. Speech is the direction of the 
voice by the tongue ; the vowels are uttered by the voice 
and the larynx, the mutes by the tongue and the lips ; speech 
is made up of these : wherefore, no animals can speak that 
have not a tongue, nor if their tongue is confined. 

2. The power of uttering a sound is connected with other 
parts also ; insects have neither voice nor speech, but make 


a sound with the air within them, not with that which is 
external, for some of them breathe not, some of them buzz, 
as the bee with its wings, and others are said to sing, as the 
grasshopper. All these make a noise with the membrane 
which is beneath the division of their body in those which 
have a division, as some families of grasshoppers by the 
friction of the air. These insects, bees, and all other insects 
raise and depress their wings in night, for the sound is the 
friction of the air within them. Locusts produce a sound 
by rubbing themselves with their legs, which are adapted 
for leaping. None of the malacia utter any sound or natural 
voice, nor do the malacostraca. 

3. Fish also are mute, for they have neither lungs, 
trachea, nor pharynx. Some of them utter a sound and a 
squeak; these are said to havea voice, as the lyra 1 and chromi, 2 
for these utter, as it were, a grunt ; so does the capros, a fish 
of the Achelous, the chalceus 3 and coccyx, 4 for the one 
utters a sound like hissing, the other a noise like that of 
the cuckoo, from whence also its name is derived. Some of 
these utter their apparent voice by the friction of their 
gills, for these places are spinous, in others the sound is 
internal, near the stomach. For each of them has an organ 
of breathing, which causes a sound when it is pressed and 
moved about. 

4. Some of the selachea also appear to whistle, but they 
cannot be correctly said to utter a voice, only to make a 
sound. The pectens also make a whizzing noise when they 
are borne upon the surface of the water, or flying, as it is 
called ; and so do the sea-swallows, 5 for they also fly through 
the air in the same way, not touching the sea, for they have 
wide and long fins. As the sound made by birds flying 
through the air is not a voice, so neither can either of these 
be properly so called. The dolphin also utters a whistle 
and lows when it comes out of the water into the air, in a 
different way from the animals above-mentioned for this 
is a true voice, for it has lungs and a trachea, but its tongue 
is not free, nor has it any lips so as to make an articulate 

5. The oviparous quadrupeds, with a- tongue and lungs, 

1 Trigla Lyra. 2 Cottus cataphractus. 3 Zeus faber. 

4 Trigla hiruudo. 3 Flying fish. 


utter a sound, though it is a weak one. Some of them hiss 
like serpents ; others have a small weak voice, others, as tho 
tor.toise, utter a small hiss. The tongue of the frog is pe- 
culiar, for the fore-part of it is fixed, like that of a fish ; but 
the part near the pharynx is free and folded up. "With this it 
utters its peculiar sound. The male frogs make a croaking 
in the, water when they invite the females to coition. 

6. All animals utter a voice to invite the society and proxi- 
mity of their kind, as the hog, the goat, and the sheep. The 
frog croaks by making its lower jaw of equal length, and 
stretching the upper one above the water. Their eyes ap- 
pear like lights, their cheeks being swelled out with the 
vehemence of their croaking ; for their copulation is gene- 
rally performed in the night. The class of birds utter a 
voice: those which have a moderately wide tongue have the 
best voice ; those also in which the tongue is thin. In 
some kinds both male and female have the same voice ; in 
others it is different : the smaller kinds have more variety 
in their voice, and make more use of it, than the larger 

7. All birds become more noisy at the season of coition. 
Some utter a cry when they are fighting, as the quail ; others 
when they are going to fight, as the partridge ; or when they 
have obtained a victory, as the cock. In some kinds both 
male and female sing, as the nightingale ; but the female 
nightingale does not sing while she is sitting or feeding her 
young : in some the males alone, as the quail and the cock ; 
the female has no voice. Viviparous quadrupeds utter dif- 
ferent voices ; none can speak for this is the characteristic 
of man, for all that have a language have a voice, but not 
all that have a voice have also a language. 

8. All that are born dumb, and all children, utter sounds, 
but have no language ; for, as children are not complete in 
their other parts, so their tongue is not perfect at first ; it 
becomes more free afterwards, so that they stammer and 
lisp. Both voices and language differ in different places. 

9. The voice is most conspicuous in its acuteness or depth, 
but the form does not differ in the same species of animals ; 
the mode of articulation differs, and this might be called 
speech, for it differs in different animals, arid in the same 
genera in different places, as among partridges, for in some 


places they cackle, in others whistle. Small birds do not utter 
the same voice as their parents, if they are brought up away 
from them, and have only heard other singing birds. For the 
nightingale has been observed instructing her young, so 
that the voice and speech are not naturally alike, but are 
capable of formation. And men also have all the same voice, 
however much they may differ in language. The elephant 
utters a voice by breathing through its mouth, making no 
use of its nose, as when a man breathes forth a sigh ; but 
with its nose it makes a noise like the hoarse sound of a 


1. CONCERNING the sleep and wakefulness of animals. It is 
quite manifest that all viviparous animals with feet both 
sleep and are awake ; for all that have eyelids sleep with the 
eyes closed ; and not only men appear to dream, but horses, 
oxen, sheep, goats, dogs, and all viviparous quadrupeds. 
Dogs show this by barking in their sleep. It is not clear 
whether oviparous animals dream, but it is quite plain that 
they sleep. 

2. And so it is in aquatic animals, as fish, the malacia, 
the malacostraca, the carabi, and such like creatures. The 
sleep of all these animals is short: it is plain that they do sleep, 
though we can form no conclusion from their eyes, for they 
have no eyelids, but from their not being alarmed ; for if 
fish are not tormented with lice, and what are called psylli, 
they may be captured without alarming them, so that they 
can be even taken with the hand. And if fish remain at 
rest during the night a great multitude of these creatures 
fall upon and devour them. 

3. They are found in such numbers at the bottom of the 
sea as to devour any bait made offish that remains any length 
of time upon the ground ; fishermen frequently draw them 
out hanging like globes around the bait. The following con- 
siderations will serve still more to confirm our suppositions 
that fishes sleep ; for it is often possible to fall upon the 
fish so stealthily as to take by the hand, or even strike them 
during this time ; they are quite quiet, and exhibit no signs 
of motion except with their tails, which they move gently. 
It is evident, also, that they sleep, from their starting if 



anything moves while they are asleep, for they start as if 
they were waked out of sleep. 

4. They are also taken by torchlight while asleep ; those 
who are seeking for thynni surround them while asleep ; it is 
evident that they can be captured from their stillness, and 
the half-open white (of their eyes). They sleep more by 
night than by day, so that they do not move when they are 
struck ; they generally sleep holding by the ground, or the 
sand, or a stone, at the bottom, concealing themselves be- 
neath a rock, or a portion of the shore. The flat fishes 
sleep in the sand; they are recognized by their form 
in the sand, and are taken by striking them with a spear 
with three points. The labrax, chrysophrys, cestreus, 
and such-like fish are often taken with the same kind of 
weapon while asleep in the day time, but if not taken then, 
none of them can be captured with such a spear. 

5. The selache sleep so soundly that they may be taken 
with the hand ; the dolphin, whale, and all that have a blow- 
hole, sleep with this organ above the surface of the sea, so 
that they can breathe, while gently moving their fins, and 
some persons have even heard the dolphin snore. The ma- 
lacia sleep in the same manner as fish, and so do the mala- 
costraca. It is evident from the following considerations 
that insects sleep ; for they evidently remain at rest without 
motion ; this is particularly plain in bees, for they remain 
quiet, and cease to hum during the night. This is also evi- 
dent from those insects with which we are most familiar, 
for they not only remain quiet during the night because 
they cannot see distinctly, for all creatures with hard eyes 
have indistinct vision, but they seem no less quiet when 
the light of a lamp is set before them. 

6. Man sleeps the most of all animals. Infants and 
young children do not dream at all, but dreaming begins in 
most at about four or five years old. There have been men 
and women who have never dreamt at all ; sometimes such 
persons, when they have advanced in age, begin to dream ; 
this has preceded a change in their body, either for death 
or infirmity. This, then, is the manner of sensation, sleep 
and wakefulue&s. 



1. IN some animals the sexes are distinct, in others they are 
not so, these are said to beget and be with young by a like- 
ness to other creatures. There is neither male nor female 
in fixed animals, nor in testacea. In the malacia and 
malacostraca there are male and female individuals, and in 
all animals with feet, whether they have two or four, which 
produce either an animal, an egg, or a worm from coition. 

2. In other kinds the sexes are either single or not single ; 
as in all quadrupeds there is the male and female, in the 
testacea it is not so, for as some vegetables are fertile and 
others barren, so it is in these. Among insects and fishes 
there are some that have no differences of this kind, as the 
eel is neither male nor female, nor is anything produced 
from them. 

3. But those persons who say that some eels appear to 
have creatures like worms, of the size of a hair, attached to 
them, speak without observation, not having seen how they 
really are ; for none of these creatures are viviparous with- 
out being first oviparous, none of them have ever been ob- 
served to contain ova ; those that are viviparous have the 
embryo attached to the uterus, and not to the abdomen, for 
there it would be digested like food. The distinction made 
between the so-called male and female eel that the male has 
a larger and longer head, and that the head of the female 
is smaller, and more rounded, is a generic, and not a sexual 

4. There are some fish called epitragwe, and among fresh- 
water fish the cyprinus and balagrus are of the same nature, 
which never have ova or semen ; those which are firm and 
fat, and have a small intestine, appear to be the best. 
There are creatures, such as the testacea, and plants, which 
beget, and produce young, but have no organ of coition ; 
and so also in fishes the psetus, 1 erythrhinus, 2 and the ehanna. 
All these appear to have ova. 

5. In sanguineous animals with feet that are not ovip^- 
rous, the males are generally larger and longer lived than 

1 Pleuronectes Lingua and Rhombus, 

2 Perca marina, or Spams erithrinus.. 


the females, except the hernionus, but the females of this 
animal are both larger and longer lived : in oviparous and 
viviparous animals, as in fish and insects, the females are 
larger than the males, as the serpent, phalangium, 1 ascala- 
botes, 2 and frog ; in fish likewise, as in most of the small 
gregarious selache, and all that inhabit rocks. 

6. It is evident that female fishes have longer lives than 
males, because females are caught of a greater age than the 
males ; the upper and more forward parts of all animals 
are larger and stronger, and more firmly built in the male ; 
the hinder and lower parts in the female. This is the case 
in the human subject, and all viviparous animals with feet : 
the female is less sinewy, the joints are weaker, and the 
hairs finer, in those with hair ; in those without hair, its 
analogues are of the same nature ; the female has softer 
flesh and weaker knees than the male, the legs are slighter ; 
the feet of females are more graceful, in all that have 
these members. 

7. All females, also, have a smaller and more acute voice 
than the males, but in oxen the females utter a deeper sound 
than the males ; the parts denoting strength, as the teeth, 
tusks, horns, and spurs, and such other parts, are possessed 
by the males, but not by the females, as the roe-deer has 
none, and the hens of some birds with spurs have none ; 
the sow has no tusks : in some animals they exist in both 
sexes, only stronger and longer in the males, as the horns of 
bulls are stronger than those of cows. 

1 Aranea tarantula. 2 Lacerta Gekko. 



CHAPTER I , ' . . , t 

1. AYE have hitherto treated of the .external and internal 
parts of all animals, of their senses, voioo, ancv ;sl,e)p,/.;\viili I 
the distinctions between the males and ' ieicales ; it remains'- 
to treat of their generation, speaking first of those which 
come first in order, for they are many, and have numerous 
varieties, partly dissimilar, and partly like each other. And 
we will pursue the same order in considering them as we 
did before in their division into classes ; we commenced our 
consideration by treating of the parts in man, but now he 
must be treated of last, because he is much more intricate. 

2. We shall begin with the testacea, and after these treat 
of the malacostraca, and the others in the order of their 
succession. These are the malacia and insects, next to 
these fishes, both viviparous and oviparous ; next to them 
birds, and afterwards we must treat of animals with feet, 
whether viviparous or oviparous ; some viviparous creatures 
have four feet, man alone has two feet. The nature of ani- 
mals and vegetables is similar, for some are produced from 
the seed of other plants, and others are of spontaneous 
growth, being derived from some origin of a similar nature. 
Some of them acquire their nourishment from the soil, 
others from different plants, as it was observed when treat- 
ing of plants. 

3. So also some animals are produced from animals of 
a similar form, the origin of others is spontaneous, and 
not from similar forms ; from these and from plants are 
divided those which spring from putrid matter, this is the 
case with many insects ; others originate in the animals 
themselves, and from the excrementitious matter in their 
parts ; those which originate from similar animals, and have 
both the sexes are produced from coition, but of the class of 
fishes there are some neither male nor female, these belong 
to the same class among fishes, but to different genera, and 
some are quite peculiar. In some there are females but no 
males, by these the species is continued as in the hyDenemia 
among birds. 


4. All these among birds are barren, (for nature ia 
able to complete them as far as the formation of an egg,) 
unless persons suppose that there is another method of 
c-oittmunfcatiftg v t&er male influence, concerning which we 
shall speak mere plainly hereafter. In some fish, after the 
spontaneous production, of the ovum, it happens that living 
ereatnfes a*ie : produQecl, some by themselves, others by the 
aid of the male. The manner in which this is done will be 
made plain in a future place, for nearly the same things take 
place in the class of birds. 

5. Whatever are produced spontaneously in living crea- 
tures, in the earth, or in plants, or in any part of them, 
have a distinction in the sexes, and by the union of the 
sexes something is produced, not the same in any respect, 
but an imperfect animal, as nits are produced from lice, 
and from flies and butterflies are produced egg - like 
worms, from which neither similar creatures are produced, 
nor any other creature, but such things only. Eirst of 
all, then, we will treat of coition, and of the animals that 
copulate, and then of others, and successively of that which 
is peculiar to each, and that which is common to them all. 


1. THOSE animals in which there is a distinction of the 
sexes use sexual intercourse, but the mode of this intercourse 
is not the same in all, for all the males of sanguineous 
animals with feet have an appropriate organ, but they do 
not all approach the female in the same manner, but those 
which are retromingent, as the lion, the hare, and the lynx, 
unite backwards, and the female hare often mounts upon 
the male; in almost all the rest the mode is the same, for 
most animals perform the act of intercourse in the same way, 
the male mounting upon the female ; and birds perform 
it in this way only. 

2. There are, however, some variations even among birds; 
for the male sometimes unites with the female as she sits 
upon the ground, as the bustard and domestic fowl : in 
others, the female does not sit upon the ground, as the 
crane ; for in these birds the male unites with the female 
standing up ; and the act is performed very quickly, as in 
sparrows. Bears lie down during the act of intercourse, 


which is performed in the same manner as in those that 
stand oil their feet, the abdomen of the male being placed 
upon the back of the female : in the hedgehogs, the abdo- 
mens of both sexes are in contact. 

3. Among the large animals, the roe-deer seldom admits 
the stag, nor the cow the bull, on account of the hardness 
of the penis ; but the female receives the male by sub- 
mission. This has been observed to take place in tame 
deer. The male and female wolf copulate like dogs. Gats 
do not approach each other backwards, but the male stands 
erect, and the female places herself beneath him. The fe- 
males are very lascivious, and invite the male, and make a 
noise during the intercourse. 

4. Camels copulate as the female is lying down, and the 
male embraces and unites with her, not backwards, but like 
other animals. They remain in intercourse a whole day. 
They retire into a desert place, and suffer no one to ap- 
proach them but their feeder. The penis of the camel is so 
strong, that bowstrings are made of it. Elephants also 
retire into desert places for intercourse, especially by the 
sides of rivers which they usually frequent. The female 
bends down and divides her legs, and the male mounts upon 
her. The seal copulates like retromingent animals, and is a 
long while about it, like dogs. The males have a large penis. 


1. OVIPAROUS quarupeds with feet copulate in the same 
manner : in some, the male mounts upon the female, like 
viviparous animals, as in the marine and land turtle, for 
they have an intromittent organ by which they adhere toge- 
ther, as the trygon and frog, and all such animals. 

2. But the apodous long animals, as serpents and mu- 
ra3nse, are folded together, with the abdomens opposite, and 
serpents roll themselves together so closely, that they seem 
to be but one serpent with two heads. The manner of the 
whole race of saurians is the same, for they unite together 
in the same kind of fold. 


1. ALL fish, except the flat selache, perform the act of 
intercourse by approaching each other with their abdomens 


opposite : but the flat fish, with tails, as the batos, trygon, 
and such like, not only approach each other, but the male 
applies his abdomen to the back of the female, in all those 
in which the thickness of the tail offers no impediment. 
But the rhinse, and those which have a large tail, perform 
the act by the friction of their abdomens against each other, 
and some persons say that they have seen the male selache 
united to the back of the female, like dogs. 

2. In all those that resemble the selache, the female is 
larger than the male; and in nearly all fish the female is 
larger than the male. The selache are those which have 
been mentioned; and the bos, lamia, seetus, narce, batra- 
chus, and all the galeode. All the selache have been fre- 
quently observed to conduct themselves in this way. In all 
viviparous creatures the act occupies a longer time than in 
the oviparous. The dolphin and the cetacea also perform 
the act in the same manner, for the male attaches himself to 
the female for neither a very long, nor a very short time. 

3. The males of some of the fish which resemble the 
selache differ from the females, in having two appendages 
near the anus, which the females have not, as in the gale- 
odea ; for these appendages exist in them all. Neither fish 
nor any other apodal animal has testicles, but the males, 
both of serpents and of fish, have two passages, which be- 
come full of a seminal fluid at the season of coition ; and all 
of them project a milky fluid. These passages unite in one, 
as they do in birds ; for birds have two internal testes, and 
so have all oviparous animals with feet. In the act of 
coition this single passage passes to, and is extended upon 
the pudendum and receptacle of the female. 

4. In viviparous animals with feet, the external passage 
for the semen and the fluid excrement is the same : inter- 
nally these passages are distinct, as I said before in descri- 
bing the distinctive parts of animals. In animals which 
have no bladder, the anus is externally united with the 
passage of the semen, internally the passages are close 
together ; and this is the same in both sexes : for none of 
of them have a bladder, except the tortoise. The female of 
this animal, though furnished with a bladder, has but one 
passage ; but the tortoise is oviparous. 

5. The sexual intercourse/ of the oviparous fish is less evident, 


wherefore many persons suppose that the female is impreg- 
nated by swallowing the semen of the male ; and they have 
been frequently observed to do this. This is seen at the 
season of coition, when the females follow the males, and are 
observed to strike them on the abdomen with their mouths, 
this causes the males to eject their semen more rapidly. 
The males do the same with the ova of the females, for they 
swallow them as they are extruded, and the fish are born 
from those ova which remain. 

6. In Phoenicia they use each sex for capturing the other ; 
for having taken the male cestreus, they entice the females 
with it, and so enclose them in a net. They use the females 
in the same way for catching the males. The frequent obser- 
vation of these circumstances appears to corroborate this 
manner of intercourse among them. Quadrupeds also do 
the same thing, for at the season of coition both sexes emit 
a fluid, and smell to each other's pudenda. 

7. And if the wind blows from the cock partridge to 
the hen, these last are impregnated ; and often, if they hear 
the voice of the cock when they are inclined for sexual 
intercourse, or if he flies over them, they become pregnant 
from the breath of the cock. During the act of intercourse, 
both sexes open their mouths, and protrude their tongues. 
The true intercourse of oviparous fish is rarely observed, 
from the rapidity with which the act is accomplished ; for 
their intercourse has been observed to take place in the 
manner described. 


1. ALL the malacia, as the polypus, sepia, and teuthis, 
approach each other in the same manner, for they are united 
mouth to mouth ; the tentacula of one sex being adapted to 
those of the other ; for when the polypus has fixed the part 
called the head upon the ground, it extends its tentacula, 
which the other adapts to the expansion of its tentacula, 
and they make their acetabula answer together. And some 
persons say that the male has an organ like a penis in that 
one of its tentacula which contains the two largest aceta- 
bula. This organ is sinewy, as far as the middle of the ten- 
taculum, and they say that it is all inserted into the nostril 
of the female. 


2. The sepia and loligo swim about coiled together in this 
way, and with their mouths and tentacula united, they swim 
in contrary directions to each other. They adapt the organ 
called the nostril of the male to the similar organ in the 
female ; and the one swims forwards, and the other back- 
wards. The ova of the female are produced in the part 
called the physeter, by means of which some persons say 
that they copulate. 


1. THE malacostraca, as the carabi, astaci, carides, and sucli 
like perform the act of intercourse like the retromingeut 
animals, the one lying upon its back, and the other placing 
its tail upon it. They copulate on the approach of spring, 
near the land ; for their sexual intercourse has often been 
observed, and sometimes when the figs begin to ripen. 

2. The astaci and the carides perform the act in the same 
manner ; but the carcini approximate the fore part of their 
bodies to each other, and adapt also the folds of their tails to 
each other. First of all, the smaller carcinus mounts from 
behind, and when he has mounted, the greater one turns 
ou its side. In no other respect does the female differ 
from the male, but that the tail, which is folded on the 
body, is larger and more distant, and more thick set with 
appendages : upon this the ova are deposited, and the excre- 
ment ejected. Neither sex is furnished with an intromittent 


1. INSECTS approach each other from behind, and the 
smaller one subsequently mounts upon the larger. The 
male is always the smaller. The female, which is below, 
inserts a member into the male, which is above, and not the 
male into the female, as in other animals. In some kinds 
this organ appears large in proportion to the size of the 
body, especially in those that are small, in others it is less. 
The organ may be plainly discerned if two flies are sepa- 
rated while in the act of coition. They are separated from 
each other with difficulty, for the act of intercourse in such 
animals occupies a long time. This may be plainly discerned 
by common observation, as in the fly and cantharis. 

2. All adopt the same method, the fly, cantharis, spon- 


dyla 1 , phalangium, or any other insect that copulates. All 
the phalangia that spin a web unite in the following manner. 
The female draws a filament from the middle of the web, and 
then the male draws it back again, and this they do a great 
many times till they meet, and are united backwards, for 
this kind of copulation suits them on account of the size 
of their abdomen. The copulation of animals is accom- 
plished in this manner. 


1. ALL animals have their proper season and age for coition ; 
the nature of most creatures requires them to have inter- 
course with each other when winter is turning into summer. 
This is the spring season, in which all animals with wings, 
feet, or fins, are incited to coition. Some copulate and pro- 
duce their young in the autumn and winter, as some aquatic 
and winged creatures. Mankind are ready at all seasons, 
and so are many other animals which associate with man ; 
this arises from greater warmth, and better food, and is 
usual among those which are pregnant only for a short time, 
as the hog, dog, and those birds which have frequent 
broods. Many animals appear to adapt the season of coi- 
tion to that which they consider the best for the nurture of 
their young. 

2. Among mankind the male is more disposed for sexual 
intercourse in the winter, and the female in the summer. 
Birds, as I have observed, generally pair 'in the spring aud 
summer, except the halcyon. This bird hatches its young 
about the time of the winter solstice. "Whereupon fine days 
occurring at this season are called halcyon days, seven before 
the solstice and seven after it. As Simonides also writes 
in his poems, " as when in the winter months Jupiter pre- 
pares fourteen days, which mortals call the windless season, 
the sacred nurse of the variegated halcyon." 

3. These fine days take place wherever it happens that 
the solstice turns to the south, when the pleiades set in the 
north. The bird is said to occupy seven days in building 
its nest, and the other seven in bringing out and nursing 
its young. The halcyon days are not always met with in this 

1 A beetle living at the roots of trees, Carabus. 


country at the time of the solstice, but they always occur in 
the Sicilian Sea. The halcyon produces five eggs. 

4. The sethuia and the larus hatch their young among the 
rocks on the sea-side, and produce two or three, the larus 
during the summer, and the sethuia at the beginning of the 
spring, immediately after the equinox ; it sets upon its eggs 
like other birds ; neither of these kinds conceal themselves. 
The halcyon is the rarest of all, for it is only seen at the 
season of the setting of the pleiades, and at the solstice, and 
it first appears at seaports, flying as much as round a ship, 
and immediately vanishing away. Stesichorus also speaks 
of it in the same manner. 

5. The nightingale produces her young at the beginning 
of summer. She produces five or six eggs. She conceals 
herself from the autumn to the beginning of spring. Insects 
copulate and produce their young during the winter when- 
ever the days are fine, and the wind in the south, at least 
such of them as do not conceal themselves, as the fly and 
ant. Wild animals produce their young once a year, unless, 
like the hare, they breed while they are nursing their young. 


1. PISH also generally breed once a year, as the chyti. All 
those which are caught in a net are called chyti ; the thyn- 
nus, palamis, cestreus, chalais, colias, ahromis, psetta, and 
such like, the labrax is an exception, for this alone of them 
all breeds twice a year, and the second fry of these are much 
weaker. The trichias 1 and rock fish breed twice, the trigla is 
the only one that breeds three times a year. This is shewn 
by the fry, which appear three times at certain places. 

2. The scorpius breeds twice, and so does the sargus, in 
spring and autumn, the salpa once only in the spring. The 
thynnis breeds once, but as some of the fry are produced 
at first, and others afterwards, it appears to breed twice. 
The first fry makes its appearance in the month of Decem- 
ber, after the solstice, the second in the spring. The male 
thynnis is different from the female, for the female has a fin 
under the abdomen, called aphareus, which the male has not. 

3. Among the selachea, the rhine alone breeds twice in 
the year ; at the beginning of the autumn, and at the period 

1 Clupea Sprottus. 


of the setting of the Pleiades. The young are, however, better 
in the autumn. At each breeding season it produces seven or 
eight. Some of the galei, as the asterias, seem to produce 
their ova twice every month. This arises from all the ova 
not being perfected at once. 

4. Some fish produce ova at all seasons of the year, as the 
muraena: for this fish produces many ova, and the fry 
rapidly increase in size, as do those also of the hippurus, 1 for 
these, from being very small, rapidly increase to a great 
size ; but the muraena produces young at all seasons, the 
hippurus in the spring. The smyrus differs from the mu- 
rsena, for the mura3na is throughout variegated and weak. 
The smyrus is of one colour, and strong ; its colour is that 
of the pine tree, and it has teeth both internally and ex- 
ternally. They say that these are the male and the female, 
as in others. These creatures go upon the land, and are 
often taken. 

5. The growth of all fish is rapid, and not the least so in 
the coracinus among small fish. It breeds near the land, 
in thick places full of seaweed. The orphos also grows 
rapidly. The pelamis and thynnus breed in Pontus, and 
nowhere else. The cestreus, chrysophrys, and labrax, breed 
near the mouths of rivers. The orcynes and scorpides, and 
many other kinds,, in the sea. 

6. Most fish breed in March, April, and May ; a few 
in the autumn, as the salpe, sargus, and all the others of 
this kind a little before the autumnal equinox; and the 
narce and rhine also. Some breed in the winter and summer, 
as I before observed, as the labrax, cestreus, and belona in 
the winter ; the thynnis in June, about the summer sol- 
stice : it produces, as it were, a bag, containing many 
minute ova. The rhyas also breeds in the summer. The 
chelones among the cestraei begin to breed in the month of 
December, and so does the sargus, the myxon, as it is 
called, and the cephalus. They go with young thirty 
days. Some of the cestrei do not originate in coition, but 
are produced from mud and sand. 

7. The greater number of them contain ova in the 
spring, but some, as I observed, in the summer, autumn, 
and winter. But this does not take place in all alike, 

1 Coryphee na hippurus. 


nor singly, nor in every kind, as it does in most fish 
which produce their young in the spring: nor do they 
produce as many ova at other seasons. But it must 
not escape our notice, that as different countries make a 
great difference in plants and animals, not only in the habit 
of their body, but also in the frequency of their sexual in- 
tercourse and production of young; so different localities 
make a great difference in fish, not only in their size, and 
habit of their body, but in their young, and the frequency 
or rarity of their sexual intercourse, and of their offspring 
in this place or that. 


1. THE malacia breed in the spring, and first of all the marine 
sepia, though this one breeds at all seasons. It produces 
its ova in fifteen days. When the ova are extruded, the 
male follows, and ejects his ink upon them, when they be- 
come hard. They go about in pairs. The male is more 
variegated than the female, and blacker on the back. The 
sexes of the polypus unite in the winter, the young are pro- 
duced in the spring, when these creatures conceal themselves 
for two months. It produces an ovum like long hair, similar 
to the fruit of the white poplar. The fecundity of this animal 
is very great, for a great number of young are produced 
from its ova. The male differs from the female in having a 
longer head, and the part of the tentaculum which the fish- 
ermen call the penis is white. It incubates upon the ova 
it produces, so that it becomes out of condition, and is not 
sought after at this season. 

2. The purpurae produce their ova in the spring, the 
ceryx at the end of the winter; and, on the whole, the 
testacea appear to contain ova in the spring and autumn, 
except the eatable echini. These principally produce their 
young at the same seasons, but they always contain some 
ova, and especially at the full and new moon, and in fine 
weather, but those which live in the Euripus of the Pyrrh&i 
are better in winter. They are a small kind but full of ova. 
All the cochleae appear to contain ova at the same season. 


1. THE undomesticated birds, as it was observed, generally 
pair and breed once a-year. The swallows and eottyphuii 


breed twice, but the first brood of the cottyphus is killed 
by the cold, for it is the earliest breeder of all birds. It 
is able, however, to bring up the other brood. But the 
domestic birds, and those capable of domestication, breed 
frequently, as pigeons during the whole summer, and do- 
mestic fowls. For these birds have sexual intercourse, and 
produce eggs all the year round, except at the winter 

2. There are many kinds of pigeons, for the peleias and 
peristera are different. The peleias is the smaller, but 
the peristera is more readily tamed. The peleias is black 
and small, and has red and rough feet, for which reason 
it is never domesticated. The phatta is the largest of 
the tribe, the next is the cenas, which is a little larger than 
the peristera, the trygon is the least of all. If the peristera 
is supplied with a warm place and appropriate food, it will 
breed and bring up its young at any season of the year. If 
it is not properly supplied, it will only breed in the summer. 
Its young ones are best during the spring and autumn, 
those produced in the hot weather in summer are the worst. 


1. ANIMALS also differ in the age at which sexual inter- 
course commences. For in the first place the period at 
which the spermatic fluid begins to be secreted, and the age 
of puberty is not the same, but different j for the young of 
all animals are barren, or if they do possess the power of 
reproduction, their offspring are weak and small. This is 
very conspicuous in mankind, and in viviparous quadrupeds 
and birds, for in the one the offspring, in the other the 
eggs, are small. The age of puberty is nearly the same in 
the individuals of each kind, unless any alteration takes 
place, either as ominous, or from an injury done to their 

2. In men this period of life is shown by the change of 
voice, and not only by the size but by the form of the 
pudendum and of the breasts in women, but especially by 
the growth of hair on the pubes. The secretion of the 
spermatic fluid commences about the age of fourteen, the 
power of reproduction at twenty-one. Other animals have 
no hair on the pubes, for some have no hair at all, and 


others have none upon their under side, or less than on 
their upper side, but the change of the voice is conspicuous 
in some of them. And in others different parts of the body 
signify the period of the formation of the semen, and of the 
power of reproduction. 

3. In almost all animals the voice of the female and of 
the young is more acute than that of the male and the older 
animals, for even the stags have a deeper voice than their 
females. The males utter their cry at the season of copula- 
tion, the females when they are alarmed. The voice of the 
female is short, that of the male longer. And the barking ot 
old dogs is also deeper than of young ones, and the voice of 
the horse also varies. The females utter a little small cry 
as soon as they are born, and the males do the same, but 
their voice is deeper than that of the female, and as they 
grtfvv older, it still increases. When they are two years 
old, and reach puberty, the male utters a great deep voice, 
that of the female is greater and clearer than it was at first ; 
this continues till they are twenty years old at the outside, 
and after that the voice, both of the male and female, be- 
comes weaker. 

4. For the most part, then, as we observed, the voice of 
the male differs from that of the female in depth, in those 
animals which utter a lengthened sound. There are, how- 
ever, some exceptions, as oxen; for in these animals the 
voice of the female is deeper than that of the male, and the 
voice of the calf than that of the full-grown animal ; where- 
fore also in the castrated animals, the voice changes the 
other way, for it becomes more like that of the female. 

5. The following are the ages at which animals acquire 
the power of reproduction. The sheep and goat arrive at 
puberty within a year after they are born, and especially 
the goat, and the males as well as the females, but the off- 
spring of these males and of the others is different. 
Eor the males are better the second year than when they 
become older. In hogs, the male and female unite at eight 
months old, and the female produces her young when she is 
a year old, for this agrees with the period of gestation. 
The male reaches puberty at eight months old, but his off- 
spring are useless till he is a year old. But these periods, 
as we have said, are not always the same, for swine will 


sometimes copulate when they are four months old, so as to 
have young and nurse them at six months old, and boars 
sometimes reach puberty at ten months old, and continue 
good to three years old. 

6. The bitch reaches puberty within a year after birth, 
and so does the dog, and sometimes this takes place at 
the end of eight months, but more frequently in the 
male than in the female. The period of gestation is 
sixty days, or one or two, or perhaps three days more, but 
never less than sixty days, or if they produce young in a 
less time, it never comes to perfection. The bitch is ready 
for sexual intercourse again in six months, but never sooner. 
The horse reaches puberty in both sexes at two years old, 
and is capable of reproduction, but its offspring at that age 
are small and weakly. For the most part, sexual inter- 
course begins at three years of age, and the colts continue to 
improve from that period till they are twenty years old. 
The male is useful till he is thirty years old, so that he can 
beget during almost the whole of his life, for the horse 
generally lives five-and-thirty years, and the mare more than 
forty, and a horse has been known to live seventy-five years. 

7. The ass reaches puberty in both sexes at the age of 
thirty months ; they rarely, however, produce young till 
they are three years, or three years and six months old. 
But it has been known to be pregnant and bring up its 
young within the year. The cow a] so has been known to 
produce young and rear it within the year after birth, which 
grew to the ordinary size, and no more. 1 

8. These are the periods of puberty in these animals. 
The seventieth year in man, and the fiftieth in woman, 
is the latest period of reproduction, and this happens 
rarely, for only a few have had children at this time of life. 
Sixty-five is generally the boundary in one sex, and forty- 
five in the other. The sheep produces young till it is eight 
years old, and, if well treated, until it is eleven, though the 
act of copulation is continued in both sexes during the 
whole period of life. 

9. Pat goats are rarely productive, wherefore they com- 
pare barren vines with barren goats, but they are pro- 

1 This probably means " to such a size as might be expected from 
the early age of the parent." 


ductive when they are lean. The rams copulate with the 
old sheep first, but they do not follow after the younger; 
and the younger, as I before observed, produce a smaller 
offspring than the older. 

10. A wild boar will beget till he is three years old, 
but the progeny of older animals is inferior ; for he has 
not the same power or strength. He generally goes to the 
female when full of food, and without having been to 
another female, or, if not, the act of coition is of shorter 
duration, and the progeny smaller. The sow produces the 
smallest number of pigs at her first litter, but at the second 
they are more flourishing. She also produces young when 
old, but the act of coition is longer. At fifteen years old, 
she no longer produces young, but becomes fierce . 

11. If well-fed, she will be more ready for sexual in- 
tercourse, whether young or old ; and, if rapidly fattened 
when pregnant, she has less milk after parturition. As 
regards the age of the parent, the young of those in the 
prime of their age are the best, and those that are born at 
the beginning of winter. The worst are those born in the 
summer, for they are small, and thin, and weak. If the 
male is well fed, he is ready for sexual intercourse at all 
seasons, by day as well as by night ; but if not well fed, he 
is most ready in the morning, and as he grows old, he be- 
comes less disposed for it, as was said before. And it fre- 
quently happens that those which are impotent, through 
age or weakness, and cannot copulate readily, will approach 
the female as she lies down tired with long standing. The 
sow generally becomes pregnant when she hangs down 
her ears in her heats ; if she is not pregnant, she becomes 
heated again. 

12. Bitches do not copulate during the whole of their 
life, but only to a certain period. Their coition and preg- 
nancy generally takes place till they are twelve years old, 
but both males and females have been known to perform 
the act of coition at eighteen and even twenty years of 
age ; but old age takes away from both sexes the power of 
reproduction, as in other animals. 

13. The camel is retroningent, and performs the act of 
intercourse in the manner already described ; the period of 
its coition in Arabia is in the month of September; tl 


female goes with young twelve months, and produces one 
foal, for the animal is one of those which produce but 
one. Both the male and female arrive at puberty at the 
age of three years, and the female is ready for the male 
again at the end of a year after parturition. 

14. The elephant arrives at puberty, the earliest at ten 
years of age, the latest at fifteen, and the male at five or six 
years old. The season for the intercourse of the sexes is 
in the spring : and the male is ready again at the end of 
three years, but he never touches again a female whom he 
has once impregnated. Her period of gestation is two years, 
and then she produces one calf, for the elephant belongs to 
the class of animals which have but one young one at a 
time. The young one is as large as a calf of two or three 
months old. This, then, is the nature of the sexual inter- 
course of those animals which perform this function. 


1. WE must now treat of the mode of reproduction, both of 
those animals which use sexual intercourse, and those which 
do not ; and, first of all, we will speak of the testacea, for 
this is the only entire class which is not reproduced by 
sexual intercourse. The pur purse collect together in the 
spring, and produce what is called their nidamental capsules 
(melicera), for it is like honey-comb, though not so deeply 
cut, but, as it were, made up of the white pods of vetches. 
These capsules have neither opening nor perforation, nor are 
the purpurae produced from them ; but both these and other 
testacea are produced from mud and putrefaction. But 
this substance is an excrementitious matter both in the pur- 
pura and the ceryx, for these last also produce similar cap- 

2. The testacea which produce these capsules are gene- 
rated in the same way as the rest of their class, but more 
readily when there are homogeneous particles pre-existing 
among them ; for, when they deposit their nidamental cap- 
sules, they emit a clammy mucus, from which the scales of 
the capsules are formed. When all these have been depo- 
sited, they emit upon the ground a sort of chyle, and small 
purpurae spring up upon the same spot and adhere to the 
larger purpurae, though some of these can hardly be dis- 

i 2 


tinguished by their form. But if they are taken before 
the breeding season, they will sometimes breed in the 
baskets, not indeed anywhere, but they collect together 
like they do in the sea, and the narrow limits of their place 
of captivity make them hang together like bunches of fruit. 

3. There are many kinds of purpurae, some of which are 
large, a* those which are found near Sigeum and Lectum ; 
and others are small, as those in the Euripus and on the 
Carian coast. Those found in gulfs are large and rough. 
Most of them contain a black pigment ; in others it is red, 
and the quantity of it small. Some of the largest weigh 
as much as a mina. Near the shore and on the coast they 
are small, and the pigment is red. Those which are natives 
of the north contain a black pigment ; in those of the south 
it is red, generally speaking. 

4. They are taken in the spring, about the time that they 
deposit their capsules, but they are never taken during the 
dog-days, for then they do not feed, but conceal themselves 
and get out of the way. The pigment is contained between 
the mecon and the neck. The union of these parts is thick, 
and the colour is like a white membrane; this is taken 
away. When this is bruised, the pigment wets and stains 
the hand. Something resembling a vein passes through it, 
and this appears to be the pigment ; the nature of the rest 
resembles alum. 1 The pigment is the worst at the period of 
depositing their nidamental capsules. 

5. The small ones are pounded up, shells and all, for 
it is not easy to separate them ; but they separate the 
larger kinds from the shells, and then extract the pig- 
ment. For this purpose the mecon is divided from 
the neck, for the pigment lies above the part called the 
stomach, and when this is taken away, they are divided 
asunder. They are careful to bruise them while alive, for 
if they die before they are cut up, they vomit up the pig- 
ment ; for this reason they keep them in the baskets till 
a sufficient number is collected, and there is time to procure 
the pigment. 

6. The ancients did not let down or fasten any basket-net 
to their baits, so that it often happened that the purpura 
fell off as they were drawn up ; but at the present time the; 

1 Evidently a corrupt reading. 


use basket-nets, in order that if the purpura should fall off, 
it may not be lost. They are most likely to fall off when 
full, but when empty it is difficult to draw them from 
the bait. These are the peculiarities of the purpura. The 
nature of the ceryx is the same as that of the purpura, and 
so are their seasons. 

7. They both have opercula, and so have all turbinated 
shell-fish, from the period of their birth. They feed by forc- 
ing out their tongue, as it is called, beneath the operculum : 
the purpura has a tongue larger than a finger, with which it 
feeds upon and pierces the conchy lia, and even the shells of 
its own species. Both the purpura and the ceryx are long^ 
lived, for the purpura lives six years, and its annual increase 
is seen in the divisions on the helix of its shell. 

8. The mya also deposits nidamental capsules ; those 
which are called limnostrea are the first to originate in 
muddy places, but the conchae, chemae, solens, and pectens 
find their subsistence in sandy shores ; the pinnae grow up 
from their byssus both in sandy and muddy shores. The 
pinnae always contain a pinnophylax, either like a small caris 
or cancer, and soon die when this is extracted. On the whole, 
all the testaceaare produced spontaneously in mud, different 
kinds originating in different sorts of mud ; the ostrea is 
found in mud, the conchae and others that have been men- 
tioned in sand. The tethya, balanus, and others which live 
on the surface, as the patella and nerita, originate in holes 
in the rocks. All these reach maturity very soon, espe- 
cially the purpurse and pectens, for they are matured in one 

9. Very small white cancri are produced in some of the 
testacea, especially in the myae that inhabit muddy places, 
and next to this in the pinnae those which are called pinno- 
terae ; they occur also in the pectens and limnostrea. These 
animals apparently never grow ; and the fishermen say that 
they are produced at the same time as the creatures they 
inhabit. The pectens disappear for some time in the sand, 
and so do the purpurse. The ostrea (bivalves) are produced 
in the manner described, for some of them originate in 
shallow water, others near the shore, or among rocks, or in 
rough hard places, or in sand ; and some have the power 
of locomotion, others have not. 


10. AmoDg those that are not locomotive, the pinnae are 
fixed ; the solens and conchas remain on one spot, though 
not fixed, and do not survive separation from their home. 
The nature of the aster 1 is so hot, that if it is captured 
immediately after swallowing anything, its food is found 
digested ; and they say that it is very troublesome in the 
PyrrhaBan Euripus. Its form is like the paintings of a 
star. The creatures called pneumones are spontaneously 
produced. The shell which painters use is very thick, and 
the pigment is produced on the outside of the shell ; they 
are principally found in the neighbourhood of Caria. 

11. The carcinium also originates in earth and mud, and 
afterwards makes its way into an empty shell, and when it 
grows too large for that, it leaves it for a larger one, as the 
shell of the nerita, strombus, and such like ; it frequently 
occurs in the small ceryx. When it has entered the shell, 
it carries it about and lives in it, except that as it grows it 
migrates into a larger shell. 


1. THE nature of the testacea is the same as that of crea- 
tures without shells, as the cnidae 2 and sponges, which inha- 
bit the holes in rocks. There are two kinds of cnidse, some 
which live in holes in the rocks, and cannot be separated 
from them, and other migrating species which live upon the 
smooth flat surface of the rocks. (The patella also is free 
and locomotive.) In the interior of the sponges are found 
the creatures called pinnophy laces, and the interior is closed 
with a net like a spider's web, and small fish are captured 
by opening and closing this web, for it opens as they ap- 
proach, and closes upon them when they have entered. 

2. There are three kinds of sponges ; one of them is thin, 
the other is thick, and the third, which is called the 
Achillean sponge, is slender, compact, and very strong ; it 
is placed beneath helmets and thigh-pieces, for the sake of 
deadening the sound of blows ; this kind is very rare. Among 
the compact kinds, those which are very hard and rough are 
called tragi. They all grow upon the rock or near the 
shore, and obtain their food from the mud. This is evident, 
for they are full of mud when they are captured. This is 
1 Star-Ssli. 2 Actinia. 


the case with all other fixed things, that they derive their 
food from the spot to which they are attached. 

3. The compact species are weaker than those which are 
thin, because their point of attachment is smaller. It is 
affirmed that the sponge possesses sensation; this is 
a proof of it, that it contracts if it perceives any pur- 
pose of tearing it up, and renders the task more difficult. 
The sponge does the same thing when the winds and waves 
are violent, that it may not lose its point of attachment. 
There are some persons who dispute this, as the natives of 
Torona. The sponge is inhabited by worms and other living 
creatures, which the rock-fish eat when the sponge is torn 
up, as well as the remainder of its roots. But if the sponge 
is broken off, it grows again, and is completed from the por- 
tion that is left. 

4. The thin sponges are the largest, and they are most 
abundant on the Lycian coast ; the compact sponges 
are softer, and the Achillean are more harsh than the 
others. On the whole, those that inhabit deep places with 
a mild temperature are the softest, for wind and cold 
weather harden them, as they do other growing things, and 
stop their increase. For this reason the sponges of the 
Hellespont are tough and compact ; and, altogether, those 
beyond Malea, and those on this side, differ in softness and 

5. Neither should the heat be very great, for the sponge be- 
comes rotten, like plants, wherefore those near the shore are 
the best, especially if the water is deep near the land, for the 
temperature is moderated by the depth. "When alive, before 
they are washed, they are black. Their point of attach- 
ment is neither single nor dispersed over the whole surface, 
for there are empty passages between the points of attach- 
ment. Something like a membrane is extended over their 
lower part, and the attachment is by several points ; on the 
upper part are other closed passages, and four or five which 
are apparent. Wherefore some persons say that these are 
the organs by which they take their food. 

6. There is also another species called aplysia, because it 
cannot be washed. This has very large passages ; but the 
other parts of the substance are quite compact. When cut 
open it is more compact and smooth than the sponge, and 


the whole is like a lung ; of all the sponges this one is con- 
fessed to have the most sensation, and to be the most 
enduring. They are plainly seen in the sea near the sponges, 
for the other sponges are white as the mud settles down 
upon them, but these are always black. This is the mode 
of production in sponges and testacea. 


1. AMONG the malacostraca the carabi are impregnated by 
sexual intercourse, and contain their ova during three 
months, May, June, and July. They afterwards deposit 
them upon the hollow part of their folded tail, and their 
ova grow like worms. The same thing takes place in the 
malacia and oviparous fish, for their ova always grow. 

2. The ova of the carabi are sandy, and divided into 
eight parts ; for a cartilaginous appendage, round which the 
ova are attached, is united to each of the opercula at their 
junction with the side ; and the whole resembles a bunch of 
grapes, for every one of the cartilaginous appendages is fre- 
quently subdivided, and the divisions are apparent to any 
one who will separate them, but when first seen they 
appear to be united. Those ova which are in the centre 
are larger than those which are contiguous to the perforation, 
and the last are the least. 

3. The smallest ova are as large as millet ; the ova are 
not continuous with the perforation, but in the middle. 
For two divisions extend on each side, from the tail 
and from the thorax, and this is also the line of junction for 
the opercula. The ova, which are placed at the side, cannot 
be enclosed, unless the extremity of the tail is drawn over 
them ; this, however, covers them like a lid. 

4. The female, in depositing her ova, appears to collect 
them on the cartilaginous appendages by means of 
the broad part of the folded tail. She produces them 
by pressing with her tail and bending her body. These 
cartilaginous processes at the season of oviposition in- 
crease in size, in order to become appropriate recep- 
tacles for the ova. The ova are deposited on these pro- 
cesses, as those of the sepia are deposited upon broken 
pieces of wood or anything floating in the sea. This is the 


manner of depositing them ; but after they have been 
ripened twenty days, they are cast oft' altogether in a mass, 
as they appear when separated from the parent ; in fifteen 
days, at the outside, the carabi are produced from these ova, 
and they are often taken off less than a finger's length. The 
ova are produced before Arcturus, and after Arcturus they 
are cast off. 

5. The cyphse among the carides contain their ova about 
four months. The carabi are found in rough and rocky places, 
the astaci in those that are smooth ; but neither of them 
inhabit mud. For this cause the astaci are found in the 
Hellespont and near Thasus ; the carabi in the neighbour- 
hood of Sigeum and Athos. Fishermen, when they pursue 
their calling in the open sea, distinguish the rough and 
muddy places by the nature of the shore, and other signs. 
In the spring and winter they come near the shore ; in sum- 
mer time they go into deep water, sometimes for the sake of 
warmth, and sometimes for the cold. 

6. Those called arcti 1 breed nearly at the same time as the 
carabi, wherefore they are most excellent in winter and in 
spring before the breeding season, and they are worst after 
they have deposited their ova. They change their shell in 
the spring, like the serpent, which puts off its old age, as it 
is called. Both the carabi and the carcini do this when they 
are young, as well as afterwards. All the carabi are long- 


1. THE malacia produce a white ovum after sexual inter- 
course ; in the course of time this becomes sandy, like that 
of the testacea. The polypus deposits its ova in holes or 
pots, or any other hollow place ; the ovum is like bunches of 
the wild vine and of the white poplar, as was observed 
before ; when the ova are produced they remain suspended 
from the hole in which they were deposited : and the ova 
are so numerous, that when taken out they will fill a vessel 
much larger than the head of the polypus in which they 
were contained. 

2. About fifty days afterwards the young polypi burst the 
eggs and escape, like phalangia, in great numbers. The par- 
ticular shape of each limb is not distinct, though the general 
1 Perhaps, Cancer spinosissimus. 


form is plain. Many of them perish from their small size 
and debility. Some have been observed so small that they 
could not be distinguished, unless they were touched, when 
they were seen to move. 

3. The sepia also deposits eggs, which resemble large, 
black, myrtle seeds. They are united together like a bunch 
of fruit, and are enclosed in a substance which prevents 
them from separating readily. The male emits his ink 
upon them, a mucous fluid, which causes their slippery 
appearance. The ova increase in this way ; and when first 
produced they are white, but when they have touched the 
ink they become large and black. When the young sepia, 
which is entirely formed of the internal white of the ovum, 
is produced, it makes its way out by the rupture of the 
membrane of the ovum. 

4. The ovum which the female first produces is like hail, 
and to this the young sepia is attached by the head, as birds 
are attached to the abdomen. The nature of the umbilical 
attachment has never been observed, except that as the sepia 
increases the white always becomes less, and at last entirely 
disappears, like the yolk of the eggs of birds. 

5. The eyes are at first very large in these as in other 
animals, as in the diagram. The ovum is seen at A, the eyes 
at B and C, and the embryo sepia itself at D. The female 
contains ova during the spring. The ova are produced in 
fifteen days ; and when the ova are produced they remain 
for fifteen days longer like the small seeds of grapes, and 
when these are ruptured the young sepias escape from the 
inside. If a person divides them before they have reached 
maturity, the young sepias emit their foeces aud vary in 
colour, and turn from white to red from alarm. 

6. The crustaceans incubate upon their ova, which are 
placed beneath them ; but the polypus and sepia and such 
like incubate upon their ova wherever they may be depo- 
sited, and especially the sepia, for the female has often been 
observed with her abdomen upon the ground, but the female 
polypus has been observed sometimes placed upon her ova, 
and sometimes upon her mouth, holding with her tentacula 
over the hole in which the ova were deposited. The sepia 
deposits her ova upon the ground among fuci and reeds, 
or upon any thing thrown in the water, as wood, branches, 


or stones ; and the fishermen are careful to place branches 
of trees in the water. Upon these they deposit their long 
and united ova like branches of fruit. 

7. The ova are deposited and produced by repeated 
exertion, as if the parturition were accompanied with pain. 
The teuthis oviposits in the sea. The ova, like those 
of the sepia, are united together. Both the teuthus and 
sepia are short-lived, for very few of them survive a year. 
The same is the case with the polypus. Each egg produces 
one small sepia, and so also in the teuthis. The male teuthus 
differs from the female ; for if the hair (branchia) are drawn 
aside, the female will be seen to have two red substances 
like mammae, which the male does not possess. The sepia 
also has the same sexual distinction, and is more variegated 
than the female, as I observed before. 


1. IT has already been observed that the male insects are 
less than the female, and that the male mounts upon the 
female ; and the manner of their sexual intercourse has been 
described, and the difficulty of separating them. Most ol 
them produce their young very soon after sexual intercourse. 
All the kinds except some psychaB (butterflies and moths) 
produce worms. These produce a hard substance, like the 
seed of the cnecus, 1 which is fluid within. Prom the worm 
an animal is produced, but not from a portion of it, as if it 
were an ovum, but the whole grows and becomes an articu- 
lated animal. 

2. Some of them are produced from similar animals, as 
phalangia and spiders from phalangia and spiders, and atte- 
labi, 2 locusts, and grasshoppers. Others do not originate in 
animals of the same species, but their production is sponta- 
neous, for some of them spring from the dew which falls 
upon plants. The origin of these is naturally in the spring, 
though they often appear in the winter, if fine weather and 
south winds occur for any length of time. Some originate 
in rotten mud and dung ; and others in the fresh wood ot 
plants or in dry wood ; others among the hair of animals, or 
in their flesh, or excrements, whether ejected, or still exist- 
ing in the body, as those which are called helminthes. 

1 Cantharus tinctorius, a plant of the thistle kind. L. and S. 

2 The larva of some species. 


3. There are three kinds of these, the flat worms, the 
round worms, and those which are called ascarides. From 
these creatures nothing is produced ; but the broad worm is 
attached to the intestine, and produces something like the 
seed of the colocynth, and this is used by physicians as a 
proof of the presence of the worm. 

4. Butterflies are produced from caterpillars ; and these 
originate in the leaves of green plants, especially the rha- 
phahus, which some persons call crambe. At first they are 
smaller than millet, afterwards they grow into little worms, 
in three days they become small caterpillars, afterwards they 
grow and become motionless, and change their form. In 
this state the creature is called chrysalis. It has a hard 
covering, but moves when it is touched. They are united 
to something by weblike processes, and have no mouth nor 
any other visible organ. After a short time the covering is 
burst, and a winged animal escapes, which is called a but- 

5. At first, while in the caterpillar state, they take food 
and evacuate fceces, but in the chrysalis state they do nei- 
ther. The same is the case with all other creatures which 
originate in worms, and those which produce worms after 
sexual intercourse, or even without this process ; for the 
offspring of bees, anthrena?, and wasps, while they are young 
worms, consume food and evacuate excrement, but when 
from worms they receive their conformation they are called 
nympha3, and neither feed nor evacuate, but remain quiet in 
their covering until they are grown. They then make their 
escape by cutting through a place where the cell is fastened on. 

6. The penia 1 and hypera 2 also are produced from a 
kind of campe (caterpillar) which make a wave as they 
walk, and as they advance bend the hinder extremity 
up to that which has preceded. The creature pro- 
duced always derives its colour from the campe in which 
it originates. A certain great worm, which has as it were 
horns, and differs from others, at its first metamorphosis 
produces a campe, afterwards a bombylius, and lastly 
a necydalus. It passes through all these forms in six 
months From this animal some women unroll and separate 
the bombycina (cocoons), and afterwards weave them. Itie 

1 Some species of larva. 2 Geometra. 


said that this was first woven in the island of Cos by 
Pamphila, the daughter of Plateos. 

7. From the worms in dry wood the insects called carabi 
are produced in the same manner ; for at first they are im- 
moveable worms, and afterwards the carabi are produced by 
the rupture of their case. The crambides originate in the 
plant called crambe, and these also have wings, and the 
prasocurides from the plant called prasum (onion). The 
oestri are produced from the little flat creatures that are 
found on the surface of rivers. Wherefore also they con 
gregate in the greatest numbers around the waters where 
such animals are found. The kind of pygolampis which 
has no wings originates in a small, black, hairy caterpillar. 
These undergo another change, and turn into the winged 
creatures called bostrychi. 

8. The empides originate in ascarides, and the ascarides 
originate in the mud of wells and running waters which flow 
over an earthy bottom. At first the decaying mud acquires 
a white colour, which afterwards becomes black, and finally 
red. \Vhen this takes place, very small red creatures are 
seen growing in it like fuci. At first these move about in a 
mass, afterwards their connection is ruptured, the creatures 
called ascarides are borne about in the water, after a few 
days they stand erect in the water without motion and of a 
hard texture, and subsequently the case is broken and the 
empis sits upon it until either the sun or the wind enables 
it to move, then it flies away. 

9. The commencement of life in all other worms, and in 
all creatures produced from worms, originates in the influ- 
ence of the sun and wind. The ascarides are produced in 
greater numbers, and more quickly, where the various 
matters are mixed together, as in the works conducted in 
the Megarian territory, for putrefaction thus takes place 
more readily. The autumnal season also is favourable to 
their increase, for there is less moisture at that time of the 
year. The crotones 1 originate in the agrostis, the melo-^ 
lonthae from the worms which originate in the dung of oxen \ 
and asses. 

10. The canthari which roll up dung, hide, themselves in 
it during the winter, and produce worms, which afterwards 

1 Ticks. Acarus ricinus. 


become canthari; and from the worms which inhabit the 
osprea, 1 winged creatures, like those already mentioned, 
derive their existence. Flies originate in dung which has 
been set apart, and those who are employed in this work 
strive to separate the remainder which is mixed together, 
for they say that the dung is thus brought to putrefac- 

11. The origin of these worms is very small ; for first of 
all a redness is perceived, and motion commences, as if they 
were united together. The worm then again becomes still, 
afterwards it moves, and then again is immoveable. From 
this the worm is completed, and motion recommences under 
the action of the sun and wind. The myops is produce^ in 
wood. The orsodacnse 2 from the metamorphosis of worms, 
which originate on the stalks of the crambe. The cautharis 
from worms which dwell on the fig tree, apium (pear tree), 
and pitch tree, for there are worms on all these, and on the 
cynacantha. 3 They assemble round strong smelling things 
because they originate from them. 

12. The conops springs from a worm which originates in the 
thick part of vinegar; for there seem also to be worms in things 
which are the farthest from putrefaction, as in snow which has 
laid for some time : for after having laid, it becomes red, 
wherefore, also, the worms are such and hairy. Those in the 
enow in Media are large and white, and furnished with but 
little power of motion. In Cyprus, when the manufacturers 
of the stone called chalcitis burn it for many days in the 
fire, a winged creature, something larger than a great fly, 
is seen walking and leaping in the fire. 

13. The worms perish when they are taken out of the 
snow, and so do these creatures when taken from the fire. 
And the salamander shews that it is possible for some 
animal substances to exist in the fire, for they say that fire 
is extinguished when this animal walks over it. 

14. In the river Hypanis in the Cimmerian Bosphorus, 
about the summer solstice, capsules larger than grape-seed 
are floated down the river : when these are ruptured, a 
four-footed, winged creature makes its escape, which lives 
and flies about till the evening. As the sun descends, it 

1 Vetches, leguminous plants. 2 Chrjsomela oleracea. 

8 Perhaps the dog rose, or sweet briar. 


becomes emaciated, and is dead by sunset, having lived but 
one day ; for which cause it is called ephemerum. Most 
animals which spring from caterpillars or worms, are first of 
all enclosed in a web, and this is their nature. 

15. The wasps which are called ichneumons, which are 
smaller than the others, kill the phalangia, and carry them 
to a wall, or some other place with a hole in it ; and when 
they have covered them over with mud, they oviposit there, 
and the ichneumon wasps are produced from them. Many 
of the coleoptera, and other small and anonymous creatures 
make little holes in tombs or walls, and there deposit their 

16. The period of reproduction, from its commencement 
to its conclusion, is generally completed in three or four 
weeks. In the worms and worm-like creatures, three weeks 
are usually sufficient, and four weeks are usually enough 
for those which are oviparous. In one week from their 
sexual intercourse, the growth of the ovum is completed. 
In the remaining three weeks, those that produce by gene- 
ration, hatch and bring forth their ova, as in the spiders, 
and such like creatures. The metamorphoses generally 
occupy three or four days, like the crisis of diseases. This 
is the mode of generation in insects. 

17. They die from the shrivelling of their limbs, as large 
animals do of old age. Those which are furnished with 
wings have these organs drawn together in autumn. The 
myopes die from an effusion of water in their eyes. 


1. ALL persons are not agreed as to the generation of bees, 
for some say that they neither produce young, nor have 
sexual intercourse; but that they bring their young from 
other sources ; and some say that they collect them from 
the flowers of the calyntrus, 1 and others from the flower of 
the calamus. 2 Others again, say that they are found in the 
flowers of the olive, and produce this proof, that the swarms 
are most abundant when the olives are fertile. Other per- 
sons affirm that they collect the young of the drones from 
any of the substances we have named, but that the rulers 
(queens) produce the young of the bees. 

' Honeysuckle. 2 Heed. 


2. There are two kinds of rulers, the best of these is red, 
the other black and variegated : their size is double that of 
the working bees ; the part of the body beneath the cincture 
is more than half of the whole length : by some they are 
called the mother bees, as if they were the parents of the 
rest; and they argue, that unless the ruler is present, 
drones only are produced, and no bees. Others affirm that 
they have sexual intercourse, and that the drones are males, 
and the bees females. 

3. The other bees originate in the cells of the comb, but 
the rulers are produced in the lower part of the comb, six or 
seven of them separated, opposite to the rest of the pro- 
geny. The bees have a sting, which the drones have not : 
the kings and rulers have a sting which they do not make 
use of, and some persons suppose that they have none. 


1. THEHE are several kinds of bees, the best are small, round, 
and variegated : another kind is large, like the anthrene : a 
third kind is called phor ; this is black, and has a broad 
abdomen : the drone is the fourth, and is the largest of all ; 
it has no sting, and is incapable of work, for which reason 
people often wrap something round their hives, so that the 
bees can enter, but the drones, being larger, cannot. 

2. There are two kinds of rulers among bees, as I observed 
before. In every hive there are several rulers, and not a 
single one, for the hive perishes if there are not rulers 
enough (not that they thus become anarchical, but, as they 
say, because they are required for breeding the bees) ; if 
there are too many rulers they perish, for thus they become 

3- If the spring is late, and drought and rusts are about, 
the progeny is small. When the weather is dry, they make 
honey. When it is damp, their progeny multiplies ; for 
which reason, the olives and the swarms of bees multiply at 
the same time. They begin by making comb, in which they 
place the progeny, which is deposited with their mouths, as 
those say who affirm that they collect it from external 
sources. Afterwards they gather the honey which is to be 
their food, during the summer and the autumn ; that which 
is gathered in the autumn is the best. 


4. Wax is made from flowers. They bring the material 
of wax from the droppings of trees, but the honey falls from 
the air, principally about the rising of the stars, and when 
the rainbow rests upon the earth. Generally no honey is 
produced before the rising of the Pleiades. "We argue that 
wax is made, as I said, from flowers, but that the bees do 
not make honey, but simply collect that which falls ; for 
those who keep bees find the cells filled with honey in the 
course of one or two days. In the autumn there are 
flowers enough, but the bees make no honey, if that which 
they have produced is taken away. But if one supply was 
taken away, and they were in want of food, they would 
make more if they procured it from flowers. 

5. The honey becomes thick by ripening, for at first it is 
like water, and continues liquid for some days, wherefore it 
never becomes thick if it is taken away during that time. 
It requires twenty days to make it consistent; this is very- 
plain from the taste of it, for it differs both in sweetness 
and solidity. The bee carries honey from every plant 
which has cup-shaped flowers, and from all those which 
contain a sweet principle, but does not injure the fruit ; it 
takes up and carries away the sweet taste of plants with 
its tongue-like organ. 

6. The honey-comb is pressed when the wild figs begin 
to appear; and they produce the best grubs when they 
can produce honey. The bees carry the wax and bee- 
bread upon their legs, but the honey is disgorged into 
the cells. After the progeny is deposited in the cells, 
they incubate like birds. In the wax cells the little worm 
is placed at the side ; afterwards it rises of itself to be fed. 
It is united to the comb in such a manner as to be held 
by it. The progeny both of the bees and drones from 
which the little worms are produced, is white. As they 
grow they become bees and drones. The progeny of the 
king-bees is rather red, and about the consistency of thick 
honey. In bulk it is as large as the creature which is pro- 
duced from it. The progeny of the king-bee is not a worm, 
but comes forth a perfect bee, as they say ; and, when the 
progeny is produced in the comb, honey is found in that 
which is opposite. 


7. After the grub is covered up, it has wings and 
feet ; and when it has acquired wings, it bursts through 
the membrane, and flies away. It evacuates an excremen- 
titious matter while it is a worm, but not afterwards, until 
it is perfected, as I observed before. If a person cuts off 
the head of the grub before its wings are acquired, the 
other bees devour it ; if a person having cut off the wings 
of a drone lets it go, the bees will eat off the wings of the 
other drones. 

8, The bee will live for six years, some have lived for 
seven, and if a swarm lasts nine or ten years, it is con- 
sidered to have done well. In Pontus there are very white 
bees, which make honey twice every month. In Thernis- 
cyra, near the river Therm odon, are found bees which make 
cells in the earth, and in hives with a very small quantity 
of wax, but their honey is thick. The cells are smooth 
and homogeneous. They only do this in the winter, and 
not all the year round ; for there is a great deal of ivy in 
the place, which flowers at this season of the year, and from 
this they carry away the honey. From the higher regions 
of Amisus a kind of white honey is procured, which the 
bees form upon the trees without wax. The same is also 
found in another place in Pontus. There are also bees 
which form triple cells in the earth ; these form honey, but 
never have grubs. AH such as these, however, are not cells, 
neither are they formed by every kind of bee. 


1. THE anthrenae 1 and wasps form cells for their progeny 
when they have no rulers, but are wandering about in 
search of them, the anthrense upon some high place, the 
wasps in holes. But when they have the rulers they form 
their cells underground. All their cells are hexagonal, like 
those of bees ; they are not formed of wax, but of a web- 
like membrane, made of the bark of trees. The cells of 
the anthrenae are far more elegant than those of wasps. 
Upon the side of their cells they place their progeny, in the 
manner of the bees, like a drop of liquid united to the wall 
of the cell. The progeny in all the cells is not alike, but in 
some they are so large as to be almost ready for flight, in 
others are nyinphae, in others grubs. 

v Hornet, Apis terrestm. 


2. The only excrementitious matter is found in the cells 
of the grubs, as in the case of bees. As long as they are 
nymphffi they remain motionless, and the cell is sealed over, 
and on the other side of the cell which contains their pro- 
geny, there is a drop of honey in the combs of the anthrenas. 
The grubs of these creatures are produced in the autumn, 
not in the spring, but they evidently grow most rapidly at 
the full moon. The progeny and the grubs are not united 
to the bottom, but to the side of the cell. 


1. SOME of the bombycia 1 form an angular cell of mud, 
which they attach to a stone or something else, and smear 
with a kind of transparent substance ; this is so very thick and 
hard, that it can scarcely be broken with the blow of a spear. 
In this they deposit their ova, and the white maggots are 
contained in a black membrane ; and wax is formed in the 
mud without any membrane, this wax is much more yellow 
than that of bees. 

2. The ants also have sexual intercourse, and produce 
maggots which they do not attach to anything. As these 
grow, they change from small round things to long articu- 
lated beings. The season for their production is in the 

3. The land-scorpions also bring forth many egg-like 
maggots, upon which they incubate. When the young 
ones are perfect, they drive out and destroy their parents 
like spiders, for they are frequently eleven in number. 


1. THE arachnia copulate in the manner already described, 
and produce maggots which at first are small. After their 
metamorphosis they become spiders, not from a part but 
from the whole of the maggot, for they are round from the 
first. "When the female has produced her ova, she in- 
cubates upon them, in three days they acquire limbs. All 
of them produce their young in a web, which is thin and 
small in some species, but compact in others. Some are 
enclosed entirely in a round receptacle, and others are only 
partially covered by the web. All the young spiders are 
1 Apis cementaria, 

K 2 


not produced at once, but as soon as they are hatched they 
leap out and shoot forth a web. If they are bruised 
they are found to contain a thick white fluid like that of 

2. The field-spiders first of all deposit their ova in a web, 
of which one half is attached to themselves, and the other 
external, they incubate upon this, and produce their 
young alive. The phalangia deposit their ova in a thick 
basket which they weave, upon this they incubate. The 
smooth kinds produce a small number, the phalangia a great 
many. "When they are grown, they surround their parent 
in a circle, kill and throw her out. They often seize the 
male in the same way if they can catch him, for he assists 
the female in incubation. Sometimes there are as many as 
three hundred round a single phalangium. The little' 
spiders become full-grown in about four weeks. 


1. LOCUSTS copulate in the same manner as all other in- 
sects, the smaller mounting upon the larger, for the male 
is the smaller. They oviposit by fixing the organ which is 
attached to their taii (the ovipositor) in the ground. The 
males do not possess this organ. Many of them deposit 
their ova in one spot, so as to make it appear like a honey- 
comb. As soon as they have deposited their ova, egg-like 
maggots are formed, which are covered with a thin coating 
of earth like a membrane, and in this they are matured. 

2. The young are so soft as to collapse if they are only 
touched. They are not produced on the surface, but a 
little below the surface of the soil ; and as soon as they 
are matured, they escape from the coat of soil in which 
they are enclosed as small black locusts. Their skin is 
subsequently ruptured, and they then attain their full size. 
They produce their young at the end of summer, and then 

3. For as soon as they have deposited their ova, small 
worms make their appearance on their necks, the males also 
perish at the same time : they come out of the earth in the 
spring. Locusts never shew themselves in mountainous 
countries, nor in poor land, but in plains, and broken soil, 
for they deposit their ova in fissures. The ova remain in 


the soil during the winter, and in the summer the locusts 
are produced from the germs of the preceding year. 

4. The young of the attelabi are produced in the same 
manner, and the parents die after having deposited theii 
ova. Their ova are destroyed by the rains of the autumn, 
if the weather is wet ; but if that season is dry, many atte- 
labi are produced, because they are not equally destroyed ; 
for their destruction appears to be irregular, and to take 
place by accident. 


1. THERE are two kinds of grasshoppers : some are small. 
These are the first to appear, the last to perish. Others, 
which chirp, are large : these appear last, and disappear 
first. There is another difference between the small and 
large kind. Those which chirp have a division in the middle 
of the body : those which do not chirp have none. The large 
ones, which chirp, are called achetse ; the small are called 
tettigonia. Such of these as are divided, sing a little. 

2. Grasshoppers do not appear where there are no trees, for 
which reason they are unknown in the open country of 
Cyrene, but are abundant near the city, and especially 
among olive trees, for these do not give much shade, and 
grasshoppers are not produced in the cold, nor in very shady 
groves. Both the large and small ones have sexual inter- 
course with their own kind, copulating with each other on 
their backs. The male inserts his organ into the female, in 
the same manner as other insects. The female has a divided 
pudendum. The female individual is the one which receives 
the male. 

3. They deposit their ova in fields, piercing the soil with 
the organ at the extremity of their body, like the attelabi ; 
for the attelabi also oviposit in the fields, for which reason 
they are common in Cyrene. They oviposit also in the 
reeds which are used to support the vines; these they 
pierce: and so they do in the stems of the scilla. The 
young ones are washed into the earth, and are common in 
rainy weather. The maggot, when it is grown in the earth, 
becomes a tettigometra : these are sweetest before they 
have ruptured their covering. 

4. And when the season arrives for their appearance, 


about the solstice, they come forth by night, and immedi- 
ately burst their envelope, and the tettigometra becomes a 
grasshopper. They immediately become black and hard, 
acquire their full size, and begin to chirp. In both kinds 
the males chirp ; the others, which do not chirp, are females. 
When first produced the males are the sweetest : after the 
sexual intercourse, the females are sweetest, for they contain 
white ova. 

5. If a noise is made as they fly along, they emit a fluid 
like water, which the agriculturists describe as if they emitted 
both a liquid and solid excrement, and that they feed on dew ; 
and if any one approaches them with a bent finger, which 
is gradually straightened, they will remain more quiet than 
if it is put out straight at once, and will climb up upon the 
finger ; for, from the dimness of their sight, they climb upon 
it as if it were a moving leaf. 


1. THOSE insects which are not carnivorous, but live upon 
the juices of living flesh, as lice, fleas, and bugs, produce 
nits from sexual intercourse ; from these nits nothing else 
is formed. Of these insects the fleas originate in very small 
portions of corrupted matter, for they are always collected 
together where there is any dry dung. Bugs 1 proceed from the 
moisture which collects on the bodies of animals: lice from 
the flesh of other creatures ; for before they appear, they 
exist in little pimples which do not contain matter : and if 
these are pricked, the lice 2 escape from them. Some persons 
have been afflicted with a disease arising from excessive 
moisture in the body, of which people have died, as they say 
that Alcmon the poet, and Pherecydes of Syria did. 

2. And in some diseases lice are very common. There is 
a kind of lice, which they call wild, and are harder than the 
commoD sort, which are difficult to eradicate from the body. 
The heads of children are most subject to be infested 
with lice, and men the least so, for women are more liable 
f o them than men. Those that have lice in the head are 
less subject to headache. Many other animals are infested 
with lice : for both birds have them, and those which are 
called phasiani, unless they dust themselves, are destroyed by 
1 Cinex lectularius. 2 Perhaps Acarus Scabiei, Itch insect. 


them. And so are all those creatures which have feathers 
with a hollow stem, and those which have hair, except the 
ass, which has neither lice nor ticks. Oxen have both ; 
sheep and goats have ticks, but no lice ; hogs are infested 
with large, hard lice, and dogs with those which are called 
cynoraistae. All lice originate in the animals that are in- 
fested with them. All creatures that have lice, and wash 
themselves, are more liable to them when they change the 
water in which they bathe. 

3. In the sea is a kind of lice 1 growing on fish ; but these 
do not originate in the fish, but in the mud. Their ap- 
pearance is that of wood-lice with many feet, except that 
they have a wide tail. There is one species of marine lice 
which occur everywhere, and especially infest the trigla. 
All these creatures are furnished with many legs, are ex- 
sanguineous, and insects. The oestrus 2 of the thynnus occurs 
near the fins : in shape it is like a scorpion, and as large as 
a spider. In the sea between Gyrene and Egypt, there is a 
fish called the phtheira, which accompanies the do]phin ; it 
is the fattest of all fish, because it enjoys an abundance of 
the food which the dolphin hunts for. 


1 THEEE are also other minute animals, as I observed be- 
fore, some of which occur in wool, 3 and in woollen goods ; as 
the moths, which are produced in the greatest abundance 
when the wool is dusty, and especially if a spider is enclosed 
with them, for this creature is thirsty, and dries up any 
fluid which may be present. This worm also occurs in gar- 
ments. There is one which occurs in old honeycombs, like 
the creature which inhabits dry wood : this appears to be 
the least of all creatures, it is called acari, it is white 
and small. Others also are found in books, 4 some of which 
are like those which occur in garments : others are like 
scorpions ; 5 they have no tails, and are very small. And on 
the whole, they occur in everything, so to say, which from 
being dry, becomes moist, or being moist, becomes dry, if it 
has any life in it. 

1 Perhaps Oniscus Ceti, or Isora. 4 Dumestes Pellio, and D. lar- 
8 Perhaps Lerncea branchialis. darius. 

2 Tinea pellionella, or T. sarcitella. 5 Phalangium cancroides. 


2 There is a little worm which is called xylophthorus, 1 
which is no less extraordinary than these animals ; for its 
variegated head is projected beyond its case, and its feet are 
at the extremity, as in other worms. The rest of the body 
is contained in a case made of a substance like spider's web, 
and a dry material on the outside of this ; so that it appears 
to walk about with this attached to it. These creatures are 
attached to their case, and as a snail to its shell, so the 
whole of the case is joined to the worm, and it does not fall 
out of it, but is drawn out of it, as if they were joined toge- 
ther. If a person pulls off the case, the creature dies, and 
becomes as helpless as a snail without its shell. As time 
advances, this grub becomes a chrysalis, like a caterpillar, 
and lies without motion : but the nature of the winged 
creature that is produced has never been ascertained. 

3. The wild figs upon the fig-trees contain a creature 
called psen ; 2 this is at first a little worm, and afterwards 
having ruptured the case, the psen flies out, and leaves it 
behind. It then pierces the unripe figs, and causes them 
not to fall off, wherefore gardeners place wild fruit near the 
cultivated kinds, and plant the wild and cultivated plants 
near each other. 


1. THE sexual intercourse of sanguineous and oviparous 
quadrupeds takes place in the spring. They do not, how- 
ever, all copulate at the same season ; but some in the spring, 
others in the summer or autumn, as the season is appropriate 
for bringing up the young of each species. The tortoise pro- 
duces hard, two-coloured eggs, like those of birds. Having 
deposited her eggs, she buries them, and makes a beaten 
place above them. "When this is done, she sits upon them. 
The eggs are hatched the following year. The emys goes 
out of the water to deposit her eggs, and digs a hole like a 
cask, in which she places her eggs and leaves them. Having 
left them alone for less than thirty days, she digs them up 
again and hatches them and leads them at once to the water. 

1 Tinea graminella, Tinea lichenella, Tinea Xylophorus, or perhaps 
larva of Phryganea. 

2 Cynips Psenes. 


The marine turtles deposit their eggs in the earth like do- 
mestic birds, and cover them up with earth and sit upon them 
during the night. They produce a great many eggs, as many 
as an hundred. 

2. The saurians and both the land and river crocodiles 
produce their eggs upon the land. Those of the lizards are 
hatched spontaneously in the earth ; for the lizard does not 
live a whole year, for it is said to live only six months. The 
river crocodile produces as many as sixty eggs, which are 
white. She sits upon them for sixty days, for they live a long 
while. A very large animal is produced from these small 
eggs ; for the egg is not larger than that of a goose, and the 
young is in proportion, but when full grown the creature 
measures seventeen cubits. Some persons say that it grows 
as long as it lives. 


AMONG serpents the viper is externally viviparous, but first 
of all internally oviparous. The ovum, like that of fish, is 
of one colour and soft skinned. The young are produced 
in the upper part. They are not enclosed in a shelly covering, 
neither are the ova of fish. The little vipers are produced in 
a membrane, which they rupture on the third day, and some- 
times they make their escape by eating their way through 
the mother. They are produced one by one in the course 
of a day, and their number often exceeds twenty. Other 
serpents are externally oviparous, but ova are joined 
together like women's necklaces. When the female deposits 
her eggs in the soil, she incubates upon them. These also 
are hatched in the second year. This is the manner of the 
production of serpents, insects, and of oviparous quadrupeds. 




1. TEE above describes the manner of reproduction in ser- 
pents, insects, and oviparous quadrupeds. All birds are 
oviparous, but the season of sexual intercourse and of bring- 
ing out their young is not the same in all ; for some copu- 
late and produce eggs at all seasons, as we may say, as the 
domestic fowl and the pigeon, for the domestic fowl lays 
eg^s all the year round, except two months at the winter 
solstice. Some of the finest birds will lay sixty eggs before 
they want to sit, though these are not so fruitful as the 
more common kinds. The Adrianic fowls are very small, 
but they lay every day ; bu-t they are cruel, and often kill 
their chickens. Their colour is variegated. Some of the 
domestic birds lay twice a-day, and some have been known 
to lay so many eggs that they died very soon. 

2. The domestic fowls, as I said, lay continually ; but the 
pigeon, dove, trygon, and osnas lay twice a-year ; and the 
pigeon ten times. The greatest number of birds lay in the 
spring ; and some of them produce many young, and this in 
two ways ; some producing their young often, as the pigeon ; 
others producing .many at a time, as the domestic fowl. All 
birds with crooked claws, except the cenchris, 1 lay but few 
eggs. This bird lays the most of any of its class ; for it has 
been observed to produce four, and it even produces more. 
Some birds ]ay their eggs in nests ; but those that do not 
fly, as partridges and quails, do not make nests, but lay their 
eggs on the ground and cover them over with rubbish. The 
lark and tetrix 2 do the same. 

3. These birds make their nests in a place sheltered from 
the wind. That which the Beotians call a?rops 3 is the 
only bird that makes its nests in caverns in the earth. 
The cichlse 4 make nests of mud like swallows in the tops of 
trees ; but they place them in order close to each other, so 

1 Falco tinnunculus. 2 Tetrao tetrii or Otis tetrix. 

s Merops apiaster. 4 Turdus, thrush. 


that from their proximity they look like a chain of nests. 
Among the birds which make solitary nests, the hoopoe 
makes no real nest, but lays its eggs in the stumps of hollow 
trees, without building at all. The coccyx 1 lays its eggs in 
houses and holes in rocks. The tetrix, which the Athenians 
call " urax," makes no nest on the ground or in trees, but 
in herbaceous plants. 


1. THE eggs of all birds are alike and have a hard shell, if 
they are produced by sexual intercourse and are not decayed, 
for domestic fowls sometimes lay soft eggs. Birds' eggs* are 
two-coloured, externally white, internally yellow. The eggs 
of birds inhabiting the sides of streams and lakes differ from 
those living on dry land, for in the eggs of aquatic birds the 
yolk bears a much larger proportion to the white. 

2. The colours of eggs vary in different kinds of birds. 
Some have white eggs, as pigeons, partridges ; some yellow, 
as those inhabiting streams ; others are spotted, as those of 
the meleagris 2 and phasianus; 3 the eggs of the cenchris are red 
like vermilion. In the egg itself there is a difference ; for 
one end is pointed, the other round. The round end is pro- 
duced first. The large, sharp eggs are males ; those which 
are round and circular at the sharp end are females. 

3. They are matured by incubation. Some are hatched 
spontaneously in the earth, as in Egypt, being buried in 
dung ; and they say that in Syracuse a drunkard placed eggs 
beneath his mat, and drank without ceasing until the eggs 
were hatched ; and eggs placed in warm vessels have been 
matured and hatched spontaneously. 

4. The seminal fluid of all birds is white, like that of 
other animals ; and when they copulate the female receives 
the male semen near the diaphragm. The egg at first appears 
small and white, afterwards red and bloody ; as it grows it be- 
comes quite ochreous and yellow ; when it becomes larger a 
distinction is made, and the internal part becomes yellow, 
the external white; and when it is perfected it is set at 
liberty, and excluded just at the period when it is changing 
from soft to hard. So that during exclusion it is not har- 

1 Cuculus canorus. 2 Numida Meleagris. 

3 Phasianus colchicus. 


dened ; but as soon as it is excluded it thickens and becomes 
hard, unless it is diseased. And eggs have been known to 
be excluded in the state in which all eggs are at a certain 
period of their growth ; for they were entirely yellow, as the 
young bird is afterwards. Such have also been o'bserved in the 
domestic fowl beneath the diaphragm, where the eggs of the 
hen are placed, entirely yellow, and as large as eggs usually 
are. This has been considered ominous. 

5. They are mistaken who say that the hypenemia (barren 
eggs) are the remains of former acts of sexual intercourse ; 
for young birds, as fowls and geese, have been frequently 
observed to lay such eggs without any sexual intercourse. 
Barren eggs are smaller, not so sweet, and more fluid than 
fertile eggs, and they are more numerous. If they are placed 
under a bird, the fluid part never thickens, but both the 
yolk and the white remain in their original state. Many 
birds produce these eggs, as the domestic fowl, partridge, 
pigeon, peafowl, goose, and chenalopex. 1 

6. Eggs are hatched more readily in summer than in 
winter ; for in the summer the domestic fowl will hatch in 
eighteen days, but in winter sometimes in not less than 
twenty-five days. Some birds also are more adapted for 
incubation .than others. A thunder-storm during the season 
of incubation will destroy the eggs. What are called cyno- 
sura and uria (addled eggs) are more frequently produced 
in the summer. The hypenemia 2 are by some persons called 
zephyria, because they say that birds receive these winds in 
the spring. They do the same thing if they are touched 
with the hand. The hypenemia become fertile ; and eggs 
that are produced by sexual intercourse are changed to an- 
other kind, if the hen which contains either hypenemia or 
fertile eggs has sexual intercourse with another bird before 
the eggs begin to change from yellow to white, and the 
hypenemia become fertile, and the fertile eggs produce birds 
of the nature of the second male. 

7. But if the change from yellow to white has already 
taken place, neither the barren nor the fertile eggs are al- 
tered, so as to change to the nature of the/second male. And if 
the sexual intercourse should be discontinue d while the eggs 
are small, those which existed previously undergo no chauge } 

1 CEnas tadorna. 2 Eggs formed without sexual intercourse. 


but if the act is repeated, a rapid increase in size takes place. 
The nature of the white and yolk of the egg is different, not 
only in colour, but in other properties, for the yolk coagu- 
lates with cold, while the white remains fluid, but the white 
coagulates with heat, which the yolk does not, but remains 
soft, if it is not burnt ; and it becomes consistent and dry 
by boiling rather than roasting. 

8. The white and yolk are separated from each other by 
a membrane. The chalaza3 at the extremities of the yolk 
have nothing to do with generation, as some persons suppose. 
These spots are two, one below and one above. If many 
whites and yolks of eggs are taken out, and mixed together 
in a vessel, and cooked with a slow and moderate heat, 
the yolks will all collect in the middle, and the whites will 
surround them. Young domestic fowls begin to lay eggs at 
the beginning of the spring; they lay more than those 
which are older, but those of the young birds are smaller, 
and if birds are not permitted to incubate, they are de- 
stroyed and become sick. 

9. After copulation birds ruffle and shake themselves, 
and often cover themselves with chaff, and this also they do 
when they have laid. Pigeons draw up their tail, geese 
go and bathe. The pregnancy and conception of barren 
eggs is quick in most birds, as in the partridge, on ac- 
count of the violence of their sexual desires ; for if the hen 
stands in the way of the breath of the male, she con- 
ceives, and ^immediately becomes of no use for fowling ; for 
the partridge appears to have a very distinct smell. The 
production of the egg after copulation, and the production 
of the young by incubation, do not occupy the same length 
of time in all birds, but varies according to their size. The 
egg of the domestic fowl is perfected in ten days after 
sexual intercourse, and that of the pigeon in a shorter time. 
Pigeons are able to retain their eggs even in the act of 
parturition. If they are disturbed by anything occurring 
in the neighbourhood of their nest, or a feather be plucked 
out, or if anything else troubles or disturbs them, they re- 

'tain the egg they were about to lay. 

10. This is peculiar to pigeons, and so is the following : 
for they kiss each other when the male is about to mount, 
or else they will not endure it. The older bird lirst gives 


a kiss, but afterwards lie mounts without kissing, but 
younger birds always kiss before copulation. This also is 
peculiar to these birds. The females kiss and mount upoii 
each other like the males, when there is no male present. 
They do not project anything into each other, but produce 
more eggs than those which produce fertile ones ; from these 
eggs nothing is hatched, but they are all barren. 


1. THE production of the bird from the egg is alike in then: 
all, but the period of completion varies, as I observed be- 
fore. In domestic fowls the first sign of alteration takes 
place after three days and nights. This period is longer in 
larger birds, and shorter in small birds. During this period 
the upper part of the yolk advances to the small extremity 
of the egg, which is the beginning of the egg. This is the 
part from which the chicken is excluded, and the heart is 
visible like a red spot in the white of the egg. 

2. This spot palpitates and moves as though it were en- 
dued with life. From this, as it increases, two involved 
sanguineous passages like veins lead to each of the sur- 
rounding tunics ; and a membrane which has sanguineous 
passages encloses the white at this period, and separates it 
from the venous passages. A short time afterwards the 
body is distinguished, at first very small and white, but the 
head is distinct, and in this the eyes are the most enlarged. 
And this continues for some time, for afterwards the eyes are 
reduced in size and approach each other, but the lower part 
of the body has not at first any proportion to the upper part. 

3. One of the passages from the heart extends into a 
circle around the embryo, and the other to the yolk, as if 
it were an umbilical cord. The origin of the young bird 
is in the white, its nutriment is derived from the yolk 
through the umbilical cord. On the tenth day, the whole 
of the young bird and all its parts are distinct, but its 
head is still larger than the rest of the body, and the eyes 
are larger than the rest of the head. They have no sense 
of sight. If the eyes are taken out at this period, they 
are larger than beans, and black ; when the skin is 
taken from them, they are seen to contain a white and coJd 


fluid, very brilliant in appearance, but without any hard 
substance. This is the manner of the development of the 
eyes and head. 

4. At the same period the viscera are visible, but the 
stomach, and intestines, and the veins from the heart still 
appear to extend towards the navel. From the navel a 
vein appears to extend upon the membrane which encloses 
the yolk, and the yolk itself is at this period fluid, and 
more abundant than in its natural state. The other extends 
to the membrane which encloses the whole membrane con- 
taining the embryo, and the membrane of the yolk and the 
fluid between them, and when the young birds have grown 
a little more, part of the yolk goes to one end, and part to 
the other, and between them is the fluid white ; but the 
white is still below the lower part of the yolk, where it was 
at first, but at the tenth day the white disappears, for it has 
become small, viscid, thick, and rather yellow. 

5. This is the position of all the parts : the first and last 
part adjoining the shell is the membrane of the egg, not the 
membrane of the shell, but beneath this. This contains the 
fluid white ; within this is the young bird, and a membrane 
surrounding it, and separating it from the fluid ; beneath 
the embryo is the yolk, to which one of the veins extends, 
and the other to the white which encloses it. A membrane 
containing a fluid resembling sanies encloses the whole, and 
then another membrane which surrounds the embryo itself, 
as I observed, and separates it from the fluid. Below this 
the yolk, enclosed in another membrane, which is reached 
by the umbilical cord Jrom the heart, and the great vein, so 
that the embryo does not appear to be in either of the fluids. 

(3. About the twentieth day, if the hatching has been de- 
layed beyond this period, the young bird is able to chirp 
when moved externally, and if the shell is taken off, by this 
time also it is downy. Tfce head is placed over the right leg 
upon the side, and the wing is over the head. At this 
period the chorion-like membrane is visible, which is united 
with the lowest membrane of the shell, to which one of the 
umbilical cords passes, and the young bird is complete. The 
othei- chorion-like membrane is also visible, enclosing the 
yoitf. To this the other umbilical cord extends. Both of 
these cords are attached to the heart and the great vein. At 


tho same period the cord which is attached to one chorion 
falls off, and is separated from the animal, but the one which 
passes to the yolk remains suspended from the young bird 
by a thin bowel, and a considerable portion of the yolk is 
contained in the young bird, and some of it is found in the 

7. At this period also they eject an excrementitious 
matter into the external chorion, and contain it in the 
stomach. The external excrement is white, the internal 
yellow. At last the yolk, which has been continually 
wasting and advancing, is entirely taken up and enclosed in 
the young bird. So that portions of it may be observed in 
the intestines of birds if they are dissected on the tenth 
day after exclusion from the egg. But it is set at liberty 
from the navel, nor does any communication remain, but 
the whole is separated. About the before-mentioned period 
the young bird sleeps, but it stirs itself, and looks up, and 
chirps when it is touched, and the heart swells up with the 
navel, as if the embryo were breathing. This is the manner 
of the development of the chick in the egg. 

8. Birds also produce some barren eggs, as well as those 
from sexual intercourse, but they produce nothing after in- 
cubation. This is particularly observed in pigeons. Double 
eggs have two yolks ; in some a thin division of white pre- 
vents the yolks from mixing together ; others have not thi-s 
division, but touch each other. There are some hens which 
always lay double eggs, and in these the peculiarities of the 
yolks have been observed; for a certain bird having laid 
eighteen eggs, hatched two chickens from each of them, ex- 
cept those that were addled ; all the rest were productive, < 
except that one of the twin chickens was Irage and the 
other small in each. The last, however, was monstrous. - 


1. ALL the pigeon tribe, as the phatta and trygon, generally 
produce two eggs ; the trygon and the phatta are those 
which generally lay three. The pigeon lays, as I said, at 
every season ; the trygon and the phatta in the spring, and 
uot more than twice. The second brood are hatched when 
the first has been destroyed, for many birds destroy them. 


It sometimes lays three, as I have said, but it never brings 
out more than two young ones, and sometimes only one, 
the remaining egg is always addled. Very few birds begin 
to lay before they are a year old ; but when they have once 
begun to lay, they all, as we may say, naturally contain eggs 
to the end of their life, though it is not easy to see them in 
some birds, from their small size. 

2. The pigeon usually produces one male and one female, 
and of these the male is often hatched first ; and having laid 
an egg one day, she omits many days and then lays another. 
The male sits during a portion of the day, and the female 
during the night. The first young one is hatched and able to 
fly within twenty days, and the egg is billed on the day before 
it is hatched ; both the old birds keep the young ones warm 
for some time, as they do the eggs. During the time of 
bringing up their young the female is fiercer than the male : 
this is also the case in other animals. They produce young ten 
times in a year, and sometimes eleven times ; those in Egypt 
even twelve times. The cock and hen birds copulate within 
the year, for they do this at the end of six months. 

3. And some say that the phatta and trygon are matured 
when three months old, and they consider their great num- 
bers as a proof of this. The female contains her eggs four- 
teen days, and then sits upon them fourteen more ; in four- 
teen days after this the young ones fly so well that it is 
difficult to catch them. The phatta lives, as they say, forty, 
years ; the partridge more than sixteen years. The pigeon, 
after having brought out her young, lays again in thirty days. 


1. THE vulture builds its nest in inaccessible rocks, where- 
fore its nest and young ones are rarely seen. For this 
reason Herodorus, the father of Bryson the sophist, says 
that vultures come from another part of the earth, which is 
invisible to us, giving as a reason for his opinion, that they 
are seen in great numbers suddenly following the path of an 
army. But difficult as it is to observe them, their nests have 
been seen. The vulture produces two eggs. No other car- 
nivorous bird has been observed to produce young more than 
once a year; but the swallow more frequently produces 
young twice a year than the carnivorous birds. If a person 



pierces the eyes of young swallows they recover, and are 
able to see afterwards. 


1. THE eagle produces three eggs, of which two only are 
hatched. This is also related in the poems of Musaeas. 
The bird which lays three eggs, hatches two, and brings up 
but one. This frequently happens ; but three young have 
bee.?} seen in the nest. W hen the young begin to grow, one 
of them is turned out by the parent, because she dislikes the 
trouble of feeding it. At this period it is said to be without 
food, so that it does not capture the young of wild crea- 
tures, for a few days the talons are turned back, and the 
feathers become white, so that it then becomes cruel to its 
young. The phene 1 receives and brings up the ejected 
young one. 

2. The eagle incubates for thirty days ; this is the usual 
period of incubation for large birds, as the goose and the 
bustard. Moderately sized birds usually sit twenty days, as 
the ictinus 2 and hierax. 3 The ictinus usually produces two 
young ones, and sometimes three ; the ^Etolian kite, as it 
is called, sometimes produces four. The raven produces not 
only two, but, as they say, many eggs, which she sits upon 
for about twenty days. She also turns out some of her 
young ones. Many other birds do the same thing ; and 
generally those which produce several turn out one. 

3. All kinds of eagles do not behave in the same way to 
their young ; but the pygargus is cruel ; and the black eagles 
are careful for the food of their young ; but all birds with 
crooked talons as soon as their young can fly well beat them 
and drive them from the nest. And most birds of other 
classes, as I have before observed, do the same tiling ; and 
when they have brought them up, they take no more notice 
of them, except the crow. This bird cares for its young a 
long while, for as it flies past them it gives them food after 
they are able to fly. 


1. THE cuckoo is said by some persons to be a changed hawk, 

because the hawk which it resembles disappears when thf 

1 Vultur cinereus, ossifragus, osprey. a Kite. 3 Hawk. 


cuckoo comes, and indeed very few hawks of any sort can be 
8i>en during the period in which the cuckoo is singing except 
tor a few days. The cuckoo is seen for a short time in the 
summer, and disappears in winter. But the hawk has crooked 
talons, which the cuckoo has not, nor does it resemble the 
hawk in the form of its head, but in both these respects is 
more like the pigeon than the hawk, which it resembles in 
nothing but its colour ; the markings, however, upon the 
hawk are like lines, while the cuckoo is spotted. 

2. Its size and manner of flight is like that of the smallest 
kind of hawk, which generally disappears during the season 
in which the cuckoo is seen. But they have both been seen 
at the same time, and the cuckoo was being devoured by the 
hawk, though this is never done by birds of the same kind. 
They say that no one has ever seen the young of the cuckoo. 
It does, however, lay eggs, but it makes no nest ; but some- 
times it lays its eggs in the nests of small birds, and devours 
their eggs, especially in the nests of the pigeon, when it has- 
eaten their eggs. Sometimes it lays two, but usually only 
one egg ; it lays also in the nest of the hypolais, 1 which 
hatches and brings it up. At this season it is particularly 
fat and sweet-fleshed ; the flesh also of young hawks is very 
sweet and fat. There is also a kind of them which builds a 
nest in precipitous cliff's. 


L. IN many birds the male alternates with the female in the- 
duty of incubation, as we observed in speaking of pigeons, 
and takes her place while she is obliged to procure food for 
nerself. In geese the female alone sits upon the eggs, and 
aaving once begun, she never leaves them during the whole- 
process of incubation. The nests of all water birds are 
situated in marshy and grassy places, by which means they 
can keep quiet and still have food within their reach, so that 
y do not starve all the while. The females alone, among 
the crows, sit on the eggs, which they never leave ; but the 
males bring them food and feed them. 

2. The females of the pigeons begin to sit at twilight, and 
remain on the nest the whole night, till dawn ; and the male- 
the rest of the time. Partridges make two nests of eggs* 
1 Sylvia curucca, hedge sparrow. 

L 2 


upon one of which the male sits, on the other the female ; 
and each of them hatches and brings up its own : and the 
male has sexual intercourse with its young as soon as they 
are hatched. 


1. THE peacock lives about twenty -five years, and produces 
young generally at three years old ; by which time also they 
have obtained their variegated plumage : and it hatches in 
thirty days, or rather more. It only produces young once 
a-year, laying twelve eggs, or not quite so many. It lays 
its eggs at intervals of two or three days, and not regularly. 
At first they lay only eight. The pea-fowl also lays barren 
eggs : they copulate in the spring, and lay their eggs imme- 
diately afterwards. 

2. This bird sheds its feathers when the leaves of the 
trees begin to fall, and begins to acquire them again with 
the first budding in the spring. Those who rear these 
birds place the eggs for incubation beneath domestic fowls ; 
because the peacock flies at, and torments the hen when 
she is sitting; for which reason some of the wild birds 
make their escape from the males before they begin to lay 
and sit. They place only two eggs under domestic fowls, 
for these are all that they can hatch and bring out ; and 
they take care to put food before them, that they may not 
get up and desert their incubation. 

3. Birds at the season of sexual intercourse have large 
testicles. In the more lascivious they are always more evi- 
dent, as the domestic cock and the partridge. In those 
that are not always lascivious, they are less. This is the 
manner of the gestation and reproduction of birds. 


1. IT has been already observed that fish are not always 
oviparous, for the selache are always viviparous. All the 
rest are oviparous. The selache are viviparous, having 
first of all produced ova internally ; and these they bring up 
in themselves, except the batrachus. Fish have also, as I 
observed before, very different uteri in different kinds : for 
in the oviparous genera the uterus is double, and situated 
low down. In the selache the uterus is more like that of birds. 
There is this difference, however, that the ova are not placed 


near the diaphragm, but in an intermediate position near 
the spine ; and when they have grown they change their 
place from this part. The ovum in all fish is not of two, but 
of one colour ; and it is more white than yellow, both in its 
early stages, and after the formation of the embryo. 

2. The development of the ovum is different in fish and 
in birds, in that it has not the umbilical cord which passes 
to the membrane of the shell ; but only the passage which 
leads to the yolk in the eggs of birds. The rest of the deve- 
lopment of the ovum is alike in birds and fish ; for it takes 
place at the extremity, and the veins have their origin in 
a similar manner in' the heart ; and the head, and eyes, and 
upper parts of the body are larger than the rest. As the 
young fish increases, the ovum continues to diminish, and 
at last it disappears, and is absorbed, like the yolk in the 
eggs of birds. The umbilical cord is attached a little below 
the abdomen. At first the cord is long, but it becomes less 
as the fish grows, and at last is small, and finally absorbed, 
like that of birds. 

3. The embryo and the ovum are enclosed in a common 
membrane, and beneath this there is another membrane, in 
which the embryo alone is enclosed. Between these mem- 
branes there is a fluid substance. The nutriment contained 
in the stomach of the young fish is similar to that in the 
young birds, partly white, and partly yellow. The form of 
the uterus must be learned from dissection. This organ is 
different in different fish, as in the galeode by themselves, and 
the flat fish by themselves : for in some the ova are attached 
near the spine to the centre of the uterus, as I observed be- 
fore, as in scylia. 1 They descend when they begin to increase, 
when the uterus is double, and are attached to the diaphragm, 
as in other fish : the ova descend into each division. 

4. The uterus of these fish, and of the other galeode, has a 
small appendage attached to the diaphragm like a white 
nipple, which is not present unless they are pregnant. The 
scylia and the batis have a shell-like substance, which con- 
tains the fluid of the ovum. In form the shell resembles the 
tongue of a wind instrument, and hair-like passages are at- 
tached to the shells. The young of the scylia, which some 
persons call nebria galei, are born when the shell falls off and 
bursts. The young of the batis when they are brought forth 

1 Dog fish Squalus stellaris. 


are excluded by the rupture of the shell. In the acantheas 1 
galeos the ova are attached to the diaphragm above the 
nipples ; and when the ovum descends, the young is attached 
to it after it is set free. The reproduction of the alopex is 
in the same manner. 

5. Most galei which are called smooth have the ova placed 
between the divisions of the uterus, like those of the scylia ; 
and as they surround it, they descend into each division of 
the uterus, and they are produced, attached to the uterus 
by an umbilical cord ; so that when the ova are taken out, 
they appear similar to the embryo of quadrupeds. And the 
long umbilical cord is attached to the lower part of the 
uterus, each part, as it were, attached to an acetabulum ; 
and to the middle of the embryo near the liver. And when 
it is dissected, the food is like an egg, though the ovum be 
no longer there. There is a chorion, and peculiar membranes 
surrounding each of the embryos, as in quadrupeds. 

6. The head of the embryo when it is just produced, is 
upwards ; but as it grows and reaches maturity, it is placed 
downwards. The males are placed on the left, and the 
females on the right, or there are males and females together 
on the same side. The embryo, when dissected, resembles 
that of quadrupeds, in having its viscera such as it has, as the 
liver, large, and full of blood. In all the selache the ova are 
placed high up, near the diaphragm ; many larger, and many 
smaller : and the embryos are placed below, wherefore it is 

Erobable that such fish produce their young, aud copulate 
*equently during the same month, for they do not produce 
all their young at once, but frequently, and for a long while ; 
but those that are in the lower part of the uterus are matured 
and brought to perfection. 

7. The other galei both emit and receive their young into 
themselves, and so do the rhine and the narca ; and a large 
narca has been observed to contain eighty young in herself. 
The acanthias is the only one of the galei which does not 
admit its young into itself, on account of their thorns. 
Among the flat fish the trygon and batos do not admit their 
young, on account of the roughness of the tail. Neither 
does the batrachus admit its young, on account of the size 
of their heads, and their thorns ; and this is the only one 

is not viviparous, as I previously observed. These are 
1 Squalus Acanthias. 


their mutual differences, and the manner of the develop- 
ment of tbeir ova. 

8. At the season of sexual intercourse, the seminal ducts 
of the male are full of fluid, so that a white matter escapes 
when they are pressed. These passages are divided, and 
originate in the diaphragm and the large vein : at the same 
season the passages of the male are conspicuous, and may be 
compared with the uterus of the female. When it is not 
the season of sexual intercourse, they are less conspicuous, 
from not being in use. In some fish, and sometimes, they 
are not visible at all, as it was remarked of the testicles of 
birds. The seminal and uterine passages are different in 
other respects also, and because those of the male are at- 
tached to the loins, those of the female are easily moved, 
and enclosed in a thin membrane. The nature of the pas- 
sages of the male may be seen in works on anatomy. 

9. The selachea become pregnant again while with young, 
and the period of gestation is six months. Among the galei, 
the asterias produces young the oftenest ; for it produces 
twice in a month : it begins to copulate in the month of Sep- 
tember. All the other galei except the scylia produce twice 
in the year ; the scylia but once. Some of them have their 
young in the spring. The rhine produces its first brood in 
the spring, and its last in the autumn, near the winter season, 
and the setting of the Pleiades. The second fry are the most 
numerous. The narca produces its young in the autumn. 
The selache descend from the ocean and deep water to the 
shore, to produce their young, both for the sake of the 
warmth, and care of their offspring. 

10. No other fish but the rhine and the batos have ever 
been observed to unite with others not of their own kind, 
but there is a fish called the rhinobatus, which has the head 
and upper part of the rhine, and the lower part like the 
batus, as it were made up of both. The galei and the 
galeoeides, as the alopex, dog-fish, and the flat fish, as the 
narce batos, leiobatos and tn r gon, are in this manner ovovi- 


1. THE dolphin, whale, and other cetacea which have a 
biow-hole but no gills, are viviparous, and so are the 


pristis and tlie bos. For none of these have an ovum, but 
a proper foetus, from which, when perfected, an animal is 
developed, as in man and the viviparous quadrupeds. The 
dolphin usually produces one, and sometimes two young 
ones. The whale generally and usually produces two and 
sometimes one. The phocaena is similar to the dolphin, 
for it is like a small dolphin. It is produced in the Pontus. 
In some respects the phocaena differs from the dolphin, for 
its size is smaller, it is wider in the back, and its colour is 
blue. Many persons say that the phocsena is a kind of 

2. All these creatures which have a blow-hole, breathe 
and inhale air ; and the dolphin has been observed while 
asleep with the muzzle above the water, and it snores in 
its sleep. The dolphin and phocsena give milk and suckle 
their young. They also receive their young into them- 
selves. The growth of the young dolphins is rapid, for 
they attain their full size in ten years. The female is preg- 
nant for ten months. The dolphin produces her young 
in the summer-time, and at no other season. They seem 
also to disappear for thirty days during the season of the 
dog-star. The young follow their dam for a long while, 
and it is an animal much attached to its offspring. It lives 
many years ; for some have been known to live twenty-five 
or thirty years ; for fishermen have marked them by cutting 
their tails and then giving them their liberty. In this way 
their age was known. 

3. The seal is amphibious, for it does not inhale water, 
but breathes and sleeps. It produces its young on laud, 
but near the shore, in the manner of animals with feet ; but 
it lives the greater part of its time, and obtains its food in 
the sea, wherefore it is to be considered among aquatic 
animals. It is properly viviparous, and produces a living 
creature, and a chorion, and it brings forth the other mem- 
branes like a sheep. It produces one or two, never more 
than three young ones. It has also mammas, so that it 
suckles its young like quadrupeds. It produces its young 
like the human subject, at all seasons of the year, but es- 
pecially with the earliest goats. 

4. When the young are twelve days old, it leads them to 
the water several times in the day, in order to habit uate 


them by degrees. It drags its hinder parts along, and does 
not walk, for it cannot erect itself upon its feet, but it con- 
tracts and draws itself together. It is fleshy and soft, and 
its bones are cartilaginous. It is difficult to kill the seal 
by violence, unless it is struck upon the temple, for its body 
is fleshy. It has a voice like an ox. The pudendum of the 
female is like that of the batis, in all other animals of the 
class the pudendum resembles that of the human female. 
This is the manner of the development and nature of the 
young of aquatic animals which are either internally or 
externally viviparous. 


1. THE oviparous fish have a divided uterus placed on the 
lower part of the body, as I observed before. All that have 
scales are viviparous, as the labrax, cestreus, cephalus, etelis, 1 
and those called white fish, and all smooth fish except the 
eel. Their ova resemble sand. This appearance is owing 
to their uterus being quite full of ova, so that small fish 
appear to have only two ova ; for the small size and thinness 
of the uterus renders it invisible in these creatures. I have 
before treated of the sexual intercourse of fish. The sexes 
are distinct in almost all fish, though there is some doubt 
about the erythrinus 2 and the channa, for all these are 
found to be pregnant. 

2. Ova are found in those fish which have sexual inter- 
course, though they possess them without intercourse. 
This is observable in some kinds of river fish ; for the 
phoxini 3 appear to be pregnant as soon as they are born, 
and when they are quite small. They emit the ova in a 
stream ; and, as I observed before, the males devour great 
numbers of them, and others perish in the water. Those 
are preserved which they deposit in their appropriate situa- 
tions. For, if all were preserved, the numbers that would 
be found would be immense. Not all those that are pre- 
served are fertile, but only those on which the seminal fluid 
of the male has been sprinkled. When the female produces 
her ova, the male follows, and scatters his semen upon them. 
Young fish are produced from those ova which are thus 
sprinkled. The remainder turn out as chance may direct. 

1 Perhaps the Sea-bream, Sparus. 2 Perhaps Perca marina. 

3 Cyprmus Phoxinus. 


3. Th<? same thing also occurs in the malacia; for the 
male sepia sprinkles the ova of the female as they are de- 
posited; and it is reasonable to suppose that the other 
malacia do the same, although it has only been observed in 
the sepia. They produce their ova near the land, the cobii 
deposit them upon stones, and that which they produce is 
flat and sand-like. The rest do the same, for the parts near 
the land are warmer, and provision is more abundant, and 
there is better protection for their young against larger 
fish, for which cause very great numbers deposit their ova 
near the river Thermodon, in the Pontus, for the place is 
sheltered and warm, and the water is sweet. 

4. The majority of viviparous fish reproduce once in 
a-year, except the small phycides, 1 which reproduce twice 
a-year. The male phyces differs from the female, being 
darker-coloured and having larger scales. All other fish 
produce from seed, and emit ova ; but that which is called 
the belone, at the season of reproduction bursts asunder, 
and in this way the ova escape ; for this fish has a division 
beneath the stomach and bowels, like the serpents called 
typhlin. 2 When it has produced its ova, it survives, and 
the wound heals up again. 

5. The development of the ovum is alike, both in those 
that are internally and those that are externally oviparous. 
For it takes place at the extremityof the ovum, and it is en- 
closed in a membrane. The eyes are the first part that is con- 
spicuous ; they are large and spherical ; so that it is plain that 
they are mistaken who say that the mode of development re- 
sembles that of vermiform creatures, for in them the order 
is different, and the lower parts are formed first, and after- 
wards the head and eyes. When the ovum is taken away, 
they assume a circular form, and for some time continue to 
grow without taking in any food, by absorbing the moisture 
of the ovum. They afterwards derive their nutriment, as 
long as they continue growing, from the water of the river. 

6. When the Pontus is cleansed, something is floated 
out into the Hellespont which is called fucus. It is of a 
yellow colour. Some say that it is naturally a plant. This 
takes place at the beginning of summer. The oysters and 
email fish which live in these places feed upon this fucus ; 

1 MugiL Some species of mullet. 2 Lacerta apus. 


aud some maritime persons say that they obtain their purple 
from this plant. 


1. THE pond and river fish begin to reproduce usually when 
five months old. They all produce their ova at the begin- 
ning of summer. Like the marine fish, the females of these 
kinds never emit all their ova, nor the males all their 
semen, at once ; but both sexes are always found to con- 
tain a portion of the reproductive substance ; they pro- 
duce their ova at the proper season. The cyprinus five or 
six times a-year, and especially under the influence of the 
stars. The chalcis reproduces three times, all the rest but 
once a-year. 

2. They deposit their ova in the stagnant parts of rivers 
and ponds among the reeds, as the phoxinus and perca. The 
glanis and the perca produce their ova in strings, like the 
frog. That which the perca produces is so involved that, on 
account of its breadth, the fishermen collect it together from 
among the reeds in ponds. The larger individuals of the 
glanis produce their ova in deep water, some where it is a 
fathom deep ; but the smaller ones in shallow water, and 
especially at the root of the willow or some other tree, and 
among the reeds and mosses. 

3. The fish fold themselves together, sometimes a large 
one with a small one, and approximate the passages, which 
some call their navel, from which they eject their respective 
seminal matter, the females their ova, and the males their 
spermatic fluid. Those ova with which the semen of the 
male has been mixed immediately or in the course of a day 
become whiter and larger, and in a short time the eyes of 
the fish make their appearance ; for in all fish, as in other 
animals, this part is most conspicuous, and appears the largest. 
But, if the seminal fluid does not touch any of the ova, as in 
the case of sea-fish, these become useless and barren. 

4. From the fertile ova, as the fish increase in size, some- 
thing like a shell is separated ; this is the membrane which 
envelopes the ovum and the embryo fish. As soon as the 
seminal fluid is mixed with the ova a glutinous matter is 
formed, which fastens them to the roots or other substance 
on which they are deposited. The male watches over the 
place where the greatest number of ova are deposited, and 


the female departs as soon as she has spawned. The develop- 
ment of the ovum of the glanis proceeds the most slowly, for 
the male remains by them for forty or fifty days, in order 
that they may not be devoured by fish chancing to come 
that way. 

5. Next to this is the cyprinus. The ova, however, of 
these which are preserved escape very quickly. The deve- 
lopment in some of the small fish takes place on the third 
day, and the ova upon which the seminal fluid has fallen 
begin to increase on the same day, or shortly afterwards. 
The ova of the glanis become as large as the seed of the 
orobus. Those of the cyprinus and that class, about the 
size of millet. The ova of these fish are produced and deve- 
loped in this manner. 

6. The chalcis assembles in great numbers to deposit its 
ova in deep water. The fish which is called tilon deposits 
its ova near the shore, in sheltered places ; this fish also is 
gregarious. The cyprinus, balerus, and all others, so to 
say, hasten into shallow water to deposit their ova, and thir- 
teen or fourteen males often follow a single female, and when 
the female has deposited her ova and departed, the males 
that follow her sprinkle their semen upon them. The majo- 
rity of the ova are lost, for the female scatters them abroad 
as she is moving forward, unless they fall upon any sub- 
stance, and are not carried away by the stream. None of 
them, except the glanis, watch their ova, unless the cyprinus 
meets with them in great numbers, when, they say, that this 
fish watches them. 

7. All the male fish have semen, except the eel, and this 
one has neither semen nor ova. The cestreus migrates from 
the sea into lakes and rivers ; the eel, on the contrary, leaves 
them for the sea. Most fish, therefore, as I observed, pro- 
ceed from ova. 


1. SOME originate in mud and sand: even of those kinds which 
originate in sexual intercourse and ova, some, they say, have 
appeared both in other marshy places and in those which once 
surrounded Cnidus, which became dry under the influence of 
the dog-star, and all the mud was parched up, but with the 
first rains the waters returned, and small fish appeared with 


the return of the waters. This was a kind of cestreus, which 
originates in coition, about the size of small msenidia, 1 but 
they had neither ova nor semen. In the Asiatic rivers, 
which do not flow into the sea, other small fish, of the size 
of epseti, 2 are produced in the same manner. Some persons 
say that the cestreus is always produced in this manner, but 
in this they are mistaken, for both the females are known 
to have ova and the males semen. But there is some one 
kind of them which originates in mud and sand. 

2. It is evident from the following considerations that 
some of them are of spontaneous growth, and do not origi-" 
nate either in ova or semen. Those which are neither ovi- 
parous nor viviparous are all produced either from mud or 
sand, or from the putrid matter on the surface, as also the 
foam in sandy places produces the aphya. 3 This aphya never 
increases in size, and is barren, and as time advances it 
perishes, and another fry is formed. Wherefore it may be 
said to be reproduced at every season, except for a short 
time; for it continues from the autumn arcturus to the 
spring. This is a proof that it sometimes originates in the 
soil, for it is not captured by fishermen in cold weather, "but 
on a fine day it may be taken as it comes up from the ground 
for the sake of the warmth. When they have dragged the 
ground and scraped up the surface, the fish are more nume- 
rous and better. The other aphyae are inferior, on account 
of their rapid growth. 

3. They are found in shady and marshy places, when the 
earth becomes warm in fine weather, as near the temple 
of Athene in Salamis, and near the tomb of Themistocles, 
and near Marathon, for foam is formed in all these places. 
It makes its appearance in such places, and in fine weather : 
it appears also at times in seasons of much rain, and when 
foam is formed of rain water, wherefore also it is called 
aphrus ; and sometimes it is found on the surface of the sea, 
in fine weather, where it is whirled about, and, like the little 
maggots in dung, so this is found in the foam which floats on 
the surface ; wherefore also this aphya is carried by the sea 
in many directions, and it abounds and is captured in the 
greatest abundance when the season is moist and warm. 

4. There is another aphya derived from fish, for that 
which is called cobitis is derived from small and inferior 

1 Sardine. , 2 Atherine epsetos. 3 Melanurus juvenculua. 


gobii, which bury themselves in the earth. The membrades 
are produced from the phalerica. The trichides come from 
these, and the trichise from the trichides ; from one kind of 
aphya, which inhabits the port of Athens, the encrasicoli 
are derived. There is another kind of aphya which originates 
in the moenis and cestreus, but the barren aphrus is very 
soft, and endures only for a short time, as I said before, and 
at last nothing is left but the head and eyes. The fisher- 
men, however, have now found a mode of conveying it from 
place to place, for it lasts longer when salted. 


1. EELS are not produced from sexual intercourse, nor are 
they oviparous, nor have they ever been detected with semen 
or ova, nor when dissected do they appear to possess either 
seminal or uterine viscera ; and this is the only kind of san- 
guineous animal which does not originate either in sexual 
intercourse or in ova. It is, however, manifest that this is 
the case, for, after rain, they have been reproduced in some 
marshy ponds, from which all the water was drawn and the 
mud cleaned out ; but they are never produced in dry places 
nor in ponds that are always full, for they live upon and are 
nourished by rain water. It is plain, therefore, that they 
are not produced either from sexual intercourse or from ova. 
Some persons have thought that they were productive, be- 
cause some eels have parasitical worms, and they thought 
that these became eels. 

2. This, however, is not the case, but they originate in 
what are called the entrails of the earth, which are found 
spontaneously in mud and moist earth. They have been 
observed making their escape from them, and others have 
been found in them when cut up and dissected. These 
originate both in the sea and in rivers wherein putrid mat- 
ter is abundant ; in those places in the sea which are full of 
fuci, and near the banks of rivers and ponds, for in these 
places the heat causes much putridity. This is the mode of 
generation in eels. 


1. THE reproductive function is not active in all fish at the 
same time or the same manner, nor are they pregnant during 
the same length of time. Before the season of sexual inter- 


course the males and females begin to assemble, and at the 
period of intercourse and the production of their ova they pair 
together. Some of them do not remain pregnant more than 
thirty days, and others not so long ; but all of them remain 
so for a number of days, which can be distributed into seven. 
Those which some persons call marini remain pregnant for 
the longest period. The sargus becomes pregnant in the 
month of December, and remains so for thirty days. The 
kind of cestreus which some persons call the cbelon and the 
myxon are pregnant at the same time as the sargus. All 
these suffer in their pregnancy, wherefore they are driven to 
the shore at this season ; for in the vehemence of their desire 
they are carried towards the land, and always continue in 
motion during this period till they have produced their ova. 
The cestreus is more remarkable for this than any other fish. 
As soon as they have deposited their ova, they become quiet. 

2. In many fish there is a limit to their reproductive powers, 
when worms make their appearance in their abdomen. These 
worms are small living creatures, which expel the repro- 
ductive substance. The small fry of the rhyas makes its ap- 
pearance in the spring, and that of many others about the 
vernal equinox. Other fish do not produce at this season of 
the year, but in the summer or near the autumnal equinox. 

3. The atherina produces its young first of all, near the 
land. The cephalus is the last. This is evident from the 
small fry of the former appearing first, and that of the latter 
last of all. The cestreus also produces among the first. The 
salpa in most places deposits its ova during the summer, and 
sometimes in the autumn. The aulopias, which they call 
anthias, produces its ova in the summer season. After these 
the chrysophrys, labrax, mormyrus, and all those which are 
called dromades ; the trigla and cocarinus are the latest of 
all the gregarious fish., These oviposit in the autumn. The 
trigla deposits her ova in the mud, which causes her to be 
late, for the mud continues cold for a long while. The cora- 
cimus is next to the trigla, and goes among the sea weed to 
deposit her ova : consequently they frequent rocky places. 
It continues pregnant for a long while. The msenides 
oviposit at the winter solstice. Many other marine fish 
oviposit in the summer, for they are not captured at this 
period. The msenis is the most productive of all fish, and 


the batrachus the most so among the selache. They are, 
however, rare, for they perish very readily ; they oviposit in 
shoals and near the land. 

4. The selache, as being viviparous, are less productive. 
These are particularly preserved by their large size. The 
belone is late in producing its young, and many of them are 
burst by their ova in the act of parturition ; for these ova 
are not so numerous as they are large. They surround the 
parent as if they were phalangia; for she produces them 
attached to herself, and if any one touches them they make 
their escape. The atherina deposits her ova by rubbing her 
abdomen against the sand. The thynni burst with fat. They 
live two years. The fishermen argue thus : when the thyn- 
nides fail one year, the thynni fail the year after. They 
appear to be a year older than the pelamus. 

5. The thynni and scombri copulate at the end of Fe- 
bruary, and produce their young at the beginning of June. 
They produce their ova, as it were, in a purse. The growth 
of the thynnides is rapid ; for when these fish produce their 
young in the Pontus, they produce from the ovum creatures 
which some persons call scordylse, and the Byzantines call 
auxidae, because they grow in a few days. They go out in 
the autumn with the thynnus, and return in the spring as 
pelamides. Nearly all other fish grow rapidly, but those in 
the Pontus more rapidly than in other places ; for the amia3 
there increase visibly every day. It is necessary to re- 
member that the same fish have not in the same place the 
identical time of coition and gestation, nor the same period 
of reproduction and completion of their offspring. For those 
which are called coracini produce their ova at the time of 
wheat harvest, though, generally speaking, the order of their 
reproduction is that which I have mentioned. 

6. The conger also becomes pregnant, though this circum- 
stance is not equally distinct everywhere on account of its 
fat ; for the organ of reproduction is long, like that of ser- 
pents. It becomes distinct, however, when laid upon the 
fire ; for the fat smokes and consumes away, and the ova, 
when pressed, jump out with a cracking noise. If any 
person will feel and rub them with the finger, the fat will 
appear smooth and the ova rough to the touch. Some con- 
gers have fat but no ova ; and others, on the contrary, have 


no fat but such ova as I have described. We have now 
treated of nearly all the oviparous animals, whether furnished 
with fins, or wings, or feet, and of their sexual intercourse, 
gestation, development, and such like subjects. 


1. WE must now treat of the nature of viviparous animals with 
feet and of man at this period. We have already treated in 
general and in particular of their mode of coition. It is 
common to all animals to be elevated with the desire and 
pleasure of sexual intercourse. The females become savage 
when their young are produced, the males at the season of 
coition ; for horses bite each other and drive about and pur- 
sue their riders. The wild boars are very savage at this sea- 
son, although coition renders them weak, 

2. And they fight wonderfully among themselves, and 
make themselves as it were breastplates, and render their 
skin callous beforehand by rubbing themselves against trees 
and frequently wallowing in the mud and drying themselves. 
They fight together and drive each other out of the herd so 
fiercely, that not rarely both of them perish in the fight. 
The same is the nature of bulls, rams, and goats ; for although 
at other seasons they pasture together, at the period of co- 
pulation they quarrel and fight together. The male camel 
also is violent at this time, whether it is a man or a camel that 
approaches him, and he will at all times fight with a horse. 

3. The nature of wild animals is the same. For bears, 
wolves, and lions are savage if they are approached at this 
season ; but they do not quarrel much among themselves, 
for none of them are gregarious. The she bears are savage 
in defence of their cubs, and bitches for their puppies. Ele- 
phants also become wild at this period. Wherefore they say 
that in India those who have the care of them do not permit 
bhem to have sexual intercourse with the females ; for they 
become mad at such season and overturn the houses, which 
are badly built, and do many other violent acts. They say 
also that abundance of food will render them more gentle. 
They also bring others among them which are directed to 
beat them, and so they punish them and reduce them to a 
state of discipline. 

4. Those creatures which have frequent sexual intercourse, 



like domestic animals, as the hog and dog, appear to be less 
influenced by these circumstances on account of the fre- 
quency of their coition. Of all females the mare is the most 
violent in her sexual desires, and then the cow. Mares are 
subject to the affection called hippomania, and this name is 
transferred from this single animal to intemperate and lasci- 
vious persons. They are said to be affected by the wind at 
such seasons : wherefore in Crete they never separate the 
stallions from the mares. When the mares are thus affected, 
they separate themselves from the other horses. In swine 
the same affection is called xangifyiv, to desire the boar. 
They never run to the east or the west, but either north or 

5. When they suffer from this affection, they will allow 
no one to approach them, till they either are so fatigued that 
they can go no further, or come to the sea: they then eject 
some substance, which has received the name of hippomanes, 
like that on a new-born colt. It resembles the capria of 
the sow. Poisoners diligently seek for this substance, /it 
the season of sexual intercourse they lean upon each other 
more than at other times, and move their tails, and utter a 
different sound from that which is common to them. A 
fluid like semen also flows from their genital organs, but it 
is much more thin than that of the male ; and some per- 
sons call this fluid hippomanes, though it is not thai 
which is produced upon colts. It is difficult to collect 
this fluid, for it does not appear in large quantities. 
When they are desirous of sexual intercourse, they often 
make water, and sport together : this is the nature of 

6. Cows desire the bull. They are so taken up by their 
passion, that the cowherds cannot manage them. Mares 
and cows shew the vehemence of their desire by the swelling 
of their genital parts. Cows also, like mares, make water 
very frequently. The cows also mount upon the bull, and 
follow, and stand beside him. The younger animals, both 
among horses and oxen, are the first to desire sexual inter- 
course ; and in fine weather, when their health is good, the 
vehemence of their desire is still stronger. If the manes 
of the mares are cut, their desires become weaker, and they 
are rendered more gentle. 


7. The stallions recognise the mares of their own herds 
by the scent ; and if any strangers become mixed with them 
a few days before the period of coition, they bite them till 
they go away, and each stallion feeds apart with his own 
mares. Thirty mares, or rather less, are given to each ; and 
if any male approaches, he turns and goes round the mares 
in a circle, and then prepares to fight. If any one of the 
females attempts to move, he bites and prevents her. 

8. At the season of sexual intercourse the bull pastures 
with the cows, and fights with other bulls : at other times 
the sexes keep themselves separate : this is called arifjiaytXt/v 
(despising the herd) ; those in Epirus are often not seen for 
three months : and generally all, or nearly all, wild animals, 
do not herd with their females before the season of sexual 
intercourse : but as soon as they come to puberty the males 
separate themselves, and cease to feed with the females. 
Sows, when they are urged by sexual desire, or, as it is 
called, desire the boar (xangav), will even attack men. 
In bitches this affection is called 6xvav, to desire the 

9. "When females are urged with desire, their genital organs 
are swollen with heat, and a fluid secretion takes place. 
Mares scatter about a white fluid at this season. In no 
creatures -are the catamenia so abundant as in women. In 
sheep and goats at the season of coition, there are certain 
signs before copulation : there are also signs ; fter copu- 
lation, but these again cease till the period of parturition, 
when they again occur. By this means shepherds under- 
stand that they are about to produce their young. After 
parturition there is a great purification, which at first is not 
very full of blood, but becomes so afterwards. 

10. In the cow, the ass, and mare, this purification is 
abundant, on account of their great size; but still it is 
small, considering how large they are. When the cow is 
urged by desire, she undergoes a brief purification, about 
half-a-cup full, or a little more. The time of this purification 
is peculiarly the period for sexual intercouse. Of all quad- 
rupeds the mare suffers the least, and is the most cleanly in 
parturition : neither is her loss of blood great considering 
the size of the animal. In cows and mares, the failure of 
the catamenia in the second, fourth, and sixth month is con- 

M 2 


sidered as a sign of pregnancy ; but it is not easy for anyone 
to understand this, who does not follow and accustom him- 
self to them : and some persons are of opinion that they have 
no catamenia. The female oreus has no catamenia, but her 
urine is thicker than that of the male. 

11. On the whole, the liquid excrements are thicker in 
other animals than in man ; and those of female sheep and 
goats thicker than in the males of the same animal. That 
of the she ass is thinner, of the cow is harsher, than of their 
respective males. After parturition the urine of all creatures 
becomes thicker, and especially in those which have no puri- 
fication. When females begin to feel sexual desires, their 
milk is like pus ; it afterwards becomes useful after parturi- 
tion. Sheep and goats become fat when they are pregnant, 
and consume more food ; and so do cows, and all other quad- 


1. GENERALLY speaking, the sexual desires of animals are 
more violent in spring. They do not all, however, copulate 
at the same seasons, but at the time of year which will cause 
them to produce their young at the proper season. The 
period of gestation in domestic swine is four months. They 
never produce more than twenty pigs ; and if they have 
many, they cannot bring them all up. When aged, they 
produce in the same manner, but they copulate more 
slowly. They become pregnant with one act of coition; 
but they submit themselves to the boar very frequently, on 
account of their rejection of the capria after they are preg- 
nant. This takes place in all, but some will also eject the 

2. If any of the pigs are injured or deteriorated during 
pregnancy, it is called metachseron. This may take place in 
any part of the uterus. In parturition the sow gives the 
first teat to the first pig. It is not necessary that she should 
go to the boar as soon as the sexual appetite is felt, or before 
her ears begin to hang down ; for otherwise she desires to 
go again. If she goes to the boar when she is desirous of it, 
the impregnation is complete in a single act of intercourse. 
Barley is a proper food for the boar at the period of coition. 
It should be cooked for the female after parturition. Some 


sows produce excellent pigs from the first ; others do not 
produce good offspring and pigs till they are grown up. 
Some persons say that if one of the eyes of a sow is put out, 
she generally speaking dies very soon. Most of them live 
fifteen. Some die in less than twenty years. 


1. SHEEP become pregnant after three or four acts of sexual 
intercourse. If rain falls after the act of intercourse, it 
must be repeated. The nature of goats is the same. They 
generally produce two, and sometimes three. Cases have 
occurred of their producing four. The period of gestation 
in the sheep and goat is five months ; and in some places, 
where the weather is warm and fine, and food is abundant, 
they have young twice a-year. The goat will live eight 
years. The sheep lives ten years, or generally rather less ; 
but the leaders of the flock live fifteen years ; for in every 
flock they select one of the males as a leader, who, when 
called by the shepherd, places himself at the head of the 
flock. They are accustomed to this duty even when young. 
In Ethiopia the sheep live twelve or thirteen years, and the 
goats ten or eleven. 

2. Both the sheep and goat enjoy sexual intercourse as 
loDg as they live. Sheep and goats produce twins, if either 
the pasture is good, or the ram or he-goat, or the ewe 
belongs to a race producing twins. They produce females 
or males both from the nature of the water (for there are 
some waters that cause them to produce males and others 
females) and from their manner of sexual intercourse ; and 
if the wind is northward during copulation they produce 
males ; and if it is southward, females ; and one which na- 
turally produces females will change its nature and produce 
males ; so that it is necessary to see that they stand to the 
north during the act of sexual intercourse. If any are ac- 
customed to copulate early, and the ram is introduced to 
them late, they will not endure it. 

3. The lambs are white or black according as the veins 
beneath the tongue of the ram are white or black ; for the 
lambs are white if the veins are white, and black if they are 
black. If they are both black and white, the lambs also are 
of two colours ; and if red, then the lambs are red. They 


are more ready for sexual intercourse if they drink salt 
water ; so that they should be supplied with salted water 
both before and after parturition, and again in the spring. 
The herdsmen do not constitute any leader among the flocks 
of goats, because it is not their nature to be stationary, but 
they are active and ready to move from place to place. If 
the older sheep prepare for sexual intercourse at the proper 
time, the shepherds consider it a sign of a good year for the 
sheep ; if the younger ones are ready first, it will be a bad 
sheep year. 


1. THERE are many kinds of dogs. The Lacedemonian dogs, 
both male and female, begin to have sexual intercourse at 
eight months old. Some also lift their leg to make water 
about this period. The bitch becomes pregnant with a single 
act of coition ; this is particularly evident in those -which per- 
form the act in secret, for they become pregnant when once 
united. The period of gestation in the Lacedemonian bitch 
is the sixth part of a year, that is sixty days, or it may be one, 
two, or three days more or less. The puppies when they 
are born are blind for twelve days. The bitch is ready for 
sexual intercourse six months after she has produced her 
young, and not sooner. In some the period of gestation 
is the fifth part of a year, this is seventy-two days. The 
puppies of such bitches are blind for fourteen days. Others 
are pregnant the fourth part of a year, that is three whole 
months ; their puppies are blind seventeen days. The fe- 
male appears to desire the male for the same length of time. 
2. The catamenia in bitches last for seven days, and at 
the same time the genital organs are swollen with heat ; 
during this period they will not endure coition, but during 
the seven days which follow, for they all appear usually to 
desire the male for fourteen days. This affection continues 
in some for sixteen days. The purification from parturition 
takes place at the birth of the young ones ; it is thick 
and phlegmatic, and the quantity produced in partu- 
rition is small in proportion to the size of the body/ 
Bitches generally have milk five days before parturition ; in 

1 (Or perhaps) after parturition the discharge becomes thinner in 


some cases it appears seven, and in others four days before- 
hand ; the milk is good as soon as the young are born. The 
Lacedemonian bitch gives milk in thirty days after sexual 
intercourse ; at first it is thick, but becomes thinner after- 
wards. The milk of the bitch is thicker than that of other 
animals, except the sow and the hare. 

3. There is evidence of their having reached the age of pu- 
berty, for as in the human subject the mammae begin to 
enlarge and become cartilaginous ; it is, however, difficult to 
detect this without practice, for the enlargement is not very 
great. This takes place in the female, nothing of the kind 
occurs in the male. The males generally begin to lift up their 
leg to make water when they are six months old. Some do 
not do so till they are eight months old, and others before 
they are six months old, for, to speak plainly, they do this as 
soon as they reach puberty ; all the females sit down to make 
water : some, however, even of these lift up their leg for 
this purpose. The female never produces more than twelve 
puppies, generally five or six, and sometimes only one ; 
those of Lacedremon generally have eight ; both sexes con- 
tinue to enjoy sexual intercourse as long as they live. 

4. It is a peculiarity of the Lacedemonian dog, that it is 
more ready for sexual intercourse after hard work than when 
idle ; the male of this kind lives ten years, the female for twelve, 
most other dogs live fourteen or fifteen years, some even 
twenty, for which reason some persons think that Homer is 
right when he makes the dog of Ulysses to have died at 
the age of twenty. On account of the hard work which the 
Lacedemonian dogs have to endure the female lives longer 
than the male ; in other races this is not so plainly observed, 
but the male is usually longer lived than the female. The 
dog does not shed any teeth except those called the canine 
teeth, these are shed by both sexes at four months old. 
Because they shed these only, a question is raised, for some 
persons altogether deny that they shed only two teeth, for 
it is difficult to meet with these, and others, when they see 
that they shed these, think that they must shed all their 
teeth. People judge of the age of a dog by its teeth, for in 
voung dogs they are white and sharp, in old ones they are 
black and blunted. 



1. THE cow is impregnated with a single act of coition, 
and the bull mounts upon her with such violence that she 
bands beneath his weight. If he fails to impregnate her 
after twenty days, she is again admitted to the bull. Old 
bulls will not mount the same cow several times in the 
same day unless there is some intermission, but young bulls, 
incited by the strength of their desires, will force the same 
cow several times, and will mount upon many in succession. 
The bull is one of the least lascivious of animals. The 
conqueror copulates with the female, but if he become im- 
potent from frequent sexual intercourse, the inferior will 
attack him, and often prevail. 

2. Both the male and the female commence sexual inter- 
course, so as to produce young, at a year old, though not 
generally till they are a year and eight months old, or two 
years old according to general agreement. The female is 
pregnant nine months, and produces her young in the tenth 
month ; some persons affirm that parturition takes place at 
ten months to a day ; if any of them calve before the above 
mentioned time, the calf is abortive and does not live, and 
even if born a little before the proper time it cannot live, 
for the hoofs are imperfect. The female generally produces 
one at a time, sometimes two. She continues to bear and 
to have sexual intercourse as long as she lives. 

3. The female usually lives fifteen years, and so does 
the male if he is not castrated ; some live for more than 
twenty years if they have an active body. They usually 
place castrated oxen as leaders of the herd, as they do in 
sheep, and these live longer than the others, for they do 
no work, and feed in a superior pasture. They attain per- 
fection at five years old, wherefore some say that Homer 
was right when he spoke of the male flourishing at five 
years old, and the cow at nine years old, for both expres- 
sions have the same meaning. 

4. Oxen change their teeth at two years old, not all of them, 
however, but only like the horse ; they do not cast their hoofs 
when they are lame, but only swell very much about the 
feet. The milk is good immediately after calving, but the 
cow has no milk beforehand. The milk which is first formed 


becomes hard like a stone when it is coagulated ; this takes 
place if it is not mixed with water. They do not produce 
young before they are a year old, except in some remarkable 
cases, for some have been known to copulate at four months 
old. Most of them desire sexual intercourse in the months 
of April and May. Some, however, are not impregnated 
before the autumn. When many become pregnant and 
admit the male, it is a sign of cold and rainy weather. The 
usual discharges occur in cows as they do in mares, but the 
quantity is less. 


1. BOTH the horse and mare begin to use sexual intercourse 
at two years old. Such early cases, however, are rare, and 
their offspring small and weak ; and generally they com- 
mence at three years old, and they continue to produce 
better colts till they are twenty years old. The period of 
gestation is eleven months; parturition takes place in the 
twelfth. The male does not impregnate the female in any 
particular number of days ; but at times in one, two, or 
three, sometimes in more. The ass mounts and impregnates 
more quickly than the horse ; and the act of intercourse is 
not laborious in horses as it is in oxen. Next to the human 
subject, the horse in both sexes is the most lascivious of all 
animals. The sexual intercourse of the younger horses takes 
place before the usual age according to the goodness and 
abundance of their food. The horse generally produces but 
one colt, or sometimes two at the outside. The hemionus has 
also been known to produce two, but this is considered extra- 
ordinary. The horse begins sexual intercourse at thirty 
months old, so that it can produce proper colts when it has 
done changing its teeth. Some have been known, they say, 
to impregnate mares while changing their teeth, unless they 
were naturally barren. 

2. The horse has forty teeth. It sheds its four first teeth 
at thirty months old, two above and two below. A year 
afterwards, it sheds four more in the same manner, two 
above and two below. And again, at the end of the next 
year, it sheds four more in the same manner. "When it is 
four years and a half old, it sheds no more ; and individuals 
hava 'been known to shed them all at first, and others that 


have shed them all in the last year. These circumstances 
are rare, so that it usually happens that the horse is most 
fit for sexual intercourse at four years and a half old. The 
older horses are more full of semen, both the males and the 
females, than younger ones. Horses will copulate both with 
their dams and with their offspring ; and it is thought to be 
a sign that the herd is complete, when they copulate with 
their offspring. The Scythians ride upon their pregnant 
mares when the embryo begins to turn in the uterus, and 
say that it renders parturition more easy. All other quad- 
rupeds lie down in the act of parturition ; wherefore their 
young are always produced lying on their side ; but when 
the mare feels that the time for parturition is approaching, 
she stands upright to part with her colt. 

3. Horses generally live eighteen or twenty years ; some 
live twenty -five or thirty years ; but if they are carefully 
treated, their life may be extended to fifty years. Thirty 
years, however, is a very long life for the male, and twenty- 
five for the female. Some have been known to live forty 
years. Males live a shorter time than females, on account 
of the act of sexual intercourse ; and those that are brought 
up separately longer than those which live in herds. Fe- 
males attain their proper length and height in five years ; 
the males in six. In six more years the fulness of body is 
acquired, which continues till they are twenty years old. 
The females attain perfection more rapidly than the males ; 
but in the uterus the males are the more rapidly developed. 
This is also the case in the human subject. This also takes 
place in those animals which produce several at a birth. 

4. They say that the mule sucks for six months, but the 
mare will not permit it to come afterwards, because it 
drags and hurts her. The horse sucks for a longer time. 
The horse and the mule attain perfection after casting 
their teeth ; and when* they have cast them all, it is not 
easy to know their age. "Wherefore they say that, before 
casting its teeth, the horse has its mark, which it has not 
afterwards. After the teeth have been changed, the age 
is usually ascertained by the canine tooth ; for that in 
riding horses is generally worn down, for the bridle rubs 
against it. In horses which have not been ridden, it is large 
and not worn. In young horses it is small and sharp. 


5. The male copulates at all seasons, and as long as ho 
lives ; the female also as long as she lives ; and at all seasons, 
unless they have on a fastening or some other hindrance, no 
peculiar time is appropriated for copulation in either sex, 
for there is no period of coition when they cannot also bring 
up their young. In Opus there was a horse in a herd 
which engendered when he was forty years old ; but it was 
necessary to lift up his fore legs for him. Mares begin to 
desire sexual intercourse in the spring ; and when the mare 
has foaled, she does not become pregnant again immediately, 
but waits for a time^ and produces better foals at the end of 
four or five years. It is quite necessary that she should 
wait one year, and should pass through a fallow, as it were. 

6. The horse, then, bears young at intervals, as I have 
observed ; but the ass is not subject to intervals. Some 
mares are quite barren, and others, though they conceive, 
yet do not produce their young ; and they give as a reason 
for this, that .upon dissection the foetus was found to contain 
other reniform bodies round the kidneys, so that it appeared 
to have four kidneys. As soon as the mare has foaled, she 
eats the chorion, and bites from the head of her foal the 
substance called hippomanes. In size this substance is 
somewhat less than a dry fig. Its form is flat and round, 
and its colour black. If any person is at hand to take it 
before the mare, and she smells it, the scent renders her 
wild and mad. For this reason it is sought after and col- 
lected by poisoners. If an ass copulates with a pregnant 
mare, the pre-existing foetus is destroyed. Those who keep 
herds of horses do not place a leader ove them, as they do 
over oxen, for they are not naturally stationary, but active 
and wandering. 


1. THE male and female ass begin to copulate at thirty 
months old, and shed their first teeth at the same period. 
They lose their second pair of teeth six months afterwards, 
and their third and fourth in the same way. These fourth 
teeth are called the marking teeth. Sometimes the ass has 
become pregnant and brought up its young at a year old. 
The she ass parts with the semen after coition, if she is not 
prevented ; and therefore, immediately after coition, they 


beat her and drive her about. She foals in the twelfth 
month, and generally produces one foal, for this is their 
nature, though cases of twin births have occurred. If an 
ass mounts upon a mare, he destroys her foetus, as I observed 
before. But the horse does not destroy the foetus of the 
ass, if the mare has been impregnated by a he ass. 

2. The pregnant female has milk at the end of ten months. 
After parturition, she will admit the male on the seventh 
day, and is very easily impregnated at that period. She 
will also receive it afterwards. If she does not produce 
young before losing her marking teeth, she can never be 
impregnated all the rest of her life. She does not like men 
to be witnesses of her parturition, nor will she produce her 
young in the day time ; but when it is dark she retires, and 
so produces her young. She continues to procreate during 
her whole life, if she has begun before losing her marking 
teeth. The ass lives more than thirty years, and the female 
longer than the male. When a horse copulates with an ass, 
or a he ass with a mare, abortion is more frequent than be- 
tween congeners, a horse with a mare, or two asses together. 
"When the horse and ass are mixed together, the period of 
gestation follows from the male parent. I mean to say that 
it takes the same time as if the parents had been congeners ; 
but in size, form, and strength the produce of their union 
generally resembles the female parent. 

3. If the union takes place frequently, and sufficient time 
is not allowed to intervene, the female soon becomes barren. 
For which reason those who attend to this business do not 
permit them to Ifave continual intercourse, but interpose a 
proper interval. The mare will not admit the he ass, nor 
the she ass the horse, unless the he ass has been suckled by 
a mare. They are careful, therefore, to admit only those 
asses which they call hippothelse, i.e. asses which have been 
suckled by a mare. These copulate by force in the pastures, 
like horses. 


1. THE oreus (mule) mounts and copulates after shedding 
the first teeth, and when seven years old is able to engender ; 
and the ginnus is produced when he mounts upon a mare. 
After this he no longer continues to copulate. The female 


oreus also has been impregnated, but the foetus has never 
been known to conie to maturity. The hemioni (female 
mules) of Syria, near Phoenicia, admit the male and pro- 
create. The kind, however, though similar, is not the same, 
Those which are called ginni are produced from a mare, 
when the foetus has received some injury in the uterus, like 
dwarfs among men and metachoera among swine ; and the 
ginnus, like the dwarf, has a large genital organ. 

2. The hemionus has a long life; for they have been 
known to live for eighty years, as in Athens, when they 
built the temple, this individual, though failing with age, 
helped in drawing, and went beside them, and encou- 
raged the yoke mules to their work, so that an edict M r as 
made, commanding the corn-dealers not to drive it away 
from the vessels filled with corn. The female mule (oreus) 
grows old sooner than the male. Some persons say that she 
is purified when making water, but the male ages more 
rapidly from smelling the urine. 

3. This is the manner of the reproduction of these ani- 
mals. Those who are employed in bringing up these animals 
recognize the young from the old in this way. If the skin, 
when drawn back from the cheek, soon recovers its shape, 
the animal is young ; if the skin continues wrinkled for a 
long while, the creature is aged. 


1. THE camel is pregnant ten months, and always produces 
a single young one, for this is its nature. They separate 
the young camel from the herd at a year old. The camel 
will live more than fifty years. The season of parturition 
is in the spring, and the female continues to give milk until 
she conceives again. Their flesh and milk are exceedingly 
sweet. The milk is drunk mixed with two or three times 
its quantity of water. 

2. Elephants begin to copulate at twenty years old. "When 
the female is impregnated, her period of gestation, some per- 
sons say, is a year and a half; other people make it three 
years. The difficulty of seeing their copulation causes this 
difference of opinion respecting the period of gestation. The 
female produces her young bending upon her haunches. 
Her pain is evident. The calf, when it is born, sucks with 


its mouth, and not with its proboscis. It can walk and see 
as soon as it is born. 

3. Wild swine copulate at the beginning of winter. They 
produce their young in the spring. For this purpose the 
female gets away into inaccessible and precipitous places, 
where there are caves and plenty of shade. The males re- 
main with the females for thirty days. The number of pigs 
and the period of gestation are the same as in the domesti- 
cated herd, and their voices are much alike : the female, 
however, grunts more and the male less. The castration of 
the male makes them larger and more fierce, as Homer 
writes. " He brought up a castrated wild boar, which was not 
like a beast fed upon food, but resembled a woody moun- 
tain peak." Castration takes place from a disease like a 
swelling in the testicles, which they rub against the trees 
and so destroy them. 


1. THE female deer usually copulates, as I observed before, 
from allurement ; for she cannot endure the male on account 
of the hardness of the penis. Some, however, endure copu- 
lation as sheep do. "When sexual desire is felt, they lie 
down beside each other. The male is changeable in his dis- 
position, and does not unite himself to a single female, but 
in a short time leaves one for another. The season for 
sexual intercourse is in August and September, after Arctu- 
rus. The period of gestation is eight months. The female 
becomes pregnant in a few days, and frequently in one day. 

2. She generally produces one fawn, though some have 
been known to bear twins. She produces her young by the 
road side, for fear of wild beasts. The growth of the fawns 
is rapid. The female has no purification at other times, but 
after parturition her cleansing is sanguineous. The female 
usually conducts her fawn to some accustomed place, which 
serves them for a refuge. It is usually an opening in a 
rock, with but one entrance, where they can defend them- 
selves against those who would attack them. 

3. There are fables about their long life. They do not, 
however, appear to be worthy of credit ; and the period of 
gestation and growth of the young does not agree with the 
habits of long-lived animals. In the mountain called Eter 


piio'is, in Argiuusa, in Asia, where Alcibiades died, all cbe 
deer have their ears divided, so that they can be known if 
they migrate to another place, and even the foetus in utero 
has this distinction. The females have four nipples, like 

4. As soon as the females are impregnated, the males go 
and live apart from them, and, urged by their sexual desires, 
they each go apart and make a hole, in which they emit a 
strong smell like he goats, and their faces become black, by 
being sprinkled like those of goats. This continues till 
after rain, when they turn again to their pasture. The 
animal acts in this way on account of its violent sexual de- 
sires and its fatness. In summer time this is so great 
that they cannot run, but are taken by those who pursue 
them, even on foot, in the second or third race. 

5. They frequent the water both on account of the heat 
and the difficulty of breathing. At the period of sexual 
intercourse, their flesh is inferior both in taste and smell, 
like that of he-goats. In winter they are thin and weak, 
and in the spring are most active for the chase. When 
chased, they sometimes rest awhile, and remain standing till 
their pursuers come up with them, when they start afresh. 
They seem to do this from a pain in their intestines ; for 
their viscera are so thin and weak that if they are only 
struck gently they are ruptured, though the hide remains 


1. BEARS perform the act of sexual intercourse in the man- 
ner already described, not mounting upon each other, but 
lying down upon the ground. The female is pregnant thirty 
days, when she produces one or two, or at the outside five 
cubs. The foetus is smaller, in proportion to the size of the 
parent, than that of any other animal ; for it is less than a 
weasel, and greater than a mouse. It is without hair and 
blind, and its legs and almost all its parts are without 
joints. Its season of sexual intercourse is in March. 
The cubs are born at the time of concealment. At this 
season both the female and the male are very fat. When 
they have brought up their young, they show themselves 
in the third month of the spring. The porcupine also 


conceals itself, and is pregnant for the same number of 
days, and in other respects resembles the bear. It is very 
difficult to capture the she bear when pregnant. 


1. IT has already been observed that the lion both copulates 
and makes water backwards. They do not copulate and 
produce their young at all seasons of the year, though they 
produce annually. The young are produced in the spring. 
The female generally produces two, never more than six, 
and sometimes only one. The fable which says that the 
uterus is ejected in parturition is a mistake. It has arisen 
from the rarity of the animal, those who invented the fable 
being ignorant of the true state of the case. The race of 
lions is rare, and not to be found in every place, but only in 
the country between the Achelous and the Nessus in the 
whole of Europe. The young of the lion are very small at 
their birth, so that they can hardly walk at two months old. 
The Syrian lions produce five times ; at first five cubs, and 
then one less every time. After this they produce no more, 
but continue barren. The lioness has no mane, though the 
lion has. The lion only sheds its four canine teeth, two 
above and two below. They are shed when the animal is 
six months old. 

2. The hyasna is of the colour of the wolf, but it is more 
hairy, and has a mane along the ridge of its back. It is a 
mistake to say that each individual has the sexual organs of 
both sexes. That of the male resembles the same organ in 
the wolf and the dog. That which has been imagined to be 
the female organ is placed beneath the tail, and it resembles 
that of the female, but is imperforate, and the anus is be- 
neath it. The female hyena has an organ similar to that 
which bears its name in the male. It is placed beneath the 
tail, and is imperforate. Beneath this is the anus, and below 
this again the true genital organ. The female hyena has an 
uterus like that of other animals of the class, but the female 
is rarely captured. A certain hunter said that he caught 
eleven hyaenas of which only one was a female. 

3. Hares copulate backwards, as I formerly observed, for 
it is a retromingent animal. They copulate and produce 


their young at all seasons. They become pregnant a second 
time while they are pregnant, and produce their young every 
month. They do not produce their young continually, but 
as many days as may be intervene. The female has milk 
before the young are produced. As soon as her young are 
born, she copulates again, and conceives while giving milk. 
Tne milk is as thick as that of the sow. The young are 
born blind, like those of many animals with divided feet. 


] . THE fox copulates, mounting on the back of the female. 
The young are born blind, like those of the bear, and are 
even more inarticulate. When the season of parturition 
approaches, the female goes apart, so that it is rare to take 
a pregnant fox. When the young are born, the dam licks 
them, in order to warm and mature them. She never pro- 
duces more than four. 

2. The periods of gestation and parturition, both in point of 
time and the number of the young, are the same in the wolf as 
in the dog, and the young are blind, like those of the dog. 
They copulate at one season of the year, and the young are 
produced in the beginning of summer. A fabulous story 
is told of their parturition ; for they say that all the she 
wolves produce their young in twelve days in the year ; and 
the reason which is given for this fable is this, that during this 
number of days Latona was brought from the Hyperborean 
regions to Delos, in the form of a wolf, for fear of Juno. 
Whether this is or is not the period of parturition has never 
yet been ascertained. At present it only rests upon tra- 
dition. It does not appear to be true, nor that other tale 
which says that wolves only produce once in their life. 

3. Cats and ichneumons produce their young in the same 
manner as dogs, and live upon the same things. They live 
about six years. The young of the panther are born blind. 
They are never more than four in number. The jackal 
is impregnated like a bitch, and the young are born blind. 
They produce two, or three, or four. Its length towards 
the tail is great. Its height is small. It runs very swiftly, 
although its legs are short ; but on account of the softness 
of its tissues it can leap a great distance. 

4. In Syria there are animals called hemioni which are 


different from those derived from a mixture of the horse and 
ass, though they resemble them in appearance. As the wild 
ass is named from its resemblance to the domestic kind, the 
wild asses and the hemioni differ from the domestic race in 
speed. These hemioni are derived from their own congeners, 
of which this is a proof. For some came to Phrygia in the 
time of Pharnaces, the father of Pharnabazus, and remain 
there still. There are now only three, though they say that 
at first there were nine. 


1. THE reproduction of mice is more wonderful than that 
of any other animal, both in number and rapidity. For a 
pregnant female was left in a vessel of corn ; and after a 
short time the vessel was opened, and a hundred and twenty 
mice were counted. There is a doubt respecting the re- 
production and destruction of the mice which live on the 
ground ; for such an inexpressible number of field mice have 
sometimes made their appearance that very little food re- 
mained. Their power of destruction also is so great that 
some small farmers, having on one day observed that their 
corn was ready for harvest, when they went the following 
day to cut their corn, found it all eaten. 

2. The manner of their disappearance also is unac- 
countable ; for in a few days they all vanish, although be- 
forehand they could not be exterminated by smoking and 
digging them out, nor by hunting them and turning swine 
among them to root up their runs. Foxes also hunt them 
out, and wild weasels 1 are very ready to destroy them ; but 
they cannot prevail over their numbers and the rapidity of 
their increase, nor indeed can anything prevail over them 
but rain, and when this comes they disappear very soon. 

3. In a certain part of Persia the female foetus of the mice 
are found to be pregnant in the uterus of their parent. 
Some people say and affirm that if they lick salt they become 
pregnant without copulation. The Egyptian mice have hair 
nearly resembling that of the hedgehog. There are other 
kinds which go upon two feet, for their fore feet are small 
and their hind feet large. 2 They are very numerous. There 
are also many other kinds of mice. 

J Perhaps ferret, Mustek varo, or weasel. 
2 Serboa, Dipus gerbillus, or D. jacuius. 




1. THE circumstances attending on the growth of man, from 
his conception in the womb even to old age, derived from his 
peculiar nature, are after this manner. We have already 
treated of the distinctions of the male and female and their 
parts. The male begins to have semen at about the age of 
fourteen complete. At the same time hair begins to appear on 
the pubes. As Alcmaeon of Crotona says that flowers blossom 
before they bear seed, about the same period the voice begins 
to become more harsh and irregular. It is neither quite 
harsh, nor deep, nor all alike, but it resembles a discordant 
and harsh instrument. This is called rgaytjs/u, to have a 
voice like a goat. 

2. This is more conspicuous in those who attempt the 
gratification of sexual desires ; for those who are vehement 
in these desires rapidly pass into a man's voice. In those 
that refrain themselves the contrary occurs. In those who, 
like some singers, endeavour to avoid this change, the voice 
will continue for a long while, and never undergo any great 
change. The breasts also and pudendum not only increase 
in size, but their general appearance is changed. At this 
period of life, if a person is' urged to the emission of semen, 
the discharge is accompanied with pain as well as pleasure. 

3. About the same period also the breasts of females en- 
large, and the catamenia make their appearance. They re- 
semble the blood of a newly killed animal. In young girls 
only do they appear white, especially if they make use of 
fluid food. This complaint stops the growth and weakens 
the body of girls. The catamenia usually appear when the 
mammae are about two fingers high. The voice of girls also 
becomes deeper at this period, for on the whole the voice of 
women is more acute than that of men, and the voice of 
girls than that of old women, as the voice of boys is more 

3T 2 


acute than the voice of men. The voice of female children 
also is more acute than that of males, and the windpipe is 
more acute in girls than boys. 

4. They also want especial care at this period, for their 
sexual desires are very strong at the commencement, so 
that if they now take care to avoid every excitement, except 
such as the change of their body requires, without using 
venery, they generally remain temperate in after-years. For 
girls who indulge in venery when young, generally grow up 
intemperate ; and so do males if they are unguarded either 
one way or both ways ; for at this age the ducts open, and 
afford an easy passage for the fluid through the body, and 
at the same time the memory of past pleasures causes a 
desire for present gratification. 

9. Some men never have hair on the pubes from their 
birth, nor seed, on account of the destruction of the parts 
appropriated to the semen. There are some women also 
who never have hair on the pubes. The male and female 
also change their habits of sickness and of health, and 
the proportions of their body, whether slight or stout, 
or of a good habit. Some thin boys after they attain 
puberty become stout and healthy, in others the contrary 
takes place. This is the case also with females ; for whe- 
ther boys or girls have their bodies loaded with excre- 
mentitious matter, this is separated in the one by puberty, 
in the other by the catamenia. They become more healthy 
and thriving when that which had prevented health and 
growth is removed. 

6. Those which are of the contrary habit of body become 
more thin and delicate ; for their naturally healthy condi- 
tion is separated in the puberty of one sex., and the cata- 
menia of the other. There is also considerable variety in 
the bosoms of young girls, for in some they are very large, 
in others small. This generally takes place in those girls 
which have much superfluous humour, for when the cata- 
menia are about to appear, but before they arrive, the more 
fluid the patient is, the more necessary it is that the breasts 
should increase until the catamenia make their appearance, 
and the breasts, which then begin to increase, remain so after- 
wards. In youths and aged men the breasts are more con- 
spicuous, and more like those of females ; and in those who 


are of a soft habit of body, and are smooth and not full of 
veins, and in dark persons also more than fair ones. 

7. Until twenty-one years of age the semen is unpro- 
ductive, afterwards it becomes fertile, though boys and girls 
produce small and imperfect children : this is also the case 
with other animals. Young girls conceive more readily, 
but after conception suffer more in parturition, and their 
bodies frequently become imperfect. Men of violent pas- 
sions, and women that have borne many children, grow old 
more rapidly than others ; nor does there appear to be any 
increase after they have borne three children. Women of 
violent sexual desires become more temperate after they 
have borne several children. 

8. Women who have attained thrice seven years are well 
adapted for child-bearing, and men also are capable of- be- 
coming parents. Thin seminal fluid is barren. That which 
is lumpy begets males ; what is thin and not clotted, females. 
The beard also appears on the chin of men at the same 


1. THE catamenia appear when the moon is on the wane, from 
which some persons would argue that the moon is a female, 
for the purification of women and the waning of the moon 
occur together, and repletion occurs again in both after the 
purification and waning. In few women the catamenia 
occur every month, but in most at every third month. 
Those in whom they continue for only two or three days 
escape with ease: it is more difficult for those in whom 
it continues for a longer time, for they suffer during the 
whole period. In some the purification takes place all at 
once, in others by degrees ; in all, however, the pain is con- 
siderable as long as they are present. In many wo- 
men, when the catamenia are nearly ready to appear, the 
womb suffers so much from strangulation and disturbance, 
until they are discharged. 

2. Conception naturally takes place immediately after 
this discharge in women, and those who do not then con- 
ceive, are usually barren. Some women, however, who 
have never menstruated, conceive. Such persons contain 
in themselves as much of the fluid as is usually left behind 


after the purification, but not so much as to make its ap- 
pearance externally. Some women in whom the uterus has 
closed immediately after the purification, conceive even while 
menstruating, but do not conceive afterwards. The cata- 
rnenia sometimes occur even in pregnant women. Such 
women usually bear imperfect children, and their offspring 
either do not grow up, or are weakly. 

3. It frequently happens that from the want of sexuai 
intercourse, or from youth and the period of life, or from 
long abstinence, the uterus descends, and the catamenia 
occur several times in the month, until they conceive; after 
which the parts return to their proper place : and sometimes 
even in women with a good habit of body, if the humours 
are abundant, an effusion of the semen takes place if it is 
too moist. 

4. It has already been observed that this purification is 
more abundant in women than in any other creature. In 
animals that are not viviparous no symptoms of anything of 
the kind occur, for this superfluous matter is returned into 
their own body, for in many the females are superior to the 
males in size, and in many it is turned to the formation of 
plates, or scales, or abundance of feathers. In viviparous ani- 
mals with feet, it is turned to the formation of hair and bulk 
of body (for man is the only animal that is smooth), or of 
urine ; for in almost all animals this secretion is thick and 
abundant. In women, on the contrary, all the superfluous 
matter of the body is directed to this purification. 

5. The case of the male is the same, for in proportion to 
his size, man emits more semen than other animals ; (where- 
fore, also, man is the smoothest of all animals,) and among 
men those which abound in humours, and are not very full 
fleshed, and fair men more than dark ones. So also among 
women. For in those that are full fleshed, the greater part 
of the secretion goes to the supply of the body, and in the 
act of sexual intercourse, fair women have naturally more 
seminal fluid than dark ones. Liquid and acid foods also 
increase this kind of intercourse. 


1. It is a sign that women have conceived when the puden- 
dum remains dry after coition. If the labia are smooth they 


will not conceive, for it slips out ; nor will they if the labia 
are thick : but if there is a sensation of roughness and re- 
sistance when touched with the finger, and the labia are 
thin, they are then adapted for conception. In order that 
they may be able to conceive, such women must prepare the 
uterus, and the contrary that they may not conceive ; for 
if the labia are smooth they do not conceive : so that some 
women, in order that the semen may fall outside the uterus, 
anoint themselves with oil of cedar, or with ceruse, or oil 
mixed with frankincense. 

2. If it remain seven days, it is evident that conception 
has taken place, for in this period what are called the out- 
pourings take place. The purification takes place in many 
women after conception. Thirty days afterwards in the 
case of conceiving a female child, and forty in the case of 
a male. After parturition, also, the purification lasts a simi- 
lar number of days, though it is not exactly the same in all. 

3. In the same number of days after conception the dis- 
charge no longer takes its usual course, but is turned towards 
the mammae, in which the milk begins to make its appearance. 
At first the milk appears very small, and like a web in the 
mammae. After conception, the first sensation generally 
takes place in the iliac region, which immediately appears 
more full in some persons. This is more conspicuous in 
slight persons. If the child is a male, a movement is usually 
felt on the right side of the groin, in about forty days ; if a 
female, the movement occurs on the left side, in about 
ninety days. We must not suppose, however, that an accu- 
rate judgment can be formed in this way, for it often happens 
that the movement is felt on the right side when a female 
child, and on the left when a male child is conceived. All 
these, and such like things, vary in a greater or less degree. 

4. About this period, also, the foetus becomes divided ; it 
previously existed as an undivided mass of flesh. If it pe- 
rishes within seven days, it is called an effluxion ; if in 
forty days, an abortion. The foetus often perishes within 
this period. If the male foetus is excluded within forty 
days, and is put out into any other fluid, it becomes dis- 
solved, and disappears. If placed in cold water, it becomes, 
as it were, surrounded with a membrane. When this is 
taken off, the foetus appears about as large as a large 


ant. Its parts are visible, both those of generation, and all 
the rest ; and the eyes are very large, as in other animals. 
It' the female foetus perishes within the three months, it 
generally appears without divisions. If it survives to the 
fourth month, the parts appear formed. 

5. The whole completion of the parts is more slow in the 
female than in the male, and parturition is more frequently 
delayed to the tenth month. After birth, females attain to 
youth, and puberty, and old age, more rapidly than males, 
and those that have borne many children more rapidly than 
others, as it was observed before. 


1. WHEN conception has taken place, the uterus usually 
closes immediately for seven mouths. In the eighth month it 
opens, and the foetus, if properly developed, begins to descend 
in the eighth month. If the foetus is not properly deve- 
loped, but checked in the eighth month in parturition, 
women who bear in the eighth month do not exclude it, nor 
does the foetus advance downwards in the eighth month, 
and the uterus does not open itself. It is a sign that it is 
not properly developed, when it is born before the circum- 
stances I have described take place. 

2. After conception, women suffer throughout their whole 
body, and their sight becomes dim, and they are afflicted 
with headache. In some, these symptoms occur very soon, 
as early as the tenth day ; in others they are delayed, in 
proportion as they have an abundance or deficiency of super- 
fluous matter in their bodies. Nausea and vomiting often 
seize upon them, and on those especially in whom the puri- 
fications become stagnant, and do not yet fly to the mamma3. 
Some women suffer at the commencement of pregnancy, and 
others in the more advanced stages, when the foetus be- 
gins to grow. Eetention of urine also frequently attacks 
them at last. 

3. Those that are pregnant with a male foetus, usually 
pass through the time more easily, and retain a better 
colour throughout. If a female is conceived, the contrary is 
the case ; for they are generally more discoloured, and 
suffer more during the period of gestation. In many cases 
the legs swell, and a swollen condition of the flesh is also com- 


mon. In some women, however, the condition is contrary. 
Pregnant women are apt to have all sorts of fancies, which 
change very rapidly. Some persons call this longing. 
These fancies are strongest when a female is conceived, and 
there is but little pleasure in their gratification. In a few 
women the condition of the body is better during preg- 
nancy ; they suffer most when the hair of the foetus begins 
to grow. Pregnant women lose the hair which grows on 
the parts that are hairy at birth, while it becomes more 
thick upon the parts on which it appears subsequent to 

4. A male foetus usually moves more freely in the womb 
than a female, and the parturition is not so long. If a fe- 
male, the parturition is slower. The pain in the birth of 
female children is continuous, and dull; in the birth of 
males it is sharp, and far more severe. Those who, before 
parturition, have sexual intercourse, suffer less in the pro- 
cess. Sometimes women seem to suffer, not from any pain 
of their own, but from the turning of the head of the child ; 
and this appears to be the commencement of the pain. 
Other animals have a single exact period for parturition, 
for one time is appointed for them all. The human subject 
alone varies in this particular, for the period of gestation is 
seven, eight, or nine months, or ten at the outside, though 
some have even advanced as far as the eleventh month. 

5. If any are born before the seventh month, they never 
live. Those of seven months are the first that are developed, 
but these are usually weakly, wherefore, also, they wrap 
them in wool. Many of these infants have the passages, 
as the ears and nostrils, imperforate. As they grow, how- 
ever, they assume a proper form, and many of them survive. 
In Egypt, and some other places, where the women suffer 
little pain in parturition, and where they bear many chil- 
dren with ease, those even at the end of eight months are 
capable of living, even although they should be monstrous ; 
but in such places children born in the eighth month may 
survive and be brought up. In Greece, however, few of 
them survive, and most of them perish ; and people suspect 
that if any of them survive, the exact period of conception 
must have been mistaken by the mother. 

6. Women suffer most in the fourth and eighth month. 


and if the foetus dies in the fourth or eighth month, they 
usually die also ; so that not only children born in the eighth 
month often perish, but their mothers also perish with them. 
In the same way, the period of conception probably is mistaken 
by those who have been pregnant more than eleven months ; 
for in these cases the beginning of the conception escapes 
the notice of females, for frequently after the uterus baa 
been distended with flatulence, women have copulated and 
conceived, and supposed that the former condition in which 
they observed the usual symptoms, was the commencement 
of gestation. 


1. THE human subject also differs from other animals, as 
to the number of the perfect offspring produced at a birth. 
For the human subject differs both from animals which 
produce but one, and those which produce many; for, 
generally speaking, and, in most cases, women have but 
one child at a time, though cases of twins occur frequently, 
and in many places, as inr Egypt, three or four at a 
birth have been known in some particular places, as I 
have observed before. Five at a birth are the most that have 
been produced. This has been observed to take place in 
many cases, but in one case only have twenty been pro- 
duced at four births, for five were born each time, and many 
of them were reared. In other animals, if the twins are 
male and female, there is no more difficulty in rearing and 
preserving them, than if they were both of the same sex. 
In the human subject there are few cases of twins surviving, 
when one was male and the other female. 

2. The human female and the mare copulate after con- 
ception more than any other creatures, for all other females, 
when they have conceived, fly from the males, except those 
which, like the hare, become pregnant a second time during 
gestation. But the mare, having once conceived, does not 
form a second foetus, but generally produces a single foal. 
In the human subject it happens sometimes, though rarely. 
Those which are conceived a long while afterwards never 
come to perfection, but, from the pain which they cause, 
destroy the original foetus ; and a case has occurred in 
which twelve imperfect embryos have been produced at 


one time. If the second conception take place soon after 
the first, they bear and produce the foetus, as if it were a 
twin. This, they say, was the case with Iphicles and Her- 

3. The possibility of the case is manifest, for an adulteress 
has been known to produce one child like her husband, and 
another like her paramour; and a case has occurred of a 
woman having conceived twins, and then conceived a third 
child upon them ; and when the proper time came, the 
twins were born perfect, the other was only a foetus of five 
months old, which died immediately : and in another case, 
a woman produced, first of all, a foetus of seven months old, 
and then twins, perfectly developed ; the former perished, 
but the latter survived. And some women have conceived 
at the same time as they miscarried, and haye ejected 
one foetus while they bore the other. In most females, 
who have cohabited after the eighth mouth after conception, 
the child has been born filled with a shining mucous-like 
substance, and has often appeared full of the food which has 
been eaten by the mother ; and if she has fed upon food 
more than usually salt, the child has been born without nails. 


1. THE milk that is produced before the seventh month is 
useless ; but as soon as the child is alive the milk be- 
comes good. At first it is salt, like that of sheep. Most 
women during pregnancy are affected by wine, and if 
they drink it they become faint and feeble. The begin- 
ning and the ending of the reproductive power in both 
sexes is marked in the male by the emission of the 
semen, in the female by the catamenia. They are not, how- 
ever, fertile when these first occur, nor while they are 
still small and weak. The period of the commencement 
of these signs has been mentioned. In women the cata- 
menia usually cease at forty ; but if they pass over this age, 
they go on to fifty ; and some have even produced children 
at that period, but none later than this period. 

2. The reproductive function in men usually continues 
active till they are sixty years old ; if they pass beyond this 
period, till they are seventy ; and some men have had chil- 
dren at seventy years old. It frequently happens that, when 


:narriages are unfruitful, both men and women become preg- 
nant, if the marriage is dissolved and they marry again. The 
same thing takes place respecting the birth of male and 
female children. For sometimes only children of one sex 
are produced by a marriage ; and if this is dissolved, and the 
parents marry again, children of the other sex are produced. 
These things also vary with the age of the parents; for 
some when young have female children, and when older 
males, though the contrary sometimes takes place. 

3. The same is the case with the whole of the reproductive 
function. For some persons have no children when they 
are young, but have them afterwards ; others have children 
at first, but none afterwards ; and there are some women 
who conceive with difficulty, but when they have conceived 
bear children ; others conceive easily, but the foetus never 
comes to maturity. There are also both men and women 
who only produce children of one sex, as the story goes of 
Hercules, who had but one daughter in seventy-two children. 
Those who have been barren, and either after great care, or 
from any other cause, at last conceive, more frequently 
bear a daughter than a son. It often happens also that men 
who have engendered become impotent, and subsequently 
return to their former condition. 

4. Maimed parents produce maimed children ; and so also 
lame and blind parents produce laine and blind children ; and, 
on the whole, children are often born with anything contrary 
to nature, or any mark which their parents may have, such as 
tumours and wounds. Such marks have often been handed 
down for three generations ; as if a person had a mark on 
their arm which was not seen in the son, but the grandson 
exhibited a dark confused spot on the same place. The 
circumstances, however, are rare; and sound children are 
generally produced from lame parents ; nor is there any com- 
plete certainty in these matters ; and children resemble 
their parents or their grandparents, and sometimes they 
resemble neither. This is handed down for many gene- 
rations ; as in Sicily, a woman cohabited with an Ethiopian, 
her daughter was not black, but her daughter's child was so. 

5. For the most part the girls resemble their mother, and 
the boys their father ; though the contrary is often the case, 
and the females resemble their father, and the males their 


mother, and the different parts of the body resemble either 
parents. Twins have sometimes no resemblance to each other, 
but they are generally much alike ; and one woman coha- 
bited with a man, and conceived seven days after parturi- 
tion, when she bore a child as like her former as if they had 
been twins. Some women, as well as other creatures, pro- 
duce young resembling themselves, others bear those which 
resemble the male, as the horse called Dicsea in Pharsalia. 


1. THE seminal fluid in its emission is preceded by wind. 
The manner of its emission exhibits this; for nothing is 
expelled to a great distance without pneumatic force. If the 
seminal fluid is taken up by the uterus and retained there, 
it becomes inclosed in a membrane. For if it is expelled 
before it becomes articulated, it appears like an ovum inclosed 
in a membrane, but without any shell, and the membrane is 
full of veins. All animals, whether furnished with fins, feet, 
or wings, whether viviparous or oviparous, are produced in 
the same manner, except that the umbilicus in viviparous 
animals is turned towards the uterus, and in others to the 
ovum ; and in some cases both ways, as in a certain kind offish. 
Some of them are surrounded by a membrane, others by a 
chorion. First of all, the foetus is contained within the last 
envelope. Then there is another membrane over this, which 
is in part united to the matrix and is partly separate, and 
contains water. Between these is a watery or sanguineous 
fluid, which in women is called prophorus. 

2. All animals that have a navel increase by the navel '> 
and in those which have acetabula the navel is united to the 
acetabulum ; and in those which have a smooth uterus the 
navel is united to the uterus upon a vein. The position of all 
quadrupeds in the uterus is stretched out ; that of fishes is on 
the side ; bipeds, as birds, are folded together. The human 
foetus lies folded up with its nose between its knees and its 
eyes upon them, and its ears turned outwards. All animals are 
alike in having the head placed upwards at first. As they 
grow, the head turns round, and the birth of all animals is 
naturally with the head forwards ; for even in those that are 
folded together the presentation of the feet is unnatural. 
The embryo of quadrupeds contains excrementitious matter, 


as soon as it is matured, both fluid and solid. The latter is 
contained in the extreme parts of the intestine, the former 
in the bladder. 

3. If animals have acetabula in the uterus, these aceta- 
bula always become smaller as the foetus grows, and at 
last disappear. The umbilical cord is a covering for veins, 
of which the origin is in the uterus. In those crea 
tures which have acetabula it originates in them ; in those 
that have not acetabula it originates in the vein. In the 
larger animals, such as the foetus of oxen, there are four 
veins ; in smaller animals, two ; in very small animals, as in 
birds, there is but one. Two veins reach the foetus through 
the liver, from that part called the gates of the liver, towards 
the great vein ; and two go to the aorta, where it is divided 
into two parts ; and there are membranes round each pair 
of veins, and the umbilical cord surrounds these membranes 
like a covering. As the foetus increases, these veins diminish. 
The embryo, as it grows, advances into the viscera, where 
its movements are manifest. Sometimes it remains rolled 
up near the pudendum. 


1. WHEK the pains of parturition come on, they extend to 
many and various parts of the body, but especially to one or 
other of the thighs. Those who suffer most in the bowels are 
delivered most rapidly ; those who suffer much in the loins 
are delivered with difficulty ; those whose pain lies in the 
subumbilical region, more quickly. If the child is a male, 
a liquid, serum-like discharge, of a pale yellow colour, pre- 
cedes ; if a female, this discharge is sanguineous, but still 
fluid. Some women have neither during the period of par- 

2. In other animals parturition is not painful, and it is 
evident that they suffer but moderately in the pains of 
labour. In women the pains of parturition are more violent, 
especially in those that are inactive or that are not well made 
in their sides, and are unable to hold their breath. They 
also suffer more in parturition, if they breathe in the mean- 
time, compelled by the necessity of respiration. At first a 
fluid escapes when the fcetus comes to the birth, and the mem- 


branes are ruptured; after this, the embryo is excluded, the 
uterus being turned, and the uterus being turned inside-out. 


1. THE division of the umbilical cord often requires the care- 
ful attention of the midwife ; for by skilfulness she may not 
only assist in difficult labours, but should attend carefully 
to the circumstances, and apply the ligature to the umbilical 
cord of the child ; for if the secundines fall out with the 
child, the umbilical cord must be bound with a ligature of 
worsted, and cut above the ligature, and where it is bound 
it joins together, and that which is joined with it falls off. 
If' the ligature becomes loose, the child dies from loss of 
blood. If the secundines do not come out at once, while 
they remain within, and the child is outside, the umbilical 
cord must be tied and divided. 

2. Frequently the child, if weak, has appeared as if born 
dead, until the umbilical cord was tied, for the blood flowed 
from the child to the navel and the surrounding parts ; but 
some skilful midwife being present, by pressure on the navel 
from within has revived the child, just as if it had been filled 
with blood from the first. It has been already observed, that 
all animals are naturally born with the head forwards. Chil- 
dren also have their hands pressed down against their sides. 
As soon as they are born they begin to cry and bring their 
hands to their mouth. They emit excrements, some imme- 
diately, others very soon, but all in the course of a day. This 
excrementitious matter is very abundant, considering the size 
of the child. Women call it the meconium. Its colour is like 
that of blood, and it is black and pitch-like. Afterwards it 
becomes milky, for the child immediately draws the breast. 
The child never cries before it is entirely in the world, not 
even though its head is protruded in difficult cases, while 
the body is within the uterus. 

8. Those women in whom a flooding has preceded the 
period of delivery are delivered with more difficulty, and if 
the purifications are small after parturition, and only as much 
as they are at first, and do not continue for more than forty 
days, such women are stronger, and more ready for conception. 
After children are born, for forty days they neither laugh 
nor weep when awake, but sometimes do both in their sleep ; 

192 THE HI STOUT OF ANLMAL3. [p. Til. 

nor do they usually feel when they are tickled, but they sleep 
the greater part of their time. As they grow, the period ot 
wakefulness continually increases ; and it is evident that they 
dream, but it is some time before they remember their imagi- 
nations. There is no difference in the bones of other ani- 
mals, but they are all born perfect. In children the bone 
called bregma is soft, and does not become strong for some 
time. Some animals are born with teeth, but children begin 
to cut their teeth in the seventh month. The front teeth 
naturally appear first, sometimes the upper teeth and some- 
times the under. Children cut their teeth more easily if 
their nurses have warmer milk. 


AFTEB parturition and purification women become full 
of milk ; and in some it not only flows through the nipples 
but through other parts of the breast, and sometimes from 
the cheeks ; and if this fluid is not matured nor secreted, 
but remains full, hard knots are formed, which remain for 
a long time ; for every part of the breast is so spongy that, 
if a hair is swallowed with the drink, pain ensues in the 
breasts, until it either escapes spontaneously with the milk, 
or is sucked out, this is called *"g/%'<p. They continue to 
have milk until they conceive again. It then ceases, and 
is quenched in other creatures as well as in the human 
subject. The catamenia seldom take place while milk is 
secreted, though this sometimes occurs in women while 
nursing. On the whole, an effusion of fluid seldom takes 
place from many parts of the body at the same time, and 
those that have haemorrhoids have usually less purifica- 
tion. In some it takes place through ixise (varices), and 
is secreted from the loins before it reaches -the uterus ; and 
those who vomit blood when the purification is suppressed 
suffer no harm. 


CHILDBED are very subject to spasms, and especially those 
that are in a good condition and have abundance of rich 
milk, or whose nurses are fat. "Wine is injurious in this 
complaint, and dark-coloured wines more so than those that 
are pale, and food that is not fluid, and windy aliments, and 


stoppage in the bowels. Children with this complaint gene- 
rally die before the seventh day : wherefore also this day 
has received a name, as if it gave some hope of the recovery 
of the child. Children suffer most at the full moon. Chil- 
dren are in great danger when the spasms originate in the 
back, especially if they are advancing in age. 1 

1 The seventh book ends very abruptly, and hence it has been thought 
that what is now called the tenth book, in which the subject of repro- 
duction is continued, would have its proper place here, as a continua- 
tion of the seventh. Whether a portion of the genuine work of 
Aristotle has been lost which would have completed the subject is 
another question ; but there can be little doubt that the tenth book, hi 
the form in which we have it, is no genuine work of Aristotle ; some of 
the opinions are contrary to those which he has expressed, and the 
whole style and language is different from that of Aristotle. Schneider 
therefore has placed the tenth book at the end of the work, that he may 
neither entirely exclude that which in former times was considered a 
portion of Aristotle's^ treatise on Animals, nor yet allow a fictitious 
book to interrupt the genuine writings of his Author. 




I. THE nature of animals and their mode of reproduction 
has now been described. Their actions and mode of life 
also differ according to their disposition and their food. 
For almost all animals present traces of their moral dis- 
positions, though these distinctions are most remarkable 
in man. For most of them, as we remarked, when speaking 
of their various parts, appear to exhibit gentleness or 
ferocity, mildness or cruelty, courage or cowardice, fear 
or boldness, violence or cunning ; and many of them ex- 
hibit something like a rational consciousness, as we re- 
marked in speaking of their parts. For they differ from 
man, and man from the other animals, in a greater or less 
degree ; for some of these traits are exhibited strongly in 
man, and others in other animals. 

2. Others differ in proportion. For as men exhibit art, 
wisdom, and intelligence, animals possess, by way of com- 
pensation, some other physical power. This is most con- 
spicuous in the examination of infants, for in them we see, 
as it were, the vestiges and seeds of their future disposition ; 
nor does their soul at this period differ in any respect from 
that of an animal ; so that it is not unreasonable for animals 
to present the same, or similar, or analogous appearances. 
Nature passes so gradually from inanimate to animate things, 
that from their continuity their boundary and the mean be- 
tween them is indistinct. The race of plants succeeds imme- 
diately that of inanimate objects ; and these differ from each 
other in the proportion of life in which they participate ; 
for, compared with other bodies, plants appear to possess 
life, though, when compared with animals, they appear in- 

3. The change from plants to animals, however, is gra- 
dual, as 3 before observed. For a person might question to 


which of these classes some marine objects belong ; for many 
of them are attached to the rock, and perish as soon as they 
are separated from it. The pinnae are attached to the rocks, 
the solens cannot live after they are taken away from their 
localities ; and, on the whole, all the testacea resemble plants, 
if we compare them with locomotive animals. Some of them 
appear to have no sensation ; in others it is very dull. The 
body of some of them is naturally fleshy, as of those which are 
called tethya ; and the acalephe and the sponge entirely re- 
semble plants; the progress is always gradual by which one 
appears to have more life and motion than another. 

4. In the vital actions also we may observe the same man- 
ner. For vegetables which are produced from seed ap- 
pear to have no other work beyond reproduction ; nor do 
some animals appear to have any other object in their exist- 
ence. This object then is common to them all ; but as sen- 
sation advances, their manner of life differs in their having 
pleasure in sexual intercourse, in their mode of parturition 
and rearing their young. Some of them, like plants, simply 
accomplish their peculiar mode of reproduction at an ap- 
pointed season, and others are diligent in rearing their 
young ; but as soon as this is accomplished they separate 
from them, and have no farther communication ; but those 
that are more intelligent, and possess more memory, use 
their offspring in a more civilized manner. 

5. The work of reproduction is one part of their life, the 
work of procuring food forms another. These two occupy 
their labour and their life. Their food differs in the sub- 
stances of which it consists, and all the natural increase of the 
body is derived from food. That which is natural is pleasant, 
and all animals follow that which is pleasant to their nature. 


1. ANIMALS are divided according to the localities which 
they inhabit ; for some animals are terrestrial, others are 
aquatic. They also admit of a ternary division, those that 
breathe air and those that breathe water, one of these classes 
is terrestrial, the other is aquatic ; the third class does not 
breathe either air or water, but they are adapted by nature 
to receive refreshment from each of these elements ; and some 
of these are called terrestrial, others are aquatic, though they 

o * 


neither breathe air or water; and there are other animals 
which procure their food and make their abode in either of 
these elements. For many that breathe air, and produce 
their young upon the land, procure their food from the water, 
where they generally make their abode ; and these are the 
only animals which appear to be doubtful, for they may be 
arranged either as terrestrial or aquatic animals. 

2. Of those that breathe water, none have feet or wings, 
nor seek their food on land ; but many of those that are ter- 
restrial, and breathe air, do so ; some of them so much so, that 
they cannot live when separated from the water, as those 
which are called marine turtles, and crocodiles, and hippo- 
potami, and seals, and some of the smaller creatures, as the 
water tortoise and the frog tribe; for all these are suffocated 
if their respiration is suspended for any length of time. They 
produce their young and rear them on dry land ; others do 
so near the dry land, while they reside in the water. 

3. Of all animals the most remarkable in this particular 
is the dolphin, and some other aquatic animals and cetacea 
which are of this habit, as the whale and others which have 
a blowhole ; for it is not easy to arrange them either with 
aquatic or terrestrial animals, if we consider animals that 
breathe air as terrestrial, and those that breathe water as 
aquatics, for they partake of the characters of both classes ; 
for they receive the sea and eject it through their blowhole, 
and air through their lungs, for they have this part, and 
breathe through it. And the dolphin, when captured in nets, 
is often suffocated, from the impossibility of breathing. It 
will live for a long while out of water, snoring and groaning 
like other breathing animals. It sleeps with its snout above 
the water, in order that it may breathe through it. 

4. It is thus impossible to arrange it under both of these 
contrary divisions, but it would appear that the aquatic ani- 
mals must be further subdivided; for they breathe and 
eject water for the same reason as others breathe air, for 
the sake of coolness. Other animals do this for the sake 
of food ; for those animals which obtain their food in the 
water, must also, at the same time, swallow some of the 
fluid, and have an organ by which they can eject it. Those 
creatures which use water instead of air for breathing have 
gills; those that use it for food have a blowhole. These 


creatures are sanguineous. The nature of the malacia and 
malacostraca is the same ; for these swallow water for 

5. Those animals which breathe air, but live in the water, 
and those which breathe water, and have gills, but go out 
upon dry land and take their food there, belong to two divi- 
sions of aquatic animals. This last division is represented 
by a single animal called the cordylus (water newt) ; for 
this animal has no lungs, but gills ; and it goes on dry land 
to procure its food. It has four feet, so that it appears na- 
tural that it should walk. In all these animals nature ap- 
pears to be, as it were, turned aside, and some of the males 
appear to be females, and the females have a male appear- 
ance ; for animals which have but small diversity in particular 
parts, exhibit great variations in the whole body. 

6. This is evident in castrated animals ; for if a small 
portion only of the body is destroyed, the animal becomes 
a female ; so that it is plain that if a very minute portion 
in the original composition of an animal becomes changed, 
if that portion belongs to the origin of the species, it might 
become either male or female ; or, if taken away altogether, 
the animal might be neuter. And so, either way, it might 
become a land or aquatic animal, if only a small change took 

place it happens that some become terrestrial and 

others aquatic animals, and some are not amphibious which 
others are, because in their original generation they received 
some kind of substance which they use for food. For that 
which is natural is agreeable to every animal, as I have said 


1. "WHEN animals are divided in three ways into aquatic 
and land animals, because they either breathe air or water, 
or from the composition of their bodies ; or, in the third 
place, from their food, their manner of life will be found to 
agree with these divisions. For some follow both the com- 
position of their bodies and the nature of their food, and 
their respiration of either water or air. Others only agree 
with their composition and food. 

2. The testacea which are immpveable live by a fluid 
which percolates through tne dense parts of the sea, and 


}>eing digested because it is lighter than the sea -water, thus 
returns to its original nature. That this fluid exists in the 
sea, and is capable of infiltration is manifest, and may be 
proved by experiment; for if anyone will make a thin 
waxen vessel, and sink it empty in the sea, in a night 
and a day, it may be taken up full of water, which is 

3. The acalephe (actinia) feeds upon any small fish which 
may fall in its way. Its mouth is placed in the centre of its 
body. This organ is conspicuous in the larger individuals : 
like the oyster, it has a passage for the exclusion of its food, 
which is placed above. The acalephe appears to resemble the 
internal part of the oyster, and it makes use of the rock, as 
the oyster does of its shell. (The patella also is free, and 
wanders about in search of food.) 

4. Among the locomotive testacea, some are carnivorous, 
and live on small fish, as the purpura, for this creature is 
carnivorous, it is therefore caught with a bait of flesh: 
others live upon marine plants. The marine turtles 
live upon shell-fish, for which purpose they have a very 
powerful mouth ; for if any of them take a stone or any- 
thing else, they break and eat it. This animal leaves the 
water and eats grass. They often suffer and perish, when 
they are dried up as they float on the surface, for they are 
not able to dive readily. 

5. The malacostraca are of the same nature, for they eat 
everything ; they feed upon stones and mud, seaweeds and 
dung, as the rock crabs, and are also carnivorous. The spiny 
lobsters also overcome large fishes, and a kind of retribution 
awaits them in turn, for the polypus prevails over the lobster, 
for they are not inconvenienced by the shell of the lobster, 
so that if the lobsters perceive them in the same net with 
them, they die from fear. The spiny lobsters overcome the 
congers, for their roughness prevents them from falling off". 
The congers devour the polypi which cannot adhere to them 
on account of the smoothness of their surface ; all the ma- 
lacia are carnivorous. 

6. The spiny lobsters also live on small fish, which they hunt 
for in their holes, for they are produced in such parts of the 
sea as are rough and stony, and in those places make their 
habitations j whatever they capture, they bring to their mouth 


with their double claw, as the crabs do. "When not fright- 
ened they naturally walk forwards, hanging their horns down 
at their sides. When alarmed they retreat backwards, and 
extend their horns to a great distance. They fight with 
each other like rams with their horns, raising them and 
striking each other. They are often seen in numbers as if 
they were gregarious. 

7. The malacostraca lead this kind of life. Among the 
malacia the teuthis and sepia prevail over the large fish. 
The polypus generally collects shells which it empties of 
their contents and feeds upon them, so that those who 
seek for them find their holes by the shells that are scat- 
tered about. The report that they eat each other is a 
mistake ; but some have the tentacula eaten off by the 


1. ALL fish at the season of oviposition live upon ova ; 
in the rest of their food they are not all so well agreed, for 
some of them are only carnivorous, as the selachos, conger, 
channa, thynnus, labrax, sinodon, amia, orphus, and niu- 
Tsena ; the trigla lives upon fuci, shell-fish, and mud ; it is 
also carnivorous. The cephalus lives on mud, the dascillus 
on mud and dung. The scarus and melanurus on sea- weed, 
the sal pa on dung and fuci, it will also eat the plant called 
horehound ; it is the only fish that can be caught with the 

2. All fish, except the cestreus, eat one another, especially 
the congers. The cephalus and the cestreus alone are not 
carnivorous. This is a proof of it. They are never cap- 
tured with anything of the kind in their stomach, nor are 
they captured with a bait made of flesh, but with bread ; 
the cestreus is always fed upon sea-weed and sand. One 
kind of cephalus which some persons call chelone lives near 
the land, another is called peraas. This last feeds upon 
nothing but its own mucus, for which reason it is always 
very poor. The cephalus lives upon mud, wherefore they 
are heavy and slimy. They certainly never eat fish, on 
account of their dwelling in mud; they often emerge 
in order to wash themselves from the slime. Neither will 
any creature eat their ova, so that they increase rapidly, 


and when they increase they are devoured by other fish, and 
especially by the acharims. 

3. The cestreus (mullet) is the most greedy and insatiable 
of fish, so that its abdomen is distended, and it is not good for 
food unless it is poor. When alarmed it hides its head, as if 
its whole body were thus concealed ; the sinodon also is car- 
nivorous, and eats the malacia. This fish and the channa 
often eject their stomachs as they pursue small fish, for 
their stomach is near the mouth, and they have no oesophagus. 
Some are simply carnivorous, as the dolphin, sinodon, chry- 
sophrys, the selache and malacia; others, as the phycis, 
cobius, and the rock-fish, principally feed upon mud and 
fuci, and bryum, and what is called cauliou, and any matter 
which may be produced in the sea. The phycis eats no 
other flesh than that of the shrimps. They also frequently eat 
each other, as I before remarked, and the greater devour the 
less. It is a proof that they are carnivorous, that they are 
captured with bait made of flesh. 

4. The aniia, tunny, and labrax generally eat flesh, 
though they also eat sea-weed. The sargus feeds after the 
trigla when the last has buried itself in the mud and 
departed, for it has the power of burying itself, then the 
sargus comes and feeds and prevents all those that are 
weaker than itself from approaching. The fish called 
scarus is the only one which appears to ruminate like quad- 
rupeds. Other fish appear to hunt the smaller ones with 
their mouths towards them, in this way they naturally swim ; 
but the selachea, dolphins and cetacea throw themselves on 
their back to capture their prey, for their mouth is placed 
below them, for this reason the smaller ones escape, or if 
not they would soon be reduced in number ; for the swiftness 
of the dolphin and its capacity for food appear incredible. 

5. A few eels in some places are fed upon mud, and any 
kind of food which may be cast into the water, but gene- 
rally they live upon fresh water, and those who rear eels 
take care that the water which flows off and on upon the 
shallows in which they live may be clear, where they make 
the eel preserves. For they are soon suffocated if the water 
is not clean, their gills being very small. For this reason 
those who seek for them disturb the water. In the Stry- 
mon they are taken about the time of the rising of the 


Pleiades. For the water is disturbed at this season by the 
mud which is stirred up by contrary winds, otherwise it is 
useless to attempt to obtain them. When dead, eels do 
not rise and float on the surface, like other fishes, for their 
stomach is small ; a few of them are fat, but this is not 
usually the case. 

6. When taken out of the water, they will live five or six 
days ; if the wind is in the north they will live longer than 
if it is in the south. If they are removed from the ponds 
to the eel preserves during the summer they perish, but 
not if removed in the winter ; neither will they bear violent 
changes, for if they are taken and plunged into cold water, 
they often perish in great numbers. They are suffocated 
also if kept in a small quantity of water. This takes place 
also in other fish, which are suffocated if kept in a small 
quantity of water which is never changed, like animals 
which breathe air when enclosed in a small quantity of 
air. Some eels live seven or eight years. Fresh- water fish 
make use of food, and devour each other, as well as plants 
and roots, or anything else that they can find in the mud ; 
they generally feed in the night, and during the day dwell 
in deep holes. This is the nature of the food of fish. 


1. ALL birds with crooked claws are carnivorous, nor are 
they able to eat corn even when put in their mouths. All 
the eagles belong to this class and the kites, and both the 
hawks, the pigeon hawk namely, and the sparrow hawk. 
These differ in size from each other, and so does the trior- 
ches. This bird is as large as the kite, and is visible at all 
seasons of the year ; the osprey and vulture also belong 
to this class. The osprey is as large as the eagle, and ash- 
,oloured. There are two kinds of vultures, one small and 
whitish, the other large and cinereous. 

2. Some of the night birds also have crooked claws, as 
the nycticorax, owl, and bryas. The bryas resembles an 
owl in appearance, but it is as large as an eagle ; the eleos, 
segolius, and scops also belong to this class. The eleos is 
larger than a domestic fowl, the segolius is about the size of 
that bird, they both hunt the jay. The scops is less than 


the owl ; all three of these are similar in form, and carni- 
vorous. Some that have not crooked claws are carnivorous, 
as the swallow. 

3. Some birds feed on worms, as the finch, the sparrow, 
batis, chloris, titmouse. There are three kinds of titmouse ; 
the spizites is the largest, it is as large as the finch. 
Another is called the orimis, because it dwells in mountains ; 
it has a large tail. The third resembles them in everything 
except its size, for it is very small. The sycalis also, the 
megalocoryphus, pyrrhulas, erithacus, hypola'is, oestrus, ty- 
rannis are of this class. The last of these is the least, it 
is not much larger than a locust ; it has a purple crest, and is 
altogether a graceful and well-formed bird. The bird called 
anthus also, which is of the size of the finch ; the orospizus is 
like the finch, and nearly of the same size, it has a blue stripe 
on its neck, and lives in mountainous places. The wren 
also lives upon seeds. All these and such like birds either 
partly or entirely live on worms. 

4. These birds, the acanthis, thraupis, and that which is 
called chrysometris, all live upon thorns, but neither eat 
worms or any other living creature, and they both roost and 
feed in the same places. There are others which feed on 
gnats ; these live chiefly by hunting for these insects, as the 
greater and lesser pipo, both of which are by some per- 
sons called woodpeckers. They resemble each other in 
their cry, though that of the larger bird is the louder, 
and they both feed by flying against trees. The celeos 
also, which is as large as a turtle dove, and entirely 
yellow ; its habit is to strike against trees ; it generally lives 
upon trees, and has a loud voice. This bird generally in- 
habits the Peloponnesus. There is also another called 
cnipologus, which is small, about the size of the acanthyllis ; 
its colour is cinereous and spotted, and its voice is weak ; 
this bird also pecks trees. 

. 5. There are other birds which live upon fruit and grasses, 
as the phaps, phatta, peristera, cenas, and trygon. 1 The 
phatta and peristera are always present, the trygon only in 
summer time ; in the winter it is not seen, for it hides itself 
in holes. The cenas is generally seen and captured in the 
autumn. The cenas is as large as the peristera but less than 

! Different species of pigeons and doves. 


the phaps. It is generally captured as it is drinking ; it 
comes to this country when it has young. All the rest 
come in the summer, and make their nests here, and all, 
except the pigeon tribe, live upon animal food. 

6. All birds, as far as food is concerned, are either ter- 
restrial or live in the neighbourhood of rivers and ponds, 
or near the sea. Those that have webbed feet pass the 
greater part of their time on the water ; those with divided 
feet near the water. Some of these dive for their food, 
such as live upon plants and do not eat flesh ; others, as the 
heron and white heron, live in ponds and rivers. The latter 
of these is smaller than the former, and has a flat large bill. 

7. The pelargus also, and the gull, the latter is ash-co- 
loured, and the schcenilus, cinclos, pygargus, (and tryngas) 
this last is the largest of these small birds, for it is of the 
same size as the thrush ; all these birds wag their tails. The 
calidris also, this bird is variegated and ash-coloured. The 
kingfisher also lives near the water ; there appear to be two 
kinds of this bird, one of which utters its cry as it sits 
upon the reeds, and the other, which is larger, is silent; 
they both have a blue back. The trochilus also, and the 
kingfisher and cerylus also live near the sea. The corona 
also lives upon animals which are cast on shore, for it is 
omnivorous. The white gull also, the cepphus, sethyia, and 

8. The heavier web-footed birds inhabit the neighbour- 
hood of rivers and ponds, as the swan, duck, phalaris, colum- 
bis, and the boscas, which is like a duck, but smaller ; and 
the bird called corax, which is as large as the pelargus, but 
its legs are shorter, it is web-footed and a swimmer, its 
colour is black ; this last bird perches upon trees, and is 
the only one of this class that builds its nest in such places. 
The great and small goose also, the latter is gregarious, and 
chenalopex, the aix, and the penelops. The sea eagle also lives 
near the sea, and fishes in the waters of lakes. Many birds 
are omnivorous ; those with crooked claws seize upon other 
animals which they can overcome, and upon birds. They do 
not, however, devour their own congeners, as fish frequently 
do ; ail the tribes of birds drink very little, those with 
crooked claws do not drink at all, or only a few of them, 
and these but seldom; of these the cenchris drinks tha 


most the kite rarely drinks, though it has been observed 
to do so. 


1. ANIMALS covered with scaly plates, as the lizard and 
other quadrupeds and serpents, are omnivorous, for they eat 
both flesh and grass, and serpents lick their prey more than 
any other animal ; all these creatures, and indeed all with 
spongy lungs, drink very little, and all that are oviparous are 
of this kind, and have but little blood. Serpents are all 
very fond of wine, so that they hunt the viper by placing 
vessels of wine in the hedge-rows, and they are captured 
when intoxicated. Serpents devour any animal that they 
may have captured, and when they have sucked out the 
juice, they reject all the remainder ; nearly all such animals 
do this, as also the spiders. But the spiders suck the juice 
without swallowing the animal. Serpents suck the juice 

2. The serpent swallows any food which may be presented 
to it, for it will devour both birds and beasts, and suck eggs. 
"When it has taken its food it draws itself up, till it stands 
erect upon its extremity, it then gathers itself up and con- 
tracts itself a little, so that when stretched out the animal 
it has swallowed may descend in its stomach ; it does this 
because its oesophagus is long and thin. Phalangia and 
serpents can live a long while without food, this may be 
seen in those that are kept by dealers in medicine. 


1. AMONG viviparous quadrupeds, those that are wild and 
have pointed teeth are all carnivorous, except some wolves, 
which, when they are hungry, will, as they say, eat a certain 
kind of earth, but this is the only exception. They will not 
eat grass unless they are sick, for some dogs eat grass and 
vomit it up again, and so are purified. The solitary wolves 
are more eager for human flesh than those which hunt in 

2. The animal which some persons call the glanus and 
others the hyaena, is not less than the wolf, it has a mane 
like a horse, but the hair all along its spine is more harsh 
and thick. It also secretly attacks men, and hunts them 


down ; it hunts dogs also by vomiting like men ; it also 
breaks open graves for the sake of this kind of food. 

3. The bear is also omnivorous, for it eats fruit, and on 
account of the softness of its body it can climb trees ; it 
eats leguminous seeds also ; it also overturns hives and eats 
the honey, and it feeds upon crabs and ants, and is car- 
nivorous, for its strength enables it to attack not only deer, 
but wild hogs, if it can fall upon them secretly, and oxen. 
For when it meets the bull face to face, it falls upon its back, 
and when the bull attempts to throw it, seizes its horns 
with its fore-legs, and biting upon the shoulder of the bull, 
throws it down. For a short time it can walk upright on 
its hind legs. It eats flesh after it has become putrid. 

4. The lion, like all other wild animals with pointed teeth, 
is carnivorous ; it devours its food greedily, and swallows 
large pieces without dividing them ; it can afterwards, from 
its repletion, remain two or three days without food. It 
drinks very little. Its excrement is small, and is not made 
more than once in three days or thereabouts, and it is dry 
and hard like that of a dog. The wind from its bowels has 
an acrid smell, and its urine is powerfully scented, for which 
reason dogs smell to trees, for the lion, like the dog, lifts its 
leg to make water. It produces also a strong smell when 
it breathes upon its food, and when its bowels are laid open 
they emit a strong scent. 

5. Some quadrupeds and wild animals seek their food in 
the neighbourhood of ponds and rivers, but none of them 
except the seal live near the sea ; of this class are the crea- 
ture called beaver, and the satherium, the satyrium, the 
otter, and that which is called latax. This creature is 
broader than the enydris, and has strong teeth, for it often 
goes out in the night and with its teeth gnaws off the osiers. 
The enydris also will bite men, and they say will not leave 
its hold till it hears the noise of its teeth against the bone- 
The latax has rough hair, the nature of which is between 
that of the seal and that of the deer. 


1. ANIMALS with pointed teeth drink by lapping, and some 
that have not pointed teeth, as mice. Those which have an 
even surface to their teeth draw in the water as horses and 


osen ; the bear neither draws in the water nor laps it, but 
gulps it down. Some birds draw in the water, but those 
which have long necks imbibe it at intervals, lifting up their 
heads ; the porphyrion alone gulps it down. All horned 
animals, both domestic and wild, and those that have not 
pointed teeth eat fruits and grass, and are incapable of en- 
during hunger, except the dog, and this animal eats fruit 
and grass less than any other. 

2. The hog eats roots more than other animals, because 
its snout is well adapted for this operation, it is more 
adapted to various kinds of food than other animals. In 
proportion to its size its fat is developed very fast, for it be- 
comes fat in sixty days. Those who occupy themselves in 
fatting hogs know how fast they fatten by weighing them, 
when lean ; they will become fat after starvation for three 
days. Almost all other animals become fat, after previous 
starvation. After three days those who fatten hogs feed 
them well. 

3. The Thracians fatten them by giving them drink on 
the first day, then at first they omit one day, afterwards two, 
three, or four, till they reach to seven days. These creatures 
are fattened with barley, millet, figs, acorns, wild pears, and 
cucumbers. Both this and other animals with a warm 
stomach are fattened in idleness, and the sow also by wal- 
lowing in the mire. They prefer different kinds of food at 
different ages. The hog and the wolf fight together, a sixth 
part of its weight when alive, consists of bristles, blood, and 
fat. Sows and 1 all other animals grow lean while suckling 
their young. This then, is the nature of these animals. 


1. OXEN eat both fruits and grass. They become fat on 
flatulent food, as vetches, broken beans, and stems of beans, 
and if any person having cut a hole in the skin inflates them 
and then feeds the older cattle, they fatten more rapidly, 
and either on whole or broken barley, or on sweet food, as on 
figs and grapes, wine, and the leaves of the elm, and especially 
in the sunshine and in warm waters. The horns of the calf, 
if anointed with wax, may be directed in any way that is de- 
sired, and they suffer less in the feet if their horns are 
rubbed with wax, or pitch, or oil. 


2. Herds of cattle suffer less when moved in frost than 
in anow, They grow if they are deprived for a long time 
of sexual intercourse ; wherefore the herdsmen in Epirus 
keep the Pyrrhic cattle, as they are called, for nine years 
without sexual intercourse, in order that they may grow. 
They call such cows apotauri. The number of these crea- 
tures reaches four hundred, and they are the property of 
the king. They will not live in any other country, though 
the attempt has been made. 


1. THE horse, mule, and ass feed upon fruit and grass, but 
they fatten especially on drinking, so that beasts of burden 
enjoy their food in proportion to the quantity of water 
which they drink, and the less difficulty there is of obtain- 
ing drink, the more they profit by abundance of grass. 
When the mare is in foal, green food causes her hair to be 
fine, but when it contains hard knots it is not wholesome. 
The first crop of Medic grass is not good, nor if any stinking 
water has come near it, for it gives it a bad smell. Oxen 
require pure water to drink, but horses in this respect re- 
semble camels. The camel prefers water that is dirty and 
thick ; nor will it drink from a stream before it has dis- 
turbed the water. It can remain without drinking four 
days, after which it drinks a great quantity. 


1. THE elephant can eat more than nine Macedonian me- 
dimni at one meal, but so much food at once is dangerous ; 
it should not have altogether more than six or seven me- 
dimni, or five medimni of bread, and five mares of wine, 
the maris measures six cotyla3. An elephant has been known 
to drink as much as fourteen Macedonian measures at once, 
and eight more again in the evening. Many camels live 
thirty years, and some much more, for they have been known 
to live an hundred years. Some say that the elephant 
lives two hundred, and others three hundred years. 


1. SHEEP and goats live upon grass. Sheep pasture for a 
long while in one place without leaving it, but goata change 


their places very soon, and only crop the top of the grass. 
The sheep fatten rapidly with drinking, and for this reason 
during summer they give them salt, a medimnus to each hun- 
dred sheep ; for in this manner the flock becomes more 
healthy and fat, and frequently they collect and bring them 
together for this purpose, that they may mix a great deal of 
salt with their food ; for when thirsty they drink the more. 
And in the autumn they feed them with gourds which 
they have sprinkled with salt, for this makes them give more 
milk. When driven about in the heat of the day they drink 
more towards evening. If fed with salt after parturition, 
the udder becomes larger. 

2. Sheep fatten on green shoots, vetches, and all kinds of 
grass, and they fatten more rapidly when their food is 
salted. They fatten more rapidly if previously starved for 
three days. During autumn northern water is better for 
sheep than southern, and pastures towards the west are 
good for them. Long journeys and weariness make them 
lean. Shepherds distinguish the strong sheep during winter 
by the frost adhering to their wool, which is not the case 
with those that are sick; for those that are not strong 
move about in their weakness and shake it off. 

3. The flesh of all quadrupeds which feed in marshy 
grounds is inferior to that of those which live on high 
ground. Sheep with wide tails endure the winter better 
than those with long tails, and short woolled-sheep better 
than long-woolled, and those with curly wool are more 
affected by the cold. Sheep are more healthy than goats, 
though goats are the stronger. The fleece and the wool of 
sheep which have been devoured by wolves, and garments 
made of such wool are more subject to vermin than others. 


1. THOSE insects which have teeth are omnivorous, but those 
which have a tongue only live upon fluids, which they collect 
from all sources with this organ. Some of these are omni- 
vorous, for they feed upon all kinds of fluids, as the fly. 
Others only suck blood, as the myops and oestrus. Others, 
again, live upon the juices of plants and fruit. The bee is 
the only insect that never touches anything putrid. It uses 


no food that has not a sweet taste. They also take very 
sweet water, wherever they fall upon any that is pure. The 
different kinds of animals then use these kinds of food. 


1. ALL the actions of animals are employed either in sexual 
intercourse, or in rearing their young, or in procuring food 
for themselves, or in providing against excessive heat and 
cold, and the changes of the seasons. For they all have 
naturally a sensitiveness respecting heat and cold, and, like 
mankind, who either change their abodes in cold weather, 
or those who have large estates, pass their summer in cold 
countries and their winter in warm ones ; so animals, also, if 
they can, migrate from place to place. Some of them find 
protection in their accustomed localities, others are migra- 
tory ; and at the autumnal equinox, escape at the approach 
of winter, from the Pontus and other cold places ; and in 
spring retreat again before the approach of summer from hot 
to cold countries, for they are afraid of excessive heat. Some 
migrate from places close at hand, and others from the 
very ends of the earth. 

2. The cranes do this, for they travel from Scythia to the 
marshes in the higher parts of Egypt, from which the Nile 
originates. This is the place where the Pygmies dwell ; and 
this is no fable, for there is really, as it is said, a race of 
dwarfs, both men and horses, which lead the life of troglo- 
dites. The pelicans also are migratory, and leave the river 
Strymon for the Ister, where they rear their young. They 
depart in great crowds, and those that are before wait for 
those behind, for in flying over the mountains those behind 
cannot see the leaders. 

3. The fish also, in the same manner, migrate either from 
or to the Pontus, and in winter they leave the deep water 
for the s-ake of the warmth of the shore, and in summer 
they escape from the heat by migrating from the shore into 
deep water. Delicate birds, also, in winter and frosty wea- 
ther, descend from the mountains to the plains, for the sake 
of the warmth ; and in summer they return again to the 
mountains for fear of the heat. 

4. Those that are the most delicate are the first to make 
he change at each extreme of heat and cold, such as the 



mackerel migrate sooner than the tunnies, and the quails than 
cranes ; for some migrate in August, others in September 
They are always fatter when they migrate from cold coun- 
tries* than when they leave warm countries, as the quail is 
more fat in the autumn than the spring : and so it happens 
that they migrate alike from cold countries and from warm 
seasons. Their sexual desires are also more violent in the 
spring, and when they leave warm countries. 

5. Among birds, as it was previously remarked, the crane 
migrates from one extremity of the earth to the other, and theyj 
fly against the wind. As for the story about the stone, it is a[ 
fiction, for they say that they carry a stone as ballast, which; 
is useful as a touchstone for gold, after they have vomited it 
up. The phatta and the peleias leave us, and do not win-i 
ter with us, nor does the turtle ; but the pigeon stays; 
through the winter The same is the nature of the quail, 
unless a few individuals both of the turtle and quail remain 
behind in sunny spots. The phatta and turtle assemble in 
large flocks when they depart, and again at the season of 
their return. The quails, when they commence their 
flight, if the weather is fine and the wind in the north, go in 
pairs, and have a successful voyage. If the wind is south 
it goes hard with them, for their flight is slow, and this 
wind is moist and heavy. Those that hunt them, therefore, 
pursue them when the wind is in the south, but not in fine 
weather. They fly badly on account of their weight, for 
their body is large. They therefore make a noise as they 
fly, for it is a toil to them. 

6. When they come hither they have no leader, but when 
they depart hence, the glottis, ortygometra, otus, and cy- 
chramus, which calls them together at night, accompany 
them ; and when the fowlers hear this sound, they know 
that they will not remain. The ortygometra in form resem- 
bles the birds which inhabit marshes. The glottis has a 
tongue which it projects to a great length. The otus resem- 
bles an owl, and has small feathers at its ears. Some per- 
sons call it the nycticorax, it is mischievous and imitative, 
it is taken like the owl, as it dances from side to side, one 
or other of the fowlers compassing it about. On the whole, 
birda with crooked claws have short necks, broad tongues, 
and. a capacity for imitation. And so has the Indian bird, 


the parrot, which is said to have a tongue like a man. T< 
becomes the most loquacious when intoxicated. The crow, the 
swan, the pelican, and the small goose, are gregarious birds. 


1. IT has already been observed that fish migrate from the 
deep water to the coast, and from the coast to the deep 
water, in order to avoid the excesses of cold and heat. Those 
that frequent the neighbourhood of the coast are better than 
those from deep water, for the feeding grounds are better 
and more abundant. For wherever the sun strikes the plants 
are more frequent, and superior, and more delicate, as in gar- 
dens, and the black shore-weed grows near the land, and the 
other kinds rather resemble uncultivated plants. The neigh- 
bourhood of the coast is also more temperate, both in heat and 
cold, than the rest of the sea ; for which reason the flesh of 
fish which live near the shore is more compact, while that of 
' fish from deep sea is watery and soft. The sinodon, cantha- 
rus, orphos, chrysophrys, cestreus, trigla, cichla, dracon, calli- 
onymus, cobius, and all the rock fish live near the shore. The 
trygon, selache, the white congers, the channa, erythrinus, 
and glaucus inhabit deep water. The phagrus, scorpius, the 
black conger, the mura3na, and coccyx occupy either situa- 
tion indifferently. 

2. They vary also in different places ; as in the neighbour- 
hood of Crete the cobius and all the rock fish are fat. The 
tunny also becomes good again after Arcturus, for it is not 
tormented by the oestrus after that period ; for which reason 
also it is inferior during the summer. In lakes near the sea 
also there are several kinds of fish, as the salpa, chrysophrys, 
trigla, and nearly all the rest. The amia also is found in 
such situations as in the vicinity of Alopeconnesus, and in 
the lake of Bistonis there are many fish. Many of the colias 
do not enter the Pontus ; but they pass the summer and 
rear their young in the Propontis, and winter in the^Egean. 
The thynnus, pelamis, and amia enter the Pontus in the 
spring and pass the summer there, and so do nearly all the 
rhyades and the gregarious fish. Many fish are gregarious, 
and gregarious fish have a leader of the shoal. 

3. They all enter the Pontus for the sake of the food 
(for the pasture is more abundant and superior, on account 

p 2 


of the fresh water), and for fear of the large creatures, 
which are smaller there ; and except the phocona and dol- 
phin, there is no other found in the Pontus ; and the dolphin 
is small, but when we leave the Pontus we find a larger 
dolphin. They enter this sea for the sake of food and rear- 
ing their young ; for the situation is better for this purpose, 
and the fresh sweet water nourishes the young fry. When 
they have reared their young, and the fry begin to grow, 
they migrate immediately after the Pleiades. If the south 
wind blow during the winter, they leave the place more 
slowly ; but with a north wind they swim faster, for then 
the wind helps them along. The small fry is captured ini 
the neighbourhood of Byzantium, for they make no long 
stay in the Pontus. 

4. The other fish are seen both in their egress and ingress. 
The trichia is only seen as it enters, and is not observed to 
leave again ; and if one is captured at Byzantium, the fisher- 
men purify their nets, for it is unusual for them to return. 
The reason is this : these are the only fish that swim up into 
the Ister, and when this river divides they swim down into 
the Adriatic. The following is a proof; for the converse 
happens here, and they are never captured entering the 
Adriatic, but as they leave it. 

5. The tunnies, as they enter, swim with their right side 
to the shore, and leave with their left side to the shore ; and 
some persons say that they do this because they see better 
with their right eye, and their sight is naturally dim. The 
rhyades move during the day, and in the night remain quiet 
and feed, unless the moon is bright, in which case they con- 
tinue their journey and do not rest themselves. And some 
persons engaged about the sea say that after the winter.' 
solstice they do not move, but remain quiet wherever they 
may be till the equinox. 

6. The colise are taken as they enter, but not as they| 
return. The best are taken in the Propontis before the 
breeding season. The other rhyades are captured more 
frequently as they leave the Pontus, and are then in perfec- 
tion. Those that swim near the shore are the fattest when 
captured ; and the farther they are away, the more lean they 
are ; and frequently, when the south wind blows, they swim 
3ut in company with the coliae and mackerel, and are taken 


lower down rather than at Byzantium. This is the nature 
of their migrations. 


1. LAND animals have also the same disposition for con- 
cealment. For in winter they all hasten to conceal them- 
selves, and appear again when the season becomes warmer. 
Animals conceal themselves to guard against the excesses 
of temperature. In some the whole race is concealed ; in 
others only a part of them. All the testacea conceal them- 
selves, as those which are marine, the purpura, whelk, and 
all that class ; but the state of concealment is more con- 
spicuous in those which do not adhere to rocks ; for these 
also conceal themselves, as the pectens. Some have an 
operculum on their exterior, as the land snails ; and the 
alteration of those that are not free is inconspicuous. They 
do not all conceal themselves at the same period ; for the 
snails are torpid during the winter, the purpura and whelk 
for thirty days under the dog star, and the pectens at the 
same period. Most of them conceal themselves in very 
cold and very hot weather. 

2. Almost all insects become torpid, except those which 
dwell in the habitations of men, and those that perish and 
do not survive for a year. They are torpid in the winter. 
Some conceal themselves for a good while, others only in 
the coldest days, as the bees, for these also conceal them- 
selves. This is shown by their not touching the food which 
is prepared for them. ; and if any of them creep out, they 
appear transparent, and plainly have nothing in their sto- 
mach. They remain at rest from the setting of the Pleiades 
until the spring. Animals pass their torpid state in warm 
places, and in the spots they are accustomed to inhabit. 


1. MANY sanguineous animals become torpid, as those which 
are furnished with scales, the serpent, lizard, gecko, and 
the river crocodile, during the four winter months in which 
they eat nothing. Other serpents conceal themselves in the 
earth, but the viper lies hidden among stones. Many fish 
also become torpid, especially the hippurus and coracirius 
during the winter ; for these alone are never taken but at 


certain seasons, which never vary. Almost all the rest an 
taken at all seasons. The lamprey, orphus, and conger con 
ceal themselves. The rock fish conceal themselves in pairs 
as the cichla, cottyphus, and perca, the male with the female 
in which way also they prepare for their young. 

2. The tunny conceals itself during winter in dee], 
places, and they become fattest at this season. The seasor 
of capturing them commences with the rising of Pleiades 
and continues to the end of the setting of Arcturus. Al". 
the rest of their time they remain quiet in concealment. A 
few of these are taken during the period of their concealment 
and so are some other hybernating creatures, if they are 
disturbed by the warmth of their abode or the unusua 
mildness of the season. For they come out a little from 
their holes to feed, and also when the moon is full. Mosi 
fish are better tasted during the period of concealment. The 
primades bury themselves in the mud. This is shown by 
their not being taken, or their seeming to have a great dea 
of mud on their backs and their fins pressed down. 

3. In spring, however, they begin to move and come to 
the shore to copulate and deposit their ova. At this season 
they are captured full of ova, and then also they appear to 
be in season, but are not so good in autumn and winter 
At the same season also the males appear to be full o 
melt. When their ova are small they are taken with diffi- 
culty ; but as they grow larger many are taken when they 
are infested by the oestrus. Some fish bury themselves in 
sand, others in mud, with only their mouths above the surface. 
Fishes usually conceal themselves only in the winter. The 
malacostraca, the rock fishes, the batus, and selache only in 
the most severe weather. This is shown by the difficulty of 
capturing them in cold weather. 

4. Some fish, as the glaucus, conceal themselves in sum- 
mer time ; for this fish hides itself for sixty days in the 
summer time. The onus and the chrysophrys hide them- 
selves. The reason for supposing that the onus hides itself 
for a long while appears to be that it is captured at long 
intervals ; and the influence of the stars upon them ; and 
especially of the dog-star, appears to be the cause of their 
hiding themselves in summer time, for the sea is then dis- 
turbed. This is most conspicuous in the Bosphorus ; for 


the mud is thrown up, and the fish are thus brought to the 
surface ; and they say that, when the bottom is disturbed, 
more fish are often taken in the same cast the second than 
the first time ; and after much rain animals make their 
appearance which before were either not seen at all or but 


1. MANY kinds of birds also conceal themselves, and they 
do not all, as some suppose, migrate to warmer climates ; 
but those which are near the places of which they are 
permanent inhabitants, as the kite and swallow, migrate 
thither ; but those that are farther off from such places do 
not migrate, but conceal themselves ; and many swallows 
have been seen in hollow places almost stripped of feathers ; 
and kites, when they first showed themselves, have come 
from similar situations. Birds with crooked claws, and 
those also with straight claws, conceal themselves indiscri- 
minately ; for the stork, blackbird, 1 turtle dove, and lark hide 
themselves, and by general agreement the turtle dove most 
of all, for no one is ever said to have seen one during the 
winter. At the commencement of hybernation it is very fat, 
and during that season it loses its feathers, though they 
remain thick for a long while. Some of the doves conceal 
themselves ; others do not, but migrate along with the swal- 
lows. The thrush and the starling also conceal themselves, 
and among birds with crooked claws the kite and, the owl are 
not seen for a few days. 


1. AMONG viviparous quadrupeds the porcupines and bears 
hybernate. It is evident that the wild bears conceal them- 
selves ; but there is some doubt whether it is on account of 
the cold or from any other cause, for at this season both the 
males and females are so fat that they cannot move easily. 
The female also produces her young at this season, and hides 
herself until the cubs are of an age to be led forth. This 
she does in the spring, about three months after the solstice, 
and she continues invisible for at least forty days. During 
fourteen days of this period they say that she does not move 
at all. For more than this period afterwards she remains 

Korri0o, Turdus merula, Struck, blackbird, but probably more than 
one kind of bird is included under the same name. Compare 9, 86, 2. 


invisible, but moves about and is awake. A pregnant bear 
has either never or very rarely been captured ; and it is 
quite plain that they eat nothing during the whole of this 
period ; for they never come out ; and if they are captured, 
their stomach and entrails appear to be empty ; and it is 
said that, because nothing is presented to it, the intestine 
sometimes adheres to itself; and, therefore, at their first 
emergence, they eat the arum, in order to open the entrail 
and make a passage through it. 

2. The dormouse hybernates in trees and is then very 
fat, and the white Pontic mouse. (Some hybernating 
animals cast their old age, as it is called. This is the outer 
skin and the coverings at the period of birth.) It has al- 
ready been observed, that among viviparous animals with 
feet there is some doubt as to the cause of the hybernation 
of bears ; but almost all animals with scales hybernate and 
cast their old age ; that is, all that have a soft skin and no 
shell, as the tortoise ; for both the tortoise and the emys 
belong to the class of animals with scales ; but all such as 
the gecko, lizard, and especially the serpents, cast their 
skins ; for they do this both in the spring, when they first 
emerge, and again in the autumn. 

3. The viper also casts its skin both in the spring and 
autumn, and is not, as some persons say, the only serpent 
that does not cast its skin. "When serpents begin to cast 
their skin, it is first of all separated from their eyes ; and to 
those who do not know what is about to happen they appear 
to be blind. After this it is separated from the head, for 
first of all it appears entirely white. In a night and day 
the whole of the old skin is separated from the commence- 
ment at the head to the tail ; and when cast it is turned in- 
side out, for the serpent emerges as the infant does from 
the chorion. 

4. Insects which cast their skins do it in the same way as 
the silpha, empis, and the coleoptera, as the beetle. All 
creatures cast it after birth ; for in viviparous animals the 
chorion is separated, and in the vermiparous, as bees and 
locusts, they emerge from a case. The grasshoppers, when 
they cast their skins, sit upon olives and reeds. When the 
case is ruptured, they emerge, and leave a little fluid behind 
them, and after a short time they fly away and sing. 


5. Among marine creatures the carabi and astaci cast 
their skins either in spring or autumn, after having depo- 
sited their ova ; and carabi have been sometimes taken with 
a soft thorax, because their shell was ruptured, while the 
lower part, which was not ruptured, was hard. For the 
process is not the same in them as in serpents. The carabi 
remain in concealment for about five months. The crabs 
also cast their old skin, certainly those which have soft 
shells ; and they say that those which have hard shells do 
the same, as the maia and graus. When they have cast 
their shells, the new shells are first of all soft, and the 
crabs are unable to walk. They do not cast their skins 
once only, but frequently. I have now described when and 
how animals conceal themselves, and what creatures cast 
their skin, and when they do so. 


1. ANIMALS are not all in good health at the same season, 
nor in the same degrees of heat and cold. Their health and 
diseases are different at different seasons in various classes, 
and on the whole are not alike in all. Dry weather agrees 
with birds, both in respect of their general health and the 
rearing of their young, and especially with pigeons ; and wet 
weather, with few exceptions, agrees with fish. On the con- 
trary, showery weather generally disagrees with birds, and 
dry weather with fish ; for, on the whole, abundance of drink 
does not agree with birds. 

2. For the birds with crooked claws, generally speaking, 
as it was before remarked, do not drink. But Hesiod was 
ignorant of this circumstance ; for in relating the siege 
of Nineveh he represents the presiding eagle of the' augury 
drinking. Other birds drink, but not much ; neither do any 
other oviparous animals with spongy lungs. The sickness 
of birds is manifest in their plumage ; for it is uneven, and 
has not the same smoothness as when they are well. 

3. The generality of fish, as it was observed, thrive the 
most in rainy years ; for not only in such seasons do they 
obtain a greater supply of food, but the wet weather agrees 
with them as with the plants that grow on land ; for 
potherbs, even if watered, do not grow so well as in wet 
weather. The same is the case with the reeds that grow IB 


ponds ; for they never grow, as we may say, except in rainy 

4. And this is the reason why so many fish migrate every 
summer into the Pontus ; for the number of rivers which 
flow into it render the water fresh, and also bring down a 
supply of food, and many fish also ascend the rivers, and 
flourish in the rivers and lakes, as the amia and mullet. 
The cobii also become fat in the rivers ; and on the whole, 
those places which have the largest lakes furnish the most 
excellent fish. 

5. Of all kinds of water, summer showers agree best with 
fish ; and if the spring, summer, and autumn have been wet, 
a fine winter. And to speak generally, if the season is 
healthy for mankind, it will be the same for fish. They do 
not thrive in cold places. Those which have a stone in their 
head, as the chromis, labrax, scicena, and phagrus, suffer 
most in the winter ; for the refrigeration of the stone causes 
them to freeze and be driven on shore. 

6. Abundant rain confers health on most fish ; but the 
contrary is the case with the mullet and cephalus, which 
some call marinus ; for if there is a great supply of rain 
water, they soon become blind. The cephali are particu- 
larly liable to this disease in the winter ; for their eyes 
become white. When captured they are lean, and at last 
perish altogether. They do not, however, appear to suffer 
so much from the wet as from the cold ; for in other places, 
and especially in the swamps in the neighbourhood of the 
Argive .Nauplia, many are found blind in severe weather, and 
many also are taken with white eyes. 

7. The chrysophrys also suffers from the cold ; the arach- 
nas from the heat, which makes it lean. Dry seasons agree 
better with the coracinus than with any other fish, and for 
this reason, because it is generally warm in dry weather. 
Particular localities are favourable to different species, as 
either the neighbourhood of the land, or the deep waters to 
those which only frequent one of these localities, or parti- 
cular places to those which frequent both. There are 
especial places in which each of them thrive ; but, gene- 
rally speaking, they prefer places full of sea weed; for 
those which inhabit places with plenty of food are generally 
found to be fatter ; for those that eat fuci obtain plenty of 


food, while those that are carnivorous find an abundant 
supply of fish. 

8. They are also affected by northern and southern aspects, 
for the long fish thrive best in northern situations, and 
in northern places in the summer time more long fish 
than flat fish are taken in the same locality. The tunny 
and xiphia suffer from the oestrus, at the rising of the dog- 
star, for both these fish at this season have beneath their 
fins a little worm which is called oestrus, which resembles a 
scorpion, and is about the size of a spider ; they suffer so 
much from this torment that the xiphias leaps out of the sea 
as high as the dolphin, and in this manner frequently falls 
upon ships. 

9. The tunny delights in warm weather more than any 
other fish, and they resort to the sand near the sea-shore for 
the sake of the warmth, and there they float on the surface ; 
the small fish are safe because they are overlooked, for large 
fish pursue those of a moderate size. The greater-portion of 

the ova and melt are destroyed by the heat, for 

whatever they touch they entirely destroy. 

10. The greatest number of fish are taken before sunrise 
and after sunset, or just about sunrise and sunset, for the 
casts made at this period are called seasonable. For this 
reason the fishermen take up their nets at this time, for 
the sight of the fish is then most readily deceived. During 
the night they remain quiet, and at mid-day, when the 
light is strong, they see very well. 

11. Fish do not appear to be subject to any of those pesti- 
lential diseases which so often occur among men and quad- 
rupeds, as the horse and ox, and other animals, both domestic 
and wild. They appear, however, to suffer from ill health, 
and the fishermen consider that this is proved by the capture 
of some lean, and apparently weak individuals, and others 
that have lost their colour, among a number of fat ones of 
the same kind. This is the nature of sea- fish. 

12. No pestilential disease attacks river and pond fish, 
though some of them are subject to peculiar diseases, as the 
glanis, from its swimming near the surface, appears to be 
star-struck by tlie dog-star, and it is stupefied by loud 
thunder. The carp suffers in the same way, but not so 
severely. The glanis, in shallow water, is often destroyed 


by the dragon-serpent. In the ballerus and tilon a worm is 
produced, under the influence of the dog-star, which makes 
them rise to the surface and become weak, and when they 
come to the surface they are killed by the heat; a violent dis- 
ease attacks the chalcis, which is destroyed by a number of 
lice, which are produced under its gills ; no other fish appear 
to be subject to such a disease. 

13. Fishes are poisoned with the plant called mullein, for 
which reason some persons capture them by poisoning the 
waters of rivers and ponds; and the' Phoenicians poison the 
sea in the same way. There are two other plans which are 
adopted for the capture of fish ; for since fish avoid the deep 
parts of rivers in cold weather (for even otherwise the river 
water is cold), they dig a ditch through the land to the river, 
which they cover over with grass and stones so as to resemble 
a cave, with one opening from the river, and when the frost 
comes on they capture the fish with a basket. The other mode 
of fishing is practised both in summer and winter. In the 
middle of the stream they raise a structure with faggots and 
stones, leaving one part open for a mouth ; in this a basket 
is placed, with which they catch the fish, as they take away 
the stones. 

14. Rainy years agree with all the testacea except the pur- 
pura ; this is a proof of it, if placed near the mouth of a 
river, they take the fresh water, and die the same day. The 
purpura will live about fifty clays after it has been taken. 
They are nourished by each other, for a plant like a fucus 
or moss grows upon their shells. They say that whatever is 
cast to them for food is done for the sake of weight, that 
they may weigh the more. 

15. Dry weather is injurious to other testacea, for it 
renders them fewer in quantity and inferior in quality, and the 
pectens become more red. In the Pyrrha?an Euripus the pec- 
tens perish, not only from the instrument with which the 
fishermen scrape them together, but also from dry weather. 
The other testacea thrive in wet weather, because it makes 
the sea- water fresher. The cold of the Pontus and of the 
rivers that flow into it renders bivalve shells rare. The uni- 
valves, however, are frozen in cold weather. This is the 
nature of aquatic animals. 



1. AMONG quadrupeds, swine suffer from three diseases, one 
of these is called sore throat, in which the parts above the 
jaws and the branchia become inflamed ; it may also occur in 
other parts of the body, and frequently seizes upon the foot, 
and sometimes the ear. The neighbouring parts then be- 
come putrid, until it reaches the lungs, when the animal dies ; 
the disease spreads rapidly, and the animal eats nothing from 
the period of the commencement of the disease, be it where 
it will. The swineherds have no other remedy but the 
excision of the part before the disease has spread far. 

2. There are two other diseases which are both called 
craura. One of them consists in a pain and weight in the 
head, with which many of them are afflicted ; the other is 
an excessive alvine discharge. This appears to be incurable. 
They relieve the former by the application of wine to the 
nostrils, and washing them with wine. Recovery from this 
disease is difficult, for it generally carries them off on the 
third or fourth day. 

3. They suffer particularly from sore throat, when the 
summer bears abundantly, and they are fat. The fruit of 
the mulberry is good for them, and abundant washings 
with warm water, and scarification beneath the tongue. 
If the flesh of swine is soft, it is full of small lumps 
(chalazse) about the legs, neck, and shoulders ; for in these 
parts the chalazse are most frequent. If there are but a few, 
the flesh is sweet ; if many, it becomes very fluid and soft. 

4. Those which have these chalazae are easily distinguished ; 
for they exist in the greatest numbers under the tongue, 
and if the hair is plucked from their mane it appears 
bloody underneath. Those which have chalazse cannot keep 
their hind legs still. They are not thus affected as long as 
they suck. The grain called tipha, which also forms excel- 
lent food, is the remedy for the chalazaB. Vetches and figs 
are useful both fcr fattening and rearing pigs ; and on the 
whole their food should not be all of one sort, but varied ; 
for swine, like other animals, derive advantage from a 
change in their food ; and they say that at the same time 
their food ought to inflate them, and to cover them both 
with flesh and fat. Acorns are good for their food, but 


make their flesh, watery ; and if they eat too many while 
pregnant, they produce abortions, as sheep also do ; for 
these animals evidently suffer this from eating acorns. 
The swine is the only creature that we know of which 
has chalazse in its flesh. 


1. DOGS suffer from these diseases which have received these 
names, lytta, cynanche, podagra. The lytta produces mad- 
ness, and* they infect every creature which they bite, except 
mankind, with the same disease. This disease is fatal to 
dogs and to any other animal they may bite except man. 
The cynanche also is fatal to dogs ; and there are compara- 
tively few which recover from the podagra. Camels also are 
seized with lytta. (The elephant does not appear to suffer 
from any other infirmity except flatulency.) 

2. Gregarious oxen suffer from two diseases, one called 
podagra, the other craurus. The podagra affects their feet ; 
but it is not fatal, nor do they lose their hoofs. They derive 
benefit from their horns being smeared with warm pitch. 
"When attacked with craurus, their breathing becomes warm 
and thick. Fever in mankind is the same as craurus in cattle. 
It is a sign of this disease, when they hang down their ears 
and will not eat. It soon proves fatal, and when dissected, 
their lungs appear putrid. 


1. HORSES when grazing are free from all diseases except 
podagra ; from this they suffer, and sometimes lose their 
hoofs, which grow again as soon as they are lost, and the loss 
of the hoof usually takes place as soon as the first recom- 
mences its growth. It is a sign of the disease when the 
right testicle throbs, or when a wrinkled hollow place appears 
a little below the middle of the nose. Horses that are brought 
up in a domestic state suffer from several other diseases ; 
they are attacked with a disorder in their bowels, and it is 
a sign of the disease when they drag their hind legs up to 
their fore legs, and keep them under in such a way that they 
almost strike together: if they go mad after having ab- 
stained from food for several days, they are relieved by 
bleeding and castration. 1 

2. The tetanus is another disease of horses, which is thug 
1 The passage is altogether corrupt. 


recognised; all the veins, and the head and neck are extended, 
and their legs are stiff when they walk ; the horses also become 
full of corrupt matter. They are also attacked by another 
disease in which they are said to have the crithia j 1 the soft- 
ness of the roof of the mouth, and heated breath, are the 
signs of this disease, which is incurable, unless it stays of 
its own accord. Another disease is called nymphia, 2 which 
is relieved by the sound of a flute ; it causes them to hang 
down their heads, and when anyone mounts they rush for- 
ward until they run against something. The horse is always 
dejected if afflicted with madness ; this is a sign of it, if 
it lays down its ears upon its mane, and then draws them 
forward, and pants and breathes hard. 

3. These also are incurable if the heart is affected. It is 
a sign of this disease if the animal suffers from relax- 
ation. And if the bladder alters its position, difficulty in 
making water is a sign of this disease ; it draws up the hoofs 
and loins. It is also fatal for the horse to swallow the sta- 
philinus, which is of the same size as the spondyla. The 
bite of the shrew mouse is injurious to other animals also ; 
it causes sores, which are more severe if the creature is preg- 
nant when it bites, for the sores then break. If they are not 
pregnant, the animal does not perish. The creature called 
chalkis by some persons and zygnis by others, inflicts either 
a fatal or very painful bite. It resembles a small lizard, and 
is of the same colour as the serpent called the blind worm. 

4. And, on the whole, those who understand horses say 
that both these animals and sheep suffer from all the in- 
firmities with whfch mankind is afflicted. The horse, and 
every other beast of burden, is destroyed by the poison of 
sandarach. 3 It is dissolved in water and strained. The 
pregnant mare casts her young with the smell of a lamp going 
out. This also happens to some pregnant women. This is 
the nature of the diseases of horses. 

5. The hippomanes, as it: is called, is said to be produced 
upon the foals ; the mares when they have bitten it off lick the 
foal and cleanse it. The fables on this subject have been in- 
vented by women and charmers. It is, however, agreed that 
mares before parturition eject the substance called polion. 

6. Horses recognise again the voices of any with which 

1 Indigestion caused by eating barley when heated. 

2 Phrensy. 3 Red sulphuret of arsenic. 


they may have fought. They delight in meadows and 
marshes, and drink dirty water ; and if it is clean, they first 
disturb it with their hoof, and then drink and wash them- 
selves. And on the whole, the horse is an animal fond of 
water, and still more fond of moisture ; wherefore, also, 
the nature of the river-horse is thus constituted. In this 
respect the ox is very different from the horse, for it will 
not drink unless the water is clean, cold, and unmixed. 


1. ASSES only suffer from one disease, which is called melis, 
which first attacks the head of the animal, and causes a 
thick and bloody phlegm to flow from the nostrils. If the 
disease extends to the lungs, it is fatal ; but that which first 
attacks the head is not so. This animal cannot bear cold, 
for which reason there are no asses in the vicinity of the 
Pontus and in Scythia. 


1. ELEPHANTS suffer from flatulent diseases, for which 
reason they can neither evacuate their fluid or solid excre- 
ments. If they eat earth they become weak, unless used 
to such food. If it is accustomed to it, it does no harm. 
Sometimes the elephant swallows stones. It also suffers 
from diarrhoea. When attacked with this complaint, they are 
cured by giving them warm water to drink, and hay dipped 
in honey to eat ; and either of these remedies will stop the 
disease. When fatigued for want of sleep, they are cured 
by being rubbed on the shoulders with* salt and oil, and 
warm water. When they suffer from pain in the shoulders, 
they are relieved by the application of roasted swine's 
flesh. Some elephants will drink oil, and some will not; 
and if any iron weapon is struck into their body, the oil 
which they drink assists in its expulsion; and to those 
which will not drink it, they give wine of rice cooked with 
oil. This, then, is the nature of quadrupeds. 


1. INSECTS generally thrive when the year is of the same 
kind as the season in which they were born, such as the 
spring, moist and warm. Certain creatures are produced 


in beehives, which destroy the combs, and a little spinning 
worm, which destroys the wax. It is called clerus, or by 
some persons pyraustes. This creature produces a spider- 
like animal like itself, which causes sickness in the hive, 
and another creature like the moth, which flies round the 
candle. This produces a creature filled with a woolly sub- 
stance. It is not killed by the bees, and is only driven out 
by smoking it. A kind of caterpillar also, which is called 
teredo, is produced in the hives. The bees do not drive it 
away. They suffer most from diseases when the woods 
produce flowers infected with rust, and in dry seasons. AlT] 
insects die when plunged in oil, and most rapidly if their 1 
head is oiled, and they are placed in the sun. 


1. ANIMALS also differ in their localities : for some are en- 
tirely absent from some localities which exist in others, 
though small and shortlived, and not thriving. And fre- 
quently there will be a great difference even in adjoining 
places, as the grasshopper is found in some parts of Milesia, 
and is absent from those in the immediate vicinity. And in 
Cephalenia a river divides the country, on one side of which 
the grasshopper is found, and not on the other. 

2. In Poroselene a road divides the country, on one side 
of which the weasel is found, and not on the other. In 
Bceotia there are many moles in the neighbourhood of 
Orchomenus, but in the adjoining Lebadian district there 
are none, nor if they are imported, are they willing to bar- 
row. If hares are taken into Ithaca they will not live, 
but are seen dead on the sea coast, turned in the direction 
in which they were brought. In Sicily the hippomyrmex 
is not found, and in Gyrene there were formerly no croak- 
ing frogs. 

3. In all Libya there is neither wild boar, nor stag, nor 
wild goat. And in India, Ctesias, who is not worthy of 
credit, says, there are neither domestic nor wild swine ; but 
the exsanguineous and burrowing tribes are all large. In 
the Pontus there are no malacia, nor all the kinds of tes- 
tacea, except in a few places ; but in the Ked Sea all the 
testacea are of a great size. In Syria there are sheep with 
tails a cubit in width, and the ears of the goats are a spaa 



and four fingers, and some of them bring their ears down 
to the ground : and the oxen, like the camels, have a mane 
upon the point of the shoulder. In Lycia the goats are 
shorn as the sheep are in other places. 

4. In Libya the horned rams are born at once with horns, 
and not the males only, as Homer says, but all the rest also. 
In the part of Scythia near the Pontus, the contrary is the 
ease, for they are born without horns. And in Egypt some 
of the cattle, as the oxen and sheep, are larger than in 
Greece, and others are smaller, as the dogs, wolves, hares, 
foxes, ravens, and hawks. Others are nearly of the same 
size, as the crows and goats. This difference originates in 
the food which is abundant for some, and scarce for others. 
For the wolves, hawks, and carnivorous creatures food is 
scarce, for there are but few small birds. For the dasypus 
and others which are not carnivorous, neither the hard nor 
soft fruits are of any long continuance. 

5 The temperature is also very influential ; for in Illy- 
ria, Thrace, and Epirus, the asses are small. In Scythia, 
and Celtic countries, they do not occur at all, for in these 
places the winter is severe. In Arabia the lizards are more 
than a cubit long, and the mice are much larger than those 
which inhabit our fields, their fore legs being a span long, 
and their hind legs as long as from the first joint of the 
finger .... 

6. In Libya, the serpents, as it has been already remarked, 
are very large. For some persons say that as they sailed 
along the coast, they saw the bones of many oxen, and that 
it was evident to them that they had been devoured by the 
serpents. And as the ships passed on, the serpents attacked 
the triremes, and some of them threw themselves upon one 
of the triremes and overturned it. There are more lions in 
Europe, and especially in the country between the Ache- 
lous and the Nessus. In Asia there are leopards which 
are not found in Europe. 

7. On the whole, the wild animals of Asia are the fiercest, 
those of Europe the boldest, and those of Libya the most 
varied in form ; and it has passed into a proverb that Libya 
is always producing something new. For the want of 
water brings many heterogeneous animals together at the 
drinking places, where they copulate and produce young, if 


their periods of gestation happen to be the same, and their 
size not very different. The desire of drinking makes them 
gentle to each other, for they differ from the animals of other 
countries, in wanting to drink more in winter than in sum- 
mer ; for on account of the great want of water during the 
summer they are habituated to do without water ; and if 
the mice drink they die. 

8. Other animals are produced by the intercourse of 
heterogeneous creatures, as in Gyrene the wolves copulate 
with the dogs, and produce young ; and the Laconian dogs 
are bred between a dog and a fox. They say that the In- 
dian dogs are derived from the tiger and the dog ; not di- 
rectly, but from the third mixture of the breeds ; for they 
say that the first race was very fierce. They take the dogs 
and tie them up in the desert. Many of them are devoured, 
if the wild animal does not happen to desire sexual inter- 


1. DIFFERENT localities produce a variety of dispositions, 
as mountainous and rough places, or smooth plains. They 
are more fierce and robust in appearance in mountains, as the 
swine of Athos ; for the males of those which inhabit the 
plains cannot endure even the females of the other kind : and 
different situations have great influence on the bite of wild 
animals. All the scorpions about Pharus and other places 
are not painful, but in Caria and other localities they are 
frequent, and large, and fierce, and their sting is fatal to 
either man or beast, even to sows, which are but little influ- 
enced by the bite of other creatures, and black sows 
are more easily affected than others. The swine die very 
soon after being stung, if they come near the water. 

2. The bite also of serpents varies much ; for in Libya 
the asp is found, from which they form a septic poison, 
which is incurable. In the plant silphium is found a small 
serpent, for the bite of which a remedy has been discovered 
in a small stone, which is taken out of the tomb of one of 
the ancient kings : this they drink dipped in wine. In 
some parts of Italy the bite of the gecko is found to be 
fatal. If one poisonous animal eats another, as, if a 
1 Probably assafcetida. 


viper eats a scorpion, its bite is the most fatal of all. 
The saliva of a man is hostile to most of them. There 
is one small serpent, which some persons call hierus, 
which is avoided even by large serpents. It is a cubit 
long, and appears rough. "Whatsoever it bites imrne- 
meoiately becomes putrid in a circle round the wound. 
There is also a small serpent in India, the only one for 
which there is no remedy. 


1. ANIMALS also differ in being in good condition or not 
during gestation. The testacea, as the pectens and the ma- 
lacostraca, as the carabi and such like, are best when preg- 
nant ; for this word is also used of the testacea. For the 
malacostraca have been observed both in the act of copula- 
tion and oviposition ; but none of the testacea have ever 
been seen so occupied. The malacia, such as the teuthis, 
sepia, and polypus, are most excellent when pregnant ; and 
almost all fish are good during the early part of the period ; 
but as the time advances some are good and some not so. 

2. The maenis thrives during gestation. The form of the 
female is round, that of the male longer and broader. And 
when the period of gestation commences in the females, the 
males become black and variegated, and are not fit to eat. 
Some persons call them tragi at this period. Those which 
are called cottyphus and cichla also change their colour ; 
and the caris also changes at this season and some birds, 
which are black in spring and afterwards become white. 

3. The phycis also changes its colour ; for it is white at 
all other seasons, and variegated in the spring. This is the 
only sea fish that, as they say, makes a nest in which 
it deposits its ova. The ma3nis, as it was before ob- 
served, and the smaris also change their colours, and from 
being white in summer become black. This is particu- 
larly conspicuous about the fins and gills. The coracinus 
is best when pregnant, and so is the msenis. The cestreus, 
labrax, and nearly all creatures that swim are inferior at this 

4. There are a few which are good, whether pregnant or 
not, as the glaucus. Old fish also are inferior; and old 
tunnies are not even fit for salting, for much of the flesh is 


dissolved. The same thing also happens with other fish. 
The older fish are distinguished by the size and hardness 
of their scales ; an old tunny has been taken which weighed 
fifteen talents, and the length of the tail was two cubits 
and a span. 

5. River and pond fish are most excellent, after depositing 
their ova and semen, and recovering their flesh. Some of 
them, however, are good while pregnant, as the saperdis ; 
and others bad, as the glanis. In all the male is better than 
the female ; but the female glanis is better than the male. 
Those which they call female eels are better than the males. 
They call them females, though they are not so, but only 
differ in appearance. 




1. THE dispositions of obscure and short-lived animals are 
less easily observed than those of long-lived animals ; for 
they appear to have a certain inclination towards each na- 
tural affection of the soul, such as prudence and folly, 
courage and cowardice, mildness and cruelty, and such other 
habits. Some also, which have the sense of hearing, appear 
to be capable of a certain degree of instruction and disci- 
pline, both from one another and from mankind, for they 
not only distinguish the difference of sounds but also of 

2. And in all animals in which there is a distinction of 
the sexes nature has given a similar disposition to the males 
and to the females. This is most conspicuous in man, and 
the larger animals, and in viviparous quadrupeds ; for the 
disposition of the female is softer, and more tameable and 
submissive, and more ingenious ; as the females of the Lace- 
demonian dog are more gentle than the males. In the 
Molossian race of dogs, those employed in hunting differ in 
no respect from other dogs ; while those employed in fol- 
lowing sheep are larger and more fierce in their attack on 
wild beasts. A mixture of the Molossian and Lacedemonian 
races is both braver and more capable of enduring fatigue. 

3. The females of all animals are less violent in their 
passions than the males, except the female bear and pardalis, 
for the female of these appears more courageous than the 
male. In other animals the females are more soft and insi- 
dious, less simple, more petulant, and more active in the 
care of their young. The disposition of the males is opposed 
to this ; for they are more passionate and fierce, more straight- 
forward, and less invidious. The vestiges of these disposi- 
tions exist, as we may say, in all, but are more conspicuous 
in those which have the strongest moral habits, and most of 


all in mankind ; for the nature of the human subject is the 
most complete, so that these habits appear more conspicuous 
in mankind than in other animals. 

4. Wherefore women are more compassionate and more 
readily made to weep, more jealous and querulous, more 
fond of railing, and more contentious. The female also is more 
subject to depression of spirits and despair than the male. 
She is also more shameless and false, more readily deceived, 
and more mindful of injury, more watchful, more idle, and 
on the whole less excitable than the male. On the contrary, 
the male is more ready to help, and, as it has been said, 
more brave than the female ; and even in the malacia, if the 
sepia is struck with a trident, the male comes to help the 
female, but the female makes her escape if the male is 


1. ANIMALS often fight with each other, particularly those 
which inhabit the same places and eat the same food ; for 
when food becomes scarce, congeners fight together. They 
say that seals which occupy the same locality will fight, the 
males with the males and the females with the females, until 
one party is either killed or ejected by the other, and their 
cubs also will fight in the same way. All animals also will 
fight with carnivorous creatures, and these will fight with 
other animals, for they feed upon living creatures ; for which 
reason augurs observe the disputes and agreements of 
animals, considering that their disputes betoken war, and 
their agreements peace with each other. 

2. When supplied with plenty of food, animals that are 
naturally afraid of man and fierce appear to submit them- 
selves to him, and to conduct themselves quietly towards 
each other. The care which is taken of animals in Egypt 
demonstrates this circumstance ; for even the fiercest crea- 
tures live together, when they have food enough, and are 
not in any want ; for they become tame from the supply of 
their wants which they receive, as the crocodiles are tamed 
by the priests by the care which is bestowed on their food. 
The same thing may be observed in other countries and in 
their different parts. 

3. The eagle and the dragon are enemies, for the eagle 
feeds on serpents. The ichneumon and the spider are also 


enemies, for the ichneumon hunts the spider. Among birds 
the pO3cilis and the lark and the wood-pecker and chloreus 
are enemies, for they eat each others' eggs. The crow and 
the owl also are enemies ; for at mid-day the crow, taking 
advantage of the dim sight of the owl, secretly seizes and 
devours its eggs, and the owl eats those of the crow during 
the night ; and one of these is master during the day, the 
other during the night. The owl and orchilus are enemies ; 
for the latter eats the eggs of the owl. During the day 
other birds fly round the owl, which is called " astonishing 
it," and as they fly round it pluck off its feathers. For this 
reason fowlers use it in hunting for all kinds of birds. 

4. The presbys contends with the weasel and crow, for 
they eat its eggs and young. The turtle and pyrallis are 
foes, for their food and mode of life are the same. The 
celeus and libyus, kite and raven are enemies ; for the 
kite, from the superiority of its claws and flight, can 
take from the raven anything it may have caught, so that 
their food is the cause of their enmity also. Those that 
obtain their food from the sea also are foes, as the brenthus, 
larus, and harpa. The triorches is a foe to the toad and 
the serpent ; for the triorches eats the others. The turtle 
and chloreus are foes, for the chloreus kills the turtle, and 
the crow kills the bird called typanus. The little owl and 
all other birds with crooked claws eat the calaris, from 
whence their enmity arises. 

5. The gecko and the spider are enemies, for the gecko 
eats spiders. The pipo is a foe to the heron, for it de- 
vours the eggs and young of the heron. Enmity also exists 
between the segithus and the ass; for the ass frequents thorny 
places, that it may scratch its sores, and by this means, and 
when it brays it overturns the eggs and young of the segithus, 
for they fall out of the nest from fear of the noise, and the bird, 
to revenge this injury, flies upon the ass and inflicts wounds. 
The wolf is the enemy of the ass, bull, and fox ; for being a 
carnivorous animal, it attacks both oxen, asses, and foxes. 
The fox and circus are enemies for the same reason; for 
the circus having crooked claws, and being carnivorous, 
attacks and inflicts wounds with its claws. 

6. The raven is an enemy to the bull and ass, for it flies 
round them and strikes their eyes. The eagle and the heroa 


are foes, for the eagle has crooked claws and attacks it, 
and the other dies in defending itself. The sesalon is a foe 
to the vulture, and the crex to the coleus, blackbird, and 
chlorion, which some persons fabulously say derives its 
origin from a funeral pile, for it destroys both themselves and 
their young. The sitta and trochilus are foes to the eagle, 
and the eagle, as well for this reason, as because it is carni- 
vorous, is a foe to them all. 

7. The anthus is the enemy of the horse, for it drives the 
horse from its pasture, for the anthus also feeds on grass ; 
it is dim-sighted and not quick ; it imitates the voice of the 
horse, which it frightens by flying at it, and drives it from 
its pasture ; if the horse can seize upon it, he will kill it. The 
anthus lives near rivers and marshes ; it is of a fine colour, 
and lives well. The ass attacks the colota, a creature which 
lives in the manger, and prevents it from eating, by making 
its way into its nostrils. 

8. There are three kinds of heron, the black, the white 
sort, and the one called asterias ; of these, the black rests 
and copulates with difficulty, for it utters a cry, and, as they 
say, bleeds from the eyes during coition, and the process of 
parturition is severe and painful ; it attacks creatures which 
injure it, as the eagle, for it seizes upon it, and the fox, for 
this creature attacks it during the night, and the lark, 
which steals its eggs. 

9. The serpent is an enemy to the weasel and the hog, 
for if the weasel and serpent live in the same house they 
both require the same kind of food ; and swine eat serpents. 
The sesalon is a foe to the fox, for it strikes and pecks it, and 
destroys its young, for it has crooked claws. The raven and 
the fox are friendly, for the raven also attacks the sesalon, 
and so they help each other in the attack. The little owl 
and the sesalon are mutual foes, for both have crooked claws. 
The little owl and the swan attack the eagle, and the swan 
often comes off victorious. Of all birds the swans are most 
disposed to devour l each other. 

10. Some animals are always ready to attack each other, 
and others, as mankind, only at particular times. The ass 
and the acanthis are foes, for the latter feeds entirely on 
thorns, but the former only when they are tender. The an- 

1 To fight with each other. See Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, s. v 


thus, acanthis, and aegithus are foes, and it is said that the 
blood of the an thus and segithus will not mix. The crow 
and heron are friends, and so are the schoenion, lark, 
lae'dus, and celeus, for the celeus lives by the side of rivers 
and thickets, but the lae'dus lives among rocks and moun- 
tains, and is fond of the place in which it lives. The 
piphinx, harpa, and kite are friends ; the fox and the ser- 
pent also, for both live in holes ; and the blackbird and the 

11. The lion and jackal are foes, for both are carnivo- 
rous, and live on the same substances. Elephants also 
fight fiercely with each other, and strike with their tusks ; 
the conquered submits entirely, and cannot endure the voice 
of the victor : and elephants diifer much in the courage 
they exhibit. The Indians use both male and female ele- 
phants in war, though the females are smaller and far less 
courageous. The elephant can overthrow walls by striking 
them with its large tusks ; it throws down palm trees by 
striking them with its head, and afterwards putting its feet 
upon them, stretches them on the ground. 

12. Elephant-hunting is conducted in the following way : 
men mount upon some tame courageous animals ; when they 
have seized upon the wild animals they command the others 
to beat them till they fail from fatigue. The elephant-driver 
then leaps upon its back and directs it with a lance ; very 
soon after this they become tame and obedient. When the 
elephant- drivers mount upon them they all become obedient, 
but when they have no driver, some are tame and others 
not so, and they bind the fore legs of those that are 
wild with chains, in order to keep them quiet. They hunt 
both full-grown animals and young ones. Such is the 
friendship and enmity of these wild animals originating in 
the supply of food, and the mode of life. 


1. SOME fish are gregarious and friendly together, others 
that are less gregarious are hostile. Some are gregarious while 
they are pregnant, others during the season of parturition. On 
the whole, the following are gregarious : the tunny, moenis, 
cobius, box, saurus, coracinus, sinodon, trigla, muraena, 
anthia,eleginus,atherinus,sarginus,belona, (mecon,) teuthus 


iulus, pelamis, scombrus, and colias. Some of these are both 
gregarious, and live in pairs, for all the others pair together ; 
and some are gregarious at particular seasons, as it has been 
said, while they are pregnant, and others in the season of 
depositing their ova. 

2. The labrax and cestreus, though most hostile, will at 
certain seasons congregate with each other, for not only do 
congeners congregate together, but all those which feed 
upon the same kind of food, where it is abundant. The 
cestreus and the conger often survive after having been de- 
prived of their tail up to the anus, for the cestreus is eaten 
by the labrax, and the conger by the niuraena. The stronger 
are hostile to the weaker, for the strong fish eat the others. 
This much concerning marine creatures. 


1. IT has been already observed, that the dispositions of 
animals vary in cowardice, mildness, courage, gentleness, 
intelligence, and folly. The disposition of sheep, as I have 
said before, is foolish, and without sense ; they are the most 
cowardly of all animals, and steal away into desert places 
for no purpose, and in winter often escape from their fold. 
When overtaken by a snow-storm, they will not get away, 
unless the shepherd drives them, but will stay behind and 
perish, unless the shepherds carry off the males, when the 
rest will follow. 

2. If a person takes any of the goats by the beard (which 
is like hair), all the rest stand by as if infatuated, and look 
at it. Sheep will sleep in colder places than goats, for sheep 
are more quiet, and are ready to submit themselves to man- 
kind. Groats do not bear the cold so well as sheep. Shep- 
herds teach sheep to come together when they make a noise, 
and if any of them is left behind and does not join the flock 
when it thunders, it will cast its young, if pregnant ; where- 
fore, when a noise is made, they will collect together in 
their sheds according to their custom. (Bulls are destroyed 
by wild beasts, if they wander away from their herd.) Sheep 
and goats lie down to rest separately in their races, 
and when the sun. begins to descend, the shepherds say that 
the goats do not lie down with their faces to each other, but 
they turn their backs upon each other. 



1. Cows pasture in herds, and in companies, and if one of 
them wanders to a distance, all the rest follow, so that the 
herdsmen, if they do not find her, immediately examine all 
the herds. Mares in herds, if one of them happens to die, 
will bring up her foal among them, and the whole race of 
horses appears to have warm natural affections, of which the 
following is a proof : the barren mares will take away the 
foals from their mothers, and treat them with affection, 
though they soon die for want of milk. 


1. OF all wild quadrupeds, the deer appears to be one of the 
most prudent in producing its young by the wayside (where 
wild beasts do not come, for fear of men) ; as soon as the young 
is born, the dam eats the chorion, and runs to the plant 
called seselis, which she eats, and having so done, returns to her 
kid. She then leads her kid to the station, to which it may 
learn to retreat in case of danger ; this is usually a chasm 
in a rock with a single entrance, which they say that it 
stays and defends. When the male gets fat (which usually 
happens in the autumn) he does not show himself, but gets 
out of the way, for his fat makes him an easy prey. He 
sheds his horns in difficult and scarcely accessible places, 
from whence arises the proverb, " where the stag sheds its 
horns," for they are afraid of being seen, as if they had lost 
their means of defence. It is said that the left horn never 
has been seen, for he conceals it as if it had some medicinal 

2. "When a year old they have no horns, but only a com- 
mencement, as it were a sign of what is to be ; this is short, 
and covered with thick down. When two years old, they 
have straight horns, like sticks, for which reason they are 
called pattalia (from TarraXo?, a stake). In the third year 
their horns are divided. In the fourth year they become 
rough. In this manner they are regularly developed till 
they are six years old. After this age their horns are al- 
ways the same, so that their age cannot be distinguished by 
them. Old stags, however, are recognised by two- signs ; 
Borne of them have no teeth at all, others only a few ; and 


they never have the defensive part of the horn, that part 
of the growing horn which bends forwards, with which they 
defend themselves, this the old stags never possess, but all 
the increase of their horns is upwards. 

3. They cast their horns every year about the month of 
April. "When they cast their horns they hide themselves 
during the day, as it has been already observed. They con- 
ceal themselves in thickets, to protect themselves from the 
flies. During this period they feed (in the thickets) during 
the night, until their horns are grown. They are produced 
at first under the skin, and are covered with down. When 
they grow they expose them to the sun, that the horn may 
be matured and hardened. When they cease to give them 
pain if rubbed against trees, they leave such places, for 
they are confident in their means of defence. An Achamian 
stag * has been taken with a considerable quantity of green 
ivy growing on its horns as in green wood, for the horns 
are tender when first produced. 

4. "When the stags are bitten by the phalangium or any 
such creature, they collect together a number of crabs and 
eat them. It appears to be wholesome for mankind to 
drink the same substance, but it is not pleasant. The 
females, as soon as their young are born, eat the chorium, 
and it is not possible to obtain it, for they seize upon it 
before it can fall to the ground ; it appears to have some 
medicinal properties. The females are captured by the 
sound of the pipe and by singing, and they are charmed by 
singing. When two persons go out to capture them, one 
shows himself, and either plays upon a pipe, or sings, and 
the other strikes behind, when the first gives him the 
signal ; when the ears of the deer are erect, it hears quickly, 
and cannot be deceived, as it may be if they hang down. 


1. WHE^ bears are in flight, the v drive their cubs before them, 
or take them up and carry them. When nearly overtaken, 
they climb up into trees. When they first come from their 
hiding place they eat the arum, as it has been already ob- 
served, and gnaw the trees as if they were cutting teeth. 
Many ether animals also prudently provide themselves with 
1 A bracket, or two year old stag. 


remedies, for they say that the wild goats in Crete, when 
struck with an arrow, seek out the dittany, for this plant 
assists in working the arrow from their body. 

2. And dogs, when they are ill, provide themselves with 
an emetic from a certain kind of grass. The panther, when 
it has eaten the poison called pardalianches, 1 seeks for human 
ordure, for this relieves it. This poison also will kill lions, 
the hunters, therefore, suspend ordure in a vessel from the 
trees, in order that the animal may not wander far from 
them ; for the panther jumps at it and attempts to seize it, 
and dies before it can reach it. They say that the panther 
is aware that its peculiar scent is grateful to other wild 
animals, and that it preys upon them in concealment, and 
when deer approach near, it catches hinds. 

3. The Egyptian ichneumons, when they see the serpent 
called the asp, do not attack it until they have invited others 

I to assist. They roll themselves in mud as a protection 
I against its blows and wounds ; they first bathe in water and 
| then roll themselves on the ground. When the crocodile 
gapes, the trochilus flies into its mouth, to cleanse its teeth ; 
in this process the trochilus procures food, and the other per- 
ceives it, and does not injure it ; when the crocodile wishes the 
trochilus to leave, it moves its neck that it may not bite the 
bird. "When the tortoise has eaten a viper, it afterwards eats 
origanum ; this has been observed. A person who had often 
seen this done, and had observed that when the tortoise had 
tasted the origanum it went back to the viper, gathered all 
the origanum, and when this was done, the tortoise died. 

4. The weasel eats the herb rue before it attacks a 
serpent, for the smell of this herb is obnoxious to serpents. 
When the draco has eaten much fruit, it sucks the juice of 
the bitter lettuce ; it has been seen to do this. When dogs are 
troubled with worms, they eat the green tops of corn. When 
the pelargus or any other bird has been wounded in flight, 
they feed upon marjoram, and many persons have seen the 
locust 2 settle upon the neck of serpents with which it was 
contending. The weasel also appears prudent in the way in 
which it attacks birds, for it kills them in the same manner 
as wolves kill sheep ; it will fight also with serpents, and 
especially with those that hunt mice ; for the weasel pursues 
the same animals. 

1 Perhaps Aconite. 2 Spax lacerticida. Schneider. 


5. Observations have been frequently made on the instinct 
of the hedgehog, for when the north and south winds change, 
those that dwell in the earth alter the position of the en- 
trance of their burrows ; those which are kept in houses alter 
their position from wall to wall, so that they say that in 
Byzantium there was a person who obtained the character 
of predicting the change of the weather, from observations 
made on the hedgehog. Theictis is about the size of a small 
Maltese dog ; in the thickness of its hair, its appearance, 
its white belly, and the cunning of its disposition, it re- 
sembles the weasel ; it is easily tamed ; it attacks hives of 
bees, for it is very fond of honey ; it eats birds like cats ; 
its penis, as it has been already observed, is bony, and ap- 
pears to be a remedy for stranguary in the human subject ; 
it is administered in shavings. 


1. MANY animals in their mode of life appear to imitate 
mankind, and one may observe greater accuracy of intellect 
in small than in large animals ; as the manufacture of its 
dwelling by the swallow is remarkable among birds ; it has 
the same method of combining chaff with mud, for it mixes 
the mud with straw, and if mud is not to be found, it 
dips in the water and rolls itself in the dust ; it uses straw 
in making its nest as men use it, for it places the largest 
at the bottom, and makes it commensurate with its own 
bulk ; both the male and female labour in support of the 
young. They feed each in turn, observing by some agree- 
ment the one which was first fed that none may receive food 
twice ; at first they turn the dung out of the nest, but as 
the young birds increase in size, they teach them to turn 
themselves, so as to eject their excrement out of the nest. 

2. There are some observations which may be made on 
pigeons, for they will not pair with many mates, nor do they 
forsake their first companion, unless they become widowed. 
The care and anxiety of the male at the time of parturition 
are remarkable, for if the pain causes the hen to feel languid 
when near the nest, he beats her and drives her in. When 
the young are hatched, the parent provides salt earth, which 
is injected into the open mouth of the young birds, as a pre- 
paration for the reception of food. When it is time for 
them to leave the nest, the male copulates with them all. 

240 THE msTOiiY or AKIHALS. [B. ix 

3. In this manner they have usually a great affection for 
each other. Some females will copulate with males that are 
not their own mates. This bird is contentious, they fight 
together, and attack each other's nests, though not fre- 
quently, for although they are beaten w r hen at a distance, 
they will fight to the last when near their nests ; it appears 
to be characteristic of the pigeon, phaps, and turtle not 
to lean back when they drink, unless they have had suffi- 
cient. The turtle and phatta aways remain faithful to the 
same male, and will not permit another to approach them, 
and the male and female share the labour of incubation. 
The male and female are not easily distinguished, except 
by their internal structure. 

4. The phatta is long-lived, they have been known to 
live for twenty-five or thirty years, some even forty years ; 
their claws grow when they become aged, and pigeon 
breeders cut them off, and in no other respect are they in- 
ferior when aged. The turtle and the pigeon, if they have 
been blinded by those who use them as decoy birds, will live 
eight years. The partridge lives fifteen years, the phaps and 
the turtle always build in the same places. 

5. On the whole, males also live longer than females, but in 
these birds they say that the males die before the females ; 
this conclusion is derived from the observation of those 
which are brought up in houses for decoy birds. Some 
persons say that cock-sparrows only live for one year, con- 
sidering this as a proof, that early in the spring there are no 
birds with black beneath the chin ; but they have it after- 
wards, as if none of the former birds had survived. The 
hen-sparrows have a longer life, for these are taken among 
the young birds, and are easily known by the hard portion 
about their bills. The turtle lives during the summer in 
cold places, and during the winter in warm places. The finch 
lives during the summer in warm places, and in cold places 
during winter. 


1. THE heavy birds do not make nests, for it does not agree 
with their mode of flight, as the quail, partridge, and all 
such birds ; but when they have made a hole in the smooth 
ground (for they never produce their young in any other 


place), they collect together some thorns and sticks for a 
defence against the hawks and eagles, and there lay their 
eggs and incubate. As soon as the young are hatched, they 
lead them out, because their slow flight prevents them from 
procuring food for them. The quail and partridge shelter 
their young under their wings, like the domestic fowl. 

2. They do not lay and incubate in the same place, lest 
any one should discover the place while they sat there for a 
long while ; and when any one in hunting falls upon the 
nest, the partridge halts before him, as if she could be taken, 
and draws him after her in the hopes of capture, until all 
the young ones have had time to escape, and after she flies 
back and recalls them to their nest. The partridge does 
not lay less ,than ten eggs, and often sixteen. As it has been 
already observed, it is a bird of an evil and cunning dispo- 
sition. In the spring they separate with singing and fight- 
ing into pairs with the females which each may happen to 
take. The partridge being a bird of violent passions, it tries 
to prevent the female from incubation by rolling and break- 
ing the eggs, if it can find them. The female, opposing this 
artifice by another, lays her eggs as she runs, and often, 
from her desire of laying, she drops her eggs wherever 
she may be, if the male is present ; and, that they may all 
be preserved, she does not return to them. If she is ob- 
served by men, she leads them away from her eggs as from 
her young ones, and shows herself just before them until 
they are drawn away from the nest. 

3. When the hen has escaped for incubation, the cocks 
crow and fight together. These are called widowers. The 
vanquished in the combat follows his conqueror who alone 
has intercourse with him ; and if any one is overcome by 
a second, or by any chance one, the victor has secret inter- 
course with him. This does not take place always, but only at 
certain seasons of the year. The quail does the same, and 
domestic fowls also ; for when a new one is offered in the 
temples, where they are kept without the females, all in 
turn are united with it. Tame partridges have sexual inter- 
course with wild ones, and strike and insult them. 

4. The leader of the wild partridges attacks the partridge 
used in fowling, and goes out crowing as if he would fight. 
When he is taken in the trap, the other goes out and crows 


in the same manner. If the partridge used for fowling is 
cock, they behave in this way ; but if it is a female, and &ht 
calls, the leader answers her call ; and all the rest rise ui 
and beat him, and drive him away from the female, because 
he attends to her instead of themselves. For this reasor 
he often comes silently, that the others may not hear hie 
voice and come out to fight him. And some experiencec 
fowlers say that the male approaches the female in silence 
that the other males may not hear him and compel him tc 
fight them. The partridge not only calls, but also utters & 
shrill cry and other sounds. 

5. And it often happens, when the hen is sitting, that i; 
she sees the male approaching the decoy bird, she will get 
up from her nest and remain in his way, that he may have 
intercourse with her, and not be drawn away by the deco\ 
bird. Partridges and quails have such violent sexual desires 
that they will fall upon the fowlers and often perch upoi 
their heads. 


1. THIS is the mode of the sexual intercourse of the par- 
tridge, and the way in which they are caught, and the nature 
of the rest of their crafty disposition. Quails, and partridges 
and some other birds make their nest upon the ground, as 
it has been already observed. Of such birds the lark, wood- 
cock, and quail do not perch upon trees, but upon the ground 
2. The woodpecker does not settle upon the ground, but 
it strikes trees in order to drive out the worms and flies 
which they contain, and it picks them up with its tongue as 
they emerge. Its tongue is wide and large. It walks upon 
the trees in any position, even beneath the branches, like the 
gecko. It has claws stronger than those of the coloeus, which 
provide for its safety in climbing trees ; for it fixes them in 
the bark as it walks up the trees. There is one kind o1 
woodpecker less than the blackbird, covered with sma^ 
red spots, and another kind larger than the blackbird, and 
a third kind nearly as large as the domestic hen. It build 
its nest upon trees, as it has been already observed, both on 
olive and other trees ; and it feeds upon ants and worms 
which live in trees. It hunts for worms so diligently that 
they say it hollows out the trees so much as to throw them 


down. A tame bird has been known to place an almond in 
a crack in wood, to prepare it for the stroke of its bill, and 
break it with three blows, in order to eat the kernel. 


MANY prudent actions appear to be performed by cranes ; 
for they travel great distances, and fly at a great elevation, 
in order that they may see farther ; and if they see clouds 
and wintry weather, they descend and rest themselves. 
They have also a leader in front ; and in the rear are those 
which give a signal by whistling, so that their voice may be 
heard. When they settle on the ground, the rest sleep with 
their head under the wing, first on one foot, then on the 
other ; but the leader watches with his neck stretched out, 
and when he sees anything he gives a signal by his cry. 
The pelicans, which inhabit the rivers, swallow large smooth 
shells with their drink, and when they have been digested 
in the first part of their stomach, they vomit them up, in 
order that they may pick out and eat their flesh when they 
open their valves. 


1. THE habitations of wild birds are contrived with relation 
to their mode of life and the preservation of their young. 
Some of them are kind to their young and careful of them : 
others are of a different disposition. Some manage well in 
their mode of life : others do not. Some dwell in clefts, and 
holes, and in rocks, as the birds called charadrius. This 
bird is faulty both in its colours and its voice. It appears 
during the night, and escapes in the day time. 

2. The hawk also builds in precipitous places ; and al- 
though it is carnivorous, it does not devour the heart of the 
bird it has killed. Some have observed this with respect to 
the quail and thrush, and others with other birds. There is 
also a change in their mode of hunting their prey, for they 
do not seize them in the same way in summer and in winter. 
It is said that no one has ever seen the young or the nest of 
the carrion vulture. Wherefore Herodorus, the father of 
Brison the sophist, says that they come from some distant 
elevated land, using this proof, that many of them ap- 
pear suddenly, but where they come from is not intelligible 



to any one. The reason is this, they make their nest ill t 
inaccessible rocks, and the bird is not an inhabitant of man^ 
countries. It produces one egg or two at the most. 

3. Some birds dwell in mountains and in woods, as th( 
hoopoe and brenthus. This bird has a good habit of life am 
a good voice. The trochilus dwells in thickets and holes i 
It is taken with difficulty, for it is swift in flight, and it* 
disposition is weak ; but its mode of life is good, and it 
artful. It is also called presbys and basileus. Wherefore 
also they say that it fights with the eagle. 


1. THERE are some which live near the sea, as the cinclus 
In disposition this bird is cunning and difficult of capture, 
and when taken easily tamed. It appears to be lame, foi 
its hinder parts are weak. All birds with webbed feet live 
near the sea, or near rivers and ponds, for their nature 
teaches them to seek what is advantageous for them. Many 
of those with divided feet live near waters and marshes, as 
the anthus in the neighbourhood of rivers. Its colour is 
beautiful, and its mode of life good. The diver lives near 
the sea, and when it plunges into the sea it remains 
as long a time as it would take a man to walk over a pleth- 
rum of ground. This bird is less than a hawk. 

2. The swan also is web-footed, and lives in ponds and 
marshes. Its manner of life and disposition is good, and so 
is its mode of rearing their young and its old age. If an 
eagle attacks the swan, it defends itself and comes off victo- 
rious, but will not commence the fight. Swans have the 
power of song, especially when near the end of their life ; 
for they then fly out to sea, and some persons, sailing near 
the coast of Libya, have met many of them in the sea sing- 
ing a mournful song, and have afterwards seen some ol 
them die. 

3. The cymindis is seldom seen, for it inhabits mountains. 
It is black, and about the size of the hawk called pigeon 
hawk. Its form is long and slight. (It shines with a 
metallic lustre, wherefore also it is called chalcis.) The 
lonians call it cymindis: wherefore Homer writes in the 
Iliad, "the bird which the gods call chalcis, and mortals 
cymindis." (Some persons say that the hybris is the same 


bird as the ptynx.) This bird does not show itself in tho 
day-time because its sight is dim ; but it hunts its prey 
during the night like the eagle. It fights so fiercely with 
the eagle that both are often taken alive by the shepherds. 
It lays two eggs, and builds in rocks and caverns. Cranes 
fight so fiercely with each other that these also are taken 
alive by the shepherds while they are fighting. The crane 
lays two eggs. 


] . THE jay changes its voice frequently, for it utters a 
different one, as we may say, almost every day ; it lays about 
nine eggs ; it makes its nest upon trees, of hair and wool ; 
when the acorns fall, it conceals and stores them up. Many 
persons have reported that the stork is fed by its young, 
and some people say the merops also, and that they are fed 
by the young, not only in their old age, but as soon as the 
young birds are able to do so, and that the parents remain 
within the nest ; in appearance, this bird is green beneath 
the wings, and blue above, as the kingfisher, and its wings are 
red at the extremity. It lays six or seven eggs in the autumn, 
in muddy caverns, and digs as much as four cubits into the 

2. The bird called chloris from being yellow beneath, 
is of the size of the lark, and lays four or five eggs ; it 
makes its nest of symphytum, which it pulls up by the root, 
and lines it with straw, hair, and wool. The blackbird and 
jay do the same, and line their nests with the same ma- 
terials ; the nest of the acanthyllis is also artfully con- 
structed, for it is folded together like a ball of flax, and has 
a small entrance. And the natives of those places say that 
there is a cinnamon bird, and that they bring the cinnamon 
from the same places as the bird, and that it makes its nest 
of it. It builds its nest in lofty trees and among their 
branches, but the natives of the country tip their arrows 
with lead, with which they destroy the nests, and then pick 
out the cinnamon from the other material. 


1. THE halcyon is not much larger than a sparrow; its 
colour is blue and green, and somewhat purple ; its whole 


.body is composed of these colours as well as the wings and 
neck, nor is any part without every one of these colours. 
Its bill is somewhat yellow, long, and slight ; this is its ex- 
ternal form. Its nest resembles the marine balls which are 
called halosachna}, 1 except in colour, for they are red ; in form 
it resembles those sicyse (cucumbers) which have long necks ; 
its size ia that of a very large sponge, for some are greater, 
others less. They are covered up, and have a thick solid 
part as well as the cavity ; it is not easily cut with a sharp 
knife, but when struck or broken with the hand, it divides 
readily like the halosachnae. The mouth is narrow, as it 
were a small entrance, so that the sea-water cannot enter, 
even if the sea is rough ; its cavity is like that of the sponge ; 
the material of which the nest is composed is disputed, but 
it appears to be principally composed of the spines of the 
belone, for the bird itself lives on fish. It also ascends 
rivers ; it does not produce more than five eggs ; it continues 
to reproduce throughout the whole of its life, from the time 
of being four months old. 


1. THE hoopoe generally makes its nest of human ordure. 
It changes its appearance in summer and winter, like most 
other wild birds. The titmouse, as they say, lays the 
greatest number of eggs, some say that the bird called me- 
lancoryphus lays the greatest number of eggs after the Libyan 
sparrow, seventeen have been observed, but it will produce 
more than twenty, and, as they say, it always lays a great 
many. This bird also builds in trees, and lives upon worms. 
It is characteristic of this bird and the nightingale not to 
have any tip to their tongue. The eegithus has a good mode 
of life, and is careful of its young, but is lame upon its feet. 
The chlorion is a clever and diligent bird, but its flight is 
difficult, and its colours bad. 

2. The elea, like some other birds, has an excellent mode 
of life, and dwells during the summer in groves and in the 
shade, and during the winter in sunshine, perching upon the 
reeds on the sides of marshes. It is a small bird, with a 
good voice. 

3. The bird called gnaphalus has a sweet voice, its colour^ 

1 Probably a Zoophyte, Alcyonia. 


are beautiful, its mode of life good, and its form elegant ; 
it appears to be a foreign bird, for it is rarely found in 
places where there are no houses. 

4. The disposition of the crex is pugnacious, but it is in- 
genious in providing for its own subsistence, though other- 
wise an unfortunate bird. The sitta is pugnacious, but its 
disposition is gentle and tractable, and its mode of life good. 
It is said to be medicinal, for it is skilful in many things. 
It produces many young, which it treats with kindness, and 
obtains its food by striking trees. 

5. The little owl feeds during the night, and is rarely visible 
by day. It lives in rocks and caverns, for its food is of two 
kinds ; and in disposition it is diligent and ingenious. There 
is a small bird called certhius, which is bold in disposition, 
and lives on trees and eats the thrips (timber worm). In 
disposition it is diligent in search of food, and its voice is 
brilliant. The disposition and hue of the acanthis is bad, 
but it has a shrill voice. 


1. AMONG the herons, as it was before observed, the black 
heron copulates with difficulty, but it is an ingenious bird. 
It carries its food about, and is skilful in procuring it. It 
works during the day. Its colour, however, is bad, and its 
stomach always fluid. Of the other two (for there are three 
kinds of them), the white heron is beautifully coloured and 
copulates without pain, and builds its nest and attends its 
young carefully in trees. It inhabits marshes and lakes, 
plains and meadows. The bittern, which is called ocnus 
(the idle), is said in fables to have been originally a slave. 
Its name indicates its very idle disposition. 

2. The herons live in this manner. The bird called poyx 
is peculiar, for it is its disposition to eat the eyes of other 
creatures, and is therefore the enemy of the harpa, which 
lives upon the same food. 


1. THEEE are two kinds of cottyphus. The one is black, 
and is found everywhere ; the other is white. In size they 
are alike, and their voice is very similar. The white one is 
found in Cylleue, in Arcadia, and nowhere else. The laeus 


is similar to the black cottyphus, but is rather smaller. It 
makes its house upon rocks and tiles. It has not a dark 
beak, like the blackbird. 

2. Of thrushes there are three forms. The one is called 
misselthrush, for it lives upon nothing but miseltoe and resin. 
It is as large as the citta ; the other is called fieldfare. The 
voice of this bird is shrill ; its size is that of the blackbird. 
There is another kind, which some persons call illas, which 
is smaller than the others and less variegated. 

3. There is a certain bird living on rocks, which is called 
blue thrush. This bird generally inhabits Scyrus. It lives 
upon the wing. It is less than the blackbird, but larger than 
the finch. Its feet are black, and it climbs up upon rocks. 
It is entirely blue. It has a smooth, long beak, but its legs 
are short, and resemble those of the woodpecker. 


1. THE oriole is entirely of a yellowish green. This bird 
is not visible in the winter. It is seen in the greatest num- 
bers at the summer solstice, and takes its departure when 
Arcturus rises. It is of the same size as the turtle. The 
malacocraneus always perches upon the same place, and is 
captured there. This is its appearance : its head is large, 
and has the form of cartilage ; its size is smaller than the 
thrush ; its beak is strong, small, and round ; its colour is 
entirely cinereous ; its feet are strong, and its wings weak ; 
it is generally captured by the owl. 

2. There is another bird, called the pardalus, which is 
generally gregarious, and a single bird is never seen. Its 
colour is entirely cinereous. In size it resembles those 
already mentioned. Its feet are strong, and its wings are 
not weak. Its voice is frequent and not deep. The colly- 
rion lives on the same food as the blackbird, and in size 
much resembles those just named. It is generally taken in 
the winter. These birds are visible all the year round, and 
so are those which live in the neighbourhood of towns, the 
raven and crow ; for these are always visible, and neither 
migrate nor conceal themselves. 

3. Of the jackdaw there are three kinds, one called cora- 
cias, which is as large as the crow, and has a red beak ; 
another is called lycius ; there is also a small one called 


bomoloclius ; there is also another kind of jackdaw in Lydia 
und Phrygia which is web-footed. 

4. Of the lark there are two kinds. One dwells or. 
the ground, and has a crest. The other is gregarious, and 
not solitary. Its colour is similar, though it is a smaller 
bird, and has no crest. It is used for food. 

5. The ascalopas is generally taken in enclosed gardens. 
It is of the size of the domestic fowl, it has a long beak, 
and in colour resembles the attagen. It runs quickly, and 
is very partial to the neighbourhood of mankind. The 
starling is variegated, and is of the size of the blackbird. 

6. There are two kinds of ibis in Egypt ; the white and 
the black. The white live in all the rest of Egypt, but 
are not found in Pelusium. The black occur in Pelusium, 
but not in other parts of Egypt. 

7. One kind of scops, called brown owl, is seen throughout 
the year, but it is not eaten, for it is not fit for food. Others 
occur sometimes in the autumn, when they appear for one, 
or not more than two days. They are eatable, and are 
highly esteemed. They differ in no respect from the brown 
owl, except in fatness ; and they are silent, whereas the 
other has a voice. No observations have ever been made 
on their mode of generation, except that they appear when 
the west wind blows. This is manifest. 


1. THE cuckoo, as it has been already observed, makes no 
nest, but lays its eggs in the nests of other birds, especially 
in that of the phaps, and in those of the sparrow and 
lark on the ground, and in the nest of the chloris in 
trees. It lays one egg, upon which it does not sit, but 
the bird in whose nest it lays both hatches the egg and 
nurses the young bird ; and, as they say, when the young 
cuckoo grows, it ejects the other young birds, which thus 

2. Others say that the mother bird kills them, and feeds 
the young cuckoo with them ; for the beauty of the young 
cuckoo makes her despise her own offspring. People assert 
that they have been eye-witnesses of most of these circum- 
stances, but all are not equally agreed as to the mode in 
which the other young birds perish. Some persons say 


that the old cuckoo comes and devours the young of the 
other bird. Others say that the great size of the young 
cuckoo enables it to seize upon the food which is brought 
to the nest, so that the rest perish from starvation. Others 
say that the cuckoo, being the stronger bird, kills those that 
are brought up with it. 

3. The cuckoo appears to act prudently in thus depositing 
her egg ; for it is conscious of its own timidity, and that 
it cannot defend its young, and therefore places them under 
the protection of another bird, in order that they may be pre- 
served ; for this bird is very cowardly, and when it is pecked 
by even small birds, it flies away from them. 


1 . THAT the swilt, which, some persons call cypsellus, resem- 
bles the swallow, has been already observed, and it is not 
easy to distinguish them apart, except that the legs of the 
apos are covered with feathers. These birds rear their young 
in small nests made of mud, which have a passage sufficient 
for their admission. The nest is constructed in a narrow 
place under rocks and caverns, so that it avoids both beasts 
and men. 

2. The goatsucker, as it is called, is a mountain bird, 
larger than the blackbird, and less than the cuckoo. It lays 
two, or not more than three eggs, and is slothful in its dis- 
position. It flies against the goats and sucks them, whence 
its name (aegothelas, the goat-sucker). They say that when 
the udder has been sucked that it gives no more milk, and 
that the goat becomes blind. This bird is not quick sighted 
by day, but sees well at night. 

3. The ravens in small districts, and where they have not 
food enough, are found only in pairs ; and as soon as their 
young birds are able to fly, the old birds first of all turn them 
out of the nest, and then drive them from the place. The 
raven lays four or five eggs. When the hired soldiers of 
Medias perished in Pharsalus, Athens and the Peloponnesus 
were deserted by the ravens, as if they had some means of 
communication with each other. 


1. THERE are several kinds of eagles. One which is called 
pygargus (hen-harrier), which is found in plains and groves. 


and in the vicinity of towns. Some persons call it nebro- 
phonus. It is a courageous bird, and flies to mountains, and 
woods also. The other kinds rarely appear in plains and 
groves. There is another kind of eagle called plangus, the 
second in point of size and strength, which lives among 
thickets, and valleys, and marshes. It is called nettophonus 
and morphnus. Of this kind Homer speaks at the departure 
of Priam. 

2. There is another kind, which is black. It is smaller, 
and stronger than the others. It inhabits mountains and 
woods. It is called melanseetus, and lagophonus. This is 
the only one that rears and educates its young. It is swift, 
elegant, liberal, fearless, warlike, and of a good omen, for it 
neither cries nor screams. There is another kind with spotted 
wings. It has a white head, and is the largest of all eagles. 
Its wings are short, and its rump very long, like the vulture ; 
it is called oreipelargus, and hypseetus. It inhabits groves. 
It has all the faults of the rest, and none of their good 
qualities ; for it is taken and pursued by ravens and other 
birds. It is a heavy bird, and its mode of life is bad. It 
carries about dead creatures; it is always hungry, and 
screams and cries. 

3. There is another kind of eagle called sea eagle, which 
has a long and thick neck, curved wings, and a wide rump. 
It inhabits the sea and the coast. When they have seized 
their prey, and cannot carry it away, they are borne down 
into the sea. There is, again, another kind of eagle, called 
true eagle. They say that these alone of all other birds are 
true, for the other kinds are mixed and crossed with each 
other, both eagles, hawks, and other smaller kinds. This 
is the largest of all the eagles, greater than the phene ; one 
and a half times as large as other eagles, and of a red colour : 
it is seldom seen, like that called cymindis. 

4. The time for the activity of the eagle, and for its flight, 
is from dinner till the evening, for it sits aloft till the time 
when the market-place begins to fill. "When eagles grow old, 
their beaks become more and more curved, so that at last they 
die of famine. The story goes, that the eagle was once a man, 
and suffers this as a punishment for inhospitality to a guest. 
Any superabundant food is put aside for their young in their 
nests, for it is not easy for them to procure it every day, and 
sometimes they have no place from whence to bring it. 


5. If they find anyone attempting to take their nest, they 
beat them with their wings, and tear them with their claws. 
They do not make their nests in plains, but in high places, 
especially in precipitous rocks, but never on trees. They 
rear their young till they can fly, and then turn them out of 
their nests, and drive them to a great distance ; for one pair 
of eagles occupies a wide space of country, so that they will 
suffer no others to live near them. 

6. They do not hunt their prey near their nests, but at a 
considerable distance ; and when they have hunted and 
taken anything, they lay it down and do not take it away at 
once, but carry it away when they have tried its wei'ght. 
They do not capture hares at once, but let them escape to 
the plain. They do not descend to the plain at once, but 
with large though gradually decreasing circles. They 
do this in order that they may not be ensnared. They 
settle upon eminences, because they cannot rise easily from 
the ground. They fly aloft, that they may see the greater 
extent of country. For this cause men say that the eagle 
is the only divine bird. 

7. All birds with crooked claws avoid sitting upon rocks, 
for its hardness is injurious to their claws. The eagle hunts 
fawns, hares, and other animals which it is able to conquer. 
It is a long-lived bird. This is plain from the long con- 
tinuance of their nests in the same place. 

8. In Scythia there is a kind of bird as large as a bustard, 
which produces two young ones. It does nob sit upon its 
eggs, but hides them in the skin of a hare or fox. It w^atches 
them from a neighbouring tree all the while it is not en- 
gaged in hunting its prey. And if anyone approaches them, 
it fights and strikes with its wings, like the eagle. 


1. THE owl and nycticorax, and the other birds which see 
imperfectly by daylight, procure their food by hunting in 
the night. They do not this all the night, but in twilight 
and at early dawn. They hunt mice, and lizards, and 
beetles, and such other small animals. 

2. The bird called asprey produces many young, is of 
a good habit of body, diligent in search of food, and gentle ; 
and feeds both its own young and those of the eagle : for 


wnen the eagle turns out its young, the phene takes them 
up and feeds them ; for the eagle ejects them ' before the 
proper time, when they still require feeding, and are unable 
to fly. The eagle appears to eject its young from the nest 
from envy ; for it is an envious and hungry bird, and not quick 
in seizing its prey. It captures large creatures when it can. 
When its young have grown, it envies them, for they are 
good for food, and tears them with its claws. The young 
also fight in the nest for particular places, and for the food. 
The parent then turns them out of the nest and strikes 
them. When they are turned out they begin to scream, 
and the phene comes and takes them up. The phene is 
dim-sighted, and its eyes are imperfect. 

3. The sea-eagle is very quick- sighted, and compels its 
young to gaze on the sun before they are feathered. If any 
one of them refuse, it is beaten and turned round : and the 
one of them which first weeps when gazing on the sun is 
killed, the other is reared. It lives near the sea side, and ob- 
tains its food by pursuing marine birds, as it was before 
remarked. It pursues and takes them one at a time, watching 
them as they emerge from the sea. And if the bird, as it 
rises, sees the eagle watching it, it dives again from fear, in 
order that it may rise again in another place : but the eagle's 
quick sight enables him to pursue the bird till it is either 
suffocated, or taken on the wing ; but it never attacks them 
in any numbers, for they drive it away by sprinkling it with 
their wings. 

4. The petrels are taken with foam, for they devour it. 
They are therefore taken by sprinkling them. All the rest 
of its flesh is good ; the rump alone smells of seaweed, and 
they are fat. 


1. THE buzzard is the strongest of the hawks ; next to this 
the merlin. The circus is less strong; the asterias and 
phassophonus, and pternis are different. The wide-winged 
hawks are called hypotriorches, others are called perci and 
spizia? ; others are the eleii and the phrynolochi ; these birds 
live very easily, and fly near the ground. 

2. Some persons say that there are no less than ten kinds 
of hawks ; the'y differ from each other, for some of them 


kill the pigeon as it perches on the ground, and carry it 
away, but do not touch it in flight ; others attack it as it 
sits upon the trees, or in some such situation, but will not 
touch it when upon the ground or in flight ; other kinds of 
hawks will not strike the bird when perching upon the 
ground or anywhere else, but will endeavour to attack it 
when in flight. 

3. They say that the pigeons can distinguish each of these 
kinds, so that if they see one of those which attack them in 
the air flying towards them, they remain sitting where 
they are, but if it is one of those which strike them on the 
ground, they do not remain still, but fly away. 

4. In the city of Thrace, formerly called Cedropolis. 
men are assisted by hawks in pursuing birds in the 
marshes. They strike the reeds and wood with sticks 
in order that the birds may fly up, and the hawks ap- 
pearing above pursue them, the birds then fall to the 
earth through fear, when the men strike them with their 
sticks and take them, and divide the prey with the hawks, 
for they throw away some of the birds, and the hawks 
come and take them. 

5. On the Palus Moeotis, they say that wolves are 
accustomed to assist the fishermen in their calling, and if 
they do not give them their share of the food, they destroy 
the nets that are laid to dry on the ground. This, then, is 
the nature of birds. 


1. MARINE animals also have many artful ways of pro- 
curing their food, for the stories that are told of the batra- 
chus, which is called the fisher, are true, and so are those of 
the narce. For the batrachus has appendages above its 
eyes, of the length of a hair, with a round extremity to 
each like a bait ; it buries itself in the sand or mud, and 
raises these appendages above the surface, and when the 
small fish strike them, it draws them down, till it brings 
the fish within reach of its mouth. 

2. The narce stupefies any fish it may wish to master, 
with the peculiar force which it has in its body, and then 
takes and feeds upon them ; it lies concealed in sand and 


mud, and captures as they swim over it any fish that it can 
take and stupefy; of this circumstance many persons have 
been witnesses ; the trygon also hides itself, but not in the 
same manner ; the following is a proof of their mode of 
life, for they are often taken with the cestreus in their 
stomach, which is the swiftest of fishes, and they are the 
slowest ; and the batrachus, when nothing is left on the 
hair-like appendages, is taken in an emaciated condition. 
The narce also has plainly caused stupefaction in men. 

3. The onus, batus, psetta, and rhine also bury themselves 
in the sand, and when they have hidden themselves, the ap- 
pendage which is in their mouth stands up, this the 
fishermen call their staff, and the small fish approach it 
as if it was the sea-weed, on which they usually live. 
Wherever the anthias is found there are no obnoxious crea- 
tures ; when this sign is observed, those who collect sponges 
dive for them there, and call the anthias the sacred fish ; 
this is only a coincidence, just as the pig and partridge 
are never found where there are snails, for they eat them 

4. The marine-serpent, in colour and in the form of its 
body, resembles the conger, but it is darker, and more power- 
ful. If it is captured and allowed to escape, it buries itself 
in the sand, which it pierces with its snout, for its snout 
is sharper than that of a serpent. The creature called 
scolopendra when it has swallowed the hook turns itself 
inside out, till the hook is ejected, when it turns to its 
original form. The scolopendra, like that which inhabits 
the land, is attracted by the smell of cooked meat ; it does 
not bite with the mouth, but stings with the contact of 
the whole body, like the creatures called sea-nettles. 

5. The fish called alopex, when one of them has swal- 
lowed the hook, assist each other in this matter, as the 
scolopendra also does, for they collect together round 
the line and bite it off; in some places, where the water is 
swift and deep, they are taken with many hooks in them. 
The amia3 also collect together when they see any obnoxious 
creature near them, and the largest swim round them in 
a circle; when attacked, they defend themselves; they 
have strong teeth, and the lamia and other creatures when 
attacking them have been seen to be repulsed with wounds. 


6. Among river fish the male glanis is very careful of 
his young fry, but the female goes away as soon as she has 
deposited her ova, but the male continues to watch by the 
greater number of the ova, paying them no more attention 
than to drive away other fish, that they may not carry away 
the ova; he is thus employed for forty or fifty days. 
until the young fry are so far grown that they can es- 
cape from other fish ; the fishermen know when it is guarding 
its ova, for it drives away other fish, and as it jumps at them 
it makes a noise and a murmur. It remains with such af- 
fection beside its ova, that if they are deposited in deep 
water, and the fishermen attempt to bring them into 
shallow water, the fish will not forsake them ; but if 
young it is easily taken with a hook, from its habit of seizing 
upon any fish that may come in its way ; but if it is ex- 
perienced, and has swallowed a hook before, it does not 
leave its ova, but with its hard teeth it will bite and destroy 
the hook. 

7. All creatures with fins, and stationary animals, inhabit 
either the places in which they \vere born, or similar lo- 
calities, for their peculiar food is found in such places. The 
carnivorous fish are the greatest wanderers ; all are carni- 
vorous with a few exceptions, as the cestreus, salpa, trigla, 
and chalcis. The mucous substance which the pholis emits 
forms around it, and resembles a chamber. Of the apo- 
dal testacea, the pecten is the most locomotive, for it flies 
by means of its own valves ; the purpura and its congeners 
advance very slowly. 

8. All the fish except the cobius leave the Pyrrhic Euripus 
during the winter on account of the cold, for the Euripus is 
colder than the sea, and return again in the spring. In the 
Euripus the scarus, the thrissa, all the thorny fish, the galus, 
acanthia, carabus, polypus, bolitaena, and some others are 
wanting, and of those that are produced in the Euripus, the 
white cobius is not an inhabitant of the sea. Those fish 
which have ova are in the highest season in the spring, 
before they produce their ova ; those that are viviparous in 
the autumn, and besides these the cestreus, trigla, and their 
congeners. In the neighbourhood of Lesbos, both the ma- 
rine fish and those of the Euripus produce their ova in 
the Euripus; they copulate in the autumn, and deposit 


their ova in the spring. The males and females of the se- 
lachea also mix together, in numbers, in the autumn, for the 
purpose of copulation ; but in the spring they separate 
until they have produced their young ; at the period of 
sexual intercourse, they are often taken united together. 

9. The sepia is the most cunning of the malacia, and is 
the only one which uses its ink for the purpose of conceal- 
ment, when it is not alarmed. The polypus and teuthis 
emit their ink only when alarmed. These creatures never 
emit all their ink, and as soon as it is emitted it is secreted 
again. But the sepia, as it has already been remarked, 
makes use of its ink for the purposes of concealment, and 
when it pretends to advance, it returns into its ink. With 
its long extended tentacula it not only pursues small fish, 
but frequently attacks the cestreus. The polypus is a foolish 
creature, for it will approach a man's hand if brought near 
it. It is an economical animal, for it collects all its prey in 
the hole in which it dwells, and when the most useful part 
has been consumed, it ejects the shells, the coverings of 
the cancri, and conchylia, and the spines of the fish, it pur- 
sues any fish that may come in its way, changing its colour 
and imitating that of any neighbouring stone. It does the 
same thing when alarmed. 

10. Some persons say that the sepia has power to do the 
same thing, and that it can imitate the colour of the place 
it inhabits. The rhine is the only fish endowed with the 
same power, for it can change its colours like the poly- 
pus. The polypus rarely lives for two years, for it is by 
nature subject to decay. This is a proof of it, that when 
pressed, this animal always emits something, until at last it 
consumes away. The females suffer so much from this in 
the period of parturition, as to become foolish, and not per- 
ceive any agitation of the waves, so that they are easily 
taken by the hand of the diver ; they become like mucus, 
and are not able to pursue their prey. 

11. The males become hard and shining. This appears to 
be a proof that they do not survive a year, that in the 
summer and autumn, after the production of the young, 
it is difficult to find a large polypus, though large ones 
were abundant a short time before ; when they have pro- 
duced their ova, they say that both sexes grow old and be- 


come so weak, that they are devoured by small fish, and 
are easily dragged out of their holes, though before they 
would have permitted nothing of the kind. They also say 
that the small and young ones will not endure this, and that 
they are stronger than the large ones. The sepia also only 
lives one year ; the polypus is the only one of the malacia 
that ever ventures upon dry land, it advances upon a rough 
surface, but avoids smooth places. In other respects, it is 
a strong animal, but its neck, if pressed, becomes very weak. 
12. This is the nature of the malacia. They say that 
.... form their rough shells round themselves like a hard 
breastplate, which increases as they grow, and that they 
can leave these, as if they were a hole or a habitation. 
The nautilus is a polypus peculiar both in its nature and its 
actions; for it sails upon the surface of the sea, rising 
up from the depths of the waters. It is brought to the 
surface with its shell inverted, in order that it may go out 
more easily and navigate in an empty shell. When it 
reaches the surface, it turns its shell over. There is a 
membrane extended between two of its tentacula similar 
to the web feet of birds, except that theirs is thick and that 
of the nautilus thin and like a spider's web. This it uses 
for a sail when the wind blows, and it extends two of its 
tentacula for rudders. If alarmed, it fills its shell and sinks 
in the sea. No one has made any accurate observation on the 
production and growth of the shell. It appears not to ori- 
ginate in sexual intercourse, but to be produced like that of 
other conchylia, nor is it clear whether it can live when 
taken out of its shell. 


1. THE most laborious of all insects, if compared with the 
rest, are the tribes of ants and bees, with the hornets, wasps, 
and their other congeners. Some of the spiders are more 
neat, graceful, and skilful than others in their mode of life. 
Every one may see the diligence of the ant ; for it is on the 
surface, and that they always travel in one direction, am 
make a store and treasure-house of food, for they work evei 
in the night when there is a full moon. 

2. There are many kinds of spiders and phalangia. Of 
the phalangia that bite there are two sorts. The one 


sembles those called wolves. It is small, variegated, sharp, 
and active in jumping. It is called psylla. The other is 
larger. Its colour is black, and its fore-legs are long. Its 
movements are slow, and it can scarcely walk. It is not 
strong, nor capable of jumping. The other kinds, which the 
dealers in medicine offer for sale, either do not bite at all, or 
very slightly. 

3. There is another kind of those called wolves. One 
is small, and makes no web, and the larger sort makes a 
coarse inferior web upon the ground or in hedges. It always 
makes its weft over chinks in the soil, and with the origin of 
the web in the interior it keeps guard until something falls 
into the web and moves it, when it comes out. The va- 
riegated kind makes a small inferior web among trees. 

4. There is another third kind, which is very skilful and 
graceful. It commences the process of weaving by extend- 
ing its web to the extremities on all sides, and then it draws 
a thread from the centre, and takes up the centre cor- 
rectly. Upon these threads it weaves, as it were, the woof, 
and then weaves them altogether. Its sleeping place and 
store-room are situated at a distance. In seeking its prey 
it watches in the middle of its web. When anything 
falls into the web and the centre is moved, the spider sur- 
rounds and encloses it in a web, until it is rendered power- 
less, and then takes it up and carries it to her store. If 
hungry, she sucks it, for this is their method of enjoyment ; 
and if not hungry, hastens back for the pursuit of more 
prey, and in the first place mends her broken web. 

5. If anything in the meanwhile has fallen into the web, 
she first goes to the centre, and from that point, as before, 
falls upon her victim. If anyone destroys the web, she 
begins spinning again at the rising or setting of the sun, for 
it is at this time that her prey usually falls into the web. 
The female both makes the web and pursues the prey. The 
male only enjoys it with her. 

6. There are two kinds of graceful spiders that spin a 
thick web, one large and one small. The one with long legs 
keeps watch suspended above its web, that the creatures 
which fall into the web may not be frightened when taken, 
and then it falls upon them from above, for its size prevents 

3 2 


it from being easily concealed. But the smaller kind con- 
ceals itself in a small superior chamber of the web. 

7. Spiders have the power of emitting their web as soon 
as they are born, not from within their bodies, as if it were 
an excrement, as Democritus says, but from the surface of 
their body, like the bark of a tree, or like the ejected spines 
of some animals, as the porcupine. They will attack and 
surround with their web animals larger than themselves ; for 
they will attack small lizards, and beginning at the mouth, 
will emit the web until their mouth is covered, and then will 
approach and bite them. This is the nature of these animals. 


1. THERE is a tribe of insects which has not yet received 
any name, although in form all the species resemble each 
other. This tribe includes those that form wax, as the bee 
and those which resemble it in shape. Of these there are 
nine sorts, six of which are gregarious, the bee, the king bee, 
the drone, which dwells among the bees, the annual wasp, 
the hornet, and tenthredo. These are solitary, the small 
siren, of a tawny colour, and another siren, which is large, 
black, and variegated. The third, which is larger than these, - 
is called bombylius. The ants pursue no prey, but only col- 
lect that which is already found. The spiders do not make 
anything, nor lay up a store, but only hunt down their prey. 

2. Of the rest of the nine kinds already mentioned we 
will treat hereafter. The bees do not hunt for prey, but 
they both produce and lay up stores. The honey is their 
food. This is plainly shown when the honey dealers attempt 
to take the combs. "When they are fumigated and suffer- 
ing from the effects of the smoke, they devour the honey 
greedily, 'which they are not observed to do at other times ; 
but they spare it and store it up for food. They have also 
another kind of food, which is called cerinthus (bee bre^d), 
which is of an inferior quality, and sweet like figs. They 
carry this upon their legs as they do the wax. 

3. There is great variety in their diligence and mode of 
life. For when a clean hive is given them, they build their 
combs, bringing the drops from flowers and trees, such as 
the willow, the elm, and other glutinous trees. "With this 
also they smear the floor of their hive, for fear of other crea- 


tures. The honey dealers calls this substance commosis, 
and they build up the entrance of their hive if it is too wide. 
They first build cells for their own habitation, then those for 
the kings and the drones. They always build cells for them- 
selves, and royal cells when there are many young ; but they 
only build cells for the drones when there is plenty of honey. 

4. They make the royal cells near their own. These are 
small. Those for the drones are placed next. These are of 
a smaller size than those of the bees. They commence the 
formation of their combs from the top of the hives, and carry 
them down until several reach the floor of the hive. The cells, 
whether for the honey or the grubs, are constructed with two 
mouths ; for there are two cells built on each base, like a double 
cup, one on the inside, the other on the outside. The cells at 
the beginning of the comb, near the hives, are joined toge- 
ther for as much as two or three rows in a circle, and are 
short, and contain no honey. The cells which are formed 
with the greatest quantity of wax contain the most honey. __, 

5. They spread the substance called mitys at the en- \ 
trance of their hives, near the opening. This material is 
black, as if it w^as the purification of the wax, and of a 
harsh smell. \ It is considered a remedy for contusions 
and suppuration's? Next to this the pissocerus is smeared 
over the floor of the hive. This substance is less useful 
than the mitys in the healing art.\ Some persons say that 
the drones build cells for themselves, dividing both the hive 
and the wax with the bees ; but they make no honey, but both 
themselves and their young are supported by that of the bees. 
The drones generally remain in the hives ; and if they fly out 
they rise in the air with a great noise, wheeling about as if 
they were exercising ; and when they have done this they 
return to the hive and feast themselves on the honey. 

6. The king bees never leave the hives, either for food or 
an^ other purpose, except with the whole swarm ; and they 
say that, if a swarm wanders to a distance, they will retrace 
their steps and return until they find the king by his pecu- 
liar scent. They say also that, when the king is unable to 
fly, he is carried by the swarm ; and if he perishes, the whole 
swarm dies with him. And if they continue for a time 
to form cells, they place no honey in them, and then they 
also perish. 


7. The bees collect the wax by climbing actively on the 
flowers with their fore feet. They cleanse these upon the 
middle pair of legs, and their middle legs again on the 
curved part of their hind legs, and thus loaded they fly 
away. They are evidently heavily loaded. During each 
flight the bee does not settle upon flowers of different kinds, 
but as it were from violet to violet, and touches no other 
species till it returns to the hive. There they are unloaded, 
and two or three bees follow every one on its return to the 
hive. It is not easy to see what is taken, nor has their 
manner of working it been ever observed, Their manner of 
collecting wax upon the olive trees has been the subject of 
observation; for the thickness of the leaves makes them 
remain a long while in this tree. 

8. After having done this they produce their young. 
There is nothing to prevent there being grubs, and honey, 
and drones in the same comb. As long as the king bee is 
alive, they say that the drones are produced in a separate 
place ; but when he is dead they are produced by the bees 
in their own cells, and such drones are more passionate : for 
this cause they are called stingers, not that they have any 
sting, but that they would sting, if they had the power to 
do so. The drone cells are larger. Sometimes the drone 
cells are placed by themselves, but are generally combined 
with those of bees, for which reason they cut them off. 

9. There are several kinds of bees, as has been already 
observed: two kinds of kings, the better sort of which is 
red, and the other sort is black and variegated, and in size 
double that of a good bee. The best kind is small, round, 
and variegated ; the other is long, like the wild bee. There 
is another called phor (the thief) ; it is black, and has a 
broad abdomen. The drone is another sort : it is the largest 
of them all, has no sting, and is stupid. The bees that are 
produced from those that inhabit cultivated places are dif- 
ferent from the natives of mountainous countries, for those 
produced from wood bees are more hairy, smaller, less, more 
diligent, and more violent. The best bees elaborate a smooth 
comb, with a polished surface. The comb also is of one 
form, as if entirely adapted for honey, or for grubs, or 
drones ; and if it happens that all these are produced in the 
aame comb, each form will be elaborated in order. 


10. The long bees make their combs uneven, and the 
covering swollen, like that of the wild bee. Their offspring, 
also, and the rest of their productions, are not arranged in 
any order, but according to chance. Among them there 

are many bad kings, and many drones^, and thieves, as they ^~~ 
are called; but little or no honeys' The bees sit upon the 
combs, in order to bring them to maturity. If this is not 
done, they say that the cells perish and become filled with 
a web ; but if' afterwards they are able to continue sitting, 
something like an abortion is produced : if they cannot sit, 
the whole perishes. Maggots are formed in those cells that 
perish, which acquire wings and fly away. If a comb falls 
down, the bees set it up, and put props beneath it, in order 
that they may be able to pass underneath ; for if they have no 
path by which to approach the place where they sit, the cells 
become covered with a web. 

11. The thieves and the drones do not work, but only in- 
jure the other bees, and when taken they are killed by the 
useful bees. Many of their rulers are also frequently killed, 
and especially the bad ones, in order that the swarm may 
not be dispersed by their numbers. They are the more dis- 
posed to kill them when the swarm is not fruitful, and no 
casts are formed. At such times they destroy the royal 
cells, if any have been prepared, for they are the leaders of 
the swarm. They destroy also those of the drones, if honey 
is scarce, or the swarm is short of honey. They fight boldly 
for their honey with those that would take it from them, 
and drive out any drones that may be in the hive, and are 
often seen sitting upon the hives. 

12. The small bees fight eagerly with the long kind, and 
endeavour to drive them from their hives : and if they pre- 
vail, it seems to be a sign of a very strong swarm ; but if the 
others conquer, when left alone, they are idle, and do nothing 
that comes to good, but perish in the course of the autumn. 
"Whenever the useful bees kill any of them, they endeavour 
to do so outside of the hive ; and if any of them die in the 
hive, they carry them out. Those which are called thieves 
injure their own combs, and if they can do it in secret, 
they will enter those of other bees, but if discovered they 
are killed. It is, however, difficult to enter un perceived, 
for there are guards placed at each entrance ; and if one con- 


trives to enter unnoticed, he is unable to fly from repletion, 
and is rolled out before the whole swarm ; so that it is diffi- 
__cuit-to escape, j 

13. The kings themselves are never seen out of the hives, 
except with a young swarm, and in young swarms all the 
rest appear to be collected round him. When a' swarm 
is about to separate, a peculiar and singular noise is made 
for some days, and for two or three days beforehand a few 
bees are seen flying round the hive ; and if the king is 
among them he is not seen, for it is not easy to see him. And 
when they are collected, all the rest fly away and separate 
themselves with their respective kings : and if a few of them 
happen to be near at hand, they join themselves with one of 
the numerous swarms. And if the king that they have left 
follows them, they kill him. This is the manner of their 
leaving the hive, and of swarming. 

14. They all have their proper work to perform. Some 
bring flowers, others w r ater, and others polish and erect the 
cells. Water is brought when they are rearing their young. 
None of them ever settle upon flesh, nor will they eat any- 
thing seasoned. They have no particular time for com- 
mencing work, but when they are properly supplied, and 
in good health, they are particularly diligent during the 
summer. When the day is fine they work without ceasing, 
and as soon as the young bees are three days old, they set 
to work, if properly fed. And when the swarm settles 
some depart for food, and afterwards return. In healthy 
swarms the progeny of the bees only cease from reproduction 1 
for about forty days after the winter solstice. As soon as 
the young bees are grown, they offer them food, and smear 
the cells with it, and as soon as they are strong enough, the 
young bees rupture the covering of the cell, and so escape. 

15. The good kinds of bees destroy any creatures that are 
produced in their hives and destroy the combs ; but the other 
kinds from their inferiority overlook the destruction of their 
work. When the dealers in honey take the combs, they 
leave the bees some food for the winter. Jf sufficient is left, 
the swarm is preserved ; but if not, they either die in the 
winter, or, if the weather continues fine, desert the hive. 

1 This should probably be read " the bees only ceaso from their work 
for forty days during the winter solstice." 


They eat honey both in summer and in winter. They also 
lay up another kind of food, which is as hard as wax, which 
some persons call sandarache. 

16. Wasps are very injurious to them, and so is the bird 
called titmouse, and the swallow, and merops. The frogs 
also in marshes destroy them when they come for water, for 
which reason bee-fanciers destroy the frogs in those marshes 
where the bees come for water. They also destroy wasps' 
nests, and the nest of the swallow and merops, if near the 
swarms of bees. They avoid no animal, except those of 
their own kind. They fight among themselves, and with 
the wasps. "When at a distance from their hives they will 
neither injure each other, nor any other creature j but when 
near at home they will destroy everything that they can 
conquer.. .._ 

// 17. When they have stung anything they perish, for they 
cannot withdraw their sting from the wound without tear- 
ing their own entrails ; but they are frequently saved, if the 
person stung will take care to press the sting from the 
wound : but when its sting is lost, the bee must perish. 
Thoy will kill even large animals with their stings, and a 
horse has been known to perish, if attacked by bees. The 
rulers are the least cruel and stinging. / 

18. If any bees die in the hive, they carry them out ; and 
in other respects the bee is a very clean creature. For this 
reason they also eject their excrement when in flight, for 
the smell is bad. It has been already observed that they 
dislike bad smells and the scent of unguents, and that they 
sting persons who use such things. They also die from 
other causes, as when the rulers in the hive are in great 
numbers, and each leads out a portion of the swarm. The 
toad also destroys bees, for it blows into the entrance of 
the hive, and watches for and destroys them as they fly out. 
The bees cannot inflict any injury upon it, but their keepers 
destroy it. 

19. Some bee-keepers say that the kind of bee which 
makes an inferior and rough comb is the young of the others, 
and that it is the result of imperfect skill. They are young 
when a year old ; young bees do not sting so severely as old 
bees ; for this reason the swarms are carried to the apiaries, 
for they are those of young bees. When honey is short 

out ai 

^~ **m 



they eject the drones, and put figs and other sweet things near 
them. The elder bees work in the hives, and become hairy 
from remaining within. The younger ones go out in the fields, 
and are smoother: and they kill the drones when they have no 
longer any room for them, for they are placed in a recess of 
the hive. When a swarm has been weak, strange bees have 
been known to come and fight with them, and take away their 
honey ; and when the bee-keeper killed them the others came 
outj-nehlefended themselves, and would not injure the man. 

~ . Other diseases, and especially one called clems, fre- 
quently attack strong swarms. In this disease small worms 
are produced on the floor of the hive, and as these increase, 
the whole swarm is held, as it were, in a spider's web, and 
the combs decay. There is another disease, which is like a 
wildness in the bees, and causes a strong smell in the hives. 
The bees should be fed on thyme, the whi-te sort is better than 
the red. In close weather they should have a cool place, 
and a warm one in the winter. They suffer the most when 
they work with materials affected with the rust. 
"""151. When the wind is high, they carry a stone with them 
for a balance. If a river is at hand they never drink any- 
where else, first of all laying down their weight. If no 
river is near, they drink in some other place, and then 
vomit up their honey, and again set to work. There are 
two seasons for making honey, the spring and autumn. 
That formed in the spring is sweeter, whiter, and, on 
the whole, better than that formed in autumn. The 
best honey is made from the new wax and young flowers. 
The red honey is inferior, on account of the wax ; for, like 
wine, it is injured by the vessel which contains it ; this 
honey therefore should be dried up. When the thyme is 
in flower, and the comb is full of honey, it does not become 
inspissated. The gold-coloured honey is also good. The 
white honey is not formed of pure thyme, but is good for the 
eyes, and for wounds. Weak honey always floats on the sur- 
face, and ought to be separated. The pure honey is beneath. 

22. When the woods are in flower the bees form wax ; at 
this season, therefore, the wax ought to be taken from the 
hive, for they immediately make more. These are the plants 
from which they collect it, atractyllis, melilot, asphodel, 
myrtle, phleos, agnus, broom. When they can procure 


thyme, they mix water with it before they smear the cells. 
All the bees emit their excrements either on the wing, as it 
has been said before, or into a single cell. The small bees, 
it has been already remarked, are more industrious than the 
large ones, so that their wings become worn at the edges, 
and their colour black and burnt, but the bright and shiny 
bees are idle, like women. 

23. Bees also appear to have pleasure in noises, so that 
they say that they collect them, into their hives by striking 
earthen vessels and making noises. But it is very doubtful 
whether they hear or not, and if they hear, whether they 
collect together from pleasure or from fear. The bees drive 
out all that are idle or wasteful. They divide the work, as 
it has been already said ; some work at the honey, others at 
the grubs, and others at the bee bread; some, again, form the 
comb, others carry water to the cells, and mix it with the 
honey, while others go to work. Early in the morning they 
are silent, until one bee arouses them by humming two or 
three times, when they all fly to their work ; when they 
return again there is some disturbance at first, which gradu- 
ally becomes less, until one of them flies round with a 
humming noise, as if warning them to sleep, when on a 
sudden they all become silent. 

24. It is a sign that the swarm is strong when there is 
much noise and movement, as they leave and return to the 
hive, for they are then busy with the grubs. They are most 
hungry when they begin to work after winter. They are 
more idle if the person who takes the honey leaves much be- 
hind, but it is necessary that a quantity should be left pro- 
portionable to the strength of the swarm, for they work less 
actively if too little is left ; they become more idle if the 
hive is large, for they despair of their labour. The hive is 
deprived of a measure or a measure and a half of honey ; if 
it is strong, two or two measures and a half. Some few will 
afford three measures. 

25. Sheep and wasps, as it was said above, are hostile to 
bees. The bee fanciers, therefore, catch the wasps in pans, in 
which they place pieces of flesh ; when many have fallen in, 
they put on a lid and put them in the fire. It is good 
for the bees to have a few drones among them, for it makes 
them more industrious. Bees discern the approach of cold 


weather and of rain ; this is plain, for they will not leave 
the hive, but even if the day is fine are occupied in the hive. 
By this the bee keepers know that they expect severe 

26. When they are suspended upon each other in the hive, 
it is a sign that the swarm is about to leave ; and when the bee 
keepers see this, they sprinkle them with sweet wine. They 
usually plant about the hive the achras, beans, poa medica, 
syria, ochrus, myrtle, poppy, herypllus, almond. Some 
bee keepers recognize their own bees in the fields by sprink- 
ling them with flour. "When the spring is late or dry, and 
when rust is about, the bees are less diligent about their 
young. This, then, is the nature of bees, 


1 . THERE are two kinds of wasps, of which the wild sort are 
rare ; they are found in mountains, and do not build their 
nest in the ground, but on oak trees ; in form they are larger, 
longer, and darker than the other sort ; they are variegated, 
all of them have stings, and are strong, and their sting is 
more painful than that of the other sorts, for their sting is 
larger in proportion to their size. These live for two 
years, and in winter are observed to fly out of trees, when 
they are cut down ; during winter they live in holes. Their 
place of concealment is in trees ; some of them are mother 
wasps, and some workers, as in those which are more do- 
mestic; the nature of the workers and the mother wasps 
will be explained when we come to speak of the more 
domestic kind. 

2. For there are two kinds of the domestic wasps, 
the rulers, which they call mother wasps, and the 
workers; the rulers are larger and more gentle, and the 
workers do not survive the year, but all of them die, on the 
arrival of winter. This is plain, for at the beginning of 
winter the workers become stupid, and about the solstice 
are seen no more ; but the rulers, which are called mother 
wasps, are seen during the whole of the winter, and bury 
themselves in the earth; for in ploughing and digging 
during the winter, the mother wasps have been frequently 
observed, but no one has ever seen a worker. 

3. The following is the manner of their reproduction : 


when the rulers have found a place properly situated, at 
the beginning of summer, they form their combs and bui]d 
the wasps nests, as they are called ; these are small, with four 
holes, or thereabouts ; in these working wasps are produced, 
and not mother wasps. "When these are grown, they after- 
wards build larger nests, and again larger still, as ' the 
swarm increases, so at the end of autumn the nests are very 
numerous and large, and in these the mother wasps no 
longer produce workers but mothers. These larger maggots 
are produced on the top of the upper part of the nest, in 
four or rather more adjoining cells, very like those of the 
rulers in their combs. When the working wasps are pro- 
duced in the combs, the rulers no longer labour, but the 
workers bring them food ; this is evident, from the rulers 
never flying away from the workers, but remaining quietly 

4. Whether the rulers of the previous year, when they 
have produced new rulers, die at the same time as the young 
wasps, or whether they survive a longer period, no one has 
ever observed, nor has anyone ever observed the old age of 
the mother wasps, or of the wild wasps, or any other of their 
affections. The mother wasp is broad and heavy, and thicker, 
and larger than the working wasp, and her weight prevents 
her from being very active in night, neither can she fly far, 
but always sits in the wasps' nests, and fashions and arranges 
the internal parts. 

5. There are generally mother wasps in the nests, but 
there is some doubt whether they have stings or not ; they 
seem, however, like the rulers among the bees, to have 
stings, though they never put them out nor sting ; some 
wasps, like the drones, are without stings, others have a sting. 
Those that are without stings are smaller, and not so angry, 
neither do they defend themselves ; those which are fur- 
nished with a sting are larger, and strong ; some call these 
the males, and those which have no sting the females. To- 
wards winter many of those that have stings appear to lose 
them, though we have never met with eye-witnesses of this 

6. Wasps are more abundant in dry seasons and rough 
places ; they are produced beneath the earth, they make their 
Combs of collected materials and of earth, eac-L springing 


from one origin, as if from a root. They procure their food 
from some flowers and fruits, but generally, they are car- 
nivorous. Some persons have observed them in the act of 
sexual intercourse, but whether one or both had stings or 
not, was not seen. Some wild wasps also have been seen in 
the act of intercourse, one of them had a sting, whether the 
other had was not observed. Their offspring does not seem 
to be produced from this intercourse, but is always larger 
than the offspring of the wasp should be. 

7. If a person takes hold of the legs of a wasp, and per- 
mits it to buzz with its wings, those that have no stings will 
fly towards him, which those with stings will, not do, and 
some persons consider this to be a sign that the one are males, 
the other females. Some are taken in caverns during the 
winter with stings, and others without them. Some of them 
make small nests and few in number ; others make many 
large nests. Many of those called mother wasps are taken 
at the turn of the season in the neighbourhood of elms, for 
they collect the sticky and glutinous matter. There are a 
great many mother wasps, when wasps have been abundant 
during the previous year, and the weather rainy. They are 
captured in the neighbourhood of precipitous places and 
straight fissures in the earth, and all appear to have stings. 
This, then, is the nature of wasps. 


1. THE wild bees do not live by gathering honey from flowers 
like the bees, but are entirely carnivorous, for which reason 
they frequent the neighbourhood of dung ; for they pursue 
large flies, and when they have taken them they tear off the 
head and fly away, carrying the rest of the body with them. 
They will also eat sweet fruit. This, then, is the nature of 
their food. They have rulers, like the bees and wasps ; and 
in proportion to the size of the wild bee these rulers are 
larger than those of the bees and wasps. Their rulers also 
keep in the nest, like those of the wasps. 

2. The wild bees make their nest under the soil, which they 
remove like the ants. They never swarm like bees, neither 
do wasps ; but the young ones always remain with them, and 
as the nest increases they carry out the heap of earth. The 
nests become large ; and from a flourishing nest three or 


four baskets of comb have been taken. They do not lay up 
any food like bees, but conceal themselves during the winter. 
The greater number of them die, but it is not known whe- 
ther all of them perish. There js never more than one ruler 
in the nest as in the swarm of bees, or they w r ould divide 
the nest. 

3. When some of the wild bees wander from the nest, they 
turn aside to some material and form another nest, such as 
are often seen on the surface of the soil, and in this they 
work themselves out a ruler ; and when he is grown he goes 
out and leads them with him to take possession of a nest, in 
which they may dwell. No one has ever made any observa- 
tion on the mode of sexual intercourse in the wild bee, nor on 
the origin of their offspring. Among bees the drones and 
kings have no stings, and some of the wasps also are without 
stings, as it has been remarked already; but all the wild bees 
appear to have stings, but more accurate inquiry should be 
instituted as to the rulers, whether they have stings or not. 


THE humble bees produce their young under stones on the 
surface of the ground in two or a few more cells. The com- 
mencement of a kind of inferior honey is found in them. The 
tenthredo is like the wild bee, but it is variegated, and as 
broad as the bee. It is a dainty creature, and the only 
one which resorts to kitchens, and enjoys fish and such like 
things. It deposits its young under the earth like the 
wasps. It is a very productive creature, and its nest is 
much larger and longer than that of the wasp. This is the 
nature of the work and economy of bees, wasps, and their 


1. IT has been already observed that we can distinguish a 
difference in the dispositions of animals, especially in the 
courage and cowardice, and then in their mildness and fierce- 
ness, even in wild animals. The lion in his manner of feed- 
ing is very cruel ; but when he is not hungry, and is full fed, 
his disposition is gentle. He is not either jealous or suspi- 
cious. He is fond of playing with and affectionate towards 
those animals which have been brought up with him, and to 


which he has become accustomed. "When hunted, he haa 
never been seen to retreat or be alarmed ; and if compelled 
to yield to the numbers of his hunters, he retreats slowly 
and leisurely, and turns himself round at short inter- 
vals. If overtaken in a thicket, he flies rapidly till he 
reaches the open plain, and then again he withdraws slowly. 
If compelled by numbers to retreat openly on the plain 
ground, he runs at full stretch, and does not leap. His 
manner of running is continuous, like that of a dog at full 
stretch. When pursuing his prey, he throws himself upon 
it when he comes within reach. 

2. It is, however, true, as they say, that the lion is afraid 
of the fire, as Homer also writes, " The burning faggots 
which he fears when urged against him ;" and that he ob- 
serves the person who strikes him and attacks him ; and if 
a person aims a blow at him without hitting him, the lion, if 
he can rush upon and seize him, does not do him any injury, 
nor tear him with his claws, but shakes and frightens him, 
and then leaves him. They are more disposed to enter 
towns and attack mankind when they grow old ; for old age 
renders them unable to hunt, from the disease which attacks 
their teeth. They live many years ; and a lame lion has 
been captured which had many of its teeth broken, which 
some persons considered as a sign that it had lived many 
years. For this could not have happened except by the 
lapse of time. 

3. There are two kinds of lions. One of these has a round 
body and more curly hair, and is a more cowardly animal. 
The other is of a longer form, has straight hair, and is more 
courageous. Sometimes, when retreating, they stretch out 
their tails like dogs ; and a lion has been at times observed, 
when about to attack a hog, to retreat when that animal 
erected its bristles. The lion is weak if struck in the belly, 
but will bear many blows on other parts of the body, and 
its head is very strong. If they bite or tear anything, 
a large quantity of yellow serum flows from the wound, 
which can never be stopped by bandages or sponges. The 
mode of healing is the same as in the bite of a dog. 

4. The jackal is an animal attached to mankind. It does 
not injure men, nor is it much afraid of them, but it will 
fight with the dog and the lion. They are not, therefore, 


found in the same locality. The small jackal is the best. 
Some persons say that there are two, others that there are 
three sorts ; but, like some fish, birds, and quadrupeds, the 
jackal changes at differer t seasons, and has a different colour 
in summer and in winter . In summer it is smooth ; in win- 
ter, rough. 


1. THE bonassus is found in Paeonia, in Mount Messapius, 
which forms the boundary between Pa3onia and Ma?dia. 
The Paeonians call it monapus. It is as large as a bull, and 
more heavily built ; for it is not a long animal, and its skin, 
when stretched out, will cover a couch for seven persons to 
recline upon. In form it resembles a bull, but it has a 
mane as far as the point of the shoulder like the horse, but 
its hair is softer than that of the horse, and shorter. The 
colour of its hair is red. The hair is deep and thick as far 
down as the eyes, and in colour between ash-coloured and 
red, not like that of roan horses, but darker. Its hair below 
is like wool. They are never either very black or very red. 

2. Their voice is like that of the ox. Their horns are 
crooked and bent together, of no use for defence, a span long 
or a little more, so thick that each of them would hold half 

measure or a little more. The black part of their horn is 
good and smooth. The fore lock is so placed between the 
eyes that the creature can look sideways better than for- 
wards. Like the ox, it has no upper teeth in front, neither 

lave any horned animals. Its legs are rough and its hoofs 
cloven. Its tail is small in proportion to its size, like that of 

;he ox, and it tears up the ground and digs with its hoof 

ike the bull. The skin upon its sides is strong. Its flesh 

s excellent food, and for this it is hunted. 

3. When wounded it retreats, and stays when it can pro- 
ceed no farther. It defends itself by kicking and ejecting 
ts dung, which it can do to the distance of four fathoms 
rom itself. It uses this means of defence easily and fre- 
quently. Its dung is so caustic as to burn the hair from 
iogs. The dung is only caustic when the creature is dis- 
turbed and alarmed. It is not so when undisturbed. This 

the form and nature of this creature. At the season of 
parturition they collect together in numbers in the rnoun- 



tains, and make a circle of their dung round the place, as it 
were a fortification, for this animal ejects a large quantity 
of this excrement. 


OF all wild animals the elephant is the most tame and 
gentle; for many of them are capable of instruction and 
intelligence, and they have been taught to worship the king. 
It is a very sensitive creature, and abounding in intellect. 
The male never again touches a female that he has once 
impregnated. Some persons say that the elephant will live 
for two hundred years, others an hundred and twenty, and 
the female lives nearly as long as the male. They arrive at 
perfection when sixty years old. They bear winter and cold 
weather very badly. It is an animal that lives in the neigh- 
bourhood of rivers, though not in them. It can also walk 
through rivers, and will advance as long as it can keep its 
proboscis above the surface ; for it blows and breathes 
through this organ, but it cannot swim on account of the 
weight of its body. 


CAMELS refuse to have sexual intercourse with their dams, 
even when forced ; for once a camel driver, who was in 
want of a male camel, veiled the dam and introduced her 
young to her. "When the covering fell off in the act of 
copulation, he finished what he was about, and soon after- 
wards bit the camel driver to death. It is said also that the 
king of Scythia had an excellent mare, which always pro- 
duced good colts. He wished to have a colt out of the mare 
by the best of these horses, and introduced him for copula- 
tion, but he would not do it. When she was covered up, 
however, he performed the act unwittingly. As soon as the 
form of the mare was shown after copulation, and the horse 
saw what was done, he ran away and threw himself down a 


1. AMONG marine animals there are many instances re- 
ported of the mild, gentle disposition of the dolphin, and of 
its love of its children, and its affection, in the neighbourhood 


of Tarentum, Caria, and other places. It is said that when 
a dolphin was captured and wounded on the coast of Caria, 
so great a number came up to the harbour, that the fishermen 
let him go, when they all went away together. And one 
large dolphin, it is said, always follows the young ones, to 
take care of them ; and sometimes a herd of large and small 
dolphins has been seen together, and two of these having left 
appeared soon after, supporting and carrying on their back 
a small dead dolphin, that was ready to sink, as if in pity 
for it, that it might not be devoured by any other wild 

2. Some incredible things are also told of their swiftness, 
for it appears to be the swiftest of all animals, whether 
marine or terrestrial. They will leap over the sails of large 
ships. This is especially the case when they pursue a fish 
for the sake of food ; for their hunger will make them pur- 
sue their prey into the depths of the sea, if it retreats to 
the bottom. And when they have to return from a great 
depth, they hold their breath, as if they were reckoning 
the distance, and then they gather themselves up, and 
dart forward like an arrow, desirous of shortening their 
distance from a breathing-place. And if they meet with 
a ship they will throw themselves over its sails. Divers 
also do the same thing when they have sunk themselves 
into deep water, for they also gather up their strength 
in order to rise to the surface. The males and females live 
in pairs with each other. There is some doubt as to the 
reason why they cast themselves on the land, for they 
isay that sometimes they appear to do this without any 


As the actions of all animals agree with their dispositions, 
[30 also their dispositions will change with their actions, and 
>me of their parts also. This takes place among birds ; for 
i hens, when they have conquered the cock, desire to copu- 
llate with others, and their crest and rump become elevated, 
(so that it is difficult to say whether they are hens or not. 
j[n some, also, small spurs are found ; and some males, after 
(the death of the female, have been seen to take the same care 
?f the young as the female would have done, leading them 

T 2 


about and feeding them, and neither crowing, nor desiring 
sexual intercourse. And some male birds have been seen to 
be so effeminate from their birth, that they neither crowed, 
nor desired sexual intercourse, and would submit themselves 
to any males that desired them. 

3. Many birds at particular seasons change both their 
colour and their voice, as the blackbird, \vhich becomes 
russet instead of black, and assumes another voice, for it 
sings in the summer time, but in winter it chatters and 
screams violently. The thrush also alters its colour, for in 
winter it is grey, and in summer is variegated on the neck ; 
Jmt its voice does not alter. The nightingale sings unceas- 
ingly for fifteen days and nights, when the mountains 
become thick with leaves. As the summer advances it 
utters another voice, not quick and varied, but simple ; its 
colour also is altered, and in Italy it is called by another 
name at this season of the year. It only shews itself for a 
short time, for it lies concealed. 

3. The erithacus, and the bird called pho3nicurus, are 
changed one into the other. The erithacus is a winter bird, 
the pkoenicurus a summer bird ; they differ in nothing but 
the colour. The sycalis and melancoryphus are the same, for 
these also are interchanged. The sycalis is found in the 
autumn, and the melancoryphus immediately after the end 
of the autumn. They also differ from each other in nothing 
but their colour and voice, and to prove that it is the same 
bird, each kind has been seen immediately after the change 
took place ; and when the change was not quite complete, 
there was nothing characteristic of either form. Nor is it 
absurd to suppose that these birds change their voices or 
their colours, for the dove utters no sound in the winter, 
unless it may be on a fine day in a severe winter, when it 
will utter its sound to the astonishment of those that know 
its habits ; and as soon as spring commences, it begins to 
utter its voice : and, on the whole, birds make the greatest 
number and variety of voices at the season of coition. 

4. The cuckoo also changes its colour, and its voice is not 
distinct, when it is about to leave us. It goes away about 
the time when the dog- star rises, it having been with us 
from the commencement of spring to that time. The 
cenanthe, as it is called, disappears when Sirius rises, and 


comes again when it sets, for sometimes it retreats before 
the cold, and sometimes before the heat. The hoopoe also 
changes its colour and its forms, as ^iEschylus writes. " He 
had variegated this hoopoe, the witness of its own evils, and 
has displayed the bold bird that dwells in the rock in 
all armour. In the early spring it shakes the feathers 
of the white hawk; for it has two forms, that of the 
young bird and of itself, from one origin. And when the 
young corn of the harvest begins to grow, it is clothed in 
spotted feathers ; and it always hates this place of Pal- 
lene, and inhabits deserted forests and mountains. " 

5. Some birds dust themselves, and others bathe. Some 
neither dust nor bathe. Those that do not fly, but live on 
the ground, dust themselves, as the domestic fowl, partridge, 
grouse, lark, and pheasant. Those birds which have 
straight claws, and live near rivers, marshes, and the sea, 
bathe themselves. Some, like the pigeon and sparrow, both 
dust and bathe. Most of those with crooked claws do nei- 
ther the one nor the other. This is their nature in these 
matters. The act of breaking wind backwards is peculiar 
to some birds, as the turtle. Such birds make a strong 
motion with their rumps when they utter their voice. 


1. ANIMALS not only change their forms and dispositions at 
particular ages and seasons, but also when castrated. All 
animals that have testicles may be castrated. Birds and 
oviparous quadrupeds have internal testicles near their loins. 
In viviparous animals with feet, they are generally external, 
though sometimes internal ; in all they are situated at the 
extremity of the abdomen. Birds are castrated near the 
rump, the part with which they touch the female in copu- 
lation, for if they are burnt in that part two or three times 
with irons after they are full grown, the comb turns yellow, 
and they cease to crow, and no longer desire sexual inter- 
course. If they are not full grown, these parts never reach 

2. The same is the case with the human subject, for if a 
boy is castrated, the hair that is produced after birth never 
appears, nor does his voice change, but continues sharp ; 
but if a full grown man is castrated, all the hair produced 


after birth falls off except that on the pubes, this becomes 
weaker, but still remains. The hair produced at birth does 
not fall off, for the eunuch never becomes bald. The voice 
also of castrated animals changes to that of the female. Other 
animals, if not castrated when young, are destroyed by the 
operation ; with, the boar it makes no difference. All ani- 
mals, if castrated when young, become larger and more 
graceful than those not castrated ; but if already grown, 
they never become any larger. 

8. If stags are castrated before they are old enough to 
have horns, these never appear ; but if castrated after they 
have horns, their size never varies, nor are they subject to 
their annual change. Calves are castrated at a year old, if 
not they become bad and inferior. The steer is castrated in 
this manner : they lay down the animal and cut the scrotum, 
and press out the testicles ; they next contract the root 
of the testicle as much as possible, and fill up the wound 
with hair in order that the discharge may escape, and if it 
inflames, they cauterize and sprinkle the scrotum. If adult 
bulls are castrated, they are still apparently capable of 
sexual intercourse. 

4. The capria of the sow is also cut out, so that they 
should not desire coition, but fatten rapidly. They are cut 
after fasting two days. They hang them up by the hind 
legs and make an incision in the lower part of the belly, 
where the testicles of the male are generally found ; the 
capria is there formed upon the matrix, from which they cut 
off a portion, and sew up the wound again. 

5. The female camels also are cut when they wish to take 
them to war, that they may not become pregnant. Some of 
those in the upper parts of Asia possess as many as three 
thousand. Such camels, when they run, are far more swift 
than the Nisaean horses, from the length of their stretch. 
And on the whole, castrated animals are longer-bodied than 
those not castrated. 

6. All animals that ruminate, derive as much use and 
pleasure from rumination' as from eating. Animals that 
have not cutting-teeth in both jaws ruminate, as the ox, 
sheep, and goat. No observations have been made on wild 
animals except those which occasionally associate with men, 
as the stag, though this animal ruminates. They all lie down 


to ruminate, and do so most in the winter ; those which are 
brought up in shelter ruminate for nearly seven months. 
Those that live in herds, ruminate for a shorter period, for 
they live out of doors. Some animals with cutting teeth in 
both jaws, ruminate, as the Pontic mice and the fish, which, 
from this process, is called meryx. Animals with long legs 
have loose bellies, and those with broad chests vomit more 
easily than others, in quadrupeds, birds, and the generality 
of mankind. 




IF men and women, after they have reached a certain age, 
do not have children after cohabition, the fault sometimes 
rests with both, and sometimes in only one of them. And 
first, it is requisite to examine the uterus of the female, that 
if the fault lies there it may be relieved by proper treatment. 
If the fault is not there, attention must be paid to some other 
cause of sterility. We may conclude that this organ is in 
a healthy state, when, like the other parts of the body, it 
performs its functions without pain, and is free from fatigue 
after the function is performed. Just as the eye is in a 
healthy state if it suffers no pain in seeing, and is not dis- 
ordered with the exercise of its function, or unable to per- 
form it again, so the uterus is healthy which suffers no 
pain, and is well able to perform its functions, whatever 
they may be, and after they are performed is not impotent, 
but is free from fatigue. 

2. The uterus is said to be disordered, when, even if it 
performs its functions properly and without pain, it does 
not hinder its function by any part of itself. 1 As there 
is nothing to prevent an eye from seeing accurately, although 
all its parts are not perfect, or if there happens to be a 
tumour in it ; so the uterus may have received no injury 
in this respect, if it is properly situated in the right place. 
In the first place, then, the healthy uterus will not be situ- 
ated in this place or in that, but will always be in a similar 
position ; but it is not difficult to decide whether it is not 
placed at too great a distance without suffering and pain, or 
whether it is devoid of sensation when touched. That these 
parts ought to be properly placed is evident from the follow- 
ing considerations, for if the uterus is not near, it will not 
be able to imbibe the semen, for the place from which it 

1 A corrupt passage. 


ought to receive it will be at too great a distance. If the 
uterus is near, and not able to retire further, it will be use- 
less, for it will be always touched so as to refuse to open ; 
but it ought to do this, and to be obedient to its function. 
These things ought to be thus ordered, and if they are not, 
the case requires attention. 

3. The catamenia also should proceed correctly, that is, if 
the general health is good, they should last for their proper 
time, and not come irregularly, for wher. the catamenia are 
right, the uterus will open properly, and receive the fluids 
of the body whenever they are secreted ; but when they 
make their appearance too often, or not often enough, or 
irregularly, while the rest of the body does not sympathise 
with them, and the general health is good, we must look to 
the uterus for the cause of their irregularity. The dul- 
ness of the uterus prevents its being opened at the proper 
time, so that it receives but a small portion, or rather the 
uterus imbibes the fluid from some inflammation of the 
parts. So that it shows that it requires attention, like the 
eyes, the bladder, the stomach, and other parts. For all the 
parts, when inflamed, imbibe the fluid which is secreted into 
each place, but not such a fluid, or in so great quantities. 

4. In like manner, if the uterus secretes more than it 
ought to do, it exhibits an inflammatory tendency, if the 
secretion is regular but too abundant ; but if the secretion 
is irregular, or more putrid than it should be in healthy 
subjects, the disease is then quite manifest, for it is neces- 
sary that some pain should show that all is not well. In a 
healthy subject, at the commencement, and the cessation of 
menstruation, the secretion appears white and putrid. All 
those subjects in whom the secretion is more putrid than in 
healthy persons, or is irregular, or too abundant, or deficient, 
should receive attention, for this it is that prevents child- 
bearing. But in those subjects who are only irregular, and 
unequal in the periods of the secretion, the disease is not 
the preventive of child-bearing, though it shows that the 
habit of the uterus is changeable, and does not always re- 
main the same. And this affection is sufficient to prevent 
those persons from conception who are otherwise well dis- 
posed towards it. It is, however, hardly a disease, but an 
affection which may be restored without medical treatment, 
unless it is affected by some previous fault. 


5. If the regularity and quantity of the discharge is subject 
to alteration, without any corresponding change in the rest of 
ihe body, which is sometimes in a more fluid, at other times in 
a more dry state, the uterus is not in fault, though it ought 
to follow the habit of the rest of the body, and receive and 
secrete in proportion. If the b?)dy is in a good state of 
health, but undergoing a change, when this takes place, 
and there is no need of medical treatment ; but if the secre- 
tion is too small from disease, and the secretion is taken 
through some other source, the body suffers : and if the dis- 
charge is too great, from all the secretions of the body being 
turned in one direction, this does not point to disease of the 
uterus, but of the whole body. Whenever the catainenia 
coincide with the general habit of the body, it is evident that 
the fault does not lie with the uterus, which would perform 
its functions properly if the general health were correct. 

6. Sometimes the uterus is weak, and sometimes strong ; 
sometimes too fluid, and sometimes too dry; and the dis- 
charge coincides with the state of the body, it is abundant 
when that is full, deficient when it is less full. If the body 
is full of fluid, the discharge is watery ; if the body is dry, 
it is more sanguineous ; it begins with being white, like milk, 
and is without smell. Some are dark-coloured, and when 
about to cease they become white, at the last secretion. The 
white discharge has not the smell of putrid matter, but is 
more harsh and disagreeable, nor has it the smell of pus ; and 
when this is the condition of the symptoms, there is no wear- 
ing away, but the body becomes heated. In all that are in this 
state, the uterus is in a healthy condition for child-bearing. 


WE must, then, first of all inquire whether all these parti- 
culars are well ordered ; and, next, we must learn the posi- 
tion of the body of the uterus ; for it ought to be straight ; 
and if it is not so, the seminal fluid can never reach it. And 
it is evident that women project their semen forwards, from 
what happens when they have lascivious dreams ; for this 
part of them then requires attention, being moistened as 
though they had sexual intercourse, for they also project into 
the place where the semen of the male is emitted, and not into 
the uterus ; and when projected to this place, the semen is 


drawn into the uterus by inhalation, as the mucus is drawn 
into the nose. For this reason they become pregnant in 
every position ; for the seminal fluid both in men and women 
is always projected forwards ; but if it were projected into 
the female she would not always conceive after copulation. 

2. But if the uterus is not straight, but inclined to the 
hips, the loins, or the hypogastric region, it is impossible to 
conceive, for the before-mentioned reason, that the uterus 
cannot take up the seminal fluid. If this deformity is great, 
either naturally or from disease, the disorder is incurable. 
If there is a rupture, either by nature or arising from the 
disease, which contracts the parts with inflammation, the 
disorder will take a different turn from this. But in order 
that women may become pregnant, it is necessary, as it was 
said, that the mouth of the uterus should be straight and, 
moreover, should be well opened. By this I mean that when the 
menstrual discharge commences, the os uteri should, on con- 
tact, appear softer than before, though not distinctly expanded. 
But if this is the case, let the first appearance be white. 

3. But when the appearances are more the colour of 
flesh, the uterus will be evidently relaxed without pain 
when it is touched, and the os uteri is neither dull nor dif- 
ferent from itself; and when the discharge ceases, let the 
aperture be very open and dry, but not hard, for a day and 
a half or two days ; for this shows that the uterus is in a 
healthy state, and fit to perform its functions. If the os 
uteri is not immediately relaxed, but appears soft, it shows 
that both the uterus and the rest of the body are relaxed, 
and the uterus does not prevent, but first discharges the 
secretion from the os uteri. And when the rest of the body 
has discharged a great deal, and the os uteri becomes re- 
laxed, it is a sign of a healthy condition. 

4. And when the appearances cease to take place directly, 
the uterus shows that, if there is any difficulty, it will be- 
come empty and dry, and wanting in moisture, and there will 
be no remains in the passage. "When the uterus, therefore, 
is capable of contraction, it shows that it is in a proper state 
for receiving whatever is brought to it, when it is in this 
state without pain, and indeed is insensate ; and it is good 
that the os uteri should not be in any other condition. 
This shows that there is no reason why it should not close 


at tlie proper time. This is the manner of considering the 
os uteri, whether it is in a healthy condition or not. 


THESE ought to be the symptoms of the uterus itself after 
purification. First of all, that the woman should dream of 
sexual intercourse, and project her seminal fluid readily, as 
if a man were lying with her ; and if this symptom occur 
frequently, it is better. And when she has arisen, some- 
times she should require the same treatment as if she 
had been with a man, sometimes she should be dry ; but this 
dryness should not be immediate ; but after awaking she 
should be fluid, sooner or later, about as much as half a 
short day. The humidity should be of the same kind as if 
she had been with a man. For all this shows that the uterus 
is in a fit state to receive what is given it, and that the 
cotyledons are drawn up and will retain what they have 
received, and be unwilling to part with it. 

2. A flatulent state of the uterus is also a good sign, 
when it enlarges and discharges the wind as the bowels do 
without pain, and when it becomes larger and smaller with- 
out any symptom of disease ; for these symptoms show that 
the uterus is not in want of what is necessary nor slug- 
gish, either naturally or from disease, but that it will be 
able to find room by growth, for anything that it may re- 
ceive, for it has the power of dilation. When this is not 
the case, the uterus is too thick, or some natural defect or 
disease has rendered it insensible. For this cause it cannot 
nourish, but it will destroy the embryo, if the symptoms 
are violent, while the embryo is small ; if they are less so, 
when it is larger; if the uterus is slightly affected, the 
offspring will be inferior, as if it had been fed in an inferior 

3. Upon contact, the right and left side will be found to 
be alike, and all the other parts in the same way ; and in 
the act of copulation moisture will be produced, not fre- 
quently nor in great abundance. This affection is, as it 
were, a perspiration of the place, like the saliva, which is 
frequently produced both in the use of food and in speaking. 
Tears also are shed from the eyes, when we look upon bril- 
liant objects, and under cold or greater heat, of which these 


parts also partake, when they happen to be moist. So the 
uterus becomes moist when employed, when it is of a more 
moist disposition. Those that are in the best health suffer 
from this affection, for which reason women always require 
more or less attention, as also the mouth requires saliva. 
In some this moisture is so abundant that they cannot 
imbibe the seminal fluid of the man in a state of purity, 
on account of its admixture with this uterine mois- 

4. Besides these affections, the following also is to be con- 
sidered, whether, when they dream of sexual intercourse, their 
general health is good or not, as whether they are weak, and 
whether they are so always, or only sometimes, and whether 
they are not sometimes strong, and whether they are dry at 
first and moist afterwards ; for this ought to be the condition 
of a woman capable of child-bearing ; for relaxation shows 
that the body has been profuse of the seminal fluid, and 
that it can perform its functions ; but when the uterus is 
hard, it is a sign of debility. If a woman has this affection 
without any disease, it shows that the emission takes place 
naturally and as it ought to do. For if it were not so, there 
would be disease and prostration oi strength. Sometimes, 
when the uterus is dry and afterwards becomes moist, it is 
a sign that the whole body receives and makes away with 
the seminal fluid, and that both the uterus and the body are 
strong; for it has been already observed that the uterus 
absorbs the semen which is placed upon it by the process of 
inhalation, for it is not emitted into it but upon the same 
place as that of the man. All that takes by inhalation is 
accompanied with force, so that it is plain that the body of 
such a person must have the power of retraction. 

5. It sometimes happens that women who have lascivious 
dreams, or men of strong passions, are robust not from strength 
but from health. This takes place when a large quantity of 
seminal fluid has been collected near the place from whence 
they emit it. If this makes its escape, they are in no ways 
debilitated ; for they are not relaxed by the loss of a 
portion, if sufficient remains behind, or if that which was 
emitted was useless, nor if it was emitted easily, as if they 
parted with superfluous matter. For which reason such 
persons are not robust from strength but from dullness. But 


when any part is emitted which is necessary for the body, 
they become debilitated. 

6. If a person is in good health, and of a proper age, the 
seminal fluid is rapidly formed This takes place in those 
that have not done growing and in those that are grown. 
Women rarely know when they are first pregnant; for 
they do not think that they have conceived unless they 
perceive that the semen has been emitted, suspecting that 
it ought to be emitted at the same time both by the fe- 
male and the male ; and it escapes their notice, more es- 
pecially when they think that they are unable to conceive, 
unless they have become dry, and that which they have 
received has disappeared entirely ; but it sometimes hap- 
pens that both the male and the female emit more than 
could possibly disappear, and more than enough for concep- 
tion. "When sufficient has been drawn in and much left 
out, they become pregnant without knowing it. 

7. That it is possible that this should take place, and that 
the affection does not arise from the whole of the seminal fluid, 
we may learn from those animals which produce many young 
ones from a single act of intercourse, or from the case of 
twins produced by a single act. It is evident that they are 
not produced from the whole semen, but each place receives 
some portion of it, but the larger portion is left behind ; and 
if many young are produced from a single act of intercourse, 
which appears to be the case with swine and with twins, it 
is evident that the semen cannot come from every part of 
the body, but it is divided out to each form. It is possible, 
therefore, that it may be separated from every part of the 
body, and that the whole may be divided among many, so 
that it is not possible that all should have every part. The 
female also projects her semen into the os uteri, where the 
man also emits his, when he approaches her. ."From thence 
she imbibes with inhalation as if it were with the mouth or 
nostrils ; for whatever is not joined to the members is either 
hollow above and united by a symphysis, or is sucked in from 
this place by the act of inhalation. For which reason they 
take care that it should be dry, as if this had happened before. 

8. The path along which it passes is thus formed in 
women. There is a tube enclosed in the body like the penis 
of the male. The inhalation takes place through this by a 


small passage above the passage for the urine. "When, there- 
fore, they desire sexual intercourse, this part is not in the 
same condition as it was before. A falling down takes place 
from this passage, and the fore part of the uterus becomes 
much larger than the part where it falls into this passage. 
This resembles the nostrils ; for, as the nostrils have a pas- 
sage into the pharynx and into the external air, so this tube 
has a very small and narrow passage, like a passage out for the 
wind. That to the fore part of the uterus is wide and broad, 
as the nostrils are to the external air between the mouth 
and the pharynx. So women have a larger passage to the 
fore part of the uterus, and wider than the external passage. 

9. Whatever conjecture is formed concerning these affec- 
tions, it makes to the same conclusion, that the woman 
also emits a seminal fluid. The same things arise from the 
same cause, for to some it seems to be the cause of disease 
or of death ; and these consider the end at the beginning 
as it ought to be considered ; for to some women these are 
important causes, to some of no importance ; and of these 
causes some are and some are not of consequence. They 
divide also in proportion the consequences which may result 
from them. To some it happens to pass through all these 
affections ; to those who have many, through many of them : 
others through few ; and others, again, who have none, 
through none of them. 

10. There are some persons who suffer from the affection 
called inflation. This ought not to be. The affection is of 
this kind. In copulation they neither evidently emit semen, 
nor do they become pregnant. "Wherefore they are said to 
be inflated. The excessive dryness of the uterus is the cause 
of this complaint ; and when it has drawn the fluid into itself, 
it ejects it again. This becomes dried up, and having become 
small falls out, without any notice being taken of the circum- 
stance on account of its size. When the uterus is violently 
affected in this way, and becomes very dry, and ejects it 
very soon, it is plain that pregnancy cannot take place. If 
this does not take place very soon, impregnation appears for 
a time to have taken place until it is ejected. The same 
thing also takes place at times in those who have conceived 
properly ; if a long time has elapsed, the uterus becomes 
elevated, so that it plainly appears as if impregnation had 


taken place until it falls out. Then all becomes as it was 
at first. They refer this affliction to a divine origin. It is 
curable, unless it is natural, or the disease has gone a great 
way. It is a sign that this disease is not present, when 
women appear neither to have emitted sernen, nor to have 
conceived after sexual intercourse. 


1. PREGNANCY is prevented also by spasm intheuterus. This 
complaint attacks the uterus when it is either distended with 
inflammation, or in the act of parturition. When any large 
quantity of matter suddenly enters it, and the os uteri is 
not open, spasm then arises from distension. It is a sign of 
the absence of spasm, if the uterus does not appear to reach 
inflammation in its functions : whereas, if spasm were pre- 
sent, there would be some signs of inflammation. Again, a 
swelling at the mouth of the uterus, if it is much drawn out, 
will prevent conception. It is a sign that this is not the 
case, when the uterus appears to open and close properly 
after the discharge of the catamenia, or the use of the male. 
2. In some, also, the os uteri is closed, either from the period 
of birth, or in consequence of disease. Sometimes this is 
curable, and sometimes not so. It is not, however, diffi- 
cult to ascertain the state of the case, for it is not possible 
either to receive or to emit anything in a proper manner. 
If it appears to have received and rejected the seminal fluid 
of the male, it is an evidence of the presence of the disease. 
But those who have no impediment in the way of concep- 
tion, but are, as it has been said, as they ought to be, unless 
the man is impotent, or they are not able to have children 
together, being unable to emit their semen at the same 
time, and differ very much, such persons will have no chil- 


IN order to understand of sterility in the male, we must 
take other symptoms. These will appear very easy, if he 
copulates with other women, and impregnates them. When 
the sexes do not appear to concur with each other, although 
all the before-mentioned circumstances are present, they do 
not nave children together. For it is evident that this is the 


only reason of sterility : for if the woman contributes to 
the semen and generation, it is evident that both the sexes 
should be concurrent : for if the man is quick, and the 
woman slow, in the emission of the semen (and many women 
are comparatively slow), this will prevent conception; for 
which cause they do not produce children by sexual union 
with each other. They do so, however, when they happen to 
be concurrent with each other ; for if the woman is desirous, 
and prepared for the intercourse, and is inclined for it, but 
the man is suffering previous pain, and of a cold disposition, 
it is then also necessary that they should be concurrent. 


IT is quite plain when animals desire sexual intercourse ; for 
the female pursues the male, as hens pursue the cock and 
place themselves beneath him, if the male is not desirous. 
Other animals also do the same. But if all animals appear to 
have these affections with respect to sexual intercourse, it is 
plain that the causes must be the same throughout. This 
bird, however, has not only the desire of receiving, but also 
of emitting semen. This is a proof of it. If the male is 
not present, she will emit the semen into herself, and be- 
come pregnant, and produce barren eggs, as if she desired 
both to emit semen, and when she had done so, soon ceased, 
just as when the male was present. Others also do the 
same, for a person has attempted to rear some singing lo- 
custs, which he had taken in a young state. When grown, 
they became pregnant spontaneously. 

2. From these considerations it is plain that every female 
contributes to the semen, if this appears to take place in any 
one class of animals, for the barren animal differs in no re- 
spect from the other, except that it does not produce 
an animal, and this because it was formed by the union of 
both sexes. For this reason all the seminal fluid of the 
male does not appear to be productive, but some parts are 
barren, when not properly compounded from both sexes. 
And when women have lascivious dreams, the same affec- 
tions of weakness and debility often occur, as if they had 
been lying with a male. It is plain, therefore, that if they 
appear to have emitted a seminal fluid in their dream, they 
will then conjecture that after their dream the same place 



will become moist, and they will be obliged to bestow the 
same attention upon themselves as if they had had sexual 
intercourse. So that it is evident that there must be an 
^mission of semen from both if it is to be productive. 

3. But the uterus does not emit its semen into itself, but 
on the outside, into the place where that of the male also is 
received, and then draws it into itself. For some females 
produce spontaneously, as the bird produces barren eggs, 
and other females do not so, as the horses and sheep ; 
either because the bird projects her semen into the uterus, 
and the place upon which that of the male is emitted is not 
external ; for which reason, if he does not copulate properly 
with the female, it is poured out upon the ground. But 
in quadrupeds there is another place for the reception of 
the semen, both of the male and female, which in other 
animals it is combined with other fluids of the body, 
and is not collected in the uterus, because it does not 
enter it. But in birds, the uterus receives and matures 
the seminal fluid, and forms a body similar in other respects 
though not a living creature. It is necessary, therefore, 
the living creature should be derived from both sexes. 


WE must enquire whether women speak the truth, when 
they say that after a lascivious dream they find themselves 
dry ; for it is plain that the uterus draws upwards. And 
if so, why do not females become pregnant spontaneously, 
since the male seminal fluid is drawn in, mixed with their 
own ? And why do not she goats draw that part of it 
which extends outwards ? for this affection takes place 
in some that have been pregnant many years ; for they pro- 
duce what is called myle (an amorphous mass of flesh), a 
circumstance which has also happened to a certain woman; 
for having had sexual intercourse, and to all appearance 
conceived, the size of the uterus increased, and everything 
at first went on regularly : but when the time of partu- 
rition arrived, she produced nothing, nor did the enlarge- 
ment become any smaller : but after three or four years, a 
dysentery occurred, which placed her life in danger, when 
she produced a large mass of flesh, which they call myle. 
The affection continues in some to old age, even to the 'day 
of their death. 


2. Does tbis affection arise from a warm habit of body, 
r hen the uterus is warm and dry, and for this reason capable 
f drawing into itself in such a manner that it is taken up 
jid kept in it ? For, in persons so affected, if the seminal 
.uid of both sexes is not united, but, like the barren egg, is 
;aken up by one sex, then the myle is produced, which 
s not living creature, for it does not originate in both sexes, 

nor is it lifeless, for it is taken to have life like the barren egg. 

~t remains, however, a long while, on account of the dispo- 
ition of the uterus, and because the bird, which has pro- 
iuced many eggs in herself, when the uterus is stimulated 
>y these, goes and lays them : and when the first is pro- 
Luce d, the last will also come forth in proper time : for there 
nothing to prevent it, but the body being productive as 
oon as it is full, causes the uterus to be no longer retentive. 
3ut in viviparous animals, on account of the change of 
brce, as the foetus increases, and the diversity of food is re- 
[uired, the uterus causes parturition from a kind of innara- 

3. But the flesh, because it is not alive, always requires 
;he same kind of food, for it does not cause any weight 
n the uterus, nor any inflammation. So that the affec- 
;ion would continue, in some cases, throughout life, un- 
ess some fortunate debility should take place, as in the 

woman who was attacked with dysentery. But does this 
affection arise from warmth, as it was said, or rather from a 
luid state, because there is a fulness as it closes, either 
>ecause the uterus is neither cold enough to reject it, nor 
warm enough to bring it to maturity ? "Wherefore, the 
disease lasts a long while, like those things which remain 
long while before they are matured ; but those that are 
about to come to maturity have an end, and that quickly. 
Such uteri, being very high up, cause a long delay. And, 
again, not being alive, it does not cause any pain by its 
movements, for the movement of the ligament which the 
Living foetus produces, causes pain. And the hardness of 
the substance is the effect of imperfect production, for it 
is so hard that it cannot be cut by the stroke of an axe. 
All ripe and mature things become soft, but imperfectly 
digested things are immature and hard. 

4. Wherefore, many physicians, deceived by the resem- 

u 2 


blance, say that women are suffering from myle, if 
only see the abdomen elevated without dropsy, and a ces 
sation of the catamenia, when the disease has lasted foi 
a long while. But this is not the case, for the myle i 
a rare disease. Sometimes there will be collections of cold 
and moist excrements and fluids, and sometimes of thicl 
ones in this part of the abdomen, if either the nature or th 
habit is of this kind. For these things afford neithei 
pain nor heat, on account of their cold nature ; but if thev 
increase, more or less, they bring no other disease aftei 
them, but remain quiet, like some maimed thing. 

5. The cessation of the catamenia takes place on account oi 
the excrementitious matter of the body being directed to this 
point, as when women are nursing ; for they occur either not 
at all, or only in small quantities. A collection of matter 
from the flesh sometimes takes place between the uterus 
and the stomach, which has the character of the myle, 
but is not it. But it is not difficult to know the differ- 
ence, by touching the uterus ; for if it is correctly placed, 
and not enlarged, it is evident that the disease is not there ; 
but if it is the same as when with child, it will be warm, 
and cold, and dry, because all the fluids are turned inwards ; 
and the os uteri will be in the same condition as when they 
are pregnant ; but if the enlargement is of any other kind, 
it will be cold, and not dry when touched, and the os uteri 
will always be the same. 



Translated from the Latin of Schneider. 

ARISTOTLE had very likely more authorities, whom he has 
followed, or converted to his own purposes, than those whose 
names he has given. These are, however, a few, whom he 
has named, as Alcmaeon of Crotona; Dionysius of Apol- 
lonia ; Herodorus of Heracleum in Pontus, the father of 
Bryson the sophist ; Ctesias of Cnidos ; Herodotus of Ha- 
licarnassus ; Syennesis of Cyprus ; Poly bus ; Democritus 
of Abdera ; Anaxagoras of Clazomene ; Empedocles of Si- 
cily ; and if there are any more which do not just now occur 
to my memory, they are accurately enumerated in the in- 
dex, with the names of the places to which they belonged. 
I have said that it is probable, that Aristotle has derived in- 
formation from more authorities than he has named ; and 
a reason for this conjecture is found in a passage which he 
extracts, almost verbatim, from Herodotus, on the Nilotic 
crocodile (Euterpe, 68). This I have shewn in a note on 
the passage, book v. ch. 27, 2. And there are many places, 
both in his natural history and his other works on animals, 
where our philosopher refers to the ancient fables of men 
who were transformed into the nature and forms of various 
animals. The oldest author of such fables is Boeus (or 
Boeo, in the feminine gender, as some have conjectured). 
From this book Antoninus Literalis has extracted many 
chapters in Greek. JSficander of Colophon, and others, 
followed the example of Boeus. Among Latin writers, 
the Metamorphoses of Ovid have always commanded at- 
tention. All who have read the work of Antoninus, and 


the Metamorphoses of Ovid, will easily perceive how much 
information on the nature and habits of animals our philo- 
sopher could have derived from the very character of the 
books which had come down from the remotest antiquity 
to the time of Aristotle (compare note 9, 17, 1), especially 
if they bear in mind that the ancient teachers of physics 
always compared the habits of animals with those of man, 
and conjectured the causes and reasons of their actions, 
from similar impulses in man. This may be seen in the 
fables of JEsop, for they contain the first elements of the 
doctrines of the ancients on physics and morals. We might 
also offer a surmise on Eudoxus, and Scylax, and others, 
who wrote "Travels Round the Earth," in which they 
described the animals of different countries ; for our philo- 
sopher appeals to the testimony of both these authors, 
in his work on Meteorics, and elsewhere. There is more 
doubt whether Aristotle used, or could have used, the nu- 
merous notices of animals, of the interior of Asia and 
India, which the companions of Alexander, in his Asiatic 
and Indian expeditions, brought back to Greece ; which 
Theophrastus, the pupil of Aristotle, and his successor in 
the schools, is found to have used so well in his History of 
Plants. For this I consider to be .proved, that the written 
notices of the companions of Alexander were published after 
the death of the king, though we have no proof of the exact 
year in which they were made public. Indeed I have never 
found any evidence in the History of Animals which could , 
lead us to suppose that Aristotle was acquainted with the 
animals of the interior of Asia and India, by information ! 
derived -from the companions of Alexander ; nor have I 
been able to find the slightest information from which I can 
form a conjecture as to either the place or time when this j 
history was written : but, in order that others may institute 
a more rigorous inquiry into the date and place of its 
authorship, if any such have escaped my notice, I will 
place before my readers that portion of the Aristotelian 
chronology which relates to this work, from the disputation 
of St. Croix, a learned French author (Examen Critique 
des Historiens d' Alexander le Grand, p. 603, second edi- 
tion). Aristotle, therefore, at the invitation of Philip, 
King of Macedon, undertook the education of his son, Alex- 


ander, when he was thirteen years of age, in the second 
year of the 109th Olympiad, when Phythodotus was Archon 
of Athens. Aristotle returned to Athens in the second year 
of the lllth Olympiad, in the Archonship of Evsenetus. 
He taught at Athens for thirteen years, from whence he 
fled to Chalcis, and there he died, in the third year of the 
114th Olympiad, during the Archonship of Philocles. 

There is, indeed, a passage in Pliny, (book x. ch. 64, sect. 
84, on the fecundity of mice,) where he says, that among 
other things Aristotle has spoken in his History of Animals 
(vi. 29) of the gravid foetus of the Persian mice ; but the 
Greek exemplar contains no authority from which Pliny 
could have derived the words which he has added : " More 
wonderful than all is the foetus of the mice, which we cannot 
unhesitatingly receive, though derived from the authority of 
Aristotle, and the soldiers of Alexander the Great." In 
this and in two other places he calls those soldiers whom 
others are in the habit of calling the companions of Alexander 
the Great. But there is also a passage in the Meteorics of 
Aristotle (iii. 1), where he mentions as a recent event the 
destruction of the temple of Ephesus, by the incendiary 
Herostratus, on the day of Alexander's birth, in these words : 
" As it has just now happened in the burning of the temple 
of Ephesus." This book, therefore, appears to have been 
written at the commencement of the 106th Olympiad, and 
with it the History of Animals is very closely connected, as 
I have shown in my treatise on the order of the books of 
Physics ; so that we may suppose that they were written in 
nearly the same Olympiad, if we regard only the series of the 
works; and no interruption occurred with which we are 
unacquainted. On the other hand, in the Meteorics (iii. 5), 
he speaks of a lunar rainbow, and says that it is rarely seen, 
and then adds, " that it has occurred but twice in more than 
fifty years." If we reckon these fifty years from the birth 
of Aristotle, in the first year of the 99th Olympiad, that 
book will fall in the third or fourth year of the lllth Olym- 
piad ; and from this calculation it would follow that this 
book was also written in Athens, but that the first date is 
to be taken in a wider sense. 

From all this, we may easily perceive that at this day we 
are entirely ignorant of the sources of information collected 


either from ancient or contemporary writers, to which our 
philosopher had access in composing and completing a work 
of such multiplied and varied information. Even if we as- 
sume that they were as large as the mind of Aristotle was 
great, acute, and transparent, still, for a work so various 
and extensive, spread o\er seas, rireis, earth, and heaven, 
even that mind would require some assistance from other 
sources to which it might apply in constructing and building 
up a system of general instruction from the materials col- 
lected in different places about various animals, and from the 
observations used in describing and arranging them together 
in orders, classes, genera, and species. The following were the 
sources Aristotle used, according to the narrative of an uncer- 
tain author quoted by Pliny (viii. 16, 17) " King Alexander 
the Great," he says, " was possessed with the desire of know- 
ing the natures of animals, and therefore delegated the work 
to Aristotle, a man of very great learning. Some thousands 
of men in the whole region of Asia and Greece obeyed his 
commands, all, namely, who obtained their livelihood by 
hunting, hawking, or fishing, or who had in their care mena- 
geries, herds, beehives, fishponds, or aviaries ; so that nothing 
in nature might be unknown to him ; and from his examin- 
ation of these, he compiled those fifty celebrated volumes, 
which I have collected into one, together with those animals 
with which he was unacquainted, and I hope that they will be 
consulted by good scholars." In all this there is nothing 
contradictory to the mind and liberality of Alexander, or the 
confidence or strength of his empire. But some may prefer 
the story published by ^Elian, in his various history (iv. 
19), who, I know not on what authority, transfers the nar- 
rative to Philip, the father of Alexander "Having sup- 
plied abundance of riches to Aristotle, he was the means of 
many other undertakings, and especially of his knowledge of 
living creatures ; and the son of Nichomachus completed 
his history by the liberal assistance of Philip ; who also 
honoured Plato and Theophrastus." If this be true, it evi- 
dently refers to those seven or eight years in which Aris- 
totle was in Macedonia presiding over the education of 
Alexander, the son of Philip. 

These abundant supplies for the studies of Aristotle are 
not at all inconsistent, either with the liberality of Philip, 


or his love for his son and his son's tutor, nor do they sur- 
pass credibility. The gold mines of Philippi supplied the 
munificence and liberality of Philip. But there are difficul- 
ties in the narrative which make us question the credibility 
of the author of this munificence. For instance, the 
names of Plato and Theophrastus are mentioned ; but the 
name of Theophrastus could not be so great and illustrious, 
even if it were known to the Greeks at all, as to have at- 
tracted the liberality of Philip, before the death of his master 
Aristotle, whom also he succeeded in the School at Athens. 
I should, therefore, rather imagine that ^Elian, who was 
more diligent in the accuracy of his Attic diction than his 
historical fidelity, has committed some error in the name of 
Philip, or in those of Plato and Theophrastus, whom he has 
appended to his narrative. 

The narrative of Athenseus, (ix. 398,) derived from the 
report of an unknown author, is very different ; he calls 
the History of Animals a very expensive work, and then, 
adds " There is a report that Aristotle received 800 talents 
from Alexander, for writing the History of Animals" 
a sum of money which Perigonius, in his Notes on ^Elian, 
estimates at 1,440,000 caroli. To this narrative, or, as 
it may be more justly termed, rumour, is opposed the 
opinion of lo. Henr. Schulzius, in his History of Medicine 
(Leipsic, 1738, p. 358). "When I consider this matter 
aright, it appears to me that the whole story is very doubt- 
ful, and, for the most part, fabulous. And it can easily 
be proved, that the whole revenue of Macedon, if Alexander 
had paid it all to Aristotle for several years, would not 
have amounted to this sum. It is impossible, therefore, 
that he could have paid so much to Aristotle before the 
conquest of Asia ; and after his expedition had been suc- 
cessfully accomplished, his affection was alienated from 
Aristotle, and, in order to annoy him, he liberally en- 
riched other philosophers, who had done nothing to deserve 
his patronage. Their labours, therefore, are in vain, who 
demand justice of our excellent Aristotle, even in his grave, 
because he did not use such an immense sum of money in 
the composition of a more veracious history. 

" I am certainly of opinion that a great deal has been made, 
as usual, of a very little matter, namely, that if Aristotle 


derived any assistance in that kingdom, all the materials 
were provided for him while Philip was alive, and before 
Alexander's expedition was undertaken, or in the first years 
of the expedition. But afterwards, when Alexander had 
set out, Aristotle returned to Athens, and was engaged in 
teaching : nor could he have derived any advantage from 
the resources which Pliny mentions, and the multitude of 
persons who were instructed to place themselves under his 
command, for he was not only occupied with other pursuits, 
but would have been in danger of being destroyed by the 
fury of the Athenians, on the plea that he was attempting 
innovations, if he had even ventured to dissect animals, 
not to say men." 

In a note he adds these observations : " Aristobulus 5 no 
unworthy companion of Alexander in his expedition, bears 
testimony, according to Plutarch, that the whole military 
chest did not contain seventy talents of coin. Eor the pre- 
paration of so arduous an undertaking, however, the same 
person says, that two hundred talents ought to have been 
taken for mutual exchange. I remember also to have read in 
Eustathius's commentary on Homer, a very learned disqui- 
sition on the scarcity of money amongst the Macedonians, at 
the time of Alexander's expedition ; but I cannot lay my 
hands upon the passage." 

I must confess that I am not influenced by this anno- 
tation, nor does the whole of this controversy appear to me 
to have been properly conducted. Eor the greatest doubt 
prevails as to the number of talents which Alexander is said 
to have paid to Aristotle, to help him in his task ; and the 
report only rests on the authority of a writer who lived 
centuries after the death of Alexander. To refute this 
is useless labour, both because its origin is obscure, and 
also because a sum of money set down in figures might 
be easily corrupted by transcribers. But the testimony of 
Aristobulus will give little or no assistance to the opinion 
of the learned, if we adopt that which is most probable, 
namely, that Philip, or his son Alexander, gave large sums 
of money to Aristotle, to enable him to pursue his studies 
in Natural History, while he lived in Macedon, and was 
employed in the education of Alexander. The question 
about the date when Aristotle arranged and published 


the materials and notes he had collected is quite distinct, 
and I do not think that it can be precisely ascertained at 
the present time. The conjecture I have hazarded (light 
enough, I must confess) does not sa.y much in favour of the 
story of abundant treasures supplied by Philip, or Alex- 
ander, to our philosopher, for the composition of his Na- 
tural History. But these persons form a very poor esti- 
mate of the study and labour bestowed by Aristotle upon 
the History of Animals, who imagine that our philosopher 
had only access to such books as now remain, forgetting 
those of which time has robbed us. 

Most of all we must regret his Zw/xa, which appears to 
have given a more accurate description of animals, and his 
avarofuxa, which further contained notices of their internal 
structure, and was illustrated by drawings to which he often 
refers in his Natural History, as well as in his works on the 
parts and the generation of animals. It will scarcely be 
possible to fix with any accuracy on the number of books he 
employed, after the great carelessness of librarians, and the 
many facilities for error in copyists, arising from the method 
of notation by letters. Antigonus Carystius, in his sixty- 
sixth chapter, increases the number of volumes given by 
Pliny, for he writes seventy ; and if the titles of the books, 
as they are given by Diogenes Laertius and Athenaeus, are 
compared with those published, the number of books re- 
lating to Animal History to which he may have had access 
are readily estimated, even should every book of every work 
be reckoned as a separate book, and the list compared with 
the number given by Pliny. 

In the memory of our fathers and grandfathers (for, alas ! 
at the present time few trouble themselves with the works 
of the ancients) there were many who blamed Aristotle for 
these works, both for his manner of treating the subjects and 
his narratives of the lives and habits of animals, and vexed 
them with questions and disputations. 

These objections will be better answered, when we 
come to those passages of the History. It may, however, 
be of some general avail to put a stop to these objections, 
which were urged against his manner of teaching ; and I 
hope to be able to point out some peculiar sources from 
which Aristotle appears to have derived the more difficult 


parts of his History, and those which were obnoxious to 

Amongst other foolish and trifling questions with which 
some Grammarian, in the Deipnosophistas of Athenaeus, (viii. 
p. 352,) has endeavoured not only to impugn, hut even de- 
stroy our philosopher's credibility, is the following : " I do 
not much admire the diligence of Aristotle, though others 
praise him so highly. At what time, I should like to know, 
or from what Proteus or Nereus ascending from the deep. 
to give him information, did he learn what the fishes were 
doing there, and in what manner they slept and took their 
food ; for he writes things of this kind, which are only ' the 
miracles of fools,' as the comic poet says." 

I will not follow the rest of his argument, which relates 
to terrestrial and winged animals ; for the aquatic, and espe- 
cially the marine creatures, seem to offer the greatest oppor- 
tunity for questioning the fidelity of his narrative. In the 
first place, then, we may observe, that of all mankind the 
Greeks were amongst the greatest eaters of fish, at least 
after the heroic and Homeric ages ; for Homer is never 
found to mention fish at the suppers and festivals of his 
heroes. So that I should not wonder if the frequent and 
repeated industry and observation of fishermen, following 
their labours both in rivers and seas, to adorn the tables of 
their fellow citizens, supplied ample and varied information 
to learned men who were engaged in the investigation of 
natural objects. By the same means they might learn 
from hunters the haunts and dispositions of wild beasts, 
and those of domesticated animals from husbandmen. 
The whole life and labour of such men was devoted to the 
uses, advantages, and food of man ; and their observations 
would be particularly directed to those animals which could 
assist in sharing the labours of mankind, or whose flesh or 
other parts were required for food or medicine. Their par- 
turition and its proper time, the number of their young, the 
manner of bringing them up, their nutriment, the pastures 
and food of the parents, and the proper time for hunting them, 
were observed with the greatest accuracy. And if any 
diseases arising from the weather, their food, or their drink 
impended over them, and threatened their production or the 
life of the wild cattle, or if a peculiar or common enemy 


laid in wait for the nfe of one or all, it could not easily 
escape their observation ; and from these circumstances we 
may manifestly derive the origin of those fables and narra- 
tives in which the opinions of animals are compared with 
the life and manner of human beings, such as the simple 
minds of hunters, fishers, and rustics could comprehend. 
In these books of natural history we find traces of many 
stories of this kind which it is unnecessary here to point 

In the aquatic and marine orders of animals there is, be- 
sides these sources of information, the diligent investigation 
instituted by certain writers throughout the seas and rivers 
of Greece, at a time when every useful fish, and marine and 
river animals of this class, mollusca, shell fish, and worms 
formed part of their food. The time and manner of their 
coition, parturition, pregnancy, and life, the nature of their 
food, places and manner of taking fish, the times in which 
they were not accessible, the faults and diseases of aquatic 
animals, were minutely described. The twentieth chapter 
of the eighth book of our History is on this subject, where 
the food and diseases of aquatic animals are described, and 
particular notice is taken of their use as food, besides the 
observations on the manners of quadrupeds. 

It is very evident that the life of one man would hardly 
suffice for the observation of all these facts even in a single 
class of animals ; but, as I have said, there were writers 
before the time of Aristotle who provided for the tastes and 
tables of these fish-eating Greeks a most exquisite apparatus 
from the rivers and seas of Greece, especially in Sicily, which 
has been remarkable for its wealth ever since the reigns of 
Gelo and Hiero, and had surpassed the rest of Greece not 
only in its knowledge of nature, but in the art of poetry. 

There is a passage in Plato's " Gorgias," (sect. 156, p. 246, 
ed. Heind.) where mention is made of " Mitha3cus, the author 
of a work on Sicilian cookery, and Sarambus, the publican. 
One furnished the best of food, the other the best of wine." 
That the art of choosing and preparing food for the table 
was treated of in this book we may conclude from the use 
of the word o^o-sWa, which the Greeks especially used to 
signify the kinds of fish used for food. A passage from 
this book on the manner of cooking the fish called tenia is 


quoted by Athenseus, who makes the title of this book 
o-^aarvrijibv, vii. p. 282, and xii. p. 506. 

We cannot accurately ascertain the age of Mitha&cus. The 
most ancient author of such a book that we can call to mind 
is Epicharmus, a Sicilian poet and physician, from whose 
fragments, collected by Athenseus, we may certainly con- 
clude he was acquainted with the nature of aquatic animals. 

To this class we may, in the first place, refer those pas- 
sages which are extracted from the drama called the Mar- 
riage of Hebe, or the Muses, and not only teach us the 
nature of fishes, but also the manner of procuring and cook- 
ing them. A learned writer in the " Literary Ephemeris" of 
Jena, 1810, (Nos. 156, 157,) attempted to collect all these 
and reduce them to order. There remain, however, many 
more passages which the conjectures of the most learned 
could hardly amend or explain, from the corruption of the 
text by librarians and the variety of Sicilian names. And 
before the time of Epicharmus, Ananius, an Iambic poet, 
nearly contemporary with Hipponactus, an Ionian poet, com- 
posed, among other poems, a similar work on cooking fish, 
as we learn from a passage extracted by Athenaeus, (vii. p. 
282.) After Epicharmus there was Terpsion, a Sicilian, who 
was the first to write a gastrology, in which he taught his 
disciples from what kind of food they ought to abstain. He 
is mentioned by Clearchus Solensis, a disciple of Aristotle, 
in his work de Paraemiis, in " Athenaeus," (viii. p. 337.) 

Clearchus also mentions Archestratus, the Sicilian, the 
pupil of Terpsion, who, after having travelled through the 
whole of Greece, wrote a work in heroic verse on the nature 
of fishes, those especially which were fit for the table, and 
on the manner of cooking and preparing them. We learn 
that his book was called 'Hdvffafaia, not only from the testi- 
mony of Athenseus, but from an imitation by Ennius. For 
Ennius, who died A.TJ.C. 584, one hundred and fifty-two 
years after the death of Aristotle, translated and in part 
imitated the poem of Archestratus, and called his work 
" Carmina Hedypathetica," as Apulegius tells us in his 
"Apologia." We have good reason for supposing that 
Archestratus was either contemporary with Aristotle, or a 
little older. For Archestratus mentions Diodorus Aspen- 
dius, the Pythagorean, as his contemporary, to whom Timseus, 


the historian, tells us that the Epistle of Stratonicus was 
written (" Athenaeus," iv. p. 136). Therefore Archestratus, 
Diodorus, Aspendius, and Stratonicus, an eminent harpist, 
were contemporaries, and so they were with Aristotle and 
Demosthenes ; and this conjecture is confirmed by many 
passages in Athenseus, where Stratonicus is reported to have 
been alive with those persons whom Demosthenes mentions 
tn his orations. Aristotle, therefore, may have used this 
work of Archestratus in that part of his Natural History 
which treats of the nature of fishes. 1 

^The writings of physicians who prescribed the food, 
both of sick and well, have handed down similar and much 
more extensive observations on the animals and fishes which 
were brought to the tables of the Greeks. Of this kind 
Athenseus has given many passages from Dorio, and Di- 
philus of Siphnus. Oribasius has made a long extract from 
the work of Xenocrates, on the aquatic animals used in 
food, which I purpose some day to publish with Xenocrates, 
if my life should be spared long enough. 

1 To the end of this Essay are appended fragments of Archestratus, 
on the fishes of Sicily, amounting to 270 lines of heroic verse, together 
with notes, by the author of the Essay. 



Vitex agnus castus,"a tree 
like a willow, the branches of 
which the matrons strewed on their 
beds at the Thesmophoria, 266. 

Adpun'iKai dXiKTOpidt^, a small 
kind of domestic fowl, 138. 

Aeitncwift, a kind of owl. Stryx 
aluco, Strack t 249. Brown Owl. 
There is also another migratory 
kind mentioned, 249, which does 
not hoot. 

'A'poi//, the Bosotian name of the 
Merops, M. apiaster, 138. 

Afrog, or attro, Eagle, hence the 
Latin avis, 9, 61 ; its eggs and 
young, 146 ; two species, the Py- 
gargus halisetus, and the black 
eagle, Aquila anataria or Falco nae- 
vius, ib.; several species, 201, 250 ; 
used in augury, 2 17 ; eats serpents, 
231 ; food and manners, 251 ; true 
eagles, Falco chrysaetos, ib. ; the 
sagle kills the heron, 233 ; it fights 
with the vulture and the swan, ib. ; 
a kind of eagle in Scythia, 252. 
*A/;5wv, nightingale, Sylvia luscinia, 
its song, 95, 96 ; reproduction, 
108 ; its tongue, 246 ; changes 
its song and colour, 276. 

A9s pi j/j;, Atherina presbyter, Spratt's 
Lycia, or A. vera, in modern 
Greek atherno, 159 ; its reproduc- 
tion, 160, 234. 

A.iyiOa\o, Parus, Tit or Titmouse, 

eats worms, 202 : three species, 
ib. ; lays many eggs, 246 ; an 
enemy to bees, 265 ; o-7rttr?j, 
parus major, Struck, opeivoe, 
Parus ater, Struck, or P. caudatus. 
k\d-i<jTOQ, Parus cceruleus. 

oe, Bunting, Einberiza, St>ack, 
or hedge sparrow or Parus cceru- 
leus, dislikes the ass, builds in 
hedges, 232 ; hostile to the anthus 
and acanthis, 233; its food and 
young, 246. 

Aiyo0;/Aae, goat sucker, Caprimul- 
gus EuropaBus, 250. 

'Aiyoicf'^aXof, Stryx otus, Struck, 

Ai'yuTTtof, the Vulture, it is hostile 
to the JEsalon (small hawk), 9, 
23 ; and fights with the eagle, ib. 

AiywTrro^, Egypt, the Egyptians 
hatch eggs in manure, 139 ; two 
kinds of Egyptian mice, one with 
stiff hair (Hierax, or Aulacodus 
Swinderianus), another with long 
hind legs (Jerboa, or Cavia), 178 ; 
the care of animals among the 
Egyptians, 231 ; a large kind of 
oxen in Egypt, 226 ; asp and ich- 
neumon, 238 ; white and black 
ibis, 242. 

Ai'ywXiof, a night bird of prey, 
Stryx passerina, Strack. or S. 
flammea. Camus. La chouette, 
little owl, 201 ; kills the calaria, 


232 ; its habit and mode of life, 
247 ; in p. 139 this bird is called 

Ai'r6f, a cartilaginous fish, one of 
the class selache, .Raia aquila, 104. 

AiOioiria, ^Ethiopia, winged ser- 
pents in ^Ethiopia, probably Dra- 
co volans, 9 ; ^Ethiopian sheep, 

Al9io^, ^Ethiopian, teeth, 60 ; se- 
men, 72, 188. 

AW via, a large waterbird, Larus 
parasiticus, or L. Marinus, Strack, 
or L. argentatus, 2 ; its reproduc- 
tion, 108 ; food, 203. 

AiAot-pog, cat, Felis cattus, copula- 
tion, 103 ; its young, food, and 
mode of life, 177 ; kills birds, 239. 

At/zoppotc, or aTTOp'p'aif, a kind of 
shell fish, perhaps Murex, 85, 86. 

Ai, goat, male and female, Ibex or 
wild goat, Spratt's Lycia, Caper 
hircus, Struck, 13, 27, 28, 31, 
66 ; the she goats of (Eta, 70 ; 
the he goat in Lemnos, ib. ; it is 
mentioned with the chimera or 
domestic goat in 71 ; dreams, 97 ; 
infested with ticks, 134; dis- 
charges of the female, 1 ! 63, 164; 
festation, 165 ; food, drink, &c., 
07 ; the wild goat, 225 ; Syrian 
Caper hircus Mambricus and Ly- 
cian goat, C. Angorensis, ib. ; 
Egyptian, 226 ; its mode of life, 
235 ; wild goats in Crete, 238 ; ru- 
mination, 278. 

Al', a water bird, probably Tantalus 
arquatus, Strack, Scolopax Galli- 
nago, 208. 

Air*ct\u)v, a small hawk, perhaps 
sparrow-hawk or merlin, Falco 
JEsalon, 253. 

, see AiywXio. 

Medusa, and probably 
also some species of Actinia, 2, 3 ; 
fixed and locomotive kinds, 87, 
88 : small and edible species, 
others large and hard, 88 ; a fleshy 
kind, 195 ; a large kind, its food, 
mouth, and anus, l'J8. 

, a kind of shark, Squalus 
Acanthias, Strack, 256. 

'AifavBiQ, thistle finch or gold finch, 
Fringilla carduelis, or Fringilla 
cannabina, Strack, or F. spinus, 
brown linnet, 202 ; hates the ass, 
lives on worms, 233 ; a foe to the 
anthus and asgitbus, 234 ; its food, 
colour, song, 247. 

'Aicav6u\\ie, Parus pendulinus, or 
caudatus, Strack, 202 ; its nest, 

"Atcapi, mite, Dermestes fatidicus, or 
perhaps Bostrichus, Strack, 135. 

'A/rpff, locust, Tetigonia, Strack, 
Acridium, 89, 95; its birth, 123; 
reproduction, 132 ; changes its 
skin, 216; it is said to contend 
with serpents, 238 : the Spex la- 
certicida corresponds with this 
description, Schneider. 

'Aici>\o, the acorn of the evergreen 
oak, used for fattening pigs, 206. 

'AXeicroptf, the domestic hen, Pha- 
sianus gallus, different kinds, 111, 
138 ; sometimes produces soft 
eggs, 139 ; chickens, 140, 141 ; 
barren eggs, and times of laying, 
ib.; growth of the chick in the 
egg, 142 ; twin eggs, 144 ; the hen 
sometimes takes the form of the 
cock, 215; rolls in the dust, 277. 

'AXtKTpvwv, domestic fowl, male, 
also used of the class, 5 ; his comb, 
36 ; crop, 45 ; appendages to in- 
testines, ib. ; crowing, 96 ; man- 
ner of coition, 102 ; appearances 
like ova when cut open, 139; tes- 
ticles, 148 ; habits in temples, 
241 ; sometimes they assume the 
form and habits of hens, 275 ; 
method of castration, 277. 

'AXtcrurof, sea-eagle, different from 
the osprey, perhaps Aquila albi- 
cilla or Falco haliretus, 203, 251, 

'A\Kvwv, Alcedo, kingfisher, or per- 
haps Turdus arundinaceus, repro- 
duction, 107, 108 ; two species 
described, 203 ; materials and form 



of its nest, 246. It is doubtful 
whether either of the species is 
our kingfisher. Schneider. 

AXoadxnt probably a species of 
Zoophyte Alcyonia, 246. 

AXw7rjj, fox, Canis vulpes, 6, 29 ; 
it breeds with the Laconian dogs, 
227 ; attacks the heron, 233 ; is 
friendly with the crow, ib. ; a 
troglodyte, ib. 

AXwTrqg, Vampire, Vespertilio cani- 
nus, Strack, V. dinops or Sciurus 
volans, 9 ; reproduction, 177 ; it 
hunts mice, 178. 

AXwTrifl;, a cartilaginous fish, re- 
production, 149 ; represents a 
class, 151 ; Egyptian species, 226 ; 
stratagems, 255. 

Aftt'a, a kind of tunny, mackerel, 
Scomber, Strack, 4, 40, 91 ; its 
rapid growth, 160, 199, 200; lives 
in bays, 211; and enters rivers, 
218 ; its teeth and mode of de- 
fence, 255. 

'AjJivydaXri, Amygdala communis, 
almond tree, 268 ; almonds, 242. 

'Av0iac, a migratory sea fish, also 
called avXwTriag, Scomber ala 
longa, 159 ; gregarious, 234 ; also 
called sacred, 255. 

"AvQag, yellow bunting, Emberiza 
citrinella, Strack, Motacilla ba- 
rula, 202; feeds in meadows, 
imitates the neighing of the 
horse, 233 ; hostile to the acanthis 
and sBgithus, ib. ; it lives by the 
side of rivers, 244. 

'Ai'flpm'Jj, wild bee, Apis terrestris, 
or Vespa crabro, 88 ; the larvse, 
124 ; reproduction, 130 ; a diligent 
insect, 258 ; makes honey, 260 ; 
its manners and habits, 270. 

"ATTIOC, the pear tree, 126. 

'ATrXuffietf, a dark-coloured sponge, 

'Arrogate, various reading for 
aijuop'p'ou;, Murex, or Natica. 

"ATI-GUI;, swift, Hirundo apus, 4; 
also called KV^I\\O, 271. 

spider, 5, 85, 135 ; its 

web, reproduction, 123, 131, 132 
is driven away by its young, 131 
it sucks its prey, 213 ; is eaten bj 
the lizard, 232 ; four kinds, 258 
259. Vu\\a, Salticus scenicus 
The smaller kind Dolomedes mi' 
rabilis the larger Lycosa ruri- 
cola, another Dolomedes fimbria- 

*Apcroc, bear, Ursus Arctus, 25 
27, 29, 42 ; coition, 102 ; at thii 
time it becomes fierce, 161 ; perio( 
of gestation, imperfect young 
175 ; mode of drinking, 205 ; by 
bernation, 215 ; eats the arum 
ib ; the females courageous, 230 
its habits, 237. 

"Apjcroe, a crustacean, perhaps Can 
cer spinosissimus, Strack, Scyllari 
arctus, reproduction, 121 ; itstooi 
and manner of seizing it, 205. 
"ApTTt), a bird of prey, falcon, live 
near the sea, and attacks the gul 
and brenthus, 232 ; the piphui 
and ictinus are friendly to it, 234 
its mode of life, attacks the eye 
of its prey, 247. 

'Apxa^oe, a fish, see 'K^dpva^. 

'A<neaXaj3wrj7, lizard, Lacert 
Gecko, Stellio veterum, 160; i 
lives in holes, 213 ; changes it 
skin, 216; its bite poisonous i 
some parts of Italy, 227 ; it ea 
spiders, 232 ; it can walk in a 
inverted position, 242. 

'AtricaAa^og, probably some kind ( 
owl, Stryx ulula, 45. 

'AfKaXwTrac, Scolopax gallinag< 
snipe, Strack, (Schneider disaj 
proves of this identification), t 
phseopus, 249. See <ricoXo7ra. 

'AaKcipiCf f, ascaris, intestinal worr 

'A.ffKaplg, the larva of the emp 
^gnat), 125. 

'AffTraXal, mole, Talpa ^vulgar: 
lives in holes, 5 ; its eyes, 1 
90; there are many in Bceoti 
none in Lebadin, 225. 

Coluber aspis, asp, frc 



which, a poison is made in Lybia, 
227 ; in Egypt it is attacked by 

BaXcrypof, a fresh- water fish, Cobitis 

the ichneumon, 238. barbus, 98. 

lobster, Cancer Gamma- j Ba'Xavof, Balanus, Cirripede, acorn 
rus, and Astacus, 138; compared ] shell, 94, 117, 
with the spiny lobster, 77, 78, i BdXavoQ, acorn, 221. 
79; a small fresh-water species,) BaXXpog, a fresh-water fish, Cy- 

prinus blicca, 156, 219 ; j3a\epoc. 
(3a\lvog, /3apti/og, are various 

Astacus fluviatilis, crayfish, 86 ; 
its reproduction, 106, 121 ; 
changes its shell, 217- 

'A<rra<2>if, a raisin used for feeding 

cattle, 206. 
'AffTipiac, a cartilaginous fish, 109, j 

151. Squalus asterias. 
'Atrrepiac, a hawk, 109, 151, 253. | 
j, Ardea stellaris, bittern, 

'A<rr>)p, star-fish, Uraster rubens, 

'A<r06foXoc, a plant, asphodel, A. 

ramosus, 260. 
'ArpajcnAXIf, a plant of the thistle 

tribe, Carthamus creticus. 
'Arraytjv, grouse, Tetrao bonasia, 

or T. attagcn, 249 ; it lives on 

the ground, 276. 
'Arrf'Xajtfoc, a kind of locust, 

Gryllus, 123 ; reproduction and 

death, 133. 

iciQ, the same as dvOiag, 159. 
the young tunny, 160. 
'AQaKrj, plant, a kind of vetch, 


"Aypog, fish spawn, 157. 
'A<pvrj. anchovy or sardine, Melanu- 

rus juvenculus, 157, its origin, ib.; 

other kinds, ib. ; in modern Greek 

a variety of large 
stag with a strong mane, Strack; 
a brocket, or two-year old stag, 
from his single-pointed horns, 
Liddett and Scott, 39, 237. 
^api/ae, a sea fish, Anarrhicas 
rufus, 200 ; does not bear heat, 

^j'raf, the male grasshopper, 
Cicada Orni, 89. 
yoaj, a kind of wild pear, Pyrus 
communis, 206, 268. 


Ba(Ti\ti<, also called trochilus, and 
presbys, lives in holes, 244 ; has a 
bright crest, 202 ; probably Regu- 
lus Cristatus, golden-crested wren, 
or Sylvia troglodytes. 

Bari, a bird that frequents bushes, 
Sylvia rubicola, eats worms, 202 ; 
mentioned with finch and sparrow. 

Baric, a fish, the prickly roach, 
Lwdell and Scott, 149, 152. 

Baroy, ray, Raia batos, not the skate, 
which is perhaps leiobatos, 8, 37 ; 
its manner of coition, 104 ; it does 
not receive its young into itself, 
150, 151 ; it lives in holes, 214 ; 
its manner of taking its prey, 255. 

Barpa^oc, frog, Eana escuieuta and 
R. temporaria, 3, 39, 87 ; croaks, 
96 ; the female larger than the 
male, 100; coition, 103; tadpole, 
154; its united spawn, 155; 
spoken of as a class, 196; no 
croaking frogs in Cyrene, 225 ; 
marsh frogs are foes to bees, 261. 

Borpa^of, a cartilaginous fish, 
Lophius piscatorius and L. barbii- 
tus, 8, 37, 38, 40 ; among the se- 
lache, 104 ; oviparous, 148, 150; it 
produces many young, 159. 

BeXovj;, fish, Syngnathus acus, 40 ; 
its reproduction, 109, 154, 160 ; 
gregarious, 224 ; the Halcyon 
builds its nest with the bones of 
this fish. 

chites, Leach, 76; also called 
6oXig ; it does not exist in the 
Euripus, 256. 

a, Apis cementaria, or also 
Megachile muraria, and Bombus 



terrestris, forms an angular cell I 
of mud, 131. 

Boju/3wXio, larva of silk worm, 124; 
the humble bee, 260, 271. 

Bo|/3i;, silkworm. 

B6i>a<T(TO, Antelope bonassus, or 
Bos Urus, Bison, 26, 28; its 
country, form, habits, hunting, 

Boo-Kag, Anas boscas, or A. Crecca, 

BoffTpv^OQ, insect, Lampyris noc- 
tiluca, Strack, 125. 

Boi'SaXic, Antilope Gnou, 58. 

, Bos taurus, Ox, 5, 27, 28, 29, 
30, 41, 62 ; milk, 69 ; dreams, 97 ; 
lowing of the bull, 100, 112; 
coition, 103 ; tormented with lice, 
135; sexual desires, 161, 162; 
discharges and urine of the cow, 
163; reproductive powers of bull, 
168 ; the castrated animal is taught 
to lead the herd, ib. ; teeth, milk, 
and habits, ib. ; veins in the em- 
bryo, 190 ; mode of drinking, 
205 ; care of the ox, 206 ; red 
cattle of Epirus, 207; diseases, 
219, 222; the ox drinks pure 
water, 224 ; Egyptian oxen, 226 ; 
habits, 236; wild oxen, B. Bu- 
balus, 26 ; one species of ox has 
a bone in its heart, 39 ; oxen in 
Phrygia which can move their 
horns, 61 ; small oxen in Phasis, 
71 ; oxen in Epirus, ib. ; in Tor- 
tona, 72 ; the cow brings forth at 
a year old, 113; Syrian oxen, 
226 ; castration of the young, 
278 ; rumination, ib. 
Of, a cartilaginous fish, Raia cor- 
nuta, 104, 152. 

Bps'rOoe, a sea-bird, Anas tadorna, 
hostile to the larus and harpa, 
232 ; makes its nest in hills and 
woody places, 244. 

Bpwac, a large owl, Stryx bubo, 

Bpwov, algae, both fresh-water and 
marine, 155, 200, 220. 

, an echinite, Scutella, 102. 

, Corvus monedula, 238 
Bwif, a gregarious fish, Sparus 
boops, 234 ; contracted from 
B6a, from the sound it makes. 

, a kind of smooth shell-fish, 
mya pictorum, 82. 
XsoQ, a cartilaginous fish, Squalus 
galeus and charachias, Strack, or 
Gadus lota, 8, 44, 49, 108, 149, 
151; uterus and ova, 150 ; re- 
ceives its young into itself, ib. : 
not found in the Pyrrhrcan 
Euripus, 256. 

ri, fish of the shark kind, 37. 
40, 41 ; placed under the selaclie. 
104, 149 ; the males have appen- 
dages, 104 ; the uterus, 149 ; ga- 
lei and galeodes, 151. 

FaX ijj, weasel, martin, polecat, Mus- 
tela Faro, M. Errainea, M. vul- 
garis, 20 ; the wild kind hunt. 
mice, 178; hostile to the crow 
232 ; it attacks serpents, 233 ; ii 
Poroselene, 225 ; it fights witl 
serpents, especially with thos< 
called myotherze, 238 ; its forn 
compared with the ictis, 239 ; eat 
birds' eggs, 232 ; mode of attack 
ing its prey, 238. 

VtpavoQ, crane, Ardeagrus, 2, 4, 64 
coition, 102; migrations of th 
male bird, 209 ; they migrat 
after the quails, ib. ; the fable o , 
the stone they are said to carrj 
210 ; gregarious, ib. ; migratiom 
leaders, prudence, 243 ; they figl 
with each other, the number ( 
their eggs, 245. 

Ft j/a/o, the offspring of a mule wit 
a mare or she ass, 11 ; see Wvof. 

rXavif, a fresh-water fish, Siluri 
glanis, Strack, 9, 38, 40, 2H 
conjoined spawn, 155 : two sp< 
cies, the greater and the smalU 
the male watches the spawn, ib 
size of the ova, 156 ; diseases, 21 
unfit to eat when in spawn, tl 




female better than the male, 229 ; 
the male watches the young, 
breaks the hook with its teeth, 

, Hyaena striata, 204. 
, a fish of a grey colour, 
Gobius Gozo. Stracfc, 44 ; marine, 
211 ; it lives in holes during the 
summer, 214; when good for food, 
r\avK(t>SeiQ, birds of the owl kind, 


rXafsg, owl, 39, 45; has crooked 
claws, 201 ; how it may be taken, 
210; lives in holes, 215; hostile 
to the crow and orchilus, 232 ; is 
pecked by smaller birds, used in 
hawking, ib. ; the time for taking 
the owl, 252. 

rXwrrtf, a bird, Rallus crex, Strack, 
Scolopax glottis, see Kvy^pa/ioc 
and oprvyo/jTjrpa, its tongue and 
migrations, 210. 

IVa^oXoe, probably some Indian 
bird, its form and food, Ampelis 
garrulus, 246. 

Tvfiffioi a'frot, true eagles, Aquila 
Chrysaetos, 251. 

foyypof, conger, Muraen a conger, 8, 
37, 38, 40, 41, 61, its ova and 
fat, 160? it is destroyed by the 
spiny lobster, but destroys the po- 
lypus, 198; its food, 199; black 
and white kinds, 211; lives in 
holes, 213 ; it is attacked by the 
mursena, 235 ; compared with the 
sea serpent, 255. 

Tjoavg, a crustacean, Dromia lanosa, 

FfcTrai'eroc, or i/Trrwroc, Vulturbar- 
batus, see 6pi7rtXapyo, 251. 

Ti'pivog, tadpole, J54. 

Tv$, vulture, Vultur cinereus, or V. 
fulvus, eggs and nest, 145, 243 ; 
its food, two kinds of vulture, 201. 

Aa<rr/XXoc, a fish,sciaena umbra, 199. 
&O.OVITOUQ, hare, Lepus timidus, 

and L. cuniculus, 5, 29, 49, 58, 
64, 71 ; coition, 102 ; snperfeta- 
tion, 108 ; reproduction, 176, 186 ; 
in Ithaca, 225 ; smaller in Egypt, 
226; another species near Lake 
Bolba, 41. 

i, dolphin, Delphinus delphis. 
7. 13, 29, 37, 40, 46, 47, 59, 69, 
91, 92, 93, 95 ; its sleep, 98 ; the 
fish called QOtipa follows the dol- 

?hiu, 135; reproduction, 104, 
52 ; it breathes air, 196 : food, 
200 ; throws itself on its back to 
take its prey, ib. ; dolphin in the 
Pontus, 212 ; gentle habits, 274 ; 
its speed, it sometimes throws it- 
self on the shore, 275. 
fcrojui/ov, plant, dittany, 238; ori- 
ganum Dictamraum, Lin. 
ag, Antelope dorcas, 26. 
wv, a sea fish, Trachinus draco, 
lives near the shore, 211. 

Apa/cwi/, a species of serpent in fresh 
water, attacks the glanis, 219 ; is 
hostile to the eagle, 231 ; sucks 
the juice of the herb picris, 238. 

ApsTraiHe, perhaps the sand martin, 
Hirundo riparia, 4. 

Apo/iddef, migratory fish, perhaps 
some species of tunny, 4, 155. 

Api;oKoXa7rrj7e> woodpecker, 202; 
three kinds, Picus varius, P. viri- 
dis, P. martius, 242 ; habits, ib. 

, the parent of the 
Apua, Clupea encrasicolus, Strack. 

yxXu, eel, Muraena anguilla, 8, 
37, 40, 41, 61, 66, 93 ; is neither 
male nor female, 99 ; the so-called 
male and female are different spe- 
cies, 97; migrates to the sea to 
spawn, 156; its origin, 158; de- 
scription and habits, 200, 201 ; 
those called female are better for 
food, 229. 

Xat'af ai'6o, the flower of the 
olive, 127, 133, 216, 242. 



, stag, Cervus Elaphus. 5, 
26, 27, 28; those called Achainie, 
39, 237 ; blood, 58, 67 ; horns, 
60, 236, 237; the female, 100; 
coition, 103, 174; voice, 112; 
habits, 236, 237; the castrated 
animal, 278 ; rumination, ib. 

'EXea, Emberiza arundinacea, or 
Turdus arundinaceus, Struck, or 
E. schcenilus, 246. 

EXeyTi/of, a migratory fish, 234. 

'E\tS(!)vr), Eledone cirhosa, Leach, 
(Owen, in Cyclopaedia of Ana- 
tomy), 76. 

'EXeioe, dormouse, Myoxus Avella- 
narius ; or perhaps squirrel, 
Sciurus vulgaris, lives in holes in 
trees, 216. 

"EXt iot, a kind of hawk, 253 ; pro- 
bably an incorrect reading. 

'EX tog, an owl, Stryx Aluco, StracJc, 
see 'AeiWo^/, 201. 

'EX<tyae, Elephas Indicus, 5, 14, 24, 

. 26, 28, 29, 13, 40,43,46, 61,72; 
voice, 96 ; reproduction, 103, 115, 
161, 173 ; food, 207 ; life and dis- 
eases, 222, 224; strength, 234; 
capture, ib. ; habits, docility, 274. 

"EXXo^/, a fish with four simple 
branchia, sword fish or sturgeon, 
Liddell and Scott, Centriscus scolo- 
pax, Struck, Accipenser stellatus, 
37 5 f\o\l/, 40. 

"EX/ut/f, worms, especially intestinal 
worms, taenia and lumbricus, some 
exist in sponges, 119 ; origin, 123; 
three kinds, flat worms, round 
worms, ascarides, 124 ; worms in 
snow, Podura nivalis, 126 ; some 
insect larvae are described as 
worms, 135 ; small worms in eels, 
158 ; worms in dogs, Tsenia sev- 
rata, 238. 

'E/z7rt, gnat, larger than KW/W^, 
Tabanus, or Phryganea, Struck, 
3, 9, 206. 

'E/xi>, Testudo coriacea, fresh- 
water tortoise, Emys lutraria, 39 ; 
reproduction, 136; habits, 194, 

or erXic, probably sea 
bream, Sparus, Struck, Sparus 
Rayi, 163. 

"Evrtpa yrJG, the decomposing mat- 
ter in which eels have their origin, 

"EvTOfia, insects, as a class, 3, 10, 
73, 123. 

EvvSpie, otter, Lutra vulgaris, 2; 
its food, '205. 

'E7nXttior vTTcXaig, Sylvia curruca, 
Struck, or perhaps hedge sparrow, 

*ETTO\!/, hoopoe, Upupa Epops, 1 ; 
its nest, 138 ; lives in woods and 
mountains, 244 ; changes its co- 
lour, 246, 276. 

'Ep((3ivQo, a plant, leguminous 
seeds, Ervum sativum, 221. 

'EpiOaKrj, bee bread, 267. 

'EpiOpaKos, Sylvia erithracus, or 
S. Phoenicurus, Struck, Redstart, 
202 ; in its summer plumage 
called Phoenicurus, 276. 

'Epivebg, wild fig tree, 136. 

EjOTrwXXof, Thymus serpyllum, 
wild thyme, 261. 

'EpvOplvog, a red kind of mullet, 
Perca marina, Sparus Erythrymus, 
Struck, Perca scriba, all have roes, 
there are no males, 99, 153, 211 

'EpioSibg, heron, Ardea major, 203; 
a foe to the woodpecker, 212; 
three kinds, o Trt'XXoe, the black, 
Ardea cinerea, 6 Xti/Trof, the 
white, A. egretta, 6 darrjpiag, A, 
stellaris, 233, 247; a friend of 
the crow, 323. 

EuXttt, maggots in flesh. 

*E<i>f)fjiipov, ephemera, insect, 10, 

'E^f vr)i, probably Goby or Blenny, 
Forbes in Sprutt's Lycia, not the 
Remora. which was unknown to 
the ancients. Echeneis remora, 
Struck, 38. 

"Ex^a, viper, Coluber vivipara, C. 
verus, 10 ; hides under stones, 213. 

'E^tvo/xj^rpa, Echinus Esculeutus, 
Forbes in Spratt's Lycia, 86. 



*F,Y7i/oc,sea urchin, Echinus lividus; 
another species, with hard spines, 
is Cidaris hystrix, also a long 
species, Amphidetus Mediterra- 
neus, Forbes, 10, 11 ; eatahle 
kinds, 86 ; small species, E. saxati- 
lis ; white species at Torone, E. 
decadactylus, ib., 87, 94 ; at what 
season they are full of ova, 110. 

'Eylvog, hedgehog, Erinaceus Eu- 
ropaeus, 10, 46, 61, 81 ; coition, 
102 ; changes the entrance of its 
hole when the wind changes, 239. 

*Eytf, a serpent, Coluber vivipara. 
ViperaReedii, viviparous, 49 ; re- 
production, 137; how captured, 
'204 ; changes its skin, 216 ; 
becomes more poisonous by eating 
scorpions, 227. 

*Ei//j?r6f, a small fish, Atherina 
Hepsetus, Strack, 156. 

Zvy<m'cr, a shark, Squalus Zygaena, 

Strack, 40. 

ZvyriQ, a lizard, see x a ^ K 'G, 223. 
Zwdapicr, several small animals, 135. 

1. Tinea pellionella. 

2. T. sarcitella. 

3. Psorus pulsatorius. 

4. T. graminella. 

Zwov, several unnamed animals. 

1. A small crustacean in shell 
fish, perhaps Pinnotheres, 86. 

2. marine creatures like small 
pieces of wood, Veretillum,89. 

3. marine creatures like shields, 
Alcyonium, 89. 

4. marine creatures like 
didoiov dvdpoc, Pennatula, 

5. winged creatures produced 
from maggots in pulse, 
Bruchus, 126. 


mule, offspring of horse 
and wild ass, the female larger 
and more long lived, 99, 1 70 ; the 

so-called mules of Syria, Equus 

hemionus, 11, 172, 177. 
"HTrarof, a fish so called from its 

colour, Theutis hepatus," Strack, 

Stromatos fiatola, 44. 
'HTTIO\O, moth, Tinea mellonella, 

'HpafcXfonirof (tap/ct'vog, Keracleo- 

tic crab, has a long tail, 77, 81. 

, a shoot of a plant, especially 

the olive, 208. 
I Qrjpia, animals larger than flies in 

fire, 126 ; animals which destroy 

honey-combs, 225 ; an animal like 

a moth, ib. 

0tc, black shore weed, fucus, 211. 
QpavTriq, a small bird like a gold- 
finch, Fricgilla Carduelis, or F. 

Cannabina, 20*2. 
ptVaa, a fish with prickly scales, 

Opt;//, timber worm, 207. 

thyme, Thymus vulgaris, 


, the female tunny, 108, 109 ; 

aged, 160 ; food, 200 ; migration, 

211 ; gregarious, 234. 

, tunny fish, Scomber Thyn- 

nus, 4, 38 ;" sleeps, 98 ; swims* in. 

shoals, 108 ; male and female, ib.; 

reproduction, 109, 135; life, 149; 

they appear to be a year older 

than the pelamys, 160 ;*food, 199; 

migrates after the scombri, 209 ; 

when best for food, 211; migra- 
tions, 212; how concealed, 214; 

delights in warmth, 219 ; old fish. 

unfit for salting, their weight, 228. 
g, jackal or ounce, Felis onza, or 

perhaps Canis aureus, Strack, 42 ; 

habits, 177 ; hates the lion, 234 ; 

carnivorous, ib. ; several kinds, 


j8tc, Tantalus Ibis, Strack, two 
species, white, Tantalus sacer, and! 
black, T. faicintllus, 249. 



, hawk, 9, 39, 40 ; incubation, 
146; like the cuckoo, 146, 147; 
the young good to eat, 147 ; a 
kind -which builds in rocks, ib. ; 
three species, 201 ; enumeration 
of species, 253 ; the Egyptian 
hawk, 226 ; its nest, 243 ; does 
not eat the heart of birds, ib. 

'Ihag or it(00,a kind of serpent, 228. 

'licrlvoQ, kite, Falco milvius, 39, 
40 ; incubation, 146 ; food, 201 ; 
drink, 203; migration, 215; a 
foe to the raven, 232. 

"Ifcne, weasel or ferret, Mustela furo, 
29 ; habits, 239. 

'IXAay, a kind of thrush, gregarious, 
Turdus iliaceus, Strack, 248 ; this 
identification is very doubtful, 

'Io/3o|0og, a kind of thrush, Turdus 
viscivorus, Strack, 248. 

'Iog, miseltoe, 248. 

"Ivvog, hinnus, the offspring of a 
horse and she ass, 163. 

'IovXc, a red fish, Labrus lulis, 
Strack, 234. 

*Iov\og, lulus, scolopendra, centi- 
pede, 73. 

iTTTrapdiov, giraffe, Giraffa cameleo- 
pardalis, 26. 

iTTTTcXa^og, perhaps the Nilghau, 
Antilope picta, 26. 

c lTnrti), a crustacean, Ocyopode 
cursor, 77. 

iTTTTo/iup/i?}?, a large kind of ant, 
Formica Herculanea, % 225. 

"ITCTTOQ, horse, Equus Caballus, 13, 
26, 27, 29, 39, 62, 66, 69, 70 ; 
dreams, 97; neighing, 112; re- 
production, age, life, 113, 161, 
169 ; food and drink, 205, 207 ; 
small horses in the country of the 
Pygmies, 209 ; diseases, 219, 222, 
223 ; story of a Scythian horse, 

"iTTTrog o TroTdfiioQ, river horse, 
Hippopotamus amphibius, 32, 
196 ; in Egypt, 32. 

"ImrovpOQ, fish. Coryphsena hippu- 
rus, 109; hides in holes, 213. 

ta, willow, 155. 

, wryneck, Jynx torquilla, 35. 
xvfi'fiwv, Ichneumon, Viverra 
Ichneumon, 177 ; attacks the asp 
in Egypt, 238. 

xvtvpwv, Ichneumon ^insect) 
Sphex, hunts spiders, 124, 232. 

, reed, Acorus calamus, and 
perb aps also some of the larger 
grasses, 122, 155 ; its flower, 127 ; 
used to support vine, 133, 155, 
216 ; flourishes in rainy weather, 

KaXaptg or /eoAapie, a bird preyed 
on by the little owL Motacilla 
alba L., Schneider, 232. Fringilla 

KaXicipif, Tringa, Sandpiper, Sco- 
lopax calidris, 203. 

KaXAiwi'v/ioc;, fish, Uranoscopus, 
Strack, U. Scaber, 40 ; lives near 
the shore. 

KaXXvvTpov, a shrub from the 
flowers of which the bees are said 
to procure their young, 127; per- 
haps Cerinthe, L., Strack, honey- 

KdfirjXoQ, Camel, Camelus Bactria- 
nus and C. Dromedarius, 25, 27, 
29, 30, 70; reproduction, 103, 
114, 161, 173; endurance of 
thirst, 207 ; life, ib.; diseases, 222 ; 
purity, 274 ; castration of females, 

Ka/t7T77, caterpillar, 124. 

'Kav9apig, several kinds of beetles, 
88; a kind of fly, 106; origin, 

, beetle, Scarabseus pilula- 
rius, Schneider, Cantharis lytta, 9 ; 
origin, 125 ; changes its skin, 216. 
dvQapoq, a sea-fish, lives near the 
shore, Sparus Cantharus, 211. 
aTrpoy, boar, '29; coition, age, 112, 
114 ; castration, 277. 
nVjooe, a fish said to make a 
grunting noise. Cottus caiu- 



phractus, or Squalus centrina, 37 ; 
in the Achelous, 95. 

Kapafiotidij, crustaceans, 79, 85, 

dpapoQ, insect, stag-beetle, Ce- 
rambyx, Struck, 89, 125. 

Kapetjtfof, Palinurus vulgaris, Spiny 
lobster, 7, 9, 10; as a class, 73, 
77 ; male and female, 78 ; de- 
scribed, 79, 80, 84, 93; sleep, 
97 ; reproduction, 120 ; where 
produced, 121 -, change their shell, 
ib.', kills other fish, is killed by 
the polypus, 198; habitation, 
pursuit, 129 ; hides itself and 
changes its shell, 217. 

Kapt^tov 7rii/vo0uXa, a small 
crustacean, Pinnotheres veterum, 
Bell's Crustaceans, 117. 

Kap/, shrimp or prawn, Crangon, 
Palcemon, 77 ; different kinds, ib.\ 
reproduction, 106, 121 ; changes 
its colour in winter, 228. 

KapKivtov, hermit crab, Pagurus 
Bernhardi, L., Bell, and probably 
other species, 85 ; in Strombi and 
Neritas, ib., 118 ; also a species in 
Pinnae distinguished from icapi- 
S tor, 117. 

Kap/cifoe, crab, of various, species. 
Cancer, Carcinus, &c., 4, 10, 73, 
77 ; several species, 77; fluviatile, 
Telphura fluviatilis, ib. ; number 
of feet, ib ; short-tailed ib. ; de- 
scription, 80, 81, 85; reproduc- 
tion, 106 ; white crabs in various 
shells, 117; change of shell, 121; 
rock crabs, 198 ; black crabs, hard 
shelled crabs, 217. 

Kd(TTmp, beaver, Castor Fiber, 205. 

KuiAtov, some kind of sea-weed, 

Karap'pa/crqc, diver, Pelecanus bas- 
sanus, L., Schneider, 45 ; mode 
of taking its prey, 244. 

Kty^pif, Falco tinnunoulus, Schnei- 
der, 45 ; lays many eggs, 138 ; red 
eggs, 139 ; mode of drinking, 203. 

EeXeoj, large green woodpecker, 
Pious viridis, 202, 232, 233. 

, petrel, Procellaria pelagica, 
203, 253. 

pOioc, creeper, Certhia familiaris, 

. Populus tremula, osier, 205. 

Kttrrpaioi, mullets as a class, 109, 

Korph', mullet. Mugil. In the 
lake Silpha, 37, 44, 92 ; it sleeps, 
98; capture, 87; birth, 108; 
enumeration of species, 109, 153, 
157 ; enters rivers to spawn, 156, 
159; food, 199, 228; habits, 
200; near the shore, 211 ; asso- 
ciates with the labrax, 235 ; the 
swiftest of fishes, 256 ; in season 
in the autumn, ib. 

Ke0a\o, grey mullet. Spratt's 
Lycia, Mugil cephalus, 109, 153 ; 
reproduction, 159 ; food, 199 ; in- 
jured by cold, 218. 

K7j3og, monkey, Simia mora or 
diona, Strack, 32. S. Cynologus. 

Kjjpie, KvpiQ, or Kipp'iQ, a sea-fish, 

Kr/puAoc, a sea-bird, mentioned with 
the Halcyon, 203. Tringa varia- 

KijwZ, whelk, Buccinum, its mecon, 
80, 81, 82, 85; appears in the 
early spring, 110; nidulary cap- 
sules, 115, 116; the small whelk, 
118; hides itself, 213. 

, whale, as a class, 10, 39 ; 
whales, 69 ; other whales, 152. 
rjTuSr], Cetacea, 7, 13, 104, 196; 
turn on their back to seize their 
prey, 200. 

v, drone, 260. 

KiyicXoc, probably Tringa Cinclus, 
Linn. Dunlin, 244. Cinclus 

Ki'0apo, a kind of turbot, Trigla 
lyra, 44. 

Ktvi/ajuw/iov, a spice, cinnamon, 245. 

Ktw dfjiufjiov opviov, cinnamon bird, 
245; Herodotus, Book 3, c. 111. 

Kipicot, 1 , perhaps Falco nisus, Liddett 
and Scott, 232, 253. Falco pygur- 



Kiorafif, Ivy. Hedera Helix, 130. 

K<rra or Kiffffa, Jay, Corvus glanda- 
rius, captured by the JEgolius and 
Eleus, 201 ; changes its note, 245 ; 
its nest, ib. 

'Kix\rj, Thrush, Turdus labrus and 
T. merula, nest, 138; hides, 215 ; 
changes its colour in winter, 276; 
three kinds, 244. 

KiyXr/, a sea-fish, 37; near the land, 
211; in pairs, 213; changes its 
colour, 228. 

KXiJpot;, also called TrvpavoTriz, an 
insect injurious to beehives, Ga- 
leria cerella and G. mellonella, 
226, 266. 

Kvidrj, sea-nettle, probably an acti- 
nia, 118, 255. 

Ki/tTroXoyof, a species of wood- 
pecker, Picus varius, or minor, 
202. or fficvii//, an insect, Formica 
flava, Strack, finds honey by the 
sense of smell, 93 ; eaten by the 
woodpecker, 93, 202, 242. 

KoyX*;, a bivalve shell, Mya picto- 
rum, 82 ; several species, ib. ; a 
kind of crustacean is found in 
them, 85; origin, 117, 118; 
large smooth shell in rivers, 243. 

Koyici>Xiov, a small bivalve shell, 
198, 199. 

Kolrof or Korrof, a fresh -water fish. 
Trout, Salmo Fario, Strack, 92. 

KoKjcaXiov, Helix, land snail, 81. 

KOICKW, cuckoo, Cuculus Canorus, 
93, 138 ; habits, form, and eggs, 
146 ; eatable, 147 ; lays in the 
nests of other birds, 249 ; changes 
its note when about to migrate, 

KoXfdf, also tXeot;, and 
woodpecker, 233. 

KoX/ctg, a kind of tunny, Scomber 
colias, in the Propontis, 211 ; 
when taken, 212 ; gregarious, 234. 
KoXtoe, Corvus monedula or Picus 
viridis, 36 ; in p. 242 colceus 
should probably be colitis. 

', Ampelis garrula, L. 

Schneider. Lanius garrula or ex- 
cubitor, 248. 

KoXoio, Pelecanus graculus, four 
species, 248. 

KoAocf/yrq, cucumber, Cucumis 
Sativus, 124, 208. 

KoXu/z/Sic, a sea-bird, diver, Colym- 
bis, 3, 203. 

Kovtc, knits, 134. 

KovijZa, plant, Inula Conyza, or I. 
pulicaria, flea bane, 93. 

KopaKiag, probably the Cornish. 
Chough Pyrrocorax Graculus, 248. 

Ko/oa/clj/og, sturgeon, Accipenser 
huso, Strack, Sparus Chromis, 
109, 159, 160,213, 218,228, 234. 

Kopaicoeidutis ytvog, the crow tribe, 

K6pa, raven and rook, Corvus 
Corax and frugilegus, 40, 45, 64 ; 
eggs, incubation, young, 146 ; 
Egyptian raven, 226; hostile to 
the hawk, 232 ; pecks the ass and 
bull, ib. ; friend of the fox, 233 ; 
frequent in towns, 248 ; nest and 
habits, 250. 

Kopa, a water-bird, Pelecanus 
Carbo, Struck, 203. 

KopSv\T) or OKOpdvXij, the young 
tunny fish, 160. 

Kop^wXog, water-newt, Triton aqua- 
ticus, 3, 9, 197. Siren Proteus. 


KopvSa\b, lark, Alauda arvcnsis 
cristata, 277. 

Kopvdbs, lark, Alauda cristata, A. 
arborea, A. arvensis, (though 
Schneider thinks this identification 
doubtful), its nest, 146, 249; 
hybernates, 215; hostile to the 
poecilis, 232; is said to eat the 
eggs of the eagle, 233 ; friendly 
to the schcenilus, 234 ; perches on 
the ground, 242, 245 ; two kinds, 

Kof)wj>7/, Corvus corone, 45 ; feeds 
its young after they are fledged, 
146 ; incubation, 147 ; lives near 
the sea, 203; Egyptian, 226; foe 
to the owl, presbys, and typanua, 



232 ; friend of the heron, 234 ; 
always to be seen, 248. 

Korivog, the wild olive tree, Eleag- 
nus angusti folia, used as food tor 
sheep (accidentally omitted in the 
translation), 208. 

Korrog, see KOirof. Coitus Gobio, 

Korrw0oc, blackbird, Turdus me- 
rula, Struck, but apparently not 
always, Turdus merula, and T. 
saxatilis, hybernate, 215 ; changes 
its colour, 228 ; nest, 245 ; two 
kinds, black and white, 247 ; 
changes its plumage and voice in 
the winter, 276. 

Korn.0og, a sea-bird, 110, 214. 

KOTTV<POQ, a fish, 228. Labrus 

Ko^Xtag, snail, Helix, several 
kinds, 73, 81; land-snails, 83; 
when full of ova, 110; die when 
the shell is taken off, 136 ; form 
an operculum when they hyber- 
nate, 213; eaten by swine and 
partridges, 255. 

Ko^Xoc, Fresh- water univalve shells, 
Limneea, Planorbis, 81,83,84,86. 

Kpayywv, prawn, Cancer digitalis 
(Squilla mantis), Strack, Penseus 
sulcatus, 77. 

Kpa/u/3;, cabbage or colewort, 
Brassica, 124, 126. 

Kpa/*/3t, caterpillars of the cabbage 
butterfly, Papilio Danais Brassier, 

Kpa'ffrif, green fodder for horses, 

Kpt, Trigna pugnax, hostile to the 
celeus, 233 ; its habits, 247. 

KptQrj, barley, 206. 

Kpioc, Ovis aries, ram, breeding 
season, 114, 161, 199. 

KpoKofoiXoe, the Land crocodile, 
Lacerta stellio, Monitor terrestris, 
25, 34 ; both kinds mentioned, 43, 
46; reproduction, 137; brought 
up in Egypt, 231 ; Herodotus, 
Book 4, c. 192. 

.of, the Egyptian croco- 

dile. Crocodilus Niloticus, 3, 

14; in Egypt, 33, 59; reproduc- 

tion, 137 ; hybernates, 72. 
Kporwr, Ricinus, tick, or dog-louse, 

Hippobosca ovina, 135; Acarus 

ricinus, 125. 
Krie, Pecten, 82, 84, A large kind, 

which has one valve flat, Pecten 

maximus, 84, 94, 95 ; origin, 117 ; 

small crustaceans in them, ib. ; 

hybernate, 213 ; redpectens, 220 ; 

leap, 256. 

Ki>a/iot, beans, Vicia faba, 72, 206. 
Kvavoc, Turdus Cyaneus, blue 

thrush, 248. 
KvyxP"/^ or K^xpa/iog, Corn- 

crake, Rallus Crex, Struck, pro- 

bably a species of ortolan, Liudett 

and Scott. Leads the flight of the 

quails, 210. 
KVKVOS, swan, Cycnus olor, 4, 45 ; l 

food, 203; gregarious, 211 ; 

fights with the eagle, 233 ; habits, 

244 ; when dying they go towards 

the sea, ib. 
KyXAapoff or ff/ciXXapoc, hermit 

crab, Pagurus, 85. 
ILvfitvSi^ the Ionic narre of the 

XaX/ctV, Stryx Nisoria, 244, 251. 
KwaicdvOrj, perhaps the dog-rose, 

worms in it, 126. Rosa canina. 
KwvoKs^aXoc, dog-headed ape, 

Simia Cynocephalus, 32. S. Porca- 

rriG, dog-ticks, Ricinus 
canis, 135. 

wTrpTj/oc, 1 , carp, Cyprinus Carpio, 
38 ; inhabits rivers, 91 ; produc- 
tion and growth of young, 155, 
156 ; star-struck, 219. 
VT-KTOC, a shrub, Cytisus, Medicago 
arborea, 71 

), a kind of shrimp or prawn, 
77. Palaemon Squilla or Crangon 
vulgaris, also Pagurus. 
v^/eXXof, a kind of swallow, mar- 
tin ? Hirundo urbica, makes its 
nest of mud in rocks and caverns, 
vtaVj dog, Canis familiaris. 6, 

1 Accidentally omitted in a list of birds in the translation. 



26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, 42, 58; 
large dog of Epirus, 71 ; dreams, 
97 ; reproduction, barking, &c., 
103, 107, 112, 113, 114, 161, 
163 ; Laconian dogs, their habits, 
166, 167; when dogs eat grass, 
204, 238; diseases, 222; Egyp- 
tian dogs, 226 ; Cyrenian dogs, 
half-bred, with wolves, Laconian 
with foxes, Indian with tigers, 
227; the Molossian shepherd dog, 
230 ; intestinal worms in dogs, 

Ki>wv, a cartilaginous fish, Sqnalus 
carcharias, Struck, S. galeus, 104, 

Kw/3idf, gudgeon, Gobio, 44 ; ova, 
153, 155 ; poor ones cast on shore, 
157 ; food, 200 ; live near the 
land. 211 ; fatten in rivers, 218 ; 
gregarious, 197 ; in winter does 
not leave the Pyrrhic Euripus, 256. 

KwXtoirjjg, an animal inhabiting the 
stables of the ass, a lizard accord- 
ing to some, Scaliger thinks a 
beetle, 232, Mus minutus. 

Kwvwi//, a species of gnat, smaller 
than the empis, Conops calci- 
trans, Strack y Culex pipiens or 
C. calcitrans, 89, 94 ; springs 
from a worm in vinegar, Mosillus 
cellarius, 126. 

fipaK, perhaps Perca Labrax, 
Basse, 8, 92 ; sleeps, 98 ; repro- 
duction, 108, 109, 153, 159 ; food, 
199, 200 ; has a stone in its head, 
218 ; unfit to eat when in spawn, 
228 ; at times associated with 
cestreus, 244. 

aywoe, hare, Lepus timidus, the 
Egyptian, 226. 

atSoQ, the name of a bird living 
in rocks and mountains, perhaps 
it should be Xa'ioc, 234. 

, a species of thrush, Turdus 
torquatus, 234, 247. 

a, a species of shark, Squalua 
centrina, or carachias, 104, 255. 
/nTruptf or TruyoXa/zTTtf, glow- 
worm, Lainpyris notiluca, see 

poe, gull or ' cormorant, Larus 

canus and marinus, Sterna, 45 ; 

colour, 203 ; a white kind, ib. ; 

hostile to the brenthus and harpa, 


Aar a , beaver, Castor fiber, 3, 205. 
Adxava, potherbs, 217. 
AetopaTog, skate, Kaia Batis, 40, 


c;, limpet, Patella, 82, 84, 85, 

86, 117. 

jriSwToi, scaly fishes, see TrXwroi. 
icg, white heron, Platalea 

leucerodia, 203. 
AfiiKT], probably the unopened 

flower-bud of the grape, or Populus 

alba, 121. 

AtviecQ, Ardea argentata, 233. 
AeW, Lion, Felis Leo, 6, 24, 25, 

26, 28 ; lioness, 29, 30, 32, 42, 

59, 61, 69 ; reproduction, 102, 

161, 176; existing in one district 

of Europe, 226; Syrian Lions, 

176 ; mane and teeth, ib. ; food, 

205 ; habits, 271, 272 ; two kinds 

described, 272. 
At/3avwri, Eosmarinus officinalis, 

Rosemary, 183. 
Ai/3uo, a bird, enemy of the wood- 

pecker, 232. 
Atyv6, Lygians who are said to 

have seven ribs, 16. 
Ai/iv6<rrpa, oysters, Ostrea edulis, 

82, 117 ; small crustaceans in 

them, ib. 
AoicaXoe, a species of heron, Ciconia 

dubia, 45. 
Aofyovpa, animals with hairy tails, 

borse, ass, &c., 11, 16, 19, 30. 
Auy, Lynx, Felis Lynx, 28, 29, 

A?''Kio, a kind of Jackdaw or 

chough, Corvus monedula, C. 

pyrrocorax, 248. 
AVKOV, wolf, Canis lupus, 6 f 29; 



reproduction, 103, 161, 177; eats 
grass and earth, 204 ; Egyptian, 
226 ; attacks the ass, bull, and fox, 
232 ; near the lake Maeotis, 254. 

Aw/cog, a kind of spider, Aranea ta- 
rantula, Struck, 259. 

Avpa, a fish, Trigla Lyra, 95. 


MnTa, a crustacean, Maia Squinado, 

Matvie, sprat or sardine, Sparus 
mcena, fiaividia, 157, 158, 159 ; 
when the males are called tragi, 
228 ; gregarious, 234. 

MoXaKta, the class of cephalopod 
mollusks, one species which occu- 
pies a shell is probably Caraarina 
mediterranea, Spratt's Lycia, 8, 
10, 19, 73,87; reproduction, 105, 
110, 121, 154; why they imbibe 
water, 196; carnivorous, 198, 
199 ; best for food when they 
have ova, 228. 

MaXKo/cpavev, perhaps Loxia 
pyrrhula, Schneider, 248. 

MaAaKoVrpaica, crustaceans, 10, 73, 
77 ; reproduction, 106, 120 ; im- 
bibe water, 196 ; omnivorous, 198; 
best for food when they have ova, 
iVof, a sea-fish, 159, 218. 

, a fabulous animal, 30. 
probably blackcap, 
Parus ater, or Muscicarpa atrica- 
pilla, 202; food, eggs, nest and 
tongue, 246 ; in the autumn called 
Sycalis, 276. 

MXavaitro, called also lagopho- 
nos, an eagle, Aquila melanaetus, 
Falco fulvus, 251. 

MsXavovpof, a sea- fish, Sparus me- 
lanurus, 199. 

MeXaypc, Guinea fowl, Meleagris 
Numidica, 139. 

MAiXturog, plant, Melilotus ofiici- 
nalis, 266. 

MAirra, bee, Apismellifica, 3, 5, 7, 
8, 9, 64, 88, 89, 93, 95; they 

sleep, 98 ; larva are called nyro- 
pliae, 124; reproduction, 127; 
drones, chiefs, also called mothers 
and kings, 28 ; three kinds of bet s, 
ib. ; life, 130 ; white bees in 
plants, and other kinds, ib. ; food, 
208; hybernate, 213; change 
their skins, 216; diseases, 225; 
industry, 258; habits, 260. 

Me/i/3pde, an inferior kind of an- 
chovy, Clupea sardina, 158. 

Mc'poj//, bee- eater, Merops Apiaster, 
L. or Congener, L. 138, 245, 265. 
/}, a plant, medick grass, 
Medicago sativa, 71, 207, 268. 
, a gregarious fish, 234. 
, plant, poppy, 268. 

, cockchafer, Melolon- 
thus aurata, 9, 88, 89, 125. 

, a fish like the Scarus, said 
to ruminate, Scarus Cretensis, 279. 

MtXroe, vermilion, 139. 

Mirw, a substance used by bees to 
cover crevices in their hives, 261. 

M6p/iipo, a sea-fish, Sparus rnor- 
myrus, 159. 

Mop^vof, another name of the plan- 
gus, Fulco nsevius, 251. 

MvyaXiJ, shrew mouse, Sorex 
araneus, 223. 

Muia, house fly, Musca domestioa, 
9, 83, 89; reproduction, 106, 
108, 126 ; omnivorous, 208. 

Mvwv, a sea fish, perhaps some 
kind of mullet, 109, 159. 

MvoOijpai o0t, serpents that hunt 
mice, attacked by the weasel, 238. 
sea-lamprey, Muraena 
helena, Strack, 8, 37, 40, 61; 
reproduction, 103, 109 ; food, 
199 ; near the shore, 211 ; hyber- 
nates, 213 ; seizes the conger by 
the tail, 235. 

Mvpivos or Maplvof, a sea-fish, 

MvpfjnjZ, ant, Formica, 4; winged 
and wingless, 73, 93, 108 ; repro- 
duction, 131 ; industry, 258, 260. 

Mvppivn, myrtle, Myrtus communis, 
266, 268. 



tf, mouse, Mus nmsculus. The 
Egyptian kind is probably Hierax, 
those said to walk on two feet are 
the Jerboa. The Pontic kind 
said to ruminate. Mus Citillus, 
Schneider, 5, 50 ; reproduction, 
178 ; Persian, Egyptian, and 
many other kinds, ib, ; manner of 
drinking, 205 ; white mice in 
Pontus, 216 ; Arabian mice, 226 ; 
Lybian, ib. ; the Pontic mouse 
is said to ruminate, 278. 
De, a bivalve mollusk, perhaps Mi- 
tylus, 82. 

uori/ejjroff, a whale, Balsena mys- 
ticetus, 64. Balaenopterus mus- 
culus or Boops. 

uwi//, horse-fly or gad-fly, Taba- 
nus Csecutiens. T. pluvialis, 9, 83, 
89; origin, 126; death, 127 j 
sucks blood, 208. 


N'ipicj/, torpedo, Raia Torpedo, 37, 
10, 104 ; reproduction and young, 
109, 150, 151 ; habits, 275. 

NauriXof, cephalopod, the species 
adhering to its shell is probably 
the Nautilus Pompilius, another 
species Argonauta Argo, Owen in 
Cyclopaedia of Anatomy, 76, 258. 

Nt/3piai -yaXtoi, dog-fish, Squalus 
catulus, 149. 

N/3po, fawn, 71. 

N/3po0di/og, a name of the pygargus, 

Kf/c^aXoc, the larva of the silk- 
worm, Bombyx, 124. 

Nj?ptrj;, different littoral trochi, 
Trochus, Nerita, Haliotis, 85, 
86, 94, 117, 118. 

Nijrra, duck, Anas Boschas, 45, 

Nj/rro^ovoe or Mop^vog, 251 ; a 
name of the plangus. 

yiffffatot ITTTTOI, Niseean horses, 278. 

\yicrpi, bat, Vespertiiio, 4, 9, 50. 

NeicriKopa, Ardea Nycticorax. 
Manibu, 45, 201, 210, 252. 

, sword-fish, Xiphias gladius, 
38, 40, 219. 

uXo00dpo, insects in wood, Phry- 
ganea, Tinea graminella, 136. 

"OloXtc, a cephalopod mollusk, the 
same as bolitaena, 76. 
dvQr), the flower of the vine, 121. 

QivdvOrj, probably the name of some 
dark-coloured bird, 276. 
vaQ, a wild pigeon, Columba mi- 
gratoria, Struck, C. cenas, 111, 
138, 203. 

tg, sheep, Ovis aries, 72 ; different 
kinds, 208. 

ffrpof, gad fly, Tabanus corvinus, 
3, 9, 83, 89 ; origin, 125 ; a blood 
sucker, 208 ; the marine species 
probably refers to certain parasites 
on fish, Lernsea brachialis, Pha- 
laugium balsenarum, 135, 208, 

OZ<rrpof, a bird, perhaps Motacilla 
sibilatrix, or Trochilus, 202. 

probably an alga 

Spongodium, Spratt's Lycia, Ho- 

lothuria or Salpa, 4. 
Oi/og, ass, Equus Asinus, 27, 31, 

39, 68, 70 ; not infested with lice 

or ticks, 135 ; reproduction, 1 1 3, 

163, 171; food and drink, 207; 

diseases, 224 ; a foe to the ^Egi- 

thus, 232; eats thorns, 233. 
"OvoQ 6 ayptoc, the wild ass, 178 ; 

in Epirus, 71; the Indian ass, per- 

haps Rhinoceros, 28. 
"Ovoc, fish, perhaps Raia squatina, 

Struck, Gadus mustela, 214, 255. 
"Ovog, woodlouse, Oniscus asellus, 

'QpuvoQ, a species of titmouse, 

Parus Ater, 202. 
'OpftTrsXapyoe, Grypaetus Barbatus, 

Struck, 251. 
'Oocvf, mule, 5, 11, 27, 31, 39, 

females and reproduction, 163, 
172, 173; food and drink, 207. 



, plant, Origanum, 238. 

'OoKUf, a large kind of tunny, 
Scomber ala Tonga, 109. 

"Opj'i, domestic fowl, see aXt/croptf 
and aXtKTpvwv. 

*0po/3o, tares, Orobus, Ervum er- 
vilia, 71, 191. 

'Opo<T7rioe, mountain finch, Frin- 
gilla montifringilla, Strack, 202. 

'Qpaoddicvr], an insect that eats the 
buds of plants, Curysomela olera- 
cea, 126. 

'Opri/yo/*r/rpa, perhaps Land rail, 
Rallus Crex, 210. 

*0pri;, quail, CoturnixVulgaris, 40, 
45 ; nest, 146, 240 ; migration, 
210 ; does not perch on trees, 242. 

*Opv, Nilghau, Antilope picta, or 
Antilope Oryx, 27. 

, a sea fish, perhaps Scorpsena 
orcus, Spratt's Lijcia, 109, 199, 
211, 214. 

'OpYiXof, a bird, Charadrius minor, 

'Otrrpaico^fpjLia, testaceous mollusca, 
8, 10, 13, 73, 81 ; reproduction, 
110, 115, 117; compared with 
plants, 195 ; hybernate, 213 ; best 
for food when they have ova, 228, 

"0<rrptoi/, oyster, 3, 10, 117; diffe- 
rent kinds, 73 ; origin, 117 ; have 
an anus, 198; rd 6crrptw<fy, tes- 
tacea, 228. 

"Oorpfjov, the shell used by paint- 
ers, 118. 

, Otis houbara, 139. 
QaicdTTiov, sea ear, perhaps 
Haliotis, 84. 

'0<j>idiov, a small serpent, found in 
the plant silphium, 227 ; a small 
serpent, Coluber ammodytes, or C. 
JEsculapii, Struck, ib. ; an Indian 
serpent, whose bite is fatal, ib. 

"0</>c, serpent, 5 ; winged serpent in 
^Ethiopia, perhaps Draco volans, 
9 ; a horned serpent in Egypt, 
Coluber cerastes, 28; water-ser- 
pents, Coluber natrix, 10, 35, 38, 
43, 44, 46, 49, 60 ; marine ser- 
pents, Muraena ophis, or Ammo- 

dytes tobianus, Struck, 38, 255 ; 
there are many kinds. Their hiss- 
ing, 96 ; the female larger, 100 ; 
reproduction, 103, 137 ; change 
their skin, 121,216; omnivorous, 
204; hybernate, 213; a large 
kind in Lybia, Boa constrictor, 
226 ; the blind serpent, Anguis 
fragilis, 223. 

;, Labrus Anthia, 109. 


, probably the common 
hermit-crab, Pagurus Bernhardi, 

IIai'0}p, panther, Felis Panthera, 

, 34 ; perhaps the spots on 
the Leopard's skin : an unknown 
animal, L. and S. Lex. 
p^aXtay%t g, a plant poisonous to 
the Leopard, perhaps aconite, 
Doronicum pardalianches, or aco- 
nitum Napellus, 238. 
pdaXis, Leopard, Felis Leopar- 
dus, 5, 27, 29, 30 ; Asiatic, 226 ; 
the female more bold than the 
male, 230 ; hunts by scent, 238. 
pSaXog, a bird, perhaps Sturnus 
Vulgaris, Starling. TringaSqua- 
ratola, Strack, 248. 

, see tTTTrapdiov, Giraffe, 
oc, stork, Ardea Ciconia, 
203, 215 ; when wounded applies 
origanum to its wounds, 238 ; 
said to be fed by its young, 245. 
, a kind of dove, distinct 
from Trepiorepcr, 111; migratory, 

XtKai/, Pelecan, Pelecanus ono- 
crotalus, migrates from the Stry- 
mon, 209 ; gregarious, 210 ; eats 
shell-fish, 243. 

, black heron, Ardea cinerea, 
233, 247. 

, partridge, Perdix cinerea, 
and rufa, Tetrao Perdix and 
Graecus, 5, 45, 47, 96 ; repro- 
duction, 106, 139, 140, 141,148; 



nest, incubation, habits, 138, 240. 
241, 242; life, 145, 240; eats 
snails, 255 ; dusts itself, 277. 

IlfpioTf pd, House-dove, Columba, 4, 
5, 39, 45 ; differs from TrtXtidg. 
Ill; reproduction, ib., 138, 139. 
140, 141, 144, 145; food, 202; not 
migratory, 210 ; babits, 239, 240 ; 
those used for lures are blinded, 
'240 ; wash and dust themselves, 

n^pcffroadij the class of pigeon-like 
birds, 111, 144, 202. 

IIsWj;, perch, Perca fluviatilis, 38, 
44, 155, 214. 

nipKj'oVrepog, dusky eagle, Vultur 
percnopterus or Gypaietos barba- 
tus, or Falco barbatus, 251. 

He'pKof, grey hawk, Falco subbuteo, 

rif'p vrjs or irrtpvie, a kind of hawk. 

UtvKrj, pine tree, 126. 

nfjyavov, rue, Ruta graveolens, 238. 

n^\a/iic, a tunny fish of a year old, 
Scomber Thynnus, 4 ; reproduc- 
tion, 108; where found, 10'J ; the 
tunny a year older than the pela- 
mys, 157, 160; migrate to the 
Pontus, 211 ; gregarious, 235. 

n/?j'6Xo4/, a kind of duck, Anas 
Penelope, 203. 

nqvtov, some species of larva, 
Phalsense geometrae, 124. 

niOrjKOtidrj, the ape tribe, 26. 

Ui6t)KOQ, ape, Simia Sylvanus, 32. 

IltJeptf, a bitter herb, endive, Chico- 
rium intybus, or Helniinthia 
Echionella, 238. 

Tlivva, the genus Pinna, 82, 117, 
118, 195. 

or irivvorfjorjc, and 
small crustaceans 
living in shells and sponges, Pin- 
notheres veterum, 117. 

ni7ro, TriTrpa, TTITTW, woodpecker, 
Picus viridis, major, minor, 202, 
232, 248. 

nT<Tojci/po, bees' wax, 261. 

nitiijZ, or 7rtdiy, Alauda trivialis, 

H\ayyoc, a species of eagle, Aquila 
albicilla, 251. 

n\6fj,og or 0X<tyio, mullein, Verbas- 
cum thapsus, fatal to fish, 220. 

ITXwroi, certain fish, as the cestreus 
and labrax, 153, 256,228, 273; 
also of birds, 35. 

Hvtvfiwir, a marine animal of low 
organization, 118. 

flcJa MjjciKj} and 2<;/oia, Medicago 
sativa, and lupulina, 268. 

riot/ctXtt,-, perhaps 1' ringilla Carduelis 
or (Enanthe, 232. 

noXvTTow^. Octopus, Spratt's Lycia, 
Sepia octopodia, a small variegated 
kind, has not been determined, 
Owen, 9, 73, 74, 76 ; several 
kinds, 73, 258; reproduction, 105, 
110. 121; destroys the lobster, 
198; is destroyed by the conger, 
ib. ; food, 199 ; when good for 
food, 228; ink, 75, 257; changes 
its colour, ib. ; grows lean, ib. ; 
goes upon shore, 258. 

Hopfyvpa, Murex trunculus, Spratt's 
Lycia, and probably some other 
shells, 81, 83, 85, 86, 89, 94; 
time of appearance, 110, 115, 116, 
117; several kinds, 116, 117; said 
to obtain the purple from Algee, 
155 ; carnivorous, 2UO ; hyber- 
nutes, 213, 220, 256. 

Tloptbvpiojv, a bird with a long neck, 
Fulica porphyrion, S track, 45, 

Tlpdffiov, a species of alga, perhaps 
Caulerpa prolifera, Spratt s Lyeia, 

)n<ro/coupt, a grub which destroys 
leeks. Clerus apiarius, 126. 
'<7/3ue, the same as Trochilus, 
wren, 232, 244= 
)T]fj.d8te, a kind of tunny, 214. 
HffTig, perhaps the saw -fish, Squa- 
lus pristis, Strack, 152. 

Ilp6/3arov, sheep, Ovis aries, 27, 29 ; 
black lambs, 64, 66, 67 ; in Epirus, 
71, 72; voice of the ram, 96; 
dreams, 97; reproduction, 112, 
113, 163, 164, 165; sheep-ticks, 



134; food, 208; acorns injurious 

to sheep, 222; diseases, 223; 

Syrian sheep, 225 ; Egyptian, 226; 

habits, 235 ; hostile to bees, 261 ; 

ruminate, 279. 

, roe deer, Cervus Capriolus, 

39, 58, 67. 

IlrfXsa, elm, Ulmus campestris, 206. 
nrepvit;, a species of hawk, 253. 
llrt>y, or TTU>V%, a water-bird, 244, 
n6yapyo, a kind of eagle, perhaps 

Circus Cyaueus, hen harrier, 146, 

250 ; also a water-bird, perhaps 

Tringa Ocrophus, L. Schneider, 

203, 244. 
riyyoAa/u.7rtg, glow-worm, Lampyris 

noctiluca, 73, 125. 
UvpaXiQ, a bird, enemy of the turtle 

dove, 232. 
nwpautrrjjg, a moth, Tinea mello- 

nella, Struck, 225. 
UuppovXaQ, a red bird, Loxia pyr- 

rula, or enucleator, 202. 
n'>i>Z, a bird living in marshes, 

Ardea purpurea, 247. 


g, cabbage or radish, 124. 

'Prjrivr), resin, 248. 

'Pi vr], a species of shark, Squalus 
Squatina, Strack, 49 ; reproduc- 
tion, 103, 108, 109, 150, 151; 
mode of taking its prey, 255; 
changes its colour, 257. 

Pti/o/3ar/jc, Raia rhinobatus, a car- 
tilaginous fish, 151. 

'PvdStg, fish that swim in shoals, 93, 
109, 159, 211, 212. 

2a0e'pi r > a kind of otter or beaver, 
Lutra Luteola, Strack, 205. 

'S.aXandvSpa, salamander, Lacerta 
Salamandra, 126, 

2a'\7r/, the genus Scomber, Strack^ 
Sparus Salpa, 92 ; reproduction, 
108, 109, 159 ; food, 201 ; lives 
in bays of the sea, 211 ; is not car- 
nivorous, 256. 

n, red sulphuret of arsenic, 
223 ; bee bread, 264. 

2a?rf ipiov, aairripiov, or rrarvpwv, 
a plant, probably an orchid, Sa- 
tyrian, 205. 

Scnrtpdit;, a fresh-water fish, per- 
haps Accipenser hugo, 229. 

, the sardiue, migratory, 
Tetragonus niger, 231. 

Sparus sargus, Strack, a 
sea-fish, 108, 109, 159, 200. 

2aTi>piov, Sorex moschatus, 205. 

2awpa, Lizard, generic name, 5, 8, 
25, 34, 35, 36, 39, 43, 44 ; re- 
production, 103, 137; life, 204; 
hybernates, 213; change of 
skin, 216 ; Arabian lizards, 225, 

2awpog, Salmo Saurus, marine, 234. 

2pJ?v, a kind of wild bee or wasp, 
Megachile muraria, 260. 

SAaxJ?, the class of cartilaginous 
fishes, 7, 8, 14, 37, 38, 59, 60, 66 ; 
description of the class, 46, 48 ; 
sleep, 98 ; kinds, 99, 104 ; repro- 
duction, 103, 149, 160; carnivo- 
rous, 199 ; marine, 211; hyber- 
nate, 214 ; male and female, 257. 

2f \aKOf ideiQ, cartilaginous fishes, 44, 
95, 104, 214. 

2<TfXif, an umbelliferous planf, 
Seseli tortuosum, 236. 

2//7rta, Sepia officinalis, Spratt's 
Lycia, cuttle-fish, 7, 9, 10, 73,74, 
75, 80, 83, 93 ; reproduction, 105, 
110, 120, 123, 125, 154; food, 
199 ; the male protects the fema> 
when wounded, 231 ; emission * 
the ink, 257 ; said to change its 
colour, ib. 

2?}, various kinds of moths in 
clothes, in beehives, in books. 135. 

2iW?7, a kind of long gourd, 246. 

2iKi/og, gourd or cucumber, Cucur- 
bita lagenaria, 206. 

2tX0?j, a stinking insect, Blatta 
orientalis, or Lepisma, Strack, 

, a plant, perhaps Assafoetida, 
Laserpitium,or Thapsus Silpldum, 


, or avvodw, a carnivorous 
fish, Tetraodon hispidus, or raola, 
or Sparus dentex, Strack, T. 
lineatus, 199, 200, 211, 234. 

2trrq, a kind of woodpecker, or per- 
haps Sitta Europoea, creeper, 233, 

'S.iTTaKT] or ^ITTUKT}J parrot, Psitta- 
cus erithacus. 

2<c<ipoc, a sea-fish, supposed by the 
aucients to ruminate, Scarus ore- 
tius, Spratt's Lycia, S. cretensis, 
Strack, 37 ; has not sharp teeth, 
38, 44; food, 199; appears toru- 
nate, 200, 256, 278. 

2tau/a. a sea-fish, Sciaena nigra, 
Strack, S. cirrhosa, 218. 

2<a'XX7, Scilla maritinia, 133. 

2*;oXo7r<i, perhaps the woodcock, 
Scolopax rusticola, 242. 

2*coX67T'$pa, Scolopendra morsi- 
tans, Centipede, 8 ; the marine 
kinds Nereis or Aphrodite, A. acu- 
leata, 38, 88, 255. 

2/fo/i/3piac, (76/i|6po, fish allied to 
the tunny, mackerel, Scomber 
sarda, 109, 160, 210, 212, 235. 

StcopdvXr) or /cop^w'X/;, the young 
tunny, 160. 

2.vop7rtO, Scorpio Europaeus, 89, 
131, 135, 227. 

2/cop7T('o, a sea-fish, Cottus Scor- 
pius, Strack, 44, 108, 211. 

2*:op7rtg,a sea-fish, Scorpaena porcus, 

2vop7Tiw$fc, a small creature in 
books, Phalangium Cancroides, 
89, 135. 

2ici;Xtoj', dog-fish, Squalus Stellaris, 
S. canicula, 149, 151. 

2<--u'XXapo or KuXXapot,', a kind of 
hermit-crab, 85. 

2v<uXr?ioi>, a worm that eats wood, 
136; a small intestinal worm in 
fish, 159 ; an insect in honey- 
combs, 266. 

2/cu>/\j, worm, especially the earth- 
worm, 8, 123. 

2/con//, the screech-owl, Strix Scops, 
Strix Otus, 201, 249. 

2/zaptc, a poor sea-fish, Sparm 

Sinai-is, 228. 
3/ivoy, see JK/^OII/. 'S/j-voaiva, see 

nvpaiva. 2ifivpog, sue /ii/pog. 
2 raooc, a sea-fish, Spar us Maiua, 

Strack, 44. 
2Tdproj/, a shrub, broom, Genista, 

Stipa tenacissiuia, 266. 
27rurayo^, Spatangus, sea-eug, S6. 
27rt^a, finch, Friugilla, 35; eats 

worms, 202 ; habitation, 240. 
27ritac;, sparrow-hawk, FalcoXisus, 

201, 253. 
Srrist'rjje, a kind of titmouse, Pu- 

rus ater or major, 202. 
STroyyot;, sponge, Spougia officina- 

lis, 3; growth, 118; three kinds, 

ib. ; very like a plant, 195 ; pores 

in sponges, 246. 
^TTovSv^tj or afyovdvXr], probably a 

kind of beetle, living in the roots 

of plants, Carabus, 107, 223, 252. 
2ra0w\iK>e, an insect like tiie 

Sphondyle, Staphvlinus muriiiu>. 

2rpo/ij(3oe, Turbinated shells, Helix, 

Turbo, &c., 13, 85, 86, 118. 
2rpo/i/3w#;, univalve mollusks, So, 

86 ; on land and marine, 84 ; have 

an operculurn, 117. 
2rpovtf6c, sparrow, Fringilla domes- 

tica, 40, 45, 64, 102 ; eats worms, 

202 ; the hens are said to live 

longer, 240 ; compared with the 

Halcyon, 245 ; washes and dusts 

itself, 277 ; in Lybia, ostrich, 

Struthiocamelus, 246. 
2rpov6oQ, a flat fish, Pleuronectes 

passer, 40. 
2rvpa, the gum storax, Storax 

ollicinalis, 93. 
2u:aXi, fig-pecker, Italian becca- 

fico, the mehmcoryphus in its 

summer plumage, Motacilla Atri- 

capilla, or Parus ater, Strack) 

Sylvia fidecula, 202, 278. 
2u/ca^tvov, the fruit of the mulberry 

tree, 221. 
2wKa, figs, used for feeding swine, 




a caterpillar in figs, 

a plant, Symphytun 

officinale, comfrey, or gypsophila 

arundinacea, 245. 
2uj'aypie, a fish, Sparus dentex, 37, 

2i>pz Troa, a plant loved by bees, 

2Dg, swine, Sus scropba, no wild 

swine in Libya, 225 ; tbe domestic 

pig eats snails, 255. 
20cup at QaKdrnai, a species of zoo- 

phyte, perhaps Alcyonia, 246. 

], wasp, Vespa vulgaris, V. tec- 

torum, V. crabro, generic name, 3, 

4, 88, 89; larva, 124; a kind 

called ichneumon, Ammophila 

sabulosa, 127, 130; a diligent 

insect, 258 ; the annual wasp, 260 ; 

hostile to bees, 265, 267; two 

species, 268. 
20i>piva, a gregarious sea-fish, 

Esox sphyraena, 234. 
2%olviK\o<; or (T^ou't'wv, a water- 

bird, Emberiza Schceniclus L. 

Schneider, 203, 234. 

, Sylvia arundinacea, 234. 
, Solen, Soleneuntus trigilla- 

tus, Spratt's Lycia, 82, 94, 117, 

118, 195. 

laivia, a long thin fish, probably 
Cepola tamia, Strack, 37. 

TrXareiat, flat entozoa, 238. 

e, bull, Bos taurus, 48, 67, 68, 
168; horns, 100; fierce in the 
breeding season, 161 ; bulls fight 
together, 163. 

Tawg, peacock, Pavo cristatus, 6 ; 
barren eggs, reproduction, 140, 

Tf vOprjSiov. a kind of bee or wasp, 
Apis terrestris, Strack, makes 
honey, 260 ; reproduction, 271. 

leprfSuv, a caterpillar in bee-hives, 

S, a species of grouse, Tetrao 
tetrix, or Otis tetrix, Strack, 138, 

TrTyo/irjrpa, tbe edible larva of 
the locust or grasshopper, 134. 

TtTTiyoviov, a small kind of grass- 
hopper, 90, 133. 

Te'rn, grasshopper, Cicada orni, 
90 ; several kinds, 95 ; origin, 123, 
reproduction, 133 ; Cecropis Spu- 
marius, 134; changes its skin, 
216; not found in Milesia and 
Cephalenia, 225. 

uOif, Loligo vulgaris, Owen, 9, 10, 
74, 75; reproduction, 105, 123; 
food, 177 ; its ink, 257. 

, Loligo media, 10, 74, 75, 
123; perhaps incorrectly in 234 
as the name of a gregarious fish. 
yflva, Ascidian mollusks, Ascidia 
phlusa, Strack, 82, 87,94, 117; 
fleshy nature of their body, 195. 

, Tiger, Felis tigris, the In- 
dian dogs are said to be crossed 
with the tiger, 227. 

, a fresh- water fish, Cyprinus 
brama, 156, 220. 

^ai, grass or straw used as food 
for swine, Secale, 221. 

, the he-goat, voice, 96, 161, 

, tbe male of the fish majnis, 
Sparus Maina, Struck, 228. 

TptyX?;, Red mullet, Spratt's Lycia, 
Mullus surculentus, Strack, 44, 
108; suffers from parasites, 135; 
season of reproduction, 159; gre- 
garious, ib., 234 ; can bury itself, 
200 ; lives near the land, '211 ; in 
estuaries, ib. ; not carnivorous, 
256 ; in season in the autumn, 

Tpiopx*7C> Buzzard, Buteo vulgaris, 
201, eats toads and serpents, 232 ; 
the first genus of the hawks, 253. 
, Fieldfare or thrush, Turdus 
trichias, Strack, T. pilaris, 248. 

fish, or spawn, Clupea Sprattus, 
108, 158, 212. 



, Sylvia trocbilus, Struck, 
also called Presbys, and Basileus, 
perhaps th.e wren, Sylvia troglo- 
dytes, S. regulus, 203, 233 ; also 
a bird living by the sea, chara- 
drius Egyptiacus, 203 ; picks the 
teeth of the crocodile, 238 ; hates 
the eagle, 232. 

Tpuyyag, perhaps Tringa ochro- 
podes, Schneider, T. vauellus, 203, 

Tpuyywv, Turtle dove, Columba 
turtur, the smallest of the dove 
-tribe, 111; young and eggs, 138, 
145, 240; food, 202; migrates, 
210; hybernates, 215 ; an enemy 
to the pyrallis, but killed by the 
chloreus, 232; friendly with the 
cottyphus, 234 ; life, 240 ; habita- 
tion, ib ; perhaps Psophila crepi- 
tans, or Rallus crex, 277. 

Tpvy</Jf, a sea-fish, B,aia pastinaca, 
8, 104, 149, 211; method of 
taking its prey, 255. 

Tptryoiv, some oviparous quadruped, 

Tiipavi/oe, golden-crested wren, 
Motacilla Regulus, 202. 

Tvq>\ivr]Q, blind worm, Lacerta 
Apus, Schneider, 154, 223. 

"Yati/a, Hysena Striata, 176; also 

called y\dvoQ, 204. 
'Y/3pi, a night bird of prey, 244. 
"Yfyof, a water-serpent, Coluber 

natrix, 3, 44. 
"YTraitrof, a kind of eagle, also 

written yuTrcritroe, 252. 
"YTrtpa, a kind of caterpillar, Geo- 

metra, 124. 
'YTToXate, hedge sparrow, Sylvia 

horteusis or curruca, 147, 202, 


> buzzard, 253, see 

66 ; heats, 69 ; voice, 96 ; sow, is 
without tusks, 100 ; reproduction, 
107, 112, 114, 135, 162, 163; 
domestic swine, 164 ; /utra\'opa, 
173 ; they dig up the runs of mice, 
178; eat roots, 206; how fat- 
tened, ib. ; diseases, 221 ; swine 
in Mount Athos, 227 ; killed by 
scorpions, ib. ; devour serpents, 
233 ; gelding of sows, 278. 

"Yf cfypeof, the wild boar, 5, 26, 
161, 174. 

"Yo-rpi, porcupine, Hystrix cristata, 
138; compared with the bear, 
175 ; hybernates, 215 ; throws 
out its quills, 260. 

"Ye, swine, Sus scropha, 26; with 
single tDof in Poeonia, 27, 29: 
boar, 31 ; 32 ; swine, 35, 42, 46, 

, a kind of hawk, Falcc 
palumbarius, 201. 

<aypoe, a sea-fish, Sparus pagrus, 
211, 218. 

<t>rtXayytoi', a kind of spider, Pha- 
langium, Aranea Tarantula, 1 00, 
107, 121,123; reproduction, 132; 
patient of hunger, 204; hostile to 
the ichneumon, 232; several kinds 
described, 258, 259. 

$dAay, a spider, 231. 

4>aXoiva, whale, Physeter Chacal- 
otus, Struck, P. macrocephalus, 8, 
69, 152; respiration, 196. 

<JaXapi, coot, Fulica atra, 203. 

4>aX?7pt;c>} a0vj7,some kind of spawn, 

$oTiavoc, pheasant, Phasianus Col- 
chicus, 134, 139, 277. 

<bavao<f>6i>og, a hawk, probably the 
same as 0a/3oriXo 253. 

fca'rra, a kind of pigeon, Columba 
palumbus, 45, 47 ; the largest 
of the pigeon kind, 111; repro- 
duction and eggs, 138, 144, J45, 
147, 202; migrates, 210; some- 
times hybernates, 215 ; likes 
drought, 217; mode of drinking, 
240, habits, ib. ; does not coo in 
winter, 276. 

*ai//, a kind of doye, Columba livis, 



the male and female incubate by 

turns, 147, 202, 240 ; nest, 249. 
), perhaps the osprey, Vultur 

ossifragus, Buffon, nurses the 

young of the eagle, 146 ; its food 

and shape, 201, 251. 
*0a'|0, louse, Pediculus capitis and 

P. pubis, KOVIQ, nit, 120, 134 ; 

in birds, ib. in fish, Lernea, 97, 

135; in the fish chalcis, 220. 
*0ipa, a fish that follows the dol- 

phin, Centronotus, 135. 
#\fw, a water plant, Poterium 

spinosum, 266. 
<f>oii'OKoupo, redstart, Sylvia Pho- 

nicurus, 276 ; in winter called 

, a river fish, Cyprinus phox- 

inus, Struck, 153, 155. 
$pvvrj, toad, Bufo vulgaris, 39, 87 ; 

eaten by the buzzard, 232 ; inju- 

rious to bees, 265. 
*piivoXdxo, a kind of hawk, per- 

haps the buzzard, 253. 
QVKIOV, fucus, sea- weed, 122, 125, 

154, 199, 200, 255. 
$yirt, a fish living on sea-weed, 

Gobius niger, 154; food, 200; 

changes its colour, and is the only 

fish that makes nests, 228. 
*'/coe, fucus, 154, 158, 218, 220. 
*w/caivct, porpoise, Delphinus Pho- 

caBna, 152, 212. 
?, seal, Phoca vitulina, P. mo- 

nacbus, 4, 7, 14, 22, 25, 26, 30, 

39, 44, 69; reproduction and 

habits, 103, 152, 153, 196 ; food, 

205 ; fight together, 231. 
wXt, a fish enclosing itself in 

mucus, 256 ; Blennius pholis, 

wp, a kind of bee, the thief, 259. 

XaXad, Hydatids in swine, 221. 
\a\Ktvq, a fish, Dory, Zeus Faber, 
Strack, 95. 

tf, a lizard, with a bright stripe 

on its back, Lacerta chalcides, 

XaX/ctf, a bird, the same as KW/UV- 
SIQ, Stryx flammea, Strack, 244. 

Xa/\/cif, a fish, perhaps Mugil au- 
ratus, Spratt's Lycia^ Clupea 
picta, 108, 155, 156, 256. 

XaXictrtg XiOoQ, lime stone, 126. 

Xdvvr), or ^avn, a fish with a wi !e 
mouth, Perca cabrilla, 99, 153; 
food, 199; marine, 211. 

Xapafynof, lapwing or curlew, 
Charadrius cedicnemus, Schneider, 
203. 243. 

yWo>V, swallow, Hirundo urbica 
and rustica, 4, 40, 45, 64; re- 
production and nests, 111, 138, 
145, 239 ; eat animal food, 202 ; 
migration, 215 ; kill bees, 265. 

X.t\idh)v, flying fish, 95 ; Exocetus 

Xe^jOOTTff, leguminous plants, 205. 

Xs'Awv, or xXXwi/, a fi sa ij]j e t j le 
cestreus, 109, 159, 199. 

XeXwi/i/, the river tortoise, Testudo 
orbicularis and Europaea, 34, 39, 
41, 42, 46, 65, 84, 87, 96 ; repro- 
duction, 103, 104, 123; marine, 
Chelonia cephalo, 196; lives on 
shell-fish and sea-weed, 198 ; does 
not change its skin, 216, 238. 

Xrjur), a large bivalve shell, Chama, 

X}j/, goose, Anser domesticus and 
Anas segetum, 6, 27, 45, 47 ; gos- 
ling, 140, 141 ; incubation, 146, 
147 ; different kinds, 203, 210. 

Xji>aXa>7rr/, an Egyptian goose, 
Anas tadorna, Strack, 140, 203. 

Xt'/natpa, probably the she goat, 72. 

XX wpivc, perhaps the same as x^w- 
pio)V, a foe to the woodpecker, and 
kills the turtle dove, Falco lana- 
rius, 232. 

XXwpfg, Motacilla fitis, or Loxia 
chloris, Strack, eats worms, 202 
shape, eggs, nest, 245, 249. 

X\(upi(uv, perhaps oriole, Oriolus 
galbula, Strack, attacks the black- 
bird, 233, 248. 


Xoipo7rt0/icoc, ape, Simia rostrata, 
S. porcaria, 34. 

Xpfu^, a fish joined with labrax, 92. 

Xp6/tu, a sea-fish, Sciaena nigra, 92, 
94, 108, 218. 

Xpyrro/ir/rpie, a bird (thistle finch), 
Fringilla serinus, 202. 

XpvcroQpvQ, Sparus aurata L., 8, 
44 ; sleeps, 98 ; reproduction, 
109, 160 ; food, 200 ; near the 
shore, 211 ; in estuaries, ib. ; hy- 
hernates, 21<* ; impatient of cold, 

Xv/iivfog, the same as ^aXictc, 244. 

Xuroi, fish that swim in shoals, 109. 

starling, Sturnus vulgaris, 
215, 249. 
i}v, gall insect, Cynips psenes, 136. 

Vr)Tra, a flat fish, Pleuronectet 
lingua and Rhombus, and max- 
ima, 99, 109, 255. 

^irra/oj?, Parrot, Psittacus erithacus, 

*"iX\a, flea, Pulex irritans, 134 ; a 
kind of spider, Salticus scenicus, 

M^XXoc, parasites on fish, Talitrus 
locusta, 97. 

, butterfly, Papilio, 89, 102, 


, bustard, Otis tarda, 45, 102 ; 
incubation, 147, 252. 

, horned owl, Strix otus, 210, 

? a kin(1 ^ pulse, useful to 
bees, Pisuni satbum, 268. 





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