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GREAT BRITAIN, with 15 Maps, 30 Plans, and a Panorama. 

Second Edition. 1890. 10 marks. 

LONDON AND ITS ENVIRONS, with 3 Maps and 15 Plans. 

Seventh Edition. 1889. 6 marks. 

BELGIUM AND HOLLAND, with 13 Maps and 20 Plans. 

Tenth Edition. 1891. G marks. 

THE RHINE from Rotterdam to Constance (the Seven 

Mountains, Moselle, Volcanic Eifel, Vosges Mts., Black Fokest, 
etc. ), with 36 Maps and 22 Plans. Eleventh Edition. 1889. G marks. 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 35 Maps and 54 Plans. 

Tenth Edition. 1890. 8 marks. 

SOUTHERN GERMANY and AUSTRIA, with 15 Maps and 

30 Plans. Seventh Edition. 1891. 8 marks. 

THE EASTERN ALPS, including the Bavarian High- 
lands, Tyrol, Salzkammergut , etc. with 35 Maps, 

12 Plans, and 7 Panoramas. Seventh Edition. 1891. 8 marks. 

GREECE, with 6 Maps, H Plans and a Panorama of Athens. 

1889. 10 marks. 

NORTHERN ITALY, including Florence and the Island 

OF Corsica, and routes to Italy through Fkance, Switzekland, 
etc., with 19 Maps and 33 Plans. Eighth Edition. 1889. 6 marks. 

CENTRAL ITALY and ROME, with 10 Maps, 31 Plans, a 

Panorama of Rome and a View of the Forum Komanum. Tenth 
Edition. 1890. 6 marks. 

SOUTHERN ITALY, SICILY, and Excursions to the 
LiPARi Islands, Tunis (Cakthage), Sardinia, Malta, and 

Corfu, with 26 Maps and 16 Plans. Tenth Edition. 1890. 6 marks. 

NORWAY AND SWEDEN, with 23 Maps and 13 Plans. 

Fourth Edition. 1889. 9 marks. 

PARIS AND ITS ENVIRONS, ^vith Routes from London 

TO Paris. With 11 Maps and 31 Plans. Tenth Edition. 1891. 6 marks. 

NORTHERN FRANCE, with 9 Maps and 25 Plans. 1889. 

7 marks. 

SOUTHERN FRANCE, with 14 Maps and 19 Plans. 1891. 

9 marks. 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent Parts of Italy, 

Savoy, and the Tyrol, with 39 Maps, ll Plans, and 12 Panoramas. 
Fourteenth Edition. 1891. 8 marks. 

LOWER EGYPT, with the Faylm and the Peninsula of 

Sinai, with is 3Iaps, 30 Plans, 7 Views, and 76 Vignettes. Second 
Edition. 1885. 16 marks. 

PALESTINE AND SYRIA, with 18 Maps, 43 Plans, a Pano- 

rama of Jerusalem, and 10 Views. 1876. 20 marks. 

CONVERSATION DICTIONARY in four languages Eng- 

lish, French, GeAnan, Italian. 3 marks. 


English, German, French, and Italian. 3 marks. 

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All rights reserved. 

"Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or'all." 



— I3?l 

The chief objects of tlie Handbook for Belgium and 
Holland are to supply the traveller with a few remarks on 
the progress of civilisation and art in these interesting coun- 
tries ; to render him as far as possible independent of the em- 
barrassing and expensive services of commissionnaires, 
guides, and other members of the same fraternity; to place 
him in a position to employ his time, his money, and 
his energy to the best advantage ; and thus to enable him 
to derive the greatest possible amount of pleasure and in- 
struction from his tour. 

The Handbook has been compiled almost entirely from 
the Editors personal observation, and he has used every en- 
deavour to furnish information acceptable to travellers of 
every class. The present edition, which corresponds to the 
19th German edition and the 14th French, has been care- 
fully revised and remodelled from the most recent time- 
tables, catalogues, government statistics, and other sources. 
The Editor has also frequently availed himself of the valuable 
information kindly afforded by travellers, which he grate- 
fully acknowledges. 

The introductory article on art has been contributed by 
Professor Anton Springer of Leipsic, and has been adapted 
for the use of English travellers with the kind assistance 
of Mr. J. A. Crowe, author of 'The Early Flemish Painters'. 
Other valuable remarks on many of the principal works of 
art mentioned in the Handbook are also from Professor 
Springer's pen. 

The arrangement of the pictures in some of the Belgian 
galleries is frequently changed; but, as a general rule, the 


data afforded by the Handbook will enable the traveller to 
dispense with' the costly and often bewildering catalogues. 

The Maps and Plans, on which the utmost care has 
been bestowed, will prove of material service to the tra- 
veller when threading his way through the intricacies of 
the curious mediaeval cities of Belgium, or when entangled 
in the network of railways, rivers, and canals with which 
the Netherlands are overspread. 

Heights and Distances are given in English measure- 
ment, and the Populations in accordance with the most re- 
cent census. 

The Hotels indicated by asterisks are those which the 
Editor has reason to consider the most comfortable and 
worthy of commendation ; and in awarding these asterisks 
he has entirely disregarded the self-laudations of innkeepers 
and other persons of a similar class. The average charges and 
prices stated in the Handbook, although constantly tending 
to rise, will enable the traveller to form some idea of his 
probable expenditure. 

To hotel-proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strict- 
ly excluded from his Handbooks. 



A. Belgium. 


I. Plan of Tour xi 

U. Money and Travelling Expenses xii 

III. Passports. Custom House xii 

lY. Language xiii 

V. Churches, Picture Galleries, and Collections ... xv 

VI. Railways xvi 

VII. History and Statistics xvi 

B. Holland. 

I. Plan of Tour xxi 

n. Money and Travelling Expenses xxi 

III. Passports. Custom House xxii 

IV. Language xxii 

V. Picture Galleries and Collections xxvi 

VI. Railways xxvi 

VII. Dutch Characteristics xxvi 

VIII. History and Statistics . xxxi 

Historical Sketch of Art in the Netherlands by Professor 

Springer xxxvi 

Route Belgium. Page 

1. From London to Ostend ^ 

Slykens. Mariakerke. Middelkerke. Oudenburg . . 6,7 

2. Blankenherghe and Heyst "^ 

Lisseweghe . ^ 

From Blankenbergbe to Ostend by the coast .... 8 

From Heyst to Bruges. Sluis 9 

3. From Ostend to Brussels via Bruges and Ghent . . . 10 

From Bruges to Blankenbergbe and Heyst .... 10 

From Gbent to Terneuzen lU 

From Ghent to Bruges via Eecloo 10 

From Alost to Antwerp H 

4. Bruges H 

Damme 27 

5. The Railways of S.W. Flanders 28 

1. From Ostend to Ypres 28 

From Ypres to Boperinghe and Hazebrouck .... 30 

2. From Ghent to Dunkirk viS, Lichtervelde ... 31 
From Diksmuide to Nieuport ^^ 

3. From Bruges to Courtrai . . 32 

From Roulera to Ypres and to Menin 32 


Bonte Page 

6. From Brussels to Conrtrai and Ypres 33 

7. Ghent 34 

8. From Ghent to Courtrai and Tournai 55 

From Ghent to Oudenaarde, Leuze, and Mens ... 55 

From Mouscron to Lille 57 

9. Tournai 58 

10. From Ghent to Antwerp 61 

a. State Railway via Dendermonde and Puers . . 61 
, From Dendermoade to St. Nicolas, Lokeren, Alost, and 

Brussels 62 

6. "Waesland Railway 62 

11. From London to Brussels via Calais 64 

Lille 64 

From Tournai to Mons 68 

From Denderleeuw to Grammont, Ath, and Jurbise , 69 

From Ath to Blaton. Chateau of Beloeil .... 69 

12. Brussels 72 

13. From Brussels to Charleroi via Luttre 115 

Battle Field of Waterloo IIG 

14. From Brussels to Antwerp via Malines 130 

From Blalines to Louvain and to Ghent 135 

From Malines to St. Xicolas and Terneuzen .... 135 

From Contich to Turnhout . 135 

15. Antwerp 136 

Hoogstraten 172 

16. From Antwerp to Rotterdam 172 

a. Railway Journey 172 

h. Steamboat Journey 173 

17. From Antwerp to Aix-la-Chapelle via Maastricht . . 175 

From Hasselt to Maaseyck 176 

18. From Antwerp to Miinchen-Gladbach 177 

19. From Brussels to Braine-le-Comte and Mons . . 178 

From Mons to Paris 180 

From Mons to Charleroi 181 

20. From Ghent to Charleroi and Namur via Braine-le-Comte 181 

From Manage to Mons 181 

From Manage to Wavre. Quatrehras 182 

From Charleroi to Vireux 183 

From Chatelineau to Givet 184 

21. From Namur to Dinant and Givet 186 

Valley of the Lesse 189 

From 'Givet to Sedan 190 

22. From Brussels to Luxembourg via Namur 191 

Grotte de Eochefort. Trou de Han-sur-Lesse . . . 192 

From Libramont to Gouvy 194 

From Arlon to Longwy and to Gedinne 194 

23. From Brussels to Liege via Louvain 195 

From Louvain to Rotselaer, Aerschot, and Herenthals . 195 
From Tirlemont to Diest; to St. Trond and Tongres; and 

to Is^amur 196 

From Landen to Hasselt 196 

From Landen to Gembloux 197 

24. Louvain ....'. 197 

25. From Louvain to Charleroi 202 


Ronte Page 

26. Liege and Seraing 203 

27. From Liege to Marloie 214 

From Ftivage to Trois-Yierges (^Cherain de Fer de FAm- 

bleve) 214 

From Melreax to. La Roche 217 

28. From Liege to Maastricht 218 

29. From Liege to Namur 221 

From Huy to Landen and to Ciney 223 

30. From Liege to Aix-la-Chapelle 224 

The Barrage de la Gileppe 227 

31. From Pepinster to Trois-Yierges. Spa 227 

Excursions from Spa. Baraque Michel. Coo. Remouchamps 231, 232 

From Stavelot to Malmedy . . 232 


32. From Trois-Yierges to Luxembourg 232 

From Kautenbach to Oberwiltz and iTsch an der Sauer 234 
From Kruchten to La Rochette. From La Rochette to 

Echternach. Befort. Berdorf 235,230 

Valley of the Eisch. Valley of the Mamer . . . 236,237 

From Luxembourg to Remich 23S 

33. From Luxembourg to Wasserbillig via Diekircb and 

Echternach 239 

Excursions from Diekirch. Valley of the Our. Vianden23y, 2iU. 

34. From Luxembourg to Treves 242 


35. From Flushing to Breda 243 

Domburg. Veere 245 

36. Rotterdam 246 

37. From Rotterdam to the Hague , Leyden , Haarlem , and 

Amsterdam 255 

From Levden to Woerden 258 

38. The Hague ". 259 

39. Scheveningen 276 

40. Leyden 279 

Ifoordwyk aan Zee. Kat^vyk aan Zee 285 

41. Haarlem 285 

Zandvoort 292 

42. Amsterdam 293 

Excursions in the Environs of Amsterdam .... 335 

43. From Amsterdam and Haarlem to the Helder. North 

Holland 338 

Wyk aan Zee , 339 

44. From Amsterdam to Harlingen and Groningen via Eiik- 

huizen and Stavoren 342 

45. From Amsterdam or Utrecht to Leeuwarden and Groningen 346 

From Zwolle to Kampen 348 

Pauper Colonies of Frederiksoord, Wilhelminaoord, 

Willemsoord, Veenhuizen, and Ommerschans . . 349 

From Groningen to Delfzyl. Schiermonnik-Oog . . . 351 


Route Page 

46. From Groningen to Bremen 351 

47. From Amsterdam and Arnliem to Zutphen and Rheine 361 

From Zutphen to Winterswyk ..,."... 353 

From Zutphen to ZwoUe 353 

48. From Amsterdam or Rotterdam to Utrecht and Amhem 354 

From Gouda to the Hague 356 

49. From Liege to Utrecht 359 

Chateau of Heeswyk 361 

50. Utrecht , 362 

51. From Amhem to Cologne 367 

1. Via Cleve and Crefeld 867 

2. Via rmmerich and Diisseldorf 368 

3. Steamboat Route 368 

52. FromArnhem to Nymegen,'SHertogenbosch, andTilburg 370 

53. From Maastricht to Nymegen and Dordrecht .... 372 

54. From Cologne to Rotterdam via Venlo 374 

List of Artists 379 

Index 393 


1. General Map of Belgium: before the title-page. 

2. Map of the Environs op Ostend and Bruges: p. 7. 

3. Map of the Environs of Brussels: p. 114. 

4. Map of the Battle Field of Waterloo : p. 115. 

5. Map of the Meose from Givet to Liege: p. 187. 

6. Map of the Environs of Eochefoht and Han-sur-Lesse : p. 192. 

7. Map of the Environs of Maastricht: p. 219. 

8. Map of the Environs of Spa : between pp. 228, 229. 

9. Map of the Geand-ducht of Luxembourg ; between pp. 232. 233. 
lU. Map of the Environs of the Hague: p. 277. 

11. Map of the Environs of Amsterdam : p. 335. 

12. Map of the Environs of Arnhem: p. 357. 

13. General Map ot Holland : after the Index. 

Flans of Towns. 

Amsterdam (p. 293), Antwerp (p. 136), Bruges (p. 11), Brussels (p. 71), Delft 
(p. 256), Ghent (p. 34), Groningen (p. 350), The Hague (p. 276), Haarlem 
(p. 285), Leyden (p. 284), Liege (p. 203), Lille (p. 64), Louvain (p. 197), 
Luxembourg (p. 237), Malines (p. 131), Nainur fp. 186), Ostend (p. 6), Rot- 
terdam (p. 246), Tournai Cp- 58), Utrecht (p. 3lj2). 


R. = Room. 

ft. = English foot. 

B. = Breakfast. 

N. = North, northern, etc 

D. = Dinner. 

S. = South, etc. 

A. = Attendance. 

E. = East, etc. 

L. = Light. 

W. = West, etc. 

M. = English mile. 

r. = right. 
1. = left. 

S. = Supper. 

dej. = Dejeuner. 

hr. = hour. 

The letter d with a. date, after the name of a person, indicates the 
year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of a place 
shows its height above the sea-level. The number of miles placed before 
the principal places on railway-routes and high-roads generally indicates 
their distance from the starting-point of the route. 

Asterisks are used as luarks of commenda'ion. 


I. Plan of Tour. 

Belgium is now so completely iatersected by a network of rail- 
ways , that the traveller will rarely have occasion to travel by any 
other conveyance ; but a steamboat-trip on the Meuse, and a few 
excursions on horseback or on foot in the neighbourhood of Liege, 
Namur, Dinant, Spa, etc., should not be omitted; for these 
are foremost among the many beautiful and historically-interesting 
districts of which Belgium can boast. On the whole , however, 
the works of the painter and the architect are Belgium's great attrac- 
tions ; and as a large proportion of the traveller's time will pro- 
bably be spent in the cities and larger towns, he is recommend- 
ed to select the spring or autumn in preference to the summer 
for his tour. Those who are already acquainted with the towns 
and their treasures of art, or whose object is retirement and re- 
pose , will find many delightful spots for spending the summer on 
the banks of the Meuse, or in the environs of Spa. 

The following tour, beginning at Ostend and terminating at 
Antwerp, will serve to convey an idea of the time requisite for a 
glimpse at the chief attractions of Belgium. Travellers entering 
Belgium from France, Holland, or Germany, will find no difficulty 
in planning other tours with the aid of the map. 

Ostend and Bruges IV2 day 

Ghent 1 „ 

Courtrai, Tonrnai, Mons 2 „ 

Charleroi, Namur 1 ,, 

Valley of (he Meuse, Dinant IV2 „ 

Liege and Seraing 1 ,, 

Maastricht and the Petersberg 1 „ 

Louvain and Brussels 2 ,, 

Waterloo 1 „ 

Malines 1 „ 

Antwerp 2 „ 

15 days. 

In Older to prevent loss of time in exploring towns, the traveller 
should carefully consult the plans before leaving his hotel , and if 
pressed for time he had better hire a cab or vigilante by the hour, 
dismissing it, however, when a prolonged visit to a picture-gallery or 
museum is contemplated. The Handbook renders the services of 
commissionnaires and guides entirely superfluous (half-a-day 2-3, 
whole day 4-5 fr.), and the traveller is particularly cautioned 

xii Money. BELGIUM. 

against employing those of an inferior class by whom he is impor- 
tuned in the streets. 

II. Money and Travelling Expenses. 

Money. The Monetary System of France was introduced into 
Belgium in 1833 ; and by the Convention of Paris of 1865 Belgium 
belongs to a monetary league with France, Switzerland, and Italy. 
One franc, 100 centimes, 80 German pfennigs, 50 Austrian kreu- 
zers, 47 Dutch cents, 20 American cents, and 9^/4 pence are all 
nearly equivalent (see the money-table at the beginning of the 
book). The coins in common circulation are French Napoleons 
(20 fr.) in gold; 5, 21/2, 1, V2. and Vsfr. pieces in silver; 10, 5, 2, 
1 c. in copper; 20, 10, 5 c. in nickel. Swiss and papal coins 
should be refused. English and French banknotes and English gold 
are received at all the principal towns, hotels, and railway-stations 
at their full value (li. = 25 fr.). Belgian notes from 20 to 1000 fr. 
are current in all parts of Belgium, but do not realise their full value 
in France or elsewhere. English circular notes are recommended for 
the transport of large sums, in preference to banknotes or gold, as 
they always realise a favourable exchange, and as, if lost, their value 
Is recoverable. Money should not be changed except at the shops 
of the larger and more respectable money-changers; the small dealers 
at the railway-stations seldom give the due rate of exchange. 

ExpEKSES. Hotels of the highest class are somewhat expensive 
at Brussels and the principal Belgian watering-places, but in most 
other parts of the country they will be found cheaper than in Eng- 
land. The average charges are as follows : bed 3 fr., coffee and rolls 
lV2fr., dinner 3-5 fr. , 1/2 bottle of Bordeaux IV2-2 fr. , atten- 
dance 1 fr. The table d'hote dinner in the larger towns is generally 
between 4.30 and 6 p.m. Supper may be ordered at a fixed charge 
of 2 fr. or upwards. The charges at hotels of the second class are 
about one-third lower, while the accommodation is sometimes quite 
as good, although less pretending. Hotel-expenses therefore need 
not exceed 10-15 fr. per day; the fees payable at picture-gal- 
leries, museums , and churches amount to 3-4 fr. per day , and 
travelling expenses to 8-10 fr. ; so that most travellers should be 
prepared for a daily expenditure of at least 25-30 fr. each. On 
the other hand the 'voyageur en garden', the artist, the student, and 
the pedestrian may easily reduce their expenditure to half that sum 
without much diminution of comfort. 

III. Passports. Custom Honse. 
Passports. These documents are now dispensed with in 
Belgium, but they are occasionally useful in proving the traveller's 
identity, procuring admission to private collections, etc., and they 
must be shown in order to obtain delivery of registered letters. 

BELGIUM. Language. xiii 

Custom Housb. The formalities of the douane are generally 
very lenient. The traveller should always, if possible, superintend 
the examination of his luggage in person. In crossing a frontier 
even the smaller articles of luggage usually kept in the railway 
carriage have to be submitted to inspection. The traveller is al- 
lowed lib. of tobacco or cigars duty free, but he should declare it 
to the custom-house officers. When a frontier is to be crossed, 
ordinary passengers' luggage should never be sent by goods-train. 
The risk of detention , pilfering , and other vexatious , far out- 
weighs any saving of trouble or expense which this plan affords. 

17. Language. 

The linguist, the ethnologist, and indeed every observant tra- 
veller will be interested in the marked differences between the 
various races of which the Belgian nation is composed. The Walloons 
(of Namur, Liege, Verviers, etc.), who are believed to be partly of 
Celtic extraction, are remarkable for their enterprising and in- 
dustrious, and at the same time passionate and excitable character. 
The Flemings, who constitute about five-eighths of the population, 
are a somewhat phlegmatic race of Teutonic origin ; they are pre- 
eminently successful in agriculture and those pursuits in which 
energetic action is less requisite than patient perseverance, and 
their language is of the Teutonic stock, being closely akin to the 
Dutch. Antwerp and other seaports, however, also possess a thriv- 
ing commercial and seafaring Flemish population. A third element 
is the French. Political refugees and obnoxious journalists fre- 
quently transfer the sphere of their labours from Paris to Brussels, 
while a considerable proportion of the Belgian population in the 
principal towns affect French manners and customs, are frequently 
educated in France, and are often entirely ignorant of the Flemish 
language. A valuable and interesting work, to which reference is 
frequently made in the Handbook, is the ^Descriptio totius Belgii' 
by the learned Florentine Guicciardini (d. 1589), who in his ca- 
pacity of Tuscan ambassador resided for several years in the Nether- 
lands. '■LeodicunC (Liege), he says, '■utitur lingua Gallicaj Aquis- 
granum (Aix-la-Chapelle) Germanica: viri Leodicenses alacres, 
festivi, tractabiles ; Aquisgranenses melancholici, severi, difficiles. In 
summa, tantum alteri et natura et moribus, totaque adeo vitae ra- 
tione ah alteris differunt, quantum Galli discrepant a Germanis\ 

The boundary between the "Walloon and Flemish languages is a 
tolerably-straight line drawn from Liege southwards past Brussels 
to Calais, "Walloon being spoken in a few isolated districts to the 
N., and Flemish here and there to the S. of the line. 

French is the language of the government, the legislature, the 
army, of most of the newspapers, of public traffic, of literature, 
and indeed of all the upper classes, as it has been since the time 
of the crusades. 

xlv Language. 


The Walloon language, wMch resembles a very corrupt dialect 
of French, or rouchi frauQais as it is termed hy the French, is 
an early French (Romanic) patois, with Celtic and Teutonic ele- 
ments, occurring occasionally in ancient documents and poems, 
and not entirely without its literature, hut almost as unin- 
telligible to a Frenchman as to an Englishman or a German. 
Guicciardini describes it as ^sermo communiter Gallicus; sed 
quia Galliam inter aique Germaniam positi , corruptus valde et 
perabsurdus\ The linguist who desires to form some acquaintance 
with the Walloon language is referred to two excellent works 
published at Liege in 1845 : 'Poesies en patois de Liege, precedees 
d'une dissertation grammaticale sur ce patois, etsuivies d'un glossaire 
par Simonon\ and the 'Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue 
Wallonne par Ch. Grandgagnage\ the latter unfortunately uncom- 
pleted. Liege also possesses an excellent Societe de Litterature 
Wallonne, the object of which is to disseminate useful literature. 
The following popular rhymes from the 'Almanach par mattre 
Matthieu Laensbergh' will serve as a specimen of the language: 

January : 
II gna pu d'broUli hi cTponssir. I H y a plus de bromllard que de pous- 

Li ch6<r sop' so on vi stoumak. 
So tCfreut pat, on bon spet cazak^ 

Ni ferit nin pu d'bin ki Vsolo, 
Si voUf lUr on po sor no. 

Febbuabt : 

La chaude soupe sur un vieil estomac , 
Dans un pays froid une bonne ^paisse 

Ne ferait pas plus de bien que le soleil, 
S'il voulait luire un peu sur nous. 


C'est Vushge dist-on d' s''aUrap6 
Lonk et VauV, It prumt d'avri: 
Si cn^esteu ko qu'po s''diverti, 
Qu''on koiraK' in'' goV A s"dup4I 
Mais c'n^est pu po nV qu''on s^surprin, 

Di mon si on ce rete, ci n'est if de gros 
des din. 
On sHromp^ on s^dispoie al tournaie: 

(Test Vprumt d^avri toV Vannaie! 

C'est Tusage, dit-on, de s'attraper 
L'un et Tautre le premier d'avril : 
Si ce n'^tait ^ue pour se divertir, 
Qu'on cherchat un peu a se duper ! 
Mais ce n'est plus pour rire qu'on se 

Du moins si Ton en rit ce n'est que du 
gros des dents. 
On se trompe, on se d^pouille tour 

a tour: 
Cest le prem. d'avril toute Tann^e. 

The Flemish language differs but slightly from the Dutch, both 
being branches of the same family of Germanic languages. In the 
middle ages they formed but one tongue , and even at the present 
day the Flemish spoken language differs no more from the Dutch 
than some German dialects do from each other , while the written 
languages are almost identical, especially since about 1864, when 
the Flemish writers ceased to use certain unimportant orthogra- 
phical peculiarities that had previously distinguished the languages. 
Flemish, although a rich and expressive language, cannot be called 
a highly- cultivated tongue, being spoken by the uneducated classes 
only , and possessing but little original literature. Centuries of 

BELGIUxM. Churche.^. xv 

Spanish , Austrian , and French domination have left the Flemish 
language unaltered for the simple reason that it was never used 
as a written language, except for catechisms, prayer-hooks, legends, 
etc., for the use of the lower classes. Since the year 1840 several 
scholars of eminence and a numher of learned societies have zea- 
lously striven to procure the introduction of Flemish into the higher 
political and social circles , hut their efforts have hitherto met with 
indifferent success. A law was passed in 1873 permitting a more 
general use of Flemish in judicial proceedings than had previously 
been competent, and in 1883 the use of the Flemish speech was re- 
introduced into the middle-class schools of the Flemish provinces. 
While, however, this may tend to preserve and purify the language, 
the fact remains unchanged, that a knowledge of French is still con- 
sidered indispensahle to all but the lowest agricultural and labour- 
ing classes. 

The following peculiarities of pronunciation are common to 
Flemish and Dutch : y (in Dutch (/) is pronounced like the Eng- 
lish i in time (but in West Flanders like e), u like the French u, eu 
like the French eu, ecu like the English a (in fate), oe like oo, ae 
like ah, ou as in English, ui like the French eu-i, oei like we, sch 
like s and the guttural ch in the Scotch loch, and sch at the end 
of a word almost like s. 

After what has been said, it need hardly be added that a slight 
knowledge of French will enable the traveller in Belgium to con- 
verse with every one with whom he is likely to come in contact, 
and that an acquaintance with the Flemish and Walloon dialects 
will probably be of little use except to the philologist. Those 
who are ignorant of French will be glad to know that English is 
spoken at most of the principal hotels throughout the country. 

V. Chxirches, Picture Galleries, and Collections. 

The Chuhches (Roman Catholic) are usually open from G a.m. 
till noon, but in the afternoon the visitor must apply to the sacris- 
tan. If the architecture or the pulpit be the chief object of interest it 
may be inspected in the forenoon, but when pictures are to be seen 
the attendance of the sacristan is necessary, as they are often covered 
with curtains or concealed in side-chapels. The best hours in this 
case are 12-4 p.m., when there is no service. Fee for one person 
V2-i fr., and for a party more in proportion. In many churches 
the fees are fixed by tariff, but here also a fee to the sacristan is oc- 
casionally expected. 

Picture Galleries and Collections are generally open gratis 
from 10 or 11 a.m. till 3, 4, or 5 p.m., but on certain days a trifling 
fee for admission (V2-I fr.) is sometimes charged. For admission 
to town-halls and similar sights, the fee is usually about the same. 
In visiting a private collection a single traveller is expected to 
give a gratuity of about 2 fr. 

xvi History. BELGIUM. 

VI. Bailways. 

The most trustworthy time-tahles are contained in the '■Guide 
officiel desvoyageurs sur tons les chemins de fer de Belgique', publish- 
ed monthly, and sold at all the principal railway-stations (edition 
in yellow cover, with map, 20 c.}. 

The fares on the Belgian lines are prohably the lowest in the 
railway-world. The charges per Engl. M. are now about 17 c. for 
the first, 11 c. for the second, and 81/2 c. for the third class; ex- 
press fares are somewhat higher. Return-tickets are issued at a 
reduction of 20 per cent., and are available from 1 to 3 days ac- 
cording to the distance. In 1890 there were 2793 M. of railway 
open for traffic in Belgium. 

Luggage must be booked and paid for separately. On most of 
the international through-routes 56 lbs. are free, but on the inland 
routes the cost of its transport not unfrequently amounts to as 
much as a second or third class fare. The traveller is therefore 
recommended to restrict his requirements if possible to the limits 
of a travelling-bag or moderate valise , which when necessary he 
can wield unaided, and take with him into the railway-carriage, 
so as to avoid the delay and expense incurred in booking it for the 
luggage- van. Anything over 56 lbs. in weight, however, must be 
booked, and should be at the office at least 1/4 hr. before the train 
starts. The luggage-offices are closed 3min. before the hour of de- 
parture. An advantage peculiar to the Belgian railways is that, in 
the case of the inland traffic, luggage may always be forwarded by 
passenger-train whether the sender takes a personal ticket for the 
journey or not. Luggage may be insured at a charge of ,10 c. per 
100 fr. of the value. 

There are Refreshment Rooms (Buffets-Restaurants) at a few of 
the Belgian stations only. Their charges are mentioned in the above- 
noted official guide. 

Vn. History and Statistics. 

The country called Belgium at the present day, which was origi- 
nally peopled with a race of Celtic origin , and was subsequently 
overrun by Teutonic invaders , was conquered by Caesar , and re- 
mained under Roman supremacy until the beginning of the 5th 
century, when the Salic Franks established themselves in the dis- 
trict between the Schelde, the Mouse, and the Lower Rhine. 

In the 9th century the country formed part of the Empire 
of Charlemagne. By the treaty of Verdun (843) the western pro- 
vinces, Flanders and Artois, became part of France, while the 
eastern, including Brabant, fell to the share of Germany. With 
the development of the feudal system various hereditary princi- 
palities were established here as elsewhere. Thus arose the states 
of Flanders , Artois , Hainault , Namur , the duchies of Brabant 
and Limburg , the principality of Liege , the county of Antwerp, 

BELGIUM. History, xvii 

ami the lordship of Malines , which at a later period rendered 
themselves independent of their powerful neighbours. Flanders, 
which attained to great prosperity hy means of its manufactures 
and commercial enterprise, carried on a long-continued struggle 
against France, the result of which, chiefly through the strenuous 
exertions of the cities of Ghent and Bruges, was the establishment 
of its complete independence. On the extinction of the male line 
of the Counts of Flanders in 1385, Flanders became annexed 
to Burgundy by the marriage of Philip the Bold with a daughter 
of the Flemish princely race, and by the beginning of the loth 
cent, most of the other states were also united , by means of later 
marriages and other contracts, inheritance, etc., under the suprem- 
acy of the Dukes of Burgundy. This change of dynasty was most 
favourable to the growth of art in the Netherlands. The splendour- 
loving Philip the Bold (d. 1404) employed artists of every kind, 
particularly goldsmiths, while the name of his grandson Philip the 
Good (1419-1467), to whom Jan van Eyck was court-painter, is 
inseparably connected with the first bloom of Flemish painting. 

In 1477 the Netherlands came into the possession of the House 
of Hap slur g by the marriage oi Mary of Burgundy, the daughter 
of Charles the Bold, the last Duke of Burgundy, with Maximilian, 
afterwards Emperor of Germany. The children of this marriage 
were Philip the Handsome (d, 1506), Duke of Burgundy and King 
of Castile (in right of his wife, Johanna the Mad), and Margaret of 
Austria, regent of the Netherlands from 1506 to her death in 1530. 
Philip's son, Charles V., who was born at Ghent in 1500, and sub- 
sequently became Emperor of Germany and King of Spain, succeeded 
also to the Netherlandish provinces, which on his abdication in 1555 
came under the sway of his son Philip 11. Thenceforward the Ne- 
therlands were subject to Spanish Supremacy. Philip appointed his 
half-sister, Margaret of Parma, regent of the Netherlands (1559-07), 
and selected Granvella, Bishop of Arras, as her counsellor and as- 
sistant. Religious agitations, the excessive increase of the number of 
the bishops (1559), the burdensome presence of the Spanish troops, 
and other grievances led to numerous tumults, to suppress which 
tlie king dispatched the Duke of Alva to the Netherlands with an 
array of 20,000 men. The extreme cruelty with which Alva fulfilled 
his task resulted in the famous revolt of the United Netherlands 
in 1568. Success was achieved by the northern provinces only, 
which now constitute the Kingdom of Holland, whilst the south- 
ern districts , the present Kingdom of Belgium , after protracted 
and fierce struggles, still continued to groan under the oppressive 
yoke of the Spaniards. At length, under the regime of Alexander 
Farnese, Duke of Parma (1578-96), the third governor after Alva, 
Belgium also succeeded in recovering the civic liberties in behalf 
of which the war had originally broken out. 

In 1598 the 'Spanish Netherlands' were ceded by Philip 11. as 
Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. lOth Edit. ]) 

xviii History. BELGIUM. 

a lief to his daughter Clara Isabella Eugenia on the occasion of her 
marriage with Albert, Archduke of Austria, the Spanish governor. 
Under their regime the wounds which the country had suffered 
during the war began to heal. The princely pair exerted themselves 
in every way to promote the welfare of the provinces under their 
care; industry and commerce once more flourished, and the ad- 
ministration of justice was reorganised. Their religious zeal, of a 
strong anti-reformation type, was displayed in the foundation of 
new monasteries, colleges, and other Roman Catholic institutions, 
but at the same time materially contributed to the development of 
art. Numerous churches, in the gorgeous but somewhat degraded 
taste of the period, were built and decorated with brilliant altar- 
pieces. The Archduke and his wife, moreover, rendered the country 
an important service by securing the services of Rubens, the great- 
est of Belgian painters, who in 1609 had made up his mind to 
settle in Italy. They appointed him their court-painter, permit- 
ting him at the same time to reside at Antwerp, the centre of 
Flemish art. 

After Albert's death without issue (1621) the Netherlands re- 
verted to Spain, which during the wars of the latter half of the 17th 
cent, was obliged to cede many of its provinces (Artois , Tbion- 
ville, etc.) to France. In 1714 these provinces were awarded by 
the Peace of Rastadt to the House of Austria. 

The ^Austrian Netherlands' were wisely and beneficently govern- 
ed by the archdukes of Austria, who held the office of Stadtholder, 
and for a brief period the glorious days of the Burgundian re'gimc 
appeared to have returned. The governors of that period, especially 
under the Empress Maria Theresa, are still gratefully remembered 
by the Belgians. The opposition which the reforms of the Emp. 
Joseph II. encountered at length [in 1789) gave rise to the 'Bra- 
bant Revolution', headed by Van der Noot and Vonk, but the inde- 
pendence thus attained lasted for a single year only, and under 
Emp. Leopold II. the Austrians again took possession of the country. 

This revolution, however, paved the way for the interference of 
the French , whose aid had been invoked by the ecclesiastical and 
the liberal parties. In 1794 the whole of Belgium was occupied 
by French Republicans, who divided it into nine departments. In 
1814 the French supremacy was finally shaken off. 

The Treaty of London , of 28th June, 1814, and the provisions 
of the Congress of Vienna, of 7th June, 1815, united Belgium and 
Holland under the name of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and 
elevated William of Orange, son of the former stadtholder of the 
Seven Provinces , to the newly-constituted throne. Belgium was 
again severed from her constrained union with Holland by the 
Revolution of 1830. On 10th Nov. the provisional government 
summoned a national congress, by which the Due de Nemours, son 
of Louis Philippe, was invited to become the sovereign of Belgium. 

BELGroM. Statistics, xix 

The Freiich monarch having clecliued the dignity in behalf of his 
son, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was next selected by the congress, and 
that prince accordingly ascended the throne on 21st July, 1831. 

The treaty of the intervening powers, signed at London on 15th 
Nov., 1831, by the representatives of the five great powers and of 
Belgium , although not finally recognised by the exasperated King 
of Holland till 1839, constituted the Kingdom of Belgium one of 
the independent European states , and determined the boundaries 
and the relations between the two disunited kingdoms. 

King Leopold II., bom in 1835, the sou of Leopold I. (b. 1790, 
d. 1865) and of Louise, his second consort, daughter of Louis Phi- 
lippe (d. 1850), ascended the throne on 10th Dec. , 1865. His 
Queen is Marie Henriette, daughter of the late Archduke Joseph. 
The royal family consists of the Princesses Louise (b. 1858; mar- 
ried in 1875 to Prince Philip of Saxe-Coburg) , Stephanie (b. 1864 ; 
married in 1881 to Rudolph, Crown Prince of Austria), and Clemen- 
tine (b. 1872). Leopold, the only son (b. 1859), died at the age of 
ten. The Count of Flanders (_b. 1845), who is married to a German 
Princess, is the King's brother. Charlotte, the widow of Maximilian, 
Emp. of Mexico (d. 1867), is a sister of Leopold II. 

Extent. The extremelength of the kingdom, fromN.W. toS.E., 
is 179 Engl. M., breadth from N. to S. 110 M., area 11,373 sq. M. 

Population (in 1888) 6,030,043 (in 1831, 3,785,864 only), of 
whom about 2^/0 millions are Flemings, and about 2 millions Wal- 
loons. The Roman Catholic religion is greatly predominant, about 
15,000 only of the population being Protestants, and 3000 Jews; 
and of these two sects more than half are resident in the provinces 
of Antwerp and Brabant. 

Pboyinces. The country is divided into nine provinces , viz. 
Antwerp, Brabant, W. Flanders, E. Flanders, Hainault, Liege, 
Limburg, Luxembourg, and Namur. The density of population 
amounts to about 520 per sq. M., and varies from 873 per sq. M. 
in Brabant to 128 per sq. M. in Luxembourg. Brabant, E. Flan- 
ders, and Hainault, are, with the exception of some of the manu- 
facturing districts of England, among the most densely peopled 
districts in the world. 

Army. The Belgian army is destined on principle only for the 
defence of the country and of the neutrality assured to it by the 
Treaty of London (p. xviii). It consists of 103,860 men, of whom 
4247 are officers, and in time of peace, of 43,400 men. The army 
is composed of the following regiments: 1 Carabineers, 3 Riflemen, 
14 Infantry of the line, 1 Grenadiers ; 2 Chasseurs-k-cheval, 4 Lan- 
cers, 2 Guides, whose celebrated band is one of the best in Europe ; 
4 Field Artillery [40 batteries of 6 guns each, 14 mounted), 4 Fortress 
Artillery ; 1 Engineers ; 1 Telegraph , and 1 Railway company. 
There are also several companies of the military train and pontoniers. 
The country is divided into four military districts, each containing 


XX Statistics. BELGIUM. 

lour active and one depot division. The principal military depot 
is at Antwerp. — The Garde Civique, or militia, consists of about 
31,000 men. 

The national colours, adopted in 1831, are red, yellow, and black, 
placed in three perpendicular stripes, which were the colours of 
the ancient Duchy of Brabant. The armorial bearings of Belgium 
consist of the Lion of Brabant, with the motto ^Vunion fait la force'. 

In 1890 Belgium possessed 51 merchant-ships, including 42 
steamers, of an aggregate burden of 70,222 tons; and in 1887, 344 
lishing-boats of 12,190 tons, with about 1500 fishermen. It has 
no navy. 

Characteristics. Those indicated by the following monkish 
lines are said to exist to some extent even at the present day: — 
^Nohilibus Bruxella viris, Antwerpia nummis, 
Gandavum laqueis, formosis Bruya puellis, 
Lovanium doctis, gaudet Mechlinia stultis\ 

(Brussels rejoices in noble men, Antwerp in money, Ghent in 
halters, Bruges in pretty girls, Louvain in learned men, and 
Malines in fools.) Halters are mentioned in connection with Ghent 
in allusion to the frequent humiliations to which its turbulent 
citizens were subjected by their sovereigns. The unenviable repu- 
tation of the citizens of Malines originated in the story that they 
once mistook the moon shining through their cathedral-tower for 
a conflagration, and endeavoured to extinguish it by means of the 


I. Plan of Tour. 

The following tonr of a week is recommended to the traveller 
whose time is limited : — 

From London to Rotterdam l>y steamboat ; or from Antwerp 

to Rotterdam by railway 1 

Rotterdam, and thence by railway to the Hague .... 1 

To Scheveningen ; aAso visit ' T Huis ten Bosch 1 

To Leyden, and the same evening to Haarlem 1 

Haarlem , and in the evening to Amsterdam 1 

Amsterdam, and Environs 1 

To Utrecht and thence by railway to Arnhem 1 

A hasty glance at the principal places in Holland may thus 
be obtained in a week or ten days, but the traveller whose time 
permits should devote a longer period to this interesting country. 
The following will be found a pleasant and instructive tour of a 
fortnight: — Days 

From London, or from Antwerp, to Rotterdam .... 1 

Rotterdam and Delft 1 

The Hague and Scheveningen ... 2 

Leyden and Haarlem i^/-, 

Alkmaar ; Helder, and back to Haarlem 3 

Amsterdam and Environs 3 

Utrecht 1 

Arnhem . . . •. 1 

II. Money and Travelling Expenses. 

Money. The Dutch currency consists of florins fgulden or 
guilder) and cents. The florin (is. S^/^d.) contains 100 cents, or 
20 stuivers, or 10 duhbeltjes. The only gold coins now Issued are 
pieces of 10 fl., known as Gouten Tientjes; and the gold pieces of 
smaller denomination still occasionally met with cannot be ex- 
changed without a slight loss. The silver coins are pieces of 2'/.2 
(ryksdaalder) and 1 florin, and of 50, 25 (kwarije), 10 (dubbeltje), 
and 5 (stuiver) cents. A stuiver, or 5 cents, is worth Id. English. 
English, French, or German money is taken at the hotels and rail- 
way-stations. The average exchange for a Napoleon is 9 fl. 40 
cents, for a sovereign 113/4-12fl., for a 20 mark piece 11 fl. 80 cents. 

Expenses. The hotels at the principal towns and resorts of tra- 
vellers are generally clean and comfortable, but inferior to those 
of Belgium and Germany. In some respects they resemble the 

xxil Passports. HOLLAND. 

hotels in England more than those in other parts of the continent. 
The usual charge for a bedroom is 1-1 1/2 A- > breakfast (plain) 
50-80 cents, table d'hote' 2Y2-3 fl., attendance 1/2 fl. — Luncheon 
is generally taken at 1, dinner between 5 and 7 o'clock. Although, as 
a nation, the Dutch are enlightened and well-educated, the class 
with whom the traveller comes in contact will perhaps impress him 
unfavourably; but quite as much real comfort and civility will be 
met with in Holland as in any other part of the continent. 

Fees at museums, churches, etc., should not exceed 2 fl. per 
day. Hotel expenses amount to 7-8 fl. daily, and travelling and 
other expenses to 4-5 fl. , so that the total cost of a tour in Hol- 
land will be 13-15 fl. a day. The 'voyageur en garden' may 
reduce his expenditure to one half of this sum by breakfasting at 
the cafes , dining at unpretending restaurants , and avoiding the 
more expensive hotels. It may also be remarked that the steam- 
boats on the canals, the Rhine, Meuse, Yssel, etc., afford a cheaper, 
and often pleasanter mode of travelling than the railways. 

in. Passports, Custom House. 

Passports may be dispensed with in Holland, as in Belgium, 
but the traveller had better be provided with one if he contemplates 
a prolonged tour. 

Customhouse. All new articles, especially if not wearing- 
apparel , are liable to pay duty according to their value, which 
must be declared beforehand. New articles not previously declared 
are liable to confiscation. 

IV. Language. 

A slight acquaintance with the Dutch language will contribute 
greatly to the instruction and enjoyment afforded by a tour in 
Holland. German, however, is very generally understood, and 
English and French are spoken at all the best hotels and other prin- 
cipal resorts of travellers. Those who have a knowledge of German, 
Danish , or Swedish will recognise the identity of the roots of the 
great majority of the words in these languages with those of the 
Dutch. The language, which may be described as a Lower Frank- 
ish dialect, and which existed in a written form as early as the 
13th century, developed its individuality more strongly during the 
wars of independence of the 17th century. It is expressive and 
highly cultivated, and free from the somewhat vague and ungram- 
matical character which stamps Flemish as a mere patois. Like 
other languages of purely Teutonic origin, it has admitted a consid- 
erable number of Romanic words to the rights of citizenship : 
thus , kantoor (comptoir) , kwartier (quartier) , katoen (coton), 
kastrol (casserole) , rekwest (requete) , gids (guide), etc. Words of 
foreign origin , however , have been imported from motives of con- 
venience or fashion, rather than absolute necessity. The language 

HOLLAND. Language, xxiii 

is remarkably rich and full of vital energy , and words of purely 
native growtli are to be found in almost every brancb of science 
and art. Tlie following lines from two popular ballads will serve 
as a specimen : — 

Wij leven vrij, vij leven blij 

Op Neerlanda dierbren grond, 
Ontworsteld aan de slavernij, 
Zijn wij door eendrachtgroot en vrij ; 
Hier duldt de grond geen dwing- 
Waar vrijheid eeuwen stond. 


(Literal translation: 'We live free, 
we live blithe, on Netherlands' dear 
ground; delivered from slavery, we 
are through concord great and free ; 
here the land suffers no tyranny, 
where freedom has subsisted for 

WienNeerlandschbloed in de aderen 

Van vreemde smetten vrij, 
Wiens hart voorland en Koning gloeit, 

Verhef den zang als wij : 
Hij stel met ons, vereend van zin, 

Met onbeklemde borst, 
Het godgevallig feestlied in 

Voor Vaderland en Vorst. 

(Literal translation: 'Let him, in 
whose veins flows Netherlandish 
blood, free from foreign stain, and 
whose heart glows for country and 
king, raise the song with us, united 
in sentiment, with unburdened breast, 
in the festal song, pleasing to God, 
for Fatherland, and Sovereign'.) 

The pronunciation of Dutch somewhat resembles that of Ger- 
man , but is more guttural , and therefore more difficult for the 
English student. The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronounced as in 
French , and are lengthened , but not altered in sound , by being 
doubled (thus oo = o) ; ei and ij, or y, are like the vowel sound in 
the French pays ; au and ou like ow in now, but broader (aw-oo) ; 
eu like the French eu or the German 6 ; oe like the English oo or 
the German u ; ui has a sound fluctuating between oi and ow (as in 
now). In most other combinations of vowels each retains its usual 
sound. All the consonants are pronounced as in English, except g 
and eft, which have a guttural sound like the ch in the Scotch word 
loch, or the g in the German Tag ; xo, which is pronounced like v ; 
j like the English y or ee ; and v like f. Final n is often dropped 
in colloquial speech (e.g. Leyde' for Leyden). 

The definite article is de for the masculine and feminine, and 
het for the neuter; genitive des, der, des, or van den, van de, van 
het; dative den, der, den, or aan den, aan de, aan het; plural for 
all genders de, der, den, de. 

The declension of substantives and adjectives resembles the 
German. The plural of substantives is formed by the addition of s 
or of en (dative plural always en). 

The pronouns are ik, I ; mij, me, to me ; gij, thou, you ; u, thee, 
to thee, you, to you; hij, he; hem, him, to him; het, it; tij, she; 
haar, her, to her; zij, they; hun, to them; hen, them. Mijn, 
mijne, my; uw, uice, thy, your; zijn, zijne, his; haar, hare, her; 
onze, ons, our; hun, hunne, their. Wie, who (interrog.); ivaf, 
what; hoe, how ; ivanneer, when. 

Cardinal numbers: een, twee, drie, vier, vijf, zes, zeven, acht, 
negen, tien, elf, twaalf, dertien, veertien, vijftien, zestien, zeven- 

xxiv Language. 


tien, acTitien, negentien , twintig, een en twintig, etc., dertig, 
veertig , vijftig, zestig, zeventig, tachtig, iiegentig, honderd, 
duizend. Ordinal numbers: de eerste, de tweede, de derde, de 
vierde, achtste (8th), etc., de twintigste, de tachtigste (80th), etc. 
Partitive numbers : een half, een derde, een vierde, etc. 

Auxiliary verbs. Hebben, to have ; zijn or wezen, to be ; zullen, 
the infinitive of shall or will (future sense) ; warden, to he (in the 
formation of the passive voice). 

ik heb ik ben 

gij hebt gij zijt 

Mj, zij heeft hij, zij is 

loij hebben unj zijn 

gij hebt gij zijt 

zij hebben zij zijn 

gehad, had. geweest, heen. 

The conjugation of verhs and 
closely resemble the German. 

The form of address among the upper classes is always t/ (prop- 
erly Uwe Edele, Your lordship, Ital. Vossignoria), with the third 
person singular, and often with the addition of Mynheer. A mar- 
ried lady is addressed as Mevrouw (pronounced Mefrow), a young 
lady as Jonge juffrouw. Juffrouw is uniformly used in addressing 
bar-maids, female attendants in shops, etc. — Among the common 
people gij or jij, abbreviated into je, is used with the second per- 
son plural. Je is also made use of in familiar speech by persons 
of the upper ranks, but the stranger is recommended to abide by 
the more formal mode of address. 

ik zal 

ik word 

gij zult 

gij wordt 

hij, zij zal 

hij, zij wordt 

xoij zullen 

wij worden 

gij zult 

gij wordt 

zij zullen. 

zij worden 

geworden, been. 

[ the construction of sentences 

Mag ik v vragen, hoe ga ik naar . . ? 
Wat is de kortste weg naar . . ? 
Ga regt uit, en dan de eerste straat 

links, regts. 
Ik dank v, mijnheer. 
Ik zal met den spoorxceg (or 

simply met het spoor) reizen. 
Kruijer, breng de bagage naar het 

Ik geloof het is te laat. 
In welke klasse gaat gij ? 
Ik zal een kaartje vor de tweede 

klas nemen. 
Hoe laat is het ? 
Het is kwartier voor twee'en, over 

drie'en, halftien. 
De trein vertrekt om vijf uur en 

komt om tien aan. 
Hoe lang houden wij hier still'l 

May I ask you how I am to go to . . ? 
Which is the shortest way to . . ? 
Go straight on, and then by the first 

street to the right,to the left. 
Thank you. Sir. 
I shall travel by railway. 

Porter, take the luggage to the 

I believe it is too late. 
In which class will you go? 
I shall take aticket for the second 

What o'clock is it? 
It is a quarter to two, a quarter 

past three, half-past nine. 
The train starts at 5 o'clock and 

arrives at ten. 
IIow long do we stop here? 


Language, xxv 

Waar zijn xcij nu ? 
Dit is de laatste station. 
Koetmr, breng ons naar . . 
Wacht , ik inoet nog mijne ha- 

gage halen. 
Bij het hotel . . . ophouden. 
Hoeveel is de vracht ? 
Een foot. 
Kan ik een kamer hehben ? met 

een bed, twee bedden. 
Zeker, mijnheer. 
Kellner, xoat hebt gij te eten ? het 

ontbijt , het middaggeten , het 

avondeten ; drinken. 
Breng mij gebraden rundvleesch, 

schapenbout, kalfsborst, ham, 

visch , aardappelen , groente 

(fem.), brood, boter, vruchten. 

kaas, wijn, bier. Mes, vork, 

lepel, glas, bord, eene flesch. 
Jk zal morgen om zeven ure ver- 

trekken; xrek mij om zes. 
Hoeveel bedraagt onze nota ? 
Wat moeten wij v betalen ? 
In welke straat is het museum ? 
Hoe ver is het van hier? 
Wanneer is het geopend? 
Dagelijks kosteloos , van tien tot 

drie uur, behalve — 
\S xcoendags en 's zaturdags tegen 

Zondag, maandag, dinsdag, don- 

derdag, vrijdag. 
Heden, morgen, gisteren. 
Ik wensche eenige photographien 

te koopen, gezigten van . . . , 

kopijen naar de schilderijen 

van . . . 
Laat mij zien xvat gij hebt. 
Dat is niet mooi. 
Wat is de prijs ? 
Wat vraagt gij er voor? 
Ik heb geen klein geld bij mij ; 

kunt gij mij xoisselen'i 
Ja, mijnheer; neen, mijnheer. 
Als H V belie ft. 
Mel vragen komt men te Rome. 

Where are we now? 
This is the last station. 
Coachman, drive iis to . . . 
Wait, 1 must fetch my luggage. 

To stop at the . . . hotel. 

What is the fare? 

A fee. 

Can 1 have a room? with one bed, 
with two beds. 

Certainly, Sir. 

Waiter, what have you to eat? 
breakfast, dinner, supper; to 

Bring me roast beef, leg of mut- 
ton, breast of veal, ham, tish, 
potatoes, vegetables, bread, 
butter, fruit, cheese, wine, 
beer. Knife, fork, spoon, glass, 
plate, bottle. 

I shall start to morrow at 7 
o'clock ; wake me at 6. 

How much does our bill come to? 

What must we pay you? 

Ill which street is the museum? 

Uow far is it from here? 

When is it open? 

Daily, gratis, from ten to three, 
except — 

Wednesdays and Saturdays on 

Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Thurs- 
day, Friday. 

To-day, to-morrow, yesterday. 

I want to buy some photographs, 
views of ... , copies of the 
paintings of . . . 

Let me see what you have. 
That is not pretty. 
What is the price? 
What do you ask for this? 
I have no change with me; can 
you change me (some money)? 
Yes, sir; no, sir. 
If you please. 
By questioning one gets to Rome. 

xxvi Railways. HOLLAND. 

V. Picture Galleries and Collections. 

Picture Galleries and Collections are generally open from 
10 a.m. till 3 or 4 p.m. In all collections belonging to tlie state 
gratuities are forbidden; sticks and umbrellas must be given up 
at the door, but no charge is made for taking care of them. These 
last remarks do not apply to municipal collections. The usual 
gratuity at private collections is 1 fl. 

VI. Kailways. 

Most of the remarks made with regard to Belgian railways apply 
to the Dutch also, except that the fares in Holland are considerably 
higher. In 1890 there were about 828 M. of government , and 
866 M. of private lines in use. Holland also possesses an exten- 
sive system of steam- tramways. 

The best railway, steamboat, and diligence time-tables are 
contained in Van Santen's Officieele Reisgids voor Nederland, 
published monthly (with map, price 25 cents). The hours of de- 
parture of the fast trains (1st and 2nd class) are printed in Italics; 
V. (vertrek) means departure, and a, (aankomst) arrival. To change 
carriages is overstappen. — The Vtrechter Administratie Reisgids 
(price 5 c.) also serves most purposes. 

VII. Dutch Characteristics. 

Towns. Most of the Dutch towns , especially those in Noord- 
Holland, Zuid-Holland , Friesland, and Groningen, as well as the 
open country, are intersected in every direction "by caina\s { Grachten), 
which are generally enlivened with numerous barges. The different 
quarters of the towns are connected by means of drawbridges 
(ophaalbruggen), now being replaced, however, by swing-bridges 
(draaihruggen). The roads and streets skirting the canals are 
usually planted with trees, which render them shady and picturesque. 

The Dutch houses are generally lofty and narrow, and construct- 
ed of red brick and white cement. The beams occasionally seen pro- 
jecting from the gables are used for hoisting up goods to the lofts, 
which are used as magazines. The windows of the ground-floor 
being generally of ample dimensions, and polished with the 
scrupulous care which characterises the Dutch of all classes, the 
houses present a far more cheerful and prosperous appearance than 
is usual in large towns. At the cellar-doors in the side-streets, 
sign-boards with the words '■water en vuur te koop^ (water and fire 
to sell) are frequently observed. At these humble establishments 
boiling-water and red-hot turf are sold to the poorer classes for the pre- 
paration of their tea or coffee. Many of the houses and public build- 
ings are considerably out of the perpendicular, a circumstance 
due to the soft and yielding nature of the ground on which they stand. 

In many Dutch towns the custom prevails of affixing bulletins 
to the doors of houses in which persons are sick, in order that their 

HOLLAND. Charncteristka. xxvii 

friends may be apprised of the state of their health without 
knocking or ringing. At Haarlem and Enkhiiizen the birth of a 
child is announced by means of a small placard, adorned with red 
silk and lace, and the friends of the family are entertained, on 
these occasions with ^kandeeV (a kind of mulled wine) and 
^kaneel-koekjes' (cinnamon-cakes). Betrothals are celebrated by an 
unlimited consumption of ^bruidsuiker' ('bridal sugar', or sweet 
cakes) and ^bruidstraneri' ('bridal tears', as the spiced wine is 
figuratively called). 

The Chimes in the towers of the churches, or other public build- 
ings , proclaim the quarters of every hour by playing a few bars 
of some popular or operatic air, a pleasing custom, of which how- 
ever the effect is destroyed by too frequent repetition. 

The ^ Gaper' (gaper), a painted Turk's or Moor's head, is a 
customary sign for druggists' shops. A large crown , decorated 
with box-leaves and gilding, suspended beneath the Dutch flag, 
is an indication that new herrings have arrived in the shop thus 
adorned. ^Tapperif (tap-room), or ^hier verkoopt man sterke 
dranken' (strong drinks are sold here), with the addition of ver- 
gunning (licensed), are the common signs for taverns. '■Dit huis is te 
huur' (this house is to hire, or let) is also frequently observed. 

Stoofjes, or foot-warmers, are universally employed by the 
female members of the community , and are seen in great numbers 
in the churches. 

The Dutch love of cleanliness sometimes amounts almost to a 
monomania. The scrubbing, washing, and polishing which most 
houses undergo once every week, externally as well as internally, 
are occasionally somewhat subversive of comfort. Spiders appear 
to be regarded with especial aversion, and vermin is fortunately 
as rare as cobwebs. 

Country Houses (buitenplaatsen , or buitens). Although na- 
ture has not bestowed her charms lavishly on Holland, the careful 
cultivation of the fields, gardens, and plantations imparts a pictur- 
esque and prosperous appearance to the country. In the vicinity 
of the larger cities , especially on the Vecht between Utrecht and 
Amsterdam , and also at Amhem , Haarlem , etc. , numerous villas 
and country-seats are seen near the roads and canals, frequently 
enclosed by carefully kept gardens, parks, and pleasure-grounds. 
These paradises of the Dutch gentry and retired merchants, which 
are too often built in bad taste, and disfigured with paint and 
stucco, usually bear inscriptions characteristic of the sentiments of 
their proprietors, and breathing a spirit of repose and comfort. 
Thus : ^Lust en RusV (pleasure and repose) , ' Wei Tevreden' (well 
content), ^Mijn Genoegen (my satisfaction), '■Mijn Lust en Leven' 
(my pleasure and life), '•Vriendschap en Gezelschap' (friendship and 
sociability), ^Vreugde bij Frerfe' (joy with peace), '■Groot Genoeg' 
(large enough), '■Builen Zorg' (without care). Many villas rejoice 

xxviii Dykes. HOLLAND. 

in much lengthier titles , which perhaps appear peculiarly appro- 
priate to the occupants, hut cannot fail to excite a smile when read 
hy strangers. Few of these country-houses are seen from the rail- 
way, and the traveller should, therefore endeavour to visit some of 
the more attractive of those mentioned in the following pages. 

Gasthuisbn and IIofjes. a Gasthuis is a hospital. The numher 
of benevolent institutions in Holland, dating from earlier centuries, 
is remarkably great. Hofjes are groups of dwellings, arranged round a 
court or yard, and occupied as almshouses by aged persons. Oudeman- 
ncn and Oudevrouwen houses, orphanages maintained by the various 
religious denominations, and similar institutions are very numerous. 

The Village Feasts (^^kermis\ literally 'church-mass', i. e. the 
anniversary of the foundation of the church) form a substitute for 
the Carnival of Roman Catholic countries, but the gaieties on these 
occasions too frequently degenerate into scenes of drunken revelry. 
The popular refreshments at these festivities are ^Hollands' and 
^Poffertjes% a kind of cake sold in the booths erected for the purpose. 
The picturesque national Costumes, which are fast disappearing 
tromthe larger towns, are seen to advantage on these festive occasions. 

Windmills (molens) are a characteristic of almost every Dutch 
landscape, and often occupy the old ramparts and. bastions of the 
towns, which they appear to defend with their gigantic arms. Many 
of them are used in grinding corn, sawing timber, cutting tobacco, 
manufacturing paper, etc., but one of their most important func- 
tions is to pump up the superfluous water from the low ground to 
the canals which conduct it to the sea. The highly-cultivated state 
of the country bears testimony to the efficiency of this system of 
drainage. Many of the windmills are of vast dimensions, each 
sail sometimes exceeding 60 ft. in length. 

Dykes. Holland , as a whole , is probably the lowest country 
in the world, the greater part of it lying many feet below the sea- 
level. The safety of the entire kingdom therefore depends upon the 
dykes , or embankments , by which the encroachment of the sea is 
prevented. In many places these vast and costly structures are 
equally necessary to prevent inundation by the rivers, the beds 
of which are gradually raised by alluvial deposits. 

The first care of the constructor of dykes is to lay a secure and 
massive foundation, as a preliminary to which the ground is 
stamped or compressed in order to increase its solidity. The dykes 
themselves are composed of earth , sand , and mud , which when 
thoroughly consolidated are entirely impervious to water. The 
surface is then covered with twigs of willows, interwoven with 
elaborate care , the interstices of which are filled with clay so as 
to bind the whole into a solid mass. The willows, which are 
extensively cultivated for the purpose, are renewed every three or 
four years. Many of the dykes, moreover, are planted with trees, 

HOLLAND. Canals, xxix 

the roots of which contribute materially to the consolidation of the 
structure. Others arc provided with bulwarks of masonry, or 
protected by stakes against the violence ofthevravcs, vv-hile the 
surface is covered with turf. 

The most gigantic of these embankments are those of the IIcl- 
der (p. 341), and of Westcapelle on the W. coast of the island of AVal- 
chcren (p. 245). The annual cost of maintaining the latter alone 
amounts to 75,000 fl. , while the total expenditure through- 
out Holland for works of this description is estimated at six 
million florins. A corps of engineers, termed Z>e Waterstaat, is 
occupied exclusively in superintending these works. The con- 
stantly-imminent nature of the danger will be thoroughly ap- 
preciated by the stranger, if he stands at the foot of one of the great 
dykes at high tide, and hears the breakers dashing against the other 
side of the barrier, at a height of 16-18 ft. above his head. The 
force of the old Dutch proverb 'God made the sea, we made the 
shore', will also be apparent. 

Canals intersect the country in every direction. They serve a 
threefold purpose: (1) as high-roads, for purposes of traffic ; (2) as 
drains, by which superfluous water is removed from the cultivated 
land; (3) as enclosures for houses , fields, and gardens, being as 
commonly used for this purpose in Holland as walls and hedges in 
other countries. The Dutch canals differ from those in most other 
countries in being generally broader, but variable in width, while 
locks are rare, as the level of the water is nearly always the same. 
Those canals, however, which are connected with the sea are closed 
at their extremities by massive flood-gates, to prevent the en- 
croachment of the sea when its level is higher than the water in 
the canal. 

The principal canals are about 60 ft. in width, and 6 ft. in 
depth. Not only the surface of the water, but the bed of the canal 
is often considerably above the level of the surrounding country. 
The three most important works of this kind in Holland are the 
great North Holland Canal [p. 336), 42 M. in length, 43 yds. in 
width, and 20 ft. in depth; the North Sea Canal across 'Holland 
op zyn smaalst' (p. 337), connecting Amsterdam and the North 
Sea; and the Willems-Canal in N. Brabant. 

Polder is a term applied to a morass or lake, the bed of which 
has been reclaimed by draining. A great part of Holland and 
Flanders has been thus reclaimed, and rendered not only habit- 
able, but extremely valuable for agricultural purposes. 

The first step in the process of drainage consists in enclosing the 
marsh with a dyke , to prevent the admission of water from with- 
out. The water is then removed by means of water-wheels of pecu- 
liar construction, formerly driven by windmills, now by steam-en- 
gines. The marsh or lake to be reclaimed is sometimes too deep to 
admit of the water at once being transferred to the main canals, and 


thus carried off. In these cases a system of dykes, one within the 
other, and each provided with a canal on its exterior, forms an as- 
cending series of levels, from the lower of which the water is grad- 
ually transferred to the higher, and thence finally into the principal 
channels. An excellent example of this is seen in the Schermer 
Pold€r(j^. 341), where four different levels have been formed. These 
canals, although separate from one another, are all provided with 
means of communication, by which if necessary the water from 
the higher can be discharged into the lower. 

The extraordinary fertility of the land thus reclaimed is chiefly 
accounted for by the fact, that superfluous water can be removed 
by means of the water-wheels on the shortest notice, while in dry 
seasons a thorough system of irrigation is constantly available. 

The appearance of these polders differs materially from that of 
the rest of the country. The speculators by whom they are drained 
map them out with mathematical precision into parcels , separated 
by canals and rows of trees at right angles, and furnished with 
houses of precisely uniform construction, all affording manifest 
indications of the artificial nature of the ground. The polders 
often lie under water in winter, but this by no means impairs 
the fertility of the soil, provided the water is not salt. 

The principal polders are the Beemster, Purmer, Schermer 
(pp. 342, 341), that of Haarlem [p. 258), reclaimed in 1840-53, 
and the recently -drained polder of the Y (p. 337). It is now 
proposed to convert the whole of the Zuidcr Zee into a polder, 
whereby Holland would gain an additional province of 687 sq. M. 
in area at an estimated cost of 120 million florins, or about 34i. 
sterling per acre. 

Dunes, or downs, are the low sand-hills, 30-160 ft. in height, 
which extend along the coast of Holland and Flanders, having 
been thrown up by the action of the wind and waves. Those 
nearest the sea are of very unsubstantial consistency, and being 
frequently altered in shape by the wind they afford little or no sup- 
port to vegetable life. Between the central downs (the highest and 
broadest) and thoae farther inland , is situated an almost uninter- 
rupted tract of pasture and arable land, studded with cottages, and 
producing excellent potatoes. Most of the dovnis are honeycombed 
with rabbit-warrens, which often afford excellent sport. 

In order to prevent the sand of the downs from covering the 
adjacent land, they are annually sown with the plants that most 
readily take root in such poor soil, especially the reed-grass (Dutch, 
helm; arundo arenarea). In course of time the roots spread and 
entwine in every direction, thus gradually consolidating the sand. 
A substratum of vegetable soil once formed , the arid and useless 
sand-hill is converted into a smiling and fertile agricultural district, 
in which even plantations of pines appear to thrive. 

HOLLAND. History, xxxi 

Vin. History and Statistics. 

The earliest inhabitants of the district at the cmhouchiircs of 
the Rhine are said to have accompanied the Cimbri and Teutoncs 
in their expedition against Italy. Several banished tribes of the 
Catti, who settled in the deserted island of Betuwe (p. 357), were 
conquered by the Romans, whose supremacy over this part of the 
country continued from the failure of the great rebellion of Clau- 
dius Civilis till the end of the 4th cent. , when the Salic Franks, 
the inhabitants of the banks of theYssel, took possession of the Be- 
tuwe, and established themselves between the Schelde, Meuse, and 
Lower Rhine. The district to the N. E. of the Salic Franks was 
occupied by the Frisians, to the E. of whom were the Saxons. 

The supremacy of Charlemagne extended over the whole of 
the Netherlands. Under his- successors the system of investing 
vassal-princes with the land gradually developed itself. The most 
powerful of these were the Bishops of Utrecht, the Dukes of Ouel- 
ders, and the Counts of Holland. In 1274 Count William II. of 
Holland was elected German Emperor through the influence of 
Pope Innocent IV. In 1512 the Dutch provinces were enrolled as 
a part of the Burgundian section of the Germanic Empire. 

Under the Emperor Charles V. the whole of the Netherlands were 
united (1543), and they now enjoyed a golden era of prosperity, in 
consequence of the powerful protection accorded by that monarch 
to commerce and navigation. Under his bigoted son and successor 
Philip II. of Spain, after the Duke of Alva's arrival at Brussels 
(1568), began that memorable, and at first apparently-hopeless 
struggle which lasted for 80 years, and terminated in the re- 
cognition of the Northern Netherlands as an independent state 
by the haughty Spaniards, and the establishment of the powerful 
Dutfh Republic. 

The great founder of Dutch liberty was William of Nassau, 
'the Taciturn', Prince of Orange, a German nobleman, who was born 
atDillenburg in the Duchy of Nassau in 1533. He was a great favour- 
ite of the Emperor Charles V. , who appointed him, when 22 years 
of age only , 'stadtholder' or governor of the provinces of Holland, 
Zealand . and Utrecht. The Low Countries having come into the 
possession of the Duke of Alva , the Spanish Governor, William 
retired to Dillenburg, but in 1572 was invited by Holland and Zea- 
land to take the command of their troops against the Spaniards. 
He shortly afterwards captured Middelburg, and succeeded in 
raising the siege of the distressed town of Leyden. On 29th Jan., 
1579, was formed the famous defensive league of the N. Netherlands, 
known as the Utrecht Union. William was shortly afterwards con- 
demned to banishment by Philip II., but the States General bravely 
defied the king's authority, and in 1581 formally threw off their 
allegiance to the Spanish crown. On 10th' July, 1584, William fell 
by the hand of an assassin at Delft (p. 256), very shortly before 

xxxii History. HOLLAND. 

the day on wliit^h the States iiitciuled to have conferred upon him 
the dignity of an hereditary count of Holland. The year following 
his death his son Maurice was elected stadtholder in his stead. 

Under his presidency (1585-1625) the power and wealth of 
the Republic rapidly increased , active hostilities were frequently 
undertaken against the Spaniards, and the E. Lidian trading com- 
pany was formed (1602). Meanwhile, however, there arose serious 
dissensions between the democratic and the government parties, 
which were greatly aggravated by the pernicious theological contro- 
versies of the Arminians and the Gomarists (p. 378). Contrary to 
the sound advice of the stadtholder, the States in their anxiety for 
commercial prosperity concluded a twelve years' peace with Spain 
in 1G09. Incensed by the quarrels which now ensued, Maurice 
caused the influential John van Oldenbarneveld , the pensionary or 
chancellor of the province of Holland, then in his 72nd year, to be 
arrested and condemned to death by a partial tribunal in 1610 
(p. 262), but by this judicial murder he did not succeed in intimid- 
ating his refractory subjects. Maurice died in 1625, and was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Frederick Henry (1625-47), under whom 
the unity of the Republic became more consolidated , and the 
prosperity of the States reached its climax. Both by land and by 
sea they triumphed over the Spaniards in the hostilities which now 
broke out afresh; and in 1628 the gallant admiral Piet Hein 
captured the Spanish 'silver fleet'. The Dutch commerce of that 
period was the most widely extended in the world. 

The great Dutch navigators Houtman, Heemskerck, Davis, Schou- 
ten, Lemaire, Hartog, Edels, Schapenham, Nuyt, Vianen, Caron, Tas~ 
man, De Vries, VanCampen, and Berkel, explored the most distant 
coasts in the world during this period, while theE. Indian factories, 
especially that of Batavia, which had been established in 1619, 
yielded a rich harvest. The Dutch school of painting now attained 
Its culminating point (comp. p. lii), and the sciences were also 
highly cultivated during this prosperous epoch, as the well-known 
names of Grotius, Vossius, Heinsius, Gronovius, etc., abundantly 

Frederick Henry died in 1647, shortly before the Peace of 
Westphalia, by which the independence of the United States of the 
Netherlands was formally recognised, and was succeeded by his 
son William, then in his 21st year. 

The renewal of dissensions between the States and the stadt- 
holder determined them, on the early death of this prince in 1650, 
not to elect a new governor, and the reins of government were now 
entrusted to the distinguished Grand Pensionary John de Witt , an 
able and energetic senator. 

During this period the navigation acts were passed by Crom- 
well, placing restrictions on the Dutch trade, and thus giving rise 
to the war which called into activity the talents of Tromp , De 

HOLLAND. History, xxxiii 

Witt, De Ruyter, and other naval heroes , whose memory is still 
justly cherished by the Dutch. Within the brief period of sixteen 
months (1652-54) no fewer than twelve great naval battles were 
fought, in most of which the arms of the Republic were crowned 
with success. By the peace concluded in 1654, however, the States 
were obliged to recognise the authority of the navigation acts. In 
1665 a war with England again broke out, during which, in 1667, 
De Ruyter even entered the estuary of the Thames with his fleet, 
endangering the safety of London itself, to the great consternation 
of the citizens. Notwithstanding this success , the peace concluded 
shortly afterwards was again productive of little benefit to 

Meanwhile Louis XIV. of France had disclosed his designs 
against the Netherlands , and had taken possession of the part be- 
longing to Spain. His proceedings against Holland, however, were 
checked for a time by the triple alliance between England, Holland, 
and Sweden , concluded by the advice of the Grand Pensionary de 
Witt. In 1672, after the dissolution of the alliance, Louis renewed 
his attacks on the now almost defenceless Union , whose army 
had been entirely neglected since the death of Prince William. 
Conde and Turenne took possession of the provinces of Guelders, 
Over-Yssel, and Utrecht almost without a blow , while that of Hol- 
land, with its capital Amsterdam , only succeeded in averting the 
same fate by means of an artificially cansed inundation. The people, 
believing that they had been betrayed by their government, now 
broke out into a rebellion to which De Witt fell a victim (p. 270), 
and which resulted in the revival of the office of stadtholder. 

Williain HI. (1672-1702), the last, and after its founder great- 
est, scion of his house, was accordingly elected, and the office of 
stadtholder declared hereditary. Under his auspices, with the aid 
of the Elector of Brandenburg and the Spanish troops, the French 
were defeated, and the war was at length terminated by the Peace 
of Nymegen in 1678. 

William III., who had thus been instrumental in asserting the 
liberties of Europe against the usurping encroachments of the 
'Grand Monarque', married the daughter of the Duke of York, 
afterwards King James II. of England. In 1688 he undertook that 
bold expedition across the Channel which resulted in the deliverance 
of England from the arbitrary government of the Stuarts and the 
final establishment of constitutional liberty and Protestantism in 
Great Britain. The following year he was elected King by parlia- 
ment, retaining at the same time the office of stadtholder of the 
Netherlands. In his new position he continued strenuously to oppose 
the increasing power of France. The united fleets of England and 
Holland gained a decisive victory over the French near La Hogue 
in 1692, and by the Peace of Ryswyk in 1697 Louis was compelled 
to restore a considerable part of his conquests. William was now 

Baeoeker's Belgium and Holland. lOtb Edit. C 

xxxiv History. HOLLAND. 

estranged from his native country, but shortly before his death, 
without issue, in 1702, he brought about the 'Great Alliance' which 
disputed the right of the French monarch to succeed to the crown 
of Spain. 

Following the example of the States General (p. xxxi), the live 
most important provinces now declared the office of Stadtholder 
abolished. Their foreign policy, however, underwent no alteration 
on this account. Prince John William Friso (d. 1711, see p. 175), 
stadtholder of Friesland and cousin of William III, succeeded to 
the command of the army of the Republic, which took part in the 
war of the Spanish succession. Under his presidency the power of 
the States General manifested itself anew. The flower of the Dutch 
army fell at the bloody victory of Malplaquet (p. 180), and in 1714 
the Peace Congress assembled at Utrecht, on Dutch soil. 

The events of the 18th cent, scarcely require special mention. 
The Republic had lost its prestige , and in the continuing alliance 
with England the preponderating power of the latter became more 
and more marked. When the French entered the territory of the 
Republic during the Austrian war of succession , the people com- 
pelled the States to appoint William IV., Prince of Orange, the 
son and successor of John William Friso, General Stadtholder over 
all the seven provinces; and in 1748 this dignity was once more 
declared hereditary. A revolution which broke out towards the close 
of the century ended in the expulsion of the Stadtholder Williajn V. ; 
but he was reinstated in his office by the Prussian army, which 
had advanced almost unopposed to the gates of Amsterdam itself. 

The importance of the Republic had now dwindled to a mere 
shadow. In 1795 the French Republicans , led by Dutch exiles, 
took possession of the country , founded the ^Batnvian Republic', 
and at the same time caused heavy taxes to be levied. Schimmel- 
pennink, an able statesman , was created president of the new Re- 
public, under the old title of Grand Pensionary, but in 1805 was 
compelled to yield up his authority to Louis Bonaparte, who had 
been created King of Holland by his brother Napoleon I. This 
semblance of independent existence came to an end in 1810, 
when Napoleon annexed Holland to France , declaring it to have 
been formed by the alluvial deposits of French rivers. 

At length in November, 1813, the French were expelled from 
Holland by the Dutch , aided by the Russians and Prussians ; and 
the Prince of Orange, son of William V. , the last stadtholder, who 
died in exile in 1806, ascended the throne of Holland as an in- 
dependent sovereign. 

By the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the southern, or Belgian 
provinces of the Netherlands, were united with the northern into a 
single Kingdom, and the Prince of Orange was created King of the 
Netherlands , under the title of William I. This bond of union 
between two races difiering materially in language, religion, and 

HOLLAND. Statistics, xxxv 

character was severed by the Belgian Revolution of 1830 (comp. 
p. xviii). Ten years later William I. ahdicated in favour of 
his son William II., who died in 1849, and was succeeded by 
William III. [born in 1817, married first in 1839 to Princess Sophia 
of Wurtemberg, who died in 1877, and secondly to the Princess 
Emma of Waldeck in 1879). At his death (Nov. 23rd, 1890) the 
male line of the house of Nassau-Orange became extinct. He was 
succeeded by his daughter Wilhelmina (b. 1880), during whose 
minority the queen-mother exercises the functions of regent. 

Area "and Population. The Kingdom of the Nethevlands, including 
the Province of Limburg, is 12,650 sq. M. in area, and has (1889) a popu- 
lation of 4,548,600 (2|5ths Rom. Cath. , 81,000 Jew?). Amsterdam is the 
capital of the kingdom, and the Hagiie is the residence of the kmg. lue 
Netherland.s are divided into eleven provinces: N. Brahant (capital Her- 
togenbosch), Drenthe (Assen), Fnesland (Leeuwarden), Gueldevland (ArnhemJ, 
Gvoningen (Gronin-en), N. Holland (Amsterdam), .S^. Holland (Ha|'\6-'» 
Limburg (Maastricht), Over-Ytsel (Zwolle), Utrecht (Utrecht), Zeeland {Mid- 

Revenuk. The annual income of the sovernment (exclusive of the 
colonies) amounted in 1SS9 to 124,543,000 floriiis (about 10,379,000;. sterling), 
and the expenditure to 125,338,200 fl. The budget for 1891 estimated the 
revenue and expenditure at 126,.o36.025 fl. and 135,930,839 fl. The national 
debt in 1890 amounted to 1,111,517,160 florins (about 92,626,000i.). 

The national colours are red, white, and blue, placed in horizontal 
lines (the French are placed vertically) ; the motto, 'Je maintiendrai\ 

Colonies. The most important Dutch colonies in the E. Indict are 
Java (capital Batavia) , Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes; in the W. Indies 
Surinam, St. Eustache, and Curacao; to which must be added a number 
of factories .on the coast of Guinea. The total area of these possessions 
amounts to 766.000 sq. M., the population to 29-30 million souls. 

Commerce. The merchant fleet of Holland in 1890 numbered 610 
vessels (including 110 steamers), of an aggregate burden of 215,000 tons. 
The imports in 18S9 amounted to 1245 ^million , the exports to 1094 
million florins. 

The Army consists of 1 regiment of Grenadiers and Riflemen, 8 regi- 
ments of Infantry, 3 regiments of Hussars, 3 regiments of Field-Artillery 
(18 batteries), 1 regiment of Horse Artillery (2 batteries), and 4 regiments 
of Fortress Artillery (40 companies) . corps of the military train , ponto- 
niers , 'depot-battalions', instruction battalions, etc., amounting in all to 
64,400 men. Beside the regular army there are the 'Schuttery.s\ a kind of 
national guard, and the Mandsturm", or militia. — The army in the colonies 
has a strength of about 32,000 men. 

The Navy consisted in 18S9 of 117 vessels of war (2Uron-clads), com- 
manded by three vice-admirals, 3 rear-admirals ('schouten-by-nacht'), 26 
captains, 35 commanders, etc., and manned by upwards of 6900 hands. 

An Historical Sketch of Art in the Netherlands. 

Bj' Professor Springer. 

The traveller who would explore the Netherlands without tak- 
ing account of the Art Treasnres still preserved there, heedlessly 
disregards a source of the highest gratification. The collections 
in the cities, as well in Belgium as in Uolland, can boast that 
they include many of the most remarkable creations of the art 
of a bygone period: works, moreover, whic-h have not found 
their way hither by mere accident, but grow out of the very soil, 
so to speak, of these Low Countries, and have their raison d'etre 
in the land , in those forms and fashions which to this day repeat 
themselves alike in the native landscape and in tlie habits of the 
people. IIow much more lively is the impression received from 
works of art when seen amidst tlieir natural surroundings, is a 
matter of common and approved experience. Everything that is 
essentially characteristic in a picture, atmosphere and light, form, 
whether natural or otherwise, fashion and custom , present them- 
selves to the beholder. The sources of the artist's inspiration, 
all that served to feed his fancy, are clearly manifest ; while many 
a characteristic incident, which would otherwise escape observation 
or remain altogether unintelligible, receives its requisite inter- 
pretation. It is true that the aesthetic value of individual pictures 
may be always in all places recognised. A Titian is lustrous even 
in St. Petersburg ; Diirer's incisive pencil asserts itself in Madrid. 
Nevertheless the historical significance of Art , the necessary cause 
of her development, can be understood by those only who will 
explore the scenes which witnessed her life's first dawn , particu- 
larly when lapse of time has failed materially to alter the character 
of such scenes. 

A distinction which the Netherlands enjoy in common with 
Italy consists in the opportunity afforded of obtaining the best 
possible insight into the mysterious quickening of the artistic spirit ; 
a comprehensive survey, too, of art's earliest promise and maturity, 
and her identity with the national life. That continuity and many- 
sidedness of national art, which in Italy is so pronounced, theNether- 
lands do not, however, possess. Twice only — once in the 15th, and 
once in the 17th century — do they furnish remarkable material for 
the history of modern art. Earlier centuries reveal a poor art life, 
and the intervals between the two periods referred to fail to make 


any profound impression, however useful they may hare been in the 
development of the personality of the artist. Both in the 15th and 
in the 17th century the artistic strength of the country devoted itself 
to painting. The art of the Netherlands owes its fame to the 
brilliant achievements of its painters. 

Churches. During the centuries of the Middle Ages, art in the 
Netherlands did not by any means keep pace with the advance made 
in Germany and France: it was slow to move, and followed in th > 
wake first of German, and later of French art. The number of Ko- 
MANESQUE buildiugs in Belgian territory — for Holland must first 
be noticed in connection with the Gothic era — is not great. Of these 
the Cathedral of Toumai (p. 59) is the most prominent example. 
The influence of lower Rhenish architecture(that of Cologne), is ex- 
hibited in this cathedral, which, in respect of scale, surpasses 
all the older churches. At the same time there is an evident approxi- 
mation to the French style, which, after the 13th century, pervaded 
the entire land. It is much to be regretted that our acquaintance with 
the history of this church is so imperfect. Certain it is, that the 
present edifice was begun in the 1 2th century and completed in the 14th, 
— When in the adjacent territory of Northern ^France the Gothic 
Style had acquired completeness , the Netherlands adopted this 
model. The southern portion of the land now became, in the 
realm of architecture, a mere province of France ; and indeed French 
influence extended gradually to politics and culture also. Stately 
Gothic cathedrals rear themselves in the more considerable Belgian 
towns. With the church of St. Gudule in Brussels are associated 
the choir of the cliurch of Notre Dame at Bruges , St. Bavon at 
Ghent, St. Kombaut at A/aimes , the Cathedral of Louvain, and, 
lastly, the renowned Cathedral of Antwerp, where a lamentable 
want of structural harmony must be noted, more particularly 
in the spire, whose toppling height rather astonishes by its 
audacity than delights by its beauty. Although there is an evident 
preference for lofty towers (the double tower is seldom seen, 
but rather a single tower in advance of the western extremity), 
yet , as a rule , an endeavour to secure a spacious area visibly 
determines the general proportions , while the soaring height 
and slender support which give so marked a character to the in- 
teriors of the cathedrals of France and Germany, are but slightly 
regarded. Double aisles are frequent in the churches ; but the height 
of the nave seldom exceeds 80 or 90 feet, being but twice, not as 
was usual elsewhere, three times, the width. The Dutch churches are 
of similar construction. Gothic architecture was much more preva- 
lent in Holland than is generally supposed; Utrecht, Amsterdam, 
Haarlem. Ley den , and Rotterdam, for example, possess Gothic 
churches on a grand scale. The building material, however, namely 
brick, which has been used (the Germans learned its use from the 
Dutch) , gives a ponderous appearance to these edifices ; while the 


wood covering wliicli conceals the vaulted roof, the absence of archi- 
tectural oruamcutatiou, and, finally, change in the forms of worship, 
have done niucli to destroy their original beauty. But we do not 
visit Holland to study ecclesiastical Gothic. 

Sbculak Buildings. Of far greater interest are those Gothic 
buildings erected for secular and civic purposes , in which Flan- 
ders is especially rich. So early as the 12th century , mighty 
towers to serve as belfrys were erected in the midst of fortified 
towns , for the purpose of mustering the citizens by sound of bell 
in the event of an enemy's approach or of alarm from fire. Attacdied 
to the belfries, or erected separately, are spacious Halles, im- 
posing edifices, used for the display of those products of Flemish 
industry which were once foremost in the markets of the world. The 
Hotel de Ville adorns the principal square of tlie town. Its facade 
generally exhibits the wealth of decoration belonging to the later 
Gothic; while, in the interior, sculptor and painter found occasion 
for the exercise of their respective arts. The belfries at Tournai 
and Ghent, the 'halles' oi Bruges and Ypres, and the 'hotels de ville' 
of Bruges, Brussels, and Louvain, call for especial notice from the 
traveller; and, in case he should be interested in antiquated do- 
mestic architecture, he will find a rich treat provided for him in 
Bruges and Antwerp, once chief among Hanseatic towns. These 
buildings date as far back as the 15th and 16th centuries, a time 
when painting in the Netherlands bore Its first fruits. 

Painting. To connect these early efforts with the power and 
wealth of the old Hanseatic League , and to find in the sump- 
tuous habits of the Burgundian Princes the chief impulse to the 
rapid development of the painter's art in the Netherlands, is 
obviously natural and reasonable. How the eye of the painter 
must have revelled in the varied costumes , in the manifold 
and sharply defined types , whether of native or foreigner, 
which he encountered in the motley assemblage that thronged 
these cities of the League I We may well conceive the artist's 
imagination to have been fascinated by the wealth of colour 
presented by a picture composed of weather-beaten mariners, sturdy 
labourers, burly citizens, and sagacious traders. The early practice 
of portrait-painting may also be attributed to the spirit prevailing 
in the Hanseatic towns. The interest in this branch of the painter's 
art originated probably in the self-complacency which naturally 
possesses a community of substantial burghers , proud of their vo- 
cations and achievements. Further, the Burgundian Princes, in the 
gratification of their love of splendour, found, as trustworthy accounts 
assure us, abundant employment for the artist as well as artizan. 
In their luxurious court, with its brilliant retinue, there must have 
been robes of state, glittering weapons , costly furniture, besides 
courtly manners, to captivate the eye and engage the attention of 
the painter. Undoubted, however, as the effect of such influences 


was in giving a particular direction to painting in the Nether- 
lands, they assuredly were not the source from which it sprung. 
It was not until the painter's art was emancdpated from the tram- 
mels of a traditional practice , that it found favour at court, and 
in the towns of the League. 

Up to the beginning of the 15th century Art was in neither a 
better nor worse condition than in adjacent lands, though the paint- 
ers of Cologne could nndoubtedly claim pre-eminence. Suc.h spe- 
cimens of wall-painting in the Low Countries as are still pre- 
served , show an entire want of professional training. The works of 
the miniature painters, however, rank higher. Encouraged by com- 
missions from French Princes , they were elaborately finished , and 
both in colour and drawing give evidence of a higher education in 
the artists. Sculpture, too, could boast of sterling work. If any 
general inference is to be drawn from monumental effigies preserved 
in Toumai, and dating from the beginning of the loth century, a 
school of sculpture existed there, which successfully aimed at a 
truthful rendering of nature. The practice of painting works of 
sculpture brought the sister arts into more intimate relation. So 
far, however, was sculpture in advance, that painters found them- 
selves reduced to the expedient of adopting the plastic mode of 
treatment in the disposal of groups, as well as in drawing and the 
treatment of drapery. A long interval elapsed ere painting acquired 
a style of its own, and until every trace of the plastic relief had dis- 
appeared. Such was the condition of the painter's art in tlie Nether- 
lands, when the two brothers Van Eyck made their appearance , but 
we are not in a position to indicate their immediate predecessors, nor 
to determine with certainty the circumstances of their early training. 

The two brothers Van Eyck were natives ofMaaseyck, nearMas- 
tricht, where Hubert, the elder, was born somewhere about 
the years 1360-70. Wolfram von Eschenbach, in his 'Perze- 
val', had already pronounced the painters of Maastricht and Cologne 
to be the best of his time, but how painting at Maastricht or Limburg 
was employed in Hubert's time we know not. Absolutely nothing 
is known of the course of Hubert's early training, of his school, or 
early works. About the year 1420, we find him settled at Ghent, 
where a guild of painters had already long existed, along with his 
brother. Whether while here he was the teaclier or the taught, 
whetlier the local influences of Ghent first modified his conceptions 
and method, or whether the guild in Ghent derived new light from 
him, cannot be determined. We know of only one work from 
Hubert van Eyck's hand, indisputably identified as his, and it was 
painted in the concluding years of his life , and left by him un- 
finished. This is the gigantic Altarpiece which Jodocus Vyts com- 
missioned him to paint for the St. Bavon church in Ghent. In it he 
still clings to the traditional rules of composition in the observance 
of the severely-symmetrical proportions of an architectural struc- 


turc. Hilt while lie fails to dispose tlie crowd of figures in separate 
groups, he succeeds in giving to the heads a portrait-like indi- 
viduality ; he is careful to render the varied texture of the draperies, 
and in modelling the nude figure he closely imitates nature in 
every minute particular. For example, in the figure of Adam (now 
deta(;hed from the original picture aud preserved along with Eve in 
the Brussels Museum, p. 101), even the short hairs ofthe arms and legs 
are carefully elaborated. But the most surprising innovation is in 
the colouring, to which he gave wonderful force and harmony, 
using it to give effect to an appearance of reality almost deceptive. 
The old belief that Hubert invented oil-painting cannot indeed be 
unreservedly accepted. But, although oil had long been in use as a 
vehicle, Hubert's merit is not the less conspicuous. He is still the 
first who adapted the invention to the purposes of art, by employing 
the fluid medium for the more subtle blending of colours. By this 
means he so far facilitated the process of painting, that the endea- 
vour to give a faithful, life-like rendering of nature was com- 
pletely successful. He possessed himself of the means by which alone 
effect could be given to the new impulse in art. We can have no 
better proof of the importance attached to this new method of 
painting introduced by Hubert, than in the sensation it made in 
Italy, where the invention and its publication were invested with 
the attributes of romance. 

Hubert's connection with his brother Jan van Eyck (born 1381 
-1395) is involved in some obscurity, but the latter came to be 
regarded as the more capable ofthe two. Unjustly so, however, as the 
younger brother with his own hand bears record, in an inscription on 
the Altar-piece at Ghent, in these words: 'Hubertus — major quo 
nemo repertus', — thus showing that Hubert was at least his equal. 
We are, at the same time, very imperfectly informed of Jan's early 
training, though we know a good deal about his public career. 
While Hubert, it would appear, found favour with the wealthy 
burghers of Ghent , Jan took service in the courts, first of John of 
Bavaria, afterwards of Philip the Good. He lived for some years at 
tlie Hague, later in Lille, and after Hubert's death removed to 
(Jhent, in order to finish the Altar-piece. In 1432 he migrated to 
Bruges, where he died on 9th July , 1440, about fourteen years 
after his brother. His peculiar art can best be studied in Bruges; 
not that many of his works are to be found there, but that the self- 
same genius still pervades the place which inspired the school of 
early Flemish painters. Bruges still remains outwardly very 
much what it was in the 16th century. The old houses have lost 
nothing of their character and dignity by contact with the newer 
buildings which have sprung up in their midst; while , in the quiet 
of the comparatively-forsaken thoroughfares, there is nothing to 
disturb the wanderer in quest of reminiscences of the Bruges of 
bygone days. Just as Nuremberg, some half-century ago, vividly re- 


called the age ot'Diirer, so in Bruges a perfectly dear conception may 
still be had of the period which witnessed the labours of the Eycks 
and Memling. But, in any (5ase , two admirable works by Jan van 
Eyck in the Academy at Bruges afford a valuable opportunity of 
appreciating his art. In keeping with a strong determination 
towards a more portrait-like and realistit; conception of nature, is 
the endeavour, observable in his metliod, after a greater fulness of 
outline and an exact rendering of textures. The direction of his 
aim is indicated by the fact of his having painted genre pictures 
with a definite motive — the 'Bath-room' for example. 

There can be no doubt that Jan van Eyck had pupils ; but 
there can be as little doubt that there were painters, both in Ghent 
and Bruges, who adopted Van Eyck's method, and imitated his 
style, though not recognised as members of his school. Owing to 
the scanty information possessed of art in the Netherlands during 
the 15th century, nothing can be conclusively affirmed on the sub- 
ject. Petrus Cristus may be mentioned as a pupil of Jan van Eyck, 
at Bruges ; as independent masters Gerard van der Meire and Hugo 
van der Goes, of Ghent. 

The people were as averse to centralisation in the domain of 
art-training as in the conduct of state affairs. Wliile the Van Eycks 
were carrying their art from the Valley of the Meuse to Bruges and 
Ghent, another great artist was founding a school of painting at 
Brussels. Roger van dkrWkydkn is apparently identical with that 
Royelet de la Pasture who, in 1426, worked as a pupil of Robert 
Campin atTournai, and in 1432 was admitted as master in the Paint- 
ers' guild. We find Van derWeyden installed as painter to the town 
of Brussels in 1436. In 1450 he appears in Rome, as the first north- 
ern painter of undisputed fame whose name was honoured by the 
Italians, uncompromising though he was in adhering to the practice 
of his native art. On his return he again took up his abode in 
Brussels, still painting, and died in 1464. In the absence of any 
signature, his works are confounded with those of Jan van Eyck, with 
whom he had nothing in common , and with tliose of Memling, who 
was his pupil. They are, moreover, scattered far and near, and have 
to be sought for at Madrid, Rome, Frankfort, Munich, Berlin, etc. 
The Museum of Antwerp, however, possesses in the Seven Sacra- 
ments one of the most prominent works of this master, who was 
peculiarly successful in depicting scenes of dramatic interest 
( Descent from the Cross) ; too often, however, his power of animated 
expression betrays a want of feeling for beauty of form , and is 
continually suggestive of tinted reliefs. 

Hans Memling, the pupil of Van der Weyden, bears the least 
possible resemblance to him. According to a legend, which in earlier 
times received general credence, Memling, having been wounded at 
the battle of Nancy, was carried to Bruges , where , in gratitude for 
the tender care bestowed upon him in the Hospital of St. John, he 


painted iiumurous pictures. Tliis story may be placed in the same 
category as tliose of DUrer's malevolent spouse, and of the licent- 
iousness of the laterj Dutch painters. Memlin^ was born (in Mainz) 
about the year 1430 ; was, in 1472. already actively engaged as paint- 
er; in 1478 was permanently establislicd in Bruges, a well-to-do 
house proprietor in the Vlaminckdamm (now Rue St. George), and 
died Aug. 11th, 1495. The little weknow of him personally is in some 
measure compensated for by the great number ofhisworlis still extant. 
Bruges, in particular, can boast of possessing literally a Memling 
museum. In the Academy is the Triptych with the St. Christopher, 
in the Hospital of St. John the so-called St. John Altar, the Ad- 
oration of the Magi, the Madonna with Martin Nieuwenhoven, the 
portrait of Catharine Moreel, and, finally, the Ursula casket, the 
most ornate and captivating illustration of legendary lore bequeathed 
by the art of this early period. In Memling, indeed, it may be said 
the school of Van Eyck exhibits its higliest attainments. Pure and 
luminous colouring is combined with correct drawing; a l<een percep- 
tion of Nature with a coherent sense of the beautiful. Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle, in their liistory of old Flemish Painters, speak of Mem- 
ling as a lyric bard, and if his forms lack ideality, he knows how 
to give them the impress of a winsome beauty. His Madonnas, whose 
golden hair falls over the shoulders , or is gathered up in luxuriant 
tresses, combine dignity with a sainted loveliness. 

Painting flourished in the 15th century in Holland no less than 
in the southern Netherlands, though the earlier masters, such as 
Albert van Omvater, are represented but by few works. A more tangible 
personality is that oiDierick Bouts {I'iQb-iATb), who removed from 
Haarlem toLouvain, and with his industrious peiniil announced the 
fundamental characteristic of Dutch painting, in his delicate appre- 
ciation of landscape beauty. Gerard David, of Bruges (1483-1523), 
in the S., and Jacob Kornelissen or Jacob van Oostzanen ( ca. 1506- 
1530), in the N., may be regarded as off"shoots of the older school. 
Both are flue colourists and distinguished for the tender sweetness of 
their female ligures. Dramatic conception was foreign to both. 

We have, indeed, abundant cause to deplore the ravages of 
time, wlieu we proceed to sum up the number of authenticated 
old Flemish pictures still in existence. Scarcely, indeed, do we 
possess mementoes of ten painters , such as enable us to form a 
really distinct and vivid conception of tlieir character as artists ; 
yet this old Netherlands school was busy for eighty years ; nor was its 
activity confined to Bruges and Ghent alone, but was shared by Ant- 
werp, Brussels, and in the North by Leyden and Haarlem. One im- 
portant cause of this absence of reliable accounts lay in the new 
direction taken by the Netherlands school of painting in the 16th 
century, whicdi had the effect of depreciating tlie works of their 
predecessors in the general estimation, and finally of committing 
them to oblivion. For the Netherlands, like the rest of the North, 


became subject to the spirit of the Italian Renaissance. Under 
the Buris;undian rule, literature had already been alienated from the 
popular sympathies, and even so it was now witli pictorial art. Lu- 
cas van Ley den , and Quinten Massys, of Antwerp (1466-1531), 
are the last distinsruished masters who were not carried away by 
this current. The importance of the former, however, is chiefly due 
to his admirable engravings ; while Massys sometimes displays a 
vigour of sentiment at variance with the hitherto habitual concep- 
tion. Quinten Massys is, indeed, generally regarded as the connect- 
ing link between the old school of the Van Eyclis and Rubens. 

The influence of the Renaissance reached the Netherlands, as it 
reached Germany, in the 16th century. In the domains of Architec- 
ture and Sculpture the ensuing breach with previous native styles 
seems to have been less abrupt than in the domain of painting. The 
narrow Gothic house, with its stepped gable, long held its ground ; 
and although Italian modes of ornamentation attained the ascendancy 
in the first half of the 16th century, yet in the second half the na- 
tional irenius powerfully reasserted itself (Kollwork). Among the 
most important Renaissance buildings in the Netherlands are the 
Salm Inn at Malines (p. 134) and the old Maison de VAncien Greffe 
at Bruges (p. 23). The Town Halls of the Hague, Leyden, and 
Amsterdam, the old Fleshers' Hail at Haarlem (p. 286), and the 
Weiyh-House at Nymegen (p. 371) belong to the later period. The 
Netherlands are peculiarly rich in decorative works in wood, stone, 
and brass. The monuments of Count Engelbert of Nassau and his 
wife, in the Groote Kerk at Breda, and that of Archbishop Williayn 
of Cray, in the church of the Capucins at Enghien (p. 70), are among 
the finest productions of Renaissance art in the north of Europe. 
The chimney-pieces (Bruges), carved stalls (Dordredit), and altars 
(Hal) must also not be forgotten. The Musee Plantin at Antwerp 
contains an interesting collection of Renaissance furniture. 

The Flemish Painters of the Renaissance produce a less favour- 
able impression. The Italian forms and even colours found no 
response in the inmost spirit of tlic Flemish painters, and tlie result 
is often mere frigid prcttiness or artificial idealisation. Just as we 
prefer the popular ballad to the Latin verse of our school days, so we 
prize the unadorned Flemish style more highly than unsuccessful 
imitations of the Italian. The 16th century was, it is true, of a 
ditferent way of thinking, and hailed this inroad of the Renaissance 
upon their native art as a sign of progression ! Antwerp especially 
was for a long time the capital of art in the Netherlands, whence 
Duke William of Bavaria, as well as the Emperor Rudolph II., the 
two most enlightened patrons of art among German princes, supplied 
their requirements ; while Flemings, too, provided for England's 
needs. It is evident, then, that the Netherlands had no lack of 
renown nor yet of highly-gifted spirits, whose achievements, had a 
more auspicious fate attended them, would have been considerable. 


The earlier pictures of Jan Uossnert^ suruamed VnnMabeuijeoT Mabuxe 
(flourished 1503-32), please by force of their masterly modelling and 
intense colouring. Bernard varh Orley (1471-1541) turned his resi- 
dence in Rome to good account in mastering the style of thellaphael- 
esque school, which both in composition and drawing he reproduced 
with considerable cleverness. If we can praise the industry only of 
Michael van Coxie or Coxcyen (1499-1592), and find the insipidity 
in conception and the exaggeration of form in the work of Frans 
de Vrieiidt, surnamed Moris (1520-70), simply repulsive; if, again, 
Karel van Mander is famous principally for his literary acquire- 
ments, and Hubert Goltzius for his versatility, still one branch of 
the art remains in which the Flemings achieved and sustained a 
marked success, viz. Poktraiture, represented in the IGth century 
by Jan van Scorel or Schooreel (1495-1562), Ant. Moor (1518- 
1588), the eUer Peter Pourbus (1540-1580), and Geldorp. The 
earliest approaches to genre and landscape painting which later at- 
tained to such majestic proportions must not be allowed to es(;ape 
observation. Their germs are, in fact, already to be detected in the 
works of Van Eyck. The principle of a careful study of Nature, and 
delight in every phase of life, early asserted itself, giving to every 
object, however insignificant, however obscure, an artistic charm. The 
painting of still life, the pourtraying of those humorous incidents, 
never wanting in domestic experience, which served to illustrate every- 
day life among the people, came early into vogue, though at first dis- 
agreeably qualified by the intermixture of the grotesque (in the shape 
of Devils' dances). Old Brueyhel (see below) and Vinck-Boons had 
already painted rustic subjects, Patinir of Dinant and PaulBriJ, land- 
scapes, with richness of effect, unilloelant Savery animal picture*. 
Among all these painters , the members of the family of 
Brueyhel or, as sometimes written, Breughel., attract our interest most 
effectually. They not only afford the most striking example of that 
highly propitious practice, the hereditary prosecution of the same 
craft, but also excellently illustrate the transition from the old to 
the new style of art. Peter Brueghel the elder, or ' Peasant Brueghel' 
(about 1525-69), the earliest representative of this race of paint- 
ers, travelled in Italy for the purpose of studying art, but re- 
mained faithful to the subjects and treatment of his native land. 
His figures are of a purely Flemish type, while his delicate colour- 
ing is content to reveal the study of nature in northern climes 
alone. Of his two sons Peter or ^Hell-fire' Brueghel (1565-1637) 
and Jan or ^Velvet' Brueghel (1568-1678), the latter, who acquir- 
ed his surname from his partiality for wearing velvet, is the more 
Important. He acquired eminence not only in paying homage to 
the widely-extended national taste for flower-pieces, but also by 
his landscapes, which are distinguished for the tender bluish tone 
of their middle distance and background (not, however, always 
true to nature), and for the marvellous finish of detail in the small 


figures occupying the foreground. The sons of the two brothers bore 
the same Christian names as their fathers, followed the same pro- 
fession, and perpetuated the manner of the Brueghels down to the 
close of the 17th century. 

All previous attainments, however, sink into insignificance beside 
the extraordinary capacity displayed by the Flemish artists of the 17th 
century. The eighty years' revoltof the Dutch against Spanish oppres- 
sion was at an end. Though bleeiling from a thousand wounds, the 
youthful Republic had triumphantly maintained itself, and con- 
quered for itself virtual recognition. Two worlds separate and distinct 
from one another were here compressed into their narrow confines. 
In the still Spanish Netherlands , forming the Southern division, 
the old regime in politics as in faith remained intact; in the States 
General of Holland, not only was a new form of government estab- 
lished, but new political and economical views, and a new form of 
faith, were in the ascendant. Both these worlds find in contemporary 
art a clearly- defined expression. The art of Peter Paul Rubens 
serves to glorify the ancient regime and the ancient faith . and was 
by this means in effect assimilated to the art of Italy, and beguiled 
by the mythological ideal. Dutch art, on the other hand, grew out 
of the new life and the new faith, and thus reflects the provincialism 
and civic pretensions which now becarae the characteristic features of 
the body politic. Here the schools of Haarlem, the Hague, Leyden, 
Delft, and Amsterdam, possess equal merit. Historical pictures are 
superseded by portrait groups of the civic functionaries and rulers ; 
the veil of mystery is withdrawn from the representation of sacred 
subjects, and, in its place, a bare matter-of-fact and modernised treat- 
ment is introdu'^ed , in conformity with the Protestant views of tlie 
16th and 17th centuries, which regarded the Bible in a very different 
light from the old Church. An historical notice of the condition 
of national culture would not in itself serve to throw much light 
on the relations of Flemish and Dutch painting of the 17th century, 
but is , notwithstanding , not altogether superfluous. Such a study 
would be the means of putting in its true light, the contrast, so 
often overlooked, between Rubens and the Dutchmen. Irrespective 
of much superficial resemblance (e. g. a similar tone of colour) , the 
two styles have entirely different sources and aims; and while in 
the school of Riibens the old notions, old practices, disappeared, 
that art began to reveal itself in Holland which to this day is re- 
ceived witli unqualified approbation. In the study of Rubens, the 
mind must frequently be guided by reference to history ; the Dutch, 
on the other hand, we hail as bone of our bone, and flesh of our flesh. 

For centuries Cologne and Antwerp have contended for the hon- 
our of having given birth to the greatest of Belgian painters. Lat- 
terly, however, their claims have been surrendered in favour of the 


little town of Siegen , formerly in Nassau. Our artist's father, the 
Antwerp justice Johanne» Rubens, being suspected of a leaning to- 
wards tlie Reformation, sought refuge in flight from the Spanish 
Inquisition, and joined tlie party of William of Orange. Arrived 
at the Rhint), where the emigrants assembled, he formed an inti- 
macy with Anna of Saxony, the crazy, sensuous wife of William, of 
such a nature as furnished the Prince with sufficient grounds for a 
divorce. The guilty lover was consigned in 1571 to the fortress 
Dillenburg. His wife, Marie Pypeling , who had followed him 
into exile, was Induced by the severity of his punishment to 
forgive the offender the disgrace he had brought upon her, and 
to join him at Siegen, the place assigned to him in 1573 as his 
abode. Here accordingly, on 29th June, 1577, on SS. Peter and 
Paul's day, Peter Paul Rubens was born. In the following year, 
Jolm Rubens received permission to remove to Cologne. It is con- 
ceivable that his lot should have damped his ardour for service with 
the Princes of Orange, and encouraged a desire to be reconciled to 
the Spanish government. John Rubens, however, died pending 
the negotiations which ensued, but his wife Anally made her peace 
with the Spanish ecclesiastical authorities, returned in 1588 to Ant- 
werp , and as a pledge for the genuineness of her conversion placed 
her son in a Jesuit school. In the character of the man, however, 
there was nothing Jesuitical ; but in the sensuous splendour of his 
religious pictures, in the accessories of his classical representations, 
which however brilliant are often superficial , it is easy to discern 
the effects of his training in the then flourishing schools of the 
all powerful Jesuits. 

He received instruction in painting from Adam van Noort, a 
thorough master of his art as we are assured, though no authenticated 
works of liis are preserved, and from Oiho van Veen, commonly 
called Otho Vaenius, court-painter to the Dukes of Parma, and an ar- 
tist more distinguislied for erudition than force of imagination. 
The Trinity and the Holy Family with the Parrot ('La Vierge an 
Perroquet") in Antwerp Museum are reckoned among the first of 
Rubens's works. If this be really the case the painter must have 
developed some of his peculiar characteristics at a surprisingly 
early period , and to a great extent have acquired his style before 
his sojourn in Italy. In the year 1600, Rubens undertook, accord- 
ing to the then prevailing custom with artists, who looked upon 
Italy as the high school of art, a journey to the South. The follow- 
ing year we find him in the service of Duke Vincenzo Gonzaga, in 
his time the most pleasure-loving, most enthusiastic connoisseur of 
all princes. Rubens was sent in 160)5 to Spain, as bearer of costly 
gifts, in the shape nuire particularly of numcrons pictures, to the 
coiirt of King Philip IIL On his return he took up his abode suc- 
cessively in Mantua, Rome, and Genoa, until the year 1608, when 
he returned home. 


Now what did Rubens bear away as the fruits of his eight years' 
residence in Italy? It is of no great moment that several of his 
pictures savour of Italian prototypes; in his celebrated Descent 
from the Cross, we see a reflection of Daniele da Volterra's picture, 
in the Baptism of Christ (lost), of which the original drawing is pre- 
served, he produces single figures from Michael Angelo's battle- 
cartoon ; the Communion of St, Francis recalls a composition of 
Annibale Carracci ; while a work of Titian served as model for the 
battle of the Amazons. It is of greater importance that Rubens was 
fortified by his Italian experiences in his resolution to rely mainly 
on ideas engendered by the study of mythological-historical subjects 
for his inspiration . and to devote his art to their illustration. By 
this means he establishes a bond of union between the art of Italy 
and that of the North, without in any wise sacrificing his individual- 
ity. Rather does a comparison with contemporary Italian painters 
show how far he surpassed them in virtue of his spontaneous sym- 
pathies and the abounding force of his character. 

Rubens, married in 1609 to Isabella Brandt, and again, after her 
death ( 1626), to Helena Fourment, in 1630, had settled in Antwerp, 
where he led an un<'ommonly active life. As he himself assures us, 
while in the service of the Regent Albrecht and his consort Isabella, 
he had one foot always in the stirrup, making repeated trips to 
London, Paris, and Madrid, and devoting as much of his time to 
politics as to art. Certainly the varied occupations of his life are not 
to be discovered in the astounding number of his works. Nearly a 
thousand pictures, many of them of colossal dimensions, bear his 
name. This amazing fertility may be explained by the circumstance 
that the numerous pupils who frequented his workshop were em- 
ployed upoTi liis pictures, and that he himself possessed wonderful 
rapidity ot execution. It is not an easy matter to render justice to 
Rubens in all cases, partly because so many works have been attri- 
buted to him with which he had very little to do, partly, also, be- 
cause his rendering of form frequently took directions repugnant to 
our modern notions. Perhaps in his manner of treating the female 
form only he can be charged with flagrant want of taste. The ca- 
pacity of depicting the unsullied purity of maiden beauty is one of 
the attributes in an artist we most prize, while , on the other hand, 
we naturally recoil from the spectacle of naked females disfigured 
by the labours of maternity. Nevertheless, we must not forget that 
in these coarse unwieldy shapes, in the ponderous limbs and violent 
action of these female forms so constantly recurring in Rubens' pic- 
tures, we behold the direct manifestation of such impassioned 
energies and irrepressible vitality as the master seeks to embody. 

Rubens' earlier pictures have this marked superiority over his 
later works, that with all their depth and warmth of colouring, they 
preserve a certain unity, and exhibit a broad but careful finish. The 
most important of the works executed soon after his return from 


Italy is unhappily no longer in the possession of his native land, 
but rests in the Belvedere collection at Vienna. The central portion 
represents St. lldephons receiving a rich chasuble from the Virgin ; 
on the wings are portraits of the donors , and on the outside the 
Rest on the Flight into Egypt, or the Virgin under the apple-tree. 
The painter is here seen at the apex of his artistic excellence, and 
never subsequently produced so perfect a work in so lofty a style. 
So long as Italian models were fresh in his mind his imagination 
and his sense of form were chastened and rertned, but at a later 
period they were not unfrequently somewhat too exuberant. Of 
similar beauty is the Doubting Thomas in the Museum at Antwerp, 
with the two accompanying portraits of Burgomaster Rockox and 
his wife. The celebrated Descent from the Cross in the Cathedral 
and the Crucifixion in the Museum (_'Le Coup de Lance'} are also 
of the highest value as undoubtedly works of the artist's own hand. 

In his later large ecclesiastical paintings Rubens availed liim- 
self to a large extent of the assistance of his pupils; so that a less 
exalted idea of the master than he deserves may be derived froni 
the study of these pictures. Another circumstance may help to lead 
the traveller in the Netherlands to a similar conclusion. Owing to 
the wide-spread renown of the artist, his works did not all remain at 
home, but found their way, even in his lifetime, far and wide, 
England, Madrid, Paris, Munich, Vienna, and St. Petersburgh con- 
tain, in their respective galleries, many of Rubens' choicest works. 
The Antwerp Museum, however, preserves a whole series of valuable 
pictures by the master, thus affording an opportunity of studying 
him on the spot where he achieved greatness. 

Though, however, it may not be possible to find unalloyed 
satisfaction in separate works of the master, no one can deny that 
Rubens is a figure of great historical importance. This is owing to 
the fidelity, with which he has adhered to the traditions of the 
national art, to the power, with which he has harmonised these 
traditions with an altered condition of art and life, and to the uni- 
versality which rendered him capable of working in every depart- 
ment and of making the age subservient to his purposes. He is 
master of the whole range of artistic material. To the greatest fer- 
tility in the domains of ecclesiastical art he adds an intelligent and 
enthusiastic appreciation of the ancient gods and heroes. He looks 
upon these latter more with the eye of a Virgil than of a Homer, and 
often depicts them in the spirit of an orator rather than in that of 
a poet. He shows that he has most affinity for the fleshy figures 
of the Bacchic myths, and paints tliem witli a freshness and energy 
possessed by none of his contemporaries. His brush is as much at 
home in important historical compositions as in the riclily-coloured 
allegories, by which his age tried to make up to itself for the want 
of genuine poetic sensibility. He paints alike portraits and land- 
scapes, the battles of men and the fighting of brutes, the gallant 


love-making of the noble and the coarse pleasures of the vulgar. 
This versatility is peculiarly his own , although he possesses cer- 
tain characteristics iu common with his contemporaries, just as he 
shares with them the same national atmosphere and the same tra- 
ditionary precepts. 

Rubens occupied this field along with several other painters. 
No wonder, then, that similar characteristics are observable in his 
works and those of others , and that they so closely resemble one 
anotlier as occasionally to be confounded. Abraham Janssens (1587- 
16311 comes very near to Rubens in freedom of brush and in 
the impassioned action of his figures. Indeed there were few of 
Rubens' contemporaries who escaped his influence, pervading as it 
did the whole field of art, inspiring in an especial manner the 
engraver. The most notable of Antwerp artists who were contempo- 
raries of Rubens are Gerard Seghers (IdOl-lGSl"), Theodore Rom- 
bouts (1597-1637), Gaspar de Grayer (158'2-1669), who evinced 
in his quiet compositions a charming vein of thought, and Lucas 
van Vden (1595-1662), who painted in many instances the land- 
scape in the background of Rubens' pictures, as well as Frans 
Snyders (1597-1657), who placed his extraordinary talent for ani- 
mal painting at the disposal of the great chief. 

Of Rubens's most distinguished disciple, Anthony Van Dyck 
(born at Antwerp 1599, died in London 1641), owing to the 
shortness of his sojourn in his native city, few important works 
are retained. After being initiated in painting first by Henry 
van Balen, later by Rubens, he visited Italy in his 24th year, 
where Genoa especially fascinated him , as it had done his master 
before him. From 1626 to 1632 he lived at Antwerp, after that 
in London, in the service of Charles I. It was not only the 
fashion then prevailing in aristocratic circles which engaged Van 
Dyck in portraiture. Portraiture made the strongest appeal to his 
proclivities as an artist. He does not shine in the invention of 
gorgeous or stirring scenes ; but in the refined and animated pour- 
trayal of distinguished personages in particular , there are few who 
are his peers. His portraits are not only instinct with life : they 
fascinate by their dignity of conception and grace of delineation, 
which, without sacrifice of truthfulness, impart a certain stateliness 
as well as beauty to the individual represented. In what a rare 
degree Van Dyck possessed this faculty is best seen in his admirable 
etchings which are still preserved, and in which he presents us with 
an invaluable gallery of portraits illustrative of the 17th century. 

Of the remaining pupils of Rubens , few acquired distinction ; 
but, owing to the copiousness of their works . they are by no means 
unimportant. They occupy in the department of religious art the entire 
century. From Diepenbeeck, Erasmus Quellinus, and Gomelis Schut, 
Jacob Jordaexs (1593-1673) may be distinguished by a marked 
individuality. No study in Italy had estranged his thoughts from his 

Baeokkek's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. d 


native art. His profession of the reformed faith made him unwilling 
to contribute to the exaltation of the Church's ideal, so he applied 
himself to depicting scenes from domestic life and the unrestrained 
mirth of popular festivities, and thus prepared the way for the for- 
mation of that school of genre painting, in which the art of the 
Netherlands subsequently acquired its chief renown. His often- 
repeated pictures of the crazy house-concert ('as the old ones sang, 
so will the youngsters twitter'), for example, are well known. Jor- 
daens's humour is unsophisticated ; his figures are as devoid of grace, 
as they well can be ; but so surpassing is the quality of colour in his 
pictures that one must condone the vein of almost coarse vulgarity 
which runs through very many of them. Pictures by him at the Bosch, 
near the Hague, which celebrate the deeds of Prince Frederick Henry 
of Orange , show what he could accomplish as an historical painter, 
and belong to the very best contributions of tlie entire scliool. — 
Among the less-known though by no means unimportant pupils 
of Rubens is Jan van den Hoecke (_1598-1651), who in delineat- 
ing scenes of quiet feeling runs his master very hard and, indeed, 
is not unfrequently mistaken for him. 

Even upon David Tbniers (1610-1685), the greatest genre 
painter to whom the southern Netherlands have given birth, Rubens 
exercised an enduring influence. The fairs and rustic scenes whicli 
he delighted in depicting , fascinate not only by the spirit of con- 
viviality which animates them, but bear witness to a searching ob- 
servation of nature ; and the subtlety of colouring serves of itself to 
invest the scenes depicted with a triie poetic charm. In gradation 
of tone, in wondrous harmony of colour, in artistic combination, he 
retains an undisputed supremacy. It is not less wonderful how he can 
by the most delicate modifications so manipulate a dominant tone of 
colour as to make it effective, and how he can at his pleasure 
either assert or dispense with the most marked contrasts. The 
pictures of his fortieth year, where the peculiar silvery tone first 
appears, are those which afford the best insight into this painter's 
method and style. His works are unfortunately widely scattered, 
and are rarely to be met with in his native country. 

The same may be said of the majority of genre painters of the 
southern Netherlands. The neighbourhood of France lured away, if 
not the painters themselves, certainly many of their works ; nor were 
either wealth or love of art at this time sufficiently diffused in Bel- 
gium to allow of the creations of native art being retained in the 
land. In this respect painting was more advantageously circum- 
stanced in Holland. There it was unmistakably associated with the 
people, and to this day indeed is identified with their liabits and 
predilections. The greater number as well as the best of its pro- 
ductions are still retained in Holland, coveted though they be by 
the lovers of art from every quarter , wlio at last have learned to 
estimate them at their true value. 



The grandeur of the 17th century school of Dutch painters has 
partially obscured the excellencies of their predecessors, and thrown 
into the shade what was of sterling value in the Dutch school be- 
fore Rembrandt's time. It is only in recent times that research 
has Succeeded in bringing to light the earlier history of Dutch 
painting, and has surrounded Rembrandt, who hitherto had dazzled 
as the flash of a meteor in the horizon, with precursors and associates. 
Art flourished in the Dutch towns as early as the 15th century, 
but it would be more than difficult to separate it from the con- 
temporaneous art of Flanders ; indeed, owing to the similarity of the 
two peoples, no very essential difference could have existed. When, 
accordingly, at the beginning of the 16th century, painting in the 
North became Italianised, the Dutch painters succumbed to the 
prevailing influence. It must be noted, however, that the parti- 
cular manner which most nearly responded to the national taste 
was generally preferred , and most successfully imitated; that of 
Caravaggio, for example, distinctly coarse as it is in its broad realism. 
After Karel van Mander, Heemskerck, and Bloemaert, exponents 
of a more imaginative treatment, came Honthorst (Gherardo delta 
Notte) and his associates , whose art was entirely based upon this 
realism. These painters fearlessly grapple with nature; they con- 
cern themselves little about grace and beauty ; they do not despise 
what is vulgar and repulsive , if only it supplies life and energy. 
Lamp-light, abounding as it does in glaring contrast, served ad- 
mirably to enforce startling effects and an impassioned exuberance of 
expression often bordering upon distortion, and was freely resorted 
to with evident relish. Along with Caravaggio, another artist had 
considerable influence upon the Dutchmen, viz. Adam Elshaimer 
(1578-1620), of Frankfort, who, however, lived and died in 
Rome. He painted as if nature were only to be seen through a ca- 
mera obscura ; but his pictures are harmonised by the utmost mi- 
nuteness and indescribable delicacy of finish , and receive their 
compensating breadth from a masterly management of colour. Last- 
man, Poelenburg, Goudt, etc., learned from him. 

In the desperate struggle during the 16th century with the two- 
fold yoke of Spain , artistic enterprise in the Netherlands was ne- 
cessarily crippled. It is principally owing to this circumstance that 
so many Dutch painters found their way to Italy , and there com- 
pleted the training which their native land , sorely distracted as it 
was, could not afford them. But just as the Netherlands finally came 
forth from their eighty years' struggle as glorious victors , and in 
corresponding measure secured for themselves wealth and politi- 
cal power, while their antagonist, Spain, once mistress of the world, 
but now hopelessly impoverished , subsided into political insigni- 
ficance, Dutch Art received during and at the conclusion of the war 
its noblest impulse. It was now that the painters of the Netherlands 



■were enabled correctly to discern what, amidst all tlie surrounding 
wealth of material , was best suited to their needs, and what form most 
strongly ajjpcaled to them ; they created, in a word, a national art. The 
war had made a nation of heroes. Stern necessity had steeled their 
courage and quickened their sense. Brave men, experienced in war 
as well as state affairs , pious of heart, yet joyous withal , met the 
eye at every turn. To pourtray these, not only as single and im- 
pressive personalities, but assembled in groups, in the council- 
chamber, or sallying forth to the tilting ground , or engaged in 
festive celebrations , was the artist's favorite task. 

Pictures of a peaceful, happy life, the charms of existence 
amidst privacy and comfort, were doubly attractive in a time so 
heavily charged with fateful events. The pleasurable abandonment 
too, whi(;h, taking no thought for the morrow, is content to enjoy 
the passing hour, captivated the imagination and furnished material 
for numerous paintings. But the victorious Netherlanders not only 
created for themselves a new field of pictorial matter, in which 
national sentiment should find expression ; the appropriate form of 
expression was also provided. Though nearly all the Dutch painters 
are great colourists, some indispensable attributes of the artistic 
fac/Ulty are wholly wanting in them. The single figures lack ideal 
grace , the groups do not conform to the rules of perspective. On 
the other hand, they know how to impart such an artistic charm by 
means of colour alone, as effectually compensates for these defects. 
The use of the word 'compensate', however, may mislead. It must 
not be inferred that any particular means of expression can singly 
avail in painting. The Italians are guided by established laws in 
the disposal of individual figures , as well as in composition, and 
rightly so ; for these laws were the product of their particular cul- 
ture and habits of mind. With equal right, however, the Dutch 
■painters framed for themselves rules for the guidance of their art 
iu harmony with national views and sentiments. It must not be 
sM-pposed that these Dutchmen , after they had carefully completed 
the drawing of a picture, were content to overlay their pictures with 
colour for the sake of mere beauty of effect. They thought, they 
felt in colour, and composed in colour. The delicate gradation of 
colour, the disposal of light and shade in the mass, and chiaroscuro, 
are their natural means of expression. It is a matter of common 
observation that colour beautifies many an object which without it 
would be utterly insignificant, and to such objects the Dutch artists 
knew how to impart an ideal charm by the modulation of colour- 
tone. Household furniture, for example, was highly valued by 
the Dutchmen. In its carefully-ordered splendour and subdued 
brightness were reflected the delights of peaceful domestic life. 
Applied to art-purposes , it transcended meaner objects only in so 
far as it was richer in colours than they: and thus it was with 
scenes from every-day life , which were in like manner idealised 


by this mysterious witchery of colouring. It is impossible to convey 
in mere words any adequate idea of the effect of colour thus wielded. 
The eye alone can comprehend it, and has its opportunity in the 
study of the various galleries of Holland. 

The ^RegenV and 'Doelen' pictures are among the most conspicuous 
creations of the Dutch school of painters. It was the custom for 
the presidents ( Regents) of the various corporations , public and 
charitable institutions, to place in the guild-halls and shooting 
galleries (^Doelen) portraits in groups of members of the various 
guilds, especially of the shooting societies. Among the earliest 
pictures of this kind are the Commemoration Banquet of Bowmen, 
painted \iy Comelis Anthonissen, in Amsterdam (1533), another from 
the same hand dated 1557, and one by Dirck Jacobsz painted in 
1529 (the last two in the Ryks Museum); but it was later than 
this that the 'Regent-pieces' acquired their complete artistic signifi- 
cance. The Haarlem Museum possesses a 'Corporation-picture' by 
Comelis Comeliszoon , dating from 1583, and four similar pieces 
by Frans Pieterszoon Grebber , the later of which are specially 
distinguished by the freshness of their colouring. In the hospital 
of Delft is a 'Regent-piece' by that prolific portrait-painter Michael 
van Mierevelt (born in Delft. 1568; died 1651), who has been 
erroneously described as painter to William of Orange (assassinated 
1584). It is a so-called anatomical lecture, in the painting of which 
Mierevelt's son, Peter, took part. Jacob Gerritsz Cuypj, founder of 
the painters' guild in Dordrecht, and Paul Moreelse, a pupil of 
Mierevelt, do not appear to have attempted the execution of the 
'Regent' pictures proper; the greater is the number thereof to be 
ascribed to Thomas (Theodore) de Keyset and Jan van Ravesteyn. 
Thomas de Keyser was born probably in 1595. He was the son of 
an architect of Amsterdam, Hendrik de Keyser. and began to paint 
in 1619. His masterpieces are preserved in the Ryks Museum in 
Amsterdam, and the gallery of the Hague. In the town-hall of the 
Hague, too, his contemporary, Jan van Ravesteyn can best be stud- 
ied, in his fine corporation-pieces of 1616-18. But the treatment 
of the 'Regent' pictures and portrait groups generally was brought 
to its highest perfection first by Frans Hals, of Haarlem (p. Iviii). and 
more especially by that greatest of all the painters of the north, Rem- 

Among the most important portrait-painters of Amsterdam in 
the pre-Rembrandt period are Dirck Barentsz (1534-92), a pupil of 
Titian ; Comelis Ketel (1548-1616); Aert Pietersen (1550-1612; son 
of Pieter Aertsen), of whose works the Ryks Museum possesses 
large examples dating from 1599 and 1603; Comelis van der Voort 
(1576-16*24), highly thought of by his contemporaries; Werner van 

i The termination 'szen' or 'szoon\ abbreviated 'sz', which occurs so 
frequently in Flemish names, signifles son; thus Gerritsz = son of Ger- 
hard, Ilarmenxz = son of Harmen or Herman. 


Valckert, a pupil of Goltzius, who painted in 1612-30 at Haarlem 
and at Amsterdam; and Nicolaes Elias (1590-1650), master of 
Van der Heist, whose fine corporation-pieces are now seen to ad- 
vantage in the Ryks Museum. 

Slandered and grossly abused as Rembrandt has been by dilet- 
tanti scribes of the 18th century, the enthusiastic eulogium bestowed 
upon him by the youthful Goethe must be noticed as an ex- 
ceptional tribute. It is only in quite recent times that the research- 
es of Dutch savants, particularly of Scheltema , Vosmaerf, De 
Roever, andBredius, undertaken in a spirit of affectionate devotion, 
have vindicated the truth concerning him. Kembrandt Harmensz 
van Ryn, the son of a miller of Leyden, was born probably in 1607. 
That he first saw light in his father's mill is a story for which there 
is as little foundation as that he first studied art amongst his father's 
flour sacks. Jacob Swanenburgh, who had studied in Italy, and was 
married to a Neapolitan, d^n^ Peter Lastman were his first instructors. 
His earliest recognised work bears the date 1627; he removed to 
Amsterdam at the end of 1631. Amsterdam had gradually outstripp- 
ed the other towns of the Republic, and had become virtually its 
capital, ascendant not only in the domain of politics, but prescribing 
also the direction to be given to the study of art. A new and stately 
architecture, which subsequently exercised extraordinary influence 
in Germany, testifies to the splendour of the town at that period. 
Vondel, Huygens, and Hooft represent the mnse of Poetry, while 
numerous engravers and painters, of whom several connected them- 
selves later with Rembrandt, such as S. Koninckj Livens, and 
Van Vliet, found employment in Amsterdam. 

Rembrandt very soon made himself famous as an artist ; fortune 
smiled upon him, too, in his love affairs. From the year 1633 the 
face of a good-tempered, handsome woman appears from time to time 
in his pictures. This is Saskia van TJlenburgh, the daughter of a 
Friesland lawyer, whom he brought home as his bride in 1634. The 
numerous portraits of Saskia , painted by the great artist with evi- 
dent gusto, have familiarised us with her countenance ; the best are 
those in the galleries of Dresden and Cassel. That in the Antwerp 
Museum is either a copy, or was painted from memory. After 
Saskia's death (1642), Rembrandt's private affairs took a turn for the 
worse. The great financial collapse, which since 1653 had continued 
in Amsterdam, bringing wide-spread and ruinous disaster upon the 
community, did not suffer our painter to escape. He was declared 
bankrupt in 1656, and an inventory of Ms effects was taken by the 
Commissioners of the 'desolate-boedelkamer', who brought them to 
the hammer in the following year. This inventory is still preserved, 
and is an all-sufficient reply to those who maintained that Rem- 
brandt was destitute of refined tastes. The walls of his spacious 

t Rembrandt , sa vie et ses CEuvres , par C. Vosmaer. 2nd ed. The 
Hague, 1877. 


apartments were covered not only witli works from his own and his 
pupils' hands, but such Italian masters as Palma, Giorgione, etc., 
were likewise represented. He also possessed numerous antique 
busts and miscellaneous curiosities , as well as a choice collection 
of engravings. Besides all this, the confidential intercourse which 
he maintained with Huygens and Jan Six sufficiently belies the 
opinion once current as to Kembrandt's low-lived habits. Rembrandt 
did not marry a second time, but contented himself henceforth with 
the faithful affection and ministrations of his servant Hendrickje 
Stoffels (d. 1661). The close of his life found him poor and living 
in complete retirement;, still busy notwithstanding, and still cap- 
able of laughter, as a portrait of himself from his own hand 
(painted about 1668), and now in a private collection in Paris, gives 
evidence. He was buried on 8th October, 1669. 

In Rembrandt's career as a painter we notice an uninterrupted 
and brilliant process of development. It is true that even his early 
works show his fondness for effects produced by strong and full 
light thrown upon the principal figures, but it is not till after sev- 
eral years residence in Amsterdam that his pictures are suffused 
with that rich golden brown tone which invests his masterpieces 
with their subtle and peculiar charm. About 1654 his pictures re- 
ceive a still warmer and more subdued tone , and are brown even 
to dimness, but retain, nevertheless, an unfaltering breadth in exe- 
cution. These several methods of Rembrandt are admirably il- 
lustrated in his masterpieces exhibited in the various galleries of 
Holland. The 'Regent' picture in the Hague Collection , known as 
'The Anatomical Lecture' , which contains portraits of Professor 
Nicholas Tulp, and the members of the Surgeons' guild, belongs to 
the year 1632. This picture is an excellent example of the master's 
art, which has enabled him to animate a momentary action of this 
portrait group with dramatic life, by force of a concentrated expres- 
sion and accentuation of tone. The 'Night Watch', preserved in the 
museum at Amsterdam, Rembrandt's greatest work, was painted ten 
years later. It bears the date 1642, and shows with what skill this 
master of chiaroscuro could, by its means, convert a prosaic occur- 
rence, such as that of this band of citizen musketeers sallying forth 
from their guild-house, into a scene abounding in poetical expression, 
and exciting the liveliest emotions in the beholder. In the so-called 
'Staalmeesters' picture, portraits of the syndics of the Clothmakers' 
guild in Amsterdam (belonging to the year 1661), the entire tone 
seems to be permeated by a golden-brown medium. Art has never 
again created a greater wealth of stirring imagery or poetry of colour 
so entrancing as these tbree pictures reveal to us. Unconsciously 
our thoughts recur to Shakespeare's familiar creations, and we re- 
cognise in these two mighty art-champions of the north kindred 
natures and a corresponding bent of fancy. 

It must not , however , be assumed that Rembrandt confined 


himself to the representation of 'Regent' pieces, portrait groups (as 
the 'Jewish Bride' in the Van der Hoop Collection in Amsterdam), 
and single portraits (e.g. Jan Six and Anna Six, in the collection 
of J. P. Six in Amsterdam). We possess many scriptural pictures 
by him, scenes from the New as well as Old Testament, for the most 
part scattered in other countries. The Hague, however, possesses 
examples of this class of pictures in 'Susanna at the bath', and 
'Simeon in the Temple' (bearing the date 1631). Here, too, Rem- 
brandt preserves a mode of treatment peculiarly his own. In re- 
presentations of our Saviour's passion the tragic event is pourtrayed 
in a harsh matter-of-fact spirit, and might serve to illustrate the 
well-known hymn, '0 Head once full of bruises'. A serener, happier 
expression of solemnity prevails in the Parables, which enables 
us fully to realise their significance, often sufficiently obscure. 
Scenes from the youthful life of Christ have an idyllic charm of 
their own, and in all Rembrandt's religions compositions the en- 
deavour is apparent to bring them within the range of human 
apprehension — a fact important for a right understanding of the 
Protestantism of the 17th century. Rembrandt touched also the re- 
gions ofMythology (asis proved by the painting No. 1251 in theRyks 
Museum, p. 327, the true meaning of which has been only lately 
explained) ; but, as will be readily understood, with more doubt- 
ful success. On the other hand his landscapes, devoid of incident 
though they be, wide, unbroken, plain, exhibit the master's feeling 
for colour and poetical expression in the most favourable light. 

It- need hardly be mentioned that in order to become intimately, 
and as it were personally acquainted with Rembrandt, the collection 
of his etchings, over 300 in number , must be carefully studied. 
Among the best-known, the rarest and most beaiitiful, are 'Rem- 
brandt's portrait with the Sword', 'Lazarus Rising from the Dead', 
the 'Hundred Florin Plate' ('Healing of the Sick' ; the former name, 
by which it was popularly known in the 18th century, now no longer 
applies, inasmuch as in 1867 the sum of lOOOi. was paid for a single 
impression), 'Annunciation', 'Ecce Homo', 'The good Samaritan', 
'The great Descent from the Cross', the portraits of Tolling, Bonus, 
Six, the landscape with the mill, and that with the three trees. 

A goodly array of pupils and imitators are gathered around Rem- 
brandt. His influence was not confined to Amsterdam alone, but ex- 
tended to the neighbouring schools, that of Haarlem, for example. 
Amongst his more Immediate followers may be mentioned Ger- 
brand van den Eeckhout (1621-74), whose works frequently bear 
Rembrandt's name (the Museum of Amsterdam possesses one of 
the best of his pictures — The Adulteress), and Ferdinand Bol of 
Dordrecht (1609-81), who deserted his native style after the 
death of his master. The 'Regent' picture, formerly in the Lepers' 
Hospital, and now in the new Ryks Museum, at Amsterdam, be- 
longs to his best time. 


Govert Flinck, of Cleves (^1615-60), may be said almost to have 
rivalled Rembrandt at the outset of his career. Besides his two 
best 'Regent' pieces (dated 1042 and 1648), there is in the Miisenm 
of Amsterdam a scriptural picture by him. It represents Isaac in the 
act of blessing Jacob, a favourite subject with the school of Rem- 
brandt. Amongst the number of Rembrandt's satellites are also Jan 
Livens and Jan Fictoor or Victors, a name by which several artists 
are known ; Ph. Koninck, the landscape painter ; Salomon Koninck, 
whose scriptural pictures and portraits bear so strong a superficial 
resemblance to those of Rembrandt that they are often mistaken for 
his ; Jacob Backer (1609-51), intimately associated in his youth 
with Govert Flinck, and his companion in Rembrandt's workshop ; 
Nicholas Maes, of Dordrecht, whose best works belong to the time 
of his youth (1650-60), as, having in after-life settled in Antwerp, 
he seriously deteriorated under the influences of the school of 
Rubens; Karel Fabritius, who came to a premature end by a pow- 
der explosion in Delft (1654); and Bernard Fabritius. 

Another of the most eminent contemporaries of Rembrandt was 
Jan Venneer (1632-75), of Delft, who pursued a course of great 
independence and seems to have been influenced by no other master 
except, to a slight extent, Karel Fabritius. Young women engaged 
in all kinds of household work, or in the more congenial occupation 
of love-making, interiors, street scenes, and landscapes, are his 
favourite subjects, all wondrously pure in colour, abounding in de- 
lightful effects of perspective, full of life, at once truthful and charm- 
ing, entitling them to rank amongst the gems of Dutch art. Even 
in his lifetime, and indeed down to the present century, his style 
has been frequently and successfully imitated. 

.Scarcely inferior to Vermeer of Delft, and frequently con- 
founded with him, is Peter de Hooch, celebrated for his fascinat- 
ing effects of light in his interiors. And last, but not least, 
of this artist array who, whether as pupils or followers, are as- 
sociated with Rembrandt, comes Gerard Bou (born at Leyden 1613 ; 
died 1680 ), the great master of minuteness of finish , whose 'Night 
Schools' , 'Maidens by candle light', and 'Hermits' are in so much 
favour with the public , commanding prices commensurate with the 
admiration bestowed upon them, though it must be said of his 
works that skilful and delicate manipulation takes the place of poet- 
ical expression, and that the range of his fancy is contracted in 
measure corresponding with his painstaking elaboration of finish. 
This latter quality, however, must receive its due meed of praise. 
On the other hand , Don is connected with a number of painters 
of declining excellence, such as Frans van Mieris the Elder, of Ley- 
den (1635-81), Pieter van Slingeland, of Leyden (1640-91), God- 
frey Schalcken (born at Dort. 1643; died at the Hague, 1706), A. 
van Gaesbeeck, Abraham de Pape (d. 1666), and many others. 

It will be seen, then, that Rembrandt's influence was as weighty 


and comprehensive as the products of his easel were great in 
number and surpassing in quality. Painters of the most widely 
differing motives acknowledge him as their master and example, 
and he has led the way, not only in historical and portrait painting, 
but in landscape too , and in the so-called genre painting. In this 
respect Bartholomew van derHelst, to whom many would assign 
a place amongst the foremost realists next to Rembrandt, cannot com- 
pare with him. Van der Heist was born at Haarlem in 1611 or 1612, 
and ended his days there in 1670, in the enjoyment of great wealth 
and general esteem. Nothing is known of his teachers, nothing of his 
relations with Rembrandt, whose path he appears to be continually 
crossing without compromising his independence. He was the favour- 
ite portrait-painter of the wealthy burghers of Amsterdam, and confined 
himself almost entirely to the painting of 'Regent' pieces and portraits. 
His most celebrated work, the Arquebusiers' Banquet (1648), is in 
the Museum of Amsterdam [which also possesses the Arquebusiers' 
Guild of 1639, and the 'Doelenstuk' of 1657), and when compared 
with Rembrandt's 'Night Watch', admirably illustrates the points 
of difference between the two masters. Van der Heist presents to 
us Nature as she is, unrelieved, a bare reality. If Nature herself 
could paint she would have given us a picture such as Van der 
Heist's. It is otherwise with Rembrandt. Upon all his works he 
sets the seal of Ms individuality. As the reality presents itself to 
his eye, so he reproduces it with just that degree of truthfulness 
which his intention prescribes. Van der Heist's are mere imitations, 
illusive in their fidelity, but leaving no enduring impression. 

Frans Hals, of Haarlem, a somewhat earlier painter, so far at 
least as the effects of his training in the great Master's school are con- 
£erned, is more akin to him than Van der Heist. Thougli of Haarlem 
parentage, he was born atAntwerp (about 1584). When he returned 
to Haarlem is not known. He married in 1610, unhappily as the event 
proved, for in 1 616 he was brought before the Burgomaster for ill-treat- 
ing liis wife, and had to promise to abstain for the future from 
'dronkenschappe'. Of the joys of conviviality which he could so well 
depict he freely partook, and thus got into difficulties which his 
prolific pencil failed to avert. His goods and chattels were sold by 
auction in 1652 to pay his debts, and he became in his old age a 
pensioner of the State. His death took place in 1666, at the age 
of 82, his labours having extended over half-a-centuiy. The earliest 
of Ms paintings known to us bears the date 1616, the Banquet of 
Officers of the George's Guild of Musketeers, in the Museum of Haar- 
lem , where the most considerable of this master's 'Regent-pieces' 
are collected. Amongst these the Assembly of Officers of the An- 
dreas Guild (1633), and Assembly of Officers of the George's Guild 
(1639), arc the best. Rembrandt's influence is still apparent in 
pictures of the succeeding decade, without however impairing the 
individuality of the artist. The utmost vivacity of conception. 


purity of colour, autl breadth of execution, which in his latest works 
betrays a handling of the brnsh so uncompromising that drawing is 
almost lost in a maze of colour-tone, are distinguishing character- 
istics of Frans Hals , who , besides the 'Regent-pieces' referred to, 
was the author of numerous portraits ; and he has immortalised such 
popular figures as the "Rommelpott-players' , 'The tipsy old wife, 
Hille Bobbe', 'The jolly shoemaker, Jan Barentz', ready either for 
a drinking bout or for service in the fleet with Admiral Tromp. 

His best known pupils are Adrian Brouwer [b. at Oudenarde, 
1605; d. at Antwerp, 16381, -dnd Adrian van Ostade(\>. at Haarlem, 
1610; died there, 1685). As we do not possess more correct bio- 
graphical data concerning the former of these, we must accept as true 
the stories told of him and his fellows by authors of the 18th century. 
He is his master's most formidable rival in the naive conception of 
national character, as well as in mere technical skill ; and had he 
lived long enough to mature his natural powers, he must have borne 
away the palm now conceded to Adrian Ostade. In the earlier efforts 
of Adrian van Ostade, we are reminded of Brouwer; it was after the 
year 1640, or thereabouts, when the influence of Rembrandt was 
in the ascendant with him , that he first displayed those technical 
qualities and artistic predilections which have made him a favour- 
ite with the most fastidious connoisseurs. Grace and beauty are attri- 
butes which the forms crowded into his cottage-interiors or animating 
his court-yard scenes certainly do not possess ; but they always abound 
in lusty life, characteristic and appropriate, whether playing cards, 
intent upon the enjoyment of pipe and glass, or dancing accompanied 
by the ever-present fiddler ; and with such marvellous effect is colour 
accentuated, so complete is his mastery of chiaroscuro, that nearly 
every picture may be saidjto provide a new 'feast for the eye'. 
With Ostade are connected his brother, Isaac van Ostade (1620-49), 
Comelis Bega (1620-64) ,r and Comelis /)Msar« (1660-1704). 

And thus we are brought to the almost innumerable throng of 
Gbitre Painters, who have imparted to Dutch art its peculiarly dis- 
tinctive attributes, and have secured its greatest triumphs. It 
would be difficult to distinguish amongst the genre painters of 
Holland various degrees of excellence, inasmuch as each; in his 
respective , and, as a rule, contracted sphere , has asserted an in- 
disputable supremacy. It is unfortunate that the greater number 
of their works have been transferred to foreign galleries , and are 
rarely to be met with in Dutch collections , so that Holland is no 
longer exclusively the place where the genre and landscape-paint- 
ers of the Netherlands can be studied. It must suffice, therefore, 
to mention the most conspicuous names. 

{ The genre painters are usually divided into several groups, ac- 
cording to the subjects which they make peculiarly their own ; pic- 
tures, for example, belong to the higher or lower genre as they set 
before us the more refined or coarser aspects of social life, the world 


of fashion or the vnlgar herd. These, however, are merely adventi- 
tious distinctions, and do not by any means sufliciently account for 
this latest development of Dutch art, resolving itself as it did into 
a number of local schools. Dirk Hals (probably a younger brother of 
Frans Hals, to whom many genre works by Dirk have been ascribed), 
Anton Palamedesz, J. A. van Duck, Fitter Codde, and others, abound 
in pictures of soldiers and cavaliers contending with Venus and 
Bacchus , or engaged in the sterner encounter of pitched battle and 
skirmish ; in illustrations, too, of the fierce licence engendered by the 
wars of the! 7th century ; figures roaming hither and thither without 
restraint, lusty and light-hearted. In striking contrast to such scenes 
as these are the pictures of a peaceful and refined domestic life, oc- 
casionally disconcerted by the vicissitudes of love, which formed the 
favourite theme of Gerard Terhurg, born at Zwolle in 1608, a man who 
had travelled much and who died atDeventerin 1681. He, together 
with his successors, Gabriel Metsu, of Leyden and Amsterdam (b. 
1630, d. after 1667), Caspar Netscherih. at Heidelberg, 1639; died at 
the Hague, 1684), etc., are generally known as 'stuff' painters, owing 
to the attention they bestow upon drapery stuffs, especially silks and 
satins. It must be borne in mind, however, that in the absence of 
these external properties, thus carefully supplied, the refinements 
of life could not be invested with appropriate pictorial splendour. 
But that these painters were not the mere imitators of stuff and 
texture, that they were capable of emotion, and could give utterance 
to the sentiments of romance, will be sufficiently evident to those 
who study the 'Paternal Warning' of Terburg in the Museum at 
Amsterdam. As a portrait-painter, too, Terburg has made a great 
reputation. (His 'Peace Congress of Miinster', his most celebrated 
piece, was sold with the Demidoff collection for 182,000 fr.) 

Jan Stben, the so-called jolly landlord of Leyden (1626-79), 
who , however , painted also at the Hague and Haarlem , was 
likewise a painter of social subjects, but in a line and in a manner 
quite his own. That he was a low-lived tippler is simply one of 
those wholly gratuitous slanders with which it was once the fashion 
to besmirch the painters of Holland. A jovial life was probably not 
repugnant to his tastes; and what is more to our purpose is the 
fact that a spontaneous joyousness pervades his works, and a sparkling 
sense of humour too ; while as a colourist he must be looked upon 
as the foremost of the entire school. His pictures might be enti- 
tled comedies of life, in which man's follies are chastised with 
satire, and his weaknesses held up to ridicule, but without the 
glaring exaggeration and obtrusive moralising which make Hogarth's 
pictures (with whom Jan Steen has much in common) so unpleasant 
to look upon. Family feasts and merry-makings, the wedding of 
ill-assorted couples, quacks and their quackeries, lovelorn maidens 
('hier baat geen medicijn, want het is niiune pijn'), tavern brawls 
and similar scenes are his favourite; subjects. Jan Steen has, and 


with justice, been likeucd to Moliere. The greater number and the 
best of his works are in England. He is very partially represented 
in the museums of Amsterdam and the Hague. The Due d'Aren- 
berg possesses in his Brussels collection one of the very rare scrip- 
tural pieces by this master, the "Marriage at Cana'; another, 'Laban 
searching for his images', is in the Museum at Leyden. 

Jan Steen is a solitary personage. He stands alone, and has no 
followers. So much the more numerous, and at the same time in- 
timately associated , are the painters whose genius found employ- 
ment in the domain of landscape, which they rendered with true 
artistic appreciation , and enriched as well as animated by the ad- 
dition of living forms. Very frequently these 'landscapes with 
figures' are the result of friendly co-operation. Thus Adrian van de 
Velde fl 635-72), one of the most estimable as well as gifted of 
Dutch painters, supplied the figures for the landscapes of his master 
Wynants , for Moucheron , and even for Hobbema and Kuysdael 
PJdlip Wouverman (1620-68) has perhaps the greatest repu- 
tation for these figure pictures, of which some 800 may still be 
reckoned. Cavalry combats , hunting scenes , in which horses al- 
ways play a conspicuous part , he has repeated with endless varia- 
tions, without however passing the bouncls of mediocrity. To enu- 
merate the names of all who occupied this particular field is simply 
impracticable, for it is precisely in this field that Dutch art was most 
prolific. We must, however, mention (as akin to the foregoing) 
Paul Potter (h. 1625; d. Amsterdam, 1654), chief of animal paint- 
ers, to whose pictures landscape lends idyllic charms, and whom we 
must accept as a classical example of the entire fraternity. A con- 
summate draughtsman, he was at least as eminent as a colourist, 
especially in his smaller pictures. A'areZduJardm (1625-78), an ex- 
uberantly fertile painter, owes his best qualities to the foregoing, 
but the inequality of his works shows his inability to resist other 
less favourable influences. Other 'idyllic' painters are Jan Asse- 
lyn (1610-60) and Nicolas Berchem (1620-83), both of Amsterdam. 

As landscape-painters must be named Jan van Goyen of the 
Hague (1596-1656); Albert Cwyp -of Dordrecht (1620-91), son 
of Jacob Gerritsz (p. liii). also eminent as a painter of portraits and 
animals ; Jan Wynants of Haarlem (1600-70) , famous for the 
number of his pupils and his own steady development; Allart van 
Everdinyen (Alkmaar, 1621-75); Jacob Ruysdael (born 1625, at 
Haarlem; d. 1681), 'excelling all other masters in a feeling for 
the poetry of northern landscape combined with the power of gra- 
phic embodiment'; and Meindert Hobbema, whose merits have only 
recently come to be appreciated. Hobbema was born at Amsterdam, 
1638, and died in 1709. His works exhibit a moderate talent only 
for composition ; the same motive constantly recurs in his pictures 
(the figures are for the most part by another hand) ; but in delicacy 
and thoroughness of elaboration, more particularly in his treatment 


of atmosphere and light, his pictures must be highly prized as works 
of genius of the highest order. — Jan van der Meer of Haarlem 
(1678-91) shows himself near of kin to Jacob Ruysdael. Numer- 
ous other landscape painters remained true to their national sce- 
nery , but in many cases they lapsed into a kind of mannerism, 
which is very apparent in the moonlight scenes of Aart van der 
Neer (of Amsterdam, 1603-77), The better pictures of the last- 
named artist, such as his forest-landscape in the Van der Hoop 
collection, are, however, not inferior to those of Ruysdael and Hob- 
bema, whom he also resembles in his death in poverty and ob- 
scurity. Fashion also began to demand the study of Italian land- 
scapes, and in the second half of the 17th cent, compositions of this 
kind are decidedly predominant. Among the earliest examples of 
this tendency are Jan Both of Utrecht (c. 1610-50), Adam Pynacker 
(1621-73), and Herman Swanevelt (1620-59?). 

It is well known how marine painting (WiWgm van de Velde, the 
Younger, 1633-1707; Hendrik van Vliet, d. 1675 at Delft), and 
architectural painting ^Jan van der Heyden, 1637-1712, and Ema- 
nuel de Witte, 1607-92), prospered in Holland, and how the natio- 
nal art, as it were with its last breath, gave birth to the so-called 
'still-life' (W. van Aelst of Delft) and flower painting (Jan Davidsz 
de Heem, 1600-1674, Utrecht and Amsterdam; Rachel Ruyseh, 
1664-1750, Amsterdam; Jan van Huysum, 1682-1749). 

We conclude these slight observations with the wish that they 
may induce to a more searching study of Dutch art in a careful 
examination of the works themselves , and we recommend all who 
take an interest in the subject to read Burger's well known book 
on the 'Mns^es de la HoUande', in which Dutch painting is most 
exhaustively treated. 

1. From London to Ostend. 

There are two direct routes from London to Ostend : 1. Via Dover, 
twice daily, in 6V2-8 hrs. (fares 1/. IO5. 3d., il. 2.<!. 3d., lis. 9d ) ; 2. By Gen. 
Steam Nav. Co/s steamers, once or twice weekly, in 10-12 hrs. The former 
route is recommended to those whose time is limited ; the latter is pleasant 
in fine weather, and considerably less expensive (chief cabin 15s., fore 
cabin 10s.). — Comp. R. 11. 

Ostend. — The Railway Station (PI. B, 4) lies on the S. side of the 
town, at a considerable distance from the sea and the principal hotels, biit 
is connected by rails with the Gave Maritime at the steamboat-pier (PI. C, 
D, 4). Omnibuses from the hotels meet both the trains and the steamers (fare 
usually ^/i-lir.). Cab from the station to the town 1 fr. ; luggage under 
56 lbs. free; for over-weight 2V2C. per lb. Travellers proceeding direct to 
Antwerp through the Waesland (p. 62) should book to Bruges only, and 
there take a fresh ticket via Ghent (see p. 10 and K. 10). If a through- 
ticket from Ostend to Antwerp be taken, the traveller is conveyed by the 
longer route via Malines. 

Hotels. On the Di'jue , with unimpeded views of the sea, nearly all 
large, new, and expensive: R. 4-15, L. s/^-l, A. 1, B. lV'2-2, d^j. 3, D. 4-G, 
pens. 10-16, board from 7 fr. In the height of the season 20-30 fr. per day 
are demanded for a room on the first floor, facing the sea. To the S.W. of 
the Cursaal: Hotel Central; Hotel Wellingtox; Hutel Continental 
(Pl.^j; B, 2), an imposing establishment, with lift, no pension. Adjacent, 
Hotel de lOcean (PI. b; B, 2); Hotel de la Plage (PI. a; B, 2) ; Hot. 
Bead-Rivage. PlOouis may also be procured at the Pavillon du Rhin (see 
next page), farther on. — To the N.E. of the Cursaal : Hotel Royal Belge ; 
Hotel Bellevue; Gkand Hotel d'Ostende, with restaurant-, Geand Ho- 
tel DD Littoral (PI. m; C, 2, 3), at the corner of the Rue du Cerf; 
Hotel du Kursaal et Beau-Site, Hotel de Rus-sie, two houses at the 
corner of the Rampe de Flandre, belonging to the same proprietor; Grand 
Hotel des Bains, with restaurant. — Xear the old light-house ; Grand 
Hotel du Phare (PI. g ; D, 2), with restaurant, R. & A. 3-20, L. 3/4, B. IV2, 
dej. 3, D. 4-5, pens. 10-15 fr., open all the vear; Hotel Nemrod, plain. 
R., L., & A. 4-13, B. 11/4, dej. 2, D. 31/2, pens. 9-15 fr. ; etc. 

Adjoining the Digue: Hotel Royal de Pkcsse (PL h; D, 2), at the 
corner of the Boulevard van Iseghem and the Rue des Capucins, R. from 
3, L. & A. IV2, B. 11/4, dej. 21/2, D. 4, pens. 9-15 fr. — Just beyond the 
Cursaal: Hotel Imperial (PI. 0; B, 2), Hotel de la Digue (PL s; D, 2), 
in both, R.,L., & A. 4-II1/2, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, D. 372-4, pens. 9-16, board 
from7fr. ; Hotel des Arcade.s (PL I; B, 2), with restaurant, pens. 9 fr. ; 
Hotel Leopold, moderate; these all command a view of the sea from 
the upper windows. 

In the Town. Between the Digue and the Place d'Armes: 'Grand Hotel 
Fontaine (PL m; C, 2), a large first-class house, with spacious dining-room 
containing several old pictures by Netherlandish artists, D. 5 fr.; Hotel Frank 
(PL n ; C, 2), frequented by Jews ; Hotel de Vienne (PL ; C, 2); these three 
in the Rue Longue, between the Rue Louise and the Rue de Flandre. 
— HOtel Mertian (PL p; C, 2), Rue de I'Ouest, R. from 3, L. & A. I'/s, 
B. 11/2, dej. (il-2 o'cl.) 3, D. 4, pens. 9, board from 71/2 fr.; Cercle Catho- 
LiQUE (PL q; C, 2), same street. — 3Iore to the W. : Hotel de Su^de (PL 
r ; B, 2), Place du Theatre, with restaurant. 

In or near the Place d'Armes: *H6tel du Grand Caf6 (PL v; C, 2), 
corner of the Rue Louise and the Rue de Brabant, first-class, R., L., & A. 
31/2-772. B, 11/2, dej. 2V2, D. 4, pens. IO-I2V2, board 8 fr. ; -Hotel du Lion 
d'Or (PL u ; C, 2), corner of the Rue de Flandre and the Rue St. Se'bastien, 
old-fashioned Belgian house, D. 3, pens. 8 fr. ; Hotel de Gand et d'Albion 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 1 

2 Route 1. OSTEND. Rotels. 

(PI. x; C, D, 3), in the Marcbe aux Herbes, R., L., & A. 3-9, B. 11/4, dej. 
2'/2, !>• 3, pens. 8-10 fr. — Couk d'Angleterre (PI. z; C, 3j, Rue de la 
Chapelle lU; opposite, Hotel de Bavi^re, Rue de la Chapelle 15, R., 
L., & A. 2V2-3, B. 1, tU^j. 11/2, D. 2'/2, pens. 7-8, board 5-6 fr.; Ecrope (PI. a; 
D, 2), Rue des Capucins, D. 2'/2fr., unpretending. 

Still farther from the sea: '^Grand Hotel Marion (PI. c; C,3), Rue de 
PEglise 33, first-class, D. 4. pens, from 7' 2 fr. ; Hotel de la Marine (PI. 
d; C, 3), CouR DE France (PI. e; C, 3), D. 2'/2 fr., side by side in the Rue 
de la Chapelle; opposite, Hotel St. Dknis (PI./,- C, 3), No. 44. — 'Hotel 
d'Allemagne or Stracke (PI. i; C, 3) , Rue du Quai 22, first-class, R. & L. 
31/2-0, A. 3/i, B. 11/2, D. at 1 o'cl. 3, at 5 o'cl. 4 (to subscribers 3V2), pens. 
IIV2-I5 fr. — Codronne , Quai de TEmpereur, near the railway-station, 
well spoken of; Ship Hotel, near the steamboat-pier, R. 3V2, B. I74 fr-, 
well spoken of. — All the hotels on the Digue and many of those in the 
town are open duringthe season only, but the last-named are always open. 

Hotels Garnis and Private Lodgings abound both on the Digue and 
in the town. Even at the beginning or the close of the season (1st 
June to 15th Oct.), a room cannot be obtained under 3-5 fr. a day, or 
15-3U fr. per week. The rent of a small suite of rooms (dining-room, 
drawing-room, three bedrooms, kitchen) in June is about 300 fr., in July 
500 fr., August 800 fr., and September (500 fr. — The contract should be 
committed to writing, if the hirer contemplates a prolonged stay. The 
usual charge for a plain breakfast is 75c.-lfr., for attendance 50c. per 
day. French is often imperfectly understood by the Flemish servants. — 
The hirer should see that attendance is expressly included in the agree- 
ment, both in private apartments and at the hotels garnis, as otherwise 
he is liable to an extra charge of 1 fr. per day. 

Restaurants. On the Digue, dear, and attendance often bad. The Cursaal 
(PI. B, 1,2), an extensive establishment with restaurant, cafe, a reading- 
room, a large hall, and galleries commanding an extensive view of sea 
and land, open to subscribers only, is the principal resort of visitors dur- 
ing the bathing season. With its gardens it occupies an area of about 
13,000 sq. yards. Subscribers for a week or upwards are admitted to the 
balls at the Casino (see p. 3). Belgian , French , and other newspapers. 
Subscriptions: per day 3, 4 days 9, per week 17, per fortnight 31, per 
month 531/2, six weeks 68V2, per season 76 fr. ; 2 pers. 6, 17, 321/2, 53V2, 
76, 831/2, 91 fr. ; three pers. 9, 25, 441/2, 68V2, 831/2, 943/4, 106 fr. (cheaper 
in Sept.). — Restaurants in the above-mentioned hotels, Wellington, Conti- 
nental, de VOcian, 'de la Plage, and Beau-Rivage ; also at the Pavilion dii 
Rhin (PI. f; A, 1), the farthest to the S., with an oyster and lobster-park. 
— At the opposite (N.) end of the Digue: Ildtels Royal Beige, Oslende, 
Littoral, Beau-Site, ^Russie, see p. 1. Adjacent, the Hdtel du Phare (PI. g; 
D 2; see p. 1). — Farther on, between the approaches to the Estacade, is 
an Estaminet where oysters are sold. — Table dli6(e at the hotels, the Cur- 
saal (for subscribers; 6 fr.), and the Pavilion du Rhin (5 fr.). — It is 
customary at all these establishments to give a few sous to the waiter at 
each repast. 

Cafes, besides those above mentioned: Grande Patisserie, Rue de 
Flandre 32, also a restaurant (dej. 3, D.5fr.); *iVop/)e7je2/, corner of the Rue 
de Flandre and the Rue Longue (also confectioner) ; Cave de Munich, Rue 
de Flandre, in the Hotel de Flandre (p. 1). The SociM Littiraire on 
the ground-floor of the Hotel de Ville (PI. 7; C, 3), to which strangers are 
not admitted unless introduced by a member (first 5 days gratis, after- 
wards 3 fr. per month), contains a restaurant and reading-room. 

Wine at Michens-Verhoest, Rue de Flandre 15 (claret from 1 fr. 10 c. 
per bottle ; ale or porter 10 fr. per doz., or 1 fr. per ])ottle; also tea, etc.); 
Bodega (Spanish wine-room). Rue de Flandre 22. -— Beer at several taverns 
and beer-saloons. — Many of the summer-residents at Ostend cater for their 
own breakfast and luncheon at one of the 'charcutiers'' or purveyors of 
preserved meats, such as S. Raeymaekers^ Rue de TOucst 4. 

Water. The drinking-water of Ostend is indifferent. Seltzer-water 
or other aerated waters in 'siphons' (50 c.) will be found wholesome for 
drinking, and may be procured at Noppeney''s, Rue de Flandre (see above). 


OSTEND. /. noute. 3 

Baths fp. 5). Bathing-time from 7 a.m to 7 p.m. Tickets ('coupons'") 
must be obtained at the office on the beach: machine (for not longer than 
40 min.) including costume and two towels 1 fr. , two additional towels 
20c. (regular bathers should purchase these requisites for themselves; 
price 3-5 fr. , fee for taking charge of them 20 c.)- The 'Paradis', where 
a bathing-costume is not obligatory, lies to the E. of the harbour (PI. 
E, F, 2, 3), see p. 5; charge including ferry over the harbour-mouth, i fr., 
office at the entrance of the Estacade. Near the old lighthouse (PI. D, 
E, 2), is the 'Section Est', a bathing-place for the less robust bathers 
(70 c.). — Invalids and persons unaccustomed to sea-bathing may procure 
the services of a '•haigneur' or '■baigneuse'' for 50 c. more. The driver of the 
machine generally receives 5 c., and 5 c. is given for cleaning the machine. 
Valuables should' be left at home. — Tents and 'marquises' for sitting 
on the beach 1-iV^ fr. per day, or 6-9 fr. per week. Chairs, 10 c. 

"Warm Salt-Water Baths. *Elahlissement Hiidrothirapique, 'adjoining 
thcCursaal, baths of all kinds, massage, etc.; Iloedts, Rue de TEglise 23. 

Cabs ( Voitnres de place ; stands at the railway-station and in the mar- 
ket-place) 1 fr. per drive in the town; first hour IVjff-; each 1/2 fir, addi- 
tional 50 c. ; at night V2 fr. more between 10 and 1, 1 fr. more between 

1 and 4.30 a.m. The fares for '■paniers\ carriages of a superior description, 
are higher: drive in the town 11/2 fr.. 1 hr. 3, each following hr. 2 fr. — 
There is no tariff for drives outside the town. 

Steam Tramway (Buw/spoonceg^ C/iemin de Fer Vicinal) starting from 
the railway-station, and stopping at the Rue de la Chapelle, at the Cur- 
saal, and the Avenue de la Keine (comp. the PL, p. 6): to (14 M.) Blan- 
kenherghe in IV4 hr. (fares 1 fr. 50, 1 fr. 5c.); to (1-V4 M.) Mariakerke 
(p. 6) in 1/4 hr, (25, 15 c); to (5'/.: M.) Middelkerke (p. 7j in 1,2 hr. (65, 45 c.) ; 
to (11 M.) Meuport (p. 31) in 1 hr. (1 fr. 20, 85 c.) ; to (ISV2 M.) Furnes (p. 31) 
in 13/4 hr. (2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 50 c). 

Donkeys for hire at the S. end of the Digue, 1 fr. per hour; Ponies, 

2 fr. per hour. 

Sailing Boats with 2 men for 1/2 fir. 3, 1 hr. 5, 2 firs. 6 fr. ; with 3 
men 5, 6. 8 fr. ; with 4 men 6, 8, 12 fr. Previous agreement necessary 
when the party consists of more than 4 persons, as otherwise 1 fr. more 
for each may be demanded. Out of the season the charges are less. — 
Beggars are a great annoyance in Ostend. 

Concerts and Balls. Concerts daily at the Cursaal (p. 5) and every even- 
ing in the new 3Iusic Pavilion, near the old lighthouse (PI. D, 2). Balls 
on Sun., Tues., and Thurs. in the Casino, a handsome ball-room on the 
first floor of the Hotel de Ville (p. 4); admission for non-subscribers to 
the Cursaal 3 fr. {'toilette de viUe\ i.e. a black coat). 

Horse Races are held in the Hippodrome Wellington (p. 5) several 
times during the season. 

Circulating Libraries (Cabinets de lecture). Godi/urneau, Marie 
Asseloos, both in the Rue Longue. Newspapers are sold by Daniel s-Dubai\ 
Rue de la Chapelle 25. The Saison d'Ostende, which appears daily (20 c), 
is the official organ of the Cursaal authorities; the Sunday issue is furnished 
gratis to the subscribers to the Cursaal. 

Physicians. Dr. de Hondt^ Rue de la Chapelle 62; Dr. Janssens^ Marche- 
aux-Herbes ; Dr. van Oye, Avenue Charles Janssens 11 ; Dr. Schramme, Rue 
des Capucins; Dr. Verschuere, Boul. van Iseghem. 

Bankers. Agency of the Banque Rationale, Rue de Flandre; Bach d- Co, 
Rue des Capucins 9. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Rue des Soeurs Blanches 10, open 7 a.m. 
to 7 p. m. 

English Church (PI. 9; D, 2, 3) at the E. end of the Rue Longue; ser- 
vices at 11 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. ; chaplain, Rev. L. M. D'Orsey; acting chaplain, 
Rev. A. C. R. Wolston^ Rue Longue 66. 

Ostend (25,000 inhab.}, the second seaport of Belgium, owes 
most of its importance to the great passenger-traffic between Lon- 


4 Route 1. OSTEND. Digue. 

don and the continent, of which it has long been one of the prin- 
cipal avenues. It also possesses 210 fishing-boats, manned by 1260 
men, being fully one-half the number belonging to the whole king- 
dom ; and of late years it has become a great sea-bathing resort. 

The town was once strongly fortified. In 1601-1604 it sus- 
tained one of the most remarkable sieges on record, and was only 
surrendered to the Spanish general Spinola in consequence of orders 
received from the States General. In the Spanish War of Succes- 
sion, after the Battle of Hochsfadt, Ostend was occupied by the 
allies under Marlborough. In 1745 Louis XV. took the fortress 
after a siege of 18 days, and in 1794 it was again taken by the 
French, who held it until 1814. The fortifications w ere demolished 
in 1865, and have been converted into promenades. Since then 
many fine buildings have been erected along the beach. 

The main street of the town Is the Rue de la Chapelle (PI. C, 
4, 31, leading from the station to the market-place (Place (TArmes), 
where it changes its name to Rue de Flandres or Vlaanderstraat (PI. 
C, 2). It has lately been extended hence as far as the Digue, near 
which the principal shops , including some large emporiums of 
shells, are situated. 

Few of the public buildings of Ostend are worthy of note. The 
Church ofSS. Peter and Paul (PI. 6 ; 0, 3, 4) contains a monument 
to Queen Louise (p. 114), who died here in 1850, by Fraikin. — 
The large Town Hall (PL 7) is in the Place d'Armes (PL C, 2, 3). 
The ground-floor is occupied by the Societe Litteraire , mentioned 
on p. 2, while the ball-rooms of the Casino (p. 3) are on the first 
floor. The tower is surmounted by an anemometer, or wind-gauge. 
— The Church of St, Catharine, in the liue Christine, finished in 
1883, has been built in the style of the 13th cent, and is a copy of 
an old church of Ghent, now pulled down. The interior contains 
finely-carved choir-stalls and pulpit. — The Pare Leopold (PL 
B, 3) is tastefully laid out and will be a pleasant resort when the 
trees are larger (cafe in the middle). 

Ostend is one of the most fashionable and cosmopolitan watering- 
places in Europe. During the season (1st June-15th Oct.) it attracts 
32,000 visitors (including passing travellers) from all parts of Eu- 
rope, especially from Belgium and France. The chief promenade is 
the *Digue, a stone dyke or bulwark upwards of 1 M. in length, 
about 33 yds. wide, and 33 ft. in height , extending along the coast 
from N.E. to S.W. "With the exception of the carriage-road, 13 yds. 
in breadth, the whole is laid with terracotta bricks. The scene pre- 
sented by this promenade and its environs during the height of the 
season will strike the English traveller who witnesses it for the first 
time as novel and amusing. The fact that a very large proportion of 
the visitors are inlanders, who have never seen the sea, and are now for 
the first time in their lives rejoicing in its health-restoring breezes 
and ever-changeful aspect, sufficiently accounts for the popularity of 

Harbour. OSTEND. 1. Route. 5 

a place which affords few other attractions. The traveller, therefore, 
by visiting the Digue on a warm summer-evening , will at a glance 
witness the most characteristic phase of Ostend life. Several ap- 
proaches ascend to it from the town. Along the Digue stretches a 
row of handsome new buildings , including the hotels and restau- 
rants mentioned on pp. 1,2, and numerous private villas, some of 
which are tasteful structures in the Flemish Renaissance style. 
Near the middle rises the handsome Cursaal (PI. B, 1, 2; p. 2), 
erected in 1876-78, from the designs of Naert of Brussels. Farther 
on, upon a lofty dune, stands the Palais du Roi (PI. A, 1), or royal 
villa, beyond which the Digue extends past Fort Wellington to Ma- 
riakerke (p. 6). Near the fort is the Hippodrome Wellington (p. 3). 

The Bathing Places (PI. A, B, 1) adjoin the Digue on the S. W. 
side, and there are about 400 bathing-machines. Most of the visi- 
tors bathe in the morning. There is here, as at French watering- 
places, no separation of the sexes ; but the strictest propriety is ob- 
served, and every bather is provided with a costume. Ladies may 
avoid publicity by bathing at a very early hour. Gentlemen who 
prefer bathing ^sans costume' should go to the '■Paradis\ where, as 
its name imports, they may dispense with a bathing-dress (p. 3). 

At the N.E. end of the Digue is the Estacade (PI. E, 2), con- 
sisting of two estaches, or piers (the W. about 1/3 ^1- ^^ length, 
the E. 100 yds. longer) , which shelter the entrance to the harbour 
and afford a view of the arriving and departing steamers. They are 
provided with seats (chair 10 c), and serve as a public promenade. 

The entrance to the harbour {C'henal ; PI. E, 2) is 180 yds. in 
length. The Harbour itself consists of the Avant-Port^ the Bassin 
du Commerce, and the Arriere-Port. The Bassin de Chasse (PI. E, 
3,4), with its massive gates, was constructed for the purpose of 
sweeping away the sandbanks at the mouth of the harbour, the 
water being confined within it at high tide, and allowed to escape 
suddenly at low tide. The other parts of the harbour and the locks 
of Slykens (p. 6) were constructed under Emp. Josephll. — At the 
upper end of the New Basin lies the Minque or Fish Market (Marche 
aux Poissons ; PI. D, 4), a circular building with an open court, where 
the auctions described at p. 6 take place from 7 to 9 a.m., on the 
return of the fishing-boats. 

Beyond the entrance to the harbour and the Bassin de Chasse just 
mentioned, which we skirt for 10 min. , rises the *Lightliouse 
(Nouveau Phare; PI. F, 4), 174 ft. in height, which should be in- 
spected by those who have never seen the interior of such a struc- 
ture. (As there is no tariff for excursions by boat to the lighthouse, 
a bargain should be made beforehand ; 25-30 c, or, there and back, 
50-75 c, is sufficient.) The lantern (fee 1/2 fr.) contains a series 
of prisms, resembling beehives in shape, and reflectors of copper 
plated with platina, by which arrangement the light is said to be in- 
tensified a thousand-fold , and to be visible at a distance of 45 M. 

6 Route 1. SLYKENS. 

The top coniniauds aii extensive view in tine weather. Psieuport, 
Fumes, and even Dunkirk are seen towards the S.W., the Cursaal 
of Blankenberglie to the N.E., and the towers of Bruges to the E. 

The Oyster Parks (Huttrieres) are extensive reservoirs on the 
N.E. and 8.W. sides of the Dij2;ue (several near the Bruges Gate, 
e.g. Slichert iV- Stracke, wlio admit visitors), where vast quantities of 
these favourite bivalves are stored throughoiit the greater part of the 
year. They are imported from the English coast , and kept here 
in prime condition by daily supplies of clarilied sea-water. Their 
price varies from 5 to 8 fr. per hundred, and upwards. Abundant 
and fresh supplies may therefore always be procured, except in the 
height of summer, when they are out of season. Lobsters, brought 
chiefly from Norway, are kept in separate receptacles in thehuitrieres, 
and fetch from 2 to 6 fr. each. Fish is generally plentiful, especially 
in summer, when transport is difficult. A large turbot may often be 
bought for 10-15 fr. ; soles, cod, haddocks, mackerel, and skate are 
of course less expensive. Crabs, shrimps, and mussels are also 
abundant. Shells of every variety may be purchased. 

All these different kinds of fish are sold by public auction 
in the fish-market (p. 5), under the supervision of the muni- 
cipal authorities. The principal sales take place on fast days (Wed. 
and Frid.}. The salesman fixes a high price in sous for each 
lot, and then gradually descends, until a bidder calls out 'myn' 
and thus becomes the purchaser. The great advantage of this 
' Dutch auction ' is that a single bid settles the matter, and much 
confusion is thus prevented. Most of the purchasers are women, 
who afterwards retail the fish in the market. The Flemish lan- 
guage alone is spoken on these occasions, and the spectator has 
an excellent opportunity of witnessing a characteristic scene of Bel- 
gian life. — An immense number of rabbits are killed annually on 
the Dunes around Ostend. 

Several ecclesiastical and populai- Festivals are celeln-ated at (\9tend 
in .Tuly and August, including the '•Kermesses'. at which the Belgian 
archers, of whom there are numerous clulis, always act a prominent part, 
displaying extraordinary strength and skill. The most interesting church- 
festival is the Procession on St. Peter's Day (29th .lunc), when the 
ceremony of blessing the sea is performed before a large concourse of 
lishermen and their families. 

Slykens (Cafe de la Concorde), IV4 M. to the E. of Ostend, a 
village on the road to Bruges, may easily be visited on foot. Other 
walks may be made to Oudenburg (p. 10), den Ilaan (p. 9), Wen- 
dmjne (p. 8), etc. 

Along the coast to the W. of Ostend are several smaller sea- 
bathing resorts, both quieter and less expensive than Ostend, Blan- 
kenberghe (p. 7), or Heyst (p. 9). 

Mariakerke (Cursaal; Hotel Speranza; pens, in both from 6fr. ; 
Villa BeausejourJ, 1-^/4 M. to the S.W. of Ostend, may be reached 
in 1/2 ^r. by the Digue (p. 5), and it is also the first station on 

BLANKENBERGHE. -2. Route. / 

the steam-tramway mentioned at p. 3. The bathing-arrangements 
are good; bath, including coach and costume, 75c. from 11-12 
o'clock; at other times 50 c. 

About 3 M. beyond Mariakerke (one-horse carr. from Ostend 
8-1*2, two-horse 14-18 fr.) lies Middelkerke (Hotels des Bains, de 
la Plage, de la Digue, du Cursaal) , also on the steam-tramway 
(p. 3) and the starting-point of the submarine telegraph cable to 
the English coast. There is nothing to mark the latter spot except 
the watchman's hut on the sandhill. Farther on is the Hospice Ro- 
ger de Grimherghe for invalid children, opened in 1884 and con- 
taining 120 beds (daily 21 9 fr.). 

Nieuport, another of this group of watering-places, 10 M. to the 
S.W. of Ostend (steam-tramway, p. 3) is described at p. 31. 

To the W. of Nieuport are finally the new bathing-resort of Oostduin- 
kerke and the older La Panne {^Grand-Hotel Panne-Bains. Flemish) lying 
close to the French border. La Panne may be reached via Fumes (p. 31) 
or from the Belgian frontier-station Adinkcrke (p. 32). 

2. Blankenberghe and Heyst. 

Blankenberghe. — Hotels. On the Digue, often overcrowded in the 
height of the season. To the right of the principal approach to the Digue: 
Gkaxd Hotel des Bains et des Familles, containing ^ apartments, with 
a terrace overlooking the sea, B., L., A., & B. 5-15, D. 3, S. 2, pens, from 
10 fr. Hotel dd Ruin, with cafe'-restaurant. Farther on, Pavillon Eotal, 
annexe of the Hot. de la Paix (see below), pens. 9-12 fr. 5 Pavillon des 
Pkinces (good cuisine) and Hotel Continental, under the same manage- 
ment as the Hot. Cursaal (see below). — To the left of the principal ap- 
proach: Hotel Goddehis, table d'hote at 1 (3 fr.) and 7 o'clock (2 fr.), pens. 
7-15 fr. ; Maison Veuve Emile Goddeeis, well spoken of; Hotel Cdksaal, 
with 120 rooms, 1st class, R., L., d: A. from 4, B. IV4, dej. 3, D. 3, pens, 
from 9 fr. ; Hotel Pauwels D'Hondt, large, L. 1/2, B. 1. D. 2V2-3, S. 13/4-2, 
pens. 8-15 fr. : Hotel Victoria. D. at 1 and 5 p.m. 3 fr., S. at 7 p.m. 2 fr., 
plat du jour 1 fr. ; Hotel de l'Oc£an, moderate-, Hotel de Venise; Ho- 
tel de l'Univeks. Farther to the W., at the entrance to the harbour, 
Hotel du Phare, D. 21/2 fr. 

In the Town. In the Rue de TEglise, close to the principal approach 
to the Digue: Hotel dd Lion d'Or; *Etoile d'Or, R., L., & A. 31/2-4V-*, 
B. 1, D. 21/2, pens. 8-10, board 0-51/2 fr. Farther on in the Rue de TEglise, 
on the wav from the Digxxe to the railway-station : Hotel d'Allemagne, 
R. 3-4, L. i|4-V2, D. 21/2, pens. 7-10, board 5 fr. ; Hotel de la Paix, D. 2V2, 
pens. 71/2-9 fr. ; Hotel Troch, Rue Haute; Hotel de Gand, RueLongue; 
'Grand Hotel dHondt, Rue de TEglise 22, much resorted to by Belgians 
of the middle class, pension 8-10 fr. Adjacent is the boarding house of 
Dr. Verhaeghe. Rue Longue, pension 8-10 fr., with dependance near the 
ascent to the Digue; Hotel de Bruges, Rue des Pecheurs 53, with 
several 'dependance''''; T£te d'Or, same street IS, D. at 1p.m. 2, S. at 
7 p.m. 11/2 fr., both well spoken of. — Near the station: Hotel du Chemin 
DE Fer, Mille Colonnes (D. 2 fr.) , Le Petit Rouge, Hotel du Littoral, 
which may all be described as restaurants with rooms to let. — Those 
who do not mean to make any stay in a hotel should announce at once 
that they do not wish to be received 'en pension', otherwise the pension 
price is charged also for the day after the departure. 

On the Digue are situated numerous Hotels Garnis, in which rooms 
facing the sea cost 4-15 fr. per day (with two beds 2 fr. extra). In the 
town furnished apartments abound in almost every street (2-5 fr. per day), 
but are sometimes all engaged in the height of the season. Those who have 
not previously written for rooms should arrange to reach Blankenberghe 


early in the day, so that they may return to Bruges the same evening in 
case of disappointment. The following houses are recommended: Dr. 
Cosi/n, Rue du Moulin 23; Dr. van Mullem, Grande Maison Leroy, Rue de 

Cafes and Restaurants. At the Grand-JIdlel des Dains, see p. 7, ddj. 
3, D. 5 fr. ; at the other hotels-, also the Casino, to which subscribers 
only are admitted, D. at 1.30 and 5 o'clock 2"2-5, S. at 7 o'clock; Deutsche* 
Bierhaus. Euc des Pecheurs; Cave de Munich, in the Hotel de TUnivers, 
etc. — Wine and Oysters at Le/ebure's, line de I'Eglise 14. 

Physicians. Dr. Cos>/n, see above; also, Drs. van den Abeele, Dutaye, van 
der Ghint. Schramme, and others, who come over from Bruges in the season. 

Bathing Machines Ifr., children 40 c. ; the attendants expect a trifling 
fee from regular bathers. — T.enis, for protection against sun and wind 
(not against rain), may be hired on the beach for 1 fr. per day. — Bath- 
ing Dresses may be purchased in the town for 5-8 fr. — Warm Baths in 
the Grand Hotel des Bains, see p. 7. 

Boats. For a row of 1-2 hrs. the charge is 5 fr. ; for a party 1 fr. each. 

Donkeys for rides on the beach : per 1/2 hr. 50 c. ; to Jlei/st 2-3 fr. 

'ia Vigie de la C6te\ published on Sundays, contains a list of the visi- 
tors, tide-tables, etc. — Balls daily at the Cursaal during the season, for 

English Church Service during the season at the Chapel in theEue Breydel 
at 10.45 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. ; chaplain. Rev. A. V. H. Hallett of Bruges (p.'12). 

Blankenherghe, 12 M. to the N.E. of Ostend and 9 M. to the 
N. of Bruges, a small fishing-town with about 4000 inhab., consists 
of small one-storied houses , and resembles Scheveningen (R. 39). 
It first came into notice as a sea-bathing place in 1840, and of late 
has become a rival of Ostend, being visited by 10,000 persons an- 
nually (30,000, if passing travellers be included)^ It is, however, 
quieter and somewhat less expensive. Handsome new buildings 
are on the increase, and a theatre has been begun. 

The 'dunes' (downs, or sand-hills) are paved so as to form a 
kind of 'digue', like that at Ostend, which affords a promenade 
22 yds. wide and upwards of 1 M. in length, flanked with hotels and 
villas and provided with the electric light. On the right, or N.E. 
side of the central approach, adjoining the Grand Hotel des Families, 
is the large Casino, the concert-room of which can accommodate 4000 
persons. In front of the hotels is a Band Stand, the position of 
which is altered from time to time. At the S.W. end of the Digue 
rises the Lighthouse, situated at the entrance of a small Harbour, 
constructed for the use of the fishing-boats, many of which, however, 
continue as of old to be hauled up on the beach. Like that of Ostend 
the harbour is protected from silting by piers, which extend into 
the sea for about 350 yds. The pier-heads are provided with seats. 

Lisseweghe, 4V2 M. to the S.E. of Blankenherghe, was a flourishing 
town in the Middle Ages, but now has only 1800 inhabitants. It has a 
small station on the Bruges railway, from which, however, it is 1 M. 
distant (see p. 10). The Church, a handsome structure of the 13ih century 
in the transition style, formerly belonged to an abbey, and has been 
restored with little taste. At the end of the left aisle is a Visitation by 
J. van Cost the Elder. The truncated tower, although two-thirds of it 
only are completed, is a very conspicuous object in the landscape. A 
huge barn (now a farm), with immense oaken beams, dating from 1230, 
is the solitary relic of the wealthy abbey of Ter Doest. 

From Blankenbekghe to Ostend, steam-tramway in 11/4 hr., see p. 3. 
At (3 M.) Wenduyne {Pavilion des Dunes; Cafi Bienvenue des Etrangers; 

HEYST. 2. Route. 9 

Ca/i des Etrangers, pens. 5-0 fr.), a small sea-bathing place, is an extensive 
hospice fur delicate children (230 beds). — 51/2 M. Den Haan (Edt. den 
Haan or Le Coq^ pen''. 6-7, D. at 1 p.m. 21/2 fr., sea-bath and costume 3/4 fr.) 
is another small bathing resort, recently established among the dunes, 
which are here 1/2 31. broad. The afforesting of the latter, begun in 1835, 
was recommenced by government in 1S88. — The walk along the beach 
from Blankenberghe to Eeyst is about the same distance (572 31.). 
Railway to Bruges and to Heyst, see p. 10. 

Heyst. — Hotels and Pensions. On the Digue: *CnESAAL, 'pension' 
7-11 fr. ; Grand Hotel, on the seaward side of the Cursaal-, Gkand Hotel 
DES Baixs, new, D. 21/2, pens. from5fr.; Hotel de la Plage, frequented 
by the Roman Catholic clergy, E., L., & A. 23/4-33/4, B. 1. dej. li/o, D. 21/2, 
pens. 6-8, board 5 fr. ; Hotel de Bruges, pens, from G fr., good cuisine; 
Maison des Fakilles . pens. 6-7 fr.; Hotel du Phare, recently enlarged, 
150 rooms, R. from 3-5, L. <fc A. 1/2, B. 1. D. 21/2, pens 6-10, board 5 fr., 
well spoken of ; Hotel Eotal, Hotel de Flaxdre. smaller; Hotel Garni 
de rOcfeAN, to the landward of the Cursaal. — In the Village^ a few minute-s' 
walk from the beach (all unpretending) : Pavillon des Ddnes ; Hotel de 
Namur; Hotel du Rivage ; Hotel de la Marine; Hotel Leopold II., 
B. 1, D. 2, S. 11/2, pens. 4-6 fr., well spoken of; Hotel Pauwels, quite 
unpretending. — Bath 75 c. ; arrangements somewhat deficient. — Donkeys 
1 fr. per hour. — The Railway Station lies in the centre of the village, 
about 100 yds. from the Digue. Railway to Blankenberghe (1/4 hr.) and 
Bruges, see next page. 

Heyst, a village with 2500 inhab. , the terminus of the rail- 
way mentioned at p. 10, is also a sea-bathing resort and attracts 
upwards of 3000 visitors annually. As at Ostend and Blankenberghe, 
there is here a long Digue, 22 yds. broad, paved with brick, and 
flanked with lodging-houses and restaurants, besides the above- 
mentioned hotels. — The village possesses a large brick Roman 
Catholic Church, in the Gothic style. 

About 1/2 ^I- to the S.W. of Heyst are the mouths of two ca- 
nals {Canal de derivation de la Lys, constructed in 1857-63), which 
drain an extensive plain, and are closed by huge lock-gates. The 
unpleasant odour from the canal-water is noticeable at ebb-tide 
even at Heyst when the wind is from the W. , and is not without 
effect on the healthiness of the place. 

From Heyst to Bruges, about 13 M., steam-tramway in about IV2 hr. 
— 2'/2M. Knokke {Grand Hotel de Knokke, pens. 5 fr.,' well spoken of; 
bath 1,2 fr.), a small seaside resort, I1/4 M. from the beach, with a life- 
boat station and a lighthouse. The dunes (80 ft. high) afford a view of 
Flushing and the island of Walcheren. — 372 31. Westcapelle (branch-line 
to Sluis, see below); 8 31. Dudzeele; Koolkerke; Bruges^ see p. 11. From 
Westcapelle (see above), a tramway-line runs via Sint Anna ter Muiden, 
a village of Dutch character, to (6 M.) Sluis, French VEcluse {Ilof van 
Brui^scl), a small and ancient seaport, situated beyond the Dutch frontier, 
and connected with (3hrs.) Bruges by a canal. Sluis possesses a belfry of 
the 14th century. A steamer plies twice daily (except Sun.) in 2 hrs. be- 
tween Sluis and Bruges, leaving the former in the morning and afternoon 
and the latter in the afternoon and evening. There is also a steam-tram- 
way from Sluis to Afaldeghem (p. 10 ; in I72 hr.) and Breskens (p. 244 ; in 
2V4 hrs.). — A pleasant day's excursion may be made from Bruges to 
Heyst, Sluis, etc. ; returning from Sluis to Bruges along the canal which 
is bordered with trees and pleasure-grounds, via Damme (p. 27). 

Gadzand (comp. p. 27), a Dutch village recently frequented for sea- 
bathing, lies to the N. of Sluis (I72 hr. by carriage), and may be reached 
from Knokke on foot along the coast in 2 hrs. In the village is the inn 
'de Witte Leeuw' ; and on the dune I72 31. distant, another modest inn, 
with rooms to let. 


3. From Ostend to Brussels via Bruges and Ghent. 

76 M. Railway (Chemin de Fer de VEtat). Express to Bruges in '^hr., 
to Ghent in I'/z hr., to Brussels in 2^l\-2^li brs. ; ordinary trains in 3/4, 2, and 
4 hrs. Fares to Bruges 1 fr. 75, 1 fr. 30, 90 c. ; to Ghent 4"fr. 90, 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 
45 c. ; to Brussels 9 fr. ;}0, G fr. 95, 4 fr. 65 c ; express one-fourth more. 

The express-trains in connection -svith the Dover steamboats 
start from the quay, the ordinary trains from the station in the town. 

Before [p-j-i M.) Oudenhurg tlie line crosses the canal diverging 
from the Ostend canal to the S.W., and leading via Nieuport and 
Fumes to Dunkirk. The town lies to the right in the midst of a 
sandy district, with an oasis of productive gardens which supply 
Ostend with fruit and vegetables. Oudenhurg is said once to have 
been a flourishing commercial town, and to have been destroyed by 
Attila about the middle of the 5th century. — 82/4 M. Jabbeke. 

14 M. Bruges, see p. 11, and Map, p. 7. 

Fkom Bulges to Blankenkeughe (9V.J *^-) and Heyst (15 M.) by rail- 
way in 30 and 50 min. respectively (fares 1 fr. 15, 90, 60 c., and 1 fr. 85, 

1 fr. 40, 95 c). The outside seats (3rd class) on the top of the carriages 
aflord a good survey of the rich plain of Flanders, but are very draughty. 
— Stations: 2 M. Britges-Bassin. the port for Bruges, with ships and large 
timber stores; 5 M. Di/dzeele; 7 M. Lisseweghe (p. 8)5 8 M. Blankenberghe 
(p. 7); t5 M. Het/st (p. 9). 

To Thourout (Courtrai and Ypres), see p. 32. 

Stations Oostkamp, Bloemendael, [28 M.) Aeltre (steam-tramway 
to Thielt, see p. 31 ), Bellein, Ilansbeke, Landeyhem, Tronchiennes. 
40 V2 M. Gand-St. Pierre. 

421/2 M. Ghent, see p. 34. From Ghent to Antwerp, see R. 10; 
to Courtrai^ see R. 8. 

From Ghent to Tekneuzen (26V2 M.) by railway in IV2 hr. (fares 3 fr., 

2 fr. 30, 1 fr. 50 c). The train starts from the Station du Chemin de Fer 
de TEtat, stopping at the Station du Pays de Waes (seep. 34), and then 
follows the direction of the canal mentioned at p. 35. Stations Wondelgltem 
(see below), Langerhrugge. Terdonck-Clui/sen, Ertvelde, Selzaele (junction of 
the line from Bruges to Lokeren, p. 63, and the last Belgian station), Sas(/. c, 
lock) van Ghent (the first Dutch station, where the locks of the above- 
mentioned canal arc situated), r/iilippine, Slvijskill, and Terneuzen ( I^'eder- 
landsch Logement)^ a small fortified town at the mouth of the important 
canal which connects Ghent with the Schclde. Sleatuhoat thence twice 
daily in I'/ihr. to Flusliing (p. 243); omnibus from the station at Flushing 
to the (3'4 M.) steamboat-pier. 

From Ghent to Bruges there is a private railway (30 M.), the continua- 
tion of the Waesland line (p. 62), as well as the Chemin de Fer de TEtat. 
Trains run in 65-95 min. (fares 2fr. 70, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 35 c.), starting from 
the Station d'Eecloo, on the X.E. side of the town. Stations Wondelghem, 
L'verghem, Sleydinge^ Wacrschoot, Eecloo (a busy town with 10,400 inhab., 
where the Bruges, Selzaete, and Lokeren line diverges to the right), Bal- 
gerhoeke, Adeghem, Maldeghem (branch-line to Breskens \ia, Sluis, see p. 9), 
Donck^ Si/seele, Steenbrugge, and Bruges (p. 11). 

45 M. Melle (p. 62), beyond which a line diverges to the S. to 
Ath (p. 69) , Quatrecht , Wetteren, and Schellebelle , where the line 
to Malines diverges to the left (p. 62). 

561/2 M. Alost, Flem. Aalst (Hotel de Flandre, Hot. des Arcades, 
both at the station; Due de Brabant ; Mille Colonnes) , a town with 
23,100 inhab., on the Dendre , was formerly the capital of the 

BRUGES. 4. Route. 1 1 

county of Keher-Vlaanderen , and the frontier-town of the province 
in this direction. A considerable trade in hops is carried on here. 
The Church of St. Martin, in the late-Gothic style (ahout 149S\ is 
little more than a fragment, two-thirds of the nave, as well as the 
tower and portal, being entirely wanting. It contains an admirable 
picture by Rubens, said to have been painted in 1631 in one week : 
Christ appointing St. Rochus tutelary saint of the plague-stricken. 
The museum at Ghent possesses a copy of this work. A statue by 
Jos. Gtefs was erected in 1856 in front of the Hotel de Ville to 
Thierry Maertens, the first Belgian printer, who exercised his craft 
at Alost. The beautiful belfry of the Hotel de Yille was thoroughly 
restored after a fire in 1879. The old town-hall, built early in the 
13th cent., is now a meat-market. 

Fkom Alost to Antwerp, 30 M., railway in 13/4 lir- (fares 3 fr. 65, 
2fr. 75, 1 fr. So c). — P/t 31. Moorsel. 51/2 M. Opwyck , the junctii.n of 
the Brussels, Dendermonde, and Ghent railway (p. 62) ; 10 M. Steenhuffel, 
with a church containing stained glass of the 16th cent. ; 12 M. Londevzeel., 
the junction of the Malines and Ghent line (p. 135j ; 20 31. Boom, see p. 62 ; 
24 M. Eemixem, with an old Bernardine abbey, now a prison. — 27 BI. 
Hoboken, near the Schelde, with numerous villas of Antwerp merchants 
and a large ship-building vard belonging to the Cockerill establishment 
tp. 213l. Branch-line to Oude God (p. 135). — 30 M. Antwerp, see p. 136. 

Stations Eremhodeghem , (61 M.) Denderleeuw (where a line 
diverges to Ninove and Ath, p. 69), Esschene-Lombeek, Temath, 
Bodeghem-Saint-Martin , Dilbeek, Berchem-Sainte-Agathe , Jette 
(where the Dendermonde line diverges), and Laeken (p. 114), 
where the royal chateau is seen on the left. The train finally stops 
at the Station du Nord at (76 M.) Brussels (p. 72). 

4. Bruges. 

Hotels. *HoTEL DE Flandre (PL a ; B, 5), Rue Kord-du-Sablon 3S, R. 
3-5, A. 34, L. 3/4, B. iV2, de'j. 31,2, D. 4, pens. 8-10 fr.; *Grand Hotel du 
Commerce (PI. b; B, 4), Rue St. .Jacques 20, an old-established and com- 
fortable familv-hotel, frequented by English travellers, R. 2V2-4, L. '/a, 

A. 3/4, B. 1'/,,' D. at 1 p.m. 3, at 6 p.m. 31/2 fr.-, *Hotkl i>d Sablon (PI. n; 

B, 5), Rue Xurd-du-Sablun; ''Hotel de l'Univee.s (PI. c; A, 5l, conveniently 
situated for passing travellers; charges at these two: R., L., & A. 2'/2-3, 
B. 1-11/4, dej. 2, D. 21/2, pens. 7-8 fr. ; -Hotel de Londees (PI. d; A, 5), 
at the station, R., L., & A. 2-3, B. 1, D. 21/2 fr., with frequented cafe- 
restaurant; CoMTE DE Flandre, Singe d'Or (PI. e; A, 5), with cafe's, oppo- 
site the station: Hotel St. Amand (PI. f; B, 5). Rue St. Amand, R., L., & 
A. 23/4-33/4. B. 1, D. 21/2. pens. 71/2 fr. ; these three well spoken of; Hotel 
DE l'Ocrs d'Or (PI. g ; B, o). Rue Courte d'Argent ; Panier d'Or (PI. h ; B, 4), 
opposite the covered market, on the X. side of the large market-place, 
with cafe-restaurant, unpretending, R. & B. 21/2, D- 2, S. I1/2 fr. 

Cafes-Restaurants. In the hotels ; Caf^ Foy (PI. i; C, 5), in the Grande 
Place, at the corner of the Rue Philipp Stok ; Grand Cafi., Grande Place, at 
the corner of the Rue des Pierres ; Trois Suisses, Rue Philipp Stok ; Vogel, 
Grande Place (Jlunich beer). 

Baths. Bains St. Sauveur, at the back of the cathedral (PI. B, 5). 

Cabs 1 fr. per drive ; one hour IV2 fr. , each additional 1/2 br. 75 c ; 
open carriages l'/2, 2, and 1 fr. respectively. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Rue de Cordoue (PI. 7; C, 4) and at the 
Gare Centrale (PI. A, 5). 

12 Routed. BRUGES. History. 

Steam-Tramway to Heyst^ via Westcapeile (branch to Sluis, p. 9) and 
Knolke (p. 9). The cars start from the railway-station and halt at various 
poinis in the town. 

English Church, Rue des Baudots; services at 11 and 7 (5.30 in winter) ; 
chaplain, Rev. A. V. Hughes Eallett, M. A., Rue du Vieux Sac 30. 

Principal Attractions: Cathedral (j). 13), Hospital of St. John (p. 18), 
Notre Dame (p. 15), Chapelle du Saint-Sang (p. 23), Palais de Justice (p. 25), 
Museum (p. 20), Hotel de Ville (p. 23), Belfry (p. 21). 

Bruges., Flem. Brugge, the capital of W. Flanders, lies 71/2 M, 
from the North Sea, with which it is connected by two deep canals, 
navigable for sea-going vessels of considerable tonnage. One of these 
terminates at Sluis (I'Ecluse ; pp. 9, 244), the other at Ostend. There 
are also canals from Bruges to Ghent, Ypres, Nieuport, and Furnes. 
The formation of a harbour for sea-going ships is contemplated. 
The broad streets and numerous old houses, chiefly of late-Gothic 
architecture, recall its ancient glory; and of all the cities of Belgium, 
Bruges has best preserved its mediaeval characteristics (p. xl). With 
the exception of the quarter between the large market-place and 
the railway-station, the town now presents a melancholy and deserted 
appearance. Nearly one-fourth of the 47,000 inhab. are said to be 

In the 14th cent. Bruges (which in Flemish means bridges, a name 
due to the numerous bridges crossing the canals) was the great com- 
mercial centre of Europe. Factories, or privileged trading companies 
from seventeen different kingdoms had settled here ; twenty foreign 
ministers resided within the waUs ; and inhabitants of remote dis- 
tricts, of which the very names were almost unknown , visited the 
renowned city every year. Early in the 13th cent. Bruges became 
one of the great marts of the Hanseatic League and of the English 
wool trade. Lombards and Venetians conveyed hither the products 
of India and Italy, and returned home with the manufactures of 
England and Germany. Richly-laden vessels from Venice, Genoa, 
and Constantinople might be seen simultaneously discharging their 
cargoes here, and the magazines of Bruges groaned beneath the 
weight of English wool, Flemish linen, and Persian silk. In 1302, 
when Johanna of Navarre, with her husband Philippe le Bel of France, 
visited Bruges and beheld the sumptuous costumes of the inhabit- 
ants, she is said to have exclaimed : ' I imagined myself alone to 
be queen, but I see hundreds of persons here whose attire vies with 
my own.' Bruges was long the residence of the Counts of Flanders. 
It attained the culminating point of its prosperity during the 
lirst half of the 15th cent., when the Dukes of Burgundy held their 
court here. During this period a brilliant colony of artists was 
retained at Bruges in busy employment, and their works still shed 
a lustre on the name of the city. 

The *Eailway Station, a tasteful Gothic structure, is in the old 
Marchie du Vendredi (PI. A, 5). Here, on 30th March, 1128, the 
townspeople, after having elected Count Theodoric of Alsace to be 
Count of Flanders , returned the following spirited answer to the 

Cathedral. BRUGES. 4. Route. 13 

deputies of the king of France, who had sent to object to their choice : 
'Go, tell your master that he is perjured; that his creature William 
of Normandy (usurper of the sovereignty of Flanders) has rendered 
himself unworthy of the crown by his infamous extortions ; that we 
have elected a new sovereign, and that it becomes not the king of 
France to oppose us. That it is our privilege alone, as burghers and 
nobles of Flanders, to choose our own master.' 

To the right in the street leading from the railway-station into the 
town is situated the Cathedral (^St. Sauveur; PI. B, 5), an early- 
Gothic brick structure of the 13th and 14th cent, (choir, end of 
13th cent. ; nave and transept, 1358-62; the live chapels of the 
choir, 1482-1527; vaulting of the ambulatory, 1527-30). Externally 
it is a cumbrous building, destitute of a portal, disfigured by later 
additions , and surmounted by a W. tower resembling a castle, the 
lower part of which dates back to the r2th cent., while the upper 
part was completed in 1843. 

The *Interior is remarkable for its fine proportions, and is 
adorned with numerous paintings (sacristan 1 fr. , more for a party). 
It measures 110 yds. in length, 41 yds. in breadth, and across the 
transept 58 yds., and is 90 ft. high. The modern polychrome de- 
coration is by Jean Bethune. 

xSORTH Aisle (^left). The entrance doorway, the carved doors 
of which have been removed to the Ancien Greff e (p.23) , is surmount- 
ed by five groups of carved wood, painted and gilded, representing 
scenes from the Passion, and dating from about 1460. — At the en- 
trance of the Baptistery are two monumental *Brasses, the one on 
the right, of excellent design, dating from 1439, that on the left 
from 1518. This chapel contains a Crucifixion, painted about 1390 
by an unknown master of the Cologne school, and a handsome can- 
delabrum of wrought iron. *P. Pourbus, Last Supper, with Abra- 
ham, Melchisedech, and Elijah on the wings ; on the outside, Christ 
appearing to one of the Popes, and 13 good portraits of brothers of 
the Order of the Holy Sacrament (1559). Another picture (16th cent.) 
represents scenes from the lives of SS. Joachim and Anna. 

On the West Wall: Jacob van Oost the Elder (1600-1671; 
in the 17th cent, the chief painter of Bruges, which still contains a 
number of his works). Descent of the Holy Ghost, (left) the portrait 
of the master, (right) that of his son ; Jan van Hoeck, Crucifixion. To 
the left of the square space under the tower : Backereel, St. Carlo 
Borromeo administering the Eucharist to persons sick of the plague ; 
Van Oost, Triumph of Christ over Time and Death; Seghers, 
Adoration of the Magi. — Above the S. entrance door is an altar- 
piece of the 15th cent., in carved wood and gilded, representing 
the Holy Family and various saints. 

S. Aisle : *Dierick Bouts, erroneously ascribed to Memling, Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Hippolytus (covered). 

The principal picture represents the saint about to be torn to pieces 
by four horses, mounted, or led by men on foot. The unfounded local 

14 Routed. BRUGES. Calhedral. 

legend is that these horses were copied hy Memling from the famous 
horses of St. Mark at Venice. The most pleasing part of the picture is 
the landscape in the backtiround, which possesses greater depth and a 
better atmosphere than most of the landscapes of the Van Eyck school. 
On the left wing is a scene from the life of St. Hippolytus, on the right 
the donor and his wife in a beautiful landscape. — The saints on the 
outside of the wings are by an inferior hand. 

Farther on in the S. aisle : Crucifixion, erroneously attributed 
to Gerard van der Metre (covered). Then, Jan Maes (18th cent.}, 
SS. Agatha and Dorothea. 

Transept : Modern stained glass by Dobbelaer (1861}. A heavy 
marble rood-loft, in the Baroque style, constructed by Corn, ver 
Hoeve in 1679-82, separates the transept from the clioir. The 
colossal statue of God the Father above it is by A. Quellin the 
Younger (IQSTj. — Two chapels adjoin the transept. On the 
right is tiie Chapel of St. Barbara^ with a handsome door (loth 
cent.l, and modern Gothic altar. The Chapel of the Shoemakers'' 
Guild (Chapelle des Cordonniers), on the left, possesses a finely- 
carved door dating from the latter half of the loth cent., and con- 
tains a carved wooden Crucifix, of the 14th cent., a winged pict- 
ure representing the members of the guild , by Fr. Pourbus the 
Younger (1608), and several interesting brasses (on the left, 
*Walter Copman, 1387, and Martin de Visch, 1453 ; on the right, 
the learned Schelewaerts, 1483, and Adr. Bave with his wife and 
son, 1555). 

The Choir contains two large marble monuments of the bishops 
CastilUon (d. 1753) and Susteren (d. 1742), both by Pulinx. High- 
altarpiece , Resurrection \)yJanssens; Van Oost the Elder, Peter 
and John. The Gothic choir-stalls date from 1478, but have been 
frequently altered. They are adorned with the armorial bearings of 
the Order of the Golden Fleece (Toison d'Or), which was founded 
at Bruges by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy and the Nether- 
lands, on 10th Jan., 1429, on the occasion of his marriage with 
Isabella, daughter of John I. of Portugal. 

Ambulatory (beginning at theN. or left transept). A. Claeissens, 
Descent from the Cross (winged picture); J. van Oost, the Saviour 
predicting his Passion to his Mother, and His last interview with 
his Mother before the Passion. — 1st Chapel: Handsome door of 
1513; altar of 1517, with a beautiful painted crucifix; on the 
wall to the left, two memorial tablets of copper (1387 and 1457); 
opposite, a tasteful coat-of-arms of the 16th cent. ; modern stained 
glass by J. Bethune. — 2nd Chapel : above the altar, ^Unknown 
Master of the 15th Century, the Virgin and St. Bernard. By the 
pillar opposite : marble tomb of Jan de Schietere (d. 1575) and his 
wife, with a Crucifixion and figures of the married couple and their 
patron-saints, by G-'. de Witte. — 3rd Chapel : Stained glass of the 
16th cent. ; Jac. van Oost the Elder, The infant Saviour in the 
workshop of his father Joseph, painted for the guild of carpenters ; 
i«liquary of Charles the Good, Count of Flanders (assassinated in 

Notre Dame. BRUGES. 4. Route. 1 5 

11*27); tomb of Bishop Carondelet, 1544; Meinderhout. Battle of 
Lepanto ; Van Oost, Flight into Egypt. — The 4th Chapel contains 
nothing worthy of note. — 5th Chapel, at the hack of the high-altar : 
modern stained glass hy J. Bef^rune (^1861) ; Pieta, a gilded copper 
relief by P. Wolfyanck. — 6th Chapel : by the first pillar to the left, 
Unknown Master of the 15th Century. Mater Dolorosa, on a gold 
ground; to the right. Portrait of Philippe le Bel (son of Maximi- 
lian I. and father of the Enip. Charles Y.) on a gold ground, master 
unknown (about 1505). The inscription below styles him ^Philippiis 
Stok' (a sobriquet applied to him by the citizens of Bruges in allusion 
to his habit of carrying a stick), and mentions him as the founder 
of the ^Broederscap der Wee'n' (i.e. , the 'brotherhood of suffering'), 
a fraternity which still exists. In the floor two monumental brasses, 
the one, richly gilt and enamelled, being that of John van Coudcn- 
berghe (d. 15'25), the other that of Bernhardin van den Hoeve 
(d. 1517). — 7th Chapel : A. Janssens (d. 1631), Adoration of the 
Shepherds ; M. de Vos. Consecration of St. Eligius. — Farther on 
in the ambulatory : to the left, Jan Er. Quellin, St. Simon Stock 
receiving the scapulary from the Virgin ; by the pillar opposite. Tomb 
of 164'2, with statuette after Michael Angelo's Madonna ; Van Baelen, 

The Chambre des MarguilUers, or Churchwardens' Vestry, at the 
W. end of the S. aisle (p. 13), contains several works of art for- 
merly hung in the church itself. Among these are four small pictures 
by Coninxloo (?): the Paschal Lamb, Manna, David dancing before 
the Ark of the Covenant, and the Disciples at Emmaus. Also a 
small and fine wooden relief of the 14th cent., representing the 
crowning of St. Eligius (Sacre de St. Eloil. The ivory crozier of 
St. Maclou (6th cent.), some ancient missals, and other relics are 
preserved in a cabinet here. 

*Notre Dame (Flem. Onze Vrouw; PI. B, 6), in the immediate 
vicinity, another Gothic structure, was originally erected on the site 
of an earlier chapel in the l^th cent., but in its present form dates 
from the 13-15th centuries. The tower, 390 ft. high, was restored 
in 1854-58, and provided with turrets at the angles in 1873. The 
small late-Gothic *Addition on the N. side was originally a portal, 
named 'Het Paradys', and is now fitted up as a baptistery (sec 
below). The church contains some admirable works of art. 

The INTERIOR (sacristan, who shows the pictures, ^j-r-i fr. for 
one person ; additional fee for the burial-chapel, see p. 17) is 80 yds. 
long , 55 yds. broad , and 70 ft. high , and consists of a nave and 
double aisles, without a transept. The outer aisles with their rows 
of chapels date from 1344-60 (N. side) and 1450-74 (8. side). 
Round the choir runs an ambulatory. 

North Aisles. Pictures by J. Maes , J. A. Gaeremyn , and 
other painters of the 18th century. Also, in a niche covered with 
a Gothic canopy, a statue of the Virgin, dating from 1485 (?). The 

16 Routed. BRUGES. Notre Dame. 

Baptistery was once a doorway (see p. 15). The Chapelle de la Ste. 
Croix, at the end of the outer aisle, fitted up in 1437, contains 
some worthless paintings , representing the History of the Cross. 

West Wall : De Crnyer, Adoration of the Infant Jesus, with 
numerous saints, an excellent work, 1662; Francken, Mary Magda- 
lene at the feet of Christ ; Seghers, Adoration of the Magi, with saints 
(considered the painter's masterpiece ) ; large winged picture, re- 
presenting in the middle the Crucifixion , and on the wings the 
Bearing of the Cross, the Crown of Thorns, the Descent from the 
Cross, and Christ in Hades, begun hy B. van Orley, and restored 
hy Pourbus the Younger in 1589 after the iconoclastic outrages. 

South Aisles. 3rd Chapel : Ant. Claeissens (?), Virgin and 
Child in a landscape, with portraits of the donor Nic. van Thienen 
and his wife, and the Annunciation in grisaille on the wings ; to 
the right, a triptych of the Virgin, Child, and an angel, with por- 
traits of Don Diego de Villega, his wife and children, by an un- 
known painter, 1579. — 4th Chapel: *P. Pourhus, Transfiguration, 
with portraits of the donor Ans. de Boodt and his wife, along with 
their patron-saints, 1573 (the central picture appears to be older 
than the rest and has been ascribed to Jan Mostert, 1480) ; Van 
Oost, The Angel warning Joseph and Mary to flee to Egypt. — 
Adjoining the confessional : Herri met de Bles, Annunciation, and 
Adoration of the Magi, on a gold ground. — Farther on, to the 
right, Copy of Van Dyck's Crucifixion ; tomb of Adrian van Haves- 
kerke; above, P. Pourbus, Last Supper, 1562. 

Over the altar, in the old Chapel of the Host, in a black marble 
niche, stands a small **Statue of the Virgin and Child, a life-size 
marble group of exquisite beauty, ascribed to Michael Angela, pro- 
bably identical with the statue ordered by Peter Moscron, a mer- 
chant of Bruges, and erroneously spoken of by Vasari as a bronze work. 
It would therefore belong to the great master's early period, and date 
from about 1503. The composition is undoubtedly by Michael An- 
gelo , but the execution , which is delicately and softly rounded, 
was probably entrusted to one of his pupils. The life-size study for 
the head of the Madonna, by Michael Angelo's own hand, is in the 
S. Kensington Museum. Horace Walpole, who was a great admirer 
of art, is said to have offered 30,000 fl. for the statue. The French 
carried it oif to Paris during the Revolution. 

Nave. Pulpitof 1743, with reliefs and figures(Wisdom standing 
on the terrestrial globe). The nave is separated from the choir by a 
wooden rood-loft of 1722, above which is a Crucifix dating from 1594. 

Choir. The armorial bearings above the choir-stalls serve as 
a memento of the eleventh Chapter of the Order of the Golden 
Fleece, held here in 1468. High-altar of the 18th century. 

In the Ambulatory, beginning by the above-named Chapel 
of the Host: J. van Oost the Elder, St. Rosalia, after Van Dyck's 
painting in the Belvedere at Vienna. 

Notre Dame. BRUGES. 4. Route. 17 

Then in a closed chapel to the right (1 person 1 fr.; for a party 
Vofr. each) the *Tombs of Charles the Bold (d. 1477}, Duke of 
Burgundy, and his daughter Mary (d. 1482), wife of the Emp. 
Maximilian, the last scions of the House of Burgundy and of the 
native princes of the S. Netherlands. 

The life-size recumbent figures of the duke and his daughter, in 
bronze, richly gilded, repose on marble sarcophagi; at the sides are the 
enamelled armorial bearings of the duchies, counties, and estates which 
the princess, the richest heiress of that age, brought to the House of 
Austria on her marriage with Maximilian. The tomb of the Princess, in 
the Gothic style, and by far the more valuable as a work of art, was 
executed by Pieler de Beckere of Brussels in 1495-1502, aided by five or 
six assistants. The Duke's tomb, an imitation of the other, was 
erected in 1558 by Philip II., a descendant of Charles the Bold, who is 
said to have paid the sculptor Jongelincx of Antwerp the then very large 
sum of 24,395 11. The Emp. Charles V. caused the remains of the duke, 
his great-grandfather, to be conveyed hither from Nancy. The tomb of 
Charles bears his motto: 'Je Tay empris, bien en aviengne !' ('I have made 
the venture; may it prosper!'). The sumptuousness of these tombs, the 
historical associations attaching to the illustrious father and daughter, 
and the touching story of the death of the latter in consequence of a fall 
from her horse while hunting with her husband near Bruges, all combine 
to render these monuments deeply interesting. They were first erected 
in the choir, and only since 1816 have they stood in this chapel, which 
was originally dedicated to P. Lanchals, unjustly beheaded in 1488, whose 
tombstone is still to be seen to the right of the entrance. 

On the E. wall : ^Unknown Master (according to "Waagen by Jan 
Mostert), The Mourning Mary, surrounded by seven small repre- 
sentations of her Seven Sorrows. On the W. wall; to the right, 
Roger van der Weyden (?), Triptych, Entombment, with St. Mary 
Magdalene on the left, the Virgin on the right, and on the outside 
the donors (members of the Danauder family) and saints ; to the 
left, two wings of an altar, presented by the Omillard family, Fourhus 
the painter, with his family, by himself. 

The former Chapel of the Virgin^ behind the high-altar, gaud- 
ily ornamented, with an altar by L. Blanchaert (1863) and stained 
glass by J. Be'thune, now contains the Host. Farther on, above, is 
a richly-carved Gothic pew in oak, of 1474, formerly the property 
of the family of Van der Gruuthuyse, with whose house (see below), 
it was connected by a passage. Then, Jac.van Oost, Triumph of the 
Church, 1652 ; De Grayer ('?), St. Thomas Aquinas released from 
prison by two angels ; under it (covered), Claeissens, Foundation of 
the church of St. Maria Maggiore at Rome ; opposite. Van Oost the 
Elder, Calling of Matthew (1640); Caravaggio, Christ at Emmaus 
(1604). — Opposite is the Chapel of the Trinity, founded by the 
Breidel family, long used as a warehouse but restored since 1868. 

The* Gruuthuyse Palace (see above), adjoining the church on the 
E., with one of the finest gable-facades in Bruges, is at present 
being prepared for the reception of the Museum (p. 20). The por- 
tion already completed contains a valuable collection of old lace 
(adm. 50 c), presented to the town by the Baroness Licdt, whose 
bust, by H. Pickery, adorns the hall. 

Baedekke's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 2 

18 Route 4. BRUGES. St. John's Hospital. 

A gateway (at which visitors ring on the right) opposite the W. 
side of Notre Dame leads to the "Hospital of St. John (PI. B, 6), 
which has existed for upwards of five centuries , and where the 
sick are attended by Sisters of Charity. The interesting sculp- 
tures above the walled-up gateway to the left of the entrance date 
from the 13th century. Strangers are admitted on week-days, 9-12 
and 1-G (in winter till 4), on Sun. and holidays 3-5 or 4 (fee 1 fr,). 
(Tickets admitting to this hospital, the Hospice de la Potterie, and 
the Hospices Civils may be obtained here for V/2fT.^ 

The hospital contains a number of **Pictures by Memling, which 
alone would amply repay a visit to Bruges (comp. Introd., p. xli). 
These are preserved in a building in the court, which was formerly 
the chapter-room. In the centre, on a rotatory pedestal, is the **Chdsse 
of St. Ursula, a reliquary of Gothic design, the scenes paii^ed on 
which form Memling's finest work. It is said to have been ordered 
by the Hospital in 1480, and completed in 1486. 

'The shrine of St. Ursula is a Gothic chapel in miniature, its long 
sides being divided into archings containing six episodes, its cover adorn- 
ed with six medallions; one incident fills each of the gables. In the 
medallions are the coronation of the Virgin, the glory of St. Ursula, and 
four angels ; on the gables, St. Ursula shelters the band of maidens under 
her cloak, and the Virgin in a porch is worshipped by two hospital nuns. 
Of the six designs on the long sides, one represents the fleet arriving at 
Cologne, where Ursula prepares to land with her companions. We re- 
cognize the shape of the old cathedral, the steeples of several chur- 
ches , and one of the city towers , most of them true to nature but not 
in their proper places ; in one of the distant houses Ursula sees the 
vision of the Pope bidding her to visit Rome. Another scene is laid on 
the quays of Bale, where St. Ursula has taken to the shore, whilst a part 
of her suite awaits its turn to disembark. A third shows the Pope sur- 
rounded by his court in the porch of a church awaiting St. Ursula who 
kneels on the steps leading up to the portal. In a gallery close by, the 
British neophytes are baptised and confessed, or partake of the Hol> 
Communion. The Pope, in the fourth picture, accompanies the maidens 
on their return to Bale; he sits with his cardinals in the vessel which 
carries St. Ursula, whilst the suite of both still winds through the passes 
leading from the Alps. On the fifth panel, the background is a camp on 
the Rhine shore, where boats have landed some of their living freight, 
and others approach with crowded loads-, the knights and virgins are 
set upon by soldiers and arc vainly defended by their steel-clad cham- 
pions. The sixth picture is that in which St. Ursula is seen in a passive 
attitude of prayer, awaiting the arrow of a executioner; the men about 
her, armed in proof, or shrouded in mantles, are spectators or actors in 
the massacre of the saint's companions; and the distance is filled with 
tents behind which the Kolner Dom rears its solid walls'. 

'The freedom and grace with which these scenes are composed are 
partly due to the facility with which Memling treated groups and figures 
of small proportions, but they tell of progress in the art of distribution 
and arrangement. It would be difficult to select any picture of the Flemish 
school in which the 'dramatis persona;'' are more naturally put together 
than they are in the shrine of St. Ursula, nor is there a single panel in 
the reliquary that has not the charm of rich and well-contrasted colour. 
... A rich fund of life and grace is revealed in shapes of symmetrical 
proportions or slender make and attitudes of becoming elegance. Nothing 
is more striking than the minuteness of the painter's touch, or the per- 
fect mastery of his finish'. 

Croice and Cavalcaselle. The Earhj Flemish Painters. 1872. 

St. John's Hospital. BRUGES. 4. Route. 19 

A second picture by Memling, vi-ith a doubtless later inscription 
in which the painter is named Hemling, is the ^Marriage of St. 
Catharine' (No. 1), a winged picture. 

'The Virgin sits on a throne in a rich church-porch-, angels hold a 
crown above her; the infant on her lap bends to give a ring to the bride 
kneeling in regal raiment at his feet 5 to the left and right, the Baptist, 
Evangelist, and St. Barbara stand gravely in attendance; an angel plays 
on an organ; another holds a missal. Close behind St. Barbara, a monk 
of the order of St. Augustin contemplates the scene ; and in a landscape 
watered by a river the Baptist prays to God, preaches to a crowd, wends 
his way to the place of execntion, and burns — a headless trunk — at 
the stake; elsewhere, St. John Evangelist seethes in boiling oil. On the 
left wing of the triptych the daughter of Herodias receives the Baptist's 
head, and dances before Herod. On the right wing St. John Evangelist 
is seated and looks towards heaven, preparing to note the vision before 
him. He sees the king of kings, the elders, the lamps of the Apocalypse, 
the lamb, the symbols of the Evangelist, and Death on the pale horse, 
bursting with hi"s three companions on the men wlio flee; on the placid 
surface of the sea, the vision is reflected and forms a grand and imposing 
picture. On the outer face of the wings, Jacques de Keuninck, treasurer, 
Antoine Seghers , director, Agnes Cazembrood , superior, and Claire van 
Hultem, a nun of the hospital, are depicted under the protection of their 
patron saints.' — Ibid. 

By the entrance is a smaller winged picture (No. 3) by Memling, 
also with a forged inscription, the *Epiphany , representing the 
Adoration of the Magi, and the Presentation in the Temple, painted 
in 1479, and the best example of the master's early manner (under 

The thin, bearded man looking in at the window, with the cap which 
is still worn by the convalescents of the hospital, is said to be a portrait 
of the master himself. To the right. Brother Jan Floreins van der Ryst, 
the donor, kneeling. On the inside of the shutters, the Nativity, and 
Presentation in the Temple; outside, John the Baptist and St. Veronica. 
In this picture the influence of Roger van der Weyden, Memling's teacher, 
is most distinctly visible, but the heads are more delicate and pleasing, 
and the execution bolder. The picture has unfortunately been much 
injured by cleaning. 

A small picture (No. 4 ; under glass ; at the fourth window), a 
diptych , painted in 1487, represents the Virgin with a red mantle, 
offering an apple to the Child ; on the other wing the donor, Martin 
van Newenhowen. 

'There is no more interesting specimen of portrait by Memling ex- 
tant than this , none more characteristic for the large fair oval of the 
Madonna's face, or for that peculiar clearness which is so surely pro- 
duced by scant shadow and spacious, even light'. — Crowe & Cavalcaselle. 

Another picture by Memling (No. 5) represents a female Bust, 
with high cap and white veil, styled by the modern inscription 
'SibyUa Sambetha'. 

An Entombment (No. 6; by the second window), with portrait 
of the donor A. Reins, and SS. Adrian, Barbara, Wilgefortis, and 
Mary of Egypt on the wings (the last two on the outside), also some- 
times attributed to Memling, but probably by an inferior contempo- 
rary, possesses far less life and richness of colouring than the other 


20 Route. 4. BRUGES. Museum. 

There are also several good pictures by the two Van Oosts (a 
Philosopher, No. 11, is a masterpiece of the Elder), a Madonna,' 
an old copy after Van Dyck (No. 29; .above the door), portraits by 
Fourbus (Nos. 33, 34; below, to the right of the door), the Miracu- 
lous Draught of Fishes by Z). Tenicrs the Younger (^No. 32), the 
Good Samaritan by Nic. Maes (No. 39; beside No. 1), several works 
by unknown masters of the 15-lGth cent., etc. 

The Hospital itself (containing 240 beds) is well worthy of a visit. 
The large, open hall, divided by partitions and used as a store, is 
interesting from having retained its mediaeval aspect unchanged. 

From the Hospital the Rue Ste. Catherine leads S. to No. 84, the 
'•Museum (PL B, 7), which contains (temporarily) the pictures be- 
longing to the Academie des Beaux-Arts, a collection of great interest 
to the student of early Flemish art. (Critical catalogue by James 
Weale, 2fr.) The entrance is through the old chapel (admission on 
Sundays gratis, 11-1 o'clock; at other times ^2 f^"-)- 

On the wall opposite the entrance: ib. Jean Prevost{<\. ib2d), The Last 
Judgment, a very impressive picture, notwithstanding several eccentricities. 
In the upper part the heads are very beautiful and varied. Above, 16. J. van 
den Coornhuuse, Copy of the last (with alterations). — To the right, 0, 7. Ge- 
rard David, The sentence of Cambyses against the unjust judge Sisamnes. 
The first picture represents the bribery in the background, and the sen- 
tence of the king in the foreground; the second the executioners flaying 
Sisamnes. Both pictures (completed in 1498) are boldly painted, with a 
brownish tone of colouring , and admirably finished. The composition is 
well conceived on the whole , and the backgrounds are excellent. Most 
of the heads exhibit a marked individuality, and the hands are drawn 
with perfect accuracy. — "^b. Gerard David , Triptych , formerly ascribed 
to Memling. In the central picture the Baptism of Christ, on the left 
wing the donor Jean des Trompes and his son, with their patron St. John 
the Evangelist; on the right wing Elizabeth van der Meersch, the first 
wife of the dcmor, with her four daughters, under the protection of St. 
Elizabeth of Hungary. On the outsides of the wings are the Hadonna 
and Magdalen Cordier, the donor's second wife, with her infant daughter 
and her patron-saint. This picture shows the great skill of the master 
in landscape-painting. The background of the inner pictures , with its 
rich gradation and varied accessories, is remarkably pleasing. The work 
was executed about the year 1507. — *1. Jan van Eyck , Madonna with 
the Infant Christ, St. Donatian and St. George, and the donor Canon 
George de Pala. This picture is strongly realistic. The Madonna is the 
ugliest ever painted by Van Eyck, the Child, with its aged expression 
(meant to indicate the presence of Deity?), is lean and unattractive, and 
St. George has much the appearance of a rude common soldier. The por- 
trait of the donor, however, is masterly, and St. Donatian is a dignified 
personage. The figures are two-thirds of life-size, being the largest which 
the master is known to have painted. — 2. Jan van Eyck, Portrait of his 
wife, 1439, evidently unflattered , but admirably finished, and faithful in 
every detail. — 3. After Jan van Eyck, Head of Christ, with the spurious 
inscription, 'Joh. de Eyck inventor 1420\ a reduced «opy of the work in 
the museum at Berlin. — *4. Memling, Triptych. In the central picture 
is St. Christopher, with a blue garment and ample red cloak, looking up 
with astonishment at the Infant Christ sitting on his shoulders , as if 
unable to comprehend the continual increase of his burden. In a grotto 
is the hermit, leaning on a stick, with a lantern in his hand. To the left 
is St. Maurus reading, to the right St. Egidius with the doe. The ground 
is strewn with violets and other flowers. On the left wing is the donor 
with his five sons and his patron St. AVilliam, on the right wing his 

Belfry. BRUGES. 4. Route. 21 

wife with ten daughters and St. Barbara. On the outside are St. John 
the Baptist and St. George, in grisaille. This picture occupies a high 
rank among Memling's works. The heads of the three saints in the central 
picture are of great beauty, and the reflection of the rocky bank in the 
water is admirably rendered. The picture has unfortunately been much 
injured by the removal of the original varnish. St. George is probably 
by a difiPerent hand. — 12. Unknown Master of Brabant (formerly ascribed 
to Schooreel), Death of the Virgin (copy in the cathedral). 

Most of the back-wall is occupied by paintings by P. Pourbus of 
Gouda, who early emigrated to Bruges and died there in 1584. l^o. 19. 
Last Judgment (1551); 20. Descent from the Cross, with wings in grisaille 
(1570); 21, 22. Portraits (1551). — Above, 25. Ant. Glaeis or Claeissens, 
Banquet (1574) ; 23. Ascribed to P. Claeis, Allegorical representation of the 
Treaty of Tournai in 1584 (with portraits). 

Entrance-wall: Above, 41. /. van Oast the Elder., Augustine washing 
the feet of Christ (in the guise of a pilgrim) ; 42. St. Anthonv of Padua and 
the Holy Child; 43. St. Anthony resuscitating a dead man; 44, 45. Portrait 
of an Arquebusier; 46. Theologian dictating to his amanuensis. All these 
works deserve attention, especially the last. On the same wall, 31, 33. Jan 
van Goyen, Sea-pieces. In the doorway leading to the modem pictures, 
*8. Gerard David, two charming small coloured drawings on parchment: 
Preaching of John the Baptist and the Baptism of Christ. 

A short distance from tlic ^hiseum the Rue Neuve de Gand di- 
verges to the left (E.) from the Rue Sto. Catherine. No. 100 in 
this street (PI. C, 6) is the Musee des Hospices Civils (Museum 
der Burgerlijke Godshuizen). Admission daily except Sat., week- 
days 10-12 and 2-5 or 4, Sun. 11-1, 50 c. 

The collection includes early Flemish paintings, antique furniture, 
stained glass, painted statuettes, engraved metal caskets, pottery, etc. 
Among the most interesting exhibits are: in the large gla«s-case, live 
specimens of early Chinese porcelain; diptych (dated J522), with portrait 
of a brother of the Hospice of St. John ; "Madonna in painted ivory, 
from the end of the 13th cent. ; silver-gilt tankard (17th cent.) ; altar-cross 
(15th cent). — In the glass-case: fine carved casket, painted and gilded, of 
the 15th cent. ; bugle-horn (13th cent.). At the centre-window, enamelled 
panes of glass (15th cent.). 

The street from the station to the town passes a small open space 
planted with trees, and adorned with a poor Statue of Simon Stevin 
(PI. 11 ; B, 5), the inventor of the decimal system (d. 1635), and 
leads to the GIrande Place (PI. B, C, 5), or market-place. In the 
centre stands a colossal *Monument to Jan Breidel and Pieter de 
Conine , guild-masters and leaders of the citizens of Bruges in the 
'Battle of the Spurs' at Courtrai (p. 57~); the monument, erected iu 
1887, is by Devigne. The S. side of the square is occupied hy the 
Halles, a large building erected in the 13th and 14th centuries, 
and partly altered in 1561-66 from designs by Peter Diericx. The 
building forms a rectangle, 48 yds. broad and 93 yds. deep. The 
E. wing, originally intended for a cloth-hall, now contains the mu- 
nicipal offices ; the other has been used as a meat-market since 1819. 
The Belfry (Tour des Halles, or Grande Tour), begun in 1291 and 
finished at the end of the 14th cent., 352 ft. in height, rises in the 
centre of the facade and leans slightly towards the S.E. It consists 
of two massive square stories, flanked with corner-turrets, and sur- 

22 Route. 4. BRUGES. Church of St. Jacques. 

mounted by a lofty octagon, which was erected in 1393-96. The 
summit commands a very extensive view. The *Chimes, dating from 
1748, are heard to full advantage on Wed., Sat., & Sun., 11. 15-12. 
(Entrance in the court to the right, upstairs; ring the hell in the 
gallery; fee 25c.) In the court to the left is the entrance to an in- 
teresting Collection of Antiquities, chiefly of local origin, exhibited 
in a series of rooms on the ground-floor (Sun. 11-1, free; on other 
days, 10-4, on application to the concierge, fcc-OO c, for 3pers. 1 fr.). 
— On the E. side of the market-place are the handsome new Gothic 
(Tovernment Buildings. 

On the W. side of the market-place, at the corner of the Rue 
St. Amand, is a house formerly belonging to the Bouckhout family, 
a handsome old building in the mediaeval style , adorned with a 
gilded lion. According to a popular but probably erroneous tradition, 
it was occupied for a time by Charles II. of England, while living 
here in exile about the middle of the 17th century. The citizens 
of Bruges conferred upon hira a title of royalty by creating him 'King 
of the Guild of Archers'. 

In the opposite house, called the Cranenburg (PI. 4 ; B, 5), now a 
tavern, the citizens of Bruges kept the German King Maximilian, 
the 'last of the knights', prisoner during twelve days, in the year 
1488, on account of his refusal to concede the guardianship of his 
son Philip, heir to the crown of the Netherlands, to the king of 
France. The Pope threatened them with excommunication, and 
the Imperial army was directed to march against the city, notwith- 
standing which Maximilian was not liberated until, in the presence 
of the guilds and the townspeople, he had solemnly sworn to re- 
nounce his claim to the guardianship of his son, to respect the lib- 
erties of Bruges, and to forget the affront he had received. A few 
weeks later, however, he was released from his oath by a congress of 
Princes convened at Malines by his father, the Emp. Frederick III. 

The Rue St. Jacques, with the Conservatory of Music, and the 
Halle au Beurre or Boterhuis (on the right) with other fine brick- 
buildings, leads from the N.W. corner of the market-place to the — 

Church of St. Jacques (PI. B, 4), a late-Gothic brick building, 
erected in 1457-1518, which contains several objects of interest. 

Of the numerous pictures of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries, ar- 
ranged to some extent in rows as in a picture-gallery, and provided with 
the names of the artists and the dates, we can only specify a few. The 
painters mostly belong to Bruges {L. de Deyster, d. 1711; Jos. van den 
Kerckhove, d. 1724, among others). Left Aisle. 1st Chapel : Fine chased 
copper monumental tablets of Spanish families , one of which , with the 
date 1461, is to the memory of Catherine, daughter of C'oland d''Avlt, re- 
presented between her brother and her guardian angel; another, dating 
from 1577, is to the memory of Bon Francisco de Lapuebla and his wife, 
and is very elaborately executed ; a third, of date 1615, is in memory of 
Don Pedro de Valencia and his wife. 2nd Chapel : Lancelot Blondeel, Mar- 
tyrdom of SS. Cosmas and Damianus , painted in 1523 for the guild of 
Barber-Surgeons •, P. Potirbns , The Seven Woes of the Virgin , 1556. At 
the end of the left aisle: "Jac. van Oost the Elder, Presentation in the 
Temple. — On the High Altak: J. van Bockfiorst (d. 1668), Adoration 

Hotel deVille. BRUGES. 4. Route. 23 

of the Magi. — At the end of the Right Aisle: to the right, Madonna, 
with the donors, by P. Poui'bus, i5o6-, also a small Chapel, with poly- 
chrome ornamentation (restored in 1876), containing the tomb oi Ferri/ 
de Gros^ Seigneur de Oyenghem^ Nieuwenlande, etc. (d. 1544) and his two 
wives (the recumbent figure of the second wife is particularly beautiful); 
on the small altar in this chapel is a fine glazed terracotta of the school 
of BeUa Rohhia, representing Mary and the Child encircled with a chaplet 
of fruits. — The pulpit, rood-lofts, and choir-stalls were put up in the 
latter part of the ITth century. 

The CouR DEs Princes (PI. 3; B, 4), the ancient palace of the Counts 
of Flanders, where the nuptials of Charles the Bold with Margaret of 
York were celebrated in 146S, and where Philippe le Bel, father of Char- 
les v., was born, has entirely disappeared, with the exception of a few 
fi'agments within a private house. 

From the Rue St. Jacques farther N. the Rue des Baudets leads 
to the well-preserved Porte d'Ostende (PI. B, 2). — In the neigh- 
bouring Rue St. Georges is the Normal School for Boys (PI. C, 3), 
a handsome modern Gothic huilding. 

To the E. of the market-place, in the adjacent Place du Bourg 
(PI. C, 5), is the *H6tel de Ville (PI. 5), an elegant Gothic struc- 
ture with six turrets, three in front and three at the back , be- 
gun about 1376 by Jan Rongiers (the facade was probably finished 
in 138T), and restored in 1854-1871. The 48 niches in the prin- 
cipal facade, between the windows, are filled with statues of Counts 
of Flanders , which replace those destroyed by the French sans- 
culottes in 1792. The Counts of Flanders, on their accession to the 
throne, used to show themselves to the people from one of the win- 
dows or balconies in front of this building, and swear to maintain 
the privileges of the city (p. 12). 

Interior. A battle-piece in the hall below (Finding of the body of 
Charles the Bold after the Battle of Nancy , in 1477) , by H. Dobbelaare, 
was purchased for Bruges by the citizens with the aid of the government. 
The council-chambers contain some modern pictures and a few objects 
dating from the 17tli cent, (ink-stands, the silver chain of the burgomaster's 
hand-bell). Upstairs, in the vestibule, are representations of the principal 
squares of the town ; also a large picture by Dobbelaare, representing the 
Works of Charity. The Great Hall, which occupies almost the entire length 
of the building, is worthy of a visit on account of its fine Gothic roof of 
pendent wood-work, dating from the 14th century. 

Adjoining the Hotel de Ville on the left is the *Maison de VAn- 
cien Greffe (PL 14). or old municipal record office, a Renaissance 
edifice built by J. Wallot in 1534-37, recently restored and pro- 
fusely adorned with gilding and statues; it is now a court of law. 
The carved doors of the court-room, executed by Ant. Lambronck 
in 1544, were formerly in the cathedral. — The vaulted passage 
below the Ancien Greffe emerges on the bank of a canal, whence a 
good view is obtained of the back of the Palais de Justice (p. 25), 
the Hotel de Ville, and the towers of St. Sauveur and Notre Dame. 
On the other side of the canal is the Fish Market. 

In the corner, adjoining the Hotel de Ville on the right, is the 
church of St, Basile, usually called "^■Chapelle du Saint -Sang 
(PI. 13 ; C, 5j, a small and elegant church of two stories, the lower 
of which dates from 1150, the upper probably from the 15th cent. ; 

24 Route 4. BRUGES. Chap, du St. Sang. 

the portal and staircase, constructed in 1529-33, in the richest 
Flamboyant style, and seriously damaged by the sansculottes during 
the Revolution, were handsomely restored in 1829-39. The chapel 
derives its appellation from some drops of the blood of the Saviour, 
which Theodoric of Alsace, Count of Flanders (p. 12), is said to 
have brought from the Holy Land in 1149, and to have presented 
to the city. — The sacristan lives at No. 2 Rue de Lainc Avcugle, 
through the arched passage, on the right side. 

The Lower Chapel (entrance at the corner), founded by Theo- 
doric of Alsace and Sibylla of Anjou, and consecrated in 1150, con- 
sists of nave and aisles, with choir of the same breadth as the nave, 
and rests on low round pillars. The carved altar dates from 1536. 

The Upper Chapel is reached from the Place by the staircase 
mentioned above (open free Sun. 7-9 , Frid. 6-12 , fee at other 
times 50 c.) ; it has no aisles. The stained-glass windows in the 
vestibule date from the 16th century. The coloured decorations 
of the chapel, recently restored, are rich but somewhat gaudy. The 
windows, comprising portraits of the Burgundian princes down to 
Maria Theresa and Francis I., were executed in 1845-47 from old 
designs. The large W. window, representing the history of the 
Passion and the conveyance of the Holy Blood to Bruges, was 
executed by Capronnier from designs by Jean Bethune , 1856. 
The window with SS. Longinus and Veronica is by Jean Bethune. 
The polychrome decoration of the choir was executed in 1856 from 
designs by T. H. King, in four compartments. The altar, a specimen 
of modern sculpture in the Gothic style, was executed by Michael 
Abbeloos from drawings by Jean Bethune. The pulpit consists of 
a half-globe, resting on clouds, with the equator, meridian, and a 
few geographical names. 

On the wall to the left of the entrance : piece of lace of 1684 
(under glass); old Flemish painting of the 15th cent, representing 
Count Theodoric receiving the ' Holy Blood' from Baldwin III. of 
Flanders, King of Jerusalem (?); other pictures of little value. — 
In the opposite wall are three arches opening on to a Chapel, 
where the Holy Blood is exposed to view. Above the arches : De 
Crayer , Pietk ; to the right, an early-Flemish winged painting of 
the Crucifixion, and others. The marble altar of the chapel, bear- 
ing a massive silver crucifix, dates from the 17th cent. ; the pulpit, 
where the Holy Blood is exhibited every Friday from 6 to 11.30 a.m., 
was constructed in 1866. To the right and left arc good portraits 
of members of the Brotherhood of the Holy Blood, painted by P. 
Pourbus (1556). Farther on is a winged picture of the early-Flemish 
scliool, containing a vast number of figures, and portraying the 
Bearing of the Cross, the Crucifixion, and the Resurrection. 

The most important picture in the church, however, is the*De- 
scent from the Cross, a winged picture by Gerard David. 

The central scene represents the body of Christ supported by the aged 
Nicodemus on the right. Mary, with her hands folded, kneels before 

Palais de Justice. BRUGES. 4. Route. *25 

her son, supported by St. John, who at the same time raises the left 
arm of Christ. On his right are Mary Salome and, in the corner, a man 
with a box of ointment. On the wings are Mary Magdalene with Cleo- 
phas, and Joseph of Arimathrea with an unknown man. In the back- 
ground is Mt. Calvary. The picture was probably painted late in life by 
the master, whose merit has only recently been discovered, and exhibits 
a brownish tone, attributable to the influence of Quinten Massys. 

Above the exit : J. van Oost the Elder, Descent from the Cross. 
— The Sacristy contains a silver-gilt reliquary (4 ft, 3 in. high, 2 ft. 
hroad), studded with gems, -which was made in 1617 hy Jearh 
Crabbe, and presented to the church by Archduke Albert and his 
wife Isabella ; the miniature crown resting on it is said to have 
been a gift from Princess Mary of Burgundy (p. 17), but is doubt- 
less nearly two centuries later in date. 

On the N. side of the Hotel de Ville is the Palais de Justice 
(PI. C, 5; 1722-27), formerly the town-hall of the Franc de Bruges, 
or district of the ^Buitenpoorters\ i.e., inhabitants 'outside the gate', 
•who were not subject to the jurisdiction of the city. It occupies part 
of the site of an old palace of the Counts of Flanders, which was 
presented by Philippe le Bel to the 'Franc de Bruges'. The first 
building, erected in 1520-1608, -was destroyed by fire. 

The CouKT Room {Chamhre Echevinale; custodian in the quadrangle, 
1/2 fr.) belongs to the original edifice. It contains a magnificent Renais- 
sance * Oiimne;/- Piece , occupying almost the entire side of the room, 
executed in 1529-31 by Giujot de Beaugrarit, probably to commemorate 
the battle of Pavia, and the peace of Cambrai, by which France was 
obliged to recognise the independence of Flanders. The lower part con- 
sists of black marble; the upper, which is of carved oak, was exe- 
cuted from designs by the painter Lancelot Blondeel, and restored in 
1850 by the sculptor Geerts. The statues, finely carved and nearly life- 
size, represent Charles V. (in the centre), his paternal ancestors Blary of 
Burgundy and 3Iaximilian of Austria on the left, and his maternal an- 
cestors Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile on the right of the 
spectator; to the right and left of Charles are small medallions, held 
aloft by children, representing his parents Philippe le Bel and Johanna 
of Castile; also the armorial bearings of Burgundy, Spain, etc.; the 
whole decorated with genii and foliage. On the frieze of the chimney- 
piece proper are four reliefs in white marble, of the same period, repre- 
senting the history of Susanna. The tapestry on the walls was manufac- 
tured at Ingelmiinster (p. 33) in 1850, in imitation of the original, of 
which portions were found in the cellar. 

Crossing the Place adjacent to the Place du Bonrg, -which is 
planted with horse-chestnuts, traversing the Burgstraat, and pro- 
ceeding a little farther in the same direction, -we reach the small 
Place Jean van Eyck (PI. C, 4), surrounded by interesting mediaeval 
buildings, and bounded on the E. by a canal. The bronze statue of 
Jan van Eyck, by Pickery, was erected in 1878, On the W. side of the 
Place is the Academy of Arts and on the N. the Municipal Library. 

The *Municipal Library (PI. 2 ; C, 4), which is now established 
in the ancient Tonlieu, or custom-house of 1477 (restored in 1878), 
contains 15,000 vols., numerous interesting old MSS., many of 
them with miniatures, missals of the 13-14th cent., and the first 
books printed by Cnlard Mansion, the printer of Bruges (1475-84). It 
is open daily, 10-1 and 4-7, Sat., Sun., and holidays excepted. 

26 Routed. BRUGES. Academy. 

The Academie des Beaux Arts (PL C , 4) was founded in 
1719 by the painters Jos. van den Kerckhove, J. B. Erregouts, 
Marc Duvenede, and Josse Aerschoot, specimens of whose works are 
frequently encountered in Bruges. The building, in the Gothic style 
of the 14th cent., is caWed De Poorters Loodze (i. e., Citizens' Lodge, 
^poorters\ those who live within the ^poorf or gate), and was formerly 
an assembly-hall for the townspeople ; it was entirely remodelled in 
1755. The facade is in course of being decorated with statues by 
sculptors of Bruges. The pictures belonging to the Academy are at 
present exhibited in the Museum (p. 20). — To the W., opposite 
the end of the Rue de I'Academie in the Place des Oeufs, is the 
ancient Merchant- House of the Genoese (p. 12), a well-preserved 
Gothic building of 1399. Over the door are St. George and five 
coats of arms ; adjoining the inscription. Beneath is a cafe. 

Near the Academy, to the N.W., is the Marche du Mercredi, now 
called Place de Memling (PL C, 4), where a Statue of Memling 
(PL 10) in marble, by Pickery, was erected in 1871. From the Rue 
de la Cour de Gand, leading to the N.E. from the Place de Memling, 
the Ouai Long diverges to the left. A short side-street on the left 
of the quay brings us to the church of St. Gilles (PL C, D, 3), an 
early Gothic edifice with three gables, begun in 1240 and enlarged 
in the 15th century. The interior, recently skilfully restored, has 
timber-vaulting and modern stained glass ; in the aisles are antique 
polychromatic reliefs of the Stations of the Cross, and paintings by 
J. van Oost the Elder, N. Maes, etc. 

We return to the Quai Long, follow it to the N., and cross the 
first bridge to reach the Hospice'de la Potterie (PLE, 2; entrance 
No. F79, Quai de la Potterie), an asylum for old women, established 
about 1164. Adm. 50c., daily except Sat., week-days 2-5 or 4, Sun. 
10-12; comp. p. 18. 

The hospice contains old paintings, particularly a good picture by 
Peter Claeissens^ representing Mary and the Child beside a tree ('Vau't 
Boomtjc'), with God the Father, and the Holy Ghost in the form of a 
dove at the top (1608). Also drawings ascribed to the brothers Van Eyck 
and their sister Margaret: fine miniatures, old Flemish tapestry (15-17th 
cent.); tine antique furniture, including two chests (14th and 15th cent.) 
and a bed of the 17th century. — In the chapel, reading desk of coloured 
marble (1645). 

Opposite the Pont de la Paille (PL D, 4), No. 23, is the house 
of Dr. de Meyer, who possesses a good collection of Dutch and 
Flemish pictures, which he is always ready to show to lovers of 
art at a day's notice. The forenoon is the time which best suits Dr. 
de Meyer. The house is tastefully fitted up in the rococo style. 

The Church of St. Anna (PL D, 4) was reconstructed in the 
Renaissance style in 1607-12. The church, which is destitute of 
aisles, has a carved wooden panelling of 1699; pulpit of 1675 ; rood- 
loft of 1642; and pi<-tures by the elder Van Oost and L. de Deyster. 

The Eglise de Jerusalem (PL D, 4; entrance from the back, 
Rue de la Balle, first door to the right), a small and simple late- 

Ste. Madeleine. BRUGES. d. Route 27 

Gothic brick edifice of the middle of the 15th cent., contains below 
the high-choir an imitation of the Holy Sepulchre, founded by 
'Messire Anselm Adornes', burgomaster of Bruges, who twice visited 
Jerusalem with a view to ensure the resemblance. The nave con- 
tains a bronze monument to him (d. 1483) and his wife (d. 1463). 
The stained glass dates from the 15-1 6th centuries. 

In the vicinity, at the E. end of the town, is the Couvent des 
Dames Anglaises (PI. E, 4), an English nunnery, with which an 
excellent school is connected. The church of the convent, a Re- 
naisance structure with a dome, was built by Fulinx in 1736-39, 
and contains an altar, executed at Rome, and composed of rare Per- 
sian and Eg>-ptian marbles. — To the right, a little farther on in the 
same street, is the handsome late-Gothic guild-house of the Arque- 
busiers of St. Sebastian (PI. E, 4), with a slender octagonal tower, 
containing portraits from the middle of the 17th cent, downwards, 
and various antiquities. Charles II. of England (p. 22) and the 
Emp. Maximilian were both members of the guild. Close by are the 
ramparts, on which rise several windmills, and the well-preserved 
Kruispoort (Porte Ste. Croix ; PI. E, 5). 

The Rue Sauve'e leads to the S. from the fish-market to the at- 
tractive Park, with a band-stand. To the left is the Prison (Maison 
de Surete). At the S. end is the handsome Gothic church of Ste. Ma- 
deleine, recently restored and adorned with polychrome. In the 
nave (with timber-roof), above, a large wooden crucifix, with Mary 
and John; in the aisles painted reliefs of the Stations of the Cross. 

The Beguinage (PL A ; 6, 7), at the S.W. end of the town, found- 
ed in the 13th cent., is inferior to that of Ghent (p. 47). The 
entrance is in the right angle of the Place de la Vigne ; we cross a 
bridge and pass through a gateway of 1776. The low, whitewashed 
houses surround a court shaded by lofty trees. The Church, dedi- 
cated to St. Elisabeth, was founded in 1245 and rebuilt in 1605; 
the altarpiece is by the elder Van Oost, and there is an Assumption 
by T. Boeyermans in the N. aisle (1676). 

Dante ^Inferno xv. , 4-6) compares the barrier which sepa- 
rates the river of tears from the desert, with the embankments 
which the Flemings have thrown up between Gadzand (p. 9) and 
Bruges, to protect the city against the encroachments of the sea: — 
^ Quale i Fiamminghi tra Gazzante e Bniggia, 
Temendo il Jiotto che inver lor s^avvenia, 
Fanno lo sckermo, perchii "l mar si fuggia''. 

Damme, a village i hr. N.E. of Bruges, on the canal leading to Sluis 
(comp. p. 9j, was once a considerable and fortified seaport, but has been in 
a state of decadence since the sea began to retire from it in the loth cen- 
tury. The picturesque Holies were built in 1464-68, and restored with little 
success in 1860; in front of the building is a statue of the Flemish poet 
Jacob de Coster van Maerlant (13th cent.), by Pickery (i860). The church 
of Notre Dame., founded in IISO, but never completed, and much altered 
at later periods, and ih.& Hospital of St. John also merit inspection. There 
is a good Esiaminet in the lute-Gothic Hotel de Ville, which has a notice- 
able portal. 


5. The Railways of S.W. Flanders. 

These linos all belong to private companies, and pass so many small 
stations that the speed of the trains is extremely slow. The ilat, agricul- 
tural district traversed by them presents the usual Flemish characteristics. 
The towns of this part of Flanders are now dull and lifeless, but more 
than one of them has had a stirring past. Every lover of art will find 
much to interest him in Ypi'es, and the rood-loft oi Diksmuide fp. 31), the 
cloth-hall of Nieuport (p. 31), and various edifices of Furnes (p. 31) also 
deserve a visit. 

1, From Ostbnd to Ypres, 35 M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 4fr. 
35, 3 fr. 25, 2fr. 20 c). 

Stations : Snaeskerke , Ghistelles (Hotel de TEiirope ; often 
visited "by strangers from Ostend), Moere, Eerneghem, Ichteyhem, 
and Wynendaele (see below). 

15 M. Thourout, Flem. Thorhout (Due de Brabant; Hotel de 
Flandre; Cygne; Unionj, a town with 8500 inhalj., derives its name 
from a grove once consecrated here to the worship of the Germanic 
god Thor (^Thorhout = grove of Thor). It contains a seminary for 
teachers in connection with the diocese of Bruges, and a handsome 
new church. In the neighbourhood, V/2 M. to the W., is tlic old 
castle oi Wynendaele, lately restored, once the property of the Counts 
of Flanders. Thourout is the junction of the line from Bruges to 
Courtrai (p. 32). 

191/2 ^I- Cortemarck, the junction for the Ghent and Dunkirk 
line (p. 31). — Then Hooghlede, Stnden, West-Rooseheke, Poel- 
capelle, Langhemarck, Boesinghe. Fertile district. 

35 M. Ypres. — Hotels. *T£;te d'Or, in the wide Rue de Lille, 
which begins at the belfry, E,., L., & A. 21/2-31/2, B. 1, D. 2, omnibus 
1/2 fr.; EpfiE RoTALE, Grande Place, R., L., & A. 2, D. 2, B. 8/4 fr., well 
spoken of; Chatellenie, Grande Place; Hotels Focrnier, du Nord (R., 
L., & A. IV'2, B. 1/2, I>- iVs fr.), des Bkasseurs, etc. near the station. 

Ypres, Flem. leperen, an old tow^n with remains of ancient forti- 
fications, on the Yperlee, situated in a fertile district, contains 
15,500 inhab., who are chiefly occupied in the manufacture of linen 
and lace, and possesses hroad and clean streets. It was formerly tho 
capital of West Flanders. In the 14th cent. Ypres had a population 
of 200,000 souls, and upwards of 4000 looms were in constant 
activity. These days of prosperity, however, have long since passed 
away. A succession of popular risings, and the siege of the town 
and burning of the suburbs by tho burghers of Ghent in 1383, 
caused many of the weavers to migrate to more peaceful abodes, and 
the industry of Ypres became almost entirely restricted to lace- 
making. Its subsequent capture by Louis XIV., who converted it 
into a strong fortress, was fatal to all prospect of revival. Ypres 
thus possesses now but a shadow of its former greatness, but it still 
contains many memorials of its golden period, which make it one 
of the most interesting towns in Belgium. Diaper (i. e. d' Ypres) 
linen takes its name from this town. 

From the railway-station we first follow the Rue des Bouchers 

YPRES. 5. Route. 29 

(Vleescherstraatl, at the end of which we take the Rue du Temple 
on the left, and then turn to the right into the March e-au-Benrre 
(^Botermarkt), which brings us to the Grande Place. Here stands 
the *Cloth Hall, the most considerable edifice of its kind in Bel- 
gium, begun in 1201, but not completed till 1304. The facade, of 
simple design, is 460 ft. long, and is pierced by two rows of pointed 
windows, all in the same style. It is flanked by two corner-turrets, 
while in the centre rises the massive, square Belfry (230 ft.), with 
turrets at the angles , the oldest part of the building, the founda- 
tion stone having been laid by Count Baldwin IX. of Flanders 
(p. 56) in the year 1200. The edifice is said to have suggested to 
Sir Gilbert Scott the idea of his successful design for the Town 
Hall of Hamburg. The 44 statues which adorn the facade, exe- 
cuted by P. Puyenbrocck of Brussels in 1860, replace the original 
figures of 31 princes who bore the title of 'Count of Flanders', 
from Baldwin of the Iron Arm (d. ca. 879) to Charles V., with their 
consorts. The Town Hall, a charming Renaissance structure from 
designs by Jan Sporeman (1575), was attached to the E. part of 
the Cloth Hall in the beginning of the 17th century. The ground- 
floor consists of an elegant open hall , 20 ft. in width , boldly 
supported by columns. Entrance at the back. No. 1, opposite 
St. Martin's Church (porter on first floor; Y2-I ^r.). The former 
Salle Echevinale, now the Salle des Mariages, is adorned with fres- 
roes by Guffens and «Sit'eris, painted in 1869 (Festal Entry of Philip 
the Bold of Burgundy and his wife, the last Countess of Flanders, 
in 1384, and other scenes from the town's history), and contains 
a fine modern chimney-piece by Malfait of Brussels, and some old 
wall-paintings (restored) of the Counts of Flanders from 1322 tol476. 
All these are best seen by afternoon light. In the centre is a small 
equestrian figure of Jans I. of Brabant (1282-94) , by A. Fiers. 
The whole of tlie first floor formerly consisted of a single large 
hall , which was used as a clothmarket. In 1876-84 the walls 
of the E. half were embellished with twelve *Mural Paintings by 
Ferd. Fauwels , representing the chief events in the history of 
Ypres. The series begins with the foundation of the Hospital of 
the Yirgin in 1187 and ends with the siege of 1383 (p. 28). One 
of the most powerful scenes depicts the ravages of the plague in 
1316. The embellishment of the W. half has been entrusted to 
Degroux. The AV. wing contains the wooden pediment of the old 
town hall (15th cent.), besides plaster models of the statue of Bald- 
win in Mous (p. 180) and of a seated colossal statue of Queen 
Louise, consort of Leopold I. 

The *Cathbdral of St. Martin , behind the Cloth Hall , was 
built in the 13th cent, on the site of an earlier edifice founded in 
1083 ; the choir dates from 1221 , the nave and aisles from 1254. 
The tower was added after 1434 by Master Vtenhove. The finest 
parts are the choir and the portal of the S. transept with its magni- 

30 Route 5. YPRES. 

flcent rose-window and handsome gable. The doors are good 
examples of rich late-Gothic carving. Between the pillars of the 
"W. porch is a triumphal arch, constructed in 1600 by TJrbain 
Tailltbert of Ypres. The interior contains some fine Renaissance 
choir -stalls, carved by C van Hoveke and Vrhain Taillebert in 
1598; old frescoes in the choir, unskilfully restored in 18'26 ; in 
the choir, a winged picture of the Fall of Man and his Redemption, 
dating from 1525 (covered); a brazen font (16th cent. ); late-Gothic 
organ loft. In the Sacristy are some fine old ecclesiastical vessels. 
A flat stone in the late-Gothic cloister marks the grave of Janse- 
nius (d, 1638), Bishop of Ypres, founder of the sect named after 
him, which still exists in Holland (see p. 366). 

To the E. of the cathedral and adjoining the Hotel de Ville is 
the Conciergerie, an early Renaissance building. 

The Meat Market, a double-gabled Gothic house in the Marche 
au Beurre, nearly opposite (to the S.W. of ) the Cloth Hall, contains 
the Museum {entrance at the back, 1/2 fr.), consisting of a col- 
lection of antiquities (sword with which Counts Egmont and Hoorn 
are said to have been executed), ancient and modern pictures (land- 
scape by Rubens), and drawings of several of the numerous pic- 
turesque dwelling-houses of the 14-17th cent., of which Y'pres still 
possesses a few. 

The wide Rue de Lille, opposite the Cloth Hall, leads to the S. 
At Nos. 36-38 in this street (on the right) is the Belle -Gasthuis or 
Hospice Civil (fee), an asylum for old women, founded about 1279 
by Christine de Guines, widow of Salomon Belle, and rebuilt in 
1616. The chapel, with statuettes of the foundress and her hus- 
band in the pediment, contains a beautiful copper candelabrum 
(loth cent.), a noteworthy votive painting (Madonna and Child 
with the donor, on a gold ground), and a polychrome votive relief, 
both dating from 1420. — The Steen, Nos. 66-68 in the same street, 
is a Gothic edifice of hewn stone of the 14th cent., now a brewery. 
At the end of the street is the church of St. Peter, begun in 1073; 
the W. portal is Romanesque; the interior has been modernized. — 
Other interesting houses are Nos. 115, 63-67, 52 Rue de Lille; No. 
52 Rue de Dixmude, to the N. of the Cloth Hall; Nos. 47 and 43 
Marche aux Bois; and Nos. 11, 15, and 19, March^ aux Betes. — 
Ypres is the seat of the Belgian Ecole de Cavalerie, or army 
riding- school. 

From Ypres to Roeselare, see p. 32. — Steam-tranuray to (20 M.) Fur- 
nes^ see p. 31. 

Fkom Ypkes to Poi'euinghe, 6V2 M., railway in 1/2 hr. Intermediate 
station Vlamertinghe. — Poperinghe, a town with 11,200 inhab., possesses 
a church of about 1300 with an interesting W. portal and a carved oaken 
pulpit. Hops are extensively grown in the vicinity. — Beyond Poperinghe 
the line crosses the French frontier and joins the Lille and Calais rail- 
way at (191/2 M.) Hazehrouck (p. 64). 

Beyond Ypres the line is continued to Comines (p. 34), Armen^ 
tieres, and Lille, 

FURNES. 5. lioute. 31 

Q. From Ghent to Dunkirk via Lichtervelde, 67 M., rail- 
way in 31/2-^ trs. (fares 8 fr. 25, 6 fr. 20, 4 fr. 15 c). 

47.2 M. St. Denis -Westrem; M. La Pinte, where the line 
from Ghent to Oudenaarde, Leuze, and Mons diverges to the left 
(see p. 551; '^\^2 ^I- Deurle; IOV'2 M. Beynze, on the Lei or i,t/.«, 
with an old chnrch, the junction of the line to Courtrai (^p. 5(3); 
14 ^[. Grcnmnene'^ 16 M. Aerseele. 

2OV2 M- Thielt, an old town with 10,300 inhah., formerly a 
busy cloth-making place, as its Cloth Hall and Belfry indicate. 
Branch-line hence to (7M.) Ingelinunster, see p. 33; steam-tram- 
ways to (10 M.) Aeltre, see p. 10, and to (13M.) Ardoj/e, see below, 

231/2M. Pitthem ; 26m. Ardoye. Steam-tramway hence to (21 M.) 
HoogUede (p. 32), via Roeselare (p. 32). — 31 M, Lichtervelde, the 
junction of the Bruges and Courtrai line (see p. 32). — 35 M. Corte- 
march, the junction of the Osteud and Ypres line (see p. 28). 

Next stations: Handzaeme, Zarren, Eessen. 

42 M. Diksmuide, Fr. Dixmude, the parish-church of which 
contains a fine rood-loft of the beginning of the 16tli cent., in the 
richest Flamboyant style , an Adoration of the Magi by Jordaens 
(1644), a marble font with a bronze cover of 1626, and other works 
of art. Dairy-farming is practised with great success in this neigh- 
bourhood, and a brisk trade in butter is carried on with England. 

From Diksmuide to Nieupokt, li M., railway in V^'V* ^r. — 5 M. 
Pervyse; S M. Ramscappelle. 

9Vj M. Nieuport (Ville de Liege; Hot. Breidel en de Coning, at the 
station), the town, a small and quiet place on the Y$er, with 3500inhab., 
formerly fortified, and noted for its obstinate resistance to the French in 
1489. The most interesting buildings are the Cloth Hall of 1480, with a 
lately restored Belfry, and the Gothic Church. Outside the town, on the 
side next the sea, is a Liffhfhotise built in 1289. 

11 M. meviTpoTt-B&ins C Hotel des Bains, 'pens.' 8-10, board 5fr.; ^E6(el 
Privost; R., L., & A. 31/2, B. 1, dej. 21/^, D. 31 2, pens. 8-10, board 5 f r. ; 
"Grand Hot. de la Digue; R. 2-3, dej. 2, D. 3, pens. 6-10 fr. ; H6t. de la Mer, 
unpretending), the watering-place, consists, besides the above hotels, of the 
Cursaal, a row of villas, and a small Roman Catholic church. As at other 
Belgian watering-places a Digue has been constructed along the dunes, 
j^t one end of which is an Estacade (see p. 5), V* ^- lo°gi protecting the 
entrance to the Yser and forming an admirable promenade. Fine view of 
Ostend and Dunkirk. The sea recedes a long way at low tide, exposing 
a vast stretch of sand. Good sea-bathing (75 c). — Steam-tramway from 
Nieuport to Ostend see p. 3. — Oostduinkerke and La Panne, see p. 7. 

48 M. Oostkerke ; 49 M. Ave-Cappelle. 

517.2 M. Furnes, Flemish Veume (Hotel de la Noble Rose), 
now a dull town with 4000 inhab., was formerly of much greater 
importance. The Hotel de Ville in the quaint old Grand' Place, a 
Renaissance structure of 1596-1012 by LievenLukas, contains some 
interesting wall-hangings of Spanish leather, a chimney-piece with 
representations of still-life by Snyders (?), old Flemish tapestry, 
and two finely-carved doors (1623). Adjacent is the old Chatellenie, 
now the Palais de Justice, built by Sylvanus Boulin in 1612-1628. 
The antechamber on the first floor was the former meeting place of 
the Inquisition ; the adjoining chapel has a timber roof and good 

32 Routed. ROESELARE. 

wood-carvings in tlie choir. The tall Belfry, ending in a spire, -was 
erected in 1624. The Church of St. Walburga is of very ancient origin ; 
the present building was designed at the heglnning of the 14th 
cent, on so extensive a scale that only the choir, witli its radiating 
chapels, has been completed. It contains finely carved choir-stalls 
(beginning of 17th cent.), besides a Descent from the Cross at- 
tributed to Pourbus and a reliquary ofthe 15th cent, (in the sacristy). 
On tlie E. side of the Grand' Place rises the castellated Corps de 
Garde Espagnol (13-14th cent.), adjoined by the Gothic Pavilion 
des OfficiersEspagnols (15th cent.), both now undergoing restoration 
for the reception ofthe municipal museum and library. The Church 
of St. Nicholas, with a huge, unfinished tower, dates from the 14th 
century. Many strangers are attracted to Furnes by the great pro- 
cession which has taken place here annually since 1650 on the last 
Sunday in July. The twelve Stations of the Cross are dramatically 
represented on this occasion by the members of the Confrerie de la 
Sodalite, with the help of wooden figures. — Steam-tramway to 
Ostend, see p. 3 ; to Ypres, see p. 29. — About 3J/2 M. to the W. 
of Furnes is La Panne (p. 7). 

The next station, Adinkerke, is the last in Belgium. Ghyvelde 
is the first French station. Then, Zuydcote, Roosendael, Tente-Verte. 

67 M. Dunkirk, French Dunkerque (Grand Hotel; '''Chapeau 
Rouge; Hotel de Flandre), a strongly-fortified town with 38,000 
inhab., in the Departement du Nord, was taken by the English in 
1388, by the Spaniards in 1583, again by the English during the 
•Protectorate in 1658, and was finally purchased by Louis XIV. 
from Charles 11. in 1662. It is now a busy commercial place and 
fishing-station. A considerable English community resides here 
(English church). Comp. Baedeker s Northern France. 

3. From Bruges to Courtrai, 33 M., railway in l^^-^ lirs. 
(fares 4 fr. 5, 3 fr. 5, 2 fr. 5 c). Stations Lophem and Zedelgem. 
— 11 M. Thourout, see p. 28. — 14 M. Lichtervelde, see p. 31. 
Then Gits and Beveren. 

19 M. Koeselare, French Roulers (Due de Brabant), a town 
with 20,200 inhab., high above which rises the handsome Gothic 
tower of the church of St. Michael. Roeselare carries on a busy trade 
in linen goods. Here, on 13th July, 1794, a fierce conflict took place 
between the Austrians under Clerfait, and the French under Piche- 
gru and Macdonald, in which the latter were victorious. This defeat 
was the prelude to that of Fleurus (p. 203), thirteen days later. 

Bkancu-hne to Yi-KES, 14 M. in 3|^ hr. (fares 2 fr. , 1 fr. 40, 90 c). 
Stations Moorslede-Passcheiidaele, Zoiineielce, Ypres (p. 28). — From Roeselare 
to Meniu, 11 M., branch-railway in 25-40 min. (fares 1 fr. 40, 1 fr. 5, 70 c). 
Stations Bey them, Ledeghem-Dadizeele, i/e«m,(p. 34). — To HooghUde and 
to Ardoye, see p. 31. 

21 M. Rumheke possesses a fine Gothic church and a chateau 
of Count de Thiennes. 2372 ^I- Iseghem, with 9000 inhab. , con- 

OITDENAARDE. 6. Route. 33 

tains numerous linen-factories. Tobacco is extensively cultivated 
in the environs. Between Iseghem and (26 M.) Ingelmilnster, a 
small town with extensive carpet-manufactories, is the handsome 
chateau of Baron Gilles. — From Ingelmiinster branch-lines diverge 
to Thielt (p. 311 and to Waereghem (see p. 55). — 28 M. Lende- 
lede ; 30 M. Heule, the Gothic church of which has a clumsy tower. 
Near Courtrai the traiTi crosses the Lei (or Lys'). 
33 M. Courtrai, see p. 56. 

6. From Brussels to Courtrai and Ypres. 

Railway from Brussels to Courirai\ 54 M., in '2-'2','2 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 
60, 4 fr. 95. 3 fr. 30 c. ; express 8 fr. 25, 6 fr. 20, 4 fr. 15 c.) ; from Cour- 
trai to Ypres, 21 M., in 1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 60. 1 fr. 95, 1 fr. 30 c). — Depar- 
ture in Brussels from the station du Nord (p. 72). 

From Brussels to [ib ^l,} JDenderleeuw, see p. 11. The line 
to Ghent and Ostend (R. 3) here diverges to the N.AV., and that 
to Grammont and Ath-Juibise (p. 69) to the S.W. Our line 
enters E. Flanders, and passes Haeltert, Burst (branch to Alost), 
and Herzeele. 27 M. Sotteyhem, a small town of 2900 inhab., with 
several boot and shoe manufactories , is the junction of the Ghent 
and Grammont line (R. 20) and of a line to EUezelles (p. 70). 

The next stations are Rooborst^ Boucle-St. Denis- Nederzwalm, 
and Eename. 

38 M. Oudenaarde, Fr. Audenarde (^Pomme d^Or, Grand' Place; 
Saumon, Rue Haute, both near the Hotel de Yille ; Hotel de Bru- 
xelles, with cafe', opposite the station), a very ancient town with 
5700 inhab., situated on the Schelde, possesses manufactories of 
linen and cotton goods. It was the birthplace of Margaret of Parma 
(b. 15221, regent of the Netherlands under Philip IT., a natural 
daughter of Emp. Charles V. and Johanna van der Gheenst. Under 
the walls of the town, on 11th July, 1708, the Allies commanded 
by Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy gained a decisive 
victory over the French. An hour is sufficient for a visit to the 
beautiful Hotel de Yille, or town-hall. 

The street to the right, nearly opposite the station, leads in 
10 min. to the centre of the town. At the entrance to the town 
stands a monument (by Geefs) to volunteers from Oudenaarde who 
perished in Mexico while serving under Emp. Maximilian. 

We next reach the Place in which is situated the **Town Hall, 
a small, but very elegant building, erected in the late-Gothic style 
by H. van Peede and W. de Ronde in 1525-35, and recently restor- 
ed. The ground-floor consists of a pointed hall borne by columns 
and above it are two stories with pointed windows. The tower 
which rises from the pointed hall in the centre of the facade is 
particularly rich. It consists of five stories, and is covered with a 
crown-shaped roof. The numerous statuettes with which the build- 
ing was once embellished have all disappeared. We ascend the 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. lOtli Edit. 3 

34 Route!. GHENT. 

flight of steps opposite the Hotel Pomme d'Or, leading to the Salle 
des Pas Perdus, which contains a late-Gotliic chimney-piece. Pass- 
ing through the door beyond, to the right, we find an attendant 
(50 c), who opens the council-chamber. The portal of this room, 
a masterpiece of wood-carving, was executed by Paul van Schel- 
den in the Renaissance style in 1531 ; the handsome late-Gothic 
chimney-piece dates from 1529. 

In the S.E. corner of the Place, to the right as we quit the 
town-hall, is the Church of St. Walburga , partly in the Roman- 
esque style of the 12th cent., and partly in the Gothic style of the 
14th and 15th, with a very prominent transept. The massive and 
well-proportioned tower has unfortunately been left unfinished. 
The interior contains paintings by De Grayer, Van Thulden, and 
others, and a rich polychrome reredos of the late Renaissance (first 
chapel on the N. side). 

The church of Notre Dame de Pamele, 8min. farther to the S., 
on the other bank of the Schelde, an interesting example of the 
transition style of the 13th cent., with later additions and an oct- 
angular tower above the cross, has recently been successfully re- 
stored. It contains two sarcophagus-monuments of 1504 and 1616. 

From Oadenaarde to Ghent or Mons, see p. 55. — Steam-tramway to 
(11 Vz M.) Deynze, see p. 31. 

The next stations are Peteghem and Anseghem^ the first place 
in West Flanders , whence a branch-line runs to Waereghem and 
Ingelmiinster (p. 33). Then Vichte and Deerlyck. 

54 M. Courtrai, see p. 56. 

58Y2M. Wevelghem. 61 1/2 M. Menin, Flem. Meenen, a town on 
the Lei, with 11,700 inhab., once fortified, where the Prussian 
General Scharnhorst (d. 1813) first distinguished himself against 
the French. Branch-line hence toRoeselare, see p. 32; another runs 
S. to St. Amand in France. — 65 M. Wervicq, Avith 7000 inhab., 
possesses a number of tobacco-manufactories ; the Church of St. Me- 
dardus dates from the 14th century. The right bank of the Lei or 
Lys here is French territory. — 67 M. Comines., formerly a fortified 
town, was the birthplace ofthe historian Philip of Comines(d. 1509). 
Branch-lines hence to Lille and to Armentieres in France, see p. 64. 
— 69^2 ^' Houthem. 

75 M. Ypres, see p. 28. 

7. Ghent, French Gand. 

Arrival. Ghent has three railway-stations: 1. Station du Cketnin de 
Fer de VEtat (PI. 1), 5.6), on the S. side of the town, for the trains ofthe 
government-lines to Brussels, Antwerp, Terneuzen, Oudenaarde, Malines, 
Bmges, Courtrai, and Braine-le-Comte. — 2. Station du Pays de Waes (PI. E, 
3, 4), for the trains throu^'h the Waesland to Antwerp (R. 10). — 3. Station 
d'Eecloo (PI. E, 3), for the trains to Terneuzen (p. 10) and Bruges via Eecloo 
(p. lU). The last two, adjoining each other, are on the E. side of the town, 
1 M. from the government-station. 

Hotels. 'Hotel ue la Poste (PI. c; C, 5), Place d'Armes 13 j Hotel 

GHENT. 7. Route. 35 

RoTAi (PI. b; C, 6), Place d'Armea 7; charges at both these: R. from 3, 
L. V2-I, A.l, B.IV2, d^j.3, D. 4, pens. 12 fr. — Hotel de Vienne (PI. a; 
C, 4), in the Marche awx Grains, R., L., & A. 2J/2-4, B. 11/4, d^j, 31/2, D. 

4, pens. 8, omn. 1/2 fr. ; cafe adjoining; Hotel de l'Etoile (PI. d; C, 4), 
Rue de TEtoile 27, near the Marche anx Grains, R., L., <fe A. 31/2, D. 2, pens. 

10 fr. •, Hotel d'Allemagxe, March^ aux Grains, unpretending, well spoken 
of, R. <fc B. 3, D. 2 fr. ; Adx Akmes de Zeelande, March^ anx Grains. — At 
the Ooveiitment Station: Geande Couk Rotale. Rue de la Station 3; Hotel 
de la Paix, well spoken of, opposite the station, with restaurant; etc. 

Restaurants. "Mottez, Avenue Place d'Armes 3; Bouard, Rue Courte de 
la Croix 2, near the cathedral; Lion d'Or., Place du Lion d'Or, near the 
Hotel de Ville ; Rocher de Cancale (also rooms), corner of the 3Iarche aux 
Oiseaux and the Rue Courte du Jour (PI. D, 5; 'plat du jour', 75 c.); 
Taverne St. Jean, Marche aux Oi.seaux2; Taverne de VOpira^ opposite the 
Theatre, at the corner of the Place d'Armes ; Klaus., Rue de la Crapaudiere 7, 
next the University (Munich beer); Kotonde, Boulevard de la Citadelle. 

Cafes. 'Grand Caf^, Rue Longue duMarais, near the Place d'Armes, 
also a restaurant; 'Caf^ des Arcades, on the E. side of the Place d' Amies 
(PI. C, 5), also restaurant; Cafi Royal, in the Theatre (PI. 25), etc. — 
Uitzet, a kind of strong beer brewed in Ghent, is famous ; best at the Flettr 
de BU (Korenbloem), Rue d'Akkerghem (PI. A, B, 4, 5). 

Cabs per drive 1 fr. ; first hour 2, each following hour IV2 fr. ; after 

11 p. m., per drive IVa fr. ; open cab., V2 fr. extra per hr. — Tramway, 
see Plan. 

Theatre (PI. 2-0; C, 5), adjoining the Place d'Armes. Boxes and stalls 

5, parquet 21/2, pit 1 fr. Performances (in French) in winter only. Flemish 
Theatre or Minard-Sc/iouwbnrg (PL 20; D, 5), Rue Neuve St. Pierre; Eden 
Theatre, Rue Courte du .Jour (a theatre of varieties). 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 22; C, 5), adjoining the Theatre, and 
opposite the Palais de Justice; other telegraph-offices at the government- 
.station and the Marche aiix Legumes. 

English Church (St. John's). Place St. Jacques; services at 10.30 and 
G.30; Communion at 8.45 a.m., except on 1st and 3rd Sun. of each month; 
chaplain, Rev. T. S. Cunningham, 37 Kue de TEcole, Mt, St. Amand. — 
Sailors'' Institute, at the Docks; concerts on alternate Tucs. & Frid. 

American Consul, Mr. John B. Osborne, Rue des Champs 12. — Eng- 
lish Vice-Consul, Mr. Hallett, Rue Fie've 30. 

Physicians (English-speaking). Dr. J. Morel-Davis, Hospice Ghislain; 
Dr. Eeman. Rue Digue de Brabant 95. — English Chemist, Moriarty, 
Kue Guillaume Tell 7. 

Principal Attractions : Cathedral (p. 38), view from the tower of St. Bavon 
or from the Belfry (p. 43); Hotel de Ville, exterior only (p. 44); Marche du 
Vendredi (p. 45), Marche aux Herbes (p. 49), Marche aux Grains (p. 48), 
Abbey of St. Bavon (p. 46), larger or smaller Be'guinage (pp. 47, 48), the 
latter being quainter and more easily reached. 

Ghent or Gancl, the capital of E. Inlanders, with 150,000 iuhab., 
lies on the Schelde and the Lei (Lys), as well as on the insignificant 
Lieve and Moere, which flow through the city in numerous arms, cross- 
ed by more than 100 bridges of various kinds. The city is of con- 
siderable extent, being upwards of 6 M. in circumference , and 
covering an area of 5750 acres, part of which, however, is occupied 
with gardens and bleaching-grounds. A wide canal, originally con- 
structed in order to protect the town from inundations, and recently 
enlarged and deepened, falls into the Schelde at Terneuzen (p. 10), 
and thus connects the city with the sea, but since the separation of 
Belgium from Holland has been comparatively little used on account 
of the heavy imposts levied by the latter on vessels passing through. 
Another canal {Coupure^ p. 52) connects the Lei with the canal 


36 Route 7. GHENT. History. 

from Bruges to Osteiid, which is in its turn connected by the 'New 
Canal' (Canal de Raccordenient) with the Canal from Ternenzen 
(p. 10). Corn, rape-oil, and flax are important articles of commerce, 
hut the products for which Ghent has lonn; been famous are cotton 
and linen goods, dyed-leather wares, and lace. The large linen- 
factory 'La Lys" (PI. A, 3, 4-) employs about 3000 operatives. Of 
late the engine-factories of Ghent have become considerable. 

Ghent is mentioned in history as early as the 7th century. At 
the beginning of the 13th cent., when the County of Artois was 
united to France, Ghent became the capital of Flanders and the 
usual residence of the Counts. At a very early period a spirit of 
independence developed itself among the inhabitants, more especi- 
ally the weavers; and they succeeded in obtaining from their 
sovereigns those concessions which form the foundation of consti- 
tutional liberty. At one period the citizens had become so power- 
ful and warlike that they succeeded in repulsing an English army 
of 24,000 men, under Edward I. (1297), and a few years later 
they were the principal combatants in the 'Battle of Spurs' (p. 57), 
to the issue of which their bravery mainly contributed. Their sub- 
jection to the Counts of Flanders and the Dukes of Burgundy 
appears to have been little more than nouiinal ; for whenever these 
princes attempted to levy a tax which was unpopular with the 
citizens, the latter sounded their alarm-bell, flew to arms, and ex- 
pelled the obnoxious ofiicials appointed to exact payment. During 
the 13-1 5th centuries revolutions seem almost to have been the or- 
der of the day at Ghent. John of Gaunt (d. 1399) was bom here. 

One of the most remarkable characters of his age was Jacques 
Van Artevelde, the celebrated 'Brewer of Ghent' (born 1290), a 
clever and ambitious demagogue, who, though of noble family, is 
said to have caused himself to be enrolled as a member of the Guild 
of Brewers in order to ingratiate himself with the lower classes. 
Owing to his wealth, ability, and remarkable eloquence, he acquired 
immense influence, and in 1337 was appointed 'Captain of Ghent'. 
lie was an ally of Edward 111. in the war between England and 
France (1335-45), in which the democratic party of Ghent sup- 
ported the former, and the Counts of Flanders the latter ; and it is 
recorded that Edward condescended to flatter him by the title of 
'dear gossip'. For seven years Artevelde reigned supreme at Ghent, 
putting to death all who had the misfortune to displease him, 
banishing the nobles and those who betrayed symptoms of attach- 
ment to their sovereign, and appointing magistrates who were the 
mere slaves of his will. Artevelde qt length proposed that the son 
of Edward should be elected Count of Flanders, a scheme so dis- 
tasteful to the Ghenters that an insurrection broke out, and Jacques 
was slain in his own house on July 17th, 1345, by Gerard Denys, 
the leader of his opponents. During this period, in consequence 
of the alliance with Ghent, the manufacture of wool became more ex- 

History. GHENT. 7. Route. 37 

tensively known and practised in England. Ghent also realised vast 
profits from its English trade, a circumstance which induced the 
citizens to submit so long to the despotic rule of Jacques, to whom 
they owed their advantageous connection with England, 

Philip Van Artevelde, son of Jacques, and godson of Queen 
Philippa of England, possessed all the ambition but little of the 
talent of his father. He was appointed dictator by the democratic 
party in 1381, during the civil war against Count Louis of Flan- 
ders, surnamed 'van Maele', and his administration was at first 
salutary and judicious, but he soon began to act with all the caprice of 
a despot. In May, 1382, when Ghent was reduced to extremities by 
famine, and the citizens had resolved to surrender, Philip counselled 
them to make a final venture, rather than submit to the humiliating 
conditions offered by the Count. He accordingly marched at the 
head of 5000 men to Bruges, and signally defeated Louis, who 
sallied forth to meet them. Elated by this success, Philip now 
assumed the title of Regent of Flanders, and established himself at 
Ghent in a style of great magnificence. His career, however, was 
brief. At the end of 1382 war again broke out, chiefly owing to the 
impolitic and arrogant conduct of Philip himself, and Charles VL 
of France marched against Flanders. Philip was defeated and slain 
at the disastrous Battle of Roosebeke (Nov. 27th, 1382), where 
20,000 Flemings are said to have perished. The city was obliged to 
submit to the Count, and after his death came into the possession of 

The turbulent spirit of the Ghenters ultimately proved their 
ruin. In 1448, when Philippe le Bon of Burgundy imposed a heavy 
tax on salt, they openly declared war against him ; and the best 
proof of the vastness of their resources is that they succeeded in 
carrying on the war for a period of five years (1448-53). The day 
of retribution and humiliation, however, at length arrived, and the 
burghers, brave but undisciplined, were compelled to succumb. 
On 23rd July, 1453, they were defeated at Gavre (p. 55) on the 
Schelde, and lost no fewer than 16,000 men. Philip now levied 
enormous contributions on the city ; the corporation and princi- 
pal citizens were compelled to march out at the gate with halters 
round their necks , and to kiss the dust at the feet of their con- 
queror ; and the most valuable privileges of the city were suspended 
or cancelled. 

In 1477 the nuptials of the Archduke Maximilian were celebrated 
at Ghent with Mary of Burgundy, heiress of Charles the Bold, who 
by her marriage brought the wealthy Netherlands into the power of 
Austria (see p. 17). On the same occasion the first general consti- 
tution of the Netherlands (Het Groot Privilegie), granted by Mary, 
was promulgated here. Here, too, on 24th Feb., 1500, the Emperor 
Charles V. was born in the Cour du Prince, a palace of the Counts 
of Flanders long since destroyed, but the name of which survives 

38 Route 7. GHENT. Cathedral. 

in a street (see p. 51). During his reign Ghent was one of the 
largest and wealthiest cities in Europe , and consisted of 35,000 
houses with a population of 175,000 souls. Charles V. is said to have 
"boasted jestingly to Francis I. of France: ^Mon Gant (glove), Paris 
danserait dedans'. The turbulent spirit of the citizens having again 
manifested itself in various ebullitions, the emperor caused a Citadel 
(Het Spanjaards Kasteel) to be erected near the Antwerp Gate in 
1540, for the purpose of keeping them in check. No trace of the 
structure now remains. Counts Egmont and Hoorn were im- 
prisoned in this castle in 1568 for several months before their 
execution. Within its precincts lay the ancient Abbey of St. 
Bavon (p. 46). The moats of the old citadel have recently been filled 
up, and the remains of the ramparts removed to make room for 
new streets. 

From the station of the Government line (p. 34) the broad new 
Rue de Flandre (PI. D, 5) leads towards the inner town, to the 
Place Laurent, a square built over a covered arm of the Schelde 
and named after the historian and jurist Fr. Laurent (d. 1887). In 
the square is the monument of L. Bauwens (d. 1822), the industria- 
list, by P. Devigne-Quyo. To the right (N.) of the monument, on 
the Schelde, which in the Middle Ages here marked the boundary 
between the German Empire and France, rises the Chateau de 
Gerard le Diable or Geerardduivelsteen (13th cent.), the strong- 
hold of an aristocratic family, now used as firemen's barracks and 
for the provincial archives. To inspect the interesting crypt, apply 
to the Concierge des Archives, Place de I'Eveche (p. 43). The 
building is about to be restored. 

From the Place Laurent the Rue de Limbourg leads to the 

The *Cathedral of St. Bavon, or Sint Baafs (PL D, 4), ex- 
ternally a plain and unattractive Gothic structure, is in the in- 
terior one of the most richly - decorated churches in Belgium. 
The crypt was consecrated in 941, the W. portions about 1228; 
the choir was founded in 1274, and completed in 1300; the late- 
Gothic chapels date from the 15th cent. ; and the nave and transept 
were completed in 1533-54. During the same century the church 
suffered severely from Puritanical outrages. The tower and the W. 
and S. portals have recently been skilfully restored ; and the restora- 
tion of the interior is also nearly completed. 

The Interior is of noble proportions, and rests on massive 
square pillars with projecting half-columns. The removal of the 
whitewash now permits the artistic effect of the different coloured 
stones to be seen. (The Cathedral is open for the inspection of its 
art-treasures from 10 a.m. ; between 12 and 4 admission is obtained 
by knocking loudly on the central door ; fee to the sacristan who 
opens the chapels, 1 fr. each person.) 

On the upper walls of the Nave are the names and armorial 

Cathedral. GHENT. 7. Route. 39 

bearings of Knights of the Golden Fleece, the last chapter of which 
was held here by Philip II. of Spain in 1559. To the left (N.) of 
the portal is the font at which Charles Y, was baptised in 1500. 
The *Pulpit, by Delvaux (1745), half in oak, half in marble, re- 
presents the Tree of Life, with an allegory of Time and Truth ; it is 
the best example of Belgian sculpture in the 18th century. 

S. Aisle, 1st Chapel : G. de Crayer, Beheading of John the Baptist 
(1657). — 3rd, behind the pulpit: De Cauwer, Baptism of Christ. 

North Aislb. Ist Chapel: RomboutSj Descent from the Cross'; 
A. Janssens, Pieti. — The 3rd Chapel is embellished with taste- 
ful modern ornamentation in the Gothic style. — 4th : De Crayer, 
Assumption. A marble slab opposite records the names ^of the 
priests who refused to recognise Bishop Lebrun, appointed by Na- 
poleon in 1813. 

Tbaxsept. To the right and left of the entrance to the choir are 
statues of the Apostles by C. van Poucke, 1782. — Ten steps lead 
up to the choir. 

Choir. The walls are partly covered with black marble, and 
the balustrades are of white or variegated marble. The high-altar is 
adorned with a Statue of St. Bavon in his ducal robes, hovering 
among the clouds, by Verbruggen (17th cent.). The choir-stalls are 
of carved mahogany. The scenes in grisaille from the Old and New 
Testament are by Van Reysschoot (1774). The four massive copper 
Candlesticks bearing the English arms are believed once to have de- 
corated St. Paul's in London, and to have been sold during the Pro- 
tectorate of Cromwell. On each side of the choir, adjoining the 
altar, are two monuments to bishops, with large sculptures of the 
17th and 18th cent., the best of them being that of Bishop A. Triest 
by Duquesnoy (1654), the first to the left. 

Retro-Choir, beginning by the S. transept. 1st Chapel : *Pour- 
bus , Christ among the doctors ; most of the heads are portraits : 
left, near the frame, Alva, Charles V., Philip 11., and the master him- 
self; on the inner wings the Baptism and Circumcision, on the 
outerthe Saviour and the donor (Viglius) of the picture, 1571. — 2nd: 
Monument to the brothers Goethals, by Parmentier^ 1846. — 3rd : 
Gerard van der Metre (p. xli), Christ between the malefactors, with 
Moses striking water from the rock and the Raising of the brazen 
serpent on the wings, the whole of mediocre merit. — By the choir- 
screen, monument of Bishop Van Smet (d. 1741). — 4th and 5th : 
Nothing worthy of note. — We now ascend the steps. 

6th : **Jan and Hubert van Eyck, Adoration of the Immaculate 
Lamb, ' prsestantissima tabula, qua representatur triumphus Agni 
Dei, etsi quidam improprie dicunt Adami et Evse, opus sane prae- 
clarum et admirandum' [Guicciardini, 1560; comp. also p. xxxix). 
This work originally consisted of twelve sections, but is in part only 
in its original place, the wings being now, with the exception of 
the Adam and Eve (at Brussels, p. 101), in the gallery of Berlin. 

40 Route 7. GHENT. Cathedral. 

'In the centre of the altarpiece, and on a panel which overtops all 
the others, the noble and dignified figure of Christ sits enthroned in the 
prime of manhood with a short black beard, a broad forehead, and black 
eyes. On his head is the white tiara, ornamented with a profusion of 
diamonds, pearls, and amethysts. Two dark lappets fall on either side 
of the grave and youthful face. The throne of black damask is em- 
broidered with gold; the tiara relieved on a golden ground covered with 
inscriptions in semicircular lines. Christ holds in his left hand a sceptre 
of splendid workmanship, and with two fingers of his right he gives his 
blessing to the world. The gorgeous red mantle which completely 
enshrouds his form is fastened at the breast by a large jewelled brooch. 
The mantle itself is bordered with a double row of pearls and amethysts. 
The feet rest on a golden pedestal, carpeted with black, and on the dark 
ground, which is cut into perspective squares by lines of gold, lies a 
richly-jewelled open-worked crown, emblematic of martyrdom. This 
figure of the Redeemer is grandly imposing; the mantle, though laden 
with precious stones, in obedience to a somewhat literal interpretation 
of Scripture, falls from the shoulders and over the knee to the feet in 
ample and simple folds. The colour of the flesh is powerful , brown, 
and glowing, and full of vigour, that of the vestments strong and rich. 
The hands are well drawn, perhaps a little contracted in the muscles, 
but still of startling realism. — On the right of Christ the Virgin sits 
in her traditional robe of blue; her long fair hair, bound to the forehead 
by a diadem, flowing in waves down her shoulders. With most graceful 
hands she holds a book, and pensively looks with a placid and untroubled 
eye into space. On the left of the Eternal, St. John the Baptist rests, 
long-haired and bearded, austere in expression, splendid in form, and 
covered with a broad, flowing, green drapery. On the spectator's right 
of St. John the Baptist, St. Cecilia, in a black brocade, plays on an 
oaken organ supported by three or four angels with viols or harps. On 
the left of the Virgin a similar but less beautiful group of singing 
choristers standing in front of an oaken desk, the foremost of them dressed 
in rich and heavy red brocade. (Van Mander declares that the angels 
who sing are so artfully done that we mark the dift'erence of keys 
in which their voices are pitched.) — On the spectator's right of St. 
Cecilia once stood the naked figure of Eve, now removed to the Brussels 
museum — a figure upon which the painter seems to have concentrated 
all his knowledge of perspective as applied to the human form and its 
anatomical development. Counterpart to Eve, and once on the left side 
of the picture, Adam is equally remarkable for correctness of proportion 
and natural realism. Here again the master's science in optical perspective 
is conspicuous, and the height of the figure above the eye is fitly con- 
sidered. (Above the figures of Adam and Eve are miniature groups of 
the sacrifices of Cain and Abel and the death of Abel.).' 

'Christ, by his position, presides over the sacrifice of the Lamb as 
represented in the lower panels of the shrine. The scene of the sacrifice 
is laid in a landscape formed of green hills receding in varied and 
pleasing lines from the foreground to the extreme distance. A Flemish 
city, meant, no doubt, to represent Jerusalem, is visible chiefly in the 
background to the right; but churches and monasteries, built in the 
style of the early edifices of the Netherlands and Rhine country, boldly 
raise their domes and towers above every part of the horizon, and are 
sharply defined on a sky of pale grey gradually merging into a deeper 
hue. The trees, which occupy the middle ground, are not of high growth, 
nor are they very difl'erent in colour from the undulating meadows in 
which they stand. They are interspersed here and there with cypresses, 
and on the left is a small date-palm. The centre of the picture is all 
meadow and green slope, from a foreground strewed with daisies and 
dandelions to the distant blue hills.'" 

'In the very centre of the picture a square altar is hung with red 
damask and covered with white cloth. Here stands a lamb, from whose 
breast a stream of blood issues into a crystal glass. Angels kneel round 
the altar with parti-coloured wings and variegated dresses, many of them 

Cathedral. GHENT. 7. Route. 41 

praying with joined hands, others holding aloft the emblems of the pas- 
sion, two in front waving censers. From a slight depression of the 
ground to the right, a little behind the altar, a numerous Itand of female 
saints is issuing, all in rich and varied costumes, fair hair floating over 
their shoulders , and palms in their hands ; foremost may be noticed St. 
Barbara with the tower and St. Agnes. From a similar opening on the 
left, popes, cardinals, bishops, monks, and minor clergy advance, some 
holding croziers and crosses, other palms. This, as it were, forms one 
phase of the adoration. In the centre near the base of the picture a 
small octagonal fountain of stone, with an iron jet and tiny spouts, 
projects a stream into a rill, whose pebbly bottom is seen through the 
pellucid water. The fountain and the altar, with vanishing points on 
different horizons, prove the Van Eycks to have been unacquainted with 
the science of linear perspective. Two distinct groups are in adoration 
on each side of the fountain. That on the right comprises the twelve 
apostles, in light greyish violet cloaks kneeling bare-footed on the sward, 
with long hair and beards, expressing in their noble faces the intensity 
of their faith. On their right stands a gorgeous array of three popes, 
two cardinal monks, seven bishops, and a miscellaneous crowd of church 
and laymen. The group on the left of the fountain is composed of kings 
and princes in various costumes, the foremost of them kneeling, the rest 
standing, none finer than that of a dark bearded man in a red cloth cap 
stepping forward in full front towards the spectator, dressed in a dark 
blue mantle, and holding a sprig of myrtle. The whole of the standing 
figures command prolonged attention from the variety of the attitudes 
and expressions, the stern resolution of some, the eager glances of others, 
the pious resignation and contemplative serenity of the remainder. The 
faithful who have thus reached the scene of the sacrifice are surrounded 
by a perfect wilderness of flowering shrubs , lilies , and other beautiful 
plants, and remain in quiet contemplation of the Lamb." 

'Numerous worshippers besides are represented on the wings of the 
triptych , moving towards the place of worship. On the left is a band 
of crusaders, the foremost of whom, on a dapple grey charger, is clad in 
armour with an undercoat of green slashed stufl, a crown of laurel on 
his brow, and a lance in his hand. On his left two knights are riding, 
also in complete armour, one on a white, the other on a brown charger, 
carrying lances with streamers. Next to the third figure, a nobleman in 
a fur cap bestrides an ass, whose ears appear above the press; on his 
left a crowned monarch on a black horse; behind them a crowd of kings 
and princes. In rear of them, and in the last panel to the left, Hubert 
Van Eyck with long brown hair, in a dark cap, the fur peak of which 
is turned up, ambles forward on a spirited white pony. He is dressed 
in blue velvet lined with grey fur; his saddle has long green housings. 
In the same line with him two riders are mounted on sorrel nags, and 
next them again a man in a black turban and dark brown dress trimmed 
with fur, whom historians agree in calling John Van Eyck. The face is 
turned towards Hubert, and therefore away from the direction taken by 
the cavalcade; further in rear are several horsemen. The two groups 
proceed along a sandy path, which yields under the horses' hoofs, and 
seems to have been formed by the detritus of a block of stony ground 
rising perpendicularly behind, on each side of which the view extends 
to a rich landscape, with towns and churches in the distance on one 
hand, and a beautiful vista of blue and snow mountains on the other. 
"White fleecy clouds float in the sky. There is not to be found in the whole 
Flemish school a picture in which human figures are grouped, designed, 
or painted with so much perfection as in this of the mystic Lamb. Kor 
is it possible to find a more complete or better distributed composition, 
more natural attitudes, or more dignified expression. Kowhere in the 
pictures of the early part of the loth century can such airy landscape 
be met. Nor is the talent of the master confined to the appropriate 
representation of the human form, his skill extends alike to the brute 
creation. The horses, whose caparisons are of the most precious kind, 
are admirably drawn and in excellent movement. One charger stretches 

42 Route?. GHENT. Cathedral. 

his neck to lessen the pressure of the bit^ another champs the curb 
with Flemish phlegma; a third throws his head down between his fore 
legsi the pony ridden by Hubert Van Eyck betrays a natural fire, and 
frets under the restraint put upon it.' 

'On the right side of the aitarpiece we see a noble band of ascetics 
with tangled hair and beards and deep complexions, dressed in frock 
and cowl , with staves and rosaries , moving round the base of a rocky 
bank, the summit of which is wooded and interspersed with palms and 
orange trees. Two female saints, one of them the Magdalene, bring up 
the rear of the hermit band, which moves out of a grove of orange trees 
with glossy leaves and yellow fruit. In the next panel to the right, and 
in a similar landscape, St. Christopher, pole in hand, in a long red cloak 
of inelegant folds, overtops the rest of his companions — pilgrims with 
grim and solemn faces. Here a palm and a cypress are painted with 
surprising fidelity.'' 

'The aitarpiece, when closed, has not the all-absorbing interest of 
its principal scenes when open. It is subdivided first into two parts, in 
the upper portion of which is the Annunciation, in the lower the portraits 
of Jodocus Vydts and his wife, and imitated statues of St. John the 
Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. In the semicircular projection of 
the upper central panel are the Sibyls, whilst half figures of Zachariah 
and Micah are placed in the semicircles above the annunciate angel and 
Virgin. W^ith the exception of Jodocus and his wife and the Annun- 
ciation, the whole of this outer part of the panels may have been executed 
under supervision by the pupils of the Van Eycks." — Crowe dc Cavalcaselle. 
The Early Flemish Painters. 2nd Ed. 1872. 

This work, the most extensive and imposing of the Flemish 
School, has undergone yarious vicissitudes. Philip II. endeavoured 
to obtain possession of it, but at length was obliged to be satisfied 
with a copy executed for him by Coxie. In 1566 it was with 
difficulty rescued from Puritanical outrage, and in 1641 saved from 
danger of burning. An expression of disapproval by the Emp. 
Joseph II., in 1784, regarding the nude figures of Adam and Eve 
induced the churchwardens to keep the picture under lock and key. 
In 1794 it was taken to Paris, and when it was restored in 1815 
the central pictures only were replaced in their original positions, 
while the wings were ignorantly, or from avaricious motives, sold 
to a dealer, from whom they were purchased by the museum of Berlin 
for 410,000 fr. The two wings with Adam and Eve were kept con- 
cealed at Ghent, as being unsuitable for a church, down to 1861, 
when they were removed to the museum at Brussels. The missing 
wings are replaced by copies with variations by Coxie. 

The work was begun by Hubert van Eyck for Jodocus Vyts, 
an important patrician of Ghent , and his wife Isabella Burluut, 
about^^the year 1420, and^ finished by John in ; 1432. The share 
which each of the brothers took in this work cannot be precisely 
ascertained. The central piece, and the figures of God the Father, 
Mary, John, Adam, and Eve, are usually attributed to Hubert, and 
the rest of the work to his brother. 

7th Chapel : Honthorst, Pieta ; at the side, De Grayer, Christ 
on the Cross. — 8th : Monuments of Bishops Ph. E. and A. van 
der Nooty of the 18th cent., with a Scourging of Christ and a Vir- 
gin, by Helderenherg and Verschajfelt. — 9th. The aitarpiece, re- 

Belfry. GHENT. 7. Route. 43 

presenting the so-called Betrothal of St. Catharine with the Infant 
Christ, and the Virgin with the holy women, is by Boose, surnamed 
Liemaeckere. — 10th : *Rubens, St. Bavon renounces his military 
career in order to assume the cowl. The figure of the saint is said 
to represent the master himself in the upper part of the picture, 
where he is received on the steps of the church by a priest, after 
having distributed all his property among the poor. To the left are 
two women, said to be portraits of the two wives of Rubens, both in 
the costume of that period ; one of them appears to be disengaging 
a chain from her neck, as if she would follow the example of the 
saint. At the altar: 0. Vaenms, Raising of Lazarus, adjoining which 
is the monument of Bishop Damant (d. 1609). — We now descend 
the steps to visit the rest of the chapels, which, however, contain 
little of special merit except M. Coxie's Seven "Works of Mercy (in 
the 15th and last). 

The Sacristy contains the Treasury, with the silver reliquary 
of St. Macarius (Chasse de St. Macaire), a Renaissance work of 

Of the Crypt beneath the choir the W. parts only, resting on 
low pillars, belong to the original structure, which was consecrated 
in 941. The E. part, with its numerous chapels, is Gothic. 
Uubert van Eyck and his sister Margaret are buried here. 

The Tower (446 steps) affords a much finer *View than the 
Belfry (fee 2fr. for 1-4 persons; apply to the verger in the sacristy). 

The modern Episcopal Palace is on the E. side of the church. Ad- 
jacent is the building containing the rich Archives of E.Flanders. 

The Belfry {Belfrood, or Beffroi; PL C, 4), a lofty square tower 
which has attained two-thirds only of the projected height, rises near 
the cathedral, almost in the centre of the city, of which it commands 
a fine panorama. In 1839-53 it was provided with an iron spire. 
According to a note written upon the original design, which is pre- 
served in the city archives, the construction was begun in 1183 ; in 
1339 the works were suspended. Etymologists differ as to the 
origin of the word 'belfrood' or belfry, but the most probable 
derivation is from bell (Dutch bellen , to sound, to ring) and frood 
or fried (jurisdiction). One of the first privileges usually obtained 
by the burghers from their feudal lords was permission to erect 
one of these watch or bell-towers , from which peals were rung on 
all important occasions to summon the people to council or to arms. 

The concierge, who accompanies visitors to the top of the tower 
(1 pers. 1 fr., more for a party), lives in the tower itself, entrance 
in the St. Janstraat. In the interior are two square rooms, one 
above the other, with fine Gothic windows. The third gallery, at a 
height of 270 ft., is reached by 386 steps; the total height to the 
point of the spire is 375 ft. The staircase is dark and rather steep. 
The spire is surmounted by a vane, consisting of a gilded dragon, 
10 ft. in length, made at Ghent in 1380. 

44 Route 7. GHENT. Hotel de Ville. 

The View embraces a great portion of Flanders, as well as an ad- 
mirable survey of the city. When the Duke of Alva proposed tu Charles 
V. that he should destroy the city which had occasioned him so much 
annoyance, the monarch is said to have taken him to the top of the 
belfry, and there to have replied: ^Combien faudraU-il de peaux d'Espagne 
pour /aire ?/n Gant de cette grandeur V — thus rejecting the cruel sug- 
gestion of his minister. 

The mechanism of the Chimes may be examined at the top of the 
tower. They are played by means of a cylinder, like that in a barrel- 
organ, the spikes on which set the tongues and hammers of the bells in 
motion. They may also be played by a musician who uses an apparatus 
resembling the keyboard and pedal of an organ. The tower contains 
44 bells. A hole in one of them was made by a cannon-ball fired at the 
belfry by the Austrians from the old citadel in 1TS9, in order to prevent 
the citizens from ringing the alarm. The ball did not miss its aim, but 
failed to effect its purpose, for the tone of the bell continued unimpaired. 
One of the oldest and heaviest bells, which was recast in 1059, bears the 
inscription: ^Mijn naem is Roelant; als ick kleppe dan isH brand; als ick 
liipde, tsV victorie in Vlaenderland'' (My name is Roland ; when I am 
rung hastily, then there is a fire; when I resound in peals, there is a 
victory in Flanders). 

The lower part of the Belfry, used as a town-prison, is called 'J/«m- 
melokker\ a Flemish word applied to the colossal relief over the entrance 
from the Jlarche avi Beurre (Botermarkt), representing a woman giving 
sustenance from her own breast ti an old man in chains at her feet, and 
e.xpressive of the filial act she is performing CCItariti Romaine). The 
portal and ligures belong to the 18th century. 

An interesting Gothic building in the Rue St. Jean , adjoining 
the Belfry, erected in 1325 (now being restored), was formerly the 
Cloth Hall. The interior, with the collections of the Brotherhood 
of St. Michael (Confre'rie desf]scrimeurs dite deSt. Michel), founded 
in the 17th cent., is shown by the concierge of the Belfry. 

In the Marchc an Beurre (Botermarktj is situated the *H6tel de 
Ville (PI. C, 4), which consists of two entirely different parts. The 
picturesque facade towards the Rue Ilaut-Port, constructed in 
1518-33, in the florid-Gothic (Flamboyant) style, from designs by 
Bominicus de Waghemakere and Rombout Keldermans (p. 134), was 
restored in 1829, and again quite recently; it is perhaps the most 
beautiful piece of Gothic architecture in Belgium. The E. facade, 
towards the market-place, with its three tiers of columns, was con- 
structed in 1595-1628, in the Renaissance style. 

The "In'teriok contains several fine Gothic rooms and an interesting 
Gothic staircase. On the first floor of the wing dating from the end of 
the 15th cent., is the Council Hall or Salle de VArsenal, with timber roof, 
lofty Gothic windows, and two artistic cliimney-picces. The artistically 
executed coats-of-arms of magistrates on the bindings of the account books 
of the town (from the end of the 15th cent, downwards), here displayed, 
are of considerable heraldic importance. The 'Pacilication of Ghent', a 
treaty drawn up by a congress of the Confederates who assembled here 
in 157G with a view to expel the Spaniards from the Netherlands, was 
sijincd in this hall, where a commemorative tablet was erected in 1876. 
The lofty chapel now serves as the Salle des Mariages^ or office for civil 
marriages. The Archives are very important, containing documents reach- 
ing back to the 13th century. 

In the Poeldemarkt (poultry market'), behind the Hotel de Ville, is 
the office of the Charitable Society , containing an interesting room with 
wood-carvings and paintings of the 17th cent. (Charles V., Albert and Isa- 
bella, etc.). At the chimney-piece, which is of carved wood, are two 

Marche du Vendredi. GHENT. 7. Route. 45 

statuettes of orphans in the costume of the period (16S0). Small fee to the 
keeper (ring). 

Opposite the N. facade of the Hotel de Ville is the Rue des 
Grainiers , ending in the Rue Basse, which we cross ohliquely 
to the Rue du Serpent, leading to the *March.e du Vendredi 
iVrydagmarkt ; Fl. C, D, 3, 4), an extensive square, still surrounded 
by antiquated buildings. The most important events in the history 
of Ghent have taken place here. Homage was here done to 
the Counts of Flanders on their accession , in a style of magni- 
ficence unknown at the present day, after they had sworn , ' alle 
de bestaende wetten , vorregten , vryheden en gewoonten vanH 
graafschap en van de stad Gent te onderhouden en te doen onder- 
houden' (to maintain and cause to be maintained all the existing laws, 
privileges, freedoms, and customs of the county and city of Ghent; 
comp. p. 51). Here the members of the mediaeval guilds, ^ces tetes 
dures de Flandre' , as Charles V. termed his countrymen, frequently 
assembled to avenge some real or imaginary infringement of their 
rights, and here the standard of revolt was invariably erected. One 
of the most disastrous civic broils took place here in 1341, when 
Gerard Denys at the head of his party, which consisted chiefly of 
weavers, attacked his opponents the fullers with such fury that 
even the elevation of the host failed to separate the combatants, of 
whom upwards of 500 were slain. Jacques van Artevelde, the 
famous 'Brewer of Ghent' (see p. 36), then in power, was after- 
wards assassinated by Denys. This fatal day was subsequently 
entered in the civic calendar as '• Kwade Maandag^ (Wicked 
Monday). Under the rule of the Duke of Alva his auto-da-fe"s 
were enacted in the Marche du Vendredi, and many thousand 
Ghenters were then compelled to emigrate, thus leaving the city half 
untenanted. A bronze statue of Charles V. stood here down to 1794, 
when it was destroyed by the French sansculottes. It is now replaced 
by a bronze Statue of Jacques van Artevelde (PI. 24; D, 3), over 
life-size, executed in bronze byDevigne-Quyo, and erected in 1863. 
The powerful demagogue is represented fully accoutred, in the act 
of delivering the celebrated speech in which he succeeded in per- 
suading the citizens of Ghent and the inhabitants of Flanders to 
enter into an alliance with England against the will of the Count of 
Artois. The three reliefs on the pedestal have reference to the 
three most important treaties concluded by Artevelde in behalf of 
Flanders. The ancient buildings which formerly lent an interest to 
this square are now represented by a single house, known as the 
Toreken or (erroneously) the Collacie-Z older (municipal council 
room), dating from the 13th or 14th century. An inelegant modern 
roof crowns the tower of this edifice, which is now occupied by small 
shopkeepers. — A view of the principal towers of the city is obtained 
from the N. side of the market. The Pont du Laitage (p. 50) lies to 
the N.W. of this point. 

At the corner of a street on the W. side of the Marche' du Ven- 

46 Route 7. GHENT. St. Jacques. 

dredi is placed a huge cannon, called the ^ Dulle Oriete^ (Mad 
Meg; 14th cent.), 19 ft. long and 11 ft. in circumference (resem- 
bling 'Mons Meg', a similar cannon in Edinburgh Castle). Above 
the touch-hole is the Burgundian Cross of St. Andrew, with the arms 
of Philippe le Bon (1419-1467). 

At the back of the E. side of the Marche du Yendredi rises the 
Church of St. Jacques (PL 8; D, 4), originally founded about the 
year 1100. The present edifice dates from the end of the loth or 
beginning of the 16th cent., but the W. towers, and the lower part 
of the central tower are Romanesque. 

The Interior contains several pictnres by Jan van Cleef. In the left 
aisle are two paintings by O. de Crayer : Members of the Order of the 
Trinity ransoming Christian captives, and the Virgin. In the right aisle 
is the Departure of the youthful Tobias, by Jan Maes-Canini. The two 
pictures of Apostles in the choir are by Van Huff el. Ifear the pulpit is a 
statue of the Apostle .Tames by Van Poticke. The handsome marble laberna- 
cle dates from the 16th century. Here also is the tomb of Jean Palfyn 
(d. 1730) of Cuurtrai, inventur of the forceps. 

The Botanic Garden (^Plantentuin^ PI. D, 3), in the immediate 
vicinity, is the finest in Belgium. (The entrance is at No. 21 Rue 
St. Georges, a street traversed by the tramway running to the Ant- 
werp Gate.) It \va3 founded in 1797, and is commonly known as the 
Baudeloohof. The hot-houses (Victoria Regia, etc.) are extensive. — 
The suppressed Baudeloo Convent contains the Athenaeum (Gram- 
mar School), the Town and University Library (upwards of 200,000 
vols. ; 2500 MSB., some of them very rare), and a collection of about 
7000 drawings, 14,000 engravings, plans, and water-colour sketches 
of buildings and views in Ghent, from the 10th cent, till the present 
time, coins, and about 25,000 pamphlets of the 16-17tli centuries. 
The reading room is open to the public daily (except Sun. and during 
the vacations), 9-7. 

Farther to the E. lies the ruined *Abbey of St. Bavon (PI. 14; 
E, 4; entrance on the S., in the Rue de VAbbaye; V2fr.). It may 
be reached by taking the tramway from the church of St. Jacques 
to the Rue d'Anvers, and thence to the S. by the Rue du Chateau 
and Rue St. Macaire. The abbey, of very early foundation, was 
one of those bestowed upon Eginhard, the biographer of Charlemagne, 
and after its destruction by the Northmen, was restored with great 
splendour (10th cent.). Charles V. , though noted as a zealous 
persecutor of heretics and iconoclasts , caused the beautiful old 
Romanesque cathedral and most of the conventual buildings to be 
razed in 1540, in order to build a citadel (p. 38). A fragment of 
a 15th cent, cloister is still extant, with the Baptistery of St. Ma- 
carius, consecrated in 1179, on the E. side. Opposite, a magni- 
ficent Transition gateway (beside which are two window -arches 
of the same period) admits us to the Crypt of Our Lady. In the 
pavement are 21 ancient tombs (8th cent. ?), hewn in sandstone and 
covered with reddish mortar, not unlike mummy-coffins in shape. 
To the left is the Cellar, supported by three thick round columns. 

Grand Biguinage. GHENT. 7. Route. 47 

The old refectory, on the N. side of the cloister, is kiiOAvn as the 
Chapel of St. Macarius, because it was used for religious worship 
until the erection of the church of that name (PI, E, 4). The S. 
windows are Romanesque, but the N. windows were altered in the 
15th century. Several interesting frescoes were discovered here in 
1889. In the vaults under the refectory are numerous old grave- 
stones and other sculptures, a mosaic-pavement of the 13th cent. , etc. 

Continuing to follow the Rue d'Anvers fp. 46) and the Chausse'e 
d'Anvers ftramway to the Station du Pays deWaes, comp. p. 34 and 
PI. E, 3, 4^, and then turning to the right by the narrow Oostacker 
Straat, we reach the — 

Grand Beguinage [Begynhof; PI. E, 3, 4), a large nunnery, 
the foundation of which dates from the 13th cent. (1234-35). 

? The name is derived by some authorities from St. Begga, the mother 
of Pepin of Heristal. and by some from Le Bigue., a priest of Liege (end 
of the 12th cent.) ; while others connect it with heggen., to beg:. The ob- 
jects promoted by the Biguinages are a religious life, works of cha- 
rity (tending the sick), and the honourable self-maintenance of women 
of all ranks. These institutions have passed almost scathless through the 
storms of centuries. .To.seph II. spared them, when he dissolved the other 
religious houses, and they also remained unmolested during the French 
Revolution, their aim having steadfastly been the 'support of the needy 
and the care of the sick.' There are at present about twenty Be'guinages 
in Belgium , with about 1.300 members, nearly 1000 of whom are in 
Ghent. With the exception of those at Amsterdam and Breda, these nun- 
neries are now confined to Belgium, though at one time they were com- 
mon throughout the districts of the lower Rhine. 

The members of the Begninages are unmarried women or widows of 
unblemished character, and pay a yearly board of at least 110 fr., besides 
an entrance-fee of about 150 fr. for the maintenance of the dwellings and 
the church. Two years of novitiate must be undergone before they can 
be elected as sisters. They are subject to certain conventual regulations, 
and are bound to obey their superior, the Gvoot Juffrouw or Grande Dame 
(whom they elect themselves), but are unfettered by any irrevocalile vow. 
It is, however, a boast of the order that very few of their number avail 
themselves of their liberty to return to the world. (When a member 
leaves the order, her entry-money is returned to her.) The younger Sisters 
live together in the convents, where they spend such time as they are 
not in church, in working in common (i;ice-making, etc.). After having 
been members for three years, however, they have the option of retiring 
to one of the separate dwellings, wLich contain rooms for two to four 
occupants. The doors of these houses are inscribed with numbers and 
the names of tutelary saints. In many cases the Be'guines have the society 
of other women who are not members of the order, such as an a^ed 
mother, or other friend or relative, whose board forms a small addition 
to their funds. 

The Sisters must attend divine worship twice or thrice a day, the 
first service being at 5 a.m.; and the last at Vespers, the hour of which 
varies according as it becomes too dark for the fine work of the nuns. 
The latter service, known as 'lof or 'salut des Beguines' presents a very 
picturesque and impressive scene, when the black robes (failles) and white 
linen head-gear of the Sisters are dimly illuminated by the evening light 
and a few lamps. Kovices have a diflferent dress, while those who have 
been recently admitted to the order wear a wreath round their heads. 

The *Grand Beguikage, the removal of which from its former 
position near the Porte de Bruges was necessitated by the con- 
struction of some new streets, was transferred in 1875 to the site 

4S Route:. GHENT. St. MichaeVs CJnircJi. 

secured for it on tlie N.E. of the town through the influence of 
the Due d'Arenberg. The Beguinage forms a little town of itself, 
enclosed by walls and moats, with streets, squares, gates, 18 con- 
vents, and a church, the last forming the central point of the 
whole. The houses, though nearly all two-storied Gothic brick 
buildings, present great variety of appearance and form a very 
picturesque ensemble. The Beguinage was planned by the architect 

This Beguinage contains about TOO members, beautiful speci- 
mens of whose lace (Kanten) may be obtained from the Groot 
Juffrouio , opposite the entrance of the church, at much more 
reasonable prices than in the town. 

In the MaPvChb aux Grains {Koommarkt; PI. C, 4) rises the 
Church of St. Nicholas (PI. 10), the oldest in Ghent. It was founded 
early in the 10th cent., but the greater part of the present building, 
which in the main is in the early-Gothic style, probably dates from 
the beginning of the 13th century. The main tower contains a fine 
hall in the Transition style. The ten turrets on the lower part of 
this tower have given rise to the 'bon mot' : ' Veglise a onze tours 
et dix sans (same pronunciation as cents') cloches\ 

The Interiou has been modernised. Most of its venerable treasures 
(if art disappeared from the church during the religious wars and the 
wild excesses of the iconoclasts, but have been partly replaced by 
modern works. High-altarpiece by iV. Roose (Lie?naecke)'e), Call of St. Is'i- 
cholas to the episcopal office. 2nd Chapel, to the right: Maes-Canini., 
Madonna and Child with St. John. 3rd Chapel, on the left : Steyaert., 
Preaching of St. Anthony. An inscription under a small picture on an 
opposite pillar in the nave records that Olirer Mivjau and his wife are 
buried here, '■eiide hadden tezamen een en devtich kinderen" (i.e., they had 
together one-and-lhirty children). When Emp. Charles V. entered Ghent, 
the father with twenty-one sons who had joined the procession attracted 
his attention (152G). Shortly afterwards, however, the whole family was 
carried oft" by the plague. — The other pictures include specimens by /. 
van Cleef and Van den IJenvel. The stained glass in the windows of the 
choir is by Capvonnier and Laroche., 1851. 

On the Graslei, or Quai aux Herbes (PI. C, 4), behind the W. 
side of the Corn Market, there are several interesting old buildings. 
The handsome *Skipper House(^o. 15), the finest Gothic guild-house 
in Belgium, was erected in 1531 by the Guild of the Skippers. The 
Staple JIou?e is in the Komanesque style. 

St. Michael's Church (PI. 9 ; C, 4), a handsome Gothic edifice 
begun in 1445 (nave completed 1480, tower unfinished), was em- 
ployed in 1794 as a 'Temple of Reason', and lost most of its trea- 
sures of art at that period. The pictures which it now contains are, 
with the exception of a few by Vaenius, Van Dyck, De Grayer, etc., 
productions of the first half of the present century. The modern 
stained-glass windows are by Capronnier. (Sacristan 1 fr., more 
for a party.) 

The *Intekiok, where the red brick vaulting forms an eflfecfive con- 
trast with the white walls and pillar.?, is undergoing a complete restoration. 

Oudeburg. GHENT. 7. Route. 49 

— N. Aisle, first entered in approaching from the bridge: 4th Chapel: 
Vaenius, Raising of Lazarus. 2nd: De Cmyer, St. Bernhard, St. Joseph, 
and St. George worshipping the Trinity. 1st: Van Balen, Assumption. — 
The -Pulpit by J. Franck, 1S46, a masterpiece of taste and execution, rests 
on the trunk of a fig-tree in marble; Christ healing a blind man forms 
the principal group below; the staircase railings are of mahogany. — 
South Aisle. Brd Chapel: Model of the tower as originally designed. ' Van 
Bockhovst^ Conversion of St. Hubert. 

S. Transept. Frangois, Ascension; Lens, Annunciation. 

N. Tkanseft : * Van Dyck's celebrated Crucifixion, painted in 1644 for 
the Fraternity of the Holy Cross in Ghent in six weeks, for 800 fl. A man 
extends the sponge to the Saviour with a reed; John and the Maries 
below, weeping angels above. Paelinck^ Finding of the Cross by the 
Empress Helena. 

Choir. To the right, 2nd Chapel: Van der Plaetsen, The Pope ex- 
horting Louis XI. to submit to the will of God, painted in 1838; Spagno- 
letto, St. Francis. 3rd: 'i)e Grayer, Assumption of St. Catharine, one of 
the master's best works. 4th: Ph. de Champaigne, Pope Gregory teaching 
choristers to sing. 0th: Van Afander, St. Sebastian and S. Carlo Borromeo. 
6th, at the back of the high -altar: Van Bockhorst, Allegory, Moses and 
Aaron typical of the Old Testament; St. John, St. Sebastian, and the 
Pope typical of the New. 7th: Maes-Canini, Holy Family. 9th: Seghers, 
Scourging of Christ. 10th: Th. v. Thulden, Martyrdom of St. Adrian. 
11th : De Grayer, Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

Adjoining the Marche aux Grains, on the N., lies the Marche 
Aux Hbebks (Groenselmarkt), on the left of which rises the exten- 
sive Grande Boucherie (G'roof Vleeschhuis, PI. 16; C, 4), erected 
in 1408-17, but of no architectural merit. An interesting 
mural painting in oil , executed by Nabur Martins in 1448 (freely 
painted over), was discovered in the old chapel of the building 
in 1854. The iron rings and collars on the exterior wall to the 
right are mementoes of the public executions and tortures which 
formerly took place here. The same association is commemorated 
in the name of a small adjacent cafe, Cafe de la Potence or t'Galgen- 
huis. — The members of the Ghent Guild of Butchers were known 
as 'Prinse Kindereu' (Prince's children), being the descendants of 
Charles Y. and the pretty daughter of a butcher, who secured for 
her son and his descendants the sole right of slaughtering and selling 
meat in the city. The son of the emperor had four children, the an- 
cestors of the four families of Van Melle, Van Loo, Minne, and 
Deynoot, of whom alone the guild consisted down to 1794. 

Crossing the bridge to the left , we reach the Place Ste. Pharaildb, 
which is surrounded with quaint mediaeval buildings. The Gateway 
in the corner to the left, erected in imitation of one on the same 
site by Arthus Quellin, which was burned down in 1872, and 
•adorned with sculptures by De Kesel (Neptune, the Schelde, and 
the'Lys). leads to the Marche aux Poissons (PI. 19; C, 4). — On 
the N. side of the Place, at the corner of the Rue de la Monnaie, 
the OuiebuTg (^Gravenkasteel , s' Gravensteen, Chateau des Comtes ; 
PI. 2; C, 3), a massive old castellated-looking gateway, with loop- 
holes , rises among a number of modern houses. It is a remnant of 
the ancient palace of the Counts of Flanders, where Edward III. 
with his Queen Philippa were sumptuously entertained by Jacques 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 4 

50 Route 7, GHENT. Museum. 

van Artevelde in 1339, and where their son John of Gaunt (i. c, 
Gand or Ghent) was "born in 1340. It was afterwards the seat of tho 
council of Flanders, appointed by Philippe le Bon of Burgundy 
ahout the middle of the 15th century. The palace was built in 
868, but the gateway next the two octagonal towers not before 
1180. In 1780, under Maria Theresa, the castle was sold and 
converted into a factory, around which numerous workman's dwell- 
ings gradually clustered. It is now about to be laid open and 
restored. On entering by the gate in the Rue de Monnaie (see above) 
we see to the right the remains of the old keep or donjon (9th cent.?), 
adjoining which is an elegant Romanesque arcade of the 12th cen- 
tury. Behind the donjon are the remains of the chapel (?), with 
two Romanesque pillars ; and here and there traces of the battlc- 
mented walls may still be made out. A subterranean passage, 
21/2 M. in length, leading to a point outside the city, is said to have 
existed and to have been employed for admitting soldiers to the 
castle in case of an emergency. — The adjacent Rue du Vicux 
Bourg, at the end of the Pont du Laitage (p. 45), a bridge which 
crosses to the March^ du Vendredi, contains two interesting houses 
of the 17th cent. , embellished with numerous terracotta reliefs 
(one of them called 'den vliegenden Hert'). 

The old Carmelite church, in the Rue Longue des Pierres, is 
now occupied by the new municipal *Musee d'Archeologie, with 
interesting collections of industrial art. Adm. free on Sun., 10-1, 
and on Thurs. 2-5 (Sept. 16th to April 30th, 2-4); on- other days 
9-12 and 12.30-6 (in winter 10-12 and 2-3), 50 c., catalogue 75 c. 

One of the most interesting and complete collections is that of wrought 
iron objects, including locks, keys, door-hinges, waflle-irons, caskets of the 
15th cent., weights, measures, surgical instruments of the 16th and 17th cent., 
etc. Among the other objects of interest arc the large sepulchral brasses 
of Guillaume de Wenemaer (d. 1325) and his wife, with deeply engraved 
portraits ; Brussels carpets with designs representing mythological scenes 
(18th cent.) ; chased *Badges of massive silver (15th cent.), formerly borne 
by the ambassadors of Ghent ■■, the chased and silver-gilt insignia of the 
guilds of the town ; standards of the 16th cent. ; carved doors and window- 
frames; chests of the most diverse character; costumes of the time of 
Louis XV. and Louis XVI. ; and an extensive collection of knives and 
forks of the 16th and subsequent centuries ; executioners' swords, instru- 
ments of torture, etc. Among the historic;il paintings are: Baptism of 
Charles V. (1500) ; also, De Crciyer, Francis I. surrendering his sword 
to Lannoy at the battle of Pavia in 1525; Charles V. landing in Africa; 
Charles V, and his brother Ferdinand; three pictures painted for the 
triumphal arch at the entry of Ferdinand ; /. B. van Volxsom (d. 1732), 
Charles VI. receiving homage in the Mareh^ de Vendredi (p. 45) in 1717. 

In the Rue Ste. Marguerite (No. 5), which forms a continuation 
of the Rue de la Monnaie, is situated the Royal Academy of Art, 
established in the old Augustine Monastery, adjoining the incon- 
siderable Awg^wsf me Church, (PI. 4 ; C, 3), and containing the Museum, 
with about 250 pictures. There are no works of pre-eminent merit, 
but the collection is worth a visit. Among the old works, besides 
a specimen of Rubens, are several by G. de Crayer, who migrated 

Museum. GHENT. 7 Route. 51 

from Brussels to Ghent in the latter part of his life, and died here 
in 1669 at the age of 87. The collection is arranged on the second 
floor, and is open to the public gratis on Sun. and holidays (10-1) 
and Thurs. (9-1 and 2-5) ; at other times 50 c. (concierge at No. 7). 

Room I. To the left : *94. Fr. Pourbus, Isaiah announcing to Heze- 
kiali Ms recovery, with the miracle of the sun going ten degrees hack- 
ward; on the wings a Crucifixion and the donor, the Abbot del Rio; on 
the outside, Raising of Lazarus, in grisaille. 51. J/, de Vos, Holy Family. 
Also several good works by unknown masters. — To the right — 

Rooii II. (large, and lighted from the roof). To the left: 47. Peter 
Neefs the Elder ^ Peter liberated from the prison; 15. De Crayer, St. John 
in Patmos; 45. G. Maes, St. Nicholas (1689); *18. De Grayer^ Solomon's 
Judgment, one of the artist's masterpieces; 1. Th. Boeyermans, Vision of 
St. Mary Magdalene de' Pazzi; 75. Th. van Eombouis, Allegorical represen- 
tation of Justice, formerly in the Hotel deVille; 2 Th. Boeyermans, S. 
Carlo Borromeo dispensing the Sacrament to persons stricken with the 
plague ; 39. Jan van Cleef, Holy Family, with the Infant Saviour crown- 
ing Joseph with a wreath of roses ; 19. De Crayer, Martyrdom of St. Bla- 
sius (his last work, painted in 1668 at the age of 86); 'Xo number, De 
Crayer, Martyrdom of St. Laurence, one of the best works of this master, 
who is excellently represented in Ghent; 38. Peter Thys, St. Sebastian 
receiving the martyr's palm from angels; 13. De Crayer., Tobias with the 
Archangel Raphael; 56. W. Ileda, Still-life; 17. De Crayer, Resurrection; 
No number, Artois , Landscape; 10. Adr. van Utrecht, P'ishmonger; *9. 
Rubens, St. Francis receiving the stigmata, painted in 1632 for the Fran- 
ciscan Church at Ghent, and similar to the picture in the Museum of 
Cologne; *14. De Crayer, Coronation of St. Rosalia; 11. Duchatel, Pro- 
cession in the Marche du Vendredi , at the reception of Charles II. of 
Spain as Count of Flanders (1666 ; in the middle of the foreground is a 
portrait of the artist, holding a paper); 12. Verhaghen, Presentation in 
the Temple; 22. De Crayer, The 'Virgin handing the scapulary to St. Simon 
Stock; *T6. Th. van Romhouts, The five senses; M. Coxie, Last Judgment ; 
No number. Van Dyck. Portrait of himself, in grisaille; 4. Jordaens, St. Am- 
brose ; No number, Eondecoeter, Pelican and other foreign birds; 82. P. 
van den Avont, Holy Family in a landscape, surround'ed by angels. — 
In the middle of the room: 95. Fr. Pourbus, Large winged altarpiece, with 
22 scenes from the life of Christ; on the back, the Last Supper. F^licien 
Bouri, Boy lying in wait for a lizard (marble) ; J. Joris, 'Mon Cavalier' ; 
P. Comein, Girl with a doll (marble); Devigne-Quyo, Eve and the Serpent 

On the other side of the entrance-hall are two rooms with modern 
pictures. Roo3xIII. 172. H. Pille, Festival in Brittany ; X. de Cock, Cows; 
Josselin de Jong, The petition; M. Miiller (Diisseldorf), Norwegian land- 
scape; Devigne, Medifeval fair; C. Richter, 'Truands et Ribaudes' (after 
Victor Hugo; 18S2) ; Gabriel, Canal; Gerard, 'A la sante du Pasteur!'; 
152. Fe/*6oecA7(oyen, At pasture (1799); A. Roll, Ba.cchic dance; Gussow (Bev- 
lin), Return of the soldier; Coosemans, 'La mare aux corbeaux'; Verhas, The 
little painter; Maes-Canini, Juno; Rosseels, Moonlight-scene. 

Room IV. To the left, P. Parrot, Spring; Prion, Bacchante and young 
satyr; Meunier, Lamentation for Stephen the martyr; 155. Robert, 'Un 
regret' (1849); /. van Luppen, Scene in Luxembourg; Tytgadt, Death of 
St. Stephen; Karel de Kesel, Maiden entering her bath; Delvin. Fishermen; 
Sigard, Servant plucking a goose; Cogen, Stranded ship ; 118.- De Braekeleer, 
Peasants quarrelling; Vanaise, St. Livinus giving sight to the blind; Bource, 
Cherries ripe ; De Bi'efve, Widow of Count Egmont ; Meckel, Eastern land- 
scape ; L''Hermi(e, Grandmother's precepts; Picque, Hebe. 

The neighbouring street, Cour du Prince (PI. B, C, 3), derives 
its name from the old palace of the Counts of Flanders (p. 37) of 
which the only relic is a gateway under a recently restored build- 
iug, in the direction of the Rabot. — A little farther on is the 


52 Route 7. GHENT. Casino. 

Qua! du Rabot, leading to the small i'ort, with two towers, called 
Le Rabot (PI. B, 3). Here in 1488 the army of Emperor Frede- 
rick III., advancing to support the claims of his son Maximilian 
(p. 22), made an assault which was successfully resisted The old 
Flemish inscription on the outside of the gate records the bravery 
of the guilds which fought under Duke Pliilip of Cleve. 

On the right bank of the Coupure, a canal completed in 1758, 
connecting the Lei with the great Bruges Canal (pleasant promenade 
in the evening"), is situated the handsome Casino (PI. B, 4, 5), built 
in 1835 by L. Roelandt. Open-air concerts (military band) are held 
in summer in the large garden. The Casino belongs to a horticultural 
society (Maatschappy van Kruidkunde), and is employed for the 
famous flower-shows of Ghent, which were established in 1808 
and occur twice a year. Ghent, which is not unfitly surnamed 'La 
Ville de Flore\ has a specialty for horticulture, and annually exports 
whole cargoes of camellias, azaleas, orange-trees, and other hot- 
house plants to Holland, Germany, France, Russia, and America. 
In April and May the hyacinths and tulips are at their best. The 
cultivation of orchids also flourishes. There are upwards of eighty 
nursery-gardens in the environs of the city, the most important of 
which is that of L. van Houtte, in Gentbrugge (tramway from the 
Kouter to Ledeberg, then to the left of the terminus and past the 
stables ; PI. E,.6). A^isitors are readily admitted. 

Nearly opposite the Casino, on the other side of the canal, rises 
the Maison de Force {^Rasphuis^ PI. A, B, 4), a prison formerly of Euro- 
pean celebrity. The building was begun under Maria Theresa in 1772, 
but not completed until 1825. A new wing has lately been erected, 
which contains 158 cells for confinement on the Auburn, or silent, 
system. It is adapted for prisoners to whom absolutely solitary con- 
finement is unsuited. — Near this is a new prison, the Maison de 
Surete, with 325 cells, accommodating 420 convicts. 

Belgium has perhaps done more for the reform of the Prison System 
than any other country. The strict separation of the convicts by day 
and night, at work, at meals, at church, in the schools, or at exercise 
in the prison court, has been adopted throughout the land. The efforts 
made for the mental and moral improvement of the inmates merit all 
praise. The most important establishments next to those at Louvain 
and Ghent are the prisons at Antwerp, Mons, Arlon, Tournai, and Malines. 
Visitors (with the exception of superior prison officials) are not admitted 
without permission from the Minister of Justice at Brussels. 

As we follow the Coupure to the left (S.E.) to its junction with 
the Lei (see above), we see on the right the Blind Asylum {Hospice 
des Aveugles; PI. 6, 5), a red brick building, behind which lies the 
extensive new Civil Hospital {Hopitol Civil; PI. B; C, 6), named 
after the former abbey of Biloque, which was founded in the 13th 
cent. (adm. Quai do la Biloqut- 4 ; ring). In the interior to the 
right are the offices, nearly opposite which is the house of the Sisters 
of Charity, two brick and stone buldings of the 17th century. To 
the right of the former is the old Abbey Church (13th cent.), with 

Kouter. GHENT. 7. Route. 53 

an elegant double gable. The interior is divided into sick-wards, 
from the long corridor connecting which we may inspect the huge 
timber roof, like an inverted ship's hull. Behind the hou se of the 
Sisters of Charity, to the left (W.), in the corner of th e large 
vegetable garden, is the very interesting brick ■*Gable of the i ormer 
Refectory^ also 'dating from the 13th cent, (visible also from the 
Boulevard des Hospices). This and the adjoining building are now 
used as a Hospice for Old Men {Oudmannekenshuis ; entrance Boul. 
des Hospices 2; small present to the hospice). In the interior of 
the refectory, which is divided by a structure of 1715, the ribs of 
the almost unaltered timber roof still retain the original colouring 
(red, yellow, blue, and white). On the end-walls are frescoes of 
the 13th cent. : on the N.. Christ with the Lamb and St. Christopher ; 
on the S., Christ blessing a woman (perhaps the foundress Gertrude 
Utenhove; comp. p. xxxix). 

Amoni: the other Wall-paintings in Ghent which are of interest to the 
student of art are those in the Ahhey of St. Bavon (i2th cent.; p. 46); 
the copies in the Archseological Museum (p. 50) of the representations of 
the Ghent militia (14th cent.), formerly in the old chapel known as the 
Leughemeete; and the paintings in the old Boucherie (15th cent.; p. 49), 

Beyond the neighbouring Pont de la Materuite' is the Pare de 
la Citadelle, laid out on the site of the works of the citadel, built 
after 1815. A monument consisting of a negro seated upon a rock 
commemorates the brothers Van de Velde, natives of Ghent, who 
died on the Congo (1882 and 1888). — No. 178 in the Rue de 
Courtrai, which leads hence back to the town, is the Schreiboom 
chapel (PI. 13 ; C, 6), with pictures of children (from the 15th cent, 
down to the present time) who have been restored to health in the 
hospital with which it is connected. 

The Kouter, or Place dWrmes (PL C, 5), is a large open space 
planted with a double row of lime-trees, where a band plays on Sunday 
mornings and Wednesday evenings in summer. On Sunday morn- 
ings an abundantly supplied flower-market is held here. On the E. 
side of the Kouter is the Cafe des Arcades, said to occupy the site 
of the house of the brothers Hubert and Jan van Eyck, where they 
painted their celebrated picture. On the Kouter are the two hotels 
mentioned at p. 36, and also the four largest clubs of Ghent. — 
The S.W. corner is occupied by the Theatre (PL 25 ; C, 5), erected 
by Roelandt in 1848. 

The Palais de Justice (PL 21 ; C, 5), an imposing edifice by 
Roelandt, completed in 1846, is bounded on two sides by the Lys. 
The chief facade to the N. has a Corinthian portico, and is approached 
by a lofty flight of steps. 

The Salle des Pas Perdus (85 yds. long, 25 yds. wide), usually entered 
by a flight of steps from the Rue du Commerce, contains a few modern 
paintings : Math, van Brie, Conclusion of the Pacification of Ghent in the 
Hotel de Ville; opposite, L. de Taeye, Charles ilarteVs victory over the 
Saracens near Poitiers (732); C. Montald, Struggle for existence, a large 

54 Route?. GHENT. St.. Pierre, 

allegorical subject; Van iSeverdonck, Cavalry-skirmisli between Flemings 
and Spaniards. 

The Place des Recollets, in front of the Palais de Justice, is em- 
,l)ellished witli a statue of Metdepenningen (d. 1881), advocate and 
leader of tlie liberals of Ghent. 

The University [PL C, 4), another edifice by Roelandt, has its 
facade, with a Corinthian peristyle, towards the Rue des Foulons. 
The Aula, reached through a covered court and a vestibule, which 
is adorned with frescoes \)y Alfr. Cluysenaar [Henry IV. at Canossa, 
Leaders of the Reformation, Renaissance, and French Revolution), 
is a rotunda supported by marble columns in the style of the Pan- 
theon, and capable of containing 1700 persons. The inscription on 
the chief facade records the foundation of the building under Wil- 
liam I., in 1826. The Natural History Museum is a collection of 
some merit. — An Ecole du Genie Civil and an Ecole des Arts et 
Manufactures are connected with the university. The number of 
students is about 900. 

Among the teacbers who have shed lustre on this university, founded 
like those of Liege and Louvain in 1817, are Jos. Plateau (d. 1883), the 
physicist; Fi: Laurent (p. 38) and Eaus (d. 1880), the jurists; Ouislain 
(d."l80(J), the philosopher; and Fr. Muet, the philosopher, who died in 18C9 
as tutor to king Milan of Servia. 

The narrow Rue de la Crapaudiere, to the E. of the university, tra- 
verses the site of the garden of Jacob van Artevelde (p. 45), who was 
assassinated on the spot now occupied by Klaus's restaurant (p. 3b). 

In the upper part of the town beyond the Schelde, to the S., in 
the Rue Plateau , rises the Institut des Sciences (PI. C , 5,6), 
completed in 1890 after plans by Ad. Fauli. Next to the Palais de 
Justice at Brussels, this is the largest architectural work in Bel- 
gium, and covers nearly 31/2 acres of ground. It contains the lec- 
ture-rooms and laboratories of the university faculty of physical 
science and of the technical schools connected with the university. 
No. 9 in the neighbouring Rue Guinard is the Beroeps or Amhacht- 
School, attended by about 100 apprentice turners, joiners, lock- 
smiths, blacksmiths, etc. 

The Church of St. Pierre [PI. 11 ; D, 6), picturesquely situated 
on a height at the S. extremity of the town, is said to have been 
founded in 610 on the site of a temple of Mars. It has been several 
times renewed, and after its destruction by the iconoclasts in 1578 
was rebuilt in 1629-1718 from plans by Van Sante. The interior 
contains a few pictures. 

South Alsle: JV. Jioose (Liemaeckere), Nativity of Christ; Er. Quel- 
lin the Younger, Triumph of the Catholic religion. — North Aisle : Van 
Thulden, Pictures representing the triumph of Roman Catholicism (copies 
of paintings by Rubens, now lost). — RErRo-CiioiR,to the right: A. Janssens, 
Liberation of Peter; Van den Avont, Holy Family, with dancing angels; 
Janssens, Miraculous Draught of Fishes, as an accessory to a large land- 
scape. Also five small pictures by Van Doorselaer, of the period of the 
Spanish supremacy, illustrative of the virtues of the miraculous image 
of the Virgin on the altar. On the other side: Seghers, Raising of Laza- 
rus ; De Craiiev, St. Benedict recognising the equerry of the Gothic King 
Totilas ; Jievsschoot (d. 1795), Landscape, the healing of a blind man as 

DEYNZE. 8. Route. 55 

accessory; 'Janssens^ Landscape with two hermits. — Isabella, sister of 
Charles V. , and wife of Christian II. of Denmark, is interred in this 
church, but no monument marks the spot. 

The open space in front of the church has heen formed by the 
demolition of part of the old abbey-huildings. Another part serves 
as a barrack. The landlord of the barrack-canteen shows a fine 
15th cent, cloister (fee). 

Ghent, like Antwerp and Brussels, possesses its Jardin Zoo^ 
logique (PI. D, 6), situated near the station of the government rail- 
way (admission 1 fr.). The interior of the neighbouring Church of 
St. Anne (PI. 3; E, 5), erected from Roelandt's designs in 1853, is 
gaudily decorated by Canned. — The Rue Longue des Violettes, 
diverging to the W. from the church, leads to the — 

*Petit Beguinage (PI. E, 5, 6; comp. p. 47), which contains 
about 300 nuns, and has remained unaltered since the 17-18th cen- 
turies. The scrupulously clean little houses are arranged round 
a rectangular grassy space planted with trees ; while another square 
block of similar houses with narrow lanes between adjoins. A 
dazzlingly white wall surrounds the whole. Each house has its 
own patron-saint, whose name is inscribed above the door. The 
church (17th cent.) occupies almost the entire N.E. side of the 
grassy space. The Convent ter Bloemen (Convent des Fleurs) is one 
of the most interesting of the convents here (comp. p. 48; ad- 
mission easily obtained). 

A pleasant drive (4-5 hrs.) may be taken to the S.W. from Ghent to 
the interesting castle of Oydonck, near the village of Bachte-Maria-Leerne 
(Sterre Innj. The castle, also reached on foot in 3/4 hr, from the station 
of Deurle (see below), was built in iijiX) by Philip of Slontmorency, partly 
destroyed in 1579, and frequently restored, finally in 186i. 

8. From Ghent to Courtrai and Tournai. 

Railway from Ghent to Courtrai (27V-.. M.) in D/thr. (fares 3 fr. 35, 
2fr. 5C), Ifr. 70c.)-, from Courtrai to Tournai (201,2 M.) in 8/4-! hr. (2fr. 50, 
Ifr. 90, Ifr. 25c.; express fares 3fr. 15, 2fr. 35, Ifr. 60c.). From Tournai 
to Brussels, see R. 11. 

From Ghent to (6 M.) La Pinte, see p. 31. The line to Oude- 
naarde, Leuze, and Mons here diverges to the left. 

Fkoji Ghent to Oddenaakde, 17 M., railway in 50 min. (fares 2 fr. 5, 
1 fr. 55, i fr. 5 c); to Leuze, 36V2 M., in Is/^ hr. (4 fr. 50, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 
25 c); via St. Ghisiain to Mons, 5S M., in 3V4 hrs. (7 fr. 15, 5 fr. 40, 3 fr. 
60 c). — Stations : Eecke- Nazareth^ Gavere, Synghem^ Eyne^ and Oudenaarde 
(p. 33), the junction of the line from Brussels to Courtrai (R. 6). Then 
Leupeghem^ Etichove, Louise -Marie, Renaix (where branches diverge to 
Courtrai and Bassilly, p. 70), Anvaing, Frasnes, Leuze (junction of the 
Brussels-Lille line, p. 69), BasHles ^ Blaton (p. 69), Po7nmeroetil, Si. Ghis- 
iain (p. 180). 58 M. Mons, see p. 178. 

8M. Deurle; 11 M. Deynze (route thenee to Thielt and Ingel- 
miinster, see p. 31; steam -tramway to Oudenaarde see p. 33); 
1 3 1/2 M. iVac/ieien; 151/2 M. Olsene ; iS^/2 'M.. Waereghem, junction 
for the connecting line between Anseghem (p. 34) andlngelmiinster 
(p. 33); 211/2 M. Desselghem; 24 M. Harleheke, where tobacco is 
extensively grown. 

56 Route 8. COURTRAT. From Ghent 

271/2 M. Courtrai, Flem. Kortryk (*Lion d'Or, moderate; Hotel 
du Damier, both in the Grande Place ; Hotel Royal and Hotel du 
Midi, at the station ; opposite, Hotel du Nord ; Rail. Restaurant ; 
Cafe Beige and Cafe FranQais, in the market-place), a manufacturing 
town with 29,400 inhab., situated on the Lei (LysJ , is famous 
for its table-linen and its lace, in the manufacture of which 
5000-GOOO women are employed. The flax of Courtrai enjoys a 
high reputation, and is manufactured in various districts of Belgium, 
as well as in the town itself. It is prepared with great care and 
skill. After being cut, it is carefully sunned and dried, stored 
for a year, then steeped in the water of the Ley, and sent to the 
factory. About one-twentieth of the soil in the environs produces 
flax. There are also extensive bleaching-grounds in the vicinity. — 
Two or three hours suffice for seeing the town. 

The street (Rue du Chemin de Fer) running straight from the 
station, and then turning to the right, leads to the large market- 
place [Groote Markt or Grande Place) where the town-hall rises on 
the left and the belfry on the right. 

The *TowN Hall, erected in 1526-28, has been completely 
restored since 1846, and the facade embellished with statues in 
the original style. Two richly-decorated *Chimney-pieces in the 
interior are worthy of notice. One of them , in the Salle Eche- 
vinale on the ground-floor, is adorned with the coats - of-arms of 
the allied towns of Ghent and Bruges, the standard-bearers of the 
knights of Courtrai, a figure of the Virgin, and statues of Archduke 
Albert and his wife. This room has been embellished with well- 
painted frescoes from the history of Flanders by Guffens and 
Siverts, completed in 1875. The principal of these represent the 
Departure of Baldwin IX. , Count of Flanders, at the commencement 
of the fourth Crusade (1202), and the Consultation of the Flemish 
leaders in the Court Room the day before the Battle of the Spurs, 
1302 (see p. 57). — The other and more interesting chimney- 
piece, in the Council Chamber upstairs , in the richest Flamboyant 
style, was completed before 1527. Two rows of well-executed sta- 
tuettes represent the diff'erent Virtues and Vices : in the upper sec- 
tion we see faith, humility, liberality, chastity, brotherly love, 
temperance, patience, and watchfulness; in the middle section, 
idolatry, pride, avarice, voluptuousness, envy, gluttony, anger, and 
sloth. The reliefs below indicate the punishments which follow in 
the train of these vices. On corbels are placed statuettes of Charles 
v., the Infanta Isabella (on the right), and Justice (on the left). — 
The walls are covered with large plans of the town and its juris- 
diction (^castelany'J, painted in oil (1641). 

Nearly opposite the Town Hall rises the Belfry. — We next 
proceed to St. Martin's Churcu, the Gothic tower of which is 
visible from the Grande Place; the nave was erected in 1390-1439, 
the transept about 1415. In 1862 the church was struck by lightning 

to Tournai. COURTRAI. 8. Route. 57 

and partly biirned down, but it lias since been restored. Beautiful 
"W. portal. The handsome pulpit of carved wood and the beautiful 
ciborium in stone (in the choir, to the left), executed in 1385, were 
saved from the fire. The left aisle contains a winged picture by B. 
de Ryckere (of Courtrai ; 1587), representing the Descent of the Holy 
Ghost, the Creation, and Baptism. 

The Rue Notre-Dame leads from the market-place, opposite 
the Lion d'Or, to the church of Notre Dame, founded by Count 
Baldwin IX. of Flanders (p. 56), and completed in 1211. The choir, 
which is decorated with marble, and the portal were rebuilt in the 
18th century. The chapel behind the choir contains the *Raising of 
the Cross, one of Van DycWs best pictures, unfortunately badly 
lighted ; resembling a Rubens in boldness of design , it is inferior 
in freshness of colour, but the profound expression of tenderness 
and pain depicted in the countenance of the Crucified are unsur- 
passed. The altars to the right and left are adorned with good reliefs 
in marble of the 18th cent., by Lecreux, representing St. Rochus 
among the plague-stricken, and Mary Magdalene with angels. The 
Chapel of the Counts on the right, added to the church in 1373, is 
adorned with wall-paintings of the llthcent. , representing the 
counts and countesses of Flanders, recently restored by Van der 
Platz, who continued the series down to Emp. Francis II. The Last 
Judgment, on the W. wall of the chapel, is also by Van der Platz. 

Farther to the left, on the Lys, are two massive old bridge- 
towers. — In the Rue du Beguinage (No. 14), which leads from 
Notre Dame to St. Martin's, is a Museum containing several good 
modern pictures (fee 25 c). The following are among the best : 
Nic. de Keyser, Battle of the Spurs (see below) ; L. Verhoeckhoven^ 
Sea-piece; Robbe, Cattle; VanDewin, Grey horse; Steinicke, Tyxolese 
landscape; Dobbelaare, Memling in St. John's Hospital at Bruges 
(see p. 18). 

Below the walls of Courtrai , on 11th Jnly , 1302 , was fought the 
famous Battle of the Spurs, in which the Flemish army, consisting chiefly 
of weavers from Ghent and Bruges, under Count John of Xamur and 
Duke William of Juliers , defeated the French under the Count of Ar- 
tois. Upwards of 1200 knights and several thousand soldiers fell. The 
victors afterwards collected 700 golden spurs, an appendage worn by the 
French knights alone , and hung them up as trophies in a monastery- 
church which has since been destroyed. A small Chapel outside the 
Ghent Gate, erected in 1831, marks the centre of the battle-field. 

From Courtrai to Brussels and to Ypres, see R. 6. — Courtrai is also 
connected by a branch-line with Renaix (p. 55). 

At Courtrai the Tournai line quits the flat land and enters an 
undulating and picturesque district. The Flemish language gives 
way to the French. 31 M. Lauwe ; 35 M. Mouscron (the s mute), 
the Belgian douane for travellers arriving from France. 

From Mocscron to Lille, U M., railway in 37 min. (fares 2 fr. 20, 1 fr. 
65, 1 fr. 20 c). — 3'/2 M. Tourcoing ( Hdtel' dn Cygne), a busy manufactur- 
ing town of 58,000 inhab., with a monument commemorating the defeat of 
the English and Austriaus by Jourdain and Mureau in 1794. — 5 M. Roubaix 

58 Route 9, TOURNAI. 

(Hdtel Ferraille), an important wool-combing and linen-manufacturing 
town, the population of which has risen during the present century from 
8000 to 100,000 (comp. Baedeker''s Northern France). — Near Croix- Wasquehal 
the train crosses the Eoubaix Canal, which connects the Deule with the 
Schelde. — U M. Lille, see p. 64. 

The next station, Herseaux - Estaimpuis , is connected by a 
branch-line with the railway from Renaix (p. 55) to Courtrai. Be- 
tween Nechin and Templeuve the Belgian line quits the province of 
West Flanders for that of HainauU (Germ. Hennegau). To the left 
rises Mont St. Aubert (p. 61), 425 ft. in height, also called Ste. 
Trinite, from the small church on its summit. It is 4M. distant 
from Tournai, and is much visited for the sake of the fine view it 
commands. Near Tournai the train crosses the Schelde, and finally 
stops on the handsome quay constructed by Louis XIV. 

9. Tournai. 

Arrival. The Station (PI. 1), 2, 3), opened for traffic in 1879, is a 
handsome building by Beyaert of Brussels. 

Hotels. Hotel DE l'Imp^katkice (PI. a; A, 3), Rue de Manx 12; Hotel 
Petite Kef (PI. c; B, 2), Rue du Cygne 30, R., L.. & A. 2-4, B. 1, D. 2, 
omn. 1/2 fi". ; Bellevue (PI. d ; C , 2) , Quai Dumon 6 , with an eslaminet, 
R. I'/z fr. ; Hotel Menu, Rue Royale 27 (PI. C, D, 3), moderate. Hotel des 
Neuf ProviNCES, Place Cromberg, both near the station. — Table d'hote 
in all at 1 p.m. 

Restaurants. Taverne Alsacienne and Restaurant Bavaro-Belge, in the 
Grande Place ; Taverne du Globe (English beer) and Ca/i Vinitien, in the Rue 
Royale, near the new station; all with good cuisine. 

About 3-3V2 hrs. will suffice for a visit to the Cathedral, the Church 
of St. Quentin, and the pictures in the Hotel de Ville. 

Tournai, Flem. Doornik, with 34,800 inhab., the most important 
and prosperous town of Hainault, and one of the most ancient in Bel- 
gium , was the Civitas Nerviorum of Csesar, afterwards called Tur- 
nacum. In the 5th century it was the seat of the Merovingian 
kings. At a later period the town belonged to France, but in 
1525 it was united with the Spanish Netherlands in accordance with 
the Peace of Madrid. In 1581 Tournai was heroically defended 
against Alexander of Parma by the Princess d'Epinoy, who, al- 
though wounded in the arm, refused to quit the ramparts, and did 
not surrender the fortress until the greater part of the garrison had 
fallen. In 1667 the town was taken after a protracted siege by 
Louis XIV., who caused it to be fortified by Vauban, and in 1709 
it was captured by the Imperial troops under Prince Eugene and 
the Duke of Marlborough. In 1745 Tournai again fell into the 
hands of the French, and in 1748 it was assigned to the Nether- 
lands by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. The fortifications were de- 
molished by Joseph II. in 1781, but were renewed in 1815-69. 
The numerous sieges it has undergone have greatly altered the ex- 
ternal appearance of the town, and have left little trace of its ven- 
erable age, with the exception of a few interesting mediaeval houses. 
The old walls have been converted into promenades. — The preten- 
der, Perkin Warbeck, was born here. 

Vagntr 4 Debes, Leipzig-. 

TOURNAI. 9. Route. 59 

Stockings, faience, and carpets are the staple manufactures of 
Tournai. The latter are generally known as Brussels carpets. The art 
of weaving carpets is said to have been brought to Europe by Flem- 
ings, who learned it from the Saracens at the time of the Crusades. 
Most of the carpets are made by the work-people in their own dwell- 
ings, and as there are few large factories in the town , it presents a 
much cleaner and pleasanter appearance than the other large in- 
dustrial towns of Belgium. 

The Scheldt (Escaut) divides the town into two nearly equal 
parts , of which that on the left bank is by far the busier and more 
important ; but considerable improvements have taken place on the 
right bank since the completion of the new railway-station. The 
handsome, broad Quays, planted with trees, contribute to render 
Tournai one of the pleasantest-looking towns in Belgium. The river 
is generally crowded with barges, most of which are laden with coal 
from the mines of Mons, and are bound for Ghent, etc. 

The *Catliedral (^Notre-Dame; PI. 4; B, 3), a noble example of 
the Romanesque style , rises conspicuously above the houses on the 
left bank. It is a cruciform basilica borne by pillars, with a retro- 
choir and radiating chapels, and has five towers above the cross and 
two on the facade. The nave, which was not vaulted until the 
18th cent., dates from the middle of the 12th, and was consecrated 
in 1213. The transept was erected in the 13th cent, by French 
masters, on the model of the Cologne churches. The beautiful 
Gothic choir is of later date, and was consecrated in 1338, and the 
facade , originally Romanesque , was ^altered and provided with a 
porch in the pointed style about the same period (comp. p. xxxviij. 
Among the sculptures in the porch, which were executed at various 
periods from the 13th to the 17th century, are interesting reliefs 
representing the Creation , Fall , and Expulsion from Paradise, by 
sculptors of Tournai, dating from about the year 1200 (see p. xxxix). 
The Interior was purged in 1852 of the unsuitable additions 
with which it had been disfigured in the course of centuries, and is 
now strikingly impressive. It consists of nave and aisles 136 yds. 
in length ; nave 78 ft. wide and 78 ft. high ; breadth of transept 
73 yds. ; height of choir 107 ft. The walls above the aisles are 
relieved by a triforium. The large chapel adjoining the left aisle 
was added in 1516-18. The capitals of the pillars, which are asso- 
ciated with columns, are particularly rich and varied. The propor- 
tions of the transept are more graceful, and the galleries lower. 

The chiircli contains a few pictures. In the first chapel of the S. (right) 
Aisle, on the posterior wall, a Crucifixion by Jordaens. The chapel of 
the N. Aisle (Chapelle Paroissiale de Notre-Dame), which contains some 
modern stained glass, is used for the ordinary services of the cathe- 
dral , the choir being reserved for episcopal functions. — In the 
Transept, right, a Holy Family with a glory of angels, painted by M. de 
Nigre in 16o0. Most of the stained-glass windows were executed by 
Stuerbout of Haarlem about the year 1465. Their subjects refer to the 
history of the bishopric of Tournai, which received important privileges 
in the 6th cent, from King Chilperic for services rendered in his war 

60 Route 9. TOURNAT. Belfry. 

against his brother, the Austrasian monarch Sigebert (right transept), and 
in the 12th cent, from Pope Eugenius III. (left transept). — The richly 
sculptured rood-loft, which separates the choir from the nave, executed 
by Com. de Vriendi in the Renaissance style, with marble reliefs from the 
Old and New Testament, was erected in 156G ; it is surmounted by a large 
group in bronze by Lecreux, representing St. Blichael overcoming Satan. 
— The stained glass of the Cuoir by Capronnier is modern. 

Retro-Choir, beginning on the left side of the rood-loft : Lancelot Blon- 
deel^ Judgment of Solomon, Visitation, Adoration, etc.; Oallait ., Christ 
restoring the blind to sight, one of the master's earliest works. Farther 
on, adjoining the high-altar, is the Romanesque Reliquary of St. Eleu- 
therius , the first Bishop of Tournai (6th cent.), elaborately executed in 
silver-gilt in the year 1247, and adorned with the figures of the Twelve 
Apostles. At the back of the high-altar is a Pietii by Duquesnoy (17th 
cent.), above which is a bishop's tomb with recumbent figure, and two 
tablets with the names of all the bishops and canons of Tournai. On the 
other side of the high-altar is the Reliquary of St. Piat, of about 1280. — 
Then in the Chapel to the left, which is adorned with stained glass 
commemorating the Council of 1870, is a large picture by Rubens, Rescue 
of souls from Purgatory, a bold composition. 

The Sacristy contains a very valuable crucifix in ivory by Dw^Meswoy, 
a reliquary of the Merovingian period in the shape of a Greek cross, and 
an ivory diptych of the llth century. 

Opposite the Episcopal Palace (PI. 17; B, 3) is the public Li- 
brary, containing about 8000 early printed works and 250 MSS. 

The Belfry (PI. 3; B, 3), to the S.W. of the cathedral, dates 
from 1187, but was partly rebuilt in 1391 and restored in 1852. 
The spire is modern. A set of chimes, placed in the tower in 1878, 
plays every half-hour. The ascent is recommended, particularly for 
the sake of the view of the cathedral (260 steps to the platform ; 
door-keeper at the entrance and custodian at the top, 25 c. each). 

The triangular Grande Place (PI. B, 3) in the centre of 
the town is embellished with a Statue of Marie de Lalaing, Prin- 
cess d'Epinoy (PI. 20), in bronze, designed by Dutrieux. The heroic 
lady is represented in complete armour, with a battle-axe in her 
hand, leading her fellow-citizens against the enemy (see p. 58). 

To the S. of this statue is the former Cloth Hall (Halle aux 
Draps) a Kenaissance building of 1710, restored by Carpentier. On 
the first floor is the Municipal Picture Gallery. Among the ancient 
works are : Madonna, in the style of -C/onJee^ ,• Descent from the 
Cross, ascribed to Roger van der Weyden., St. Donatus by Ma- 
6Mse (V) , portraits by Van Oost, Van Baelen, etc.; Landscape by 
Van Thulden; and an equestrian portrait of Louis XIV. by Lebrun. 
Among the modern works are : Gallait (b. at Tournai in 1810; d. 
1887) , Dead bodies of Counts Egmont and Iloorne ; Van Sever- 
donck, Defence of Tournai by the Princess d'Epinoy. In the E. and 
W. galleries is the Musee Archeologique, containing fine ivory carv- 
ings (Table XV., Binding of a copy of the Gospels, llth cent.; 
Coronation of the Virgin , 14th cent.) , works in metal , faience, 
coins and MSS. with miniatures, including a psalter that belonged 
to Henry VIII. of England , a 'Livre d'Heures' of the 15th cent., 
and the 'Roman de la Rose', of the 14th century. Catalogue 20 c. 

Hotel de Ville. TOURNAI. 9. Route. 61 

On the N. side of the Place is situated the church of *St. Quentin 
(PL 12 ; B, 3), sometimes called 'ia Petite Cathedrale\ a remarkably 
elegant structure, erected about the same period as the cathedral. The 
facade and interior form an excellent example of the transitional 
style. The large paintings (of little value) in the nave represent 
the Foundation of the Order of the Trinitarians for the purpose 
of ransoming Christian captives (1198), and the Battle of Lepanto 
(1571). The stained glass is by Bethune (1858). 

The priory-buildings of the suppressed Monastery of St. Martin, 
situated in a garden on the S.W. side of the town, now serve as 
the Hotel de Ville (PI. 15; A, 3, 4), the tympanum of which con- 
tains the arms of the town, a tower with three lilies. 

The church of St. Jacques (PI. 6; B, 2), dating from the 12th 
and 14th cent, and recently restored by Bryenne, somewhat resem- 
bles that of St. Quentin. 

St. Brice (PL 5; C, 3, 4), a church of the 12th cent. , on the 
right bank of the Schelde , contained the tomb of Childeric (d. 
480; father of Clovis), King of the Franks, which was discovered in 
1653 on the destruction of a house adjoining the church. 

A number of interesting curiosities, most of which are now preserved 
in the ^National Library at Paris, were found in the coffin; among 
them were upwards of 300 small figures in gold, resembling bees, with 
which the royal robes are said to have been decorated. Napoleon , on 
the occasion of his coronation , preferred them to the fleurs-de-lys as 
insignia of the imperial dignity. A clasp for fastening a cloak is still in 
the possession of the church and is exhibited in the sacristy, along with 
two silver cups and two reliquaries of the 14th century. 

Near the church of St. Brice are a few mediaeval houses, one 
known as the MaisonRomaine. Another ancient edifice is the Tour 
de Henri VIII., with two vaulted apartments, one above the other. — 
The new Palais de Justice and the Theatre also deserve mention. 

The old bridge called Pont des Trous (PL C, 1), which crosses 
the Schelde at the lower end of the town in three pointed arches, 
was built in 1290. Both ends are defended by strong towers. Near 
the bridge is the Square Du Mortier, which is embellished with a 
marble statue of B. Du Mortier (b. at Tournai in 1797; d. 1878), 
the Belgian statesman and naturalist, executed by Fraikin and 
erected in 1883. 

Mont St. Aubert (p. 5S), sometimes called Ste. TriniU from the small 
church of that name on the top, commands a very extensive panorama, 
although only 425 ft. in height, being the only eminence in the district, 
and is well worthy of a visit. The summit is about 4 M. distant. Car- 
riage in 3/4 hr. (3-4 fr.). — The Fierre Brntie/iauU, a huge monolith near 
Jlollain. is possibly Druidical. 

10. From Ghent to Antwerp. 

a. State Railway viS. Dendermonde and Puers. 

43 M. Eailwat in 11/2-21/4 hrs. (fares 5fr. 15, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 60 C; 
express 6 fr. 55, 4 fr. 90, 3 fr. 30 c.) 

Ghent, see p. 34. — The line crosses the Schelde. 2Vo M. 
Meirelbeke. On the other side of the Schelde is the quaint chateau 

62 Route 10. DENDERMONDE. From Ghent 

of Laeme, with towers dating from the 12t]i century. 4 M. Melle, 
the junction of the line to Charleroi and Braine-le-Comte (R. 20). 
6 M. Quatrecht. The train follows the winding course of the 
Schelde. 8 M. Wetteren. At (10 M.") Schellehelle our line diverges 
from that to Brussels via Alost (R. 3). I2V2 M. Wichelen ; 14 M. 
Schoonaerde ; 16 M. Audeghem, beyond which the train crosses the 

18 M. Dendermonde, Fr. Termonde (Plat d'Ktain; Aigle; 
Demi-Lune), a small fortified town (8300 inhab.) at the confluence 
of the Dendre and Schelde. Louis XIV. besieged this place in 1667, 
but was compelled to retreat, as the besieged, by opening certain 
sluices, laid the whole district under water. The Emp. Joseph II, 
caused the fortifications to be dismantled in 1784, but they were 
reconstructed in 1822. The old church of Notre Dame possesses 
two good pictures by Van Dyck, a Crucifixion, and Adoration of 
the Shepherds ; also a work by De Crayer, and a Romanesque font 
of the 12th century. The Hotel de Ville, which was originally the 
cloth-hall, dates, with its belfry, from the 14th century. Adjacent 
is the Grande Garde^ or guard-house, with an octagonal tower and 
a rococo portico of the 18th century, 

FiiOM Dendermonde to St. Nicolas, via Ilamme^ 13 M., by railway 
in 45 min. (see p. 63); to Lokeken, 9M., in V2 tr. (see p. 63); to Alost, 
7V2 M. , in 25 min. (p. 10); and to Brussels, 20 M. , via Opicyck (p. 11) 
and Jette (p. 11), in ^Vl br. 

At (21 M,) Baesrode the line to Malines diverges (see p. 135). 
24 M. St. Amans-lez-Puers ; 27 M. Puers., where our line crosses 
that from Terneuzen to Malines (p. 135). The train now traverses 
a marshy district and crosses the Rupel, which is formed about 
21/2 M. to the E. by the union of the Dyle and the Nethe. 

31 M. Boom, a town with 14,000 inhab. and numerous brick- 
kilns, where our liue crosses the line from Alost to Antwerp (see 
p. 11); 33 '/oM. Reeth. — 36 M. Contich, and thence to Antwerp, see 
p. 135. 

b. Waesland Railway. 

, 31 M. Railwat in 1V4-2 hrs., including the crossing of the Schelde at 
Antwerp (fares 41/2, 3, or 2 fr.). Carriages bad. This is the direct route. 
Travellers from Ostend or Bruges intending to take this route, book to Ghent 
only, where they take a fresh ticket at the station of the Waesland line, 
1 M. from that of the state-railway. 

The train starts from the Station d''Anvers. Immediately on the 
right is the new Beguinage (p. 47), This line traverses the Waes- 
land, or Pays de Waes, one of the most populous (about 700 pers. 
to the sq, M.), highly-cultivated, and productive districts in Europe, 
During the civil wars in Flanders, the Waesland was a sterile moor, 
but at the present day every square yard is utilised. The train tra- 
verses arable land, pastures, gardens, woods, and plantations in 
rapid succession, while comfortable farm-houses and thriving vil- 
lages are seen at intervals. It is said that the attention usually de- 
voted to a garden or a flower-bed is here given to every field ; for the 

to Antwerp. ST. NICOLAS. 10. Route. 63 

natural soil, being little better than sand, requires to be artificially 
covered with garden-soil. The agriculture of this tract is therefore 
worthy of the notice of farmers. In other respects the country is 

4 M. Loochristy, with an old chateau; 7 M. Beirvelde, with the 
fine modern Tudor chateau of the Countess de Kerchove de Den- 
terghem. — 12 M. Lokeren (Hotel du Miroir, in the Grand' Place; 
Hotel des Stations) is a manufacturing town with 17, 500 inhabitants. 
The Church of St. Lawrence contains some ancient and modern works 
of art, and a famous pulpit by Verhaghen (1736). Extensive 
bleaching -grounds in the vicinity. Lokeren is the junction of the 
lines to Dendermonde and Alost (see p. 62), and to Selzaete (p. 10], 
— 151/2 M. Mille-Pommes . 

191/2 M. St. Nicolas (Quatre Sceaux, in the market, R., L., & 
A. IV2-2, B. 1, D. incl. wine 31/2 fr.; Miroir), a pleasant -looking 
town with 27,600 inhab. , is the busiest manufacturing place 
in the Waesland. In the market-place, 1/2 ^- from the station, 
are situated the new Hotel de Ville , a handsome building in the 
Flemish Gothic style , containing a collection of antiquities from 
the Waesland, and several mediaeval dwelling-houses. The Church 
of St. Nicolas was completed in 1696. The church of Notre Dame, 
built by Overstraeten in 1844, contains well-executed mural paint- 
ings by Guffens and Swerts, the first attempts at frescoes in 
Belgium (p. 79). — A branch-line runs from St. Nicolas to Hamme 
and Dendermonde (p. 62). Near St. Nicolas the train crosses the 
Malines and Terneuzen railway (p. 135). 

22 M. Nieukerken. 251/2 M. Beveren , a wealthy village with 
7000 inhab. and an interesting church, with a tomb of 1540, is not- 
ed for its lace. 281/0 M. Zwyndrecht, where the train passes the 
outlying fort of that name on the right and a rampart extending to 
Fort Ste. Marie on the left. At Vlaamsch-Hoofd or Tete de Flandre, 
the tete-de-pont of Antwerp, on the left bank of the Schelde, a 
steam ferry-boat awaits the arrival of the train (p. 136). 

During the Siege of Antwerp (1832) the Dutch succeeded in cutting 
through the embankment above Tete-de-FIandre, in consequence of which 
the entire surrounding district, lying considerably below high-water mark, 
was laid under water to a depth of 4ft., and remained so for three years. 
Twelve Dutch gunboats cruised over the fields and canals, cutting off all 
communication with the city in this direction. The rise and fall of the 
tide covered a vast area with sand; and the once productive soil, becom- 
ing saturated with salt-water, was converted into a dreary waste. Those 
parts from which the water was not thoroughly drained became un- 
healthy swamps, a disastrous result of the war felt most keenly in the 
environs of the city, where land was of great value. Enormous sums 
were expended on the work of restoration-, the repair of the embank- 
ment alone cost 2 million francs. Almost every trace of the calamity is 
now happily obliterated. 

31 M. Antwerp, see p. 136. 


11. From London to Brussels via Calais. 

Vid Dover and Calais Brussels is reached in 8V4-9V2 hrs. ; sea- 
passage 11/2-2 hrs. (fares 21. 13s. and 2l.). Luggage registered at London 
is not examined till the traveller arrives at Brussels. — [From London to 
Brussels viaDover and Ostend 11. Ids. Gd.,il. ds.andlGs. Qd. — Comp. RR. 1, 3. 

— Brussels may also be reached from London via Antwerp by tlie Gen. Steam 
Nav. Co.'s steamers (fares 16s., lis.) or the 'Baron Osy' (fares 20s., 12s.) 
twice or thrice weekly, direct from London to Antwerp ; or by the Great 
Eastern Rail. Co.'s steamers six times weekly from Harwich.] 

Calais (Terminus Jlotel^ at tlie Gare Maritime; H. de la Gare 
Centrale, at tlve Central Station; Hotel Meurice, Sauvage, Rue de 
Guise ; Dessin, Kue Neuve; English Church, Rue tlu Moulin-BruM), 
a fortified town with 58,710 inhab. (including St. Pierre-les-Calais), 
has few attractions. The Harbour, the entrance to which is between 
two piers, has of late years been considerably deepened, and works 
are still in progress. There is a large new tidal-harbour with hand- 
some stone quays, the N. side of which is set apart for the Dover 
mail and passenger steamers. Here is the new Gare Maritime, with 
the Terminus Hotel on the upper floor. About260,000 travellers pass 
through the town annually. Calais contains about 1500 English 
residents, chiefly engaged in its extensive lace-manufactories. Sec 
Baedeker's Northern France. 

26 M. St. Omer (Hotel de la Porte d'Or et d' Angleterre ; Hotel 
de France), the first important station , is a fortified town with 
21,266 inhab. The Cathedral is a fine structure in the transitional 
style. The English Roman Catholic Seminary here, at which O'Connell 
was educated, has been abandoned. A number of English families 
reside at St. Omer for purposes of retrenchment and education. See 
Baedeker s Northern France. 

38 M. Hazebrouck is the junction of this line with the railways 
N. to Dunkirk, N.W. to Ypres (p. 26), and S. to Amiens and Paris. 

66 M. Lille. — Hotels. Hotel de l'Eueope (PI. a; E, 3), Rue Basse 
30-82; Hotel de Fkance (PI. b; E, 3), Rue Esquermoise 77; Hotel de 
Flandee et d'Angleterre (PI. c; F, 8), Place de la Gare; Grand Hotel 
DE Lton (PI. d; F, 4), Grand Hotel de Lille (PI. e; F, 3), in the Rue 
de la Gare; Singe d'Or, Place du Theatre 36-38 (PI. F,3). Rooms may also 
be obtained at the station (dependance of the Hotel de TEurope ; dear). 

Restaurants. Grand Cafi, Rue de la Gare 2; Bivoir, Rue du Vieux- 
Jlarchc-aux-Poulets 15; Di&iri, to the right of the theatre, opposite the 
Rue de la Gare, lirst floor. 

Cafes. Grand Oifi, see above; Richard, in the Hotel de Lyon, see 
above; Cafe du Grand H6tel, to the right of the Hotel de Lille; Bellevue^ 
in the Grande Place; Cafi Continental, Cafe du Boulevard, corner of the 
Rue Natiunale and Boulevard de la Liberie. — Brasserie Alsacienne, in 
the Grande Place. 

Cabs: per drive V-iiir., per hr. I3/4 fr., each succeeding hr. II/2 fr. 

Tramways traverse all the principal streets (fares 5-15 c. per 'section'). 

— Steam Tramicay to Roubaix (p. 57); fares 75 or 50c., return 1 fr. 10 or 80 c. 

Post Office (PI. E,4), Boulevard de la Liberte, near the Prefecture. — 
Telegraph Office, Place de la Republique (PI. E, 5) and at the station. 

American Consular Agent, M. C. D. Gregoire, Rue Jean Lavasseur. 

English Church, Rue Watteau, Boul. de la Liberte' ; services at 11 and 
6,30; chaplain, Eev. W. Burnet, M. A., Rue Jeanne d'Arc 16. 

Ulle, originally I/' isiCj Flem. Ryssel, the chief town of theFrench 



t6 [^ 


00£ 009 OOE OtH- OOE~ 003 OOl OS 



SizduT ' s^tiag ? j^vJvji^^svi jmuilTnt .y javiq 

LILLE. 11. Route. 65 

Departement da Nord. with 188,270 inhab., was formerly capital 
of Flanders, but was taken by Louis XIY. in 1667, and was finally 
awarded to France by the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. It is a fortress 
of the first class, and is situated in a well-irrigated and fertile plain 
on the Deule , a navigable river with which numerous canals are 
connected. In 1856 the population numbered 78,000 souls, but it 
has more than doubled since the extension of the fortifications in 
1858. Since that period numerous handsome streets and squares 
have sprung up , particularly on the S. side of the town , to the 
right of the station. Lille is a very important manufacturing place. 
Its staple commodities are linen and woollen goods , cotton , cloth, 
'Lille thread', machinery, oil, sugar, and chemicals. 

Leaving the station (PI. F, 3), we proceed in a straight direction 
to the Theatre (PL F, 3), turn to the left through the Rue des Man- 
neliers, passing the Bourse (PI. F, 3), the court of which contains 
a bronze statue of Napoleon I. by Lemaire(1854), and soon reach the 
Grande Place, a Column in the centre of which commemorates the 
gallant defence of the town against the Austrians in 1792. On the 
side of the Place opposite the Rue des Manneliers rises the — 

Hotel de Ville (PI. F, 4), erected since 1846 in the Renais- 
sance style, and containing the Bibliotheque Communale (open . 
daily), a valuable *Picture Gallery, an Ethnographical Collection, 
and a * Collection of Drawings, the last of which is the most im- 
portant in France after that of the Louvre. The collections are on 
the second floor, and are open to the public daily, 10-5 in summer, 
and 10-4 in winter (Tues. 10-12). Entrance on the left side of the 
building, where a staircase ascends. Catalogue of the picture-gallery 
11/4 fr. ; of the drawings l^/^ fr. 

The * Picture Gallery, one of the largest in France out of 
Paris, embracing about 850 works, is arranged in ten large rooms 
on the second floor. The titles of the pictures and the names of the 
artists are attached to each work. We turn to the left. 

Room I. !No. 22. Canaletto, View in Venice; 494. Saracino, Flight into 
Egypt; *1T9. G. Dughet, surnamed Poussin, Scene in the Campagna-, 518. 
Spada, Temptation of .Joseph; 210. School of Botticelli, Madonna and Child; 
440. Guido. Sibyl; *23.S. Dom. Ghirlandajo, Madonna and Child, a finely 
executed school-piece ; 310. Lanfranco, St. Gregory ; 536. Tiarini, Rinaldo 
and Armida; 423. Leandro Basxano, Christ expelling the money-changers; 
831. Solimena, Apotheosis of St. Thomas Aquinas; 545. Andrea del Sarto, 
'Madonna and Child , with St. .John and three angels ; 99. Paolo Veronese, 
Christ at the Sepulchre ; *114. Piazzetfa (Venice, d. 1754), Assumption of the 
Virgin: 546. Andrea del Sarto. Madonna and Child, with St. .John; "649. 
L. Zus/ris (of Amsterdam, a pupil of Titian), Judith; 832. Theotocopuli, -il 
Greco\ St. Francis; 117. Cignaroli (Verona, d. 1770), Death of Rachel; no 
numlier, Andrea del Sarto, Madonna and Child with St. John; Bassano, 
422. Marriage at Cana, 420. Crown of Thorns; 822. Ribera, St. Jerome; 
6.50. Zustris , Christ appearing to Mary Magdalen ; 500. Schiavone , Esther 
before Ahasuerus ; 57. Bonifazio, St. Peter; 6. Amerighi, St. John; 421. Bas- 
sano, Interior; 450. Tintoretto, Old man; Paolo Veronese, *100. Eloquence, 
*98. Slartyrdom of St. George, *10l. Science; 424. L. Bassano, Portrait. _ 

Room II. Xo. 41. Van Bockhorts , Martyrdom of St. Maurice and his 
companions; /. Jordaens, 293. Prodigal Son, 294. Two Apostles (two others 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 5 

66 Route 11. LILLE. From London 

a little farther on)-, 48S. Early Copy of Raphael^ Baptism of Constantine 
the Great; *526. Tenters the Younger^ Temptation of St. Anthony; •143. 
G. de Crai/er. Martvrs buried alive; *40B. Palamedes . Conversation-piece; 
Van Duck\ '196. 3Iarie de Mc^dicis, *195. Portrait, *193. Crucifixion; 772. 
5raA«n>)«r5r, Lovers ; "'398. /. van Oost the Elder. Portrait; *194. Van Dyck, 
Miracle of St. Anthony of Padua (a hungry mule kneels before the host, 
neglecting the oats placed near him); *2'J2. Jordaena, Christ and the 
Pharisees; *257. Fr. JIals, Girl laughing-, erroneously called Uille Bobbe; 
*278. Honthorst^ Triumph of Silenus; Rnbens, *i63. St. Bonaventura, -464. 
Ecstasy of 8t. Francis ; 110. Van Keulen the Elder ^ Portrait; 76B. BoeJ^ 
Allegoi-v of worldly vanities; .571. De Fries the. Younger, Portrait; 558. 
Victor, "Court-yard of a castle; 26S. Van der Heist. Portrait; 197. Van Dyck, 
Coronation of the Virgin; *482. Ryckaert , Mussel-seller; 814. JVeiichdtel, 
surnamed Lucidel, J. Xeudorfer, the mathematician, and his son; School 
of Rubens., 46(>, 4f)5, Providence and Abundance, from the decorations of a 
triumphal arch; 543. Van Utrecht., Cock-ficrht; *796. Holbein the Younger, 
His wife and children, old copy of the original in Bale Museum, here with 
the title 'Caritas', and the inscription: 'Die Liebe zu Gott heisst Charitas, 
wer Liebe hatt der tragtt kein Hass' (Love toward God is called Charity; 
he who has love bears no hate); *460. Rubens., Descent from the Cross, 
formerly an altarpiece in the convent of the Capuchins; no number, Jor- 
daens, Huntsman and hounds; 267. Earth, van der Heist, Portrait; no num- 
ber. Unknown Artist, Portrait of a man; Rubens, 461. Death of Mary Mag- 
dalen, *462. St. Francis and the Madonna. 

Room III. Round this room, next the ground, are hung 27 portrait- 
studies by Boilly (d. 1874), for his picture of Isabey'a studio (ISIHJ), and 
portraits by Am. de Vuez (d. 1720). Other works by the latter artist, who 
,«pent much of his life at Lille, are also hung in this room. Xo. 142. Avt. 
Corjpel, Athalide and Roxane (from Racine's 'Bajazet'); no number, Fyt, StiU- 
life; 148. Cuyp, Portrait: 475. Ruysdael, Landscape; 113. Ph. de Champaigne, 
The Good Shepherd; 232. Claude Lorrain, Sea-piece; 808. ^faas, Portrait; 
no number. Both, Landscape; G. de Crayer, The Messiah; 231. Claude Lor- 
rain, C'ampo Vaccino at Rome; 806. Lievens the Elder, Salome; 144, above 
the entrance to the Mus^e Wicar (see p. 67), O. de Crayer, The Mira- 
culous Draught of Fishes ; 629. Louis Watteau, Episode of the siege of Lille; 
352. Mignard, Fortune; 626. Louis Watteau, Confederation of the Depart- 
ments of Xord, Somme, and Pas de Calais, in 1790; 879. /. J. Weerts, 
Legend of St. Francis of Assisi; 428. Poussin, The infant Moses; 537. Til- 
borgh the Younger, Domestic scene. — In the middle of the room: 755. 
Sanson, Susanna, a statue in marble. The side -doors of this and the 
succeeding hall lead to the Collection of Drawings (p. 67). 

Room IV. Louis and Francois Watteau, whose works occur so often in 
this room, were the nephew and grand-nephew of the celebrated Antoine 
Watteau of Valenciennes , of whom, however, the gallery po.'^sesses no 
authentic specimen ; their works are far inferior to those of their kinsman. 
*No. 532. Tenters the Elder, Dives in Hell; •436. /. van Ravesteyn, Por- 
trait; 359. Molenaer, Scene during the Carnival; 771. Both, Landscape; 
434. Al. de Pujol, Joseph in prison (1822); 11, 12, Jacques d''Artois, Land- 
scapes : 689. Unknown Artist, Portrait ; •ISS. J. L. David, Belisarius asking 
alms (1785); Fr. Watteau, 618. The 'Braderie' (sale of old effects), 620. 
Festival in the Colosseum; 625. L. Watteau. View of Lille; 299. J. Jouve- 
net. Raising of Lazarus; ^437 Van Ravesteyn, Portrait of a lady; 531. 
Teniers the Elder, Incantation; 111. Phil, de Champaigne, Annunciation. 

Room V. No. 139. Courbet, Evening at Ornans ; *157. Eug. Delacroix, 
Medea; 215. Ch. Fortin, 'Chouans' {i.e. Royalists of Brittany); 87. Jules 
Breton, Erection of a 'Mont de Calvaire'; 135. Corot, Ancient festival; 839. 
Laugie, Servant of the poor; 540. Troyon, Landscape; 272. Hockert (Swedish 
painter). Preaching; in Lapland: 1*^2. Duran (of Lille), Scene of Italian 
peasant-life (monks with the bodv of a murdered man). 

Room VI. Xo. 802. Le A^'a/n," The grandmother's room; 114. Chardin, 
The learned ape; 174. Donvi, Portrait of the artist; no number, Van der 
Heist (?), Family-portraits. 

Room VII. No. 89. 'Velvet' Brueghel, Rest on the Flight into Egypt; 

to Brussels. LILLE. //. Route. 67 

557. Versteegh, Interior; 795. Van der Heist., Venus; 564. Vinckehoons., Con- 
cert of angels; 67. Bottlanger, Corpus Chri?ti Procession in Rome; 842. 
Sienese School, St. Catharine of Siena; 794 bis. ffeeimkerck. Allegory; 812. 
ifafsi/s, Tarquin and Lucretia; 780. Crcmach the Elder ^ Mocking of Christ. 

KooM VIII, to the left of the preceding. Xo. 847. Italian School, Ma- 
donna and Child; no number, Bellegambe, The Bath of the Blood of Christ, 
triptych; *84lj. Italian School, Large painiing in several compartments, re- 
presenting scenes from the lives of the Virgin and Saints, etc.; '775. 
Brueghel the Elder, John the Baptist preaching; *855. Westphalian School, 
Adoration of the Magi , Adoration of the Shepherds (shatters of a trip- 
tych); *o23. Stuerbouts (?), The fairy-well; 17. Bart, di Gentile da Urbino, 
Madonna and Child; 91. P. Bruegbd the Elder, Paying tithes; 854. West- 
phalian School, Annunciation (shutters of a triptych); 147. Crivelli, Ma- 
donna and Child ; 876. Israel van Meckenem, Assumption; no number, Belle- 
gambe. The Trinity (triptych) ; Uvknown Artist, Annunciation, Nativity, and 
3Iassacre of the Innocents (triptych); 764. H. met de Bles , surnamed Ci- 
vetta. Landscape, with the Flight into Egypt; 400. Van Orley, Adoration 
of the 3Iagi (triptych). — In the middle: Bit. Stuerbouts, Two shutters of 
a triptych. — The Archaeological Museum (see p. 68) is entered from 
this room. 

Room IX. Xo. 538. Van Tilborgh the Elder, Village-festival ; 511. Snyders, 
Boar-hunt; no number, Teniers the Younger, The story-teller; 508. Sibe- 
reehts. The ford; 18. £a«(fry. Punishment of a fallen Vestal; Ch. L. Mailer, 
376. Haidee (from Byrons 'Dr.n .luan"), 377. The ruined gamester; 151. Dau- 
bigny. Sunrise; 346. Merson, The vision; 788. Fictoor, Portrait; 836. Anf. 
Wafteau (?), Concert; 19S. Van Dyck (?). Madonna and donor; 323. Lehmann, 
Sixtus V. blessing the Pontine Marshes; (58. Giov. da Bologna, Casting 
lots for the vesture of Christ; 316. Lebrun, Hercules chastising Cacus ; 
807. Lievens, Old man at prayer; 85. Em. Breton, Pond; 1S9. Amaury Duval, 
Birth of Venus; 186. Duran. Portrait; 342. Comevre, Samson and Delilah; 
no number, Merson, 'Le loup d"Agubl>io\ the wolf converted by St. Francis 
of As.-isi in the streets of Gubbio; 30. Berthilemy, Wreck of the 'Borys- 
thene' in 1865; 798. /. Jordaent, Isaac blessing Jacob. — Rooms X. and XI. 
are devoted to the Muse'e Moillet (see below). 

RooJi XII, beyond the Muse'e Moillet, is occupied by paintings be- 
queathed by A. Leleux in 1873. — Xo. 644. Ph. Wouverman, Hunters 
resting; 533. Terburg, Lady of rank; 73. Brakenburg, After marriage; 297. 
Jordaens, Susanna : 476. /. Ruysdael, Landscape ; 248. Greuze, Psyche crown- 
ing Cupid; 25"^. Dirk Hals, Backgammon-players; 558. Teniers the Younger, 
Landscape; 481. Sal. Ruysdael, Landscape; 696. German School, Crucifixion 
(triptych); 351. W. van Mieris , Drummer; 520. Jan Sfeen. Tavern-scene; 
386. Van der Neer, Landscape: 635. Van der Werff, The happy household; 
72, Brakenburg, The merrv meal; 84. Van Brekelenkamp, Lady and gentle- 
man (1662); 645. TFtnan^i, "Landscape; 519. Jan Steen, Fiddler; 300. Th. de 
Keyser, Family-portraits; 296. Jordaent, Twelfth Xight ; 480. Sal. Ruysdael, 
Landscape; 2('6. Flemish School, Holy F;mily. — In the middle: Allar, 
Temptation of Eve (marble; 1879). 

The MrsEE Moillet, in Rooms X. and XI., is an ethnographi- 
cal collection of considerable value , including costumes, weapons, 
tools, etc. The latter room also contains Coins, some ancient Oobe- 
lins Tapestry, and a few medieval Sculptures. 

From RoomllL we enter the *Musee Wicar, a collection of up- 
wards of 1400 drawings by the most celebrated masters, chiefly of 
the Italian school, formed by the painter J. B. Wicar (b. at Lille in 
1762, d. at Rome in 1834), and bequeathed by him to his native city. 

The collection is arranged in school', the masters of each being placed 
in accordance with the dates of their birth, and their names being in most 
cases inscribed on the frames. Beside the most important sketches are 
placed engravings from the corresponding pictures, affording an opportunity 
for most instructive comparisons. This collection; is open at the same 


68 Route 11. LILLE. From London 

hours as the picture-gallery. Besides dra\vin;is by Andrea chl Sarto, An- 
nibale Carracci, Correggio , Carlo Bold., Giolto, Leonardo da Vinci. Vero- 
nese, Cranach, Holbein., Dilrer., and many other masters , the collection in- 
cludes 8 by Titian^ 196 by Michael Angela (chiefly architectural designs), and 
&i ascribed to Raphael. In the Passage, in a niche to the left, is a famous 
*'Head of a girl, in wax, long tascribed to Raphael, but now recognised as 
ancient, and probably found in a Eoman tomb. A few antiquities , some 
enamels, and a terracotta head by Donatello are also exhibited here. 

A staircase (not always open) adjoining Room IX. ascends to an old 
chapel, now transformed into an Archaeological Museum., and embellished 
with mural paintings by A. de Vuez. 

Leaving the Hotel de Ville, we now cross the large Place in an 
ohlique direction to the Rue des D^ris-St. Etienne in the opposite 
corner, and proceed hy this street, the Rue des Pretres , the Rue 
Basse (right), and the Rue du Cirque (first to the left") to Notre Dame- 
de-la- Treille (PI. E, F, 3), a church in the style of the 13th cent., 
designed by the London architects H. Glutton and W. Burges, and 
hegun in 1855. The building was planned on so ambitious a scale 
that little has been completed. — The Rue Basse leads hence to 
the Rue Esquermoise (PI. E, 3), one of the principal streets of the 
old town, the appearance of which has been much altered by the 
construction of the wide Rue Thiers. — The Gothic church of Ste. 
Catharine(F\. E, 3) contains a high-altarpiece by Rubens, represent- 
ing the saint's martyrdom. — The lusindsome Boulevard de la Liberie 
(PI. D, E, F, 4, 5} forms the boundary between the old town and 
the new quarters built in the modern Parisian style. In the Place 
de la Republique rises the spacious new Prefecture (PI. E, 4, 5). 

— The Porte de Paris (PI. F, G, 5), belonging to the old fortifica- 
tions, but spared on their removal, was built in 1682 in the form 
of a triumphal arch in honour of Louis XIV. — The church of *St. 
Maurice (PI. F, 4), near the Grande Place and the railway-station, 
dates from the 13th century. 

For a more detailed account of Lille, see Baedeker's Northern 

From Lille to Brussels (68 M., in 2^/^-3^/c) hrs. ; fares 8 fr. 
30, 6 fr. 25, 4 fr. 15c.l About 4 M. to the S.E."of (4 M.) Ascq is 
situated the village of Bouvines, where Emp. Otho IV. was defeated 
by Philip Augustus of France in 1214. 51/2 M. Baisieux is the 
last French, and (11 M.) Blandain the first Belgian station, at 
each of which there is a custom-house. 14 M. Froyenne. 

16 M. Tournai, see p. 58. Thence to Courtrai (3/4 hr.), see R. 8. 

From Tournai to Mons , via Blaton, 3OV2 M. , railway in li^-lV'J hr. 
(fares 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 80, 1 fr. 90 c). Route via Leuze (29'M.), see p. 55. 

— Near Vaulx are the interesting ruins of the so-called Chateau de Cesar. 
Aboiit 2^/2 M. from Antoing lies Fontenoy, where Marshal Saxe gained a 
great victory over the Austrians and British under the Duke of Cumber- 
land in 1745. The old Gothic chateau is the seat of the Dowager Princess 
of Ligne. There are numerous lime-pits and lime-kilns in the neighbour- 
hood. — The other stations are Maubray., Callenelle, Pfrmoelz (branch to 
Valenciennes), Blaton (where tlic line from Leuze to Mons is rejoined; 
branch to Bernissart) , Harchies , Pommeroeul , La Harnaide (local line 

to Brussels. ATH. 11. Route. 69 

via Eautrage to St. Ghislain, see below), Boussu-Haine. St. Ghislain (p. 55), 
Quaregnon-Wasinuel, and Jemappes. — Mons, see p. 17b. 

Beyond Tournai the undulating and well-cultivated province of 
Hainault is traversed, Mont St. Aubert (p. 61} long remains con- 
spicuous to the left. 201/2 ^i- Havinnes ; 24^2 M. Barry-Maulde. 
28 M. Leuze , a small stocking-manufacturing town on the TJendre, 
the junction of the Ghent-Oudenaarde-Leuze-Blaton line (p. 55^. 
30 M. Chapelle-d-Wattines ; 32 M. Ligne, which gives a title to the 
princely family of that name. About 1 '/4 M. from the station is the 
chateau of Moulbaix, built in imitation of \N'inilsor Castle and be- 
longing to the Marquis de Chasteler. 

35 M. Ath {Cygne; Paon dfOr; Hotel de Bruxelles , near the 
station ; Hotel de V Lnivers, opposite the station), on the Dendre, 
formerly a fortress, with 9000 inhab., contains nothing to detain 
the traveller. The Hotel de Ville was erected in 1600. The church 
of St. Julian, founded in 1393 , was re-erected in 1817 after a fire. 
The Tour de Burbant, the most ancient structure in the town, dates 
in its lower part from 1150. A monument to Eugene Defacqz, a 
native of Ath who played a prominent part in the events of 1830, 
was erected in 1880. Numerous lime-kilns in the environs. About 
3 M. from Ath are the interesting ruins of Cambron-Casteau, form- 
erly one of the richest abbeys in Belgium ; they belong to Count 
de Val de Beaulieu. 

Ath is the junction for the line from Dendekleeuw (Alost) to Gram- 
most, Ath, and Jurbise: 34'M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 20, 3 fr. 15, 
2 fr. 10 c). — Denderleeuw ., see p. 11. The train ascends the left bank 
of the Bender or Dendre. 2V2 M. Okeghem. Then (4'/2M.) Ninove, an old 
town with 6400 inhab., the seat, as early as the middle of the 12th cent., 
of a Premonstratensian abbey, of which no trace remains; the parish- 
church contains two paintings by De Crayer. — The next stations are 
Santbergen, Idegfiem , and Schende'lbeke. 13 M. Grammont, see p. 181. — 
16 M. Acren., the first place in Hainault; 17 M. Lessines, with porphyry 
quarries, is the junction of the Eussilly-Renaix line (see p. 70); Fapignies; 
Rebaix. — 25 M. Ath, see above. — Then Maffles., Mevergnies-Attres, 
Brugelette (with a large orphan -asylum conducted by nuns), Lens., and 
(34 M.) Jufbise^ where the Brussels and Paris line is reached (see p. 178). 

From Atu to Blaton, 12 M., railway in 40 min. (fares 1 fr. 45, 1 fr. 10, 
70 c). — The stations are small and uninteresting, with the exception of 
(7 M.)Beloeil, a village with the celebrated chateau and estate of the Prince 
de Ligne, which has been in possession of the family upwards of 500 years. 
Prince Charles Joseph of Ligne (1735-1814), the eminent general and states- 
man, gives a long account in his letters of this estate with its park and 
gardens. Delille, in his poem ' Les Jardins," describes Beloeil as '•tout a 
la fois magnifique et champetre.^ The chateau contains numerous curiosities 
of artistic as well as historic interest ; a considerable library, with many 
rare MSS.; admirable pictures, including works attributed to Diirer, Hol- 
bein^ Van J)t/ck^ Velazquez, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angela, and Salva- 
tor Rosa, and also specimens of many modern artists ; relics (fragments 
of the "True Cross' and the 'Crown of Thorns'), and numerous gifts pre- 
sented to the family by emperors and kings, from Charles V. to Napoleon I, 
Admission to the chateau is rarely denied by the proprietor. 

Blaton is the junction for the lines to Leuze and Tournai (see p. 68), 
Piruwelz- Tournai (see p. 68), and St. Ghislain-Mons (p. 55). 

From Atu to St. Ghislain (p. 55), 14 M., railway in about I1/2 hr. 

Beyond Ath are several small stations at which the express does 

70 Route 11. HAL. 

not stop. From (44 M.") Bassily a branch-line diverges to Lessines 
(p. 69), Ellezelles (p. 33), and Rmaix (p. 55). 

50 M. Enghien, the next important place, a town with 3900 in- 
hab., many of whom are occupied in lace-making ('point de Paris'), 
is the junction of the line from Ghent to Braine-le-Comte and 
Charleroi (R. 20). The fine *Park of the Due d'Arenherg formerly 
contained the ancestral chateau of the Dues d'Enghieu, which was 
destroyed during the French Revolution. The old chapel, with its 
carved oaken door, contains a well-preserved triptych, ascribed to 
Mabuse. Adjacent is a Capuchin Convent^ the church of which con- 
tains the beautiful alabaster *Tomb of Guillaume de Croy, Arch- 
bishop of Toledo (d. 1521), richly adorned v^ith figures and or- 
naments in the style of the early Italian Renaissance. — Steam- 
tramway hence to (19V2 M.) Cureghem (p. 77). 

The train quits the province of Hainault and enters Brabant. 
53 M. Bierghes; 55 M. Saintes; 56 M. Brages-Bellingen. 

59 M. Hal (Cygne; Trois Fontaines; JJnivers), situated on the 
Senne and the canal of Charleroi, with 9000inhab., is celebrated 
throughout Belgium as a resort of pilgrims, on account of the mir- 
acle-working image of the Virgin in the church of *Notre Dame, a 
pure Gothic edifice, begun in 1341 and consecrated in 1409. 

The church possesses numerous costly treasures presented by Emp. 
Maximilian I., Charles V., Pope Julius II., Henry VIII. of England, the 
Burgundian Dukes, and the Spanish governors. The *High-alfar is a fine 
Renaissance work in alabaster, executed hy Jan Mone in 1533, with reliefs 
representing the seven Sacraments, statuettes of the four Evangelists and 
the four great Fathers of the Church, and a figure of St. Martin sharing 
his cloak with a beggar. The font, in bronze, was cast in 1446. A late- 
Gothic tabernaculum is also noteworthy. A monument in black marble, 
■with the figure of a sleeping child, is dedicated to the son of Louis XI., 
who died in 1400. Another chapel contains 33 cannon-balls , caught and 
rendered harmless by the robes of th« wonder-working image during a 
siege of the town. 

The Hotel de Ville, built in 1616, a slender three-storied brick 
building distinguished by its lofty roof, was successfully restored a 
short time ago. 

From Hal to Braine-le-Comte and Mons (Brussels and Paris railway), 
see R. 19. 

6OY2 M. Buysingen ; 62 M. Loth. The country traversed is hilly. 
The line runs for some distance parallel with the canal of Charleroi. 
64 M. Ruysbroeck was the birthplace in the 14th cent, of the mystic 
of that name. Near (66 M.) Forest the train crosses the winding 
Senne, which waters a rich pastoral district. The line intersects the 
Boulevards of Brussels, commanding a view of the Porte de Hal 
(p. 113) to the right, and soon stops at the Station du Midi. 

68 M. Brussels, see p. 72. 


Key to the Plan of Brussels. 

1. Abattoirs (Slaughter-houses) 

B3, F2 
Academic Eoyale des Scien- 
ces, des Lettres, et des Beaux 
Arts E4 

2. Bains Leopold D4 

Bain Royal E3 

3. Bains St. Sauveur . . . . D3 

4. Banque Xationale . . . . E3 

5. Bibliotheque Eovale (Eoyal 
Library) . . . " D4 

6. Bourse' de Commerce (Ex- 
change) C3 

7. Casernes (Barracks) C 1,2, E 3, C5 
9. Chapelle de TExpiation , or 

Ch. Salazar D4 

10. Colonne du Congres . . . E3 

11. Conservatoire Royal de Mu- 
sique D5 

12. Ecole vet^rinaire . . . . B5 

13. Eglise du Beguinage . . . C2 

14. — St. Boniface E6 

15. — Ste. Catherine . . . . C2 

— Ste. Gudule (cathedral) . E8 

16. — St. Jacques-sur-CaudenbergE 4 

17. — St. Jean et St-Etienne . D5 

18. — des Je'suites . . . F2, C4 

19. — St. Joseph F4 

20. — Ste. Marie de Schaerbeek F 1 

21. — St. Nicolas D3 

22. — Notre-Dame de Bon- 

Secours . C3, 4 

23. de la Chapelle . CD 4 

24. des Victoires . . D5 

25. EntrepotRoyalfCustomHouse)Cl 
Galerie St. Hubert (Passage) D3 

— du Commerce D2 

— du Nord D2 

Halles Centrales (Markets) . C3 
Hopital St. Jean (St. John's 
Hospital) E2 

30. Hotel du Gouvernement 

(Government Offices) CD4 

— de Ville (Town Hall) . . D3 
Jardin Botanique (Botanic 
Garden) E2 

34. Institut des Aveugles (Blind 
Asylum) C6 

35. Maison du Roi D 3 

36. Mannikin Fountain . . . . C4 
Marche Convert or Marche 

de la Madeleine (M. C.) . . D4 




Monument des Martyrs . . D2 

— of Counts Egmont and 
Hoorn D 5 

— of John Cockerill . . . F 6 
Musee des Armes, see Porte 

de Hal. 

Museum of Natural History G5 

— of Paintings (Picture 
Gallery) D4 

Musee Wiertz G6 

Palais du Due d'Arenberg . D5 

— des Beaux- Arts . . . DE4 

— de Justice (old) . . . . D4 
(new) . . . . C D 5 

— de la Nation (Legislative 
Assembly) E3 

— du Comte de Flandre 
(Crown-Prince) . . . DE4 

— des Academies . . . . E4 

— Royal E4 

Prison des Petits-Carmes . DE5 

Purte de Hal C6 

Post Office D2 

Station du Nord . . . .El 

— du Midi B5 

— du Quartier Leopold . . F5 

— de TAUde-Verte (Goods 

Station) D 1 

Statue of General Belliard . E4 

— of Godfrey of Bouillon . E4 

— of Leopold I F6 

— of Prince Charles of 
Lorraine, in the court of 
the Royal Library. 

— of the Astronomer 
Qnetelet, in front of the 
Acade'mie E4 

— of the Anatomist Vesalius, 
in the Place des Barri- 
cades F2 

Synagogue, New D5 

Telegraph, Central Office . El 
Theatre Royal de la Monnaie D 3 

— des Galeries St. Hubert . D3 

— du Pare E3,4 

— Moliere E5 

Alhambra D2 

Flemish Theatre Dl 

Cirque Eoyal E3 

University D4 

Vauxhall E3,4 


12. Brussels. French, Bruxelles. 

Arrival. There are three railway-stations at Brussels : 1. Station 
i>u IfoKD (PI. E, 1), for Ostend, Antwerp (and Holland), Louvain, Liege, 
and Germany. 2. Station du Midi (PI. B, 5), for Charleroi, Namur via Bau- 
lers, Braine-le-Comte, Tournai, and France (entrance by the ticket-office 
in the Rue Fonsny). 3. Station du Qoaktiku Lfioi'OLU or Gare du Lu- 
xembourg (PI. F, G, 5), for Ottignies, Namur, Givet (France), Luxembourg, 
Bale (and Germany); but most of the trains on this line also start from 
the Station du Nord. A fourth station (PI. C, D, 1) is used for goods- 
traffic only. The Chemin de Fer de Ceinture connects the several railway- 
lines, and also carries on a local traffic. — Cab with one horse from the 
station into the town 1 fr. ; trunk 15c., small articles free; the driver ex- 
pects an additional fee. Comp. p. 75. 

Hotels. Upper ijart of the Town, near the park : * *Bellevde (PI. a; 
E, 4), Place Royale 9, frequented by royalty and the noblesse, expensive, 
R. 4-lU, L. 1, A. 1, B. 2, dej. 5, D, 6, pens. 15. omn. I1/4 fr. j 'Hotel de 
FLANDftE (PI. b; E, 4), Place Royale, R., L., & A. 4-G, B. IV4, dej. 4, D. 5, 
pens, from 12'/2, omn. I'/i fr. ; these two under the same management 
(lift); *H6tel Mengelle (PI. d; E, 2), Rue Rovale 103, to the N. of the 
Colonne du Congres, R. 5-10, L. 1/2-I, A. 1, B. 1 '/a , dej. 3-4, D. 5, 'pens.' 
in summer from 12, in winter from lO'/a fr. (lift) ; *H6tel de l'Europe 
(PI. C-, D, E, 4), Place Royale; "Hotel de France (PI. e; E, 8, 4), Montagne 
du Pafc 6, R. 2V2-I2, L. 1, A. 1, B. IV4, B. 5, pens. 10-14 fr. ; Grand 
Hotel Britaxnique, Place du Trone 3 (PI. E, 5). behind the Royal Palace, 
R. 21/2-6, L. 3/^, A. 3/<, B. 11/2, dej. 3, D. 5, pens. 10-14 fr. All these hotels 
are good, well situated, and expensive. Table d'hote at 5, 5.30, or 6 p.m. 

Lower part 0/ the Town: *Grand Hotel de Bruxelles (PI. a; C, D, 3), 
Boulevard Anspach, a large establishment with about 4OO rooms, of which 
those opening on the glass-roofed court should be avoided; R. <fc A. from 4, 
L. 1, B. IV2, L>. at 6 p.m. 6 fr. ; cafe and restaurant on the ground-floor. — 
Hotel de SuSde (PI. h; D, 3), Rue de TEveque 29, R. from 3, L. 3/^-1, 
A. 3/4, B. IV2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens, from 10, omn. 1 fr. ; *H6tel de l^Uni- 
verS (PI. i ; D, 2), Rue Neuve 38-40 and Boulevard du Nord 7, R. 21/2-8, 
L. 3/4, A. 1, B. 11/2, dej. 3, D. 41/2, pens, from 10 fr., R. extra; -Hotel de 
l'Empereur (PI. k; D, 2), Rue Neuve 63, R. 3-10, A. 1, L. 3/^, B. I1/2, 
dej. 3, D. at 5.30 p.m. 4, pens, from 91/2 fr. ; *H6tel de Saxe (PI. 1; D, 
2), Rue Neuve 77-79, R. from 31/2, D. 4 fr. ; -Grand Hotel Central (PI. 
G, 3J, Place de la Bourse, opposite the Exchange, R., L., & A. 3-12, B. IV2, 
dej. 3, D. 4, pens, from 10 fr. (lift); Hotel de la Poste (PI. o; D, 3), Rue 
Fosse-aux-Loups 28, R. 21/2-3, L. 1, D. at 5.30 p.m. 31J2 fr. ; Rocher de 
Cancale, Rue Fosse'-aux-Loups 17-20 (PI. D, 3), R., L., 4: A. from 3, B. 11/4, 
D. 2-5, pens, from 6 fr., good cuisine (best known as a restaurant, see 
p. 73); Hotel Riienaxia (German), Eue Le'opold 6, E. 2-10 (mostly 5), 
A. 3/4, B. 11/2, dej. 3, D. at 6 o'cl. 4, pens, from 8 fr. — Grand Miroik 
(PI. s; D, 3). Rue de la Montagne 28, R., L., & A. 3V2-9, B. I1/4, dej. 21/2, 
I). 3, pens. lO, omn. 1 fr. ; Hotel du Grand Caf^, Rue des Eperonniers 
24-26 (PI. D, 3, 4) ; '^Hotel de Vienne (PI. u ; D, 3), Rue de la Fourche 24-26, 
R. 21/2-3, B. 11/4, D. 3 fr. — *HOtel de Bordeaux, Rue du Midi 135 fPl. C, 
4), R., L., <fe A. from 3, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 2V2, pens, from 8 fr. ; *Hotel de 
Cologne, Rue de la Fourche 17-20, R. 21/2-81/2, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 21/2 fr. ; 
Grand Monarque (PI. r ; D, 3), Rue des Fripiers 17, R. from 21/2, L. & 
A. 1, B. 1V4,"L>. 3fr. ; Hotel de la Campine, Marche aux Poulets 45 ; Hotel 
Royal j Boulevard du Hainaut 87, R. from II/2 fr., no table d'hote. — 
Near Uie Slation du Nord: Grand Hotel Geknay, Boiilevard du Jardin 
Botanique 13, R., L., & A. from 3, B. 1, dtj.21/2, D. 3, pens. 7 fr. ; Hotel- 
Caf£ des Boulevards, Place des Nations 1; Hotel de Bavi£re, R., L., 
& A. 21/2-3, B. Ifr.. with restaurant; Hotel du Rhin, Rue de Brabant 14, 
R., L., <fc A. 11/2-21/2, B. 3/4, D. 11/2-21/2, pens. 6 fr. ; these two German. — 
Near the Station du 3Iidi : Hotel des Acacias, de Calais, de l'Esp£rance 
(good restaurant), de la Terrasse (restaurant), and others. — Some of 
the Tavernes mentioned on p. 73 contain cheap and comfortable rooms 
for genllemen. 






" ', "r'^^ltjSi 

BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 73 

A number of Pensions like those in Switzerland Lave also recently 
sprung up: S. Btrnard, Rue Belliard 50-, Wiltchers Family Hotel, Boul. 
de Waterloo 23 ('pens.'' 8-11 fr. per day); JIUe. Van Loo, Rue Keyenfeld 1 ; 
O. Janssens, Rue de Vienne 26; Hoffmann^ Rue Montoyer 51-53; Mme. 
Gachet, Rue Candy 10; 2fine. Stewart, Rue de la Concorde 61, Avenue 
Louise; Mnie. ffetighebaert, Rue Berckmans 114; Mme. van Pievoet, Rue 
Stassart 86; Verbeecf:, B(.ul. de Waterloo 62 (6-10 fr. per day); Toussaint, 
Rue de FEsplanade i'6 ; Kremer, Rue du Trone 15 ; Hermann, Place des 
Martyrs and Rue des Oeillets 2. — Furnished Apartments. Mrs. Mathys, 
Rue'du Prince Royal 42; Mrs. Huntley., Rue de la Science 1; Mr. Toelle, 
Rue de Staasart 84; Mme. Dievoort, Rue de Stassart 82; also at Avenue 
JIarnix 11. 

Restaurants. ~Fr^res ProvengavT, Rue Royale 40, by the park, D. from 
5 to 7.30 p.m. 5 fr., cheapest wine 3 fr. per bottle, beefsteak 3 fr. ; ^Mengelle, 
see p. 72; "Sevin (neveu Perrin), Rue Fossc-aux-Loups 35, to the N. of the 
theatre ; 'Caft Riche, Rue de lEcuyer 23, corner of the Rue de la Fourche, 
D. from 5 fr., patronised by the Brussels 'Jeunesse doree' ; 'Restaurant du 
Grand Hdtel, Boul. Anspach, sometimes overcrowded; ''Rocher de Cancale, 
see p. 72. All these are elegantly fitted up , and resemble the leading 
restaurants of Paris. The viands and wine are excellent, but expensive. 
The portions are generally ample, so that one is enough for two persons. 

Next in order to the above houses come the Cafes-Restaurants and 
Tavernes, at which the cuisine is somewhat less elaborate and the charges 
correspondingly lower. Between 11 a.m. and 1-2 p.m. (dejeuner) and 
between 5 and 7 p.m. (dinner) a choice of three or four dishes (plats 
du Jour) may always be obtained; the charges are dej. V4-IV4 fr-, l^- 1- 
IV2 fr. ; soup or cheese (English, Dutch, or 'Gruyere') 40-50 c. extra. 
Dinners a prix fixe., 2-5 fr., may also be oY)tained in many of these houses. 
Waiter 15-20 c. The usual beverage is English ale or stout or Belgian 
or German beer. The lirst is best obtained in the Tavernes of the upper 
town and in other houses with English names (30 c. per half-pint), while 
the last (30-40 c. per glass) is found chielly in the cafes of the lower town. 
The following are the most conveniently-situated of these establishments. 
In the Uppek Town: -Taverne du Globe ^ ''Taverne de la Rigence , both 
in the Place Royale; Taverne Guillaume, Rue du Musee 20; Taverne Fon- 
taine, Rue duJIuseelO; Taverne Leopold, Rue du Commerce 66. — In the 
Lower Town, near the Place de la Monnaie : Ca/e du C'ercle, Rue Leopold 3 
and Rue de lEcuyer 24; Cafi de la Monnaie, Rue Leopold 7; Taverne de 
Londres, Rue de TEcuyer 15-17; Taverne Alexis d; Legrand, Rue de TEcuyer 
45; Taverne Royale, Passage St. Hubert, Galerie du Roi, and Rue d'Aren- 
berg; Grande Taverne Allemande, Rue des Bouchers 27 (Pi.. 21/2 fr.); Taverne 
St. Jean, Rue St. Jean, to the W. of the JHontagne de la Cour and Boul. 
Anspach 44. — In or near the Boulevard Anspach: 'Restaurant Jean Dubois, 
Rue de la Bourse 12; Pare aux Huitres, Boul. Anspach 29; Restaurant de 
la Bourse, at the back of the Exchange; "Au Filet de Sole, Rue Gretry 1. 
near the Halles Centrales ; Restaurant Dtivivier, Boulevard du Nord 116 
(with garden). — The following is somewhat inconveniently situated : Du- 
ranton. Avenue Louise 82, on the way to the Bois de la Cambre. 

The following are good Eating Houses in the side-streets to the N.E. 
of the Place de I'Hotel de Ville, chiefly frequented by natives: Au Gigot 
de Mouton, Au Filet de Boeuf, Rue des Harengs; A la Faille Dechirie, 
Rue Chair et Pain. Oysters, steaks, and chops are their strong points^; wine 
is .usually drunk, but beer may also be obtained. 

Beer Houses. English Ale and Stout: Prince of Wales, Rue Villa 
Hermosa 8, first cross-street to the right in descending the Montagne de 
la Cour (rooms to let); Old Tom Tavern, Rue des Princes, Place de la Mon- 
naie. — German Beer: Taverne de Munich, Rue de la Madeleine 60 (with 
garden); Tav. Jean, Impasse du Pare (PI. E, 3); Trois Suisses, Rue des 
Princes ; Augustinerbrdu, R,ue des Princes 18 (Hotel Rhenania), near the 
Place de la Monnaie; Tav. Bass, Boul. Anspach 8; Tav. Clarenbach, 
Galerie de la Poste; Tav. Joseph, Boulevard Anspach 52, near the Exchange ; 
Brasserie Pschorr, Boul. Anapach 64 ; Happel, at the corner of the Marche 
aux Poulets, to the N. of the Exchange; Tav. Victoria, Rue des Fripiers 14; 

74 Route 12, BRUSSELS. Post Office. 

Tav. du Ddme, Galerie du Commerce 53, with garden; and many others. 

— Belgian Beer, brewed in the German manner and called Munich or Bock 
J3 sold in many cat'e-restaurants , such as the Ca/6 Mitropole and the 
Ancien HOUl Continental^ both iu the Place de Brouckere (PI. D, 2). The 
ordinary Belgian beer (Faro, Louvain^ Lanibicq, Ui/zet, Bock National) is 
largely consumed by the natives, but will probably be found unpalatable 
by strangers. The Estaminets, or beer-houses, are very numerous. 

Wine Rooms. Rhine wine and 31oselle: Bue Henri Maus 29, next door 
to the Exchange; Moselhduschen, Eue de la Eeine 15, next the Mint. — 
Italian wine : F. Cirio, Rue de la Bourse 18, 2U. — Block''s Universal Wine 
Co., Rue Paul Devaux 6; Continental Bodega Co., Rue de Louvain 2, in 
the Passage (Galerie du Roi 28j, and Rue de Jvamur 2. — Wine may be 
obtained by the glass or by the bottle in these establishments. 

Cafes are very numerous and generally good (coffee 30 c, beer 30-35 c, 
ices 70 c). "Mille Colotmes, in the Place de la Blonnaie; "Cafi du Grand 
Hdtel, Boulevard Anspach 23, to the N. of the Exchange; '■Sesino, Boul. 
Anspach 3; Cafi Central, in the Hotel Central, see p. 72; Cafi des Tem- 
pliers, Place de la Bourse; Ca/6 Teniers, Boulevard Anspach 83, with 
large billiard-room ; Ca/e Monico, Rue d'Arenberg 1. — Ices at the cales, 
and also at the following confectioners: Brias & Co., Rue Cantersteen b 
(PI. D, 4); Maihis, Rue Treurenberg 25 (at these two 50c. per portion); 
Marchal, Rue de TEcuyerSO; Brockaert^ Rue de I'Ecuyer 33. 

Baths. Bain Royal (Pl.F,3j, Rue de lEnseignement tj2 (cold and swim- 
ming baths) and Rue du Moniteur 10-12 (warm baths, 1 fr. 20 c. to 2 fr.) ; Bains 
St. JSauveur (PI. 3; D, 3), Montague aux Herbes Potageres 33; Bains Leo- 
pold (PI. 2; D, 4), Rue des Trois Tetes 8, both with good swimming 
basins (1 fr.). Open-air Swimming Baths, Eue de la Glaciere 8, St. Gilles. 

Shops. The best are in the Rue de la Madeleine and Montague de la 
Cour, the principal streets leading from the upper to the lower part of 
the city; also in the Rue Neuve, the Passages, and Boul. Anspach. 

— Money Changers in the Montagne de la Cour (No. 81), Marche aux 
Herbes, Rue des Fripiers, etc. 

Brussels Lace. The following are the most important houses for this 
speciality : Verde-Delisle d; Co. (Conipagnie des Indes), Rue de la Regence 1 ; 
Baimeries-Petitjean, Rue Royale 2 ; Bdval-De Beck, Rue Royale 74 ; Miiser «& Co., 
Boulevard de la Senne 44; Baert d- Co., Place des Martyrs 22; Be Vergnies 
d- Soeurs, Rue des Paroissiens 26 ; Sacri, Place des Martyrs 20; Buchholtz, 
Rue Leopold 3; Duden, Rue Neuve 120; Yoss-Michel, Galerie de la Reine 8, 
Rue Neuve 84, and Rue de la Madeleine 10; Schuermans, Rue des Cendres 8; 
F. Kau/mann, Passage (Galerie du Roi 3); Stern d- Co., Rue de la Chan- 
cellerie 21. The recommendations of commissionaires and other touts 
should be disregarded, as they are rarely disinterested. — The lace is 
less expensive than formerly, as the flowers or 'sprigs' are now sewn 
upon a ground of tulle instead of one made by hand. The flowers are 
either manufactured with the bobbin (Jleurs en plat) or with the needle 
(Jleurs en point). About 130,000 women are employed in this manufacture 
in Belgium, and the value of their work is about 50 million fr. annually. 

Booksellers. Office de Publicity (Lebegue & Co.), Rue de la Madeleine 4(3; 
Kiessling d- Co., with lending library, Montagne de la Cour 72; Muquardt, 
Rue des Paroissiens 20; Spineux, Montagne de la Cour 86. — Engravings: 
Giruzet, Rue de TEcuyer 27 B; Leroy d' Fits, Montagne de la Cour 83; 
Dietrich d- Co., Montagne de la Cour 75. — The Belgian News is an Eng- 
lish newspaper published weekly at Brussels; office. Rue du Pepin 17. 

Post Office. The central office (PI. D, 2) is now in the old 
Augustine Church, Boulevard Anspach; open from 5 a.m. to 8 p.m. There 
are also numerous branch-offices, open from 7. a. m. to 7 p.m., all with 
telegraph-offices: at the railway-stations. Place de la Chancellerie 1, Rue 
de Louvain (Palais de la Nation), Avenue de rAstronomie 27, Boulevard 
de Waterloo 9, Place de la Chapelle G, etc. Pillar letter-boxes in all the 
principal streets. 

Telegraph Office. Central office (PI. 64; E, 1) at the Station du Nord, 
Rue de Brabant; 'succursales' at the post-offices (see above). 

International Intelligence Office, Rue Royalel (Hotel Bellevue), for se- 

Cabs. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 75 

curingrailway-ticketsandsleeping-carriages, forwarding luggage, etc.— Cooi'* 
Tourist 0/jice, Rue de la Madeleine 41. — Office des Voyages^ Boul. Ans- 
pach 41. — Agence det Eiranger* (for lodgings, etc.), Boulevard de la 
Senne 12. 

Cabs (Voitures de Place). The following is the tarift' of the Brussels 
municipal district for one-horse cabs, holding 1-3 persons. There is no 
lixed tariff for the two-horse cabs. — From 6 (in winter 7) a.m. till 
midnight, for 72 hr. 1 fr., for each V* It. additional 50 c. From mid- 
night to 6 or 7 a.m.. for 1/2 hr. 2 fr., each V* hr. additional 1 fr. 

Trunk 15 c, small luggage free. Gratuity of 10-25 c. to the driver 
usual. This tariff includes drives in the Boia de la Cambre and the Park 
of Laeken, provided the hirer returns to town in the same cab. If not, 
1 fr. extra is paid as return-money. 

The fares of the ' Yoituves de Grande Remise*., superior vehicles, with 
coachmen in livery, are higher. 

Tramway (Cheiiiin de Fer AmAricain). Brussels possesses a very 
complete network of tramways, which are marked in the Plan. The cars 
run every 10 or 20 min. ; fares 10-60 c. according to the distance traversed i 
5 c. extra in the hinder part (1st cl.j of the cars. 

1. From Schaerbeek (PI. F, 1) through the Hue Roi/ale, and then 
either across the Place des Palais and through the Boulevard de Waterloo 
(yellow name-boards and yellow lamp in front, green behind), or through 
the Rue de la R4gence (red boards and red lamp in front, green behind), 
to the Avenue Louise (PI. D, 6) and the Bois de la Cambre. 

2. From the Station du Nord by the Upper Boulevards (PI. E, F, 2-5) 
to the Station du Midi (red lamp in front, green behind). 

3. From the Station du Nord to the Station du Midi by the Lower 
Boulevards (PI. C, B, 1-6). 

4. From Laeken through the Hue du Progres to the Station du Nord 
and by the Inner Boulevards (PI. D, C, 1-0) to the Station du Midi (white 
boards and green lamps). 

5. From the Rue du Pavilion in Schaerbeek to the Station du Nord 
and via the Inner Boulevards to the Station du Midi and St. Gilles (black 
boards and yellow lamps). 

6. From the Place Liedts in Schaerbeek to the Station du Nord (PI. E, 1) 
and via the Inner Boulevards to the Station du Midi and Forest (yellow 
boards, red lamps). 

7. From Laeken by the Chaussee d'Anvers, Rue de Laeken, Rue van 
Artevelde, and Chaussee de Mons to Cureghem and Anderlecht. 

8. From the Impasse du Pare (PI. E, 3) through the Rue de la Loi to 
the Palais du Cinquantenaire (beyond PI. G, 4). 

9. From the Place Royale (PI. E, 4) through the Rue Belliard to the 
Pare Leopold (PI. G, 5). 

10. From the Place Royale through the Rue de la Re'gence, Avenue 
Louise, Chaussee de Charleroi, and Avenue Brugman to Uccle (PI. D, 6). 

11. From the Place Royale via the Place du Trone (PI. E, 5) to the 
Place du Luxembourg (PI. F, 6). 

12. From the Exchange (PI. C, 4) via the Place Ste. Gudule and Place 
du Congres to the Place St. Josse-ten-Noode (PI. C-G, 3), every 10 min. 
(•tramway deraillable', with five-wheeled cars). 

Omnibus from the Exchange via the Place Royale and the Porte de 
Namur to Ixelles (PI. 0, 3, 4; D, 4; E, 5; F, 6), every V2 hr. 

Steam Tramway. 1. From the Place St. Josse (PI. G, 3) to the Central 
Cemetery at Evere and from the Porte de Na7nur, at the beginning of the 
Rue de Namur (PI- E, 5), to the Bois de la Cambre, and thence to the 
race-course at Boitsfort (p. 191) , either by the Chaussee dixelles, or the 
Chaussee de Wavre. — 2. From the Egl'ise Ste. Marie (PI. F, 1) via the 
Place St. Josse and the Chaussee d'Etterbeck (Pare Le'opold) to the Bois 
de la Cambre, 

Theatres. TM&tre Royal de la Monnaie (PI. D, 3), Place de la Mon- 
naie, for operas only; open almost every day in autumn, winter, 
and spring. Performances begin at 7, and last till 11 or later. Fauteuils 
d'orchestre and premieres loges 6 fr. ; balcon (reserved seats in front of 

7G Route 12, BRUSSELS. Collections. 

the best boxes) and secondes loges 5 fr. ; parquet (between the stalls and 
pit) and secondes loges, at the side, 4 fr.; troisi^mes loges and parterre 
(pit) 2 fr. ; seats previously secured ('en location") cost V2-I fr. each ad- 
ditional; bureau de location open daily 12-3 o'clock. — Thidire Royal du 
Pare (PI. 67; E, 3, 4) , built in 1782, comedies, vaudevilles, dramas ; best 
seats 5 fr. — Thidire des Oaleries St. Hubert (PI. 06, D, 3; operas, dramas, 
comedies, vaudevilles), in the Passage of that name (p. 107), with accommo- 
dation for 15UU spectators; best boxes 5 fr. — Theatre Moliere (PI. 68; E, 
5), Rue du Bastion, for dramas and vaudevilles; best seats 5 fr. — Thidtre 
Flamand or Vlaamsche Schouwhurg (PI. 72; D, 1), Rue de Laeken 124 A ; 
best seats 2i/2 fr. — Thidtre du Vaudeville., in the Passage (Galerie de la 
Reine 15), comedies and broad farces ; best seats 3 fr. — Alhambra (PI. 71 ; 
1) 2), Boulevard de la Senne 18, operettas , spectacular pieces ; best seats 
6 fr. — Circus (Pi. 73; E, 3), Rue de rEuseignement. 

Concerts in winter in the Conservatoire de Musique (PI. 11; D, 5), 
Rue de la Regence, at the corner of the Petit-Sablon, given by the mem- 
bers of the Conservatoire Royal de Musique; admission 1-3 fr. — 'Concerts 
populaires et classiques' generally twice a month, on Sundays at 1 p.m., 
in the The'atre de la Monnaie (p. 77). — Open-air concerts in the Park 
daily in summer (1st May to 30th September) 3-4.30 p.m. ; at the Vauxhall 
(PI. E, 3, 4), at the N.E. corner of the Park, concert by the orchestra of 
the royal theatre at 8 p.m. (1 fr.); military band on Sun. and Thnrs. after- 
noons in the Bois de la Cambre. 

Popular Festivals. 'Kermesse' from the middle of July to the middle 
of August, and the anniversary of the Revolution ('fetes nationales') on 
July 21st, and the preceding or following days, on which occasions Fle- 
mish merriment becomes somewhat boisterous. — Horse Races., several 
times annually, at the Hippodrome, on the road to Boitsfort (see p. 115). 

Embassies. American Minister, Hon. E. H. Terrell., Rue Belliard 43 ; 
Consul, Col. G. W. Roosevelt, Buul. de Waterloo 75. — British Envoy, 
Lord Vivian, Rue de Spa 2; Vice-Consul, T. E. Jeffcs, Esq.; Pro-Consul, 
IK. E. Sergeant, Esq., Rue d'Edimbourg 35. 

English Physicians. Dr. CoUignon, Rue des Chevaliers 24; Dr. Thom- 
son, Rue d'Egmout 14. — Dentist, Dr. George Fay, Rue Joseph 23. — 
Chemists. Delucre, Montague de laCour 80 ; Delchevalerie, Rue de Namur 74. 

English Bankers. Messrs. Big wood d- Morgan, Rue Royale 16; Suf- 
feld & Co., Montagne de la Cour 81. — Solicitors. T. E. Jeffes, Esq., Bue 
d'Edimbourg 35; A. F. Chamberlayne, Esq., Rue Souveraine 91, Avenue 

British Institute and Home for Governesses and Servants, Rue de 
Vienne 2G (resident honorary secretaries, Mrs. C. E. Jenkins and Miss Young). 
— British Charitable Fund, established 1815; Hon. Sec, Rue de la Loi 82. 

English Club, 20 line du Musee. 

Brussels Cricket it Lawn Tennis Club, Avenue de Longchamp (tramway). 

English Church Service at the Church of the Resurrection, Rue Stassart 
(PI. E, 6; services at 8.30, 11, 4, and 7; chaplain, Rev. John C. Jenkins, 
M. A.); at Christchurch, Rue Crespel, Avenue de la Toison d'Or (11 a.m. 
and 7 p.m.; chaplain. Rev. IF. R. Stephens, M. A.); and at the Protestant 
Church in the Rue Belliard (12 noon and 4 p.m.; chaplain. Rev. A. K. 
Harlock, M. A.), French Protestant services in the last-named church, in 
the Chapelle du Boulevard de rObservatoire, and in the Chapelle du 
Musee. German Protestant services also in the last-named. Flemish Pro- 
testant service at Rue Blaes 70. — Synagogue, Rue de la Rdgence, see p. 103. 

Collections, Museums, etc. : — Armour at the Porte de Hal (p. 113), 
daily 10-4, Mon. 1-4. 

Bibliothhque Royale (p. 88). daily 10-3. 

Botanical Garden (p. Ill), daily till dusk; admission to the hot-houses 
by payment of a fee, 10-12 and 2-4 (not on Sundays). 

Exchange ip. 109), daily; business-hours 1-3 p.m., corn-exchange later. 

Hdtel de Ville (p. 105); interior best seen before 9 a.m. or after 4 p.m. 

Musie d'Art Monumental et Jndnstriel, in the Palais du Cinquantenaire 
(p. 82), daily 10-4, in winter 10-3. 

Musee Communal (p. 106), daily 10-4. 

History. BRUSSELS. V2. Route, 77 

Musde Wiertz (p. 112), daily 10-4. 

Natural Historv Colleciion (p. 112), daily 10-3. 

Palais des Academies (frescoes in the hall; p. 81), daily, 50c. 

Palais Arenberg (picture-gallery, p. 102), shown on week-days, 10-4, 
in the absence of the Duke (strangers are sometimes admitted when the 
Duke is at home on sending in their cards); fee 2 fr. 

Palais Royal (p. 80), shown in absence of the King only, and by 
special permission of the 'marechal du palais", or minister of the household. 

Picture Gallerii (p. 89, 94), daily 10 to 3, 4, or 5 ; on the Ist and 3rd 
Mon. of each month the modern pictures are not shown before 12 noon. 

Pictures^ see also ^lusee Wiertz, Palais Arenberg, Palais Ducal. 

Principal Attractions : Park (p. SO) and its environs •, Congress Column 
(p. 85); Cathedral (p. 85); Museum (p. 89); Palais de Justice (p. 103); 
Market-place and Hotel de Ville (p. 105); Maison du Roi and Muse'e Com- 
munal (p. 106); Mannikin Fountain (p. 107); the new Boulevards and Ex- 
change (p. 109); Galerie St. Hubert (p. 107), in the evening by gas-light; 
Musee Wiertz (p. 112); Palais du Cinquantenaire (p. 81); Drive in the 
Bois de la Camhre (p. 115). 

Brussels, the capital of Belgium, the residence of the royal 
family, and the seat of government, is situated nearly in the centre 
of the kingdom, on the Serine, a small tributary of the Schelde. The 
city consists of the lower part on the N.W. side, traversed by several 
canals and ramifications of the Sonne , most of which are now 
vaulted over, and the upper part on the S.E. side, covering the slope 
which gradually rises from the river. In 1887 the population was 
177,523, or including the ten suburbs (named from the N. towards 
the E., Schaerbeek, St. Josse-ten-Noode, Etterbeek, Ixelles, St. Gilles, 
Cureghem, Anderlecht, Koekelberg, Molenbeek-St-Jean, Laefcen) about 
450,000. There are nearly 2000 English residents. Most of 
the latter reside in or near the Quart ier Leopold (p. 112), the 
highest and pleasantest part of the town. The commerce of Brussels 
is comparatively small in extent, but its manufactures of lace 
(p. 74), furniture, bronzes, carriages, and leather articles are very 

The chronicles of the 8th cent, make mention of a village named 
'Brucsella' (broek, marsh ; broeksele, dwelling on the marsh), and a 
document of Otho the Great proves that there was a church here in 
966. In the 11th cent, the town was considerably extended and 
surrounded by walls, and soon became an important station on the 
great commercial route between Bruges and Cologne. The princes 
and nobility erected their mansions on the heights rising gradually 
from the Senne, among them the Counts of Louvain, the sovereign 
lords of the country, who afterwards assumed the title of Dukes of 
Brabant (12th cent.). The Burgundian princes, who subsequently 
resided here (15th cent.), were generally surrounded by a large re- 
tinue of French knights, in consequence of which, even at that period, 
French became the most fashionable language among the nobility of 
the Netherlands. The character of the city and its inhabitants thus 
gradually developed itself, the court and the nobility, with their 
French language and manners, being established in the upper part, 
while the lower quarters were chiefly occupied by the trading com- 

78 Route 12. BRUSSELS. HUtory of Art, 

munity and the lower classes, whose language and character were 
essentially Flemish. 

After the Netherlands passed into the possession of the Haps- 
burgs in 1477, Brussels became the seat of a brilliant court, which 
attained the height of its magnificence under Charles V. Philip II. 
made it the official residence of the Stadtholder of the Netherlands, 
and Margaret of Parma (p. xvii} here performed the duties of that office. 
Brussels was the scene of the first rising of the Netherlands against 
the Spanish dominion (1566; see p. 103), but at the end of the 
protracted conflict the city remained in the hands of the Spaniards. 
During the wars of Louis XIY. and Louis XV. Brussels had much 
to suffer. Its refractoriness under the galling yoke of the Austrian 
governors was another source of disaster (see p. 106), but a better 
state of affairs was introduced by the mild rule of Maria Theresa 
and her stadtholder, Duke Charles of Lorraine (1741-80). After the 
wars of the French Republic and the First Empire , Belgium was 
united in one monarchy with Holland, and Brussels alternated with 
the Hague as the seat of the States General and the residence of 
the king. The revolution which ended in the separation of Belgium 
and Holland broke out at Brussels in 1830 ; and on July 21st of the 
following year, the new King of Belgium, Leopold of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha, entered the city in state. At that time Brussels contained 
about 100,000 inhabitants. 

The half-French half-Flemish character of the city, of which we 
have spoken above, is still recognisable at the present day. The 
upper part of the city, which was rebuilt after a great conflagration in 
1731, contains the Royal Palace, the ministerial offices, the embassies, 
and the mansions of the nobility and gentry. The well-known ball 
given by the Duchess of Richmond on the eve of the Battle of Water- 
loo took place in the house in the Rue Royale nearest to the former 
Porte de Schaerbeek. The lower town, on the other hand, is devoted 
almost entirely to industry and commerce. The spacious market- 
place, with the magnificent Hotel de Ville and the mediaeval guild- 
houses, presents a very striking picture, and affords an idea of the 
ancient glory of the city, but the advance of modern improvement 
has left few other relics of antiquity. The most conspicuous step 
in this direction has been the construction of the Inner Boulevards. 

Sketch of Art in Brussels. During the <wo golden ages of Flemish 
art in the i5th and again in the i7th cent., Brussels held a subordinate 
position, when compared with other Belgian towns, such as Ghent, Bruges, 
and Antwerp; but the appointment of Roger van der Weyden the Elder 
to the office of civic painter in 1436 (p. xli) is sufficient proof that art 
was not neglected here. The prosecution of the fine arts, as indeed that 
of liberal pursuits in general, fell entirely into abeyance in the 18th 
century. The name of Brussels, however, again became known in con- 
nection with painting after the year 1815, when Jacqves-Louis David, the 
famous head of the modern French school, banished from Paris as a re- 
gicide, took up his abode here. David was too old to found a new school, 
but it was owing to his influence that the classical style remained longer 
dominant in Brussels than in other Belgian art-centres. Navez, Portaels, 
and Mathieu, who flourished here during the third and fourth decades of 

History of Art. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 79 

the present century, are good representatives of the correct and careful, 
though at the same time cold and lifeless style which then prevailed at 
Brussels, particularly in the domains of sacred art. 

In the remarkable revolution in taste and practice which took place 
in Belgium after 1830, Brussels took little part, the movement being 
headed by Antwerp. The political importance and wealth of the city, 
however, have assembled here the chief colony of artists in Belgium, 
though it is impossible to class them together as forming a school. 

The most distinguished names about 1840-50 are those of Louis Gal- 
lait (1810-87; p. 60) and Edouard di Bilfve (1808-82), whose 'Ab- 
dication of Charles V (p. 90) and 'Compromise of the Belgian Xo- 
bles' (p. 92) won them ardent admirers far beyond the confines of 
Belgium. Gallait in particular cultivated a careful naturalism, coupled 
with the utmost attention to details, in which, however, he still fell far 
short of the technical skill of the present day. The fact of their having 
given expression to national ideas, and celebrated the praises of Egmont 
in particular, has contributed not a little to the popularity of both these 
masters. At one period Gallait was very partial to a kind of sentimental 
style, which in some cases degenerated into the melodramatic. In a 
later generation the following have acquired eminence as historical and 
genre painters: Slingeneyer. Markelbach., Wulffaert (a pupil of Gallait), 
De Vriendt, Madou (d. 1877), and Slallaert. Emile Wauters is the most 
distinguished living painter who can be said to belong to a properly in- 
digenous school. The French influence, which has already submerged 
the national literature, promises gradually to supersede the national art 
as well. This is shown by the increasing resort of Belgian artists to 
Parisian studios, by their not unfrequent migrations to Paris, and lastly 
and mainly by their ready acceptance of the traditions observed by Pa- 
risian artists since the time of the Second Empire. Leading represen- 
tatives of this French element on Belgian soil are the genre painters Al- 
fred Stevens and Willems, the first of whom in particular is more at home 
in Paris than in his native country. 

Another style, marked by its correct drawing, and resembling the Ger- 
man school, is exemplified by G. Guff ens and Jai Swerts, who made many 
conjoint efforts to naturalise fresco-painting in Belgium (Antwerp, p. 154 ; 
Ypres, p. 29 ; Courtrai, p. 56). — As a specialist may be mentioned the 
animal-painter E. Vet'boeckhoven, with whom the names of Robbe and 
Tschaggeny may be coupled. In landscape-painting Belgium has no con- 
temporary artists comparable to those of Holland. 

The eccentric painter Wiertz^ nearly all of whose works are collected 
and preserved in a gallery of their own (p. 112), occupies a perfectly unique 
position. Although naturally quite capable of acquiring the technical 
skill of Eubens . to which indeed he in some measure attained, Wiertz 
was unfortunately led by personal disappointment and literary quarrels to 
embark on an entirely mistaken career, bordering on madness. 

The art ofScuLPxcEE is pursued at Brussels with great success, as is 
proved by such names as Eug. Simonis , A. Fraikin, Jehotte, and W. and 
/. Geefs. Still happier results have been attained by sculptors of ecclesias- 
tical subjects, and particularly in wood-carving, in which Belgium has 
regained some of its 17th cent.' reputation. Its chief seats are Brussels and 
Louvain, and its most eminent masters Geerts and the brothers Goyers. 
The works of this school are so frequent in new and restored churches, 
that it is superfluous to adduce examples here. 

In Aechitectuee the Gallic proclivities of the people are shown by 
the overwhelming number of houses in the so-called French Renaissance 
style (from Louis XIII. to Louis XVI.) which have sprung up within the 
last few years and completely altered the appearance of the old Brabant 
capital. It must be mentioned on the other hand that the Flemish Re- 
naissance style of the 16th cent, has also become extremely popular, and 
has been followed not only in private houses, in which the most striking 
feature is the small proportion borne by the breadth to the height, but 
also in various public edifices. 

80 Route 1 -J. BRUSSELS. Palais Royal. 

The *Park (PI. E, 4), situated in the centre of the upper part 
of the town, originally the garden of the Dukes of Brabant, and laid 
out in its present form in 1774, is an attractive spot, although of 
limited extent (500 yds. in length, 300 yds. in width"). Among the 
sculptures it contains are a Diana and Narcissus, at the fountain 
opposite the Palais de la Nation, both by Grupello ; a Magdalene 
by Duquesnoy ; a bust of Peter the Great, presented to the city by 
Prince Demidoff ; two figures of Meleager by Lejeune ; and a Venus 
by Olivier. The groups at the entrance opposite the Palace, by 
Poelaert and Melot, represent Summer and Spring. The park is a 
fashionable resort in summer on Sundays from 1 to 2.30 p.m., and 
on week-days from 3 to 4.30 p.m., when a military band plays. 
There is also music here on most summer-evenings at 8 o'clock (at 
the Vauxhall, p. 76). The park is closed about an hour after dusk, 
when a bell is rung to apprise visitors of the shutting of the gates. 
During the eventful 23rd-26th of September, 1830, the park was one 
of the chief scenes of the conflict. Prince Frederick of the Nether- 
lands entered Brussels with an army of 10,000 men on the 23rd, 
and occupied the palace and park. He was, however, unable to 
pass the barricades which guarded the streets, and evacuated the 
park on the night of the 26th. 

The streets surrounding the park, the Rue Royale^ Rue Ducale, 
Rue de la Loi, and Place des Palais, together with the adjoining 
Place Royale, received their present architectural character at the 
time of the formation of the park (last quarter of the 18th cent.), 
having been mainly designed by the talented architect Guimard. 
The Rub Royalb, which bounds the park on the W., runs along 
the margin of the eminence on which the upper town is situated. 
As in other streets in this quarter, the traffic is comparatively in- 
significant, though several attractive shops have recently been 
opened here. On the W. the row of houses is often broken by small 
terraces, intended by Guimard to afford views of the lower town, 
but many of them have unfortunately been built up. On the first of 
these terraces rises the marble Statue of Count Belliard (PI. 59 ; 
E, 4), a French general (d. 1832), who was ambassador at the 
newly-constituted court of Belgium in 1831-32, by W. Geefs. 

The Palais Royal (PI. E,4), in the Place des Palais, origi- 
nally consisted of two buildings erected during last century, which 
were connected by an intervening structure adorned with a Corin- 
thian colonnade in 1827. It is at present being entirely remodelled 
from designs by Balat, and two new wings projecting into the royal 
gardens at the back have lately been completed. The interior (adm. , 
see p. 77) contains a number of apartments handsomely fitted up, 
and a considerable number of ancient and modern pictures. 
Among the former are specimens of Rubens, Van Dyck, Hob- 
hema, and Frans Hals ; among the latter are works of De Braekeleer, 
Coomans, Gallait, Verboeckhoven, and Wappers. A flag hoisted on 
the palace announces the presence of the king. 

Palais de la Nation. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 81 

Near the Royal Palace, at the corner of the Rue Ducale, is 
situated the Palais Ducal, or Palais des Academies (PL E, 4), 
formerly that of the Prince of Orange. It was erected at the national 
expense, and presented to the Prince, afterwards King William XL 
of Holland (d. 1849), in 1829. Since 1842 it has been the property 
of the Belgian government. The building has been occupied since 
1877 by the AcadSmie Royale des Lettres, Beaux-Arts, et Sciences, 
and the Academic Royale de Medecine. 

The Gkande Salle on the first floor, a very handsome room, has been 
decorated by Slingeneyer with twelve finely- executed mural paintings, 
representing the most important events in the political and social history 
of Belgium. 1. The ancient Belgians under Ambiorix swearing to deliver 
their country from the Roman yoke, B.C. 54; 2. Clovis at the battle of 
Ziilpich, vowing to introduce Christianity, A.D. 496; 3. Influence of Char- 
lemagne : the Emperor in the school of Heristal , 768-814 ; 4. The cul- 
minating period of chivalry : Godfrey de Bouillon visiting the Holy Se- 
pulchre after the conquest of Jerusalem , 1099 ; 4. Culminating period of 
civic prosperity : Jacques Van Artevelde advising the Flemish towns to 
remain neutral in the wars between France and England, 1337 ; 6. Cul- 
minating period of the power of the guilds : Anneessens (p. 105), the 
energetic defender of the rights of the guilds against the Austrian supre- 
macy, before his execution, 1719 ; 7. Establishment of the present reigning 
family, 1831 ; 8. The fine arts : Albert and Isabella of Austria, after their 
entry into Louvain, attend the historical teaching of Justus Lipsius ; 
9. Music: Willaert, Clement, Lassus,Gretry, etc. ; 10. Ancient art : Philippe 
le Bon of Burgundy visiting Jan and Margaret Van Eyck ; on the wall a 
portrait of Hubert Van Eyck; 11, Modern art: E,ubens returning to his 
native country, and received by Van Dyck, Snyders, Jordaens, etc. ; 
12. Natural science: Vesalius the anatomist on the field of battle as the 
military physician of Charles V. 

The garden which surrounds the palace is adorned with a marble 
statue of Quetelet, the astronomer (1776-1874). by Fraikin, erected 
in 1880 ( in front of the palace), and with the Victor, a bronze figure 
by J. Geefs, a statue of Cain by Jehotte, and a Discus-thrower by 
Kessels (at the back). 

In the Rue de la Loi, which skirts the N. side of the park, rises 
the Palais de la Nation (PL E, 3), erected in 1779-83 from a 
design by Guiniard for the assemblies of the old Council of Brabant, 
used as the Palais des Etats Generaux from 1817 to 1830, and now 
for the sittings of the Belgian Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. 
The reliefs in the pediment, by Godecharle (1782), are illustrative 
of the administration of justice. The interior of the main building 
was entirely destroyed by fire in 1883 , but it has since been com- 
pletely restored. 

The buildings adjoining the Palais de la Nation on the E. and 
NY. are occupied by government-offices. — Opposite, in the N.E. 
angle of the park, stands the building known as Vauxhall (PL E, 
3, 4; comp. p. 76), partly occupied by the Cercle Artistique et 
Litte'raire ; near it is the Theatre du Pare (PL 67). 

The Rue de la Loi ends at the Pare du Cinquantenaire, formerly 
the drill-ground (see Map, p. 114), in which rises the exhibition- 
building of 1880, now known as the Palais du Cinquantenaire. 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. lOlh Edit. 6 

82 Route V2. BRUSSELS. Musee d'Art. 

The North Winy contains theMus^e d' Art Monumental etindustriel, 
the South Wing or Palais du Peuple is to contain a national museum. 
These wings are to be united by a great central building. A separate 
pavilion behind accommodates the Musec Scolaire de I'Etat. 

The Musee d'Art Monumental et Industrial ( adm. see p. 76) 
is divided into three sections. 

1. MusKB b'Art Monumental, in the main hall of the N. wing, 
consisting of a collection of casts of ancient and modern ^\orks of 
art. Specially noteworthy are the reproductions of medieval and 
Renaissance sculptures from Oudenaarde, Leau [Church of St. Leon- 
hard), Louvain, and other Flemish towns. 

2. Musee d'Art Dbcoratif, in the outer rooms of the crescent- 
shaped gallery adjoining the main hall, entered from that hall and 
from the central passage. It contains designs for wall-paintings 
and stained-glass, copies of early works, etc. 

To the left of the entrance: Sketches for /''. Oeselchap'' s frcacoeB in the 
Arsenal at Berlin; beneath, coloured .lapanese pictures, chiefly of the 18th 
century. On the outer (concave) wall: J. Swerts, St. George; J. Diericks, 
Spring, copy after Sandro Botticelli (Florence); M. Than, Attila's banquet 
(Pest)-, beneath, J. Swerts, Sketches for the mural decoration of the cathedral 
at Prjgue; E. Agneeseus, Two sketches of decorative figures; O. Ouffens, 
Entry of Philip the Bold into Ypres (p. 29); farther on, on the same wall, 
coloured sketch of the same. Beneath, X Mellerif, Drawings ofthebron/e 
figures at the Pctit-Sablon (p. 101); above, and elsewhere in the hall, 
^V. Geets, Eight patterns for the tapestries in the Gothic hall of the Hotel 
de Ville at Brussels (p. 103). — Farther on, copies after Rembrandt (''de 
Staalmeesters and the Night Watch, ]ip. 32G, 320), 11. van der Goes, F. Hals, 
Van Dyck, JIurillo, etc. ; F. Oeselsc/iap, War, large cartoon for the painting 
in Berlin (comp. above); Fuvis de C/iavanues, Pro patria ludus, cartoon 
for the painting in Amiens; beneath, //. Z<5t)y, Sermon and Death of 
St. Dionysius, Coronation of Charlemagne (at St. Merry and the Pantheon 
in Paris). Then J. P. Lauvensy Sketches for ceiling-paintings; Puvis de 
Chavcirmes, St. Radegunda in the convent of Ste. Croix, and Charles Martel 
victorious over the Saracens, two smaller cartoons (Poitiers); F. Geselschap, 
Valhalla, cartoon for the painting at Berlin (see above); O. Guffens, 
Crusaders under Baldwin IX. of Flanders leaving Courtrai, large cartoon 
(p. 56j; beneath, nine designs for the mural decoration of the Halles at 
Ypres (p. 28), by Ch. Degroux. 

On the inner wall : Copies after Giotto, Blasaccio, Fra Angelico, Raphael, 
Titian, Luini, Primaticcio (Fontainebleau), Paolo Veronese, etc., by 
G. Vanuise, H. Evrard, X. Mellery, etc. Cartoons : E. Livy^ The Wedding, 
The Family (Salle des Mariages of a mairie in Paris) ; Fuvis de Chavannes, 
Legend of St. Genevieve (Pantheon at Paris) ; H. Livy^ Fraternity, a deco- 
rative painting. At various points throughout the hall are numerous 
designs for stained windows in various Belgian churches, by B. van Orley, 
Th. van Thulden, J. de la Baei\ etc. — Finally some sculptures : A. Strobl, 
Perseus; reduced copy of RaucWs monument to Frederick the Great in 
Berlin; E. Fremiet^ Joan of Arc (Paris); model of the monument of 
Breydel and De Coninck at Bruges, by Devigne-Quyo. 

3. Musee d'Art Industribl Ancien, in the inner curve of the 
gallery, which is divided into a large main hall and five side-rooms, 
somewhat higher. It contains the antiquities formerly exhibited 
in the Porte deHal (p. 113). Catalogues for some of the sections are 

Lakge Room, immediately to the right of the entrance from the 
main hall (see above) : Case with antique bronze articles and two cases 

Muse'edArt. BRUSSELS. 1-2. Route. 83 

with Egyptian antiquities. In the corner and the central range mummies 
and sarcophagi from Egypt ^ large terracotta funeral urn; inscriptions. 

Then follow 24 tables and cases with articles in stone (hatchets, 
hammers, arrow and lance-heads, etc.), terracotta (lamps, figures, dishes, 
cups, Greek and Etruscan vases, Gallic pottery, etc.), bronze, and iron 
(swords, apear-heads, hatchets, helmets, shields, horse-shoes, figures, or- 
naments, some of gold, etc.). Two cases on the left side of the room 
contain Koman antiquities in bronze, terracotta, and glass, found in Belgium. 

In the centre of the room is another shiw-table with seals and im- 
pressions ; and two tables with ancient weights and measures. Two cases 
with ivory carvings: to the left: *i Reliquary shaped like a Romanesque 
church (from the middle Rhine; 12th cent.), elephant's tusk with Ro- 
manesque gold mounting, Romanesque and Gothic book-covers, etc., of 
the ll-i5th cent.; large Byzantine diptych (8th cent.); combs, etc.; to the 
right: 15-17. Goblets with very fine Renaissance reliefs (Triumph of 
Bacchus; Birth of Venus; Battle of Amazons). — Three cases with re- 
liquaries and other ecclesiastical articles; in the middle: *22. Head of 
Pope St. Alexander, in silver, on an enamelled reliquary (I2th or I3th 
cent.); costly reliquaries in gold, adorned with enamels, gems, and figures 
(13th cent.); to the lelt: Byzantine and other enamelled crucifixes, set 
with jewels; beneath. Cross in rock-crystal with ivory iigures (13th cent.) ; 
cups; monstrances; to the riuht: reliquaries in the shape of sarco- 
phagi or small altars, Romanesque (10-12th cent.) and Gothic (14th cent.). 
— The following large case contains goldsmith's work : large flat di-^hes 
with beaten reliefs (iC-17th cent.); goblets; ostrich-egg in a costly setting ; 
crown with gems (ilth cent.); insignia of the presidents of a guild; 
enamelled plaques with Scriptural scenes. 

liy the left wall are two cases with Coptic embroideries, antique glass, 
and ecclesiastical sculptures; carved wooden figures, some painted and 
gilded; Gothic *Altar in carved wood, with the 3Iartyrdom of St. George, 
by Johann Borremans (1493); beneath, Antependium', with stamped gilt 
ornamentation (17th cent.). To the right and left, two large brasses, with 
engraved figures (14th and 16th cent.). Farther on is a case with various 
domestic and ecclesiastical articles in bronze and other metals (locks, 
pitchers, bowls, platters, candelabra, small bronze sculptures, bells, cen- 
sers, etc.). 

In the middle of the room: Three Gothic choir-desks, in metal (15th 
cent.); two large metal candelabra (12-13th cent.); "Romanesque font, cast 
in bronze (12th cent.), with noteworthy figures in high relief; four stone 
fonts in the Romanesque style (12th cent.) and one in the Gothic style 
(15th cent.). Then a case with Italian faience: platters and vessels ; three 
cases with Dutch and German earthenware; jugs, bowls, etc.; and a case 
with porcelain from Tournai and Brussels : 190. Large vase with floral garlands 
(18th cent.). [There are two special catalogues for the porcelain and faience 
collections.] Case with ornamented caskets and boxes in wood and metal. 

On the right side of the room is a Gothic altar in carved wood, 
painted and gilded, with scenes from the life of Christ (15th or 16th cent.). 
Opposite is a case with Chinese and Japanese faience and porcelain. 

In the middle of the room: Table with watches, clocks, etc.; case 
with Dresden and Sevres china; case with German glass; two cases with 
Venetian glass; table with Chinese and Japanese porcelain; table with 
Chinese ivory-c irvings; case with Brussels lace; case with lace from 
Hungary and the Balkan Peninsula, 

Left wall: Case with ecclesiastical vestments; Gothic altar in carved 
wood, with the Martyrdoms of SS. Ludgerus and Barbara (1530) ; beside it, 
large brass with engraved figures and enamelled coat-of-arms (1554). — 
In the middle of the room : Two chariots, a sledge, and a litter, of the 
18th cent. — At the end of the hall: Funeral monuments, grave-slabs of 
the 13-15th cent., originally inlaid with metal; decorative sculptures from 
Gothic buildings; painted and stamped tiles of the 16-17th cent.; Dutch 
wall-tiles, with pictures. — On the walls of the hall are tapestries of the 
15-lSth cent., chiefly from Brussels and Oudenaarde. 

The 1st SiDE-RooJi contains Greek, Roman, and Etruscan antiquities 


84 Route 22. BRUSSELS. Muste d'Art- 

in terracotta and bronze, forming the Musie de Ruvettein^ presented to 
the Museum by M. de Meester de llavestein, for fourteen years Belgian 
minister at the Vatican. There ia a special catalogue of this collection, 
by M. Ravestein himself (1 fr.). 

Immediately to the right of the entrance from the lower room arc 
two wall-cases with Egyptian antiquities in wood, bronze, terracotta, ami 
stone. — By the window-wall and in the window recesses are ten cases 
with an extinsive collection of bronze articles: tripods, lamps, candelabra, 
boxes, vessels, handles and liilts of various shapes, animals, bells, weapons, 
helmets, greaves, masks, weights; also numerous small bronze figures. 
In Case 8 (beginning from the rightj : 86U. Victoria, found near Dijon ; 
861. Mercury. Case 9: 846. Venus; 880. Hercules; 835. Minerva. Casel<»: 
821. Jupiter with the thunderbolt ^ yU3. Ajax plunging his sword into his 
breast (of doubtful antiquity); 945. Samnite warrior. — Then two cases 
with terracottas from Italy and Greece, many of them from Tanagra: 
masks and heads; reliefs from burial-urns; vessels from Lower Italy in 
the shape of animals' heads, etc. ; 4b6. Terracotta doll found at Viterbo. 
The case in the last window-recess contains oi)jects in iron, bron-^e, terra- 
cotta, glass, stone, etc., mostly discovered in Belj^ium. 

The important Collection of ANxiyuji Vases begins in the case by 
the left end-wall (next Room II.), and is continued in three cases in the 
middle of the room. 1st Case: Early Etruscan vases, Idack with stamped 
or scratched ornamentation; Corinthian vases of the 6th cent. B.C., 
adorned with bands of animals, figures, etc., including narrow Lekythoi 
(filled with perfumes to be used at burials) and round AlaOastra or oint- 
ment-vessels. — 2nd Case: Specimens illustrating the developed Greek 
ceramic art of the 5th and 4th cent. B.C.; large panathensian amphont, 
with a figure of Athene in front and an athletic contest behind, the 
figures being black on a red ground. To the later style (red figures on 
a black ground) belong the drinking-vessels in the lower rows, the three 
largest of which (to the right) are adorned with dances of satyrs and 
maenads or drinking-scenes in harmony with the destined use of the 
vessels. In the upper row : 389. Vase with black figures, signed JVikos- 
thenes; 408. Vase from Cumee, with bands of figures in gilt-relief. — 
3rd Case: Vases from Lower Italy, dating from the period of decadence 
(4th-2nd cent. B.C.), extravagant in form and decoration. Also black and 
red vases with stamped figures. — 4th Case: 303. Larjie wide vase, with 
a battle of Centaurs: beside it. 305. 306. Theseus overcoming the Mino- 
taur ; beneath. 291-296. Labours of Hercules. — Between Cases 1 and 2 
are six show-tables with a valuable and well-arranged collection of po- 
lished specimens of different coloured marbles. Between Cases 2 and 3, a 
table with cut stones and paste imitations, and three tables with Roman 
and other terracotta lamps, with stamped figures. Between Cases 3 and 
4, two tables with Roman coins of the republic; large gold medal pre- 
sented by Pius IX. to 31. de Ravestein who escorted him to Gaeta in 1848; 
two tables with glass vessels and Tieads, and pieces of coloured glass-paste. 
In the centre. Bust of M. de Ravestein. On the other side of Case 4 is 
!l table with ornaments: 1478. Etruscan head-dress (from a tomb); rosette 
and leaves of thin gold, earrings, gold and bronze necklaces, armlets ; 
amber beads, etc. ; behind, finger-rings and fibular. — Table with small 
bronze articles, keys, portions of locks, nails, knives, spoons, surgical 
instruments, amulets; in front, to the left, small flat leaden figures, votive 
ofierings found near Viterbo; to the right, Etruscan and Roman ivory 
and bone-carvings. — Finally two tables with bronze mirrors, most of 
which are Etruscan with long handles and engraved figures; round mirror- 
cases, with figures in relief; 1301. Greek mirror with an archaic winged 
female figure as handle. 

Side-Rooms II-V. contain furniture and wood-carvings of the 15-18th 
cent. : cabinets, chests, tables, chairs, chimney-pieces, altar-pieces, etc. 

Room II. Carved Gothic oak pulpit, with the four evangelists; Gothic 
oak confessional (l6thcent.); late Gothic altar-piece in carved wood, with 
the Passion and the Resurrection ; above. Carved Gothic oak gallery, with 
figures of the Apostles (15th cent.). — In the centre of the room are three 

Cathedral. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 85 

tables with iiupres?iuns of seals ia terracotta; Italian desk, with carved 
reliefs (16th cent.)- 

Room III. Early Gothic altar-piece (or antependium?), with painted 
scenes from the life of St. Peter (13th cent); carved and painted Gothic 
cradle, made for Maximilian I. and said to he the cradle of Charles V., 
a bronze bust of whom is placed beside it. In the middle room, a table 
with artistic French locksmiths' work (15-16th cent). 

Room IV. Large Flemish marble chimney-piece, with carved, inlaid, 
and painted wooden top (17th cent); carved wood ornaments for a pic- 
ture-frame (17th cent.). In the middle of the room, 'shuw-case with Li- 
moge-s enamel (16th cent); plaq\ie with head of Jupiter; flat dishes, etc. 
— Room V. Flemish room. 

The Musee Scolaire National (admission, see p. 76) is a con- 
siderable collection of educational appliances, of Belgian and foreign 
origin. The 1st Room shows the developement of Froebel's system ; 
the two following rooms contain appliances for use in primary 
schools (Ecoles Primaires) and in teachers' seminaries (Ecoles Nor- 
males), and work by school-children. 

In the Rue Royalb [PL E, 4-1), midway between the Rue de la 
Loi and the lloulevard Botanique, is situated the Place du Congres, 
adorned with the Colonne du Congres (PL 10; E, 3), a monument 
erected to commemorate the Congress of 4th June, 1831, by which 
the present constitution of Belgium was established, and Prince Leo- 
pold of Saxe-Cobourg elected king. The column, of the Doric order, 
147 ft. in height, is surmounted by a statue of the king in bronze, 
by W. Geefs. The nine figures in relief below, representing the 
different provinces of Belgium, are by Simonis. The female figures 
in bronze at the four corners are emblematical of the Liberty of the 
Press, the Liberty of Education, both by Jos. Geefs, the Liberty of 
Associations, by Fraikin, and the Liberty of Public Worship, by 
Simonis. The names of the members of the Congress and of the pro- 
visional government of 1830 are recorded on marble tablets. The 
summit, which is reached by a spiral staircase of 192 steps (trifling 
fee to the custodian), commands a magnificent panorama. The two 
bronze lions at the door are by Simonis. The foundation-stone of the 
column was laid by King Leopold I. in 1850, and the inauguration 
took place in 1859. At the foot of the flight of steps which descend 
to the lower part of the town arc situated two Marches Converts. 

The Rue Royale , with its continuation the Rue de la Regence, 
presents a very striking appearance as viewed from the Place Royale, 
e.g. in front of the Hotel de Bellevue (PL a; E, 4), whence we 
<ommand the entire range of imposing buildings from the Palais de 
Justice (p. 103) to the church of Ste. Marie at Schaerbeek (p. 111). 

The ^Cathedral (Ste. Gudule et St. Michel; PL E, 3) in the 
vicinity, situated on a somewhat abrupt slope overlooking the lower 
part of the town, is an imposing Gothic church consisting of nave 
and aisles, with a retro-choir, and deep bays resembling chapels. 
The church was begun about the year 1220, on the site of an earlier 
building, consecrated in 1047. A few traces of the transitional 
style of this period are still observable in the retro-choir. The 

86 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Cathedral. 

rest of the choir, the transept, the arcades of the nave, and the S. 
aisle are early-Gothic, and -^ere completed in 1273. The N. aisle, 
and the vaulting and windows of the nave were constructed between 
1350 and 1450. The windows of the high choir and the unfinished 
W. towers date from the 15th cent., the large (N.) chapel of the 
Sacrament from 1534-39, the (S.) chapel of Notre Dame de Deli- 
vrance from 1649-53, and the whole was restored in 1848-56. The 
facade in its principal features rather resembles the German than 
the French Gothic style. The numerous statuettes recently placed 
in the niches and consoles of the portal are unfortunately out of 
keeping with the Gothic character of the building. TheW. entrance 
is approached by a handsome flight of steps, completed in 1861. 

The Interior (the works of art are shown from 12 to 4 only, when 
1 fr., or, if a party, 50 c. each, must be contributed to the funds of the 
church, besides which the sacristan expects a fee for opening the chapels ; 
entrance by the S. transept) is of simple but noble proportions, and 
measTires 118 yds. in length by 55 yds. in breadth. The nave rests on 
twelve round pillars and six buttresses, the choir on ten round columns. 

The beautiful -Stained Glass dates from different periods, from the 13th 
cent, down to modern times. The finest is that in the *ChapeIi of the 
Sacrament (N. ; adjoining the choir on the left), consisting of five windows 
presented in 1540-47 by five of the most powerful Roman Catholic poten- 
tates of Europe, in honour of certain wonder-working Hosts (comp. 
p. 108). Each window bears the portraits of the donors with their patron- 
saints : 1st window (beginning from the left), John III. of Portugal and 
his queen Catherine, a sister of Charles V. •, 2nd, Louis of Hungary and 
his queen IMaria. another sister of Charles V; *3rd, Francis I. of France 
and his queen Eleonora, a third sister of Charles V.; 4th, Ferdinand I. 
of Austria, brother of Charles V., and his queen; 5th (above the altar) 
Charles V. and his queen Eleonora Louise. The first two windows were 
executed by Jan ffaeck from designs by Michael Coxie., the third is by 
Bernard van Orlei/, and the fifth is a skilful modern reproduction (1848), 
by Capronnier from designs by Navez, of the old one, which had been un- 
fortunately destroyed. The representations in the upper half of the win- 
dows depict the story of the Hosts, which were stolen by Jews and sacri- 
legiously transfixed in their synagogue. The scofl"ers were so terrified by 
their miraculous bleeding that they determined to restore them-, but their 
crime was denounced and expiated by death. The top of the 5th window 
represents the adoration of the Lamb and the Sacred Hosts. The Gothic 
altar in carved wood (by Goyers, 1849) is beautifully executed. 

The windows of the Chapel of Notre Dame DEDfeLivRANCE (S. side), 
executed in 1656 by J. de la Baer of Antwerp, from designs by Theod. 
van Tftvlden, are inferior both in drawing and colouring to those just 
described, but are notwithstanding excellent examples of 17th cent, art 
(school of Eubens). They represent episodes from the life of the Virgin, 
with portraits of Archduke Leopold (d. 1662), Archduke Albert (d. 1621), 
and the Archduchess Isabella Clara Eugenia (d. 1633)-, then Emp. Ferdi- 
nand II. (d. 1658) and Leopold I. (d. 1705). The same chapel contains a 
~ Momtment in marble, by W. Geefs, to Count Frederick de Merode., who fell in 
a skirmish with the Dutch at Berchem in 1830. The armorial bearings 
of the Merode family have the commendable motto: ^Plus d'honnetir que 
d''honneurs\ Over the monument, the Assumption, a large modern pic- 
ture by Navez. This chapel also contains a marble monument to Count 
Philip 'Balthazar de Merode (d. 1857). an elder brother of the last-named, 
a well-known Belgian statesman, by Fraikin, and one of the Spanish general 
Count Isenhurg-Grenzau (d. 1664), "the last of a noble Rhenish family. 

The five stained-glass windows of the High Choir, dating from the 
middle of the l6th cent., contain portraits of Maximilian of Austria and 
his queen Mary of Burgundy, their son Philippe le Bel and his queen 

Banque Nationnle. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 87 

Johanna of Castile; Emp. Charles V. and Ferdinand, sons of the latter; 
Philip II., son of Charles V., with his first wife, Maria of Portugal; Phi- 
libert. Duke of Savoy, and Margaret of Austria. — Below is the monument 
of Duke John II. of" Brabant (d. 1312) and his duchess Margaret of York, 
in black marble, with a recumbent lion in gilded copper, cast in 1610 ; 
opposite to it, the monument, with recumbent figure, of Archduke Ernest 
(d. 1595), brother of Emp. Rudolph II. and stadtholder of the Isetherlands. 
Both monuments were erected by Archduke Albert (brother of Ernest) in 
1610. A white marble slab covers the entrance to the burial-vaults of 
the princes of the House of Austria. 

The Retro-Choir contains four stained-glass windows executed by Ca- 
pronnier in 1879 from designs by Xavez; the subjects are taken from the 
history of the Patriarchs and the Children of Israel, from the life of Christ, 
and from the history of the Christian church. — In the rococo chapel 
behind the high-altar is an altar from the Abbaye de la Cambre (p. 115). 
The stained glass, bearing figures of saints and the arms of the Merode 
family, is also by Capronniev (1843). 

Traxsept. ^Stained glass: Charles V. and his queen, with their 
patron-saints (N.); Louis III. of Hungary and his queen, by Bernard van 
Orley^ 1538 (S.). Opposite the N. chapel, winged picture representing 
scenes from the life of St. Gudule, by Coxie (1592); opposite the S. 
chapel. Crucifixion, by the same artist. 

The well-executed and richly-coloured stained glass in the Nave is 
all by Capronnier, having been presented by the king, the royal family, 
and wealthy Belgian citizens, and put up in 1860-80; the subjects also 
refer to the story of the stolen Hosts (see p. 86), beginning in the S. 
aisle, by the transept. The window of the W. Portal, a Last Judgment 
by F. Floris, remarkable for the crowd of figures it contains, dates from 
1528, but has been frequently restored. Four of the massive statues of the 
Twelve Apostles on the pillars of the nave (Paul, Bartholomew, Thomas, 
Matthew) are by Jer. Duquesnoy; three others (John. Andrew, Thaddseus) 
are by Fayd'herbe (d. 1694). The -Pulpit., originally in the church of the 
Jesuits at Louvain, was executed in 1699 by the celebrated Verbruggen. 
It is a representation in carved wood of the Expulsion from Paradise. 
Among the foliage are all kinds of animals, — a bear, dog, cat, fox, 
eagle, vulture, peacock, owl, dove, squirrel, ape eating an apple, etc. 
Above is the Virgin with the Child, who crushes the head of the serpent 
with the cross. — In the aisles : confessionals by Van Delen (18th cent.) ; in 
the S. aisle is the monument of Canon Trie^t "(d. 1846). noted at Brussels 
for his benevolence, by Eug. Simonis; a marble monument to Count Cornet 
de Ways-Ruart ., by Gee/K, 1872 (Faith supporting old age and elevating 
youth). The marble-reliefs of the stations on the way to Calvary are by 
P. Puyenhroeck. Some of the tombstones of the 16th cent, deserve notice. 
The government and the city have for many years expended considerable 
sums annually on the embellishment of the sacred edifice. 

The Tower commands a beautiful view; ascent, 1 pers. 2 fr., 2 or 
more pers. 8 fr. 

The handsome new huilding opposite the cathedral, to the 
N., is the *Banque Nationale (PI. 4 ; E, 3), one of the best modern 
buildings in Brussels, designed by H. Beyaert and Janssens^ and 
exhibiting a free treatment of the Louis XVI. style. The allegori- 
cal figures of Industry and Commerce over the pediment are by 
Wiener, the rest of the sculptural ornamentation by Houtstout. The 
interior is also worth inspection (entrance in the Rue Berlaimont). 

To the E. of Ste. Gudule, between the Rue de Ligne and the 
Rue Treurenberg (PL E, 3), are a tower and a passage, relics of 
the old wall of 1040 (p. 77). 

The Place Rotale (PL E, 4), adjacent to the S.W. corner of 

88 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Royal Library. 

the Park, owes its present appearance to the architect Guimard, 
1778 (comp. p. 801. On the left stands the church of St. Jacques 
sur Caudenber g (Fro idmoni, 'cold mountain'; PI. 16), a handsome 
and chaste edifice with a portico of the Corinthian order, begun by 
Guimard in 1776 on the site of an old Augustine abbey, and com- 
pleted by Montoyer in 1785. Above the portico are statues of Moses 
by Olivier, and David by Janssens. The tympanum contains a fresco, 
by Portaels, representing the Virgin as the comforter of the afflicted 
(1852). The interior contains, to the right and left of the choir, 
allegorical figures of the Old and New Testament, by Godecharle. 

In front of the church rises the equestrian *Statue of Godfrey 
deBonillon (PI. 60), thehero of the first Crusade, grasping the banner 
of the Cross in his right hand, probably the finest modern Belgian 
work of the kind, designed by Simonis. It was erected in 1848, on 
the spot where, in 1097, Godfrey is said to have exhorted the 
Flemings to participate in the Crusade, and to have concluded his 
appeal with the words 'Diew li voW (God wills it). 

Opposite is the Montagxb di? la Cour, which contains several 
of the most attractive shops in Brussels, and through which, in spite 
of its steepness, passes a constant stream of omnibuses, carriages, 
and other vehicles (comp. p. 107). — To the S.W., between the 
palace of the Count of Flanders and the new Palais des Beaux- Arts, 
diverges the Rue de la Regence (p. 93). 

The archway in the W. angle of the Place Royale leads to the 
oblong Place bu Muskb (PI. D, 4), the right side of which is flank- 
ed by the hotels and restaurants mentioned at pp. 72, 73, while to 
the left rises the Royal Library (PI. 5), with a court facing the 
street and separated from it by a stone balustrade. In the court is a 
statue in bronze (by Jehotte, 1846) of Buke Charles of Lorraine 
(p. 78). Behind the statue is the entrance to the Library, which con- 
sists of six departments : (1) Printed Books ; (2) MSS. ; (3) Engrav- 
ings and Maps; (4) Coins and Medals; (5) Offices; (6) Periodicals. 

The Department of the Printed Books (300,000 vols.) is in the left 
wing of the Palais de Tlndustrie. The nucleus of the collection was the 
library of a M. van Hulthem. purchased by the state in 1837 for 315.000 fr., 
and incorporated with the old municipal library. Hhe Library Hall (10-3; 
in summer 10-4; closed during Passion Week) contains a series of portraits 
of the sovereigns of the country down to Maria Theresa and Joseph II. In 
a cabinet here are exhibited some beautiful Chinese drawings. The Cham- 
bers grant an annual subsidy of 60-65.000 fr. for the support of the Library. 

The Department of the MSS. consists chiefly of the celebrated Biblio- 
thhque de Bourgogne^ founded in the 15th cent, by Philippe le Bon, Duke 
of Burgundy, and contains about 12,000 3ISS., comprising many of great 
value. It is especially rich in missals, some of which are illuminated 
with beautiful miniatures of the old Flemish school. Worthy of notice 
are: the missal of the Dukes of Burgundy, by Attavante of Florence (1485), 
afterwards in possession of Matthew Corvinus, King of Hungary; the 
chronicles of Hainault in seven folio volumes with miniature illustra- 
tions, and an illustrated title-page (the author Jacques de Guise presenting 
bis work to Philip the Good), ascribed, though without sufficient grounds, 
to Roger van der Weyden; and a copy of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, used by 
Charles th* Bold. Also, '■Pardon accorde par Charles V. aux Oantois' 

Musee ^foderne. BRUSSELS. 12. Eotite. 89 

(p. 44) of 1540, MSS. as far back as the Ttb cent., playing-cards mann- 
factured at Ulm in 1594. autographs of Francis I., Henri' IV., Philip II., 
Alva. Lnther. Voltaire. Rubens, etc. Most of the books in the Burgun- 
dian Library are bound in red morocco. The most valuable MSS. have 
twice been carried away to Paris by the French. 

The admirably-arranged Co??ec^!Ort of Engravings f60,000 in number) is 
worthy of notice ; it is entered from the 3Iuse'e de Peinture. The Flemish 
masters are admirably represented. One of the most interesting plates is 
an engraving of 1418, found at Malines. — The Collection of Coins is also 
(if importance; adm, 12-3, entrance Rue du 3Iusee 5. 

L'Ancienne Cour, a building adjoining the Palais de I'lndustric 
on the E., was the residence of the Austrian stadtholders of the 
Netherlands after 1731, when the old ducal palace (in the present 
Place Royale) was destroyed hy fire. Part of the ground-floor is 
now fitted up as a library and part contains the cabinet of natural 
history (p. 112; entrance from the court), while on the upper story 
are the collection of modern paintings, and rooms used for art- 
exhibitions, etc. (to the right of the rotundal. The chapel to the 
right of the entrance, erected in 1760, and devoted to Protestant 
worship in 1803, is known as the J^glisedu 3/wsee (French and Ger- 
man services on Sundays). 

The *Musee Moderne embraces upwards of 220 paintings and 
40 water-colour and other drawings, etc., displayed in 8 rooms for- 
merly occupied by the gallery of ancient art, which is now removed 
to the Palais des Beaux-Arts (p. 93), There is no catalogue. In 
the following description the paintings upon wall A (comp. the Plan, 
p. 90), in each room, are first noticed, then those on walls B, C, D. 
The rearrangement of the paintings occasioned by the art-exhibi- 
tion of 1890 is not yet finally determined, so that the previous 
order is followed in the following description. 

The Entbancb (comp. p. 77) is in the crescent at the N.W. 
end of the Place du Muse'e. From the circular entrance-hall we 
proceed through the glass-door to the left to the staircase, at the 
foot of which is a statue of Hercules by Delvaux. Sticks and um- 
brellas are left here with the custodian (no charge). At the top of 
the staircase we reach another rotunda, where a door to the left leads 
to the Musee Moderne. The hall has recently undergone an exten- 
sive restoration. The staircase is of marble , and the lower part of 
the walls is covered with the same material. The upper part is oc- 
cupied by plastic decorations in the style of Louis XYI. 5 the ceiling- 
frescoes, representing the seasons, are by J. Stallaert. 

Room I. is at present empty. 

Room n. contains water-colours, drawings, designs, crayons, 
etc., by various Belgian masters; also cartoons. 

Room III. F. de Braekeleer, The Golden Wedding ; Carpentiers^ 
Strangers; F. de Braekeleer ^ Distribution of fruit at a school ('le 
comte de micareme') ; Gudin, Sea-piece ; C. de Groux, Recruits 
departing; Baron, Landscape; Vaneycken, Episode in the life of 
Francesco Mazzuoli; Chabry, Ruins of Thebes (Egypt); Vanderhecht, 
Landscape; E. de Block, Reading the Bible. 

90 Route 12. 



Room IV. Wall B. Louis Robbe, Landscape with cattle; C de 
Vigne^ Sunday raorning in ^vinter; aljove, Ch. Verlat, Sheep-dog and 
eagle; Smits, The seasons; A. de Knyff, The deserted gravel-pit; 
*Louis Gallait^ Abdication of Emperor Charles V., a masterpiece of 
composition, drawing, and colouring (1841). Charles V. is under the 
canopy of the throne, supported on the left by William of Orange, at 
his feet kneels his son Philip II., on his right is his sister Maria of 
Hungary in an arm-chair. — Jos. Stevens, Morning in the streets of 

Brussels (1848) ; Al. Markelbach, Rhetoricians of Antwerp prepar- 
ing for a debate (comp. p. 96); F. Bossuet, Procession of patron- 
saints in Seville; above, J. Kindermans, Scene in the Ardennes ; 
above, Eug. Verboeckhoven, Shepherd in the Roman Campagna; 
above, C. E. G. Wappers, Charles I. on the way to the scaffold. — 
Wall C. J. Rohie, Flowers and fruit ; Fr. Stroobant, The old guild- 
houses in the market-place at Brussels. — WaU D. P. van der 
Ouderaa , The last refuge (the family Mundi of Douai saved by the 
Clarissine nuns from the Spaniards during the sack of Antwerp, 
Nov. 4th, 1576); J. B. van Moer, Interior of the church of Santa 
Maria at Belem (near Lisbon); N. de Keyset, Justus Lipsius; 
above, Charles de Groux, Junius preaching the Reformation in a 
house at Antwerp, with the light from the stake shining through the 

Mod erne. 

BRUSSELS. 2 2. Rouie. 91 

window; above, J. ran Leriu^, Erasmus; *L. Gallait, The Plague 
in Tournai (1092), one of the artist's most celebrated pictures 
(finished in 1882). The picture represents the moment when the 
procession, arranged by Bishop Radbold IT. to intercede for the with- 
drawal of the pestilence, is leaving the church and passing under 
an archway which leads to the most densely populated part of the 
town. The Bishop walks in front in penitential robes, followed by 
the chief citizens bearing a figure of the Virgin Mary. — F. Rof- 
fiaen, Monte Eosa from the Eiffel. 

EooM V. Wall A. A. de Knyff, Forest of Stolen. — WaU B. 
Lybaert, St. Magdalene; £". ^Zmg^enct/er, Battle of Lepanto ; C. Tschng- 
qeny, Diligence in the Ardennes; above, J. Stevens^ Dog-market in 
iParis. — Wall C. Clays, Coast near Ostend (1863), Antwerp Roads ; 
Leys, .Toyful entry of Charles V. into Antwerp (repetition of the 
fresco in the Hotel de Ville at Antwerp, see p. 147). — Wall D. 
J. Coomans, The 'Loving Cup'; A. Verwee, Cattle; *J. Verhas, 
Review of the Schools (on the occasion of the silver wedding of the 
King and Queen of the Belgians in 1878), a well-known picture. 
The procession, headed by girls in white dresses led by their 
teachers, is passing the Palace, in front of which are the King and 
Queen, the Emperor of Austria, and the Count of Flanders, with 
their suites. The burgomaster and sheriffs of Brussels are also in 
the procession. All the heads are portraits. 

Room YI. Wall A. J. B. Mndou, The mischief-maker (Flemish 
scene, 18th cent.l; L. Gallait, Conquest of Antioch. — Wall B. T. 
Fourmois, The mill; *H. Leys, Funeral mass for Berthall de Haze, 
armourer of Antwerp. — Wall C. A. Stevens, Ladybird. — Wall D. 
J. Robie, Grapes; L. Gallait. Art and Liberty; E.Delacroix, Apollo 
and the Python, a sketch. — In the corners: L. Gallait, Full-length 
portraits of Leopold II. and his queen. In another corner is a costly 
Sevres vase, presented by the French Republic. 

Room VII. Wall A. Huherti, Landscape; above, J. Quinaur, 
Scene in Dauphine'; to the right of the door, Meunier, Peasants of 
Brabant defending themselves in 1797. — Wall B. F. Courtens, 
Return from church (afternoon) ; J. B. van Moer, View of Brussels 
(1868); C.Hermans, Morning in the streets of Brussels; J. Lies, 
Prisoners of war; F. v. Leemputten, Peasants going to work. — 
Wall C. *C. Cluysenaar, Canossa. — Wall D. E. J.Verhoeck- 
hoven, Flock of sheep in a thunder-storm (1839) ; A. de Vriendt, 
Citizens of Ghent doing homage at the cradle of Charles V.; J. T. 
Coosemans. Fir-wood by twilight; Dillens, Austrian wooers in the 
Netherlands ; above, E. de Pratere, Farm-horses. 

We now enter the — 

Large Gallery, which is divided by clustered columns into 
five sections. Beside the pillars are four bronze or marble busts of 
Flemish painters. 

Fifth Section. Wall B. Hamesse, Landscape: Gallait, Portrait; 

02 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Miw'e Moderne. 

Beernacrt, Edge of a wood in Zealand; *£J. de Biefve, The Compro- 
mise, or Petition of the Netherlandish nobles in 1565. Count Hoorn is 
represented as signing the document, Egmontin an arm-chair; at the 
table Philip de Marnix, in a suit of armour; in the foreground Wil- 
liam of Orange, in a dark-blue garment; beside him, Martigny in 
-white satin, and behind him the Due d'Arenbcrg. The Count Bre- 
dcrode, under the portico to the left, is inviting others to embrace 
the good cause. This picture and Gallait's Abdication of Charles V. 
mark a new epocli in the history of modern Belgium art. They -were 
exhibited in most of the European capitals in 1843, where they 
gained universal admiration, and they have contributed materially 
to the development of the realistic style of painting, in which 
colour plays so prominent a part. — Boulenger, Autumn morning ; 
Gallait, Lady and child (portraits). — Wall C. J. Impens, Flemish 
tavern; H. de Caisnes, Belgium crowning her famous sons; C. de 
Groux, Grace before meat. — Wall D. Dansaert^ Diplomats ; 
Gallait, The wedding-dress; Kindermans, Scene in the Amblcve 
valley; *N. de Keyser, Battle of Worringen (1288); Siegfried of 
Westerburg, Archbishop of Cologne, standing before his captors 
DukeJohnI.ofBrabantandCountAdolphofBerg(1839); Bracfcc^eer, 
Spinner; Gallait, Gipsy; T. Gerard, Village festival in Swabia. 

Fourth Section. Wall D. Musin, Landscape; A. Serreche, Con- 
cert. — Wall B. De Block, The convalescent. 

Third Section. Wall B. A. Hennebicq, Labourers in the Bo- 
man Campagna; above, De Cocq, Cattle in a wood; H. Boulenger^ 
View of Din ant; above, L. Matthieu, Entombment (1848); F. 
Pauwels, The widow of Jacques van Artevelde giving up her jewels 
for the state ; H. Leys, Restoration of the Roman Catholic service 
in Antwerp Cathedral (1845); H. Bource, Bad news; Thomas, 
Barabbas and tbe body of Christ; J. H. L. de Haas, Cows at pas- 
ture; A. Stevens, Lady in a light pink dress; F. Lamoriniere, 
Landscape near Edeghem; V. Lagye, The visit to the sorceress. 

Opposite AVall D. Dubois, Still-life ; J. Portaels, The Daughter 
of Zion, an allegorical representation ; Asselbergs, Landscape ; G.J. A. 
van Luppen, Spring-landscape; above, ^. J. dePratere, Cattle-market 
in Brussels; E. Wauters, The Prior of the Augustine monastery to 
which Hugo van der Goes had retired tries to cure the painter's 
madness by means of music; Fourmois , Landscape; J. Portaels, 
Simoom; Baugniet, Visiting the widow; above, L. Jiobbe, Cattle. 

Second Section. Wall B. H. Leys, Studio of Frans Floris ; P. J. 
Clays, Calm on the Scheldc; V. Kuyck, Stable; A. Verwee, Cattle 
by a river ; Gallait, Autumn ; J. B. Madou, Festival ; de Jonghe, The 
young mother; above, J. Czcrmak, Spoils of war in the Herzegovina 
(Christian girls captured for the slave-market by IJashi-Bazouks). 
— Wall D. C. de Groux, Drunkard by the corpse of his neglected 
wife; J. B. Madcu, A question of fate; De Pratere, Asses' heads; 
A. Robert. Plundering of the Carmelite Convent in Antwerp at the 

Palais des Beaux-Arts. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 93 

end of the 16th century j C. E. G. Wappers , Beginning of the Re- 
volution of 1630 at the Hotel de Ville in Brussels ; the people tearing 
the proclamation ('24th Sept.) of Prince Frederick of the Nether- 
lands ; H. de Braekeleer, The geographer ; A. Thomas, Judas on the 
night after the condemnation of Jesus ; GaUait, Count Barthe'le'my 
lie Mortier; Bobbe, Bull attacked by dogs. 

First Section. WallD. Ch. Ooms, Forbidden fruit ; H. Boulenger, 
Landscape; A. Stevens, The widow and her children; W. Roelofs, 
Landscape; above, Hubert, Cuirassiers at Waterloo; J. Lies, 
Baldwin III. of Flanders punishing robber-knights ; E. de Scham- 
pheleer , River-scene near Gouda; A. de Vriendt, Excommuni- 
cation of Bouchard d'Avesnes (on account of his marriage with Mar- 
garet of Flanders) ; above, *Ch. Verlat, Godfrey de Bouillon at the 
storming of Jerusalem; F. Huygens, Flowers. 

Wall B. TScharner, Landscape in winter; Stevens, Salome; 
Quinaux, Landscape ; Cluysenaar, The future painter ; C. van Camp, 
Death of Mary of Burgundy (p. 17); Rosseels, Landscape. Portaels, 
Box in the theatre at Pest; above, Fh. van Brie, Interior of St. Peter's 
at Rome on Corpus Christi Day; F. Lamoriniere, Landscape; J. 
Willems, La Fete chez Ics Grands-Parents; A. Verwee, A Zealand 
team; above, Stallaert, Death of Dido; (ra//aii, Johanna the Mad 
by the corpse of her husband, Philip the Handsome. — Wall A. 
Beernaert, Woodland scene; Hunin, Alms-giving. 

The Rub i>b laRbgbncb (PL E, D, 4, 5), which leads to the S. W. 
from the Place Royale (p. 87), is now one of the finest streets in 
Brussels. Immediately to the. left stands the Palais du Comte de 
Flandre (PL 49 j, which contains a handsome staircase and is em- 
bellished with sculptures by Van der Stappen and pictures by E. 
Wauters, Verlat, Stallaert, and others. On the right is the 

Palais des Beaux-Arts (PL 45), a building finished in 1880, 
in the classical style, by Balat, the portal of which is flanked by 
four massive granite columns with bronze bases and capitals. On 
the tops of the columns are four colossal figures, representing Music, 
Architecture , Sculpture , and Painting , executed by Degroot, 
Samain, W. Geefs, and Melot. Above are three bronze medallions : 
Rubens (in the centre; by Van RasbourgK), Jean de Boulogne (by 
Cuypers), and Jan van Ruysbroeck (see p. 105; hy Boure), and two 
marble reliefs, the Graphic Arts and Music, by Brunin and VinQotte. 
In front of each of the wings stands an allegorical group in bronze ; 
on the left. Instruction in Art, byP, C. van der Stappen; on the right 
Coronation of Art, by P. de Vigne. 

The Musee de Sculpture is arranged on the ground-floor. 

The Vestibule contains bronze sculptures, including: P.Boure, 
Prometheus bound; Child playing with balls; L. Mignon, Bull- 
tight; etc. 

The Main Hall, occupying the entire height of the building, 

94 Route 12. 


Sculpture Gallery. 

contains chiefly marble sculptures. In the passage to the left: P. 
C. van der Stappen, The man with the sword; J. J. Ducaju^ Fall 
of Babylon, a group; B. Frison^i Naiad. Opposite: J. Geefs^ Love 
and Malice; A. Sopers, Young Neapolitan playing oti the rauglia; 
E. Simonis, Innocence. To the left : M. Ryshrack^ Statue of John 
Howard, the philanthropist. In the centre of the room : VV. Geefs, 
Statue of King Leopold I. ; Th. Vin^otte, Busts of King Leopold 11. 
and his queen; L. Delvaux, The Cardinal Virtues, a small group in 
marble. — Farther on in the left passage : M. Kessels, Venus leaving 
the bath ; W. Geefs, The amorous lion ; Jos. Geefs, Fallen Angel 
(one of his best-known works). — In the passage to the right: C. 
A. Fraikin^ Cupid taken captive; G. Charlier^ Prayer; J, J. Jaquet, 

The Golden Age ; J. de Braekeleer^ Expectation ; M. Kessels, Child 
with a duck; A. Cattier, Daphne ; Th. Ving:otte, Giotto; A. F. Boure, 
Boy playing with a lizard; A. Fassin, Neapolitan water -seller; 
J. Cuypers, Ilallali ; P. de Vigne, Immortality. — On the walls are 
bronze and marble busts. 

In two rooms to the left of the main-hall (corresponding to RR. 
IV and V on the flrst floor; comp. Plan) are various plaster casts, 
and some old paintings, chiefly historical views and portraits of 
princes of the houses of Burgundy, Orange, and Hapsburg. The 
smaller room also contains the sketches for the historical procession 
of 1880 (jubilee of the Independence of Belgium). 

First Flooii. *Musee de Peinture (Galerie Ancienne). — The 
Musee Royal de Belgique , or royal picture-gallery , which was 

Picture Gallery. BKUSSELS. i2. Route. 95 

purchased from the city by the state in 1845, is growing in im- 
portance every year. Formerly inferior to the gallery at Antwerp, it 
must probably now be considered as the chief collection in Belgium. 
The Early Flemish School of the 15th cent, is represented by various 
important pictures, such as Adam and Eve by Hubert van Eyck (No. 
19), Madonna by Petrus Cristus (No. 21 ), the Legend of the lying 
empress and the innocent nobleman hy Dierick Bouts (Nos. 51, 52), 
and the Holy Family by Quinten Massys (No. 38). Flemish and 
Dutch art of the 17th cent, has also, through judicious purchases, 
gradually come to be most favourably represented. The pictures by 
Rubens at Brussels cannot indeed be compared, either in number or 
beauty, with those at Antwerp ; but his Adoration of the Magi 
(No. 410) ranks among the finest treatments of this subject, and 
his portraits and the Virgin in an arbour of roses (No. 412) also de- 
serve attention. The full-length portrait of Willem vaij Heythuysen 
(No. 283) and a half-length portrait (No. 282) by Frans Hals, the 
portraits by Van der Heist (Nos. 291, 2921 and Dou (No.2581, and 
the large Village Feast by Teniers (No. 465) may also be specified. 
— The names of the painters are affixed to the frames. As the 
collection is constantly being augmented, the pictures are often re- 
arranged, and some of the more recent acquisitions are not yet 
numbered. The numbering of the pictures begins in each room on 
wall A (comp. the Plan, p. 94), and is continued to the left, on 
Walls B, C, D. 

Rooms I. and III. are at present empty. 

Room II. Italian, Spanish, and French pictures. Wall A. 225, 
227. Al. Sanchez Coeilo, Portraits of Joanna and Maria of Austria, 
daughters of Charles V. ; 514. Italian School, Madonna with the 
Holy Child and St. John; above the last, 199. Paolo Veronese, 
Holy Family with SS. Theresa and Catharine; 171. Guercino, 
Altarpiece ; *277. Claude Lorrain, Landscape with ^neas hunt- 
ing with Dido; 478. Andrea del Sarto, Jupiter and Leda (describ- 
ed by Mr. Crowe as an inferior school -piece); 402, 401. Tinto- 
retto, Portraits; 378. Pannini, Ruins of Rome; above, 197. Paul 
Veronese, Juno strewing her treasures on Venice, ceiling-painting 
from the palace of the Doges at Venice; 154. Albani, Adam and 
Eve; above, 404. F. de Rossi (II Salviati), Christ between two 
apostles ; above, 172. Barocci, Calling of Peter and Andrew ; 226. 
Coello, Margaret of Parma. — Wall B. 460, Strozzi (of Genoa), 
Portrait; above, 398. Guido Reni, Flight into Egypt. — Wall C. 
521. Spanish School, Franciscan monk; 477. Perugino, Madonna 
and Child with John the Baptist, a round picture framed in a gar- 
land of fruit in terracotta; above, 198. Paul Veronese, Adoration of 
the Shepherds; above, Raph. Menps, Portrait of Michael-Angelo 
Cambiaso. — Wall D. 203. Ann.Carracci^ Diana and Actaeon. 

Room IV. Wall A. No number, J. D. de Heem, Fruit and 
flowers ; 370. J. van Oost the Younger, Portrait ; *296. M. d'Honde- 

96 lioute 12. BRUSSELS. Picture Gallery. 

*oeter, Cock crowing. — Wall B. 270. Gov. Flinck, Portrait (1640); 
c4'25. Sal. vanRuysdael, The ferry; 311. Jordaens, Satyr and peasant 
(from /Esop) ; 466. Tenters Vie Younger, Picture-gallery of Archduke 
Leopold William , with the names of the masters on the frames 
(1651); above, 246. G. de Crayer, Conversion of St. Julian; 
376. A. Faliimedesz, Chamber-concert, purchased for 11,500 fr. ; 
470a. Terburg, Portrait; 356. A. More, Portrait of Alva; >*258. G. 
I)ou, The painter drawing a Cupid by lamplight; 367. Adr. van 
Nieulant , Carnival on the ice on the town -moat of Antwerp; 
above, 269. B. Flemalle, Punishment of Heliodorus; 153. P. Aerl- 
sen, The cook; 316, 317. Th. de Keyser, Two sisters; no number, 
Rubens^ Four heads ; 424a. J. van Ruysdael, Landscape; 331c. *Nic. 
Maes, Old woman fallen asleep while reading; 452. JanSteen, The 
'Rederyker' (i. e. rhetoricians, or members of 'Rederykamern' ; 
these were literary clubs or debating societies, well known in the 
16th and 17th centuries, which met on festive occasions to hold 
recitations and debates); *343. G. Metsu, The breakfast; *308. 
Karel du Jardin, Herd of cattle; above, 491. P. de Vos, Large 
hunting-piece ; 414a, c, & b. Rubens, Mercury and Argus, Rape of 
Hippodamia, Fall of the Titans, three small sketches; 426. Sal. 
van Ruysdael, Landscape with fishermen ; 428. H. Saftleven, Barn ; 
344. Van der Meulen, Army of Louis XIV. at the siege of Tournai ; 
*409. Rubens, Coronation of the Virgin; 374. Isaac van Ostade, 
Woman winding thread; 266a. A. van Dyck, Small sketch; David 
Tenters the Younger, 463. The village-doctor, 462. The five senses ; 
285. J. Dav. de Heem, Flowers; 315. Jordaens, Eleazar and Re- 
becca at the well, in a landscape by Wildens ; *417, *418. Rubens, 
Portraits of Charles de Cordes and his wife, purchased for 130,000 fr. ; 
*332. Nic. Maes, Old woman reading; 500. Pldl. Wouverman, 
Hunt; 363. A. van der Neer, Landscape by night; *467. Tenters 
the Younger, Temptation of St. Anthony; 414. Rubens, Martyrdom 
of St. Ursula and her companions, a small sketch; 368. Pourbus, 
Portrait; 361. P. Neefs the Elder, Interior of Antwerp Cathedral; 
307. Karel du Jardin, Outpost; 193. Adr.Brouwer, Boors carousing 
on the ramparts of Antwerp, bought in 1882 for 13,000 fr. ; 284. 
J.D. de Heem and C. Lambrechts, Allegorical representation of fer- 
tility; 292a. Earth, van der Heist, Portrait; 187. /. and A. Both, 
Italian landscape; 333. Nic. Maes, Portrait; above, 271. F. Floris, 
Last Judgment; 421. Rachael Ruysch , Flowers and fruit; 262. 
A. van Dyck, Martyrdom of St. Peter; 261. Dusart, Village-festival 
(1695); *282. Fr. Hals, Professor Hoornebeek of Leyden ; 168. 
Corn, de Baeilleur, Adoration of the Magi ; 200. G. Camphuysen, 
Rustic interior; 269a. G. Flinch. Goldsmith's family taking stock; 
231. M.vanCoxte. Last Supper; 289. C.deHeem, Fruit and flowers; 
188a. Jan de Bray, Portrait; 366. Isaac van Ntckele (d. 1703), 
Groote Kerk at Haarlem; 347. A. Miynon, Flowers and insects. — 
Wall D. 247. (/ . de Grayer, Adoration of the shepherds. 

Picture Gallery. BRUSSELS. 72. Route. 97 

Room V. 236. G. de Crayer, Martyrdom of St. Blaise, painted 
in 1667 when the artist was 86 (duplicate in Ghent, see p. 01). — 
155, 156. D. ran Alsloot, Procession of St. Gudule in the market- 
place of Brussels; in the centre of No. 156 is the old 'Halle an 
Pain', opposite the Hotel de Ville. 

Room YI. Painters of the 18th and early 19th centuries. — 
Wall A. J. B. de Jonghe, Landscape near Tournai ; P. J. Helle- 
mnns. View from the wood at Soignes. — Wall B. F. J. Navez, 
The young man of great possessions, Judgment of Solomon ; F. Goya, 
Scenes from the Inquisition (sketch) ; J. L. David, Flute-player, 
a portrait. — Wall C. A. Lens, Samson and Delilah ; G. J. Her- 
reyns. Adoration of the Magi ; P. J. C. FrariQois^ Marius on the 
ruins of Carthage; F. J. Navez, Ilagar and. Ishmael, Athaliah test- 
ing Joash: Ingres, Virgil reading the JEnead aloud; U. van Assche, 
AVaterfall at To.-^a ; J. L. David, Portrait of a boy (study). — Wall 
I). A. LfTi.s, Bacchus comforting Ariadne, Offerings for Bacchus; 
M. J. van Bree, Regulus returning to Carthage, Athenians casting 
lots for the victims for the Minotaur. 

Room VIL J. B. de Champaigne, 221. Assumption, 210-219. 
Scenes from the life of St. Benedict; 445. Snayers, Siege of Cour- 
trai(1648). , 

Roo^r VIII. Wall A. 220. Ph. de Champaigne, Portrait of him- 
self (1668); 373. Is. van Ostade, Travellers resting; 195. Velret 
Brueghel, St. Norbert preaching against heresy at Antwerp; *183. 
Ferd. Bol, Saskia van Ulenburgh. Rembrandt's wife; above, 291, 
292. Barth. van der Heist, Portraits of the painter and his wife(?). 
— Wall C. 360. P. Neefs the Elder, Interior of Antwerp Cathedral; 
505. Wynants, Landscape with accessories by A. van de Velde ; 
above, 434. G-'. «Sc7iaZcfccn, Wax-moulding; 354. A. More, Portrait of 
Hubert Goltzius (p. 373j; 333c. TV. Maes, Portrait. — Wall D. 392. 
A.Pynacker, Landscape with stag-hunt; 293. J. van Hemessen, 
Prodigal Son ; 464. Teniers the Younger, Flemish landscape ; 392. 
J. van Ravesteyn, Portrait; 483. W. van de Velde the Younger, The 
Zuiderzee; above, 272. F.Floris and J. Francken, Adoration of the 
Magi; 422. Jac. van Euysdael. Landscape, with accessories by A. 
van de Velde; 499. Phil. Wouverman, Starting for the chase; 504, 
503. Wynants, Landscapes; *412. Rubens, Virgin and Child in an 
arbour of roses, the background by J. Brueghel, formerly in Eng- 
land, bought in 1882 for 75,000 fr. ; 454. Jan Steen, Twelfth Night 
('Le roi boit') ; 313. Jordaens, Allegorical representation of the 
vanity of this world ; 497. Em. de Witte, Interior of the church at 
Delft ; 293a. M. Hohhema, Landscape ; *455. Jan Steen, The gal- 
lant offer ; above, 232. Michiel van Coxie, Death of the Virgin ; *397. 
Rembrandt, Portrait of a man (1641); 469. L. van I'den, Landscape, 
with accessories by Teniers the Younger; 194. Adr. Brouiver, Brawl 
in an ale-house; 364. Aari van c?er 2Vecr, Pleasures of winter; 272a. 
P. Franchoys, Drinkers; 414d.Pw6em, Atalanta andMeleager; 288. 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 7 

98 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Picture Gallery. 

J. D. de Heem, Still-life; 419. liubens, Portrait (1619J; *283. 
Frans Hals, Portrait of Wiliem van Heytliuysen, founder of the 
hospital of that name at Haarlem; 196. Jan Brueghel ('Velvet 
Brueghel'), Autumn ; 249a. ^\B, G. Cuyp, Fisherman; above, 243. 
G. de Crayer, The Virgin as the patroness of the Archers of Grand- 
Serment at Brussels; 337. J. L. de Marne, Festival of a patron- 
saint; 424. Jac. van Ruysdael, The Uaarlemer Meer; 427. Dav. 
liyckaert, Chemist in his lahoratory; 299. J. van Huchtenburgh, 
Battle-piece; no number, P. Potter, Swine; 372. Adr. van Ostade, 
Flemish trio, purchased for 19,470 fr.; 17Ga. G. and J. Berck- 
Heyde, Church of Haarlem; 371. Adr. van Ostade, Peasants eating 
herrings; 395. Jan van Ravesteyn, Portrait; 453. Jan Steen, The 
operation ; above, 166. L. Bakhuyaen, Storm off the Norwegian coast; 
397a. Rembrandt, Portrait; *294. Hobbema, Wood at Haarlem; 181, 
182. Ferd. Bol, Portraits; 278. J. van Goyen, View of Dort, figures 
by A. Cuyp; J. Matsys, 342. (above) Lot and his daughters, 341. 
The chaste Susannah; 496. J. Weenix, Game and fruit (1703); 
375. A. Palamedesz, Portrait (1650); 249. Alb. Cuyp, Stable; *465. 
Dav. Ttniers the Younger, Flemish village-festival (1652); 502. 
Wxjnants, Landscape ; 438a. Er. Quellin and Dan. Seghers, Flowers, 
with a head of Christ in the centre ; 333a, 333b. N. Maes, Portraits; 
*461. Dav. Tenters the Elder^ View of a village, purchased for 10,000 fr. 
KooM IX. Wall A. 365. Aart van der Neer, The Yssel by moon- 
light; iQS. J. Asselyn, Crossing the ford; no number, Van Dyck, 
Study of a head; 297. Hondecoeter, Dead cock hung on a wall; 253. 
Dirk van Delen, Portico of a palace, with accessories by Palamedesz 
(1642); 442. P. Snayers, Battle of the White Hill, near Prague, 
1620; 184a. Ferd. Bol, Portrait; 501. P. Wouvermann, Riding- 
lesson; *468. Dav. Tenters the Younger, Portrait; 473. Ttlborgh, 
Parade of the Knights of the Golden Fleece before the palace of 
the Duke of Brabant at Brussels; 176. N. Berchem, Cattle at pasture ; 
346. W. van Mieris, Susannah; 121. Flemish School, Portrait 
(1504); 443. P. Snayers, Battle of AVimpfen (1622), with Tilly in 
the foreground; 476a. Adr. van Utrecht, Fruit; 271a. F. Floris, 
Holy Family; 254. J. W. Delff, Portrait; 187a, 187b. Bout, Boude- 
wyns. Landscapes. — Wall B. 314. Jordaens, Head of an Apostle, 
a sketch in colours; 257. J. van der Does, Herd-boys. — Wall C. 
444. P. Snayers, Battle of Hcechst, 1622; 430. A. Sallaert, The 
Infanta Isabella witnessing a competition of the Grand-Serment 
Archers at Brussels (1615); 252a. C. Decker, The wooden bridge; 
498. E. de Witte, Church-interior; 175. N. Berchem, Landscape with 
ruins; 295. M. d' Hondecoeter, Entrance of a park; 431. Sallaert, 
Procession; 321. Phil, de Koninck, Dunes; 420. Gericault (1820), 
St. Martin dividing his cloak with a beggar, copy of a work by 
Rubens in Windsor Castle; 476b. Adr. van Utrecht, Kitchen-scene, 
with accessories by JorcZaens; 184. F. Boi, Philosopher; 507. Flemish 
School, Interior of a picture-gallery; 286. J. Dav. de Heem, Vauitas; 

Picture Gallery. BRUSSELS. i?. Route. 99 

427a. Eyckaert the Younger, Labourers' repast; 26. Maerten van 
Heemskerck (properly Van Veen'), Entombment, on the wings portraits 
of the donor and his wife with their patron-saints (1559); 486. 
T. Veraecht, Adventure of the Emperor Maximilian on the Martins- 
wand. — WallD. *235. G. de Grayer, Miraculous Draught of Fishes, 
one of the painter's best works; 382. iV. Pimont, Landscape. 

Room X. Wall A. 259. F. Duchatel, Two little girls; 310. J. 
Jordaens^ Allegorical representation of fertility ; Ant. van Dyck, 
266. Portrait of Delafaille, burgomaster of Antwerp, 265. St. Fran- 
cis of Assisi, 264. St. Anthony of Padua; 309. J. Jordnens, St. Mar- 
tin casting out a devil; 387. Pourbus, Portrait (1573); 476. Ad. 
van Ostade, Large kitchen interior. — Wall B. 237. G. de Grayer, 
Assumption of St. Catharine ; 415, *416. Rubens, Portraits, over life- 
size, of the Archduke Albert and his consort, the Infanta Isabella, 
painted, for the triumphal arch erected on their entry into Antwerp 
(see p. xviii); Rubens, 413. Venus in Vulcan's forge, 407. Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, the principal figure poor, painted for the church 
of the Carmelites at Antwerp; 312. J. Jordaens, Triumph of Prince 
Frederick Henry of Nassau, a sketch (comp, p. 276) ; 490. Gorn. de 
Voe, The painter and his family; 263. V(tn Dyck, Drunken Silenus; 
408. Rubens, Pieta. — Wall C. 178. Karel Em. Biset, Tell and the 
apple, with the members of the St. Sebastian Archery Guild repre- 
sented as onlookers ; 300. G. Huysmans, Landscape ; 488, 489. 
Marten de Vos, Portraits; 411. Rubens, Martyrdom of St. Livinus, 
whose tongue the executioner has torn out and offers to a hungry 
dog, one of the great master's most repulsive pictures, painted for 
the Church of the Jesuits at Ghent; 276. J. Fyt, Fruit and flowers, 
in a landscape; above, 205. Ph. de Ghampaiyne, Presentation in 
the Temple; 339. Peter Meert, The masters of the Guild of Fish- 
mongers in Brussels. — Wall D. 208. Ph. de Ghampaigne, St. Am- 
brose; 301. J. B, Huysmans, Landscape with cattle; 406. Ru- 
bens, Christ hurling thunderbolts against the wicked world, while 
the Virgin and St. Francis are interceding, painted for the Francis- 
cans of Ghent; 447. Fr. Snyder s, Game and fruit; 239. Gasp, de 
Grayer, SS. Anthony and. Paul, the hermits; 405. Rubens, Way to 
Golgotha, painted in 1637 for the Abbey ofAfflighem; 275. J. Fyt, 
Dead game, on a cart drawn by dogs ; *410. Rubens, Adoration of 
the Magi, painted for the Capuchin friars of Tournai; 160. J. van 
Arthois, Sylvan path ; 209. Ph. de Ghampaigne, St. Stephen. 

Room XL Wall A. 3a. J. Bosch (J. van Aaken), Fall of the 
rebellious angels, a work of extravagant imagination ; 42. Bernard 
van Orley, The physician George de Zelle; 3e. Dierick Bouts 
(Stuerbout), Martyrdom of St. Sebastian; 47. School of B. van 
Orley, Madonna and. Child; 140. German School, Madonna and 
Child, with saints ; 5, 6. B. de Bruyn, Portraits ; 47a. J. de Patinir, 
Rest on the Flight into Egypt; 40. B. van Orley. Pieta, with por- 
traits of the donors on the wings, painted before 1522, under 


100 Eoute 12. BRUSSF.LS. Picture Gallery. 

Italian influence; 48. J. de Patinir , Mater Dolorosa; 34. Mem- 
ling., Portrait; *55. Roger van der Weyden, Charles the l)Ol(l; 
69. Flemish School, Descent from the Cross; 113. Flemish School^ 
The Woman taken in adultery; 4a. Peter Brueghel the Younger, 
The children of Bethlehem. — AY all C. 4. Peter Brueghel the 
Elder ('Peasant Brueghel'), Massacre of the Innocents, naively re- 
presented as occurring in the midst of a snow-clad landscape ; 1. 
Amberger , Portrait; 13. Lucas Cranach the Elder, Dr. Johannes 
Scheuring (1529); 49. Martin Schoen. Mocking of Christ; *32, *33. 
7l/cmZ<ng', Portraits of the Burgomaster W. Moreel and his wife, models 
of plain burgess simplicity ; *31. Memling, Crucifixion, with the Virgin 
and St. John; in the foreground kneels Duke Francesco Sforza of 
Milan with his wife and son ; on the ^v^ngs Birth and Resurrection 
of Christ with Saints ; on the back SS. Jerome and George, in gris- 
aille. — B. van Orley, 43. Guillaume do Norman (1519). 41. Trials 
of Job ; 8, 9. Jan van Coninxloo, Birth and Death of St. Nicholas; 
27. Hans Holbein the Younger (?), Sir Thomas More (?); 18. School 
of Albrecht THlrer, Portrait; 50. School of Martin Schoen, Christ at 
the house of Simon the Pharisee; 12. Cornelis van Coninxloo, 
Relatives of the Virgin ; 20. Jan van Eyck (more probably by 
Gerard David, according to Mr. Crowe), Adoration of the Magi; 
the figures somewhat stiff though not unnatural, the colouring vigo- 
rous ; 44. B. van Orleyi^i), Wings of an altar-piece of 1528, with 
scenes from the life of St. Anne; Birth of the Virgin and Rejection 
of the offering of Joachim (on the back: Death of St. Matthew, 
Thomas's Unbelief, Marriage of St, Anne, and Appearing of (!hrist). 
— 3f. Dierick Bouts, Last Supper. 

Antechambkr, between RR. XI. and XII. Nos. 14, 15. Lucas 
Cranach the Elder, Adam and Eve; 2. H. de Bles, St. Anthony. 

Room XII. AVall A. 98. Flemish School, Descent from the 
Cross. — Wall B. 28. J. Joest, Holy Family; 3b. J. Bosch (J. van 
Adken), Temptation of St. Anthony, in the painter's well-known 
fantastic manner (on the back: Martyrdom of St. Anthony, in 
gxisaille) ; above, 143. German School, Christ and Apostles ; 21. 
School of Van Eyck (by Petrus Cristus, according to Mr. Weale), 
Madonna and Child; 152. French School, Edward VI. of England(?); 
29. L. Lombard, Last Supper (1531); 76. Flemish School, Portrait 
of Willem van Croy; 39. Jan Mostaert, Miracles of St. Benedict; 
24. Jan Gossaert, surnamed Mabuse or van Maubeuge, Mary Mag- 
dalene washing the feet of Christ in the house of Simon the Phari- 
see, with the Raising of Lazarus on the left wing, and the Assump- 
tion of Mary Magdalene on the right; 126. German School, Cruci- 
fixion ; 144. German School, Portrait of the Emperor Maximilian I. — 
WallC. C. Crivelli, 16. Madonna and Child, 17. St. Francis of Assisi. 

**38. Quinten Massy s or Metsys, History of St. Anne, a large 
winged picture, purchased in 1879 for 200,000 fr. from the church 
of St. Peter at Louvain, for which it was painted in 1509. 

Picture Gallery. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 101 

The principal picture repreaents the family of St. Anne, including 
the Virgin and Child, to the latter of whom St. Anne holds out a grape; 
in front, to the right, is Salome with her two sons, James the Elder and 
John •, to the left. Mary Cleophas, with her sons, James the Younger, 
Simon Thaddseus, and Joseph the Just; behind the balustrade, in the 
archway, through which a rich landscape is visible, are Joachim, Joseph, 
Zebedee, and Alphtcus, the husbands of the four women. 'The heads are 
full of life, the garments are richly-coloured and disposed in large masses, 
and the whole scene is illuminated with a light like that of a bright day 
in spring'. — On the inside of the left wing is an Angel announcing to 
Joachim the birth of the Virgin , on the outside, Oflerings of Joachim 
and Anne on their marriage (with the signature 'Quinte Metsys 1509'); 
on the right wing are the Death of St. Anne, and the Expulsion of 
Joachim from the Temple on account of his lack of children. 

Wall D. 145, 146. German School, Portraits of Maximilian II. 
and Anne of Austria, as children; 56. Roger van der W£yd€n(^'>'), 
Head of a weeping woman (faded). 

*3d, *3c. iJierick Bouts, Justice of Otho III. 

The subject is the medieeval tradition that the Emp. Otho beheaded 
a nobleman who had been unjustly accused by the Empress, but his inno- 
cence having been proved by his widow submitting to the ordeal of fire, 
Otho punished the empress with death. This picture was originally hung 
up in the judgment-hall of the Hotel de Ville at Louvain, according 
to an ancient custom of exhibiting such scenes as a warning to evil-doers. 

57-64. School of Roger van der Weyden, History of Christ, of 
little value. 

*19. Hubert van Eyck, Adam and Eve, two of the wings of 
the celebrated Adoration of the Lamb in the church of St. Bavon 
at Ghent (see p. 39) , ceded by the authorities to government, as 
being unsuitable for a church, in return for copies of the six wings 
at Berlin. 

'It would be too much to say that Hubert rises to the conception of 
an ideal of beauty. The head (of Eve) is over large, the body protrudes, 
and the legs are spare, but the mechanism of the limbs and the shape 
of the extremities are rendered with truth and delicacy, and there is 
much power in the colouring of the flesh. Counterpart to Eve, and once 
on the left side of the picture, Adam is equally remarkable for correctness 
of proportion and natural realism. Here again the master's science in 
optical perspective is conspicuous, and the height of the picture above 
the eye is fitly considered'. — Crowe and Cavalcaselle, Early Flemish 
Paintevs, 1872. — (Comp. p. xxxix.) 

At the back are figures of the Erythraean Sibyl, with a view of 
Ghent, and the Cumsean Sibyl, with an interior, by the Van Eycks. 

Beyond the Palais des Beaux-Arts is the Petit Sablon, or Kleine 
Zaavelplaats (Pl. D, 5). To the right rises the church of — 

Notre Dame des Victoires (PI. 24; D, 5), also called Notre 
Dame du Sablon, founded in 1304 by the guild of Cross-bowmen, 
but almost entirely rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries. It has 
lately been purged of disfigurements. 

The Inteeioe, which has been recently restored, measures 71 yds. in 
length by 28 yds. in breadth (61 yds. across the transepts) and is decorated 
with stained glass. A tablet of black marble in the S. transept re- 
cords that the remains of the author Jean-BapHsie Rousseau, who died in 
exile at Brussels in 1741, were transferred hither in 1642 from the Church 
des Petits-Carmes (see p. 103). — The adjacent 1st Chapel in the S. Aisle 
contains the monument of Count Flaminio Gamier, secretary of the Duke 

] 02 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Pal. Arenberg. 

of Parma, consisting of six reliefs in alabaster from the life of the 
Virgin (about 1570 ; restored). At the W. end of this aisle is a monument 
erected in 1856 to Aug. dal Pozzo, Marquis de Voghera (d. 1781), com- 
mander of the Austrian forces in the Netherlands. — The burial-chapel 
(I7th cent.) of the Princes of Thurn and Taxis, in the N. Transept, sump- 
tuously adorned with black and white marble, contains sculptures of no 
artistic merit; a St. Ursula over the altar, by Hen. Duquesnoy^ merits at- 
tention-, on the right is an angel holding a torch, by Grupello; in the 
dome are numerous family armorial bearings. — The Cuoik contains 
mural paintings of saints, being an exact reproduction of the originals of 
the 15th cent, discovered here in i860 in a state beyond restoration; also 
some stained glass of the 15th century. — The pulpit, carved in wood, is 
borne by the symbols of the four Evangelists. 

At the upper end of tlie Petit Sablon, a small square surrounded 
by a handsome railing, rises the Monument of Counts Egmont and 
Hoorn (PI. 39), by Fraikin, which formerly stood in front of the 
Maison du Roi (p. 106). The lower part is a fountain, above which 
rises a square pedestal in the later Gothic style. The two small 
bronze figures on the right and left are soldiers of the corps com- 
manded by the two counts. The colossal figures in bronze above 
represent Egmont and Hoorn on their way to execution. Ten 
Marble Statues of celebrated contemporaries of the counts were 
erected in 1890 in a half-circle round the monument. These re- 
present (from left to right): Marnix of Ste. Aldegonde (p. 245) by 
P. Devigne^ Abr. Ortelius by J. Lambeaux, Bern, van Orley by 
Dillens, J. de Locquenghien by G. van den Kerckhove, Ger. Mer- 
cator by L. P. van Biesbroeck, Dodonaeus (p. 132) by A. de Tom- 
bay, Corn. Floris de Yriendt by J. Pecker, H. van Brederode by 
J. A. van Rasbourgh, L. van Bodeghem by J. Cuypers, and William 
of Orange by C. van der Stappen. The 48 small bronze figures on 
the pillars of the artistic railing represent the Artistic and Indust- 
rial Guilds of the 16th century; they were cast in 1882-83 by the 
Compagnie des Bronzes at Brussels from designs by A'. Mellery and 
models by J. Cuypers, P. Comein, J. Courroit, A. Desenfans, A., 
J., F., and G. van den Kerckhove^ Ch. Geefs, J. A. Hambresin, 
J. Laumans, B. Martens, E. Lefever, A. J. van Rasbourgh, J. 
Lambeaux, and others. — Behind the monument is the — 

Palace of the Due d'Arenberg (PI. 44; D, 5), once the re- 
sidence of Count Egmont, erected in 1548, restored in 1753, with 
a modern right wing. It contains a small but choice picture-gallery 
(admission, see p. 77). 

The Pictures are all in excellent preservation, and furnished with 
the names of the artists. — Long Room, to the left of the entrance: Rem- 
brandt, or more probably Sal. Koninck, Tobias restoring his father's sight ; 
Van Dyck., Portrait of a Spanish countess; Graesbeeck, His own studio; A. 
van Ostade, A. Bromcer, Tavern-scenes ; Jac. van Ruysdael, Waterfall; 
Hobbema, Landscape; P. Potter, Resting in a barn; Rubens, Two portraits 
and three sketches of angels' heads ; Berck-Heyde, Canal ; JP. de Hooch., In- 
terior; O. Dou, The painter's parents; O. Metsu, The billet-doux; Jan 
van der Meer van Delft,, Girl; Jan Steen, Wedding atCana; Rubens, Small 
portrait; A. van der Neer, Moonlight on the sea (1644); O. Dou, Old 
woman counting money; O. Terburg, Musical entertainment; JordaenSy 
'Zoo de ouden zongen, zoo piepen de jongen' (when the old quarrel, the 

Palais de Justice. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 103 

young squeak); Tenters, Playing at bowls; O. Dou. Hermit; N. Maes, 
The scholar; G. Miens, Fishwoman. — Above the door: Bei'ck-Heyde, 
Inner court of the Amsterdam Exchange. — To the right of the door: 
/. Ruysdael , Landscapes; A. Cuyp , Horses; D. Tenters, Farmyard, Pea- 
sant smoking; Van der Heist, Dutch wedded couple, Portrait of a man; 
A. van Dyck, Portrait of a Due d'Arenberg; Tenters., Man selling shells; 
Fr. ffah.The drinker; Everdingen, Waterfall; Terburg, Portrait; Fr. Hals, 
Two boys singing; Rubens, Two portraits and a sketch. — On the window- 
wall: Portrait of Marie Antoinette, painted in the Temple by Koharsky, 
shortly before the unfortunate queen was removed to the Conciergerie. 

The Library contains antique vases, statuettes, and busts in marble. 
— The well-kept Gardens deserve a visit (fee 1 fr.). 

A few houses above the palace, to the left, is the prison of Les 
Petits Cannes (PI. D, E, 5), the front of which (set apart for 
female convicts) was built in 1847 by Dumont in the English Gothic 
style. A Carmelite monastery formerly occupied this site. 

Somewhat higher up stood the house of Count Kuylenburg, memo- 
rable under Philip II. as the place of assembly of the Netherlands nobles 
who began the struggle against the supremacy of Spain. Here, on 6th 
April, 1566, they signed a petition C" Request') to the vice-regent Margaret 
of Parma (natural daughter of Charles V, and sister of Philip II.), pray- 
ing for the abolition of the inquisitorial courts, after which between three 
and four Uundred of the confederates proceeded on horseback to the palace 
of the Duchess, in the Place Eoyale. At the moment when the petition was 
presented. Count Barlaimont. one of the courtiers, whispered to the princess, 
whose apprehensions had been awakened by the sudden appearance of the 
corte'ge, '■Madame, ce n'est quune troupe de gueux" (i.e., beggars), in allusion 
to their supposed want of money. The epithet was overheard, and ra- 
pidly communicated to the whole party, who afterwards chose it for the 
name of their faction. On the same evening several of their number, 
among whom was Count Brederode, disguised as a beggar with a wooden 
goblet (jatte) in his hand, appeared on the balcony of the residence of 
Count Kuylenburg and drank siiccess to the 'Gueux'; while each of the 
other confederates, in token of his approval, struck a nail into the goblet. 
The spark thus kindled soon burst into a flame, and a few years later 
caused the N. provinces of the Netherlands to be severed from the do- 
minions of Spain. When the Duke of Alva entered Brussels in 1567, he 
fixed his residence in Count Kuylenburg's house and here caused the 
arrest of Counts Egmont and Hoom. Afterwards he ordered it to be 
razed to the ground. 

Farther on , to the left , stands the Conservatoire de Mu- 
sique (PI. 11 ; D, 5), built in 1876 by Cluysenaar. The Conservatoire 
possesses an interesting collection of old musical instruments from 
the 16th cent, onwards , which was augmented in 1879 by the 
acquisition of the Tolbecque collection from Paris, and is now ex- 
hibited at No. 11 Rue aux Laines, at the back of the building (adm. 
on Thurs., 2-4). — On the same side rises the Synagogue 
(PI. 63), a building in a simple and severe style by De Keyset. 

The new * Palais de Justice (PI. C, D, 5), which terminates 
the Rue de la Regence on the S., an edifice designed on a most am- 
bitious scale by Poelaert, and begun in 1866 under the superinten- 
dence of Wellens, was formally inaugurated in 1883, at the jubilee 
of Belgium's existence as a separate kingdom. The cost of the 
building amounted to 50 million francs (2,000, OOOZ.). It is the 
largest architectural work of the present century, and is certainly 
one of the most remarkable, if not one of the most beautiful 

104 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Palais de Justice. 

of modern buildings. The inequalities of the site added 
greatly to the magnitude of the task. The area of the building is 
270,000 sq. ft,, considerably exceeding that of St. Peter's at Rome 
(see p. 142). The huge and massive pile stands upon an almost 
square basis, 590 ft. long by 560 ft. wide, and forcibly sug- 
gests the mighty structures of ancient Egypt or Assyria. Indeed 
the architect avowed that his guiding principle was an adaptation 
of Assyrian forms to suit the requirements of the present day. The 
general architectural scheme may be described as pyramidal, each 
successive section diminishing in bulk. Above the main body of 
the building rises another rectangular structure surrounded with 
columns; this supports a drum or rotunda, also encircled with col- 
umns, while the crown of the whole is formed by a comparatively 
small dome, the gilded cross on the top of which is 400 ft. above 
the pavement. The rotunda is embellished with colossal figures 
of Justice, Law, Strength , and Clemency. The principal fac^ade, 
with projecting wings and a large portal , is turned towards the 
Rue de la Re'gence. In details the Gra;co-Roman style has been 
for the most part adhered to, with an admixture of rococo treatment, 
and curved lines have been generally avoided ; an example of this is 
the rectilineal termination of the porch, which is enclosed by huge 
pilasters. The flights of steps ascending to the vestibule are adorn- 
ed with colossal statues of Demosthenes and Lycurgus by A. Cattier 
(1882; to the right) and of Cicero and Domitius Ulpian by A. F. 
Boure (1883; to the left). The interior includes 27 large court- 
rooms, 245 other apartments, and 8 open courts. The large Salle 
des Pas Perdus^ or waiting-room, with its galleries and flights of 
steps, is situated in the centre, under the dome, which has an 
interior height of 320 ft. Guides in uniform are in waiting to con- 
duct visitors through the interior (daily, except Sun., 9-4.30). 

A little to the N.W. of the Petit Sablon (p. 101) is the Place 
i)U Grand Sablon {Groote Zaavelplaats; PI. D, 4), in the centre 
of which is an insignificant fountain-monument erected by the 
Marquis of Aylesbury in 1751 , in recognition of the hospitality 
accorded to him at Brussels. 

The old Palais de Justice (PI. 46), formerly a Jesuit monastery, 
stands on the N. side of the Grand Sablon. The wing facing the 
Rue de la Paille contains the Archives of the kingdom. The princi- 
pal front, on the N.W. , faces a small Piace, with the marble sta- 
tue of Alex. Gendehien (d. 1869), a member of the provisional 
government of 1830, by Ch. Van der Stappen, erected in 1874. 

In the Rue Haute, or Hoogstraat, in the immediate vicinity, is 
situated the Gothic Notre Dame de la Chapelle (PI. 23 ; C , 4), 
begun in 1216 on the site of an earlier chapel; the choir and transept 
date from the middle of the 13th cent., and the nave and W. towers 
were completed in 1483. 

Hotel deViUe. BRUSSELS. 1 '2. Route. 105 

The Iktkriok (concierge, Rue des Ursulines 24) is worthy of a visit 
on account of the numerous frescoes (Chapelle de la Sainte Croix, to the 
right of the choir) and oil-paintings (14 -Stations of the Cross) by Van 
Eycken (d. 1853). The first three pillars of the chapels in the S.' Aisle 
bear the remains of frescoes of the 15th cent, (saints). — The stained- 
glass in the 1st and 2nd chapels, with scenes from the life of the Virgin, 
is by /. ran der Poorfen (1S67). The 3rd chapel contains the tomb of the 
painter Jan Brueghel ("Velvet Bruegher), with a picture by him (Christ 
giving the keys to Peter). In the 4th Chapel, De Crayer, Christ appearing 
to Mary Magdalene. — In the N. chapel of the choir: Landscapes by J. 
iVAHhois (d. 1605) a,ni Achtschelling (d. 1731). Near the altar: De Cvaye)\ 
S. Carlo Borromeo administering the Holy Communion to the plague- 
stricken; Van Thitlden, Intercession for souls in Purgatory. Jlonument of 
the Spinola family by Plumiers (d. 1721). On a pillar a monument, with 
bust, to Duke Ch. Alex, de Cvoy (d. 1624). A tablet of black marble at the 
back of the pillar, put up by Counts Merode and Beaufort in 1834, bears 
a long Latin inscription to the memory of Frans Anneessens^ a citizen 
of Brussels, and a magistrate of the Quarter of St. ^Nicholas, who was 
executed in the Grand 3Iarche in 1719 for presuming to defend the pri- 
vileges of the city and guilds against the encroachments of the Austrian 
governor (the Marquis de Pric). — The CnoiK has recently been decorated 
with fine polychrome paintings by C ha vie- Albert. The somewhat incon- 
gruous high-altar was executed from designs by Rubens. — The carving 
on the pulpit, by Plumiers, represents Elijah in the wilderness, and is 
simpler and in better taste than that of the pulpit in the cathedral. 

The Rue Haute ends at the Porte de Hal (p. 113). 

In the centre of the lower part of the town lies the **Grande 
Place, or market-place (PI. D,3}, 120yds. long and 74yds. wide, 
in which rise the Hotel de Ville and several old guild -houses. 
It is one of the finest mediaeval squares in existence, presenting 
a marked contrast to the otherwise modern character of the city, 
and occupies an important place in the annals of Belgium. In 
the spring of 1568 twenty-five nobles of the Netherlands were be- 
headed here by order of the Duke of Alva , the most distinguished 
victims being Lamoral, Count Egmont, and Philip de Montmorency, 
Count Hoorn (p. 102). 

The *H6tel de ViUe (PI. D, 3) is by far the most interesting 
edifice in Brussels, and one of the noblest and most beautiful build- 
ings of the kind in Belgium. It is of irregular quadrangular form, 
66 yds. in length and 55 yds. in depth, and encloses a court. The 
principal facade towards the market-place is in the Gothic style, 
the E. half having been begun in 1402, the W. in 1443. The 
graceful tower, 370 ft. in height, which, however, for some unex- 
plained reason does not rise from the centre of the building, was 
completed in 1454. The first architect is said to have been Jacob 
van Thienen (1405), and the next Jan van Ruysbroeck (jiA4S'), a 
statue of whom adorns the first niche in the tower. The fagade has 
lately been restored. It is doubtful whether the niches on the facade 
were all intended to receive statuettes, or were in some cases meant 
to be purely decorative; at all events the central story of the S. 
wing and the tower now seem overladen by the multitude of mod- 
ern statues of Dukes of Brabant with which they have been adorn- 

106 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Halle au Pain. 

ed. The open spire, which was damaged by lightning in 1863, ter- 
minates in a gilded metal figure of the Archangel Michael , which 
serves as a vane, 16 ft. in height, but apparently of much smaller 
dimensions when seen from below. It was executed by Martin van 
Rode in 1454. The back of the Hotel de Yille dates from the begin- 
ning of the 18th century. In the court are two fountains of the 18th 
cent. , each adorned with a river-god, that on the right by Plumiers. 

The concierge (fee 1/2 fr.), who lives in the passage at the back, shows 
the Intekiok of the Hotel de Ville (see p. 76). The rooms and corridors 
contain several pictures (Stallaert, Death of Eberhard T'serclaes, 1388, 
a magistrate of Brussels ; Coomans, Defeat of the Huns at Chalons, 451), 
and portraits of former sovereigns, among whom are Maria Theresa, 
Francis II., Joseph II., Charles VI., Charles II. of Spain, etc.; in the 
following passage, the Emperor Charles V., Philip III. of Spain, Philip IV., 
Archduke Albert and his consort Isabella, Charles II. of Spain, and Phi- 
lip II. in the robe of the Golden Fleece. In the spacious Salle du Cotf- 
SEiL CoMMDNAL, On the first floor, Counts Egmont and Hoorn were con- 
demned to death in 1568. The present decoration of the hall, with its 
rich gilding, recalling the palace of the Doges at Venice, dates from the 
end of the 17th century. The ceiling-painting, representing the gods in 
Olympus, is by Victor Janssens. The same artist designed the tapestry on 
the walls, of which the subjects are the Abdication of Charles V., the Coro- 
nation of Emp. Charles VI. at Aix-la-Chapelle, and the 'joyeuse entre'e"' 
of Philippe le Bon of Burgundy, t.c, the conclusion of tlie contract of 
government between the sovereign, the clergy, the nobility, and the 
people. On an adjacent table, in a chased and gilded copper salver, are 
the keys of the city, which were presented to the regent on that oc- 
casion. — The adjoining rooms are hung with tapestry from designs by 
Lebrun and Van der Borght, representing the history of Clevis and Clo- 
tilde. — The large Banquet Hall, 65 yds. long and 27 yds. wide, re- 
cently decorated with beautiful Gothic carved oak, from designs by Ja- 
maer, also deserves notice. The tapestry, representing the guilds in char- 
acteristic figures, was executed at Blalines from designs by W. Geets. — 
The Salle d'Attente contains views of old Brussels, before the con- 
struction of the present new and spacious streets (pp. 109, 111), by J. B. 
van Afoer, 1873. — The Salle des Maeiages is lined with oaken panelling 
and adorned with allegorical frescoes. — The Staircase is adorned with 
two pictures by ^m.TTaJA^ers; John III., Duke of Brabant, resigning to the 
guilds of Brussels the right of electing the burgomaster (1421), and Mary 
of Burgundy swearing to respect the privileges of the city of Brussels (1477). 

The Tower (key kept by the concierge; 1 fr. for 1 pers., 60 c. each 
for a party) commands an admirable survey of the city and environs. 
To the S. the Lion Monument on the Field of Waterloo is distinctly visible 
in clear weather. The best hour for the ascent is about 4 p.m. 

Opposite the Hotel de Yille is the *Halle au Pain (PI. 35 ; D, 3), 
better known as the Maison du Roi, formerly the seat of the govern- 
ment authorities. The building was erected in 1514-25, in the 
transition style from the Gotbic to the Renaissance, restored about 
1767 in egregiously bad taste, and rebuilt in 1877-84 according to 
the original plan. It is now fitted up for the municipal authorities, 
and joined with tbe Hotel de Ville by a subterranean passage. 
Counts Egmont and Hoorn passed the night previous to their exe- 
cution here, and are said to have been conveyed directly from the 
balcony to the fatal block by means of a scaffolding, in order to 
prevent the possibility of a rescue by the populace. 

The *MusEE Communal (Gemeentelyk Muzeum), established in 

Guild Houses. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 107 

1887 on the second floor of the Halle an Pain (adm. daily, 10-4), 
contains models of ancient and modern buildings of Brussels, sculp- 
tures, banners, Brussels china and faience, artistic objects in metal, 
a few rare prints, plans of buildings, water-colour views of Brussels, 
coins and medals, and some paintings of the Flemish, German, and 
Italian schools, including examples of Mierevelt, Snyders, A. More., 
Holbein., Cuyck, Goltzius, Bol^ and Marco d'Oggionno. 

The *Guild Houses in the Grande Place are well worthy of 
notice. They were re-erected at the beginning of last century, 
after having been seriously damaged during the bombardment by 
Louis XIV. in 1695. The old hall of the Guild of Butchers on the 
S. side is indicated by a swan. The Hotel des Brasseurs, recently 
restored with considerable taste, bears on its gable an equestrian 
statue of Duke Charles of Lorraine (p. 78), designed in 1854 by 
Jaquet. On the "W. side is the Maison de la Louve, or Hall of 
the Archers, which derives its name from a group representing 
Romulus and Remus with the she-wolf. To the left of the Louve 
is the Hall of the Skippers, the gable of which resembles the stern 
of a large vessel, with four protruding cannon; to the right of the 
Louve, the Hall of the Carpenters (1697), richly adorned with gild- 
ing. On the N. side, to the right of the Halle au Pain , is the 
Taupe, or Hall of the Tailors, built in 1697 and lately restored. — 
The extensive building occupying almost the entire S.E. side of the 
square was formerly the public Weighing House. 

At the back of the Hotel de Yille, about 200 yds. to the S.W., at the 
corner of the Rue du Chene and the Rue de TEtuve, stands a diminutive 
figure, one of the curiosities of Brussels, known as the Mannikin Fountain 
(PI. 36; C, 4), cast in bronze after Duquesnoy's model in 1619. He is a 
great favourite with the lower classes, and is invariably attired in gala- 
costume on all great occasions. When Louis XV. took the city in 1747, 
the mannikin wore the white cockade, in 1789 he was decked in the colours 
of the Brabant Revolution , under the French regime he adopted the tri- 
colour, next the Orange colours, and in 1830 the blouse of the Revolu- 
tionists. Louis XV., indeed, invested him with the cross of St. Louis. 
The figure is not without considerable artistic excellence. 

In the Rue du Marche aux Herbes. near the N.E. corner of the 
Grande Place, is the entrance to the Galerie St. Hubert, or Passage 
(PI. D, 3), constructed from a plan by Cluysenaar in 1847, a 
spacious and attractive arcade with tempting shops (234 yds. in 
length, 26 yds. in width, and 59 ft. in height). It connects the 
Marche -aux -Herbes with the Rue des Bouchers (Galerie de la 
Reine), and farther on with the Rue de I'Ecuyer (Galerie du Roi, 
with the Galerie des Princes diverging on one side). The sculp- 
tural decorations are by Jaquet. The arcade is crowded at all hours 
of the day. (Cafes, shops, and theatre, pp. 73, 74.) 

About 150 yds. higher, in the Rue de la Madeleine, and also in 
the Rue Duquesnoy and Rue St. Jean, are entrances to the Marche 
Convert (PL D, 4), or Marche de la Madeleine, an extensive mar- 
ket-place for fruit, vegetables, and poultry, erected by Cluysenaar 
in 1848. Owing to the different levels of the above-named streets 

108 Route ll>. BRUSSELS. University. 

the market lias t\so stories. Like tlie Halles Centrales (p. 110), it 
is well worth visiting in the early part of the morning. 

The Rub db la Madeleine (PI. D, 4) contains numerous houses 
with facades of the 17th cent, in the Renaissance style. It is contin- 
ued by the busy Moxtagnb db la Cour, which leads to the Place 
Royale (p. 87). — A side-street between the Rue de la Made- 
leine and the Montague de la Cour leads to the left to the TJni- 
«rersity (PL 74; J), 4), an 'universite libre', established in the old 
palace of Cardinal Granvella, Rue de I'lmpe'ratrice, near the Palais 
de rindustrie. It was founded by the liberal party in 1834, as a 
rival of the Roman Catholic University of Louvain (p. 200), and 
comprises the faculties of philosophy, the exact sciences, juris- 
prudence, and medicine, along with a separate pharmaceutical in- 
stitution. The Ecole Polytechnique, founded in 1873, embraces six 
departments : mining, metallurgy, practical chemistry, civil and 
mechanical engineering, and architecture. The number of students 
is upwards of 1000. The court is adorned with a Statue of Verhae- 
gen (d. 1862), one of the founders, who, as the inscription records, 
presented a donation of 100,000 fr. to the funds, by Geefs. 

A few paces from the University, in the Rue des Sols, is the so- 
called Chapelle Salazar, or de VExpiation (PL 9 ; D, 4), erected in 
1436 as an 'expiation' for a theft of the host from Ste, Gudule in 1370 
(see p. 86), and occupying the site of the synagogue where the sa- 
cred wafers were profaned. It has recently been restored; the in- 
terior is gaudily decorated (scenes from the Passion by G. Payen). 
In the adjoining Rue Terarken (PL D, E, 4), to the S.E., the Gothic 
Ravestein Mansion should be noticed as one of the few remaining 
antique private buildings in Brussels (p. 79). It possesses an 
interesting staircase, pediment, and projecting window. 

The busy streets to the N. of the market and the Passage St. 
Hubert lead to the Place db la Monnaib (PL D, 3), in which 
rises the royal TheS-tre de la Monuaie, with a colonnade of 
eight Ionic columns, erected by the Parisian architect Damesne in 
1817. The bas-relief in the tympanum, executed by Simonis in 
1854, represents tlie Harmony of Human Passions (in the centre. 
Harmony, surrounded by allegorical figures of heroic, idyllic, lyric, 
and satiric poetry ; on the left Love, Discord, Repentance, and 
Murder ; on the right Lust, Covetousness, Falsehood, Hope, Grief, 
and Consolation). The interior, which was remodelled after a fire 
in 1855 , is decorated in the Louis XIV. style and can contain 
2000 spectators. — Opposite the theatre the new General Post Office 
is now in course of erection; its frontage will extend from the Rue 
du Fosse-aux-Loups to the Rue de I'Eveque. — Cafes, see p. 73. 

From the Place de la Monnaie the handsome and busy Rue 
Neuvk (PL D, 2), one of the chief business-streets of Brussels, 
leads towards the N. in a straight direction to the Station du Nord. 
In this street, to the right, is the new Galerie du Commerce 

New Exchange. BRUSSELS. 72. Roitte. 109 

(PI. D, 2^, a glass arcade, similar to the Galerie St. Hubert (p. 107), 
but smaller. To the left is the Galerie du Nord^ leading to the 
Boul. du Nord (see below) and containing the Musee du Nord, a 
hall for concerts and dramatic representations. 

Turning to the left at the end of the Galerie du Commerce , or 
following the next side-street to the right in the Rue Neuve, we reach 
the Place des Martyrs, built by Maria Theresa, in the centre of 
which rises the Martyrs' Monument (PI. 38 ; D, 2), erected in. 1838 
to the memory of the Belgians who fell in Sept., 1830, while fighting 
agaiyst the Dutch (see p. 80). It represents liberated Belgium engrav- 
ing on a tablet the eventful days of September ('23rd to 26th) ; at her 
feet a recumbent lion, and broken chains and fetters. At the sides 
are four reliefs in marble : in front the grateful nation ; on the right 
the oath taken in front of the Hotel de Yille at the beginning of the 
contest; on the left the conflict in the Park (p. 80); at the back the 
consecration of the tombs of the fallen. The monument was de- 
signed and executed by W. Geefs. The marble slabs immured in the 
sunken gallery record the names of the 'martyrs', 445 in number. 

An entirely modern feature in the lower part of the city is 
formed by the *Inner Boulevards ( PI. B, C, D, 2-5 ; tramways, see 
p. 75), which lie to the W. of the Rue Neuve and the Place de la 
Monnaie , and extend from the Boulevard duMidi (near the Station 
du Midi) to the Boulevard d'Anvers (near the Station du Nord), 
partly built over the Senne, and intersecting the whole town. Th& 
constniction of the street, and the covering in of the bed of the 
Senne for a distance of I1/3 M., were carried out by an English 
company in 1867-71. The names of the boulevards are Boulevard 
du Nord, Boulevard de la Senne, Boulevard Anspach (the most im- 
portant; named after the burgomaster Anspach, d. 1879), and 
Boulevard du Hainaut. The pleasing variety of the handsome build- 
ings with which they are flanked is in great measure owing to an 
offer by the municipal authorities of premiums, from 20,000 fr. 
downwards, for the twenty finest facades. 

The Boulevard du Nord (PI. D, 2) and the Boulevard de la 
Senne (PL D, 2) meet at the beginning of the Boulevard Anspach, 
by the Church of the Augustines, erected in the 17th cent., and 
now used temporarily as the Bureau Central des Pastes. — The tall 
and narrow house, to the N.E. of the church, No. 1, Boulevard du 
Nord , built by Beyaert in 1874, received the first prize in the 
above-named competition. 

In the centre of the city , between the Boulkvakd Anspach 
(PL C, 3) and the Rue des Fripiers, rises the *New Exchange 
(Bourse de Commerce), an imposing edifice in the Louis XIV. 
style, designed by Suys. Its vast proportions and almost excessive 
richness of ornamentation combine to make the building worthy 
of being the commercial centre of an important metropolis ; but it 

wo Route 12. BRUSSELS. Halles Centrales. 

has been sadly disligured by the application of a coat of paint, 
necessitated by the friable nature of the stone. The principal facade 
is embellished with a Corinthian colonnade, to which a flight 
of twenty steps ascends. On each side is an allegorical group by 
J. Jaquet. The reliefs in the tympanum, also by Jaquet, represent 
Belgium with Commerce and Industry. The two stories of the 
building are connected by means of Corinthian pilasters and col- 
umns. Around the building, above the cornice, runs an attic 
story , embellished with dwarfed Ionic columns , and forming a 
curve on each side between two pairs of clustered columns. Jhe 
eff"ect is materially enhanced by means of numerous sculptures. 

The principal hall, unlike that of most buildings of the kind, is 
cruciform (47 yds. by 40 yds.), and covered with a low dome (about 150 ft. 
high) in the centre, borne by twenty-eight columns. At the four corners 
of the building are four smaller saloons. Two marble staircases ascend 
to the gallery, which affords a survey of the principal hall, and to the 
other apartments on the upper floor. The cost of the whole structure 
amounted to 4 million francs. 

In the Boul. Anspach, nearly opposite the Exchange, is the 
Hotel des Ventes, built in 1881. — A little to the W., in the Place 
St. Ge'ry (PI. C, 3), is a Market, in the Flemish style, opened 
in 1882. 

In the BouLBVARD du Hainaut, to the left, is a Panorama. 
To the right, in the Place Anneessens (PI. C, 4) is the monument 
of the civic hero Frans Anneessens (p. 105), by Vin^otte, erected 
in 1889. Behind is a School in the Flemish style, by Janlet. A 
little farther along the boulevard, on the left, rise the Ecole Modele 
(No. 80), by Hendricks, and the large Palais du Midi (PI. B, C, 4, 
5), the S. part of which is occupied by the Ecole Industrielle, and 
the N. part by a market-hall. 

On the W. side of the Boulevard Anspach are the Halles Cen- 
trales (PI. C, 3), a covered provision-market resembling its name- 
sake at Paris , but on a much smaller scale. A morning walk 
here will be found interesting. In approaching from the Boulevard 
Anspach through the Rue Gre'try, we have the meat, poultry, and 
vegetable market on the left, and the fish- market on the right. 
At the end of the latter the baskets of fish arriving fresh from the 
sea are sold by auction to retail-dealers (comp. p. 6). The auction- 
eer uses a curious mixture of French and Flemish, the tens being 
named in French and all intermediate numbers in Flemish. French 
alone is used at the auctions in the poultry and vegetable market. 
— In the new Grain-Market (PI. C, 2) is a marble statue of the 
naturalist J. B. van Helmont (1577-1644), by G. van der Linden. 

Beyond the Halles rises the Church of St. Catharine (PI. 15; 
C, 2), on the site of the old Bassin de Ste. Catherine, designed by 
Poelaert (p. 103), in the French transition style from Gothic to Re- 
naissance. It contains paintings by Pe Crayer and Vaenius, an 
Assumption ascribed to Rubens, and other works from the old 
church that stood on the same spot. 

Botanic Garden. BRUSSELS. 19. Route. Ill 

The Eglise du Beguinage (PI. 13; C, 2), in the vicinity, con- 
tains a colossal statue of John the Baptist by Puyenhroek, an En- 
tombment by Otho Taenius, and paintings by Yan Loon. 

The MusEB Commercial, Rue des Augustins 17 (PI. D, 2), 
instituted in ISSO for the encouragement of Belgian commerce, con- 
tains collections of foreign manufactures. 

The old *Boulevards, or ramparts, were levelled about the 
beginning of the century and converted into pleasant avenues, 
which have a total length of 41/2 miles. The boulevards of the 
upper part of the town [to the N. and E.), together with the Avenue 
Louise connecting them with the Bois de la Cambre (p. 115), are 
thronged with carriages, riders, and walkers on fine summer-even- 
ings, and present a very gay and animated scene. The por- 
tion between the Place Quetelet (PI. F, 2) and the Place du 
Trone (PL E, 5), adjoining the palace-garden, is also much fre- 
quented from 2.30 to 4 p.m. (chairs 10 c). The traveller who has 
a few hours at command is recommended to walk round the inner 
town by these Boulevards, a pleasant circuit occupying iy2-2 hrs., 
which, however, he may shorten by availing himself of the tram- 
way on the S. and W. sides. 

Immediately to the E. of the Station du Nord (built by Coppens), 
on the right, rises the Hospital of St. John {Hopital St. Jean; 
PL E, 2), an imposing structure erected by Partoes in 1838-43 and 
admirably fitted up (admission 9-5 o'clock, Ifr.; attendant 1/2"! f^.; 
entrance, Rue Pache'co). 

On the opposite slopes are the grounds of the Botanic Garden 
(PL E, 2; adm., see p. 76), with hot-houses erected in 1826. It is 
entered from the Rub Royalb (p. 80), a little to the N. of the point 
where that street intersects the Boulevard du Jardin Botanique. 
From this part of the Rue Royale, which is borne by arches, we ob- 
tain a fine view of the N. boulevards , extending to the hills which 
enclose the valley of the Senne. — To the E. of the Botanic Gar- 
den is the new Jesuit Church (PL 18; F, 2), built by Parot in the 
early-Gothic style. 

At the N. end of the Rue Royale rises the church of Ste. Makib 
DB Schabrbbbk (PL 20 ; F, 1), an octagonal edifice in the Byzan- 
tine style, built by Hansotte from plans by Van Overstraeten. In 
the Place Colignon, to the N., is the new Maison Communale of 

On the right side of the Boulevard, farther on, lies the cir- 
cular Place des Barricades (PL F, 2), until 1830 called the 
Place d' Orange, adorned with a statue of the anatomist Vesalius, by 
Ed. Geefs. 

Vesalius, the court-physician of Charles V. and the founder of modern 
anatomy, was born at Brussels in 1514. His parents were natives of 
Wesel, of which the name Vesalius is a Latinised form. He was con- 
demned to the stake as a sorcerer by the Inquisition, but this penalty 

^]2 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Musee Wiertz. 

was commuted into a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, On bis way back be was 
wrecked on tbe coast of Zante, wbere be died in 1564. 

The streets to the S.W. of this point, extending to the Palais 
de la Nation and the ministerial offices (p. 81), were almost entirely 
constructed within the last few years. 

To the E. of the Boulevards lies the modern and handsome, but 
somewhat monotonous Quartier Leopold, in the centre of which 
rises the church of St. Joseph (PL 19 ; F, 4), a Renaissance building 
of 18-49, by the elder Suys. The facade and towers are constructed 
of blue limestone. The altarpiecc is a Flight into Egypt by Wlertz. 
On the E. side of the Qiiartier Leopold lies the Pare Leopold (PI. G, 
f)), formerly laid out as a zoological garden. On the W. side (Rue 
AViertz) is the large EtahUssement d' Horticulture Internationale 
(Director, M. Linden), opened in 1889. On the S. side, between 
the park and the Rue Vautier, rises the new Musee d'Histoire 
Naturelle, opened in 1891. 

On tbe Grockd-Floor (entr. Euc Vautier) is tbe collection of ifam- 
tnalia and Birds., containing stuiTed specimens and skeletons. Here for 
tbe present are also skeletons, 25 ft. bigb, of tbe '■ Jgtianodon (I. Semis- 
sarlensis and /. Ji/antelli), tbe largest representative of tbe Saurian family 
of reptiles. Tbese were found, along witb eigbtcen similar skeletons, in 
tbe coal-measures of Bernissart (p. 68) in Ilainault, and are tbe first perfect 
skeletons discovered of tbis giH;antic lizard. In tbe 'Salle des Cavernes', 
also on tbe ground-floor, are tbe ricb collections of bone-relics and objects 
of tbe stone age discovered in tbe caves on tbe Lesse (p. 192). 

On tbe First Floor are tbe collections of Fishes and Reptiles and of 
Fossil Vertehrata (cbalk-formation, tertiary and quaternary epocbs). Tbe 
latter, wbicb is especially ricb and of great scientific importance, includes 
(besides tbe Iguanodon, see above) toler.ably perfect skeletons of tbe Wo- 
sasaurus, Ilainosaurus, Pbospborosatiriis, Proynatbodon, Plioplatecarpus, 
Orthomerus, various fossil crocodiles,'^tortoises, and fisbes, primajval ele- 
pbant (Elepbaa antiquus), JIammotb (found in lb'60 at Lierre), Irisb elk, 
Rbinoceros Ticborbinus, Musk-ox, etc. — On tbe Second Floor are tbe 
collections of Articulata, Mollusca, and Radiata, Fossil Flants, and Minerals. 

In the vicinity rises the *Musee Wiertz (PL G, 5 ; entrance by 
an iron gate at the N.pj. corner of the garden in the Rue Vautier), 
formerly the country-residence and studio of the painter of that 
name (1806-65), after whose death it was purchased by government 
(admission, see p. 77). It contains almost all the productions of 
this highly-gifted but eccentric master, who could not be induced 
to dispose of his works. Interesting catalogue, containing also a 
sketch of the artist's life, 1/2 fr. A monument to Wiertz has been 
erected in the Place de la Couronne in the suburb of Ixelles 
(p. 115), with a medallion and a group in bronze by Jaquet. 

We first enter two rooms containing designs and sketcbes in colours; 
in one of tbera a mask of tbe painter's face taken after deatb. To tbe 
rigbt is tbe principal saloon, wbicb contains seven large pictures : L Contest 
for tbe body of Patroclus, 1845^ to tbe rigbt, 3. Homeric battle; 4. One 
of tbe great of tbe eartb (Polypbemus devouring tbe companions of Ulysses), 
painted in 1860: 14. Tbe beacon of Oolgotba; 16. Tbe triumpb of Cbrist, 
1848; 8. Contest of good witb evil, 1842; 52. Tbe last cannon, 1855. Tbe 
following are smaller works: 23. Vision of a bebeaded man; over tbe 
door, 25. Lion of Waterloo; 36. Tbe young witcb; 24. Orpbans, witb tbe 
inscription 'Appel a la bienfaisance' ; 5. Forge of Vulcan (1855?); in tbe 
corners of tbe left end-wall, 28. Napoleon in tbe infernal regions; 21. 

Porte de Hal. BRUSSELS. 1^. Route. 113 

Hunger, Madness, and Crime; opposite, 26. Courage of a Belgian lady; 
opposite, on the right end-wall, 15. Entombment, with the Angel of Evil 
and the Fall on the wings; 22. The suicide: 95. Concierge; 37. The rose- 
hud ; T6. Portrait of the painter; 73. ^Portrait of his mother; 11. Education 
of the Virgin. In the corners of the room are wooden screens, through 
peep-holes in which paintings hung behind them are seen. The effect is 
curiously realistic. The three marble groups in the middle of the room, 
representing the development of the human race, are also by Wiertz. Some of 
the pictures are painted in a kind of distemper invented by Wiertz himself. 

In the open space in front of the Station du Quartier Leopold(^l. 
F, 51, a Statue of John Cockerill (d. 1840 ; PL 391, the founder of the 
iron-works of Seraing (p. 2131, by A. Cattier, was erected in 1872. 
The lofty limestone pedestal is surrounded by figures of four miners. 
The inscription is : 'travail, intelligence'. 

In the Boulevards, farther to the S., is the monumental Fon- 
taine De Brouckere (PL E, 51, with a bust of M.De Brouckere, an able 
burgomaster of Brussels (d. 1866), by Fiers, and a group of children 
by D' Union, erected on the site of the former Porte de Namur. — 
In the Boulevard de Waterloo, to the left, rises the Eglise des 
Cannes (PL D, 6; interior adorned with painting), beyond which 
the Avenue du Bois de la Cambre (p. 115) diverges to the left. 

Then, to the right, is the Hospice Pacheco (PL D, 6), founded in 
1713 by Isabella Desmares, widow of Don Aug. Pache'co, for neces- 
sitous widows and spinsters above 50 years old. The present building 
dates from 1835. On the opposite side of the boulevard is the Ave- 
nue d'Uccle (PI. C, 6), which leads to the new Mint, completed in 
1879 (to the right, beyond the Rue de la Victoire). 

The Porte de Hal (PL C, 6), at the S. extremity of the 
inner town, is the sole remnant of the old fortifications. It was 
erected in 1381 , and two centuries later became the Bastille of 
Alva during the Belgian 'reign of terror'. It is a huge square 
structure with three vaulted chambers , one above the other , and a 
projecting tower. The interior, skilfully adapted for this purpose 
by Beyaert, contains a rich Museum of WBAroNS. Admission, sec 
p. 76. The collection of antiquities, which was also formerly here, 
has been removed to the Palais du Cinquantenaire (p. 82). 

The section of the boulevards skirting the W. side of the old 
town of Brussels is generally known as the 'Lower Boulevards'. Of 
these we first reach the Boulevard du Midi (PL B, 6, 5, 4). On 
the right stands the Blind Asylum of the Philanthropic Society of 
Brussels (PL 34 ; C, 6), a Gothic brick building with a clock-tower, 
designed by Cluysenaar (1858). Onlthe left is the Cite Fontainas 
(PL B, 6), an asylum for unemployed teachers and governesses. — 
Farther on is the Station du Midi (PL A, 5, 6), built by Payen. 
Opposite diverge the hxoa-i Avenue du Midi, the continuation of 
which is the Rue du Midi, ending behind the Bourse fp. 106), and 
the Boulevard du Hainaut (p. 110). [At the N. end of the Avenue 
du Midi is the Place Rouppe (PL C, 4), with a fountain-monument 
to N. J. Rouppe, burgomaster of Brussels in 1830-38 , by Fraikin.'] 
Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 8 

114 Route 12. BRUSSELS. Laeken, 

In the Lower Boulevards, farther to the N., stands the EcoleVet- 
erinaire (PI. 12 ; B, 5), and beyond it arc the extensive Abattoirs 
(slaughter-houses; PI. 1; B, 3). Near the latter begins the Canal, 
45 M. long, which connects Brussels with the Sambre near Charleroi. 
Finally, the tasteful Caserne du Petit-Chateau and the Entrepot Royal 
(PI. 25 ; C, 1), or custom-house, with its spacious warehouses. 

At the W. end of the Boulevard d'Auvcrs (PI. 0, D, 1"), and 
immediately adjoining the custom-house, begins the AlleeVkrtk, a 
double avenue of limes extending along the bank of the Willebroeck 
Canal, which connects Brussels with Malines and Antwerp. The 
trees were planted in 1707, and were considerately spared by Mar- 
shal Saxe in 1746 during the siege of Brussels in the War of the 
Austrian Succession. This avenue was formerly the most fashion- 
able promenade at Brussels, but is now completely deserted. 

At the end of the Allee Verte a bridge crosses the canal, the 
road beyond which leads in a straight direction to Laeken (Restau- 
rants: Pavilion de la Reine , near the canal-bridge, at the entrance 
to the town; Grande Grille, to the right, near the cluirch, 'platdu 
jour' 75 c. ; several other cafes with gardens), a suburb of Brussels 
with 22,1300 inhab., and the summer-residence of the king of Bel- 
gium. It is connected with Brussels by two tramway-lines (cars every 
lOmin.), one running via the Rue de Progres (PI. E, 1) and the 
other via the Chauss^e d'Anvers (PI. D, 1). The two tramway-lines 
unite farther out, on the Laeken road, which leads to the new 
Church of St. Mary , designed by Poelaert. The exterior is still 
unfinished, especially as regards its destined Gothic ornamentation, 
but the interior is finely proportioned. The place of the choir is 
occupied by an octagon, forming the royal burial-vault, and contain- 
ing the remains of Leopold L (d. 1865) and Queen Louise (d. 1850). 

The Cemetery of Laeken has sometimes been styled the Pere- 
Lachaise of Brussels, but can of course bear no comparison with the 
great burial-ground of Paris, either in extent or in the interest of 
the monuments, A small chapel here contains the tomb of the 
singer Malibran (d. 1836), adorned with a statue in marble by Geefs. 
The curious Galeries Funeraires in the S. part of the cemetery, 
resembling catacombs, were constructed a few years ago. 

The new street passing the E. side of the church and skirting 
the royal garden and park (generally closed ; celebrated hot-houses) 
ascends to the (20 min.) Montagne du Tonnerre (197 ft.), an emi- 
nence crowned with the Monument of Leopold I., erected in 1880. 
The statue of the king, by W. Geefs, is surmounted by a lofty Gothic 
canopy resting on massive round pillars, somewhat in the style of 
the Albert Memorial in London. A winding stair ascends to tliebase 
of the spire, whence a fine view (evening-light best) is obtained of 
Laeken and of Brussels , with the conspicuous dome of the new 
Palais de Justice. — The monument is surrounded with pleasure- 
grounds ; to the W. lies the Ferme Royale. 

Ecliellc 1:51200 

Bois de la Cambre. BRUSSELS. 12. Route. 115 

To the S.E. of the monument, on the right of and visible from 
the road to it, rises the Royal Chateau, erected by the Archduke 
Albert of Saxe-Teschen Avhen Austrian stadtholder of the Nether- 
lands in 1782-84. In 1802-14 it was in the possession of Napoleon I., 
who daled here his declaration of war against Russia in 1812. In 
1815 the chateau became the property of the Crown. Leopold I. 
died here on 16th Dec, 1865. On New Year's Day 1890 a great 
part of the chateau was destroyed by fire and among the many objects 
of art which perished in the flames were Napoleon^s library, valuable 
tapestries , and paintings by Van Dyck. The chateau has been 
rebuilt in its previous form. 

A steam-tramway runs from Laeken to (8V2 M.) Ifumbeek. 

About 31/2 M. to the N. of Laeken , and V* M. from the village of 
Mei/sse, is the beautiful chateau of Boucfiout, fitted up in 1S79 as a resi- 
dence for the unfortunate Princess Charlotte, widow of the Emp. Jlaximi- 
lian of Mexico, who was shot in 1867. 

In the Central Cemetery at Evere, which is reached by the steam- 
tramway (PI. G, 2, 3) mentioned at p. 75, a tasteful monument has been 
erected to the German soldiers who died in Belgium during the Franco- 
German war. 

The pleasantest promenade in the environs of Brussels is the 
*Bois de la Cambre, on the S.E. side, being a part of the Foret de 
Soigues, converted into a beautiful park resembling the Bois de 
Boulogne of Paris , under the auspices of M. Keilig, a landscape 
gardener. It covers an area of 450 acres, and is reached from the 
Boulevards by the broad and handsome Avenue Louise (F\. D, E, 6), 
or Avenue du Bois de la Cambre^ IY2 M. in length, which is 
flanked by a number of handsome new houses. Before the Bois is 
reached , on the left , are the church of Ste. Croix and the two 
ponds of the suburb of Ixelles; farther on, on the same side, is the 
old Abbaye de la Cambre de Notre Dame, below the road, now a 
military school. In the gardens adjoining the Avenue Louise, near 
the Bois de la Cambre, is a bronze group by Vin(;otte, represent- 
ing a Horse-tamer. A tramway-line (No. 1, p. 75) runs to the en- 
trance of the park, where there are several cafes and restaurants. 
In the park itself is the 'Laiterie' (*Restaurant, expensive), and 
farther on, on an island in the small lake, the 'Chalet Robinson' 
restaurant. Beyond the Bois de la Cambre is the Hippodrome, used 
for horse-races, and reached by steam-tramway from the Porte do 

13. From Brussels to Charleroi via Luttre. 
Battle Field of Waterloo. 

35 31. Railway in I1/4-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 25, 3 fr. 20, 2 fr. 15 c.).— This 
line, which was opened a few years ago, affords a convenient route to the 
Field of Waterloo, especially for a single traveller. Those who merely 
desire a general view of the battle-field should take the train to Braine 
VAlleud (fares 1 fr. 45. 1 fr. 10, 75 c), whence the Hill of the Lion is IV2 M. 
distant. Omnibus from Braine TAlIeud to the Hill of the Lion and back 

116 Route 13. WATERLOO. Sketch of 

I'/i fr. (preferable to walking, as the traveller thus escapes tlie importunity 
of beggars). The walk described below, from Waterloo to Mont St. Jean, La 
Haye Sainte, La Belle Alliance, Plancenoit, and back hy Ilongomont and the 
lAon Hill to Braine VAlleud, in all 7-8 M., is, however, far more interest- 
ing. If the walk be prolonged from Plancenoit to the S. to Genappe, the 
whole distance will be about 12 M. — A coach leaves Brussels daily (except 
Sundays) between 9 and 10 a.m. for Waterloo, allowing 2-3 hrs. to visit 
the battle-field, and arrives again in Brussels about 5 p.m. (drive of 2 hrs. -, 
refurn-fare 7fr). It starts from the Place Royale and calls at the principal 
hotels in the upper town. One-horse carriage from Brussels to Waterloo, 
20 fr. ; two-horse, 30 fr. 

The train starts from the Station du Midi at Brussels (p. 72), 
and traverses a pleasant country , passing through numerous cut- 
tings. Stations Forest- Stalle, Uccle, Calevoet, Rhode-Saint-Genese. 

10 M. Waterloo, celehrated for the great battle of 18th June, 
1815, and the headquarters of the Duke of Wellington from 17th 
to 19th June. The village lies on the Brussels and Charleroi road, 
3/4 M. from the station. The church contains Wellington's bust, by 
Geefs , and numerous marble slabs to the memory of English of- 
ficers. One tablet is dedicated to the officers of the Highland regi- 
ments, and a few others to Dutch officers. 

The garden of a peasant (a few paces to the N. of the church") 
contains an absurd monument to the leg of the Marquis of Anglesea 
(d. 1854), then Lord Uxbridge, the commander of the British 
cavalry, who underwent the amputation immediately after the battle. 
The monument bears an appropriate epitaph, and is shaded by a 
weeping willow. 

Battle Field. A visit to Mont St. Jean, the two monuments on 
the battle-field, the Lion, and the farms of La Haye Sainte and 
Hougomont, occupies 2 hrs.; to La Belle Alliance and Plancenoit 
2 hrs. more. The traveller will, however, obtain a general survey of 
the field during the first 2 hours. 

Guides. The annexed plan and the following brief sketch of Ihe battle 
will enable the visitor to form a distinct conception of the positions occu- 
pied by the respective armies without the services of a guide. The usual 
fee for the principal points of interest is 2fr. ; if the excursion be extended 
to Plancenoit or Planchenois and the chateau of Frichemont, 3-4 fr. ; but 
an agreement should invariably be made beforehand. 

Kelics. Old bullets, weapons, buttons, and other relics are still occa- 
sionally turned up by the plough, but most of those which the traveller is 
importuned to purchase are spurious. 

Inns at Mont .St. .Tean: Hotel Mont St. Jean and (to the right where 
the road to IsMvelles diverges from the Namur road) Ildtel des Colonnex, 
where Victor Hugo is said to have finished his 'Wiserables'. On the 
mound of the Lion, "Hotel du Musde, moderate. 

Sketch of the Battle. A detailed history of the momentous events 
of 18th June, 1815, would be beyond the scope of a guide-book; but a 
brief and impartial outline, with a few statistics derived from the most 
trustworthy English and German sources, may perhaps be acceptable to 
those who visit this memorable spot. 

The ground on which Wellington took up his position after the Battle 
of Quatre Bras was admirably adapted for a defensive battle. The high- 
roads from -Nivelles and Genappe unite at the village of Mont Saint Jean, 
whence the main route leads to Brussels. In front of the village extends a 
long chain of hills with gentle slopes, which presented all the advantages 

the Battle. WATERLOO. 13. Route. 117 

sought for by the Allies. The undulating ground behind this range afforded 
every facility for posting the cavalry and reserves so as to conceal them 
from the enemy. In this favourable position Wellington was fully justified 
in hoping at least to hold his own, even against a stronger enemy, until the 
assistance promised by Bliicher should arrive. 

The first line of the Allied army, beginning with the right wing (on the 
W.) was arranged as follows. On the extreme right were placed two bri- 
gades of the British household troops, consisting of two battalions of Foot- 
Guards under Gen. Maitland, and two battalions of the Coldstream Guards 
under Gen. Byng. Kext came a British brigade of four battalions under 
Gen. Sir Colin Halkett, adjoining whom were Kielmannsegge with five 
brigades of Hanoverians and a corps of riflemen, Col. Ompteda with a bri- 
gade of the German Legion, and finally Alten's division. The whole of this 
portion of the line occupied the hills between the l^ivelles and Genappe 
roads. Beyond the latter {i.e., farther to the E.) Kemp was stationed with 
the 28th and 32nd regiments, a battalion of the 79th, and one of the 95th 
Rifles. Next came Bylant with one Belgian and five Dutch battalions, sup- 
ported by Pack's brigade, posted a short distance in their rear, and consist- 
ing of the 44th. These four battalions had sufi'ered severely at Quatre Bras 
and were greatly reduced in number, but their conduct throughout the 
battle abundantly proved that their discipline and courage were unimpaired. 
Beyond the Netherlanders were drawn up Best's Hanoverians and Picton's 
infantry division, the latter partly composed of Hanoverians under Col. 
von Vincke. Next to these were stationed Vandeleur's brigade, the ilth, 
12th, and 16th Light Dragoons, and finally on the extreme left (to the E.) 
three regiments of light cavalry, consisting of the 10th and 18th British, and 
the 1st Hussars of the German Legion. 

The first line of the Allies was strengthened at various distances by 
Grant's and Doernberg's cavalry-brigades, consisting of three English regi- 
ments and three of the German Legion respectively, and posted near the 
Guards and Sir Colin Halkett. Next to them came a regiment of Hussars 
of the German Legion under Col. Arentschild ; then, to the E. of the 
Genappe road, two heavy brigades, the Household and the Union, to sup- 
port Alten's and Picton's divisions. The former of these brigades was com- 
posed of the 1st and 2nd Life Guards and the 1st Dragoon Guards under 
Lord Ed. Somerset; the latter of the 1st Royal Dragoons, the Scots Greys, 
and the Irish Inniskillens, commanded by Gen. Sir W. Ponsonby. Besides 
the first line and the troops destined to cover it, various other forces were 
distributed 'as the circumstances and the formation of the ground required. 
Thus a brigade under Col. Mitchell, Sir Henry Clinton's division, Du Plat's 
German brigade, Adam's light brigade, and Halkett's Hanoverians were 
drawn up on the W. side of the Nivelles Chaussee and near the village of 
Merbe Braine. Finally the reserve of Brunswickers and Netherlanders, 
comprising infantry and cavalry, formed a line between Merbe Braine and 
Mont St. Jean, supported by Lambert's British brigade of three regiments, 
which had just arrived by forced marches from Ostend. — The artillery, 
consisting chiefly of British troops, were distributed as occasion required. 
Every battery present was brought into action during the day, and nobly 
fulfilled its duty. 

In front of the centre of the Allied army lay the Chateau of Eougo- 
mont, which with its massive buildings, its gardens and plantations, formed 
an admirable point (Tappni for the defence of the heights above. It was 
garrisoned by two light companies under Lord Saltoun, and two under Col. 
Macdonnel, strengthened by a battalion of Nassovians, a company of Hano- 
verian riflemen, and about 100 men of the German Legion. This point 
holds a prominent place in the history of the battle, both on account of the 
fury with which it was attacked by the French, and the heroic and success- 
ful defence of its occupants. Farther to the left, and nearer the front of the 
Allies, lay La Haye Sainte , a farm-house which was occupied by 400 
men of the German Legion under Major von Baring, but after a noble de- 
fence was taken by the French. The defence of the farms of Papelotte 
and La Haye on the extreme left was entrusted to the Nassovian Brigade 
under Duke Bernard of 'SVeimar. 

118 Route 13. WATERLOO. Sketch of 

Napoleon's army was drawn up in a semicircle on the heights to the E. 
and W. of the farm of La Belle Alliance, about one mile distant from 
the Allies. It was arranged in two lines, with a reserve iathe rear. The 
first line consisted of two coys d'arm^e commanded by Reille and D'Erlon 
respectively, and flanked by cavalry on either side. One corps extended 
from La Belle Alliance westwards to the Nivelles road nnd I cyond it, the 
other eastwards in the direction of the chateau of Frichemont. The 
second line was composed almost entirely of cavalry. Milhaud's cuiras- 
siers and the light cavalry of the guards were drawn up behind the right 
wing, Kellermann's heavy cavalry behind the left. A bodj' of cavalry 
and a portion of Lobau's corps were also stationed in the rear of the 
centre, whilst still farther back the imperial guard, consisting of infantry 
and artillerv, were drawn up in reserve on each side of the chaussee. 

The Diike of Wellington's array consisted of 67,6U0 men, 24,(X)0 of 
whom were British, 30,000 ti'oops of the German Legion, Hanoverians, 
Brunswickers, and Nassovians, and 13-14,000 Netherlanders. Of these 
12,400 were cavalry, 5,600 artillery with 180 guns. The army brought 
into the field by Napoleon numbered 71,900 men, of whom 15,700 were 
cavalry, 7,200 artillery with 246 guns. Numerically, therefore, the dif- 
ference between the hostile armies was not great, but it must be borne 
in mind that no reliance could be placed on the Netherlanders, most of 
whom fled at an early stage of the battle. The staunch Dutch troops 
who formed part of this contingent did their utmost to prevent this das- 
tardly act, but their etTorts were unavailing. Had they formed a separate 
corps they would have been most valuable auxiliaries, but when mingled 
with the Belgian troops their bravery was utterly paralysed. Practically, 
therefore, the Duke's army consisted of barely 50,000 men, composed of 
four or five different elements , and a large porportion of them were 
raw recruits, whilst the soldiers of Napoleon constituted a grand and 
admirably-disciplined unity, full of enthusiasm for their general , and 
confident of victory. The superiority of the French artillery alone was 

After a wet and stormy night, the morning of the 18th of June gave 
some promise of clearing, but the sky was still overcast, and rain con- 
tinued to fall till an advanced hour. The ground, moreover, was so 
thoroughly saturated that the movements of the cavalry and artillery 
were seriously obstructed. This was probably the cause of Napoleon's 
tardiness in attacking the Allies, and of the deliberation with which he 
spent several of the best hours of the morning in arranging his army with 
unusual display. It is not known precisely at what hour the first shots 
were fired ; some authorities mention 8 o'clock, others half-past eleven or 
twelve, while the Duke himself, in his published despatch, names ten as 
the hour of the commencement of the battle. It is, however, probable 
that the actual fighting did not begin till between eleven and twelve. 

The first movement on the part of the French was the advance of a 
division of Reille's corps cfarmie under Je'rome Bonaparte, a detach- 
ment of which precipitated itself against the chateau of Hougomont, and 
endeavoured to take it by storm, but was repulsed. They soon renewed 
the attack with redoubled fury, and the tirailleurs speedily forced their 
way into the enclosure, notwithstanding the gallant resistance made by 
the Hanoverian and Nassovian riflemen. The British howitzers, however, 
now began to pour such a deadly shower of shells on the assailants 
that they were again compelled to retreat. This was but the prelude to 
a series of reiterated assaults, in which the French skirmishers in over- 
whelming numbers were more than once nearly successful. Prodigies of 
valour on the part of the defenders, vigorously seconded by the artillery 
on the heights, alone enabled the garrison to hold out until the victory 
was won. Had the French once gained possession of this miniature for- 
tress, a point of vital importance to the Allies, the issue of the day would 
probably have been very different. 

Whilst Hougomont and its environs continued to be the scene of a 
desperate and unremitting conflict, a second great movement on the part 
of the French was directed against the centre and the left wing of the 

the Battle. .WATERLOO. 13. Route. 119 

Allies. Supported by a cannonade of 72 pieces, the whole of Erlon's corps 
and a division of Kellermann's cavalry, comprising upwards of 18,000 men, 
bristled in columns of attack on the heights above La Haye Sainte, pre- 
senting a magnificent but terrible spectacle. Their object was to storm 
La Haye Sainte, break through the centre of the Allied army, and attack 
the left wing in the rear. At the moment when Key was about to begin 
the attack, "Napoleon observed distant indications of the advance of 
new columns on his extreme right, and an intercepted despatch proved 
that they formed a part of the advanced guard of Biilow's Prussians, 
who were approaching from Wavre. The attack was therefore delayed 
for a short time, and Soult despatched a messenger to Marshal Grouchy, 
directing him to manoeuvre his troops so as to intercept the Prussians. 
Owing, however, to a series of misunderstandings. Grouchy was too far 
distant from the scene of action to be of any service, and did not receive 
the order till seven in the evening. 

It was about two o'clock when Key commenced his attack. The four 
divisions of Erlon's corps moved rapidly in four columns towards the Allied 
line between La Haye Sainte and Sraouhen. Papelotte and Smouhen were 
stormed by Burettes division, but the former was not long maintained by 
the French. Donzelat's division took possession of the gardens of La 
Haye Sainte, notwithstanding the brave resistance of a Hanoverian bat- 
talion, while the two other French divisions, those of Alix and Marcog- 
net, pressed onwards without encountering any obstacle. Hardly had the 
two latter opened their fire on Bylanfs Ketherlandish contingent, when 
the Belgians were seized with a panic and thrown into confusion. All 
the efi'orts of their officers and the remonstrances of their Dutch com- 
rades were utterly unavailing to reassure them, and amid the bitter 
execrations of the British regiments they fairly took to flight. Picton's 
division, however, now consisting solely of the two greatly-reduced brigades 
of Pack and Kemp, and mustering barely 3000 men, prepared with un- 
daunted resolution to receive the attack of the two French divisions, 
numbering upwards of 13,000 infantry, besides cavalry. The struggle was 
brief, but of intense fierceness. The charge of the British was irresist- 
ible, and in a few moments the French were driven back totally dis- 
comfited. The success was brilliant, but dearly purchased, for the gallant 
Picton himself was one of the numerous slain. During the temporary con- 
fusion which ensued among Kemp's troops, who, however, soon recovered 
their order, the Duke communicated with Lord Uxbridge, who put him- 
self at the head of Lord Edward Somerset's Household Brigade, consisting 
of two regiments of Life Guards, the Horse Guards, and Dragoon Guards. 
Meanwhile, too, a body of Milhaud's cuirassiers had advanced somewhat 
prematurely to La Haye Sainte and endeavoured to force their way up 
the heights towards the left centre of the Allied line. These two move- 
ments gave rise to a conflict of unparalleled fury between the elite of the 
cavalry of the hostile armies. For a time the French bravely persevered, 
but nothing could withstand the overwhelming impetus of the Guards as 
they descended the slope, and the cuirassiers were compelled to fly in 
wild confusion. Somerset's brigade, regardless of consequences and en- 
tirely unsupported, pursued with eager impetuosity. At this juncture two 
columns of the French infantry had advanced on Pack's brigade. The 
bagpipes yelled forth their war-cry, and the gallant Highlanders dashed 
into the thickest of the fight, notwithstanding the terrible majority of 
their enemy. This was one of the most daring exploits of the day; but 
the mere handful of Northmen must inevitably have been cut to pieces 
to a man, had not Col. Ponsonby with the Inniskillens, the Scots Greys, 
and the Eoyal Dragoons opportunely flown to the rescue. The cavalry 
charge was crowned with brilliant success, and the French infantry were 
utterly routed. Pack's troops now recovered their order, and were re- 
strained from the pursuit, but Ponsonby's cavalry, intoxicated with suc- 
cess, swept onwards. The Royals encountered part of Alix's division, 
which was advancing towards Mont St. Jean, where a gap had been left 
by the flight of the Belgians. A fearful scene of slaughter ensued, and 
the French again endeavoured to rally. This charge was simultaneous 

120 Route 13. WATERLOO. Sketch of 

with that of Lord Uxbridge on the cuirassiers, as mentioned above. At 
the same time the Greys and Inniskillens, who were in vain commanded 
to halt and rally, madly prosecuted their work of destruction. Somerset's 
and Ponsonbys cavalry had thus daringly pursued their enemy until they 
actually reached the French line near Belle Alliance. Here, however, 
their victorious career was checked. A fresh body of French cuirassiers 
and a brigade of lancers were put in motion against them, and they were 
compelled to retreat with considerable confusion and great loss. At this 
crisis Vandeleur's Light Dragoons came to the rescue, and the tide of the 
contlict was again turned ; but the French, whose cavalry far outnumbered 
those of the Allies, again compelled the British to abandon the unequal 
struggle. Retreat was once more inevitable, and the loss immense, but 
the French gained no decided advantage. Vandeleur himself fell, and 
Ponsonby was left on the field dangerously wounded. 

While the centre and left of the Allied line were thus actively en- 
gaged, the right was not suffered to repose. At a critical juncture, when 
Lord Saltoun and his two light companies were sufl'ering severely in the 
defence of the orchard of Hougomont, and had been reduced to a mere 
handful of men, a battalion of Guards under Col. Hepburn was sent to 
their relief and drove olT the French tirailleurs, whose loss was enormous. 
The chateau had meanwhile taken lire, and the eflects of the conflagration 
were most disastrous to the little garrison, but most fortunately for the 
sufferers the progress of the flames was arrested near the doorway, where 
a crucifix hung. The sacred image itself was injured, but not destroyed; 
and to its miraculous powers the Belgians attributed the preservation of 
the defenders. There was now a pause in the musketry fire, but the 
cannonade on both sides continued with increasing fury, causing frightful 
carnage. Erlon's and Reille's corps sustained a loss of nearly half their 
numbers, and of the former alone 3000 were taken prisoners. Nearly 40 
of the French cannon were moreover silenced, their gunners having been 
slain. Kapoleon now determined to make amends for these disasters by 
an overwhelming cavalry attack, while at the same time the infantry 
divisions of Jerome and Foy were directed to advance. Wilhaud's cuiras- 
siers and a body of the French Guards, 40 squadrons in all, a most mag- 
nificent and formidable array, advanced in three lines from the French 
heights, crossing the intervening valley, and began to ascend towards the 
Allies. During their advance the French cannonade was continued over 
their heads, ceasing only when they had nearly attained the brow of the 
opposite hill. The Allied artillery poured their discharge of grape and 
canister against the enemy with deadly eflect, but without retarding their 
progress. In accordance with the Duke's instructions, the artillerymen 
now retreated for shelter behind the line; the French cavalry charged, 
and the foremost batteries fell into their possession. The Allied infantry, 
Germans as well as British, had by this time formed into squares. There 
was a pause on the part of the cavalry, who had not expected to find 
their enemy in such perfect and compact array ; but after a momentary 
hesitation they dashed onwards. Thus the whole of the cuirassiers, fol- 
lowed by the lancers and chasseurs swept through between the Allied 
squares, but without making any impression on them. Lord Uxbridge, 
with the fragments of his heavy cavalry, now hastened to the aid of the 
infantry, and drove the French back over the hill; but his numbers were 
too reduced to admit of his following up this success, and before long the 
French, vigorously supported by their cannonade, returned. Again they 
swept past the impenetrable squares, and again all their efforts to break 
them were completely baffled, while their own ranks were terribly 
thinned by the fire of the undaunted Allies. Thus foiled, they once more 
abandoned the attack. Donzelat's infantry had meanwhile been advancing 
to support them, but seeing this total discomfiture and retreat, they too 
retired from the scene of action. The Allied lines were therefore again 
free, and the cannonade alone was now continued on both sides. 

After this failure, Napoleon commanded Kellermanu, with his dragoons 
and cuirassiers, to support the retreating masses, and Guyot's heavy 
cavalry of the Guards advanced with the same object. These troops, con- 

the Battle. WATERLOO. 13. Route. 121 

sisting of 37 fresli squadrons, formed behind the shattered fragments of 
the 40 squadrons above mentioned, and rallied them for a renewed attack, 
and again the French line assumed a most threatening and imposing 
aspect. Perceiving these new preparations, the Duke of Wellington con- 
tracted his line so as to strengthen the Allied centre, immediately after 
which manoeuvres the French cannonade burst forth with redoubled fury. 
Again a scene precisely similar to that already described was re-enacted. 
The French cavalry ascended the heights, where they were received with 
a deadly cannonade, the gunners retired from their pieces at the latest 
possible" moment, the French rode in vast numbers between the squares, 
and again the British and German infantry stood immovable. The cavalry 
then swept past them towards the Allied rear, and here they met with 
partial success, for a body of Netherlanders whom they had threatened 
at once began to retreat precipitately. As in the earlier part of the 
day. Lord Uxbridge flew to the rescue with the remnants of his cavalry, 
vigorously seconded by Somerset and Grant, and again the French horse- 
men were discomfited. Lord Uxbridge now ordered a brigade of Belgian 
and Dutch carbineers, who had not as yet been in action, and were 
stationed behind Mont St. Jean, to charge the French cavalry who had 
penetrated to the allied rear ; but his commands were disregarded, and 
the Isetherlanders took to flight. A body of Hussars of the German 
Legion, however, though far outnumbered by their enemy, gallantly 
charged them, but were compelled to retreat. The battle-tield at this 
period presented a most remarkable scene. Friends and foes, French, 
German, and British troops, were mingled in apparently inextricable con- 
fusion. Still, however, the Allied squares were unbroken, and the French 
attack, not being followed up by infantry, was again a failure. The assail- 
ants accordingly, aa before, galloped down to the valley in great confusion, 
after having sustained some disastrous losses. Lord Uxbridge attempted 
to follow up this advantage by bringing forward a fresh regiment of 
Hanoverian Hussars, but he was again doomed to disappointment; for 
the whole troop, after having made a pretence of obeying his command, 
wheeled round and fled to Brussels, where they caused the utmost con- 
sternation by a report that the Allies were defeated. 

During the whole of this time the defence of Hougomont had been 
gallantly and successfully carried on, and Du Plat with his Brunswickers 
had behaved with undaunted courage when attacked by French cavalry 
and tirailleurs in succession. The brave general himself fell, but his 
troops continued to maintain their ground, whilst Adam's Brigade ad- 
vanced to their aid. Overwhelming numbers of French infantry, how- 
ever, had forced their way between them, and reached the summit of 
the hill, threatening the right wing of the Allies with disaster. At this 
juncture the Duke at once placed himself at the head of Adam's brigade 
and commanded them to charge. The assault was made with the utmost 
enthusiasm, and the French were driven from the heights. The entire 
Allied line had hitherto held its ground, and Hougomont proved impreg- 
nable. Napoleon therefore directed his elTorts against La Have Sainte, a 
point of the utmost importance, which was bravely defended by Major 
von Baring and his staunch band of Germans. Key accordingly ordered 
Donzelat's division to attack the miniature fortress. A furious cannonade 
opened upon it was the prelude to an attack by overwhelming numbers of 
tirailleurs. The ammunition of the defenders was speedily exhausted, 
the buildings took fire, and Baring with the utmost reluctance directed 
the wreck of his detachment to retreat through the garden. With heroic 
bravery the major and his gallant officers remained at their posts until 
tlie French had actually entered the house, and only when farther resist- 
ance would have been certain death did they finally yield (see p. 126) 
and retreat to the lines of the Allies. After this success, the French pro- 
ceeded to direct a similar concentrated attack against Hougomont, but in 
vain, for arms and ammunition were supplied in abundance to the little 
garrison, whilst the cannonade of the Allies was in a position to render 
them efficient service. La Haye Sainte, which was captured between 5 
and 6 o'clock p.m., now became a most advantageous jpoint d'appui for the 

1 22 Route 13. WATERLOO. Sketch of 

French liraillcurs, in support of whom ^^oy, during upwards of an hour, 
directed a succession of attacks against the Allied centre, but still with- 
out succeeding in dislodging or dismaying the indomitable squares. Their 
numbers, indeed, were tearfully reduced, but their spirit was unbroken. 
There was, moreover, still a considerable reserve which had not yet been 
in action, although perhaps implicit reliance could not be placed on their 
steadiness. It was now nearly 7 p.m., and the victory on which the 
French had in the morning so confidently reckoned was still entirely 

Meanwhile Bliicher, with his gallant and indefatigable Prussians, 
whose timely arrival, fortunately for the Allies, prevented Napoleon from 
employing his reserves against them, had been toiling across the wet and 
spongy valleys of St. Lambert and the Lasne towards the scene of action. 
The patience of the weary troops was well-nigh exhausted. ' We can go 
no farther', they frequently exclaimed. 'We mugt\ was Bliicher's reply. 
'I have given Wellington my word, and you won't make me break it!' 
It was about 4.30 p.m. when the lirst Prussian battery opened its lire 
from the heights of Frichemont, about 2'/4 miles to the S.E. of the Allied 
centre, whilst at the same time two cavalry regiments advanced to the 
attack. They were first opposed by Domont's cavalry division, beyond 
which Lobau's corps approached their new enemy. One by one the dif- 
ferent brigades of Billow's corps arrived on the field between Frichemont 
and Planchenois. Lobau stoutly resisted their attack, but his opponents 
soon became too powerful for him. By 6 o'clock the Prussians had 48 
guns in action, the balls from which occasionally reached as far as the 
Genappe road. Lobau was now compelled to retreat towards the vil- 
lage of Planchenois, a little to the rear of the French centre at Belle 
Alliance. This was the juncture, between G and 7 o'clock, when Ney was 
launching his reiterated but fruitless attacks against the Allied centre, 
2'/i miles distant from this point. Napoleon now despatched eight bat- 
talions of the guard and 24 guns to aid Marshal Lobau in the defence of 
Planchenois, where a sanguinary conflict ensued, Hiller's brigade en- 
deavoured to take the village by storm, and succeeded in gaining posses- 
sion of the churchyard, but a furious and deadly fusillade from the houses 
compelled them to yield. Reinforcements were now added to the combat- 
ants of both armies. Napoleon sent four more battalions of guards to the 
scene of acti(m, while fresh columns of Prussians united with Hiller's 
troops and prepared for a renewed assault. Again the village was taken, 
and again lost, the French even venturing to push their way to the vicinity 
of the Prussian line. The latter, however, was again reinforced by Tip- 
pelskirch's brigade, a portion of which at once participated in the struggle. 
About 7 o'clock Zieten arrived on the field, and united his brigade to the 
extreme left of the Allied line, which he aided in the contest near La 
Haye and Papelotte. Prussians continued to arrive later in the evening 
but of course could not now influence the issue of the battle. It became 
apparent to Napoleon at this crisis that if the Prussians succeeded in 
capturing Planchenois , while Wellington's lines continued steadfast in 
their position, a disastrous defeat of his already terribly-reduced army was 
inevitable. He therefore resolved to direct a final and desperate attack 
against the Allied centre, and to stimulate the flagging energies of his 
troops caused a report to be spread amongst them that Grouchy was ap- 
proaching to their aid, although well knowing this to be impossible. 

Napoleon accordingly commanded eight battalions of his reserve Guards 
to advance in two columns, one towards the centre of the Allied right, the 
other nearer to Hougomont, while they were supported by a reserve of 
two more battalions, consisting in all of about 5U00 veteran soldiers, who 
had not as yet been engaged in the action. Between these columns were 
the remnc.nts of Erlon's and Reille's corps, supported by cavalry; and 
somewhat in front of them Donzelat's division was to advance. Mean- 
while the Uuke hastened to prepare the wreck of his army to meet the 
attack. Dn Plats Brunswickers took up their position nearly opposite La 
Haye Sainte, between Halkett's and Alten's divisions. Maitland's and 
Adam's brigades were nominally sujiported by a division of Nether- 

the Battle. WATERLOO. 13. Route. 123 

landers under Gen. Chasse, while Vivian with bis cavalry quitted the 
extreme left and drew up in the rear of Kruse's Xassovians, who had 
already suffered severely, and now began to exhibit symptoms of wa- 
vering. Every available gun was posted in front of the line, and the 
orchard and plantations of Hougomont were strengthened by reinforce- 
ments. The prelude to the attack of the French was a renewed and 
furious cannonade, which caused frightful havoc among the Allies. Don- 
zelat's division then advanced in dense array from La Haye Sainte, in- 
trepidly pushing their way to the very summit of the height on which 
the Allies stood. At the same time several French guns supported by 
them were brought within a hundred yards of the Allied front, on which 
they opened a most murderous cannonade. Kielmannscgge's Hanoverians 
sutlered severe loss, the wreck of Ompteda's German brigade was almost 
annihilated, and Kruses Xassovians were only restrained from taking to 
llight by the etTorts of Vivian's cavalry. The Prince of Orange then ral- 
lied the Xassovians and led them to the charge, but they were again driven 
back, and the Prince himself severely wounded. Du Plat's Brunswickers 
next came to the rescue and fought gallantly, but with no better result. 
The Duke, however, rallied them in person, and the success of the French 
was brief. At the same time the chief fury of the storm was about to 
burst forth farther to the right of the Allies. The Imperial Guard, com- 
manded by the heroic Xey, Friant, and Michel, and stimulated to the ut- 
most enthusiasm by an address from Napoleon himself, formed in threaten- 
ing and imposing masses on the heights of Belle Alliance, and there was 
a temporary lull in the French cannonade. The two magnificent columns, 
the flower of the French army, were now put in motion, one towards 
Hougomont and Adam's brigade, the other in the direction of Maitland 
and his Guards. As soon as the Guards had descended from the heights, 
the French batteries recommenced their work of destruction with terrible 
fury and precision, but were soon compelled to desist when they could no 
longer fire over the heads of their infantry. The latter had nearly attained 
the summit of the heights of the Allies, when the British gunners again 
resumed their work with redou1)led energy, making innumerable gaps in 
the ranks of their assailants. Ney's horse was shot under him, but the 
gallant marshal continued to advance on foot ; Michel was slain, and Friant 
dangerously wounded. Notwithstanding these casualties, the Guards gained 
the summit of the hill and advanced towards that part of the line where 
Maitland's brigade had been ordered to lie down behind the ridge in 
the rear of the battery which crowned it. The Duke commanded here 
in person at this critical juncture. The French tirailleurs were speedily 
swept away by showers of grape and canister, but the column of French 
veterans continued to advance towards the apparently-unsupported battery. 
At this moment the Duke gave the signal to Maitland, whose Guards in- 
stantaneously sprang from the earth and saluted their enemy with a 
fierce and murderous discharge. The effect was irresistible, the French 
column was rent asunder and vainly endeavoured to deploy 5 Maitland 
and Lord Saltoun gave orders to charge, and the British Guards fairly 
drove their assailants down the hill. — Meanwhile the other column of 
the Imperial Guard was advancing farther to the right, although vigorously 
opposed by the well-sustained fire of the British artillerj-, and Maitland's 
Guards returned rapidly and without confusion to their position to pre- 
pare for a new emergency. By means of a skilful manoeuvre, Col. Col- 
bome, with the 52nd, 71st, and 85th now brought his forces to bear on 
the flank of the advancing column, on which the three regiments simul- 
taneously poured their fire. Here, too, the British arms were again suc- 
cessful, and frightful havoc was committed in the French ranks. A scene 
of indescribable confusion ensued, during which many of Chasse's Xethcr- 
landers in the rear took to flight, knowing nothing of the real issue of 
the attack. At the same time Maitland and his Guards again charged 
with fierce impetuosity from their ' mountain throne ■•, and completed the 
rout of this second column of the Imperial Guard. In this direction, 
therefore, the fate of the French was sealed, and the Allies were tri- 
umphant. Farther to the left of the Allied line, moreover, the troops of 

124 Route 13. WATERLOO. Battle Field 

DoDzelat, Erlon, and Reille were in the utmost confusion, and totally un- 
able to sustain the conflict. On the extreme left, however, the right wing 
of the French wa3 still unbroken, and the Young Guard valiantly defended 
Planchenois against the Prussians, who fought with the utmost bravery 
and perseverance notwithstanding the fearful losses they were sustain- 
ing. Lobau also stoutly opposed Biilow and his gradually -increasing 
corps. Kapoleon's well-known final order to his troops — ' Tout est per- 
du ! Sauve qui pent ! ' was wrung from him in his despair on seeing his 
Guard utterly routed, his cavalry dispersed, and his reserves consumed. 
This was about 8 o'clock in the evening, and the whole of the Allied line, 
with the Duke himself among the foremost, now descended from their 
heights, and, notwithstanding a final attempt at resistance on the part of 
the wreck of the Imperial Guard, swept all before them, mounted the 
enemy's heights, and even passed Belle Alliance itself. Still the battle 
raged fiercely at and around Planchenois, but shortly after 8 o'clock the 
gallant efforts of the Prussians were crowned with success. Planchenois 
was captured, Lobau and the Young Guard defeated after a most obstinate 
and sanguinary struggle, the French retreat became general, and the vic- 
tory was at length completely won. Kot until the Duke was perfectly 
assured of this did he finally give the order for a general halt, and the 
Allies now desisted from the pursuit at a considerable distance beyond 
Belle Alliance. On his way back to Waterloo, Wellington met Bliicher 
at the Maison Rouge, or Blaison du Roi, not far from Belle Alliance, and 
after mutual congratulations both generals agreed that they must advance 
on Paris without delay. Bliicher, moreover, many of whose troops were 
comparatively fresh, undertook that the Prussians should continue the 
pursuit, a task of no slight importance and difficulty, which Gen. Gneise- 
nau most admirably executed, thus in a great measure contributing to the 
ease and rapidity of the Allied march to Paris. 

So ended one of the most sanguinary and important battles which 
history records, in the issue of which the whole of Europe was deeply 
interested. With the few exceptions already mentioned, all the troops 
concerned fought with great bravery, and many prodigies of valour on the 
part of regiments, and acts of daring heroism by individuals, are on 
record. The loss of life on this memorable day was commensurate with 
the long duration and fearful obstinacy of the battle. Upwards of 50,000 
soldiers perished, or were fiors de combat, whilst the sufferings of the 
wounded baffle description. The loss of the Allies (killed, wounded, and 
missing) amounted to about 14,000 men. Of these the British alone lost 6932, 
including 456 officers ; the German contingents 4494, including 246 officers. 
The total loss of the Prussians was 6682 men, of whom 223 were officers. 
The Netherlanders estimated their loss at 4000 from the 15th to 18th June. 
The loss of the French has never been ascertained with certainty, but 
probably amounted to 30,000 at least, besides 7800 prisoners taken by the 
Allies. About 227 French guns were also captured, 150 by the Allies, the 
rest by the Prussians. 

Napoleon's errors in the conduct of the battle were perhaps chiefly 
these, that he began the battle at too late an hour of the day, that he 
wasted his cavalry reserves in a reckless manner, and that he neglected 
to take into account the steadiness with which British infantry are wont 
to maintain their ground. The Duke of Wellington is sometimes blamed 
for giving battle with a forest in the rear, which would preclude the pos- 
sibility of retreat ; but the groundlessness of the objection is apparent to 
those who are acquainted with the locality, for not only is the Foret de 
Soignes traversed by good roads in every direction, but it consists of lofty 
trees growing at considerable intervals and unencumbered by underwood. 
It is a common point of controversy among historians, whether the victo- 
rious issue of the battle was mainly attributable to the British or the 
Prussian troops. The true answer probably is, that the contest would 
have been a drawn battle but for the timely arrival of the Prussians. It 
has already been shown how the Allied line successfully baffled the 
utmost efforts of the French until 7 p.m., and how they gloriously repelled 
the final and most determined attack of the Imperial Guard about 8 

of Waterloo. MONT ST. JEAN. 13. Route. 125 

o'clock. The British troops and most of their German contingents, there- 
fore, unquestionably bore the burden and heat of the day, they virtually 
annihilated the flower of the French cavalry, and committed fearful havoc 
among the veteran Guards, on whom Kapoleon had placed his utmost re- 
liance. At the same time it must be remembered that the first Prussian 
shots were fired about half-past four, that by half-past six upwards of 
15,000 of the French (Lobau's corps, consisting of 6600 infantry and 1000 
artillery, with 30 guns ; 12 battalions of the Young Imperial Guard, about 
6000 men in all ; 18 squadrons of cavalry, consisting of nearly 2000 men) 
were drawn oflf for the new struggle at iPlanchenois, and that the loss of 
the Prussians was enormous for a conflict comparatively so brief, proving 
how nobly and devotedly they performed their part. The Duke of Wel- 
lington himself, in his despatch descriptive of the battle, says ' that the 
British army never conducted itself better, that he attributed the success- 
ful issue of the battle to the cordial and timely assistance of the Prus- 
sians, that Billow's operation on the enemy's flank was most decisive, and 
would of itself have forced the enemy to retire, even if he (the Duke) had 
not been in a situation to make the attack which produced the final 
result '. The French colonel Cfiarras., in his ' Campagne de 1815 ' (pub. 
at Brussels, 1858), a work which was long prohibited in France, thus 
sums up his opinion regarding the battle : ' WeUington par sa te'nacite 
ine'branlable , Bliicher par son activite audacieuse, tons les deux par 
rhabilite et I'accord de leurs mancEuvres ont produit ce resultat'. — The 
battle is usually named by the Germans after the principal position of the 
French at Belle Alliance, but is is far more widely known as the Battle of 
Waterloo, the name given to it by Wellington himself. 

About halfway to Mont St. Jean , which is about 3 M. from 
Waterloo, is the monument of Col. Stables, situated behind a farm- 
house on the right, and not visible from the road. The road to the 
left leads to Tervueren, a royal chateau, once the property of the 
Prince of Orange. The royal stud was kept here till 1857, when 
it was transferred to the old abbey of Gemhloux (p. 191). 

The road from Waterloo to Mont St. Jean {Hotel des Colonnes, 
p. 116) is bordered by an almost uninterrupted succession of houses. 
At the village, as already remarked, the road to Nivelles diverges 
to the right from that to Namur. To the right and left, immediately 
beyond the last houses, are depressions in the ground where the 
British reserves were stationed. 

About 2/g M. beyond the village we next reach a bye-road, 
which intersects the high-road at a right angle , leading to the left 
to Wavre, and to the right to Braine I'Alleud. Here, at the corner 
to the right, once stood an elm, under which the Duke of Wellington 
is said to have remained during the greater part of the battle. The 
story, however, is unfounded, as it is well known that the Duke 
was almost ubiquitous on that memorable occasion. The tree has long 
since disappeared under the knives of credulous relic-hunters. 

On the left, beyond the cross-road, stands an Obelisk (PI. i) to 
the memory of the Hanoverian officers of the German Legion, 
among whose names that of the gallant Ompteda stands first. 
Opposite to it rises a Pillar (PI. k) to the memory of Colonel Gor- 
don, bearing a touching inscription. Both these monuments stand 
on the original level of the ground, which has here been consider- 
ably lowered to furnish materials for the mound of the lion. In 

126 Route 13. LA HAYE SAINTE. Battle Field 

this neighbourliood Lord Fitzroy Somerset, afterwards Lord Raglan, 
the Duke's military secretary, lost his arm. 

About 1/4 M. to the right rises the Mound of the Belgian Lion 
(PI. 13, 200 ft. in height, thrown up on the spot where the Prince 
of Orange was wounded in the battle. The lion was cast by Cockerill 
of Liege (p. 213 ), with the metal of captured French cannon, and 
is said to weigh 28 tons. The French soldiers, on their march to 
Antwerp in 1832, hacked off part of the tail, but Marshal Ge'rard 
protected the monument from farther injury. The mound commands 
the best survey of the battle-field, and the traveller who is furnished 
with the plan and the sketch of the battle, and has consulted the 
maps at the Hotel du Musee, will here be enabled to form an idea of 
the progress of the fight. The range of heights which extends past 
the mound, to Ohain on the E. and to Merbe-Braine on the W., was 
occupied by the first line of the Allies. As the crest of these 
heights is but narrovp, the second line was enabled to occupy a shel- 
tered and advantageous position on the N. slopes, concealed from the 
eye of their enemy. The whole line was about l^-jM- in length, 
forming a semicircle corresponding to the form of the hills. The 
centre lay between the mound and the Hanoverian monument. 

The chain of heights occupied by the French is 1 M. distant, 
and separated from the Allied position by a shallow intervening 
valley, across which the French columns advanced without manoeu- 
vering, being however invariably driven back. The Allied centre 
was protected by the farm of La Haye Sainte, situated on the right 
of the road, about 100 paces from the two monuments. It was 
defended with heroic courage by a light battalion of the German 
Legion, commanded by Major v. Baring, whose narrative is ex- 
tremely interesting. 

After giving a minute description of the locality and the disposition of 
his troops, he graphically depicts the furious and repeated assaults suc- 
cessfully warded off by his little garrison, and his own intense excitement 
and distress on finding that their stock of ammxinition was nearly 
expended. Then came the terrible catastrophe of the buildings taking 
fire, which the gallant band succeeded in extinguishing by pouring water 
on it from their camp-kettles, although not without the sacrifice of several 
more precious lives. "Many of my men", he continues, "although 
covered with wounds, could not be induced to keep back. 'As long as 
our officers fight, and we can stand', was their invariable answer, 'we 
won't move from the spot! ' I should be unjust to the memory of a rifle- 
man named Frederick Lindau, if I omitted to mention his brave conduct. 
He had received two severe wounds on the head, and moreover had in his 
pocket a purseful of gold which he had taken from a French officer. 
Alike regardless of his wounds and his prize, he stood at a small side- 
door of the barn, whence he could command with his rifle the great en- 
trance in front of him. Seeing that his bandages were insufficient to 
stop the profuse bleeding from his wounds, I desired him to retire, but 
he positively refused, saying : ' A craven is he who would desert you as 
long as his head is on his shoulders! ' He was, however, afterwards taken 
prisoner, and of course deprived of his treasure. " He then relates to 
what extremities they were reduced by the havoc made in the building by 
the French cannonade, and how at length, when their ammunition was 
almost exhausted, they perceived two fresh columns marching against 

of Waterloo. HOUGOMONT. 13. Route. 127 

them. Again the enemy succeeded in setting the barn on fire, and again 
it was successfully extinguished in the same manner as before. 

"Every shot we fired increased my anxiety and distress. I again de- 
spatched a messenger for aid , saying that I must abandon the defence 
if not provided with ammunition , — but in vain ! As our fusillade 
diminished , our embarrassment increased. Several voices now ex- 
claimed : 'We will stand by you most willingly, but we must have the 
means of defending ourselves ! ' Even the officers, who had exhibited 
the utmost bravery throughout the day, declared the place now untenable. 
The enemy soon perceived our defenceless condition, and boldly broke open 
one of the doors. As but few could enter at a time, all who crossed the 
threshold were bayonetted, and those behind hesitated to encounter the 
same fate. They therefore clambered over the walls and roofs, whence 
they could shoot down my poor fellows with impunity. At the same time 
they thronged in through the open barn, which could no longer be de- 
fended. Indescribably hard as it was for me to yield, yet feelings of 
humanity now prevailed over those of honour. I therefore ordered my 
men to retire to the garden at the back. The effort with which these 
words were wrung from me can only be understood by those who have 
been in a similar position." 

" As the passage of the house was very narrow, several of my men 
were overtaken before they could escape. One of these was the Ensign 
Frank, who had already been wounded. He ran through with his sabre 
the first man who attacked him, but the next moment his arm was broken 
by a bullet. He then contrived to escape into one of the rooms and con- 
ceal himself behind a bed. Two other men fled into the same room, 
closely pursued by the French, who exclaimed: '^ Pas de pardon a ces 
brigands verisT and shot them down before his eyes. Most fortunately, 
however, he remained undiscovered until the house again fell into our 
hands at a later hour. As I was now convinced that the garden could 
not possibly be maintained when the enemy was in possession of the house, 
I ordered the men to retreat singly to the main position of the army. The 
enemy, probably satisfied with their success, molested us no farther." 

The door of the house still bears traces of the French bullets. 
Several of the unfortunate defenders fled into the kitchen, adjoining 
the garden at the back on the left. The window was and is still 
secured with iron bars, so that all escape was cut off. Several 
were shot here, and others thrown into the kitchen-well, where 
their bodies were found after the battle. An iron tablet bears an 
inscription to the memory of the officers and privates who fell in 
the defence of the house. 

Farther to the W. are Papelotte, La Haye, and Smouhen, which 
served as advanced works of the Allies on their extreme left. 
They were defended by Nassovians and Netherlanders under Duke 
Bernhard of Saxe- Weimar, but fell into the hands of the French 
about half-past 5 o'clock. 

The defenders of Goumont, or Hougomont, another advanced 
work of the Allies, situated about ^/o^^- to the S.W. of the Lion, 
were more fortunate. This interesting spot formed the key to the 
British position, and had Napoleon once gained possession of it, his 
advantage would have been incalculable. The buildings still bear 
many traces of the fearful scenes which were enacted here. It is 
computed that throughout the day the attacks of nearly 12,000 men 
in all were launched against this miniature fortress, notwithstand- 
ing which the garrison held out to the last (see p. 128). The 

128 lioute 13. HOUGOMONT. Battle Field 

French stormed the orchard and garden several times, hut they 
did not succeed in penetrating into the precincts of the build- 
ings. The latter, moreover, caught fire, adding greatly to the em- 
barrassment of the defenders, but happily the progress of the 
flames was arrested. Ilougomont was at that time an old, partly 
dilapidated chateau , to which several outbuildings were attached. 
The whole was surrounded by a strong wall, in which numerous 
loop-holes had been made by express orders of the Duke in person, 
thus forming an admirable though diminutive stronghold. Notwith- 
standing these advantages, however, its successful defence against 
the persistent attacks of overwhelming numbers was solely due to 
the daring intrepidity of the little garrison. The wood by which 
it was once partly surrounded was almost entirely destroyed by the 
cannonade. The loop-holes, as well as the marks of the bullets, 
are still seen, and the place presents a shattered and ruinous aspect 
to this day. The orchard contains the graves of Capt. Blackman, 
who fell here, and of Sergt. Cotton, a veteran of Waterloo who died 
at Mont St. Jean in 1849 (Y2 fr- is exacted from each visitor to 
the farm"). Ilougomont is about 1 M. from Braine I'Alleud (p. 180). 

Prodigies of valour were performed by the Coldstrcams and their 
auxiliaries at Hougomont, and fortunately with a more successful result 
than that which attended their heroic German allies at La Haye Sainte. 
At one critical juncture the French were within a hair's breadth of 
capturing this fiercely-contested spot. They forced their way up to the 
principal gate, which was insufficiently barricaded, and rushing against 
it in dense crowds actually succeeded in bursting it open. A fearful strug- 
gle ensued. The Guards charged the assailants furiously with their 
bayonets, whilst Col. Macdonnel, Capt. Wyndham, Ensign Gooch, Ensign 
Hervey, and Serg. Graham, by dint of main force and daring courage, 
contrived to close the gate in the very face of the enemy. — At a later 
hour a vehement assault was made on the back-gate of the offices, the 
barricades of which threatened to yield, although crowds of the assailants 
were swept away by a well-directed fire from the loop-holes. At the 
same time one of the French shells set fire to the buildings, and the flames 
burst forth with an ominous glare. Sergt. Graham immediately requested 
leave of Col. Macdonnel to retire for a moment, which the latter accorded, 
although not without an expression of surprise. A few moments later 
the gallant sergeant re-appeared from amidst the blazing ruins, bearing 
his wounded brother in his arms, deposited him in a place of safety, and 
at once resumed his work in strengthening the barricades, where the 
danger was rapidly becoming more and more imminent. Suddenly a French 
grenadier was seen on the top of the wall, which he and his comrades were 
in the act of scaling. Capt. Wyndham, observing this, shouted to Graham : 
'Do you see that fellow?" Graham, thus again interrupted in his work, 
snatched up his musket, took aim, and shot the Frenchman dead. No 
others dared to follow, the attack on the gate was abandoned by the 
enemy, and the danger again successfully averted. Similar attacks were 
launched against the chateau with unremitting energy from half-past 
11 in the morning until nearly 8 in the evening, but were repelled with 
equal success. Most fortunately for the defenders, their supply of ammu- 
nition was abundant. Had it been otherwise, Hougomont must inevitably 
have met with the same fate as La Haye Sainte; Napoleon would then 
have been enabled to attack the Duke's right flank, and the Allies ^would 
most probably have been defeated, or rather virtually annihilated. 

The neighbourhood of Hougomont is said to have been the scene of 
the following well- authenticated anecdote. Colonel Halkett's brigade, 

of Waterloo. BELLE ALLIANCE. 13. Route. 129 

consisting of raw levies of troops, most of whom now faced an enemy for 
the first time, were exposed to a galling fire from Cambronne's brigade, 
which formed the extreme left of the enemy's line. Halkett sent his 
skirmishers to meet the vanguard of the French, somewhat in advance 
of whom Gen. Cambronne himself rode. Cambronne's horse having been 
shot under him, Halkett immediately perceived that this was an admir- 
able opportunity for a ' coup de main ' calculated to inspire his troops 
with confidence. He therefore galloped up alone to the French general, 
threatening him with instantaneous death if he did not surrender. Cam- 
bronne, taken by surprise, presented his sword and surrendered to the 
gallant colonel, who at once led him back to the British line. Before 
reaching it, however, Halkett's horse was struck by a bullet and fell. 
Whilst struggling to disengage himself, he perceived to his extreme morti- 
fication that the general was hastening back to his own troops ! By dint 
of great etforts , however, Halkett got his horse on his legs again, gal- 
loped after the general, overtook him, and led him back in triumph to 
his own line. 

The field-road to Belle Alliance from the gate of the farm skirts 
the wall to the left. It soon becomes narrower, and after leading 
ahout 50 paces to the right passes through a hedge, traverses a field, 
and passes an embankment. After a walk of 5 min. a good path is 
reached, leading to the high-road in 12 min, more. Coster's house 
lies to the right. In a straight direction the road leads to Planchenois 
(see below). Belle Alliance is situated on the left. This name is 
applied to a low white house of one story on the road-side, now a 
poor tavern, 1 M. to the E. of Hougomont. 

A marble slab over the door bears the inscription : '■Rencontre des gin- 
iraux Wellington et Blucher lors de la memorable bataille du 18. Juni 1815, 
se saluant mutuellement vainqueurs\ The statement, however, is erroneous. 
It is well ascertained that Bliicher did not overtake the Duke until the 
latter had led his troops as far as La Maison du Roi, or Maison Rouge, on 
the road to Genappe, about 2 M. beyond Belle Alliance, where he gave 
the order to halt. This was the scene of the well-known anecdote so 
often related of the Duke, who when urged not to expose himself unne- 
cessarily to danger from the fire of the straggling fugitives, replied : 'Let 
them fire away. The victory is gained, and my life is of no value now I' 

The house of Belle Alliance was occupied by the French , and 
their lines were formed adjacent to it. Napoleon's post during the 
greater part of the battle was a little to the right of the house, 
and on the same level. 

On the N. side of Belle Alliance a field-road diverges from the 
high-road, and leads to Plancenoit, or Planchenois, a village situ- 
ated 1 M. to the S.E., which the traveller who desires to appreciate 
the important part acted by the Prussians in the battle should not 
fail to visit. To the left, on a slight eminence near the village, rises 
the Prussian Monument (PL m), an iron obelisk with an appropriate 
inscription in German. It was injured by the French when on their 
way to the siege of Antwerp in 1832, but has since been restored. 

The battle between the French and the brave Prussians raged with 
the utmost fury at and around Plancenoit from half-past six till nearly 
nine o'clock. Nine regiments of infantry, a regiment of hussars, and the 
cavalry of the 4th Corps d'Armee commanded by Prince William of Prussia 
were engaged in the action, and fiercely contested the possession of the 
village. The churchyard was the scene of the most sanguinary struggles, 
in which vast numbers of brave soldiers fell on both sides. The village 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 9 

130 Route 13. NIVELLES. 

was captured several times by the Prussians, and again lost; but tbey 
finally gained possession of it between 8 and 9 o'clock. The combatants 
of both armies in this conflict were all comparatively fresh, and the fury 
with which they fought was intensified by the bitter hostility of the two 
nations, and a thirst for vengeance on the part of the Prussians for pre- 
vious reverses. The victory on this part of the field was therefore achiev- 
ed towards 8 o'clock , and the defeat of the French was rendered doubly 
disastrous by the spirited and well-organised pursuit of Gneisenau. 

The French retreat, which soon became a disorderly saiive qui peut^ 
followed the road to Genappe (p. 182), a village about 4 M. to the S. of 
Plancenoit. Near Genappe, where the road was blocked with cannon 
and waggons, the Prussians captured Napoleon's travelling carriage, 
wliich the emperor had probably just quitted in precipitate haste, as it 
still contained his hat and sword. 

Continuation of KAIL^VAY Journey. The next station beyond 
Waterloo is (12 M. from Brussels^ Eraine I'Alleud, Flem. Eigen- 
Brakel (Hotel du Midi; H. de I'Etoiie), a manufacturing town with 
6600 inhab., whence the mound of the lion fp. 126) on the field of 
Waterloo, which is visible to the left, is 1 1/2 ^. distant. The road to 
it leads directly N. from the station. Branch-line to Tatj^e, seep. 178. 

151/2 M. Lillois. 18 M. Sawders, a suburb ofNivelles, is the 
junction of the Manage and Wavre line (p. 182). 

I8Y2M. Nivelles (Hotel du Mouton Blanc), Flem. Nyvel, on the 
Thines, a manufacturing town with 10,000 inhab., owes its origin 
to a convent founded here about the middle of the 7th cent, by Ida, 
wife of Pepin of Landen. The Romanesque church of the convent, 
built in the 11th cent., still exists, but the interior suffered de- 
facement in the 18th cent. , though the crypt still remains purely 
Romanesque. The tower, one of the loftiest in Belgium, was 
restored in 1859, after a fire, with little success. On the high- 
altar is the beautiful 13th cent, reliquary of St. Gertrude (daughter 
of Pepin), to whom the church is dedicated; and among the many 
interesting objects in the treasury is the saint's crystal goblet witli 
enamelled foot. The st&tion is called Nivelles- Est , and lies at some 
distance from the town (Nivelles-Nord, see p. 182). 

The Baulers-Fleurus-Chdtelineau line diverges at aSTivelles-Est : 19 M., 
in I-IV4 hr. (fares 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 20 c). Fleurus, see p. 203. 

23 M. Ohaix-Buzet ; 251/2 M. Luttre , the junction of a line to 
Jumet (Charleroi, Chatelineau) and to Pjeton (p. 181) , via Tra- 
zegnies. Our line here uiiites with the Ghent and Braine-le-Comte 
railway, which proceeds, via (29 M.) Gosselies and (30 M.) Roux, to — 

35 M. Charleroi, see p. 183. 

14. From Brussels to Antwerp via Malines. 

271/2 M. Railway to Malines in 25-45 min. (fares 1 fr. 60, 1 fr. 20, 
80 c.) ; to Antwerp in 3/4-IV2 hr. (fares 3 fr. 35 , 2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 70 c). Ex- 
press-fares one-fourth higher. 

The train starts from the Station du Nord. Travellers starting 
from the Station du Quartier Leopold change carriages at (2 M.) 
Schaerbeek (p. 195). A fertile and grassy plain, through which 
the Senne winds, is traversed. — 41/2 M. Haeren. 



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MALINES. 14. Route. 131 

674 M. Vilvorde, a small town on the Senne, one of tlie most 
ancient in Brabant, with the military penitentiary. 

A melancholy interest attaches to Vilvorde as the scene of the martyr- 
dom of William Ttndale , the zealous English Reformer and trans- 
lator of the Bible. He was compelled to leave England on account of his 
heretical doctrines in 1523, and the same year he completed his translation 
of the New Testament from the Greek. He then began to publish it at 
Cologne, but was soon interrupted by bis Romish antagonists, to escape 
from whom he fled to Worms, where the publication was completed in 
1525. Copies soon found their way to England, where prohibitions were 
issued against them, in consequence of which most of them were burnt. 
' They have done no other thing than I looked for ', observed the pious 
translator, on hearing of this; 'no more shall they do, if they burn 
me also!' Notwithstanding the vehement opposition of Archbp. Warham, 
Card. Wolsey, and Sir Thomas More (who vainly strove to refute the new 
doctrine in a work of 7 vols.), four new editions rapidly found their way 
to England. In 1529 Tyndale began to publish the firstfour books of the 
Old Testament at Antwerp , where he now acted as chaplain to the 
British merchants settled in that city. He was at length arrested through 
the treachery of a spy, and sent to Vilvorde, where he was imprisoned 
for two years. He was then tried, and condemned as a heretic. On 6th 
Oct., 1536, he was chained to the stake, strangled, and finally burnt to 
ashes. His last words were: • Lord, open the King of England's eyes!' 
He was a man of simple and winning manners, indefatigable industry, 
and fervent piety. His New Testament, which was translated indepen- 
dently of his illustrious predecessor WycklilTe , and his still more cele- 
brated contemporary Luther, forms the basis of the Authorised Version. It 
is a remarkable fact , that the year after his martyrdom the Bible was 
published throughout England by royal command, and appointed to be 
placed in every church for the use of the people. 

We catch a distant view here, on the right, of the village of Perck 
(3 M. from the railway), near which is the farm-house of Dry Toren, 
once the country-seat of David Teniers the Younger (d. 1685 ; buried 
in the church of Perck). 

Near (8 M.) Eppeghem, to the E., but scarcely visible from 
the railway, stands the old chateau of Steen, purchased by Rubens 
in 1635 as a summer-resort for 93,000 florins. — 10 M. Weerde. 
The huge tower of the cathedral of Malines now becomes con- 
spicuous in the distance. The train crosses the Louvain Canal. 

13 M. Malines. — Hotels. Hotel de la Station, at the station; 
Hotel de la Coupe, near the cathedral ; Hotel Buda, opposite the cathedral 
tower, R., L., Sc A. 21/2-3, B. 1, I). 21/2 fr. ; Hotel la Codr de Befker, Rue 
de Betfer 34, near the Grande Place; Cheval dOr, Rue des Beguines 2, 
near the cathedral. — Restaurant at the station. 

A visit to the Cathedral and the paintings by Rubens in the churches 
of St. Jean and Notre Dame may be accomplished in 3 hrs. 

The ancient town of Malines., Flem. Mechelen (49,000 inhab.), 
situated on the tidal river Dyle , which flows through the town in 
numerous arms and is crossed by 35 bridges, is the seat of a cardinal- 
archbishop, the primate of Belgium. Notwithstanding its broad and 
regular streets, handsome squares, and fine buildings, it is a dull place, 
and totally destitute of the brisk traffic which enlivens most of the 
principal Belgian towns. The quietness of the town forms a strong 
contrast to the busy scene at the station, which possesses extensive 
railway-workshops and is the focus of several of the most important 


132 Route 14. MALINES. From Brussels 

railways in Belgium (Liege -Ostend, Antwerp -Brussels, Malines- 
Saint-Nicolas). The unenterprising character of the inhabitants is 
more tersely than politely described in the monkish lines mentioned 
in the Introduction (p. xx). 

In order to reach the town, which is more than 1/4 M. from the 
station , we follow the broad Rue Conscience bearing to the right, 
traverse the Place d'Egmont and cross the Dyle. Beside the bridge, 
to the right, is the Athence , with a fine garden (PI. C, 4. 5; adm. 
1/2 fr-)' a<^orned with a statue of Dodonaeus , the botanist, born at 
Malines in 1517. We proceed in the same direction through the 
Bruulstraat , leading to the Grande Place (PI. C , 3) , where a 
poor statue (PI. 20) by Tuerlinckx of Malines was erected in 1849 
to Margaret of Austria (d. 1530), daughter of Maximilian I. and 
Mary of Burgundy (p. xvii), celebrated as regent of the Netherlands 
and instructress of Charles V. The circle described on the ground 
round the monument indicates the size of the cathedral clock (see 
below). The Place still boasts of several mediaeval buildings. The 
old Cloth Hall (PI. 10), begun in 1340, but left uncompleted , with 
a superstructure of the 16th cent., is now used as the Guard House. 

The Hotel de Ville (PI. 18), between the Grande Place and 
the cathedral, was entirely remodelled during the last century. 
Opposite this building, and standing a little way back from the 
Place, is an old late-Gothic building called the ^Schepenen-Huis' 
(or house of the bailiffs), with the inscription ^Musee' (PI. 21; 
C, 3) , containing a collection of civic antiquities, reminiscences of 
Margaret of Austria, a few ancient and modern pictures (including 
a small Crucifixion by Rubens), etc. (The concierge lives in the 
market-place. No. 2, in the house next door to the Hotel de Ville ; 
fee 1/2 ft.). 

The *Cathedral of St. Rombold (^St. Rombaut, PI. 4 ; closed 
from 12 to 2.30, and after 5.30 p.m.), begun at the end of the 12th 
cent., completed in 1312, but to a great extent rebuilt, after a 
fire, in the 14th and 15th centuries, is a cruciform Gothic church 
with a richly- decorated choir and a huge unfinished W. tower 
(324 ft. in height; projected height 460 ft.). The face of the clock 
on the tower is 49 ft. in diameter. The church was almost entirely 
erected with money paid by the pilgrims who flocked hither in the 
14th and 15th centuries to obtain the indulgences issued by Pope 
Nicholas V. On the increase of the hierarchy of the Netherlands 
in 1559 (p. xvii), the Cathedral of St. Rombold was raised by Pope 
Paul IV. to the dignity of being the archiepiscopal metropolitan 
church. The first archbishop was Antoine Perenot de Granvella, 
the hated minister of Margaret of Parma , who was shortly after- 
wards created a cardinal. The church is now undergoing a thorough 
restoration ; the interior is almost completed. 

The Interior of the church (length 306 ft., nave 89 ft. high) is 
imposing, and worthy of its archiepiscopal dignity. It is adorned by 

to Antwerp. MALINES. U. Route. 133 

several admirable pictures, the finest of which is an *Altarpiece by 
Van Dyck, representing the Crucifixion, in the S. transept, painted 
in 1627, and successfully cleaned in 1848 (covered). This is one of 
the finest of the masters works , and is worthy of the most careful 
inspection. The composition is extensive and skilfully arranged; 
the profound grief and resignation depicted in the countenance of 
the Virgin are particularly well expressed. — In the N. (1.) tran- 
sept: Erasmus Quellin. Adoration of the Shepherds. — In the N. 
aisle, 1st chapel on the left (reckoned from the chief entrance"), 
Wouters, Last Supper ; opposite is a monument in marble to Arch- 
bishop Mean (d. 1831), who is represented kneeling before the 
Angel of Death, executed by Jehotte, a sculptor of Liege. — In the 
S. aisle : twenty-five scenes from the history of St. Rombold, ex- 
tending from his appointment to the office of bishop down to his 
martyrdom and the miracles wrought by his relics (Flemish school of 
the 15th cent., restored in 1857). — The Pulpit^ carved in wood, 
like those in the principal Belgian churches , by Boeckstuyns of 
Malines', represents the Conversion of St. Paul. Above, St. John 
and the women .at the foot of the Cross ; at the side , Adam and 
Eve and the serpent. By the pillars are statues of the Apostles 
(17th cent.). Elaborately carved organ-choir. The large modern 
stained-glass windows in the transept were executed to commemo- 
rate the promulgation of the new dogma of the immaculate concep- 
tion of the Virgin (1854), by J. F. and L. PLuys of Malines. — The' 
Choir contains handsome modern stained glass and carved stalls in 
the Gothic style. To the left in the retro-choir, near the N. portal, 
high up, is a Circumcision by M. Coxie, 1587. Farther on are a 
number of large pictures , chiefly by Herreyns and other painters 
of the early part of the present century, representing scenes from 
the life of St. Rombold, In the second chapel to the left the arms 
of the knights of the Golden Fleece, who held a chapter here in 
1491. The first chapel to the riglit of the high-altar contains the altar 
of St. Engelbert, Bishop of Cologne, with a chased brazen ante- 
pendium or frontal, executed from Minguay's designs by L. van 
Rysivy'ck of Antwerp (1875). The choir also contains several monu- 
ments of bishops of the 17th cent., and modern stained-glass win- 
dows with full-length figures of saints. 

The Archiepiscopal Palace (PI. 1 ; C, 2), picturesquely situated 
a little to the N., and dating from the end of the l(3th cent., has 
been allowed to fall into a state of disrepair. 

St. Jean (PI. 6 ; C, 3), near the Cathedral , is an insignificant 
church, but contains an interesting picture by Bw^en?, a*High-altar- 
piece with wings, a large and fine composition, one of the best of the 
painter's ceremonial works. On the inside of the wings: Behead- 
ing of John the Baptist, and Martyrdom of St. John in a cauldron 
of boiling oil. Outside: Baptism of Christ, and St. John in the 
island of Patmos, writing the Apocalypse. The two latter are in the 

134 Route 14. MALINES. From Brussels 

best style of the master, -who received 1800 florins for them. Below 
is a small Crucifixion , probably also by Rubens. To the left in 
the choir is Christ on the Cross , by Ch. Wouters, 18G0. In the 
chapel on the left, Christ and the disciples at Emmaus , by Iler- 
reyns. The pulpit in carved wood , by Verhaeghen, represents the 
Good Shepherd. The confessionals, the carved wood on the organ, 
and several other pieces of carving are by the same sculptor. The 
sacristan (V2"l f"""-) lives in the Klapgat, adjacent to the church. 

The Mont de Piete^ Rue des Vaches 67 and Rue St. Jean 2 
(PI. C, B, 2, 3), formerly the house of Canon Buysleden, is an 
interesting Gothic building of the IGth cent. , with gables , fine 
arcades, and a tower of brick and limestone (1507), restored in 1875. 

At the N.W. angle of the town are situated the church of 
St. Catharine (PI. 5; C, 2) and that of the Grand Beguinage (PI. 3; 
B, 2), containing pictures by L. Franchoys , Moreels, Do Crayer, 
Th. Boeyermans, E. Quellin, and others; the latter is also embel- 
lished with sculptures by L. Fayd'herbe and Duquesnoy. — The 
church of St. Peter and St. Paul (PI. 9; D, 3) contains pictures by 
Boeyermans, Eyckens, Coxie, and others, and sculptures by Ver- 
bruggen (pulpit) and J. Geefs (apostles). 

The *Tribunal(P1.25 ; D, 3, 4), or court of justice, consists of 
a picturesque assemblage of buildings, enclosing several courts, and 
was formerly the palace of Margaret of Austria. The older portions 
were erected by Eombout Keldermans in the late-Gothic stylo. The 
more modern portion, erected by Keldermans about 1617, along 
with the French artist Guyot de Beaugrant (p. 25), is the earliest 
example of tlie Renaissance in I'elgium. The building was skil- 
fully restored a few years ago, by Blomme of Antwerp, and con- 
tains some fine chimney-pieces and other interesting works of art. 

On our way back to the station we may visit the church of Notre 
Dame (PI. 7; B, 4), a late-Gothic building of the 16th cent., 
recently restored. A chapel behind the high-altar contains Rubens^ 
*Miraculous Draught of Fishes , a richly-coloured picture , with 
wings, painted in 1618 for the Guild of Fishers, from whom the 
master received 1600 florins for the work (about 90L). In the 3rd 
chapel of the retro-choir is the Temptation of St. Anthony by M. 
Coxie; high-altarpiece, a Last Supper by E. Quellin; pulpit and 
statues by G. Kerricx. The sacristan will be found at No. 58 
Milsenstraat, the street opposite the chief portal. — The neigh- 
bouring double -towered Porte de Bruxelles ( 'Oversto Poort'; 
PI. A, 4) is the solitary relic of the ancient fortifications. 

On the Quai au Sel (PI. B, 4), and particularly in or near the 
Rue Serment du Fer, are several interesting houses of the IGth 
century. Among the most interesting of these are the Salm Inn, 
with a Renaissance facade (1530-34; see p. xliii), embellished 
with columns and arches, and a timber house near it (No. 20), 
with exquisite details in the Franco-Flemish style and also dating 

to Antwerp. MALIXES. 14. Route. 135 

from the 16th century. Between these are two other interesting 
old timher-houses. Throughout the whole town there still linger 
many picturesque relics of mediaeval architecture. 

The church of Notre Dame d' Hansicyck (PI. 8 ; C, 5) contains 
two large reliefs by L. Fayd'herbe and a pulpit by Yerhaeghen. 

Mechlin lace . which once enjoyed a high reputation, is still 
manufactured here, but cannot compete with that of Brussels. 

From MALI^•Es to Heyst-op -den - Berg and to Iteghem, ll'/z and 
14 M., a steam-tramwav plies in I1/2 and lV2-3'/2 brs. (fares 1 fr. 35, 95 c. 
and 1 fr. 63, 1 fr. 15 c." 

From Malines to Lodvain, I5Y2M., railway in 25-40 min. (fares 1 fr. 70, 

1 fr. 35,90 c.). — The church of (Di/s^I.) Boortmeevbeek contains an altar- 
piece by Teniers the Younger. Then O'h ^^•) Haecht and (81/2 M.) Wes- 
pelaar, with a conntry-seat and park mentioned by Delille (b. 1788). 121/2 M. 

Wi/gmal. The line crosses the Di/le , skirts the Antwerp-Louvain Canal 
(made in 1750), and reaches Louvain (p. 197). 

From Malixes to Guest, 85 M., railway in I-I3/4 hr. (fares 4 fr. 45, 
3 fr. 25, 2 fr. 20 c). The line crosses the Louvain Canal and the Senile. 

2 M. Hombeeck; 5V2 M. Capelle ; 8 M. Londerzeel ., the junction of the 
Antwerp and Alost line (p. 11). Beyond (11 M.) JJalderen, we quit Bra- 
bant ;and enter Flanders. I2V2 M. Buggenhout; 15 M. Baesrode. 17 M. 
Dendermonde, and thence to (38 M.) Ghent, see R. 10. 

From SIalises to St. Nicolas and Tekneuzen , 42 M. , railway in 
2V2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 15, 3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 55 c). 2 M. Hombeeck; 6 M. Thihelt; 
8 M. Willebroek . on a canal connecting the Senne with the Rnpel, the 
junction of the Antwerp and Alost line (p. 11); 11 M. Puers (branch to 
Dendermonde, p. 62) ; 14 M. Bornhem. The train traverses a pleasant district, 
and crosses the broad Schelde, commanding a view of its picturesque 
wooded banks. To the left, on the left bank, is (16 M.). Tamise, a manu- 
facturing town with 9400 inhabitants. The church contains some inter- 
esting works of art. 21 M. St. Nicolas , the junction for Ghent and Ant- 
werp (p. 63); 25 31. St. Gilles; 27 M. La Clinge, with the Belgian custom- 
house. — 291/2 M. Hulst, the Dutch frontier-station, possesses an interesting 
Gothic church of the loth cent.; the Landshuis contains a painting by 
Jordaens and the Hotel de ^'ille one by Corn, de Vos. — 35 M. Axel; 
39 M. Slu>jskill; 42 M. Terneuzen (see p. 10). 

Soon after quitting Malines, the train crosses the Nethe and 
reaches (18 M.l Duffel. To the right rises the old Gothic chateau 
of Ter-Eist. Then (^201/2 >!•} stat.' Contich. 

From Coktich to Tcrnhout, 26V'2 M., branch-railway in I'^hr. — Sta- 
tions: Lierre (p. 157), junction for Antwerp, Diest , and Hasselt (p. 176); 
Nylen., Bouwel., Herenthals, the junction for Roermond (p. 178) and Louvain 
(p. 195); Lichtaert. Tfiielen , and lastly Tumhout, the chief town of the 
district, with 16,iOO inhab. , a prosperous place, with cloth and other 
factories, and a leech -breeding establishment. The old Chateau of the 
Dukes of Brabant now serves as a court of justice and a prison. In the 
church of Oud-Turnfiout is a Madonna and saints by De Crayer. Steam- 
tramway to Antwerp, see p. 137; to Hoogstraten, p. 172. — Beyond Turn- 
hout the line crosses the Dutch frontier to Tilburg (see p. 375). 

Another branch-line runs from Contich to Boom, on the line from 
Alost to Antwerp (p. 11). 

From (24 m.) Oude-God (Vieux-Dieu) a branch-line diverges to 
Hoboken (p. 11). AVe now pass through the new outworks around 
Antwerp. 26 '/o M. Berchem. the headquarters of the French during 
the siege of the citadel in 1832. 

271/2 M. Antwerp, see p. 136. 


15. Antwerp. 

Railway Stations. The Principal Station (PI. D, 3, 4), for Malines 
(Brussels, Louvain, etc.), Dendermonde-Ghent , Hasselt-Maastricht, Roer- 
monde-Gladbach , Turnhout- Tilburg, Roosendaal, Flushing, Rotterdam, 
and Ghent (state-line, preferable to the Waesland line), is near the Zoo- 
logical Garden (a new station in the Place de la Commune is projected). 

— The South Station (PI. B, 6, 7) is used only by the trains of the Ant- 
werp-Alost (p. 11) and the Lierre-Turnhout (p. 135) lines. — The station for 
the direct trains to Ghent through the Waesland (R. 10) is at the Quai 
St. Michel (PI. A, 5), on the right bank of the Schelde; tickets taken here 
include the ferry across the river. 

Hotels. Grand Hotel (PI. C, 4), Rue Ge'rard, with lift; * Grand 
Laboureuu (PI. d; C, 4), Place de Meir 26; charges at these about the 
same: R. 21/2-8, L. 3/^, A. 1, B. l'/2, dej. 2V2-3V2, D. 4-5, pens, from 10, 
omn. 3/4-1 fr. ; St. Antoike (PI. a; B,4), Place Verte 40; Hotel de l"Europe 
(PI. b; B, 4), Place Verte 38; *Hotel de la Paix (PI. c; B, 4), Rue des 
Menuisiers 9, narrow street, commercial. — Second class: *Cocrrier (PI. h; 
B, 4), Rempart du Lombard 52, R. & L. 2V2-4, A. 1/2, B. IV4, dej. 21/2, 
D. 3, pens. 7-10, omn. 1 fr. ; Hotel des Flandres (PI. e; B, 4), Place 
Verte ^; Grand Mxroir (PI. f; B, 4), Vieux Marche au Ble 5ti & 58, R., 
L., & A. 3, B. Vji, dej. 2, D. 3, pens. 8 fr., well spoken of. — Hotel du 
Commerce (PI. g; C, 3), Rue de la Bourse 10, R., L., <fc A. 2i/2-3, B. 1, 
dej. 2, 1). 2V2 , pens. 7 fr. ; Grande Fontaine, Courte Rue des Claires 6 
(PI. C, 3), near the Exchange, unpretending, good German cuisine; Hotel 
DU NoRD, Grande Place 22; Fleor d"Or, Ruelle des Moines 1, near the 
Place Verte, unpretending. — On the Schelde: Hotel du Rhin, (^uai Van 
Dyck 7, with restaurant, fine view of the river, R., L., A: A. 2V2-6, B. 1, 
dej. 2V2, D. 3, pens. 7-121/2, omn. 1 fr., well spoken of; Hotel d'Angle- 
TERRE, Quai Van Dyck 12 (PI. B, 3, 4). In the vicinity: Hotel de Hol- 
lande (PI. 1 ; B, 4), Rue de TEtuve 2. — Near the Principal Station : Pschorr 
(Avenue De Keyzer 7), Des Trois Suisses (Rue Anneessens 30), and several 
small hotels, none of which can be recommended. 

Restaurants. "Bertrand ., Place de Meir 11, D. 4 fr. and upwards; 
Grande Taierne Pot/ale, Place de Meir 25, D. 4 fr, ; "Rocher de Cancale^ 
Rue des Dou/e Mois 19, adjoining the Exchange and the Place de Meir. 

— Taierne Crets, Rue Nationale 2; Hdfel de Londres and Taverne St. Jean, 
Avenue De Keyzer 42 and 21 ; Cheial de Bronze, Marche aux Oeufs 31 ; Wolf 
(Rhine wine), Rempart Catherine 74; Aeckerlin., Place de Meir 13; Burton 
Tavern, Marche au Lin 2 ; "Meutce Loodshuis, (ianal St. Pierre 16 (oysters 
and fish). — Cafes. Cafi de VEmpereur , Place de Meir 19; /S'w?*se, Place 
Verte 2; Grand Comploir de la Bourse, corner of the Longue Rue Xeuve 
and the Rue de la Bourse. On each of the two Promenoirs (PI. B., 3, 4; 
p. 170) is a Ca/tS, with fine view of the Schelde. — Confectioner: Patis- 
serie Meurisse, Marche aux Oeufs 50. — Beer. Taverne Alsacienne, Place 
Verte 3 ; Ceniral-Bierhalle, Courte Rue Neuve 46, with a garden ; Salvator- 
Keller, Vieux Marche au Ble 26; Flora, Rue Anneessens 26; Pschorr, see 
above; Des Trois Suisses, see above; also at the cafes (30-35 c. per glass). 

Baths. Bain Royal, Rue Reynders 37, near the Place Verte ; Bains St. 
Pierre, Rue Van Noort 12, near the Park. Warm and cold baths may also 
be obtained in the best hotels. — Swimming Bath (PI. B, 7), at the corner 
of the Rue de Bruxelles and the Rue Brederode, open from April 15th 
to October 15th (for ladies on Monday and Friday before 12, and on 
Wednesday before 2 o'clock). 

Post Office, Place Verte, S. side (PI. B, 4); several branch-offices. — 
Telegraph Offices at the railway-station (open at night), exchange, etc. 

— Public Telephones in the waiting-rooms of the tramways and in several 
restaurants (use for 5 min., 25 c. ; communication with Brussels, 1 fr.). 

Cabs are stationed in the Place Verte, the Place de Meir, etc. Per drive 
(la course) within the 8 municipal districts (with the exception of the 
Digue, a part of the seventh district), 1-2 pers. 1 fr., 3-4 pers. 1 fr. 50 c.; 


(T^? \^''' (^=^-- V^ 
'k-. . 


ANTWERP. 15. Route. 137 

between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. , 2 fr. or 2 fr. 50 c. ; within the new forti- 
fications, i-4 pers. 1 fr. 50 or 2 fr. 50 c. — Open Vehicles, a degree better, 
within the town 1-4 pers. 1 fr. 50 or 2fr. 50 c.; within the fortifications, 2 
or 3 fr. — By time (a Iheure), first hour 1-4 pers., 1 fr. 50 or 2 fr. 50 c., 
each additional V2 It. 75 c. or 1 fr. 25 c.; within the new fortifications 
2 fr. or 3 fr., each additional 1 2 hr. 1 fr. or 1 fr. 50 c. ; open cabs 2 fr. 50 
3fr., and 1 fr. or 1 fr. 50 c. ; within the fortifications 2 fr. 50 or 3 fr., and 
1 fr. or 1 fr. 50. — Each trunk 20 c. — Two-horse vehicles one-half more. 
Tramways (comp. the Plan ; fares 10-25 c). 

1. From the m^arf (Quai van Dyck ; PI. B, 8). skirting the Place Verte 
and following the Place de Meir, to the Principal Station (PI. D, 3, 4), 
and then bv the Boulevard Leopold to the Druhoek (Trois Coins), near 
the Pepiniere (PI. D, 6). 

2. From the Harbour (Entrepot Royal; PI. C, 2) through the Avenues 
du Commerce, des Arts, de Tlndustrie, and du Sud. — A branch-line 
diverges from the Avenue de I' Industrie to the ferry for the Waesland /Station 
(PI. A, 5). 

3. From the Place St. Paul (PI. B, 3) through the Canal des Re'coUets, 
Rue des Tanneurs. Rue de THopital, and Chaussee de Malines to tho 
Porte de Malines (PI. E, 7). 

4. -Tramway du Sud d'Anver.s' from the Place Verte (PI. B, 4) through 
the Rue des Peignes, the Rue Gerard, the Avenue du Sud, and the Rue 3Ion- 
tigny to Kiel and Hohoken (p. 11). 

5. From the Place du Pe'iple (PI. B, 5) via the Rue Nationale to the 
Rue des Peignes. 

6. From the Rue Kipdorp (PI. B, C,3) to the Porte de Turnhout (PI. F, 3). 

7. From the Place de Meir (PI. C, 4) through the Rue des Tanneurs, 
Rue Leopold, and the LongueRue d'Argile to the end of the latter (PI. E,5). 

8. -Tramway du Isovd. d'Anvers' from the Rue Klapdorp (PI. B. 3) by 
the Marche aux Chevaux and the Rue Viaduc (PI. D, 1) to Merxem. 

9. -Tramway 31aritime'' from the S. Harbour along the bank of the 
Schclde to the N. harbour, via the Rue des Olages (PI. A, 6), Quai Fla- 
mand, Quai St. Michel, Quai Plantin, Quai Van Dyck, Quai Jordaens, Canal 
des Brasseurs, Place de TEntreput, Avenue du Commerce, Rue Vondel. 
and Rue Basse to the Rue Pothoek (PI. E, 2). 

10. Steam Tramway from Zurenborg station (PI. F, 5) to Turnhout (p. 135) 
and Hoogstraten (p. ii2j. The station at Zurenborg may be conveniently 
reached by the tramway-line Xo. 6, and the Porte de Turnhout, where the 
steam-tramway stops, by the line Ko. 5. 

11. Steam Tramway from Klapdorp station (PI. B , 3) via Merxem, 
Santvliet, and Lillo, to Bergen-op-Zoom (p. 246). 

12. Steam Tramway from Klapdorp station (PI. B, 3) via Merxem to 
Brasschaet (p. 172) and Schooten. 

Omnibus from the station of the Waesland line (PI. A, 5) via the Rue 
Haute, Grand' Place, Place de la Commune, the Principal Station, Zoo- 
logical Garden, Rue Ommeganck, and Rue de la Province to Zurenborg 
station (PI. F, 5). 

Steamboats. To and from London: vessels of the Gen. Steam Nav. 
Co. (fares IG.'., 11.?.) 2-3 times, and the Baron Osy (fares 20s., 12s.) once 
weekly ; average passage 18 hrs. — To Hancic'h by the vessels of the 
Great Eastern Railway. Co. six times weekly in 11-13 hrs., thence by 
railway to London in l^/^ hrs. (fares to London 265. , I5s.). — To 
Hull twice weekly in 22 hrs. (fares 15s., 10s.). — To Glasgow once 
weekly (fares 25«. , los.). — To Goole twice weeklv in 24 hrs. (fare 
155.). — To Grimsby every Wed. and Sat. in 30 hrs." (fare Los.). — To 
Newcastle once weekly in 30 hrs. (fares 22s. Qd., lis. 6rf.). — To Leith 
once weekly in 48 hrs. (fare 4.5s.). — To Hamburg once weekly in 35 hrs. 
(fares 40 fr., 35 fr.). — To Dublin and Belfast once a fortnight (fare 15s.), 
— To Liverpool once weekly. — To Rotterdam, see p. 173. — Small steamers 
ply about every i/i hr. in summer from the Grand Bassin (next the 3Iaison 
Hanseatique, PL B. 2; p. 171) through the Bassins du Kattendyk, Africa, 
and America (35 c. ; interesting trip). — A pleasant steamboat trip on the 

138 Route 15. ANTWERP. Theatres. 

Schelde may be made to Rupelmonde , Boom (railway also to this point, 
10 M. ; comp. p. 135), and Temsclte, starting from the lower end of the 
IJuai Van Dyck (PI. B, 3); return-fare IV2 or 1 fr. 

Theatres. T/itdtre Royal (PI. C, 4; p. 153), performances in French, 
four times a week in winter. — Flemish Theatre^ or Schovicburg (PI. C, 3; 
p. 152), performances in Flemish. — Theatre des VariHis (PI. C, 5), per- 
formances in French, German, and Flemish. — The Scala, Rue Annees- 
sens 28, and the Palais Indien, Avenue De Keyzer 3, are cafes chantants. 

Music. In summer, if the weather is favourable, bands perform in the 
Park (p. 168) on Sunday at 4 and on Tuesday at 8 p.m.; in the Pipinitre 
(p. 169) on Monday and Friday, 8-10 p.m. -, in the Place Yerte (p. 141) on 
Wednesday and Saturday, 8-10 p.m.; and in the Place St. Jean (PI. C, 2) 
on Monday and Thursday, 8-10 p.m. 

Panorama. Battle of Woerlh, by Alfred Cluysenaar, in the Zoological 
Garden (PI. D, 4), entrance on Sun. by the Rue de la Charrue. Adm. 
on Sun. 50 c, on Mon. 1 fr., other days 2 fr. 

British Consul, G. K. Perry, Esq.,' Consul General. — ITnited States 
Consul, John II. Steuart Esq.; deputy-consul, F. von Wrede, Esq. 

English Church in the Rue des Tanneurs ; services at 11 and 7. 

Shops. Booksellers. M. Kornicker, Place de Meir87; 0. Forst, Place 
de Meir U9; Bolfink <i- Ackermann, Place Verte 20. — Photogkaphs. 0. Forst, 
see above; Zazzarini A Co., Marche aux Souliers 37; Ed. van Mol, Marche 
aux Souliers 17; Thirion, Place Verte 17, adjoining the cathedral. — Lace. 
J. Diegerick, Place Verte 6. 

Principal Attractions: ^'Cathedral (p. 141) , * Museum (p. 156), Hotel 
de Ville (p. 146), St. Jacques (p. 150), *Musee Plantin (p. 154), Docks 
(p. 171), Zoological Garden (p. 169). 

Antwerp, French Anvers^ Spanish Amberes, with 260,429 in- 
habitants (^1889 ; suburb of Borgerhout 28,731, Berchem 11.575), 
one of the greatest seaports of Europe, serving as an outlet for 
the commerce of Germany as well as of Belgium , was once the 
capital of a margraviate, belonging to the Duchy of Brabant, and 
was founded as early as the 7 th century. In 837 the town was 
destroyed by the Northmen. The most celebrated margrave of 
Antwerp was Godfrey de Bouillon. Its advantageous situation on 
the Schelde (Escaut) , which is here 1/3 M, broad and 30 ft. deep 
at high tide (60 M. from the sea), rendered Antwerp a very im- 
portant and wealthy place in the Middle Ages. Commerce, which 
luxury and revolution had banished from other Flemish towns, 
especially Bruges, sought refuge here about the close of the 
loth century. Under Emp. Charles V. Antwerp was perhaps 
the most prosperous and wealthy city on the continent, surpass- 
ing even Venice itself. When at the height of its prosperity it 
numbered 125,000 inhab. (in 1568). At that period thousands 
of vessels are said to have lain in the Schelde at one time, while 
a hundred or more arrived and departed daily. The great fairs 
held here attracted merchants from all parts of the civilised world. 
The Florentine Guicciardini, an excellent authority in these matters 
(p. xiii), records that in 1566 the spices and sugar imported from 
Portugal were valued at 1^2 million ducats (750,000i., an enormous 
sum according to the value of money at that period), silk and gold 
wares from Italy 3 million, grain from the Baltic II/2 million, 
French and German wines 21/2 million, and imports from England 
12 million ducats. Upwards of a thousand foreign commercial firms 

History. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 139 

bad established themselves at Antwerp, and one of the Fuggers, 
the merchant-princes of Augshurg, died here leaving a fortune of 
2 million ducats. The Flemish manufactures (carpets, clothing 
stnfiFs, gold and silver -svares) also enjoyed a high reputation after 
the beginning of the 16th cent., and were exported from Antwerp 
to Arabia, Persia, and India. 

Antwerp's decline began during the Spanish regime. The 
terrors of the Inquisition banished thousands of the industrious 
citizens, many of whom sought refuge in England, where they 
established silk-factories , and contributed greatly to stimulate 
English commerce. Fearful havoc was committed by the cruel 
Spanish soldiery in 1576, when the city was unscrupulously pil- 
laged, and lost 7000 of its inhabitants by fire and sword ; it after- 
wards suffered severely during a siege of fourteen months followed 
by its capture by Duke Alexander of Parma in 1585, when the 
population was reduced to 85,000; and in 1589 the population had 
further dwindled to 55,000. In addition to these disasters , the 
citizens were deprived of the greater part of their commerce by the 
intrigues of their Dutch rivals , who during the siege of the city by 
the Duke of Parma used secret means to prevent assistance being 
rendered to the besieged, and afterwards erected forts at the mouth 
of the Schelde to prevent its navigation by Antwerp vessels. The 
maritime trade of the city received its death-blow from the Treaty of 
MiJnster in 1648, by which Holland was declared independent of 
Spain, and it was agreed that no sea-going vessel should be permit- 
ted to ascend to Antwerp, but should unload at a Dutch port, whence 
merchandise should be forwarded to Antwerp by river-barges only. 
In 1790 the population had dwindled down to 40,000 souls. In Aug., 
1794, the French obtained possession of Antwerp , re-opened the 
navigation of the Schelde, and dismantled the forts erected by the 
Dutch at its embouchure. Napoleon, who recognised the strategical 
importance of the situation of Antwerp, caused a harbour and new 
quays to be constructed, but the wars in which he was engaged 
prevented him from actively promoting the interests of commerce.. 
In 1814 the city was defended against the Allies by Carnot, but 
was surrendered to the British under Gen. Graham, and afterwards 
incorporated with the newly-constituted kingdom of the Nether- 
lands. The prosperity of Antwerp received a new impetus from 
the trade which it now carried on with the Dutch colonies (in 1830 
population 73,506), but it was again utterly ruined by the revolu- 
tion of 1830, in which the citizens participated sorely against their 
will, and which diverted its trade to Rotterdam and Amsterdam. In 
1830 the town was occupied by the Belgian insurgents and was 
bombarded from the citadel by the Dutch general Chasse, who in 
his turn was besieged here by the French for twenty-four days 
in 1832. At the end of this siege the unfortunate town presented 
a scene of frightful desolation, and it was many years before Ant- 

\iO Route 15. ANTWERP. History. 

werp began to recover from these calamities. Indeed the tide of 
prosperity did not again set in fully till 1863, when the right of 
levying navigation-dues on the Schelde, granted to Holland by the 
peace of 1839, was commuted for a sum of 36,000,000 fr., one- 
third paid by Belgium and the rest by the other powers interested. 
Since that date, however, its commerce has increased in a greater 
ratio than that of any other European seaport, the increase being 
due chiefly to the great augmentation of the steamer-traffic. In 
1840-49 the port was entered annually by 1544 ships of 242,468 
tons' burden ; in 1850-59, by 1830 ships of 367,487 tons; in 1860- 
69, by 2957 ships of 822,533 tons; in 1870-78, by 4510 ships of 
2,083,516 tons; in 1889, by 4379 ships of 4,050,706 tons ^3608 
steamers, 771 sailing-ships). In 1864 the value of the imports was 
410 million francs ; in 1884 it was about 1122 million francs ; within 
the same period the value of the exports rose from 159 million to 
433 million francs, and that of the transit-trade from 76 million to 
281 million francs, in spite of the competition of Dutch ports. 

Antwerp is the principal arsenal of the kingdom of Belgium, 
and one of the strongest fortresses in Europe. Since 1859 a num- 
ber of advanced works have been constructed on modern principles, 
and the city and river are defended by broad and massive ramparts 
upwards of S^/o M. in length. Antwerp is intended to serve as the 
rendezvous of the Belgian army, should it be compelled , in case 
of the violation of the neutrality of the country, to retire before an 
enemy of superior force. It is calculated that it would require 
an army of 170,000 men to besiege it effectually, and at least a 
year to reduce it by starvation. — The removal of the old ramparts 
has allowed the town to expand to six times its former size (now 
nearly 7 sq. M.). 

Antwerp is the most interesting town in Belgium, and, the 
population being predominantly Flemish, it resembles a Dutch or a 
German city in many of its characteristics. The numerous master- 
pieces of painting which it possesses afford one of the best proofs 
of its mediaeval prosperity. The fascinating influence of Rubens 
(see Introd.) cannot be appreciated without a visit to Antwerp, 
where his finest works are preserved. 

In our own times Antwerp has made a vigorous effort to regain 
the artistic pre-eminence which it so gloriously asserted during 
the 17th century. The modern revival of art, which began about 
the end of the first quarter of the present century, took its rise in 
Antwerp. Van Bree, Braekeleer^ and others, who trod in the wont- 
ed paths of academic art, were succeeded by revolutionaries, whose 
works clearly betrayed their connection with the political agitation 
for the separation of Belgium from Holland. But this predominance 
of patriotic themes was transitory ; and a more important and more 
lasting effort was next made to resuscitate the ancient national 
style of art, and to revive a just appreciation of Rubens and his 

Cathedral. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 141 

contemporaries. Gustav Wappers (1803-74) was the first to break 
^ound -with his 'Burgomaster Yan der Werff during the siege of 
Leyden', which, when exhibited in 1830, was received with great 
applause and awakened much imitation. Nicaise de Keyser (1813- 
80), whose battle-pieces are marked by great liveliness and fresh- 
ness of colour, adopted a similar style. The Academy of Antwerp, 
■which has been presided over by each of these master*^ in turn, 
deserves the credit of reviving in modern art-education the careful 
study of technique, and especially of colouring. Neither Wappers 
nor Keyser, however, has shown so much zeal in reverting to the 
early Flemish style of art as Hendrik Leys (1815-69), the founder 
of the so-called 'archaic school', who not only gave the preference 
to the subjects used in the loth and 16th centuries, but has design- 
ed, painted, and grouped in precisely the same style as the paint- 
ers of that epoch. The figures in the much-valued pictures by this 
master seem as if they had stepped out of ancient canvasses. The 
Dutch painter Alma Tadema (settled in London), who pursues the 
archaic style with such distinguished success, was a pupil of Leys. 
Among the other eminent modern artists of Antwerp may be men- 
tioned Van Lerius (18'23-76), Dyckmans (1811-88), Jacobs, Stob- 
baerts, Verlat (1825-90), and Van Beers. 

The traveller, especially if pressed for time, should at once direct 
his steps to the Cathedral. On its S. side is the Place Yerte 
(PI. B, 4), formerly the churchyard, adorned with a Statue of 
Eubens, in bronze, by W. Geefs. It was erected in 1840, the 
figure being 13 ft., the pedestal 20 ft. in height. The scrolls 
and books, together with the brush, palette, and hat, which lie at 
the feet of the statue, are allusions to the pursuits of the master 
as a diplomatist and statesman , as well as a painter. — A military 
band plays in the Place Yerte twice a week on summer-evenings 
from 8 to 10 o'clock (p. 138"). 

The *Cathedral {^Notre Dame; PI. B, 3), the largest and most 
beautiful Gothic church in the Netherlands , is of cruciform shape 
with triple aisles. It was begun in 1352 under the superinten- 
dence of Jean Amel or Appelmans of Boulogne. After his death 
in 1398 the work was continued by his son Peter^ who was suc- 
ceeded by Jean Tac in 1434 and Master Everaert in 1449. To this 
period (1352-1449) belong the choir with its ambulatory and chapels, 
the sacristies, and the tower up to the first gallery. The S. aisles 
were built in 1425-72, the N. aisles in 1472-1500. From 1502 to 
1518 the building operations were directed by Herman van Waghe- 
makere and his son Dominic, the chief evidence of whose skill is 
the upper part of the N. tower, in the Flamboyant style. The S. 
tower was left unfinished in 1474. The tiave and aisles were not 
vaulted till 1611-16. The rich portal and the fine window over it, 
adorned with tracery, should be examined. In 1566 the church 
was seriously damaged by puritanical zealots, and again in 1794 by 

142 Route 15. ANTWERP. Cathedral. 

Frencli republicans. The exterior is unfortunately somewhat dis- 
figured by the mean houses clustered around it, but those near the 
principal facade have been removed. The restoration of the edi- 
fice was superintended by Fr. Durlet of Antwerp (d. 1867). 

*Intkiiior. [The church is usually entered from the Place Verte 
by the narrow lane on the S. side, at the end of which, on the right, 
opposite the S. portal, is the house of the concierge (No. 19), where 
tickets are obtained. Visitors ring. Guide quite superfluous. The 
principal pictures are shown, except during Lent, gratis on Sun. and 
Thurs. 8-12; on other days 12-4 p.m., admission 1 fr.] Internally 
the church is simple, but grand and impressive, and the rich per- 
spective of its six aisles is very effective. Its length is 128 yds. 5 
width of nave 57 yds., of transept, 74 yds, ; height 130 ft. Its area 
amounts to 70,060 sq. ft. (that of Cologne Cathedral is 87,000, 
St. Paul's in London 109,000, St. Peter's at Rome 212,000 sq. ft.). 
The vaulting is supported by 125 pillars. The level of the pavement 
has been several times raised. 

The S. Transept, entered from the Place Verte, contains 
Ruhens's far-famed masterpiece, the **Descent from the Cross , a 
winged picture, painted in 1612 (in Paris from 1794 to 1814; 
restored in 1852). On the inside of the wings are the Salutation, 
and the Presentation in the Temple, on the outside St. Christopher 
carrying the Infant Saviour, and a hermit. The Mary in a blue 
robe and the figure with a basket in the wings are portraits of the 
master's first wife and his daughter respectively. In the N. transept 
is Ruhens's ^Elevation of the Cross, painted in 1610, soon after his 
return from a residence of eight years in Italy (also in Paris from 
1794 to 1814). 

The Descent fkom the Cross is the most magnificent of these cel- 
ebrated pictures. The white linen on which the body of the Saviour lies 
is a peculiar and very effective feature in the composition, borrowed pro- 
bably from a similar work by Daniele da Volterra at Rome. The principal 
figure itself is admirably conceived and carefully drawn, and the attitude 
extremely expressive of the utter inertness of a dead body. Two of the 
three Maries are more attractive than is usual with Ruhens's female figures, 
but the flabby countenance of Joseph of Arimathsea exhibits neither sen- 
timent nor emotion. The arrangement of the whole is most masterly and 
judicious, the figures not too ponderous, and the colouring rich and har- 
monious, while a degree of sentiment is not wanting, so that this work is 
well calculated to exhibit Ruhens's wonderful genius in the most favourable 
light. According to a well-known anecdote, this picture, when in an un- 
finished state, fell from the easel in Ruhens's absence. Van Dyck^ as the most 
skilful of his pupils, was chosen to repair the damage, which he did so suc- 
cessfully, that Rubens on his return declared that his pupil's work sur- 
passed his own. The parts thus said to have been retouched are the face 
of the Virgin and the arm of the Magdalene. 

The popular story with regard to the origin of this famous picture is 
another of those picturesque fictions which modern investigation has so 
rudely dispelled. Rubens' is said to have been employed by the Guild of 
Arquebusiers to paint an altarpiece representing their patron saint 'St. Chris- 
tophorus' {i.e. 'the bearer of Christ'), as the price of which he was to re- 
ceive a piece of ground from them as a site for his house. Instead of ful- 
filling the contract literally by painting a single picture of St. Christopher, 

Cathedral. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 143 

Rubens generously determined to produce a far more noble work by repre- 
senting the 'bearing of Christ' allegorically, viz. in the principal picture 
Christ borne by his friends, in one wing by his Virgin mother before the 
Nativity, and in the other by the aged Simeon in the Temple. The picture 
was finished and shown to the Arquebusiers, who could not fail to be grati- 
fied by its magnificence-, but the allegorical mode of its execution was 
entirely lost upon them, and they complained that there was no St. Chris- 
topher. In order to satisfy them, Rubens then proceeded to paint St. Chris- 
topher in person on the outside of one shutter, while on the other he 
represented a hermit with a lantern, and an owl, emblematical, it was 
said , of the obtuseness of the worthy Arqiiebusiers. The facts of the 
case, however, were simply these. A dispute having arisen about the cost of 
a wall which separated Ru'bens's property from that of the Arquebusiers, the 
burgomaster Rockox, the captain of the guild and a friend of Rubens, 
persuaded him to paint this picture in order to equalise the price to be 
paid by each party. The hermit and the owl are well-known features in 
every picture relating to the legend of St. Christopher. 

The Elevation of the Ckoss, although inferior, is also a magni- 
ficent work. The figures are remarkable for their easy and natural atti- 
tudes, although inclined to be too heavy. The great life which pervades 
the whole, and the variety of the composition, compensate to some extent 
for deficiency of sentiment. In the figures of Christ and his executioners, 
the master displays his thorough acquaintance with the anatomy of the 
human frame. The horses are noble and lifelike, and a dog has even been 
introduced to give greater diversity to the scene. The latter was added 
by Rubens in 1627, when he retouched the picture. The wings form part 
of the same subject. On the right is a group of women and children, with 
horror depicted in their countenances, behind them are the Virgin and 
St. John; on the left, mounted officers, behind them the thieves, who are 
being nailed to their crosses by the executioners. 

Choir. The high-altarpiece is an *Assumption by Rubens, said 
to have been painted in sixteen days, doubtless with the aid of his 
pupils, for the sum of 1600 florins. This picture, though less 
attractive than the two above mentioned, exhibits the transcendent 
genius of the master in an almost equal degree and ranks with the 
Assumption in the Belvedere at Vienna as one of the best of the 
ten canvasses Rubens devoted to this subject. The Virgin is repre- 
sented among the clouds, surrounded by a heavenly choir, below 
whom are the apostles and numerous other figures. The colouring is 
less gorgeous than is usual in Rubens's pictures. — The high-altar 
dates from 1824. — The modern Stalls and the rich Gothic Episcopal 
Thrones, in the form of tabernacles, carved in wood, are adorned 
with groups from the life of the Virgin on the S. side and from that 
of the Saviour on the N. side, and with numerous small statues, 
which are admirably designed and beautifully executed. The archi- 
tectural portions are by W. Durlet, the plastic by Ch. Geerts (p. 79). 

The other works of art in the cathedral are all very inferior in 
interest to the three pictures by Rubens. As their position is 
frequently altered, the following description cannot claim to be 
permanently accurate. We begin to the S., near the Descent from 
the Cross, in the — 

Reteo-Choir. 1st Chapel (on the S.) : modern stained glass, 
by Didron of Paris (1872], representing the Mourning over the body 
of Christ. — 2nd Chapel: Rubens, the Resurrection, painted for 

144 Route 15. ANTWERP. Cathedral. 

the tomb of his friend the printer Moretus (see p. 164; portrait 
above), half life-size ; on the inside of the shutters John the Bap- 
tist and St. Martina, on the outside angels. The best view of the 
Assumption is obtained from this chapel. — 3rd Chapel: virtus 
Quellin the Younger, Marble monument of Bishop Ambrosius Ca- 
pello, the only monument of a bishop in the church which has 
escaped destruction. Interesting altarpiece by a Cologne master of 
the 14th cent., representing St. Michael and the dragon with angels 
and saints. — 4th Chapel : De Backer, Last Judgment, with por- 
traits of the Plantin family (generally covered); beneath it the 
tombstone of Plantin, a celebrated printer (d. 1589; see p. 154), 
with inscription by Justus Lipsius. — 5th Chapel : Modern stained 
glass by J. Bethune. — Adjacent, a carved confessional by P. Ver- 
bruggen (d. 1686), of whose workmanship there are other similar 
specimens in the church. — 6th Chapel : Modern stained glass by 
Bethune; mural decoration in the 15th cent, style by J. Baetens, 
a pupil of Leys ; Mater Dolorosa by A. Quellin (d. 1700). — At the 
back of the high-altar, the Dying Mary, a large picture by Matthys- 
sens (17th cent.). Below it, the Marriage of the Virgin, the An- 
nunciation, and the Visitation, painted in grisaille with great skill 
by Van Brie in imitation of half-relief. In front of it, Tomb 
of Isabella of Bourbon (d. 1456), wife of Charles the Bold, a re- 
cumbent figure in bronze. — 7th Chapel : Otho Vaenius, Entomb- 
ment; Luc. de Heere, Descent from the Cross ; modern stained glass. 
— 8th Chapel, recently restored : To the right a somewhat altered 
replica of Rubens's Christ a la paille (p. 161); stained glass of 1648 
representing the arms of the Guild of St. Luke, to which this 
chapel belonged. — 9th Chapel : Modern carved altar with poly- 
chrome ornamentation in the mediaeval style , executed by J. de 
Bock and J. de Wint from the design of Jos. Schadde, with scenes 
from the life of St. Joseph, to whom this chapel is dedicated. 
Paintings by L. Hendricks: Philip IV. dedicating Belgium to 
St. Joseph, Pius IX. appointing Joseph patron-saint of the Roman 
Catholic church in Belgium. Winged altarpieces by Arn. Mytens 
the Elder (Crucifixion, Journey and Adoration of the Magi) and 
Corn, de Vos the Elder (Descent from the Cross). The calling of 
St. Joseph and the Marriage of Joseph and the Virgin belong to 
the school of Roger van de.r Weyden. Stained glass from designs 
by A. Statins and A. Janssens, representing the tree of Jesse. Con- 
fessionals with large statues, carved in wood by Verbruggen. Altar- 
piece, a Madonna and Child, after Van Dyck. — 10th Chapel: 
Crucifix in Parian marble by Van der Neer. — 11th Chapel: Large 
winged altar-piece (modern) in carved wood. — 12th Chapel (a large 
one, adjoining the last) : A. Quellin, Statue of St. Anthony; stained 
glass of 1503, commemorating a commercial treaty between Henry VIL 
of England and Philip I. of Castile. 

Transept. l?M&ens'« pictures, described on pp. 142, 143. Farther 

Cathedral. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 145 

on, in the N. Transept: Stained glass of 1615 and 1616 (that above 
the portal portraying Archduke Albert and his consort Isabella, God- 
frey de Bouillon founding the Order of the Canons of St. Michael, 
etc.), restored in 1866. On the right, Francken the Elder ^ Christ 
and the Doctors , among whom are portraits of Luther, Calvin, and 
Erasmus; on the wings, church-fathers. — S. Transept: Large 
stained-glass window by Capronnier, Old and New Testament saints ; 
on the right, Murillo (?), St. Francis ; on the left, M. de Fos, Mar- 
riage at Cana ; 0. Vaenius^ Last Supper. — The dome above the 
intersection of the nave and transept was constructed by Dom. van 
Waghemakere in 1533 ; it is adorned with an Assumption by Corn. 
Schut (1647). 

The Nave and aisles contain some ancient and modern Stained- 
glass Windows^ the former dating from the 16th and 17th cent., 
but to a great extent restored, the latter executed by Capronnier 
in the old style. The Pulpit, with its trees, shrubs, and birds 
carved in wood, is by Van der Voort (1713). 

The Lady Chapel in the N. aisle contains a white marble altar, 
constructed in 1825 in exact imitation of an altar by Art. Quellin 
tlie Younger and P. Verbruggen the Elder, which had been destroyed 
in 1798. The four reliefs, representing the Annunciation, Visitation, 
Presentation in the Temple, and Assumption, are the original ones 
by Quellin. The stained glass, referring to the worship of the 
Virgin, was presented by King Leopold IL The much-belauded 
head of Christ on white marble , on the pillar to the right of the 
altar, is ascribed to Da Vinci, but is really the work of a Fle- 
mish artist, name unknown. 

In the S. aisle, the Passion in 14 scenes, painted in the med- 
iseval style by Vinck and Hendricks, pupils of Leys, in 1865-67. 
Another painting, by Com. Schut, represents the Holy Ghost 
surrounded by angels. The Chapel of the Sacrament, at the E. end 
of the aisle, contains an altar of the beginning of the century, a 
Christ at Emmaus , by iferreyns (1825), and a tabernacle by Ver- 
bruggen. The subjects of the stained glass are : Last Supper, by 
liombouts , executed in 1503 and restored in 1872 ; St. Amandus 
preaching Christianity at Antwerp, St. Norbert restoring the Roman 
Catholic form of worship at Antwerp, both by Didron; John the Bap- 
tist and John the Evangelist, of the 15th century. — The Chapelle des 
Mariages contains stained glass by Van Diepenbeeck, 1635. The 
altarpiece is a Holy Family by H. van Balen, in a landscape by 
J. Brueghel. The statue of the Virgin is by A. Quellin the Elder. 

Musical works by the most celebrated composers are performed 
at high mass (10 a.m.) on Sundays and festivals (chair 5 c). 

The * Tower (402 ft.), a beautiful and elaborate open 
structure, was begun by Jean Amel or his son (comp. p. 141), and 
completed by Dom. van Waghemakere, whose name is inscribed on 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. •JO 

146 Route 15. ANTWERP. Hdtel de Ville, 

the highest gallery. The S. tower has only attained one-third of the 
projected height. Charles V. used to say that this elegant specimen 
of Gothic architecture ought to be preserved in a case, and Napoleon 
is said to have compared it to a piece of Mechlin lace. The entrance 
to the tower is adjacent to theW. portal. The crucifix over the door 
was cast in 1635 with the metal of a statue formerly erected in the 
citadel by Philip II., 'cr aere captivo\ to the Duke of Alva. 

The concierge, who lives near, at Rue des Pelerins 14 (PI. B, 3, 4), is 
generally on the spot (fee for 1 person 75 c, for 2 persons 1 fr., for each 
additional person 25 c.). The ascent is fatiguing; 514 steps lead to the 
first gallery, and 102 more to the second and highest. The spire at the 
top of the tower perhaps dates from 1592. The view from the second 
gallery is more extensive than that from the lower. With the aid of 
a good telescope, the spectator may in clear weather follow the course 
of the Schelde as far as Flushing, and distingiiish the towers of Bergen- 
op-Zoom , Breda, Brussels, Malines, and Ghent. The Chimes are among 
the most complete in Belgium, consisting of 99 bells, the smallest of 
which is only 15 inches in circumference; the largest, cast in 1507, weighs 
8 tons. On the occasion of its consecration, Charles V. stood 'godfather'. 
An old Well, adjacent to the principal portal, and opposite the 
door of the tower, is protected by a canopy of iron, and surmounted 
by a statue of Salvius Brabo (see p. 147). It was executed by Quinten 
Mnssys (d. 1529), 'in synen tyd grofsmidt, en daernaer famues schil- 
der' ('at one time a blacksmith, afterwards a famous painter'), ac- 
cording to the inscription on his tombstone adjoining the entrance 
to the tower of the Cathedral. (The original tombstone, of which 
this is a copy, is in the old Museum; p. 148.) This remarkable 
and talented man was originally a blacksmith from Louvain , who 
came to seek his fortune at Antwerp , where this work is one of 
the specimens of his skill. Here, according to the romantic but 
apocryphal story (comp. p. 163), he became enamoured of the 
daughter of a painter , and to propitiate the father and win the 
daughter he exchanged the anvil for the palette. He wooed and 
painted successfully, and was chiefly instrumental in raising the 
School of Antwerp to a celebrity equal to that of Bruges and Ghent. 
He was one of the first Flemish masters who adopted the showy and 
effective style of the Italian schools, while his execution was hardly 
less elaborate and faithful to nature than that of his predecessors. 
His masterpiece is preserved in the Museum (p. 164). A slab im- 
mured at the above-mentioned spot in 1629 by his 'grateful and 
admiring posterity', bears the inscription, '■ Connuhialis amor de 
Mulcibre fecit Apellern'. 

The *H6tel de Ville, situated in the Grand' Place (PI. B, 3), 
in the vicinity , towards the N. of the cathedral , was erected 
in 1561-65 in the Renaissance style by Cornelis de Vriendt, and 
restored in its present form in 1581, after its partial destruction 
by the Spaniards. The plain facade , 93 yds. in length and 
125 ft. in height, rises over a rusticated ground-floor, with ar- 
cades in two principal stories (Doric and Ionic), resting on massive 
pillars. Above these is a colonnade which supports the roof. The 

Hotel deVille. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 147 

central part , with its circular arched windows , rises in three ad- 
ditional stories, diminishing in size as they ascend , to a height of 
180 ft. In a niche above stands the Virgin as the tutelary saint 
of the city, a figure placed here in 1585; below this, on the right 
and left, are allegorical figures of Wisdom and Justice. 

The 'Interior, which should be visited in the morning (no adm. after 
V2 noon on 3Ion. ; concierge 1 fr. ; entr. by the main facade beside the letter 
box), has since 1882 been undergoing a thorough restoration from designs of 
Af. J. Dens. The Staircase is lavishly decorated with coloured Belgian 
marble, and the glass roof is supported by carved wooden Caryatides, repre- 
senting different branches of industry. On the walls are views of Antwerp 
in the 16-17 th centuries. The iinest of the rooms, all of which are em- 
bellished with carved wooden panelling, is the great hall, or Salle Lets, 
decorated with a series of admirably executed paintings by H. Leys (1814-69). 
— 1. (to the left of the entrance), Solemn entry of Charles V., who 
swears to respect the privileges of the city, 1514; 2. (farther to the right, 
on the principal wall). The Burgomaster as head of the military forces 
of the town, or the Burgomaster Van Ursele entrusting the magistrate Van 
Spangcn with the command of the municipal guard for the defence of 
the city, 1542; 3. 3Iunicipal rights, or the rights of citizenship conferred 
on Batt. Palavicini of Genoa; 4. The Burgomaster as civil chief of the 
town, or 3Iargaret of Parma committing the keys of the city to the burgo- 
master during the troubles of 1567. Also portraits of twelve princes 
celebrated in the annals of the country, from Godfrey de Bouillon (10%) 
to Philippe le Bel (1491), most of whom granted privileges to the 
town. The architectural construction of the room, closely resembling the 
best Italian Eenaissance style, is also noteworthy. The ceiling bears the 
arms of the city and of the guilds. The apartment of the burgomaster contains 
a Chimney-piece^ finely sculptured in the Renaissance style, from the old 
Abbey of Tongerloo (p. 176), representing the Jlarriage of Cana, above 
which arc the Raising of the Serpent, and Abraham's" Sacrifice. There 
are also a few modern pictures. — The Salle du Coxseil Comjiunal con- 
tains ceiling-paintings of the School of Rubens (Pellegrini), a Judgment of 
.Solomon by Floris, life-size portraits of the royal family by De Keijser and 
Wappevs. and an elaborately carved wooden balustrade of the 16th cent., 
said by tradition to be the work of a prisoner of the Inquisition. In the 
Salle des Mariages, completed in 1885, are a Renaissance chimney-piece 
of the 16th cent., in black and white marble, and frescoes by Lagaye. 

The space in front of the Hotel de Ville is the best point for 
a view of the cathedral. A bronze Fountiin was erected in 1887 in 
the Grand' Place, surmounted by a statue of Salvius Brabo, a mytlii- 
cal hero who defeated and cut off the hand of the giant Antigonus. 
The giant used to exact a heavy toll from vessels entering tlie 
Schelde,and ruthlessly cut off and threw into the river a hand of every 
shipmaster who refused to pay. Hence, says the legend, the name 
of the town ("Antwerp', from -hand werpen'; werpen = to tluow). 

Most of the houses in the Grand' Place are Guild Houses, 
formerly belonging to the different corporations, and dating from 
the 16th and 17th centuries. The most conspicuous are. on the N., 
the Guild Hall of the Archers (No. 17), of 1513, and the Hall of 
the Coopers (No. 15), of 1579; on the S.E., tine House of the Tailors 
(No. 3(3), rebuilt after the pillage of the town by the Spaniards in 
1644; and the Hall of the Carpenters (No. 40), 1646. The quaint 
and narrow Rue des Orfevres leads W. from the market-place to the 
Schelde in a few minutes (Promenoirs, see p. 170). 


14.S Route 15. ANTWERP. St. PauVs Church. 

A few streets to the N. of the Hotel de Ville are the Vieilles 
Boucheries (PI. B, 3), or old flesh-niarket, a lofty, late -Gothic 
editice constructed in 1501-3 of regular courses of red bricks and 
white stone, with four hexagonal turrets at the corners. It is used 
as a warehouse. In the Kue Zick, to tlio N. , are some loth cent, 
houses ; and the neighbouring Rue aux Fromages and Rue des Ton- 
iieliers also contain traces of ancient Antwerp. 

In the vicinity rises the Church of St. Paul (PI B, 3), in 
the late-Gothic style, which formerly belonged to the adjoining 
Dominican monastery. It was erected in 1540-71 , but the choir 
was not completed until after 1621. Entrance in the Rue des 
Soeurs Noires (adm. in the middle of the day ; knock, fee 1 fr.). 

The wall of the N. Aisle of the church is adorned with fifteen 
pictures: Van Balen, Annunciation j J. Francken^ Visitation; M. de Vos, 
Nativity and Purification of Mary; Scourging of Christ, after Eubens; 
Van Difcky Bearing the Cross; Rubens, Adoration of the Magi; Jordaens, 
Crucifixion; Vinckboons, Resurrection. — Transept: De Crayer , Virgin 
and St. Dominic; ~Eubens, Scourging of Christ (covered); at the allar, 
after Caravaggio, the Virgin giving rosaries to St. Dominic for dish-i- 
bution (the original was sent to Vienna as a gift to the Emp. Joseph, 
who sent this copy as a substitute). — Choir. High-altarpiece, Cels, 
Descent from the Cross, a work of the beginning of the present century ; 
at the side, tombs of Henri/ van Vanck, Margrave of Antwerp (d. 1641), 
his wife Anna Da^nant, and Bishops Ambr. Capello and Mich. Oj)hovius 
(d. 1637). — S. Aisle : altar to the right, De Crayer, Body of Christ sur- 
rounded by the Magdalene, St. John, and angels; at the entrance. Tenters 
the Elder., The seven Works of Mercy, a curious assemblage of cripples of 
every description. The fine Renaissance wood-carving of the choir-stalls, 
the confessionals, etc., is worthy of examination. Excellent organ. 

The inner court contains a 'J/L Calvary\ an artificial mound covered 
with pieces of rock and slag, garnished with statues of saints, angels, 
prophets, and patriarchs, and surmounted by a crucifix. The grotto 
below is intended to represent the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem. 

Following the 'Canal des Re'collets' , a street to the E. of the 
Church, and turning to the left through the Rue des Re'collets, we 
reach a small Place, formed by the junction of four streets, 
where the entrance to the former museum is situated. In the centre 
of the Place (PI. B, C, 3) rises a Statue of Van Dyck, executed and 
preseiited by Leonhard de Cuyper, in 1856. 

The old Franciscan monastery (PI. C, 3), Rue du Fagot 21, con- 
tained the Museum before it was transferred in 1890 to the Palais 
des Beaux-Arts (p. 156). From the garden a portico leads into the 
old monastery church. The convent is occupied by the celebrated 
Academie des Beaux Arts , the successor of the mediaeval guild of 
St. Luke, a corporation founded for the promotion of art by Philip 
the Good, Duke of Burgundy, about the middle of the 15th cent., 
and richly endowed by Philip IV. of Spain. The number of mem- 
bers never exceeds twenty-five, of whom ten may be foreigners. 

M. NoTEBOHM, Rue du Fagot 3 (I'l. B, 8), pos?es.=e3 a piivate gallery of 
upwards of GO good modern pictures, open to lovers of the fine arts daily 
(1 fr.). *P. DelarocTie, Holy Family; Art/ Scheffer, Faiist and Marguerite, 
The king of Thule; Bellang^, ^^apoleon visiting the wounded after the 
battle of Austerlitz; Gallait, The happy and unhappy mother; Koekkoek, 
Landscapes; Lessing, Luther burning the papal bull; Leop, Robert, Neapo- 

Jesuits' Church. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 149 

litan fisbermen playing the mandolin; Gude, Norwegian landscape; Ca- 
lame, Swiss landscape; /. A. van der Veen, Eve and the Serpent, and Jos. 
Geefs, Girl at a brook, two marLle statues. In a separate room, eight 
ancient works : Murillo, Assumption; Sliugeland, Portraits. 

Near this point , Rue de lEmpereur 5 , is the old house of 
Burgomaster Rockox, the facade of which was designed by Rubens. 
— the Military Hospital CPl. 33 ; E, 4) was once the house of 
Burgomaster van Liere, who here entertained Charles V. during his 
visit to Antwerp in 1521. Diirer praises the building in his diary. 

A few streets farther N., near the Avenue du Commerce (p. 152), 
is situated the small church of St. Antoine (PI. C, 21, or Church of 
the Capuchins, erected in 1589, and containing two valuable pic- 
tures. On the W. wall of the left aisle, *Christ mourned over by 
his friends and two angels, by Van Dyck. In the choir, the first 
picture on the left, St. Anthony receiving the Infant Jesus from the 
arms of the Virgin, by Rubens. Opposite the last, St. Anthony with 
the stigmata, after Rubens. 

A little to the N.E. of the Cathedral lies the former Jesuits' 
Church (Sf. Charles Borromee ; PI. B, 3), built in 1614-21 by 
the Jesuit Fr. Aguillon from plans by Rubens, and sumptuously 
adorned with marble and works of art. Rubens himself furnished for 
it no fewer than 36 pictures. The structure was unfortunately struck 
by lightning in 1718 and burned to the ground, with the exception 
of the choir with its two side-chapels containing three large altar- 
pieces (Assumption, Miracles of St. Ignatius Loyola, and St. Francis 
Xavier), now preserved in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. The 
church was rebuilt in the style of the original edifice, though with 
less magnificence. Handsome facade. Pleasing bell-tower in the 
Renaissance style. 

The Interior is in the form of a basilica with galleries. Round the 
walls, to a height of about 10 ft. from the floor, runs a handsome car- 
ved wooden wainscoting with medallions representing scenes from the 
lives of SS. Ignatius and Francis Xavier, by Battrscheidt (d. 1745) and 
Van der Voort (d. 1737). The high-altar was' designed by Ruhens. Over 
the altar the three following paintings are exhibited alternately : C. Schul 
(d. 1655), Madonna enthroned; Seghers, Christ on the Cross; Wappevs, The 
Virgin interceding. The statues of SS. Francis Borgia and Francis Xavier 
are by A. Quellin, those of SS. Ignatius and Aloysius by A. Colyns de 
Xole (i7th cent.). The Virgin's Chapel still contains some specimens of 
the marble decoration of the building of 1618. The Chapel of St. Francis 
Xavier contains a painting by Seghers , St. Francis kneeling before the 
Virgin. In the Sacristy is a handsome ivory crucifix of the 17th century. 

The building to the W. of the church contains the Municipal 
Library, which is open to the public on weekdays, 9.30 to 4. In 
front of it is a monument to Hendrik Conscience, the Flemish no- 
velist (d. 1883), by Fr. Joris. 

The LoNGUE Rub Neuye leads hence to the right to the*Bourse, 
or Exchange (PI. C, 2), erected in 1869-72 on the site of a fine 
late-Gothic structure of 1531 (by Dom. van Waghemakere'), which 
was burned down in 1858. The new edifice , designed by Jos. 

1 5U Route 15. ANTWERP. St. Jacques. 

Schadde, is in the same style as its predecessor, but on a much 
larger scale, and has an entrance on each of the four sides. The 
hall, which is covered with glass , is 56 yds. long and 44 yds. 
wide, and is surrounded by a double arcade borne by 68 columns, 
opening towards the centre in Moorish-Gothic trefoil arches. Above 
these is a gallery borne by 38 columns, adjoining which are the Tri- 
bunal de Commerce and the Telegraph Office. The ceiling is borne 
by an elegant wrought-iron framework , and the walls are adorned 
with the arms of Antwerp, the Belgian lion, and the arms of the dif- 
ferent provinces of Belgium. In the angles between the arches are 
the arms of the chief sea-faring nations. Business-hours 1-3 p.m., 
during which only the galleries are accessible (ascent next the S. 
portal) ; at other times the place is used as a public thoroughfare. 

The *Churcli of St. Jacques (PI. C, 3), in the late-Gothic 
style, was begun in 1491 from designs by Her. van Wayhemakere 
and carried on after his death by Dom. van Wayhemakere, but 
was still unfinished in 1526 when the work was discontinued. In 
1602 after the subsidence of the religious troubles of the latter 
half of the 16th century, the works were resumed, and the church 
completed in 1656 (the cliief portal being added in 1694). It is a 
cruciform structure, flanked with chapels on each side and in the 
choir also, and is the principal church in Antwerp after the cathe- 
dral, which it far surpasses in the sumptuousness of its monuments 
and decorations. The wealthiest and most distinguished families at 
Antwerp here possessed their burial vaults, private chapels , and 
altars, the most interesting of which is that of the family of Rubens, 
in the choir, at the back of the high-altar. 

The principal entrance is on the S. side , in the Longue Hue 
Neuve (open for the inspection of the works of art between 12 and 
4p.m. ; sacristan's fee Ifr. for each pers. ; visitors knock at the door). 

The Interiob, which is of harmonious proportions, is lighted 
by fine stained-glass windows, both ancient and modern, the for- 
mer having been chiefly executed by A. van Diepenbeeck and Van 
der Veeken, the latter by J. Capronnier (p. 87). 

S. AisLB. "We begin to the W. 1st Chapel: A. van Dyck, St. 
George and the dragon ; opposite, wooden figure of St. Sebastian, by 
A. Quellin. The reliefs, representing scenes from the Passion, in 
this chapel and several of those following and also in the N. aisle 
are by J. Geefs, J. de Cuyper, and L. de Cuyper. — 2nd Chapel : 
M. de Vos, Temptation of St. Anthony. Monument of the Burgo- 
master Van Ertborn (p. 156), with a Madonna by Guido Reni. — 
3rd Chapel : E. Quellin, St. Rochus cured of the plague, 1660. This 
and the two following chapels contain twelve small scenes from the 
life of St. Rochus, executed in 1517. — 4th Chapel: Altarpiece 
and pictures opposite, by O. Vaenius. — 5th Chapel: Fr. Floris, 
Women occupied with the Infant Christ and St. John ; opposite, 
monument of Churchwarden Nicolas Mertens (d. 1586) and his 

St. Jacques. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 151 

wife, with portraits, by Ambr. Francken. — 6tli Chapel : M. Coxie, 
Baptism of Christ; Marten de Fo5, Martyrdom of St. James, the 
w ings by Francken (^Daughter of Jairus, Canaaiiite woman ; on the 
back, Gethsemane). 

Traxsbpt. Marble statues of the Apostles by Van der Voort^ 
Kerricx, De Cuyper, and others. To the right and left at the beginning 
of the choir : Resurrection by E. Dujardin (18621, and Assumption 
by Boeyermans (1671). In the S. arm : Elevation of the Cross , a 
high- relief by Van der Voort, 1719. Above the portal: Honthorst, 
Christ expelling the money-changers from the Temple , the wings 
by De Grayer. 

Choir. The rococo high-altar is by Ykens, the ornamentation by 
Kerricx, L. Willemssens. etc. The choir -stalls were carved by the 
older and younger Quellin. The stained-glass window is by Tan 
Diepenbeeck, 1644. — The S. transept is adjoined by the — 

Chapel of thb Host, containing a marble altar, fine marble 
screen, and statues of SS. Peter and Paul, by P. Verbruggen , L. 
Willemssens, and Kerricx. The pictures are by P. Thys (Last Supper ; 
altarpiece), E. van Donk (Peter's repentance), Jan Massys (Madonna 
and Child), etc. The *Stained Glass of 1626 (to the right of the 
altar) represents Rudolph of Hapsburg giving his horse to the priest 
carrying the monstrance, with the donors below. 

Retro-Cholr. — By the wall, Confessionals by A. Quellin, 
Willemssens , and others. Above the first of these : Goubau 
(d. 1618), Dead body of Christ; on either side of the second : M. 
de Vos , Ecce Homo (1562), and Verlinde, Madonna (1870). — 1st 
Chapel : H. van Balen the Elder, Trinity ; opposite, *Calling of St. 
Peter to the Apostleship (Peter giving Christ the fish with the piece 
of money), ascribed to A. van Noort (perhaps by Rubens). Below, 
after Van Dyck, Christ on the Cross (original in the Museum). — 
On the pier opposite : Corn. Schut, Mary weeping over the body of 
Christ. — 2nd Chapel : Seghers, St. Ivo. — 3rd Chapel : Seghers, 
Appearing of Christ. Van der Voort , Christ scourged , a group in 
marble. Above the next door : Coronation of the Virgin, Nativity, and 
Adoration of the Magi, winged picture by A. Janssens (d. 1631). 

4th. *Rubens Chapel. The tomb of the illustrious painter (d. 
30th May, 1640, at the age of 64) was covered by a new tombstone 
in 1755 , bearing a long inscription in Latin. The altarpiece of 
this chapel is a fine work by Rubens. 

The Holy Child is represented sitting in the lap of the Virgin in 
an arbour, and worshipped by St. Bonaventura. Behind the Madonna is 
St. Jerome, while on the other side is St. George with three holy women. 
According to tradition these saints are all family portraits. St. Jerome 
is said to be the father of Rubens. St. George the painter himself, and the 
three women his two wives and Mademoiselle Lunden , whose portrait 
in the National Gallery at London is famous under the name of the 
'Chapeau de paille\ The tradition is, however, doubtful, for the exe- 
cution of the work differs from that usual with Rubens in his later years, 
in which alone the portraits could have been painted. 

152 Route 15. ANTWERP. St. Jacques. 

The marble statue of the Virgin, the two angels, and the upper 
portion of the altar , are probably the work of Luc. Fayd'herbe 
(d, 16941, with whom Rubens was intimate. On the right and 
left are the monuments of two female descendants of Rubens, exe- 
cuted by W. Geefs in 1839 and 1850. 

Above the next door: Th. Rombouts, Betrothal of St. Catharine. 

— 5th Chapel : Jordaens , S. Carlo Borromeo among persons sick 
of the plague. — 6th Chapel : Van Lint, St. Peter taking leave of 
St. Paul; opposite, P. Thys, Abraham's Sacrifice. — 7th Chapel: 
Victor Wolfvoet, Visitation (1639). Moons, Christ at Emmaus (1843). 

— On the wall of the choir : Peter T//i/s, The Trinity. 

The Chapkl of the Virgin, in the N. transept, contains 
stained glass by 7)e ia^aer (1641); also, on the altar, A. Quellinthe 
Elder, Pieta, a small painted sculpture in wood, 1650; A. Francken, 
Entombment, and the Risen Saviour appearing to Mary Magdalene. 

N. Traxsept. Above the portal, J. Honthorst, Christ among 
the Doctors in the Temple; on the wings, Seghers, Annunciation, 
and Adoration of the Magi. Thys, Assumption of the Virgin; 
E. Quellin the Younger, Death of St. Francis. — On the pillar, 
C. Schut, Body of Christ on the knees of the Virgin. 

N. Aisle. 2nd Chapel, on the E.: M. de Vos , Glory, a winged 
picture ; Peter van den Avont, Madonna and the Child in a garden, 
surrounded by angels; stained glass representing the Last Supper, 
with portraits of the donors, 1538. — 3rd Chapel : *B. v. Orley, Last 
Judgment ; on the wings St. George and the Burgomaster Rockox 
(p. 149), the donor of the picture, with his three sons; and St. Ca- 
tharine and the wife of the burgomaster, with their ten daughters. 

— 4th Chapel : Van Balen, Adoration of the Magi, with Fliglit into 
Egypt, Crucifixion, and Nativity below in grisaille; on the wings 
Annunciation and Visitation ; Ryckaert, Portrait of J. Doncker and 
his wife (above their tomb). — 5th Chapel : M. de Vos, Mary entering 
the Temple. — 6th Chapel : Tomb of the Spanish general Del Pico 
(d. 1693). — In the nave, *Pulpitby WiZ^emssens, with the Evange- 
lists and allegorical figures of Faith, Religion, etc. (1675). 

The Institut de Commerce (PI. C, 3), in the Rue du Chene, to 
the S. of the church of St. Jacques, contains a commercial museum. 

At the E. end of the Longue Rue Neuve rises the new Flemish 
Theatre, or Schouwburg (PI. C, 3), erected by Dens in 1869-72. 
Liscription on the W. side , towards the Place de la Commune : 
*Vrede baart kunst, kunst veredelt het volk' (peace begets art, art 
ennobles the people). 

At the Place de la Commune (PI. C, 3), on the N.E. side of 
which stands the Athtnee Royal, by Dens, completed in 1884, we 
reach the ring of spacious streets constructed on the site of the ram- 
parts that formerly encircled the old town and were removed in 
1859. To the N. runs the Avenue du Commerce, with a Scandinavian 

Royal Palace. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 153 

Lutheran Church, in the GotMc style (near the Capuchin church, 
p. 149); to the S. are the Avenue desArts. the Avenue de V Industrie., 
and the Avenue du Sud, leading to the South Station. These 
avenues are all shaded with rows of trees. 

Near the beginning of the Avenue des Arts, to the W., is 
the small Place Tenters (PI. C, 3) . emhellished with a statue of 
David Tenters, by Ducaju, erected in 1867. The short Rue Leys, 
containing the house (No. 12) formerly occupied by Hendrik Leys, 
the painter, leads hence to the W. to the Place de Meir (see below). 

Farther on, on the S.E. side of the Avenue des Arts, is the 
Avenue Marie-Therese, leading to the Park (p. 168). 

At the end of the Avenue des Arts, to the right, stands the 
National Bank (PI. C, 5), with its round corner-turrets, designed 
by Beyart, who has employed the Flemish Renaissance style in this 
case also (comp. p. 79). The architectural details are admirably 
executed. In time of war the building is intended to serve as the 
depository of the national treasury. In front of the bank is a foiin- 
tain. Behind it is the Place Le'opold (see below). 

At the end of the Avexue de l'Ixdustrie (Pi. C, 5), on the 
E. side, is the new Palace of Justice, erected by Baeckelmans in 
the French style, and resembling the chateaux of the period of 
Louis XIII. 

Parallel with the Longue Rue Neuve (p. 149) runs the street 
called the Place de Meir (PI. C, 3, 4), one2of the broadest in 
Antwerp, formed by the arching over of a canal, and flanked with 
handsome new houses, most of them in the baroque or rococo style. 
No. 50 is the Royal Palace, in that style, erected in 1755 from plans 
by Jan Pieter van Baurscheidt, for a wealthy citizen of Antwerp. 
No. 52, a little farther to the E., is the House of Ruhens's Parents, 
erected in 1567, and restored in 1854, a richly decorated building 
with two Corinthian columns and a bust of Rubens on the top. The 
only remaining part of the house which the illustrious painter built 
for himself in 1612. and where he died on 30th May, 1640, is a 
handsome portico with sculptures by Fayd'herbe, now in the garden 
of a house to the left (No. 7) in the neighbouring Rue Rubens (visi- 
tors admitted). — The Rue Leys (see above) forms a prolongation of 
the Place de Meir and leads to the Place Teniers (see above). 

The Rue des Tanneurs diverging to the S. from the Place de 
Meir leads to the French Theatre Royal (PI. C, 4), completed in 
1834. — Adjacent is the Botanic Garden (PI. C, 4), which contains 
a palm-house and a statue of P. Coudenberg , an Antwerp botanist 
of the 16th cent., by De Cuyper. 

In the vicinity is the St. Elizabeth Hospital. — The small Place 
Leopold (PL C, 4) is embellished with an Equestrian Statue of 
Leopold I., in bronze, designed by J. Geefs. The stone pedestal 
bears a double inscription, in Flemish and French. — We now re- 
turn, passing the National Bank, to the Avenue des Arts (see above). 

154 Route 15. ANTWERP. Augustine Church. 

The Maison pes Orphblines, or girls' orphanage, Longue Rue 
de I'Hopital 29, was built in 1552. Above the door is a relief re- 
presenting a school of the 10th century. 

The Gothic Church of St. George (PI. C, 4, 5) , by Sluys, 
consecrated in 1853, witli its two lofty spires, contains fine mural 
^Paintings by Guffens and Siverts (p. 79), executed in 1859-G8. 
The subjects are the Childhood and Youth of Christ, down to the 
Entry into Jerusalem (right aisle, beginning at the choir); the Suf- 
ferings of Christ, the Resurrection, Ascension, Descent of the Uoly 
Ghost (left aisle, beginning at the door); Christ with the Virgin, 
Joseph, St. George, and the Apostles and Evangelists (in the choir). 

From the S.W. corner of the Place Vertc (p. 141) diverges a 
wide new street, named the Rue Nationale (PI. B, 4, 5), which 
unites the centre of the old town with the growing quarter in the 
S.AV. part of the new town. Near the beginning of it is a monu- 
ment (PI. B, 4) to the memory of Theod. van Ryswyck, a Flemish 
poet who died in 1849. 

A little to the E. is the Church 'of the Augustines (PI. B, 4), 
erected in 1615, which possesses a large altarpiece with numerous 
figures, by Rubens, representing the 'Nuptials of St. Catharine 
with the Infant Jesus'. This excellent work is unfortunately in bad 

Also, to the right of the principal entrance: Cels (1778), Elizabeth 
and Blary, Lens (d. 1872), Presentation in the Temple. On the left: Van 
Brie^ Baptism of St. Augustine. Farther on, to the right, the Martyrdom 
of St. Apollonia as an altarpiece, by Jordaens; to the left, Van Bifck, 
The Vision of St. Augustine. The high -altar, over which is the above- 
mentioned work of Rubens, is by Verbruggen. On the right of the choir 
a modern chapel in the Romanesque style, with frescoes by Bellemans. 

A side-street, diverging to the W. from the Rue Nationale, 
leads to the small Place du Vendredi, in the S.W. angle of which 
is the *Musee Plantin - Moretus (PI. B, 4), established in the 
house of the celebrated printer Christopher Plantin (1514-89), who 
set up his printing-office at Antwerp in 1555. From 1579 down 
to the present day the business was carried on in this building, 
at first by Plantin himself, and afterwards by the family of his son- 
in-law Moretus. After the middle of the 17th cent, tlie operations 
of the firm were confined to the printing of mass and prayer-books, 
for which Plantin had received a monopoly from Philip II. for 
the dominions of the Spanish crown. When this privilege was 
withdrawn in the year 1800, the printing-office was temporarily 
closed, and afterwards it was only used at intervals down to 1875, 
when the building with its antique furniture, tapestry, paintings 
(90 portraits, including 14 by Rubens and 2 by Van Dyck), and 
other collections, was purchased by the city of Antwerp. The 
house therefore now presents a unique picture of the dwelling and 
contiguous business-premises of a Flemish patrician of the end of 

St. Andrew's Church. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 155 

the 16th century. Adm. daily 10-4, Sat. excepted, 1 fr. Interest- 
ing catalogue by Max Rooses, 1 fr. 

Ground Floor. In the vestibule we turn to the right at the foot of 
the staircase, and enter Room I, Vhich contains some line old Flemish 
tapestry and a tortoise-shell table. — Room II. contains several admii-- 
able family-portraits. To the right, above the modern mantel-piece in 
the Renaissance style, hangs a portrait of Plantin by Frons Fourbus the 
Elder (.1578), which served as a model for the other portrait, by Rubens., 
to the right of the door of exit. Fubens also painted the portraits of 
Jeanne Riviere, Plantings wife; of Martina Plantin (by the window); of John 
Moretus, son-in-law of Plantin (d. 1010); and of Adriana Gras, Arias Mon- 
tanus, Justus Lipsius, Abraham Ortelius, and P. Plantin. Most, however, are 
merely school-pieces. On the exit-wall are two sketches by Rubens-., also 
two fine portraits by Thos. Bosschaeri, surnamed WiUebovds: Balthasar 
Moretus, under whom the printing-office enjoyed a new lease of success 
and fame in 1618-41, and Gevartius, the Town Clerk, a friend of Moretus 
and Rubens. In the centre, under glass: Drawings, Title-pages, Vig- 
nettes, partly by Rubens, who, as appears from receipts which are still 
preserved (in the middle of the window-wall), frequently drew designs 
for printers; also Erasmus Quellin, Bernard van Orley., Marten de Vos., 
and others. Two fine cabinets of the 17th century. — Room III. also con- 
tains portraits. To the left of the entrance : Balthasar Moretus on his 
death-bed. by Bosschaert ( Willebords); ^lagdalena Plantin and her hus- 
band, Gilles Beys, by an unknown painter. Among the other portraits 
are several copies hyRubens of Italian works, including Pope Leo X. after 
Raphael. In the centre: 3Iiniatures from the 10th to the 16th cent.; 
specimens of Plantin's printing. Above the mantel-piece: Copy of the 
large boar-hunt by Rubens, now at Munich. — We now cross the med- 
iaeval-looking Court, where we see numerous repetitions of Plantings 
motto, 'Lahore et constantia.' One side is entirely covered by the bran- 
ches of an aged vine. Below the arcade, to the right, are the Sale 
Rooms, with a separate entrance from the street; they are embellished 
with old Flemish tapestry and oaken panelling (partly restored). One 
of them contains a painted spinet of the 17th cent. (St. Cecilia, after Ru- 
bens). On the other side of the court is the Printing Office , where 
everything is left arranged as if work were to be resumed to-morrow. 
We first enter the Proof-readers'' Room, where old proof-sheets, first im- 
pressions, etc., are still lying on the desks and benches. Next to this are 
the Proprietor's Office , with gilt-leather hangings , and the so-called 
Room of Justus Lipsius. with Spanish leather hangings, where the dis- 
tinguished critic and philologist is said to have been lodged when visit- 
ing his publisher Moretus. A passage leads hence to the Type Room, with 
old matrices, etc., and to the Composing and Printing Room, by the 
exit-wall of which stand two presses of the 16th century. 

We now return to the vestibule and ascend the stairs to the First 
Floor. Two rooms here contain specimens of the work of several famous 
printing-offices , some Chinese porcelain , and a small library, with va- 
rions interesting autographs in glass cases by the window-wall. Two other 
rooms contain a collection of wood-cuts and a coloured view of Antwerp 
in 1565. We may next visit the library, and a room containing the titles 
to the different privileges enjoyed by Plantin. In other rooms are pre- 
served copper-plates after Rubens, Jordaens, and Van Di/ck, and numerous 
fine specimens of early printing. There is also a type-foundry, etc. 

A little to the S., but nearer the Rue Nationale, stands the 
Church of St. Andrew (PL B, 4), a late-Gothic edifice of 1514-23, 
containing several works of art. 

The pulpit, in carved wood, is by Van Geel and Van Hool (18th cent.). 
St. Peter and St. Andrew are represented in a boat on the sea, from 
which they are summoned by the Saviour; life-size figures, finely exe- 
cuted. In the N. Chapel of the Choir: Govaerts, Flight into Egypt; 
Seghers, St. Anna instructing the Virgin. Choir: 0. Vaenius, Crucifixion 

156 Route 15. ANTWERP. Museum. 

of St. Andrew; Erasmus Quellin the Younger^ Guardian angel of youth. 
S. Chapel of the Choir: Franck, Last Supper (altarpiece); Seghers, 
Raising of Lazarus; E. Quellin, Christ at Eramaus; E. Quellin^ Holy 
Family. By the choir are two statues, (left) St. Peter by A. Quellin (he 
Younger, and (right) St. Paul by ZielensT In the Tr.\nsepts several modern 
pictures, by Verlat, Van Eycken, and others. Side-altar on the S. : Pepyn, 
Crucifixion; on the N., Franck, St. Anna teaching children, a work with 
numerous figures. The aisles contain a number of large modern pictures. 
On a pillar in the S. Transept is a small medallion-portrait of Mary 
Queen of Scots (by Pourbns), with an inscription in memory of that \in- 
fortunate sovereign, and of two of her ladies-in-waiting who are interred 
in this church. 

To the S. the Rue Nationale is continued "by the liue du Peuple 
(PI. B, 5). In the Place Marnix, to the E. of the Rue du Peuple, 
a monument by Winders was erected in 1883 to commemorate the 
abolition of the river dues of the Schelde in 1863, an event to 
\vhi(;h Antwerp owes most of her present prosperity (see p. 140). — 
The Rue du Peuple terminates at the Place du Peuple , in which 
rises the imposing new — 

'^Iffuseum (^Palais des Beaux- Arts; PI. B, 5), erected in 1879- 
1890 from plans by Wmders and VanDyck,in the Greek Renaissance 
style, with suggestions of the baroque. The building is in the 
form of a massive rectangle, enclosing six inner courts. Tlie main 
entrance, in the W. facade, is by a portico supported by four 
colossal Corinthian columns, and flanked on the upper story by 
loggie. The Attic story is embellished with allegorical figures and 
medallions by Dupuis, De Pleyn, Ducaju, and Fabri. The horizontal 
line of the upper cornice is interrupted at the corners by pylon- 
shaped pedestals, which are to support groups of statuary by ViriQOtte. 
The side-walls of the museum have also not yet received their 
decoration. — On the ground-floor, in the left wing, are the 
sculptures, in the right wing, the Rubens Collection ; on the upper 
floor is the picture gallery. Adm. daily 9-5 (10-4 in winter), Sun. 
and Thurs. free, other days 1 fr. Catalogue (in French) of the paint- 
ings and sculptures, by Van Lerius, II/2 fr. ; smaller Flemish cata- 
logue 1 2 fr. ; catalogue of the Rubens Collection by Rooses, 1 fr. 

In the Entrance Hall, opposite the entrance are four busts of 
former members of the Academy (p. 148): 1030. Wappers, by J. de 
Braekeleer ; 1149. Herreyns, by Van de Veen; 1068. Nic. de Keyset, 
by Jos. Geefs; 1024. W. Geefs, by himself. 

We turn first to the left and enter the Sculpture Gallery. 
The Main Room is divided into three sections by coupled columns 
projecting from each side. 

Section I. 1507. Delay the Elder, Girl holding a shell to her 
ear; 1031. De Braekeleer, Bust of L. van Kuyck; 1069. Jos. Geefs, 
Bust of Burgomaster Fl. van Ertborn (p. 158); *1066. Jos. Geefs, 
Leander drowned. 

Section II. To the right : E. Quellin the Younger, *702. St. Se- 
bastian (wooden statue), 703. Caritas Romana; 1523. Jos. Geefs, 
The Fisher, from Goethe; 1518. A. Dumont, Cupid, in bronze; 

Museum. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 157 

1039. Deckers, The blind man, group in bronze ; *10S5. Lamheaux, 
The kiss, Mghly realistic ; W. Geefs, Genovefa of Brabant; 1517, 
Drake, Medallion-portrait of himself. — To the left, chiefly busts : 
1630. Kiss, by himself; 1540. Rauch, by Rietschel ; 1033. F. de 
Braekeleer, by J. J. de Braekeleer (terracotta); *1038. Deckers, 
Education of Bacchus; 1522. Bust of W. Geefs, by himself; 1116. 
Van Lerius, by Pecher. 

Section III. In the middle : 1060. Ducaju, King Leopold II. of 
Belgium ; *1529. Kiss, Amazon attacked by a panther, reduced 
marble replica of the group at the museum in Berlin; *1054. De 
Rudder, The nest, realistic. — In the middle of the rear-wall : 1115. 
Pecher, Colossal marble bust of Rubens, on an elaborate bronze 
pedestal, erected in 1877 in honour of the three hundredth anni- 
versary of the birth of the great master; 1056. Derigne, Maiden's 
prayer ; 1519. G. J. Thomas, Bust of A. Dumont, the sculptor (ter- 
racotta). — In the centre of the room connecting this hall with the 
Rubens rooms (see below): *1516. Drake, Large bronze vase, 
with reliefs representing human life. 

The corner-room and eight rooms and two side-halls on the 
ground-floor of the right wing are devoted to the Rubens Collection 
(L'Oeuvre grave de Rubens), founded in 18T7 (see above) by the 
city of Antwerp and the Belgian state. It contains reproductions 
(engravings, etchings, woodcuts, photographs, etc.) of nearly all 
the extant works of Rubens in the various galleries, churches, etc., 
and affords a most instructive insight into the wonderful versatility 
and inexhaustible powers of the great master. 

Vpwards of 1100 plates etc, are here exhibited, each hearing an ex- 
planatory extract from Rooses'3 catalogue (p. 156j. — Kos, 1-476 include 
in six sections the religious and ecclesiastical pictures: general and 
symbolical representations, scenes from the Old and ^ew Testaments, 
paintings from churches. Madonnas (in which the portrait of Isabella 
Brandt, Rubens's first wife, frequently occurs), saints, martyrs, etc, Xext 
follow paintings of secular subjects: mythological (from Ovid) and 
historical representations, including scenes from the lives of Marie de 
Medecis and Henri IV. of France (originals in the Louvre), and James I. 
of Great Britain; allegories; genre-scenes; portraits (81(3-981^; hunting 
scenes; landscapes CKos. 1001-1042): and a series of examples without 
numbers, — The following rooms are still empty. 

From the entrance-hall (p. 156) a portal leads to the Staircase 
(Vestibule De Keyser), which also communicates with the sculpture- 
gallery and the Rubens rooms by means of a central portal with 
caryatides and side-doors. The large vestibule is handsomely 
proportioned, and its walls are clad with coloured marble. The 
chief decorations, however, are the paintings (on canvas) by A'/cai^^e 
de Keyser, the subjects being taken from the history of the Antwerp 
School of Art (best viewed from the top of the staircase). 

In the principal painting over the entrance, and in the large scenes 
on the right and left wall, the whole of the Antwerp masters are assembled, 
52 in the first, and 42 in each of the other two. In the centre of the prin- 
cipal picture is Antwerpia on a throne; beneath are Gothic and Re- 
nais.<'ance art; to the left Quinten Massys in a sitting posture, and 

158 Pioute 15. 



Frans Floria standing; above Massys is a group of the architects of the 
cathedral of Antwerp-, on the right side of the picture Rubens as the 

principal figure ; in 












iMnstorsi. a Modrnt Masters j-jPorirailsj 


front of him, to the 
left, his teacher 
(Jtho Va>nius; be- 
tween them Jor- 
daens, leaning over 
the balustrade, in 
a yellow robe; in 
front of Rubens is 
Corn. Schut,sitting 
on the steps; next 
him on the riglit, 
ly bides from view 
David Teniers the 
Elder in a blue 
dress; in the centre 
of the first bay 
Casp. de Grayer, 
then Jan Brueghel 
in a red robe etc., 
The picture to our 
right on entering 
contains figures of 
painters and sculp- 
tors, that to the 
left painters and 
engravers. The six 
smaller pictures, 
on the right and 
left of the princi- 
pal pieces, are in- 
tended to embody 
the various influ- 
ences which have 
affected the devel- 
opment of Flemish 
art, particularly 
those which eman- 
ated from Italy 
(Raphael, Michael 
Angelo, etc.). Six 
other paintings in- 
dicate the appre- 
ciation with which 
the art of Brabant 
has been received 
at Vienna, London, 
Paris, Amsterdam, 
Bologna, andRome. 
The first floor 
contains i r the 

**PicTURK Gallery. The Collection of Old Masters includes 755 pic- 
tures, many of them collected from the suppressed monasteries and 
churches of Antwerp, while others have been brought hither from the 
Hotel deVille and the Steen. In 1840 the Ikirgomaster Van Ertborn 
(p. 156) bequeathed his collection to the museum. The Musce Mo- 
cler7ie, or Gitlkrij of Modern Paintings contains about 200 canvases. 

Museum. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 159 

The collection of works of the Flemish school is ample and 
excellent. Both the early painters, who are usually classed as 
belonging to the school of Van Eyck, and the later, headed by 
Rubens , are admirably represented. Specially noteworthy are 
the following : St. Barbara, by Jan van Eyck [No. 410); the Seven 
Sacraments, by Roger van der M^eyden (No. 393) ; the Entombment, 
by Quinten Massys (No. 245); the Crucifixion, by Van Dyck (No. 
406) ; St. Francis, by Van den Hoeck (No. 381) ; and, among the 
specimens of Rubens, Christ and the two Malefactors (No. 297), the 
Portraits of Burgomaster Rockox and his wife (wings of No. 307), 
the Pieta (No. 300), and St. Theresa (No. 299). The number of 
other than Flemish pictures is very limited; conspicuous among 
them are a Crucifixion by Antonello da Messina (No. 4), and the 
Fisher-boy by Frans Hals (No. 188). 

The historical arrangement of the pictures has been attempted 
only on the broadest lines. Rooms A-K contain the older masters, 
Rooms N-P the so-called historical paintings, i.e. those referring to 
the history of Antwerp, and Rooms Q-W the modern paintings. — 
"We first enter — 

Room J. To the left, 709. Rubens, Jupiter and Antiope (1614) ; 
472, 473. Van Thulden, 'Triumphal Arch of Philip 1.', painted for 
the illustrated description of Rubenss Triumphal Arch published 
by Van Thulden and Gervatius in 1641; 318. Rubens, The trium- 
phal car; 316, 317. Rubens, Two sketches of triumphal arches, 
executed in 1635 for the city of Antwerp on the occasion of the 
triumphal entry of Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria, the victor of 
Nordlingen and Calloo. Six other sketches are in the Hermitage at 
St. Petersburg. One of the arches was to have been 80 ft. high 
and 60 ft. wide. 185. Ant. Goubau, Art-studies in Rome (1662); 
315. Rubens, Descent from the Cross, a small replica (1612) of the 
painting in the cathedral. 

406. Van Dyck, Christ on the Cross, a reduced imitation of 
Rubens's well-known picture (No. 313), of ghastly, but most 
effective colouring ; the full outline of the body, however, hardly 
accords with the suffering expressed by the features. Human re- 
signation is admirably expressed, but there is perhaps a deficiency 
in divine dignity. — *307-310. Rubens, The doubting Thomas, on 
the vings half-length portraits of the Burgomaster Nic. Rockox 
(p. 149) and his wife Adrienne Perez. The portraits are far finer 
than the figures in the central picture (comp. p. xlviii). 

22. Th. Boeyermans, The visit; 748. Van Thulden, Continence 
of Scipio ; 157. Fr. Francken the Younger, The works of mercy. 

Room I. (large central room). To the left: 212. A. Janssens, 
Personification of the Schelde ; 172. J. Fyt, Sleeping hounds with 
dead game. — *299. Rubens, St. Theresa interceding for souls in 
purgatory, one of the most pleasing pictures of the artist's later 

160 Route 15. ANTWERP. Museum. 

period; 405. Van Dyck, Portrait of Caesar Aloxander vScaglia, tlie 
Spanish ambassador at the Congress of Miinster; *300. Rubens, The 
Virgin instructed by St. Anna, a very attractive group ; colouring 
mellow and harmonious (about 1630); 53. C. cle Crayer, Elijah fed 
by ravens. 

*2y8. Rubens, Adoration of the Magi, painted in 1624. 

This gorgeous and imposing composition, on a similar scale with the 
Elevation of the Cross, but far less impressive, contains about twenty 
figures over life-size, besides camels and horses in the suite of the Three 
Kings , crowded into the picture , while the sumptuousness of the cos- 
tumes and vessels gives the whole an overloaded efl'ect. The king holding 
the goblet is a somewhat awkward figure. It must, however, be ad- 
mitted that the work exhibits marvellous freedom and boldness of out- 
line, great skill in arrangement, and a wonderful variety of attitude — 
all genuine attributes of Rubens. The picture is said to have been painted 
in a fortnight. 

480-482. 0. van Veen (Oiho Venius, or Vaenius, p. xlvi"), three 
pictures: Call of St. Matthew, Beneficence of St. Nicholas, St. Nicholas 
saving hi^ flock from perishing by famine. The composition, co- 
louring, and drawing of these pictures bear testimony to the paint- 
er's live years' residence in Italy. — *312. 22u&ens, Holy Family, 'La 
Vierge au perroqueV, so called from the parrot at the side, one of his 
earlier works, presented by him to the Guild of St. Luke, on his 
election as president, in 1631, and hardly inferior in composition 
and colouring to his more celebrated works (comp. p. xlvi). — 
*313. Rubens, Christ on the Cross (frequently copied and imitated), 

327. Corn. Schut, Martyrdom of St. George, excellent both in 
composition and drawing; the saint recalls the type of Christ; 673. 
P. Gysels, Still-life; 107. Corn, de Vos, St. Norbert receiving the 
Host and Sacred Vessels that had been hidden during a time of war 
and heresy; 659. P. de Ryny, Still-life; 479. 0. van Veen, Zachseus 
in the sycamore-tree. 

*404. Van Dyck, The dead Saviour ('Pieta'), painted soon after 
his return from Italy (1628). 

The Virgin is represented supporting the head of the dead Christ on 
her knees-, St. John shows the wound made by the nail in the left hand 
to two angels, one of whom veils his face. The features of Christ bear 
traces of intense physical sufl'ering. St. John and the angel whose beau- 
tiful face is visible wear an expression of profound grief, which however 
they can still express in words, whereas the anguish of the Virgin is 
unutterable ; her head is thrown back , her arms wildly extended. The 
picture is chaste , the colouring subdued (now unfortunately faded) ; yet 
the tendency of the master's school to a full and somewhat sensual out- 
line is apparent, although the work does not altogether lack sentiment. 

**297. Rubens , Christ crucified between the two thieves ('le 
coup de lance'), a very celebrated picture, painted for the church of 
the Franciscans in 1020. 

This picture is remarkable for its dramatic effect, and is by no means 
deficient in sentiment. Longinus, the Roman officer, mounted on a grey 
horse , is piercing the side of the Saviour with a lance. The penitent 
thief, a grey-haired man, is invoking the Saviour for the last time. To 
the left in the foreground stands the Virgin 3Iother, whom Mary the wife 

Museum. ANTWERP. 7.5. Route. 101 

of Cleophas in vain endeavours to console. Farther back, St. John leans 
against the cross of the impenitent thief, weeping. Mary Magdalene, on 
her knees at the foot of the Cross, implores Longinus to spare the sacred 
body of her master. This is considered by many to be Rubens's chef 
(foeuvre, and deserves the minutest inspection. There is no inaccurate 
drawing here, as in almost all the master's other works, and at the same 
time the composition and colouring are inimitable. The profile of the 
Magdalene is remarkably beautiful, expressive of horror and supplication, 
without being distorted. The whole composition is a striking example 
of that marvellous boldness of imagination in which Rubens is unrivalled. 

"240. N. Maes, Martyrdom of St. George ; 508. G. Seghers^ Be- 
trothal of the Virgin. 

*300-304. Rubens, 'Christ li la Paille', the body of Christ resting 
on a stone bench covered with straw, partly supported by Joseph of 
Arimathaea, and mourned over by the Virgin, with St.. John and 
Mary Magdalene. On the wings (301, 303) the Virgin and Child, 
and St. John the Evangelist. 

This most interesting altarpiece (painted about 1617) shows by its 
carefully-executed details that it is one of the master's earlier works, pro- 
duced before he had adopted his bold and dashing touch. Here, too, we 
have a full and flowing outline and admirable ease of attitude, but there 
is no symptom of the master's subsequent abuse of his power, in pro- 
ducing overwhelming masses of flesh and crowds of figures in forced 
postures. A happy mean is here observed, and there is greater beauty and 
sentiment than in his later works. The colouring is delicate and harmo- 
nious. The weeping Mary Magdalene is a particularly expressive figure. 

*104. Corn, de Vos, Portrait of a functionary (fcnap, i. e. 'knave') 
of the Corporation of St. Luke, painted in 1620; the artistically 
executed cups of gold and silver on the table at which he stands 
were gifts to the Academy from princes and sovereigns. — 171. 
J. Fyt, Two eagles; 719. F. Snyders , Fishmonger's shop; 358. 
Valentin, Card-players ; 344. D. Tenters the Younger, View of Va- 
lenciennes; bust of Philip IV. in front; 314. Rubens, The Trinity 
and two angels with instruments of torture. — A door to the right 
leads into Room C. (p. 164); another, opposite, into — 

Room K., which contains chiefly paintings of the later Flemish 
school and a few modern pictures. To the left : 384. P. Thys, Ap- 
parition of the Virgin; 280. Er. Quellin, A saint; 39. J. Cossiers, 
Portrait of a physician ; 1113, 1111. Ommeganck, Landscapes with 
animals; 436. Th. van Loon, Assumption; 178. H. Govaerts, Com- 
pany of archers unveiling the portrait of their captain J. Ch. de 
Cordes;491. Verhaghen, Hagar and Ishmael ; 490. C. J. Verbruggen, 
Flowers; 1081. W. J. Herreyns, Crucifixion; 292. Er. Quellin, Mi- 
racle of St. Hugo. — "We now retrace our steps through Room I. to — 

Room H. To the left: 381. Van den Hoeck, St. Francis; *401. 
Van Dyck, Christ on the Cross, at the foot of w^hich are St. Catharine 
of Siena and St. Dominic, with a stone bearing the inscription, ^Ne 
patris sui manibus terra gravis esset, hoc saxum cruei advolvebat et 
huic loco dondbat Antonius van Dyck', in allusion to the history of 
the picture, which was executed for the Dominican Nunnery in 1629 
(when Van Dyck was in his 30th year), at the dying wish of the 
artist's father. — 336. F. Snyders, Dead grime; 210. Jordaens, Last 

Baedekeb's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit- 11 

162 Jioule 15. ANTWERP. Museum. 

Supper; 335. Snyders, Swans and dogs; a'bove the door, 707. 
Rubens, Baptism of Christ, with figures over life-size; it has un- 
fortunately been freely retouched. The group of five men dressing 
themselves, to the right, seems to have been suggested by the 
celebrated Bathing Soldiers of Michael Angelo. — *403. Van Dyck, 
Entombment : the finely-balanced composition of tliis expressive pic- 
ture and its careful execution, in which tlie effect of brilliant colour- 
ing is intentionally renounced, assure it a place among the master- 
pieces of the first rank. — 706. Rubens, Portrait of Gasp. Gevaerts. 

*30o. Rubens^ Communion of St. Francis; recalling Carracci's 
Communion of St. Jerome. The figure of the saint, who is receiving 
his last sacrament, produces a most painful impression. The picture 
■was painted in 1619, and Rubens's receipt for the price is still 
preserved ('seven hondert en vyftig gulden , tot volcomen betalinghe 
van een stuck schilderye door niyne liandt gemaeckV, i. e. 'seven 
hundred and fifty florins , in full payment for a piece of painting 
done by my hand'). 

708. Rubens, Portrait; 31. P. Brueghel the Younger, Bearing of 
the Cross; 402. Copy after Rubens (ascribed to Van Dyck in the 
catalogue, original at "Windsor), Portrait of Bishop Malderus of 
Antwerp (d. 1633); 21. Th. Boeyermans, Pool of Bethcsda; 734. 
Van Dyck, Portrait of a priest; 221. Jordaens, Adoration of the 
sliepherds; 677. J. Jordaens the Elder, Family concert; 145. A. 
Francken, Martyrdom of SS. Crispinus and Crispinianus. 

Room F. To the left : 329. 1). Seghers, Ignatius Loyola, in a 
frame of flowers; 726. Day. Teniers the Younger, The duel; 687- 
689. M. Pepyn, St. Elizabeth (triptych); 108. C. de Vos, Adoration 
of the Magi; Dav. Teniers the Younger, 348. Evening, 346. Morn- 
ing, 347. Afternoon; 186. A. Goubau, Piazza Navona at Rome; 
727. D. Teniers the Younger, Landscape; 710. Rubens, Beseeching 
the help of Christ for the poor and afflicted (sketch); 345. D. Teniers 
the Younger, Flemish tavern. — We now turn to the left to — 

Room G. To the left: 641. B. Breenberg, Lament over the body 
of Abel; 54. J. D. de Ueem, Fruit; 10. Nic. Berghem, Italian land- 
scape. — *293. Rembrandt, Portrait of Saskia van Ulenburgh, his 
first wife; according to M. Bode, a repetition with alterations of the 
famous picture at Cassel (1633), and painted by a pupil. 

637. iV. Berghem, Italian landscape with cattle; 733, A. van 
de Velde, Pleasures of winter (1662); *715. Sal. vanRuysdatl, Dutch 
river, with ferry ; *349. G. Terburg, Mandolin-player; 6. A. JBacfeer, 
Allegory; *188. Fr. Hals, Half-length portrait of a fisher-boy (the 
'Straadlooper van Haarlem'; painted, according to M. Bode, about 
1640); G6S. Karel Duiardin, Cattle; 399. W. van de Velde, Calm 
sea; 125. Corn. Dusart, Interior of a peasant's hut; 294. Rembr<mdt, 
The little fisher; above, no number, Be Keyser, Portrait; *295. 
Rembrandt, Portrait of an aged Jew; 502. J. Wynants and A. van 
de \'tlde, Landscape; 11. G. Berck-Heyde, Amsterdam with view of 

Museum. ANTWERP. 75. Route. 163 

the townhall ; 9. Xie. Berghem, Plunderers ; *189. Fr. Hals, Portrait ; 
2'2'2. J.Jordaens. Portrait; *407. A. van Byck, Portrait of a girl ; 
the dogs by Fyt; 437. W. van Mieris, Fishmonger; 321. Sal. van 
Ruysdael^ River scene; 319. liubens and Jan Brueghel, Pieta ; 4'29. 
Van Kessel, Landscape; 3*20. Jac. van Ruysdael, Landscape (1649), 
one of the earliest works of the master, and still revealing strong 
traces of the influence of J, Wynants ; 39S. A. van de Velde, Land- 
scape; 501. Ph. Wouverman, Riders resting; 196. C. Hoeckgeest, 
Interior of the Nienwe Kerk at Delft; above, no number, K. L. 
and E. J. Verboeckhoven, Sea-piece. 

338. Jan Steen, Samson and the Philistines ; 466. Adr. van Ostade, 
Smokers (_16j53; 46. Alb. Cwyp, Two riders; 682. Z). 3/i/^ens, Portrait ; 
503. Wynants, Landscape (the figures by A. van de Velde) ; *339. Jan 
Steen, Rustic wedding; 500. Ph. Wouverman, Riders resting; 679. 
J. Molenaer, Tillage festival; 674. Fr. Hals, Portrait; 729. W. van 
Aelst, Fruit; 675. Hobbema, Mill; 131. Gov. Flinck, Portrait-group; 
752. J. Weenix, Still-life; 657. Ph. de Koninck, Portrait; 655. 
C. Decker, Landscape; '26. J. and A. Both, Italian landscape; 713. 
J. van Ruysdael, Waterfall in Norway; 467. Is. van Ostade, Winter 
scene ; 714. Jac. van Ruysdael, Storm at sea; 497. J. Weenix, Italian 
harbour; 7. L. Bakhuysen, Dutch war-ship; 390. A. van der Neer, 
Landscape by moonlight. — We return through Room F. to — 

Room E. To the left: 356. Theys, Descent from the Cross; 365. 
Van Balen, John the Baptist preaching ; 23. Th. Boeyermans, Ant- 
werp as patron of tlie arts (allegorical composition) ; 322. D. Ryckaert, 
Village festival; 219. Jordaens. Allegory; 658. A. del Campidoglio, 
Fruit; 265. Murillo (copy), St. Francis; 653. De Backer, Last 
Judgment; 137, 136, 139, 140. Amb. Francken, Triptych, repre- 
senting the Last Supper, Christ at Emmaus, Melchisedec, SS. Paul 
and Barnabas. — To the right is — 

Room D., which forms with Room B. and A. one large hall. We 
begin to the right of the portal to Room B. 638. H. Bosch, Stations 
of the Cross; 273. M. Pepyn, Crossing of the Red Sea; 229. A. Key, 
Second and third wives of De Smidt. — 112. Frans de Vriendt, 
or Frans Floris , Fall of the Angels, painted in 1554, and highly 
esteemed by his contemporaries. 

This extensive work is crowded with figures falling headlong in 
every conceivable attitude , and is destitute of any depth of perspective. 
Many of the figures are beautiful, even in their distorted positions. A fly 
painted on the leg of one of the falling angels has given rise to the absurd 
story that it was painted by Quinten Massys , and that Floris , whose 
daughter Massys was wooing, having been deceived by it, was satisfied 
with this proof of his skill, and gave his consent to the marriage. The 
name of the painter whose daughter Massys perhaps married (see ft 146) 
is unknown, while Floris was only 10 years old when Massys died. 

228. A. Key, Portraits of the De Smidt family; 113. Fr. de 
Vriendt (Fr. Floris), Adoration of the shepherds; 88. Mart, de Vos, 
St. Luke painting the Virgin; 83-85. Mart, de Vos, Parables of the 
Tribute-money and the Widow's Mite (^triptych, 1601). — *357. 


164 Route 75. ANTWERP. Museum. 

Titian, Pope Alexander YI. presenting the Bishop of Paphos, a 
member of the noble family of Pesaro, to St. Peter, on the appoint- 
ment of the bishop as admiral (painted about 1503 ; the heads 
freely restored). — 135. A. Francken, Feeding of the Five Thousand j 
183. J. Gossaert or Mahuse^ Madonna and Child. 

**244, 246-249. Quinten Massys, The dead Saviour, a soene 
(technically termed a 'Pieta') between the Deposition from the 
Cross and the Entombment. It was formerly an altarpiece in 
the cathedral, completed in 1508, and is universally regarded as the 
master's chef d'oeuvre. 

Centeal Picture. The funeral cortege is represented as halting at 
the foot of Mt. Calvary, whilst on its way from the Cross to the Se- 
pulchre. The dead Saviour is partly suiiportcd by ^Nicodeuius, on 
whose right Joseph of Arimathsea supports the head with one hand, while 
with the other he removes the remaining shreds of the crown of thorns. 
The mother in an agony of grief kneels near the body of her Son, and is 
supported by St. John. On the left Mary Slagdalene , to her right Salome. 
The corpse itself bears evident traces of the master's anxiety to attain ana- 
tomical accuracy. Its attitude is rigid, the countenance distorted by the 
pangs of the death-struggle. The face of the Virgin is almost as pale as 
that of the dead body itself. The man with the turban, bearing the 
crown of thorns , appears rather indignant than mournful. The expres- 
sion of Joseph of Arimathaea is that of pain mingled with benevolence. 
St. John has the rigid and almost square features , disfigured by grief, 
which had become the usual type of the apostle in the earlier period of art. 

The Wings , which are less satisfactory than the central picture, 
represent the martyrdom of St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. 
In the former Herod is represented banqueting in an open hall, whilst 
the daughter of Herodias brings in the head of the Baptist. The task of 
depicting frivolity and vanity in the countenances of the king and the 
hardened mother, contrasted with an expression of greater feeling in the 
daughter, has evidently been attempted by the master, though not very 
successfully. The motion of the girl, intended to be light and elastic, is 
hard and forced. Some of the heads, however, are admirably finished. 
— The other wing represents St. John in the cauldron of boiling oil. The 
executioners, in the costume of Flemish peasants , with their sun-burnt, 
muscular arms, are attending actively to the fire. In the background the 
Emp. Domitian appears, mounted on a white horse, and attended by 
eight horsemen. 

649-651. P. Claessens, Crucifixion, Bearing of the Cross, Re- 
surrection ; 464. B. van Orley and Joach. Patinir, Adoration of the 
Magi. — We turn to the right to — 

Room C. On a stand in the centre, 280-210. Lucas van Leyden 
(?), Adoration of the Magi ; on the right wing St. George, on the 
left wing the donor. 

*530, 531, 255, 256. Four admirable little pictures on two 
diptychs, almost resembling miniatures. On one of them Mary is 
represented with a lofty and rich crown , standing in the interior 
of a Gothic church ; on her right arm the Child half wrapped in the 
swaddling-clothes. On the back, the Saviour in a white robe with 
the letters Alpha and Omega, and P and F (Pater et Filius) on 
a ground of red tapestry; beneath are the armorial bearings of the 
two donors, date 1499. The other diptych bears the portraits of the 
donors, Abbots of the Cistercian Monastery of Les Dunes near 

Museum. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 165 

Bruges. These works were formerly attributed to Meinling, but are 
now believed to have been executed by Cornelius Horebout, a master 
who flourished at Bruges about the end of the 15th century. 

180, 181. Mabuse, The just judges, Ecce homo. 

To the left of the door to Room B. (p. 163) : 199. Hans Holbein 
the Younger, Portrait; 243. Quinten Massys, Mary Magdalene witli 
the box of spikenard; *4il. Jan van Eyck, Madonna in a blue 
robe, and the Child in her arms playing with a rosary; to the 
right a fountain; her feet rest on rich drapery held by two angels 
behind her. The picture , which bears the painter's name and 
motto, and the date 1439, resembles the so-called Madonna of the 
Seminary in the Archiepiscopal Museum at Cologne. 132. J. Fouquet 
(early French school), Madonna and child; *5. Antonello da Messina 
(or rather Memling?}, Portrait. — 33. Fr. CLouet (1510-1572; a 
French artist, wiio followed the Flemish school of painting). Portrait 
of Francis II. of France when Dauphin; 124. A. Diirer (?), Portrait 
in grisaille of the Elector Frederick III. of Saxony. *396. Roger 
van der Weyden, Annunciation, a small picture of most delicate 
execution , formerly in the Convent of Lichtenthal near Baden- 
Baden, once erroneously attributed to Memling (under glass). 253. 
School of Roger van der Weyden , A canon of St. Norbert; 28. 
Dierick Bouts (?), Madonna; 47. Herri met de Bles, Repose on the 
flight into Egypt ; 203. Lucas van Leyden, Saul and David. 

*393-395. Roger van der Weyden , Sacrament of the altar, 
flanked by two wings representing the six other Romish sacraments 
(to the right, Ordination, Marriage, Extreme Unction; to the left, 
Baptism, Confirmation, Confession). 

The scene is in a spacious Gothic church, the architecture of which 
seems to unite the groups. This picture, the gem of Burgomaster Van 
Ertborn's collection (p. 158), is brilliantly executed. The crucifixion in the 
foreground introduces an effective dramatic element into the picture ; and 
the spectator can hardly fail to sympathise with the distress of the women 
mourning there, as well as with the holy joy which lights up the features 
of the dying persons receiving the extreme unction. The angels above the 
various groups, robed in symbolical colours, are particularly well drawn. 

387. Gerard van der Meire (?), Christ in the tomb; *410. Jan 
ran Eyck, St. Barbara, an unfinished sketch of great beauty (1435); 
204, 205, 206. Lucas van Leyden, SS. Luke, xMark, and Matthew ; 
250. Quinten Massys, Head of Christ; 3. Fra Angelico da Fiesole, 
St. Ambrose refusing Emp. Theodosius admission to the church at 
Milan on account of the massacre atThessalonica ; 64. Joach. Patinir, 
Landscape, with the Flight into Egypt; 29. Dierick Bouts (?), St. 
Christopher; 223. Justus van Ghent (?J, Adoration of the shepherds; 
462. B. van Orley, Portrait ; 383-385. Gerard van der Meire, Bear- 
ing of the Cross (winged picture); 254. School of Roger van der 
Weyden, Portrait of a member of the Croy family; 341, L. Lombard, 
Portrait ; 397. Roger van der Weyden (?), Portrait of Philip the Good 
ofBurgundy (under glass) ; 42. L. Cranach the Elder, Adam and Eve ; 
*241, *242. Quinten Massys, Christ and Mary, two heads remarkable 

166 Route 15. ANTWERP. Muf'eum. 

for their beauty and dignity, once erroneously ascribed to Holbein 
(replicas in the London National Gallery); *4. Antonello da Messina 
(one of the flrst Italian masters to adopt Van Eyck's method of paint- 
ing in oil), Mt. Calvary, Christ on the Cross with the malefactor at 
each side ; in the foreground SS. Mary and John, The picture (which 
bears the date 1475) presents a curious combination of the Flemish 
minuteness of detail with Italian forms. 257-260. Simone Martini 
of Siena (d. 1344), Annunciation in two sections, Crucifixion, and 
Descent from tbe Cross, formerly at Dijon; 412. Good copy after Jan 
van Eyck, Virgin with the Canon de Pala (original in the museum 
at P>ruges, p. 20) ; 224. Justus van Ghent (?), Sacrament of the altar; 
264. Jan Mostert, Portrait; 179. Mahuse, The four Maries and John 
coming from the Sepulchre; 198. Holbein ['*\ Portrait of Erasmus; 
263. Jan Mostert, Portrait; *43. L. Oranach the Elder, Caritas; 244. 
Quinten Massys (?), The Miser ; 386. Gerard van der 3/circ(?), Cruci- 
flxioii; 25. H. Bosch, Temptation of St. Anthony. — We return 
through Poom B. to — 

Room A. To the right : 371. Michael van Coxie, Martyrdom of 
St. Sebastian ; 77-80. Mart, de Vos, Christ convincing the doubting 
Thomas, on the wings the Baptism of Christ and the Beheading of 
John the Baptist ; 741-745. B. van Orley, Last Judgment, on the wings 
the Seven works of mercy; 576-580. Unknown Master, Large trip- 
tych, in the middle St. Eligius, the apostle of Antwerp, preaching; 
374, 375. M.vanCoxie, Martyrdom of St. George; 72-76. M.deVos, 
Triumph of Christ; 698. P. Pourbus, Gilles van Schoonbeke. 

From Room A. we enter the so-called Historical Section, see p. 159. 

EooM O. To the right: 413-424. Worship of the Lamb without spot, 
old copy of the part of the picture by the brothers Van Eyck now at 
Ghent; ('84. G. and B. Peelers, Battle of Calico (1638); 720. Huh. f^porck- 
mans. The town of Antwerp petitioning Emperor Ferdinand to re-open the 
Schelde for navigation, large allegorical painting; 735. Mc. van Eyck, 
a Parade of the city militia in the Place de Meir. 

KoOM P. contains almost exclusively modern views of Antwerp. 1005. 
Bossiiel, Fish-market in Antwerp; 1042. A. de Kei/ser., The Steen in the 
year 1875; 1024. F. de Braekeleer, Destruction of the Porte St. Georges; 
1027. /'. de Braekeleer, The citadel after the bombardment of 1832; 1025. 
F. de Braekeleer, Destruction of the Porte Kipdorp ; 1147. Ph. van Bree, Kuins 
of the warehouses after the conflagration of 1830; 1125. J. Ruyten, The Canal 
aux Charbons in the year 1875; llOS. li. Mols, Harbour of Antwerp in the year 
1870 (seen from the Vlaamsch Hoofd); 639. P. J. Bout, C)},uay with the old 
crane of Antwerp in the 17th century. — We return through Room O. into — 

Room N., which contains, besides views of old Antwerp, a number of 
portraits by unknown masters. To the left of the door info Room J.: 
277. Itoh. Peril, Entry of Charles V. and Pope Clement VII. into Boulogne 
in 1530, huge painted wood-cut; 107S. Herrems, Portrait of Jac. de Buc; 
271. /. Peelers, Tlie Schelde at Antwerp in winter; 635. Unknown Artist, 
Burning of the Hotel de Ville of Antworp in 1576; C07. P. Goelkint (end 
of the 16th cent.), Destruction of the old citadel of Antwerp; 636. Un- 
known Artist, Iiecci)tion of Marie de Mcdicis at Antwerp (1631); ()81. Jan 
Mosterl, View of the old Hotel de Ville at Antwerp, with the Trial of 
Christ; 633. Unknown Artist, View of old Antwerp. 

Through Room J. (p. 159) we reach the Gallery of Modern 
Paintings (Musee Moderne). 

Museum. ANTWEKP. 15. Route. 107 

Room Q. 1531. .\fadcu, Young man offering a Rirl a necklace ; 1157. 
Van Kvyck, Stable; 1050. Deir Aequo, The bride's jewels; 1103. Marinus, 
Episode in the inundation of the Meuse district in 1872; 1059. Dotirette., 
Winter-scene by moonlight ; 1073. (?(?j'f/rd, Wedding-guests ; 1182. Waufers, 
On the KaT-el-Nil in Cairo; 1063. Fournwis, Scene in the Ardennes, near 
Dinant; 1012. Clays, Sea near Dort ; 15'20. Dyckman$, Blind beggar; 1140. 
Van Beers, Portrait of Bcnoit, the musician; 1013. Cleyhnens, Interior; 
1183. Wierlz, Contest for the body of Patmclus; 1119. Phimont. Crossing 
a bridge; 1134. Stobbaerts. Dogs; 1120. Portaels, Hendrik Conscience; 
1131. Stevens, In despair; 1170. Verlat, The painter Lies; 1070. Qeeraerts, 
Interior of the Dominican church at Antwerp; 1098. Lies, Prisoners of 
war; 1029. H. de BraekeUer, Tavern at Antwerp; 1099. Lies, 'The foe 
is coming'; 1110. Munthe, Winter scene; 1184. Wierlz, Portrait of M. Con- 
stautin van den Nest; 1100. Lies, Albrecht Diirer crossing the Rhine; 
1083. Koekkoek, Scene near Cleves; 1106. Mincjuet, Interior of Bruges 
Cathedral; 1045. A. de Knyff, Village of Chaslepont ; 1035. De Bruycker, 
Afternoon coffee ; 1161. Van Regemorter, Quarrel over cards ; 1028. Braekeleer 
the Younger, Ti'e voung artist. 

Room S. 1047", 104S. Lntour, The artist and liis wife; 1172. Verlat, 
Buflalo and lion lighting; 1500. Arhenbnch , Harbour of Ostend ; 1174. 
Verlat, Rising in Antwerp on Aug. 24th, 1577; the shattered statue of the 
Duke of Alva being dragged through the streets; 1105. Meyers, On the 
banks of the Schelde; 11G6. Verboeck/wven, Sheep and hens. 

Room T. 1127. Schaefels, Battle of Trafalgar; 1511. Calame, The 
Wetterhorn; 1527. Jacobs, Porte d'Aval at Etretat (Normandy); 1009. 
Carpentier, Episode during the Vendean war; 1006. Bource, Return from 
fishing; 1087. ZoOTormi^re, Landscape ; 1094. Leys, Flemi-sb wedding in the 
17th cent. ; 1180. Wapper.", Mother and child; 1133. Stobbaerts, Leaving 
the stable; 1130. Somers, The proof; 1102. Linnig, Workshop of the Ant- 
werp coppersmith Geert de Winter; 1114. Ooms, PLilip II. paying the last 
lionours to Don John of Austria; 1501. Bendemann, Penelope; 1559. Ver- 
boeckhoven, On the way to market; 1072. G'ee^5,.Ioanna the Mad of Castile; 
1533. Navez, Holy family; 1093. Leys, Rubens at a fete held in his honour 
at Antwerp; 15.37. Portaels, Judith; 1148. Van der Ouderaa, Judicial 

Room U. 1509. Braekeleer,; 1122. Rosseels, Neighbour- 
hood of Waesmiinster; 1142. Van Brie, Death of Rubens (painted in 
1827); 1019. De Block, Closing of the school; 11G8. Verhaert, Fishwife; 
1036. De Caisne, Mater Dolorosa; 1129. Somers, The librarian; 1179. De 
Vinck, The Netherlandish nobles before Margaret of Parma; 1014. Col, 
The barber's shop ; 1181. ]V(ippers, The brothers De Witt awaiting in their 
prison the entrance of the mob (p. 270); 1021. Braekeleer, Plundering of 
Antwerp by the Spaniards (1576); 1121. Eobbe, Landscape; 1021. A. de 
Braekeleer, Smithy; 1008. Cap, Kpisode from the Belgian national festival 
of ISFO; llfO. Van Luppen, Autumn scene; 116'). Verboeckhoven, Cattle 
(life-size); 1003. Beaufau.v, The daughter of Herodias waiting for the head 
of John the Baptist. 

Room V. 1032. Farasim, Fish-market in Antwerp; 1505. Cabanel, 
Cleopatra; 1001. Asselberghs, Sunset; 1171. Verlat, Madonna and Child 
with the four Evangeli.'its ; 1055. De Schampheleer, View of Oouda; 1173. 
Verlat, Cart and horses; 1037. De Caisne, Guardian Angel (his last work, 
unfinished) ; 1513. N. de Keyser, Charles V. liberating Christian slaves on 
the capture of Tunis; 1555. Wappers, The Shulamite maiden (from the 
Song of Solomon); 15il. Robert- Fleury, The dead body of Titian in the 
Palazzo Barbarigo at Venice; 1044. N. de Keyser, Bull-fight; 1159. Van 
Lerius, Lady Godiva ridinir through the streets of Coventry; 115S. Van 
Ktiyck, Woodcutter; 1018. De DiMoe, The Compromise of the Netherlandish 
nobles in 15r36 (p. 92). 

RoomW. Mostly portraits. 1552.5e$rc(«.Peter v. Cornelius; 1.502. i^encfeniann, 
Portraitof himself; 1.542. Robert- Fleury, Portrait of himself: 1520. /«vre«, Por- 
trait of himself ; 1503. Cadanei, Portrait of himself; 1515. Portaels, Delaroche, 
the painter ; 1554. Bendemann, Portrait of the painter Schadow. — Above the 
door : 1535. Overbeck, Christ escaping from his persecutors ;1532. Al. Robert, Por- 

IQS Route 15. ANTWERP. Public Park. 

trait of the painter Madou i 1512. Rubio, Portrait of the iiainter Calame ; 1553. 
Scha (low, Gariiaa; 1528. Joors, Portrait of the painter Jacoba ; 1534. Aavez, 
Portrait of himself; 1514. A. de Eeyser, Portrait of himself; 1550. Verboeck- 
hoven, Portrait of himself. 

The Park of the Palais de I'lndustrie (PI. B, 6; adm. 1 fr.; 
band on Mon. and Thurs. 8-10, Sim. 3-5 p.m.), adjoining the Place 
du Peuple on the S., occupies the site of the old S. citadel, huilt 
by the Duke of Alva, of which only a few scanty traces now remain. 
The proximity of the Schelde and the cool breeze which sets in with 
flood-tide make this park a charming promenade for summer-even- 
ings. An avenue leads from the entrance to the N. portion of the 
International Exhibition of 1885, which has been left standing, and 
in which the band plays in bad weather. The Tonkin Home, built 
by the French government for the accommodation of the productions 
of the French colonies during the exhibition, now contains the 
Musee Commercial, Industriel, et EUinographique. The building is 
noteworthy but the collections are of little interest. In the neigh- 
bourhood is a genuine Dutch tavern, with the announcement 'Hier 
tapt man AYinterbier van Oppuirs'. — The park is skirted by the 
Kue Kroonenburg (PI. B, 5), at the W. end of which, near the 
Schelde, once stood the castle of Kroonenburg, which marked the 
N.W. limit of the German empire. 

Near the centre of the present town, snrrounded by tlie most 
fashionable new streets, lies tlie Public Park (PI. C, D, 4). It oc- 
cupies the site of an old lunette, the moats of which have been con- 
verted into an ornamental sheet of water, spanned by a chain-bridge 
(view). In the W. angle of the Park is a statue of the painter 
Quinten Massys (PL D, 4), by H. de Braekeleer, erected in 1883. 
From this point the Avenue Rubens leads to the statue of the 
painter Hendrik Leys, by J. Ducaju, in the Avenue Louise Marie, 
in which (to the N.E.) there is also a large Jesuit convent, with a 
school and church. — The Avenue Rubens proceeds thence to the 
monument (by JuL Pecher) erected in 1886 to the painter Jac. 
Jordaens (PI. C, 5). — The Avenue Van Eyck leads to the Place 
Loos (PL D 5). The space in front of the church of St. Joseph 
(see p. 169) is embellished with the Monument Loos, erected in 
commemoration of the destruction of the old fortifications, which 
were built during the Spanish domination and existed down to 1859. 
It consists of a statue of Antwcrpia on a lofty base, surrounded with 
figures representing commerce and navigation. In front is a marble 
bust of Burgomaster J, F. Loos (1848-62). The monument was 
designed and executed by Jules Pecher. — Opposite, at the corner 
of the Avenue Quentin Massys and the Avenue Plan tin (PL D, 4), 
is a magnificent house in tlie Flemish style, recently erected for M. 
Rene Morctus de Theux (comp. p. 154) from the designs of J. 
Stordiau. The medallions on the farade represent distinguished 
men connected with the history of the Plantin printing-house. 

Wharfs. ANTWERP. 15. Route. 169 

Between the Avenue Morctus , which leads henoc to the E., 
and the Avenue Charlotte, leading to the S.E., rises the new 
Church of St. Josbph (PI. D, 5), a liomanesque building by Gife. 
The interior contains fine altars and a handsome pulpit , and is 
adorned with stained glass and frescoes of the Passion, the latter by 
Hendricks. At the point where the Avenue Moretus meets the Boule- 
vard Le'opold rises the Monument of Van Schoonbeke (PI. D, 5), one 
of the most distinguished citizens of Antwerp in the middle of 
the 15th century. In the Boul. Le'opold, opposite the end of the 
Avenue Charlotte, is a colossal statue, designed by Ducaju, of Bo- 
duognatus. a Belgian chief, who opposed the invasion of Julius Caesar. 

The Boulevard Le'opold ends on the S.W. at the Chaussee de 
Malines, opposite the entrance to the Pepiniere (PL D, 6), or ar- 
boricultural garden, which has been converted into a pleasant park, 
in the English style, by Keilig, who laid out the grounds at the Bois 
de la Cambre, near Brussels (p. 115). The new Basilique du Sacre 
Coeur, in the adjacent Avenue de Me'rode, built by Bilmeyer and 
Van Riel, contains some stained - glass windows by L. Lefevre of 
Paris and an altar by Armand Calliat of Lyons. 

To the N.E. of the park, behind the Station de I'Etat, lies the 
*Zoological Garden ['■Dierentuin ; PL D, 3, 4), which is entered 
from the Rue Carnot It was founded in 1843 and then lay out- 
side the town, between it and the suburb of Borgerhout. It is one 
of the best in Europe (admission 1 fr.). Concerts in summer on 
Sun., Tues., and Thurs. afternoons or evenings. The carnivora are 
fed daily at 5 p.m. (Sat. excepted), the seals at 11 a.m. and 4 p.m. 
— Panorama of the Battle of Worth (PL D, 4), see p. 138. — The 
old E. suburb of Borgerhout is adorned with a Statue of Carnot, 
defender of the city in 1811, situated in the place of the same 
name (PL E, 3). To the N. is a large Hospital (PL E, 2). 

Visitors who wish to inspect the new and formidable circumvallation 
of Antwerp may make use of one of the tramway -lines which connect 
the interior of the city with the various gates, e.g. the Porte de Malines 
(in the former suburb ofBerchem, PI. E, 7), which is itself interesting in 
an architectural point of view. 

The influence of the tide is perceptible on the Schclde a long 
way above Antwerp, and at the city the difference between high 
and low water amounts to 12-25 ft. ('Bisque die refluo me flumen 
Scaldis honorat"). Along the river extend the handsome and busy 
*Wliarf8, or Quais, -which have undergone since 1881 a process 
of complete reconstruction and extension. The river, the width 
of which at Antwerp formerly varied from 900 to 2000 ft. , has 
been confined to a channel with a uniform width of 1150 ft. and 
a uniform depth of 25 ft. These alterations, the total cost of which 
is estimated at 38,275,000 fr. (1,530,000 ^.), have, along with 
the new Docks, made Antwerp one of the first harbours in the world. 
The quay-frontage is upwards of 2 M. long. The steamers and mer- 

170 Route 15. ANTWERP. The Steen. 

cliantiueii receive and discharge their cargoes with tlie aid of gi- 
gantic and noiseless hydraulic cranes, which transfer the goods di- 
rectly to or from the railway-trucks. The cranes are worked by a 
subterranean aqueduct, which is also used in opening and shuttijig 
the sluice-gates, in shunting the trains, etc. There are two engine- 
houses in connection with the aqueduft, one at the N. and one at 
the S. harbour. 

Along the quays lie the steamers of the regular lines, which \)\y 
at fixed intervals and to definite ports. Among the most interesting 
are the gigantic transatlantic liners "Friesland', 'Noordland', and 
•Westcrnland', belonging to the Red Star Line., which lie at the 
Quai du Khin (PI. R, 1, 2). Tickets (50c.) admitting visitors to 
inspect the interior are granted 0!i application at Rue des Peignes'22 
(PI. P> , 4). The fine new steamers of the North German Lloyd, 
plying to Shanghai and to Sydney, lie at the Quai Van Dyck (PI. B, 

The picturesque appearance of the town as viewed from the river 
has unfortunately been much altered by the recent improvements. 
Almost the only older buildings that have been left standing are 
the Porte de I'Escaut and the Steen. 

The Porte de PEscaut (PI. B, 4), a gateway designed by Rubens 
and adorned with sculptures by A. QuetLin, has been removed from 
its position on the Quai van Dyck to the Quai Plantin, a little lower 
down ; it bears an inscription dedicated by the ^Senntus Popu- 
lusque Antwerpienses' to the ^Magnus Philippus' (1624). This prince 
was Philip IV., great-grandson of the Emp. Charles V., who reigned 
from 1021 to 1GG5, and under whom Spain entirely lost her prestige, 
having been deprived of Portugal in 1640, and finally of the Nether- 
lands in 1648. A stone staircase ascends opposite this gateway to 
the more southerly of the two Promenoirs, whiih overhang the now 
inaccessible Hangard and afford an extensive view of the busy 
shipping in the Schelde, as well as of the Steen (see below), the 
cathedral (p. 141), and the Boucheries (p. 148). The ascent to 
the N. Promenoir from this side leads through the Steen. 

The Steen (PI. B, 3) originally formed part of the Castle of 
Antwerp, which remained in the hands of the lords of the soil till 
1549, when Charles V. made it over to the burghers of Antwerp. 
It was afterwards the seat of the Spanish Inquisition. An addition 
was built in 1889 on the N., in the style of the original. 

The interior is occupied by the Muzeum van Oudheden (daily, 10-i, 
Sun. and Thuw. free, other days 1 fr. •, stick or umbrella 10 c, candle for 
dungeon 10 c. ; catalogue I'/a fr., to the Egyptian section •,'2 fr.), a collec- 
tion of antiquities and curiosities from Roman times till the IBih cent , 
handsome furniture of the 15th-17th cent., weapons, ivory and wood- 
carvings, ornaments, glass (manufactured in Antwerp after Venetian pat- 
terns), porcelain, coins, tapestry, costumes, ancient prints, engravin;/8, and 
old views of Antwerp. The dungeons, 'oubliettes', etc., still bear sombre 
witness to its former history. The old chapel is also extant. In a fore- 
court surrounded by a tasteful railing are columns, altars, tombstones, etc. 

Docks. ANTWERP. 75. Route. 171 

The *Docks (Fl. K, C, 1, 2; visit by steamer see p. 137) lie at 
the N. end of the town and cover an area of upwards of 250 acres. 
They are bordered by an extensive net-work of railways, by which 
about 2500 trucks leave Antwerp harbour daily for different parts 
of Europe. 

The Quai Jordaens (PI. B, 2, 3) leads to the two older basins, 
the Grand and Petit Bassin , constructed by Napoleon (1804-13), 
at a cost of 13 million francs, in consequence of a decree of 21st 
July, 1803, constituting Antwerp the principal naval station of the 
N.W. coast of France. The small dock is capable of containing 100, 
and the large one 250 vessels of moderate tonnage. The accommo- 
dation afforded by these docks proving insufficient, the Bassin du 
Kattbndtk, 770 yds. long and 110 yds. wide, was constructed in 
1859-60 ; it is connected with the river by a sluice and with the 
Grand Bassin by the Bassin de Jonction^ added in 1869. To the 
N. of the sluice are several Cales Seches, or dry docks, connected 
with the Bassin du Kattendyk by sluice-gates. In the angle between 
the N. end of the Kattendyk and the dry docks (Pl. B. 1 ; leave the 
harbour-steamer at station 5 and cross the bridge) was situated the 
factory of Corvillain, the explosion in which on Sept. 6, 1889 
wrought such terrible havoc. — To the N.W. are the Bassin Africa 
and Bassin America (with enormous cylindrical petroleum-tanks). 
The view from this point of the entire length of the quays as far as 
the S. harbour conveys an excellent idea of the enormous extent of 
the port and its dependencies. To the E. of the Bassin du Katten- 
dyk lie the Bassin Mexico, the Bassin de la Campine, and the Bassin 
Asia, all of large dimensions. 

The Docks are surrounded with large warehouses, one of which, 
the Maisox Hansf.atiqub, possesses considerable historical interest. 
This massive and venerable building, 265 ft. long and 213 ft. broad, 
erected in 1564-8 from the plans of Cornelis de Vriendt, stands 
between the two older docks and was origin;illy employed as the 
warehouse of the Uanseatic cities. It bears the inscription : Sacri 
Romani Imperii Domus Hansae Teutonic^', with the armorial bear- 
ings of the three cities of the League. It is named the 'Osterlings- 
/lujs' by the Flemings. In 1863 it was ceded by the Hanseatic towns 
to the Belgian government, as an equivalent for all river-dues exi- 
gible from their vessels. — The largest warehouse is the Entkbpot 
Royal (PI. C, 3), to the E. of the Grand Bassin, erected in 1829-32 
at a cost of 3,680,000 fr. as a royal custom-house and bonded ware- 
house, but purchased by the town for S^/2 million francs. The 
powerful steam-elevators here are interesting. 

A good survey of Antwerp is obtained from Vlaamsch Hoofd, 
or Tete de Flandre [Restaurant Kursaal; Belvedere, farther down), 
on the left bank of the Schelde, to which a steamer crosses every 
V4 hr. (PI. B, 3). Tickets (15 c.) obtained under the Promenoirs of 
the Quai Van Dyck. Napoleon considered this a more advantageous 

172 Route Id. ROOSP]NDAAL. From Antwerp 

site than that of Autwuip, and proposed building a town here. — 
Pleasant walk downstream on the dyke between the Scheldc and 
the polder. Railway through the Waesland to Ghent, see p. 63. 

During the siege of Antwerp in 1832 (p. 139) the Dutch cut through 
the dyke above Vlaamsch Iloofd, thereby laying the whole of the sur- 
rounding country, even the high-road, under three feet of water, so that 
no vehicle could reach the tete-de-pont of Antwerp. Twelve Dutch gun- 
boats cruised over the polders or fields, which lie much lower than the 
sea-level. In this condition the environs remained for three years. The soil, 
covered with sea-sand by the action of the tides, and impregnated with 
salt, was rendered quite unlit for cultivation, and in many places resembled 
the sea-shore. The restoration of the dyke alone cost 2,000,000 fr. 

The Polygonc de Brasschaet (steam-tramway, p. 137, No. 12), a large 
artillery-range, 10 M. to the N.E. of Antwerp, may be visited only with 
permission of the minister of war. 

About 21 M. to the N.E. of Antwerp and about 10 M. from Turn- 
hout (p. 135; steam-tramway, p. 137, No. 10), lies Hoogstraten (Hotel 
de la Campine), a village with 2000 inhab. , the centre of the Cat7i- 
pine Anversoise, or moorland district round Antwerp (sec below). The 
late-Gothic Citurch of St. Catharine is an interesting brick building of the 
first half of the 16th century. The choir and transept contain ])eautiful 
stained glass of 1520-50, restored in 18i6; fine stalls; and the alabaster 
tomb of Count Lalaing-Hoogstraten (d. 1540), the founder of the church, 
and his wife. The Hotel de Ville, dating from the end of the 16th cent., is 
a plain brick structure in the Renaissance style. The old Clidteau, now 
a poor-house, lies on the brook Marcic, a lit'tlc to the N. of the village. 

16. From Antwerp to Rotterdam. 

a. Railway Journey. 

59 M. Railway in 3V2-4 hrs. ; fares 8 fr. 90, 6 fr. 70, 4 fr. 75 c. (or 4 11. 
75, 3 fl. 75, 2 11. 45 c). The only points of interest on the line are the 
handsome bridges over the Hollandsch Diep, the Maas at Dordrecht, and 
the Lek at Rotterdam. 

The train starts from the central station, traverses the suburb 
of Borgerhoutj passes the station Anvers-Dam, near the docks, and 
intersects the new fortifications. 7 M. Eeckeren, with numerous 
villas of well-to-do Antwerp merchants. We then traverse the mono- 
tonous moorlands of the Campine Anversoise. l^j^ M. Cappellen, 
also with several country-seats. About 81/2 ^^- to the N.W., just 
beyond the Dutch frontier, lies the village of Fatten, in the church- 
yard of which is buried Jacob Jordaens [d. 1G78), the painter, who 
was denied a grave within the territory of Antwerp owing to his 
having been a Protestant; the old tombstone is still preserved, and 
a bronze bust by Lambeaux was set up in 1877. — 13 M. Calmp- 
thout. — 18 M. Esschen (Belgian custom-house). 

23 M, Roosendaal, the seat of the Dutch custom-house , and 
junction for the Breda and Flushing line (R. 35). 

The railway next traverses a wooded district. — 28 M. Ouden- 
bosch, with a new domed church; 33 M. Zevenbergen. — (The Bel- 
gian Grand Central Railway goes on to the Moerdyk on the Hollandsch 
Diep.) — 38 m. Lage-Zwaluwe, where the line joins the Maastricht- 
Rotterdam Railway, sec p. 376. Branch-lines also run hence to the 

to Rotterdam. CALLOO. 76. Route. 173 

^loerdyk, and via Geertruidenlerg , Waspik, Kaatsheuvel-Capelle^ 
and Waalu-yh to Vlymen^ -whence a ililigence plies to S'Hertogen- 
bosch (p. 360). 

b. Steamboat Journey. 

Steamboat on Tues., Thurs., and Sat. in 9 hrs. (2'/2 or IV2 A.) from 
the Quai Van Dyck (PI. B,3), morning tide. The steamers are well fitted 
up, and provided with restaurants. Agents at Antwerp, Van Maenen d- 
Tandenbroecl\ Quai St. Aldeuonde 3S tPl. B, 2) ; at Rotterdam, Verwey d: Co.., 
Boompjes (PI. F, 3). — In stormy weather the voyage is rough at places. 

The Steamboat threads its way between the nine islands form- 
ing the Dutch province of Zeelaxd , the character of which is 
indicated by its heraldic emblem of a swimming lion, with the motto : 
Luctor et Emergo. The greater part of the province, probably form- 
ed by the alluvial deposits of the Schelde, which here enters the 
sea, lies considerably below the sea-level, the only natural elevation 
being a few dunes, or sand-hills on the W. coast of the Islands of 
Schouwen and Walcheren. The rest of the province is protected 
against the encroachment of the sea by vast embankments, the aggre- 
gate length of which extends to 300 M. The land is extremely fer- 
tile and admirably cultivated, producing abundant crops of wheat 
and other grain. 

Immediately after the departure of the steamboat , the passenger 
obtains a final view of Antwerp, extending in a wide curve along 
the bank of the Schelde. To the W. of the docks rises Fort Austru- 
weel or Oosterweel. 

Near the docks, in 1831, Lieutenant van Speyk, a gallant Dutch naval 
officer, sacrificed his life in vindication of the honour of his flag. A 
storm had driven his gunboat on shore, and a crowd of Belgians imme- 
diately hastened to the spot to secure the prize, calling on the command- 
er to haul down his colours and surrender. The devoted Van Speyk, 
preferring death to capture, fired his pistol into the powder-magazine, 
which exploded instantaneously, involving friends and foes, as well as 
himself, in one common destruction. 

Farther on. Fort Calloo rises on the left and Fort St. Philippe on 
the right. At this point, between Calloo on the left and Oorderen on 
the right bank , Duke Alexander Farnese constructed his celebrated 
bridge across the Schelde, in 1585, during the siege of Antwerp 
(see p. 139). All communication between the besieged and their 
confederates in Zeeland was thus entirely broken off. The citizens 
used every means in their power to destroy this formidable barrier, 
which was defended by numerous guns. After many fruitless 
attempts , the fire-ship of the Italian engineer Giambelli at length 
set the bridge on fire , and blew up a portion of it so unexpectedly 
that 800 Spaniards lost their lives. The besieged , however , were 
not in a position to derive any advantage from this signal success, 
and their auxiliary fleet anchored below Fort Lillo was too weak to 
attack the enemy single-handed. The damage to the bridge was 
speedily repaired , and Antwerp, notwithstanding a most obstinate 
defence, was shortly afterwards reduced by famine. — Fort Frederic 
is now seen on the right. On the left, lower down, lies Fort Lief- 

174 Rovle ir,. WILLRMSTAD. 

kenshoek, on the ri^ht Fort Lillo, both retainefl hy the Dutoh till 
1839 (comp. p. xix). Then, on the left hank, JJoel, a little heyond 
which is the Dutch frontier. 

The first Dutch place at the entrance \o the Kreekrak, a nar- 
row branch of the Schelde which was tilled up when the railway 
embankment was constructed (p. 246), is Fort Bath, where the 
English fleet landed in 1809. The steamer continues to skirt the 
S. coast of the island of Zuid-Beveland, and at Hansweerd turns to 
the right into the Zuid-Beveland Canal, which intersects the island, 
having been constructed in 1866 to compensate for the filling up 
of the Kreekrak. The E. coast of the island of S. Beveland, called 
the ^Verdronken Land^ (literally 'drowned land'), once a fertile 
tract , was inundated in 1532 by the bursting of a dyke , when 
3000 persons are said to have perished. At the N. end of the canal, 
which is 5 M. in length , and is crossed by the railway to Goes 
(p. 245), lies Wemeldingen, the landing-place for Goes. At Yerseke, 
3 M. to the E., oyster-breeding is carried on with success. 

The steamer now traverses the broad expanse of the Ooster- 
Schelde in a N. direction, and enters the narrow Canal de Keeten, 
which separates the islands of Tholen and Duiveland. To the right, at 
the entrance, lies Stavenisse, the landing-place for Tholen, a small 
town on the E. side of the island, connected with r)ergen op Zoom 
by ferry and steam-tramway (p. 246). The old church of Stavenisse 
contains the marble monument of Jerome van Tuyll (1669; by 
Verhulst). The vessel next touches at Zype, on the left, at the end of 
the canal, whence an omnibus runs to Zierikzee (Hotel Van Oppen); 
the lofty square tower of the cathedral (begun in 1454 by Kelder- 
mans, p. 244 ; still unfinished) is a conspicuous object. From Zierik- 
zee we may visit Brouwershaven, another small town with an inter- 
esting church, a pretty weigh-house in the Flemish Renaissance 
style (1599), and a statue of the popular poet Jacob Cats (1577- 
1660). — To the right is the island of Philippsland. 

In 1575 the Canal de Keeten was the scene of a famous exploit by 
1700 Spanish volunteers under Requesens, the successor of the Duke of 
Alva, who crossed it with intrepid bravery, partly by wading and partly 
by means of small boats, notwithstanding the incessant and galling fire 
of the FlemivSh defenders of the island , many of whom crowded round 
the assailants in boats. The capture of Zierikzee was the reward of this 
determined attack. 

We now quit the ramifications of the Schelde, and enter those 
of the Maas, the first of which is the Krammer, and the next the 
Volkerak. The towers of Nieuxce-Tonge and Oude-Tonye are now 
visible to the N.E. The right bank belongs to Brabant, the left to 
Holland. The entrance to the Hollandsch Diep, as this broad arm 
is named, is defended by two blockhouses, Fort de Ruyter on the 
right, and Fort Ooltgensplaat on the left. Willemstad, a fortress 
with walls and ramparts erected by Prince "William I. of Orange in 
1583, next becomes visible. In 1792 it was bombarded by the 
French for a fortnight without success. 

LIERRE. 7 7. Route. 175 

The steamer traverses the Hollandsch Diep for some distance. The 
water here is sometimes pretty rough. Nearing the Moerdyk (p. 172), 
we ohtain a view of the handsome railway-bridge which crosses the 
Diep from the Moerdyk to Willemsdorp (see p. 376). 

The steamer now turns to the left into the Dordsche Kil, a very 
narrow branch of the Maas. In 1711, John William, Prince of Orange, 
was drowned in crossing the Diep at the Moerdyk, when on his way 
to the Hague to meet Frederick William I. of Prussia, with a view 
to adjust the difficulties of the Orange succession. Soon after we 
enter the broad Merwede (p. 374). Numerous wind-mills and tall 
chimneys are now observed, the latter belonging chiefly to saw- 
mills and cement works. Before reaching Dordrecht the steamer 
passes below the railway-bridge mentioned at p. 376. 

Dordrecht, with its lofty church-tower, see p. 376. 

The steamer (to Rotterdam 1 hr.) now leaves the Merwede and 
enters a side-channel called De Noord. On the right are Alblasser- 
dam,with large ship-building yards, and Kinderdyk, with ship-build- 
ing yards and iron foundries. At the latter the Nord unites with 
the Lek , which now resumes the name of Maas. To the right, 
Krimpen, with a pointed spire; left, 'f Huis ten Donk, a handsome 
country-house surrounded with trees; left, Ysselmonde (p. 378), 
with its castle ; right, KrtiUngen, with 12,000 inhab., extensively 
engaged in salmon-fishing ; left, the large machine-factory of Feyen- 
oord (p. 255). 

Rotterdam, see p. 246. 

17. From Antwerp to Aix-la-Chapelle via Maastricht. 

91 M. Railway in 4i/2-5 hrs. (fares 12 fr. 90, 9 fr. 90, 6 fr. 50 c. ; 
in the opposite direction 10 marks 30, 7 m. 90, 5 m. 20 pf.). The Dutch 
custom-house examination takes place at Maastricht^ the German at Aix- 
la-Chapelle; in the reverse direction the Dutch examination is made at 
Simpel/elJ, the Belgian at Lanaeken. 

Antwerp, see p. 136. 51/2 M. Bouchout. — 81/2 M. Lierre, Flem. 
Lier (Hot. du Commerce, Grand' Place, R., L.,"& A. 21/2, B. 3/4, 
D. 2, S. 11/4, pens. 6 fr.), a town of 16,700 inhab., with several 
silk-factories. The Church of St. Gommarius, one of the finest 
late -Gothic churches in Belgium, begun in 1425, completed in 
1557, contains several fine stained-glass windows, three of which 
were presented by the Emp. Maximilian ; two paintings by Rubens 
(St. Francis and St. Clara); the 'chasse' of St. Gommarius; and a 
rood-loft (15th cent.) in the florid Flamboyant style. The fa (jades 
of the Brouwershuis and other houses in the market-place, and the 
belfry with a turret (1369) are interesting. The new Museum con- 
tains about 500 paintings, bequeathed to the town by Mme. van 
Kampen-Wuyts. Lierre was at one time noted for its beer. Lierre 
is the junction of the Antwerp and Gladbach line (R. 18J and of a 
branch to Contich (p. 135). 

176 Route 77. HASSELT. 

14 M. Berlaer. 167-2 ^- Heyst-op-den-Berg, whence a steam- 
tramway runs W. to Malines and E. to Iteghem (p. 135). '20'/2 M. 
Boisschot, whence visits may be paid to the chateau of Westerloo 
(41/2 ^^- to t^e N.E.), belonging to Count von Merode, and to the 
Praemonstratensian abbey of Tongerloo, with tlie largest linden- 
tree in Belgium. — 251/2 ^f« -AeTSchot on the Deiner, where the 
railway crosses the Louvain and Herenthals line (p. 195), with a 
Gothic church containing a rich rood-loft and handsome choir-stalls 
of the 15th cent., and an altar-piece by G. de Grayer. 

The line now follows the valley of the Demer. Sl^/o M. Testelt, 
with the Priemonstratensian abbey of Averbode^ founded in 1130. 
3372 ^- Sichem, whence omnibuses run to the pilgrimage-church 
of (^172 ^1-) ^otre Dame de Montalgu. Sichem still retains one of 
its ancient towers. 

3672 M. Diest (Hotel de la Couronne; Hot. du Sauvage), with 
7300 inhab., and many breweries and distilleries. In the Gothic 
church of St. Sulpice is the tomb of Philip of Nassau-Orange (d. 
1618) : in the churchyard is a ruined church. Diest is the junction 
of a branch-line from Tirlemont (p. 195) to Moll (p. 177). 

The train crosses the Z>emer. 3972 M- Zeelhem; i'iM. Schuelen ; 
47 M. Kermpt. 

491 '2 M. Hasselt (Hotel du Verre u Vin; Hot. Limbourg), the 
capital of the province of Limburg, with 11,800 inhab., was the 
scene of a victory gained by the Dutch over the Belgians on 6th Aug., 
1831. The late-Gothic chief church has been well restored. 

Fkom Hasselt to Maaseyck, 25'/2 M. , railway in I1/4 lir. Inter- 
mediate stations: Genck, Asch, Eelen. — The small town of Maaseyck (I/6t. 
de VAgneau), on tbe left bank of the Meuse, was the birthplace of the 
brothers Van Euck, to whom a handsome marble monument was erected 
here in 1864. Diligence several times daily to (1 hr.) Susteren (p. 3T2). 

From Hasselt to LUge, see R. 49; to Eindhoven and Utrecht, see R. 49. 

531/2 J^l- Diepenbeek ; 56 M. Beverst, the junction of the line to 
Liege and Utrecht (p. 360); 5872 M. Munsterbilsen ; 61 M. Eygen- 
bilsen; 63 M. Lanaeken, the Belgian frontier-station. 

68 M. Maastricht, see p. 219. Route to Liege, see R. 28. The 
Meuse is crossed here. 

71 M. Meersen; 75 M. Valkenburg, French Fauquemont [Hotel 
de I'Empereur, in the town ; Hot. Vossen, at the station), an attrac- 
tive little town, situated in the centre of the picturesque valley of 
the Geul and frequented as a summer-resort, with an interesting 
Romanesque church, two well-preserved gates, and a ruined castle 
(10 c). In the 'Grosse Berg' opposite the station are some inter- 
esting caves resembling those in the Petersberg (p. 220). Tickets 
of admission are obtained (1* 2 ^- for one or more pers.) in the ad- 
■ joining restaurant. 79 M. Wylre; 8272^1- Simpelfeld, with the 
Dutch custom-house. 

91 M. Aix-Ia-Chapelle, see Baedeker's Rhine. 


18. From Antwerp to Miinclieii-Gladbach 

{for Dilsseldorf) . 

98'/2 M. Railway in 441/2 brs. (.fares 14 fr. 60, 11 fr. 30, 7 fr. 40 c. ; 
in the opposite direction 11 m. 80, 9 m. 25, 5 m. 10 pf.)- 

From Antwerp to (8Y2 M.) Leerre, see R. 17. 11 M. Nylen ; 
15 M. Bouwel. 

187.2^1- Herenthals, on the Canal de la Campine, the junction 
of the line to Louvain (p. 197) and Tilburg (p. 375). The Hotel 
de Yille, with a lofty tower, and one of the old town gates are inter- 
esting. The church o{ St. Waltrudis (15th cent.) contains paintings 
by Yerhaeghe and Franck the Elder. — 2'2'/2 ^1. Oolen. 

'26 M. Gheel (Hotel de VAgneau), a town of 10,000 inhab., 
which derives its principal interest from the colony of lunatics 
(about 1300 in number) established here and in the neighbouring 
villages. The district throughout which they are distributed is 
about 30 M. in circumference, and divided into four sections, each 
with a physician and keeper. The patients are first received into 
the Infirmerie, where their symptoms are carefully observed for a 
time, after which they are entrusted to the care of a nourricier, or 
hote, who generally provides occupation for them. They are per- 
mitted to walk about without restraint within the limits of their 
district, unless they have shown symptoms of violence or a desire 
to escape. This excellent and humane system, although appre- 
hensions were at one time entertained as to its safety , has always 
been attended with favourable results. — The handsome late- 
Gothic Church of St. Dymphna (who is said to have been an Irish 
princess , converted to Christianity , and beheaded at this spot by 
her heathen father) contains a fine *Altar, with the apotheosis of 
the saint. The choir contains the fine marble sarcophagus of Jan III. 
of Merode and his wife, dating from the Renaissance (1554); and 
in the ambulator/ is the reliquary of the saint, painted with scenes 
from her life, probably by a contemporary of Memling. In the 
choir-chapels are two curious old *Cabinets, adorned with finely- 
executed carving and painting. A painted group in stone, protected 
by a railing, in the vicinity of the church, bears a Flemish inscrip- 
tion, recording that St. Dymphna was beheaded on this spot, 30th 
May, 600. The town originally owed its reputation for the success- 
ful cure of lunatics to this saint, whose shrine was believed to pos- 
sess miraculous powers. The church of St. Amand^ in the market- 
place, contains finely carved choir-stalls. 

32 M. Moll, the junction of a line to Diest and Tirlemont (see 
p. 176). — 35 M. Baelen-Wezel; 41 M. Lommel. 

46V2 ^1- iSeerpelt, the junction of the Hasselt- Utrecht line 
(p. 360). — 49 M. Lille-St. Hubert- Achel. — 52 M. Hamont, 
the last Belgian station (custom-house). — At (53(0 ^0 Budel, 
the first station in Holland, luggage is examined by Dutch custom- 
house officers. — 59 M. Weert; 67 M. Baexem ,- 70 M. Haelen. 

Baeuekeu 3 Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 12 

178 Route 19. BRAINE-LE-COMTE. 

74 M. Boermond, the junction for the Maastricht-Venlo line, 
see p. 372. 

78 M. Melick-Herkenbosch. — 82V2 M. Vlodrop, the",last station 
in Holland, with the Dutch custom-house. — 841/2 M. Dalheim, 
the Prussian frontier - station (luggage examined). — 89 M. Weg- 
herg ; 92 M. Rheindahlen ; 96 M. Rheydt, where the line to Aix-la- 
Chapelle diverges to the right. 

9872 M. Gladbach, or Miinchen- Gladbach, see Baedeker's Rhine. 

19. From Brussels to Braine-le-Comte and Mons. 

38 M. Railway in 1 hr. 3 min. or 2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 65, 3 fr. 50, 2 fr. 
35 c. ; express 5 fr. 80, 4 fr. 35, 2 fr. 90 c). Trains start from the Station 
du Midi at Brussels (p. 72). 

From Brussels to (9 M.) Hal, see p. 70, The Mons train di- 
verges here to the S. from the Tournai line (R. 11). — 10 M. Lem- 
becq (branch-line to Ecaussines, see p. 181). 12 M. Tubize, Flem. 
Tweebeek , is the junction of branch-lines to Rognon (p. 181) and 
Braine-V Alleud (p. 130). Paving-stones are largely exported from 
the quarries near Tubize. Tunnel. 15 M. Hennuyeres. 

19 M. Braine-le-Comte, Flem. '*S Graven Brakel, a town with 
7300 inhabitants. The parish-church contains a large altar-deco- 
ration, with numerous figures, resembling that of Hal (p. 70), but 
inferior and of later date. Braine-le-Comte is the junction of the 
Enghien-Grammont-Ghent (p. 181), the Manage-Charleroi(p. 182), 
and the Brussels-Erquelinues lines, which last follows the direction 
described in R. 20 to station Ecaussines, and then proceeds to the S. 
via Houdeng, Haine-St. Pierre, and Faurceulx. From Braine-le- 
Comte to Erquelinnes, 26 M. — The next station in the direction of 
Jurbise and Mons is — 

221/2 M. Soignies, a town with 7900 inhab., possessing a vener- 
able abbey-church (St. Vincent) in the Romanesque style, perhaps 
the most ancient building in the kingdom, founded about 650, and 
erected in its present form in the 12th century. Many of the tomb- 
stones in the churchyard date from the 13th and 14th centuries. 
Extensive quarries of mountain-limestone in the neighbourhood. — 
Branch-line to Houdeng and Haine-St. Pierre (p. 181). 

The line then describes a wide curve, in a direction nearly 
opposite to that of Mons. 26 M. Neufvilles ; Tl^j^ M. Masnuy. 
301/2 M. Jurbise, where the connecting lines to Ath-Tournai (p. 69) 
and St. Ghislain (p. 180) diverge. 

38 M. Mens. — Hotels. Coukonne, in the market, D. 2 fr. ; Hotkl 
ScHMiTZ, MoNAKQUE, AvESiK, all near the station and very unpretending. 
— Cafi Royal; Cafi Rubens; Taverne AlUmande (iHnnichhetr), etc.; all in 
the market. — Steam - Tramways via Nimy and Maisi^ret to Casteau; to 
St. Symphorien; and to Ghlin. 

Mons, Flem. Bergen, on the Trouille , the capital of Hainault, 
with 25, 800 inhab., owes its origin to a fortress erected hereby Ciesar 
during his campaigns against the Gauls. The town was fortified by 

MONS. 19. Route. 179 

Jean d'Avesnes in the 14th century. Prince Louis of Orange took 
Mons by surprise on 24th May, 1572, and maintained it against the 
Duke of Alva till 19th September, thus giving the northern provin- 
ces an opportunity of shaking off the Spanish yoke. The town was 
captured by Louis XIV. in 1691, restored to the Spaniards in 1697, 
and again occupied by the French from 1700 to 1707. It fell into 
the possession of Austria in 1714, and was twice afterwards taken 
by the French, in 1746 and 1792. The fortifications, which were 
dismantled by the Emp. Joseph II., but reconstructed in 1818, were 
again removed in 1862, and their site converted into a pleasant 
promenade. In the promenade, near the station, rises a Statue of 
Leopold /., by Simonis, erected in 1877. 

The most interesting edifice at Mons is the late-Gothic Cathb- 
DRAL OF St. Waltrudis (Ste. Waudru), situated on the left as the 
town is entered from the station. It was begun about 1450 from a 
design by Matthew de Layens, the architect of the Hotel de Ville 
at Liege, and his assistant Gilles Pole. The choir was completed in 
1502, the transept in 1519, and the nave in 1589 (with finishing 
touches added in 1621). The projected tower was never built, and 
the church possesses only a small spire above the crossing and Gothic 
turrets on the transept. The exterior was formerly somewhat dis- 
figured by later additions, but these have been removed and the 
building skilfully restored within the last 40 years. 

The Interior, which is 355 ft. long, 116 ft. wide, and 80 ft. high, is 
a model of boldness and elegance. The slender clustered columns, 60 in 
number, are without capitals, rising immediately to the vaulting and 
keystones. The church contains several monumental reliefs of the 15th and 
16th centuries, those of the latter period being by Jacob Duhrceucq; some 
good stained glass of 1523 (Crucilixion, Maximilian and his son Philip the 
Handsome; Flight into Egypt, with Maximilian's wife, Mary of Burgundy, 
his daughter Margaret, and their patron-saints), restored by Capronnier; 
and several pictures by Vaenius, Van Thulden, and other artists. A chapel 
in the ambulatorj', to the left, contains a handsome altar of the middle 
of the 16th cent., with reliefs from the life of Mary Magdalene. 

Traversing the Rue des Clercs, opposite the choir of the cathe- 
dral, and then ascending to the left and passing through a gateway, 
we reach the highest ground in the town , formerly crowned with 
fortifications on the alleged site of Caesar's Castrum, and now laid 
out as a promenade. Fine views of the busy environs of Mons. To 
the right rises the Beffroi, or belfry, 275 ft. high, belonging to the 
old palace, which is now fitted up as a lunatic asylum. The tower, 
which is the only belfry in Belgium built entirely in the Renais- 
sance style, was erected in 1662 from a design by Louis Ledoux, 
and was restored in 1864 by Sury. It contains a 'carillon', or set of 
chimes. Adjacent is the reservoir of the city waterworks. 

The centre of the town is formed by the Grande Place, in which 
rises the *H6tel ub Villb, a tasteful late-Gothic edifice, erected 
in 1458-67, but never quite completed. The slated roof was added 
in 1606, the rococo tower by Louis Ledoux in 1662. The small 
wrought-iron ape on the staircase to the left of the main entrance 


180 Route 19. MONS. 

probably once formed part of a tavern-sign, but is now regarded as 
one of the emblems of the town. The courtyard is interesting. 

Interior. One room contains a collection of portraits of eminent 
natives of Mons. The Gothic Room, recently restored with little success, 
is embellished with three large paintings of scenes from the history of 
the town, by Faternostre, Modeste Carlier, and Hennebicq. Another room 
is adorned with tapestry after Teniers. 

On the right and left of the Hotel de Yille are two buildings 
with Renaissance facades , i\iQ Maison de la Toison ctOr and the 
chapel of St. George. — A grand fete, called 'La Parade du Li- 
ma^on' or 'du Lumson', is celebrated in the Grande Place on Trinity 

The Library^ in the Eue des Gades, possesses 40,000 printed 
works and numerous MSS. adorned with miniatures. The same build- 
ing contains insignificant collections of antiquities and paintings. — 
The church of St. Elisabeth presents a curious mixture of the Gothic 
and Renaissance styles. 

The boulevards and promenades that surround the old town 
are about 3 M. in length. Besides the statue of Leopold L, men- 
tioned at p. 179, they contain a handsome monument by Prison, 
erected in 1853 to the memory of the celebrated composer Orlando 
di Lasso, or Roland de Lettre, who was born at Mons in 1520, and 
an equestrian statue, by Jacquet, of Baldwin IX. of Hainault and 
Flanders (d. 1205), who took part in the fourth Crusade and be- 
came emperor of Constantinople. Near this statue is a public garden 
called Vauxhall (adm. i/2-l ^J^O- — Among the buildings on the 
boulevards are a large Hospital, a Prison, and a Normal Seminary 
for teachers in elementary schools. 

Mons is the centre of a great coal-mining district, known as Le 
Borinage. The annual yield of the mines of Hainault amounts 
to about 12 million tons, valued at 120 million francs, while the 
whole yield of Belgium does not exceed 16 million tons. Of the 
100,000 miners in Belgium three-fourths belong to Hainault. 

A general snrvey of the country around Mons may be obtained 
by taking the train to [I2V2 M. ; in 40 min.) Quievrain (see below) 
via Jemappes , Quaregnon , St. Ghislain (once the seat of a 
wealthy Bernardine abbey, now a centre of the coal-trade), Boussu 
(with the castle of that name to the right), and Thulin. From 
Quievrain we return to Mons via Elouges, Dour, Warquignies, Was- 
mes , Pdturages, Flenu (with one of the richest coal-flelds) , and 
Cuesmes (in 55 min.). 

At Jemappes (see above), Dumouriez, with an army of 50,0(X) men, 
defeated 22,000 Austrians under the Duke of Saxe-Teschen, who was com- 
pelled to retreat beyond the Meuse, 6th Nov., 1792. 

Near Malplaquet, 3 M. to the S.E., Marlborough and Prince Eugene 
gained a victory over the French in 1709, but not without a loss of nearly 
20,000 men. Iii the vicinity, Pichegru defeated the Duke of York on 
18th May, 1794, capturing 60 guns and 1500 men. 

From Mons to Paris there are two railways. The more direct is by 
Feignieg, St. Quentin, Noyon, Compiegne, and Creil (160 M. ; fares 30 fr. 10, 
22 fr. 60 c). The other line leads via St. Ohislain, QuiH-rain (see above; 

GRAMMONT. 20. Route. 181 

Belgian customs-examination),5/rt«c-i/tM«ron (French customs-examination), 
Valenciennes^ Douai^ Arras, Longueau (Amiens), and Creil (177 M. ; fares 
35 fr. 40, 26 fr. 55 c). 

From ifons to Manage, see below. 

From Moks to Charleroi, SS'/z M., railway in 2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 35, 
3fr. 25, 2fr. 20 c.). Stations Cuesmes, Hi/on, Harmignies, Estinnes; (12i,2 M.) 
Faurceulx, whence a branch-line leads to Erquelinnes (p. 178); I31/2 M. 
Bonne-Esp4rance; 16 M. Binche^ a pretty town with ToOOinhab., where the 
female part of the community is chiefly engaged in the manufacture of 
•fleurs a plat' for the Brussels lace-makers; 21 T/L. Haine-Sl. Pierre^ con- 
nected by means of a branch-line with La Louviere (see below). Near 
(23 31.) Mariemont are the ruins of a chateau erected by the regent Mary of 
Hungary in 1548, but burned down six years later by Henry II. of France, 
and a modern chateau. Si&.\\ons'Morlanwelz, Carniires, Piiton (branch-lines 
to Manage, see below ; to Luttrc," see p. 130 ; and to Fauroeulx via Merbes-Sle. 
Marie^ see above). Fontaine VEveque. Marchienne. and Charleroi (see p. 183). 

20. From Ghent to Charleroi and Namur via 

Railway to Charleroi (661/2 M.) in 2' '2-33/4 hrs. (fares 8 fr., 6 f r , 4 fr.); 
to Namur (89'/2M.) in 3>/4-5V2 hrs. (10 fr. 5, 7 fr. 55, 4 fr. i5c.> 

Ghent, see p. 34. The train crosses tlie Schelde, and beyond 
Meirelbeke and Melle diverges to the S. from the Brussels line [R. 3). 
The first stations are unimportant. 

14 M. Sotteghem, where the railway crosses the Brussels and 
Courtrai line (p. 33). 

151/2 M- Erweteghem ; IS'/o M. Lierde-Ste. Marie. 

221/2 ^1- Grammont, Flem. Gheeraardsbergen, an industrial place 
with 9200 inhab., on the slope of a hill, the junction of the -Denrfer- 
leeuw - Ath-Jurbise line (p. 69). The Hotel de Ville contains an 
early-Flemish painting of Christ as the Judge of the earth, and the 
church of St.Barthelemy possesses two pictures by De Crayer. 

The train enters the province of Hainault. Stations Viane- 
Moerbeke, Gammerages , Herinnes. At (33 M.) Enghien (p. 70) 
our line is crossed by the Brussels and Tournai railway ( R. 11). 
From (37 >I.) Rognon a branch diverges to Tubize (p. 178). 

40 '/2 M. Braine-le-Comte (p. 178). The line to Charleroi and 
Namur now diverges from that to Mons (R. 19). Carriages are 
sometimes changed here. 

4472 ^1- Ecaussines possesses extensive quarries of blue lime- 
stone, which is cut in slabs and exported under the name of Flemish 
granite. Of the two castles here, the most picturesque is the Chateau 
de Lalaing (10th cent.), situated on a precipitous cliff. Railways 
hence to Fauroeulx and Erquelinnes and to Lembecq (p. 178). 
Beyond Marche-les- Ecaussines and Familleureux the train crosses 
the Charleroi Canal, and near Manage enters a rich coal-district. 

50 M. Manage is the junction of our line with those to Mons, 
Pie'ton ( see above), and Ottignies. 

From SIanage to Moxs, 15 M. , railway in 1 hr. (fares 1 fr. 85, 1 fr. 
40, 95 c). This branch-line intersects a valuable coal-field, called 'Le 
Centre\ the yield of which is brought into the market by means of an 
extensive network of railways. In connection with the coal-mines there 

182 Route 20. QUATREBRAS. From Ghent 

is a rapidly increasing iron-industry. Stations La LouvUre ("branch to 
Haine-St. Pierre^ see p. 181), Bois-du-Luc, Bracquegnies, all with extensive 
mines; then Havri^ where the old chateau of that name rises to the left, 
Obourg^ noted for its tobacco, and iVmy. The Jlaiiie, a rivulet from vrhich the 
province derives its name (Eainault), is occasionally visible. ifon«,seep. 178. 

The Manage and Wavke Railway (26 M., in l'M-2hrs.; fares 3 fr. 
10, 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 55 c.) is the prolongation of this line to the N., but the 
trains do not always correspond. At (2V2 31.) Seneffe a battle was fought 
in 1674 between Prince Conde and William III. of Orange ; and the Austrians 
were defeated here by the French under Marceau and Olivier on 2nd July, 
1794. — 5 M. Fehty-Avquennes. 

8V2 M. Nivelles-Nord, to the N. of Nivelles (p. 130) ; 91/2 M. Bavlers, the 
junction of this line with that from Brussels to Luttre and Charleroi (p. 130). 

14 M. Genappe (Hdtel des Voi/ageurs), a village with 1680 inhab., is 
frequently mentioned in connection with the Battle of Waterloo (comp. 
p. 116). About 4 M. to the S. is situated Q,uatrebras, which derives its 
name from the 'four arms' of the roads diverging hence to Charleroi, 
Nivelles, Brussels, and Namur. Here on 16th June, 1815, a battle was 
fought between Ney's division and a part of the British army with its Ger- 
man and Belgian contingents. The French numbered about 17,000 men, 
the Allies 18,000; but of the latter 8000 only were British and German, 
and on the remaining 10,000 no reliance whatever could be placed. Practi- 
cally, therefore, the Allies were far outnumbered. At first, shortly after 
2 p.m., the success of the French, who were opposed by the Belgians 
only, was complete; but their progress was soon arrested by the British 
and German troops, and the battle raged with the utmost fury till dusk. 
Prodigies of valour were, as usual, performed by the 93rd Highlanders ; 
and most of the German troops (Hanoverians and Brunswickers) behaved 
with great bravery, although young and inexperienced. At one juncture 
the Duke of Wellington himself became involved, and only escaped by 
putting his horse to full gallop. About 4 o'clock the gallant Duke of 
Brunswick fell, while endeavouring to rally his troops. Towards the 
close of the battle the tide of success turned decidedly in favour of the 
Allies. Ney, to his great indignation, now learned that Erlon's corps, 
which had at first been ordered to support him , and would doubtless 
have ensured the victory to the French, had received fresh orders from 
Napoleon to move towards St. Amand to oppose the Prussians there. 
The brave marshal's discomfiture was complete, his troops were totally 
defeated, and under cover of the increasing darkness they retreated to 
their original position at Frasne. 

The village of Frasne, the headquarters of Ney on 16th June, lies 
8/4 M. beyond Quatrebras, in the direction of Charleroi. The spirited 
pursuit of the French by the Prussians on the night after the Battle of 
Waterloo extended thus far, more than 6 M. from the battle-field. 

The ruined abbey of Villers (p. 202) lies 3 M. to the W. of Genappe. 

I6V2 M. Bousval; I8V2 M. Noirhat; 20'/2 M. Court St. Etienne (p. 202), 
where the train reaches Charleroi the and Louvain line. 2272 M. Ottignies. 
Thence to Wavre and Louvain, see p. 202. 

Beyond Manage are stations Godarville, Gouy-lez-Pieton, Pont- 
a-Celles, and [571/2 M.) Luttre [-p. 130). The train traverses a more 
hilly district, describing numerous curves , and crossing the Char- 
leroi Canal several times. Beyond a deep cutting, a beautiful un- 
dulating and wooded district is entered. Near (61 M.) Gosselies is 
the town of that name on an eminence (branch to Courcelles and 
Pieton, p. 181]; 62M. Roux ; 681/2 M. Marchienne, near which lies 
the ruined Gothic church of the famous abbey of Aulne. Various 
adjacent places were the scene of sharp skirmishes between the 
Prussians and French on 15th June, 1815, the day before the battle 
oiLigny (p. 20'2), a village which lies 41/2 M. to theN.E. of Gosselies. 

to Namur. CHARLEROI. 20. Route. 183 

The enylrons of Marchienne and Charleroi are remarkable for 
their picturesque scenery and industrial activity. Wooded hills, 
thriving villages, and well-cultivated fields are passed in rapid suc- 
cession, while the lofty chimneys of coal-mines, furnaces , iron- 
foundries, and glass-works are seen in every direction. There are no 
fewer than seventy different seams of coal in the vicinity of Char- 
leroi, some of which extend to a depth of 3000 to 4000 ft. The 
line now reaches the Sambre , which it crosses repeatedly before 
arriving at Namur. 

66 V2 M. Chaxleroi (* Hotel Dourin; Grand-Monarque; Univers; 
Hot. des Etrangers, plain), a town with 20,900 inhab., the central 
point of the Belgian iron industry, was founded by Charles II. of 
Spain in 1666, in honour of whom the name (Charnoy) of the vil- 
lage which then occupied the site was changed to Charleroi. Under 
Louis XIV. it was fortified by Yauban. In 1794 it was besieged four 
times by the French, to whom it was ultimately surrendered on the 
eve of the Battle of Fleurus (p. 203), after the garrison had been 
reduced to the utmost extremities. On 23rd May, 1794, the French 
were totally defeated here by the Austrian Gen. Kaunitz, who cap- 
tured 25 guns and 1300 prisoners. The fortifications were recon- 
structed in 1816, but are now converted into promenades. Near the 
station is a prison in the Gothic style. The Musee Archiologique, 
in the Boul. de I'Ouest, contains prehistoric, Koman, and Frankish 
antiquities found in this district, and also a mineralogical cabinet. 
The church of St. Antoine , in the lower town , contains a good 
example of the native painter F. J. Navez (d. 1869). 

Steam-tramways unite Charleroi with (5M.) Montigny-Le Tilleul; (I3/4M.) 
Mont-sur- Marchienne ; and C2 M.) Lodelinsavt (p. 202). 

Charleroi - Erquelinnes - Paris, in 6'/2-8 hrs., see Baedeker^s Paris. 

Charleroi- Wavre- Louvain, see R. 25. 

Chablekoi-Vieeux, 401/2 M., in 2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 20, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. 
60 c"). From (12 M.) Bevzie branch-lines diverge via ThuilUes to Beaumont 
and Chimay (see below) and to Laneffe; from (14 M.) Walcourt, which 
contains an ancient Gothic pilgrimage-church, two others diverge to Florennes 
and Philippeville and to Morialmi. — 29 M. Mariembourg (Hotel du Com- 
merce) with the chateau and park of M. A. Warveque. The Chasse de 
St. Maur, in the chapel of the chateau, a Romanesque reliquary of the 
12th cent., is the oldest art-work of the kind in Belgium. From Mariem- 
bourg a branch-railway leads to the ancient little town of Couvin {Hdt. du 
Chemin de Fer, well spoken of): and another to Hastihre (p. 189) via (10 M.) 
Chimay (/f(5<. de V Univers; duCommerce ; Eglem; de la Gave; Bellevue), a 
town with 3000 inhab., where the beautiful park and chateau of the prince 
of that name are situated (visitors admitted). A statue of Froissart, the 
chronicler, who died at Chimay in 1410, has been erected in front of the 
Hotel de TUnivers. —Among the hills of Scourmont, 6 M. to the S., is an 
interesting model-farm belonging to the monastery of La Trappe. — Then 
Nitmes (Hotel du Cheval Volant; du Commerce; Rail. Restaurant). Kear 
the station is the striking Roche a Lomme. [A pleasant walk may be taken 
hence in the valley of the Viroi7i to (2 hrs.) Olloy, see below. On a steep 
rock near Dourbes (Au Lion Beige) is the ruin of ~Haute Roche, destroyed 
by Henry II. in 1554; fine rock scenery.] — Then Olloif (see above) and 
Vierves, with a castellated chateau. — 4OV2 M. Vireux, the French fi-ontier- 
station, lies on the Meuse , above the fortress of Givet (p. 190). Beyond 
Vireux the line proceeds to Rheims and Paris. 

1 84 Route 20, NAMUR. From Ghent 

Beyond Charleroi the Namur train crosses the Philippeville road, 
and passes the numerous metal-works oiMarcineUe, (69 M.) CouUlet, 
and (71 M.) Chdtelineau, the junction of the lines to Fleurus (p. 203), 
Jumet (p. 130), and Givet. In the church of St. Barth^lemy a hand- 
some tomb of the Merode family. Opposite Chatelineau lies the 
busy little town of Chdtelet, with 10,000 inhabitants. 

Chatelineao-Givet , 31 Va M. , in I3/4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 80, 3 fr., 1 fr. 
90 c.) i a branch-line traversing a busy manufacturing and mining district, 
via Acoz (branch to Mettet ^ see below), Gerpinnes (with a Roman villa; 
in the church of St. Nicholas the fine Renai-^sance reliquary of Ste. Ro- 
lando), Oret (Morialme), Pavilions (Stove), etc. DojscAe is the last Belgian, 
Givet (p. 190) the first French station. 

The mines and manufactories gradually disappear. The Sambre 
winds through beautiful grassy valleys, sometimes skirting wooded 
hills. To the right of (761/2 M.) Tamines is situated the suppressed 
abbey of Ste. Marie d'Oignies, now an extensive mirror-manufactory. 

Fkom Tamines to Fledkus (p. 202), 5'/2 M., railway in about 20 minutes. 

Fkom Tamines to Anhee, 25'/2 M., railway in IV2 hr. The chief 
stations are (IS'/a M.) Mettet (Croix de Bourgogne), junction for the branch- 
line to Acoz (p. 1831; and Deiiee-Maredsous, with a Benedictine convent 
built in 1876 in the early Gothic style. — The railway is being continued 
beyond (25'/2 M.) Anhce, on the Meuse, to Dinant (p. 183). 

Stations Auvelais., Jemeppe-sur-Samhre (junction of a line to 
Tamines and Gembloux, see p. 202), Moustier, and Franiere. To 
the right of (84 M.) FLoreffe (Hotel du Progres), with glass-works, 
picturesquely situated on an eminence, rises a seminary for priests, 
formerly a Prsemonstratensian abbey. About 3/^ M. from the village 
are stalactite caves, named Grottes de Floreffe (adm. 1-3 pers. 3 fr., 
each additional pers. 2fr.), at the entrance to which are exhibited 
some prehistoric relics and Roman coins. The Hotel des Grottes de 
Floreffe is frequented as a summer-resort. Le Preat, the hill above 
the grotto, is surmounted by an old castle, partly restored. 

To the left, farther on , are the abbey-buildings of Malonne, 
now a normal school. — 8672 M. Flawinne. The valley of the 
Sambre here is thickly studded with ancient chateaux, modern villas, 
and manufactories. 

89 '/o M. Namur. — Hotels. -Hotel D'Hakscamp, Marche aux Arbres 4 
(PI. C, 3), R., L., k A. 33,4-10, B. 11/4, dej. 3, D. 4 fr. ; Hotel & Restaur. 

DU CAFfe AlGRET ; HoTEL DE LA MoNNAIE, 11. 2, B. 1 fr. ; HoTEL DE FlANDKE, 

Coukonne, well spoken of, du Nokd, Rochee dk Cancale, all opposite 
the station , with cafe's-restaurants. — Cafi Rubens, Grande Place. — -Re- 
staurant at the station. 

Cabs. Per drive within the town, or to the station or steamboat-pier, 
1-2 pers. 1 fr., each additional person 25 c. ; per hr. 1 fr. 75 c, each ad- 
ditional Vz lir. 75 c. Between 9 p. m. and (j a. m. 25 c. extra. — To 
Marche-les-Dames (p. 224), and back, carr. with one horse 6-8, two horses 
11-12 fr.; to Dinant (p. 188), with two horses, 25 fr. 

Post & Telegraph Office at the station (PI. B, 1). 

In order to attract visitors the corporation organizes numerous enter- 
tainments during the summer-season, including concerts, fire-works, regat- 
tas, horse-races, etc. — Good river-baths in the Meuse, above the bridge. 

Xajnur, Flem. Namen, the capital of the province, with 28,700 
inhab., lies at the confluence of the Sambre, which is crossed by sev- 

to Namur. NAMUR. 20. Route. 185 

eral stone bridges, and the Meuse. From fhe natural advantages 
of its position Namur has always been a point of strategic impor- 
tance, and it was fortified at an early period. The military authori- 
ties have resolved to fortify this town on the modern system by a 
circle of detached forts. The numerous sieges it has undergone 
(Louis XIV. in 1692, William III. in 1695) have left few of the 
older buildings. Its situation however, is picturesque enough to 
warrant a short stay here, with which may be coupled a ^isit to the 
attractive valley of the Meuse (RR. 21, 29). 

In front of the station , on the site of fortifications removed in 
1862, isthe^3uareLeoi)oW(Pl. CJ), totheE. of which, in the Place 
Le'opold, rises a Statue of Leopold I. by Geefs (PL 24). — To the 
W. of the station extends the Boulevard Le'opold, which is embell- 
ished with a Monument to Omalius (PI. 23), the geologist (d. 1875), 
and leads to the attractive Pare Louise Marie (PI. A, 2), whence 
views of the citadel and the suburb of Salzinnes are enjoyed. 

The Cathedral {St. Auhin , or St. Alban- Pi. B, 2), built in 
1751-67 from the designs of Pizzoni, a Milanese architect, is a 
handsome Renaissance edifice, with a dome and a fine interior. 

At the sides of the high-altar are statues of St. Peter and St. Paul in 
marble, by Delvaux (d. 1778), from whose chisel are also the figures of the 
four fathers of the church, Ambrose, Gregory, Jerome, and Augustine. The 
left transept contains the marble monument of a Bishop de Pisani (d. 1826), 
by Paiinentiei'. At the back of the high-altar is a tombstone erected by 
Alexander Farnese to his '■amatissimo avunculo' Don John of Austria, the 
conqueror at Lepanto. who died in his camp near Bouge , 3'4 M. to the 
N.E. of Xamur, 20th Aug., 1578; his body was removed to the Escurial 
but his heart remains here. The pulpit, carved in wood by Geerfs (1848), 
shows the Madonna protecting the city. A painting of Christ in the choir 
is afcribed to Van Dyck. The treasury cuntains a golden crown of 1429, 
set with precious stones, a silver statuette of St. Blaise, and many other 
objects of value. 

The church of St. Loup (PI. 12 ; C, 3), situated in the Rue du 
College, was erected in the baroque style in 1621-53. The interior 
is borne by twelve massive pillars of red marble. The choir is en- 
tirely covered with black marble, and the vaulted ceiling with sculp- 
tures. A large hole in the latter, made by a shell, is a reminis- 
cence of the siege by Louis XIV. in 1692. The Athene e Royal (PI. 2) 
was formerly a Jesuit monastery, to which the church of St. Lupus 

In the Grande Place (PI. C, D, 3) stand the buildings of the 
Societe du Casino (PI. 6), and the Hotel de Ville (PI. 17), built in 
1830. It contains the office of the Commandant ( to the right of the 
main entrance), where permission may be obtained to visit the Ci- 
tadel fp. 186). In the neighbourhood is the Belfry, restored in 
the 16th century. Farther to the E. are the large Hospice d'Hars- 
camp (PI. 16; D, 3) and the church of ^otre Dame (PI. 14), the 
latter containing the monuments of two Counts of Namur (d. 1391 
and 1418). In the garden of the hospice, which is surrounded by 
a tasteful railing, is a statue of its foundress, Isabella Gabriele 

186 Route 20. NAMUR. 

d'Harscamp (PI. 22). The convent of the Saurs de Notre Dame, 
in the Rue des Fosses, contains a rich treasury, shown on appli- 
cation to the superior. — On the Meuse is the Cursaal, where con- 
certs take place in summer. 

To the left of the lowest bridge over the Sambre, to which the 
Rue du Pont leads direct from the Hotel de Ville, is the hall of the 
Ancienne Boucherie, now containing the *Musee Archeologiqub 
(PI. 19; D, 3), an extensive and admirably-arranged collection of 
antiquities, chiefly of the Roman and Prankish periods. The ob- 
jects were found in the Roman villa at Anthee, in the Prankish 
burial-grounds at Purfooz and Samson, and in the Roman burial- 
ground at Flavion, where a large quantity of enamelled fibulaj came 
to light. There are also several valuable objects both of earlier and 
later date. The museum is open to the public on Sundays, 10-1; 
to strangers daily on payment of a fee (1-3 pers. 1 fr.). 

The Citadel (PI. B, C, 4; adm., see p. 185), on the right bank 
of the Sambre, between that river and tlie Meuse, is believed by 
many authorities to occupy the site of the camp of the Aduatuci de- 
scribed by Caesar (De. Bell. Gall. ii. 29). It was fortified on modern 
principles by Coehorn (p. 246) in 1691, was restored in 1794, and 
has been frequently strengthened since 1817. The summit com- 
mands a fine * View of the valleys of the Sambre and Meuse. 

An old stone bridge of nine arches (PI. C, 4), 470 ft. long, 
crosses from the quarter below the citadel to the suburb of Jambes 
(see below), on the right bank of the Meuse. There is here a small 
Zoological Garden (adm. 50 c. ; concerts in summer). 

The cutlery of Namur enjoys a high reputation, and is said to be 
not inferior to the English. 

On 20fli June, 1815, the Liege and Brussels Gates of Namur were the 
scenes of hotly-contested engagements between the rear-guard of the French 
corps under Grouchy and the advancing Prussians. A monument in the 
Churchyard^ about IM. bevond the Brussels Gate, was erected in memory 
of the fallen in 1857. 

Railway to Luxembourg and Treves, see R. 22 ; to Liege , see 
R. 29; to Tirlemont, see p. 195; to Dinant and Givet, see below. 

21. From Namur to Dinant and Givet. 

Railway to (IT'/a M.) Dinant in 3/4-I hr. (fares 2 fr. 25, 1 fr. 70, 1 fr. 
10 c); to (31 M.) Givet in IV2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 5, 3 fr. 5, 2 fr. 5 c.). The 
railway aflbrds but little view of the beautiful valley of the Meuse. — 
Steamboat in summer from Namur to Dinant; fares 1 fr. 70 c, i fr. (comp. 
the Guide Oflicicl). — The left bank of the river is recommended to 
pedestrians. The village -inns on the banks of the river are generally 
good, but are often full in summer. 

The valley of the Meuse above Namur is narrow , and enclosed 
by wooded hills and frowning cliffs. The banks are enlivened with 
picturesque villages and country-houses. Immediately after quitting 
the station, the train crosses the Meuse, remaining on the right bank 
until Dinant is nearly reached. 2 M. Jambes (see above). 

C5 fc-i it» w ivs — r 



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JnoulJf%a^iia9^j j 



BOUVIGNE. 21. Route. 187 

5M. Dave, -with an ancient chateau (restored) and park belong- 
ing to the duke of Fernan-Nunez (adm. on application to the head- 
gardener) , near which rises the huge and precipitous Rocher de 
Neviau. On the opposite (left) bank is Wt'pion (Depaive). — The 
train passes below the quarries and rocks of TaiUefer and Frene, 
and beyond a tunnel reaches (81/0 M.) Lustin , which is connected 
by an iron bridge with Pro fonder tile and the marble quarries on the 
left bank. The village of Lustin lies l^'o M. from the station, 
555 ft. above the river. Farther on, on the left bank, appear Bur- 
not (Bouchat) and Riviere, with a chateau. — On the right bank, 
by the railway, is the rock Frappe-Cul, with the cavern of Chauveau. 
— IO1/2 M. Godinne (Genot). — On the other side of the river is 
Rouillon , with the chateau of M. de Montpellier. The numerous 
towers of the well-preserved castle of Bioulx (16th cent.) rise 3 M. 
to the W. The scenery between Rouillon and Dinant is remarkably 
picturesque. Above tlie village rises a precipitous tuflfstone-rock, 
named La Roche aux Corneilles ('Roche aux Chauwes' in the patois 
of the district), from the flocks of jackdaws which generally hover 
round it. Then, also on the left bank, the chateau of Hun, with a 
park. A tunnel carries the line through the Rocher de Faulx. 

121/2 ^1- Yvoir (Hotel des Touristes; Hot. du Xord), at the influx 
of the Bocq, is connected by means of a handsome new bridge with 
Moulins (Hot. de la Roche) , on the opposite bank, a suppressed 
Cistercian Abbey converted into a foundry. 

About 6 M. farther up the Bocq is the chateau of Sponlin (Linchant's 
Inn), of the 17th cent, (one of the towers, 13th cent.), formerly in the pos- 
session of the Beaufort-Spontin family. Thence a road continues to folJow 
the picturesque valley via Vingon to (3M.)Natoye (p. 191) or to (2M.)i/'ow.^^rm 
(p. 191). — About 3 M. up the valley of the Floye, which opens at Moulins, 
is the ruined castle of ^Montaigle, the finest relic of the kind in Belgium. 
Here also are the Grotte du Siireau and other prehistoric caves. About 
3 31. to the W. is the Benedictine monastery of Maredsous (p. 184). 

The railway crosses the Meuse, quitting the right bank on which 
is Poilvache, with the ruins of a fortress on a lofty rock, destroyed 
by the French in 1554. Somewhat higher up are the ruins of the 
Tour de Monay. — Farther on we pass Bouvigne (Hot.-Rest. Delens- 
Gilson), one of the most venerable towns in the district, which was 
formerly engaged in constant feuds with Dinant, but has now dwind- 
led down to a mere village. The old ruined tower of Crevecoeur is 
a conspicuous object here. A romantic story attaches to it in con- 
nection with the siege of the town by the French in 1554. Three 
beautiful women are said to have entered the tower with their hus- 
bands, who formed part of the garrison, resolved to participate in 
the defence and to animate the defenders by their presence. The 
latter, however, after a heroic resistance, perished to a man, the 
three unhappy widows being the sole survivors. Determined not 
to fall into the hands of the enraged and brutal soldiery, they threw 
themselves from the summit of the tower in sight of the besiegers, 
and were dashed to pieces on the rocks below. 

188 Route 21. DINANT. From Namur 

171/2 M. Dinant. — Hotels. *H6tel des Postes, pleasantly situated, 
near the station, R. & L. 24, B. l'/4, D. 3, A. 3/4, 'pens." 8-10 fr. ; Belle- 
VUE (same proprietor), at the bridge, with restaurant, R. & B. from 2, 
pens. 6-7 fr. ; 'TAte d"Or, with terraced garden, R., L., <fc A. 2V4-33/4, 
B. 1, dcj. 21/2, D. 3, 'pens.' 7V2 fr. •, Hotel des Ardennes; Hotel de 
l'Edrope. — Taveme Anglaise, on the road to Rivage, English beer. — 
Dr. WUliam't Hi/dropathic EstaUithment. 

Carriage to Freyv (p. 189), with one horse 5, two horses 8 fr.-, to Mon- 
taigle (p. 187), 15 or 20 fr. 

Dinant^ a town with 6400 inhab., is very picturesquely situated 
at the base of barren limestone cliffs, which are crowned by a fortress. 
An iron bridge, commanding a fine view, crosses the river to the 
suburb of St. Medard on the left bank, with the railway station. 

In 1467 the inhabitants of Dinant, having roused the anger of 
Philippe le Bon, Duke of Burgundy , by acts of insubordination, 
paid dearly for their temerity. The Duke, accompanied by his son 
Charles the Bold , who succeeded him a few years later , marched 
against the town, besieged and took it, and treated the townspeople 
with great cruelty. He is said to have caused 800 of them to be 
drowned in the Meuse before his own eyes. The unfortunate town 
was pillaged and burned, and the walls demolished. In 1554 
a similar fate overtook it, when it was taken by storm by the French 
under the Due de Nevers, and plundered. In 1675 the town was 
again taken by the French. The 'dinanderies' , or chased copper 
and brass wares of Dinant were formerly in high repute, and an 
attempt has recently been made to revive the industry. The Mu- 
seum (adm. daily 9-5, 1 fr.) contains a collection of these wares. 
The 'couques de Dinant' are cakes not unlike gingerbread. 

The church of Notre Dame, a handsome edifice of the 13th cent, 
in the Gothic style, but with a few remaining traces of the transition 
period, has been recently restored. The portals are worthy of notice. 
The tower is upwards of 200 ft. in height. — The old Hotel de Vilte, 
on the Meuse, contains some paintings by Ant. Jos. Wiertz (1806- 
65; comp. p. 112), who was born in Dinant. A monument is to 
be erected to him on the hill on the right bank. — At the back of 
the church are steps in the rock, 408 in number, leading to the ci- 
tadel, which was sold in 1879 for 7000 fr. Fine, but limited view 
from the top (1 fr.). 

Better views of the town and river are commanded from the gar- 
den of the Casino (strangers admitted). Rue Grande 27, which rises 
in terraces, and from the Jar din de Montfat (adm. I'/o fr.), in the 
Kue En-Rhee, near the handsome new Renaissance Palais de Justice. 
The latter garden contains a cavern called the Orotte de Montfat, 
from which steps lead up a narrow shaft to the highest point of the 
garden. — A path descends behind the citadel to the Fonds de Le/fe, 
a narrow rocky ravine with numerous water-mills, so called after 
Le/fe, the N. suburb of Dinant. 

From Dinant to Wanlin, the temporary terminus of the new branch- 
railway now being built between Jcmelle and Dinant (p. 192), about I2V2 M.; 
carriage in 2'/2 hrs., with one horse 12-15, two hurscs 18-20 fr. The road 

to Givet. DINANT. 27. Route, 189 

leaves the valley of the Meuse at Rivages (see below) and about half-war 
passes Celle, with an old Romanesque church. — For pedestrians the route 
up the valley of the Lesse via Anseremme (see below) is far preferable. 

Beyond Dinant the railway continues to follow the left bank of 
the Meuse. On the right hank appear the houses and villas of the 
suburb of Les Rivages, and the bold and isolated pinnacle of rock 
on the right, called the Roche cl Bayard (the name of the horse of 
the 'Quatre Fils d'Aymon'), where the high-road is carried through 
a rocky arch. In the vicinity are quarries of black marble. Then — 

A.nseTemme [Hot. Beausi jour ^ 'pens.' 6-7 fr.; Repos des Artistes, 
with interesting salle-a-manger ; Beau-Rirage ; Hot. des Etrangers), 
a pretty village surmounted by overhanging cliffs, about 13 4 M. 
above Dinant, hear the mouth of the Lesse. 

A pleasant excursion may be made into the Vallet of the Lesse, the 
curious cliff-tnrmations of which are covered with a thick growth of trees 
and pierced with numerous caves (e.g. Trou des A'ut&nt, Trou du Frontal, 
Trou Rosette, all three in the neighbourhood of Furfooz, see below), which 
are of great interest to geologists and anthropologists. The paths are 
sometimes fatiguing, and local guides are useful. The road quits Anser- 
emme near the Hotel Repos des Artistes and leads over the hill on the 
right bank of the Lesse. "We do not cross the bridge to the old farm of 
Pont-a-Leste but follow the right bank to the modern chateau oi Lesse and 
to a (2^/2 M.) mill, whence we ferry over to the left bank, in order to 
obtain a view of the castle of -Walzin (13th cent. ; once the property of 
the De la Mark family) , wliich is romantically situated on a steep, 
overhanging cliff on the right bank. A rough path leads hence along the 
left bank to (3 M.) CAd/eux (primitive inn at the ferryman's, Pas.^eur d'Eau; 
return hence by boat if desired). The curious clifTs on the right bank, 
opposite (ferry), are known as the Chandelle de Chdleux. A steep path 
ascends to the high-lying village of (1 hr.) Furfooz; tine view of the valley 
from the top (caves, see above). We now proceed to the E. to the ancient 
chateau of WH-e or Celle, picturesquely situated in a lateral valley; farther 
up is the modern chateau of Miranda, in the English Gothic style; both 
belong to Count Liedekercke-Beaufort. A wooded ravine to the left of the 
castle leads to Celle on the road from Dinant to Wanlin (p. 188). On the 
left, beyond the Ivoigne, a tributary of the Lesse, rise the towers of the 
royal chateau of Ardenne. The road' to Houyet (Hotel de la Lesse) descends 
through wood frvim the height un which the chateau stands, while another 
proceeds at the same level to Wanlin (p. 188). 

A short tunnel carries the railway through the cliffs of Moniat, 
beyond which we pass one of the finest points in the valley of the 
Meuse. Here is situated the Chateau of Freyr, the ancestral seat 
of the Beaufort-Spontln family, with well-kept gardens, situated 
at the foot of wooded hills on the left bank of the river. Easily 
accessible stalactite cavern in the vicinity. Opposite, precipitous 
rocks of grotesque shapes rise immediately from the river. 

"2272 ^1- Waulsort (Hotel-Pens. Martinot), with a chateau and 
flue garden. Opposite is the curious Rocher du Chien and farther 
up the scanty ruins of the Chateau Thierry. — 26 M. Hastitre 
(*H6tel de Bellevue, plain; Hot. de la Meuse; Hot. Hastitre), 
junction of ,the line via Agimont and Mariembourg (p. 183) to 
Chimay, Anor, Laon, and Paris. On the right bank of the Meuse 
is the abbey-church of Hastier e , founded in the 7th cent; the 
present building is a basilica of 1033, with a choir of 1260. — 

190 Route 21. SEDAN, 

28^2 M. Heer-Agimont, with the Belgian custom-house, and near 
the ruined Chateau Agimont. On the right bank red marble is 
quarried. — We then cross the French border. 

31 M. Givet (*Mont d'Or, R. 2 , D. 31/2 fr.-; Ancre) , with 
7800 inhab., picturesquely situated on the Meuse, which is crossed 
by a bridge here, is the first French town on the line (French 
custom-house) , and consists of Givet-St. Hilaire on the left bank, 
at the base of the steep hill on which the fort of Charlemont lies, 
and Givet- Notre- Dame on the right bank. Both parts of the town 
are strongly fortified, each forming a separate fortress. Givet- 
St. Hilaire contains the longest barrack in France (1100 yds.). The 
composer Mehul (d. 1818) was born here, and a monument has been 
erected to his memory. The chateau of Beauraing, see p. 193. 

Givet is connected with Charleroi by two railways, the Vireux- 
Charleroi (p. 183), and the Doische - Chatelineau line (p. 184); 
by the former the journey occupies 41/4, by the latter 21/4 hrs. 

From Givet to Sedan, 48 M., railway in 21/2 lirs., via Miziires-Charle- 
ville (*H6tel du Xord, at the station), two towns adjoining each other, with 
6600 and 16,900 inhab. respectively. 

Sedan (Hdtel de France; de V Europe; Croix d'Or), a prettily situated 
town with 19,000 inhab., formerly fortified. Here a memorable battle took 
place between the Germans and French on 1st Sept., 1870, terminating in 
the total defeat of the latter and the capture of the emperor and 83,000 men 
(including 1 marshal, 39 generals, 230 staff-officers, and 3000 other officers). 
The French army numbered 124,000 men, the German 240,000, but part of 
the latter only was actually engaged. Carriages and guides to the battle- 
field may be obtained at the hotels. 

Those who desire only a rapid visit to the battlefield before return- 
ing via Metz , should alight at Donchery ^ the station before Sedan. From 
the station we proceed straight on through the village, cross the Meuse, 
and follow the Sedan road on the left bank. 

At the (IV4 M.) cross-roads (about 590 ft. above the sea-level) below 
Frdnois, the road to the left leads in a few minutes to the chateau of 
Bellevue, where on the morning of Sept. 2nd the capitulation was signed 
by General v. Moltke and General de Wimpffen, and where a little later 
the meeting between King William of Prussia and Napoleon III. took 
place. The road to the right leads in about IV2M. to a height to the 
S.W. of Frenois, where King William had his headquarters during the 
battle, and where on the evening of Sept. 1st he received Napoleon's 
letter. As we continue to follow the road to Sedan we have a survey of 
the hilly district beyond the Meuse to the N.E., which was the scene of 
operations of the N. wing of the French army, and of the desperate char- 
ges of the French cavalry at Floing. All the N. heights were occupied by 
the Prussians on the evening of Sept. 1st, while the Prussian guards, 
forming part of the army of the Meuse, advanced from the N.E. 

Sedan lies about IV2 M. from the cross-roads near Bellevue. We enter 
the town through the suburb of Torcy, where the station (now removed 
farther to the S.E.) stood before 1870, cross the Meuse, and reach the 
market-place, in which stands a monument to Marshal Turenne, born at 
Sedan in 1611. Thence turning to the right (S.E.) we traverse the suburb 
of Balan to (V4 hr.) Bazeilles, the possesion of which was obstinately con- 
tested for seven hours on the day of the battle. At the N. end of the 
village is the small tavern 'A la Derniere Cartouche', which was the only 
house in the village that escaped the flames, and now contains a 'Mosee' 
of relics connected with the battle. A pyramid in the adjoining cemetery 
marks the common grave of more than 2000 French and Germans. The rail- 
way-station of Bazeilles is at the S. end of the village, V2 M. farther on. 


22. From Brussels to Luxembourg via Namur. 
Rochefort. Han-sur-Lesse. 

137 M. Railway in 61/2 hra. (fares 22 fr., 16 fr. 45, 8 fr. 70 c). 

The trains start from the Station du Quartier Leopold (p. 72), 
and some of them also from the Station du Nord. 1 M. Etterbeek, 
a suburb of Brussels, whence the line to Tervuren diverges. The 
next stations, WatermaeL, Boitsfort, and Groenendael, with their 
pleasant woods and picturesque villas, are favourite resorts of the 
citizens of Brussels for picnics and excursions. From La Hulpe, a 
glimpse is obtained to the right of the Mound of the Lion (p. 126 j 
on the distant field of Waterloo. On the left, near Rixensart, is a 
chateau of Count Merode. 

15 M. Ottignies is the point of intersection of the Louvain- 
Charleroi (R. 25) and Louvain - Manage - Mons (p. 182) lines. — 
171/2^- Mont St. Guibert, vnth pretty environs. On the right is the 
chateau of Birbaix, with fine gardens. At Chastre the Province of Bra- 
bant is quitted , and that of Namur entered. — 24 M. Gembloux, 
junction for the lines to Fleurus and Ramillies-Landen (p. 196) 
and to Jemeppe-sur-Sambre (p. 184). An old abbey here contains 
the royal agricultural institution. 281/2 M. St. Denis-Bovesse; 31 M. 
Rhisne. The train passes through several cuttings in the blue lime- 
stone rocks, and affords a strikingly picturesque view of — 

35 M. Namur (see p. 184). The line now intersects the 
Forest of Ardennes^ a wild, mountainous district, affording many 
picturesque views. Immediately after quitting Namur the train 
crosses the Meuse and commands another remarkably fine panorama 
of the town and its citadel. 40^2 ^- Naninne; 45 M. Courritre: 
46 M. Assesse; 491/2 M. Natoye. The line runs hence to the next 
station through the deep valley of the upper Bocq, in which, ^/i^. 
to the S.W. of Natoye, is the chateau of Mouffrin (16th cent. ; to 
Spontin, see p. 187). — 53 M. Ciney (Grand Hotel; Bellevue; Hot. 
du Condroz), the capital of the Condroz (Condrusi of the Romans), as 
the district between the Meuse and Ourthe was once called (route 
to Huy and Landen, see p. 223). — 59 M. Leignon; 591/2 Haversin, 
IV2 M. to the S.E. of which is the finely restored chateau of Serain- 
champs , formerly in the possession of the De la Marks , now the 
property of the Marquis of Senzeilles. 

From (651/2 M.) Aye an omnibus runs (in 1/2 hr. ; 1/2 fr.) to 
Marche (p. 218). — 661/2 M. Marloie, where the direct line to Liege 
(Ligne de I' Ourthe) diverges (p. 218). The line now descends con- 
siderably, and affords a beautiful view of the valley of the Wamme 
to the left. — 701/2 M;. Jemelle (Hot. de la Station ; Hot. du Luxem- 
bourg), with numerous marble and limestone quarries and lime- 
kilns, lies at the confluence of the Wamme with the Lomme, a tri- 
butary of the Lesse. — Continuation of the Railway, see p. 193. 

192 Route 22. ROCHEFORT. From Brussels 

The new railway from Jemelle through the valleys of the Lomme 
and the Lesse to Dinant is now open to (^10^/2 ^0 Wanlin (i/o hr. ; 
fares 1 fr. 30, 1 fr., 65 c). 

21/2 M. Rochefort (*mtel Biron, R., L., & A. 11 '3-2, B. 3/^, 
dej. 2, D. 21 2, pens. 5-6 fr. ; *H6tel de VEtoile, same charges; 
Hotel Rog later ; Clef d' Or, unpretending; all frequently crowded"), 
a favourite summer-resort, with 2400 inhah., formerly the capital 
of the County of Ardennes, occupies an elevated site on the Lomme, 
commanded by the ruins of an old castle (private property, no ad- 
mission). The new Hotel de Ville and the Romanesque Church, 
erected after plans by Cluysenaer, are noteworthy. Fine view from 
the Loretto Chapel. The environs are remarkable for a number of 
curious caverns in the limestone rock , many of which have been 
made accessible. 

The entrance to the ''Grotte de Rochefort, one of the finest and most 
easily visited, is at the upper end of the town. It is the property of a 
M. Collignon, who discovered it, and who keeps the paths in the interior 
in good condition (admission 5 fr., for parties of 20 or upwards 21/2 fr. 
each). A rapid visit to it takes 1V4-2 hours. The stalactites are purer and 
even more varied than those in the grotto of Han, though the latter is far 
more imposing. The SSrt//e dts Merveilles\ '• Salle du Sahbal\_ '■Vol d'En/er', 
and 'Ze* Arcades\ the finest points, are illuminated with magnesium 
light; the height of the Salle du Sabbat (said to be 300 ft.) is revealed by 
means of a lighted balloon. 

In summer an omnibus plies regularly from Rochefort to the 
Grotto of Han, a visit to which should on no account be omitted (re- 
turn-fare 2fr.). The village of Han-sur-Lesse (Hotel de BeUevue) 
lies 31/2 M. from Rochefort, on the N. side of a range of hills, 
through which the Lesse forces its way by the so-called Trou de 
Han or de Belvaux. The road to Han diverges, at the Hotel Bi- 
ron in Rochefort, to the right from the high-road (which continues 
straight on to St. Hubert ; p. 193), and cannot be mistaken. [On 
this side of the 5th kilometre-stone stands a finger-post indicating 
the road to Hamerenne and Rochefort, which pedestrians may take 
on their way back.] 

The entrance to the *Trou de Han lies about IV2 M. from 
Han, on the S. side of the above-mentioned range of hills; the 
omnibus from Rochefort drives direct to the cavern without touch- 
ing at Han. The pedestrian should, however, secure the services 
of a guide at the hotel in Han (one of the brothers Lanoy). 

Admission for a single visitor 7 fr. ; two or more, 5 fr. each ; 2 fr. more 
is exacted for awakening the echoes by a pistol-shot, for 1-4 pers., and 
50 c. for each additional person; fee to the guide extra. The Guide-Al- 
bum du Voyageur a la Grotte de Han (2 fr.) contains a good plan of the 
entire cavern. 

The Trou de Han is nearly 1 M. in length and consists of a series of 
chambers, opening into each other, and varying in height. The nume- 
rous stalactite -formations have been fancifully named in accordance 
with their forms, Trdne de Pluton, Boudoir de Proserpine, Galerie de la 
Grenouille, etc. The most imposing chamber is the "Salle du Ddme, which 
is 500 ft. long, 450 ft. wide, and 130 ft. high; and the Merveilleuses ^ four 
chambers with the most beautiful stalactites , only recently made acces- 
sible, are also very fine. A visit to the cavern is extremely interesting, 

" o.— , y y--ih"."-di'Fi'sleique 

^«-iiiq,nmepar l:5;),K 

3 VagnprS-DebesJierpzig 


to Luxembourg. ST. HUBERT. '22. Route. 193 

and occupies 2-4 hrs. Visitors emerge at the other end in a boat. August, 
September , and October are the best months for inspecting the cavern ; 
in spring the swollen state of the river often renders access impossible. 
The cave has been visited by tourists since 1814. The stalactites have 
unfortunately been sadly blackened by smoky torches, but the grotto is 
now lighted with naphtha and magnesium. — Scarcely V2 M. farther on 
is the Perte de la Lesse, also well worth a visit, where the river dashes 
into a subterranean abyss. 

The next station of the "branch railway is (5 'Sl.'jEprave (Malarm- 
Jacques ; Marneflfe's Inn, where information as to the grotto maybe 
ohtained) , at the confluence of the Lomme and the Lesse , with 
another grotto (adm, 2 fr. ; guide V. Guerit-Anclaux^. In the *Rond 
Tienne, below the latter, the branch of the Lomme which disappears 
in the grotto of Rochefort (p. 192), 21/2 M. distant, bursts forth 
again to the light of day. In the vicinity is an interesting Roman 
camp, where numerous coins have been found; also Celtic and 
Frankish graves. 

The next stations are ViUers-sur-Lesse, Vignee, and (10^2 M.) 
Wanlin. To Dinant, see p. 188. 

From Wanlin a diligence (1 fr. 10 c.) plies twice daily to (6V2 M.) 
Be& (Hotel du Centre; dtt Sttd; de VOuest; du Nord), the fine castle 
of which, with its art-treasures, was burned in Dec. 1889. A diligence 
f 1 fr.) runs hence three times a day in summer to (6 M. 5 IV4 hr.) Givet 
(p. 190). 

721/.2 >I. Forrieres ; 76 M. Grupont (Hot. Masset). A diligence 
(2fr. 60c.) plies hence twice a day to (15^2 ^1-) Beauraing (see 
above), via Wellin (Hot. de TUnivers), at the junction of the road 
to Ilan-sur-Lesse (p. 192), and Revogne, with a stalactite grotto. 
The train follows the sinuosities of the Lomme. To the left, on a 
rocky buttress, rises the strikingly picturesque Chateau Mirwart, 
with its five towers. From (82'A2 M.) Poix (Hot. Guillaume) a 
branch-railway runs in 25 min. to (41 o^l-) St. Hubert, Flem. Hui- 
brecht (Hotel du Luxembourg ; Hotel du Chcmin de Fer), a town 
with 2500 inhab. , celebrated for the chapel containing the relics 
of the saint who has given his name to the place. The abbey has 
been converted into a Reformatory for young criminals. The Church, 
in the Flamboyant style, with double aisles and interesting crypt, 
dates from the 16th cent, (facade and towers erected in 1700). A 
chapel on the left near the choir contains a *Sarcophagus adorned 
with basreliefs by W. Geefs, and the choir itself has some fine 
wood-carving. The extensive forest of St. Hubert is one of the 
finest in Belgium. 

St. Hubert, the tutelary saint of sportsmen, was once a profligate and 
impious prince , who did not scruple to indulge in the pleasures of the 
chase even on the solemn fast -days appointed by the Church. While 
thus irreverently engaged on the holy fast of Good Friday , he suddenly 
beheld the miraculous apparition of a stag with a cross growing out of 
its forehead between its antlers. Thus warned by Heaven of the danger 
of adhering to his sinful courses, he at once desisted from the hunt, vol- 
untarily relinquished all the honours and a,dvantages of his noble rank, 
and determined thenceforth to devote himself to a life of piety and self- 

Baedekek's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 13 

194 Route 22. ARLON. 

abnegation. He accordingly presented the whole of bis fortune to the 
Church, became a monk, and founded the abbey and church which are 
still called by his name. The holy man is said to have enjoyed miracu- 
lous powers during his life-time, and long after his death numerous mir- 
acles were wrought by means of his relics. 

85 M. Hairival. — 91 M. Libramont (Hotel Bellevue, plain), 
on the watershed between the Lesse and the Semois, is the station 
for Recogne, a village to the right, on the road to Bouillon (see 
below) and Sedan, the route by which Napoleon III., accompanied 
by French and Prussian officers and a Belgian escort, proceeded to 
Libramont on 4th Sept., 1870, to take the train for Germany. 

From Libramont to Gouvt. 'dQ^/z M., branch-railway in IV2-274 hrs. 
(fares 5 fr. 60, 4 fr. 20, 2 fr. 80 c). Stations: Bernimont , Wideumont- 
JSercheux, Mor/iet, Sibret. — 18 M. Bastogne (Le Brun; Collin)^ an old town 
of 2000 inhab., surnamed Paris-en-Ardenne ; the church, dating from the 
15th cent., contains some curious vaulting, ancient mural paintings, and 
a figure of St. Christopher executed in 1520. A branch-railway runs from 
Bastogne, via (5 M.) Ben on champs., Schimpach., and Schleif to Willz (p. 234), 
and through the idyllic valley of the Wilz via Merckliolz (p. 234) to Kauten' 
bach (p. 234) in the grand-duchy of L\ixembourg. — From (2i M.) Bowcy a 
steam-tramway plies to (7V2 M.) Houffalize (IlCt. des Ardennes, pens. 5 fr. ; 
JJol. des2Postes; H6t. de Luxembourg), a picturesquely situated town with 
1300 inhab., the capital of the upper vallev of the Ourthe, with a ruined 
castle. — 28 M. Tavigny. — 36V2 M. Gouvy\ see p. 216. 

Another branch-line runs from Libramont to (71/2 M.) Bertrix (p. 195). 

96^2 M- Longlier^ the station for Neufchdteau (Hotel des Postes; 
des Etrangers), a small town of 2000 inhab., once fortified, which 
lies 3/4 M. to the right (tunnel beneath the castle-hill), — 101 M. 
Lavaux; 103 M. Mellier. — 106 M. Marbehan {^Comet's Inn; Gil- 
let-Kogier), with a new church. A branch-line diverges here to 
Ste. Marie, Croix-Rouye, Ethe, and (16 M.) Virton[see below). 

IIOV2 M. Habay-la-Neuve ; 1131/2 M. Pouches. 

1191/2 M. Arlon, Flem. Aarlen (*H6tel du Nord, R., L., & A. 3, 
B. 1, D. 21/2, S. 2, omn. 1/2 fr. ; Maison Rouge; Hotel Central, in 
the market-place ; Cafe de la Bourse), a prosperous little town with 
7200 inhab., situated in a well-cultivated plain, 1330 ft. above the 
sea-level, is the capital of the Belgian province of Luxembourg. It 
was the Orolaunum Vicus of the Antoninian itinerary, and was once 
fortified. Fine view from the church. The Hotel du Gouvernement 
Provincial contains an unarranged collection of Roman antiquities 
found in the neighbourhood, including some interesting stone- 
carvings. — About 3 M. to the E., on the Luxembourg frontier, 
lies the ruined Cistercian abbey of Clair fontainc. 

From Arlon to Longwy (for Longuyon and If^ancy), 14 M., railway 
in 3/4 hr. (fares 1 fr. 75, 1 fr. 35, 90 c). Intermediate stations: Aulel- 
Bas, Messancy, Alhus (see below), and Mont St. Martin. (At Autel-IIaut 
are an interesting old church partly of the 10th cent., and a chateau of 
the 13th cent.) —Longwy (Hotel de TEurope) is the French frontier-station 
and seat of the custom-house. 

From Arlon to Gedinne, 70 M., railway in 33/4 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 60, 
6 fr. 45, 4 fr. 30 c). — As far as (10 M.) Athus (branch to Petange, p. 195) 
the line is the same as that to Lonjiwy. It then turns to the W. 15 BI. 
Uulancy; 19 M. Signeitlx; 2IV2 M. Ruetle. 

2b^/-2 M. Virion (Croix d'Or; Cheval Blanc), the junction of a line to 
Marbehan (see above), is a prettily-situated little town with 2500 inhab., 

TIRLEMONT. 23. Route. 195 

whose chief occupation is farming and cattle-breeding. Various Roman 
cuins and antiquities have been found in the neighbourhood. 

29 M. Meix-devant-Virton ; 33V2M. Belle-Fontaine-lez-Etalle ; ST'^M. Izel. 

401/2 M. Florenville ("Hdtel du Commerce; Poste), a small town near the 
French frontier, from which many pleasant excursions may be made into 
the forest of Ardennes. [The winding valley of the Semois, from Izel 
(see above) to its junction with the Meuse at 3Jontherm4 (see Baedeker's 
Northern France)., is very picturesque. Good quarters may be found at 
Florenville and Bouillon (see below) and also at Herheumont (Hot. Vasseur), 
up-stream, and ai Alle (*H6t. Hoffmann; du Commerce), down-stream.] — 
About 7V2 M. to the S. of Florenville lie the ruins of the abbey of Or- 
»aZ, founded in 1124. The church was rebuilt in the 16-17th centuries. 
Adjacent is a tolerable inn. 

471/2 M. Straimont; 491/2 M. St. Midard; b^^j-i M. Bertrix (Hot. Manjean; 
branch to Libramont, see p. 194). — From (61 M ) Paliseul (Hotel des Ar- 
dennes) a steam-tramway (fares 1 fr. 15, 80 c.) plies to (10 M. ; 3/^ hr.) 
Bouillon., a little town dominated by the stately ancestral castle of Godfrey 
of Bouillon. Here iS'^apoleon III. spent the night of 3rd-4th Sept. 1870 in 
the Hotel de la Poste. To the S. of Bouillon lie Les Amerois, a chateau 
and park of the Count of Flanders. From Bouillon to Sedan (p. 190), 
about 91/2 M. by road. — 65 M. Graide; 66V2 M. Bicvre ; 70 M. Gedinne. 

123 M. Autel; 125 V2 M. St€rpenich. — i2QM. Bc«mgren (Luxem- 
bourg custom-honse ; luggage examined), the junction for branch- 
lines to Steinfort and Ettelbriick (to the N.) and to Clemency, Po- 
tage, and Esch sur I'Alzette (to the S.}. 128 M. Cappellen ; 130 M. 
Mamer ; 132^/2^. Bertring en. 

136 M. Luxembourg, see p. 237. 

23. From Brussels to Lifege via Louvain. 

62 M. Railway in 2-3V4 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 50, 5 fr. 65, 3 fr. 75 c.i 
e.vpress 9 fr. 40, 7 fr. 5, 4 fr. 70 c). 

The train starts from the Station du Nord, and traverses an 
agricultural and partly-wooded district. At (2 M.) Schaerbeek the 
Malines line diverges (p. 131); 5 M. Dieghem, noted as a pilgrim- 
age-resort and for its fair; 6 M. Saventhem, the parish-church of 
which contains a good picture by Van Dyck, representing St. Martin 
dividing his cloak, a gift of the master himself; 972^1. Cortenberg ; 
13 M. Velthem; 15 M. Herent. 

18 M. Louvain, see R. 24. 

Bkanch-line hence to the N. to Rotselaar (with the old tower of Ter- 
heiden rising from a pond in the neighbourhood) and (10 M.) Aarschot, a 
station on the Antwerp and Hasselt line (p. 176), and thence to Uerenthals 
on the Turnhout and Tilburg line (p. 135). 

From Louvain to Charleroi, see R. 25. 

From Louvain to Malines, see p. 135. 

Beyond Louvain the Norbertinian abbey of Pare (p. 202), is 
seen on the right. 25 M. Vertryck. 

2972 M. Tirlemont, Flem. Thienen (Hotel Ponsaerts ; Nouveau 
Monde, near the station; Hotel de Flandre, in the market-place), a 
clean and well-built, but dull town with 13, 700 inhab., was once like 
Louvain occupied by a much larger and wealthier population. The 
walls, which are nearly 6 M. in circumference, now enclose a large 
extent of arable land. In the spacious market-place is situated the 


196 Route 23. LANDEN. 

church of Notre Dame du Lac, founded in 1298, enlarged in the 
loth cent., hut left unfinished. The Church of'St. Germain, situated 
on an eminence, probably dates from the 12th cent. ; high-altar- 
piece a Pietk, by Wappers. The celebrated Jesuit BoUandus (d. 
1655) was probably a native of Tirlemont. He was the first com- 
piler of the Acta Sanctorum, and his successors who continued the 
work styled themselves Bollandists. 

Fkom Tirlemont to Diest (p. 176), lOV-'M., branch-railway in 50 min. 
(fares 2 fr. 35, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 20 c), via Neer-Linter, Geet-Betz, and Ilalen. 

Feom Tirlemont to St. Trond and Tongres, 27V2 M., railway in 
13/4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 35, 2 f r. 50, 1 fr. 70 c.). — G'/- 31. Neer-Linter (sec 
above). — 9V2 M. Leau, Flem. Zout-Leeuw (Cafe -Restaurant of /. Vos), 
formerly a fortress, with a handsome late-Gothic Town Sail (16th cent.) 
and the Gothic church of ~St. Leonhard (13th and I4th cent.). The latter 
contains Gothic carved altars with early-Flemish and Renaissance paint- 
ings (t)eginning of 16th cent. ; in the right aisle), a collection of admirable 
Gothic bronze works of the 15th cent., unequalled in any other church in 
the Netherlands (censers , fonts , lectern in the form of a eagle, six-light 
candelabrum, 28 ft. in height, tabernacle-railing), and a magnificent ♦Taber- 
nacle sculptured in stone, 52 ft. high, one of the finest works of the Belgian 
Renaissance, executed in 1554 by Cornelis de Vriendt, architect of the Ant- 
werp Hotel de Ville, by order of Martin de Wilre , Seigneur of Oplinter, 
who is buried beside it. — 12V2 M. St. Trond (see below), the junction 
for the Landen-Hasselt line. — 16 M. Ordange ; 20'/2 M. Looz; 24 M, Firange. 

— 27 M. Tongres, see p. 360. 

From Tirlemont to Namur, 27V2 M., railway in I1/3 hr. (fares 3 fr. 35, 
2 fr. 50, 1 fr. 70 c). Stations unimportant. From Jodoigne a tramway runs 
to Wavrc (p. 202). — 13 M. Ramillies is the junction of the Landen and 
Gembloux line (see p. 197). About 2V2 M. to the N. is Folx-les-Caves, 
with curious subterranean quarries, worked even in Roman times (guide 
in the adjacent cafe'). — From (16 M.) Noville-Taviers a branch-line runs 
to Enibresin; and from Eghezie a steam-tramway plies to Andenne (p. 223). 

— Namur, see p. 184. 

Beyond (33 M.) Esemael the line intersects the plain of Neer- 
winden (the village lies to the left), the scene of two great battles. 
In the first of these, on 29th July, 1693, the French under Marshal 
Luxembourg defeated the Allies under William III. of England. 
In the second the French under Dumouriez and Louis Philippe 
(then 'General Eg alite', afterwards king of France) were defeated 
by the Austrians under the Prince of Cobourg (great -uncle of the 
late king Leopold), and driven out of Belgium (18th Mar., 1793). 

38 M. Landen , the junction of several lines , is historically 
interesting as the birth-place of Pepin, the majordomo of the royal 
domains of the Anstrasian monarch Dagobert I. (628-38). He died 
here about the year 640, and was buried at the foot of a hill which 
still bears his name. His remains were afterwards removed to Ni- 
velles (p. 130), where his daughter Gertrude (d. 659) founded a 
convent. His fifth lineal descendant was Charlemagne, who ascended 
the throne of the vast Franconian empire 128 years later. 

From Landen to Hasselt, branch-line in ^/i-V/t hr. (fares 2 fr. 20, 
1 fr. 70, 1 fr. 10 c). This route presents few attractions. 6V2 M. St. Trond, 
Flem. St. Truiden (Hdtel du Commerce), the most important station, with 
11,500 inhab., possesses several old churches (Notre Dame, Gothic, restored^ 
St. Martin, Romanesque); it is the junction for the Tirlemont - Tongres 
line (see above). 17»^ M. Hasselt, see p. 176. 

LOUVAIN. 24. Route. 197 

Fkom Landen to Gembloux (Fleurus and Charleroi)., 23 M., railway in 
1 hr. (fares 2 fr. 80, 2 fr. 10, Ifr. 40 c.). Stations (12 M.) Ramillies (p. 19G), 
Gembloux (p. 191), Fleurus, and Charleroi (see p. 183). 

Landen is also the junction for a line coming from Cinet, which 
intersects the Namur-Liege line at Hui/ (see p. 223). 

Next stations Gingelom, Rosoux-Goyer, and [47 M.) Waremme, 
beyond which the line crosses ancient and well-preserved Roman 
road, called by the country-people Route de Brunhilde, which ex- 
tended from Bavay (Bavacum NerviorumJ, near Mons, to Tongres. 
The latter was the capital of the ancient province of Hesbaye, the 
natives of which were once famed for their strength and bravery, 
as the old proverb , 'Qui passe dans le Heshain est combattu Vende- 
mam\ suggests. — Steam-tramway to Huy., see p. 222. 

Beyond (53 M.) Fexhe the land of the Brabanters, a somewhat 
phlegmatic race of Germanic origin, is quitted, and that of the ac- 
tive and enterprising Celtic Walloons entered. A smiling and highly- 
cultivated district is exchanged for a scene of industrial enterprise. 
Numerous coal-mines, foundries, and manufactories are passed in 
the vicinity of (58 M.) Ans, which lies 490 ft. higher than Liege, 
(Branch-line to Liers, p. 3G0.) — 6OV2 M. Haut-Fre. 

The line now descends rapidly (i : 30) , affording a fine view of 
the populous city of Liege and the beautiful and populous valley 
of the Meuse. A large brick building on the hill to the left is a 
military hospital. 

62 M. Liege, see p. 203. 

24. Louvain. 

Hotels. In the town: Hotel de SufiDE (PI. a), Place du Peuple, with 
restaurant, E. 3-5, L. 1/2, A. 3/4, B. I1/2, dej. 2V2, U. 4 fr. — Hotel de la 
CoUK DE Mons, Rue de Savoie 7, with a popular table-d'hote, R., L., & 
A. from 2 fr., B. '/j, D. 2, S. I'/i fr. — At the station : Hotel du Nord, R. 
& A. 3, B. 1 fr.; Hotel du Nouveah-Monde, Hotel de l'Industkie, both 

Restaurants. Sociiti Roy ale (de la Table Ronde), Grand' Place; Taverne 
Mathieii, Taverne Allemande, Restaurant Lorrain, all in the Rue de la 
Station. — Cafes. Caf^ Rubens, opposite the church of St. Pierre; Cafe 
Lyrique, Grand' Place 22; Cafe de la Renaissance, at the station. The beer 
of Louvain is a sickly beverage, but Bavarian beer may also generally be 

Cabs, or Vigilantes, i fr. per drive. — Tramway from the station to 
the Grande Place. 

Chief Attractions (B-S'/a hrs. suffice). Hotel de Ville, exterior (p. 193) ; 
St. Pierre, under the guidance of the sacristan (p. 199); Halles, exterior 
(p. 200); choir-stalls at St. Gertrude's (p. 201), St. Joseph's (p. 201). 

Louvain, Flem, Leuven or Loven, on the Dyle, which flows 
through part of the town and is connected by a canal with the Rupel 
(p. 135), is a dull place with 38,700 inhabitants. The greater part 
of the space enclosed by the walls built in the 14th cent, is now 
used as arable land. The ramparts surrounding the walls have been 
converted into promenades. 

The name of the town is derived from Loo, signifying a wooded 
height, and Veen, a marsh, w^ords which are also combined in 

198 Route 24. LOUVATN. Hotel de Ville. 

Venlo. In the lAih cent., when Louvain was the capital of the 
Duchy of Brabant, and residence of the princes, it numbered 
44,000 inhab., most of whom were engaged in the cloth-trade, and 
the town contained no fewer than 2000 manufactories. Here, as 
in other Flemish towns, the weavers were a very turbulent class, 
and always manifested great jealousy of the influence of the nobles 
in their civic administration. During an insurrection in 1378, 
thirteen magistrates of noble family were thrown from the window 
of the Hotel de Ville, and received by the populace below on the 
points of their spears; but Duke Wenceslaus besieged and took 
the city, and compelled the citizens to crave his pardon with every 
token of abject humiliation. The power of the nobles soon regained 
its ascendancy, and their tyrannical sway caused thousands of the 
industrious citizens to (migrate to Holland and England, whither 
they transplanted their handicraft. From that period may be dated 
the decay of Louvain. 

In front of .'the railway-station (PL F, 2) is a statue of Sylvaan 
van de Weyer (d. 1874), a native of Louvain, who was one of the 
most ardent promoters of the revolution of 1830, and became the 
ambassador of the provisional government at the London Conference. 
The statue is by G. Geefs. 

The Rue de la Station , on the right side of which is the 
Theatre, built by Lavergne in 1864-67, leads straight to the Place 
de I'Hotel de Ville [Grand' Place; PL D, E, 3). 

The **H6teI de Ville (PL 20), a very rich and beautiful example 
of late-Gothic architecture, resembling the town-halls of Bruges, 
Brussels, Ghent (in the older part), and Oudenaarde, but surpassing 
them in elegance and harmony of design, was erected in 1447-63 
by Matthew de Layens. The building consists of three stories, 
each of which has ten pointed windows in the principal facade, and 
is covered with a lofty roof surrounded with an open balustrade. 
At the four corners and from the centre of the gables spring six 
slender octagonal turrets , terminating in open spires. The three 
different facades are lavishly enriched with sculptures. The statues 
on the lowest story represent celebrated citizens of Louvain, those 
on the second story the various grades of the mediaeval burghers, 
and those on the uppermost the sovereigns of the land. The corbels 
which support the statues are embellished with almost detached 
reliefs, representing scenes from Old and New Testament history, 
in some cases with mediaeval coarseness. The facade was restored 
in 1829-42, but seems already in need of another renovation. The 
building was seriously damaged by lightning in 1890. 

The Interior is uninteresting. Most of the apartments are fitted up 
in a modern style, and adorned with pictures by Vaenius , De Crape?', 
Miereveie, etc. The Salle Gothique is adorned with frescoes by Hennehicq, 
consisting of scenes from the history of Louvain and portraits of eminent 
citizens. — On the second floor is a small museum containing an Ascen- 
sion by Mich. Coxie, specimens of De Cvayer and Mierevelt, and a number 
of other ancient and modern pictures, including several copies. Here also 

St. Pierre. LOUVAIN. "^i. Route. 199 

are preserved those parts of the original sculptures of the facade which 
could not be made use of in the restoration ; a stone model by Josse Met- 
sy$ of the projected towers of St. Pierre (1525); some local antiquities, etc. 
Catalogue 25 c. 

The Gothic *Church of St. Pierre (PL 16 ; E, 2, 3), opposite the 
Hotel de Ville, a noble oruoiform structure flaukecl with chapels, 
was erected in 1425-97 on the site of an earlier huilding. The 
unfinished W. tower does not rise beyond the height of the roof. 

The Interior (sacristan, Place Marguerite 11 ; Ifr., more for a 
party) is 101 yds. long and 2972 ycls. hroad. A relief to the right of 
the entrance from the Place de I'Hotel de Yille commemorates the 
second founding of the university in 1834 (p. 200). The choir is 
separated from the nave by an elaborate Juhe. or Rood Loft, in 
the Flamlioyant style, executed in 1490. consisting of three arches 
adorned with statuettes, and surmounted by a lofty cross. The 
twelve-branched Candelabrum was executed by John Massys. 

N-WB. The swinging doors inside the principal portal are 
finely carved in wood in the somewhat exaggerated style of the 
late Renaissance (1556). 

1st Chapel on the N. side : late-Gothic font in copper, formerly 
furnished with a lofty and heavy cover, which was removable hy 
the still-preserved cast-iron handle, by J. Massys. — The following 
chapels on the same side have marble parapets in the baroque style. 
The 1st Chapel on the S. side contains an altarpiece copied 
from the original of De Crayer, which was carried off by the French, 
and is now at Nancy, representing S. Carlo Borromeo administering 
the Sacrament to persons sick of the plague; an old winged picture 
by Van der Baeren (1594), the Martyrdom of St. Dorothea; and a 
statue of St. Charles, by Ch. Oeerts (1855). 

The 2nd Chapel (that of the Armourers) contains a curious, 
blackened image of Christ, highly venerated in consequence of the 
legend that it once caught a thief who had sacrilegiously entered 
the church. The railing is adorned with armour and cannon. 

The Pulpit, carved in 1742 by Jos. Berge, a work of very ques- 
tionable taste, represents Peter's Denial on one side, and the Con- 
version of St. Paul on the other. The lifesize wooden figures are 
overshadowed by lofty palm-trees , also carved in wood, and the 
whole is coated with brown varnish. 

The 5th Chapel contains a picture otMemling's school, represent- 
ing the consecration of a cook as bishop, under Gregory V. 

Ambulatory. 2nd Chapel : *Dierick Bouts, Martyrdom of St. 
Erasmus, a painful subject; in the background the Emperor, richly 
attired , with three attendants ; the scene is represented in a care- 
fully-executed landscape with blue mountains in the distance ; on 
the wings, St. Jerome on the left and St. Anthony on the right. 
The inscription 'Opus Joh. Memling' is a forgery. The same chapel 
contains the handsome Renaissance tombstone of Ad. van Baussede 
(d. 1559). — 3rd Chapel: De Crayer, Holy Trinity. Wierick 

200 Route 24. LOUVAIN. University. 

Bouts, Last Supper, painted in 1467, also furnished with a forged 
signature of Memling. This is the central picture of an extensive 
altarpiece, the wings of which are in the museum at Berlin (Feast 
of the Passover and Elijah in the wilderness), and in the Pina- 
kothek at Munich (Abraham and Melchisedech, and the Gathering of 
manna). The symbolical character of the composition is of course not 
traceable in the central piece alone. One characteristic of Dierick's 
style is his attempt at individualisation by making the complexions 
strikingly dissimilar. Fine monument of Prof. Boyarts (d. 1520). 

The 4th Chapel formerly contained a celebrated 'Holy Family' 
by Quinten Massys, which was sold to the Brussels Museum in 1879 
for 200,000 fr. (see p. 100). 

In the 5th Chapel are four paintings by P. J. Verhayhen, depict- 
ing the life and death of St. Margaret of Louvain, who is here held 
in great veneration as the patron-saint of domestic servants. 

6th Chapel, with a handsome cast iron screen of 1878: Descent 
from the Cross, by *Roger van der Weyden (V), a winged picture 
on a golden ground, with the donors at the sides, bearing the doubt- 
ful date 1443, but probably a late and reduced repetition of a 
picture in the Escurial. The same chapel contains the tombstone 
of Henry I., Duke of Brabant (d. 1235), the founder of the church 
(the pedestal is modern). 

7th Chapel : Handsome marble balustrade hy Papenhoven of Ant- 
werp (1709), representing Children playing. Confession, Baptism, 
and Communion. — Adjacent is an imposing Renaissance monu- 
ment to the memory of Ant. Bertyns (d. 1563) and his wife. 

In the choir, opposite, rises a beautiful Gothic Tabernacle 
(50 ft. in height), by Layens (p. 198), executed in 1450. — The 
N. transept contains a richly carved organ of 1556, a good copy of 
Van Dyck's Raising of the Cross, and a painted wooden statue of the 
Virgin and Child, of 1442. 

The Halles (PI. 25 ; D, E, 3), 66 yds. long and 151/0 yds. wide, 
were erected as a warehouse for the Clothmakers' Guild in 1317, and 
made over to the University in 1679. The upper story was added 
in 1680. The interior is disfigured by alterations and additions, 
but the arches and pillars of the hall on the ground - floor still 
bear testimony to the the wealth and taste of the founders. The 
Library, one of the most valuable in Belgium (70,000 vols., 
400 MSS.), is adorned with a sculptured group representing a scene 
from the Flood, executed by Geerts in 1839. The entrance-hall 
contains portraits of former professors, and a large picture by Van 
Brie, Christ healing the blind, painted in 1824. 

The University, founded in 1426, was regarded as the most famous 
in Europe in the iGth cent., and the theological faculty in particular was 
remarkable for its inflexible adherence to the orthodox dogmas of the 
Church. The number of students is said to have exceeded 6U00 at the 
period when the celebrated Justus Lipsius (d. 1G06) taught here. Under 
Joseph II. its reputation somewhat declined, but it continued to exist 
until the close of last century. So extensive were its privileges, that no 

St. Gertrude. LOUVAIN. 24. Route. 201 

one could formerly hold a public appointment in the Austrian Nether- 
lands without having taken a degree at Louvain. After having been 
closed by the French republicans , the university was revived by the 
Dutch government in 1817. A philosophical faculty was afterwards in- 
stituted, notwithstanding the determined opposition of the clergy, and 
complaints to which the innovation gave rise are said to have contri- 
buted in some degree to the Revolution of 1830. Since 1836 the univer- 
sity has been re-organised, and has assumed an exclusively ecclesiastical 
character. It possesses 5 faculties, and is attended by 1500 students, 
many of whom live in 4 large colleges (Pedagogies du St. Esprit., Marie- 
Thirise^ Adrien F/., and Juste Lipse). — The technical academy connected 
with the university (Ecole du G^nie CVrj7, des Arts et Manufactuves el des 
Mines) is rapidly increasing: an Ecole d' Agriculture was opened in 1878, and 
an Ecole de Brasserie in 1S37. 

The churoh of St. Gertrude (PI. 12; D, 2) was erected in the 
Flamboyant style, at the close of the 15th cent., with the exception 
of the choir, which was added in 1514-26. The *Choir-stalls, dat- 
ing from the first half of the 16th cent., and embellished with sta- 
tuettes and 28 reliefs of scenes from the life of the Saviour, are 
considered the finest specimen of late-Gothic wood-carving in Bel- 
gium; they were executed by Mathias de Waydere. The bands of 
ornamentation in the Renaissance style (middle of 16th cent.) are 
particularly pleasing. The sacristy contains a reliquary of the 14th 
century. (Sacristan at No. 22, near the principal portal.) 

The Rue de Namur, Rue de Malines, Rue de Diest, Rue de 
Bruxelles, and other streets contain various old houses with hand- 
some facades. The Refuge des Vieillards in the Rue de Namur in- 
cludes a court in the Renaissance style. The Jansenius Tower, on 
the Dyle, dates from the 15th century. — A street ascends to the 
S.E. from the Place du Peuple to the church of St. Joseph (PL 14; 
E, 3), in the Flamboyant style, with an unfinished tower. The 
interior, recently restored, is of remarkably beautiful proportions. 
The aisles and choir contain good frescoes by Meunier of Brussels 
and Dujardin of Antwerp. 

The church of St. Michael (PI. 15 ; E, 3), erected by the Jesuits 
in 1650-66. contains modern pictures by Mathieu , De Keyset, 
Wappers, and others. The proportions of the interior are remarkably 
symmetrical , and the an^hitectural details show a curious affinity 
to the Gothic style. The farade is also worthy of notice. 

The church of St. Jacques (PL 13 ; D, 2"), possesses several pic- 
tures of the school of Rubens, several modern works, a St. Hubert 
by De Crayer, and a fine Tabernacle in stone, executed in 1467, 
with a copper balustrade in the Renaissance style, cast by Jan 
Veldeneer in 1568. In the sacristy are finely embroidered vest- 
ments, and two handsome reliquaries of St. James and St. Margaret. 

The Penitencier, a prison for solitary confinement, is in the 
Boulevard du Jodoigne, between the Porte de Tirlemont and Porte 
de Pare. It was opened in 1860, and is the most famous in Bel- 
gium, having room for 634 convicts. The Maison d'' Arret (PL 21), 
completed in 1869, has accommodation for 204 prisoners. 

202 Route 25. LIGNY. 

'■Caesar's Castle\ as the ancient stronghold of the counts and dukes, 
situated on an eminence near the Porte de Malines, was called, has al- 
most entirely disappeared. It derives its name from an unfounded tra- 
dition that it was originally erected by the great Roman general. The 
Emp. Charles V. and his sisters were educated in this castle by the 
learned Adrian Floriszoon, afterwards Pope Adrian VI. 

25. From Louvain to Charleroi. 

40 M. Railway in 2V4-3 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 20, 3 fr. 90, 2 fr. GO c). 

The line passes several places memorable in the campaign of 
1815. The country traversed is at first flat. Stations: Heverle, with 
a chateau and park of the Due d'Arenherg, and in the neighbour- 
hood the magnificent Abhaye du Pare (founded in 1179), with five 
large gateways ; Joris-Weert, FLorival^ Gastuche; ( I472 M.) Wavre, 
to which the Prussians retreated after the battle of Ligny, with a 
handsome monument by Van Oemberg [tramway to Jodoigne, see 
p. 196); Limal; (18 M.) Ottignies, where the Brussels and Namur 
line is crossed (p. 191 ); Court-St. Etienne, La Roche. 

The train now passes close to the imposing ruins of the Cister- 
cian abbey of *Vill€r3, founded in 1147 and destroyed in 1796, and 
stops at (25 M.) Villers-la-Ville. The ruins lie about V4 ^- *o 
the N. of the station. The road to them skirts the Thyle. At the 
entrance to the abbey is *Dumont's Inn , where each visitor pays 
Y2 fr. Beyond the court is the rectangular Refectory, a tasteful 
structure in the transition style , with two rows of windows. The 
Cloisters, chiefly Gothic, date from the 14 -16th cent., and are 
adjoined by the Gothic Church, erected in 1240-72, with sub- 
sequent additions. The latter contains tombstones of Dukes of 
Brabant of the 14th century. The old brewery in the transition style 
is also worthy of notice. An eminence outside the Porte de Bru- 
xelles, to the W., commands a good survey of the whole ruin. 

271/2 M- Tilly is believed to have been the birthplace of the 
general of that name. 29 M. Marhais; 30 1/2 M. Ligny, famous 
for the battle of 16th June, 1815 (see below). — 33 M. Fleurus 
(p. 203), junction for the lines to Gembloux-Ramillies-Landen 
(p. 196), to Tamines (p. 184), and to Nivelles-Baulers (p. 130). 
35V2 M. Ransart, the junction of a line from Jumet (p. 184) to 
Fleurus (see above). From (38 M.) Lodelinsart^ a busy place with 
coal-mines and glass-works, a branch -line runs to Chatelineau 
(p. 184). — Steam-tramway to Charleroi, see p. 183. 

Battle Fields. This district is famous in military annals as the scene 
of several important battles, the last and chief of which was that of Ligny. 

Sombreffe, near Marbais, and 6 M. from Quatrebras (p. 182), was occu- 
pied on i5fh June, 1815, by the 2nd and 3rd Prussian Corps d'Armee under 
Marshal Bliicher, who late in the evening received intelligence that Gen. 
Biilow with the 14th corps could not come to his assistance as originally 
concerted. The brave marshal accordingly resolved to fight alone, if ne- 
cessary. Wellington had agreed to co-operate with BlUcher, but the 
British troops were too far distant to render assistance, whilst those 
whose position was nearest to the Prussians were fully occupied at the 
Battle of Quatrebras. It is well authenticated that the Duke expressed 

L ij i © I . 

^f:ipr4,.X 7^«"*"5'feU. I ..^ ^'' 'W 




1,1 ,.„' 

LifiGE. 26. Route. 203 

his disapprobation of Eliicher^s position, observing to the Marshal that 
'with British troops he would have occupied the ground diflerently\ 
The chief disadvantages of the ground occupied by Bliicher near St. 
AuAND and Ligny, which he regarded as the keys of his position, were, 
that there was too little security in the direction in which the commu- 
nication with the British was to be maintained, and that the villages in 
advance of the line were too distant to be reinforced without enormous 
loss. It is also on record, that the Duke, after his interview with the 
Marshal on the morning of the simultaneous battles, remarked to one 
of his staff, 'The Prussians will make a gallant fight ; they are capital 
troops, and well commanded; but they will be beaten." And the Prus- 
sians did fight most gallantly, well sustaining the military reputation 
of their country. But their utmost efforts were fruitless •, they sustained 
immense loss, were overmatched, and finally repulsed, but not conquered. 

According to the official statistics of both sides the total force of 
the French at Ligny amounted to 71,220 men, with 242 guns, that of the 
Prussians to 83,410 men, with 224 guns, but a large proportion of the 
French army was composed of veteran soldiers, while most of the Prussian 
troops were comparatively young and inexperienced. The French artillery 
was also numerically superior, and far more advantageously placed. 

The retreat of the Prussian army on the night after the Battle of 
Ligny, by Tilli/ and Mont St. Guibert to Wavre (p. 202), is perhaps without 
parallel in the annals of military warfare. So perfect was the order and 
so great the skill with which it was effected, that next day the French 
were entirely at a loss to discover in which direction their enemy had 
disappeared, and at length came to the conclusion that they must have 
taken the direction of Namur. It was not till late on the afternoon of 
the 17th that the real route of the Prussians was discovered , and Marshal 
Grouchy was dispatched in pursuit of Bliicher. The parts acted by the 
different armies were now interchanged. Napoleon and Ney, united, now 
proceeded to attack Wellington , while Bliicher formed the 3rd Corps 
d'Armee under Thielmann at Wavre, in order to keep Grouchy in check, 
and himself hastened onwards with his three other corps towards Belle- 
Alliance, where he arrived on the evening of the 18th, in time to act a 
most prominent and glorious part in a victory of incalculable importance 
to the fate of the whole of Europe (p. 122). 

About IV2 M. to the S. of Ligny lies Fleurcs, celebrated for the 
battles of 1622 and 1690. On 26th June, 1794, a battle also took place 
here between the Austrian army under the Prince of Coburg, and the 
French under Marshal Jourdan, in which the latter gained an advantage. 
The Austrians had stormed the French intrenchments, captured twenty 
guns, and driven the French back to Marchienne-au-Pont (p. 182), when 
the Prince owing to some misunderstanding , ordered his troops to re- 
treat. Thi- false movement, as the event proved, ultimately contributed 
to the loss of the whole of Belgium. It is a curious historical fact, that 
on this occasion a balloon was employed by the French in order to 
reconnoitre the Austrian position, but with what success it does not appear. 

40 M. Charleroi, see p. 183. 

26. Li^ge and Seraing. 

Railway Stations. 1. Station des Guillemins (PI. A, B, 7), on the left 
bank of the Meuse, for Aix-la-Chapelle, Brussels, Namur, Paris, and 
Luxembourg. 2. Station de Vivegnis (PI. D, E, 1), for the Dutch trains, 
on the S.E. side, a long way from the centre of the town, but connected 
with the Station des Guillemins and the Station du Palais by a junction 
line. 3. Station du Palais, near the Palais de Justice (PI. B, 2), and 4. Sta- 
tion de Jonfosse (PI. A, 3, 4), both on the connecting line between the two 
stations first mentioned, on which trains run hourly in each direction, 
between 5.30 a.m. and 11 p.m. (i'4hr. ; fares 35, 25, "20 c.). 5. Station de 
Longdoz (PI. C, D, 5), on the right bank, for Maastricht, Namur, and Paris. 

204 Route 26. 



Hotels. *HuTEL DE Su^DE (PI. a; B, 3), Rue de rHarmonie 7, close to 
the theatre, R., L., & A. 4-61/2, B. IV2, dej-S'/j, D. at 6 o'cl. 4i/-j, pens, 
(except in Aug.) from 8, board 61/2 fr. i ^Hotel u'Angletekke (PI. b ; D, 3), 
Rue des Dominicains 2, R. 2'/-8, L. 1/2, A. V4, B. iV4-l'/2, dej. 2V-.>, D. 
372-5, pens. 8-12 fr. ; Hotel de l'Edeope (PI. c; B, 3), Rue llamal 6, these 
two at the back of the theatre. — *H6tel Mohren, Place St. Paul and 
Rue du Pont d'Avroy 31, with large restaurant and cafe, R. 2-5, B. 1, '■plat 
du jour' from 1, D. 3, S. 3 fr. ^ Hotel Vkxitien, Rue Ilamal 2, near the 
theatre (PI. B, 3); Hotel d'Allemagne (PI. f; B, 3), Place du Theatre 6. 
— Hotel Docnen (Avx Fr^res Provengaux), Hue Souverain-Pont 46, with 
cafe-restaurant, E., L., & A. 21/2-3V2, B. 1-11/4, di'j. 3, U. 3 fr., well spoken 
of; Pommelette (PI. g; C, 3), Rue Souverain-Pont 44; Hot. de Dinant, 
Rue St. Etienne 2, R., L., & A. 3-7, B. 1, dej. 2, D. 2V-', pens, from 5 fr. 
(R. extra); Hotel de France, Rue de la Cathe'drale 13; Hotel Charle- 
magne, Place St. Lambert (PI. B, C, 3). — The Hotels de l'Univeus , du 
Chemin de Fee, Hotel-Restaurant du Midi, and others, near the principal 
station (Guillemins), and the Hotel de l'Industkie, Rue Grctry 89, oppo- 
site the Station de Longdoz, are convenient for travellers arriving late or 
starting early by railway. 

Restaurants". ^ Bernay ^ Rue des Dominicains 22 (PI. B, 3); 'ifohre7i^ 
see above; 'Hotel Doinien, see above; 'Cafe Vinitien, see above; Citfi-Restau- 
runt Continental^ Place Verte; Cafi Charlemagne^ Cafi de Dinant, in the 
hotels of these names. 

Cafes. ''Cafi du Phare, Place Verte (PI. B, 3), lighted by electricity, 
with numerous billiard-tables; "Cafi Vinitien, by the theatre; Cafi de la 
Renaissance, also a restaurant, in the Passage; Cafi Contiiiental, Cafi 
Charlemayne, see above; Trink-Hall, Square d'Avroy (p. 206). 

Beer. ''Mohren, see above, Vienna and Bavarian beer 35c., good 
cuisine; Tavcrne Britannique, hy the theatre (D., from 12 to 3, 2-3 fr., 'plat 
du jour' 1 fr. ; English beer); Taverne Anglaise, Rue de la Cathedrale; 
Taverne de Strasbourg, Rue Lulay, near the Passage; Taverne Blonden^ 
Avenue Blonden. 

Cabs. Tarifl" for one or 

Closed C 


Open Ca 


more persons : 





A. Bij time : 1 hour . . . 

1 fr. 50 c. 

2 fr. 50 c. 

2 fr. - c. 

3 fr. — c. 

Per additional 

1/2 hr. 

— - 75 - 

i - 25 - 


1 - 50 - 

B. Per drive : In the town . 

1 - — - 

1 - 50 - 

1 - 50 - 

2 - — - 

To the Citadel 

or the Char- 

treuse . . 



2 - 50 - 

3 - 50 - 

Waiting, each 1/4 hr., one-horse 25, two-horse 50 c. — Double fares 
from 11 p.m. to 6 a.m. 

Tramway (comp. the Plan). From the Place du Thidtre (PI. B, 3) to 
the stations Guillemins (PI. A, B, 7) and Longdoz (PI. C, 1), 5), and to the 
N.E. suburb of St. Uonard (PI. D, E, 1, 2) and Hernial (j). 359). From the 
Place St. Lambert (PI. B, C, 3) to the suburb of Ste. Marguerite and to 
Ilaui-Pri on the W. , and to the Pont des Arches and Comillon on the 
E. — Steam Tramway from the Quai de TUniversitc (PI. C, 3, 4) to Je- 
meppe and Seraing (p. 212). 

Steamboats up-stream to Seraing (p. 212), and down to the Cannon 
Foundry (p. 205), starting from the Echise du Siminaire, Boul. Frere Or- 
ban (p. 2uG), every 20 min. in summer and every 1/2 hr. in winter. 

Weapons. Liege contains 180 manufactories of arms , or rather 
depots of arms, for the pieces are made and mounted by the workmen 
in their own houses. These mechanics, 40,000 in number, work at their 
own risk, as a piece containing the slightest llaw is at once rejected. — 
Among the chief stores for weapons for show or sport are: Arnold, Rue 
de la Cathedrale 66; Demoulin , Boul. de la Sauveniere 102; Francofte, 
Rue Mont St. Martin 66; H. Pieper, Rue des Bayards 12-10; J. B. Rongi 
Fits, Place St. Jean 2; Bresse, Laloux d- Cie., Rue sur la Fontaine 51; 
Banquet, Rue Charles Morren 18. 

Manufactories. LllfcGE. 26. Route. 205 

Photographs. Dandoy, Boul. d'Avroy 19; A. Zegen, Eoul. de la Sau- 
veniere 137; .4. Straus, Rue dc la Cathedrale 24. 

Post and Telegraph Office (PI. B, C, 3), Rue de I'Universite 34. 

United States Consul: Mr. James R. Danfovth. 

Principal Attractions. Palais de Justice, the court (p. SO"^); Church of 
St. Jacques (p. 211); St. Paul's (p. 211); view from the Citadel (p. 212). 

Liege, Flem. Luik, Ger. Lilttich, with 142,300 iiihab., the cap- 
ital of the Walloon district, and formerly the seat of a principality 
of the name, lies in a strikingly picturesque situation. The ancient 
and extensive city rises on the lofty bank of the broad Meuse , at 
the influx of the Ourthe. Numerous chimneys bear testimony 
to the industry of the inhabitants, while the richly - cultivated 
valley contributes greatly to enhance the picturesque effect. 

The Meuse flows through the city in a partly-artificial channel, 
and forms an island, which is connected with each bank by six 
bridges, including the railway-bridge (p. 2*25) and a small iron 
foot-bridge ('Passerelle'). The principal part of the town, with the 
chief public buildings and churches lies on the left bank. The 
quarters on the right bank (known as Outremeust') consist mainly 
of factories and the dwellings of the artizans. Most of the streets 
in the old part of the town are narrow and the buildings insigni- 
ficant. Several new streets, however, have lately been made, and 
extensive quays and squares have been laid out. The city is sur- 
rounded by new fortifications and a wide circle of detached forts. 

The coal-mines which form the basis of the commercial pros- 
perity of Liege , are situated in the immediate vicinity, and many 
of them extend beneath the houses and the river. One of the 
chief branches of industry is the manufacture of weapons all kinds, 
which have enjoyed both a European and a Transatlantic reputa- 
tion since the end of last century. As, however, the weapons of 
Liege are not made in large manufactories (see p. 205), they find 
formidable rivals in the cheaper productions of England and 
America. The Liege zinc foundries, engine-factories, and other 
branches of industry, are also of great importance. Among the 
chief industrial establishments are the royal Gun Factory (PI. D, 2), 
the Cannon Foundry (PI. E, 2), and the Societe de St. Leonard 
(machinery, locomotives), all in the suburb of St. Leonard 
(PL D, E, 1, 2). 

The Walloons (p. xiv) are an active, intelligent, and enterprising 
race. '■Cives Leodicenses sunt ingeniosi , sagaces et ad quidvis audendum 
prompW is the opinion expressed by Guicciardini with regard to the 
Lic'geois. Indefatigable industry and a partiality for severe labour are 
among their strongest characteristics, but they have frequently manifested 
a fierce and implacable spirit of hostility towards those who have at- 
tempted to infringe their privileges. On such occasions they have never 
scrupled to wield the weapons which they manufacture so skilfully. 
The history of Liege records a series of sanguinary insurrections of the 
turbulent and unbridled populace against the oppressive and arrogant 
bishops by whom they were governed. Foreign armies have frequently 
been invoked by the latter to chastise their rebellious subjects. Thus 
Charles the Bold of Burgundy took the town in 1468, razed its walls, 
and put thousands of the inhabitants to death by the sword or by 

206 Route 26. Lli:GE. Square d'Avroy. 

drowning in the Meuse. Maximilian- I. also took violent possession of 
the town on two occasions. In 1675, 1684, and 1691 it was captured by 
the French, and in 1702 it had to yield to Marlborough. In the revolu- 
tionary wars of 1792-94, Liege was the scene of several contests between 
the French and the Austrians. The bishops retained their supremacy till 
the French Revolution in 1794, when the city was finally severed from 
the German Empire. In ancient times the bishops possessed a Walloon 
body-guard of 5C)0 men; and Walloon soldiers, like the Swiss, were |in 
the habit of serving in the armies of Spain, France, and Austria. They 
enjoyed a high reputation for bravery, which has been justly extolled by 
Schiller in his 'Wallenstein'. 

Leaving the Station des Guillemins (PL A, B, 7), we follow the 
Rue des Guillemins (good view of the town) in a straight direction 
to the *Square d'Avroy (PL B, 5), which is tastefully laid out on 
ground once occupied by an arm of the Meuse. It is embellished 
with several bronze statues , most of them cast by the Compagnie 
des Bronzes at Brussels, and with the Trink-Hall, a cafe built in 
an Oriental style. A band plays here every evening in summer. The 
equestrian /5«a<uc of Charlemagne (F\. B,5) was made and presented to 
the town by the sculptor Jehotte. The emperor, who is said to have 
conferred on the city its earliest privileges, is represented in a com- 
manding attitude, as if exhorting his subjects to obey the laws. 
The pedestal in the Romanesque style is adorned with statues of 
Pepin of Landen, St. Begga, Pepin of Heristal , Charles Martel, 
Pepin the Little, and Queen Bertha. The square is bounded by 
the Avenue d'Avroy and the Avenue Rogier. On the side next the 
latter is a terrace, with fine candelabra, urns, and four *Groups in 
bronze by L. Mignon, of Lioge. Along the river runs the handsome 
Boulevard Frere-Orban. — Adjacent, in the Boulevard Piercot, is 
the new Koyal Conservatoire of Music, erected after plans by L. 
Demany of Liege, which is attended by 650 pupils. The teaching 
of striTiged instruments at Liege is especially celebrated. The con- 
cert-hall seats 1700 persons. For admission apply to the concierge, 
in the wing in the Rue Forgeur. — St. Jacques, see p. 211. 

The Square d'Avroy is continued towards the N. by the Boulb- 
VARU d'Avroy and the Boulevard de la Sauvenibre (PL B, 
3, 4), both shaded with trees and forming favourite evening-prome- 
nades. A line view of the Church of St. Martin (p. 207), which 
stands on an elevated site, is obtained here. 

The Boulevard de la Sauveniere leads in a wide curve to the 
Place du Theatre (PL B, 3), which may be regarded as the 
centre of the town. The Theatre was built in 1808-22 after the 
model of the Odeon at Paris , and was thoroughly restored inter- 
nally in 1861. The facade is adorned with eight columns of red 
Belgian marble. Performances take place in winter only. In front 
of the theatre is a bronze Statue of Gretry, the composer (d. 1813), 
designed by W. Geefs. The heart of the master, who was a native of 
Liege, is deposited beneath the granite pedestal. 

To the W. of the Place du The'atre, at the end of the Rue Ilamal, 
is the Church of St. Jean (PL B, 3), erected in 982 by Bishop 

St. Martin. LI^GE. 26. Route, 207 

Notger, on the model of the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle, but 
entirely rebuilt in 1754-57. The octagonal ground-plan of the ori- 
ginal edifice has, however, been adhered to, a long choir having 
been added on the east. The Romanesque tower belongs to the 
the 12th, the cloisters perhaps to the 14th century. 

From the N. side of the Place the Rue Haute Sauveniere ascends 
to the N.W. to the — 

Church of Ste. Croix (PI. B, 3), founded by Bishop Notger in 
979 on the site of an old castle, but afterwards repeatedly altered. 
The Romanesque W. choir, built about 1175, with its octagonal 
tower and gallery of dwarf columns, recalls the architecture of the 
lower Rhine (p. xxxvii) ; the E. choir and the nave are in the Gothic 
style of the 14th century. The whole church has been recently 
restored. The nave and aisles, of equal height, and borne by 
slender round columns, are remarkable for their light and graceful 
effect. The pillars are of blue limestone , the walls and vaulting 
of yellowish sandstone. In the chapels are fourteen medallion-reliefs 
of the Stations of the Cross (14th or 15th cent.). The stained glass 
in the choir was executed »in 1854 by Kellner of Munich and Ca- 
pronnier of Brussels. 

Following the Rue Mont-St. Martin to the left, we reach the 
conspicuous and loftily-situated Church of St. Martin {Basili'iue 
St. Martin ; PL A, 3 ; recently restored), founded by Bishop Hera- 
clius in 962, and rebuilt in the Gothic style in 1542, almost simul- 
taneously with the Church of St. Jacques (p. 211). Unlike that edi- 
fice, however, its proportions are severe and simple, but imposing. 

The IsTERioE, consisting of nave and aisles with spacious lateral 
chapels, is 90 yds. long and 23 yds. wide. The stained glass of the 
choir (still under restoration) and transept is of the 16th cent., the modern 
reliefs, representing the story of St. Martin, were executed by P. Franck, 
and the landscapes above are by Juppin (d. 1729). — The first lateral 
chapel on the right is adorned with fourteen marble medallions by Delcour^ 
in memory of the origin of the /estival of Corpus Christi (Fete Bieu), 
which was first instituted in this church in the year 1246, in consequence 
of a vision beheld by St. Juliana, Abbess of the neighbouring convent of 
Cornillon (p. 212), and eighteen years later was ordained to be observed 
throughout Christendom by Pope Urban IV. , who had been a canon at 
the cathedral of Liege at the time of the 'vision'. A marble slab under 
the organ bears an inscription commemorating the 500th anniversary of 
the festival. — On 4th Aug., 1312, the church was destroyed by fire, 
having become ignited during a fierce conflict between the burghers and 
the nobles. Two hundred of the adherents of the latter, who had been 
forced by the infuriated populace to take refuge in the church, perished 
in the flames. 

The tower commands an admirable prospect (the sacristan lives to 
the W. of the principal tower ; adm. 1 fr., small fee to the attendant). 

The Place Verte, a broad thoroughfare, leads E. from the Place 
du Theatre to the Place St. Lambert (PL B, C, 2), on which once 
stood the Cathedral of St. Lambert, ruined by the French sansculottes 
and their brethren of Liege in 1794, and completely removed in 
1808. Here also for several centuries has stood the episcopal palace, 
which is now used as the — 

208 Route 26. LifiGE. Hotel de Ville. 

*Palai8 de Justice (PI. B, C, 2), erected in 1508-40 by Car- 
dinal Eberhard de la Mark, a kinsman of the 'Wild Boar of Arden- 
nes' (see p. 215). The facade towards the Place St. Lambert was 
re-erected in 1737 after its destruction by lire, and the whole was 
restored in 1848-56, when the W. Aving, accommodating the GoU' 
vemement Provincial, was erected. The fa<;ade of the latter is em- 
bellished with sculptures and it contains a large frescoed hall. The 
building contains two courts, surrounded by vaulted arcades, ex- 
hibiting a curious blending of the late-Gothic and Renaissance styles. 
The cleverly-exesuted capitals, which consist of grotesque masks, 
fantastic foliage, figures, etc., are by Francois Borset of Liege. The 
ribs of the vaulting are in blue, and the intervening surfaces in 
light-yellow limestone (or in the restored parts in brick). The first 
court, which serves as a public thoroughfare, has been in part freely 
but skilfully restored. The second court, which has arcades on two 
sides only, has been laid out as a garden and contains several archi- 
tectural fragments. During the sitting of the courts the Palais de 
Justice may be entered from the Rue du Palais or from the S.E. 
angle of the first court. The buildings enclosing the second court, 
the exterior facades of which have been restored, contain the Ar- 
chives and an Arch(eological Museum. * 

The Musee Archeologique is open on Sun., 11-1, free; at other times 
it is opened by the concierge, who lives in the back corner of the first 
court, for a fee of 1 fr. It occupies the second floor of the S. wing of the 
second court. _ The Koman Room contains antiquities found chiefly in the 
province of Liege : in the middle is a glass-case containing a ~Ewer and Ba- 
sin, a fragment of a bronze Ticket granting honourable discharge to a legion- 
ary (of the time of Trajan; 98 A.D.), the Stamp of a Roman physician, 
and other objects in bronze. At the back of the room is the so-called '^Fon- 
taine d'' Angleur (p. 214), with bronze figures of a lion, ram, scorpion, and 
fish, heads of Satyrs and Medusa, etc. The other show-cases contain Sigil- 
lata and other Roman vessels in terracotta, roofing tiles, and Gallo- 
Franlish Antiquities in gold, silver, glass, and terracotta. — The Galekie 
d'Otrkppe is devoted to furniture, pottery, glasS; and other objects of 
the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. — Another long Galleky contains 
plaster-casts, and architectural and sculptural fragments. 

The ground in front of the W. facade of theGouvernement Pro- 
vincial (see above) ascends rapidly and the slope (Puhlemont) is 
embellished with pleasure-grounds and a fountain. At the corner to 
the left is the TheCitre du Gymnase. The steps ascend to the Place 
St. Pierre, with the churches of Ste. Croix (p. 207) and St. Martin 
(p. 207). — Opposite the N.W. angle of the same wing is the Sta- 
tion du Palais (p. 203), at the end of the tunnels by which the 
junction-line passes under the lofty W. quarters of the city. 

The Place St. Lambert is adjoined on the N. E. by the Geand 
Marchk (PI. C, 3) , in which rises the Hdtel de Ville, built in 
1714, and containing, among other pictures, a portrait by Ingres 
of Napoleon as First Consul , who presented it to the town him- 
self in 1806. Adjacent is the domed church of St. Andrew, now 
used as the Exchange. The square also contains three poor foun- 
tains. The Fontaine des Trois Graces in the centre was erected 

Pont des Arches. LifiGE. 26. Route. 209 

in 1696 from Delcour's designs. The two others bear the arms of 
the burgomasters of Liege, and those of the Bavarian Palatinate. 

The neighbouring church of St. Antoine (PI. C, 2), erected 
in the 13th cent., was rebuilt in the 16-17th cent., and lately 
restored by Systermans. The choir is embellished with four wood- 
carvings of scenes from the life of St. Bruno, and frescoes by Carpey 
of subjects from the history of St. Anthony (1860-68). 

The Municipal Museum (PI. C, 2), an unimportant col- 
lection of works of Liege artists and others, is contained in the old 
Cloth Hall (1788), Rue Feronstree 65. It is open on Sundays and 
holidays from 10 to 1, on other days on payment of a gratuity ; porter 
at the Academie des Beaux-Arts, No. 42 in the same street. Among 
the painters represented are : Barth. Fle'malle. Carlier, Chauvin, 
Lairesse, Vieillevoye, PaulDelaroche (36. Mater Dolorosa), Lepoitte- 
vin(101. Landscape), Wiertz (175. Contest for the body of Patroclus, 
repetition with alterations of the Brussels picture, p. 112), Wauters, 
Alb. de Vriendt, V. van Hove, De Haas, Koehler, Roelofs, etc. 

Farther on, on the same side, is the Church of St. Barthelemy 
(PL D, 2), a basilica of the 12th cent. , with double aisles (originally 
single only) and two Romanesque towers, which has been completely 
modernised. The Baptistery, to the left of the choir , contains an 
interesting *Font in bronze, cast in 1112 by Lambert Patras of 
Dinant. It rests on twelve oxen , and is embellished with reliefs, 
representing John the Baptist preaching, the Baptism of Christ in 
Jordan, Peter baptising Cornelius the centurion, and John the 
Evangelist baptising Crato the philosopher. It formerly stood in 
the cathedral of St. Lambert, p. 208. The church is also adorned 
with pictures by Flemalle, Dufour, Fisen, and others. — Adjacent 
is the Mont de Piete. Quai de Maastricht 10, an interesting limestone 
and brick building of 1560, with a lofty roof and curious turrets. 
Some of the sculptured chimney-pieces in the interior are inter- 
esting. — The old prefecture in the same street has been occupied 
since 1886 by a Musee d'Armes, in which fire-arms are especially 
well represented. Secretary, M. Polain. Admission gratis daily, 
except Tues., 10-12 and 2-6 (2-4 in winter), on Sun. and holidays 
2-6 only. 

A new street, the Rue Leopold, leads to the S.E. from the Place 
St. Lambert to the Pont des Arches (PI. C, 3), which spans the 
Meuse in^flve flat arches, and has recently been adorned with alle- 
gorical statues. It was constructed in 1860-63, on the site of an 
older bridge mentioned as early as the 6th cent., and afterwards 
repeatedly destroyed and renewed. In 1685 a strongly fortified 
tower (removed in 1790) was erected on the old bridge, to prevent 
communication between the two quarters of the city during civic 
revolts. The bridge affords a good survey of the different parts of 
the city, extending along both banks of the river. — The tramway- 
line which crosses the Pont des Arches runs to Cornillon, in the 

Baei>ekek"s Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 14 

210 Route 26. LifeGE. University. 

Faubourg d'Amercceur, at the foot of the Chartreuse (p. 212), in 
connection with the 'trains-tramways' to Vise (p. 218), which stop 
at Cornillon (p. 212). 

Several of the busiest streets in Liege lead to the S.E. from the 
Place du Theatre, among others the Rue de la Regence and the Rue 
DE l'Universite. In the latter, immediately on the right, is the 
Passage Lemonnier (PI. B, 3), constructed in 1837-39, one of the 
first of the glass-roofed arcades with shops now so common in the 
larger European towns. 

In the vicinity is the Church of St. Denis (PI. C, 3), found- 
ed in 987; the present edifice dates almost entirely from the 
latter half of the 15th cent., with additions of the 18th century. 
The left transept contains a handsome winged altar, executed about 
the end of the 15th cent., representing, on the right, Christ entering 
Jerusalem; on the left, Christ bearing the cross; in the centre, 
above, God the Father and Son, beneath, the Sudarium of St. Ve- 
ronica; to the right and left, Apostles and Saints. Beside it is a 
Martyrdom of St. Denis. The statues of the Virgin and St. Denis 
at the sides of the high-altar are by Delcour (1707). The modern 
stained glass in the choir is by Capronnier. 

At the end of the Rue de l'Universite , and with its back to the 
quay of that name, rises the University (PL C, 3, 4), erected in 
1817, and partly incorporated with an old Jesuit college. The 
buildings comprise lecture-rooms, academic collections, a library 
(about 200,000 vols.), excellent apparatus for instruction in physi- 
cal science , and a natural history museum containing a fine col- 
lection of the fossil bones of antediluvian animals found in the 
numerous caverns of the environs, especially in that of Chokier 
(p. 221). The Anatomical and Physiological Laboratories, in the 
Rue de Pitteurs, the Chemical Laboratory, in the Ruede lUniversite', 
the Zoological Institute, Quai des Pecheurs, etc., have all been erect- 
ed within the last ten years. New buildings are now being erected 
on the site of the former Aula or ha']. — The Ecole des Mines et 
des Arts et Manufactures, a well-attended institution, and a train- 
ing-school for teachers (Ecole Normale des Humanites) are connected 
with the university. There are more than 50 professors in all, and 
1400 students, one-third of whom attend the mining and polytech- 
nic school. 

The Place in front of the university is embellished with a bronze 
Statue of Andre Dumont, an eminent geologist (d. 1857), a professor 
in the university here, and author of the Carte Geologique of 
Belgium, by Eug. Simonis. 

A little above the university, the Meuse is crossed by the Pont 
de la Boverie (PI, C, 4), a bridge of four handsome arches, which leads 
to the Quartier de Longdoz and the railway-station of that name. 

To the W. of the university, and not far from the Passage Le- 

St. Jacques. LltGE. 26. Route. 211 

monnier, rises the *Church of St. Paul (PI. B, 4), founded by 
Bishop Heraclius in 968 , and rebnilt in 1280 (from which period 
dates the handsome Gothic choir) , while the nave and additions 
were completed in 1528. It was originally an abbey church, and 
was raised to the dignity of a cathedral in 1802 (eomp, p. 208). The 
tower (1812) contains a set of chimes. 

The In'terior is 92 yds. long, 37 yds. broad, and 80 ft. high. The 
nave and aisles are separated by round pillars. The Nave ia encircled 
by a handsome triforium-gallery ^ the vaulting is embellished with Re- 
naissance arabesques, executed in 1579, and restored in 1860. The 'Tulpit, 
carved in wood by TV. Geefs of Brussels (1844), is worthy of special notice. 
Five figures in marble, also by W. Geefs, representing Religion, SS. Peter and 
Paul, SS. Lambert and Hubert, serve to support the pulpit. The fallen angel 
at the back is by Jos. Geefs, a brother of the principal master. — Right 
(S.) Aisle: 2nd Chapel, Christ in the sepulchre, executed in marble by Del- 
couv in 1696; 3rd Chapel, St. Paul bidding farewell to St. Peter, also by 
Delcour. The principal subject in the stained-glass window of the right 
transept (1530) is the Coronation of the Virgin. — The Choir contains 
both ancient and modern stained glass ; the five windows in the apse date 
from 1557-87, the modern windows are by Capronnier. Here also is a 
painting by Erasmus Quellin, representing SS. Gregory, Jerome, Ambrose, 
and Augustine, four Fathers of the Church. The choir-stalls were exe- 
cuted in 1864, from designs by Durlet of Antwerp ; they are in the Gothic 
style, with small columns and reliefs, representing, on the right, the 
Resurrection of Believers, and, on the left, the Translation of the relics 
of St. Hubert. The high-altar has recently been renewed. — Left (S.) 
Aisle: Stained glass by Capronnier; 3rd Chapel, Marble statue of the Vir- 
gin, by Rob. Arnold, a Carthusian monk of the 18th century. 

The Treasury (adm. 2 fr.) is worthy of attention ; it contains, among 
other objects, a statuette of St. George in gold enamel, presented by Charles 
the Bold in expiation of his destruction of the town in 1468 (p. 205). 

The *ChTirch of St. Jacques (PI. B, 4), near the Boulevard Pier- 
cot (p. 206), to the S."\V. , was founded by Bishop Balderic II. in 
1016, and received its Romanesque "W. tower in 1163-73, but dates 
in its present form from 1513-38. It is a magnificent edifice in the 
late-Gothic style, with a polygonal choir encircled by small chapels. 
The Renaissance portal on the N. side was added by Lombard in 
1558-60. The church has been sumptuously and tastefully restored 
since 1833. 

The Interior is 87 yds. long, 33 yds. broad, and 75 ft. high. Its de- 
coration, particularly the filigree ornamentation bordering the arches, and 
the gorgeously-coloured enrichment of the groined vaulting, reminds one 
of the Moresco-Spanish style. The fine stained- glass windows of the 
choir, dating from 1520-40, represent the Crucifixion, the donors, their ar- 
morial bearings, and their tutelary saints. The elaborate stone-carving in 
the choir (winding staircase in two flights), and the organ-case in the nave, 
carved by Andreas Severin of Maastricht (d. 1673), also deserve notice. — 
The transept contains marble altars in the Renaissance style. Over the 
left altar is a fine Mater Dolorosa, of the beginning of the 16th cent. ; in 
the right transept is the tomb of Bishop Balderic II., founder of the church, 
restored in the Renaissance style. — The aisles contain modern reliefs 
of scenes from the Passion. 

The Zoological Garden, or Jardin d' Acclimatation (PI. C, 6 ; 
admission 1 fr.), contains only a small collection of animals, but 
the grounds are prettily laid out and afford a fine view of part of 


212 Route 26. SERAING. 

the upper town. Concerts are frequently given here in summer. 
Adjoining the gardens is the public Pare de la Boverie. 

The Botanic Garden (PI. A, 5) is open the whole day; the hot- 
houses (fine palms) are shown on application to the head-gardener. 
Adjacent is the Fharmaceutical Institute. 

The finest *View of Liege is afforded by the Citadel (PI. C, 1), 
520 ft. above the sea-level , erected by the Prince-Bishop Maxi- 
milian Henry of Bavaria in 1650, on the site of earlier fortifications. 
It may be reached in 20-25 min. by ascending one of the steep 
streets, Rue Pierreuse or Montagne Ste. Walburg, or by the some- 
what less fatiguing flight of steps, which affords excellent views, 
at the N.E. end of the Rue Hors-Chateau. Admission is usually 
granted without difficulty on application to the Commandant at the 
Bureau de Place, Rue Beckmann 49 (PI. A, 4, 5). The view em- 
braces the extensive city lying on both banks of the river, with 
its numerous towers and chimneys , and the populous and indus- 
trious valleys of the Meuse, the Ourthe, and the Vesdre. The pro- 
spect is bounded towards the S. by the mountains of the Ardennes; 
towards the N. it extends to the Petersberg near Maastricht, be- 
yond which stretch the broad plains of Limburg. [Almost the same 
view is obtained from the top of the flights of steps (see above) 
which ascend beside the Protestant church and from the N.E. end 
of the Rue Hors-Chateau (PI. C, D, 1); also from the terrace of 
the little Cafe Panorama (poor), beside the first flight.] 

The Caserne St. Laurent (PI. A, 3, 4) is another good point of 
view (best in the morning). We enter at the back from the Fau- 
bourg St. Laurent and cross the court, passing the guard, to the 
terrace in front (no fee). 

The fortified heights of the Chartreuse (PI. E, 5, 6), on the 
opposite bank of the Meuse, also commajid a charming though dif- 
ferent prospect. The best point is the garden of the Hospice de la 
Chartreuse (Asile des Petites Soeurs des Pauvres) for old men, about 
half-way up the hill ; entrance from the road 'Rue Thier de la Char- 
treuse' (ring; Y2-I ^r. on leaving; tramway to Cornillon, see 
pp. 204, 209). — Still higher lies Robermont, where the Prince of 
Coburg was defeated by Marshal Jourdan, 19th Sept., 1794, in the 
last battle fought by the Austrians on Belgian ground. One of the 
chief cemeteries of Liege is uearRobermont. — The new Avenue de 
V Observatoire (PL A, 6, 7), beyond the Station des Guillemins, 
affords a pleasant walk, with fine views. 


Steamboat (V4-I hr.) every 20 min. in summer, and every '/a hr. in 
winter, from 7 a.m. till dusk (fares 30 and 25 c. ; see p. 204). 

Steam Tkamwat, every '/4 hr. from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m., starting from 
the Quai de TUniversit^ and running along the left bank of the Meuse 
to Jemeppe, where the terminus is close to the (6 M.) Seraing bridge. 
Halting-places every 330 yds. \ fares 50 or 40 c. 

SERAING. 26. Route. 213 

Railway in 15-20 min., either on the right bank of the Meuse from 
the Station de Longdoz to Sevaing, or on the left bank from, the Station 
des Guillemins to Jemeppe (distance in each case 5 M.). 

The *Excursion to Seraing affords a most interesting insight 
into the extraordinary industry of the Walloon country, and the 
steamboat trip is picturesque. After passing under the handsome 
railway-hridge of Val B^noit (p. 225), we notice on both banks 
numerous iron-foundries and steel-factories of all kinds. — L. Ougrie 
(rail. stat. , right bank). R. Sclessin, with blast-furnaces and coal- 
pits , and Tilleur. The steamboat stops at the suspension-bridge 
which connects Seraing and Jemeppe (5000 inhab.). The railway- 
stations are each about 3 4 M. from the bridge. 

Seraing {Hotel Bruyere, near the quay), a town with 31,400 in- 
hab., situated on the right bank of the Meuse, has acquired a Eu- 
ropean reputation on account of its vast ironworks and manufac- 
tories. They were founded in 1817 by Jo/in Cockerill^ an Englishman, 
to whom the works belonged jointly with William I., Ring of the 
Netherlands, down to the revolution of 1830, when he purchased 
the king's share and thus be<.'ame sole proprietor. A monument 
was erected to him in 1871 on the quay in front of the Hotel de 
Villa. After Cockerill's death in 1840 the works were purchased 
by a company with a capital of 2 ','2 million francs (raised to 15 mil- 
lions in 1871). The present director is M. A. Greiner, without 
whose special permission visitors are not admitted to the works. 

A building on the Meuse, which was formerly a summer-palace 
of the bishop, immediately below the suspension-bridge, now forms 
the entrance to the establishment. It contains the residence of the 
director and the archives and library of the works. The workshops 
and offices occupy an area of 270 acres, and employ about 11,000 
hands, whose salaries and wages amount to upwards of 10 million fr, 
annually. Upwards of 300 steam-engines, of 14,500 horse-power 
collectively , are in constant operation , and 1200 tons of fuel 
are daily consumed. The annual value of the products amounts 
to 45 million fr., and the works are capable of producing yearly 100 
locomotives, 70 steamboat-engines, 1500 other steam-engines, the 
materials for 14 iron-clads, and 10,000 tons of cast iron for the con- 
struction of bridges and other purposes. Down to 1887, the work- 
shops of Seraing had turned out 65,000 engines or pieces of ma- 
chinery, including the first locomotive engine built on the Continent 
(1835) and the machinery used in boring the Mont Cenis Tunnel 
(1860 ). The establishment comprises every branch of industry con- 
nected with the manufacture of iron, such as coal-mines, ironstone- 
mines, puddling furnaces, cast-steel works, and engine-factories. 
The hospital and orphanage in connection with the establishment 
are maintained at an annual cost of 45,000 fr. The welfare of the 
workmen is also provided for by savings-banks, by sick funds, and 
by good elementary and technical schools. 

214 Route 27. TILFF. 

In the vicinity of Seraing (up the river) are the extensive 
coal-mines and blast-furnaces of the Esperance company; and farther 
distant, the glass-works of Val St. Lambert, established in a sup- 
pressed Cistercian Abbey, one of the largest manufactories of the 
kind in Europe. 

27. From Lihge to Marloie. 

40V'2M. Railway (Ligne de VOurthe) in 1 hr. 55 min. (fares 4 fr. 95, 
3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 50 c). 

The train starts from the Station des Guillemins at Liege, and 
follows the Pepinster line (p. 225) as far as (1 1/2 M.) Angleur (with 
a zinc-foundry of the Vieille Montague Company), where it turns 
to the S. into the beautiful valley of the Ourthe, a tributary of the 
Meuse, which intersects the principal part of the Belgian Ardennes 
in numerous windings from N. to S. On the slope to the left at 
the entrance to the narrower part of the valley, which is called 
the ^Streupas' (pas etroit), stands the chateau of Beau-Fraipont, 
with its massive square tower. The train then passes the foot of 
an eminence crowned with the turreted chateau of Colonstere. On 
the opposite bank is the chateau of Ancre. 

6 M. Tilff (Hotel des Etrangers ; Hotel de VAmiraute), a large 
village prettily situated on the right bank of the stream, and reach- 
ed from the railway by an iron bridge, is much resorted to in sum- 
mer by the citizens of Liege. Modern Gothic church. About 2/4 M. 
below it is the Villa Neef, with pretty grounds. About 1/2 ^- above 
Tilff, high above the road, is the entrance to a not very easily ac- 
cessible stalactite cavern (the keeper of the adjoining cabaret acts 
as guide, fee about 2 fr. ; the expedition is not recommended to 
ladies). On the height al3ove it is the chateau of Brialmont, 

The train then passes the chateau of Monceau, crosses the river, 
traverses some rock-cuttings and a tunnel, and reaches (10 M.) 
Esneux (Hotel Cobus; Hotel du Pont; Bellevue; Mille Colonnes), 
strikingly situated on and at the foot of a lofty and narrow rocky 
isthmus, washed on both sides by the river, which here forms a 
bend upwards of 3 M. in length. The lower part of the village is 
connected with the upper by a long flight of stone steps, while the 
carriage-road describes a long circuit. Fine views from the top, 
particularly from the Beaumont. This is the most picturesque spot 
in the lower valley of the Ourthe, and is a favourite point for ex- 
cursions from Liege. 

Near (12 M.) Poulseur (steam-tramway to Sprimont) the train 
crosses the river, the banks of which are disfigured with extensive 
limestone and slate quarries. Above the village rise the ivy-clad 
ruins of Poulseur, and on the opposite bank are the scanty relics of 
the castle of Montfort, to which numerous legends attach, once a 
seat of the 'Quatre Fils Aymon' (p. 215), and now almost under- 
mined by the quarries. The valley contracts. The train crosses 

AYWAILLE. 27. Route. 215 

the Ourthe and reaches the small station of (14 M.) Rivage, where 
the new Ambleve Railway diverges to the left. — Continuation of 
the journey to Comhlain au-Point, see p. 216. 

The Chemin de Fee, db l'Amelevb trayerses one of the most 
picturesque valleys of the Belgian hill-country, and connects the 
Ourthe railway with the line from Spa to Luxembourg. 

The line at lirst ascends the right hank of the river, which is 
here navigable, passing (l-ii/o M.) Liotte and skirting the furrowed 
limestone cliffs of the Belle Roche. To the right we obtain a glimpse 
of the fine rocks of Halleux. Immediately beyond {il^j-i M.) Martin- 
Rive the train crosses to the left bank. On the left tower lofty rocks 
crowned with the insignificant ruins of the chateau of Ambleve., 
which are chiefly interesting from their association with the med- 
iaeval legend of the Quatre Fils Aymon, who are said to have resided 
here, and with the 'Wild Boar of the Ardennes', who once occupied 
the castle, and was beheaded at Maastricht in 1485. The keys of 
the castle are kept at the village. The exploits of this adventurer 
are admirably described by Sir Walter Scott in his 'Quentiu Dur- 
ward'. His true history is as follows : — 

William de la Mabk, the scion of a noble family of Westphalia, 
born about 1446, was educated by Louis de Bourbon, Bishop of Liege. 
The bravery, or rather ferocity, of his character, procured for him at an 
early age the sobriquet of the 'Wild Boar of the Ardennes'. Having been 
censured by the bishop's chancellor on one occasion , he slew that of- 
ficer, almost before the eyes of his patron, and was banished in conse- 
quence. William now sought an asylum at the court of Louis XI. of 
France, where he planned a revolt in the Bishop's dominions, and re- 
ceived money and troops for the enterprise. On his arrival in the Province 
of Liege, he entrapped the unfortunate Bishop into an ambuscade, and 
slew him with his own battle-axe. The Liegeois, ever prone to rebellion, 
now created William their commander-in-chief. He next invaded Brabant, 
but having been defeated by Archduke Maximilian, he returned to Liege, 
and allied himself with Rene of Lorraine against Austria. Maximilian 
now had recourse to treachery. He bribed Frederick of Horn, William's 
friend, to betray him. The 'Wild Boar' thus fell into the power of the 
Austrians, and was conducted to Maastricht, where he terminated his blood- 
stained career on the scaffold at the age of 39 years. He died bravely, 
as he had lived, meeting his merited fate with composure. 

19VoM. Aywaille [Hotel duLuxemh out g ; Hotel de Liege ; Hotel 
d' Allemagne, new, good cuisine ), a small town with 3500 inhab., 
connected with the opposite bank by a graceful suspension bridge. 
A picturesque walk may be taken from Aywaille via the village of 
Harze (with a 16th cent, castle of the De la Marks) to My and Bo- 
mal (p. 217). — Farther on we cross the river by a viaduct 45 ft. high 
and 175 yds. long, commanding a good view of the village of Re- 
mouchamps on the left and the chateau of Mont Jardin (p. 232) on 
the right. — 21 M. Remouchamps, see p. 231. 

Above Remouchamp the river makes a wide bend , which the 
railway avoids by a tunnel 678 yds. in length. The train then 
crosses to the left bank, passes (22^2 ^0 Nonceveux, recrosses the 
river , and reaches the Fond de Quareux (Restaur.), a wild rocky 

2{Q Route 27. COMBLAIN-AU-PONT. From Liege 

caldron, in whicli the channel of the Ambleve is blocked by innu- 
merable boulders. From (25 M.) Quareux a pleasant walk may be 
taken along the railway and the high-road to a point beyond the 
prettily situated village of Sedoz, and thence across the hills (fine 
views) to Remouchamps (in about 2^2 hrs.). 

The train now keeps to the right bank, commanding a series of 
fine views of the wild valley of the Ambleve and the ravines di- 
verging from it. After passing Targnon, on an almost Isolated hill, 
it reaches (271/2 ^jf-) Stoumont (Hotel des Chasseurs). From Stou- 
mont to Spa by Desniez, Winamplanche, and Marteau, about 5 hrs. 

Several tunnels and bridges are next passed. 31 M. La Gleize; 
hence to Spa. see p. 231. — 33 M. Roanne-Coo ,• cascade of Coo and 
hence to Spa, see p. 231. — 351/2 M. Trois-Ponts (Auberge des Ar- 
dennes, poor), junction of the line to Pepinster (p. 232), a small 
village named after its three old bridges (over the Ambleve, over 
the Salm, and over another brook), and situated behind precipitous 
rocks through which the railway passes. From Trois Fonts a new 
road descends the valley of the Ambleve to (2 M.) the Waterfall of 
Coo (p. 231). 

The line now enters the picturesque ravine of the Salm or Glain, 
passes through a tunnel, and follows the left bank of the stream. 
39 m. Grand- Halleux ; 43 M. Viel-Salm, at some distance from the 
village (*H6tel Bellevue; Hot. Bourgeois) of that name; large 
slate-quarries in the environs. — Farther on, to the right, is the 
ruined castle of Salm, the ancestral seat of the princely family of 
that name. The line now quits the valley of the Salm , passes 
(471/2 M.) Bovigny-Courtil, and beyond (50'/2 M.) Gouvy (Ger. 
Geylich; Belgian custom-house) crosses the infant Ourthe (which 
rises close to this point) and the watershed between the Meuse and 
Moselle, which is at the same time the Luxembourg frontier. 
Branch-line to Bastogne, see p. 194. A diligence runs from Gouvy 
to (IOV2 M.) Houffalize (p. 194). 

The train descends through the rocky valley of the Wolz^ cutting 
off the windings of the stream by two short tunnels. 39^/2 M. Trois- 
Vierges, Ger. Ulflingen, vulgo Elven (Hotel Wieser, at the railway- 
station), the frontier -station of Luxembourg. The French name 
is derived from the legendary conversion of the three Fates into the 
Christian virtues of Faith, Hope, and Charity, personified as the 
daughters of St. Sophia. The parish-church formerly belonged to a 
Franciscan convent. A branch-line runs from Trois-Vierges via 
Wilwerdingen, Lengeler^ and Burgreuland (with ruined castle), to 
St. Vith, connecting with the Malmedy and Aix-la-Chapelle and 
Gerolstein line. 

The Ourthe railway beyond Rivage (p. 215) crosses the Ambleve 
and reaches (15 M.) Comblain-au-Pont (i/d<eZ del' Ambleve, etc., at 
the station), a village (^Hotel-Pension Renaville- Nindne ; Hotel 

to Marloie. BOMAL. 57. Boute. 217 

Berck-Gadisseur; Hotel des Families^ R. IY2, pens. 4-5 fr.) prettily 
situated on the left bank of the river, 3, 4M. from the station, which 
lies at the foot of a precipitous cliff. On a rocky eminence rises the 
ivy-clad tower of an ancient church. The scenery between Poulseur 
and [3 M.) Comblain-au-Pont will reward even the pedestrian. 

The train now passes through a tunnel to (177-2 ^I-) Comblain- 
la-Tour (Hotel de I'Ourthe), situated at the mouth of the Comblain 
brook, with rocky environs disfigured by slate-quarries. The valley 
soon expands and becomes more attractive. At (20^/2 M.) Hamoir 
(Hotel de la Station), a considerable village situated chiefly on the 
right bank, the river is crossed by two bridges, the older of which 
has been partly destroyed at the end next to the right bank. On the 
right bank, farther up, lies the chateau of Hamoir-Lassus, with a 
large park. One of the most picturesque parts of the valley is be- 
tween Hamoir and Bomal (see below), the scenery being pleasantly 
varied by meadows, richly-wooded slopes, and frovniing cliffs. 

'Walk. Beyond the chateau of Hamoir-Lassus , at the first houses 
of the village of that name, enquire for the path across the hill to Si/, 
a small group of houses in a narrow gorge, and at the railway-bridge 
cross by boat to the left bank. A path through the meadows here passes 
the mouth of the tunnel and through an arch of the bridge, suddenly 
affording a view of a narrow and sombre rocky valley. At Palogne cross 
to the right bank again, and ascend with a boy as guide to the picturesquely 
situated ruins of the castle of Logne, which like the Chateau d'Ambleve 
was one of the chief seats of the redoubtable Count de la Mark (p. 215). 
Within the precincts of the castle is the Cave Notre-Dame, a stalactite 
grotto. Near the castle runs the Aywaille (p. 215) and Bomal road, by 
which the latter village may now be reached. 

Beyond Hamoir the train crosses the river several times, and 
penetrates a lofty cliff by means of a tunnel. The large village of 
(25 M.) Bomal (Hotel du Pont), at the mouth of the Aisne, com- 
manded by the chateau with its terraced gardens, is a handsome- 
looking place. 

Excursion' recommended to the picturesque rocky valley of the Aisne, 
ascending by Juzaine and Aisne to (4 M.) Roche-d-Frene (Courtoy-Liboutte), 
with curious geological strata, and returning by Heid , Wiris (ancient 
Romanesque church; Celtic dolmen), and Barvaux. 

The train again crosses the Ourthe, stops at the substantially 
built village of (27 M.] Barvaux (Hotel de Liege), and then quits the 
river in order to avoid the long bend which it makes towards the "W. 

On the Ourthe, 2 M. above Barvaux, lies the ancient and pictur- 
esquely situated, but now insignificant town of Durbuy {jHdtel de Liige, 
pens. 41/2 fr.; Hotel True), with 450 inhab. only. The principal features 
of the place are a mediaeval bridge, an old chapel, the ruined tower of 
an ancient fortification, and the modern chateau of ,the Due d'Ursel. 
Pleasant walk along the left bank of the river from Barvaux to Durbuy 
(2 hrs.), and back by the road (2 M.). 

Beyond (32 M.) Melreux (Hotel des Etrangers; Poste) the line 
crosses the Ourthe for the last time and then leaves its neighbour- 

From Melreux to Laroche, 12V-2 M., railwav in li/i hr. (fares 1 fr. 60, 
1 fr. 20 c.). 13/4 M. Hotlon (Hotel de rOurthe);" 41/2 M. Rendeux-Hamoul. 
On an almost isolated rock opposite stands the pilgrimage - chapel of 
St. Thibaut, beside which a hermit still dwells. — I2V2 M. La Roche ('Hotel 

218 Route 28. ARGENTEAU. From Liege 

des Ardennes; Hdtel du Nord), a small town, situated at the junction of 
several valleys, and commanded by the frowning ruins of a castle. The 
grinding and varied valley of the Ourthe in the vicinity of La Roche 
presents several points of attraction, e.g. the rocks of Le Eirou and the 
junction of the two Ourthes. 

38V2 ^^- Marche (Cloche dCOr; Hotel de la Gare) , the chief 
town (2900 iuhab.) of the Famene, a productive agricultural district. 
Marche was formerly a fortress. Lafayette was taken prisoner by 
the Austrians here in 1792. The village of Waha, 1^2 M. to the 
S., contains a small and simple Romanesque church, which was 
consecrated in 1051. 

401/2 ^1- Marlole, where the line unites with the Brussels and 
Luxembourg railway [p. 191). 

28. From Li^ge to Maastricht. 

19 M. Railway from Liege to Maastricht in l-l'A hr. ; trains start 
from the Station de Longdoz (fares 2 fr. 40, 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 20 c). 

Travellers to Maastricht who intend to return to Liege should leave 
the bulk of their luggage at Liege, in order to avoid the formalities of 
the Dutch douane in going, and those of the Belgian in returning. Luggage 
registered to Maastricht is not examined till arrival in that town. 

The train describes a wide curve to the left, and passes under 
the Chartreuse, runs near the Meuse for a short distance, and reaches 
(3 M.) Jupille, a small manufacturing town of very ancient origin, 
with 3600 inhabitants. It was once a favourite residence of Pepin 
of Heristal, who died here in 714, and was also often visited by 
Charlemagne. The train now quits the river, which makes a bend 
towards the W. — 5 M. Wandre ; 6 M. Cheratte. 

8 M. Argenieau (Hotel du Tourne-Bride), the station for Her- 
malle, a straw-plaiting place on the opposite bank of the river. 
Argenteau is the most picturesque place in the lower valley of the 
Meuse. Above the village rises an abrupt rock, clothed with oak- 
plantations on the summit, and crowned with the new chateau of 
Count Mercy d' Argenteau. The court is connected by means of a 
lofty bridge with another rock, where the pleasure-grounds are 
situated. The park extends for a considerable distance to the N. 
The curious formation of the sandstone rock somewhat resembles 
that of the 'Saxon Switzerland'. 

Picturesquely situated on the Berwitine ., 3 M. to the E. of Argenteau, 
arc the ruins of the once famous fortress of Dalhern. 

10 M. Vise, Dutch Wezet (Hotel de Brabant), the seat of the 
Belgian custom-house, with 2800 inhab., once a fortified town, was 
the headquarters of Louis XIV. when he besieged Maastricht in 
1673. The church contains the famous silver Chdsse de St. Hadelin, 
with figures in relief. The Hotel de Ville is quaint. The Loretto 
Chapel, on the hill, is a pilgrim-resort. The train crosses the frontier 
and enters the Dutch province of Limburg. 

121/2 M. Eysden, with the Dutch custom-house and an old 
chateau, is situated amid fruit-trees and luxuriant pastures. — 
15 M. Gronsveld. On the opposite bank of the Meuse are seen the 

Roemaand.jj Jdx-b.Qx 


Voonualige ponrrl 

. 2^riisseistJie poort 
\ 3. Tongershe poor-t 
,4 S'Pietas poort 

ftfoiraph. Anstall vun 1 : 2 8600 

-> ^- 

Wagner i T)eT)r s Leips 

to Maastricht. MAASTRICHT. 28. Route. 219 

sandstone rocks of the Petersberg, rising 330 ft. above the river, 
and crowned by the graceful Chateau of Castert. 

19 M. Maastricht. — Hotels. -Hotel du L6vriee, or Hazenwind 
('greyhound'), in the Boschstraat, near the market, R. from lV-2 A., L. 25, 
A. 30, B. 60 c., D. 1 fl. 40, or incl. wine 2 tl, 15 c.; Zwarte Arexd, or 
AiGLE NoiE, a good second-class inn, opposite the Levrier, R. Ifl.; Zegueks, 
Deklox, Daesen, three unpretending inns with restaurants, near the 
Peter's Gate and the church of Xotre Dame. The hotels are all at a con- 
siderable distance from the railway-station. 

Guide to the caverns, including torches, 2V2-3 fl. (5-6 fr.) ; bargaining 

Omnibus from the station to the market-place 10 c. — Carriage from 
the station into the town 50 c. j from Maastricht to the entrance to the 
galleries 3 fl. 

Maastricht, the capital of the Dutch part of the province of 
Limburg, with 32,000 inhab., lies on the left bank of the Meuse, 
and is connected with the suburb of Wyk on the right bank by 
means of a bridge of nine arches, built in 1683. Maastricht ('.Vaas- 
Trecht, Trajectum ad Mosam) is the Trajectum Superius of the Ro- 
mans (the 'lower ford' was at Utrecht, p. 362), and from 382 to 721 
was the seat of a bishopric, transferred hither from Tongres by St. 
Servatius (d. 384). It belonged to the Frankish kings, several of 
whom resided here, and was at a later date in the joint possession 
of the Dukes of Brabant and the Prince Bishops of Liege. In 1679 
Maastricht, which had thrown in its lot with the Netherlandish 
patriots, was besieged for four months by the Spaniards, under the 
Duke of Parma. The garrison consisted of 1200 soldiers (French, 
English, and Scottish), 7000 of the townspeople, and 1000 peas- 
ants from the environs. Notwithstanding the numerical superiority 
of the Spaniards, they were twice repulsed by the sallies of the in- 
trepid defenders. At length, greatly reduced in numbers, and ex- 
hausted by famine, the garrison was compelled to succumb. The 
victors wreaked their vengeance on the ill-fated burghers with 
savage cruelty during three days. About 8000 inhabitants, of whom 
1700 were women, were put to death. The fortress has sustained 
numerous other sieges, of which the four most memorable termin- 
ated with its capitulation, viz. that of 1632 by Prince Fred. Henry 
of Orange, that of 1673 by Louis XIV., that of 1748 by the French 
under Marshal Saxe, and that of 1794 by General Kleber. Maastricht 
was almost the only town in the S. part of the Netherlands which 
was successfully maintained by the Dutch against the Belgian in- 
surgents after the eventful month of September, 1830. — Maastricht 
was formerly a strong fortress, but the works are being demolished. 

The Stadhuis. or Hotel de Ville, with its clock-tower , situated 
in the great market-place, was erected in 1659-64, and contains 
several pictures of the Dutch School and well-executed tapestry 
(1704), representing the history of the Israelites in the wilderness. 

The Church of St. Servatius, or Hoof dkerk, in the Yrythof, found- 
ed by Bishop Monulphus (560-599), is the oldest church in the 
Netherlands. The rich W. portion, in the Romanesque style, be- 

220 Route 28. .PETERSBERG. From Lilge 

longs to the Uth or 12th cent., and the crypt, rediscovered in 
1881, is perhaps still more ancient. The interior was restored in 
the Gothic style about the year 1500. One of the altarpieces is a 
Descent from the Cross by Van Dyck. 

The CuuKCH Tkeasdky ( Schatkamer)., which since 1873 has occupied 
a chapel of its own, and is shown to visitors for a fee of 1/2 fl» is 
worthy of inspection. The most interesting object which it contains is 
the late-Romanesque reliquary of St. Servatius (i2th cent.), in the form of 
a church, 5 ft. 9 in. in length, 19 in. in breadth, and 27 in. high. It is 
executed in gilded and enamelled copper, and embellished with filigree 
work and precious stones. 

T\e Church of Notre Dame, or Lieve Vrouwekerke, a late-Roman- 
esque edifice of the 11th cent., has been disfigured by subsequent 

The Provincial Archives and the Town Library (open 9-1) are 
preserved in the old Franciscan Church, Rue St. Pierre. 

The principal attraction at Maastricht is the subterranean laby- 
rinth of sandstone-quarries which honeycomb the *Petersberg in 
every direction , having been worked for upwards of a thovisand 
years. A visit to them occupies I'/o-^ hrs. We leave the town on 
the S. by the Peter's Gate, near which the guides (p. 219) live. After 
about 10 min. we pass the village of St. Pieter, with a conspiciious 
modern brick church , and in 1/4 hr. more reach the suppressed 
Servite monastery of Slavanten, now the property of a private club 
(Casino); admission, however, is seldom denied to strangers (re- 
freshments, fine view). The entrance to the Petersberg is close by. 

The Petersjjeug range, extending from Maastricht to Liege, is com- 
posed of a yellowish, sandy, and calcareous stone, or chalky tufa, which 
has been deposited by the water of the ocean, and contains numerous 
conchylia, fragments of coral, sharks' teeth, fossil turtles, bones of 
the picsiosaurus , ichthyosaurus , etc. , and other traces of its remote 
subaqueous origin. Many of these interesting fossils are preserved in 
the collection at Liege (p. 208) , and other.>5 may be seen at the Athe- 
nseum at Maastricht. The so-called onjues geologiques^ cylindrical openings 
of 1-7 ft. in diameter, and generally vertical, perforating the formation 
to a vast depth, and now filled with clay, sand, and rubble, are a singular 
phenomenon which has not yet been satisfactorily explained. It is con- 
jectured that they were originally formed by submarine whirlpools, the 
action of which is known to produce circular orifices in rocks of much 
harder consistency, and that they were afterwards enlarged by the per- 
colation of water. 

The economical value of the stone consists in the facility with which 
it is sawn into symmetrical blocks, and in its property of hardening on 
exposure to the "atmosphere. The galleries, which vary from 20 to 50 ft. 
in height, are supported by pillars averaging 15 ft. in diameter, left for 
the purpose. The first excavations are believed to have been made by 
Roman soldiers, and the same systematic mode of working has been ob- 
served ever since that period. Guicciardini's (p. xiii) description of the 
quarries three centuries ago is still ! applicable : 'Viscera montis scatent 
lapide quodam molli, arenoso, et parvo negotio sectili, cujus ingens assidue 
hie efloditur copia, idque tam accurata conservandi et montis et fodientium 
cura, tamque altis, longis, flexuosis , et periculosis quoque meatibus." 

The galleries constitute a vast labyrinth, of about 12 M. in length, 
and 7 M. in breadth, and are all so exactly similar in appearance, that 
their intricacies are known to a few experienced guides only. Most of 

to Maastriclit. PETEESBERG. 28. Route. 221 

the entrances are closed, as adventurous travellers have not unfrequently 
perished in the foolhardy attempt to explore the quaries alone. The 
dead bodies which have occasionally been found in the more remote re- 
cesses, have been preserved from decomposition by the remarkable dry- 
ness of the air, and the lowness of temperature. Thousands of names 
are rudely scratched on the pillars, and a genuine inscription of the year 
1037 is even said to have been discovered. During the bloody wars of 
the 17th cent, the caverns were used as a place of refuge by the inhabi- 
tants of the surrounding districts. 

One of the phenomena pointed out by the guides is the gradual for- 
mation of a small natural reservoir in the roots of a fossil tree, by the 
dropping of water from the branches, which still remain embedded in 
the ceiling, the intermediate part having been removed in the course of 
the excavations. A curious eflect is prodiiced by the guide leaving the 
party temporarily and carrying his torch into the side-galleries, from which 
its light shines into the central one from time to time. The soft, friable 
nature of the stone deadens every sound, so that his footsteps soon seem 
as if far in the distance. The invariable temperature in the quarries is 
about 550 Fahr., and the change from the heat of a blazing sun to the 
coolness of the caverns is very perceptible. 

Railway to Aix-la-C/tapelle, Hasselt, and Antwerp, see R. 17; to Venlo^ 
Ifymegen, and Rotterdam, see RR. 53, 54. 

29. From Li^ge to Namur. 

371/2 M. Railway in IV4-2 hrs. (fares 4 fr. 80, 3 fr. 60, 2 fr. 40 c; 
express 5 fr. 70, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 85 c). This line is part of that from Co- 
logne and Liege to Paris. 

This part of the valley of the Meuse is remarkably picturesque 
and attractive. Bold cliffs, ruined castles, rich pastures, and 
thriving villages are passed in uninterrupted succession, while 
numerous coal-mines and manufactories with their lofty chimneys 
bear testimony to the enterprising character of the inhabitants. The 
whole district is densely-peopled, the land well-cultivated, and the 
scenery pleasantly diversified with hop-gardens, corn-fields, mead- 
ows, and (before Javaz) with vineyards, but many of the prettiest 
points escape the railway - traveller. The quarries on both banks 
yield excellent marble. 

Ougree, Seraing (p. 212), and Val St. Lambert are stations on the 
right, Tilleur 3ii\d Jemeppe stations on the left bank of the river, all 
picturesquely situated, with numerous manufactories and coal-mines. 
Val St. Lambert was until the Revolution the seat of one of the 
wealthiest Cistercian monasteries in the country, now succeeded by 
one of the most important glass-works in Belgium. 

7 M. Flemalle , a considerable village, where a branch-line, 
constructed mainly for goods-traffic, crosses the river. 

Farther on , to the right , on a precipitous rock rising almost 
immediately from the river, stands the chateau of Chokier, with its 
red tower and massive walls , dating partly from the last century. 
It is the ancient seat of the Surlet de Chokier family, a member of 
which was regent of Belgium for five months previous to the election 
of King Leopold. Then , at some distance from the river, on the 
left, the castle of Aigremont , with its white walls , rising conspic- 

222 Route 29. HUY. From Liege 

uously on the crest of a lofty hill, belonging to Count d'Outremont. 
It is said to have been originally erected by the Quatre Fils Ay- 
mon , four traditionary heroes of the middle ages. In the 15th 
cent, it formed the central point of the warlike exploits of William 
de la Mark, the 'Wild Boar of the Ardennes' (p. 215). To the left, 
opposite Stat. Engis, stands the chateau of Engihoul, at the base of 
a limestone rock. In 1829 numerous fossil bones were discovered 
by Dr. Schmerling in the limestone rocks around Engis, which 
led hi,m to the conclusion that a prehistoric race of human beings 
had once peopled this district. 12 M. Hermalle, with a handsome 
chateau and park, is another picturesque spot, between which and 
Neuville the scenery is less attractive, and the banks are flatter. 
Farther on, at Flone, are the large buildings of a former nun- 
nery (16th cent.); and on the hill above them, to the left (IY4M.), 
is the chateau of Jehay, restored in the original style. The chateau, 
which contains a collection of paintings, is in the possession of 
Baron Van den Steen. 

14 M. Amay, a village at some distance from the river, possesses 
a Romanesque church with three towers. Neuville, a modern 
chateau, beyond which the scenery again becomes more picturesque, 
lies nearly opposite [151/2 M.) Amps in, where a ruined tower stands 
on the bank of the river. In the neighbourhood are vineyards, and 
the large Corphalie zinc-foundry. The train continues to skirt the 
hills on the left bank, of which no view is obtained. 

18 M. Huy, Flem. Hoey (*Aigle Noir, 'pension' 6 fr, ; Hotel du 
Globe; Hotel Bruxellois; Mouton Bleu; Phare, plain), a town with 
12,100 iuhab., is picturesquely situated on the right bank of the 
Meuse (station on the left bank), at the mouth of the Hoyoux. The 
Citadel, constructed in 1822, rises from the river in terraces. The 
works were partly hewn in the solid rock. The hills on the left 
bank are here 1/2 M- distant from the river. The ^Collegiate Church 
(Notre Dame), a fine structure in the most perfect Gothic style, was 
begun in 1311, but renewed after a fire in the 16th century, and 
recently restored. Handsome W. portal with good sculptures. On 
the high-altar is a Gothic reliquary ; and the treasury contains some 
notable articles. In 1868 a statue by W. Geefs was erected on the 
promenade skirting the Meuse, to Jos. Lebeau, a Belgian statesman, 
born at Huy in 1794, one of the most zealous promoters of the elec- 
tion of King Leopold. The best views of the banks of the river, 
which are especially beautiful above the town, are obtained from 
the bridge over the Meuse and from beside the chapel of St. Leonard, 
to the west of the town. Wine-growing flourishes in the neigh- 

The abbey of Neumoustier , founded by Peter the Hermit 
(d. 1115), formerly stood in one of the suburbs of Huy, and the 
great preacher of the Crusades was himself buried there. A statue 
has been erected to him in the garden of the old abbey. This was 

to Namur. ANDENNE. 29. Route. 223 

one of no fewer than seventeen religious houses which Huy 
possessed under the regime of the "bishops of Liege , although the 
population of the town was then about 5000 only. 

From Hut to Landen, Q2\'2 M., in 1' 2-2 hrs. (fares 2 fr. 75, 2 fr. 5, 
1 fr. 40 c). The train may be taken either at the station of Stalte (see 
below), a suburb on the left bank of the Meuse, or at Huy-Sud. The two 
stations, which are I'A M. apart, are connected by a bridge across the 
aieuse and by a tunnel. — At (5 M.) Mofta, with a ruined castle, the line 
begins to ascend the picturesque valley of the Mehaigne., a tributary of 
the Meuse. Stations: Huccorgne ; Fumal, with an old castle ; Fallais, with 
a Romanesque church, and the ruins of a castle destroyed by Louis XIV. ; 
Braives-Latinne. The country now becomes flat. The last stations are 
Avenues., Hannut^ Avevnas-Bertvie. Then Landen, see p. 196. 

From Hut to Waremme (p. 197), H'/z M., steam-tramway, in I'/a hr. ; 
fares 1 fr. 85, 1 fr. 30 c. 

From Hut to Cixet, 22 M., railway in li/i-lVzlir. (fares 2 fr. 65, 2 fr., 
1 fr. 35 c). The trains start from Statte and Huy-Sud (see above). — The 
pleasing valley of the Hot/oux, which the line ascends, is also interesting 
for pedestrians. Of the numerous paper-mills in the lower part of the 
valley, the chief is that of Godin. — 41/2 M. Barse. — 7 31. Modave^ whence 
a visit may be paid to the (V2 hr.) chateau of ^Modave picturesquely 
situated on a lofty rock, built in the 17th cent., and now the property of 
31. Braconier of Liege. Tickets to visit the chateau, which is not seen 
except from the park, may be obtained from the gardener. A pretty 
waterfall is to be seen at the adjacent hamlet of Pont-de-bonne ('Body's 
Inn; Frippiat's Inn), a summer-resort with attractive walks. — Then, Cla- 
vier-Tetteagne, Avins-en-Condroz., Havelange, Hamois, Emptinne. — Cinei/, 
see p. 191. 

191/2 ^^- Statte, a suburb of Huy on the left bank of the Meuse, 
and junction of the line from Landen to Ciney, which here crosses 
the river (see above, and comp. Map). 

201/2 M- Bas-Oha, with an old castle now restored, and vine- 
yards on the neighbouring hills. On the height opposite are the 
scanty ruins of the castle of Beaufort., destroyed in 1554, which is 
once more in the possession of the duke of Beaufort-Spontin. 

In the valley of Soli^res, about IV4 31. from the ruin is the Trou 
Manleau., which has been very imperfectly explored, entered by a double 
opening (apply to the discoverer Victor 3Iartin , watchmaker in Iluy). — 
Below Beaufort is Ben-Ahin., with a recently restored chateau belonging 
to Prince Looz-Corswarem. An attractive walk leads hence by the high- 
road to (3-3V2 3I.) Huy (p. 222); another from the ruined castle of Beau- 
fort to Huy, through the valley of SolUres. 

22'/2 M. Ja^'oz, opposite which is Gives (seep. 224). 25 M. 
Andenne-Seilles. On the left bank, where the railway-station is 
situated, lies the straggling village of Seilles, the last in the district 
of Liege. There are several lime-kilns here, and a chateau restored 
in the style of the 15th century. Opposite Seilles, and connected 
with it by means of an iron bridge, lies Andenne [Hotel cle Thier, 
near the station; Poste, in the town), with 7100 inhab., a busy 
town, with paper, faience, and other manufactories. Down to 1785 
a religious establishment of 32 sisters of noble family, not bound by 
any vow to abstain from matrimony, had existed here for upwards 
of a thousand years. It is said to have been founded by St. Begga, 
a daughter of Pepin of He'ristal (p. 196), and the order was probably 

224 Route 29. MARCHE-LES-DAMES. 

identical with that of the B^guines. The establishment was trans- 
ferred to Namur by Emp. Joseph II. The church contains the Re- 
naissance reliquary of St. Begga, and a famous wonder-working 
marble tablet of the saint. Fine view from Mount- Calvary. — 

29 M. Sclaigneaux is noted for the curiously jagged character 
of the red oolithio cliffs. A handsome bridge (opened in 1890) 
crosses the Mouse to Sclayn (Hotel des Etrangers ; Hot. -Cafe de la 
Renaissance), a beautifully situated village frequented as a summer- 
resort, with a quaint old Romanesque church. At(30M.) Nameche, 
another pleasant village in the midst of fruit-trees, the river is 
crossed by an iron bridge. On the opposite bank lies ^Samson, a 
village at the foot of a picturesque cliff of white limestone. Above 
Samson are situated a modern chateau and the ruins of a castle 
believed to date from the 12th cent, or earlier. Near it, in 1858, 
was discovered a Frankish burial-place. — Steam- tramway via 
Andenne to Gives (p. 223). 

A pleasant walk leads from Samson to the S. via Goyet (with pre- 
historic caves ; foot-path via, Haltinne to Andenne see above) and the 
beautifully situated chateau of Faulx., to (4V2 M.) the scanty ruins of the 
famous Abbey of Grand-Pr^, destroyed during the French Revolution. — In 
the lateral valley above Faulx lies the well-preserved chateau of Arville. 

On the left rises the chateau of Moinil; then that of Brumagne, 
the property of Baron de Woelmont. 

32 M. Marche-les-Dames, adjoining which are the ironworks 
of Enouf. The modern chateau of the Due d'Arenberg, with its 
gardens, amidst the trees on the rocky slope, is named after an abbey 
founded (in a side-valley) in 1101 by 139 noble ladies, the wives 
of crusaders who had accompanied Godfrey de Bouillon to the Holy 
Land. A pleasant walk on the left bank of the river leads hence 
to Sclaigneaux (see above). 

On the left rise the huge cliffs of Live. We next pass a number 
of lofty conical cliffs ; then, on the right (34'/2 M.), appear the mas- 
sive rocks of the Grands Malades , so-called from a hospital for 
lepers, situated here in the middle ages. 

371/2 M. Namurj see p. 184. 

30. From Liege to Aix-la-Chapelle. 

35 M. Railway to Verviers (ISi/a M.) in 35-60 min. (fares 1 fr. 
80, 1 fr. 35, 90 c. ; express one-fourth higher); from Verviers to Aix-la 
Chapelle (19y2 M.) in 40-65 min. (fares 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 60, 1 fr. 85 c). In 
the reverse direction : express from Aix-la-Chapelle to Liege 4 marks (JO, 
3 m. 40 pfennigs; from Cologne to Liege 13 m. 80 pf., 10 m. ; from Co- 
logne to Brussels 21 m., 15 m. 70 pf. (The German mark, worth Is. 
Engl., is divided into 100 pfennigs.) Betvreen Verviers and Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle (and Cologne) several of the express trains have first-class carriages 
only, but in Belgium they always consist of the three classes. — At Her- 
besthal, the Prussian frontier-station, small articles of luggage are exam- 
ined; but that in the luggage -van is not examined till the traveller 
arrives at Aix-la-Chapelle (or at Cologne, if booked to, or beyond Cologne). 

The country traversed by the line between Liege and the Prussian 

CHArDFONTAINE. 30. Route. 225 

frontier is remarkable for its picturesque scenery, busy manufactories, 
and pretty country-houses, while the engineering skill displayexl in the 
construction of the line is another object of interest. This part of the line, 
24 M. in length, cost upwards of 25 million francs. The picturesque 
stream which the line crosses so frequently is the Vesdre , and pleasant 
glimpses of its wooded banks are obtained on both sides of the train. 
The rock penetrated by most of the tunnels is a bluish limestone, fre- 
quently veined with quartz, and often used for building purposes. This 
is the most beautiful part of the journey between England and Germany, 
and should if possible be performed by daylight. 

The Beegisch-Markisch Railwat also has a line between Yerviers and 
Aix-la-Chapelle, 2OV2 M. (I-I1/4 hr. ; fares 2 fr. 60, 2 fr. 15, 1 fr. 50 c.; or 
2 m. 10, 1 m. 70, 1 m. 20 pf.). It diverges at Dolhain (p. 226j from the 
Rhenish line, and near (SM.) Welkenraedt passes the Eineburg, or Emma- 
burg, once a country-residence of Charlemagne, where his secretary Egin- 
hard is said to have become enamoured of the emperor's daughter Emma, 
whom he afterwards married. Near (1272 M.) MonUen-MoresneC are se- 
veral chateaux and the ruin of Schimper, picturesquely situated on a cliff 
above the Gobi. About 1^'i M. to the E. is the Altenberg or Vieille Mont- 
agne (Restaurant Bergerhoff-, Casino), the central point of the territory 
about IV'2 sq. M. in area possessed in common by Prussia and Belgium 
from 1815 to 1889, with some exhausted zinc-mines. — 13'/2 M. Bleybevg 
(Belgian custom-house), with lead and zinc-mines. — 20'/2 M. Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle (Templerbend Station); see Baedeker's Rhine. Through - trains of 
the Bergisch-Markisch Railway from Brussels to Diisseldorf go by this 
line (express from Calais to Berlin in 20^/4 hrs.). 

The train starts from the Station des Guillemins at Liege, 
crosses the handsome Pont du Val-BcnoU, passes (l'/2 M.) Angleur 
(junction of the Ligne de VOurthe. for which see p. 214) and the 
extensive zinc-foundry of the Vieille Montagne Co. (p. 214), and 
crosses the Ourthe near its confluence with the Vesdre. 

2 M. Chenee (6500 inhah.), at the mouth of the Vesdre, is a 
busy manufacturing place with copper-foundries and glass-works. 
— Branch-line to Herve, Battice, and Aubel (p. 226). 

4 M. Chaudfontaine ('*(j'ran(/ Hotel des Bains, pens. 7-lOfr. ; 
Hotel d'AngleterreJ, a small and beautifully-situated watering-place, 
attracts numerous visitors from Liege. The thermal spring (104° Fahr.) 
used for the baths is situated on an island in the Vesdre, which is 
connected with the bank by a handsome suspension-bridge. Chaud- 
fontaine, like the German watering-places , boasts of a 'Cursaal' 
situated near the station, in the garden of which concerts are given 
in summer. From the back of the church a pleasant path, provided 
with seats, leads to the top of the hill (10 min.), which rises above 
the village and commands a fine view of the valley of the Vesdre 
(best from the pilgrimage-church of Chevremont'). — A pleasant 
walk (2 hrs.) lea^ls past Emhourg and through the park of the Villa 
Sainval (with the permission of the gardener or lodge-keeper) to 
Tiljf, in the valley of the Ourthe (p. 214). 

On the rocks to the right, beyond the tunnel, is perched the tur- 
reted old castle of Trooz, which has been used for upwards of a 
century as a factory for boring gun-barrels. Beyond it is the station 
of the same name. 

A picturesque route leads from Trooz via Prayon into the gorge of 
the Soumagne, with its picturesque limestone clitTs, where the stream 

Baedeker's Belgium and Holland. 10th Edit. 15 

226 Route 30. DOLHAIN. 

occasionally disappears from view. Another pleasant walk may be taken 
to the S. thi'ough the rocky valley of Masbeux, with a handsome new 
chateau and the old castle of Gomzi, via Louveignez and Deigni to (2V2- 
3 hrs.) Reinouchamps (p. 231). 

Several other prettily situated chateaux are passed {Fraipont- 
Bas, etc.). Then (972 M.) Nessonvaux. 

121/2 M. Pepinster (Gr. Hot. de la Station; Buffet), with 2500 
inhab., is the junction for Spa and Luxembourg (see RR. 31, 32). 
The name is said to be derived from 'Pepin's terre', the district 
having anciently belonged to the ancestors of Charlemagne. The 
beautiful park of the Chateau des Masures (Mr. Biolley de Done'a), 
about 1 M. farther on, to the right, is open to strangers. 

Stat. Ensival (Gr. Taverne Continentale), on the left, is almost 
a suburb of Verviers. 

151/2 M. Verviers. — Hotels. HGtel de Londres, Pont St. Laurent; 
Hot. du Chemin de Fek, Hotel d'Allemagne, at the station. — Cafes- 
Kestaurants. Grand Cafi. des Ntnf Provinces^ Taverne de VEmulation, in 
the Place Verte; Caft du Globe, Rue du College. — Tramway between the 
stations and to Disoii and Ensival (see below). 

Verviers, with 47,700 inhab., excluding the adjoining communes 
of Uodimont and Dison (see below), is a town of modern origin, con- 
taining numerous extensive manufactories, which have flourished 
here since the 18th century. Cloth is the staple commodity of the 
place. Upwards of 390,000 pieces are manufactured annually in 
Verviers and the environs, about one-third of which is exported. 
Yarn is also spun here in considerable quantity. In the new part 
of the town, to the left of the approach to the station, is a hand- 
some brick church in the Gothic style. A monument erected in the 
Place du Martyr in 1880 commemorates Chapuis, a citizen exe- 
cuted in 1794 by the prince-bishop of Liege. Pretty walks on the 
right bank of the Yesdre and to the residential suburbs of Heusy 
and Lamhermont. Napoleon IIL spent a night in the Hotel du 
Chemin de Fer in 1870, when on his way as a prisoner to Wilhelms- 
hohe. — Travellers in the other direction undergo the Belgian 
custom-house examination at Verviers. 

Besides the main line described below another line runs from Ver- 
viers TO L16GE, VIA Herve, in 1 hr. 40 min., traversing numerous viaducts 
and tunnels, especially near (2'/2 M.) Dison (Hotel des Neuf Provinces ; 
Gr. Hot. de Paris), see above. — From (8 M.) Battice a branch diverges 
to (7V.; M.) Aubel, whence it is being continued to Bleyberg, see p. 22o. — 
9V2M. Herve (Poisson d'Or). — From (15 M) FUron the train descends a rapid 
gradient to (21 M.) Vaux and (2iV2 M.) Chenie (see p. 225). — 2i M. Liege. 

Beyond Verviers the train passes through seven tunnels and 
crosses several bridges within a short distance. — 17 M. Verviers-Est. 

201/2' M. Dolhain [Hotel d'Allemagne; du Casino de la Gi- 
leppe, new, both near the station), the last station in Belgium, a 
modern place , picturesquely situated in the valley |of the Vesdre, 
occupies the site of the lower part of the ancient city of Limburg. 
On the height above it stands the conspicuous castle of Limburg, 
the ancestral seat of the ancient ducal family of Limburg, from 
which the counts of Luxembourg and the German emperors Hen- 

HERBESTHAL. 30. Route. 227 

ry VII., Charles IV., Wenceslaus, and Sigismund were descended. 
The castle belonged to the ancient capital of the fertile Duchy of 
Limburg, of which but few traces now remain. The city possessed 
a cathedral and five other churches, and occupied the entire breadth 
of the valley of Dolhain. In 1288 it was sacked by Duke John I. of 
Brabant after the Battle of Worringen, it was afterwards taken and 
pillaged at different times by the Dutch, the Spaniards, and the 
French, and was at length entirely destroyed by Louis XIV. in 
1675. A number of well-built houses have sprung up within the 
walls of the ancient fortifications, from which peeps forth the old 
Gothic Church of St. George, containing a tabernacle of 1520. A 
visit may be paid to the chateau and gardens of Mr. Andrimont, to 
which visitors are admitted on application. Fine view from the old 

From Dolhain si visit via Go^ may be paid (1 hr.) to the interesting 
Barrage de la Gileppe^ the road to which ascends the valley of the Vesdre 
for about 2 M.. and then follows a lateral valley to the right. A branch- 
railway from Dolhain to Bithane is under construction. — The Barrage 
de la Gileppe (Hotel-Restaur. du Barrage) ., a triumph of modern en- 
gineering, was constructed in 1869-78 by Messrs. Braive, Caillet, & Co., from a 
plan by the engineer jB»dau< (d. 1868), for the purpose of forming a reser- 
voir of pure, soft water for the use of the manufactories of Verviers. It 
consists of an immense embankment, 90 yds. long and 72 yds. thick at the 
base, and 256 yds. long and 16 yds. thick at the top, carried across a nar- 
row part of the valley of the Gileppe. The lake or reservoir thus formed 
is about 150 ft. in depth, covers an area of 200 acres, and contains 
2,700,000,000 gals, of water. It is connected with Verviers by an aqueduct, 
5V2 il. long, built by Moulan. On the top of the embankment couches a 
colossal lion, 43 ft. in height, constructed by Bourc with 243 blocks of 
sandstone. The total cost of these waterworks amounted to five million 
francs. — On fhe way back Limburg may be visited. A pleasant walk 
may also be taken down the Vesdre to Chenee (p. 225). 

241/.2 M. Herbesthal (Hotel Bellevue; Hotel Herren; *Railway 
Restaurant) , the first Prussian station, is the junction for Eupen 
(Hotel Ileinartz ; train in 1/4 hr.). The custom-house formalities 
cause a detention of about V-i^^r. for trains from Belgium. Beyond 
(271/.2 M.) Asten,et, the train crosses the Gohl Valley by a viaduct 
of 17 double arches, 125 ft. high. Beyond (30 M.) Ronheide it de- 
scends an incline to — 

35 M. Aix-la-Chapelle (see Baedeker's Rhine'}. Thence to Maas- 
tricht, see R. 17 ; to Cologne, DUsseldorf, etc., see Baedeker's Rhine. 

31. From Pepinster to Trois-Vierges (Luxeinhourg). 

45 M. Railway in 2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 60, 4 fr. 40, 2 fr. 85 c). 

Pepinster, see p. 226. The valley of the Hoegne, which the rail- 
way ascends, is enclosed by picturesque and wooded hills, and en- 
livened by a succession of country-houses, gardens, and manufac- 
tories. From the bridge at (13/^ M.) Juslenville we have a pretty 
view of the chateau, park, rocks, and high-lying church of that 


228 Route 31. SPA. 

name. — Near (21/2 M.) Theux (Hotel- Rest. Lemiertz), a quaint 
little town with several cloth-factories and iron-works, rises a hill 
laid out in pleasure-grounds, in which, to the left, stands the ex- 
tensive ruined castle of Franchimont, destroyed as early as 1145 by 
a Bishop of Liege (key kept in the village of Marche, to the left, 
opposite the new convent). The last proprietor is said to have been 
a robber-knight, who possessed vast treasures buried in the vaults 
beneath his castle, where they remain concealed to this day. The 
tradition is gracefully recorded by Sir Walter Scott in his lines on 
the Towers of Franchimont, — 

'Which, like an eagle's nest in air, 

Hang o'er the stream and hamlet fair. 

Deep in their vaults, the peasants say, 

A mighty treasure buried lay, 

AmassM through rapine and through wrong 

By the last lord of Franchimont'. 
Above Theux the Hoegne describes a wide curve towards the 
E., and the train enters the valley of the Wayai. 41/2 M. La Reid ; 
the village is on the hill, 2 M. to the right (comp. p. 231). Farther 
on, also to the right, lies Marteau (p. 231). 

71/2 M. Spa. — Hotels. Hotel de Flandre, Rue Xhrouet, E. 3-12, 
L.3/4 A, 1, B. IV2, dej. 3V2, D. 41/2 fr.', Hotel d'Orange, Rue Royale; Hotel 
DES Pats-Bats, Rue du Marche; Hotel de l'Edkope, Rue Entre les Ponts, 
R., L., & A. from 41/4, B. IV2, doj. 3'/2, D. 41/2, pens, from 11, omn. 1 fr. •, 
Hotel Britanniqde, Rue de la Sauveniere; Hotel d'York (English house), 
Rue Xhrouet, R., L., & A. 4-5, B. 11/2, D. 41/2, omn. 1 fr. •, Hotel du Midi, 
Avenue du Blarteau, R. 3 fr., D. 4V2 fr. ; Hotel de Bellevue, same street; 
Gii. Hotel des Bains, Place Royale; Hotel du Palais Rotal, Rue du 
March^; Hotel Rotal, Rue Amontville; Hotel dd Nord, Place Pierre- 
le-Grand; Hotel de Portugal, Place Royale, R., L., & A. 3-6, B. 1, ddj. 
incl. wine 3V2. D. incl. wine 41/2, pens, from 11, omn. l'/2 fr. ; Hotel de 
Laeken, Rue Royale; Hotel des Etrangers, Rue du Marche; Hotel des 
Deux-Fontaines , Place Pierre-le-Grand; Hotel de Cologne, Avenue du 
Marteau; Hotel de la Chaine-d'Or, Avenue du Marteau, pens, from 6 fr.; 
Hotel de la Poste, Rue du Marche; Hotel Brighton, Rue de la Sau- 
veniere, pens. 8 fr. ; Hotel de Versailles, Rue de THotel-de-Ville. Table 
d'hote generally at 5 o'clock. 'Pension' at some of the hotels 7-13 fr. 
Furnished Apartments may be easily obtained. — Omnibuses from the 
principal hotels are in waiting at the station. 

Restaurants. Casino, see p. 229; at most of the above-named hotels; 
others at the Geronstere, the Sauveniere, and Barisart, all dear. — Beer 
at the Brasserie de Munich, Place Royale. 

Carriages. There are three kinds of carriages : those with one horse 
and seats for two persons; those with one horse and seats for three; and 
others with two horses. The respective fares for these are: '■Tour des 
Fontaines'' (a visit to the different springs; 2 hrs.) 6, 8, 10 fr. ; to (Sar< and 
Francorchamps, returning past the Sauvenihre (3V2 hrs.), 10, 12, 15 fr. ; Theux 
and Franchimont (2V2hrs.) 8, 10, 12 fr.; Grotte de Remouchanips (3 hrs.) 16, 20, 
25 fr. ; Cascade de Coo (3 hrs.) 16, 18, 25 fr., via Stavelot 18, 20, 30 fr. 

Horses. Ponies ('bidets'), of a peculiar variety and as sure-footed as 
asses or mules, are much used; ride of 2 hrs. 5 fr. ; each additional hour 

2 fr. ; Grotte de Remouchamps 15 fr. ; Cascade de Coo 15 fr. ; etc. 

Visitors' Tax. Since the suppression of gaming the directors of the 
baths have exacted the following charges from frequenters of the Casino, 
the Winter Garden, and the Park : 1 pers. for a fortnight 20, 2 pers. 80, 

3 pers. 40 fr.; for the season 60, 90, or 110 fr. Day-tickets for the Casino, 
11/2 fr., for the Park, 'Pavilion des Petits Jeux' and Pouhon IV2 fr., for 
the concerts in the Park or the 'Pavilion des Jeux' 50 c. 

l''raiii:qidiainp«^ Htar^jct 

SPA. 31. Route. 229 

Concerts. In the Promenade de Sept Heures at 2.30 and at 7.30 p.m. 
(see below). No music in the forenoon. 

Post and Telegraph Office, Rue Neuve. 

Theatre, performances on Sun., Tuea., and Thurs. evenings. 

Clubs. Cercle des Etrangers^ at the Casino (subs. 30 fr., including right 
of admission to the balls, etc.); Union Club; Lawn Tennis Club, 

Physicians. Dr. Thompson ; Dr. Lezaak, Place Royale; Dr. Scheuer, 
Rue de la Sauveniere; Dr. de Damseaux ; Dr. Poskin. 

English Church Service, in the handsome English Church in the Boul. 
des Anglais; Sunday services at 8.30, 11, and 7. 30; daily at 8.30 a.m. 
— Presbyterian Service in July and August at the Chapelle Evangelique. 

Spa (820-1080 ft. above the sea-level), a small, attractive- 
looking to-svn -with 6500 iiiLal)., is prettily situated at the S. hase of 
wooded heights, at the confluence of three streams, the Wayai, the 
Picherotte, and the Spa. Like other watering-places, it consists chiefly 
of hotels and lodging-houses, while numerous shops and bazaars 
with tempting souvenirs and trinkets, a pleasure-seeking throng 
in the promenades , and numbers of importunate valets-de-place 
and persons of a similar class, all combine to indicate that 
character which occasioned the introduction of its name into 
the English language as a generic term. This, the original 
and genuine 'Spa', the oldest European watering-place of any 
importance, has flourished for a century and a half, and was 
the Baden-Baden of the 18th century, the fashionable resort of 
crowned heads and nobles from every part of Europe. Peter the 
Great was a visitor here in 1717, Gustavus III. of Sweden in 1780, 
the Emp. Joseph II. and Prince Henry of Prussia in 1781, and the 
Emp. Paul, when crown-prince in 1782; to whom might be added 
a long list of members of the noble families of England , France, 
Germany, and still more distant countries, who have patronised 
Spa and benefited by its waters. After the French Revolution its 
prosperity began to decline, but it has of late regained much of its 
popularity, and many new buildings have sprung up. It is now fre- 
quented by upwards of 12,000 visitors annually, a large proportion of 
whom are English. The pretty painted and varnished woodwares 
offered for sale everywhere are a speciality of Spa (*bois de Spa'). 

The town is entered from the station by the Avenue du Marteau 
(p. 231), which leads to the Place Royale. The new and imposing 
Etablissement de Bains situated here is admirably fitted up (open 
6 a.m. to 6 p.m. ; baths 60 c.-l fr. 80 c). Near it, in the Rue 
Royale, is the Casino, corresponding to the 'Cursaal' of German 
baths, containing ball, concert, and reading rooms (see above). In 
the neighbourhood is a new Romanesque church, by Cluysenaar. 

In the Place Pierre-le-Grand, in the centre of the town , and 
nearly opposite the Casino, is situated the chief of the sixteen 
mineral springs, called the Pouhon (the Walloon word pouhir = 
puiser in French, and pouhon = puits, or well). The pump-room 
erected here in 1820 was replaced in 1880 by a more handsome 
edifice with covered promenades , conversation - rooms , and a 

230 Route 31. SPA. 

•beautiful winter-garden (see p. 228). The water of this spring (50° 
Fahr.), which is perfectly clear, and strongly impregnated with 
iron and carbonic acid gas, possesses tonic and invigorating proper- 
ties, and is largely exported to all parts of the continent, to Eng- 
land, and to the E. and W. Indies. Adjacent, in the Rue Dundas, 
is the Pouhon du Prince de Condi, the water of which is also ex- 

The favourite lounge of visitors in the afternoon and evening is 
the Promenade de Sept-Heures, shaded by magnificent old elms 
(unfortunately seriously injured by a storm in 1876), where a good 
band plays (p. 229). The Place Royale (p. 230), immediately ad- 
joining the promenade, is also much frequented. During the con- 
certs a charge of 50 c. is made to non-subscribers for admission to 
the Promenade de SeptHeures. — Pleasant paths diverging from the 
promenades ascend the neighbouring hills, leading through the woods 
to fine points of view. Opposite the music-pavilion of the Place 
Koyale is an entrance to the Montague d' Annette et Lubin, with a caf^. 
We may thence extend our walk down to (^1/2 M.) the valley of the 
Chawion, which flows into the Wayai near La Reid (p. 228). 

The various springs in the environs are most conveniently visited 
in the following order in 21/2-3 hrs. (le tour des fontaines). We 
first follow, passing the Pouhon on the right, the broad Rue de la 
Cascade, which is embellished by a fountain with genii, by Jaquet. 
The prolongation of this street, which leads uphill, and is named 
Rue de la Sauveniere, is crossed by the railway, just after quitting 
the town. We now follow the high-road (to the Sauveniere, IV2M. ; 
Francorchamps, 5M.), which is pleasantly shaded by elms, to the<5a- 
ZonLeyoz, an old gambling-house, with a garden. Here we turn to the 
left into an avenue, which leads in 20min. (on the left a retrospec- 
tive view of Spa) to the Tonnelet (250 ft. higher than the Pouhon), 
a spring now less in vogue that formerly. — About V2M. to the N.E. 
of the Tonnelet rises the spring of Niveze, now called the Source 
Marie Henriette, in consequence of a visit of the Queen of Belgium 
in 1868 ; its water is conducted to the Etablissement de Bains. 

From the Tonnelet a road ascends to the S., through forests 
of birch and pine, to the (20 min.) Sauveniere (Restaurant), sit- 
uated 460 ft. above the Pouhon , on the road from Spa to 
Francorchamps and Malmedy. Close to it is the Groesbeck spring, 
surrounded with pleasant plantations, where a monument was 
erected in 1787 on the Promenade d'Orleans by the Due de Chartres 
(Louis Philippe), to commemorate the fact that his mother, the 
Duchess of Orleans, was cured of a serious illness by the waters of 
the Sauveniere. At the Fontaine de Groesbeck, women are some- 
times observed devoutly drinking the water on their knees, thus 
showing their simple faith in its miraculous virtues. Opposite the 
Restaurant de la Sauveniere a promenade leads at a right angle from 
the high-road to the (40 min.) Geronstere (Restaurant), situated 

SPA. 31. Route. 231 

470 ft. higher than the Pouhon, and also reached (21/2 M-) ^Y a 
direct road from Spa. (Leaving the Place Pierre-le-Grand by the 
church on the right, we pass the Hotel de Flandre and ascend the 
Rue du Vauxhall; about 100 yds. from the railway, we observe, on 
the left, the former gambling-house of Vauxhall, beyond which the 
road is called the Rue de la Geronstere.) The Geronstere Spring 
was formerly the most celebrated. Its properties were tested by 
Peter the Great, whose physician extols them in a document still 
preserved at Spa. — The high-road leads to the S., via La Gleize, 
to the (oV'o M.) Waterfall of Coo (see below). In returning to Spa 
from the Ge'ronstere we soon strike a pleasant carriage-road or the 
Promenade Meyerbeer on the left skirting the brook, and leading 
in 20 min. to the Barisart (165 ft. above the Pouhon), which was 
not enclosed till 1850 but is now much resorted to (Restaurant). 
Thence to Spa about 1 M. 

A beautiful level promenade is afforded by the Avenue du 
Marteau, a road flanked with a double avenue, and bordered here 
and there with well-built houses. It leads from the Place Royale 
to the E., following the course of the Wayai, to (I3/4M.) Marteau, 
a hamlet with a chateau and gardens. 

Excursions fkom Spa. — The Baraque Michel (2200 ft.), the highest 
point in Belgium, belonging to the Hohe Venn group on the Prussian 
frontier, may be reached on foot via Sart (p. 232) or from Iloclai (p. 232; 
to the Baraque, 41/2 31.). 

To TUE Cascade of Coo, 10 M. (carr., see p. 228). The road leads 
past the Geronstere and ascends to the Plateau des Facnes. Farther on 
the road forks: the left arm leads via (4V2 5I.) Andrimont and Roanne to 
Coo; the right arm goes to Cour and La Gleize (Auberge Delvenne). At 
the bridge df Coo a view is suddenly obtained of the pretty Waterfall 
of Coo, with its picturesque and mountainous environs. Part of the Am- 
blcve is here precipitated through two artificial gaps in the rock, made 
during last century, while the rest of the water flows past the openings 
and reaches the bottom of the rocks by a circuitous course of 3M. Near 
the waterfall is the Hdtel de la Cascade, with a teVrace and pavilion. 
Kailway from Trois Fonts fp. 216) via Coo and La Gleize (P- 231) to Stou- 
mont^ see R. 27. This also makes a picturesque walk of 2-2V2 brs. 

To Remouchamfs, 10-12 31. (carr., see p. 22S). The road descends the 
valley of the Hoegne to the station of La Reid (p. 228), and then ascends 
to the left, through a pretty valley, to Hestroiimont and the village of La 
Reid (885 ft. ; 2 M. from the station). It here unites with the steep but 
more direct bridle-path from Marteau (p. 231) via Vieux-FrL Beyond Haul- 
regard the road descends to — 

Remouchamps {Hdtel des Etrangert, 'pension' 5 fr., frequently crowd- 
ed, in which case the inns at Aywaille are preferable), a station 'on the 
railway mentioned at p. 215, and one of the prettiest spots in the valley 
of the Ambleve. The stalactite Grotto is the chief attraction here, and 
should be visited by those who have not seen the finer caverns of Han- 
sur-Lesse (p. 192). The entrance adjoins the Hotel de la Grotte, above 
the Hotel des Etrangers (admission 3 fr.; torches included; costume for 
ladies IV2 fr. ; trifling fee to the guide, extra). The grotto consists of an 
upper and a lower part, to which last a fli:iht of steps descends, and it 
is traversed by a brook. Another peculiarity which the limestone basin 
of Remouchamps has in common with other similar districts is the dis- 
appearance of almost all the streams in the neighbourhood, towards the 
N., in subterranean clefts or 'entonnoirs' (funnels), locally called 'chan- 
toirs'. The largest of these is the Entonnoir of Adseux, 3 M. *to the N. of the 

232 Route 31. MALMEDY. 

village. The traveller follows the road through the Sicheval ("dry valley') 
as far as the village of Deigni (p. 226), whence a boy had better be taken 
as a guide. That the brook which disappears in the entonnoirs is the 
same which re-appears near Remouchamps has frequently been proved 
by the experiment of throwing in various olgects and observing them 
emerge at the other end. 

Above Remouchamps the ancient and still occupied chateau of Mont 
Jardin, loftily situated on the left bank, peeps down from amid dense 
foliage. Farther up is the imposing modern chateau of Mr. de Theux, with 
a pretty garden (no admission). — Below Remouchamps, and also on the 
right bank of the Ambleve lies Sougni, at the base of the clifT called '//e/d 
des Gattes^ (goats' rock). Thence we may proceed via Dieupart , with a 
solitary old church, to (IV2 M.) Aywaille (p. 215). 

The Luxembourg line beyond Spa at first runs towards the E., 
traversing a hilly and partly-wooded district, and afterwards turns 
to the S. (views to the left). I2V2 M. Sart-lez-Spa ; 15 M. Hockai ; 
17'/2 M- Francorchamps. Farther on, a fine view of Stavelot is ob- 

221/2 M. Stavelot (Hotel d' Orange; du Commerce; Am Bahnhof), 
a busy manufacturing town with 4500 inhab., on the Ambleve, wlii(5h 
was the seat of abbots of princely rank and independent jurisdiction 
down to the Peace of Luneville in 1801. The Benedictine Abbey 
was founded as early as 651, and its possessions included Malmedy, 
which has belonged to Prussia since 1815. Part of the tower only 
of the Romanesque abbey-church is now extant. The parish-church 
contains the *Chdsse de St. Remade, Bishop of Liege in 652-62, a 
reliquary of embossed copper, gilded, enamelled, and bejewelled. 
The niches at the sides are filled with statuettes of the Twelve 
Apostles, St. Remaclius, and St. Lambert, in silver, executed in 
the 13th century. 

About 5 M. to the N.E. of Stavelot (diligence twice daily, crossing 
the Prussian frontier halfway), in a pretty basin of the Warche, lies the 
Prussian town of Malmedy (Lottes; Jacob), the capital of a Walloon 
district which formerly belonged to the independent Benedictine abbey 
of Malmedy-Stavelot, and was annexed to Prussia in 1815. The abbey- 
church, originally in the Romanesque style, and the abbey-buildings, 
which are occupied by public offices, form an extensive pile. French is 
still spoken by the upper classes, and the Walloon dialect by the lower 
throughout the district (about 10,000 inhab.). 

The line now follows the valley of the Ambleve. — 25^/2 M. 
Trois-Ponts (see p. 216), where carriages are changed. — Con- 
tinuation of the line to Luxembourg, see R. 27. 


The Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg ^ with an area of about 1000 sq. M. 
and ^13,280 inhab. (almost all Roman Catholics), forms the E. half of the 
old duchy of Luxembourg (part of the Spanish Netherlands) and from 
1839 to 1890 was connected with Holland by a personal union. Down to 
1866 it was a member of the Germanic Confederation, but in 1867 it was 
declared by the Treaty of London a neutral territory, with a separate ad- 
ministration. After the death of King William III. "of Holland in 1890, it 
passed according to the treaty of succession to the Grand-duke Adolf (of 
Nassau; b. 1817). It still belongs to the German Zollverein or Customs'" 
Union, but as the duty on spirits is not raised as in Germany, a tolerably 
rigid customs examination takes place. 

The present duchy includes the N.E. part of the Ardennes and shares 
the general characteristics of that district, consisting of a somewhat mono- 
tonous plateau (with an average height of about 1600 ft.), with extensive 
woods and a somewhat raw climate. The last trait is specially character- 
istic of the N. part of the duchy, sometimes called the Oe sling or Eislvig, 
which belongs to the 'Grauwacke' or clay-slate formation, while the 
S.E. part consists of variegated sandstone. The plateau, however, is inter- 
sected by numerous deeply-cut valleys, which offer many points of interest 
to the tiiurist and artist. 

The inhabitants, though of pure Teutonic race, are strongly French 
in their sympathies, especially in the upper classes. The popular language 
is a low-Ocrman dialect, very unintelligible to strangers i the official lan- 
guages are French and German. The official currency is the same as in 
Belgium (francs and centimes), the grand-duchy having joined the Latin 
Monetary Union; but German money is also freely current (comp. p, xii). 

The hotels are generally good and their charges moderate. The beer 
and wine is usually fair, even in the smaller villages. The best of the 
local wines is that of Wormeldingen, nn the, Moselle. The Kirschengeist, or 
cherry-brandy, of Befort, near Echternach, has a local reputation. 

32. From (Liege] Trois-Vierges to Luxembourg. 

43 31. Railway in about 2V-j hrs. (fares .5 fr. 60, 3 fr. 70, 2 fr. 40 c). — 
No express trains. 

From Liege to Trois-Tierges (German Vlflingen), see RR. 27, 
31. — Trois-Vierges, see p. 216. 

Beyond Trois-Vierges tlie railway, now under German manage- 
ment, continues to follow the Wolz. 3 M. Maulusmiihle, properly 
Maulfesmiihle. The sides of the valley increase in height, their 
upper slopes being wooded. — 5 M. Clerf or Clervaux (Claravallis), 
a picturesquely-situated industrial place (Hotel Koner, well spoken 
of) to the E. of the line, with an old castle, visible from the line 
before and after the passage of the tunnel, but not from the station. 
The well-preserved, high-lying castle now belongs to the Count de 
Berlaymont. Fine view from the adjoining height called 'Gibraltar'. 
— On a rocky knoll opposite the station lies the Loretto Chapel. — 
An omnibus runs from Clerf to Dasbury (p. 240). 

234 Route 32. OBERWILTZ. From Trois-Vierges 

Pedestrians will be repaid by alighting from the train at Maulusmiihle 
and walking thence to Clerf. They follow the right slope of the valley 
till they reach the road descending from Asselbom, with its leaning church- 
tower. — At Hetzingen, 3 M. from Asselborn, is the old Klause, with a 
celebrated carved altar. Near the adjacent frontier-village of Hoffelt be- 
gins a subterranean canal, I1/2 M. long, which was intended to connect the 
Rhine and the Maas, but was abandoned in 1830. — Another pleasant 
walk may be taken from Clerf along the left bank of the Wolz through 
the parish ('Kischelf) of Pintsc7>^ via Drauffelt (railway-station) to Enche- 
ringen near Wilwerwiltz (see below); and thence over the hills (the Plackige 
Lei) to Erpeldingen and (3V2hrs. from Clerf) Niederwiltz (see below). 

Several tunnels now follow in rapid succession. 11 M. Wilicer- 
wiltz (Inn, at tlie station); diligence daily via Hosingen (Hippert's 
Inn) to Dashurg (p. 240). 

Below Wilverwiltz the valley contracts, and as far as Kautenbach 
it is known as the Clerfthal. The numerous windings of the Wolz^ 
which is crossed by ten bridges, are avoided by five tunnels. Be- 
tween the second and third tunnels, to the left, is the picturesque 
ruin of *Schutburg (reached direct from Kautenbach in 35 ruin, 
with permission of the station-master; or via Altscheid). — 15 M. 
Kautenbach (Frederer, tolerable), a quaint village at the confluence 
of the Wilz and the Wolz, with houses clinging to the face of tlio 
rock. — A branch-line runs hence to (I2Y2 M.) Benonchamps 
(p. 194) via Wiltz (see below). 

Another highly interesting walk may be taken to WiUz (railway, see 
above and p. l! 4), with which may be combined a visit to £sch an der 
Sauer (6-7 hrs.). Leaving Kautenbach we proceed via Mevckholz to Nieder- 
iciltz (Hames, at the station), a brisk little town with leather and cloth 
factories, on the left side of the valley. 

A road leads hence, on the other slope of the valley, to Oberwiltz 
{"Hotel des Ardennes^ with carriages for hire, 9 fr. per day), situated on 
a narrow ridge. We continue to follow the road to Esch (short-cut for 
walkers), and beyond the next cross-roads, we descend, following the tele- 
graph-wires (shorter footpaths), into a wooded basin. On the hill to the 
right lies the village of Biiderscheid. A little lower down we find ourselves 
at the mouth of the tunnel by which the road to Esch penetrates the high 
and serrated wall of the Kohlesterlei. On emerging from the tunnel we 
obtain a splendid *View of the valley. Following the windings of the 
Satier^ we see above us the Chapel of SI. Anna. Beyond the last bend 
lies Esch an der Sauer (Greisch), an unimportant village in a romantic 
and sequestered situation, from which it is also called. Esch-le-Trou ('Esch 
in the hole ). The ruins of the -Castle, in the ll-13th cent, the seat of a 
branch of the ducal family of Lorraine and still partly inhabited by poor 
families, occupy the top of a bare black rock, bifurcated by a deep inden- 
tation and surrounded by loftier heights. The best view of the castle-rock 
is obtained from the S. side. — In returning we may either follow the 
direct route to Kautenbach (21/2 hrs.) over the plateau, via Ilacher and 
Goesdorf (with an antimony mine, now almost exhausted), or proceed to 
Gobelsmiihle (6 M. ; p. 235). The new road on the left bank of the Sauer 
to the last diverges from the Wiltz road at the finger-post just on this 
side of the Sauer bridge, opposite the inn of Renter- Pennink, and leads 
high up on the hill-side to the left (views) to Heiderscheidergrund ., a 
prettily situated village on the right bank of the Sauer. About 3 M. 
farther on is Tadler, with a small waterfall. Below the Buchholtz Mill, 
to the left, is the huge and precipitous Teu/elslei., and near Derenbach 
rises another imposing rock. We now cross the Sauer twice, by an old 
and a new bridge, and reach the narrow ravine of Gobelsmiihle, 

to Luxembourg. ETTELBRUCK. 32. Route. 235 

Tlie railway continues to follow the narrow, rocky valley of the 
Wilz, which at this point is only partly accessible to walkers. Three 
tunnels. 17V2 M. Gobelsmiihle (Lauterbour , plain"), at the con- 
fluence of the Wilz and the Sauer. Three more tunnels. On a 
height to the left is Schlindermanderscheid. To the right, on an 
isolated hill, is the many-towered castle of Burscheid. 

The castle owes its dilapidated condition partly to a bombardment by 
.the French in 1685, but chiefly- to modern vandalism. The path ascend- 
to the (40 min.) castle and the village of Burscheid (Inn) , which is situ- 
ated higher up, begins at a group of houses to the left, at the mouth of 
the tunnel. From the top a rough path leads direct to Gobelsmiihle via 
Fischetterhof . and from the village a picturesque new carriage-road also 
leads thither in IV2 hr. 

20m. Michelau. The valley of the Sauer contracts, and the 
train passes through three tunnels. The picturesque rocky scenery 
of this part of the valley (Wildlei, ScharfLei, Jaufferslei, Predigt- 
stuhl) is not seen to advantage from the railway, but walkers may ex- 
plore it when the water is low (enquiry should be made of one of 
the railway officials or signalmen). — The chateau of Erpeldingen 
(stat.) contains an alabaster chimney-piece of the Renaissance. The 
Talley now expands and forms a wide basin, in which, above the 
confluence of the Alzette and the Sauer, lies (^Si/., M.) Ettelbruck 
(Hotel Herckmans; Rail. Restaurant), a small town (4000 inhab.), 
with an interesting church, pleasantly situated at the confluence of 
the Warke and the Alzette. Fine view from the Nuck (belvedere). 

From Ettelbriick to Diekirch and Wasserbillig, see p. 239. — A branch- 
line also runs hence to Bettingen (p. 195), via Useldingen^ with a ruined 
castle and Gothic chapel -, etc. 

At Ettelbriick the train enters the valley of the Alzette, which 
is at first narrow and picturesque, and follows it to Luxembourg. 
To the right, on a wooded hill, stands the chateau of Birtringen. — 
26 M. Colmar-Berg (Concemius; Meris), at the confluence of the 
Alzette and Attert, with an old castle of the Counts of Nassau, partly 
rebuilt in the English-Gothic "style by King William III. (d. 1890), 
and surrounded with pleasant grounds (visitors admitted). — The 
valley again contracts. Tunnel. 28 M. Kruchten. 

From Kkuchten' to La Eochette, 7' '2 M., narrow-gauge railway in 40 min. 
(fares 1 fr. 5, 65 c). The line runs via Dor/ Kruchten^ Schrondiceiler, and 
iff dernacA (where the fine musaic pavement in the Luxembourg 5Iuscum and 
numerous other Roman antiquities were found), to La Rochette, Ger. Fels 
(Poste, 'pens.' 5 fr.; Hilger-Lorfz, also a wine-merchants), finely situated in 
the valley of the Weisse Erenz and adapted for a stay of some duration. On 
a rock rising perpendicularly above the town are the extensive ruins of 
the old *Castle (reached by the 'Chemin de la Ruine' ; small fee to the 
attendant; ring). The N. part of the ruin, including the hall, chapul. and 
kitchen, is in best preservation. The tower on the opposite rock is a 
relic of a fortress which completely commanded the valley. — From La 
Rochette we may proceed via (3/4 hr.) the chateau of Meytemhurg (shown 
in the absence of the owner, the Due d'Arenberg) and Angelsberg to 
(II/2 hr.) Mertch (p. 236). 

Fkom La Rochette to Echterkach, a pleasant excursion of 1-2 days. 
— A road leads to the E. from La Rochette, across the watershed be- 
tween the Weisse and Schwavze Erenz, to (4'/2 M.) the village of Christnach 

236 Route 32. MERSCH. From Trois-Vieryes 

(Hotel-Restaurant Brandenburger-Mersch), the Roman Crucenacum, and then 
descends through the ravine of the Kesselter Bach to the sombre wooded 
valley of the SchwarzeErenz. [The high-road goes on to Breitweiler and Cons- 
dorf, whence we may proceed through the valley of the Lauferbach^ with 
the Leiwerdelt Rocks, to Echternach (p. 241).] The upper part of the valley 
of the Krenz, and also the Blumenlhal, at the mouth of the Hugerboch, 
contain some picturesque rocks, which are, however, inferior to those 
lower down. — Just below the Breitweiler Bridge begins a series of most 
fantastic rocky formations (the finest points made accessible bypaths and 
pointed out by finger-posts). The Erenz forms a small waterfall (25 ft. 
high) at the Promenaden-Briicke^ beyond which a path ascends (right) to 
(2o min.) the Eulenbuvg and Goldfralei. Skirting the stream, we next reach 
the Miillerthal, with a group of mills, and the Heringerburg (to the left). 
Thence we follow the road to (3 M.) Vogelsmuhle. 

Beyond the bridge, at the finger-post marked '4 Kil.\ the new road 
ascends to the left to Befort or Beaufort (Bleser; Bins/eld; Klein), a village 
on the Taupeschbach, famed for its cherry-brandy. In the valley below 
are the 'new' and the 'old' Castle; the latter, in spite of decay and 
vandalism, is still the most important Renaissance structure in the di- 
strict after Vianden (p. 240). Both chateaux are shown to visitors. ,From 
Befort we may visit the pretty Hallerbach Valley, with its fantastic' rocks 
natural rock-bridges, and luxuriant vegetation. 

We descend the valley of the Erenz to Grundhof-Neumiihle (see p. 240), 
on the railway from Diekirch to Wasserbillig. Paths lead from the inn 
and from the mill to the top of the lofty cliffs on the right bank of the 
Erenz. Among the most striking points in the fantastic rocky scenery 
are the JJolle Qights necessary), the CaseU (view), the Winterbachsfehen, 
the Schnelleri, the clefts of the Binzerlei, and the ^Sept Gorges or Sieben- 
schlilff, the latter showing a singular chaos of immense rocks. Guide ad- 
visable ; Thiel of Echternach (Rue de Sure) may be recommended. — We 
now proceed across the plateau to the E. to Berdorf (Wagner; Kinnen), a 
large village, with an old parish-church. The altar is formed of a Roman 
'ara', with reliefs of Hercules, Juno, Minerva, and Apollo (fee to the sa- 
cristan). To the S. of Berdorf stretches the Ehsbachthal, with the Hohllei, 
an artificial cavern formed by the quarrying of mill-stones, and popularly 
supposed to have been first used by the Romans. — A good path descends 
through the ravine to the rocky gorge known as the Shipka Pass. At the 
point where the new Berdorf road quits the valley, to the left (sign-post), 
opens the picturesque valley of the Halsbach (with the Wilkeschkam7ner). 
At the angle of the tv.-o gorges rises the lofty Perikop, which may be 
ascended by a kind of rocky 'cheminee' or funnel. Farther on in the 
Ehsbachthal is the Labyrinth (right bank \ way-post) ; the Geiersweg, on 
the left bank, leads to an interesting rocky gateway. At the end of the 
valley is the romantic ''Wolfsschlucht, through which we may descend to 
the right (way-post) to the valley of the Sure (p. 240). A pleasant detour 
may be made via the Pavilion, which commands a good view of Echter- 
nach (p. 241). 

.311/2 M. Mersch (Hotel -Restaur, de' la Garc; Hotel SteflFen; 
Weyer; carriage 10 fr. per day), a small town at the confluence of 
the Eisch, the Mamer, and the Alzette. The chateau (17th cent.) 
contains some fine vaulted apartments. 

Excursions. — The Valley of the Eisch is characterised by pictur- 
esque sandstone formations and fresh green woods. We proceed from 
Mersch, via Rickingen, to the (i'/4 hr.) chateau of Hoblenfels, perched upon 
a weather-beaten rock and now occupied by a farmer (small fee). The 
newer portion of the building dates from the IGth cent. ; the remains of the 
older part include a lofty tower (fine view from the top), with two vaulted 
chambers. A little higher up lies the poor village of Hohlenfels (no inn). 
On the way to the castle is the figure of a saint, hewn out of the solid rock. 
■ — About I'/z M. to the S.E. are the scanty ruins of the nunnery of 
Marienlhal, founded in 1237. The adjoining building is occupied by Do- 

UJRkircfKEclitcmarh yEich, 



2 Atliaiee^BiblioihJtusee B.3. 

dllist . tiaturrUe 

3 Bouts et laroirs B.2. 
i C/iambrv des deputes B.3. 

5 Dauaiies B.2. 

6 Ecole de miLsique A-2. 

7 Sani/mire B.3. 

8 Eglise MAlphonse B.2. 

9 XotreDcaiie B.3. 

10 SHunegonde J).1.2. 
U AfoTra/? C.3. 

Geo^raph Jnstatt TDii 

12 JS^r/MP SiMaUiieu 

13 . StMJchel 
ll aiap.S^Quirin 

15 Temple israelite 

16 Temple protestant 

17 Eveehe 

18 Eopitnl cirrH 

19 Botel dii (rtnirernemeitt B.3. 

20 ^rf/-//! /H^«*OTJ ^OTflZf B.2.3. 

21 ^rZ^" villeJfusee Pesmtore B.3 

22 Alaismi niriale B.3. 

B.r.l. 23 la ptimesse A.2 

C.2. 2i Palais de ./ustire B.C. 2 

V.4!. 27t Posies el Telefjrapltes A.B..'i. 
B.3. 26 Prisons el depde mendtrite V .'.\. 

B.3.:27 Tltedlre B.2. 

B.2. 28 /"o/// oV/ Cliateau (' 

to Luxembourg. LUXEMBOURG. 32. Eoute. 237 

minicans. — Following the Eisoh towards the S.W. we reach (20 min.) 
the chateau of Ansemburg, a building of the ITth cent., with a gar- 
den in the French style. Opposite is a flight of »tep.s ascending to the 
old chapel, on a steep wooded slope. A little farther on is the ^^llage 
of Ansemburg (Schenten), commanded by the picturesque ivy-clad ruins 
(partly inhabited) of the old castle . situated on a lofty sandstone rock. 
Fine view from the top. The best view of the village and old castle is 
obtained from a meadow beyond the modern chateau, reached by a bridge 
over the Eisch. — [From Ansemburg we may proceed through the pictur- 
esque 5aM»i5«;JcA /"ores^ to 02', 4hrs.) Luxembourg, viM) on deling en (on the 
high-road from Saul to Luxembourg via Tuntelingen and Bour; see be- 
low) and Kapstal, in the valley of the Mamer.] — Ascending the course 
of the Eisch we reach Bour and (t hr.) Simmeni (Simon-Wagner, near the 
church), properly Sithenborn, French Sept/outaines, with an interesting 
church and the ruins of a castle, picturesquely situated near the top of 
a wooded hill. In a side -valley which opens here to the S. lies (1 hr.) 
Korich. with a medi?eval church and castle, — We may now return to the 
N. via 8dul (Gaasch) and (2-3 hrs.) Useldingen. or we may ascend from 
Ansemburg by the convent-farm of Marienthal to the Claushof. and then 
descend via the chateau of Schdn/elt (Toussaint's Inn) and the valley of 
the Mamei- to Mersch (p. 236). 

34 M. Lintgen; 351/2 ^J- Lorentzweiler ; SS^o M. Wolferdange 
or Walferdingen, with a grand-ducal chateau; 40^ o ^^- Dommel- 
dange or Dommeldingen, with large blast-furnaces, also the station 
for the manufacturing town of Eich (opposite). — The train now 
passes the Pfa/fenthal (see below), spanned by an old bridge with 
towers, traverses two viaducts, and enters the central station (Gare 
Centrale) of Luxembourg, 

43 M. LtLZembourg. — Hotels. -Hotel Beasselr (PI. A, 2), E.., 
L., <fe A. 2-6, B. 1, dij. 2, D. 2 fr. 60 c, pens, from 8 fr.. omn. GO c, ; Hotel 
DE l'Eubop'e (PI. B, 2j, well spoken of; Hotel de Cologne ,(P1. B, 2); 
Hotel de Lcxembourg (PI. C. 2); Hotel des Nations, Hotel-Restacr. 
Clesse. both near the station. 

Restaurants. Faber, Place d\Armes (PI. B, 2, 3). — Cafes. Ca/^ Jia- 
lien; Ca/e Metzler; Ca/e de la Place. 

Tramicay from the railway-station through the town to the N. side of 
the Park (PI. A, 2). — Photographs at the book-shops of Brucl and Biiclc, 

Luxembourg., formerly Littzelburg, once a fortress of the German 
Confederation, with 19,000 inhab., is the capital of the grand-duchy 
of Luxembourg (p. 231). The situation of the town is peculiar 
and picturesque. The Oberstadt, or upper part, is perched upon a 
rocky table-land, which is bounded on three sides by abrupt preci- 
pices, 200 ft. high. At the foot of these flow the Pefrw^^e and the ^Z- 
zeffe, which are bounded by equally-precipitous rocks on the oppo- 
site bank. In this narrow ravine lies the busy Unterstadt or lower 
portion of the town, consisting of Pfaffenthal. theN., Clausen, theE., 
and Grund, the S. suburb, separated by the Bock (p. 238). The view 
of the town, with its variety of mountain and valley, gardens and 
rocks, groups of trees and huge viaducts, is singularly striking. 

The fortifications, which were partly hewn out of the solid rock, 
were condemned to demolition by the Treaty of London in 1867, 
and a few only of their oldest parts have been allowed to remain. 

The construction of the works gradually progressed during 500 years 
under various possessors, — Henry IV., Count of Luxembourg, afterwards 

238 Route 32. LUXEMBOURG. 

German Emp. as Henry VII. (d. 1312), his son John, the blind king of 
Bohemia (killed at Crecy, 1346), the Burgundians, the Spaniards, the 
French (whose celebrated engineer Vauban constructed a great part of 
the fortress), the Austrians, the French again, and finally the German 
Confederation, by whom it was evacuated in 1866. 

From the railway-station (PI. C, 5), we cross the imposing via- 
duct spanning the deep valley of the Petrusse, and follow the tram- 
way along the Boulevard du Viaduc to the centre of the town. To the 
left is the Place de la Constitution (PI. B, 3), affording a beautiful 
view. In the Place Guillaume (3/4 M. from the station) a Statue of 
William JI., King of the Netherlands, byMercier of Paris, was erected 
in 1884. — Opposite the monument, to theE., is the former Govern- 
ment House [Palais du Roi or Hotel de la Maison Royale; PI. 20, B, 2, 
3), a handsome buUding with two oriel-windows and a long balcony, 
erected in 1850, The second floor contains an interesting and well 
arranged collection of Roman, Prankish, and other antiquities (coins, 
fine Roman glass, etc.), found chiefly in the Roman camp at Pahl- 
heim and in Prankish tombs at Emmeringen and Waldwies (apply 
to the custodian; entrance by the gate to the left), — The Hotel de 
Ville (PI. 21; B, 3), in the Place Guillaume, to the S.W., contains 
a collection of French (Gudin, Calame, Meissonier, etc.) and Dutch 
paintings, bequeathed to the town in 1855 by M. J. P, Pescatore 
(adm. 50 c). — The Gothic cathedral of Notre Dame (PI. 9; B, 3) 
has a fine Renaissance portal (1621) and a rococo organ-loft. 

The site of the fortifications has been converted into a public 
Park (PI. A, 3, 2, 1), adjoined by several new streets. Here also 
is the Gothic Altersheim, founded by the Pescatore family. No 
visitor should omit to walk through the park, past the monument of the 
Duchess Amelie of Saxe-Weimar, first wife of the late Prince Henry 
of the Netherlands, by Petre (PI. 23), to the terrace to the left of the 
Eich road (PI. B, 1), which affords a striking view of the Pfaffenthal. 
A good view of the town is obtained from the S. height of the Ober- 
grunwald (PI. C, 1). — A visit to the Bock, a precipitous and for- 
merly fortified rock, connected with the town by the Pont du Chateau, 
is also recommended. — Of the magnificent castle and gardens of 
the Spanish Governor Prince Mansfeld (1545-1604), in the suburb 
of Clausen (F\. D, 1, 2), on the right bank of the Alzette, no vestige 
is left, except a small portion of the wall and two gateways, into 
which several Roman sculptures are built. The Drei Eicheln, three 
well-preserved old towers, may also be visited from Clausen (plea- 
sant walk). — The very ancient Chapel of St. Quirinus (PI. 14), in 
the valley of the Petrusse, hewn in the living rock, contains an altar 
with old Romanesque sculptures (key in the house next the old 
well). In Aug. and Sept., the popular Schobermesse, a fair esta- 
blished by the blind king John (see above) in the 14th cent., takes 
place outside the Neuthor, to the N. of the town. 

From Luxembourg to Remich, I6V2 M., narrow-gauge railway in about 
2 hrs. (fares 2 fr,, 1 fr. 25 c). — 2 M. Eesperingen (Weydert ; Adams-Speyer; 
Entringcr), prettily situated in the narrow valley of the Alzette; high 

DIEKIRCH. 33. Route. 239 

above the village are tlie ruins of a castle destroyed in 1483. Pleasant 
walks may be taken to the Pulvermiihlthal (p. 242). KoUeschberg , etc. — 
51/2 M. Weiler-la-Toui\ taking its name from an ancient Roman tower. — 
71/2 M. Aspelt. the birthplace of Peter Aichspalt (d. 1320), Archbishop of 
Mayence. About 2 M. to the Is.E., on a hill to the S. oi Dahlheim, lies the 
most important of the four Roman camps of Luxembourg, indicated by 
a pyramid. [The other three camps are the Titelhevg near Rodingen, to 
the K.E. of Longwy near the W. frontier, the Helperknap near TJseldingen 
(p. 235), and Altirier, usually called Alttrierschanz, to the S.E. of Breit- 
weiler, on the road from Dommeldange to Echternach.] Extensive view, 
reaching to Metz. — The train now follows the picturesque valley of the 
Altbach and approaches the frontier of Lorraine. On a rocky knoll stands 
the chapel of the Hermitage du Castel. — 9V2 M. Altwies (Hotel du Luxem- 
bourg ; de France), connected bv a promenade with the saline thermal 
baths (GS-'Fahr.) of (10i'2M.) Mondorf (Grand Chef; Bellevue; Hotel de 
TEurope), which are efficacious in scrofulous, rheumatic, nervous, and 
bronchial affections. — I6V2 M. Remich (ffdtel des Ardennes ; H6tel du 
Commerce., both in the town; Restaurant, opposite the station), a small 
town with 2300inhab.. on the sloping bank of the Moselle, connected by 
a bridge with the Prussian shore. About 3'/2 M. farther up the Moselle 
is Schengen, with an interesting old castle. — Diligence from Eemich to 
Nennig., see Baedeker^s Rhine. 

Railwat from Luxembourg to Thionville and Metz^ see Baedeker's Rhine. 

33. From Luxembourg to Wasserbillig via Diekirch 
and Echternach. 

52 M. Railway in 31/2 hra. (fares 6 m. 60. 4 m. 50 pf., 3 m.). 

The train starts from the Central Station. As far as (I91/2 M.) 
Ettelbriick, see p. 235. — 22 M. Diekirch (* Hotel -Pension des 
Ardennes, R., L., A., & B. 31 2, D- 21,2, S. 2. pens. 61 4-81 4 fr. ; 
Hotel de V Europe; Malson Rouge; Hotel du Luxembourg ; baths at 
Kohn-Tschiderer's^ near the railway-station), a pleasant little town 
with 3400 inhab., prettily situated on the left hank of the Sure 
(Ger. 5(mer), at the foot of the Herrenberg and the Schiitzenberg. 
It contains two churches, the older of which dates from the 9th cent. ; 
the Church of St. Laurence , an imposing modern building in the 
Romanesque style, possesses a Pieta by Achtermann. Since the de- 
molition of the old town-walls the town has been surrounded by 
broad boulevards, planted with trees. 

A pleasant walk may be taken hence to the Hart, near Gilsdorf, on the 
right bank of the Sure, with the ruins of a Celtic dolmen. In the vicinity 
are the pretty waterfalls of the Sasselhach. — To the N. of Diekirch a 
road leads via the Herrenberg and Bastendorf to the ruin of (4 M.) Bran- 
denburg (keys at the sexton's), rising from the narrow valley of the Blees. 
To the right of the entrance is a Roman relief. The return-journey is 
made past the quaint estate of Kippenhof, on the Hosingen road. 

Feom Diekirch to Viaxden, 8^ 2 M., steam-tramway in 47 min,, via 
Bleesbruck, Tandel. and Beitel, in the Our valley, — Vianden, see p. 240. 

The line proceeds through the broad valley of the Sure, flanked 
with imposing heights. Numerous sandstone-quarries are passed. 
— 241/2 M. Bettendorf, with a chateau; the old church-tower rests 
on a Roman substructure containing a few sculptured stones. Old 
bridge over the Sure. In the vicinity, to the left, i